10019944
Engineering,
Planning,
Architecture and
Space

Standards
and Guidelines
for EPA Facilities
Strategic and Physical Facilities
Master Plan
/—vf
     Issued: April 1994

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                       Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                      Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities
Preface
                                        PREFACE
This document, Engineering,  Planning, Architecture and Space  Standards and  Guidelines for
EPA Facilities, is a compilation of generic information which shall be used in conjunction with the
Facility Safety manual as the basis for developing specific project requirements and for evaluating
existing facilities.

Any written text in italic type face in this document is a cue that project specific information must be
compiled and inserted before the project specific document is complete. The italicized text is only the
first level of information which must be incorporated  to complete this document for a specific project.
Each paragraph must be reviewed for  each specific project to verify if it should be retained, deleted,
refined, or enhanced.  The intent is that the basic information, currently contained in this document, is
representative of all new construction projects; however, each project is unique and a complete review
and editing of this document is required to create a project specific document.  All paragraphs are
numbered throughout each section of this document.  Note that these numbered paragraphs may be
deleted without renumbering. A paragraph omitted is not used. To the reader of the document, this
will be apparent; this is also explained in the INTRODUCTION (SECTION 1). By not renumbering the
paragraphs of the project specific document, the project specific document can be directly compared and
referenced to paragraphs within the generic document.


END OF PREFACE
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EXECUTIVE  SUMMARY

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                        Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                                                           ~   lities
Executive  Summary                                                     Page    ES-1
                                EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This document, Engineering, Planning,  Architecture and  Space Standards  and Guidelines for
EPA Facilities, is to provide support to the Facilities Management and Services Division; Engineering,
Planning and Architecture Branch of the Environmental Protection Agency in developing the Program of
Requirements (FOR) and Solicitation for Offers (SFO) for new construction of EPA Laboratory Facilities
as well as for the evaluation of existing facilities to determine condition and needs for improvement.
This document is not a Program of Requirements nor a Solicitation for Offers, it is a set of standards to be
used for a multiple of purposes. This document is restrictive only to the point that it is a set of minimum
standards; this document shall not restrict design.

This document, Engineering, Planning,  Architecture and  Space Standards  and Guidelines for
EPA Facilities, provides the minimum requirements.   It is not intended to inhibit the design
professionals from providing more stringent or greater performing criteria for design. In developing the
final program from this document, the design professional is expected to modify and supplement this
document as applicable. This document,  after project specific information has been added and the
document edited to meet project specific requirements, forms the basis for establishing a program for
design and construction. The generic information and requirements, as herein described, must be verified
and further defined and refined as a detailed program for the facility or facilities. The final program
must then be approved by EPA.

This document is organized into ten sections, plus appendices:

SECTION 1:   INTRODUCTION
This section provides a general description and purpose of an existing  facility  or facilities and/or
campus to be evaluated to determine need for improvement or a general description and purpose for new
construction, renovations,  alterations, or additions for an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Laboratory facility. The Introduction in this generic document is necessarily short in that the majority
of the information is project specific and must be provided on a specific project by project basis.


This section  provides project specific information regarding EPA's planning goals which  may relate to
any specific project.  The various project specific EPA offices, and their organizations  are defined, and
the planning objectives and criteria are documented. Project specific scope of requirements for a project
are compiled and documented in an overview and summary fashion. The General Facility Requirements
will be totally unique for each project. This section only outlines the various categories that should be
addressed.

SECTIONS:   GUIDE FOR FACILITY DESIGN AND LAYOUT
This section is  a mixture  of  mostly project specific information along with some standards and
guidelines which may be used for all projects. This section is an overview  of the new construction and
comprises the major elements and information  of any project which  will allow  pre-design and
conceptual design of the project to be performed. This section sets the tone for any specific project design
and its development.  This section must be carefully edited to make it project specific.
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Executive Summary                                                    Page    ES-2
SECTION 4:   OFFER REQUIREMENTS
This section establishes the procedures and requirements that all offerers must follow in responding to
the information on specific projects. It is anticipated that several review phases will be a part of this
project; each phase requiring a significant submittal from the design professional.  The Environmental
Protection Agency will define,  in this section,  the appropriate phases on the project and the
appropriate submittals at each phase and  their level of documentation.  This will be provided on a
project by project basis.

SECTION 5:   ARCHITECTURAL REQUIREMENTS

SECTION 6:   SITE AND CIVIL REQUIREMENTS

SECTION 7:   STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS

SECTION 8:   MECHANICAL REQUIREMENTS

SECTION 9:   ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS

Sections 5,6,7,8 and 9 are mostly standards and guidelines for all new construction with some amount of
project specific information included.  These sections contain  more detailed information on each
discipline. These sections must also be reviewed and edited to make them project specific.

SECTION 10:   LEASE ADMINISTRATION
This section provides the method that will be used by the EPA for leasing the facility from the offerer.
This section will be defined by EPA.

APPENDICES
There are several appendices included with this document.  Their purpose is to include certain
necessary project specific and generic information in separate attachments which are required of the
project but which are generally lengthy, detailed  descriptions, procedures or data.  This allows the
main document to flow more concisely and easily for clearer understanding and provides easier reference
to the more lengthy project specific information. Included in these appendices are guideplates of room
data and floor plans for specific room types.  These guideplates illustrate minimum dimensions,
handicapped accessibility, equipment, furnishing layouts and specific room requirements for finishes,
HVAC, electrical, plumbing and communications.


END OF SUMMARY
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

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                       , leering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                       Sards and Guidelines for KPA Facilities
Table of Contents                                                Page
                           TABLE OF CONTENTS

         ENGINEERING, PLANNING, ARCHITECTURE AND SPACE
           STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES FOR EPA FACILITIES
PREFACE

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

SECTION 1 - INTRODUCTION

1.1      Organization of Document

1.1.1     Guidelines for Program Development and Design
1.1.2     Design Professionals and Offerer
1.1.3     Program Verification and Design
1.1.4     Document Paragraph Numbering

1.2      Scope of Project

1.2.1     Purpose
1.2.2     Planning Studies, Evaluations and Reports

1.3      Background Information

1.3.1     Existing Facility Description
1.3.2     Facility / Campus Components
1.3.3     Functional Organization

SECTION 2 - GENERAL FACILITY REQUIREMENTS

2.1      Planning Goals

2.1.1     Planning Objectives
2.1.2     Planning Criteria

2.1.2.1   Office Space
2.1.2.2   Laboratory Related Office Space
2.1.2.3   Laboratory Space
2.1.2.4   Specialized Space
2.1.2.5   Storage Space
2.1.2.6   Exterior Area
2.1.2.7   Net Usable Area
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2.2       Scope of Requirements

2.2.1     General
2.2.2     Codes
2.2.3     Facility Organization
2.2.4     Summary of Requirements

2.2.4.1    Facility Summary
2.2.4.2    Net Area Summary
2.2.4.3    Personnel Summary

SECTION 3 - GUIDE FOR FACILITY DESIGN AND LAYOUT

3.1       General Space Provisions

3.1.1     Overview
3.1.2     Site Related Influences and Development
3.1.3     Site Evaluation
3.1.4     Access, Circulation and Parking
3.1.5     Programmed Space for Design and Layout
3.1.6     Exterior Areas and Facilities
3.1.7     Remote Facilities
3.1.8     Expansion

3.2       Space Identification

3.2.1     General

3.3       Specific Room Requirements

3.3.1     Room Data Sheets
3.3.2     Standards and Symbols
3.3.3     Special Equipment

3.4       Guide for Architectural Layout

3.4.1     Concept
3.4.2     Adjacencies

3.4.2.1   Laboratory Zone
3.4.2.2   Administrative with Support Zone
3.4.2.3   Building Support Zone

3.4.3     Buffer Zones
3.4.4     Technical Space
3.4.5     Laboratory Support Space
3.4.6     Exterior Areas and Facilities
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3.5      Environmental Design Requirements

3.5.1     General
3.5.2     Energy Conscious Design
3.5.3     Construction Materials
3.5.4     Recycling
3.5.5     Radon Abatement
3.5.6     Water Conservation
3.5.7     Ozone Depletion Protection
3.5.8     Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Requirements

3.6      Landscaping and Site Related Requirements

3.6.1     General
3.6.2     Professional Requirements
3.6.3     General Site Requirements

3.6.3.1   Existing Conditions
3.6.3.2   Plantings
3.6.3.3   Site Furniture and Furnishings
3.6.3.4   Site Lighting
3.6.3.5   Exterior Signage and Graphics
3.6.3.6   Outside Service and Utility Areas

3.6.4     Hardscape Requirements
3.6.5     Recreational Requirements

SECTION 4 - OFFER REQUIREMENTS

4.1      How to Offer                 NOTE:  THE INFORMATION IN
                                     THIS SECTION 4 SHALL BE
4.2      Overview of Services          PROVIDED BY EPA AND IS
                                     NOT A PART OF THE SCOPE
4.3      Phases, Tasks and Deliverables   FOR THIS DELIVERY ORDER
                                     NO.  6 - STANDARDS
4.4      Offer Due Date

4.5      Occupancy

4.6      Term

4.7      Negotiations

4,8      Price Evaluation

4.9      Award

4.10     Construction


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4.11      Fire Protection/Occupational Health and Environmental Safety

4.12      Handicapped and Seismic Safety

4.13      Alternate Proposals

4.14      Qualification Criteria

4.15      Evaluation Factors for Award

SECTION 5 - ARCHITECTURAL REQUIREMENTS

5.1       Concepts and Component:;

5.1.1     General
5.1.2     Quality of Life
5.1.3     Flexibility / Adaptability
5.1.4     Modular Design
5.1.5     Entrance Requirements
5.1.6     Amenities
5.1.7     Noise Control
5.1.8     Handicapped Accessibility

5.1.8.1   General Accessibility
5.1.8.2   Laboratory Accessibility
5.1.8.3   ADA Compliance

5.2       Exterior Building Materials

5.2.1     General
5.2.2     Exterior Elements
5.2.3     Design Characteristics
5.2.4     Thermal Resistance
5.2.5     Moisture Transport

5.3       Partitions

5.3.1     General
5.3.2     Sub-Dividing Partitions
5.3.3     Permanent Partitions
5.3.4     Finishes & Coverings
5.3.5     Magnetic Liquid Chalk Dry Marker Boards & Tack Boards
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5.4       Interior Finish Materials

5.4.1     General
5.4.2     Walls Materials
5.4.3     Finish Ceilings
5.4.4     Open Ceilings
5.4.5     Sound Dampening

5.5       Floor Treatments

5.5.1     General
5.5.2     Carpet
5.5.3     Vinyl Tile
5.5.4     Seamless Vinyl Flooring
5.5.5     Ceramic Tile Flooring
5.5.6     Special Flooring
5.5.7     Exposed Concrete Flooring

5.6       Doors

5.6.1     General
5.6.2     Exterior Doors
5.6.3     Interior Doors
5.6.4     Fire Doors
5.6.5     Laboratory Doors

5.7       Windows

5.7.1     General
5.7.2     Fixed Window Systems
5.7.3     Storefront and Curtain Wall Systems

5.8       Window Covering

5.8.1     General
5.8.2     Blinds
5.8.3     Blackout Shades

5.9       Walls - Covering and Finish

5.9.1     General
5.9.2     Flamespread and Smoke Limitations
5.9.3     Vinyl Wall Covering
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5.10      Painting

5.10.1    General
5.10.2    Reflectance Values
5.10.3    Wall & Ceiling Colors
5.10.4    Accent Areas

5.11      Interior Signage Systems and Building Directory

5.11.1    General
5.11.2    Door Identification
5.11.3    Room Numbering
5.11.4    Building Directory

5.12      Safety

5.12.1    Exits
5.12.2    Exit Lighting
5.12.3    Emergency Lighting
5.12.4    Portable Fire Extinguishers
5.12.5    Safety Devices

5.13      Toilet Rooms

5.13.1    General
5.13.2    Finishes

5.14      Janitor Closets

5.15      Hazardous Waste Handling

5.15.1    General
5.15.2    Radioisotopes

5.16      Chemical Storage Handling

5.17      Security

5.17.1    Access/Egress

5.18      Laboratory Casework

5.18.1    General
5.18.2    Modular Design
5.18.3    Support Capability
5.18.4    Cabinet Assemblies
 5.18.5    Base Cabinets
 5.18.6    Wall Cabinets

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5.18.7    Shelving
5.18.8    Countertops
5.18.9    Materials
5.18.10   Quality
5.18.11   Minimum Standards
5.18.12   Laboratory Fume Hoods
5.18.13   Environmental Rooms

5.19      Equipment and Furnishings

5.19.1    Design
5.19.2    Catalog Cut Sheets
5.19.3    Layout and Clearances
5.19.4    Floor Preparation
5.19.5    Structural Support
5.19.6    Special Ventilation Requirements for Equipment
5.19.7    Equipment Specifications
5.19.8    High Technology Equipment
5.19.9    Equipment Consultants

SECTION 6 - SITE AND CIVIL

6.1       Scope of Project

6.1.1     General
6.1.2     Development Codes
6.1.2.1   Zoning
6.1.2.2   Building Codes
6.1.2.3   AD A Requirements

6.2       Site Influences

6.2.1     Land Resources
6.2.1.1   Geography
6.2.1.2   Physiography & Geology
6.2.1.3   Climatology
6.2.1.4   Hydrology

6.2.2     Transportation Systems

6.2.2.1   Air
6.2.2.2   Land
6.2.2.3   Water
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6.2.3     Environmental Considerations

6.2.3.1    Air Quality
6.2.3.2    Water Resources
6.2.3.3    Noise Pollution

6.3       Site Development

6.3.1     Environmental Assessment
6.3.2     Geotechnical Investigation
6.3.3     Surveying
6.3.4     Facility Siting
6.3.5     Site Preparation
6.3.6     Dewatering
6.3.7     Shoring and Underpinning
6.3.8     Earthwork
6.3.9     Waterfront Construction

6.4       Transportation

6.4.1     Roadways
6.4.2     Parking and Loading Facilities
6.4.3     Pedestrian Access
6.4.4     Airports and Heliports
6.4.5     Railroads

6.5      Stormwater Management

6.5.1     Watershed Development
6.5.2     Erosion and Sedimentation Control
6.5.3     Stormwater Retention / Detention
6.5.4     Conveyance
6.5.5     Stormwater Quality
6.5.6     Floodplain / Wetlands Development
6.5.7     Coastal Development

6.6      Utilities and Support Services

6.6.1     Water Distribution Systems
6.6.2     Wastewater Collection Systems
6.6.3     Natural Gas Distribution Systems
6.6.4     Electrical Distribution Systems
6.6.5     Telecommunications Systems
6.6.6     Solid Waste Collection Systems

6.7      Reference Materials

6.7.1     General
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6.7.2     Listing of Potential Sources
SECTION 7 - STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS

7.1       Structural Design Requirements

7.1.1     General

7.1.1.1   Applicability
7.1.1.2   Material, Framing, Systems and Details
7.1.1.3   Construction Materials and Labor
7.1.1.4   Design Criteria

7.1.2     Calculations

7.1.2.1   General
7.1.2.2   Manually Prepared Calculations
7.1.2.3   Computer Analysis and Design

7.1.3     Loads

7.1.3.1   General Requirements
7.1.3.2   DeadLoads
7.1.3.3   Live Loads
7.1.3.4   Snow Loads
7.1.3.5   Wind Loads
7.1.3.6   Seismic Loads
7.1.3.7   Other Loads
7.1.3.8   Load Combinations

7.1.4     Structural Systems

7.1.4.1   Foundations
1.1.4.2   Framing  Systems
7.1.4.3   Lateral Load Resisting Systems

7.1.5     Building  Movement Joints

7.1.5.1   Control Joints
7.1.5.2   Expansion Joints
7.1.5.3   Seismic Joints

7.2       Concrete

7.2.1     General Requirements
7.2.2     Concrete Formwork
7.2.3     Concrete Reinforcement
7.2.4     Cast-in-Place Concrete
7.2.5     Precast /  Prestressed Concrete-Structural
7.2.6     Precast / Prestressed Concrete-Architectural
7.2.7     Cementitious Decks for Buildings

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7.2.8     Repair and Restoration of Concrete Structures
7.2.9     Concrete Inspection and Testing
7.3       Masonry

7.3.1     General Requirements
7.3.2     Mortar and Grout
7.3.3     Unit Masonry
7.3.4     Masonry Accessories
7.3.5     Reinforced Masonry
7.3.6     Masonry Inspection and Testing

7.4       Metals

7.4.1     General Requirements
7.4.2     Structural Steel
7.4.3     Steel Joists
7.4.4     Steel Decks
7.4.S     Miscellaneous Metals
7.4.6     Light Gauge Steel
7.4.7     Pre-Engineered Metal Buildings
7.4.8     Structural Steel Inspection and Testing

SECTION 8 - MECHANICAL REQUIREMENTS

8.1       General

8.1.1     HV AC Requirements

8.1.1.1   General
8.1.1.2   Selection Procedure
8.1.1.3   Inside Design Temperatures
8.1.1.4   Outside Design Temperatures
8.1.1.5   Equipment Sizing
8.1.1.6   Evaporative / Adiabatic Cooling
8.1.1.7   Ventilation - Exhaust Systems
8.1.1.8   Equipment Room Ventilation
8.1.1.9   Waste Heat Recovery Systems

8.1.2     Energy Efficiency
8.1.3     Laboratory
8.1.4     Energy Management Control Systems

8.1.4.1   General
8.1.4.2   Zoning
8.1.4.3   Control Setback and Shutoff Devices
8.1.4.4   Humidity Control
8.1.4.5   Simultaneous Heating and Cooling
8.1.4.6   Mechanical Ventilation Control
8.1.4.7   Economizer Cycle

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8.1.4.8    Automatic Control Dampers
8.1.4.9    Variable - Air - Volume System Fan Control
8.1.4.10  Fire and Smoke Detection and Protection Controls
8.1.4.11  Gas - Fired Air Handling Unit Control
8.1.4.12  Zone Control /Distribution System Control
8.1.4.13  Control Valve Selection
8.1.4.14  Two-Pipe and Three-Pipe Combination Heating
          and Cooling Systems
8.1.4.15  Load Control for Hot Water Systems
8.1.4.16  Load Control for Chilled Water Systems
8.1.4.17  Cooling Tower and Water - Cooled Condenser
          System Controls
8.1.4.18  Control of Steam Systems
8.1.4.19  Energy Management Systems (EMS)
8.1.4.20  Energy Metering

8.1.5     Heating, Ventilating, and Air - Conditioning Systems (HVAC)

8.1.5.1    General
8.1.5.2    Water Chillers
8.1.5.3    Condensers / Condensing Units
8.1.5.4    Cooling Towers
8.1.5.5    Building Heating Systems
8.1.5.6    Water Distribution Systems
8.1.5.7    Pumps and Pumping Systems
8.1.5.8    Steam Distribution Systems
8.1.5.9    Air Handling and Air Distribution Systems
8.1.5.10  Fans/Motors
8.1.5.11  Coils

8.1.6     Cold Boxes and Freezers
8.1.7     Central Plant Heat Generation /Distribution

8.1.7.1    Facility Sizing
8.1.7.2    Steam and High - Temperature Water Generation
8.1.7.3    Steam Generation Units
8.1.7.4    High - Temperature Water Generation Units
8.1.7.5    Circulation Pumps
8.1.7.6    Fuel Storage and Handling Systems
8.1.7.7    Boiler Water Treatment
8.1.7.8    Boiler Room Controls and Instrumentation
8.1.7.9    Plant Insulation
8.1.7.10  Steam and High - Temperature Water Distribution
8.1.7.11  Piping Insulation

8.2       Load Calculations

8.2.1     General
8.2.2     Submission

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8.2.3     Design
8.2.4     Air Volume /Exchange
8.2.5     Auxiliary Air
8.2.6     Fume Hood Exhaust
8.2.7     Laboratory Fume Hoods

8.2.7.1   Hood Requirements
8.2.7.2   Constant Volume Bypass Type Fume Hood
8.2.7.3   Radioisotope Hoods
8.2.7.4   Perchloric Acid Fume Hoods
8.2.7.5   Special Hoods and Exhaust

8.2.8     Capture Hoods
8.2.9     Vented Chemical and Biological Safety Cabinets
8.2.10    Portable Biological and Flammable Safety Cabinets
8.2.11    Laboratory Service Fittings

8.3       Air Filtration and Exhaust Systems

8.3.1     Dry Filtration
8.3.2     Absolute Filtration

8.3.2.1   Test Access
8.3.2.2   Fire Protection of HEPA Filter Assemblies

8.3.3     Air - Cleaning Devices for Special Applications
8.3.4     Operation
8.3.5     Maintenance Access
8.3.6    Location of Air Intake
8.3.7     Ventilation Rates
8.3.8     Plume Study (Laboratory Exhaust)
8.3.9    Atmospheric Air Flow Characteristics Study
8.3.10   Exhaust Stack Dispersion Performance Analysis

8.4      Plumbing

8.4.1     Piping

8.4.1.1   Supply
8.4.1.2   Drain, Waste and Vent
8.4.1.3   Trap Seal Protection
8.4.1.4   Sterilization
8.4.1.5   Miscellaneous

8.4.2    Plumbing Fixtures
8.4.3    Backflow Preventers
8.4.4     Safety Devices

8.4.4.1    Pressure Reducing Valves


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8.4.5
8.4.6
8.4.7

8.5

8.6

8.7

8.7.1
8.7.2
8.7.3
8.7.4

8.8

8.9

8.9.1
8.9.2
8.9.3
8.9.4
8.9.5
8.9.6
8.9.7

8.10

8.11

8.12

8.12.1
8.12.2
8.12.3
8.12.4
8.12.5
8.12.6

8.13

8.13.1
8.13.2

8.13.2.1
8.13.2.2
Emergency Eyewashers
Emergency Showers
Dish Washing Sinks

Compressed Air Systems

Vacuum Systems

Centralized Laboratory Water Systems

Deionized Water (DI) System
Hot / Cold Water - Potable
Hot / Cold Water - Non - Potable (Industrial)
Culture Water System

Natural Gas Distribution System

Non - flammable and Flammable Gas Systems

General
Distribution Systems
Distribution to Metals Laboratories
Piping Exit Corridor Restriction
Bottle Gas Supply
Liquid Nitrogen and Liquid Argon
Testing and Purging

Non-Sanitary Laboratory Waste

Codes and Standards

Testing and Balancing

Independent Contractor
Contractor Credentials
Contractor Registration
Scope of Work
Test and Balancing Devices
Reporting

Ductwork

General
Fabrication

Compliance
Special Applications
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8.13.3      Access Panels
8.13.4      Insulation
8.13.5      Fire Dampers

8.14        Drinking Fountains
8.15        Toilets, Sinks and Lavatories

8.15.1      General
8.15.2      Toilet Stall Accessibility
8.15.3      Lavatory Accessibility
8.15.4      Accessible Mirrors, Urinals and Accessories
8.15.5      Toilet Schedule
8.15.6      Water Conserving Water Qosets, Sinks and Lavatories

8.16        Shower Stalls

8.17        Hose Bibbs

8.18        Fire Protection

8.18.1    General
8.18.2    Size and Zoning
8.18.3    Systems

8.18.3.1  Wet Pipe
8.18.3.2  Dry Pipe
8.18.3.3  Preaction
8.18.3.4  Deluge
8.18.3.5  Self - Restoring
8.18.3.6  Quick - Response
8.18.3.7  Water Spray
8.18.3.8  Carbon Dioxide
8.18.3.9  Dry Chemical
8.18.3.10 Foam
8.18.3.11 Standpipes and Hose Systems
8.18.3.12 Portable Fire Extinguishers

8.18.4    Operation
8.18.5    Codes

8.19     Reference Manuals
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nd Space
 Facllitie
Table of Contents                                                    Page      xv




SECTION 9 - ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS

9.1       General

9.1.1     Code Compliance
9.1.2     Energy Conservation in Design
9.1.3     Coordination of Work
9.1.4     Power Factors
9.1.5     Handicapped Requirements
9.1.6     Material and Equipment Standards
9.1.7     Environmental Requirements

9.2       Primary Distribution

9.2.1     Ductbanks and Cable
9.2.2     Switches
9.2.3     Overhead

9.3       Service Entrance

9.3.1     Overhead Services
9.3.2     Underground Services
9.3.3     Service Capacity
9.3.4     Metering
9.3.5     Service Entrance Equipment

9.4       Interior Electrical Systems

9.4.1     Basic Materials and Methods
9.4.2     Service Equipment
9.4.3     Conductors
9.4.4     Raceways
9.4.5     Harmonics
9.4.6     Distribution Equipment
9.4.7     Motor Controllers / Disconnects
9.4.8     Grounding
9.4.9     Laboratory Power Requirements

9.5       Interior Lighting System

9.5.1     Illumination Levels
9.5.2     Lighting Controls
9.5.3     Lamps and Ballasts
9.5.4     Emergency Lighting (Battery Units)
9.5.5     Energy Conservation
9.5.6     Green Lights
9.5.7     Glare
9.5.8     ADP Areas

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                         pneering, Planning, Architecture and!
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Table of Contents                                    .                 Page      xvi
9.6       Exterior Lighting System

9.6.1     General
9.6.2     Parking Lot Lighting
9.6.3     Building Facade Lighting
9.6.4     Traffic Control Lighting
9.6.5     Roadway Lighting
9.6.6     Exterior Electric Signs

9.7       Emergency Power System

9.7.1     General
9.7.2     Emergency Loads  .

9.8       Lightning Protection System

9.8.1     Minimum Scope
9.8.2     Additional Scope
9.8.3     Master Label

9.9       Seismic Requirements

9.9.1     Seismic Review

9.10      Uninterruptible Power Supply

9.10.1    General
9.10.2    Locations/Loads

9.11      Automatic Data Processing (ADP) Power Systems

9.11.1    ADP Isolation
9.11.2    Computer Power
9.11.3    Power Panelboards and Distribution Panels
9.11.4    Lighting
9.11.5    Grounding

9.12     Cathodic Protection

9.12.1    Investigation and Recommendation

9.13     Environmental Considerations (Raceways, Enclosures)

9.13.1    Corrosive Atmosphere
9.13.2    Salt Water Atmosphere
9.13.3    Extreme Cold Temperatures
9.13.4    Explosive Atmosphere

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9.13.5    Floodplain Areas

9.14      Communication Systems

9.14.1    Telecommunications / Data Systems
9.14.2    Radio Communications
9.14.3    Public Address /Paging Systems
9.14.4    Entertainment TV Systems
9.14.5    Recording Systems
9.14.6    Dictation Systems
9.14.7    Satellite Dishes
9.14.8    TV Broadcast Systems
9.14.9    Microwave Communications
9.14.10   Nurse Call System
9.14.11   Clock Systems
9.14.12   Other

9.15      Fire Alarm System

9.15.1    Code Compliance - Manual System
9.15.2    Code Compliance - Automatic Systems
9.15.3    General
9.15.4    Central, Local, Proprietary Alarm System
9.15.5    Central Station Service
9.15.6    System General Requirements
9.15.7    Fire Zones
9.15.8    Wire Class and Circuit Survivability
9.15.9    Control Center
9.15.10   System and Operation Standards and Codes
9.15.11   Signal Devices
9.15.12   Held Open Fire Doors
9.15.13   Electrical Supervision / Emergency Power

9.16      Safety Alarm System

9.16.1    Annunciator Panel
9.16.2    Indicating Plates

9.17      Security Systems

9.17.1    General
9.17.2    Access Systems
9.17.3    Intrusion Detection Systems
9.17.4    Site Access Systems
9.17.5    CCTV Systems
9.17.6    Perimeter Systems
9.17.7    Data Processing
9.17.8    Parking Controls

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9.18     Disaster Evacuation System

SECTION 10 - LEASE ADMINISTRATION
                                      NOTE:  THE INFORMATION IN
10.1     Definition of Gross Area         THIS SECTION 10 SHALL BE
                                      PROVIDED BY EPA AND IS
10.2     Net Usable Square Feet          NOT A PART OF THE SCOPE
                                      FOR THIS DELIVERY ORDER
10.2.1    General                      NO. 6 - STANDARDS
10.2.2    Square Feet
10.2.3    Appurtenant Areas and Facilities
10.3     Vending Facilities

10.4     Janitorial Services

10.5     Maintenance and Testing of Systems

10.5.1    General
10.5.2    Testing
10.5.3    Watertight Integrity
10.5.4    Additional Requirements

10.6     Flag Display

10.6.1    General
10.6.2    Display

10.7     Safe Air Contaminant Levels

10.7.1    General
10.7.2    Asbestos
10.7.3    Post-Asbestos-Abatement Monitoring
10.7.4    Abatement Actions other than Removal
10.7.5    Non-Fireable Asbestos
10.7.6    Abatement Plan
10.7.7    Inspection and Testing

APPENDIX A -  Codes, Regulatory Requirements, Reference Standards, Trade Organizations,
               and Guides

APPENDIX B -  Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Requirements

APPENDIX C-  Room Data Sheets

APPENDIX D-  Design Guidelines

APPENDIX E -  Abbreviations and Acronyms

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     SECTION 1




INTRODUCTION

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                       Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
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Introduction                        .                                     Page       1-1



                                       SECTION 1

                                   INTRODUCTION



1.1       ORGANIZATION OF DOCUMENT

1.1.1     GUIDELINES FOR PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND DESIGN
This document, Engineering, Planning, Architecture, and Space Standards and  Guidelines for
EPA Facilities, establishes guidelines for the design of new construction renovations, alterations and
additions for all Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Laboratory Facilities as well as for the
evaluation of existing facilities to determine conditions and needs for improvement. The document is to
promote and  establish  a consistent level of quality and excellence  throughout the planning,
programming and design processes and throughout the construction of new facilities. This document is
not a specification, but shall be used  alongside codes and regulations  to  develop  construction
documentation for EPA facilities.  The document provides information and establishes criteria for the
offerer and design professional to evaluate, program, plan, conceptualize, and prepare viable solutions
for EPA review and comment, and with the concurrence of the EPA, to establish and develop throughout
the  design  process a single solution  meeting the requirements established herein in the form of
construction documents for public bidding and construction contract award.

1.1.2     DESIGN PROFESSIONALS AND OFFEROR
This document does not relieve the Architects, Engineers, and Consultants of any responsibilities as the
design professionals.  It is intended to clarify and supplement the design process for the design
professional and the offerer. The Architect, Engineers and Consultants shall be licensed  professionals
in their field of expertise and shall be experienced in the design of laboratory facilities.  They will be
required to assure that  all portions of the project comply with all established applicable codes,
regulations and practices for laboratory facilities.

1.1.3     PROGRAM VERIFICATION AND DESIGN
This document establishes basic design parameters only; it is not a program for the facility or facilities.
It is a set of standards and guidelines which the  design professional must  use in programming and
designing a laboratory. The document is meant to be restrictive to the extent of respecting standards.
However, EPA recognizes that an essential aspect of the design professionals responsibility  includes
original and imaginative design.  The facility or facilities must be planned, developed and designed
from the master plan and total environmental approach under one common concept to produce a product
that is  functional and aesthetic.

1.1.4     DOCUMENT PARAGRAPH NUMBERING
Each paragraph of this documents is numbered. Any number missing from the numbering sequence has
been intentionally deleted, and is not required for use on this project.
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Introduction                                                             Page       1-2
1.2       SCOPE OF PROJECT

1.2.1     PURPOSE
A description and purpose of any proposed new facility shall be provided.  The following questions are
some of the items that should be addressed when a new facility is under consideration:

    . 1       Does the new facility construction replace an old facility or number of facilities ?

    . 2      Does the new facility construction represent expansion or the addition of new square
            footage without moving the current operation?

    . 3      Does the new facility construction represent consolidation?

    . 4      Has a specific site been established or not?

    . 5      Are there any special studies that the design professional must perform early in the project
            development to analyze whether a group must consolidate or whether more or less space is
            required?

1.2.2     PLANNING STUDIES, EVALUATIONS AND REPORTS
A list of all planning documents, studies, evaluations and reports shall be provided with an executive
summary of their conclusions and results.

1.3       BACKGROUND INFORMATION

1.3.1     EXISTING FACILITY DESCRIPTION
A brief general overview and description of all existing facilities and the campus, if so composed, shall be
provided.  The use of photographs is encouraged.

1.3.2     FACILITY / CAMPUS COMPONENTS
A more descriptive short paragraph on each component of the facility or campus shall be provided.

1.3.3     FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION
A brief introductory description of the organization of the various branches and laboratories in the project
and how they interrelate with a more detailed description of each shall be provided.


END OF SECTION
                                   ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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                       SECTION 2




GENERAL FACILITY REQUIREMENTS

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                                                              dlities
General Facility Requirements                                          Page      2-1



                                       SECTION 2

                        GENERAL FACILITY REQUIREMENTS
2.1       PLANNING GOALS
A brief description of EPA's goals shall be provided for any given project. The goals should state those
current conditions which are good or correct and must be maintained and those current conditions which
are not good or not correct which must be resolved or improved.  The goals should state any new
condition required to be met.  Examples are as follows:

    . 1       Greater interaction and communication Is required among offices and laboratories, among all
            laboratories and/or among all offices, etc.
    .2       Improve circulation to minimize travel distances and time
    . 3       Consolidation of laboratories
    .4       Anticipated expansion
    . 5       Functional zoning and separation
    . 6       Sharing of resources
    . 7       Increase efficiency of laboratory module
    .8       Modular design to laboratories
    . 9       Typical laboratory module for flexibility
    . 10      Increase flexibility and adaptability
    . 11      Decrease maintenance costs
    . 12      Enhance image
    . 13      Enhance quality of life
    . 14      Increase personnel safety
    . 15      Immediate adjacencies

2.1.1     PLANNING OBJECTIVES
Each of the goals listed under Planning Goals shall be defined, and any specific requirements noted and
described.

2.1.2     PLANNING CRITERIA
Planning criteria must be established and agreed upon in order to establish the net design area  for the
project (net design area is defined in this Section 2 under paragraph 2.1.2.7).  There are likely to be
several categories of space such as Office Spaces, Laboratory Spaces, Specialized Spaces and Storage
Spaces. An additional category, Exterior Areas, includes space not directly included within the facility and
not included in the net design area.
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General Facility Requirements                                            Page       2-2
2.1.2.1   OFFICE SPACE
Planning criteria must be established for general office and interior support spaces.  This may be
established using the GSA (General Services Administration) primary square footage for office space for
clerical, administrative, paraprofessionai, professional, managerial, and executive personnel at 125 net
square feet plus an additional 22% or 27.5  net square feet for support areas.  Support areas do not
include storage  or specialized spaces.  Using this method, 152.5 net square feet is allocated per .
individual. EPA must agree upon the method to be used to establish this square footage. This method of
determining general office and interior support space shall be followed unless specific and demonstrated
functional requirements would justify otherwise.
         LABORATORY RELATED OFFICE SPACE
Laboratory personnel who must also evaluate and interpret data and prepare written reports and
manuscripts must have some office space outside of the laboratories where they work. The size of these
offices should be computed the same as indicated in paragraph 2. 1.2. 1. The same standards as utilized in
the regular office spaces are also applicable to these office spaces with the exception that the laboratory
related office space should be located as dose as possible to the laboratory space to which it relates, but
this office space shall not be included within the physical laboratory space.

2.1.23   LABORATORY SPACE
Planning criteria must be established for modular laboratory space. This may be 308 net design square
feet per module. Based on EPA functions and tasks, a module of 11 '-0' x 28'-0' is the standard which
must be followed in all laboratories except where functions and tasks would lead to a different standard.

2.1.2.4   SPECIALIZED SPACE
Specialized spaces include special laboratories which do not fit a set module and require square footages
significantly larger than standard laboratories. Specialized spaces include pilot plant operations and animal
care facilities.  These spaces may or may not need to be located with other modular laboratory space or
office space.

2.1.2.5   STORAGE SPACE
Storage spaces, as herein classified, represent large open storage areas which are required to support
specialty or specific functions and is storage space in addition to standard storage space that may be a part
of laboratory or office space. This storage may be required to be adjacent to or near a laboratory or remote
from the new facility.

2.1.2.6   EXTERIOR AREA
Exterior Area includes space not included within the facility but which must be on-site. This space may be
open air, unprotected storage, such as for vehicles, or this space may be semi-enclosed such as under a
shed roof or in a fenced enclosure such as for fuel storage, or this space may be totally enclosed such as a
remote power plant for support services.

2.1.2.7   NET DESIGN AREA (FOR DESIGN PURPOSES ONLY)
All space requirements set forth in the program shall be net design area. They shall not include walls or
building structure, egress and other corridors, stairs, restrooms, mechanical and electrical rooms,  shafts
and similar non-occupied spaces.  They shall also not include space designated as Exterior Area.  Net
design area shall not be interpreted as the net usable area of the facility as defined by GSA, refer to
Section 10 for GSA definitions of net usable area.
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                       Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
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General Facility Requirements                                        Page       2-3
2.1.2.8   GROSS DESIGN AREA
Refer to Section 3 for definition of Gross Design Area and efficiency.

2.2      SCOPE OF REQUIREMENTS

2.2.1    GENERAL
A brief overview of the scope of the specific project requirements shall be provided.

2.2.2    CODES
A brief statement about applicable local codes which shall be followed shall be provided here with a
reference to APPENDIX A - CODES, REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS. REFERENCE STANDARDS,
TRADE ORGANIZATIONS AND GUIDES. This reference shall include a statement clarifying that not all
potentially applicable codes, requirements, references, organizations and / or guides may be listed.  A
code review document shall be produced by the design professional which documents all of the research
performed to comply with all applicable codes.  This document shall be updated, at a minimum, at the end
of each phase of the project.

2.2.3    FACILITY ORGANIZATION
Provide program function statements for each of the offices, branches and laboratories involved in the
project and how they interrelate.

2.2.4    SUMMARY OF REQUIREMENTS
A general description of the required new facility total net area shall be provided, excluding all Exterior
Areas. A general description of the Exterior Area net area shall be provided.

2.2.4.1   FACILITY SUMMARY
A general listing of net assignable space shall be provided in net area for each of the following types of
space:

    . 1       Office Space
    . 2       Modular Laboratory Space
    .3       Specialized Space
    .4       Storage Space
    .5       Exterior Areas
    .5.1        Vehicle Holding
    .5.2        Fuel Storage
    .5.3        Hazardous Material/ Waste Storage
    .5.4        Source Simulator

2.2.4.2   NET AREA SUMMARY
An example summary chart of total net area is provided in Table 22.42. - NET AREA SUMMARY

2.2.4.3   PERSONNEL SUMMARY
An  example summary  chart of personnel by organizational structure is provided in Table 2.2.4.3 -
PERSONNEL SUMMARY
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General Facility Requirements
Page
2-4
TABLE 24.4L2 NET AREA SUMMARY
  EXAMPLE

ORD
HERL
OD
NTD
GTD
RSD
DTD
ETD
AREAL
OD
ACMD
MRDD
HEFRD
QATSD
EBRD
AEERL
OD
GECD
PCD
ECAO
OSORD
OAR
OAQPS
OD
ESD
AQMD
TSD
OARM
OARM
OD
CMD
HRMD
NCPD
FMSD-O
FMSD-C
NDPD
EPA - BUILDING TOTALS
OFFICE
127,900
41,283
1,375
6,937
10,138
6,000
6,650
10,183
54,325
4,950
14,375
10,500
9,625
7,500
7,375
20,670
3,035
8,170
9,465
9,372
2,250
55,030
55,030
2,935
20,900
19,195
12,000
71,125
71,125
2,250
7,000
3,500
11,250
6,250
6,250
40,875
254,055
LAB
137,597
73,350
0
11,110
16,720
1,100
15,180
31,240
42,120
0
9,680
12,100
6,920
9,020
4,400
16,590
0
3,520
13,070
0
3,537
4,620
4,620
0
0
0
4,620
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
142,217
SPECIAL
99,535
38,733
1,320
1,210
1,870
30,583
1,440
2,310
22,305
990
3,190
8,985
4,840
3,860
440
33,482
6,402
3,840
23,240
1,400
3,615
9,385
9,385
2,455
1,680
3,650
1,600
100,415
100,415
600
1,920
1,920
2,525
11,505
23,980
57,965
209,335
STORAGE
15,470
2,890
600
220
0
1,410
0
660
9,080
5,200
440
220
3,200
0
240
1,100
0
0
1,100
1,600
800
3,680
3,680
0
400
640
2,640
10,023
10,023
150
738
300
300
3,385
0
5,150
29,173
TOTAL
380,722
158,256
3,295
19,477
28,728
39,093
23,270
44,393
128,050
11,140
27,685
31,805
24,585
20,380
12,455
71,842
9,437
15,530
46,875
12,372
10,202
72,715
72,715
5,390
22,980
23,485
20,860
181,563
181,563
3,000
9,658
5,720
14,075
21,140
23,980
103,990
635,000
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General Facility Requirements
                                    Page
                           2-5
TABLE 2JL4.3 PERSONNEL SUMMARY
                                      EXAMPLE

ORD
HERL
OD
NTD
GTD
RSD
DTD
ETD
AREAL
OD
ACMD
MRDD
HEFRD
QATSD
EERD
AEERL
ODJOO
GECD
PCD
ECAO
OSORD
OAR
OAQPS
OD
ESD
AQMD
TSD
OARM
OARM
OD
CMD
HMRD
NCPD
FMSD-O
FMSD-C
NDPD
OFFICE*
893
254
11
42
55
48
40
58
417
22
115
84
77
60
59
142
23
58
61
62
18
418
418
19
160
143
96
567
567
18
56
28
90
50
0
325
TECHNICIAN**
428
295
0
46
89
35
45
80
60
60
0
0
0
0
0
73
4
23
46
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
108
108
0
0
0
0
0
0
108
TOTAL
1,321
549
11
88
144
83
85
138
477
82
115
84
77
60
59
215
27
81
107
62
18
418
418
19
160
143
96
675
675
18
56
28
90
50
0
433
EPA BUILDING
1,878
536
                                                                          2,414
•Office people working in laboratories are shown only as office occupants in the table.

"The term "technician" refers only to laboratory people who do not have office space in laboratories or
elsewhere. This is done so that the total personnel count reflects an accurate head count of people.


END OF SECTION
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                               SECTION 3




GUIDE FOR FACILITY DESIGN AND LAYOUT

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                                      SECTIONS

                   GUIDE FOR FACILITY DESIGN AND LAYOUT
3.1      GENERAL SPACE PROVISIONS

3.1.1     OVERVIEW
In general, the information contained in this document, Engineering, Planning, Architecture and
Space Standards  and  Guideline* for EPA Facilities, must apply to existing buildings as well as any
possible new construction. The EPA can only present the generic space criteria requirements, identify
the types of spaces anticipated for the various functions of the facility, identify general technical
requirements and give general guidance for actual layout  This section contains design requirements
that shall be used as guides and references.  Additionally, model Room Data Sheets are included in
Appendix C with examples which provide general, and some specific, program requirements. Specific
program criteria,  space identification and sizes shall be developed by the design professional during
the Program Verification Phase of the specific project The purpose of the Program Verification Phase
is to determine the quantitative and qualitative requirements of the specific program and relate these
requirements to the available budget Specific program criteria and requirements must be verified by
the design professional with the EPA. The design professional must work in close coordination with
the Agency (EPA) to  produce the final building layout in accordance with this document and the
guidance gained through consultation  with  the Agency.  Appropriate local, state and federal
regulatory agencies shall also be consulted.

3.1.2     SITE RELATED INFLUENCES AND DEVELOPMENT

3.1.2.1    SURVEYS, PRE-CONSTRUCTION TESTING & ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT
The design professional shall provide and be responsible for complete site surveys, pre-construction
testing (subsurface soil exploration), and environmental assessment. All site surveys, preconstruction
testing, and environmental assessments shall be performed by a registered geotechnical engineer.

    .1       SURVEYS
            Upon award, and once a written Notice to Proceed is issued to the design professional, the
            design professional shall arrange for surveying of the site to be performed by a Registered
            Professional Land Surveyor.

    .1.1          As a minimum, the survey(s) shall describe legal property boundaries, easements, and
                legal restrictions  as well as all man-made  and natural physical characteristics,
                utility service locations (temporary and permanent), horizontal and vertical controls,
                bench marks, roadways and parking areas.
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   .2       PRELIMINARY SUBSURFACE EXPLORATION.   -
            The design professional shall arrange for preliminary subsurface exploration to be
            performed by a registered geotechnical engineer.  The registered geotechnical engineer
            shall supervise all required testing; review and analyze all data and samples and submit
            his report. All tests shall be performed by independent testing laboratories.

   .3       ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT
            The design professionals will be required to evaluate the additions and improvements on
            the local environment.  They may also be required to  prepare an Environmental
            Assessment (EA) which will determine the need for an Environmental Impact Statement
            (EIS).  The preparation of the Environmental Assessment, if required by the  Agency,
            shall be included as a part of the professional services contract

   .3.1     The design professional will be  required to complete the Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)
            requirements described in Appendix B of this document To address these requirements,
            the design professional must respond to the primary strategies for Indoor Air Quality
            control as listed in Appendix B,  paragraph B.l.1.2.  The first strategy for Indoor Air
            Quality control is Source Control which involves outdoor pollutant sources. The design
            professional must respond to the requirements established under Site  Evaluation as
            defined in Appendix B, paragraph B.l.2.1.3 which includes a list of factors which must
            be considered.

3.1.2.2   SITE DEVELOPMENT
In the development of a site proposed for construction, the design professional  is required, as a
minimum, to address, analyze, and assess all site related issues outlined below:

   .1       IMPACT

   .1.1        On-site capacities of present and future utilities
   .1.2        Existing buildings, including the need for temporary facilities and services to these
                    buildings.
   .1.3        Existing site utilities, including the need for utility relocation and shutdown.
   .1.4        Existing traffic patterns and vehicles, including emergency and service vehicles.
   .1.5        The need for traffic phasing/control plan requirements.
   .1.6        Existing parking structures and surface parking, including the need for temporary
                    parking areas and  additional capacity.
   .1.7        Need for an environmental impact statement.

   .2       DEVELOPMENT

   .2.1         Preserve surrounding rttighborhoods and roinmiiruties.
   .2.1.1        Laboratory facilities shall be located at a distance no less than 1/4 mile from existing
                    residential developments, and shall be located such that prevailing winds will
                    not  direct fumes  exhausting  from  EPA stacks toward existing residential
                    developments.
   .2.2         Preserve the character of the site,  to the maximum extent,  by  retaining natural
                    features, such as ground forms, trees and other natural vegetation.
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    .2.3         Use the existing site potential to the best advantage by locating and orienting
                   buildings so they are compatible with natural site features.
    .2.4         Develop functional relationships between site access points, parking lots, buildings,
                   service areas and all other project site elements.
    .2.5         Provide for orderly future expansion of facilities by considering logical expansion of
                   buildings, parking and support services.
    .2.6         Review and assess the impact of development with respect to any approved campus
                   master plan and site infrastructure master plan.

    .3       DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

    .3.1         ENERGY CONSIDERATIONS
                A careful analysis of sun angles, prevailing winds, existing topography, micro-
                climatic conditions and major wooded areas shall be reviewed in order to contribute to
                a more energy efficient solution.  Enhance energy conservation by careful consideration
                and evaluation of the orientation of buildings.  Maximize climate  assets and
                minimi** climate liabilities.

    .3.2         VIEWS
                Proper orientation to capitalize on major vistas as a design opportunity is strongly
                encouraged.  Views into the site from major roadways should also be considered.

    .3.3         TOPOGRAPHY & DRAINAGE
                The design professional shall provide a design which works with and not against the
                existing grades.  Significant positive drainage away from  any existing or new
                construction  is a primary concern.  The design professional shall preserve, as much as
                is practical, any major existing drainage patterns.

    .3.3.1        Use natural grades of site to develop multi-level entry points, if possible. Preserve
                major drainage patterns and allow for positive drainage away from all portions of
                the building.

    .3.3.2        Assess impact of development on storm water runoff.

    .3.4         ADJACENT LAND USE
                Consideration should be given to existing land uses or potential development nearby
                when siting a facility.  Existing and proposed traffic patterns may affect drive
                locations and site access, ultimately influencing building location or orientation.

    .3.5         NOISE & ODORS
                Adjacent land uses may also contribute noise or odors, or both; these uses shall be
                considered in the site development process. Noise or odors may be severe enough to
                disqualify a site from consideration; thus a thorough  analysis of neighboring
                facilities must be undertaken to ensure compatibility of the proposed facility to the
                existing adjacent land uses and environment
                                   ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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3.1.2.3   HISTORICAL & ARCHAEOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS
The design professional shall review all publicly available documents for any on-site historical and/or
archaeological information. Any public record indicating historically or archaeologically sensitive
areas on-site must be reported to the Agency before any design is initiated.  Archaeologically and
historically sensitive areas on-site must be completely avoided  until and  after a thorough
investigation has been completed and findings documented which provides direction to the design
.professional whether the area(s) in question may be used or must be preserved for future exploration.

3.1.2.4   COMMUNITY ISSUES
The design professional shall address environmental justice issues as  set by EPA, and ascertain the
requirements of the required communities review processes and provide a report to the Agency early in
the design process well before any community review is required on the project All community reviews
are over and above any Agency design review; reviews shall not be combined.  Community review
panels may require but are not limited to requiring the following:

    .1       Separate plans prepared to specifically highlight or emphasize that group's concern.
    .2       Research and data collection to be used in generating special reports, environmental
                assessment.
    .3       Presentation graphics for a formal submission/presentation during the review process.
    .4       Document the review and approval process, submission requirements, deadlines for each
                portion of the process and the sequence that must be followed.

3.1.3     SITE EVALUATION

3.1.3.1   PURPOSE OF STUDY
The ultimate purpose of the Site Evaluation is to provide the Environmental Protection Agency with
pertinent data sufficient to allow for a complete understanding of the physical assets and liabilities of
the given project site.

3.1.3.2   SITE DATA COLLECTION
From the information developed above in 3.1.2, SITE RELATED INFLUENCES AND  DEVELOPMENT
and other sources as  required by this document, planning and zoning criteria for the subject property
shall be considered, including the investigation of all potential site development regulations such as
density limitations, building setbacks, building coverage, buffer requirements, and other development
guidelines as set forth in any applicable campus, site or facility master plan or as elsewhere defined in
this document

    .1       An on-site investigation and review  shall be conducted  which  shall  include
             representatives from the Client, design professional and pre-construction testing and
             inspection company.  A site representative shall  verify  land features indicated on the
             survey.  Photographs shall be taken at various locations for a visual record to aid in the
             development of the site analysis drawings.
                                    ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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3.1.3.3   SITE RESOURCE INVENTORY AND ANALYSIS
A site resource  inventory and analysis shall be prepared which shall include investigation of soils
information, site vegetation, hydrology and drainage analysis, topographic and elevation analysis,
view  corridors  and other physical characteristics of the site.  A "Buildable  Area" plan shall be
developed by compiling information from the various analysis drawings. This plan shall indicate the
acres  of land suitable for construction with least amount of site limitations.  The site inventory and
analysis shall include but shall not be limited to the following:

    .1       SITE OVERVIEW
    .1.1         Location
    .1.2         Parcel delineation and acreage
    .1.3         Existing zoning
    .1.4         Adjoining land uses

    .2       PHYSICAL SITE CHARACTERISTICS
    .2.1         Slope analysis
    .2.2         Elevation analysis
    .2.3         Vegetation
    .2.4         Hydrology analysis
    .2.5         Geological and soils analysis
    .2.6         Site analysis
    .2.7         Buildable areas analysis

    .3       UTILITIES
    .3.1         Storm water drainage
    .3.2         Potable water
    .3.3         Sanitary sewer
    .3.4         Electrical and Communications
    .3.5         Mechanical

3.1.4     ACCESS, CIRCULATION AND PARKING

3.1.4.1   GENERAL
Although access to the project site and thus the project facilities is deemed to be visually critical and
the site access experience and facility entrance experience is vital, primary access requirements involve
fire and life safety.  The EPA Facility Safety Manual shall be reviewed by the design professional.
Access involves fire department apparatus and on-site fixed fire safety equipment (fire hydrants, fire
loops, post indicator valves, automatic sprinkler and/or standpipe system connections, etc.), vehicular
circulation, pedestrian  circulation and parking.

3.1.4.2   FIRE DEPARTMENT APPARATUS ACCESS
The design professional must research public records for any codes, cm-site/campus design requirements,
ordinances, and local fire department requirements for all emergency requirements.  The following
minimum requirements shall be provided.

    .1       All new  buildings shall have at least two  sides readily accessible to fire department
            apparatus at all times.
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    .2       Fire lanes shall be provided for buildings which set back more than 150 feet from a road
            or exceed 30 feet in height and are set back more than 50 feet from a road.

    .3       Fire lanes shall be at least 20 feet in width with the road edge closest to the building at
            least 10 feet from the building.

    .4       The minimum roadway turning radius shall conform to a 48 feet semitrailer template.

    .5       Fire lanes shall be constructed of an all weather driving surface capable of supporting
            imposed loads of 25 tons.

    .6       Any dead end road more than 300 feet long shall be provided with a turnaround at the
            closed end at least 90 feet in diameter.

    .7       Fire lanes and access  areas for fire hydrants and automatic sprinkler/standpipe
            connections shall be clearly identified by painting the curbs yellow with black lettering
            reading "NO PARKING - FIRE LANE" spaced at 40 foot intervals.  In addition, signage
            shall be posted and spaced at 100 foot intervals.

3.1.4.3   CIRCULATION

    .1       VEHICULAR CIRCULATION

    .1.1         Vehicular circulation shall be designed in accordance with industry standards, code
                requirements and  any overall  campus master plan or facilities master plan
                philosophy in effect at the subject site. Circulation shall respect the campus and/or
                facilities pedestrian circulation environment and provide for safe movement of
                vehicles and pedestrians.  Existing traffic studies shall be evaluated and coordinated
                in order to implement the best possible overall circulation system.

    .1.2         Vehicular access to a new project shall be evaluated with respect to existing and
                planned site  circulation  and shall  provide  for  clear  separation of staff, visitor,
                service and bus vehicular circulation.

    .1.3         Provide adequate emergency vehicle access to all points on the building periphery
                including proper grades, surface materials and clearances.

    .1.4         Entrances to the facility or campus shall be clearly marked and located so that access
                to each building, parking areas, group of buildings and service area is convenient and
                recognizable.

    .1.5         The siting of new buildings shall consider the requirements for  future expansion,
                design of buildings, roads, and surface and structured parking.

    .1.6         Site vehicular design shall provide adequate space for queuing at  drop-offs and exit
                drives for visitors, buses, 18 wheel vehicles, taxis, etc., keeping turning conflicts to a
                minimum and providing for proper service vehicle maneuvering and staging.
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    .1.7         Internal drive aisle widths and turning radii shall be designed to allow for the
                expected service and emergency vehicles.

    .2       PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION

    .2.1         Pedestrian circulation shall be designed in accordance with industry standards, code
                requirements and any overall campus master plan philosophy in effect at the subject
                site.

    .2.2         Sidewalks shall follow accepted design standards.

    .2.3         Pedestrian walks shall have a minimum of one percent cross pitch for drainage.

    .2.4         The width of walks shall be a function of pedestrian traffic volumes determined by
                the master plan and/or specific project requirements.

    .2.5         Walks shall accommodate handicapped persons.  Slopes, landings and access points
                shall be in accordance with ADA as well as the most stringent applicable code or
                combination of codes applicable to the project

    .2.6         Crosswalks from parking and other buildings shall be dearly painted and properly
                assigned.

    .2.7         Walkway paths shall be designed in response to expected origin/destination
                analysis of the site and its users.

    .2.8         Drop curb transitions for handicapped persons shall be at crosswalks, drop-off zones,
                and end-of-walk conditions.

3.1.4.4   PARKING
Parking for the proposed development shall be based on applicable codes for occupancy, local zoning
requirements and any campus or facility master  plan in effect at the subject site. As part of the site
development phase, multi-level parking garages or below ground parking shall be considered as an
alternative to surface parking. As a minimum, the following guidelines shall be followed:

    .1       Distribution of total parking (i.e., employee  (by type), police, emergency  vehicle,
            visitors, handicapped, motorcycle, bicycle, etc) shall be calculated and clearly shown in
            the site development phase. The minimum size for standard passenger car stalls shall be
            9'- 0" x 19'- 0". Up to 15% of the parking may be designated for use of compact cars and
            shall be a minimum of 8'- 0" x 18'- 0".

    .2       The structural design for pavement  on surface lots shall comply with local state highway
            department standards for general parking areas.

    .3       Parking aisles or lots subject to frequent truck traffic shall be evaluated for requirements
            of thicker pavement sections.
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    .4       Design calculations shall provide for a potential growth in staff of 10%. Consideration
            shall also be given for 25% expansion of the facility if such expansion would impact
            design calculations.

    .5       Clearly relate parking areas to entry points. Keep walking distances to a minimum.

    .6       Provide handicapped parking stalls within 100' or closer, depending on local ordinances
            and costs, of the facility entry and on the building side of the roadway.

    .7       Provide handicapped parking stalls per the ADA requirements or more stringent if so
            required by local ordinances and codes.

    .8       Provide sufficient slope (1 percent minimum) for positive drainage for runoff.

    .9       Limit slopes to no more than 4 percent

    .10      Allow sufficient open lawn area adjacent to parking lots for snow storage as required by
            climate and area.

    .11      Wherever possible, use 90 degree parking design.

    .12      Dead-end parking bays are not allowed.

    .13      Integrate existing large trees into new parking area where feasible.

    .14      Provide curbs and avoid the use of concrete wheelstops.

3.1.5     PROGRAMMED SPACE FOR DESIGN AND LAYOUT
The final accepted program shall establish the  definite net design area requirements for the facility
and shall establish gross and net area requirements for the Exterior Areas of the project. Exterior Areas
are those areas not contained within the building envelope of the main facility but which must occur
on-site with the facility.  With an understanding of the efficiency of the facility and all Exterior
Areas, all on-site requirements  can be  laid out.  The EPA may require additional space in remote
facilities, however, these are not a part of the program established by mis document.

3.1.5.1   GROSS DESIGN AREA
Gross design area represents all of the net design area plus all of the additional space required to
provide a complete and functioning facility  (egress and other required corridors, stairs, restrooms,
mechanical and electrical rooms, interior and exterior walls, building structure, shafts and similar non-
occupied or non-occupiable spaces and  construction, etc.).  The net design area divided by the gross
design area defines the percentage design efficiency of the facility.  Refer to Section 10, LEASE
ADMINISTRATION, for definitions of net usable and gross usable area which are distinct from net and
gross design areas.
                                    ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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3.1.5.2   NET AND GROSS DESIGN AREA & EFFICIENCY
Net design area for the project is established by the planning goals and objectives and the planning
criteria defined in Section 2 - GENERAL FACILITY REQUIREMENTS.  The planning goals  and
objectives along with the established typical generic or specific laboratory requirements as defined in
the Room Data Sheets included in Appendix C, produces an efficiency for research facilities of this
type which range from approximately 50% to 65% with an average efficiency of approximately 58%.

3.1.6    EXTERIOR AREAS AND FACILITIES
The specific area requirements for Exterior Areas for this project are listed in Section 2 - GENERAL
FACILITY REQUIREMENTS. Information for specific facility design and layout is provided in this
Section 3 - GUIDE FOR FACILITY DESIGN AND LAYOUT. Exterior areas may include the following:

3.1.6.1   OUTSIDE SERVICE AREAS
Outside service areas include the following:

   .1       Meters
   .2       Vaults
   .3       Transformers
   .4       Dumps ters
   .5       Compactor Units
   .6       Emergency Generators
   .7       Oxygen Tank/Manifold
   .8       Pressure Reducers
   .9       Valves
   .10      Pump Hoses
   .11      Loading Docks

3.1.6.2   ANCILLARY FACILITIES
Ancillary facilities are requirements of the building program that must be located immediately outside
of a laboratory or specialty space in dose proximity to that space.

3.1.6.3   OUTSIDE STORAGE
Outside storage includes, but is not limited to, the following:

   .1       VEHICLE HOLDING

   .2       FUEL STORAGE

   .3       HAZARDOUS MATERIAL / WASTE STORAGE FACILITY
            The primary purpose of the Hazardous Materials/Waste Storage Facility is to house
            hazardous and flammable materials away from the main laboratory facility and other
            structures.  This facility shall be constructed for the highest hazardous rating per
            applicable building code and in accordance with NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible
            Liquids Code. Located a minimum of 50 feet from the main facility and from the property
            line, the facility shall contain  five fully enclosed rooms for the storage of drum
            containers, flammable and combustible liquids, toxic chemicals, acids, and cylinder gases.
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3.1.7     REMOTE FACILITIES
Remote facilities are facilities which are not located on property contiguous to the main facility.
Remote facilities and net area requirements for remote facilities are not a part of this project. If such
information is provided to the design professional by the Agency it is for informational purposes only.
The design professional may wish to so confirm such information.

3.1.8     EXPANSION
Expansion is an integral part of the requirements for this project The design professional shall review
and/or confirm with the Agency all anticipated expansion needs and shall recommend methods to
accommodate expansion to include these anticipated needs as well as address future expansion beyond
these anticipated needs. It shall be the responsibility of the design professional to recommend the
direction(s)  of expansion after consultation with  the  Agency.  The design professional shall
accommodate all expansion in a logical manner both programmatically as well as by construction
sequencing.

    .1       Corridor layout and circulation patterns shall  enhance flexibility and aid in  future
            expansion. Open plans, where feasible and practical, which allow  greater flexibility in
            expansion and general facility changes are encouraged.

    .2       Avoid floor plan arrangements that encircle a department with permanent corridors,
            stairs, mechanical and electrical rooms or other fixed building elements which are
            difficult to relocate.

    .3       Column-free functional areas should be maximized while the use of transfer beams should
            be minimized.

    .4       Anticipated expansion must be reviewed by all disciplines on the project.

    .5       Design electrical, mechanical, plumbing and other support systems in such a manner as to
            permit modifications and expansion in support of functional changes with the least first
            cost and least disruption to the overall operations.

    .5.1         Utilities  and support services such as heating,  ventilation,  air-conditioning,
                plumbing, and electrical systems shall allow expansion or contraction in the services
                provided. The utilities and support services location and size of lines, method of
                connection and valving shall be such as to minimize interruption of service, to
                maximize accessibility of systems to the space they service, and to allow access to the
                system for service and repair of each module without disrupting services in other
                modules.

    .6       Massing studies which integrate existing building  and site conditions with  proposed
            building and site designs are required.  All studies shall be at the same scale.  The design
            professional may include enlarged studies of selected areas. However, the Agency desires
            a complete overview massing of the entire site for each proposed design with expansion
            and flexibility clearly defined.
                                    ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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3.2      SPACE IDENTIFICATION

3.2.1     GENERAL

This information will be provided as part of the specific information for a particular project.

3.3      SPECIFIC ROOM REQUIREMENTS

3.3.1     ROOM DATA SHEETS
A typical Room  Data Sheet which could be used for various anticipated functions is contained in
Appendix C with examples showing how to use these room data sheets. These Room Data Sheets must
indicate specific  room/laboratory requirements and identify appropriate installed equipment  The
final design for these areas will be the responsibility of the design professional in consultation with
representative facility users and approval by the EPA.

3.3.2     STANDARDS AND SYMBOLS
In addition to the specific requirements, standard requirements must also be identified for each area or
room in the various sections of the guidelines. An example of a listing and definition of the standard
requirements, symbols and abbreviations (where used) are annotated in this section.

3.3.3     SPECIAL EQUIPMENT
The list of Movable Equipment and Furnishings required on the Room Data Sheets is to assist the design
professional in determining the anticipated demand loads for electrical,  HVAC, plumbing, specialty
gases, and other piped services connections. All special equipment will be furnished by the EPA unless
otherwise identified during the Program Verification and Design Phase  of the specific project.  The
exceptions are in  major fixed pieces of equipment requiring hard connected electrical and piped utility
services and HVAC requirements (e.g., fumehoods, Environmental Rooms, glassware washers).  It is the
responsibility of the design professional to provide mat each room or  area housing special equipment
have the required utilities, electrical power, and/or HVAC capability necessary to ensure  the
equipments' proper and efficient operation.

3.4      GUIDE FOR ARCHITECTURAL LAYOUT

3.4.1     CONCEPT
The concept for Architectural Layout should be to group all administrative functions and all technical
functions into separate organizational blocks of space, while keeping  them close together to facilitate
and encourage employee interaction.  The principle guide in developing the basic concept shall be the
separation  of the facility into three definable zones:  Administrative with support, laboratory, and
building support This will allow not only the most flexibility for facility design, but the most cost
effective construction.

3.4.2     ADJACENCIES
The building design concept shall establish the appropriate horizontal and vertical zoning of the
facility to facilitate required programmatic relationships.  Floor plate areas  shall be  optimized to
accommodate the required occupancies and to allow for future flexibility.
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3.4.2.1   LABORATORY ZONE
The laboratory zone should be the center of the three zones allowing for future horizontal expansion
possibilities.   This  zone shall include all laboratories and laboratory support areas  within an
individual branch or section.  Laboratory offices shall be co-located in close proximity to related
laboratories and laboratory support spaces across from or in blocks or "clusters" along the lab corridor.
The laboratory block(s) shall utilize a modular laboratory planning concept intended to provide
flexible and adaptable research  space that accommodates current and future research needs as
emphasis changes on environmental based issues. Window exposure for both offices and laboratories
should be maximized.

3.4.2.2   ADMINISTRATIVE WITH SUPPORT ZONE
The administrative with support zone should be physically separated from the laboratory block(s)
which are in the same building structure.  Building links between the administrative with support zone
and the laboratory zone shall house interaction spaces that must be pleasant and comfortably designed.
These types of spaces shall include, but shall not be limited to, break areas, toilet rooms, copier areas,
mail rooms and conferencing areas.

3.4JZ.3   BUILDING SUPPORT ZONE
The building support zone should be located adjacent to the laboratory zone to facilitate the movement
of equipment and material to and from the laboratories. Its location shall be determined in accordance
with the site master plan,  optimizing service vehicle circulation, and designed to house a receiving
dock, facility physical plant, and central storage.  An isolated Hazardous Material/Waste Storage
Facility shall  be located in proximity to this zone  for ease of  transportation  and handling of
explosive/flammable and  toxic chemicals and biohazardous waste prior to disposal at an off-site
location by a licensed contractor.

3.4.3     BUFFER ZONES
The buffer zone distance required between the EPA facility and other existing or proposed building(s)
allowed by code to be built in the  future, shall be no less than 100 feet Existing highways or streets can
be part of the 100 foot buffer zone. The Hazardous Materials/Waste Storage Facility (HMSF) shall be
at least 50 feet away from any building. Both the main facility and the HMSF shall be located at
least 50 feet away from the property line.  Paved parking area(s) for vehicles can be considered as part
of the building buffer zone.

3.4.4     TECHNICAL SPACE
It is desirable to provide work space for research support personnel (i.e., technicians, post-doctoral
employees, lab assistants) outside of the laboratories in order to  minimize long-term exposure to
laboratory chemicals and hazards presented by their use. Technician space can be located elsewhere as
long as these spaces, such as shared offices, alcoves, and cubicles, can be placed reasonably dose to the
laboratory. There is also a need to provide some desktop work space in the laboratory for laboratory
related reporting and documentation tasks mat should not be done at the laboratory bench. These work
stations, where provided, must be located in the laboratory so as to minimize exposure to noxious or
otherwise hazardous conditions.  The supply air and exhaust distribution system within the laboratory
must be carefully coordinated with the designed work space to provide a "clean air" zone(s).  In some
instances, a physical separation or barrier may be required between the work space and laboratory
bench.
                                    ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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3.4.5     LABORATORY SUPPORT SPACE
Laboratory support space is defined as the space which houses common or shared activities or
equipment, such as analytical instrumentation, specialized equipment, environmental rooms and
glassware preparation areas which indirectly support laboratory activities. These types of spaces can
be located between laboratories, supporting a specific activity, or be grouped together adjacent to a
block of laboratories.  The design professional shall  pay particular attention to  functional
relationships of laboratory support spaces and laboratories with emphasis on the efficiency of the
travel path of personnel, tasks and material within a particular zone or between zone.

3.4.6     EXTERIOR AREAS AND FACILITIES
Exterior areas and facilities are discussed in paragraph 3.1.6 of this section.

3.5      ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

3.5.1     GENERAL
The facility shall be designed to conserve energy, avoid the use of construction materials insensitive to
the environment, efficiently utilize water, promote effective recycling, be radon free, provide excellent
indoor air quality to its occupants, and avoid  the use of ozone depleting chemicals. The architectural
and engineering design of the facility shall implement proven methods, strategies and technologies
with respect for and protection to the environment  These include the selection of site; materials and
construction systems that prevent infiltration of radon; to the extent possible, the use of recycled
construction materials and construction materials produced with minimal expenditure of energy; and use
of insulation, fire protection and refrigeration systems that avoid CFCs and other ozone depleting
chemicals.  The facility shall also be designed to promote the use of natural light and to afford
optimum use of energy efficient  lighting systems (ballasts, task lighting, etc.).  The facility shall be
designed to meet the EPA Internal Pollution Prevention Program. All EPA buildings should be designed
with ecological design criteria which include maximum use of natural light,  Green Lighting, light
fixtures operated by sensors, recycled  material, and other devices to economize  energy without
jeopardizing safety.

3.5.2     ENERGY CONSCIOUS DESIGN
Fundamental design decisions  related to energy conservation shall be made during the  conceptual
planning stages. The new design shall utilize  passive design techniques to minimize heating and
cooling loads.

   .1       Siting of facilities in relation to sun path, wind and vegetation.

   .2       Efficient design of building form  and envelope in response to the climate.

   .3       Reduce cooling load through use of daylighting.

   .3.1          The use of natural but controlled daylighting shall be maximized to the extent that it
                does not conflict with other Agency energy conservation objectives.  The Agency
                values natural light and  perceives it as  part of exemplary working environment
                where possible.  The building organization and design concept shall consider bringing
                natural light into personnel spaces.
                                   ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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   .3.2         Window size, number, and location shall be determined by need for natural light
                and/or ventilation as well as by other energy considerations. All windows used in
                heated or air conditioned spaces shall be double glazed insulated windows.  It is
                intended that Low E glass be used throughout the exterior of the facility.

   .4       Reduce solar heat gains through proper design of solar shading devices combined with
            proper selection and location of building materials.

   .5       HVAC systems design for an integrated energy conserving facility.

   .6       The new facility shall meet Energy Efficiency Standards set by ASHRAE 90-1 (1989) for
            New Buildings or most current edition.
   .7       The building design and all construction  features (materials, methods  of installation,
            including mechanical and electrical systems) shall provide concepts that will reflect
            reduced energy consumption.

3.5.3     CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
The Environmental Protection Agency desires a very active role in the selection of materials used in the
project and during the construction process. In this regard, the design professional in close coordination
with the Agency shall carefully examine the environmental sensitivity of materials and products
specified for construction and build-out for its new facility. The Agency will encourage minimal use of
products that are insensitive to the environment during and after manufacture.

3.5.3.1   MATERIALS TO BE AVOIDED AND/OR NOT USED

   .1       Insulations containing chloroflurocarbon compounds (CFCs) and refrigerants harmful to
            the environment

   .2       Products that off - gas chemical pollutants and are hazardous by their presence such as
            formaldehyde - treated materials (especially materials containing urea-formaldehyde).
            (EPA/400/1-91/033, Building Air Quality - A Guide for Building Owners and Facility
            Managers, dated December 1991)

   .3       Products that are not biodegradable when repaired or removed.

   .4       Products that contain asbestos.

3.5.3.2   MATERIALS TO USE

   .1       The use of interior architectural systems that are of non-toxic materials and components,
            and are free of asbestos, lead-based paints and toxic fumes is required. (EPA Facility
            Safety Manual)

    .2       Sanitation finishes selected shall be non-permeable, noncorrosive, easily cleaned and
            easily maintained.
                                   ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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3.5.3.3   RECYCLED CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
Under Section 6002 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Agency has set
guidelines for federal, state and local procuring agencies, using appropriated federal funds, to purchase
items composed of the highest percentage of recovered materials practicable. The Agency desires that
its facility follow the guidelines for "Procurement of Building Insulation Products Containing Recovered
Materials" - 40 CFR Part 248, dated February 17,1989 and "Cement and Concrete Containing Fly Ash" -
40 CFR Part 249, dated January 28,1983, within the given constraints of cost and technical performance
required.

3.53.4   BUILDING SHELL MATERIALS
The external treatment and materials utilized shall be of proven long-term durability requiring
minimum maintenance.  The quality of materials shall be consistent with the image and dignity
appropriate for a U.S. Agency. Their selection should be based upon an anticipated 100-year life cycle.

3.5.4     RECYCLING
The facility shall be designed to support an aggressive Solid Waste Management Plan.  The facility
design shall properly locate and provide  for spaces that facilitate  the collection, separation,
compaction, storage and shipment of all recyclable materials. General office space, freight elevator
area, shipping and storage area and loading docks shall be designed to respond to this important
activity.

3.5.5     RADON ABATEMENT
The Agency seeks to limit the presence of radon or radon daughters into the new facility. The design
professional shall have site geological surveys carefully examined to obtain predictive radon
infiltration data from subgrade geological structures. The design professional shall also require that
building materials such as concrete aggregate and stone be selected from sources with low probabilities
of radioactivity. The level of activity in any area of the building shall not exceed 4 picocuries per liter
of air. Areas known to have high radon in structures  shall have buildings designed to include
preventative techniques such as caulking of all joints between concrete slab and walls below grade,
caulking all pipe penetrations and venting of all non-occupied spaces below grade.

3.5.6     ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS (EMF)
The Agency seeks to limit the presence of electromagnetic fields in close proximity to people within the
new facility. Prudent avoidance is required of the design professional in the routing of electrical power.
The Agency recommends that the routing of power throughout the facility be well away from people
and offices such as locating elevator electrical chases and other electrical chases away from offices and
locating mem on exterior walls.

3.5.7     WATER CONSERVATION
The Agency requires that new facilities be designed to minimize water consumption through the use of
water saving measures. The facility design shall make use of gray-water recycling where feasible,
flow-restricting spray nozzles for faucets and showers, low flow flushments for fixtures, and  shall
optimize the sizing of all plumbing systems.
                                   ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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3.5.8     OZONE DEPLETION PROTECTION

3.5.8.1   GENERAL
A contribution to depletion of the ozone layer of the geosphere by the use of CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons)
will be discouraged.  The Agency requires that selection of materials or processes using CFCs are
consistent with goals of their guidelines related to "Protection of Stratosphere Ozone" 40 CFR, Part 82,
dated August 1988.

3.5.8.2   CFCS
The design professionals shall review and  respond to current recommendations, guidelines and
requirements. Among other documents, the AIA Environmental Resource Guide (latest update) on CFCs
shall be reviewed and used.

3.5.8.3   REFRIGERANTS
Electrically driven chillers may use Refrigerant 22 whose Ozone Depletion Factor (ODF) is 0.05.
Alternate refrigerants whose ODF is 0.05 or less may be considered, provided the material is approved
by all governmental authorities having jurisdiction and that satisfactory performance has been
documented by at least one  full year of successful use in machines of comparable size in at least five
locations in the continental USA. Given evidence of successful performance, R-123 whose ODF is 0.02
and R-134A whose ODF is 0.0 will be considered for centrifugal chillers. Ventilation requirements for
the chiller plant(s), new and existing, shall comply with ASHRAE Standard 15-1991 Safety Standard
for Mechanical Refrigeration. In addition, the design professional shall specify a portable refrigerant
pump out unit for all refrigeration systems excluding water cooled centrifugals. Centrifugals shall have
their own pump out system.

3.5.8.4   HALON
Use of halon for fire protection systems is prohibited.

3.5.8.5   INSULATION
The design professional shall review and respond to the use of HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons) and
HFCs (hydrofluorocarbons) in lieu of CFC based insulations.

3.5.9     INDOOR AIR QUALITY (IAQ) REQUIREMENTS
Refer to Appendix B for the Indoor Air Quality requirements.

3.6      LANDSCAPING AND SITE RELATED REQUIREMENTS

3.6.1     GENERAL
Landscape planning, design and development must integrate with the building massing,  design and
materials. The landscaping design process must coincide with the building design process to create one
single design which integrates site and buildings(s). The use of durable exterior materials which
enhance both the site landscaping and the building design and help to  integrate the two  design
disciplines are strongly encouraged.

    .1       If the facility is to be a part of an existing campus or among other buildings  in a master
             planned development, the landscape design as well as the building design must integrate
             and be compatible with the style(s) of the previously constructed permanent  facilities on
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            campus. The design professional must take advantage of the existing and developed site
            assets. The design professional shall observe and document the existing physical features
            of the site and surrounding buildings.

    .2       The landscaping of the site shall create an environmentally sensitive and aesthetically
            attractive  design.   Blending of the natural environment with  the  proposed  new
            construction is required.

    .3       Landscaped courts and open spaces accessible to all staff are encouraged.

    .4       Grass covered areas away from public view shall be provided for placement of outside
            eating and visiting areas (picnic tables, benches and landscape furnishings).

    .5       The facility surroundings shall be landscaped with trees, shrubs, flowering plants and
            grasses in  a manner which will enhance the  aesthetic character of the building(s) and
            hide or screen exposed equipment and building parts, features or functions which, by their
            nature, are not aesthetically pleasant Vegetation may be used to screen or form a barrier
            to particulate matter and to protect the building(s) from motor vehicle pollutant sources.

    .6       The topography of the site  around the building(s) shall  slope away from the building(s)
            and away from neighboring building(s)  in a manner to  direct any water away from the
            new facility or any other neighboring building(s).

    .7       Xeriscape design practices shall be used for minimizing maintenance of the plantings
            (vegetation requiring minimal watering).
    .8       In General, low maintenance landscape design and features shall be used.

3.6.2     PROFESSIONAL REQUIREMENTS
The entire site landscaping work shall  be  designed by a Registered Landscape Architect.   This
Landscape Architect must maintain his or her registration, at minimum, throughout the entire design
and construction process and life of the design contract for the project (continuously and unbroken).

    .1       The entire site landscaping work shall be installed and/or modified by a Professional
            Landscaper or Professional Gardener. All landscaping  shall be guaranteed (plants and
            grass) for a period of sixteen months after acceptance by the Agency.  This guarantee does
            not include annuals if used.

    .2       The design professional shall anticipate all costs for the landscaping in the final
            estimate of costs. These costs shall be included in the overall costs of the project Such
            cost shall include, but shall not be limited to, the following:

    .2.1         Retaining curbs and walls
    .2.2         Plantings and grasses
    .2.3         Exterior signage and graphics
    .2.4         Site furniture and furnishings
    .2.5         Irrigation
    .2.6         Site hardscape and special pavings
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    .2.7         Warranties and guarantees
    .2.8         Exterior screens and barriers
    .2.9         Specialty features incorporated into the design
    .2.10        Maintenance guarantees
    .2.11        Site lighting
    .2.12        Site Sculpture

3.63     GENERAL SITE REQUIREMENT
All landscaping and site amenities for the proposed development shall be in accordance with all
applicable local, state and federal codes and industry standards.  Also, any master plan or campus
design and construction requirements and/or standards shall be incorporated and used.  The more
stringent requirements shall be used if a conflict exists.

3.6.3.1   EXISTING CONDITIONS

    .1       Preserve existing trees and undergrowth where appropriate for buffers.  Review buffer
            requirements of the local community.

    .2       Use existing trees for greater immediate impact on site.

3.6.3.2   PLANTINGS

    .1       Establish functional design criteria.
    .2       Consider focal or entry areas, with an obvious sense of arrival at main entry.
    .3       Create views and/or screen views.
    .4       Develop color and seasonal interest.
    .5       Provide orientation and creation of shade.
    .6       Consider ultimate size and scale relative to specific area or site size.
    .7       Consider formal planting plan or informal, naturalistic plan.
    .8       Avoid major plantings in areas where expansion is planned.
    .9       Provide appropriate location of plantings relative to prevailing wind and sun.
    .10      Break up large areas of pavement with landscape islands.
    .11      Planting to be tolerant of climate, weather conditions, rainfall, etc.
    .12      Determine irrigation requirements.
    .13      Determine maintenance  requirements such as  fertilization rates, soil acidity and,  if
                required, pruning/trimming needs.
    .14      Plantings to be coordinated with location of signs, light standards, hydrants, underground
                utilities, etc.
    .15      Lawns to slope for proper drainage and shall be a minimum 1 percent grade.
    .16      Provide ground cover on severe slopes for aesthetic and maintenance considerations.
    .17      Planting must be reviewed and approved by the appropriate Agency personnel

3.6.3.3   SITE FURNITURE AND FURNISHINGS

    .1       Furniture design shall compliment the building theme.
    .2       Determine quantity and location of furniture.
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    .3       Establish function intended for seating/waiting areas, outdoor meeting areas and eating
                areas.
    .4       Determine flag pole heights, location, quantity and integrate into the design.
    .5       Identify and locate the style, color and purpose of fences.
    .6       Integrate trash receptacles, cigarette urns, newspaper dispenser boxes and mailboxes into
                the design.
    .7       Include safety review of proposed surfaces, equipment and layout of programmed
                recreational or playground equipment

3.6.3.4   SITE LIGHTING

    .1       Lighting design shall compliment the Architectural and Land Planning theme and shall
                be in accordance with any current master plan or campus requirements.
    .2       Utilize energy efficient and easily maintainable fixture types (the selection of lighting
                fixtures must consider long term costs).
    .3       Heights of lighting standards are to be appropriate to the building scale or the area
                being lit
    .4       Provide lighting intensity commensurate with its use and the health and safety of the
                employees and public accessing the building during non-daylight hours.
    .5       Control light onto adjacent property.


3.6.3.5   EXTERIOR SIGNAGE AND GRAPHICS

    .1       Provide appropriate scale.
    .2       Consider angle viewed and speed of observer.
    .3       Determine appropriate color, letter style and clarity of message.
    .4       Establish appropriate locations for signage including intersection,  parking lots and
                entries.
    .5       Design to.compliment the building style, accent color or building color.
    .6       Identify functions clearly; show traffic direction, orientation and general information.
    .7       Building identification at site entries and on the building must be coordinated, strong,
                legible and compatible with interior signage and graphics.
    .8       Signage ordinances shall be reviewed; compliance is required.
    .9       Special identification,  if required, will be provided for the specific project on a case by
                case basis.
    .10      Signage must be reviewed and approved by appropriate Agency personnel.
    .11      Exterior signage shall be designed to allow future removal and change without requiring
                the existing exterior materials to be damaged or requiring repair as a result of signage
                removal.  Consideration shall be given to allow the reuse of the signage after its
                removal and/or the reuse of the lettering of the removed signage.
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3.6.3.6    OUTSIDE SERVICE AND UTILITY AREAS
There are many elements necessary for the proper operation of a building.  Some are visually
undesirable and require proper planning for screening and buffering incorporated into the building
design.  The design professional is responsible for coordinating the work of all disciplines and
identifying all elements of the proposed project which will have a visual impact.  The following are
among the items to be considered for appropriate screening and buffering:

   Meters
   Vaults
   Transformers
   Dumpsters
   Compactor Units
   Emergency Generators
   High Pressure Gas Cylinder Storage and Manifold Systems
   Pressure Reducers
   Valves
   Pump Hoses
   Outdoor Storage Areas
   Loading Docks
   Mechanical Equipment
   Compressors and Cooling Towers

3.6.4     HARDSCAPE REQUIREMENTS
The hardscape and hardscape materials shall integrate with the building and architectural planning
and landscaping design and concept  In general, materials that produce a softening of typical
hardscape (paving) designs shall be used.  Appropriate material usage shall be integrated with an
understanding of project budget and public versus restricted access and use areas.

3.6.5     RECREATIONAL REQUIREMENTS
Recreational site requirements shall be reviewed with the Agency on a project by project basis.


END OF SECTION
                                   ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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           SECTION 4




OFFER  REQUIREMENTS

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                                SECTION 4

                          OFFER REQUIREMENTS
                                  NOTE: THE INFORMATION IN THIS SECTION 4
                                  SHALL BE PROVIDED BY EPA AND IS NOT A PART
                                  OF THE SCOPE FOR THIS DELIVERY ORDER NO. 6-
                                  STANDARDS

4.1     HOW TO OFFER
4.2     OVERVIEW OF SERVICES
4.3     PHASES, TASKS AND DELIVERABLES
4.4     OFFER DUE DATE
4.5     OCCUPANCY
4.6     TERM
4.7     NEGOTIATIONS
                             ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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4.8     PRICE EVALUATION
4.9     AWARD
4.10     CONSTRUCTION
4.11     FIRE PROTECTION/OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY
4.12     HANDICAPPED AND SEISMIC SAFETY
4.13     ALTERNATE PROPOSALS
4.14     QUALIFICATION CRITERIA



4.15     EVALUATION FACTORS FOR AWARD


END OF SECTION
                              ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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                    SECTION 5




ARCHITECTURAL  REQUIREMENTS

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                                       SECTION 5

                        ARCHITECTURAL REQUIREMENTS


5.1      CONCEPTS AND COMPONENTS

5.1.1     GENERAL
The architecture of any proposed facility for the United States Environmental Protection Agency shall
be functional and flexible, capable of keeping pace with changes continually occurring in the Agency
programs due to increased regulatory activity. Its components shall be organized in a functional as well
as aesthetic manner, utilizing a modular design concept that addresses the needs of all users of the
facility.  The facility design should blend with its natural and man-made environment, and provide for
reduced energy consumption as called for in these design guidelines. Locating mechanical equipment on
roofs is to be avoided, unless it is totally impractical to do otherwise. If mechanical or other equipment
is located on the roof, particular attention must be paid to aesthetically screen  the equipment.
Screening shall be of such design as to prevent the entrance of rain into the fresh-air intakes of the
facility and  to prevent re-entrainment of laboratory exhaust air into the fresh-air intakes of this
facility and  adjacent facilities.

5.1.2     QUALITY OF LIFE
This section establishes requirements for quality of life standards within the laboratory spaces for the
users  of this facility. Creation of comfortable work environments stimulate productivity, enhance
recruitment and help retain top scientific investigators.

5.1.2.1   LABORATORY DENSITY
Providing each investigator with adequate laboratory work space, laboratory support space, office
space and administrative support space is a critical element in creating an appropriate and comfortable
work environment. These are important quality of life standards to be achieved in the design process.
When researchers are not provided an adequate amount of space in which to  productively work, they
will creatively resolve their work space shortage, generally compromising both the health and safety
of themselves and others.  Refer to Section 2.2.5 - SUMMARY OF REQUIREMENTS for the minimum
space requirements.

5.1.2.2   NATURAL LIGHT
Proposed non-laboratory work areas that are above grade and contiguous with an outside wall shall
have windows.  The introduction of natural light into the laboratory provides investigators with an
opportunity for visual relief from the pressures and stress of the work environment This presents design
challenges in large, multi-storied facilities and has significant impact on planning and functional
zoning, concepts.  Whenever possible, and unless in direct conflict with functional requirements,
laboratories shall be located in such a manner to maximize natural daylight through direct or indirect
means.  If windows are provided in laboratory spaces, they shall be fixed panel non-operable type
windows. Laboratories utilizing photographic and optical diagnostic techniques shall have blackout
capability.
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5.1.2.3    LIGHTING
Laboratories require a high quality of lighting to be provided for close, investigative work to eliminate
eye strain and fatigue. Task lighting must be bright, uniform, and glare free. Lighting fixtures must be
positioned in  a manner to provide shadow-free illumination of the laboratory work area.  Goals set
forth in EPA's GREEN LIGHT Program shall be followed throughout the facility.

5.1.3     FLEXIBILITY/ADAPTABILITY
The building itself and all its systems, architectural, mechanical and  electrical, shall also be as
flexible and adaptable as possible since functions and related laboratory operations often change.  The
proposed building(s) and systems shall allow for future space adjustments with minimal disruption to
ongoing activities.

5.1.4     MODULAR DESIGN
Modular design is the  concept upon  which flexible  laboratory facilities are created, with  the
laboratory module representing the fundamental planning and organizing element The discipline of
repetitiveness, regularity of size , shape and arrangement of space provides the ability to convert
and/or renovate space quickly  dependent on each investigator(s) unique set of laboratory design
requirements and demands.

5.1.4.1    PLANNING MODULE
The laboratory planning module establishes a dimensional discipline for dividing space and a method
to calculate laboratory systems requirements and distribution concepts.   The intent is to determine
common space and systems denominators that will accommodate a variety of functions and systems. As
changes  are  required,  a modular planning  approach  allows the expansion, subdivision or
reconfiguration of rooms without disturbing adjacent spaces or altering or forcing shutdown of central
building utility systems.

   .1       A modular design is required. The planning module size establishes the most responsive
            sizing of space to these criteria.  The design professional shall, therefore, study the
            requirements, evaluate the equipment and instrumentation needed for each laboratory
            and either use this module size, or propose other module sizes which architecturally and
            operationally will provide the required features.

   .2       The structural system shall allow for future changes in various mechanical and utility
            services. Floor-loading capability shall be uniform  throughout the building to permit
            space usage conversions.

   .3        Laboratory systems capacity must be determined based on the common laboratory module
            denominator which can anticipate future needs, where each module represents a unit of
            capacity for the building system (i.e., gallons  of water, watts of power, CFM of supply
            and exhaust air).   This generic method  of  calculating systems distribution insures
            adequate building utility  systems capacity  and  prevents  costly shutdown and
            reconstruction of primary building systems components.
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    .4       Modular laboratory design shall integrate primary building systems (HVAC, piping,
            electrical power, and communication) into consistent, recurring points of distribution
            relative to the planning module.  These points of distribution provide modules with
            accessibility to all laboratory systems, so any additional services required in the future
            can easily be extended from the main distribution loop to the point of use.

    .5       Building systems must be readily accessible for maintenance and servicing.  Components
            that require routine servicing should be located, in corridor ceiling spaces or other spaces
            outside the laboratory module perimeter. Servicing building systems components inside
            the laboratories is disruptive and difficult due the amount of scientific equipment that
            must be protected.  Whenever systems components are placed above ceilings, a lay-in type
            ceiling should be used or access panels installed to facilitate access for servicing and
            maintenance.

5.1.4.2   EXPANSION
Recognizing the probability of future expansion, a plan should be established that zones the facility
horizontally and/or vertically and accommodates future growth in a logical manner. This plan must
establish a framework for central building systems which can easily be extended or added to dependent
on me amount of growth.

5.1.5     ENTRANCE REQUIREMENTS
All entrances to the facility must be clearly defined.  There shall be only one main entrance although
access to this main entrance may be from a variety of directions.  The following are general design
requirements for the main entry area:

    .1       Means of egress shall comply with all applicable codes with particular attention to
            NFPA 101 and Chapter 4, paragraph 6 of the most current version of the Facility Safety
            Manual for fire safety requirements.

    .2       The entry area shall be consistent with the design of the facility.  The space(s) and
            material selection shall be designed to express the Agency's and facility's position in the
            world environmental community. Materials shall be high quality and durable.

    .3       The entry spaces should be open, airy and inviting to the entrant.

    .4       The entry must be easily recognizable and allow easy transition to other facility areas by
            first time  users of the facility.

    .5       The building(s) subdivisions and arrangement of exits, corridors, vestibules, lobbies and
            rooms should be such as to allow fast and orderly exit in case of emergency and provide
            appropriate security for the protection of personnel, property and experiments.  The
            facility and interior modules shall  have controllable access which would assure a safe
            and secure working environment

    .6       Security control shall be at the main entrance, and shall have good visual control over
            the building entrance and lobby spaces as well as monitor control over other exits and
            entrances.
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   .6.1      Often times a full-time security station is not economically justified for the level of staff
            and visitor traffic through the entrance of the facility.  The receptionist may need to
            fulfill the security roll.

   .7       Administrative areas shall be in close proximity to security control.

   .8       Reception function activities shall support the security control staff and shall be at the
            same location within the entrance/lobby area.

   .9       The lobby shall be sized and designed to include the special concerns involving tours
            while maintaining discrete security and function.

5.1.6     AMENITIES
A work place that encourages communication, interaction and collaboration among its users results in
enhanced worker productivity and higher employee retention.  Staff interaction, especially in
laboratory facilities, must be a sought after element in the design solution. Functional organization and
relationships that promote these elements must be utilized.  Planning concepts that promote casual
encounters through strategic location of common support areas, Le., conference rooms, restrooms, coffee
and vending areas, clerical support services and supplies, and carefully considered circulation patterns
can serve to further foster meaningful interaction and provide a place to safely consume food and drink
outside the laboratory. Building amenities must be dedicated, neutral spaces that are protected from
encroachment and future conversion.

5.1.7     NOISE CONTROL
Noise levels in the different rooms of this facility should be in accordance with the latest edition of
ASHRAE Handbook, HVAC Systems and Applications, Chapter 52 (Sound and Vibration Control).
Proper schematic planning should isolate noise sensitive areas from noise sources by separation with a
non-sensitive buffer area.  In addition,, dedicated laboratory support spaces should be provided to
isolate noise producing equipment, such as centrifuges and vacuum pumps from laboratories.  In  any
instrument or laboratory space in which one or  more fume hoods are used, the noise  level should
preferably be 65 dB but not exceed 70 dB at the working position in front of the hood.  Noise generated
from vibration by HVAC systems may be minimized by several means: judicious equipment selection,
limitation of fluid flow velocities, isolation of key mechanical, piping, and ducting systems, and other
prudent engineering and architectural means.

5.1.7.1   VIBRATION ISOLATION
Vibration isolation systems should be provided on rotating mechanical equipment greater than 1/2 hp
located within a critical area, greater than 5 hp  elsewhere in the building, and greater than 10 hp
outside the building within 200 feet of the building.  Reciprocating equipment (other than emergency
equipment) shall not be used.

    .1       Concrete inertia bases will be used with rotating mechanical equipment handling liquids
            (e.g., pumps) and with compressors.  Steel frames  will be used  for  air-handling
            equipment

    .2       Flexible pipe connectors (e.g., twin-sphere connectors) will be used on piping connecting to
            isolated equipment and where piping and ducting exit the mechanical room(s).
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    .3       Flexible duct connectors will be used in a manner similar to flexible piping connectors.

5.1.7.2   PIPING AND DUCTING SYSTEMS
Passive piping and ducting are those that are at great distance from their energy source and have low
flow rates and/or infrequent use such as city water, gases, waste water, etc. Conversely, active piping
systems are those dose to energy sources and can be a major vibration concern requiring isolation.

    .1       Flow velocities  for  active piping and  ducting shall be sized for economical flow
            velocities.

    .2       Ducts less than 24 inches in diameter do not require isolation provided the flow velocities
            do not exceed 1,200 feet/minute. Ducting not meeting mis requirement shall be isolated.

    .3       Active piping associated with HVAC (chilled water, condenser water, hot water, steam,
            and refrigerant piping) within mechanical rooms or within a 50 foot distance (whichever
            is longer) from connected vibration isolated equipment (chillers, pumps, air handlers,
            etc.) or ground shall be isolated from the building structure; resilient penetration sleeves
            shall  be used where this piping penetrates walls.  Flexible  piping connectors shall be
            used  where the piping leaves the mechanical room. All active piping in the critical area
            having a diameter of 4 inches or less shall be isolated.

5.1.8     HANDICAPPED ACCESSIBILITY
The design and layout of an EPA facility must be accessible by the physically challenged in accordance
with the most current revision or superseded version  of the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards
(1988) adopted by the General Services Administration (GSA) in 41 CFR 101-19.6, the Americans with
Disabilities Act (ADA) and the most current revision or superseded version of all other applicable
federal, state and  local laws and standards for buildings and facilities requiring accessibility  and
usability for physically challenged people (Barrier Free Design).  Where in conflict, the more stringent
code shall apply.  In the event that the more stringent code for a particular conflict cannot be
determined by the design professional, the Government reserves the right to make the final decision on
the interpretation of all codes.

5.1.8.1   GENERAL ACCESSIBILITY
General access to the facility and any portion  thereof shall respond to common sense design and all
applicable standards, guidelines, codes including ADA and GSA 41 CFR 101-19.6.  The Agency
recognizes  that  the facility is not intended to be designed for a population  of 100%  physically
challenged individuals.   However, the design  professional shall  clearly understand all such
applicable requirements and produce a final design that not only accommodates these requirements, but
also applies their essence in a common sense design throughout 100% of the facility. As a minimum, the
design professional shall meet and exceed all such applicable standards, guidelines and codes.  Other
aspects of general access are as follows:
    .1

    .2
Avoid crossing pedestrian and vehicular circulation paths.

Provide adequate circulation space at points of traffic congestion and architectural
features mat emphasize overall circulation patterns and major entrances.
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   .3       Avoid confusing corridor systems and extensions of through corridors from department to
            department.

   .4       Avoid horseshoe shaped major corridor systems that require excessive walking distances.

   .5       Avoid dead end departmental corridors.

   .6       Minimize single loaded corridors.

   .7       Eliminate major corridors through elevator lobbies or through other areas which tend to
            concentrate circulation patterns.

   .8       Locate vertical transportation so that it is visible from major entrances.

5.1.8.2   LABORATORY ACCESSIBILITY
Accommodating the handicapped will require flexibility, adaptability, and common sense in the
design of a laboratory environment that  functions properly  within  handicapped compliance
requirements of the law, and offers safety for the users. There should be at least one work station and
support area for each type laboratory that is accessible to handicapped individuals.  Some general
criteria for handicapped accommodation in laboratories are as follows:

   .1       The handicapped accessible work station shall provide for a work surface 30 inches
            above the floor with all wheelchair clearances below. Adjustable work surfaces which
            provide a range of height adjustments shall be considered for all such work stations.

   .2       Utilities, equipment, and 'equipment controls for laboratory furniture should be within
            easy reach for persons who are physically handicapped and  of limited mobility.
            Controls shall have single action levers or blade handles for easy operation.

   .3       Aisle widths and clearances shall be adequate for maneuvering  of wheelchair bound
            individuals. Aisles 42 to 48 inches wide are  recommended with  turn around areas as
            required by code.

   .4       Locate handicapped work stations as close to laboratory exits and safety showers as
            possible.

5.1.8.3   ADA COMPLIANCE
The  Americans  with Disabilities Act  is only one of several applicable and required standards,
ordinances, codes and guidelines to which the design professional must adhere. . The more stringent
shall govern on an item by item, case by case basis.
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5.2      EXTERIOR BUILDING MATERIALS

5.2.1     GENERAL
In selecting building materials, careful consideration shall be given to all technical criteria. Vapor
barriers shall be selected with respect to vapor flow through the walls and roofs to prevent moisture
accumulations and condensation within the building structure, reduction of thermal performance and
increased latent cooling load in the space.

5JL2     EXTERIOR ELEMENTS
Mechanical, electrical, transportation and equipment items which are to be located on the exterior of
the facility shall be integrated  elements of the design.  These elements include air intake/exhaust
vents,  exterior lights, utility connections, plumbing vents,  fuel tank vents, liquid oxygen tanks,
transformers, trash compactors,  containers, loading docks, condensers, cooling towers, and mechanical
equipment

5.2.3     DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS
Evaluate the design characteristics of wall schemes for aesthetic, functional and cost effectiveness as
their characteristics relate to the following:

    .1       Moisture Transport

    .2       Thermal Performance.

    .3       Aesthetic Appropriateness.

    .4       Historic Considerations (if applicable  and appropriate).

    .5       Durability (life cycle maintenance costs).

    .6       Exterior wall termination at the roof or top of parapet walls (including penthouse).

    .7       Construction and control joint locations, considering impact on construction sequence and
            building movement due to expansion and contraction.

    .8       Comer conditions, especially material relationships at the intersection of vertical planes
            and the continuity of wall supports and flashings.

    .9       Load transfer  of the wall to the structure, including consideration of structural frame
            exposure and lateral wall supports.

    .10      Weathertight  design, including  sealant profiles, material adjacencies and flashing
            configuration.

    .11      Window placement relative to the wall, secondary connection requirements, material
            adjacencies, window washing, glass type and thickness and life safety hardware.
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5.2.4     THERMAL RESISTANCE
Obtain the thermal characteristics of single materials or wall assemblies from the American Society of
Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Handbook of Fundamentals or from
manufacturer's certified technical information.  Identify thermal resistance (R) values for each element
in the building shell Prepare "IT factor calculations following recommended procedures as documented
in the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals.

5.2.5     MOISTURE TRANSPORT
Prepare dew point calculations following recommended design procedures in the ASHRAE Handbook of
Fundamentals (Reference 4c).  Design the exterior envelope to prevent condensation.

5.3       PARTITIONS

5.3.1     GENERAL
Standardization of interior partitions is desirable.  Partitions within the administrative area should
be easily removable. Sound isolation and laboratory partitions between modules shall be designed to be
removable to accomodate future reconfiguration of spaces.

5.3.2     SUB-DIVIDING PARTITIONS
Office  sub-dividing partitions shall comply with the Uniform Building Code (UBC) and local
requirements. They  must be provided at a ratio of one linear foot for each 10 square  feet of space
provided. Partitioning over interior office doors is included in the measurement. Partitions must extend
from the finished floor to the finished ceiling and have a flamespread rating of 25 or less, a smoke
development rating of 50 or less (ASTM E-84-Test), and a minimum STL rating of 40.

5.3.3     PERMANENT PARTITIONS
Permanent partitions must be provided as necessary to surround stairs, corridors, elevator shafts,
toilets, janitor closets, and mechanical rooms.  They shall have a flamespread rating of 25 or less and a
smoke developed rating of 50 or less (ASTM E-84 Test). Stairs, elevators, and other floor openings shall
be enclosed by partition(s) and have the fire resistance required by applicable codes.

5.3.4     FINISHES & COVERINGS

5.3.4.1   WALL FINISHES
In general, the walls shall be gypsum wallboard on metal studs with a painted finish. Paint shall be
carefully selected so as not to affect laboratory operations. Walls in laboratory areas will be required
to support additional loads due to movable casework, mounting rails,  upper  cabinets or adjustable
shelves, and equipment anchorage. As such, structural wall studs, backing plates, and lateral bracing
sufficient to withstand heavy loads will be required.  Where concrete masonry unit (CMU) block or
poured concrete walls occur due to other design requirements or constraints, they shall be furred with
gypsum wallboard, or covered with other appropriate finish.

5.3.5     MAGNETIC LIQUID CHALK DRY MARKER BOARDS & TACK BOARDS
Magnetic dry marker boards (liquid chalk) shall be  used except when solvent markers used on these
boards would affect operations undertaken in laboratories;  chalk type chalkboards shall not be used.
Locations of magnetic dry marker boards and tack boards shall be determined by the design professional
in close coordination with the appropriate representative from the Agency.
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5.4       INTERIOR FINISH MATERIALS

5.4.1     GENERAL
The required finishes are called out for each room in the room data sheets included with this document.

5.4.2     WALL MATERIALS
Wall materials must be capable of withstanding washing with detergents and disinfectants.  Materials
selected  shall be compatible with the  intended use and shall emphasize durability and  low
maintenance while creating a comfortable work environment.

5.4.3     FINISH CEILINGS
Ceilings  shall be set at a minimum 9'-8" in both general spaces and laboratory spaces.  With the
exception of service areas, they must have acoustical treatment acceptable to the Contracting Officer,
a flamespread of 25 or less, and a smoke  developed rating of 50 or less (ASTM E-84). Protrusions of
fixtures into traffic ways is not allowed.

5.4.3.1   CEILINGS NOT IN EXIT PATH
Ceilings and interior finishes in areas not part of the normal exit may have flamespread and smoke
development limits of 200, unless an applicable code is more  restrictive.  The more restrictive
applicable code shall be used.

5.4.3.2   CEILINGS IN EXIT PATH
In sprinkler protected exits or enclosed corridors leading to exits, ceilings and interior finishes may be
composed of materials having a flamespread rating of 75 or less and a smoke development rating of 100
or less unless an applicable code is more restrictive. The more restrictive applicable code shall be used.

5.4.3.3   CEILING FINISHES
Where ceiling finishes are required, they will, in general, be suspended acoustical tile with recessed
fluorescent lighting fixtures. Other ceiling finishes will be required in special rooms as  called out on
the room data sheets. "These will include hard ceilings with sealed openings for clean analytical
laboratories.  Special consideration shall be given to the type of grid system and acoustical tile when
used in moist, wet, food service and other specialty areas.

5.4.4     OPEN CEILINGS
All areas above open ceilings shall be painted. The design professional shall assure that  the necessary
coordination occurs for all requirements regarding painting of exposed areas, including engineered
systems which require color coded painting or stenciling as well as general code required stenciling of
nomenclature defining the rating of fire walls.

5.4.5     SOUND DAMPENING
Sound dampening features (acoustical treatment), preferably of rigid materials, shall be provided in
the following instrument rooms, and the noise level should preferable be 65 dB but shall not exceed 70
dB  to  ensure a  maximum of  70 decibels  at the work stations  in the  laboratory:  Gas
Chromatography/Mass  Spectrometer Laboratory  (Extractables), Gas Chromatography/Mass
Spectrometer Laboratory (Volitales), Gas Chromatography/ Mass Spectrometer Laboratory (Air),
Metals Induced Plasma Laboratory, Metals Induced Plasma/Mass Spectrometer Laboratory, and X-Ray
Fluorescence Laboratory.
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5.5       FLOOR TREATMENTS

5.5.1     GENERAL
Floor finishes shall be compatible with the intended use of the room and shall emphasize durability
and  low maintenance.  Materials must be smooth, nonabsorbent, skid-proof and wear resistant.
Laboratory flooring should resist the adverse effects of acids, solvents and detergents. Materials must
be monolithic or have a minimal number of joints.  The base may be a 4 inch vinyl or rubber base or
integral coved base where sheet vinyl flooring is used.

5.5.2     CARPET
Carpet tiles shall cover  all office floors and must meet the static buildup  and flammability
requirements which follow:

5.5.2.1    SPECIFICATION
The following specifications must be met for all new carpet installation:

   .1       Pile yam content Continuous filament soil-hiding nylon or wool/nylon combinations.

   .2       Carpet pile construction: Level loop, textured loop, level cut pile, or level cut/uncut pile.

   .3       Pile weight 28 ounces per square yard minimum.

   .4       Secondary back: Synthetic fiber or jute for glue-down installation.

   .5       Total weight 64 ounces per square yard minimum.

   .6       Flammability:  In all area:! except exits, carpet must have a critical radiant flux (CRF) of
            0.25  or greater with a specific optical  density not over 450. Carpet in exits must have at
            least a CRF of 0.50.  Carpet passing the Consumer Products Safety Commission FFL-70
            (Pill  Test) is acceptable for office areas.  It may also be used in corridors which are
            protected  by automatic sprinklers.  Check applicable codes for any more restrictive
            requirements. The more restrictive requirement shall be used.

   .7       Static Buildup:  3.5 KV maximum  with built-in static dissipation is  recommended,
            "static-controlled" is acceptable.   More restrictive levels shall be required in sensitive
            areas such as computer rooms and shall be determined by calculations for any special
            equipment utilization.

5.5.2.2   COLOR
For new carpet to  be installed, the design professional shall provide the Government a minimum of 3
color samples.  The sample and color must be approved by EPA prior to installation.  No substitutes may
be made by the design professional after sample selection.

5.5.2.3   INSTALLATION
Carpet must be installed in accordance with manufacturer's instructions.
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    .1       Carpet shall be replaced at least once every seven years during government occupancy or
            any  time when backing or underlayment is exposed; and/or there are noticeable
            variations in surface color or texture.

    .2       Carpet replacement shall include the moving and returning-in-place of all furniture.
            Floor perimeters at partitions must have wood, rubber vinyl, or carpet base. Any
            exceptions must be approved by the Contracting Officer.

    .3       The design professional shall specify that an additional 10% of the selected carpet tiles
            be provided by the Contractor for Owner's own stock and replacement These carpet tiles
            are not to be used during the warranty period.

    .4       The requirements for "Off-Gassing" in accordance with Chapter 5 paragraph 12.c. of the
            current version of the Facility Safety Manual shall be followed.

5.5.3     VINYL TILE
All new Vinyl Tile, unless indicated otherwise elsewhere in this document,  shall be 12" x 12" x 1/8"
thick, 35% to 40% reflectance, high density, meeting requirements of Federal Specification SS-T-312,
Type IV. Adhesives used to set tiles shall be environmentally acceptable. Colors and patterns will be
selected from three or more manufacturers by the Government

5.5.4     SEAMLESS VINYL FLOORING
Seamless flooring shall be vinyl seamless flooring, chemical resistant as manufactured by Tarket or
Mipolan or an approved equal and shall be coved 4 inches up the wall of same material. Joints shall be
chemically welded smooth without any grooves. Adhesive to set the flooring shall be environmentally
acceptable.

5.5.5     CERAMIC TILE FLOORING
Ceramic  tile flooring  shall be sealed in all grout areas. A minimum of 5 color samples shall be
incorporated into the color boards provided by the design professional for  approval by the Agency
representative.

5.5.6     SPECIAL FLOORING
Special floor coating systems shall be a troweled, jointless floor system with a slip resistant top coating
which shall be waterproof and resistant  to alkalies and acids.  The special  flooring system selected
should be compatible with the intended use.

5.5.7     EXPOSED CONCRETE FLOORING
Steel trowel finish shall be used on exposed concrete floors not receiving other finish.  Exposed interior
concrete floors shall be sealed with a penetrating-type solvent base or water-emulsion-base
unpigmented sealer containing a suitable type resin and no wax.
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5.6       DOORS

5.6.1     GENERAL
Doors must have heavy duty hardware with hardware stops. All public use doors must be equipped
with push plates, pull bars or handles and automatic door closer. Corridor and outside doors must be
equipped with cylinder locks and door checks. All locks must be master keyed. The Government must be
furnished with at least two master keys and two keys for each lock.  Hardware for doors in the means of
egress shall conform to NFPA Standard No. 101.

5.6.2     EXTERIOR DOORS
Exterior doors shall be weather-tight, equipped with automatic door closer, open outward and shall
have drip rain deverter mounted above the door to channel water to exterior wall

5.6.3     INTERIOR DOORS
Interior doors must have a minimum opening of 36 inches by 80  inches as required by handicapped
accessibility. Hollow core wood doors are not acceptable. Hardware shall be handicapped compliant.
Doors shall be operable by a single effort, and be provided with vision panels in accordance with all
applicable Code requirements.  All requirements of the most  current version of ADA  shall be
incorporated.

5.6.3.1    LANDING AREAS
The landing area for doors mat open on to walkways, ramps, corridors, and other pedestrian paths of
travel, shall be clear and level with a slope no greater than 1:50 and  extend a minimum of 5 feet from
the swing side of the door, 4 feet from the opposite side, and a minimum of 1-1/2 feet past the latch side
(pull side) and a minimum of 1 foot past the latch side (push side) of the door.

5.6.4     FIRE DOORS
Fire doors shall conform with National Fire Protection Association Standard No. 80.

5.6.5     LABORATORY DOORS
Laboratory doors shall  be 48" wide (36 inches wide for the active leaf and 12 inches wide for the
inactive leaf and 84 inches high) adequate to facilitate easy movement of equipment and carts.  In
general, large vision panels should be provided  as a means of easy, quick safety inspection of the
laboratory spaces.  Hardware shall  be handicapped compliant and provide various levels of access
control as required, and will include both combination and key access locks. Areas where a high level
of security will be required shall be provided with card-key access control
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 5.7      WINDOWS

 5.7.1    GENERAL
 The use of natural but controlled daylighting should be maximized with a specific study of energy
 conservation.  The Agency values natural light and perceives it as part of an exemplary working
 environment as well as a source of potential energy savings.  The building organization and design
. concept shall bring adequate natural light into personnel spaces. Window size, number, and location
 shall be determined by need for natural light and/or ventilation as well as by energy considerations.
 All exterior windows used in heated or air conditioned spaces shall use double glazed insulated low E
 glass and thermal break sash.

 5.7.2    FIXED WINDOW SYSTEMS
 Laboratory space shall have non-operable windows, except with a key where required for cleaning
 purposes, for the purpose of maintaining temperature and humidity control and room pressurization
 relationships.

 5.73    STOREFRONT AND CURTAIN WALL SYSTEMS
 Windows extending 18 inches from the floor and located at least 4 feet above grade shall be provided
 with a safety bar on the interior window approximately 3 feet above floor level  Off-street,  ground-
 level windows and those accessible from fire escapes and adjacent roofs must have anti-intrusion alarm
 systems to deter forcible entry.

 5.8      WINDOW COVERING

 5.8.1    GENERAL
 The design professional shall be responsible for providing window coverings for interior and exterior
 windows where required by the room data sheets. All exterior windows shall be reviewed and
 considered for window coverings. The design professional shall also be responsible for considering
 window coverings where not  listed in the data sheet when solar glare and heat gain should  be
 controlled.

 5.8.2    BLINDS
 Window bunds in laboratory spaces may be either vertical or horizontal with non-metallic slats.
 Color selection will be made by the Agency representative.  The hardware and blind mechanisms shall
 be acid resistive materials.

 5.8.3    BLACKOUT SHADES
 Rooms  requiring blackout capability shall be equipped with blackout shades.  Shades should be a pre-
 engineered unit with a fiberglass-coated fabric shadecloth. They must have a noncorroding, concealed
 variable adjustment mechanism, adjustable from 100% friction (static mode) with finite positions to
 15% friction (dynamic mode) with only pre-selected positions.

 5.9      WALLS - COVERING & FINISH
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5.9.1     GENERAL
The required finishes must be designated for each room in the room data sheets, a copy of which is
included with this document.  Actual material selection, color, texture, etc. is left to the design
professional who shall select them in consultation with the users. The design professional must also
select finish materials for those items and areas not specifically designated in the Room Data Sheets.
This selection shall be submitted for final approval by the government representative.

5.9.2     FLAMESPREAD AND SMOKE LIMITATIONS
Wall finishes which are a part of a means of egress must have a flamespread of 25 or less, and a smoke
development rating of 50  or less. All new construction for EPA shall be protected throughout by a
sprinkler system meeting the Government's approval,  as such wall finishes in all areas, except those
areas which are a part of the means of egress, may have flamespread and smoke development limits of
200 (ASTM E-84), unless otherwise restricted by any applicable code. The more restrictive requirement
shall govern.  For any existing construction which is not protected throughout by a sprinkler system
meeting the Government's approval, wall finishes must have a flamespread of 25 or less, and a smoke
development rating of 50 or less.

5.9.3     VINYL WALL COVERING
Vinyl wall covering where provided  in the administrative and other office areas (none shall be
provided in the laboratory areas), shall be as follows:

5.9.3.1   CONSTRUCTION
All material shall be  of uniform color throughout.  Colors and patterns  shall be chosen by the
Government from standard lines of manufacturers offered by the design professional

5.9.3.2   MAINTENANCE PROPERTIES
All vinyl wall covering shall be resistant to permanent stains and mildew,  and shall be capable of
being cleaned with mild non-abrasive cleaners.

5.9.3.3   FIRE HAZARD REQUIREMENTS
Each type of vinyl wall covering used will have a minimum smoke development rating of 15 and a
maximum flame spread rating of 15 when tested in accordance with ASTM-E-84.

5.9.3.4   APPLICATION
Application of all vinyl wall covering shall be in accordance with  manufacturer's recommendations.

5.10     PAINTING

5.10.1    GENERAL
Prior to occupancy, all surfaces designated by EPA  for painting must be newly painted in colors
acceptable to  and approved by the Project Officer. The design professional shall provide the
Government with color samples and color schemes, with their average surface reflectance value clearly
identified, for selection.
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5.10.2    REFLECTANCE VALUES
Minimum average surface reflectance values which will be used as a base for the selection of interior
colors are as follows:

   Ceiling                 80%
   Walls                  50%
   Floors                  30%
   Furniture and Equipment  35%
   Chalkboards            Not less than 15% nor more man 20% as recommended by the American
                           Illuminating Engineering Society and  the  American  Institute  of
                           Architects in their report:  American Standard Practice for  School
                           Lighting, AIA No. 32F28.

5.10.2.1  ADDITIONAL SPECIFICATIONS
Deviations from these figures are allowed for aesthetic treatment of such areas as conference rooms,
lobbies, corridors, executive offices, etc. Surfaces shall also have a matte finish to prevent excessive
brightness ratios and to minimize specular reflections.

5.103    WALL & CEILING COLORS
Ceiling color can be extended down on walls from one to three  feet or to the level of the fixtures to
obtain up to 20% increase in utilization.

5.10.4    ACCENT AREAS
Up to 20% of wall surfaces may have values lower than those listed for accent purposes without being
considered part of the average.

5.11      INTERIOR SIGNAGE SYSTEMS AND BUILDING DIRECTORY

5.11.1    GENERAL
All signage,  identification, room numbering and building directory shall comply with ADA
requirements.

5.11.2    DOOR IDENTIFICATION
Door identification shall be installed in approved locations adjacent to office entrances.  The form of
door identification must be approved by the Agency.  Toilet, stairway, and corridor doors must be
identified by the international symbol of accessibility at a height of 54 to 66 inches above the floor,
and wherever possible, mounted on the wall at the latch side of the door.  Seldom used doors to areas
posing danger to the blind must have knurled or acceptable plastic abrasive coated handles.  Tactile
warning indicators shall not be used to identify exit stairs.

5.11.3    ROOM NUMBERING
A room numbering and room naming system for the identification of all spaces for the facility is
required. The design professional shall submit plans to the Agency for their review and approval prior
to the beginning of construction documents.
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5.11.4    BUILDING DIRECTORY
A wall-mounted, glass-enclosed directory with lock shall be provided at a conspicuous location in the
lobby or entrance of the building. The directory shall be approximately 2 feet x 3 feet in size. The
building directory shall be approved by the Project Officer.

5.12     SAFETY

5.12.1    EXITS
All exits, stairs, corridors, aisles, and passageways shall comply with NFPA Standard No. 101, except
that there must be a minimum of 2 separate exits available from every floor.  The minimum width of
any corridor or passageway in a laboratory area serving as a required exit shall not be less than 72
inches in clear width. The maximum length of dead-end corridors and common paths of travel shall not
exceed 20 feet; the design professional shall review applicable codes for more stringent requirements.
Vestibules, with double sets of doors, shall be provided at public entrances and exits wherever weather
conditions and heat loss are important  factors for consideration.  Further, in event of negative air
pressure conditions, additional provisions shall be made for equalizing air pressure.
         EXIT LIGHTING
Emergency lighting must provide at least three (3) foot- candles of illumination throughout the exit
path, including exit access routes, exit stairways, or other routes such as passageways to the outside of
the building.  The requirements of  Chapter 6, Paragraph 17. of the current version of the Facility
Safety Manual shall be followed.  Refer to  Section  9, ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS,  of this
document

5.123    EMERGENCY LIGHTING
The emergency lighting system used must be such that it will operate even if the public utility power
fails. The system may be powered from connections to separate substations or to a network system from
the public utility.  Automatic switching must be provided for the emergency power supply.  The
requirements of  Chapter 6, Paragraph 17. of the current version of the Facility Safety Manual shall be
followed.
5.12.4    PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
The design professional shall provide and locate portable fire extinguishers within recessed cabinets in
accordance with NFPA 10, Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers.  Portable fire extinguishers shall
be provided based on classes of anticipated fires and the size and degree of hazard affecting their use.
Portable fire extinguishers containing halon shall not be used.

5.12.4.1  FIRE EXTINGUISHER LOCATIONS
Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in every laboratory room. In the other areas of the
building, the minimum number of fire extinguishers needed for protection shall be determined in
accordance with NFPA Standard No. 10, Chapter 3, Distribution of Extinguishers.

    .1        Class A and D extinguishers shall be located so that the travel distance shall not exceed
             75 ft., from the Class A and D hazard areas respectively.
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    .2       Class B extinguishers shall be located so that the travel distance shall not exceed 50 ft.,
            from the Class B hazard areas.
    .3       Extinguishers with Class C ratings shall be located on the basis of the anticipated A or B
            hazard.

    .4       One extinguisher may be installed to provide protection against several hazard areas
            provided travel distances are not exceeded.

5.12.5    SAFETY DEVICES
Provide eye and'face washing equipment and safety showers in every laboratory and laboratory
support room where chemicals are being utilized in accordance with ANSI Z358.1.  At least one double
spray head, hands free operating eyewash shall be provided within every laboratory or every two
laboratory modules. Safety showers shall be provided in accessible locations that require no more than
10 seconds to reach and should be within a travel distance no greater than 100 feet from the hazard.
The location and installation of emergency showers and eyewash equipment shall be in accordance
with Chapter 7, Paragraph 12 of the current version of the Facility Safety Manual.

5.13     TOILET ROOMS

5.13.1    GENERAL
Each of the men's and women's toilet rooms that are located in the laboratory area shall have shower
stalls and adequate lockers as may be needed by the laboratory operation and the number of people,
men and women, who may be required to use them.  All sanitation finishes shall be nonpermeable,
noncorrosive, and easily maintainable.

5.13.2    FINISHES
All toilet rooms shall have ceramic tile to a height of 4' 6" and vinyl wall covering not less than 13
ounces per square yard as specified in PS CCC-W-408 on remaining wall areas or equivalent quality as
approved by the Contracting Officer, unless an alternate finish is approved by the Contracting Officer.

5.14     JANITOR CLOSETS
Janitor closets shall be provided in sufficient numbers to service the different areas of the building(s).
Each block shall have at least one janitor closet with mop sink.  These rooms shall be equipped with
exhaust ventilation and louvered doors.

5.15     HAZARDOUS WASTE HANDLING

5.15.1    GENERAL
Provide for the safe handling and storage of hazardous materials within the laboratory spaces and in
the facility generally. A system for hazardous waste materials management for the facility must be
carefully planned with the EPA and  me facility users.  The plan shall consider receiving, storage,
distribution, use and waste removal for all materials utilized in the laboratory spaces of this facility.
Recognizing a need to reduce the quantities of hazardous materials stored in the laboratories, the plan
must provide  for centralized storage areas specifically designed to store and  dispense hazardous
materials.
                                   ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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Architectural Requirements                                            Page     5-18
5.15.2    RADIOISOTOPES
Requirements for laboratories using radioisotopes vary depending on the quantity and energy level of
the isotopes utilized.  The design professional shall be responsible for the verification and evaluation
with the users of the facility to determine specific project requirements for the safe storage and
handling of radioisotopes. A space near the loading dock of this facility shall be provided where
radioisotope  waste containers can be marshalled for removal from the facility by a certified
radioisotope waste contractor.

5.16      CHEMICAL STORAGE AND HANDLING
Ventilated cabinets must be provided for collection of waste in each laboratory.  A central area for
collection and storage of chemical waste for disposal must be provided where the chemical waste
disposal contractor can collect the waste for removal from the  facility.  Refer to Section-3 paragraph
3.1.6.33 HAZARDOUS MATERIAL/WASTE STORAGE FACILITY.

5.17      SECURITY

5.17.1    ACCESS/EGRESS
The building(s) subdivisions and arrangement of exits, corridors, vestibules, lobbies and rooms shall be
such as to allow fast and orderly exit in case of emergency and provide appropriate security for the
protection of personnel, property and experiments. The facility, buildings, and interior modules shall
have controllable access which would assure a reasonably safe and secure working environment

5.18      LABORATORY CASEWORK

5.18.1    GENERAL
Preferably, all laboratory  casework and associated fume hoods required in the facility shall be the
product of one manufacturer and installed under the recommendations of that  manufacturer. The
laboratory casework shall meet the functional, aesthetic, flexibility and maintenance needs of each
user.

5.18.2    MODULAR DESIGN
Basic laboratory casework system shall be of modular dimensioned components of modern design
consisting of  a self-supporting steel frame to contain service piping, drain lines, and to permit the
attachment and/or support  of   various styles  of countertops, sinks, cupsinks, and umbilical
independently from base cabinet assemblies.  Support  system shall provide the flexibility and
unlimited horizontal interchangeability of any or all cabinet sizes without removal of the working top
and interference of immediate vertical legs, supports, brackets, or framing between cabinets.

5.18.3    SUPPORT CAPABILITY
The system shall be capable of independently supporting work surfaces and to contain and support steel
undercounter cabinets. All components shall be self supporting and essentially independent of the
building structure and shall support sinks, service fittings, plumbing fixtures,  and service and waste
lines utilizing pipe clamps. The assembly shall be designed and manufactured in such a manner mat for
each linear foot of span between supporting elements, there is the capability of supporting a live load
of 200 pounds per linear foot plus a dead load of 50 pounds per linear foot  In addition, a concentrated
load of 250 pounds may also be placed on the front edge at any point (assuming legs spaced at 6'-0" on
center) without causing the system to fail in its suspension or tip or deflect more that 3/16 inch.
                                   ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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Architectural Requirements                                             Page     5-19
5.18.4    CABINET ASSEMBLIES
Cabinet assemblies shall be suspended from the support system with fastener devices mounted in front
of the unit for attachment to the front rail and shall be designed so that easy removal of units can be
accomplished by use of common hand tools.  Such devices shall be of forged or cast steel and shall be
commercially cadmium plated.  Filler panels shall be provided at exposed-to-view areas, between
back of cabinets and walls, between backs of cabinets at the end of the peninsula or island benches, and
at knee openings to allow for the maintenance of mechanical services.

5.18.5    BASE CABINETS
Casework shall be of a metal construction of slim-line design and shall be constructed in accordance
with highest standards and practices of the metal casework industry. Superior quality casework shall
be established by proper machinery, tools, dies, fixtures, and skilled workmanship such that the fit of
doors and drawers allow vertical and horizontal openings of minimal tolerance.  All units shall be of
flush-front construction such that drawer and door faces are in the same plane as exterior case members.
Each unit shall be a completely welded structure and should not require additional parts, such as
applied panels at ends, backs,or bottom.

5.18.6    WALL CABINETS
Upper wall cabinets shall be designed so cabinets hang rigidly vertical without sag or tilt The design
professional shall be responsible for ensuring that proper reinforcement is installed at the walls to
support resulting load. Cabinets should be of similar construction as base cabinets and shall be modular
in design and installation to permit immediate interchangeability of all wall cabinets and/or shelf
units.

5.18.7    SHELVING

5.18.7.1  REAGENT SHELVES
Reagent shelves shall be 1 inch thick plywood faced on both sides with acid-resistant plastic laminate
with all exposed edges edge-banded in 3 mm (1/8 inch) PVC.  Shelf supports shall be 1 inch OD, cold-
rolled, seamless mechanical tubing attached to the benchtop with 3/8 inch diameter studs screwed to
metal backup plates.

5.18.7.2  ADJUSTABLE SHELVING
Adjustable shelving shall be 16-gauge steel shelving  with hat section reinforcing and shall be
interchangable with wall hung cabinets.  Shelving standards shall be double slotted type, 30 inches in
length mounted at a height of 54" above  finished floor to the bottom of the standard. Brackets shall be
16 gauge metal with three blade hooks and screwed to each shelf.

5.18.8    COUNTERTOPS
Countertop materials will vary depending on the intended use.  The design professional  shall be
responsible to evaluate the requirements of the laboratories to determine the countertop material most
suitable for each specific application..  The same material  determined for  use as the countertop
material shall also be used for back-splashes, side-splashes and services ledge covers.

5.18.8.1  PLASTIC LAMINATE
Chemically resistant plastic laminate countertops may be used in many applications where the use of
extremely corrosive chemicals or large amounts of _water_are not expected to be used.
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Architectural Requirements                                             Page      5-20
5.18.8.2   EPOXY RESIN
Epoxy resin countertops shall be utilized in laboratories or in areas where large quantities of water or
extremely corrosive chemicals are being utilized on a routine basis.  All joints shall be bonded with a
highly chemical and corrosion resistant cement having similar properties as the base material

5.18.83   STAINLESS STEEL
Stainless steel countertops shall be used in special applications where sterile conditions are required
(e.g., glassware washing areas, autoclave rooms), controlled environmental temperatures (e.g.,cold
rooms, growth chambers), and where radioisotopes are being used.

5.18.9    MATERIALS
Standard Laboratory casework shall be of metal construction unless otherwise indicated. For those
rooms not requiring casework of metal construction, the casework materials shall be of wood or
approved plastic.  Hardware used for wood or plastic casework shall be epoxy coated.

5.18.10   QUALITY
Laboratory casework required as described above, shall be those having the components, configuration,
materials, finish, and  performance  (that  includes  chemical and physical performance tests)
comparable to cantilevered frame (C-frame) casework systems manufactured by Hamilton Industries,
Kewaunee Scientific Equipment Corporation, and St. Charles Manufacturing Company. Equipment
manufactured by others is acceptable, based on products of equal performance and similar appearance
and construction, but only after approval by the Contracting Officer.

5.18.11   MINIMUM STANDARDS
Performance set form herein shall establish minimum standards for design, performance and function.
Products that fail to meet these standards will not be considered.

5.18.12   LABORATORY FUME HOODS
Fume hoods shall be provided in all laboratories and laboratory support spaces where chemicals and
other hazardous and toxic materials are being utilized.  The purpose of the laboratory fume hood is to
prevent or minimize the escape of contaminants from the hood into the laboratory. Fume hood work
surface shall be of recessed design so that spills can be effectively contained.  The design professional
shall be responsible for determining types and sizes of fume hoods, appropriate to its intended use, with
the users of the facility. See Section-8, paragraph 8.2.7 for more specific requirements.

5.18.12.1      FUME HOOD LOCATION
Fume hoods must be located away from doors and pedestrian traffic.  The location of the hood
shall be at the end of a room, bay, comer, or created comer, where the operator is essentially the
only one who enters the zone of influence. Further, hoods shall be located in such a manner such
that one hood cannot draw air from another hood.
                                   ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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Architectural Requirements                                            Page     5-21
5.18.13   ENVIRONMENTAL ROOMS
Environmental rooms shall be of a modular, insulated panel construction providing temperature and
humidity control with specified setpoint control Temperature requirements of individual rooms shall
be as appropriate to their intended use.  Rooms shall be provided with emergency auxiliary power
back-up to allow 24-hour operation. All rooms involving laboratory procedures shall be ventilated.
Fume hoods shall not be allowed in environmental rooms. Provide remote air or water cooled dual
sequencing compressor, temperature and humidity recorders, high/low alarm, adjustable epoxy coated
wire shelving on wall supports or moveable racks, and personnel emergency alarm.

5.19     EQUIPMENT AND FURNISHINGS

5.19.1    DESIGN
Develop equipment plans as building systems and integrate with the planning of architectural,
structural, mechanical and electrical systems.  Equipment shall be arranged and organized so as to
provide circulation, work flow and maintenance clearances.

5.19.2    CATALOG CUT SHEETS
Provide appropriate catalog cut sheets  for all items  of equipment.  Each cut sheet shall have a
logistical category and code.  Each item shall be clearly identified if it has unique utility requirements,
structural support or space requirements.

5.19.3    LAYOUT AND CLEARANCES
Arrange equipment to provide service clearances and maintenance access with minimum disruption to
work spaces. When expansion is anticipated in a project, allow for some additional equipment without
disruption or reconfiguration of work flow.

5.19.4    FLOOR PREPARATION
Provide floor depressions to accommodate items such as cart washers, environmentally-controlled room
equipment, walk-in refrigerators, computer rooms, and any other appropriate spaces, or items except in
laboratory spaces where future flexibility is  a requirement

5.19.5    STRUCTURAL SUPPORT
Adequately  reinforce wall partitioning systems for wall-hung equipment and toilet accessories.
Structurally  brace ceiling support systems for service columns, hoist equipment and other ceiling
mounted items. Mount all fixed equipment to resist seismic forces in accordance with seismic levels
defined for each applicable project

5.19.6    SPECIAL VENTILATION REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT
Control of ventilation for the employee working environment must be provided by the equipment
supplier. The design professional shall respond to Appendix B - INDOOR AIR QUALITY.

5.19.7    EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATIONS
The design professional shall develop equipment specifications for all equipment that does not have
current guide specifications.  All equipment  specifications should permit procurement of the latest
model of equipment through GSA services where possible. Develop all equipment specifications to
accommodate reputable vendors. In equipment specifications, discuss the scope of services to be
provided by mechanical  and electrical contractors for installing Government furnished equipment
                                  ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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Architectural  Requirements                                          Page     5-22
5.19.8   HIGH TECHNOLOGY EQUIPMENT
Project specific guidance on high technology equipment of this category should be obtained. Design
shall be in accordance with selection and guidance of the respective manufacturers.

5.19.9   EQUIPMENT CONSULTANTS
An equipment consultant is recommended to define and specify the research equipment required for
procurement.  They shall also provide information on equipment during the design and construction
document phases to assist the design professional in planning and documentation.


END OF SECTION
                                 ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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     SECTION 6




SITE AND CIVIL

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                                      SECTION 6

                         SITE AND CIVIL REQUIREMENTS
6.1       SCOPE OF PROJECT

6.1.1     GENERAL
The  location, type of building and support facility proposed, Impact on site development and
general acope  of work shall be described  for the project.   The  description  shall Include
access  roads, parking areas, loading/unloading areas, etc.

6.12     DEVELOPMENT CODES

6.1.2.1    ZONING
A  brief overview  of local zoning and/or land development  codes and  their  impact on site
development shall be described for the proposed project.

6.1 JL2    BUILDING CODES
A description of  the applicable building code shall be stated, with any specific references to
seismic,  flood plain or coastal development as they relate to site development.

6.1.23    ADA REQUIREMENTS
The proposed project will comply with current Federal (28 CFR, PARTS 35 & 36), State and local ADA
guidelines for the  physically disabled.

6.2       SITE INFLUENCES

6.2.1     LAND RESOURCES

6.2.1.1    GEOGRAPHY
The  geographic location shall be described for the project. Appropriate Information relative to
the local area economy, business and Industry shall also be described.

6.2.1.2    PHYSIOGRAPHY & GEOLOGY
A general description of known site  geology  and physiography shall be described. Appropriate
Information  shall be taken from  the preliminary geotechnlcal Investigation If performed and
available at  the time the research gathering Is performed for this document.

6.2.1.3    CLIMATOLOGY
The  specific  climate  conditions  of  the proposed site   shall  be  described,  especially
precipitation and predominant wind  directions. Where  available, local precipitation data shall
be used In lieu of regional data for specific site hydrologlc modeling.
                                  ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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6.2.1.4    HYDROLOGY
A  general  description of  site hydrology  shall be  described.  Including data  taken from  the
preliminary  geotechnlcal Investigation  and the SCS  soil survey. The  following  specific site
Information shall be assembled for use In  the hydrologlc  modeling of the project:

    . 1       Geographic location
    .2       Precipitation  frequency  data
    .3       Drainage  area
    .4       Soil  and cover
    .5       Runoff distribution

Rainfall Intensity-duration curves based on historic record should be developed and  used for
each locale.  The design storm events shall be based on a study of precipitation frequency,
runoff  potential, and runoff distribution relative to  physical characteristics of the watershed.
Where  available, stream gauge data shall be used to  estimate design flows In major channels.
Where  stream gauge data  Is Inadequate or unavailable, rainfall  Information  shall be taken  from
documented  sources,  such as NOAA/U.S. Weather Bureau  Technical  Paper  No. 40. Design
storm  precipitation values  taken  from  documented  sources or  derived by published
engineering methodology, shall be used to estimate design flood discharges.

6JZJ2     TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS

6JL2.1    AIR
A  general  description of project requirements relative  to  heliports  or airfields  shall be
described.
         LAND
A  general description of the  proposed project and Its location relative  to the existing roadway
network  shall be described.

    .1       The development of the proposed facility and impacts on the  existing roadway system
            shall be addressed by the design professional, including references to the traffic impact
            analysis if required for the project.

6.2.2.3   WATER
A  general  description of specific project requirements relative  to boating shall be  described,
Including  marinas,  docking  and/or  storage  facilities  and  seawalls  refueling  facilities.
Applicable permitting requirements with Federal, State and Local agencies shall also  be
addressed.

6.23     ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

6.2.3.1   AIR QUALITY
The proposed project's impact on air quality shall be addressed by the design professional including all
sources of air emissions and regulatory compliance with Federal, State and Local agencies.

6.23 .2   WATER RESOURCES
The proposed  project's impact on available water resources  shall be addressed by the design
professional including both ground and surface waters.
                                   ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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6.233    NOISE POLLUTION
A description of noise pollution associated with the proposed project, impacts on surrounding
development, and compliance with applicable zoning and/or land development codes shall be
addressed by the design professional

63      SITE DEVELOPMENT

63.1     ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT
A general overview of site environmental considerations,  including specific references to the
environmental assessment done under the National Environmental Policy Act  (NEPA), shall be
performed.  Field notes and final plots of surveys shall be furnished to the cognizant EPA authority.
Any boundary surveys and recorded maps shall be forwarded to the appropriate EPA authority.

    .1       The degree of accuracy for construction, control, property and topographic surveys shall be
            consistent with the nature and importance of each survey. Where required by law (i.e.,
            applicable State statutes) all control and property surveys at  EPA sites shall be
            performed by, or under the supervision of, a professional land surveyor registered in the
            State in which the subject site is situated.

6.3.2     GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATION

63.2.1    GENERAL
For permanent structures, subsurface conditions shall be determined by means of borings or other
methods that adequately disclose soil and groundwater conditions. Data and other information
obtained from prior subsurface investigations shall be used, supplemented by additional investigations
at the specific location as deemed necessary by the design engineer.

Subsurface  investigations shall be performed under the direction  of a professional geotechnical
engineer. In earthquake-prone areas, appropriate geological investigations shall be made to determine
the contribution of the foundation (subsurface) to the earthquake loads imposed on the structure and
shall include, but not be limited to, a recommendation of foundation type, determinations of allowable
soil bearing capacity, and the possible effects of seismic activity on the soil  mass. A settlement
analysis under different design loads shall be performed where differential settlement may  cause
structural, architectural or any other type of building damage.

63^2    TESTING AND SAMPLING METHODS
Testing and sampling shall comply with ASTM standards, including ASTM D1586, ASTM D1587, and
ASTM D2113. Soil samples shall be taken below existing grade  and at each change in soil stratification
or consistency.  The  depth of soil samples shall be determined by the geotechnical engineer after
consulting with the project engineer on site related design requirements.
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        TEST REPORTS
All data required to be recorded according to the ASTM or other standard test methods used shall be
obtained, recorded in the field, and referenced to boring numbers. Soil shall be visually classified in the
field logs in accordance with ASTM D2488, but the classification for final logs shall be based on the
field information,  results  of tests, and  further inspection of samples in  the laboratory by  the
geotechnical engineer preparing the report As a minimum the report shall:

   .1       Include  a chart illustrating the soil  classification criteria and the  terminology and
            symbols used on the boring logs.

   .2       Identify the ASTM or other recognized standard sampling and test methods used.

   .3       Provide a plot plan giving dimensioned locations of test borings.

   .4       Provide vertical sections plotted showing material encountered, referred to known datum,
            number of blows  per lineal foot (N value), and groundwater level for all holes when
            encountered.  Data for groundwater shall include both the initial groundwater level and
            the static groundwater level.  Groundwater levels need to be recorded when initially
            encountered and after they are allowed to stabilize.

   .5       Note  the  location of strata containing organic materials, weak materials or other
            inconsistencies that might affect engineering conclusions.

   .6       Describe the existing surface conditions.

   .7       Summarize the subsurface conditions present

   .8       Provide pavement structural design  data including California Bearing Ratio tests or
            modulus of subgrade reaction tests.

   .9       Provide a profile and/or topographic map of rock or other bearing stratum.

   .10      Analyze the probable variations in elevations and movements of subsurface water due to
            seasonal influences.

   .11      Report  all laboratory determinations of  soil properties including shrinkage and
            expansion properties.

633     SURVEYING

63.3.1    GENERAL
Construction, control, property and topographic surveys shall be coordinated with the cognizant EPA
authority. Where feasible,  surveying support available from EPA contractors shall be used. Survey
field notes shall be legibly recorded on standardized (8-1/2 x 11 inch) field note forms. Field notes and
final plots of surveys shall be furnished to the cognizant EPA authority. Any boundary surveys and
recorded maps shall be forwarded to the appropriate EPA authority.
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Site and Civil Requirements                                           Page      6-5
   .1       The degree of accuracy for construction, control, property and topographic surveys shall be
            consistent with the nature and importance of each survey. Where required by law (i.e.,
            applicable State  statutes) all control and property surveys at EPA sites shall be
            performed by, or under the supervision of, a professional land surveyor registered in the
            State in which the subject site is situated.

6333.    SURVEY CONTROL
The cognizant EPA authority shall be responsible for establishing, recording, and perpetuating primary
on-site horizontal and vertical control monumentation. In addition, the appropriate EPA authority
shall also be responsible for correlating primary site-specific horizontal and vertical monumentation
with that of other appropriate agencies.  All surveying and mapping shall conform to the latest
revisions or substitutions of the standards listed in Table 6.6.3.2 SURVEY STANDARDS.

   TABLE 633.2 - SURVEY STANDARDS
     TEC-1110-1-147                           CORPSCON

     ETL-1110-1-150                           GPS/Dredging

     EM-1110-1-1000                           Photogrammetry

     EM-1110-1-1001                           Geodetic Control

     EM-1110-1-10Q2                           Monumentation

     EM-1110-1-1003                           GPS Control

     EM-111Q-1-1005                           Topographic and Field S&M [FY-94]

     EM-1110-1-1006                           Land Boundary [FY-95]

     EM-1110-2-1003                           Hydrographic Survey

     EM-1110-1-1807                           CADD (Volumes 1-4)


   .1       Temporary on-site horizontal and vertical control monumentation shall comply with the
            standards listed in Table 6.3.3.2 SURVEY STANDARDS.

6333   MONUMENTATION

   .1       Temporary Control:

   .1.1       Where the scope and complexity of the project warrants, the placement, number and
            location of temporary horizontal and vertical control monuments in new development
            areas shall be coordinated into the existing system and approved.


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   .1.2         A minimum of two inter-visible control monuments shall be placed along or adjacent to
               right-of-way  lines.  These temporary  control monuments shall be  tied to an
               established grid.  The surveyor setting such monumentation shall submit legible
               notes, drawings, and reproducible documentation to the appropriate EPA authority.
               The location and construction of all temporary monuments within the immediate
               vicinity of new construction shall be provided on the construction drawings.

   .1.3         Temporary control monuments shall be 5/8-inch diameter mild steel bars or 3/4-inch
               diameter iron pipe with a minimum length of 2 feet or plastic hubs. These monuments
               shall be set flush or within 0.2 feet of the ground surface. Manhole rims, markings
               chiseled in concrete, PK nails in asphalt, and lead and tack in bedrock shall be
               suitable as an alternative temporary monumentation when approved.

   .1.4        Three  guard posts with reflective  paint  striping shall be installed adjacent to
            temporary control monuments in high traffic areas to preclude vehicular damage.
            Temporary control monuments shall be set in confonnance with the accuracy standards of
            the Corps of Engineers.

   3.       Permanent Control;

   .2.1         The placement, number and location of permanent survey monuments for horizontal
               and vertical control  shall be coordinated with and approved by the cognizant EPA
               authority. The location and description of the nearest permanent survey monument
               shall be provided on construction drawings. These monuments shall be tied to an
               established state plane coordinate system.

   .2.2         Any surveyor that sets a  permanent survey monument shall submit legible notes,
               sketches, or other reproducible documentation that show the location of the new
               monument relative  to the on-site horizontal and vertical control network, to the
               applicable State Plane Coordinate System, to the NAD of 1983 and to the NGVD of
               1929. The convergence, scale factor, and  elevation at  the monument shall also be
               provided.

   .2.3         Permanent survey monuments shall be considered properly positioned and represented
               only after the cognizant EPA authority has approved all survey procedures and
               calculations and has verified confonnance to the latest edition  of the Corps of
               Engineers standards and specifications.

   .2.4         Permanent survey monuments shall be identified as prescribed by Corps of Engineers
               standards.

   .2.5         These identification  numbers shall be documented within the survey field notes and
               shown on the design drawings and within related documents.  Tentative  point
               identification for permanent survey monuments may be assigned  by the surveyor;
               however, permanent point identification shall only be assigned to such monuments by
               the appropriate EPA authority.  Permanent survey monuments shall not be removed
               without prior authorization from the cognizant EPA authority.
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   .3       Bench Marks:

   .3.1         A minimum of one permanent bench mark for vertical control shall be established in
                each new development area. A minimum of three bench marks shall be established if
                there are no existing bench marks within a 3-mile radius of each new development
                area. Elevations shall be referenced to the NAVD of 1983 and to the NGVD of 1929.
                Level section misclosures between fixed bench mark elevations shall equal or exceed
                Third Order Accuracy, as defined in FGCC Standards and Specifications for Geodetic
                Control Networks or Corps of Engineers standards.

   .3.2         Pennanent bench marks shall be identified in the same manner as permanent survey
                monuments. Pennanent bench marks shall not be removed without prior approval
                from the cognizant EPA authority. The location and description of all bench marks in
                the  immediate vicinity of new  construction shall be provided on the construction
                drawings.

   .4       Utility, Roadway and Parking Area Surveys:

   .4.1         Coordinates and elevations shall be determined for utilities, roads and parking areas
                at their  principal points of definition. This information shall be provided on the
                construction drawings.  The principal points of definition for utility systems shall
                include utility poles, obstructions, manholes, valve boxes and other appurtenances for
                heating  and cooling lines, sewers, and overhead and  underground power and
                telephone systems.

   .4.2         Principal points of definition  for potable water and natural gas distribution systems
                shall be  valve boxes, main line intersects and fire hydrants.

   .4.3         The principal points of definition for roads shall be roadway centerline intersects.
                Road alignment surveys shall include stationing, bearings and curve information tied
                to these principal points of definition. Where applicable, the following information
                shall also be provided on the construction drawings:

   .4.3.1             Stations and deflection angles for each point of intersection

   .4.3.2             Right-of-way lines and  markers

   .4.3.3             Spot elevations (centerline, edge of pavement,  and at intersects) at minimum
                     intervals of 100 feet Pavement width

   .4.3.4             Other improvements (e.g., drainage inlets, wheelchair ramps,  fire hydrants,
                     sidewalks, and curb and gutter)

   .4.3.5             Topographic features within project limits

   .4.3.6             Elevation contours
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    .4.3.7             Overhead and underground utility crossings (plan and profile)

    .4.3.8             Roadway drainage crossings

    .4.3.9             Location and description of underground utility witness markers

6.3.33.5  UNDERGROUND UTILITIES
Where exact routes of underground utilities are not defined within record drawings, the cognizant EPA
authority shall coordinate necessary electronic line detection and exploratory excavation activities.
Such utilities shall be located by survey and documented on the construction drawings.

6333.6  CONSTRUCTION STAKING
Construction staking for new EPA facilities shall comply with local standards and with practices
approved by the cognizant EPA authority.

63.4     FACILITY SITING

63.4.1    GENERAL
A site development plan shall be used to locate new facilities on existing or new sites to assure effective
site utilization and to preclude future conflicts between existing and new facilities.

    .1       Preparation of an environmental assessment prior to the initiation of a government action
            that may significantly affect the environment shall be performed during facility siting.

    .2       To  the extent possible, facility siting shall preclude the use of flood plains  or  areas
            subject to flash floods and shall minimize destruction, loss, or degradation of wetlands.

    .3       During site selection for new facilities the following conditions and requirements shall be
            considered:

    .3.1         Programmatic and operating efficiency

    .3.2         Natural topographic and geologic conditions

    3.3         Existing cultural, historic, and archaeological resources

    .3.4         Endemic plant and animal species
    3.5         Past use of site and existence of known RCRA and/or CERCLA sites

    3.6         Special siting requirements for facilities containing, using, or processing hazardous
                materials

    3.7         Health, safety and environmental protection requirements

    3.8         Indoor air quality impacts (e.g.,  presence of radon  in foundation soils and
                contamination from other exterior sources, natural or man made).
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   .3.9          Hazardous operations and consequences of potential accidents in adjacent facilities

   .3.10         Natural hazards including seismic activity, wind, hurricane, tornado, flood, hail,
                volcanic ash, lightning and snow

   .3.11         Wave action within any natural or man-made body of water (in accordance with
                CERC Shore Protection Manual)

   .3.12         Physical protection requirements, security and safeguard requirements (e.g., patrol
                rooms, gates, security posts and vehicle barriers).

   .3.13         Adequacy of existing or planned support and service facilities, including utilities,
                roads, and parking areas

   .3.14         Interrelationships between facilities and aesthetic compatibility

   .3.15         Energy conservation requirements

   .3.16         Impact of site selections

63.-L2    BUILDING LOCATION
New buildings and building additions shall be located in accordance with the site development plan.

   .1       Open space shall be provided between structures  (to accommodate  site security,
            landscaping and other environmental considerations).  Sufficient access shall be provided
            around building exteriors (to accommodate emergency vehicles, maintenance vehicles and
            snow removal  equipment).  In cold climates, building entrances, stairs  and other
            pedestrian circulation features should not be placed along the north side of buildings or
            within shaded areas.  Offsite drainage areas and environmental impacts of proposed
            stormwater management practices on surrounding properties shall also be carefully
            reviewed by the design engineer.

   .2       During site selection for new buildings the following conditions and requirements shall be
            considered:
   .2.1          Architectural and functional compatibility with the environment

   .2.2          Operation and service function relationships

   .2.3          Natural topographic and geologic conditions

   .2.4          Existing cultural and archaeological resources

   .2.5          Historical sites

   .2.6          Abandoned mines or wells and potential for subsidence

   .2.7          Endemic plant and animal species
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    .2.8          Availability of existing utility services

    .2.9          Building setback requirements

    .2.10        Availability of existing road systems

    .2.11        Traffic volume

    .2.12        Refuse handling and loading zone requirements

    .2.13        Adequacy for parking, future expansion, and other land use requirements

    .2.14        Health, safety, and environmental protection requirements

    .2.15        Physical protection requirements

    .2.16        Security and safeguard requirements

    .2.17        Energy conservation requirements

    .2.18        Indoor air quality impacts (e.g., presence of radon in foundation soils.)

    .2.19        Impact of site selection

    .2.20        Minimum fire separation between buildings (in accordance with NFPA 80A)

6.3.5     SITE PREPARATION

63.5.1    GENERAL
Local topography shall be considered during project and facility design efforts. New facilities shall be
planned to fit with the local topography and require a minimum amount of grading. Design shall
include provisions for  erosion control and soil stabilisation in ditches, fill slopes, embankments,
denuded areas, and restoration of areas disturbed by the project.  Restoration shall be to original or
improved conditions.

6.3.5.2    DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Site preparation design shall comply with the following criteria:

    .1        Site drainage design shall comply with Section 6.5, Stormwater Management

    .2        Vehicle parking, sidewalks and road requirements shall comply with  Section  6.4,
             Transportation

    .3        Site power and lighting shall comply with Section 6.6.4, Electrical Distribution Systems
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    .4       Site security requirements shall be taken into account and provided for in accordance with
            criteria established by the cognizant EPA authority

6.3.6     DEWATERING

63.6.1    GENERAL
The design, installation, and operation of dewatering systems for groundwater control shall be the
responsibility of the construction contractor, unless stipulated otherwise in the contract. A groundwater
investigation and the selection and design of a dewatering control system shall comply with the latest
edition of TM 5-818-5. The design engineer shall determine if the assistance of a qualified groundwater
hydrologist shall be required.

63.6.2    GROUNDWATER INVESTIGATION
A groundwater investigation shall be made before selection of a dewatering control system. The
investigation shall examine the character of subsurface soils, groundwater conditions and quality, and
the availability of an electric  power source. The  source of seepage shall be determined and the
boundaries and seepage flow characteristics of geologic and soil formations at and adjacent to the site
shall be analyzed in accordance with the mathematical, graphic, and electroanalogous methods
discussed in TM 5-818-5. Field reports identifying groundwater elevations, etc., should be provided to
the construction contractor responsible for dewatering and groundwater investigation.

63.7     SHORING AND UNDERPINNING

6.3.7.1    GENERAL
All shoring and underpinning shall comply with the  safety requirements of CFR1926, Subpart P.

Remedial underpinning shall be performed where existing foundations are  inadequate. Precautionary
underpinning shall be performed where new construction adjacent to an existing structure requires deeper
excavation.

    .1       The services of a structural engineer specializing in underpinning shall be used to perform
            any  underpinning design, which shall comply with the principles in Winterkom and
            Fang, Foundation Engineering Handbook

63.8     EARTHWORK

63.8.1    GENERAL
Earthwork includes excavation, filling, stabilizing and compaction of earth at the site. Earthwork also
includes the addition of borrow and disposal of excavated material.  Prior to earthwork design, the
project engineer shall confer with the geotechnical engineer to define subsurface investigation
recommendations required in accordance with Section 6.3.2, GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATIONS.
The earthwork design and specifications shall comply with the recommendations as outlined in the
geotechnical report.
                                  ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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63.9     WATERFRONT CONSTRUCTION

63.9.1    GENERAL
Waterfront construction includes  seawalls, docks, marinas, and other ancillary boating facilities
associated with coastal development  This type of construction for EPA facilities shall comply with
applicable federal, state, and local standards and with practices approved by the cognizant EPA
authority.

6.4       TRANSPORTATION

6.4.1     ROADWAYS

6.4.1.1    GENERAL
Traffic data shall either be provided to the design professional or a traffic impact analysis (TLA.) will
be performed by the design professional.  Geometric design of all roads, streets, access drives, and
parking areas shall comply with AASHTO GDHS-84. Gradients for roads, streets, and access drives
shall comply with AASHTO GDHS-84. Road and street grade changes in excess of one (1%) percent
shall be accomplished by means of vertical curves. The length of vertical curves shall be determined in
accordance with AASHTO GDHS-84. Roadway centerline gradient profiles shall be shown for vertical
control.

    .1       Design and details of construction of flexible and rigid pavements shall comply with the
            local State highway department standards. Concrete valley gutters may be provided if
            swales are necessary with flexible pavements. Joint layout plans and details shall be
            provided for all rigid pavements. A thickened edge shall be used along edges of rigid
            pavement where future construction will occur.

    .2       Signs, pavement markings,  channelization, and other traffic control measures shall
            comply with the requirements of the USDOT Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices.

6.4.1.2    STREET DRAINAGE
Street drainage in developed areas shall be conveyed within the roadway cross section.  Curb inlets
shall be used to divert stormflows to surface and subsurface stormwater conveyance systems. Curb inlets
shall not be located within curb returns or in areas of heavy pedestrian traffic. Pedestrian and cyclist
safety shall be considered during selection of storm inlet grates. Curb gaps shall be used where roadside
drainage swales exist  Wherever possible,  curb openings with inlets located in grassed areas are to be
utilized in lieu of curb inlets.

    .1       In locations where uninterrupted vehicular access is essential to  critical  operational
            activities, roadway cross sections shall be designed to convey runoff from the 25-year, 6-
            hour storm such mat one driving lane width (12 feet) is free of flowing or standing water.
            Lower classification roadways shall be designed to convey runoff from the 10-year, 6-
            hour storm frequency. Stormwater management systems shall have sufficient capacity to
            ensure that runoff from the 100-year, 6-hour design storm will not exceed a depth of 10-
            1/2 inches at any point within the street right of way or extend more than 2-1/2 inches
            above the top of curb in urban streets. Inverted crown roadway cross sections shall not be
            used unless approved by the cognizant EPA authority.
                                   ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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6.4.2     PARKING AND LOADING FACILITIES

6.4.2.1    GENERAL
Parking areas should not be located in front of buildings or at prominent visual points of approach.
Landscaping, grading, and location shall give prominence to attractive features and de-emphasize or
obscure undesirable features. Parking lots shall meet local governmental standards for circulation,
layout, and safety.

    .1       Handicapped parking allocations shall comply with ADA guidelines. Perimeter concrete
            curbs and gutters shall be considered for all parking areas and access drives in built-up
            areas. In remote or little-used areas, concrete curbs and gutters shall be used only when
            required to control drainage. Removable prefabricated concrete wheel stops may be used
            where appropriate.

    .2       Positive drainage shall be  provided  for parking area pavements. The  following
            requirements shall be followed:

    .2.1         Provide positive surface drainage with a (5%) five tenths percent minimum slope in
                the direction of drainage

    .2.2         Limit slope in direction of parking to (4%) four percent maximum

    .2.3         Limit slope perpendicular to direction of parking and slope of parking lot drives to
                (6%) six percent maximum for bituminous or concrete surfaces and (3%) three percent
                for other surfaces

6.4.3     PEDESTRIAN ACCESS

6.43.1    GENERAL
A functional system of walks connecting structures, operational areas, parking areas, streets and other
shall be provided to meet pedestrian traffic demands. The location and width shall be determined in
accordance with the site development  plan. Walks subject to use be the physically disabled shall
comply with current ADA guidelines.

6.4.4     AIRPORTS AND HELIPORTS

6.4.4.1    GENERAL
Planning and design of aviation facilities and the airspace clearances shall comply with FAA AC
150/5050-5. Planning and design of aviation facilities shall emphasize safety for all modes of aircraft
operations. Aircraft installations require permanent unobstructed airspace, facilities and equipment
constructed to facilitate maintenance, ground handling, and flight operations.

    .1       Landing and takeoff paths (traffic patterns) shall be oriented in such a manner as to
            preclude requiring critical facility overflights. Traffic patterns and altitudes shall be
            established and published to provide  for aircraft operations  on approaches that are
            away from critical facilities.
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    .2       Heliports shall be sited and traffic patterns established to provide for normal operation
            that does not require overflights of critical faculties. Heliports shall not be located
            closer to critical facilities than two (2) times the dimension of the landing pad or three
            (3) times the rotor diameter of the largest helicopter authorized to land at the heliport.

6.4.4.2    SITE CONSIDERATIONS
The following site conditions shall be taken into account in determining the adequacy of the aviation
facility:

    .1       Topography
    .2       Vegetative cover and existing construction
    .3       Weather elements
    .4       Prevailing wind direction for bom summer and winter conditions
    .5       Soil conditions
    .6       Flood hazards
    .7       Natural and man-made obstructions
    .8       Adjacent land uses
    .9       Availability of usable airspace
    .10      Accessibility of usable roads
    .11      Location of site utilities
    .12      Capability for future expansion
    .13      Aboveground utilities

6.4.43    DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
The layout of airfield facilities shall support operational efficiency and provide safe conditions for
takeoff and landing operations and ground handling of aircraft

    .1       Airfield safety clearances shall comply with clearance criteria in accordance with FAA
            AC 150/5300. The critical decision point and emergency landing areas for the various
            aircraft using a facility shall be determined from the respective aircraft performance
            charts.

    .2       All other applicable design considerations shall conform to the latest FAA criteria.

    .3       Airfield layout shall also include:

    .3.1         Wind direction and velocity analyzed in accordance with FAA AC 150/5070-6A
    .3.2         A taxiway system
    .3.3         Parking aprons
    .3.4         Supporting facilities
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6.4.5     RAILROADS

6.4.5.1    GENERAL
The basis for railroad facilities  design  shall be the criteria in the AREA  Manual  for Railway
Engineering (Fixed Properties). Designs shall also comply with regulations and criteria set forth by
State commissions and other regulatory bodies regarding railway crossings at public highways.

   .1       Special  requirements such  as derailers are required where railroads cross security
            boundaries. The cognizant EPA authority shall be  consulted for determining specific
            design requirements.

6.4.5.2 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Track layouts shall allow rail movement to be continuous from the interchange yard through the
classification yard to  the delivery tracks.  Each interchange or receiving track shall be designed to
accommodate the maximum single delivery. The  average number of cars in each classification shall
determine the length of the  classification track.  Track-side drainage swales, drainage ditches,
intercepting ditches, culverts, cross drains, pipe  drains, and other drainage facilities shall comply
with AREA Manual for Railway Engineering (Fixed Properties).

   .1       The design strength of railroad structures shall not be less man Cooper E-80 loading.
            Structures associated with the railroad operation (buildings, signal standards) shall not
            be located adjacent to or within security areas.

   .2       Super elevation shall not be used on curves where the speed is less than 20 miles per hour
            except when required by the servicing railroad. Super elevation shall be provided on
            access or main running tracks where the speed is equal to or greater than 20 miles per hour.

6.5       STORMWATER MANAGEMENT
         WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT
Site  development plans shall carefully  review impacts within  the watershed. Appropriate
stormwater management strategies shall be developed that minimize and/or eliminate any adverse
effects on existing/future development within the watershed.

6.5.2     EROSION AND SEDIMENTATION CONTROL
Erosion and sedimentation control measures, in accordance with Federal, State and Local standards are
to be implemented during construction. The site is to be properly graded and vegetated so as to minimize
any adverse impacts of erosion.
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6.53     STORMWATER RETENTION /DETENTION
Site development plans shall incorporate, as applicable, appropriate stormwater retention/detention
facilities as part of the storm drainage system. These facilities are to be designed in strict accordance
with all applicable Federal, State and Local requirements.

6.5.4     CONVEYANCE

6.5.4.1    STORM SEWERS
Subsurface drainage systems shall be  sized to accommodate runoff from the 10-year, 6-hour storm.
Subsurface drainage systems shall be sized for a greater storm in locations where there is substantial
risk to critical facilities and operations. Sediment transport requirements shall be incorporated within
subsurface system designs. Storm sewers shall be designed to maintain a minimum scour velocities of 2
feet per second. New storm sewers shall be sized for open channel flow. The minimum storm sewer size
shall be 15 inches. The minimum culvert size shall be 15 inches. For roof drain systems, the minimum
pipe size for laterals and collectors shall be 6 inches.

6.5.12    OPEN CHANNELS
Open channel stormwater conveyance systems shall be sized to accommodate the 10-year, 6-hour design
flow with a minimum freeboard. Open channel drainage systems shall be sized for a greater storm in
locations where there is substantial risk to critical facilities and operations.

   .1       Open channel stormwater conveyance systems shall be designed for minimal maintenance.
            The potential for scour or deposition within earth-lined channels shall be considered
            prior to approval by the cognizant EPA  authority. Preference for earth-lined  or
            "armored" channels shall  be based on a comparison of capital, maintenance and operation
            costs. Inlets to open channel stormwater conveyance systems shall be placed at locations
            where erosion potential is minimal.

6.5.5     STORMWATER QUALITY
The  site development shall include  quality control measures that reduces the concentration  of
pollutants in stormwater prior to discharge into receiving waters.

63.6     FLOODPLAIN/WETLANDS DEVELOPMENT
Development, modification or occupancy of floodplains and wetlands should be avoided, particularly
where practical alternatives exist.  To the extent possible, EPA shall accommodate the requirements of
Executive Order Nos. 11988 and 11990 through appropriate procedures.  EPA shall exercise leadership
and take action to:

    .1       Avoid to the extent possible the long-term and short-term adverse impacts associated
            with the destruction of wetlands and the occupancy and modification of floodplains and
            wetlands, and avoid direct and indirect support of floodplain and wetlands development
            wherever there is a practicable alternative for new  development

    .2       Incorporate floodplain management goals and wetland protection considerations into its
            planning, regulatory, and decision-making processes
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   .3       Undertake a careful consideration of the potential impacts of any EPA action in a
            floodplain and any new construction undertaken by EPA in wetlands not located in a
            floodplain

   .4       Identify, consider, and as appropriate, implement alternative actions to avoid or
            mitigate adverse floodplain and wetlands impacts

   .5       Provide opportunity for early public review of any plans or proposals for actions in
            floodplains or new construction in wetlands

   .6       Construction within floodplains or wetlands shall comply with the following:

   .6.1        10CFR1022
   .6.2        NEPA and implementing regulations

63.7     COASTAL DEVELOPMENT
The development of site boating, docking and seawall facilities shall conform to all Federal, State and
Local requirements.

6.6       UTILITIES AND SUPPORT SERVICES

6.6.1     WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

6.6.1.1   GENERAL
This section applies to water distribution systems for domestic (potable) and industrial (non-potable)
applications. The use of dual water systems (Le., domestic and industrial or irrigation) is subject to the
approval of the cognizant EPA Facilities Engineering Group. Where dual water systems are approved
for use, the location and alignment  of such systems must be clearly identified by location markers
placed throughout the site at intervals specified by the cognizant EPA Facilities Engineering Group.
Both systems must also be dearly identified on the record drawings.

   .1       Cross-connections between domestic and industrial or irrigation systems are prohibited.
            Domestic water conveyed within distribution systems that serve EPA facilities shall
            comply with the applicable SDWA, 40 CFR 141, 40 CFR 142 requirements and all other
            State, regional and local requirements. The quality of domestic water within such
            distribution  systems shall be protected from degradation by installation of reduced
            pressure principal assembly backflow preventers to preclude backflow of contaminants or
            pollutants into the system.

   .2       Backflow prevention  devices shall be installed in accordance with the National
            Plumbing Code.  Only  those devices approved by the Foundation for Cross-Connection
            Control and Hydraulic Research  shall be approved.  Refer to the Manual of Cross-
            Connection Control (6th Ed., Aug. 1979)
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6.6.1.2    PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS

   .1       During  route selection and initial planning efforts for water distribution systems, the
            following conditions and requirements shall be considered:

   .1.1         Future population and development projections
   .1.2         Anticipated average daily flow for fully developed conditions
   .1.3         Anticipated peak flows for domestic, industrial, fire and special water usage
   .1.4         Hydraulic design criteria
   .1.5         Health and safety requirements
   .1.6         Physical constraints (e.g., utility corridors and topographic features)
   .1.7         Energy conservation and environmental constraints

   .2       Distribution system layouts shall be simple and direct as  possible. Where feasible,
            initial planning efforts shall optimize system layouts (e.g., system loop lines) in order to:

   .2.1         Facilitate future system expansion
   .2.2         Strengthen fire protection capabilities
   .2.3         Minimize conflicts with other utilities
   .2.4         Reduce maintenance requirements

   .3       Water distribution systems shall be included within the utility master plan.

6.6.13    SYSTEM DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Domestic water distribution mains  shall be sized to accommodate the greatest demand to be satisfied
(i.e.,  fire demand, special requirements or the peak domestic demand). Domestic water distribution
systems shall be designed to deliver the peak domestic flow of 2-1/2 times the average daily demand,
plus  any special demands, at a minimum residual pressure of 30 psi at ground elevation (or higher if
special conditions warrant).

   .1       Domestic water distribution systems that also serve fire protection requirements shall be
            designed to satisfy fire flow requirements plus  50 percent of the  average domestic
            requirements plus any industrial or process demands that cannot be reduced during a fire.
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    .2        Each fire hydrant within the distribution system must be capable of delivering 1000 gpm
             at a residual of not less than 20 psL Where domestic water distribution systems are to
             serve internal  fire protection systems (i.e., sprinklers or foamite  systems), adequate
             residual pressures shall be maintained for proper operation of such fire protection
             systems. Fire hydrant branches (from main to hydrant) shall be not less man 6 inches in
             diameter and no longer than 300 feet A gate  valve shall be installed within each fire
             hydrant branch to facilitate maintenance. Fire hydrants shall be installed at a maximum
             spacing of 400 feet and shall not be located more than 300 feet from buildings mat are to
             be protected. Each building shall be protected by a minimum of two hydrants. All water
             mains,  supplying fire protection systems,  fire hydrants, etc., shall be treated as fire
             mains and installed in accordance with  NFPA  24. Water mains shall have a minimum
             pressure rating of 150 psi. Water distribution systems shall be  designed to maintain
             normal operating pressures between 40 psi to 100 psi (at ground level) in mains and
             building service lines. Where the gradient across the service area is such that multiple
             pressure zones are necessary to maintain the normal operating pressures, pressure reducing
             valves shall be used to separate each pressure zone. Use of pressure relief and surge relief
             valves shall be considered, as necessary, to preclude system damage from water hammer.

    .3        Air release and vacuum breaker valves shall  be installed, as required, at high points
             within the distribution system and in long supply mains.

    .4        Distribution system mains shall have a  minimum depth  of cover of 3 feet. Additional
             cover shall be provided to prevent freezing in cold climates, at roadway crossings in high
             traffic areas and  at railroad crossings. Building service lines shall be a minimum of 1-
             inch in diameter. Service lines less than 2 inches in diameter shall be connected to the
             distribution main by a corporation stop and a copper gooseneck, with a service stop below
             frostline. Service lines larger  than 2 inches  in diameter shall be connected to  the
             distribution main by a rigid connection and shall have a gate valve located below
             frostline. Risers from frostline to floorlines of  buildings shall be adequately insulated.
             Water storage facilities shall comply with NFPA 22.

    .5        Site soil and groundwater conditions (e.g., soil corrosivity) shall be considered during the
             selection of pipe materials. Where ferrous pipe is installed  within the distribution
             system, insulating couplings shall be installed to preclude galvanic  corrosion.

6.6.1.4   WELLHEAD DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR RESEARCH PURPOSES
Where and when water is to be provided  for fish culture, unless otherwise revised or required by the
EPA project officer, on-site,  drilled wells  shall be capable of producing a minimum of 20 gallons of
water per minute of consistent quality.  The water must be  of a quality  suitable for rearing and
maintaining fish cultures. The water must not be contaminated with pesticides, heavy metals, sulfides,
silica or chlorides. The anions should be those found in natural lakes or streams.
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   .1       Water quality parameters should fall within the following limits:

   .1.1         Dissolved oxygen:          > 6.0 mg/L
   .1.2         pH:                      72. - 85
   .1.3         Hardness:                 40 - 200 mg/L (as CaCOS)
   .1.4         Alkalinity:                slightly less than hardness
   .1.5         Iron:                      < 1.0 mg/L
   .1.6         Chlorides:                 < 250 mg/L as chlorides & sulfates
   .1.7         Sulfides:                  < 2.0 ug/L as undissociated H2S

   .2       The well and pump shall be housed so as to be protected from the elements. Two 500
            gallon water tanks shall be installed to serve as reservoirs prior to distribution.

6.6.2     WASTEWATER COLLECTION SYSTEMS

6.6.2.1    GENERAL
This section applies to sanitary wastewater collection systems (i.e., lift stations, force mains, collector
sewers and interceptor sewers and building sewers 5 feet beyond the building foundation).

6.6^2    SYSTEM DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Industrial wastewater and pollutants above EPA minimal concentrations  shall be excluded from
sanitary wastewater collection systems.

   .1       Pretreatment systems (such as acid neutralization) shall be installed where required and
            shall meet EPA specifications.

   .2       Hydraulic design of wastewater collection systems shall comply with TM 5-814-1, TM 5-
            814-2 and ASCE 37. All wastewater collection systems shall be designed for gravity flow
            unless such systems are not economically feasible. Sewage lift  stations and force mains
            shall not be used unless approved by the cognizant EPA authority. Feasibility analyses
            and economic evaluations of lift station and force main costs for construction, operation,
            and maintenance shall be prepared and submitted  to the appropriate EPA authority for
            approval. Sewers and force mains shall be sized to accommodate the estimated daily
            maximum and minimum flow for the initial and final years of the design period specified
            by the cognizant EPA authority in accordance with ASCE 37:

    .2.1          Velocities in gravity sewers and force mains shall not exceed 10 feet per second.
    .2.2          Gravity sewers shall be designed for a minimum velocity of 2 feet per second.
    .2.3          Force mains shall be designed for a minimum velocity of 35 feet per second.

    .3       For preliminary design, domestic water consumption rates shall be used to approximate
            wastewater flows. Where possible, actual flow data from an adjacent service area
            typical of the  service  area under consideration shall be used to estimate wastewater
            discharges for final design. In the absence of such data, metered water use,  less the
            consumptive use (Le. water withdrawal rate), can be used.
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    .4       Sewers and force mains shall have a minimum depth of cover of 2 feet. Additional cover
            shall be provided to prevent freezing in cold climates and at roadway crossings. Sewer
            and force main trench widths shall be minimized; however, excavations, trenching, and
            shoring shall comply with 29 CFR 1926, Subpart P. Pipe bedding specified by the pipe
            manufacturer shall be in place prior to installation of sewers and force mains.

    .5       Sewers or force mains shall not be routed within 50 feet (75 feet in pervious soils) of any
            well or reservoir that serves as a potable water supply. The sewer or force main shall be
            ductile iron pipe in all instances where such horizontal separation cannot be maintained.
            Where there is shallow depth to groundwater, special precautions  shall be taken to
            preclude sewer infiltration or exfiltration. Where feasible, sewers or force mains shall
            not be routed within 10 feet of potable waterlines or firelines.

    .6       Water pipe shall not be laid closer horizontally than 10 feet from a sewer or force main
            except where the bottom of the water line will be at least 12  inches above the top of the
            sewer pipe or force main, in which case the water pipe shall not be laid closer than 6 feet
            from the sewer or force main. Where water pipes cross under gravity-flow sewer lines,
            the sewer pipe for a distance of at least 10 feet each side of the crossing shall be fully
            encased in concrete or shall be made of pressure pipe with no joint located within 3 feet
            horizontally of the crossing. Water lines shall in all cases cross above sewage force mains
            or inverted siphons and shall not be less than 2 feet above the sewer main. Joints in the
            sewer main, closer horizontally than 3 feet to the crossing, shall be encased in concrete.

    .7       Where feasible, sewers and force mains shall not be routed under buildings or other
            permanent structures. Sewers and force mains shall be adjacent and parallel to paved
            roadways. Sewers and force mains shall not pass  beneath  paved roadways except at
            roadway crossings. Where feasible, utility cuts within existing roadway pavements
            shall be perpendicular to the roadway centerline to minimize trench length. Diagonal
            roadway cuts shall be avoided whenever possible.

    .8       The  selection of sewer and  force main material  shall  be  based  on  wastewater
            characteristics and soil  conditions. PVC shall be  considered where treeroot and
            infiltration are a problem. Ductile iron pipe shall be used for  force  main and gravity
            sewer stream crossings. Ductile iron shall also be used for sewers located in parking lots
            and or  other high traffic areas. Pipe joints  shall  have a watertight  seal. Maximum
            infiltration-exfiltration test requirements shall  be specified within the contract
            documents.

6.63     NATURAL GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
Gas distribution shall comply with local codes and requirements. Fuel gas shall comply with NFPA 54.
Liquified petroleum gas shall comply with NFPA 58.

6.6.4     ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
The design engineer shall coordinate site power and  lighting  as detailed  in Section 9, Electrical
Requirements.
                                   ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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Site and Civil Requirements                                         Page     6-22
6.6.5    TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS
The design engineer shall coordinate site communication as detailed in Section 9.14, Communication
Systems.

6.6.6    SOLID WASTE COLLECTION SYSTEMS
Management of nonhazardous solid waste shall comply with 40 CFR 264 and subtitle D of the RCRA.
Management of hazardous waste shall comply with 40 CFR 264 and Subtitle C of RCRA.

6.7      REFERENCE MATERIALS

6.7.1    GENERAL
All work done in this section shall comply with all applicable Federal, State, City and Local codes,
regulations, ordinances, publications, and manuals. When codes and/or regulations conflict, the more
stringent standard shall govern.

6.7.2    LISTING OF POTENTIAL SOURCES
Refer to Appendix A for some of the  many potential codes, regulations, trade  organizations,
publications and guides that may be applicable.


END OF SECTION
                                 ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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                 SECTION 7




STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS

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Structural Requirements                                              Page      7-1



                                      SECTION?

                          STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS



7.1       STRUCTURAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

7.1.1     GENERAL

7.1.1.1   APPLICABILITY
This section applies to the structural elements of buildings and other incidental structures.  The
structural elements include, but are not limited to, the following:

    .1       All floor, roof, and wall framing members and slabs

    .2       All piers, walls, columns, footings, piles, and similar elements of the substructure

    .3       All other substructures and superstructure elements that are proportioned on the basis of
            stress, strength, and deflection requirements

7.1.1.2   MATERIAL, FRAMING, SYSTEMS AND DETAILS
Material, framing systems, and details shall be compatible with the following:

    .1       Clear space and span requirements

    .2       Serviceability requirements

    .3       Applicable fire protection classification

    .4       Security requirements

    .5       Foundation conditions

    .6       Future expansion requirements

    .7       Architectural requirements

    .8       Climatic conditions

    .9       Structural design loads for the specific facility and location

7.1.1.3   CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND LABOR
Local availability of construction materials and labor force  shall be considered in the selection of the
structural system.
                                  ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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7.1.1.4   DESIGN CRITERIA
The structural design drawings shall indicate the design criteria , the structural materials and their
strengths with applicable material standards, the design loads including loads that can occur during
construction, and the allowable foundation loads that were used in the design.

7.1.2     CALCULATIONS

7.1.2.1   GENERAL
All design shall be performed and checked by registered Structural Engineer, this includes calculations.
All calculations shall be on 8 l/2"x 11" paper.  Calculations shall be indexed and every page numbered.
Dividers shall be placed between distinct sections.  A summary shall be included describing type of
structure and indicating the live load capacity of each floor and roof.

7.1.2.2   MANUALLY PREPARED CALCULATIONS
Manually Prepared Calculations:  Shall be neat and legible.  Each sheet shall indicate the Structural
Consultants firm name, address and telephone number. Each sheet shall indicate the designers name or
initials, checkers name or initials and date prepared. Design assumptions regarding live loads,
material strengths, conditions  of fixity, etc. shall be dearly stated.  Calculations shall be sufficiently
cross-referenced such that a third party can review the calculations without requiring additional
information.

7.1.2.3   COMPUTER ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
Computer Analysis  and Design:  Software used for structural analysis and design shall be from a
nationally recognized vendor. Each separate run shall indicate software licensee, project name and
number, engineers name and date. Provide additional manual annotation if necessary to adequately
cross-reference  computer printouts, such that  a third party can  review the calculations without
requiring additional information.

7.1.3     LOADS


Structures and  their elements shall be designed for the loads prescribed in these criteria unless
applicable codes or ordinances provide more stringent requirements. The more stringent requirement
shall be used.

7.1.3.2   DEAD LOADS
Dead loads are loads that remain permanently in place.  They  shall include the weights  of  all
permanent materials and equipment, including the structure's own  weight, supported in, or on, a
structure.  Load calculations shall include an allowance for any loadings anticipated to be added at a
later date.  Initially assumed loads shall be revised so that the final design reflects the configuration
shown of the drawings.

    .1        The minimum allowance for the weights of partitions, where partitions are likely to be
             rearranged or relocated, shall be as follows:
                                   ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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    .1.1         For partition weights of 150 plf or less, an equivalent uniform dead load may be used
                as determined on the basis of the room dimension (normal to the partition) and the
                partition weight pounds per lineal feet (plf), but not less than 20 pounds per square
                feet (psf).

    .1.2         For partition weights above 150 plf, the actual loads shall be used.

    .1.3         Partitions that are likely to be rearranged or relocated should be calculated as live
                loads for load factor design. A factor of 1.1 shall be applied to the live loads due to
                moveable partitions prior to application of building code required live load factors.

    .2       The unit weights of materials and construction assemblies for buildings and other
            structures shall be those given in ANSI/ASCE 7-88.  Where unit weights are neither
            established  in that standard nor determined by test or analysis, the weights shall be
            determined from data in manufacturer's drawings or catalogs.

    .3       Design dead loads shall include the weight of all permanent service equipment Service
            equipment  shall include plumbing  stacks, piping, heating  and air-conditioning
            equipment,  electrical equipment, flues, fire sprinkler piping and valves, and similar
            fixed furnishings. The weight of service equipment that may be removed with change of
            occupancy of a given area shall be considered as live load.

7.1.33   LIVE LOADS
live loads shall include all loads resulting from the occupancy and use of the structure whether acting
vertically down, vertically up, or laterally.  The weight of service equipment that may be removed
with change of occupancy (e.g. fume hoods) of a given area shall be considered as live load.  Operating,
moving, stopping, and impact forces shall be considered part of the live loads.  Live loads shall include
neither dead loads nor loads from the environment, such as wind, tornado, earthquake, thermal forces,
earth pressure, and fluid pressure.

    .1       Live loads for buildings and other structures shall be those produced by the intended use
            or occupancy. In no case shall they be less man the minimum uniform load or concentrated
            load stipulated in ANSI/ASCE 7-88, or as required by the local building code, whichever
            is more stringent A minimum of 60 psf of hanging load shall be included for any central
            energy plant or major mechanical room where significant hanging loads are anticipated.

    .2       Live loads on roofs shall be as stipulated in ANSI/ASCE 7-88, or as required by local
            building codes, whichever is more stringent. They shall include the minimum roof live
            loads or the snow loads and snow drifts or possible rain loads stipulated therein,
            whichever produces the more severe effect  An allowance of 10 psf shall be included in
            the design of all roofs to allow for one re-roofing in the future.

    .3       In continuous framing and cantilever construction, the design shall consider live load on
            all spans and arrangements of partial live load that will produce maximum stresses in
            the supporting members.
                                   ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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7.1.3.4   SNOW LOADS
Shall be as calculated in compliance with the provisions of ANSI/ASCE 7-88, or as required by local
building codes, whichever is more stringent.

7.1.3.5   WIND LOADS
Wind load design for buildings and other structures shall be determined in accordance with procedures
in ANSI/ASCE 7-88, or local codes, whichever is more stringent, using the basic wind speed obtained
therein.

    .1       Exposure "C" as  defined in ANSI/ASCE  7-88 shall be used as a minimum for all
            construction  unless it can be shown that the necessary permanent shielding will be
            provided by natural terrain (not including shielding from trees or adjacent buildings).

    .2       To determine  the design wind loads,  all factors and  coefficients stipulated  in
            ANSI/ASCE  7-88  shall be applied to the site-specific basic wind speeds.

    .3       Building additions shall be designed as parts of a totally new building without regard to
            shielding  from the original building and without regard to lesser wind resistance for
            which the original building may  have been designed. The possibility mat the original
            portion of the building may require strengthening due to an increase in the wind loads
            acting on it shall be considered.

7.1.3.6   SEISMIC LOADS
Seismic load design for buildings and other structures shall be determined in accordance with the
requirements of local building codes. In the absence of local building code requirements the procedures
outlined in the latest edition of the BOCA National Building Code shall be used to calculate seismic
loads.

    .1       An independent review of the seismic design shall be made for buildings located in
            seismic zones 3 or 4 and which are  designated as essential for hazardous facilities. This
            review shall be performed by a registered structural engineer hired by the owner. The
            review shall  be made in. two stages, the first at the end of preliminary design and the
            second before final design is complete.

7.1.3.7   OTHER LOADS

    .1       Equipment supports shall be designed to avoid resonance resulting  from  the harmony
            between  the natural frequency of  the structure and the  operating  frequency of
            reciprocating or rotating; equipment (e.g. fume hood exhaust fans, vacuum pumps, etc.)
            supported on the structure.  The operating frequency of supported equipment shall be
            determined from manufacturer's data prior to completion of structural design. Resonance
            shall be prevented by designing equipment isolation supports to reduce the dynamic
            transmission of the applied load to as low a level as can be economically achieved in the
            design.
                                   ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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    .2       Every foundation or other wall serving as a retaining structure shall be designed to resist,
            in addition to the vertical loads acting on in, the incident lateral earth pressures and
            surcharges, plus  hydrostatic pressures corresponding to the maximum probable
            groundwater level.

    .3       Retaining walls shall be designed for earth pressures and potential groundwater levels
            producing the highest stresses and overturning moments.  When a water-pressure-relief
            system is incorporated into the design, only earth pressures need be considered. In
            cohesive soils, the long term consolidation effects on the stability of the walls shall be
            considered.  Lateral earth pressures shall be determined in accordance with accepted
            structural and geotechiucal engineering practice.

    .4       The design of structures shall include the effects of stresses and movements resulting from
            variations in temperature. The rise  and fall in the temperature shall be determined for
            the localities in which the structures are to be built. Structures shall be designed for
            movements resulting from the maximum seasonal temperature change.

    .5       Concrete  and masonry structures shall be investigated for stresses and deformations
            induced by creep and shrinkage. For  concrete and masonry structures, the minimum linear
            coefficient of shrinkage  shall be assumed  to be 0.0002 inch/inch, unless a detailed
            analysis is undertaken.  The theoretical shrinkage displacement shall be computed as
            the product of the linear coefficient and the length of the member.

    .6       The design professional shall  be responsible  to verify the requirements of and for
            installation of vibration  sensitive equipment in all laboratory areas. The structural
            system in laboratory areas shall be designed to accommodate and control specific high
            localized frequency loads and vibration inputs from the general building systems to these
            sensitive areas. There are five controls that need to be pursued:

    .6.1         Use of physical  separation  to keep powerful sources of vibration well  clear of the
                laboratory space.

    .6.2         Identification and isolation of particular services which involve running speeds close
                to the natural frequencies of the floor.

    .6.3         Identification and additional isolation of sources, which, although not matching the
                running  speed and primary  structural response frequencies, potentially produce
                sufficient vibration power to make excessive building response a threat.

    .6.4         Identification of powerful transient impulses from services (e.g., switching in/out),
                and appropriate attenuation where possible.

    .6.5         Providing structural stiffness to reduce the peak  acceleration responses due to
                footfall-induced vibration.
                                    ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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7.1.3.8    LOAD COMBINATIONS
Combination of loads, allowable stresses, and strength requirements for buildings and incidental
structures shall be as stipulated in the local governing building code.

7.1.4     STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS

7.1.4.1    FOUNDATIONS
The provisions of the local governing building code shall be the minimum requirements for foundation
design. The potential adverse effects of frost heave and movements due to expansive soils shall also be
considered in the design. For all structures the requirements of these design criteria shall be complied
with to determine subsurface conditions, recommended foundation type, allowable design soil bearing
pressure, seismic potential, and differential settlement.

   .1       Where concrete slab-on-grade construction is used, the slab shall be placed on a capillary
            water barrier overlying a compacted subgrade. A moisture retarder shall be used under
            the slab where moisture conditions warrant.  Excessive loads or equipment subject to
            vibration shall be supported by separate  pads isolated  from the rest of the floor slab
            with flexible joints.

7.1.4.2    FRAMING SYSTEMS
Buildings shall be framed to allow for simple formwork, fabrication, and construction procedures.
Structural systems shall be designed for ductile modes of failure to the extent feasible.

   .1       In the selection of a  particular framing  system, consideration shall be given to the
            structure's functional requirements, including:

   .1.1         Column-free areas

   .1.2         Floor-to-ceiling heights

   .1.3         Number of stories

   .1.4         Elevator, escalator, crane, or hoist installations

   .1.5         Heavy loads

   .1.6         Other particular requirements pertaining to the specific facility

   .2        For framed floors, the economy of prefabricated systems shall be considered, especially
             systems that simplify the installation of mechanical, electrical, and  communications
             services.
                                   ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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7.1.4.3   LATERAL LOAD RESISTING SYSTEMS
Provide lateral load resisting systems to resist the effects of wind, earthquake motions, thermal forces,
soil pressures and dynamic forces due to rotating, reciprocating or moving equipment Use systems
recognized by the local building code. In the absence of local building code criteria, use structural
systems recognized by the BOCA National Building Code for use in resisting seismic loads.

7.1.5     BUILDING MOVEMENT JOINTS

7.1.5.1   CONTROL JOINTS
Shall be provided in all materials subject to drying shrinkage. Control joint size and spacing shall be
based on a rational analysis.

7.1.5.2   EXPANSIONS JOINTS
Shall be provided in all materials subject to thermal expansion. Expansion joint size shall be based on a
rational analysis.

    .1       Building expansion joints shall be provided as recommended in the publication Expansion
            Joints in Buildings by the Federal Construction Council of the Building Research Advisory
            Board, in the absence of local building code requirements.

7.1.53   SEISMIC JOINTS
When seismic design is required, building expansion joints shall be seismic type. Buildings shall be
separated adequately to avoid contact during an earthquake which would damage the structural
systems of the buildings.

7.2      CONCRETE

7.2.1

7.2.1.1   DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
This section covers the design and construction of plain, reinforced, or prestressed concrete structures,
whether of cast-in-place or precast concrete construction. The requirements of this section shall be used
in conjunction with those of Structural Design Requirements.

7.2.1.2   CODES
Concrete materials, design, and construction for buildings and other structures shall comply with ACI
318 and local building codes.

7.2.2     CONCRETE FORMWORK

7.2^.1   FORMWORK
Formwork for concrete construction shall comply with ACI 347, ACI SP-4 and local building codes.
                                   ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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7.2.3    CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT

7.2.3.1   REINFORCEMENT MATERIALS
For buildings and other incidental structures shall comply with local building codes and ACI318.

7.2.3.2   REINFORCEMENT DETAILS
Shall comply with ACI 352R and Ad SP-66 in addition to ACI 318 and local building codes.

7.2.4    CAST-IN-PLACE CONCRETE:

7.2.4.1   GENERAL
This section covers the selection of materials, proportioning of mixes, mixing, placing, testing, and
quality control of cast-in-place concrete.

7.2.4.2   MATERIALS, TESTING, AND QUALITY CONTROL
Shall comply with AO 318 and local building codes.

7.2.4.3   TOLERANCES
Shall be as recommended in Ad 347.

7.2.4.4   SELECTING PROPORTIONS FOR CONCRETE MIXES
The selection of proportions for concrete mixes of normal weight concrete shall comply with AO 211.1.
The selection of proportions for structural lightweight concrete shall comply with AO 211.2.

7.2.4.5   MIXING, TRANSPORTING, AND PLACING
Shall comply with the recommendations of AO 304.

7.2.4.6   CLIMATIC CONSIDERATIONS
Hot weather concreting shall comply with the recommendations of AO 305R. Cold weather concreting
shall comply with the recommendations of AO 306R.

7.2.4.5   POST-TENSIONED CONCRETE
In addition to the provisions of other sections, the PTI Post-Tensioning Manual may be used for the
design and construction of post-tensioned concrete structures.

7.2.5    PRECAST/PRESTRESSED CONCRETE-STRUCTURAL

7.2.5.1   GENERAL
This section covers materials, design, and construction of precast, precast and prestressed, and precast
and post-tensioned structures. In addition to the requirements of other sections, precast concrete shall
comply with the PCI MNL-116.  PO MNL-120 and PTI Post-Tensioning Manual may also be used as
guides for the design and construction of precast concrete structures.
                                  ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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7.2.6    PRECAST / PRESTRESSED CONCRETE - ARCHITECTURAL

7.2.6.1   GENERAL
This section covers materials, design, and construction of architectural precast ,  and architectural
precast and prestressed concrete members.  In addition to the requirements of other sections,
architectural precast members shall comply with the PCI MNL-117.

7.2.7    CEMENTITIOUS DECKS FOR BUILDINGS

7.2.7.1   GENERAL
This section covers materials, design, and construction of cementitious decks for building structures and
prefabricated floor and roof systems such as:

    .1      Lightweight precast reinforced concrete planks

    .2      Lightweight precast reinforced concrete channel slabs

    .3      Reinforced gypsum planks

    .4      Structural cement fiber roof deck systems

    .5      Reinforced poured gypsum over formboard roof systems

7.2.7.2   MATERIALS, DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
The materials, design, and construction of cementitious decks for buildings shall comply with the
requirements of local building codes and the manufacturer's recommendations. In the event of a conflict
between the local building code and the manufacturer's recommendations, the more stringent shall
apply.

7.2.8    REPAIR AND RESTORATION OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES

7.2.8.1   GENERAL
This section covers the  evaluation of damage or deterioration, selection of repair methods, surface
preparation, and repair and restoration of concrete structures.  The material covered are portland
cement mortars and concretes, latex-modified portland cement mortar, epoxy mortars, epoxy concrete, or
methyl methacrylate concrete.

7.2.8.2   METHODS, PROCEDURES, AND MATERIALS
Methods, procedures, and materials for the repair and restoration of concrete structures shall comply
with guidelines ACI 503.4 and ACI 546.1R.

7.2.9    CONCRETE INSPECTION AND TESTING
Shall comply with requirements of local building codes and ACI 318.
                                  ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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7.3       MASONRY

7.3.1     GENERAL REQUIREMENTS!

7.3.1.1   DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
This section covers the design and construction of masonry structures. It shall apply to unit masonry
construction, reinforced and unreinforced, using cement, day, and stone products, and including brick,
block, and tile structures.  The requirements of this section shall be used in conjunction with those of
other sections.

7.3.1.2   MATERIAL, DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
Materials, design, and construction of masonry structures shall comply with the requirements of local
building codes. The following sources may also be used as guides for the design of masonry structures:

    .1       ACI531

    .2       ACI 531.1

    .3       NCMA TR 75B

    .4       BIA Building Code Requirements for Engineered Brick Masonry.

7.3.2     MORTAR AND GROUT

7.3.2.1   GENERAL
Requirements for materials, mixing, strength, and specifications for  mortar and grout for masonry
structures shall comply with local building codes.

7.3.2.2   MORTAR
Shall be designed to perform the following functions:

    .1       Join masonry units into an integral structure

    .2       Create tight seals between masonry units to prevent the entry of air and moisture

    .3       Bond with steel joint reinforcement, metal ties and anchor bolts, where used, so that they
            act integrally with the masonry

    .4       Provide a desired architectural  quality to exposed masonry structures through color
            contrasts or shadow line from various joint-tooling procedures

    .5       Compensate for size variations  in the units by providing a bed  to  accommodate the
            tolerance of unit sizes
                                   ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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7.3.2.3   GROUT
Shall be used in reinforced load-bearing masonry construction to bond the masonry units and the
reinforcing steel so that they act together to resist the imposed loads.  It may also be used in
unreinf orced load-bearing masonry construction to give it added strength.

7.3.3    UNIT MASONRY

7.3.3.1   MATERIALS, DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
Materials, design, and construction of masonry units shall be in accordance with the requirements of
General Requirements.

7.3.4    MASONRY ACCESSORIES

7.3.4.1   CODES AND SPECIFICATIONS
Joint reinforcement, anchors, ties and wire fabric shall comply with the following:

   .1       Local building codes
   .2       Ad 530.1

7.3.5    REINFORCED MASONRY

7.3.5.1   CODES AND SPECIFICATIONS
Design and construction of reinforced masonry shall comply with the following:

   .1       Local building codes
   .2       ACI 530
   .3       ACI 530.1

7.3.6    MASONRY INSPECTION AND TESTING
Inspection and testing of unit masonry, grout, mortar reinforcing and accessories shall comply with the
following:

   .1       Local building codes
   .2       ACI 530.1

7.4     METALS



7.4.1.1   DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
This section covers the design and construction of steel and aluminum structures. The requirements of
this section shall be used in conjunction with those of other sections.
                                  ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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7.4.2    STRUCTURAL STEEL

7.4.2.1   CODE AND STANDARDS
Structural steel for buildings and other incidental structures shall comply with the following:

   .1       Local building codes

   .2       AISC M016orMO15L

7.4.3    STEELJOISTS

7.4.3.1   CODES AND SPECIFICATIONS
Steel joist and joist girders shall comply with the following:

   .1       Local building codes

   .2       Steel Joist Institute Standard Specifications Load Tables & Weight Tables for Steel Joists
            & Joist Girders

7.43.2   INTENDED USE
Steel joists shall not be used for wind bracing, nor other types of bracing. They shall be used only as
vertical load carrying members supporting floor and roof decks.

7.4.3.3   SUPPORT OF VIBRATING EQUIPMENT
Steel joists shall not  be used to  support air conditioning,  air handling or any type of vibrating
equipment. Steel joists serving as floor joists and roof purlins shall not have bracing members attached
to them which would transmit vibrations from vibrating equipment  into the steel joists and/or
structural diaphragms.

7.4.4    STEEL DECKS

7.4.4.1   STEEL DECKS SHALL COMPLY WITH THE FOLLOWING

   .1       Local building codes

   .2       Steel Deck Institute Publication 20

   .3       Steel Deck Institute Publication DDM01.

7.4.5     MISCELLANEOUS METAL!*

7.4.5.1    DEFINITION
Miscellaneous metals  shall be all ferrous and non-ferrous metals other than structural steel as defined
in the AISC Code of Standard Practice.
                                   ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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7.4.6     LIGHT GAGE STEEL

7.4.6.1   CODES AND SPECIFICATIONS
Light gage steel shall comply with the following:

    .1       Local building codes

    .2       AISI Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members.

7.4.7     PRE-ENGINEERED METAL BUILDINGS

7.4.7.1
Pre-engineered metal buildings shall comply with:

    .1       Local building codes

    .2       MBMA Metal Building Systems Manual

7.4.7.2   LOADS
Where the use of the design loadings specified in these design criteria, would prevent procurement of
pre-engineered metal buildings, consideration may be given to deviate from said loadings.  Such
considerations shall be based on an evaluation as to whether such deviations would tend to jeopardize
personnel and/or material safety, on review of the type of occupancy and functional requirements of the
particular building and  on  a determination as  to whether such deviation could be justified and
permissible in accordance with local building codes.

7.4.8     STRUCTURAL STEEL INSPECTION AND TESTING

7.4.8.1   INSPECTION
Structural steel inspection shall be as required by:

    .1       Local building codes

    .2       AISC Manual of Steel Construction
END OF SECTION
                                  ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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                 SECTION 8




MECHANICAL REQUIREMENTS

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Mechanical Requirements                                             Page     8-1



                                      SECTION 8

                          MECHANICAL REQUIREMENTS
8.1      GENERAL
The design professional shall be responsible for insuring that all mechanical systems conform to the
requirements of this solicitation and that all systems are installed and operating in accordance with
all governing codes, ordinances, regulations and the latest edition of publications and as set forth
below. The design professional is responsible for the design of all mains, lines, meters, etc., required for
utility services.  The building air conditioning, heating and ventilation systems shall provide a safe
and suitable environment to satisfy both occupants and functional operation of the facility.

8.1.1     HVAC REQUIREMENTS
The design professional shall provide a heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system that
will satisfy the requirements indicated in this document. Mechanical systems shall not use CFC or
HCFC-22.

8.1.1.1   GENERAL
The design professional shall evaluate building HVAC systems and sub-systems and select major
HVAC equipment components based on a consideration of health and safety requirements, initial costs,
operating costs, and maintenance costs.  A Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA), using a nationally
recognized computer program, shall be performed to select the most cost effective HVAC system.

8.1.1.2   SELECTION PROCEDURE
HVAC equipment shall be sized to satisfy the building and cooling load requirements and to meet all
equipment design and selection criteria contained in the ASHRAE Fundamentals handbook, ASHRAE
Equipment handbook, ASHRAE Systems handbook, ASHRAE Applications handbook, and ASHRAE
Refrigeration handbook.

8.1.1.3   INSIDE DESIGN TEMPERATURES
Environmental design  temperatures and relative humidities for special space uses other than those
listed here shall be designated in the project criteria.

   .1       When space cooling is required, the inside design temperature (the design values are not
            necessarily the same as the operational values) to maintain personnel comfort  shall be
            78ฐF dry bulb unless otherwise indicated by project criteria.  The  relative humidity shall
            be 50%. Summer humidification shall not be provided for personnel comfort.  Cooling
            systems shall be designed to maintain space relative humidity conditions through the
            normal  cooling process and should not have controls to limit  the maximum relative
            humidity unless system type or project-specific criteria dictate.
                                  ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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   .2       The inside design wintertime temperature (the design values are not necessarily the same
            as the operational values} for personnel comfort shall be 72ฐF dry bulb unless otherwise
            indicted here or directed by  other project-specific criteria.   The following design
            temperatures shall be used for the space usages indicated in Table 8.1.1.3. - INSIDE
            DESIGN TEMPERATURES.

   TABLE 8.1.13 - INSIDE DESIGN TEMPERATURES
       TEMPERATURE (Fdb)                     SPACE

       As indicated by project criteria               Storage (unoccupied)

              55ฐ                                Storage (occupied)
              50ฐ                                Warehouses
              60ฐ                                Kitchens
              65ฐ                                Laundries
              65ฐ                                Shops (high work activity)
              70ฐ                                Toilets
              75ฐ                                Change Rooms (heating only when occupied)

       As indicated by project criteria               Specialty Rooms (i.e. labs, dean rooms etc.)
    .3       Except where it can be substantiated from recordings or engineering computations that the
            inside relative humidity will be less man 30 percent, winter humidification for personnel
            comfort and health shall not be  provided.   Where such conditions have  been
            substantiated, a design relative humidity of 30 percent shall be used in establishing
            minimum humidification equipment requirements.

8.1.1.4   OUTSIDE DESIGN TEMPERATURES
The design professional shall design the HVAC system equipment using outside design temperatures as
indicated in Table 8.1.1.4 - OUTSIDE DESIGN CONDITIONS for the particular application.  The
percentage dry bulb (db) and wet bulb (wb) temperatures refer to the sources of tabulated weather data
described below.  Where data for a particular location are not listed, design conditions shall be
estimated from data available at nearby weather stations or by interpolation between stations, taking
into account elevation and other local conditions affecting design data. Weather data for use in sizing
HVAC equipment shall be obtained from one or more of the following:

    .1       Local weather station

    .2       AFM 88-29

    .3       ASHRAE Fundamentals handbook
                                   ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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Mechanical Requirements                                             Page      8-3
   TABLE 8.1.1.4 - OUTSIDE DESIGN CONDITIONS
   WINTER         SUMMER                      APPLICATION

   99% db            1% db and mean                 Process, laboratory and  other uses
                     coincident wb                   where close temperature and humidity
                                                    control is required by project criteria.

   97-1/2% db        2-1/2% db mean                 Personnel comfort systems
                     coincident wb

   	              l%wb                         Cooling   towers*  and  research,
                                                    technical-type systems

   	              l%dbplus5ฐF                   Air-cooled condensers*

   Temperature should be verified by actual site conditions
8.1.1.5   EQUIPMENT SIZING
The capacity of central heating, refrigeration, and ventilation equipment shall be sized for the peak
block building or the maximum simultaneous zone heating and cooling design loads and in accordance
with the ASHRAE Fundamentals handbook. The equipment shall not be sized for future additional
capacity nor redundancy unless indicated in project-specific criteria. Individual zone equipment shall
be sized according to the peak zone load.

8.1.1.6   EVAPORATIVE / ADIABATIC COOLING
In locations where a wide variation exists between the dry and wet bulb temperatures for extended
periods of time, evaporative/adiabatic cooling shall be considered for the applications listed below.
Selection  of cooler types shall depend on the system configuration, user experience, and LCCA.  All
evaporative coolers shall maintain a positive water-bleed and water-makeup system for control of
mineral buildup.

   .1       Applications that shall be considered include warehouses, shops not requiring close (plus
            or minus 5ฐF) temperature control, non-residential size kitchens, makeup air ventilation
            units, and mechanical equipment spaces.

   .2       Air duct design, number and location of coolers, and relief of the higher rate of air supply
            to the atmosphere shall be considered to ensure a satisfactory operating  system. Multi-
            stage evaporative cooling systems shall also be considered.
                                  ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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   .3       Indoor design dry bulb temperatures for spaces air-conditioned by adiabatic cooling
            systems shall be as specified by project-specific criteria. Design operating efficiency of
            adiabatic cooling equipment shall be a minimum of 70 percent System-installed capacity
            shall be based on the conditioned space peak design cooling load.  An arbitrary air-
            change rate for design air flow shall not be used. Adiabatic cooler specifications shall be
            stated  in  terms of the air capacity and the entering  ambient dry and wet  bulb
            temperatures and leaving dry bulb temperature.

8.1.1.7   VENTILATION- EXHAUST SYSTEMS
The design professional shall select ventilation-exhaust systems for the effective removal of noxious
odors, hazardous gases, vapors, fumes, dusts, mists, and excessive heat and for the provision of fresh au-
to occupants. The design criteria contained in this section shall be followed in determining the required
air quantity and quality for ventilation and exhaust systems.

   .1       The use of exhaust stack(s) shall be considered to provide dispersion  and preclude
            exhaust-to-intake return of air to this or an adjacent facility.  Local weather and site
            conditions along with guidance found  in ASHRAE Fundamentals shall be used to
            determine requirements.

   .2       Areas from which air shall not be recirculated include areas that produce or emit dust
            particles, heat, odors, fumes, spray, gases, smoke, or other contaminants that cannot be
            sufficiently treated and could be potentially injurious to health and safety of personnel or
            are potentially damaging to equipment These areas shall be 100-percent exhausted (e.g.
            fume hood exhausts). Project criteria shall indicate other areas of non-redrculation.

   .3       Rest rooms, janitor's closets,  garbage rooms, and other malodorous  spaces shall be
            exhausted at a rate of not less  than 50 cfm per water closet and/or urinal as specified in
            ASHRAE  Standard 62, or local building codes, whichever  is the more stringent,
            regardless of any other calculated ventilation requirements.  Space ventilation air from
            adjacent spaces should be: used as the ventilation supply air for the 100-percent exhausted
            spaces, as long as:

   .3.1        Ventilation by this method does not violate any requirements of NFPA 90A, NFPA
               101, or special space pressurization requirements.

   .3.2        The air supplied is not potentially more hazardous than the  air from the space
               exhausted.

   .3.3        Adjacent spaces are not  laboratory or specialty spaces requiring  once-through
               ventilation.
                                   ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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   .4       Industrial-type facilities and laboratories shall be provided with ventilation (supply
            and exhaust) systems as required for heat exposure control, or dilution ventilation.
            Ventilation air shall be provided in the quantities required to maintain OSHA air
            quality limits.  Design air quantities and transport  velocities shall be calculated
            according to the calculation methods prescribed by the ASHRAE Systems handbook, the
            ASHRAE Applications handbook, the ACGIH Industrial Ventilation Manual, and NFPA
            45.

   .5       Design  professionals shall  comply with ASHRAE  Applications  Chapter  14,
            "Laboratories," when designing laboratories and laboratory buildings except where EPA
            standards are more stringent. Makeup air shall be provided in the quantities required to
            maintain required positive or negative room static pressure requirements and to offset
            local exhaust air quantities. Makeup air shall be tempered.

8.1.1.8   EQUIPMENT ROOM VENTILATION
Mechanical and electrical equipment rooms shall be exhausted so that room temperature does not
exceed NEMA equipment ratings.   The project criteria shall provide the space temperature limit
criterion.  Where mechanical ventilation cannot maintain a satisfactory environment, evaporative
cooling systems (indirect evaporative cooling for electrical rooms) or other mechanical cooling systems
shall be provided. Exhaust air openings should be located adjacent to heat-producing equipment to
minimize ambient thermal loads.

   .1       Thermostatic controls shall be used to operate the ventilation or exhaust systems.

   .2       Equipment rooms containing refrigeration equipment shall be ventilated in accordance
            with ASHRAE Standard 15.

   .3       Combustion air for fuel-burning appliances and equipment shall be provided directly from
            the outside to all equipment rooms with this type of equipment in accordance with BOCA
            Basic/National Mechanical Code.

8.1.1.9   WASTE HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEMS
Energy conservation-waste heat recovery systems shall be considered and designed according to the
procedures outlined in specific chapters of the ASHRAE Fundamentals handbook, the  ASHRAE
Systems handbook, the ASHRAE Applications handbook, ASHRAE Equipment handbook, ASHRAE
Refrigeration handbook, and the SMACNA Energy Recovery Equipment and Systems Manual. The
following types of heat-recovery systems shall be considered for incorporation into the building HVAC
system design where applicable.

   .1 .      Use of rotary heat exchanger, heat pipe, or coil run-around systems for heating and air-
            conditioning air handling systems.

   .2       Recovery of rejected heat from the condenser systems of central station cooling equipment
            for use in heating  the remainder of the  building when the central station cooling
            equipment must operate during the heating season to cool computer rooms, high internal
            gain areas, or process requirements.
                                  ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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    .3       Use of thermal heat from the condenser systems of continuously operated refrigeration
            equipment for space heating or domestic hot water heating.

    .4       Use of a free cooling system using cooling tower water (water side economizer) when air-
            side economizer systems are not feasible.

    .5       Use of a heat pump run-around loop.

8.1.2     ENERGY EFFICIENCY
After careful study of the facility's requirements as well as day-to-day operation of its various
departments, the design professional shall design systems that meet the operating requirements in an
energy efficient manner.  The health and safety aspects of the operation must retain first priority,
however, and cannot be relaxed or traded off for more efficient systems. The design professional shall
also contact the local utility companies to investigate the system dollar credits for load shifting to off-
peak times.

8.1.3     LABORATORY

8.13.1   GENERAL
Laboratory spaces shall  be designed with 100% outside air (OSA) ventilation systems.  In no
circumstances will the air supplied to any laboratory space be reciiculated to any other space.

8.1.3.2   LABORATORY PRESSURIZATION
Laboratory spaces shall be designed to maintain a relative pressurization level to other common spaces
appropriate to the type of work performed in each laboratory and negative to the laboratory corridor.
In general,  biology  and chemistry  laboratories shall be maintained with  a relative negative
pressurization to  common spaces to ensure containment of odors and contaminants.  Levels  of
pressurization shall be project specific

8.1.4     ENERGY MANAGEMENT CONTROL SYSTEMS

8.1.4.1   GENERAL
This section covers safety and operating controls, automatic temperature and humidity controls, energy
monitoring and (central supervisory) control systems, energy conservation requirements for controls, and
zoning requirements and restrictions.

    .1       Special control requirements shall be indicated in the project-specific criteria. Selection
            of control system types and associated equipment, shall be based on the most economical
            and  maintainable system.

    .2       Control air compressors shall be duplex non-lubricated type with oil lubricated crankcase
            and  distance piece. Air shall be filtered and dried using refrigerated air dryers for dew
            point of 15ฐF and regenerative silica type for dew point below 15ฐF.
                                   ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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    .3       Copper piping shall be used for high pressure air in inaccessible locations (plastic piping
            may be used if installed in conduit). Air leakage shall not exceed 5 percent of pressure in
            24 hours. Transmitters shall be capable of field calibration and thermometers or pressure
            gauge ports shall be provided at transmitters.  All controllers and thermostats shall be
            pilot-bleed type.

8.1.4.2   ZONING
Zoning for automatic control of space temperatures, static pressures, humidities, ventilation, smoke and
fire detection shall satisfy health and safety requirements as indicated in the project criteria. Zoning
requirements are as follows:

    .1       Automatic controls shall be provided to shut off heating or cooling to any individual zone
            or central air handling unit

    .2       Interior zones shall not be combined with external zones if feasible.

    .3       Interior space zones shall be placed on separate air handling systems from external, if
            cost effective. External space zones shall be selected for each individual exposure.

8.1.4.3   CONTROL SETBACK AND SHUTOFF DEVICES
With the exception of research, process, or other environmentally sensitive spaces identified by the
project criteria as requiring constant year-round temperature or humidity control, automatic control
setback and shutdown devices with manual override feature shall be provided for all HVAC systems.
Use of separate or dual setting thermostats, switches, time clocks, or connections for on/off control
through the Energy Management System (EMS) shall be considered for control of air-conditioning to
raise cooling setpoint with humidity override during summer unoccupied periods and to control the
heating setpoint during winter unoccupied periods.

8.1.4.4   HUMIDITY CONTROL
Summer and winter space or zone humidity control shall be provided only on a space-by-space or zone-
by-zone basis and not for the entire central  ventilation system unless required for project-specific
humidity requirements as stated in the project criteria. No controls shall be provided to dehumidify
spaces to below 50-percent relative space humidity or to humidify spaces to greater than 30-percent
relative space humidity unless required on a project-specific basis.

8.1.4.5   SIMULTANEOUS HEATING AND COOLING
Simultaneous heating and cooling  shall not be used to control comfort conditions within a space by
reheating or re-cooling supply air or by concurrent operation of independent heating and cooling systems
serving a common zone except under the following conditions.

    .1       Renewable energy sources are used to control temperature or humidity.

    .2       Project-specific temperature, humidity, or ventilation conditions require simultaneous
            heating or cooling to prevent space relative humidity from rising above special-space
            relative humidity requirements.
                                   ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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   .3       Project-specific building construction constraints as determined in the project criteria
            prohibit installation of other types of HVAC systems.

8.1.4.6   MECHANICAL VENTILATION CONTROL
All supply, return, and exhaust ventilation systems shall be equipped with automatic and manual
control of fan operation to shut off the fan when ventilation is not required. These systems shall also be
provided with manual gravity-operated or automatic control of dampers for outside air intake and
exhaust or relief to prevent introduction of outside air when ventilation is not required.  Systems that
circulate air shall be provided with minimum outdoor air damper position control to assure that the
minimum outdoor air quantity is being introduced to the system. Unless required by life safety or the
specific project criteria, automatic dampers should fail open for return air and fail closed for outside
air.

8.1.4.7   ECONOMIZER CYCLE
Where feasible, all air handling systems that recirculate air and are used for space cooling shall be
designed to automatically use outside air quantities up to 100 percent of the fan system capacity for
cooling the space.  Economizer cycle  control shall not be used for air handling systems where
introduction of the additional outside air would actually increase energy consumption.

   .1       The economizer cycle control system shall have a reset feature.

   .2       The economizer cycle control system shall be designed with a relief air control cycle to
            positively relieve  the supply air from the space by sequencing return or relief fans or
            dampers to maintain a constant room static pressure. Systems using the economizer cycle
            should be provided with adequate air filtration to handle the quality of the outside air.

8.1.4.8   AUTOMATIC CONTROL DAMPERS
Automatic air control dampers shall be  specified to be the low-leakage type with a maximum leakage
of 6 CFM/square foot at maximum system velocity of 1500 FPM and 1-inch pressure differential as per
AMCA Standard 500. The dampers shall be opposed-blade type for modulating  control, but may be
parallel-blade type for two position control.  Pilot positioners and operators shall be out of airstream.

8.1.4.9   VARIABLE - AIR - VOLUME  SYSTEM FAN CONTROL
Variable-air-volume systems shall be  designed with control  devices to sense  ductwork static air
pressure  and velocity air pressure, and  control supply fan airflow and static  pressure output through
modulation of variable inlet vanes inlet/discharge dampers, scroll dampers, bypass dampers, variable
pitch blades or variable  frequency  electric drive controls as described in ASHRAE  Applications
Chapter 41 and ASHRAE Systems and Equipment Chapter 18. These control systems shall have a
minimum of one static pressure sensor mounted in ductwork downstream of the fan and one static pressure
controller to vary fan output either through inlet vane, damper, belt modulator, or speed  control.
Exhaust  fans,  supply fans, and return or  relief fans shall have control devices that interface the
operation of the fans to "track" air  volumes and maintain fixed minimum outdoor air ventilation
requirements.
                                   ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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8.1.4.10   FIRE AND SMOKE DETECTION AND PROTECTION CONTROLS
All air handling systems shall be provided with the smoke and fire protection controls required by
NFPA 101, and 90A.

   .1       All supply, return, relief, and exhaust air ventilation systems shall have interlock
            controls that interface with fire and smoke detection system controls and either turn off or
            selectively operate fans and dampers to prevent the spread of smoke and fire throughout
            the building.  These controls shall comply with NFPA 90A.

   .2       Special exhaust systems shall be designed to include fire and smoke safety controls as
            required by NFPA 91.  Kitchen exhaust ductwork systems shall be designed to include all
            fire and smoke safety controls as required by NFPA 96.

   .3       Engineered smoke pressurization and evacuation systems shall  comply with the
            following:

   .3.1         NFPA 90A

   .3.2         NFPA 72E

   .3.3         ASHRAE Manual, Design of Smoke Control Systems for Buildings

   .3.4         ASHRAE Systems handbook

   .4       Special hazard protection systems that initiate an alarm shall be in accordance with the
            EPA's Facility Safety Manual Chapter 6, paragraphs 16.c.(6) and (7)

8.1.4.11   GAS-FIRED AIR HANDLING UNIT CONTROL
Gas-fired air handling units  shall be specified with operating limit, safety controls, and combustion
control systems.  Gas burner and combustion controls shall comply with FM Loss Prevention Data Sheets
and be listed in the FM Approval Guide.  Gas-fired air handling units shall be specified with controls
to lock out the gas supply in the following conditions:

   .1       Main or pilot flame failure

   .2       Unsafe discharge temperature (high-limit)

   .3       High or low gas pressure

   .4       No proof of air flow over heat exchanger

   .5       Combustion air loss

   .6       Loss of control system actuating energy
                                  ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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8.1.4.12  ZONE CONTROL / DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONTROL
Each zone or air handling system shall be designed with individual terminal unit valved control. Use
of either two-way or three-way valves shall be considered based on part-load pump performance
requirements and potential pump bhp savings.

    .1       Water systems that vary the load to the terminal by varying water flow rates using two-
            way control valves shall be provided with differential pressure controls to reduce system
            pressure build-up and save  energy. These controls shall either signal control valves to
            route water flow around terminal devices, signal variable-speed pumping controls to
            reduce pump speed, or turn off one or several pumps working in parallel or series.

8.1.4.13  CONTROL VALVE SELECTION
Temperature control valves shall be either two-way or three-way, two-position or proportioning-type
valves. Control valves shall be sized for a 3 to 5 psi pressure differential across the valve or a pressure
differential of 50 percent of the combined branch piping and coil pressure drop, whichever is greater.
Control valves shall use either pneumatic, electric, electronic, or self-contained controllers. Valves in
cooling and heating systems shall be fail-safe. Valve operators shall be selected to close against pump
shutoff head for two-way valves.

8.1.4.14  TWO - PIPE AND THREE - PIPE COMBINATION HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS
Fan coil terminal devices with one coil shall have their control valves operated by a room or coil
discharge temperature thermostat  that can change from summer to winter operation.  Air handling
units with heating and cooling coils shall have  their control valves controlled by normal sequences of
operation, but shall be provided with two-position  control valves in the piping entering each coil to
prevent hot water from entering the cooling coil and chilled water from entering the heating coil and to
sequence on/off and summer and winter operation.

    .1       If the two or three-pipe water distribution system is not provided with heat exchangers
            to isolate  the boilers and chillers from the distribution system, a control system using
            three-way control valves to control and route water around the source devices shall be
            designed to prevent hot water from entering the chiller and cold water from entering the
            boiler during the changeover periods from heating to cooling systems.

8.1.4.15  LOAD CONTROL FOR HOT WATER SYSTEMS
The temperature of hot water for building heating systems shall be controlled by a supply temperature
sensor that modulates the boiler operating controls. If feasible, the supply delivery temperature shall
be reset based on either the temperature outside, lowering the delivery temperature as the outdoor air
temperature rises and raising the delivery temperature as the outdoor air temperature falls, or
preferably discriminator logic from the control devices.
                                   ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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8.1.4.16  LOAD CONTROL FOR CHILLED WATER SYSTEMS
Central station cooling equipment producing chilled water shall be controlled by a signal from a sensor
mounted in the  return chilled water piping or preferably the leaving chilled water piping that
modulates the chiller to control capacity.  Central station cooling equipment shall be provided with
controls to limit the current draw of the cooling equipment in periods of high electrical demand.

    .1       When appropriate, additional controls and sensors may be added to the central chilled
            water system to provide chilled water to laboratory equipment which may require it.
            Additionally, provisions for emergency chilled water to laboratory equipment may be
            required.

8.1.4.17  COOLING TOWER AND WATER - COOLED CONDENSER SYSTEM CONTROLS
Cooling tower fans shall be designed with consideration for variable speed drives (if feasible) or two-
speed motors (if feasible) and on/off controls to reduce power consumption and maintain condenser water
temperature.  Bypass valve control shall be  provided if required to mix cooling tower water with
condenser water to maintain the temperature of entering condenser water at the low limit. Condenser
water temperature shall be allowed to float to decrease compressor horsepower as long as  the
temperature remains above a lower limit required by the chiller.  The design shall provide basin
temperature sensing devices and, if the cooling tower is operated during freezing conditions, additional
heat and control system components to maintain cooling tower sump water temperatures above freezing.

    .1       When appropriate, additional controls and sensors may be added to the condenser water
            system to provide condenser water to laboratory equipment which may require it.
            Additionally, provisions for emergency condenser water to laboratory equipment may be
            required.

8.1.4.18  CONTROL OF STEAM SYSTEMS
Each zone air handler, heating coil, and individual terminal unit shall be controlled using  two-way
control valves that actuate either  electrically, pneumatically, or through use of self-contained liquid
or wax-filled sensing elements.  These control valves shall modulate the steam flow to the coil or
terminal unit based on space temperature or coil discharge temperature preset by zone temperature
requirements.  Steam pressure and temperature control valves shall be selected according to  the
requirements in ASHRAE handbooks.

8.1.4.19  ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS (EMS)
Central EMSs shall be provided where feasible.  If cost effective, an EMS shall be combined with
integral fire and smoke detection supervisory systems and lighting control systems.  An EMS shall be
specified with the capability to connect to additional building utility systems.  When an EMS is
contemplated for the future, other building system controls and instrumentation shall be selected that
will allow for simple future interfacing.
                                   ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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8.1.4.20   ENERGY METERING
In facilities where the expected energy consumption is expected to exceed 500 million BTU per year, the
design professional shall design energy metering systems for all electric, gas, oil, and water incoming
utilities that can be monitored and trended by the Energy Management System (EMS). Sub-metering of
utilities to various buildings or equipment shall be based on project criteria or sound engineering
judgement

8.1.5     HEATING, VENTILATING, AND AIR - CONDITIONING SYSTEMS (HVAQ

8.1.5.1   GENERAL
Selection of central station cooling systems shall be based on the LCC analysis procedures.  Size,
selection and design shall be based on ASHRAE Fundamentals handbook, ASHRAE Systems handbook,
ASHRAE Applications handbook, and ASHRAE Equipment handbook.  Refrigeration equipment shall
comply with ARI520, ARI550, and ARI590. The number and size of central station cooling units shall
be based on the annual estimated partial-load operation of the plant to assure the most economical
operation.

    .1       The project design criteria shall provide direction on installed standby chiller capacity.
            Wherever possible, the central station chilled water equipment shall be designed into
            the chilled  water distribution systems as part  of a primary-secondary loop system
            maintaining chilled water inlet temperature below a maximum predetermined value,
            preferably with the central station cooling equipment as a secondary portion of the loop.

    .2       Temperature-critical areas, as determined by project criteria, such as laboratories and
            computer centers, shall be provided with independent refrigeration systems with backup
            systems if involved with, vital programs. The design professional shall consider use of
            off-peak cooling systems in areas having high electric peak demand charges.

8.1.5.2   WATER CHILLERS
The selection of either centrifugal, reciprocating, helical, rotary-screw, absorption, or steam-powered
chillers shall be considered based on coefficients of performance at full load and part-load conditions
using the LCCA methods.  The LCCA shall also consider chilled water and condenser water system
pumping energy burdens as part of the evaluation. Compression refrigeration machines shall be
designed with the safety controls, relief valves, and rupture disks noted below and in compliance with
the procedures prescribed by ASHRAE Standard 15 and UL 207.

    .1       Controls shall at a minimum include:

    .1.1          High discharge refrigerant pressure cutout switch

    .1.2          Low evaporator refrigerant pressure or temperature cutout switch

    .1.3          High and low oil pressure switches

    .1.4          Chilled water flow interlock switch

    .1.5          Condenser water flow interlock switch (on water cooled equipment)
                                   ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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Mechanical Requirements                                               Page     8-13
    .1.6         Chilled water low temperature cutout switch

    .2       Centrifugal compressors shall be designed to operate with inlet control or variable speed
            control for capacity modulation.  Units shall be capable of modulating to 10 percent of
            design capacity without surge.  Reciprocating compressors shall be designed for capacity
            control by cylinder unloading.  Design using hot gas bypass control of compressors for
            capacity modulation shall not be used except when capacity modulation is required below
            10 percent of rated  load. Compressor motors for refrigeration equipment shall be selected
            in compliance with all requirements of the NEC.

    .3       Absorption refrigeration machines shall at a minimum be provided with the following
            safety controls:

    .3.1         Condenser water flow switch

    .3.2         Chilled water flow switch

    .3.3         Evaporation refrigerant level switch

    .3.4         Generator high temperature limit switch (gas-fired units)

    .3.5         Generator shell bursting disc (high temperature water or steam)

    .3.6         Concentration limit controls

    .4       Liquid coolers (evaporators) shall be designed to meet design pressure, material, welding,
            testing and relief requirements of ASHRAE Standard 15 and ASME Boiler and Pressure
            Vessel Code, Section Vffl.  The design professional shall select evaporators according to
            the requirements of ASHRAE Standard 24-78.

8.1.5.3   CONDENSERS / CONDENSING UNITS
Water cooled Condensers shall  comply with ASHRAE Standard  15 and ASME Boiler and Pressure
Vessel code, Section VIIL Water-cooled condenser shell and tube types shall be designed and specified
with removable heads, if available, to allow tube cleaning. The use  of marine water boxes on the
condenser shall be considered for  ease of tube cleaning.

    .1       Air-cooled condensers and condensing units shall meet the standard, rating and testing
            requirements of ARI460 and ASHRAE Standard 20.  The design professional shall locate
            air-cooled condenser intakes away from any obstructions that will restrict the air flow.
            Air-cooled equipment shall be located away from noise-sensitive areas, and air-cooled
            condensers shall have refrigerant low head pressure control to maintain satisfactory
            operation during light loading.
                                   ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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                        Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                      Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities
Mechanical Requirements                                               Page     8-14
8.1.5.4   COOLING TOWERS
The design professional shall locate and place cooling towers to avoid problems with water drift and
deposition of water treatment chemicals.  Cooling  towers shall have ample clearance from any
obstructions that would restrict air flow, cause recirculation of discharge air, or inhibit maintenance.

   .1       The design professional shall specify cooling tower acceptance and factory rating tests
            conducted in accordance with dl Bulletin ATC-105.

   .2       An automatic-controlled water bleed shall be designed for all cooling towers. A cooling
            tower water treatment program should be selected by a specialist

   .3       Cooling towers shall be specified with sump water heating systems if they will operate
            during freezing weather conditions.

8.1.5.5   BUILDING HEATING SYSTEMS
This section applies to heat-generating equipment or heat-transfer equipment and accessories located in
individual buildings. The project criteria shall direct the design professional regarding factors to be
considered in the selection of heating  system capacity, including redundancy, future expansion or
building modification, thermal storage  or solar assistance, or other project-specific considerations.  If
maintaining building design temperature is critical, the design professional shall design for a "stand
alone" heating system with backup capability with no dependence on other facility systems.

   .1       Where buildings are connected to the central plant heat generation/distribution system,
            one of the following shall  be provided:

   .1.1         Steam-to-building hot water heat exchanger.

   .1.2         HTW-to-building hot water heat exchanger.

   .1.3         Steam-pressure-reducing station.

   .2      For space heating by hot water, conversion of the central heating plant steam or HTW
            shall be made to provide a maximum 200ฐF heating-water supply temperature to serve
            the building terminal units.  For space heating by steam, the building steam supply shall
            be reduced to 15 psig unless a higher supply is required for process requirements. For
            process-related  or other high temperature requirements, the project criteria shall
            indicate the capacities  and temperate and pressure requirements.  For facilities with a
            central plant condensate return system, a condensate receiver with duplex pumps shall be
            specified.  Steam-to-hot water or  HTW-to-building  heating water converters shall be
            selected based on design criteria contained in ASHRAE Systems handbook, ASHRAE
            Applications handbook and ASHRAE Equipment handbook.
                                   ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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                       Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                      Standards and Guidelines .for EPA Facilities
Mechanical Requirements                                               Page    8-15
    .3       The design professional shall consider the use of direct and indirect gas-fired units,
            electric heating, heat-pumps (air-cooled and water-cooled), low  temperature gas
            infrared heating, and hot water radiant heating and hot water distribution to terminal
            units depending on the building type, the facility preference, and LCCA. Office buildings
            or buildings with occupants sitting near fenestration shall be designed with perimeter
            finned-tube radiation heating systems or other perimeter heating systems.

    .3.1        If the selected fuel is fuel oil, storage tanks installed in accordance with  national,
               state, and local EPA regulation shall provide for 30 days of full heating  capacity.
               Tank shall be fully trimmed for safety and operating conditions and shall include a
               remote level gauge. Tank shall comply with NFPA 30 requirements.

8.1.5.6   WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
The design professional shall select chilled water, hot water, condenser water, boiler feed, and
condensate return systems designed for economical pipe sizes based on allowable pressure drop, flow
rate, and pump selection criteria as prescribed by the ASHRAE Fundamentals handbook, ASHRAE
Equipment handbook, and ASHRAE Systems handbook, ASHRAE Applications handbook. Insulation
shall be provided on all water distribution piping and system components.  Strainers shall be provided
at the suction side of each pump and each control valve. The design professional shall specify flexible
connectors to be installed on the suction and discharge piping of base-mounted end suction type pumps,
and electronically driven chillers.

    .1       Check valves and balancing valves or combination check-shut-off-balance valves shall
            be installed in the discharge piping of all pumps operating in parallel pumping systems.
            Balancing valves shall be installed in the discharge piping of all pump systems.

    .2       Service valves shall be installed in the suction and discharge piping of all major pieces of
            equipment. Balancing valves shall be provided in the discharge piping of all coils, and
            central station cooling equipment

    .3       Air elimination pressure control, venting and automatic filling system (with backflow
            prevention) shall be provided for each hot water and chilled water distribution system,
            including provision of water treatment injection if required.

    .4       Expansion or compression tanks and fill piping connections shall be located on the suction
            side of the distribution system pump or pumps.  Expansion tanks and air separation
            devices shall be sized according to the methods in the ASHRAE Systems handbook and
            specified in accordance with the requirements of ASME B31.1.  Gauge glasses,  drain
            valves and vent valves shall be provided for all expansion tank systems.

    .5       Water treatment design information for chilled water, hot water, and boiler feed water
            systems  shall be provided by  a specialist based on project criteria  (tested water
            condition).
                                   ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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                       Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                      Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities
Mechanical Requirements                                              Page     8-16
8.1.5.7   PUMPS AND PUMPING SYSTEMS
Pumps for chilled water, hot water, condenser water, boiler feed-water and condensate systems shall be
of the centrifugal type selected based on criteria in ASHRAE handbooks. Materials, types of seals,
bearings, wear rings, shafts and other features shall be selected based on specific system requirements.
The design professional shall consider the use of primary-secondary type pumping systems and high-
efficiency motors for pumps for all hot and chilled water distribution systems.

   .1       On systems where system pumping horsepower requirements are greater than 20 bhp, the
            design professional shall consider the use of variable speed drives or parallel pumping
            arrangement.

   .2       Standby pumps shall be provided for  all systems as dictated by project-specific criteria.

8.1.5.8   STEAM DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
All steam piping shall comply with ASME B31.1 and be a minimum of Schedule 40 black steel.
Fittings, valves, and accessories shall be selected based on pipe size and temperature and pressure
conditions.

8.1.5.9   AIR HANDLING AND AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
The design professional shall consider and design air handling equipment and air distribution systems
sized to optimize bom initial cost and air handling system operating and maintenance costs. The design
professional shall provide all air handling system equipment (fans, terminal units, air handling units,
etc.) with vibration isolators and flexible ductwork connectors to minimize transmission of vibration
and noise. Systems shall satisfy the NC levels recommended for various types of spaces and vibration
criteria as listed in the ASHRAE handbooks.  Where air handling equipment and air distribution
systems cannot meet these requirements, sound  attenuation devices shall be installed in the  air
handling systems.

8.1.5.10  FANS/MOTORS
Fans shall be designed and specified to assure stable, non-pulsing aerodynamic operation in the range of
operation over varying speeds. Fans with motors  of 20 hp or less shall be designed with adjustable
motor pulley sheaves to assist in air balancing of systems. Fans with motors greater than 20 hp shall
use fixed (non-adjustable) drives  mat can be adjusted by substituting fixed motor pulley sheaves of
different diameters. Supply air handling  units and return  air fans in variable-air-volume systems
shall control capacity through the use of variable-speed drives, inlet vanes or scroll bypass dampers.
All fans shall comply with AMCA Standard 210, ASHRAE Standard 51, and ASHRAE Equipment
handbook.

   .1       Fans shall be located within the ductwork system according to the requirements of AMCA
            Publication 201.  Motors shall be sized according to properly calculated bhp fan
            requirements and shall not use oversized fans and motors to meet future capacity needs
            unless so directed by the project criteria.  The design professional shall consider  the
            selection of fan construction  materials based on corrosion resistance and cost.  Spark-
            resistant construction shall be used where required by NFPA.  All fans and accessories
            shall be designed and specified to meet all smoke and flame spread requirements of
            NFPA 255.
                                   ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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                       Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                      Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities
Mechanical Requirements                                               Page     8-17
8.1.5.11   COILS
Heating and cooling coils shall comply with ARI 410.  Heating or cooling coil selection shall not
conflict  with ASHRAE Fundamentals handbook or ASHRAE Equipment handbook.  The design
professional shall specify that coil manufacturers certify coil performance by ARI certification or
provide written certification from a nationally recognized independent testing firm that will verify
coil performance to be in accordance with ARI 410.

   .1       Heating and cooling coils shall be specified of materials appropriate for  corrosive
            atmosphere in which they are contained.  Cooling coils shall be designed with a
            maximum face velocity of 550 fpm. Coils designed with face velocities exceeding 500 fpm
            shall be specified, if required, with provisions to prevent condensate carryover, or use
            moisture eliminators. Coils shall be specified with drain feature.

   .2       Recirculating air systems with outside air winter design temperatures below freezing
            shall be designed with a preheat coil located either in the outside air intake or in the
            mixed air  stream upstream  of  the cooling coil, unless the theoretical mixed air
            temperature is calculated to be above 35ฐF.  In this case, the preheat coils may be omitted
            if adequate baffling is provided to guarantee positive mixing of the return and outdoor
            air.   Preheating  coils shall be  specified and designed to maintain  discharge air
            temperature without modulation of the steam or hot water flow  through use of
            modulating face and bypass dampers. Steam modulation may be used for control of steam
            coils in moderate climates where proven to be reliable without concern of coil freeze-up.

8.1.6     WALK-IN ENVIRONMENTAL AND COLD STORAGE ROOMS
Walk-in environmental rooms are rooms in which temperature and/or humidity is controlled at a single
set condition within specified  tolerances regardless of activity in the room.  Heat loads, in terms of
process loads and ventilation requirements, bear discussion with the end user by the design professional
in determining a specified room temperature condition, uniformity,  and gradient. Generally, walk-in
environmental rooms shall be capable of maintaining 4ฐC room temperature with a uniformity of ฑ0-5ฐC
and a maximum gradient of 1ฐC, or as specified in the program requirements.  A walk-in cold storage
room shall be capable  of maintaining -20ฐC room temperature with a uniformity of ฑ1ฐC and a
maximum gradient of 3ฐC, or  unless otherwise specified. Rooms shall feature temperature displays
visible from a contiguous hallway and be capable of producing a continuous record of temperature.
Alarm systems with manual override capability shall be provided to advise room operators of fault
conditions. Doors to rooms shall be provided with a locking mechanism capable of release at all times
from the room interior whether or not the door is locked.  Walk-in environmental and cold storage
rooms shall include shelving and shall be explosion proof.
8.1.7     CENTRAL PLANT HEAT GENERATION/DISTRIBUTION
These criteria shall be applied in the planning and design of steam and HTW generation and
distribution systems and co-generation facilities.
                                   ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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                        Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                      Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities
Mechanical Requirements                                                Page    8-18
8.1.7.1   FACILITY SIZING
Consideration shall be given to a plant design that can be easily expanded should potential future
loads in addition to confirmed short-term loads become a reality. Load computations to establish boiler
capacity shall be based on the building design heating  load as developed in confonnance with
ASHRAE Fundamentals handbook.  To this shall be added process heating loads (if any) and an
allowance for piping plants, the process heat losses shall be investigated during the design stage to
determine if heat can be recovered, thereby reducing the boiler load.

    .1       Modular boiler installation shall be considered for  all  applications to maintain a high
            operating plant efficiency throughout the year. Number and size of the boilers shall be
            based on the number of operable hours at full and p;art load operation, turn-down ratio of
            the boiler being considered, efficiency at part load,  and year round process or summer
            loads.  Use of a baseload boiler shall be considered when a year-round process demand
            exists.  The system shall  be designed  to satisfy peak demand by operating over its
            maximum rating for short periods of time.

    .2       The  possibility of operating small local boilers rather  than the central plant to satisfy
            summer loads shall also be considered. Sufficient capacity shall be furnished to allow
            one boiler to be down for inspection, maintenance,  or on standby, while the remaining
            boiler(s) maintain normal operations.

    .3       The  generating facilities shall be located to allow efficient steam/hot water distribution
            throughout the site and allow for future expansion of the generating and distribution
            system.  The facility shall also be located to minimize problems associated with the
            following:

    .3.1         Noise

    .3.2         Dirt

    .3.3         Air pollution

    .3.4         Harmful effects to adjacent property owners

    .3.5         Accommodate fuel deliveries and storage

    .3.6         To take advantage of prevailing winds

    .4       The installation of one or more satellite boiler facilities rather than  a single central
            boiler complex shall be evaluated when one or more of the following conditions exist

    .4.1         An extensive distribution system connecting several separate steam users is required.

    .4.2         Requirements exist for several different steam pressures.

    .4.3         Variable steam loadings exist with respect to time or quantity.
                                    ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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                        Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                      Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities
Mechanical  Requirements                                               Page     8-19
    .5       The use of a co-generation plant as a possible alternative shall be considered in the
            planning of any large steam generation facility.  The feasibility of co-generation with
            HTW or HTW boilers or HTW to steam generators shall be considered.  In determining
            the feasibility of co-generation, the following factors shall be considered:

    .5.1         Energy demand and cost, peak load, average load, seasonal variations, and utility
                rate structures.

    .5.2         Regulatory concerns: FURPA, relevant environmental regulations, and current local
                regulations.

    .6       Co-generation plants shall be sized to accommodate existing loads.

8.1.7.2   STEAM AND fflGH-TEMPERATURE WATER GENERATION
All boilers shall comply with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    .1       In determining whether to select a steam or HTW system, the following factors shall be
            considered as a minimum:

    .1.1       Whether the system will be operated intermittently or continuously.

    .1.2       Whether fast response to significant load variation is important

    .1.3     Pumping costs.

    .1.4     Length, size, and configuration of piping required.

    .1.5     In a facility where a few of the processes require steam, the possibility of using HTW to
            generate the steam at its point of use.

8.1.7.3   STEAM GENERATION UNITS
Boilers shall be designed to provide dry, saturated steam unless specific economic requirements for
electric generation, process requirements, or extensive distribution systems require superheated steam.
If required for process, the use of high-pressure satellite boilers located close to the high-pressure
process requirement shall be considered in lieu of distribution of high pressure steam.

8.1.7.4   HIGH- TEMPERATURE WATER GENERATION UNITS
A HTW system is a system that generates heating or process water in excess of SOOT. HTW boilers
shall be of the controlled forced-circulation type, specifically designed for high-temperature water
service. Because of costs associated with high-pressure pipe, valves and fittings, HTW systems should
not be designed for temperatures and pressures higher man absolutely necessary.
                                   ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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                       Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                      Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities
Mechanical Requirements                                               Page    8-20
   .1       In a gas-pressurized HTW system, an inert gas such as nitrogen shall be used, and the
            pressurizing tank shall be installed vertically to reduce the area of contact between gas
            and water, thus reducing the absorption of gas into the liquid. Gas-pressurized systems
            should be maintained at a pressure well above the pressure at which the HTW will flash
            to steam. Pump pressurization is generally restricted to small process heating systems. In
            larger HTW systems, pump pressurization can be combined with gas pressurization.

8.1.7.5   CIRCULATION PUMPS
The energy efficiency of circulation pumps shall be emphasized. Consideration shall be given for the
use of variable  speed circulation pumps. In  steam-pressurized systems, circulating pumps shall be
located in the supply lines to maintain pressure above the flashpoint of the hottest water in the
distribution system.  A mixing connection that bypasses some of the cool return water into the supply
line at the pump suction shall be provided to safeguard against flashing or cavitation at the  pump(s).
In as  gas-pressurized HTW system, the circulating pumps may be installed  in either the supply or
return lines.

8.1.7.6   FUEL STORAGE AND  HANDLING SYSTEMS
Control, containment, and treatment of rainwater runoff from coal storage yards shall comply with
effluent guidelines and standards for steam-electric power generating point sources, 40 CFR  423.  The
relative economy of a central natural gas-fired plant compared to a gas distribution system serving the
individual requirements of each  building shall be considered. The long-range availability of the gas
supply and the possible need for a secondary fuel shall be established. The economics of interruptible
versus uninterruptible gas service relative to availability of secondary fuel shall be considered.

   .1       Fully automatic mechanical-firing equipment and mechanical draft equipment shall be
            provided. Mechanical-firing equipment shall be specified  to develop 100 percent to 125
            percent of the boiler capacity.

   .2       Ash handling systems shall comply with FCC Technical Report No. 51, Chapter Dl,
            Section 3.1.  Land availability  for storage or disposal, water availability, nearness to
            residential areas,  the possibility of the  sale of  ash  as a means  of disposal, and
            environmental regulations shall be considered.  Collection  and treatment of ash-carrying
            liquid effluents shall comply with 40 CFR 423.

   .3       The use of underground tanks shall be avoided.
                                   ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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                        Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                      Standards and Guidelines.f or EPA Facilities
Mechanical Requirements                                               Page    8-21
8.1.7.7   BOILER WATER TREATMENT
Boiler water treatment shall be provided to prevent deposits on or corrosion of internal boiler surfaces
and to prevent the carry-over of boiler water solids into the steam.  A boiler water treatment specialist
shall be consulted in determining corrective treatment measures. Water quality measures for the steam
plant and other site process water users should be coordinated. The design of the plant shall provide
for daily sampling to determine internal water conditions.  Provisions shall be made for introducing
treatment chemicals into the feed water.  The plant shall contain adequate space and equipment for
storing, handling, and mixing chemicals. Continuous versus intermittent blowdown operations shall be
considered to determine which system will keep the concentration of total solids within acceptable
limits.  For continuous blowdown operations, the economics of installing a heat recovery system shall be
considered.

   .1       A minimum of two boiler feed pumps, each sized  to handle the peak load, shall be
            provided to allow one pump to be out of service. Pumps shall be equipped with automatic
            controls to regulate feed water flow to maintain  required water level range, and with a
            relief valve preset to lift at lower pressure than the boiler safety valve setting plus
            static and friction heads.

8.1.7.8   BOILER ROOM CONTROLS AND INSTRUMENTATION
Boiler plant instrumentation and control panels shall include  devices for monitoring the combustion
process and consoles in which such devices are mounted. Boiler room controls and instrumentation shall
comply with the appropriate standard from among NFPA 85A,  NFPA 85B, NFPA 85D, NFPA 85E.

8.1.7.9   PLANT INSULATION
All hot surfaces within  7 feet of the plant floor on any catwalk shall be insulated to prevent surface
temperatures above 140ฐF where contact would be inadvertent and 120ฐF where contact is likely or
necessary for  equipment operation.  Insulation shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's
recommendations and ASHRAE Fundamentals handbook.

8.1.7.10  STEAM AND HIGH - TEMPERATURE WATER DISTRIBUTION
Steam and HTW distribution systems shall be sized to accommodate future expansion as directed by the
project criteria without extensive modification.

   .1       When aboveground steam or HTW distribution systems are to be constructed, pipe shall be
            installed on concrete pedestals,  concrete/ steel stanchions, or on poles.  Where piping
            crosses over roadways, a minimum of 14 feet of clearance shall be provided.

   .2       Provisions shall be made for expansion and contraction in the piping system. Expansion
            loops shall be provided where space allows.  Where space  does not allow, expansion
            joints may be used. Piping shall comply with ASME B31.1

   .3       Steam shall be supplied  to the distribution  system at the lowest pressure that  will
            adequately serve the connected load unless economics dictate otherwise. The economics of
            higher pressure distribution shall be considered. Processes  requiring higher pressures
            shall be serviced, where practical, by a separate section of the distribution system to
            avoid operating the entire system at pressures higher than necessary.
                                   ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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                        Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                      Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities
Mechanical Requirements                                               Page     8-22
    .4       Warm-up bypass valves shall be provided at all shutoff valves in steam distribution
            lines. Steam velocities shall be selected for the type of service being considered, but
            shall not exceed 10,000 feet per minute.

    .5       Steam and condensate pipe shall, where possible, be graded a minimum of 1 inch in 40
            feet in the direction of flow.  Drip stations and steam traps shall be provided at all low
            points in steam lines.

    .6       To assure tightness of the steam system, all joints to valves and fittings for sizes larger
            than 1-1/4 inches shall be welded, except in the boiler house, where flanges shall be used
            to facilitate maintenance of equipment, connections, or valves.

    .7       HTW piping shall be sized for an average velocity of 5 feet per  second, a maximum
            velocity of 10 feet per second, and a minimum velocity of 2 feet per second.  To assure
            tightness o the HTW system, all joints to valves and fittings for sizes larger than 1-1/4
            inches shall be welded, except in the  boiler house, where flanges shall be used to
            facilitate maintenance at equipment connections and valves.

    .8       Unlike steam piping, HTW piping may follow the natural terrain; however, proper
            provisions shall be made to drain and vent the piping.

8.1.7.11  PIPING INSULATION
Insulation containing asbestos materials shall be prohibited.  The possibility that water infiltration
will cause physical damage or loss of thermal characteristics of underground pipe insulation shall be
considered in the selection of insulation. All insulation installed aboveground, in tunnels, and in
manholes shall be provided with a metal jacket, either factory or field installed, or provided with a
hard cement finish.

8.2      LOAD CALCULATIONS

8.2.1     GENERAL
Load calculations shall be based on data and procedures outlined in the latest edition of the ASHRAE
Guide and Data Books and in accordance with conditions specified herein.

8J2J2     SUBMISSION
A complete set of calculations shall be submitted showing building heating and cooling loads and
equipment capacity requirements.

8.2.3     DESIGN
Load calculations may be performed manually or by a nationally recognized computer based load
program. Specialty programs not recognized must have prior approval of the Contracting Officer prior
to their use.

8.2.4     AIR VOLUME /EXCHANGE
For laboratory spaces, the specific volume of air required to achieve  a pre-determined air exchange
rate shall be dictated by the type of work being performed in the laboratory.
                                   ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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                         Planning,  Architecture, Engineering,
                   Space Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities
Mechanical Requirements                                               Page    8-23
8.2.5     AUXILIARY AIR
If a separate auxiliary air system is provided, the auxiliary air must be heated and cooled to within
3ฐF of the room dry bulb temperature. Auxiliary air shall not exceed 70% of total fume hood exhaust
requirements.

8.2.6     FUME HOOD EXHAUST
The design professional shall meet the requirements for laboratory fume hood exhaust as indicated in
the specific design criteria and NFPA 45.  Provisions shall be made in the design of the laboratory
supply air system for 25 percent future expansion of fume hoods presently required to meet program
design need. Fume hoods and general laboratory exhaust may be combined in a commonly manifolded
exhaust duct system for blocks of hoods in coordination with EPA Safety, Health and Environmental
Management Division (SHEMD). For additional information see PEA Facility Safety Manual Chapter
5, paragraph 13.J.  Make provisions for separate, dedicated duct and exhaust systems for special fume
hood exhausts which cannot be combined on a commonly manifolded system, including but not limited to
perchloric acid hoods, high-energy radioisotope hoods, and exhausted biological safety cabinets
(BSC's).

8.2.7     LABORATORY FUME HOODS
The design professional shall be responsible for determining types and sizes of fume hoods, appropriate
to its intended use, with the users of the facility. The requirements of Chapter 5, Paragraphs 13. and
13.a. through 13.m. of the current version of the Facilities Safety Manual shall be followed.  The
requirements of the EPA fume  hood standards titled:  Development of Quantitative Containment
Performance Tests for Laboratory Fume Hoods (latest edition) shall also be followed.  In accordance
with the Procedures Manual For Certifying Laboratory Fume Hoods To Meet EPA Standard (latest
edition), fume hood face velocity must be provided at 100 linear feet per minute with a uniform face
velocity profile of ฑ 10 percent of the average velocity with the sash fully open to provide protection
from operations performed in the hood.

8.2.7.1   HOOD REQUIREMENTS
All hoods called for in the specific design criteria shall have met a rating of 04AAM.04 in accordance
with ASHRAE 110-93 fume hood test procedure, EPA Fume Hood Procurement Manual (latest edition)
and EPA fume hood standard titled: Development of Quantitative Containment Performance Tests for
Laboratory Fume Hoods (latest edition).  Exhaust from fume hoods and  general laboratory exhausts
shall be routed to the exterior of the building at its highest part and position of the exhaust stacks to
prevent re-entrainment of fumes at fresh air intake points.  Exhaust discharge stacks shall be at least
10 feet above adjacent roofline and so located with respect to openings and air intakes of the laboratory
or adjacent buildings as to avoid re-entry of the exhaust discharge. The operational exhaust discharge
shall have an exhaust  velocity of at least 3,000  feet per minute (recommended to be at least 4,000 feet
per minute), and shall conform to ANSI Z9.5 (latest edition). Stacks shall be designed in accordance
with ASHRAE and ACGIH Industrial Ventilation Guidelines. All fume hoods shall be installed under
the manufacturer's supervision including. In the case of Variable Air Volume (VAV) fume hoods, the
hoods shall  be installed under  the hood manufacturer's and room control systems manufacturer's
supervision.  All hoods shall be certified per the EPA's certification manual prior to turnover.

    .1       Ceiling and wall supply diffusers for the distribution of supply air in the laboratory
            shall be designed for a maximum of 50 feet per minute at 6 feet above finished floor at the
            face of the hood.

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Mechanical Requirements                                               Page    8-24
8.2.7.2    CONSTANT VOLUME BYPASS TYPE FUME HOOD
The laboratory fume hood is often an integral part of the building exhaust system. The volume of air
exhausted should be constant, achieved by an airflow bypass above the sash through which room air
can pass as the sash is lowered. The bypass sizing and design must be such that the following conditions
are met:

   .1       The total air flow volume is essentially the same at all sash positions. As the sash is
            lowered, the face velocity increases to a rate that shall not exceed three times the design
            velocity for a full open sash position.

   .2       The bypass must provide a sight tight barrier between the hood work space and the room
            when the sash is lowered.

   .3       The bypass opening is dependent only on the operation of the sash.  Selected  sash
            configurations are listed and described below:

   .3.1        Vertical rising fume hood sash to be full-view type  providing a dear  and
               unobstructed side-to-side view of fume hood interior and service fitting connections.
               Sash shall be 1/4  inch laminated safety glass.  Sash system shall utilize a single
               weight pulley cable counterbalance system permitting one finger operation along the
               length of the sash pull and hold it at any position without creep or prevent sash drop
               in the event of malfunction or failure of a cable.

   .3.2        Combination vertical rising and horizontal sliding fume hood sash shall be similar in
               design to vertical  rising sash type configuration with multiple horizontal sliding
               sashes  of 1/4 inch laminated safety glass panels on multiple tracks within the
               vertical rising sash frame.

8.2.73 RADIOISOTOPE HOODS
Radioisotope hoods shall be similar to fume hood  types described above, except that interior  liner
material shall be Type 304 stainless steel with a Number 4 finish and have vertical and horizontal
coved corners with all surfaces free of seams, cracks or crevices. The working surface shall be reinforced
from underside with heavy steel grating to provide the necessary strength to hold lead brick radiation
protection and/or capable of supporting a minimum of 200 pounds per square foot

8.2.7.4 PERCHLORIC ACID FUME HOODS
In addition to the features described for fume hoods, perchloric acid hoods must use materials which
are non-reactive, acid resistant, and  relatively impervious.  Type 316 stainless steel with welded joints
should be specified, although certain other materials may be acceptable.  Corners shall be rounded to
facilitate cleaning.  Work surfaces shall be water tight with an integral trough at  the rear for
collection of wash down water.

    .1        The hood shall be a variable air volume type, without bypass, with face  velocity and
             exhaust volume adjustable by moving the sash up and down. Average face velocity shall
             be 100 feet per minute.
                                   ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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   .2       A wash down system must be provided which has spray nozzles to adequately wash the
            entire assembly including the blower, and interior of the hood, with an easily accessible
            strainer to filter particulate in the water supply that might clog the nozzles.  The wash
            down system shall be activated immediately after the hood has been in use.

   .3       Ductwork shall be installed with a minimal amount of horizontal runs, no sharp turns,
            and must not be shared with any other hood.

   .4       Exhaust fans must be of an acid-resistant, non-sparking (AMCA Standard Type A)
            construction. Lubrication shall be with a fluorocarbon grease only. Gaskets shall be of a
            tetrafluoroethylene polymer.

   .5       Perchloric acid must never be used in hoods not specifically designed for its use. Organic
            materials, strong dehydrating or desiccating agents, and oxidizing or reducing materials
            must not be used in a hood used for perchloric acid.

8.2.7.5 SPECIAL PURPOSE HOODS
Special purpose hoods are defined  as any hood not conforming to the specific types described in this
section.  Special hoods may be used  for operations for which other types are not suitable (e.g., enclosures
for analytical balances, gas vents from atomic absorption or  gas  chromatography units).  Other
applications might present opportunities to achieve contamination control with less bench space or less
exhaust volume, such as special mixing stations, sinks, evaporation racks, heat sources, and ventilated
work tables. Special purpose exhaust hoods shall be designed  in accordance with the most current
version of ANSI A9.2 and NFPA 45.

   .1       Canopy Exhaust (Capture) Hoods: These shall be provided as required for the removal of
            heat from specific laboratory apparatus, such as furnaces, ovens, and sterilizers, or  as
            otherwise called for in the laboratory program.

   .2       Flexible Spot Exhausts (Snorkels): These shall be required to remove chemical fumes  or
            heat  from  specific  laboratory instrumentation, such  as  high pressure  liquid
            chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and atomic
            absorption (AA) units, and will require an estimated exhaust rate of 100-200 CFM or  as
            appropriate for the intended use.

   .3       Gas Cabinets:  Special exhaust cabinets will be required to house individual or pairs  of
            toxic/pyrophoric gas cylinders.   Leak detectors and low-exhaust flow alarms shall be
            considered as  well as a gas purge system to provide for safe exchange of cylinders.
            Exhaust for these cabinets is estimated at 50-75 CFM each.

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8.2.8     GLOVE BOXES
Glove boxes will be government furnished equipment These ventilated enclosures are often required by
laboratory personnel to ensure containment of chemical and biological airborne contaminants produced
during their work in the box without escape into the room, and permits manual manipulations within
the box through armholes provided with impervious gloves sealed to the box at the armholes. These
types of enclosures have special design requirements that are related to their intended use and must be
individually approved by EPA Safety, Health and Environmental Management Division (SHEMD)
and Engineering, Planning, and Architecture Branch (EPAB).

8.2.9     BIOLOGICAL SAFETY CABINETS
Laminar  flow biological safety cabinets (BSC) shall have passed minimum  standards for cabinet
classifications as stated in Pamphlet #49 by the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) for personnel,
environmental,  and product safety and shall be identified by a distinctive NSF seal.   Field re-
certification by a competent technician using the procedures outlined in  NSF Standard #49 will be
required  once the cabinet(s)  is installed. Cabinet classification shall be  determined by the design
professional during  laboratory programming with the users of the facility.  These types of cabinets
have special design requirements depending on their intended use (such as protecting personnel from
harmful agents inside the cabinet, protecting work product, experiment or procedure from contaminants
outside the cabinet,  or protecting the laboratory environment from contaminants inside the cabinet),
and must be individually approved by the EPA Safety, Health and Environmental Management
Division (SHEMD) and Engineering, Planning, and Architecture Branch (EPAB).

8.2.10    FLAMMABLE STORAGE CABINETS
Cabinets for the storage of Class L Class n, and  Class mA liquids shall be provided in accordance with
design, construction, and storage capacity requirements stated in the latest edition of NFPA 30, Chapter
4.  Venting of storage cabinets is not required for fire protection purposes, but venting may be required to
comply with local codes or authorities having jurisdiction.

   .1       If cabinet venting is required, the cabinet shall be vented to the outdoors in such a manner
            that will not compromise the specified performance of the cabinet The cabinet shall be
            vented from the bottom with make-up air supplied at the top. Mechanical exhaust
            ventilation should be provided at a rate of 50 CFM and comply with NFPA 91, Standard
            for Exhaust Systems for Air Conveying of Materials. Manifolding the vents of multiple
            storage cabinets is not recommended.

   .5       Non-vented cabinets shall be sealed with the bungs supplied with the cabinet or with
            bungs specified by the manufacturer of the cabinet

8.2.11    LABORATORY SERVICE FITTINGS
Laboratory service fittings are called out for each laboratory space in the room data sheets and shall be
compatible with their intended use. All service valves, fittings, and accessories shall be of cast brass
with a minimum copper content of 85 percent except for items which are to be brass forged or bar stock
and shall be especially designed for laboratory use.  All laboratory service fittings shall have an acid
and  solvent resisting clear plastic coating applied over  a dean, polished, chrome-plated surface.
Service fittings at fume hoods shall have an acid and solvent resistant plastic  coating applied over a
fine sandblasted surface, properly cleaned.

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8.3      AIR FILTRATION AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS

8.3.1     DRY FILTRATION
All cleaning equipment for ductwork and equipment installation shall be easily removable,
serviceable, and maintainable. Air cleaning equipment shall have face velocities as recommended by
the filter manufacturer to achieve the specified efficiency at the lowest possible pressure drop. Filters
shall be constructed of noncombustible materials meeting the requirements for UL 900, Class L Air
filters shall be located on the suction side of fans and coils and in other special locations as required for
air treatment Air-filter pressure drop gauges of the diaphragm-actuated, dial-type (preferred) or the
inclined manometer type shall be located on all filter assemblies excepting small fan coils, and fan
powered VAV terminal units.  The ASHRAE dust spot method shall be used in specifying efficiencies
required for medium efficiency  filters. Filters shall be specified and installed for use as pre-filters,
medium-efficiency filters, or high-efficiency niters. These filters shall comply with ARI 850.   Pre-
filters for high-efficiency filters  are normally provided, being either pre-filter or medium-efficiency
niters depending on the upstream air particle size distribution.

8.3.2     ABSOLUTE FILTRATION
Absolute filtration, where required on fume hood exhaust systems, will have an efficiency of 99.97% as
determined by the DOP aerosol test for absolute filters and shall satisfy specification MIL-F-510686
and ASHRAE Standard 52-76.  Filter housing shall be of the "bag-in/ gas-out" design.

8.3.2.1   TEST ACCESS
The design professional shall design for a location that facilitates in-place testing of HEP A filters,
with particular attention given to plenum hardware provisions that allow for testing  of the HEP A
filter bank without requiring the testing personnel to enter the plenum.  Utility services shall be
extended to the plenum location (e.g., electrical receptacles and compressed air) to facilitate testing
work. In-place testing design requirements shall meet all the recommendations of UL 586, ASME N510.
HEP A filtration systems shall be designed with prefilters installed upstream of HEP A filters to extend
the HEPA filter's life.  The design professional may eliminate the installation of pre-filters  if an
analysis of filtration requirements and consideration of the filter assembly justifies omission.

8.3.2.2   FIRE PROTECTION OF HEPA FILTER ASSEMBLIES
In providing fire protection for  the HEPA filters, the design shall separate prefilters or fire screens
equipped with water spray sufficiently from the HEPA filters to restrict impingement of moisture on
the HEPA filters.  Under conditions of limited separation, moisture eliminators or other means of
reducing entrained moisture shall be provided. Moisture eliminators may be omitted where system
design provides sufficient filter redundancy to ensure continued effluent filtration in the event of fire
within any portion of the system. The HEPA filter fire protection system shall be activated in manner
consistent with the fire protection system in the room or building in which the filters are located.

8.3.3     AIR-CLEANING DEVICES FOR SPECIAL APPLICATIONS
Filters include dry type dust collectors, wet collectors, centrifugal collectors, absorbers, absorbers,
oxidizers, and chemical treatment filters that are used primarily  in industrial and process-type
applications associated with air  or gases that have heavy dust loadings in exhaust systems or stack
gas effluents. Filters shall be designed according to the requirements given in the project criteria,
ASHRAE Equipment handbook, and ACGIH Industrial Ventilation Manual
                                   ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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8.3.4    OPERATION
All building systems shall be designed for 24-hour operation, seven days a week, unless otherwise
specified in the project criteria.

8.3.5    MAINTENANCE ACCESS
The air supply and exhaust plenums shall be designed so that maintenance of motors, bearings, control
valves, steam traps, etc, are easily accessible.

8.3.6    LOCATION OF AIR INTAKE
The outside air intake(s) shall be located so as to provide the cleanest possible source of fresh air for
the building and shall be located relative to the building's exhausts, vent stacks, etc., so as to prevent
entrainment of contaminated air from outside sources including, but not limited to, fume hood exhaust,
vehicle exhaust, and exhaust from adjacent structures..

8.3.7    VENTILATION RATES
Ventilation in general shall be those recommended in the ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 or latest edition,
and Section 2 - General Facility Requirements; Indoor Air Quality Requirements; Design Process. As a
minimum, Table 8.3.7 - SPECIAL VENTILATION RATES shall be accounted for in the design of the
system:

   TABLE 83.7 - SPECIAL VENTILATION RATES
   Laboratories
    Offices and
    Administration Spaces
    Chemical Storage


    Smoking Room
A minimum of eight air changes per hour, single pass air as
per ASHRAE 62-1989 or latest edition and EPA's Facility
Safety Manual, Chapter 5, paragraph 12-a,

As required for human comfort but with a minimum of 20 cfm
of outside air per occupant per ASHRAE 62-1989 or latest
edition.

Must meet NFPA 30 or 45 requirements according to usage -
Minimum 6 to 10 air changes per hour, single pass only.

The air supply  from smoking rooms shall not be recirculated.
It should be exhausted to the outside by separate ductwork
and  exhaust fan.  Minimum 60 CFM per person as per
ASHRAE 62-1989 or latest edition and per EPA's Facility
Safely Manual  Chapter 5  para 12.b.
                                  ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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8.3.8     PLUME STUDY (LABORATORY EXHAUST)
The design professional shall be responsible for obtaining a study of prevailing wind patterns for the
proposed building site. The study shall be performed to ensure proper design height of the laboratory
exhaust stack(s) and fresh air intake locations. Stack design shall consider all elements of the site,
including ground-level landscaping, large variations of terrain, complex groupings of adjacent buildings,
height and massing of building(s) taking into account exterior details, complex emission geometry,
.orientation to prevailing winds, nature of discharge particles and volume of discharge.  Based on the
results of this study, the design professional can recommend optimal building orientation on the site and
incorporate structural details that minimize effects on the dispersion of exhaust emissions.

8.3.9     ATMOSPHERIC AIR FLOW CHARACTERISTICS STUDY

8.3.10   EXHAUST STACK DISPERSION PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

8.4      PLUMBING

8.4.1     PIPING
These criteria  apply to interior plumbing systems (fixtures,  supply, drain, waste and vent piping,
service water heating system, safety devices, and appurtenances) up to 5 feet beyond the building
exterior wall. For new systems, domestic water shall be supplied by a separate service line and not be a
combined fire protection and potable water service or a combined process water and potable water
system within the building.  Plumbing shall comply with the NSPC  (or other locally adopted
nationally recognized plumbing code), ASHRAE Handbooks, and ASHRAE Standard 90.

8.4.1.1   SUPPLY
Type K copper tubing shall be used below grade. Type L copper tubing shall be used above grade. CPVC
and PB plastic pipe and tubing may be used in lieu of copper tubing above grade where not subject to
impact damage or otherwise prohibited by the project criteria.

    .1      Fittings for Type K shall be flared brass, solder-type bronze or wrought copper.  Fittings
            for Type L shall be solder-type bronze or wrought copper,  fittings for plastic pipe and
            tubing shall be solvent cemented or shall use Schedule 80 threaded.  No lead solder shall
            be used for copper pipe in potable water systems.

    .2      Stop  valves  shall be provided  at each fixture.  Accessible shut-of valves shall be
            provided at branches serving floors or fixture batteries for isolation, or at risers serving
            multiple floors.  Shut-off valves shall be provided to isolate equipment, valves, or
            appurtenances for ease of maintenance.

    ,3      Accessible drain valves shall be provided to drain the entire system.  Manual air vents
            shall be provided at high points in the system.

    .4      Provision for expansion compensation shall be included where thermal expansion and
            contraction cause piping systems to move. The movement shall be accommodated by using
            the inherent flexibility of the piping system as laid out, by loops,  by manufactured
            expansion joints, or by couplings.
                                   ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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   .5       Accessible  manufactured  water hammer  arresters shall be  provided.  Dielectric
            connections shall be made between ferrous and non-ferrous metallic pipe.

   .6       Where domestic or fire water service lines enter buildings, suitable flexibility shall be
            provided to protect against differential settlement or seismic activity in accordance with
            the NSPC or NFPA 13, respectively.

8.4.1.2   DRAIN, WASTE AND VENT
Underground lines that do not service the laboratory areas shall be service weight cast iron soil pipe
hub-type (with gasket); hubless cast iron soil pipe may be used in locations where piping is accessible.
Aboveground (above grade) lines that are 1-1/2 inch in diameter and larger shall be either hubless or
hub-type (with gasket) service weight cast iron pipe. Lines 1-1/2 inch through 6 inch in diameter may
be ABS or PVC plastic pipe where allowed by the project criteria. Pipe and fittings shall be joined
using solvent cement or elastomeric seals. Lines smaller than 1-1/2 inch in diameter shall be either 1)
Type L copper with solder-type bronze or wrought copper fittings  or 2) galvanized steel with
galvanized malleable iron recessed threaded and coupled fittings. Cast iron soil pipe fittings and
connection shall comply with CISPI guidelines.  Provisions for  expansion  compensation shall be
included as above.  Underground lines servicing the laboratory area shall be Acid Resistant Sewer pipe
ANSI/ASTM D2146-69 - Polyethylene Plastic Pipe and Fittings,  Schedule 40, ASTM D1785 - Poly
(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe, Schedule 40, 80, and 120.  ASTM D2241  - Poly (Vinyl Chloride)
(PVC) Plastic Pipe (SDR-PR), ASTM D2683 - Socket-Type Polyethylene Fittings for Outside Diameter-
Controlled Polyethylene Pipe.  Welded together following ANSI/AWS Dl.l - Structural Welding
Code, ASTM D2241, and ASTM D2855 - Making Solvent-Cemented Joints with Poly (Vinyl Chloride)
(PVC) Pipe and Fittings.

8.4.13   TRAP SEAL PROTECTION
A trap primer valve and floor/funnel drain with trap primer valve discharge connections shall be used
where there is the possibility of the loss of the seal in floor/funnel drain traps.

8.4.1.4   STERILIZATION
New supply systems or rehabilitation to existing supply systems shall require sterilization as per
AWWA C652, AWWA C5186, or local governing plumbing code.

8.4.1.5   MISCELLANEOUS
Access panels shall be provided where maintenance or replacement of equipment, valves or other
devices are necessary.  Escutcheons shall be provided at wall, ceiling, and floor penetrations of piping
in occupied areas.

8.4.2    PLUMBING FIXTURES
Fixtures and appurtenances suitable for use by handicapped persons shall comply with the American
Disabilities Act (ADA).   Fixtures shall contain no lead. Self-contained  mechanical-refrigerated
coolers shall be provided wherever a need for drinking fountains exists. Ratings shall be based on ARI
1010. Electrical equipment shall be UL listed.
                                   ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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8.4.3     BACKFLOW PREVENTERS
Backflow preventers of the reduced pressure zone type shall be provided on any domestic water and fire
protection lines serving the building. All domestic water lines shall be provided with water hammer
suppresser and vacuum breakers at high points of supply lines or at the fixture.

8.4.4     SAFETY DEVICES
Tempering valves shall be the fail-safe pressure balance type.  Hot water generation equipment shall
be provided with ASME code-stamped tanks, when of sufficient capacity, water temperature, or hot
input rate to be within the jurisdiction of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Approved relief
devices, combination temperature-pressure or separate units, depending on the application, shall be
provided. Backflow preventers and air gaps shall be used to prevent cross-connection (contamination)
of potable water supplies.  Vacuum breakers (to prevent back-siphonage) shall be used only  in
conjunction with administrative controls.

8.4.4.1    PRESSURE REDUCING VALVES
Pressure-reducing valves shall be provided where service pressure at fixtures or devices exceeds the
normal operating range recommended by the manufacturer.  Wherever a pressure-reducing valve's
failure may cause equipment damage or unsafe conditions, a pressure-relief valve shall be provided
downstream of the reducing valve.

8.4.5     EMERGENCY EYEWASH UNITS
Emergency eyewash units or combination eyewash/safety shower type units shall be provided in all
work areas  where, during routine operations or during foreseeable emergencies, the eyes  of an
individual may come into contact  with a substance which can cause corrosion, severe irritation,
permanent tissue damage or which is toxic by absorption. Eyewash units shall be designed to flush bom
eyes (double headed) simultaneously, and to provide hands-free operation. They shall be placed in a
location away from potential sources of hazard (Le., fume hoods), and near the exit door. The eyewash
units chosen should provide protection of nozzle area with pop-off covers, etc, to prevent contamination
of the flushing system.  Design, operation, flow, water temperature, etc., shall meet the criteria
established in ANSI Z358.1-1990, or latest edition, and shall be serviced by the potable water system.
Eyewash units shall be in accessible locations mat require no more than 10 seconds to reach and should
be within a travel distance of no greater  than 100 feet from the hazard.  The location shall be
standardized in all laboratory spaces to the degree possible in a well lighted area, and shall be clearly
identified with a highly visible sign.  Final location shall be approved by the EPA project officer
during the design phase.

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8.4.6     EMERGENCY SAFETY SHOWERS
Emergency safety showers or combination safety shower/eyewash units shall be provided in areas
where, during routine operations or during foreseeable emergencies, areas of the body may come into
contact with a substance which is corrosive, severely irritating to the skin or which is toxic by skin
absorption.  Combination safety shower/eyewash units shall be installed with a flexible hand-held
drench hose mounted on a rack. All piping for the emergency safety showers shall be above the ceiling
except for the shower head and pull bar connection.  Design, operation, flow rates, etc., shall meet the
criteria in ANSI Z358.1-1990, or latest edition, and shall be serviced by the potable water system.
Rigid pull bars of stainless steel should be used to activate the shower and extend within 54" of the
floor. The floor area of the emergency safety shower shall be textured, well lighted, identified with a
highly visible sign and maintained free of items  which obstruct its use. A water flow alarm shall
sound when the safety shower is activated. Location of safety showers shall be standardized as much
as possible. Emergency safety showers in laboratories shall be located at the room entrance on the right
hand side of the exit door (hinge  side); instrument  laboratories and laboratory support spaces shall
have showers located in the corridor at the pull side of the room door.

8.4.7     GLASSWARE WASHING SINKS
Sinks dedicated to the purpose of washing laboratory glassware shall have a high or telescoping
spigot with a swing-type gooseneck to accommodate large pieces of glassware. Large sinks shall be
provided with a hand-held sprayer whose weight is supported for ease of operation. All glassware
washing sinks shall be ventilated at a rate of 280-300 CFM with an exhaust air duct connection at the
top of the sink below the bench top.

8.5       COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEMS
Provide one or more compressed air system with oil and  water traps, dryer and all controls.  Unless
specified in  the project criteria, each compressed air system shall have duplex compressors (one
redundant) with automatic lead/lag switch and a single compressor tank.  Compressed air systems  for
processes shall be completely independent of the compressed air system for the HVAC controls. The
compressed  air system shall provide a water trap and pressure regulation  at each laboratory.  An
audible alarm and remote annunciation shall be provided to alert personnel of a loss of air pressure. Air
compressors shall use vibration pads and springs as needed to substantially diminish vibration/sound
generated by compressors. Further, their location should be such as not to transmit vibration/sound to
the building or rooms they service.

8.6      VACUUM SYSTEMS
A laboratory vacuum  system  composed of several vacuum pumps is  required to evacuate air at a
regulated suction of 25 inches of mercury or as specified  in the project criteria. Storage volume and
number of pumps shall be determined  at the design stage as needed to meet laboratory benchwork
requirements. Unless otherwise specified in the project criteria, each vacuum system shall have duplex
pumps, an automatic lead/lag switch and a single tank.  An audible alarm and remote  annunciation
shall be provided to alert personnel of a loss of vacuum. Vacuum pumps shall use vibration pads and
springs as needed to substantially diminish vibration/sound generated by the pumps.  Further, their
location should be such as not to transmit vibration/sound to the building or rooms they service.

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8.7      CENTRALIZED LABORATORY WATER SYSTEMS

8.7.1     DFJONIZED WATER 
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8.9.2     DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
For all laboratories, except for metals analysis laboratories, a seamless copper piping gas distribution
system for non-flammable gases shall be provided from the space identified in paragraph 8.9.1.1 to all
of the designated laboratories.  Ideally, the length of gas distribution lines should not exceed 100 feet
to avoid the necessity for connections. If connections are required due to length, prior approval of the
EPA is required. Each copper line of this system shall be placed inside a PVC pipe of larger diameter
.and vented to the outside of the building. Regulator valves and other auxiliary equipment, required to
furnish gas at the  required pressures, shall be provided.  Pipe  sizes shall be coordinated to ensure
proper velocity of gas from cylinders(s) to point of application. The number and type of gas outlets in
each room is provided in the Room Data Sheets. Exact and final location in each laboratory must be
approved by the EPA during design phase. They system design shall include capability for individual
room cutoff.

8.9.3     DISTRIBUTION TO METALS LABORATORIES
For all laboratories used for metals analysis, a seamless Teflon piping gas distribution system for gases
shall be provided from this room to aU of the metals laboratories. The  Teflon lines shall be placed
inside a larger PVC pipe vented to the outside of the building.  Each Teflon line of this system shall be
equipped at both ends with regulator valves, and other auxiliary equipment required to furnish gas at
required pressures. Other gas distribution systems other than Teflon may be utilized if approved by the
Contract Officer. Pipe sizes shall be coordinated to ensure proper velocity or gas from cylinders) to the
point of use.

8.9.4     PIPING EXIT CORRIDOR RESTRICTION
Piping from any of these systems shall not be run above or in the exit corridors.

8.9.5     BOTTLE GAS SUPPLY
The bottle gas supply shall be provided with duty and standby sets with automatic change over valves
and controls. An indicator panel shall be installed dose to the point of use in each of the laboratories,
for all gases.  Rooms may be clustered in the panel so long as a minimum distance of 75 feet between
point of use and the panel is not exceeded. See room data sheet requirements for the types, volumes, and
other design information.

8.9.5.1   MULTI-POINT GAS ANALYZER AND ALARM SYSTEM
A multi-point  gas analyzer and alarm system shall be provided to monitor the presence of toxic and
explosive gases within the space.  This system shall consist of gas  sensors/transmitters, wiring and a
micro-processor based monitoring and alarm control panel The number and type of sensors/transmitters
shall be determined by the specific application. Each sensors/transmitters shall transmit a frequency
signal  proportional to the gas concentration and have a special amplifier to eliminate the effects of
radio frequency interferences.  The control panel shall be capable of monitoring and alarming different
types of gases in different zones and have an audible and visible alarm. The control panel shall have a
factory wired terminal strip to interface with the Energy Management System for remote monitoring
and alarms.
                                    ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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 8.9.6    LIQUID NITROGEN AND LIQUID ARGON
 Liquid nitrogen and liquid argon must be delivered to point of use in liquid form.  Insulation in the
 delivery system must be sufficient to prevent evaporation losses of liquid nitrogen. Location of the gas
 distribution room for these two gases shall be as close as possible to the laboratory rooms where the
 gases are used, preferably adjacent to them and directly accessible from the outside of the building
 without use of the laboratory corridors. One large tank for each gas shall be provided and permanently
. fixed in the room.  The tanks shall be outfitted with necessary valves and controls as required by the
 gas supplier.

 8.9.7    TESTING AND PURGING
 Before acceptance the distribution system must be pressure tested and purged.  The required level of
 purity specified at point of use shall be maintained at all points  in the system during testing and
 purging.

 8.10     NON-SANITARY LABORATORY WASTE
 All non-sanitary laboratory waste waters from the laboratories  are required to pass through an acid
 neutralization system prior to discharge into the local publicly owned treatment works.  The system
 shall be designed and constructed in accordance with EPA standards for waste water neutralization.
 The system shall have the capability of continuous pH flow monitoring and recording.  The recorders
 shall be located in the facility's engineer's office, or other suitable area.  Sampling capability is
 required to allow for routine monitoring of facility waste water effluent.

 8.11     CODES AND STANDARDS
 The Codes and Standards of the organizations indicated in Table 8.11 - CODES AND STANDARDS,
 shall apply to all mechanical and plumbing systems, equipment and piping whether or not they are
 specifically listed the Mechanical Section. In the event of conflict between the Codes and Standards of
 the organizations listed and others that may be listed elsewhere  in this documents, the more stringent
 shall govern.
                                   ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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   TABLE 8.11- CODES AND STANDARDS
   AGA:              American Gas Association
   ARI:               Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute
   ADC:              Air Diffusion Council
   ASHRAE:          American Society  of Heating, Refrigerating and Air  Conditioning
                                Engineers
   ACGIH:    .        American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
   CGA:              Compressed Gas Association
   AMCA:            Air Moving and Conditioning Association
   AABC:             Associated Air Balance Council
   NEMA:            National Electrical Manufacturers Association
   ASME:             American Society of Mechanical Engineers
   ASTM:             American Society for Testing Materials
   ANSI:             American National Standards Institute
   AWWA:           American Water Works Association
   NEC:              National Electric Code
   NFPA:             National Fire Protection Association
   NSF:              National Sanitation Foundation
   OSHA:            Occupational Safety and Health Act
   SMACNA:         Sheet Metal and Air-Conditioning Contractors National Association
   UL:                Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.
                      National Safety Code
                      Owners Insurance Underwriters
                      Uniform Building Code Congress

                      Other Federal, State and Local Authorities having jurisdiction.
8.12     TESTING AND BALANCING

8.12.1   INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR
The successful contractor shall procure the services of an independent air balance and testing agency
(Testing Agency), which specializes in the balancing and testing of heating, ventilating, and air
conditioning systems, to balance, adjust, and test air moving equipment and air distribution system,
water system, gas, and compressed air piping systems required in the solicitation.

8.12^   CONTRACTOR CREDENTIALS
The independent contractor shall be an organization whose activity is testing and balancing of
environmental systems, and a member of the  Associated Air Balance Council  (AABC), National
Environmental Balancing Bureau (NEBB) and shall have satisfactorily balanced at least three (3)
systems of comparable type and size as this project
                                  ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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8.12.3   CONTRACTOR REGISTRATION
The independent Testing and Balancing Contractor shall be registered in the State of the project

8.12.4   SCOPE OF WORK
The test and balancing work shall include, but not necessarily be limited to the following items:

    .1       All air-conditioning supply and return systems
    .2       Air exhaust systems
    .3       Hood supply and exhaust systems (include certification and performance testing)
    .4       All hydronic systems
    .5       Gas and compressed air systems

8.12.5   TESTING AND BALANCING DEVICES
HVAC air and water distribution systems  shall be provided with permanently installed calibrated
testing and balancing devices and access as needed to accurately measure and adjust water flows,
pressures,  or temperatures as required.  The design professional shall provide as a minimum the
balancing devices in Table 8.12.5.1 - REQUIRED BALANCING DEVICES FOR WATER AND STEAM
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS and Table 8.12.5.2 - REQUIRED BALANCING DEVICES FOR AIR
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS.  Test devices shall be located and installed according to AABC Volume
A-82.
                                 ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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                             Page     8-38
    Table 8.12^.1 - REQUIRED BALANCING DEVICES FOR WATER AND STEAM DISTRIBUTION
                                         SYSTEMS
   SYSTEM COMPONENTS (WATER)

   Pump suction and discharge piping

   Pump discharge piping
   Chiller evaporator water suction
   and discharge piping

   Boiler or heat exchanger suction and
   discharge piping

   Heating or cooling coil (AHU)
   suction and discharge piping

   Heating or cooling coil (AHU)
   discharge piping

   Reheat coil, fan coil unit, unit
   heater, ports and finned tube
   radiation, converter 1) discharge
   piping 2) suction piping

   Three-way control valves (each
   port) suction and discharge piping

   SYSTEM COMPONENTS (STEAM)

   Boiler discharge piping
REQUIRED SYSTEM DEVICES

Manifold pressure gauge with pressure taps

Flow measuring device (type depending on
accuracy required) or inlet and discharge
pressure gauges

Thermometer/test well and pressure gauge and
gaugecock.

Same devices as required for chiller evaporator
piping

Thermometer/ test well; pressure
gauge/pressure tap

Presettable calibrated balancing valve with
integral pressure test ports

1) Presettable calibrated balancing valve with
integral pressure test ports 2) temperature test
3) pressure tap -


Pressure tap


REQUIRED SYSTEM DEVICES

Flow measuring device (orifice or venturi type)
                                  ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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   Table 8.1Z5.12- REQUIRED BALANCING DEVICES FOR AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
   SYSTEM COMPONENTS

   Diffusers, grilles, registers



   Branch ductwork runs



   Fan discharge ductwork



   Fan suction ductwork

   Cooling coil suction and discharge
   airstreams

   Heating coil suction and discharge
   airstreams

   Mixed air plenum airstream
                                    REQUIRED SYSTEM DEVICE

                                    Round butterfly or square/rectangular opposed
                                    blade volume damper, either integral with
                                    device or in spin-in take offs

                                    Rectangular/square or round (with more man
                                    one opposed blade damper and terminal
                                    device). Sealed test hole for  pitot tube traverse

                                    Sealed test holes for pitot tube traverse.
                                    Sealed test hole for static pressure
                                    measurements

                                    Sealed test hole for static pressure measurement

                                    Duct-mounted airstream thermometer
                                    Duct-mounted airstream thermometer
                                    Duct-mounted airstream thermometer
8.12.6    REPORTING
The testing and Balancing Contractor approved by the Contracting Officer shall, at the completion of
the balancing work, submit a complete report to the EPA for approval.  The report shall be delivered at
least 15 days prior to final inspection of the building.
8.13
DUCTWORK
8.13.1    GENERAL
Provide all ductwork including mat required for air supply and exhaust return of laboratory fume hoods
and equipment. Ductwork systems shall be designed for efficient distribution of air to and from the
conditioned spaces with consideration of noise, available space, maintenance, air quality, air quantity,
and an optimum balance between expenditure of fan energy (annual operating cost) and duct size (initial
investment).

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8.13.2   FABRICATION
Ductwork for air supply, return air and general exhaust shall be fabricated of galvanized sheet metal.
Laboratory fume hood and equipment exhaust shall be PVC coated galvanized sheet metal or Type 316
welded stainless  steel, depending on the specific laboratory function and type of process being
exhausted.  Polypropylene and glass duct material shall be considered for highly corrosive exhaust
applications.

8.13.2.1  COMPLIANCE
Ductwork systems shall be designed to meet the leakage rate requirements of SMACNA HVAC Air
Duct Leakage Test Manual  Ductwork, accessories, and support systems shall be designed to comply
with the following:

   .1      ASHRAE Fundamentals handbook

   .2      SMACNA HVAC Duct Construction Standards - Metal and Flexible

   .3      SMACNA Fibrous Glass Duct Construction Standards

   .4      SMACNA Round Industrial Duct Construction Standards

   .5      SMACNA HVAC Duct Design Manual

   .6      ACGIH Industrial Ventilation Manual

   .7      NFPA 45 - Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals

   .8      NFPA 90A - Installation of Air Conditioning and Ventilation System

   .9      NFPA 91 - Installation of Exhaust Systems for Conveying of Materials

   .10     NFPA 96 - Ventilation Control and Fire Protection of Commercial Cooking Operations

8.13.2^  SPECIAL APPLICATIONS

   .1      Ductwork shall also be designed to comply with NFPA 90A, including specifications and
           installation of  smoke and fire dampers at rated wall  penetrations and smoke
           pressurization/containment dampers as required for smoke pressurizations/evacuation
            systems. Fire dampers shall not be used on the exhaust system ducting if it is required to
           maintain confinement of hazardous materials during and after a fire event.

   .2       Ductwork shall be designed to resist corrosive contaminants if present Exhaust ductwork
            from laboratory fume hoods shall not be of spiral construction and shall be sloped toward
            the fume hood for drainage of condensation.  Laboratory ductwork shall be in accordance
            with the requirements of NFPA 45.

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   .3       Ductwork that handles moisture laden air exhausted from areas such as shower rooms,
            dishwashing areas, or other areas where condensation may occur on the duct interior,
            shall be of aluminum construction, have welded joints and seams, and provide drainage at
            low points.

   .4       Penetrations  of  ductwork through security barriers shall be  minimized.   Such
            penetrations, more man 96 square inches in area and six inches in minimum dimension,
            shall provide a penetration delay equal to that required for the security barrier.  The
            physical attributes, intended service of the ductwork, and the axial configuration of the
            barrier penetration shall be considered in the design of the penetration delay.

8.13.3    ACCESS PANELS
All ductwork shall have an access panel as required for access to each operating part, including:

   .1       Splitter dampers
   .2       Manual volume dampers
   .3       Motorized volume damper
   .4       Fire dampers

8.13.4    INSULATION
All supply air ductwork shall be insulated with a vapor barrier unless otherwise dictated by the
project criteria. Supply air ductwork installed below ceilings and in conditioned spaces may not require
insulation if the surrounding air has a low dewpoint and condensation will not occur.  Return and
exhaust air ductwork may be insulated  when condensation may occur when routed through non-
conditioned areas.

8.13.5    FIRE DAMPERS
Fire dampers shall be provided in accordance with codes, except  in the laboratory areas exhaust
systems.

8.14      DRINKING FOUNTAINS
The design professional shall provide a minimum of one drinking fountain on each block of space so no
person will have to travel more man 150 feet to reach it The water shall be chilled. The refrigeration
coils shall not be assembled using lead solder nor shall these coils contain lead as a lining. All drinking
fountains and locations for drinking fountains shall comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act
(ADA).

8.15      TOILETS, SINKS AND LAVATORIES

8.15.1    GENERAL
Separate toilet facilities for men and women shall be provided.  The facilities must be located so that
employees will not be required to travel more than 150 feet to reach the toilets. Each toilet room shall
have a sufficient number of water closets with a minimum of two per toilet room for each men's room
and four water closets for each women's room enclosed with modem stall partitions and doors. It should
also have a minimum of two urinals in each men's room. The number of women's water closets in each
room shall be no less than the sum of water closets plus urinals of the adjacent men's room. The toilet

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room's hot water should be set at 105 degrees Fahrenheit, or as per the project criteria.  Water closets
and urinals shall not be visible when the entry door is open.

8.15.1.1  ACCESSORIES
Each main toilet room shall contain:

   .1       A soap dispenser, shelf and mirror above the lavatory

   .2       A toilet paper dispenser in each water closet stall

   .3       A coat  hook on  the inside face of door to each water closet stall and on the wall
            immediately inside the door of the toilet room.
   .4       At least one modern paper towel dispenser and waste receptacle for every two lavatories

   .5       A coin operated sanitary napkin dispenser in women's toilet rooms with waste receptacle
            for each water closet stall

   .6       Ceramic tile or comparable wainscot from the floor to a minimum height of 4 feet 6 inches

   .7       A disposable toilet seat cover dispenser

   .8       A convenience outlet located adjacent to one mirror in each rest room.

   .9       A small covered container located inside each toilet partition enclosure in the women's
            toilet room  for the disposal of used sanitary napkins.

8.15.2    TOILET STALL ACCESSIBILITY
All public toilet rooms shall be located along an accessible path of travel  and must have accessible
fixtures, accessories,  doors  and adequate  maneuvering clearances.   The interior shall  allow an
unobstructed floor space of 5 feet in diameter, measured 12 inches above the floor.

8.15.2.1  DIMENSIONS
All toilet rooms designated for public access shall have one toilet stall that:

   .1       Is 60 inches wide

   .2       Has a minimum depth of 56 inches when wall mounted closets are used or 59 inches when
            floor mounted sets are used

   .3       Has a clear floor  area

   .4       Has a door mat is 32 indies wide and swings out

   .5       Has handrails on each side, (front transfer stall) or on the side and back (side transfer
            stall). They shall be 33-36 inches high and parallel to the floor, 1-1/4 to 1-1/2 inches in
            outside diameter, with 1-1/2 inch clearance between rail and wall, and fastened securely
            at ends and center.

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   .6       They shall have no sharp edges and must permit the continuous sliding of hands and

   .7       Has a water closet mounted at a height from 17 to 19 inches, measured from the floor to
            the top of the seat  Hand operated or automatic flush controls shall be mounted no
            higher than 44 inches above the floor.

8.15.2,2  ALTERNATE
A stall measuring 36" or 48" wide by 66", but preferably 72" deep may be acceptable as determined by
the Agency.

8.15.3    LAVATORY ACCESSIBILITY
Accessibility shall comply  with the Americans with Disabilities  Act (ADA). At least one lavatory
shall be mounted with a clearance 29 inches from the floor to the top of the bottom of the apron.  The
height from the floor to the top of the lavatory rim shall not exceed 34 inches.  Faucets shall be lever
operated, push type or electronically activated for one hand operation without the need for tight
pinching or grasping.  Drain pipes and hot water pipes under a lavatory must be covered, insulated or
recessed far enough so that wheelchair individuals without sensation will not bum themselves.

8.15.4    ACCESSIBLE MIRRORS, URINALS, AND ACCESSORIES
Accessibility shall comply with the  Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).  One mirror with shelf
shall be provided above the lavatory at a height as low as possible and no higher than 40 inches above
the floor, measured from the top of the shelf and the bottom of the mirror. A common mirror provided
for bom the able and disabled must provide a convenient view for both. Toilet rooms for men shall
have wall mounted urinals with elongated lips, with the basin opening no more than 17 inches above
the floor.  Accessible floor mounted stall urinals with basins at the level of the floor are acceptable.
The toilet room shall have at least one towel rack, towel dispenser and other dispensers and disposal
units mounted no higher than 48 inches from the floor or 54 inches if a person in a wheelchair has to
approach it from the side.

8.15.5    TOILET SCHEDULE
The number of water closets, urinals, and lavatories shall comply with all state and local codes and as
per the project criteria. If a conflict exists between the project criteria and the state and local codes, the
more stringent shall apply or as directed by the contracting officer.

8.15.6    WATER CONSERVING WATER CLOSETS, SINKS AND LAVATORIES
Flow control devices shall be installed (unless otherwise dictated  by the project criteria) on all water
closets, sinks and lavatories.  Devices shall limit water closet flow to 1.5 gallons per flush; public
lavatories to 0.5 gallons per minute and regular lavatories to 1.5 gallons per minute.

8.16      SHOWER STALLS
Stalls shall be of fiberglass construction, complete with door, soap ledge, shower head, separate hot
and  cold water knobs, non-skid floor finish and standard 2" floor drain. Shower stalls shall  also
provide a small change area with lockers. Emergency shower deluge heads shall not be used in regular
shower stalls. For emergency showers see  8.4.6. Accessibility shall comply with  the Americans with
Disabilities Act (ADA).

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8.17     HOSE BIBBS
Provide 3/4" hose bibbs on exterior walls of the building(s), 30" above grade. A minimum of one hose
bibb shall be installed on each wall  When exterior wall exceeds 75 feet in length, additional bibbs
shall be installed so that distance between bibbs does not exceed 75 feet  Based on the geographical
location of the facility, the design professional shall use freeze-proof type hose bibbs.

8.18     FIRE PROTECTION

8.18.1    GENERAL
The decision to sprinkle the facility shall be based on NFPA 101, 45, the EPA Facility Safety Manual,
state and local codes and the project criteria whichever is more stringent  All sprinkler systems shall
comply with NFPA 13 and be approved by Factory Mutual or any other nationally recognized insurance
company. Special protection systems may be used to extinguish or control fire in easily ignited, fast-
burning substances such as flammable liquids, some gases, and chemicals. They shall also be used to
protect ordinary combustibles in certain high-value  occupancies especially susceptible to damage.
Special protection systems supplement automatic sprinklers as described by NFPA and shall not be used
to substitute for them except where water is not available for sprinkler protection. Halon systems shall
not be used unless directed by me project criteria.

8.18.2    SIZE AND ZONING
Sprinkler system main shall be  sized to meet the fire flow and pressure requirements of the local
authority. Fire pump(s) shall be provided, if needed, and they shall be installed in a separate room
along with the sprinkler system  main  valves. Sprinkler system protection zones shall have the same
boundaries as the fire alarm system fire zones. Each sprinkler system protection zone shall be equipped
with electrically supervised control valve and water flow alarm switches connected to the fire alarm
system.

8.18.3    SYSTEMS

8.183.1  WET PIPE
Sprinkler systems shall normally be wet pipe using pipe schedule sizes listed in NFPA 13 for ordinary
installations. Hydraulic designs shall be performed for all systems.

8.18.3.2  DRY PIPE
In unheated areas or other areas subject to freezing temperatures, dry pipe systems shall be provided.
Because of the time delays associated with release of the air in the system, water demands for dry pipe
systems shall be computed over areas 30 percent greater than for comparable wet pipe systems. Where
the unheated area  is small, it may be cost effective to install an antifreeze system or small dry pipe
system supplied from the wet pipe system in the main heated area.

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 8.18.3.3  PREACTION
 A preaction system shall be used where it is particularly important to prevent the accidental discharge
 of water.  Need for a preaction system shall be based on review by and recommendation of a
 professional fire protection engineer. The detection system chosen to activate the preaction valve shall
 have high reliability and a separate  alarm/supervisory signal to indicate status.  The detection
 system must be designed  to be more sensitive man the closed sprinklers in the preaction system, but
• should not be so sensitive as to cause false alarms and unnecessary actuation of the preaction valve.

 8.183.4  DELUGE
 For extra hazard areas and specific hard-to-extinguish fuels such as explosives and pyrophoric metals,
 a deluge system with open sprinkler heads may be used to wet down the entire protected area
 simultaneously. Deluge systems shall comply with NFPA 13. If quick response is required, deluge
 system piping may be primed with water. The nozzles must be provided with blow-off caps for water-
 filled deluge systems.

 8.183.5  SELF-RESTORING
 Self-restoring sprinkler systems, such as the on-off multicycle system or systems using individual on-off
 sprinkler heads, shall be considered where the water from sprinklers will become contaminated by
 contact with room contents, where there is a concern for water damage, or where water supply or storage
 volume is marginal.

 8.183.6  QUICK - RESPONSE
 Where there are high-value concentrations (values per square foot), quick-response sprinklers shall be
 considered in lieu of conventional sprinklers.

 8.18.3.7  WATER SPRAY
 Installation of water spray systems shall  comply with NFPA 15.

 8.183.8  CARBON DIOXIDE
 Agent quantity requirements and installation procedures shall comply with NFPA 12.

 8.183.9  DRY CHEMICAL
 Systems shall comply with NFPA 17.

 8.183.10 FOAM
 Foam systems shall comply with  NFPA 11, NFPA 11A, NFPA 16, NFPA 16A, NFPA 409.

 8.183.11 STANDPIPES AND HOSE SYSTEMS
 Installation of standpipe systems shall comply with NFPA 14.

 8.183.12 PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
 Portable fire extinguishers shall comply with NFPA 10 except that halon extinguishers shall not be
 placed in any EPA Facility.

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8.18.4   OPERATION
Operation and maintenance instructions and system layouts shall be posted at the control equipment.
All personnel who may be expected to inspect, test, maintain or operate fire protection apparatus shall
be thoroughly trained and kept trained in the functions they are expected to perform.

8.18.5   CODES
In addition to the code requirements mentioned in the above sections, the design professional's design
shall comply with the local authority having jurisdiction of the project

8.19     REFERENCE MANUALS
All work done in this section shall comply with all applicable federal, state, city and local codes,
regulations, ordinances, publications and manuals.  When codes or publications conflict, the more
stringent standard shall govern.


END OF SECTION

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                SECTION 9




ELECTRICAL  REQUIREMENTS

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Electrical Requirements                                                 Page     9-1



                                       SECTION 9

                            ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS
9.1      GENERAL

9.1.1     CODE COMPLIANCE
All work done in this section shall comply with the applicable requirements of the latest edition of the
National Electrical Code (NEC), the National Electrical Safety Code (NESC),  standards  of the
National Electrical Manufacturer's Association (NEMA), Insulated Power Cable Engineer's Association
(IPCEA), the Institution of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE),  National Fire Protection
Association (NFPA), and all applicable federal, state, city, and local codes, regulations, ordinances,
publications and manuals. All new manufactured equipment shall be listed by the Underwriter's
Laboratory (UL) or a similar testing laboratory acceptable to EPA.  When codes conflict, the more
stringent standard shall govern.

9.1.2     ENERGY CONSERVATION IN DESIGN
After careful study of the facility's requirements  as well as day-to-day operation of its various
departments, the design professional shall design systems mat meet the operating requirements in an
energy efficient manner.  The health and safety aspects of the operation  must retain first priority,
however, and cannot be relaxed or traded off for more efficient systems. System and lighting design
shall comply with the requirements of ASHRAE 90, the most current version of Facilities Management
and Services Division (FMSD) Energy Conservation Planning Handbook, the most current version of
EPA's Green Lights - Partner Supports Programs, and any state or local energy conservation codes or
recommendations.

9.1.2.1   LOCAL ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAMS
The design professional shall contact the local utility company to investigate any energy conservation
programs that they may have in effect. The economic validity of pursuing these programs shall be
presented to EPA in the early  design phase of the project, and if deemed viable they shall be
incorporated into the design for the project.

9.1.2.2   COST CONSERVATION FOR INTERRUPTIBLE SERVICE
The design professional shall also contact the local utility to investigate the money savings that could
be realized for the project in operating costs if an interruptible service is brought to the facility. If the
facility can still perform its mission with an interruptible power service, the design professional shall
present to EPA in the early design stage of the project, what the potential dollar savings could be.

9.1.2.3   LOAD SHEDDING/PEAK SHAVING
The design professional shall investigate the payback involved if a load shedding/peak shaving
system is introduced into the design of the facility.  If the payback is sufficient to warrant the initial
capital expenditure, with the approval of EPA, this type of system shall be included in the design of
the project If a generator is involved in this system, careful consideration should be  given to the rating
of the generator and the type of duty  it will be subject to.
                                    ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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9.1.2.4   DEMAND SIDE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
The design professional shall investigate a demand side management system to keep the peak demand
for the facility below a pre-deteimined level  An economic analysis shall be done to determine the
payback on such a system (if demand rates are very low, this type of system may not be economically
feasible).

9.1.3     COORDINATION OF WORK
The design professional shall provide a coordinated set of documents (i.e., coordination between
architectural, electrical, HVAC,  plumbing,  equipment  and structural systems  for  bidding).
Documentation shall clearly identify the division of work among the trades  and delineate the
coordination  responsibilities  for the Contractor. Special attention shall be given to "designed-in"
equipment and equipment to be provided by the program occupants.

9.13.1   CALCULATIONS
The design professional shall provide short circuit, load and lighting calculations  early in the design
phase.

9.1.4     POWER FACTORS
Electrical utilization equipment rated greater than 100 volts, as well as all lighting equipment, shall
have a power factor of not less than 85 percent under rated load conditions. If the equipment to be used
for this project cannot be obtained with the above power factor, power factor correction devices shall be
installed to bring the building system power factor up to 85  percent  All devices required shall be
switched with the utilization equipment, unless this results in an unsafe condition.

9.1.5     ACCESSIBILITY REQUIREMENTS
The facility shall also comply with the electrical requirements of the Uniform Federal Accessibility
Standards (1984) adopted by GSA in 41-CFR-101-19.6, as well as the Americans with Disability Act
(ADA), and all state and local laws and standards for buildings and facilities requiring accessibility
and  usability for physically handicapped people.  The  most stringent of these codes shall be
applicable.

9.1.6     MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT STANDARDS
All specified materials and equipment shall be standard products of manufacturers regularly and
currently engaged in production of such items. Items that  are obsolete or to be discontinued by the
manufacturer, as well as materials and equipment of an experimental nature (or where this project
would be the first time such products have been installed in a  facility), are not acceptable and will not
be permitted. All material and equipment shall be specification grade, new, free from defects, and
high quality and entirely suitable for these specific facilities.

9.1.7     ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS
The design professional shall give careful consideration in the design to the type of materials to be used
for the project as they relate to the environment in which they will be installed.  Exterior equipment
may be subject to different types of corrosive atmospheres.  Interior equipment in  laboratories, testing
and storage areas may also be subject to corrosive conditions.  All equipment and material shall be
suitable for the environment in which it will be installed.
                                    ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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9.2      PRIMARY DISTRIBUTION

9.2.1     DUCTBANKS AND CABLE
All primary cable shall be run underground in ductbanks for new building sites. For extension of or
addition to existing buildings where primary cabling will be used as an extension of an existing system
to a new substation(s), primary cabling may be run within the building provided that it is installed in a
raceway system (conduit) appropriate for the installation.

9.2.1.1   DUCTBANK ENCASEMENT
All underground ductbanks shall be concrete encased for primary circuits (600 volts and above) and
where secondary service reliability is a prime consideration. Minimum duct size shall be two inches. A
minimum of 25% spare ducts (but not less than two spare ducts) shall be provided in each duct run.
Spare ducts shall by plugged or capped to prevent contamination.  Design professional shall investigate
the locations where manholes are to be included to insure that they will drain properly. Ductbank runs
shall be located in the exterior utility corridors established in the master plans.  Locations shall be
carefully coordinated with other site utilities in the corridor to avoid any conflicts.
         SWITCHES
When a new or extension of a "campus-type" utility distribution system is a part of the project, a loop
system shall be considered.  This system shall have sectionalizing primary switches.  Primary
switches shall be of the load break design. All switches shall be pad mounted. Enclosures for switches
shall be suitable for the environment in which they will be located. Where switches are to be located
indoors, they shall be physically isolated from any emergency electrical equipment and be located in
electrical rooms only.

9.2.3     OVERHEAD
Overhead power supply lines can be used where service is to be installed in remote, unsettled, or
industrial areas.  Maximum use shall be made of single-pole structures. Overhead power supply lines
may also be used for feeders to small  single phase loads or buildings. Careful consideration shall be
given to the location of overhead lines in relation to future planned land use development

9.2,3.1   POWER AND COMMUNICATION POLES
Joint use of poles for power and communications distribution shall maintain safety standards and shall
limit electrical interference to communications services.  In joint use of poles, either for multiple
electrical distribution systems, or for bom electrical distribution and communication lines, underbuilt
lines or cables shall be of vertical construction. Use of double-stacked crossrun construction shall be
allowed only where proper clearances  for hot-line maintenance work can be insured. Clearances shall
comply with ANSI-C2.
                                    ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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                        Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                      Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities
 Electrical Requirements                                                  Page      9-4
9.3      SERVICE ENTRANCE

9.3.1    OVERHEAD SERVICES
Where electrical service to the building is by overhead lines, proper dip poles, weatherheads and
supports shall be provided.  Main  service switch, panelboard or switchboard shall be  located
immediately adjacent to the entrance of feeders into the building.  Code required clearances shall be
• maintained under all overhead lines. The openings necessary to bring conductors into buildings shall be
grouted or otherwise fire-stopped.
         UNDERGROUND SERVICES
 To the maximum extent possible, public utility transformers shall be located outside of the actual
 building.  Due to site constraints if public utility transformers must be located within buildings, they
 shall be installed in standard transformer vaults conforming to the requirements of the NEC. These
 vaults shall not be located adjacent to or directly beneath any exit from the building.

 9.33    SERVICE CAPACITY
 Provide incoming transformers, as required, of sufficient capacity to accommodate the full design load.
 In calculating the design load, use a demand factor of 100% for lighting and fixed mechanical
 equipment loads and use 75% demand factor for all other loads.  The incoming service shall have
 sufficient capacity for full design load plus 30% additional capacity for future growth.

 9.3.4    METERING
 Where medium  voltage power is brought  to the facility, electrical energy metering (KWH)  shall be
 furnished at each substation of 500 KVA or larger capacity.  Demand metering (KWD) shall be
 furnished as required for load management purposes.

 93.4.1   LOCAL UTILITY COMPANY
 If low voltage or medium voltage is purchased from the local utility company, metering provisions
 shall be in accordance with the power company's requirements.

 9.3.5    SERVICE ENTRANCE EQUIPMENT
 Service entrance equipment shall consist of a main switch, main switches, a main circuit breaker, main
 circuit breakers, or a main switchboard or panelboard.  The design professional shall give careful
 consideration to the short circuit current available at various points in the proposed distribution system
 in making the determination of whether or not the service entrance equipment should be of the  fused or
 circuit breaker type.

 93.5.1   SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS
 All service entrance equipment shall have copper bussing. If the main service consists of a switchboard
 or panelboard, it shall have at least 10% of the switchboard rating as spare breaker or switches and
 20% of the rating as bussed spaces.  The electrical system shall be properly coordinated for selective
 tripping in order to remove only that  portion of the system that has experienced a fault or overload
 condition.
                                     ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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Electrical Requirements                                                 Page      9-5
9.3.5.2   RENOVATION
If this project is the extension of an existing building (or renovation), the history of the loads shall be
carefully studied to insure that the existing service entrance equipment has sufficient capacity to
handle the loads of the addition/renovation with spare capacity for future loads.

9.4      INTERIOR ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS

9.4.1     BASIC MATERIALS AND METHODS
Electrical systems shall be designed so that all components operate within their capacities for initial
and projected loads.  Preferred standard voltages in conformance with ANSI C84.1 shall be used, with a
single voltage level characteristic in any classification, to minimize stocks of spare equipment and to
standardize operating and maintenance practices and procedures. On-site acceptance testing shall be
required for each major electrical system. Tests shall be performed in the presence of EPA personnel
Copies of all test results shall be submitted for approval  All receptacles, switches and wiring devices
shall be specification grade. All safety switches shall be heavy duty. All equipment shall be new.

9.44     SERVICE EQUIPMENT
All service entrance equipment shall be UL listed for use as service entrance equipment All components
shall be factory wired for switchboards, panelboards or unit substations prior to shipment Service
entrance equipment shall be physically isolated from all emergency power systems so that a failure in
either system will not affect the operation of the other system.  All service switchboards shall have
factory installed ammeters and  voltmeters.

9.43     CONDUCTORS
All conductors (wire and cable) shall be copper. All conductors for systems operating at 480 volts and
below shall have 600 volt insulation with distinctive markings as required by UL for identification in
the field. All conductors shall be continuous without splices. All conductors 600 volts and above shall
be insulated and shall have the appropriate voltage and insulation ratings as required by where they
are located in the system and in the facility. Branch circuit wiring shall not be smaller than No. 12
AWG. All conductors shall be color coded to identify each phase and the neutral The grounding
conductor shall be green or bare.

9.4.4     RACEWAYS
All conductors  shall be installed in raceways.   Minimum size conduit shall be 3/4 inch.  Conduits
installed in stud partitions or above lay-in ceilings, may be EMT.  Conduit concealed  in floor slab,
concrete masonry walls or run exposed 5'-0" above finished floor shall be rigid galvanized steel. PVC
conduit may be used underground to feed site lighting and site power circuits, remainder of outdoor
conduits shall be PVC coated rigid galvanized steel

9.4.4.1   CONDUIT
Service entrance conduits shall  be concrete-encased PVC or PVC coated rigid galvanized steel. Rigid
galvanized steel conduit shall be used in hazardous areas as described by the  NEC, unless the
environment is corrosive for steel conduit, then  PVC conduit can be used. Aluminum conduit shall be
used for high frequency circuits  where steel will cause magnetic problems or in atmospheres where steel
conduit is unsuitable. Aluminum conduit shall not be used underground, encased in concrete, or where
atmosphere is corrosive to aluminum.
                                    ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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Electrical Requirements                                                 Page      9-6
9.4.4.2   FLEXIBLE METAL CONDUIT
Liquid-tight flexible metal conduit shall be used for connections to meters, transformers pumps and
other equipment as required by the National Electrical Code where vibration or movement can be a
problem, and to provide required protection from liquids, vapors or solids.

9.4.4.3   RATED ASSEMBLIES
Raceways that penetrate fire rated assemblies shall be non-combustible.  Openings shall be sealed to
maintain the established fire ratings as defined by UL.

9.4.4U   SURFACE METAL RACEWAYS
Surface metal raceways shall be used to provide receptacles with power and for low potential services
(data, telecommunications, etc. wiring) in the laboratories themselves. The design professional shall
review and make recommendations to the Agency for the type of surface metal raceways appropriate to
the project. The design professional shall review single-compartment surface metal raceways (2-5/8"H
x 1-3/4" D, minimum size) where only power receptacles are required and double compartment surface
metal raceways (4-3/4" H x 2-1/4" D, minimum size) where both power receptacles and telco/data
outlets are required. Raceway covers shall be precut to 12" sections.  The raceway shall be capable of
being divided into two or three separate wiring components to facilitate installation of power or low
potential wiring.  The material and color of the raceway shall be appropriate for the atmosphere in
which it will be installed.

9.4.5     HARMONICS
The design of the electrical distribution (bom normal and emergency power) shall consider the effects
that harmonics from non-linear loads can produce on the system. Harmonics from non-linear loads can
affect the sizes of the neutral conductor, panelboards, phase conductors and emergency generators. "K"
rated transformers shall be used where the associated panelboards are feeding a large quantity of non-
linear loads.   Special attention  shall be  given  to the harmonics produced by variable speed and
variable frequency drive units for control of HVAC equipment

9.4.6     DISTRIBUTION EQUIPMENT
The facility may have special requirements for ground fault protection on the main switchboard (such
as two levels of ground fault).   Check with the facility for any special  requirements  above  those
required by the National Electrical Code. The use of ground fault protection shall be included in all
laboratory  areas where personnel are operating electrical equipment and are exposed to electrical
shock hazards during this type of operation. Ground fault protection systems shall also be installed in
areas required by  the EPA Facility Safety Manual
                                    ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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Electrical Requirements                                                  Page     9-7
9.4.6.1   DRY TYPE TRANSFORMERS
Dry type transformers shall be provided with four 2-1/2% taps, two above and two below rated
primary voltage.  All transformers shall be designed for continuous operation at not more than 150ฐC
temperature rise, above 40ฐC ambient  All transformers shall conform to the design, temperature rises,
tests, etc., specified by ASA, NEMA, and IEEE standards, and shall have a rated sound level of 45
decibels or below. To ensure against objectionable noise being transmitted through the building, the dry
• type transformers shall be mounted on approved vibration eliminating mountings.  Connection to
transformers shall be made employing flexible steel conduit (Greenfield) with grounding jumper.  All
transformers shall comply with the requirements  of the EPA Facility Safety Manual.  All dry type
transformers shall be designed for non-linear loads.

9.4.6.2   PANELBOARDS
Panelboards shall comply with UL 67 and UL 50. Panelboards for use as service disconnecting means
shall additionally conform to UL 869.  Panelboards shall be circuit breaker equipped.  Design shall be
such that any individual breaker can be removed without disturbing adjacent units or with loosening or
removing supplemental insulation supplied as a means of obtaining clearances as required by UL.
Where "space only" is indicated, make provisions for the future installation of  a breaker sized as
indicated. All panelboard locks included in the project shall be keyed alike.
Directories shall be typed to indicate  load served by each circuit and mounted in a holder behind
transparent protective covering. Support bus board on bases independent of the circuit breakers. Main
buses and back pans shall be designed so that breakers may be changed without machining, drilling, or
tapping. Provide an isolated neutral bus in each panel for connection of circuit neutral conductors.
Provide a separate ground bus marked with a yellow stripe along its front and bonded  to the steel
cabinet for connecting grounding conductors. Provide a separate ground bus marked with green strip
along its front, isolated from the panel cabinet for connecting isolated insulated ground wires.

9.4.6.3   CIRCUIT BREAKERS
Circuit breakers shall comply with Fed. Spec. W-C 375 and be thermal magnetic type with interrupting
capacity of 10,000 amperes symmetrical minimum.  Breaker terminals shall be UL listed as  suitable for
the type of conductor provided. Plug-in circuit breakers are not acceptable. Provide common-trip type
multiple breakers with a single operating handle. Breaker design shall be such that an overload in  one
pole automatically causes  all poles to open. Maintain phase sequence throughout each panel so that
any adjacent breaker poles are connected to Phases A, B, and C respectively. Provide circuit breaker
with ground fault interrupter  (UL 1053 and NFPA 70). Provide with "push-to-test" button, visible
indication of tripped condition, and ability to  detect a current  imbalance of approximately  5
milliamperes.

9.4.6.4   SHUNT TRIP BREAKERS
Shunt trip breakers shall be provided in branch circuit panelboards designated by EPA to remove power
to laboratory modules upon the activation of the fire sprinkler system in the immediate area.

9.4.6.5   LABORATORY MODULE
Each laboratory module (11* - 0" wide ) shall be provided with a separate 120/208 volt, 3 phase, 4 wire
panelboard.  The branch  circuit system shall be as flexible as possible for any type of laboratory
alteration. Additionally, each laboratory module shall be provided with emergency power from  and
emergency power panelboard; the panelboard may serve more man one laboratory module.
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                                                      EPA Facilities
Electrical Requirements                                                  Page      9-8
9.4.6.6   WIRE CLOSETS
Wire closets which leave passages between floors constitute shafts and shall be protected in accordance
with local building codes and  the EPA Facility Safety Manual.  In any case where wire  closet
ventilation arrangements or other features cannot conform to the requirements for a shaft, all openings
through the floor shall be fire-stopped (grouted).  In any building where smoke control systems are
likely to be involved, such additional fire-stopping or other methods to increase the smoke passage
resistance of openings around doors or through wire passes shall be provided as necessary to meet the
needed level of efficiency for smoke control systems.

9.4.7     MOTOR CONTROLLERS /DISCONNECTS
Motor controllers/starters shall  be provided for all motors and equipment containing motors.  All
controllers shall have thermal overload protection in each phase. Magnetic-type motor controllers
shall have under voltage protection when used with momentary-contact pushbutton stations or
switches and shall have under voltage release when used with maintained-contact pushbutton station
or switches.  When used with  a pressure, float, or similar automatic-type or maintained-contact
switch, the controller shall have a hand-off-automatic selector switch.  Connections to the selector
switch shall be such that only the normal automatic regulatory control devices will be bypassed when
the switch is in the "hand" position. All safety control devices, such as low and high pressure cutouts,
high temperature cutouts, and motor overload protective devices, shall be connected in the motor circuit
in both the "hand" and the "automatic" positions.  Control circuit  connections to any  hand-off-
automatic selector switch or to more man one automatic regulatory control device shall be made in
accordance with an indicated, or  a manufacturer's approved, wiring diagram. Ihe selector switch shall
have means for locking in any position. For each motor not in sight of the controller, the controlled
disconnecting means shall be capable of being locked in the open position or a manually operated,
nonfused switch which will disconnect the motor from the source of supply shall be placed within sight
of the motor location.  Overload protective devices shall give adequate protection to the  motor
windings, be of the thermal inverse-time-limit type, and include a manual-reset type pushbutton on the
outside of the motor controller case. The cover of a combination motor controller and manual switch or
circuit breaker shall be  interlocked with the operating handle of the switch or circuit breaker so that
the cover cannot be opened unless the handle of the switch or circuit breaker is in the off position.

9.4.7.1   CONTROL EQUIPMENT
Control equipment shall comply  with the NEMAICS standards and UL 508.  Single-phase motors may
be controlled directly by automatic control devices of adequate rating. Polyphase motors controlled
automatically and all polyphase  motors rated greater than 1 hp shall have magnetic starters. Control
devices shall be of adequate voltage and current rating for the duty to be  performed.  Pilot control
circuits shall operate with one side  grounded, at no greater than 120 volts.  Where control  power
transformers are required, they  shall be located inside the associated motor starter housing, shall be
protected against faults and overloaded by properly sized overcurrent devices, and shall be of sufficient
capacity to serve all devices connected to them without overload. Reduced-voltage starters shall be
provided for larger motors where starting the motor may result in unacceptable voltage dip.
                                    ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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 Electrical Requirements                                                 Page      9-9
 9.4.7.2   SAFETY DISCONNECT SWITCHES
 Safety disconnect switches shall be provided for all hard-wired electrically operated equipment and
 motors in locations as required by code. Switches shall meet the requirements of Federal Specification
 W-S-865c and NEMA type HD.  Enclosure shall be NEMAI for indoor use and NEMA 3R for exterior use.
 All safety switches shall be horsepower rated.  The switches shall be of the quick-make quick-break
 type, and all parts shall be mounted on insulating base to permit replacement of any part from the front
. of the switch.  All current carrying parts shall be of high rated load without excessive heating.
 Contacts shall be plated to prevent corrosion and oxidation and to assure suitable conductivity.

 9.4.7.3   MOTOR CONTROL CENTER
 Where a group of several motors (all of larger than fractional horsepower) are located in one room or
 space, a motor control center should be used. Arrange bussing in the control center so that the center can
 be expanded from bom ends. Bus shall be silver-plated copper.  Interconnecting wires shall be copper.
 Terminal blocks should be of the plug-in type, so that controllers may be removed without disconnecting
 individual control wiring.

 9.4.8    GROUNDING
 The grounding  system for the facility shall be permanent, effective, and complete from service entrance
 to most electrical devices. The grounding system shall conform to the NEC article 250 mandatory and
 applicable advisory rules. In addition, green insulated copper ground wire shall be connected between
 each lab electrical outlet and the feeder panel isolated ground bus. This conductor shall be sized in
 accordance with NEC Table 250-95.  Grounding systems shall comply with NFPA 70 and IEEE 142. A
 separate ground conductor shall be used. Raceway systems shall not be used as ground path.

 9.4.8.1   LABORATORY BUILDING MODULE GROUNDING
 In addition to the grounding indicated above, all laboratory building modules shall have a bare earth
 copper ground grid or field direct buried outside to provide an isolated ground for instrumentation
 grounds only.  This ground system (as  well as any other isolated ground system required for special
 areas) shall be clearly identified and protected against improper usage. All building ground systems
 shall be tied together as required by NEC article 250.

 9.4.8.2   GROUND BUS
 Every panelboard and switchboard in the facility shall be provided with a ground bus.

 9.4.9    LABORATORY POWER REQUIREMENTS
 See the  Room Data Sheets for the individual specific and/or typical generic laboratory  room
 requirements. Specific and general electrical requirements are indicated for most spaces. However, the
 design professional must  review, verify  and test these requirements with the appropriate
 representatives for the design  of the new facility during the Program Verification and Design Phase
 and gain approval from EPA.

    .1       All 120 volt general convenience receptacles shall be rated a minimum of 20 amperes and
             shall be grounding type (NEMA 5-20R), specification grade.

    .2       120 volt circuits shall have a minimum rating of 20 amperes.

    .3       A maximum of four general convenience receptacles shall be connected to a circuit.
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Electrical Requirements                                                  Page    9-10
   .4       Equipment such as refrigerators, freezers, centrifuges, etc. shall each have their own
            dedicated circuits.

   .5       Receptacles for 6-foot or longer fume hoods shall be alternately wired for two circuits.

   .6       Receptacles located within six feet of a sink shall be ground fault interrupter type.

   .7       All branch circuits or panelboard feeder conduit runs shall be provided with separate
            equipment grounding conductors sized per NEC Tabk 250-95.

   .8       Each laboratory shall be provided with a separate dedicated 120/208 volt, 3 phase, 4
            wire panelboard at a minimum spacing of one panelboard every two modules. Additional
            panelboards shall be provided as required by electrical usage or as directed by the EPA
            project officer.

   .9       Each laboratory panelboard shall be provided with a separate ground bus.

   .10      Receptacles above wall or island benches and at equipment spaces shall be in surface
            metal raceways wherever possible Raceways shall be single or double compartment (for
            bom power and telco/data) as directed by  the EPA project officer.

   .11      30A, 125/250 volt, single phase receptacles (NEMA14-30R) will be provided for 30A, 208
            Volt, 1-phase equipment.

   .12      One receptacle on a dedicated 20A, 120 volt emergency power circuit shall be provided in
            each laboratory. Emergency power shall also be provided for special equipment requiring
            such power.

   .13      Uninterruptible Power Supply  (UPS)  systems  within  the computer/data processing
            rooms/laboratories and their supply and  output circuits, shall comply with Section 645-
            10 of the National Electrical Code (NEC).

9.5      INTERIOR LIGHTING SYSTEM

9.5.1     ILLUMINATION LEVELS
The minimum acceptable levels of maintained illumination shall be as indicated in Table 9.5.1 -
ILLUMINATION LEVELS for the particular areas.  (These values represent general illumination 30
inches above the floor). For areas not listed in Table 95.1, the recommendations of the IES handbooks
shall be followed.
                                    ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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Electrical Requirements                                                Page    9-11
   TABLE 9.5.1 - ILLUMINATION LEVELS
   FUNCTION                                           FOOTCANDLES

   Private Offices                                                  50
   Animal Room                                                   70
   Autopsy                                                       100
   Boiler Room                                                    20
   Corridors                                                       25
   Emergency Lighting (General)                                      3
   Emergency lighting in laboratory blocks                              5
   Examination                                                   100
   Laboratories (dual switching)                                 50/100
   Loading Dock                                                   20
   Lobby                                                          50
   Locker Rooms                                                   20
   Shops (dual switching)                                       50/100
   General Office and Record Rooms                                   50
   Parking, Driveway and Walkways                                1-2
   Stairways                                                      20
   Storage
       Inactive                                                     5
       Rough Bulky                                                10
       Medium                                                     20
       Fine                                                        50
   Telephone Equipment Room                                       70
   Toilets                                                         30
   Exterior Entrances                                                5
   Desk Level (Task lighting)                                     50-70
   Utility Rooms                                                  20
   X-ray                                                          10
   Parking Decks                                                   5
   Library-Conference Rooms (dual switching)                       35/70
9.5.2    LIGHTING CONTROLS
Switches shall be provided to control lighting in all areas. Large rooms (over 200 square feet) shall
have multiple switching to reduce the lighting level by approximately half.

9.5.2.1  DAYLIGHT LEVEL SENSORY CONTROLS
In areas of buildings (over 200 square feet), with the exception of laboratories, that will have a large
contribution of natural daylight, the use of daylight level sensory controls to control the lighting levels
of these spaces shall be included.
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Electrical Requirements                                                 Page    9-12
9.5.2.2   BUILDING AUTOMATION SYSTEMS
In buildings with building automation systems (BAS), the BAS (in addition to light switches) shall
control overall building lighting.  Each floor shall be a separate control  zone with appropriate
subzoning of each floor for special functions.

9.5.2.3   OCCUPANCY SENSORS
Occupancy sensors shall be provided (in addition to switches) to control lighting in offices and smaller
rooms.

9.5.3     LAMPS AND BALLASTS
Electrical discharge lamps and HID lamps should be the primary lamps for consideration in the
selection of the illumination concept and the use of energy efficient lamps and ballast  The use of
filament light sources should be kept to an absolute minimum,  i.e., only in spaces not having a
requirement for high levels of illuminations, whose occupancy is normally for short durations and for
which discharge lamps are not suitable.  Where fluorescent lamps  will be utilized, these lamps shall
be of the T-8 or T-12 type to conserve energy.

9.53.1   INDOOR HID LIGHTING
When using HID lighting indoors, careful consideration of the required color rendition shall be made
from visual and health safety perspectives.

9.5.3.2   BALLASTS
All ballasts to be used on mis project  shall be of the energy saving type (electronic ballasts shall be
used in all possible locations).

9.5.3.3   LIGHT FDCTURE SELECTION
The selection of light fixtures should involve the careful consideration of the quality of construction,
ease of maintenance, ease of re-lamping, efficiency, illumination characteristics, mounting technique,
and  special purpose characteristics (vapor-proof, explosion proof, elimination of radio frequency
interferences, etc.).
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Electrical Requirements                                                 Page     9-13
9.5.4     EMERGENCY LIGHTING (BATTERY UNITS)
An emergency lighting system shall be provided and so arranged to provide a minimum of 3 foot-candle
illumination (measured at floor level) throughout die entire path of egress, including exit access routes,
exit stairways, or other routes such as exit passageways to the outside of the Building. Laboratories,
large open areas such as cafeterias, assembly areas, large mechanical, electrical, and storage rooms,
and open plan office spaces where exit access is normally through the major portion of these areas,
shall be provided with emergency lighting.  The type of system used shall be such that it will operate
in the event of any failure of a public utility or internal disruption of the normal power distribution
system in a building, except that in buildings seven stories or below, the system may be powered from
connections to two separate substations from a reliable public utility.  Automatic transfer switching
shall be provided for the emergency power supply.  Provide emergency lighting systems in laboratories,
mechanical/electrical rooms, storage rooms, any location where chemicals are stored, handled, or used,
and large computer rooms. The emergency lighting in laboratory rooms should provide at least 5 foot
candles of illumination, measured at the face of the hood and at the exit door. Connect the emergency
lighting to a generator, when a generator is provided. In buildings where there would be no emergency
generator, battery back-up shall be provided for egress and emergency lighting. This battery back-up
may be by either unit-type battery  fixtures, battery packs  in fluorescent fixtures or by the use of
inverters. Where HID lamps are used, (and connected to a generator), a standby lighting system shall
be provided to meet emergency lighting requirements during HID lamp restrike periods.

9.5.5     ENERGY CONSERVATION
The EPA seeks to offset a large proportion of energy use dedicated to electric lighting and resulting
cooling loads through proper use of natural lighting in this facility. In effect, it seeks a well integrated
lighting system for its new building that makes optimum use of both natural and artificial lighting
sources and balances of building's heating/cooling needs.  A lighting power budget shall be determined
in conformance with ASHRAE standard 90, and strictly adhered to in the design of the lighting for the
facility.  This budget may be exceeded in laboratory areas and shops where  a higher level of
illumination is required due to the work being done in these areas.

9.5.6     GREEN LIGHTS
EPA has also introduced a program called "Green Lights".  All design of  lighting for EPA facilities
shall be done in accordance with this program.

9.5.7     GLARE
The selection of the type of diffuser and lens to be used on the lighting fixtures shall take into account
the glare that can be produced on the working surface. All lighting design shall minimize the effects of
glare on the task surface.

9.5.7.1   LIGHT FIXTURE LOCATION
In locating lighting fixtures, the design professional shall consider the fact that many of the surfaces in
the facility (especially  in laboratory areas), have highly reflective materials at the task location
and locate the fixtures to keep glare to a minimum.
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Electrical Requirements                                                Page    9-14
9.5.8    ADP AREAS
Lighting fixture types, location, and illumination levels shall be coordinated with the equipment and
functions of telecommunications, alarm, and ADP centers to provide die required illumination without:

   .1       Interfering with prompt identification of self-illuminated indicating devices.

   .2       Creating reflecting glare  that might detract from adequate observations of essential
            equipment

   .3       Creating electrical or electromagnetic interference detrimental to proper operation of
            equipment

9.6      EXTERIOR LIGHTING SYSTEM

9.6.1    GENERAL
Exterior lighting systems shall comply with IES Lighting handbook.  System control shall use time
dock and/or photocell to provide illumination only when needed. In buildings with a BAS (Building
Automation System), exterior lighting shall be switched by photocells in series with timers and the
BAS system.

9.6.1.1  EXTERIOR LIGHT GLARE
light glare shall be kept to a minimum  in those situations where it would impede effective operations
of protective force personnel, interfere with rail,  highway, or navigable water traffic,  or  be
objectionable to occupants of adjacent properties.

9.6.1.2  HIGH EFFICIENCY HID
Maximum use shall be made of high-efficiency HID (High Intensity Discharge) lamps such as metal
halide or high-pressure sodium vapor lamps.

9.6.1.3  EARLY HOURS LIGHTING
Consideration shall be given to reducing the amount of light in parking lot areas during times (early
morning hours 12:00 am to 4:30 am) when it is very unlikely that the lots will be in use.  EPA personnel
at the site shall be contacted before making this time a part of the design.

9.6.2    PARKING LOT LIGHTING
Lighting over driveways and parking areas shall consist of a complete HID lighting system, including
control equipment, underground wiring, luminaries and all necessary accessories for a complete and
functioning system. The maintained level of illumination shall be a minimum of 1-2 footcandles.

9.6.3    BUILDING FACADE LIGHTING
Appropriate lighting shall be provided at  each exterior door and  for functional and  security
illumination of exterior programmed areas.
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Electrical Requirements                                                  Page    9-15
9.6.4     TRAFFIC CONTROL LIGHTING
If this facility is on a site where traffic controls will not be provided by the local municipality or state
transportation authority, the design professional shall design a complete traffic control system for the
facility including all stop lights, directional  lights, controls, wiring etc. for a complete operating
system.

9.6.5     ROADWAY LIGHTING
All new access roadways or continuation of loop or access roadways and driveways shall be lighted.
The maintained level of illumination shall be a minimum of 1-2 footcandles on vehicular roadways and
pedestrian walkways. Same type of lighting (HID source) shall be used for roadways as is being used
for parking lots.

9.6.6     EXTERIOR ELECTRIC SIGNS
All exterior electric signs and non-electric signs shall be integrated into the total design of the facility
by the design professional and approved by the contract officer.

9.7      EMERGENCY POWER SYSTEM

9.7.1     GENERAL
The design professional shall design and provide for an emergency power system for all Administrative
and Laboratory space. The systems shall provide electric power in case of the loss of normal power and
a means of providing emergency power to emergency and egress lighting, as well as to critical equipment
during planned outages for maintenance programs.  Emergency power system shall comply with NFPA
37, NFPA 70, NFPA 101, NFPA 110, IEEE 446, and the EPA Facility Safety Manual See Chapter Six of
the EPA Facility Safety Manual to determine the type of emergency power to be provided.

9.7.1.1   BATTERY TYPE LIGHTING
In smaller buildings when the emergency power system is primarily installed for egress lighting
purposes, battery type lighting units shall be used.

9.7.1.2   EMERGENCY POWER
In facilities where the emergency levels are larger than can be handled by battery packs, an emergency
generator shall be supplied. This emergency power system shall be comprised of a diesel engine driven
generator complete with phase synchronized automatic transfer switch or switches and necessary
controls for automatic operation.  If permissible by the loads and availability of natural gas, a natural
gas generator shall be considered. All automatic  transfer switches shall be of the isolation/bypass
type.  The generator(s) shall transfer and pick-up the critical load(s) within ten seconds. The system
shall be capable of carrying a continuous full load for not less than 24 hours. The exhaust and fuel pipe
vents shall be arranged and located away from fresh air intakes. The exhaust shall be located where
maximum dilution can be accomplished.  The generator shall be designed to handle non-linear loads,
plus 25% spare capacity, the generator shall be water cooled.
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9.7.1.3   EMERGENCY GENERATOR LOCATION
The preferable location for the generator is outdoors.  The location should be such that it will be
aesthetically hidden from view and to the rear of the main facility. It should be placed over vibration
isolators and make use of noise dampers and other devices as required to substantially attenuate noise
and vibration resulting from operation of the generator. The generator shall be equipped with a low
noise exhaust silencer (hospital or critical type) and weatherproof housing.

9.7.1.4   ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
For all installations where a generator is provided, an economic analysis shall be made to determine
the economic feasibility of including load shedding or peak  shaving equipment as part of the
installation. EPA will instruct the design professional on the inclusion of this item on the project after
examination of the economic analysis has been completed.

9.7.1.5   FUEL STORAGE TANK
If the generator is of the diesel type, the system shall be provided with a fuel storage tank which is
capable of carrying a continuous full load for not less than 24 hours. The preferred type of tank is an
above ground storage tank.  If instructed by EPA, the tank may be installed underground. If so, the tank
shall be of double wall construction of non-corrosive material with interstitial monitoring capabilities.
Tank shall meet all of the interim prohibition (40 CFR 280.1) requirements or the latest promulgated
rules effective on the date of installation. Cathodic protection shall be considered for protecting all
metal parts of underground fuel storage tanks.

9.7.2     EMERGENCY LOADS
In addition to the loads required by NFPA 101 and 70, and the room data sheets, the following loads
shall be connected to the emergency power system:

    .1        One receptacle in each laboratory
    .2        Fire alarm system
    .3        Exit lights
    .4        Emergency lighting system - 2 FC minimum for egress; 10 FC at switchboards
    .5        Special laboratory equipment
    .6        Telephone relay system
    .7        Controlled temperature rooms
    .8        Certain HVAC systems (as required by the applicable state and local codes  and as
             directed by EPA)
    .9        Critical sump pumps and other associated mechanical equipment and controls
    .10       All animal care facilities
    .11       Local HVAC air compressors for special rooms
    .12       Paging system
    .13       Selected elevators (as required by the applicable state and local codes and as directed by
             EPA)
    .14       Gas chromatograph
    .15       Selected refrigerators and freezers (as directed by EPA)
    .16       Incubators
    .17       X-ray fluorescent  analyzer
    .18       UPS System
    .19       Air conditioning system associated with computer rooms and environmental rooms
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    .20      Security systems
    .21      Safety alarm systems

9.8      LIGHTNING PROTECTION SYSTEM

9.8.1     MINIMUM SCOPE
A lightning protection system shall be provided for all facilities containing laboratory modules, as
well as for facilities containing radioactive or explosive materials.

9.8.2     ADDITIONAL SCOPE
For building types not in the above description, a risk assessment shall be performed using the guide in
NFPA 78 to determine the risk of loss due to lightning.

9.83     MASTER LABEL
For buildings described in paragraph 9.8.1 and for facilities with a strong risk potential (per NFPA 78),
furnish and install equipment,  accessories, and material necessary for a complete "Master" labeled
lightning protection system to protect all building components. The system shall comply with all the
requirements of  the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA No. 78), the Underwriter's
Laboratories, Inc., (UL 96A), and the Lightning Protection Institute (LPI 175).  All cables,  lightning
rods, and accessories shall be copper. All connections and splices shall be of the exothermic weld type.

9.83.1   MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS
Completed installation shall present an unobtrusive appearance, with conductors built into the
building during construction to conceal all conductors, and it shall be properly flashed and watertight.
Installation shall be made in conf ormance with shop drawings prepared by supplier and approved by
the Government.

9.8.3.2   CERTIFICATION DELIVERY
Before the lightning protection system is accepted, the contractor shall obtain and deliver to the
supervising architect, the "Master Label" of the Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., or an equivalent
certification.

9.9      SEISMIC REQUIREMENTS

9.9.1     SEISMIC REVIEW
Several state, local and municipal building codes require seismic protection of electrical components.
After the seismic zone for the site has been determined, the design professional shall research all codes
to determine if seismic protection is required.  If seismic protection is required, all electrical gear,
raceway  and equipment (including lighting) supports shall be designed in accordance  with the
applicable code requirements.
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9.10      UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY

9.10.1    GENERAL
An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system shall be provided for those loads requiring guaranteed
continuous power. Application of UPS systems shall comply with IEEE 446. The UPS equipment can be
of the rotary or stationary type.  The design professional is to make a recommendation as to  the
appropriate  type of system for a particular facility.  The UPS equipment shall be provided with
multiple power supplies (normal power, static switch bypass power, and total system bypass power).
The UPS system shall be sized to provide a minimum of 5 minutes protection upon loss of normal power.
Total system bypass power shall include an isolation transformer.  All components shall be UL listed.
The supplied UPS system shall be specified to operate properly with an emergency generator.

9.10.1.1   MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS
The UPS system shall be of continuous duty, and it shall operate in conjunction with the existing
building electrical system to provide precise power for critical equipment loads.  The static system
shall consist of a solid state inverter, rectifier /battery charger, a storage battery,  a static bypass
transfer switch, synchronizing circuitry and an internal maintenance bypass switch. The rotary system
shall include a solid state inverter, battery charger, a storage battery, an automatic transfer assembly,
an internal (automatic) bypass switch and a low voltage transient synchronous generator.  The UPS
system, along with the supporting equipment, shall be housed in dedicated room(s) with controlled
environmental conditions to meet manufacturer's recommendations and code requirements.

9.10.1.2   CODES, STANDARDS AND DOCUMENTS
The UPS shall be designed in accordance with the applicable sections of the following documents:

    .1       NEMA
    .2       IEEE Inverter Standards
    .3       ASA
    .4       ASME
    .5       National Electric Code (NFPA-70)
    .6       OSHA
    .7       Local Codes

9.10.1.3   ON - LINE - REVERSE TRANSFER SYSTEM
The UPS shall be designed to operate as an on-line-reverse transfer system in the following modes:

    .1       Normal (static) - The critical load shall be continuously supplied by the inverter.  The
            rectifier/battery charger shall derive power from the utility AC  source and supply DC
            power to the inverter while simultaneously float charging the battery.

    .2       Normal (rotary) - The critical load shall receive power from the utility company to the
            motor-generator set which powers the critical load and charges the batteries.

    .3       Emergency (static) - Upon failure of the utility AC power source the critical load shall be
            supplied by the inverter, which  without any switching, obtains its power  from the
            storage battery.  There shall  be no interruption to the critical load  upon failure or
            restoration of the utility AC source.
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    .4       Emergency (rotary) - Upon failure of the utility AC power source, the control logic shall
            turn on the inverter and provide AC power from the battery to the motor-generator set
            and from the motor-generator set to the critical load. The inverter shall be capable of
            full power operation within 50 milliseconds after loss of utility power.

    .5       Recharge - Upon restoration of the utility AC source (prior to complete discharge of the
            battery), the rectifier/battery charger powers the inverter and simultaneously recharges
            the battery.  This shall be an automatic function and shall cause no interruption to the
            critical load.

    .6       Bypass Mode - If the UPS must be taken out of service for maintenance or repair of
            internal failures, the static by-pass transfer switch shall be used to transfer the load to
            the alternate source without interruption.  Automatic re-transfer or forward transfer of
            the load shall be accomplished after the UPS inverter synchronizes to  the alternate
            bypass AC input source.  Once  the sources are synchronized, the static bypass transfer
            switch shall forward transfer the load from the by-pass input source to the UPS inverter
            output by paralleling the two load and men disconnecting the bypass AC input source.
            Overlap shall be limited to one half cycle maximum.

    .7       Maintenance Bypass/Test Mode - Internal switches shall be provided to isolate the UPS
            inverter output and static bypass transfer switch output from AC bypass input source and
            the load. The switches, in conjunction with the static bypass transfer switch, shall
            enable the load to be reverse transferred from the UPS inverter output to the bypass AC
            input source without interruption. The switches shall enable the UPS inverter and static
            bypass transfer switch to be tested without effecting load operation.

    .8       Downgrade - If the battery only is to be taken out of service for maintenance, it shall be
            disconnected from the rectifier/battery charger and inverter by means of an external
            battery disconnect.  The UPS shall continue to function as  specified herein, except for
            power outage protection and transient characteristics.

9.10.1.4  UPS OUTPUT
The UPS output shall have the following characteristics:

    .1       Frequency:  60 Hz nominal +05 Hz (when synchronized to the bypass AC input source).

    .2       Output Voltage Transient Characteristics for.

            a.  25% load step change 44%
            b.  50% load step change +6%
            c.  100% load step change +10/-8%

    .3       Output voltage Transient Response - The system output voltage shall return to within
            +1% of the steady state value within 30 milliseconds.

    .4       Output voltage Regulation - The steady state output voltage shall not deviate by more
            than +1.0% from no  load to full load.
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 9.10.1.5  OUTPUT FREQUENCY REGULATION
 Output Frequency Regulation - The UPS shall be capable of providing the nominal output frequency
 +0.1% when the UPS inverter is not synchronized (free running) to die AC bypass input line.

 9.10.1.6  SYSTEM OVERLOAD
 System Overload -125% of the system rating for a period of 10 minutes and 150% current for one minute.
• Overloads in excess of 170% of the UPS rating on an instantaneous basis or in excess of the overload time
 periods previously stated shall cause the static bypass transfer switch to reverse transfer and allow
 the AC bypass input source to supply the necessary fault clearing current required. After approximately
 five seconds, the static bypass transfer switch shall automatically forward transfer and normal UPS
 operation shall resume  If the overload still exists after the five second period, the static bypass
 transfer switch shall automatically reverse transfer the load to the AC bypass input source and the
 UPS inverter shall turn off. The system shall require manual restart after this sequence.

 9.10.1.7  SYSTEM EFFICIENCY
 System Efficiency - The overall efficiency, input to output, shall be at least 95% with the battery fully
 charged and the inverter supplying full rated load.

 9.10.2   LOCATIONS/LOADS
 UPS system shall be located in special rooms or in the same room as computer equipment  These rooms
 shall have special HVAC equipment to maintain the proper environmental conditions for the UPS
 system and its batteries (during a power outage).

 9.10.2.1  UPS LOAD
 The UPS load will consist of equipment and outlets designated for UPS power connection in the room
 data  sheets.

 9.10.2J2  BATTERY ROOM
 The battery room for the UPS shall be well ventilated so  as to not cause an explosive mixture of
 hydrogen to accumulate. These rooms shall be ventilated in accordance with the EPA Facility Safety
 Manual and shall contain all devices required by this Manual (including mechanical ventilation and an
 emergency eyewash station, fire/smoke sensing device, etc.).

 9.11     AUTOMATIC DATA PROCESSING (ADP) POWER SYSTEMS

 9.11.1   ADP ISOLATION
 Adverse effects of voltage level variations; transients, and  frequency variations on ADP equipment
 shall be minimized.  ADP equipment shall be isolated as needed for  protection. UPS  or power
 conditioners (PDU's) may be used for isolation.

 9.11.2   COMPUTER POWER
 All computer power shall enter the UPS or computer room at 480 volts and feed 120/208 volt UPS or
 PDU units with monitoring capabilities with some transient protection. PDU shall limit the cable runs
 to 100 feet maximum from PDU unit to the ADP equipment  The user will provide a list of equipment
 cable types and plug types.  All circuits to have separate neutrals.  All UPS(s) and PDU(s) shall be
 connected to a central monitoring /control system.
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9.11.3    POWER PANELBOARDS AND DISTRIBUTION PANELS
All individual power panelboards not exceeding 200 amps shall have meters for the main breaker with
readouts on panel  All main distribution panels shall have meters on all breakers. Non-UPS/PDU
outlets shall be spaced every twenty feet around the computer room for utility use (vacuums, drills,
etc.).

9.11.4    LIGHTING
Under floor lights with cutoff timer(s) shall be installed in computer room(s).  Room lighting for
computer rooms shall be either indirect lighting to reduce glare on terminal screens or overhead
lighting of the parabolic type to reduce eye strain.

9.11.5    GROUNDING
All computer power shall be grounded to a large single point ground along with the raised floor system
grid (bolt-in-type).

9.12     CATHODIC PROTECTION

9.12.1    INVESTIGATION AND RECOMMENDATION
The design professional shall investigate and determine whether cathodic protection is  required for
buried utilities. If a cathodic protection system is required, the design professional shall recommend a
system to satisfy the local conditions.  The cathodic protection system shall be designed by a design
professional who is NACE certified with 2-3 years experience in similar installations.

9.13     ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS (RACEWAYS, ENCLOSURES)

9.13.1    CORROSIVE ATMOSPHERE
Special consideration shall be given to the type of raceways to be used in corrosive environments (such
as chemical storage areas, some laboratories, near air handling exhausts for areas with corrosive
fumes, etc.,). All raceways to be used in corrosive atmospheres shall be deemed suitable by the raceway
manufacturer to be suitable for the atmosphere in which they will be installed.

9.13.1.1  EQUIPMENT ENCLOSURES
The enclosures for electrical equipment (panels, switches, breakers, etc.,) shall have the proper NEMA
rating for the atmosphere in which they are being installed.

9.13.2    SALT WATER ATMOSPHERE
Careful consideration shall be given to the type of materials to be used for exterior electrical work
(including lighting) when the facility is located near or at a coastal area. Corrosion from salt air can
have a detrimental effect on steel and any painted electrical surfaces. Consideration should also be
given to the use of EMT or any thin wall raceways to be used on the interior of the building due to the
fact that storage of these materials, prior to installation, on the exterior of the building could corrode
these materials prior to their installation or prior to the building being totally enclosed.
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9.13.3    EXTREME COLD TEMPERATURES
Electrical equipment  such as emergency generators, transformers  and switchgear installed in
weatherproof enclosures on the exterior of the facility that are subject to extreme cold temperatures
should be provided with supplemental heating.

9.13.4    EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERE
.For all areas containing combustible materials in the air, all electrical equipment including raceways,
fittings, and boxes shall be designed in accordance with Article 500 of the NEC.  Positive steps shall be
taken to control or eliminate static electricity in areas where materials that are ignitable by static
spark discharge are processed or handled. This includes spark-sensitive explosives, propellants, and
pyrotechnics as well as solvent vapors and flammable gases.  Electrical wiring, fittings, boxes, and
devices located at exhaust fans that are exhausting areas containing combustible materials shall also
be designed in accordance with Article 500 of the NEC

9.13.5    FLOODPLAIN AREAS
Electrical equipment shall not be located below grade in facilities mat are located in floodplain areas.
Emergency generators shall be located in such a manner that they are not subject to water damage due to
flooding.  Normal power equipment (floor mounted) located at grade level in floodplain areas shall be
located on minimum six inches high  housekeeping pads (higher if water  level will reach the
equipment while on six inch pads).

9.14     COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

9.14.1    TELECOMMUNICATION /DATA SYSTEMS
Telephone service entrance cables will be provided by the telephone company  to the EPA site.  The
design professional shall design a raceway system from a point on site designated by the telephone
company into the main telephone room in the facility. All conduit shall be concrete encased when run
underground.  Twenty-five percent (25%) spare conduit(s) shall be included in the service entrance run.
While the telephone service will be provided by the Telephone  Company, all  telephone equipment
will be  provided by the government.  All new EPA facilities will be pre-wired with EPA contracting
directly with a design/installer for design and installation  of all cabling.

9.14.1.1  GENERAL DESIGN
Design  shall include the provision of required electrical components and a complete raceway system for
telecommunications wiring. EPA will furnish and install all cabling. The inclusion of cabling details
should  guide the Contractor in the design and placement of conduits, raceways, wiring ducts, and
similar delivery means for telecommunications  services; the conceptual framework described is
considered critically important to the overall design of the facility to insure delivery of requirement
services.  The incoming telephone service raceways and primary communications room shall be kept
separate from the electrical service raceways and main electrical equipment room. These services must
remain separate through to the final point of delivery in user areas. Metallic conduit raceway shall be
provided from the main telephone equipment rooms to  the vertical riser closets.  Sleeves will be
provided through the floors of the vertical riser closets.
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9.14.1.2   VERTICAL RISER CLOSETS
Vertical riser closets shall be stacked throughout the building. Concourse, ground, and mezzanine floors
may require the closets to be offset due to floor usage.

9.14.13   TELEPHONE, MICROWAVE, RADIO, AND SATELLITE
The new facility will be serviced by twisted pair and fiber optic cabling from the local telephone
company and may also require microwave, radio and satellite communications. The new facility must
be designed to accommodate these types of transmissions. If there are multiple buildings or pods, they
will be interconnected by dedicated cable passageways which connect the Main Distribution Frame
(MDF) with the campus sub-MDFs.

9.14.1.4   MAIN ENTRANCE FRAME
All cables entering the facility from the outside will enter the primary Main Entrance Frame (MEF).
Entering cables will be provided  with appropriate protection against lightning  and other electrical
surges.  The MEF will be the termination point/point of presence for all carriers entering the facility.
To provide alternative routing, two MEFs should be provided with connections to diverse carrier outside
locations with the number of twisted pair and fiber optic cabling evenly split between the two MEFs.

9.14.1.5   MAIN DISTRIBUTION FRAME
The Main Distribution Frame (MDF) will be located adjacent to the MEF and will be the primary
interface to the carrier connectivity in the MEF.  The MDF will be controlled by the EPA.  If the
facility is accommodated by two or more buildings/pods, the wiring for the complex will originate in
the main MDF(s) ; building/pods other than the one housing the main MDF(s) will be provided with
sub-MDFs connected to the main MDF(s) by dedicated cable passages.

9.14.1.6   TELECOMMUNICATIONS WIRING PLANT
The telecommunications wiring plant is to be installed so that the number of intra-building connections
(e.g., through punchdowns and patch panels) is kept to a minimum. Between workstations and the
MDF(s), the only break in copper/fiber transmission medias should be the telecommunications closet on
the same floor as the workstation, where routing can be done through patch panels.

9.14.1.7   MEF / MDF / SUB MDF
If the facility consists of multiple building/pods, the main MEF/MDF(s) will be connected to the sub-
MDF(s) in other buildings/pods by passageways which permit ready installation of cable in continuous
trays which do not require end-to-end threading.

9.14.1.8   TELECOMMUNICATIONS CLOSET RISERS
On each floor, adjoining one wall  of each Telecommunications Closet (TC), no fewer than six 6" riser
sleeves serving telecommunications purposes only shall be provided. These risers shall provide 50%
surplus  capacity following the initial installation of two 4 pair twisted pair cable, 6 strands of fiber
optic cable and one IBM Type 1 cable to each workstation.

9.14.1.9   SECURITY SENSITIVE CABLE
In addition to the above, provision will be made in each telecommunications riser for the installation of
up to five 2" conduits for security sensitive cables.  These conduits shall terminate in a lockable strip
cabinet on each floor.
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9.14.1.10  HORIZONTAL RACEWAYS
If horizontal raceways are required to connect a set of risers to the MDF or sub-MDF, these raceways
will be designed to permit ready installation of cables so as not to require end-to-end threading.
Telecommunications personnel will have direct access to all cable using these raceways. Work in
raceways will be performed without requiring access to office and/or lab space. Adjacent to the main
raceway, provide five 2" conduits for security sensitive cables.

9.14.1.11  CONGRUENT, STACKED TELECOMMUNICATIONS CLOSETS
Telecommunications Closets (TQ in a building will be located directly above one another and will be
congruent  Telecommunications Closets will be designed to house telephone key service units; 3270
controllers; patch panels for Type 1 cable and fiber optic cable; LAN equipment including, but not
limited  to,  fiber optic  repeaters  and  associated  fiber  communications  equipment; and
telecommunications test equipment

9.14.1.12  SIZE AND DESIGN MINIMUMS FOR TCS
Telecommunications Closets provided shall be at least 150 square feet and serve approximately 250
workstations or standard offices and labs.  Telecommunications  closets  serving more than 250
workstations or standard offices and labs shall be proportionately larger. Telecommunications Closets
will be as close to square as practicable, and will be entered from public corridors through securable
doors at least 42: in width.  In no case will a TC be smaller man 150 square feet and 80" high. Each TC
will be provided with a unique identification number.

9.14.1.13  MAXIMUM CABLE RUN FROM TC
The number of TCs on a given floor shall be such mat a cable run from a TC to an outlet at a workstation
or standard office or lab will not exceed 300 linear feet.  Walls should be covered with plywood
mounting boards of "fire treated" plywood at least 3/4" thick.

9.14.1.14  ADDITIONAL MINIMUM TC REQUIREMENTS
Each TC will be provided with sufficient patch panels for terminating voice  and data cabling to each
services workstation  with at least 50% initial surplus capacity.  In addition, locations for additional
equipment racks will be designated in each TC design.  Each TC will be provided with a minimum of
five dedicated 20 amp circuits, each labeled by circuit number. Each circuit will terminate in two
duplex outlets. In addition, mere will be a.least one 30 amp general use circuit, marked with a
different color wall plate, and terminating in a duplex outlet on each wall.

9.14.1.15  MULTIPLE TELECOMMUNICATIONS CLOSETS
If a floor requires multiple TCs, they will be linked by a direct raceway with a minimum width of 18".
The raceway will enter each TC so mat cables can be terminated on the plywood-mounted punchdown
blocks. Each TC will be provided with a punchdown blocks for termination of twice the amount of cable
initially installed to the workstations and to the building's Main Distribution Frame (MDF).  Each
installed cable will be continued through the appropriate patch panel
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9.14.1.16  TC SPACE LAYOUT AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL
Each TC will be designed to provide telecommunications technicians ample room for installing,
removing and troubleshooting all cable terminations and equipment The TC will be laid out to permit
technicians access  to all terminations in standing or squatting  position, and  provide  sufficient
illumination for detailed work.  Temperature in each closet will be maintained between 65 and 85
degrees Fahrenheit 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. The equipment which will be located in the TC will
generate  an estimated 8,000 BTUs/hour.  The HVAC system shall be designed to efficiently cool the
space in the off hours.

9.14.1.17  TELECOMMUNICATION SERVICES
Provide one of each of the following telecommunications services to each workstation  or standard
offices and labs identified in the new facility:

    .1       Voice service to each workstation will be provided through an RJ11 or RJ45 connection and
            4 pair, 24 AWG unshielded twisted pair (UTP) standard telephone wire. These circuits
            will be terminated in the serving TC in modular integrated punchdown/patch blocks.
            Cable feed to panel  will be through  an appropriate rack-mounted  cable management
            trough/panduit

    .2       Data service through a square plug type connector and 2 pair, 24 AWG shielded twisted
            pair wire These circuits will be terminated in the TC in a rack-mounted IBM distribution
            panel. Cable feed  to panel  will be  through an appropriate rack-mounted cable
            management trough/panduit

    .3       Data service through two RJ45 connectors and two 4 pair, 24 AWG UTP wire.  These
            circuits will be terminated in the serving TC in modular integrated punchdown/patch
            blocks.  Cable feed to panel will be through an appropriate rack-mounted cable
            management trough/panduit

    .4       Data service through 6 strand (four active, two spare) multi-mode 62.5/1265 micron fiber
            optic cable terminating in the serving TC in appropriate fiber optic patch panels. Cable
            feed to panel will  be through  an appropriate rack-mounted cable management
            trough/panduit

    .5       Provision will  be made to  extend the  cable  described above to  the  MDF for
            connective/cross-connect to the telephone company provided entrance telephone circuits;
            to extend the cables described above to the telecommunications facility (data)  located in
            the main computer center. The extension of these data cables to the telecom/computer
            room will be through the data backbone facility described in the next section.

    .6        The method of installing the telecommunications cables from the TC to the workstation
            can either be plenum type cable in the hung ceiling using cable trays or in-slab cells or
            below raised floors if provided.
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9.14.1.18  BACKBONE WIRING FACILITY
The following describes the backbone wiring facility to connect the TCs to the MDF for voice and the
Telecommunication area in the computer room for data:

   .1       Provide sufficient cable pairs from the TCs to the MDF to support all voice requirements
            supported by the TC to its attached work areas.  An additional 20% pairs shall be
            installed from each TC to MDF for growth over the life of the building.

   .2       Provide a 96 strand 623/125 micron multi-mode fiber optic cable backbone through each
            TC terminating in the telecommunications area of the computer facility.

   .3       Provide a 100 pair, 24 AWG UTP cable from  each TC terminating on integrated
            punchdown/patch blocks in the telecommunications area of the computer facility.

   .4       Provide two  Ethernet thick  wire coaxial cables (RG59) to connect all TCs  in each
            building/pod. In addition, provide two of these types of Ethernet coaxial cable between
            the TC which is located on the same floor as the telecommunications area in the computer
            room to mis telecommunications area.

9.14.1.19  VIDEO CONFERENCE ROOMS
Designated video conference rooms must be supported by communication wiring specified in AT&Ts
Technical Advisory-T1.5 Premise Wiring Requirements  and "FTS-2000 Switched Digital Video
Guidelines for EPA Video Teleconference Facilities", dated January 2,1991. These requirements suggest
that CVTS communication  wiring be limited to 300 unrepeated cable runs. The network interface
(service delivery point) to support CVTS rooms will be located in the Network Control Facility (NCF);
therefore, CVTS room locations must be within 300 cable feet of the NCF and have conduit access for 22
gauge shielded solid copper twisted pair wire. Longer runs may require repeaters and incur additional
expenses, but must remain within the 1.5 dB loss specifications  of the Technical Advisory manuscript
concerning the wiring.

9.14.2    RADIO COMMUNICATIONS
An area on site or on the roof of the building shall be designated to allow for radio antennas for radio
communications.  A special room shall be provided to house receiver and transmitter equipment. Cable
raceways shall be provided from the antenna location  to the transmitter/receiver locations and from
there to the telecommunications operations center.  All equipment and cable will be furnished by EPA.
Emergency power shall be furnished for all equipment  In determining the power supply requirements,
it shall be assumed that all transmitters are keyed simultaneously while associated receivers  and
other equipment are in operation.

9.14.3    PUBLIC ADDRESS / PAGING SYSTEMS
Furnish all accessories, material and other equipment for a complete public address system. The system
shall be accessed via the telephone system and may be located in the main telephone equipment room
for convenience of interfacing. Purchase of Public Address System must be coordinated with the
Government's  purchase of a telephone system.  System must be sized to be audible at all points
throughout the facility.  System can be accessed through individual telephone handsets as well as
through PBX switch.  System shall provide hands free  talk back capabilities in lab areas.
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9.14.3.1   MINIMUM SEPARATE PAGING ZONES
At a minimum, separate paging zones shall be provided for the following areas:  Administrative
offices, Chemical labs, Biological labs, General office areas, Hazardous storage areas, Parking lots,
and Exterior secured areas. In multi-floor facilities, further zoning will be required. Controls for
individual speaker units shall be wall mounted and include volume control and on/off switching.

9.14.4    INFORMATION TV SYSTEMS
A complete raceway system and required power outlets shall be provided for an information TV system.
The system may be via a master antenna, satellite dish or from subscription to a local cable company.
Outlet boxes at each location shall be two-gang (one gang with receptacle, one gang for cable jack).
Cable, head-in equipment, antenna(s), devices, dish(es) and cable jacks will be furnished by EPA.
Careful coordination with equipment manufacturer or cable vendor is necessary, so that proper power,
raceways, and cabinets can be supplied.  Raceways shall be complete from antenna/dish head-in
equipment to splice cabinets to outlet boxes.

9.14.5    RECORDING SYSTEMS
In areas where conferences are to be recorded, built-in microphones shall be provided along with a
closet containing  the recording  equipment.   Wiring shall  be installed  from microphone
(omnidirectional)to recorders for a complete system.

9.14.6    SATELLITE DISHES
An area shall be  designed for  the installation  of satellite dishes that  will be  used for
telecommunications, TV reception or data transmission purposes. An area shall also be designed for
location of satellite dish head-in equipment (receivers and transmitters).  Where use of satellite dish
is required, power shall be furnished for all head-in equipment Cable raceways shall be provided
from the satellite dish(es) location  to the room for the head-in equipment and from the head-in
equipment to each outlet served and to the controller location for the dish(es). All equipment and cable
will be furnished by EPA.

9.14.7    TV BROADCAST SYSTEMS
In facilities where a local or national television station will  be broadcasting meetings or press
conferences live from the facility, furnish a complete raceway (or cable-tray) system to allow the TV
station(s) to run cables from the designated TV.van(s) parking areas to the conference/press room. If
cable-tray is provided, it shall be completely accessible its entire length.

9.14.7.1   WEATHERPROOF RECEPTACLES / DISCONNECT SWITCHES
In addition, provide weatherproof receptacles or disconnect switches (fused) at the van parking areas
to allow each van to receive power from the building.

9.14.8    MICROWAVE COMMUNICATIONS
Where required, an  area shall be designed for the installation of a microwave  dish(es) mat will be
used for telecommunications or data transmission purposes. An area shall also be designed for the
location of microwave head-in equipment  Power shall be furnished for all head-in equipment.  Cable
raceways shall be provided from the microwave dish(es) location to the room  for the head-in
equipment to the room where the controller(s) will be located. All equipment and cables will be
furnished by EPA.
                                    ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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Electrical Requirements                                                Page    9-28
9.14.9    OTHER
In general, furnish a complete raceway system for other communication/data systems (not otherwise
mentioned in section 9.14) including raceways, outlet and junction boxes and power connections (direct or
receptacle) for all associated equipment to be located in the facility.  Unless otherwise directed by
EPA, all cabling and equipment for other systems will be furnished by EPA.

9.15      FIRE ALARM SYSTEM

9.15.1    CODE COMPLIANCE-MANUAL SYSTEM
The design professional shall design a complete, code complying fire alarm system.  For small
buildings, and where allowed by code, the system may be a manual system only. The manual system
shall include manual stations, fire alarm annunciator signals and an annunciator panel indicating the
zone where the alarm was initiated. The alarm shall be sent to the local fire station.

9.15.2    CODE COMPLIANCE-AUTOMATIC SYSTEM
In large facilities,  or where required by code, the systems shall be automatic and include smoke
detectors, manual pull stations, rate of rise detectors, alarm bells or horns and strobe lights, sprinklers,
and a central annunciator panel. Smoke detection devices shall not activate the sprinkler system.
Suppression systems shall be tied to the central annunciator panel  The fire alarm system shall be tied
to the local fire station in the area. Smoke detectors shall be provided in all corridors and designated
laboratory modules.

9.153    GENERAL
The fire protection system shall be in compliance with the latest codes and publications as listed in
Table 9.153 - CODES AND PUBLICATIONS (see other sections for additional codes and standards):

   TABLE 9.153 - CODES AND PUBLICATIONS
    Sprinkler Systems, NFPA 13
    Standpipe and hose Systems, NFPA 14
    Local Protective Signaling Systems, NFPA 72A
    Auxiliary Protective Signaling Systems, NFPA 72B
    Remote Station Protective Signaling Systems, NFPA 72C
    Proprietary Protective Signaling Systems, NFPA 72D
    Automatic Fire Detectors, NFPA 72E
    NFPA72F
    NFPA72G
    NFPA72H
    GSA PBS 5900.2B
    Installation, Maintenance, and Use of Central Station
    Signaling Systems, NFPA 71
    ADA Requirements
    EPA Facility Safety Manual (Chapter six, paragraph 16)
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9.15.4    CENTRAL, LOCAL, PROPRIETARY ALARM SYSTEM
The building(s) shall be protected by a central, local, proprietary type fire alarm system.  Location of
pull stations, bells, automatic fire detectors and other pertinent equipment to the fire alarm system
shall be installed in accordance with the referenced NFPA codes and local codes. When there is a
difference between the NFPA and local codes, compliance with the most stringent code will be required.
Visual alarms are required throughout the facility for handicapped fire warning.  System shall meet
•GSA requirements for fire alarm and communication systems as contained in Chapter 18 (Electrical) of
the GSA Fire Safety Criteria.

9.15.5    CENTRAL STATION SERVICE
The building(s) shall be protected by local fire alarm  system(s) (NFPA Standard No. 72A to 72H)
connected to either a UL listed Central Station Service or Central Station Service (NFPA Standard No.
71).


Pull stations shall be installed adjacent to all exit stair doors for egress from the building. Actuation of
a manual station shall alarm the building as required by criteria and shall send a manual station
alarm  signal to the local fire department through a Central Station Service.  Actuation of any
suppression system (sprinkler, dry/wet chemical) protecting the building and its occupants shall alarm
as prescribed for pull stations, except it shall send a suppression signal to the Central Station Service.
All valves on the buildings' sprinkler system and/or standpipe systems shall be supervised by the fire
alarm control panel. The closure of a valve shall initiate a supervisory  signal to the  buildings' fire
alarm control panel and to the Central Station Service. Low air pressure switches on dry pipe sprinkler
systems and low nitrogen pressure switches on preaction sprinkler systems shall be supervised by the
buildings' fire alarm control panels.  The closure of these normally-open supervisory  switches shall
initiate a supervisory signal to me buildings' fire alarm control panels and to the listed Central station
Service.  Elevator lobby smoke detection system(s) shall be incorporated into a zone(s) labeled
"Elevator Smoke Detector" and shall actuate a prealarm signal in the fire alarm control panel and send
a prealarm signal to the Central Station Service.  Likewise, elevator lobby smoke detectors shall be
monitored for trouble by the building fire alarm system.  Smoke detector systems/subsystem(s) shall be
connected to actuate a prealarm signal to a Central Station Service.   These panels shall also be
monitored for trouble by the building fire alarm system. Visual and audible alarm signals are required
throughout  the facility.

9.15.7    FIRE ZONES
Building(s) shall be subdivided  into fire zones as recommended by NFPA and local codes. Graphic
annunciators shall be provided at the Main Entrance(s), and Security Control Center clearly showing
the outline of the buildings, the fire  zones and the alarm initiating desires.  Alarm signals shall be
transmitted directly to a UL listed central services station.

9.15.8    WIRE CLASS AND CIRCUIT SURVrVABILITY
The fire  alarm system initiating device circuits shall be wired Class A  (NFPA Standard No. 72A -
Style D)  and alarm indicating circuits (visual and audible) shall be wired Class A (NFPA Standard
No. 72).  All initiating and indicating circuits  shall be wired so as to be survivable as defined in
Paragraph 13.i of Chapter 18 of the GSA Fire Safety Criteria.
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9.15.9    CONTROL CENTER
Building(s) must have a control center where fire-related control panels are located. This control center
must be located next to the main entrance and shall be separated from the rest of the building by 1-hour
fire resistant construction.  Emergency lighting must be provided.  Air handling, lighting, and fire
protection systems for the emergency control center must be arranged to operate independently of the
effects of fire anywhere in the building.

9.15.10   SYSTEM AND OPERATION STANDARDS AND CODES
The fire alarm system and its operation shall be in accordance with NFPA standards, local codes and
the requirements of GSA Handbook PBS P 5900.2B, Building Fire Safety Criteria.

9.15.11   SIGNAL DEVICES
Signal devices shall include pull stations, heat and smoke detectors, and signals from the sprinkler
system fire pump (if required).  Smoke detectors shall be provided in spaces as described above and in
all corridors, elevator lobbies, in air handling equipment and ductwork, and in special spaces as
described in the Room Data Sheets. Heat  detectors shall be provided in all mechanical Equipment
Rooms, and in Electrical  Rooms. All signal devices shall be addressable type, ie., each device shall
have its own address which shall report to monitoring devices in the English language for dear and
quick identification of the alarm source.. The fire alarm central panel shall report the various signals,
defined to suit smoke purge requirements, to the DDC portion of the BAS which, in turn, will sequence
fans and smoke dampers to meet the smoke control requirements. The fire alarm central panel shall be
able to adjust the sensitivity of all smoke detectors.

9.15.12   HELD OPEN FIRE DOORS
Fire doors that are normally held open by electromagnetic devices should be released by the action of
any automatic detection, extinguishing or manual  alarm signaling device.  Maintenance, operation,
testing, and equipment shall conform to National Fire Protection Association Standard No. 72A and
Chapter 4 of NFPA  72H, Guide for Testing Procedures for Local, Auxiliary Remote Station and
Proprietary Signaling Systems.

9.15.13   ELECTRICAL SUPERVISION /EMERGENCY POWER
The fire alarm wiring and equipment must be electrically supervised.  Emergency power must be
provided. It must be able to operate the system in  the supervisory mode for 48 hours and operate all
alarm devices and system output signals for at least 90 minutes. All alarm initiating devices, except
smoke detectors must be capable of signaling an alarm during a single break or a single ground fault.

9.16     SAFETY ALARM SYSTEM

9.16.1    ANNUNCIATOR PANEL
The design professional shall design a central safety alarm system annunciator panel for the facility
that will  indicate any abnormal condition.  The annunciator panel shall include all relays, switches,
controls,  etc., as required for system operation.  The basic operation of the panel shall indicate any
abnormal condition in a function supervised by the annunciator system causing the associated indication
to flash and the common audible signal to sound continuously. The audible signal can be silenced at any
time by the operation of an acknowledge push button. The audible signal will automatically sound
again with any new indication. The visual signal shall become steady when acknowledged.
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9.16.2    INDICATING PLATES
Indicating plates shall be red with filled-in place characters.  All lamps in the annunciator are tested
simultaneously by pressing the remotely mounted "Lamp Test" push button. The annunciator shall
indicate the following systems and equipment status:

    .1       Fire Alarm Initiation
    .2       HVAC System Motors Alarms
    .3       Emergency Generator Running
    .4       Freezers/Cold Boxes Temperature Alarms
    .5       UPS System Failure
    .6       Fume Hoods / Bio-Safety Cabinets Alarms (critical low-flow)
    .7       Location of activated detection, extinguishing or manual alarm device
    .8       Exhaust Hoods / Ventilated Cabinets Failure Alarms (critical low-flow)
    .9       Exhaust Systems for Instruments and Safety Cabinets Failure Alarms (critical low-flow)
    .10      Acid Neutralization System Alarms
    .11      Power Failure
    .12      Incubator Temperature Alarm
    .13      Gas Alarm
    .14      Sensor (gas) alarm
    .15      Laboratory negative pressure failure alarm
    .16      Additional Systems to be Identified by Agency

9.17     SECURITY SYSTEMS

9.17.1    GENERAL
The design professional shall design a complete security system for the facility.  All security systems
shall be operated and monitored from a central point as selected by EPA. All security systems shall
have a primary and an emergency power source.

9.17.1.1  STANDBY BATTERIES
Furnish standby batteries or UPS to power the system automatically in the event of commercial power
failure. If the facility has a generator, batteries shall ensure no loss of power to central equipment until
the generator takes over.  Alarm shall not be generated when the equipment transfers from AC to DC
operation as from DC to AC operation. If the facility does not have an emergency generator, sufficient
batteries shall be provided to power the controller and necessary devices to prevent unauthorized entry
to the building (electronic locks shall stay in locked position upon power loss). Batteries shall be
chargeable. If batteries lose charge, an alarm condition shall so indicate mis at the control console.

9.17.1.2  CONDUIT OR RACEWAY
All wiring shall be in conduit or surface metal raceway.

9.17.2    ACCESS SYSTEMS
Design professional shall design a complete building access system of the on-line type which reports
into a central controller.  Design professional shall have a minimum of 2-3 years experience in the
design of similar installations.
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9.17.2.1  KEY CARD CONTROL
Provide key card control for all entry to the facility.  The key card reader should read key cards with
numbering encoded within the card. The card reader shall be capable of operating in an off-line mode
to allow persons to enter and exit without recording of card numbers. The card reader shall be capable
of operating also in an on-line mode which causes the card reader to report into a central controller
which provides additional security checks on the key card and provides a printout of time, date, card
•number etc., for the person entering or leaving the premises. System shall be of the anti-passback type.
In addition, furnish one key access lock and card reader inside the building for every 5,000 square feet of
gross floor area, in addition to the vestibules and at entry to controlled computer areas.

9.17.2.2  COMPUTERIZED ACCESS CONTROL SYSTEM
The computerized access control system shall have the capability to program access cards by hour and
day.  The system shall be designed with 50% spare capacity for both card readers and number of cards
to be on the system. Key cards, once removed from the system, shall be replaceable without lowering
the integrity of the system or reducing the capacity of the system.

9.17.2.3  PROXIMITY TYPE CARD READERS
Card readers shall be of the  proximity type and be suitable for the environment in which they will be
located.

9.17.2.4  PROGRAMMABLE KEY PAD- SMALL FAOLITTES
For very small facilities, a programmable keypad may be used at each entry to control access to the
system. Keypad shall be suitable for the environment in which it will be located.

9.173   INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEMS
The design professional shall design a complete  intrusion detection system. The design professional
shall have a minimum of 2-3 years experience in the design  of similar installations. The intrusion
detection system shall protect all grade level doors, operable windows and openings leading into the
facility  as well as roof hatches and roof access doors.  Operable windows shall be lockable and
accessible windows shall be alarmed. Roof access doors or hatches shall be secured with heavy duty
hardware and alarmed.  All floor telecommunications closets shall be locked with dead bolt locking
devices. In addition to perimeter protection, alarm a minimum of ten interior doors as designated by
EPA. Door switches shall be of the balanced magnetic type.

9.173.1  CENTRAL CONTROL/REMOTELY MONITORED
The entire system shall be monitored at the central control desk of die facility and remotely monitored
either on the campus, by an alarm company, or the local law enforcement agency.

9.17.4   SITE ACCESS SYSTEMS
Provide one alarm zone with an infrared beam  to monitor vehicles passing through the gate of the
fenced area. Position beam to monitor entire length of fence on side with gate. The alarm zone shall be
monitored at the central alarm desk (as part of the intrusion detection system) with remote monitoring
of the same type as the intrusion detection system. Provide one zone and an infrared beam detection
system for each location where there is a gate in the fenced in area of the site.
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9.17.5    CCTV SYSTEMS
The design professional shall design a complete dosed circuit television security (CCTV) system.  The
design professional shall have a minimum of 2-3 years experience in the design of similar installations.
Conduit and wiring shall be installed for the system and a camera shall be installed at all entrance and
exit areas. The location of the camera shall be suitable for monitoring people movement when entering
or leaving the building and an emergency circuit shall provide power for each camera location.
Conduit, wiring, cameras, etc., shall also be installed in all parking lots, loading docks, and computer
areas to provide monitoring.

9.17.5.1  CAMERAS-FIXED OR PAN-TILT-ZOOM
Cameras shall be of the fixed or pan-tilt-zoom type as required for each specific location. Cameras
shall be housed in proper enclosures for the environment in which they are to operate (e.g., defrosters,
heaters, weatherproof enclosures, corrosion resistant or vandal proof enclosures, etc.).

9.17.5.2  CAMERAS-MONITORED/CONTROLLED
All cameras shall be monitored/controlled  at the facilities central control station.  Monitors shall be
event driven. A VCR shall be provided to record unauthorized access (control by guard).  A 120 volt
single duplex receptacle (emergency power) shall be provided immediately  adjacent to all CCTV
camera locations.

9.17.5.3  CCTV CAMERAS - LOADING DOCKS
CCTV cameras shall be provided to monitor entry and exiting from the loading dock areas. CCTV
monitors (in addition to mat at the central console for the loading dock areas), shall be provided in the
loading dock office to provide identification of delivery vehicles prior to opening the loading dock
doors.

9.17.6    PERIMETER SYSTEMS
The design professional shall design a complete grade level perimeter intrusion detection system. This
system shall be in addition to the intrusion detection system described above and shall be monitored at
the same control panel provided for the intrusion detection system.

9.17.6.1  ULTRA SONIC PROTECTION
Furnish ultrasonic protection to protect the  grade level, glass enclosed, office area and any other area
which contains exterior glass at grade level.  The Ultrasonic Control Panel shall be the type which
controls nominally 20 pairs of transmitters and receivers. Connect as a separate zone input into the main
alarm panels.  Install sufficient transmitter/receiver pairs to protect the entire office area and other
grade level areas with exterior glass.

9.17.7    DATA PROCESSING
The  design professional shall design a complete  access/intrusion detection system for all data
processing areas. A card reader and balanced magnetic switch shall be provided at each door leading
into the data processing areas. Card readers shall be of the proximity type.  System shall be monitored
at the central control station for the facility.  Control computer shall be capable of programming access
cards by  hour and day. Central controller shall furnish a printout of time, date, card member etc., for
the person entering or leaving the data processing area. System shall be of the anti-passbook type.
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9.17.7.1  COMPUTER AREA DOORS
If a card access system is being furnished for other doors in the facility, the same cards shall work for
the computer area doors (if so encoded for certain personnel only).

9.17.7 J2  CENTRAL CONTROL DOOR MONITORING
The door shall be monitored at the central control station in case it is left open or the card access system
•is bypassed.

9.17.8    PARKING CONTROLS
The parking facility(s) shall be enclosed and equipped with a perimeter sensor system and lockable
gates.  The gates shall be equipped with a computerized access control system. EPA card readers shall
be installed in parallel with any other card readers (if required) on all the access roads.

9.17.8.1  ACCESS SYSTEM
The parking control access system shall have all the components discussed above for access systems. For
very small facilities, programmable keypad may be used in lieu of a card reader. The same cards used
for building access shall operate the parking controls (if so encoded).

9.18     DISASTER EVACUATION SYSTEM
The design professional shall include a "warning" / "evacuation" alarm system for the building where
the facility is located in an area that is tornado or hurricane prone.  The system shall  provide for
building evacuation in accordance with the facility's emergency preparedness plan and shall be
coordinated with me community's emergency preparedness plan.


END OF SECTION
                                    ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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             SECTION 10




LEASE ADMINISTRATION

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Lease Administration                                           Page     10-1


                                SECTION 10

                         LEASE ADMINISTRATION
                                   NOTE: THE INFORMATION IN THIS SECTION 10
                                   SHALL BE PROVIDED BY EPA AND IS NOT A PART
                                   OF THE SCOPE FOR THIS DELIVERY ORDER NO. 6 -
                                   STANDARDS
10.1    DEFINITION OF GROSS AREA
10.2    NET USABLE SQUARE FEET
10.2.1   GENERAL
10.2.2   SQUARE FEET
10.2.3   APPURTENANT AREAS AND FACILITIES
10.3    VENDING FACILITIES
10.4    JANITORIAL SERVICES
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10.5     MAINTENANCE AND TESTING OF SYSTEMS
10.5.1    GENERAL
10.5.2    TESTING
10.5.3    WATERTIGHT INTEGRITY
10.5.4    ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS
10.6     FLAG DISPLAY
10.6.1   GENERAL
10.6.2   DISPLAY
10.7     SAFE AIR CONTAINMENT LEVELS
10.7.1   GENERAL
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Lease Administration                                             Page     10-3
10.7.2    ASBESTOS
10.7.2.1  GENERAL
10.7.3    POST-ASBESTOS-ABATEMENT MONITORING
10.7.4    ABATEMENT ACTIONS OTHER THAN REMOVAL
10.7.5    NON-FIREABLE ASBESTOS
10.7.6    ABATEMENT PLAN
10.7.7    INSPECTION AND TESTING
END OF SECTION
                              ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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                        APPENDIX A

CODES, REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS,
            REFERENCE STANDARDS,
TRADE ORGANIZATIONS, AND GUIDES

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                         Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                                                                     ities
Appendix A
                             Page
                            A-l
                                         APPENDIX A

                                             CODES
                             REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS
                                 REFERENCE STANDARDS
                                 TRADE ORGANIZATIONS
                                         AND GUIDES
    FOR ALL DOCUMENTS LISTED IN THIS APPENDIX, THE LATEST EDITION SHALL BE USED UNLESS
                    INDICATED OTHERWISE BY THE EPA CONTRACTING OFFICER.
AA        Aluminum Association
           90019th St,NW
           Washington, DC 20006

AAA       American Arbitration Association
           140 W. 51st St
           New York, NY 10020

AABC      Associated Air Balance Council
           1518 K. Street, NW
           Washington, DC 20005

AAMA     Architectural Aluminum Manufacturers
               Association
           2700 River Rd., Suite 118
           Des Plaines, IL 60018

AASHTO   American Association of State Highway
               and Transportation Officials
           444 N. Capital St, NW, Suite 225
           Washington, DC20001

ABC       Associated Builders and Contractors, Inc.
           72915thSt NW
           Washington, DC 20005

ABC       Association of Bituminous Contractors
           2020 K.St,NW, Suite 800
           Washington, DC 20006

ABCA      American Building Contractors Association
           11100 Valley Blvd., Suite 120
           El Monte, CA 91731

ABMA     American Boiler Manufacturers
               Association
           950 North Glebe Road
           Suite 160
           Arlington, VA *>*ซ

Ad        American Concrete Institute
           22400 W. Seven Mile Rd.
           Detroit, MI 48219
ACCA
ACEA
ACEC
ACGIH
ACPA
ACPA
ACPA
ACSM
ADA
Air-Conditioning Contractors of America
151316th St
Washington, DC 20036

Allied Construction Employers Association
180 N. Executive Drive
BrookfieULWI 53008

American Consulting Engineers Council
101515th St, NW, Suite 802
Washington, DC 20005
    ricanConfe
of Governmental
    Industrial Hygienists
6500 Gtenway Avenue, Building D-7
Cincinnati, OH 45211

American Concrete Pavement Association
3800 N. Wilke Rd., Suite 490
Arlington Heights, IL 60004

American Concrete Pipe Association
8320 Old Courthouse Rd.
Vienna, VA 22180

American Concrete Pumping Association
P.O. Box 4307
1034 Tennessee St
VaUejo,CA 94590

American Congress on Surveying and
    Mapping
210 Little Falls Street
Falls Church, Va  22046

Americans with Disabilities Act

(For employment question*)
U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity
    Commission
ADA Legal Services
1801L St N.W.
Washington, DC 20507
                                      ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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Appendix A
                                                      Page      A-2
            American* with Disabilities Act (Coat)

            (For transportation questions)
            VS. Department of Transportation
            Office of Assistant General Counsel for
                Regulation and Enforcement
            400 Seventh St S.W.
            Washington, DC 20590

            (For public accommodation* question)
            US. Department of Justice
            Office of Americans with Disabilities Act
            P.O. Box 66118
            Washington, DC 20035-6118
            (For tele
questions)
            Federal Communications Commission
            Consumer Assistance
            1919 M St N.W.
            Washington, DC 20554

            (For arcUtecturml accessibility questions)
            Access Board
            1331F St N.WV Suite 1000
            Washington, DC 20004-1111

AGA        American Gas Association, Inc.
            1515 Wilson Blvd.
            Arlington, VA 22209

AGC        Associated General Contractors of America
            1957 East StNW
            Washington, DC 20006

AHA        American Hardboard Association
            520 N. Hides Rd.
            Palantine, H. 60067

AHU       American Home Lighting Institute
            435 N. Michigan Ave., Suite 1717
            Chicago, IL 60611

AHMA      American Hardware Manufacturer!!
                Association
            931 N. Plum Grove Rd.
            Schaumburg, IL 60173

AI          Asphalt Institute
            Asphault Institute Building
            College Park, MD 20740

AIA        American Institute of Architects
            1735 New York Ave, NW
            Washington, DC 20006

AIA/NA    Asbestos Information Association/North
                America
            1745 Jefferson Davis Hwy., Suite 509
            Arlington, VA
AIC         American Institute of Constructors
          . 20 S. Front St
            Columbus, OH 43215

AISC       American Institute of Steel Construction,
                Inc.
            400 N. Michigan Ave,
            Chicago, IL 60611

AISI        American Iron and Steel Institute
            113315th St, NW, Suite 300
            Washington, DC 20005

ATTC       American Institute of Timber Construction
            11818 &E Mill Plain Blvd.
            Vancouver, WA 98684

ALSC       American Lumber Standards Committee
            P.O. Box 210
            Germantown, MD 20874

AMCA      Air Movement and Control Association
            30 West University Drive
            Arlington Heights, IL 60004

ANL        Argonne National Laboratory
            9800 South Cass Avenue
            Argonne, IL 60439

ANS        American Nudear Society
            555 North Kensington Avenue
            LsGnnge Park, IL 60525

ANSI       American National Standards Institute
            1430 Broadway
            New York, NY 10018

APA        American Plywood Association
            P.O. Box 11700
            Tacoma,WA 98411

APA        Architectural Precast Association
            825 E. 64th St
            Indianapolis, IN 46220

API         American Petroleum Institute
            1220 L. Street NW
            Washington, DC 20037

APFA       American Pipe Fitting Association
            8136 Old Keene Mill Rd. #B-311
            Springfield, VA 22152

ARI        Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration
                Institute
            1501 Wilson Blvd. 6th Floor
            Arlington, VA 22209

AREA      American Railway Engineering Association
            50 F Street, NW^Suite 7702
            Washington, DC 20001
                                         ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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                            Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                          Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities
Appendix A
                                                                           Page
                                                                               A-3
ARMA
ARTBA
ASA
ASA
ASC
ASC
ASCE
ASCC
ASHRAE
ASID
ASME
ASFE
ASSE
ASTM
Asphalt Roofing Manufacturers
    Association
6288 Montrose Road
Rockvilfe,MD 20852

American Road and Transportation
    Builden Association
525 School StSW
Washington, DC 20024

Acoustical Society of America
500 Sunnyside Blvd.
Woodbeny,NY 11797

American Subcontractors Association
1004 Duke St
Alexandria, VA 22314

Adhesive and Sealant Council, Inc.
1500 Wilson Blvd., Suite 515
Arlington, VA 22209-2495

Associated Specialty Contractors
7315 Wisconsin Ave
Bethetda,MD 20614

American Society of Civil Engineers
345 E 47th St
New York, NY 10017
Ai
i Society of Concrete Construction
426S.Westgate
Addison,IL 60101

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating,
    and Air-Conditioning Engineers Inc.
1791 Tube Cirde, ME
Atlanta, GA 30329

American Society of Interior Designers
1430 Broadway
New York, NY 10018

American Society of Mechanical Engineers
United Engineering Center
345 E 47th St
New York. NY 10017

American Society of Professional
    Estimators
3617 Thousand Oaks Blvd. Suite 210
Westlake,CA 91362

American Society of Sanitary Engineers
P.O. Box 40362
Bay Village, OH 44140

American Society for Testing and Materials
1916 Race Street
Philadelphia, PA 19103
AWI        Architectural Woodwork Institute
            2310 S. Walter Reed Dr.
            Arlington, V A 22206

AWS        American Welding Society, Inc.
            SSON.W.UJeuneRd.
            Miami, FL 33126

AWd       Association of the Wall and Ceiling
                Industiries International
            25 K.St,NE Suite 300
            Washington, DC 20002

AWWA      American Water Works Association
            6666 West Quincy Avenue
            Denver, CO 80235

BHMA      Builder's Hardware Manufacturers
                Association, Inc.
            60 E. 42nd St, Room 511
            New York, NY 10165

BIA         Brick Institute of Ametca
            11490 Commerce Park Dr., Suite 300
            Reston,VA 22091

            Building Materials Research Institute, Inc.
            5015th Ave, f1402
            New York. NYH10017

BOCA      Building Officials and Code
                Administrators International
            4051W.HoซsmoorRd.
            Country dub Hills, IL 60477

BRB        Building Research Board
            2101 Constitution Ave., NW
            Washington, DC 20418

BSC        Building Systems Council
            15th and M St., NW
            Washington, DC 20005

BSI         Building Stone Institute
            420 Lexington Ave., Suite 2800
            New York, NY 10170

            Congressional Acts
            Superintendent of Documents
            Government Printing Office
            Washington, DC 20402

            Corps of Engineers / U.S. Department of the
                Army
            20 Massachusetts Ave, NW
            Washington, DC 20314

CABO      Council of American Building Officials
            5203 Leesburg Pke, Suite 708
            Falls, Church, VA 22041
                                         ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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                            Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                          Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities
Appendix A
                                                                            Page      A-4
CDA
CERC
CFR
CCA
OEA
OMA
OSCA
aspi
CLFMI
CMAA
CPMA
CRA
CRI
Copper Development Association, Inc
Greenwich Office Park 2
51 Weaver St
Grant, CT 06836

Coastal Engineering Research Center
US. Army Corps of Engineers
P.O. Box 631
Vkksburg, MA 39180

Code of Federal Regulation*
Superintendent of Documents
Government Printing Office
Washington, DC 20402

Compressed Gas Association
Crystal Gateway One, Suite 501
1235 Jefferson Davis Highway
Arlington. VA 22202

Construction Industry Employeai
    Association
625 Ensminger Rd.
Tonawanda,NY 14150

Construction Industry Manufacturers
    Association
111 E Wisconsin Ave., Suite 940
Milwaukee, WI 53202-4879
                              (buctio
Ceilings and Interior Systems C
    Association
104 Wilmot, Suite 201
DeerfiekLIL 60015

Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute
1499 Chain Bridge Rd., Suite 203
McLean, VA 22101
Chain Link Fence Manufacturers Institute
1776 Massachusetts Ave, NW, Suite 500
Washington, DC 20036

                            i of
Crane Manufacturers Associatio
    America
1326 Freeport Road
Pittsburgh, PA 15238
Construction Products Manufacturing
    Council
P.O. Box 21008
Washington. DC 20009-0508

California Redwood Association
405 Enfrente Dr., Suite 200
Nevato, CA 94949

Carpet and Rug Institute
P.O. Box 2048
Dalton,GA  30722-2048
CRSI       Concrete Reinforced Steel Institutes
            933 N. Plum Grove Rd.
            Schaumburg, IL 60195

CSI         Construction Specifications Institute
            601 Madison St
            Alexandria, VA 22314

CTI         Ceramic Tile Institute
            TOON. Virgil Ave.
            Los Angeles, CA 90029

CTT         Cooling Tower Institute
            P.O. Box 73383^
            Houston, TX 77273

DPI         Deep Foundations Institute
            P.O. Box 359
            Springfield, NJ 07081

DHI        Door and Hardware Institute
            7711 Old Sprmghouse Rd.
            McLean, VA  22101-3474

DIFRA      Ductile Iron Pipe Research Association
            245 Riverchasse Parkway E, Suite 0
            Birmingham, AL 35244

DOE       US. Department of Energy
            1000 Independence Avenue, SW
            Washington, DC 20585

DOE / OSTI  DOE / Office of Scientific and Technical
                 Information
            P.O. Box 62
            Oak Ridge, IN 37831

            Executive  Orders
            National Archives and Records
                 Administration
            8th Street and Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
            Washington, DC 20408

EIA         Electronics Industries Association
            2001 Eye Street, NW
            Washington, DC 20006

EIMA       Exterior Insulation Manufacturers
                 Association
            Box 75037
            Washington, DC 20013

EPA        Environmental Protection Agency
            401M.St,SW
            Washington, DC 20460

ESCSI      Expanded Shale, day and Slate Institute
            6218MontroseRd.
            Rockvffle,MD 20852
                                         ISSUED:  APRIL  1994

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                            Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                          Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities
Appendix A
                                                                             Page      A-5
FAA
FCC
FEMA
FGMA
FHA
FTPS
FM
FPRS
FR
FS
GA
GBCA
Federal Aviation Administration
\}S. Department of Transportation
4007th Street, SW
Washington, DC 20590

Federal Construction Council
Building Research Board
National Research Council
2101 Constitution Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20418
                                                         GSA
Federal Emergency Mat
Federal Center Plaza
500 C Street, SW
Washington, DC 20472
                    agement Agency
                                                          HES
                                                          HFMA
Flat Glass Marketing Association
White Ukes Professional Building
3310 Harrison Street
Topeka, KS 66611
Federal
451 7th St,SW,Rm. 3158
Washington, DC 20410
                   intration
Federal Info
             ationPr
ring standards
National Bureau of Standards
Room 64-B, Technology
Gaithersburg,MD 20999

Factory Mutual Engineering and Research
1151 Boston Providence Turnpike
Norwood, MA 02062

Forest Products Research Society
2801 Marshall Ct
Madison, WI 53705

Federal Register
Superintendent of Documents
US. Government Printing Office
710 Norm Capitol Street, NW
Washington, DC 20402

Federal Specifications
Attention: NPFC Code 1052
Naval Publications and Forms Center
5801 Tabor Avenue
Philadelphia, PA 19120-5099

Facing Tile Institute
P.O. Box 8880
Canton, OH 44711
Gypsum
1603 Orrington Ave, Suite 1210
Evanston,IL 60201

General Building Contractors Association
36S. ISthSt
P.O. Box 15959
Philadelphia, PA 19103
                                                          IAEA
                                                          IALD
                                                          IAPMO
                                             ICAA
                                                          ICEA
                                                          ICRP
                                                          ICBO
                                                          IEEE
                                  General Services Administration
                                  Public Buildings Service
                                  Office of Government-wide Real Property
                                  Policy and Oversight
                                  19th and F Streets, NW
                                  Washington, DC 20405

                                  Health Education Services
                                  P.O. Box 7282
                                  Albany, NY 12224

                                  Hardwood Plywood Manufacturers
                                      Association
                                  P.O. Box 2789
                                  Reston,VA  22090

                                  Intemationl Association of Bridge,
                                      Structural and Ornamental Iron
                                      Workers
                                  1750 New York Avenue, NW, Suite 400
                                  Washington. DC 20006

                                  International Atomic Energy Agency
                                  Vienna International Center
Post Path 100
A-1400 Vienna, Austria

International Association of lighting
    Designers
18 E. 16th St, Suite 208
New York, NY 10003

International Association of Plumbing and
    Mechanical Officials
20001 Walnut Drive S
Walnut, CA 91789

Insulation Contractors Association of
    America
15819 Crabbs Branch Way
Rockville,MD 20855

Insulated Cable Engineers Association
P.O.BoxP
South Yarmouth, MA 02664

International Commission on Radiological
    Protection
Maxwell House
FairviewPark
Ehnsford,NY 10523

International Council of Building Officials
5360 S. Workman Mill Rd.
Whittier,CA 90601

Institute of Electrical and Electronics
    Engineers
345 E 47th St
New York, NY 10017
                                          ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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                           Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                         Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities
Appendix A
                                                                           Page      A-6
res
IESNA
IFI
IHEA
nu>
ILIA
IMI
IRF
ISDSI
LANL
LBL
LLNL
LPI
Institute of Environmental Sciences
940 East Northwest Highway
Mount Prospect, IL 56056
(Engineering Society of Norm
    America
345 E 47th St
New York, NY 10017

Industrial Fasteners Institute
1505 E. Ohio BuUdtng
Cleveland, OH 44114

Industrial Heating Equipment Association
1901N.-Moore St
Arlington, VA 22209

International Institute of Lath and Plaster
795 Raymond Ave
StPauLMN 55114
                                            MIA
                                            MCAA
                                                        MCAA
                                            MFMA
                                            MLSFA
Marble Institute of America
33505 State St
Farmington, MI 48024
Indiana Un
               ! Institute of America
Stone City Bank Building, Suite 400
Bedford, IN 47421

International Masonry Institute
82315th St, NW, Suite 1001
Washington, DC 20005

International Road Federation
525 School St^SW
Washington, DC 20024
Insulated Steel Door Systems Institute
712 Lakewood Center North
14600 Detroit Avenue
Cleveland, OH 44107
MBMA
Los Alamos National Laboratory
P.O. Box 1663
Los Alamos, NM 87545

Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory
ICydostronKoad
Berkeley, CA 94720

Lawrence Uvermore National Laboratory
Livermore,CA 94550
Lightning Protection Institute
48 North Ayer Street
Harvard, IL 60033

Manufactureci Stflndflrditatiffn Society of
    the Valve and Fittings Industry
127 Park St,NE
Vienna, Va 22180

Metal Building Manufacturers Association
1230 Keith Building
Cleveland, OH 44115
                                                         NAAMM
                                                         NACE
                                                         NADC
                                                         NADC
                                                        Mai
            dors Association of America
17W 60114th St.
Oakbrook Terrace, IL 60181

Mechanical Contractors Association of
    America
5410 Grosvenor, Suite 120
Bethesda,MD  20814

Maple Flooring Manufacturers Association
60 Revere Dr., Suite 500
Northbrook, IL 60062

Metal Lath / Steel Framing Association
600 S. Federal Suite 400
Chicago, IL 60605

National Building Material Distributors
    Association
1701 Lake Ave., Suite 170
Glenview,IL 60025

National Forest Products Association
1250 Connecticut Ave, NW, Suite 200
Washington, DC 20036

National Housing Rehabilitation
    Association
172618th St,NW
Washington, DC 20009

National Particleboard Association
2306 Perkins PL
Silver Spring, MD 20910

National Wood Window and Door
    Association
205TouhyAve.
Park Ridge, IL 60068

National Association of Architectural
    Metal Manufacturers
600 South Federal Street
Chicago, IL 60605

National Assodaton of Corrosion Engineers
P.O. Box 218340
Houston, TX 77218

National Association of Demolition
    Contractors
4415 W. Harrison St
Hillside, IL 60162

National Association of Dredging
     Contractors
16251 St,NW. Suite 321
Washington, DC 20006
                                         ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

-------
                           Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                         Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities
Appendix A
                              Page
A-7
NAEC       National Association of Elevator

            4053 LaVista Rd., Suite 120
            Tucker, GA 30084

NAFCD     National Association of Floor Covering
                Distributor*
            13-126 Merchandise Mart
            Chicago, IL 60654

NAHB      National AModation of Home Builder*
            15th and MSt.NW
            Washington, DC 20005

NAHRO    National AModation of Housing
                Redevelopment Official*
            1320187th St,NW
            Washington, DC 20036

NAPA       National Asphalt Pavement Assodaton
            6811 KenUworth Ave., Suite 620
            P.O. Box 517
            Rivcrdale,MD 20737

NAPHCC    National Aasodation of Plumbing,
                Heating, and OftUng Contractors
            P.O. Box 6808
            Falls Church, VA 22046

NARSC     National Association of Reinforcing Steel
                Contractor*
            10382 Main St
            P.O. Box 225
            Fairfax, V A 22030

NASA       National Aeronatics and
                Space Administration
            300 East Street SW
            Washington, DC 20546

NAVFAC    VS. Naval Facilities Engineering

            Attention Cash Sales/Code 1051
            Naval Publications and Forms Center
            5801 Tabor Avenue
            Philadelphia, PA 19120-5099

NAWIC     National Association of Women in
                Construction
            327 a Adams St
            Fort Worth, TX 76104

NBMA      National Building Manufacturers
                Association
            142 Lexington Ave.
            New York, NY 10016

NBS        National Bureau of Standards (currently
                National Institute of Standards and
                Technology)
            Gatthersburg,MD
NCA        National Constructors Association
            110115th St, NW, Suite 1000
            Washington, DC 20005

NCSBCS    National Conference of State Building
                Codes and Standards
            481 Carlisle Dr.
            HemdoivVA 22070

NCMA      National Concrete Masonry Association
            P.O. Box 781
            Hemdon,VA 22070

NCR?       National Council on Radiation Protection
                and Measurement
            7910 Woodmont Ave., Suite 800
            Bethesda,MD 20814

NEC        National Electric Code
            National Fire Protection Agency
            Batterymarch Park
            Quincy, MA 02269

NECA       National Electrical Contractors Association
            7315 Wisconsin Ave
            13th Floor, West Building
            Bethesda,MD 20814

NEMA      National Electrical Manufacturers
                Association
            2101 LSt,NW, Suite 300
            Washington, DC 20037

NESC       National Electrical Safety Code
            Institute of Electrical & Electonics
                Engineers, Inc.
            345 East 47th Street
            New York, NY 10017

NFPA       National Fire Protection Agency
            Batterymarch Park
            Quincy, MA 02269

NGA       National Glass Association
            8200 Greesnsboro Dr., Suite 302
            McLean, VA 22101
NIH        National Institute of Health
            Public Health Service
            US. Department of Health and H
                Services
            Bethesda,MD 20205

NIJ         National Institute of Justice
            633 Indiana Avenue, NW
            Washington, DC 20531
                                         ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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                           Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                          Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities
Appendix A
                               Page     A-8
NIOSH     National Institute of Occupational Safety
                and Health
            U.S. Public Health Sendee
NKCA      National Kitchen Cabinet Association
            P.O. Box 6830
            Falls Church, V A 22046

NLA        National Lime Association
            3601 N.Fairfax Dr.
            Arlington, VA  22201

NLBMDA   National Lumber and Building Material
                Dealers Association
            40IvySt,SE
            Washington, DC 20003

NOAA      National Oceanic and Atmospheric
                Administration
            Washington Science Center, Building 5
            6010 Executive Blvd.
            Rockville,MD

NOFMA     National Oak Flooring Manufacturers
                Association
            P.O. Box 3009
            Memphis, IN  38173-0009

NPCA      National Paint and Coatings Association
            1500 Rhode Island Ave., NW
            Washington, DC 20005

NPCA      National Precast Concrete Association
            825 E 64th St
            Indianapolis, IN 46220

NRC        U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
            Publications Division
            Washington, DC 20555

NRCA      National Roofing Contractors Association
            1 OTiare Center
            6250 River Rd.
            Rosemont, IL 60018

NRMCA    National Ready Mixed Concrete
                Association
            900 Spring St
            Silver Spring, MD 20910

NSA        National Stone Association
            1415 Elliot PL, NW
            Washington. DC 20007

NSA        National Security Agency / Central Security
                Service
            FortMeade,MD 20755
NSF        National Sanitation Foundation
          . P.O. Box 1468
            34 Plymouth Road
            Ann Arbor, MI 48015

NSPE       National Society of Professional Engineers
            1420 King St
            Alexandria, VA 22314

NTIA       National Telecommunications and
                Information Administration
            Main Commerce Building
            Washtngton,DC 20230

NTIS       National Technical Information Service
            5485 Port Royal Road
            Springfield, VA 22161

NTMA      National Terrazzo and Mosiac Association
            3166 Des Plaines Ave., Suite 132
            Des Plaines,, IL 60018

NWMA     National Woodwork Manufacturers'
                Association
            400 W. Madison St
            Chicago, IL  60606

NWWDA    National Wood Window and Door
                Association
            1400 East Touhy Avenue
            Des Plaines, IL 60018

OMB       Office of Management and Budget
            Old Executive Office Building
            Washington, DC 20503

OPCMIA    -Operative Plasterers' and Cement Masons'
                International Association of the
                United States and Canada
            112517th St, NW, 6th Floor
            Washington, DC 20036

OSHA      Occupational Safety and Health
                Administration
            U.S. Department of Labor
            200 Constitution Avenue
            Washington, DC 20201

            Pipe Line Contractors Association
            4100 First City Center
            1700 Pacific Ave.
            Dallas, TX 75201

PCA       Portland Cement Association
            5420 Old Orchard Rd.
            Skotoe,IL 60077

PCI        Prestressed Concrete Institute
            175 W. Jackson Blvd., Suite 1859
            Chicago, IL 60604
                                         ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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                            Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                          Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities.
Appendix A
                                                                            Page      A-9
PDCA
PDI
PHOT
PMI
PSIC
RCRC
RCSHSB
RFCA
RFC!
SBA
SBCa
Painting and Decorating Contractor* of            SCS
    America
7W-1 Lee Hwy.
Falls Church, V A 22046

Plumbing and Drainage Institute                 SOI
1106 W. 77th St& Dr.
Indianapolis, IN 46260

Plumbing-Heating-Cooling Information           SDI
    Butean
303 E Wacker Dr., Suite 711
Chicago, IL  60601

Plumbing Manufacture!* Institute                SIGMA
800 Roosevelt Rd, Building C, Suite 20
GknEllyn,IL 60137

Plastics Pipe Institute
355 Lexington Ave.                             SJI
New York, NY 10017

Passive Solar Industries Council
2836 Duke St                                  SMA
Alexandria, VA 22314

Post-Tension ing Institute
1717 W. Northern Ave., Suite 218                  SMA
Phoenix, AZ 85021

Reinforced Concrete Research Council
5420 CHd Orchard Rd.                           SMACNA
Skokie,IL 60077

Red Cedar Shingle and Handsplit Shake
    Bureau
515116th Ave, NE Suite 275                     SMWIA
BeUevue,WA98004

Resilient Flooring and Carpet Association,
    Inc.
14570 E 14th St, Suite 511                       SNL
San Landro,CA 94570

Resilient Floor Covering Institute
966 Hungerford Dr., Suite 12B                    SPRI
Rodcville,MD 20850

Scientific Apparatus Makers Association
225 Reineken Lane                             SSFI
Suite 625
Alexandria, VA 22314

Systems Builders Association
P.O. Box 117                                  SSPC
WestMitavOH 45383

Southern Building Code Congress
    IntornjHfmjl, \nr                          SWI
Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Department
    of Agriculture
14th and Independence Avenue, SW
Washington, DC 20250

Steel Deck Institute
P.O. Box 9506
Canton, OH 44711

Steel Door Institute
712 Lakewood Center N.
14600 Detroit Ave.
Cleveland, OH 44107

Sealed Tpซniปflt'g Glass Manufacturer*
    Association
111 E Wacker Dr., Suite 600
Chicago, IL 60601

Steel Joist Institute
1205 48 A Ave., N, Suite A
Myrtle Beach, SC 29577
                                                                          ttManufactt
                  i Association
             900MontdairRd.
             Birmingham, AL
655 Irving Park, Suite 201
Chicago, IL 60613-3198

Stucco Manufacturers Association
14006 Ventura Blvd.
Sherman Oaks, CA 91423

Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning
    Contractors National Association, Inc.
8224 OH Courthouse Rd.
Vienna. V A 22180

Sheet Metal Workers International
    Association
1750 New York Ave., NW
Washington, DC 20006

Sandia National Laboratories
P.O. Box 5800
Albuquerque, MM 87185

Single Ply Roofing Institute
104 Wttmot Road, Suite 201
DeerfiekLIL 60015-5195

Scaffolding, Shoring, and Forming
    Institute, Inc.
1230 Keith Building
Cleveland, OH 44115

Steel Structures Painting Council
4400 5th Ave.
Pittsburgh, PA 15213

Sealant and Waterproofers Institute
3101 Broadway, Suite 300
Kansas Gty, MO 64111
                                         ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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                           Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                         Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities
Appendix A
                                                                           Page    A-10
swi
TCA
TCA
TCAA
TIMA
UBC
UL
USAF
USDOT
VMA
WMA
WPCF
Steel Window Institute
1230 Keith Building
devaland, OH 44115

Tile Council of America
P.,O. Box 2222
Princeton, NJ 08542

Tilt-op Concrete Association
5420 Old Orchard Rd.
Skokie,IL 60077

Tile Contncton Association of America,
    Inc.
112 N. Alfred St
Alexandria, VA 22314

Thermal Insulation Manufacturers
    Association
7Kirby Plaza
Mount Kisco, NY 10549

U.S. Department of Labor/Occupational

200 Constitution Avev NW
Washington, DC 20210

US. Forest Products Laboratory
One Gilford Pinchot Dr.
Madison, WI 53705-2398

Uniform Building Code
    International Conference of Building
    Officials
5360 Workman Mill Road
Whittier, CA 90601-2298

Underwriters' Laboratories Inc.
333PfingstenRd.
Northbrook, IL 60062

U.S. Department of the Air Force
Manuals may be ordered from headquaters
of any Air Force Base

United State Department of Transportation
400 7th Street SW
Washington, DC 20590

Valve Manufacturers Association of
    America
1050 17th St,NW Suite 701
Washington, DC 20036
                                            WRC        Water Resources Council, Hydrology
                                                            Committee
                                                        U.S. Department of the Interior
                                                        C Street between 18th and 19th Streets, NW
                                                        Washington, DC 20240

                                            WRI        Wire Reinforcement Institute
                                                        8361-A Greensboro Dr.
                                                        McLean, VA 22102

                                            WWPA      Western Wood Products Association
                                                        Yeon Building
                                                        522S.W. 5th A ve
                                                        Portland, OR 97204
Wallcovering Ma
                        i Assodaton
355 Lexington A ve.
New York, NY 10017

Water Pollution Control Federation
601 Wythe Street
Alexandria, VA 22314-1994
                                         ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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                             APPENDIX B




INDOOR AIR QUALITY (IAQ) REQUIREMENTS

-------

-------
                       Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                       >ซ.-.-_J—J_	1 rf"i-_ซ -ซ_*•	ฃ	TTTป A TC_._MJ
Appendix B                                                              Page      B-l



                                      APPENDIX B

                   INDOOR AIR QUALITY (IAQ) REQUIREMENTS
B.I      DESIGN PROCESS
The Indoor Air Quality Requirements are organized to correspond to the design and construction process.
This section addresses the design process.

B.I.I     GENERAL
A new facility using good building practice in indoor air quality design and operation is required.  It is
also the intent that IAQ be achieved without sacrificing other important aspects of the facility.  A
facility is required in which indoor air quality is maintained at the best practicable level using
currently available knowledge and proven technology which is cost effective and is consistent with the
normal function  of  a laboratory facility with related office  space.   As a result,  a Quality
Assurance/Quality Control Manual shall be produced.  The Indoor Air Quality Control Plan referenced
throughout this document shall be contained in this Manual The IAQ Plan shall address in detail
building materials selection, minimizing introduction of outdoor air pollution, pre-occupancy procedures
to accelerate off-gassing, and operations and maintenance procedures which limit introduction  of
harmful chemicals. A number of considerations are presented here to emphasize the significance  in
achieving acceptable Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). These considerations  are followed by primary
strategies for IAQ control  They are listed below and discussed in more detail at various points
throughout this IAQ section,

B.l.1.1   CONSIDERATIONS FOR ACCEPTABLE INDOOR AIR QUALITY.
Refer to the publication:  Buildiqg >yj[r QiialiHr:  A Guide for Building Qyyrters and
DHH ftsTCOSm Pub. No. 91-108.
    .1.      The most effective means of indoor air pollution control is to eliminate, reduce or contain
            the sources of indoor air pollution. The design professional must provide evidence that
            this strategy has been applied to every aspect of the building design, construction
            requirements and operational requirements. It must include control strategies for outdoor
            sources, building materials and equipment, furnishings,  occupants and maintenance
            including housekeeping activities which occur indoors.

    .1.1         Training of operations and maintenance personnel, as well as occupants in HVAC
                operations, is a requirement

    .2       Proper operation and maintenance of the facilities and its HVAC system are critical to
            maintaining IAQ. Training of operations and maintenance personnel, as well as occupants
            in HVAC  operations, is a requirement.  Explicit assumptions regarding operation and
            maintenance must be made during design and they must be documented in a facilities
            operation manual. They must reflect a dear intent to maintain indoor air quality at the
            highest practicable level.
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    .3       Required ventilation air must be delivered to occupants' "breathing zone."  This requires
            careful attention to the design and installation of the air distribution system and its
            controls, particularly at the local level.  Innovative approaches are sought to achieving
            improved  "ventilation efficiency" in order to minimize wasteful and ineffective space
            air distribution. A clear presentation of the ventilation system space air distribution
            concept is a part of the design professional's responsibilities.   (For  definition of
            "breathing zone" and ventilation efficiency" see 2.5 - Supplemental Indoor Air Quality
            Information.)

    .4       ASHRAE's Standard 62-1989, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor  Air Quality is to be
            considered a part of these requirements.

B.l.1.2   PRIMARY STRATEGIES FOR IAQ CONTROL.

    .1       Source control

    .2       Ventilation controls.

    .2.1         Outside air supply.

    .2.2         Air cleaning.

    .2.3         Space air distribution.

    .3       Operation and maintenance

B.1.2    SOURCE CONTROL
While it shall be required that all of the above listed strategies be employed to control IAQ, source
control is considered the most effective control method for most pollutants. Effective source control
requires that potential sources be clearly identified and addressed.   The design professional shall
demonstrate that their design involves thorough consideration of sources of indoor pollutants and their
control. The discussion on source control is organized to cover outdoor sources and indoor sources of indoor
air pollutants.   The design professional shall demonstrate that their design  involves thorough
consideration of sources of indoor pollutants and their control.  The design professional shall examine
potential pollutant sources at each stage of the building design and development process and utilize
effective control strategies.

B.l.2.1   OUTDOOR POLLUTANT SOURCES

    .1       The sources of air pollutants which must be considered are adjacent and nearby stationary
            pollution sources, for example, exhausts from other research facilities  or from commercial
            buildings such as dry cleaning establishments or restaurants, nearby roadways, parking
            lots, loading docks, trash storage, and garage  and their motor vehicle traffic patterns.
            Consideration must be given to variations in the potential sources over time including
            daily, weekly, and seasonal patterns.
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    .2       Temporal and spatial variations in wind direction and velocity, traffic patterns, or
            emissions  from industrial processes which affect air quality at the  site must be
            considered. The design professional must also consider and respond to the locations and
            forms of adjacent buildings which might result in local wind patterns that cause re-
            entrainment of the facility's own exhausts.  The design professional must consider the
            potential impact of ponds, cooling towers, cooling coil drip pans and other potential sites
            of microbial contamination on IAQ. Previous land uses, such as agriculture or industry,
            might result in emissions from contaminated soil or groundwater as a potential indoor air
            pollutant source,  some examples of  potentially significant prior uses  are wood
            preservation and treatment; solid or hazardous waste handling, storage, treatment or
            disposal; dry cleaning processes, leather, paint or chemical manufacturing; refrigerated
            storage; gasoline; and agriculture. Even  nearby building demolition  can result in
            significant site contamination through release of building materials such as asbestos into
            air or into soil, which may remain on-site or be backfilled onto it.

    .3       SITE EVALUATION

    .3.1         Solutions must include the potential impact of the site itself on indoor air quality.
                The prior history of the site must be disclosed as part of the design professionals
                research and review; see Supplemental Indoor Air Quality Information, Site
                Evaluation,  Contaminants Source Distribution discussed later in  this document.
                Solutions must include consideration of the following factors:

    .3.1.1           Prior history of the site.
    .3.1.2           Off-site and on-site sources of pollution.
    .3.1.3           Sous and soil gases (including radon, organic chemicals, metals, and microbes).
    .3.1.4           Ambient air quality.
    .3.1.5           Landscaping (including highly sporulating types of plantings).

    .3.2         The design professional shall review  his responsibilities for  an Environmental
                Assessment (ES) and an Environmental Impact Study (E3S) as described in Section 3
                Guide for Facility Design and Layout of this document, paragraph 3.1.2.2 Surveys,
                Pre-Construction Testing & Environmental Assessment

    .4       EXTERIOR DESIGN IMPLICATIONS

    .4.1         Solutions must include the following considerations:

    .4.1.1           If this project  is a new facility, locate the building on the site as far removed as
                   possible from pollutant sources, or out of the normal wind patterns coming from
                   pollutant sources. Vegetation or other screens should be utilized to form a barrier
                   to particulate matter or to absorb certain chemicals.  Vegetation should be used,
                   where effective, in protecting a building from motor vehicle pollutant sources.
                   Where vegetation is used, potential microbial contamination from it should be
                   avoided.
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   .4.1.2
   .4.13
   .4.1.4
                   Building designs  must include locating air intakes remote from pollution
                   generation points or areas, creating architectural barriers to direct polluted
                   airflow away from building air intakes, providing appropriate filtration for
                   identified pollutants, and locating air-pollutant-sensitive elements away from
                   exterior sources. Air intake locations for both mechanical and natural ventilation
                   shall not be located near exhaust outlets or where outdoor air pollution plumes
                   are expected.

                   Selection and location of window and door systems must include consideration of
                   their designed protection against infiltration and the outdoor air pollutants that
                -   might pass through the openings.

                   The design professional must address the chemical and physical interactions
                   between the building fabric and identified pollutants which might cause
                   deterioration of the building  fabric and systems or which might  result in
                   amplification of the contaminant concentrations in indoor air.

B.l.2.2   INDOOR POLLUTANT SOURCES

   .1       Indoor Sources  include the building fabric itself, equipment, furnishings, appliances,
            human metabolism and activities, consumer products, maintenance materials and
            processes, pest control materials, and others.

   .2       INTERIOR DESIGN APPLICATIONS

   .2.1          Major approaches to source control for indoor pollutants include building design,
                careful material selection, materials modification  and treatment; isolation of
                pollution-generating activities; and management controls on polluting activities.

   .2.2          Source reduction involves a variety of design strategies and practices including the
                following:

   .2.2.1           Source removal
   .2^2           Product selections
   .2.13           Substitution
   .2.2.4           Product use controls
   .2.2.5           Enclosure
   .2.2.6           Encapsulation
   .2.2.7           Treatment
   .2.2.8           Conditioning
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    .2.3         The building design must reflect consideration of the IAQ impacts of siting,
                orientation, configuration, materials, environmental control, and interior layout  The
                basic characteristics of the building - its size, shape, exterior shell as well as major
                environmental control strategies including illumination, ventilation, acoustics, and
                thermal environment - must reflect the emphasis placed on IAQ. This requires that
                the preliminary estimates of loads and the capacities of systems designed to handle
                them include specific loads related to ventilation requirements and air cleaning
                (filtration, preripitators, absorption, or scrubbing as required by ambient air and
                indoor air quality standards referenced in this section and applicable  codes and
                standards).

    .2.4         Preferentially, however, pretipitators, absorbers and scrubbers should be avoided
                because of their high maintenance costs. Where proposed, a cost/benefit study must
                be submitted.

B.l.2.3      BUILDING MATERIALS EVALUATION

    .1       The design professional shall provide descriptions of measures that will be taken to
            minimize the use of indoor air pollution sources in the building construction, finishes,
            maintenance, and operation. They consist of the following four phases.

    .1.1         It shall be the responsibility of the design professional to review all products and
                materials and identify those considered likely to emit toxic or irritating chemicals in
                the completed  facility.  The  design professional shall establish  a  library or
                repository locally available for inspection and use by me Government This library
                shall contain product composition specifications for all products and materials used
                on construction.  Copies of all  specifications shall also be  submitted to the
                Government

    .1.2         The Government reserves the right to screen all products and materials based on
                printed information from manufacturers and information in the open literature and to
                target selected products for testing.

    .1.3         The Government reserves the right to require emissions testing of selected products, at
                no cost to the lessor, to determine chemical content, emissions .rate, or change in
                composition due to environmental exposure. Based on test results, the Government
                reserves the right to disallow installation  of a given product or material in the
                completed facility. All testing will be by the suppliers, with test guidance provided
                by Government The design professional shall coordinate this process.

    .1.4         Material selections, modifications or handling to minimize indoor air pollution.
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B.l.2.4   RESULTS OF MATERIALS EVALUATION

   .1       The results of the process must be the selection and appropriate installation of materials
            which have low content of toxic or irritating chemicals and which have stable chemicals
            (low emissions).  The design professional may be required to computer model selected
            materials for the purposes of exposure assessment Details of the materials evaluation
            process are in the Supplemental Indoor Air Quality Information presented later in this          ;
            document                                                                               '

   .2       Special procedures available to prevent or remedy problems of indoor air quality that
            result from material emissions will be required prior to occupancy of the building. These
            procedures are discussed in the Supplemental Indoor Air Quality Information presented
            later in mis document

B.l.2.5   MATERIALS AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY

   .1       Careful selection and application is  required for all interior finish  materials and           I
            compounds which may result in indoor air residues. Particular attention should be paid to
            the following materials:

   .1.1         Adhesives
   .1.2         Sealants
   .1.3         Caulking
   .1.4         Wood preservatives and finishes
   .1.5         Pesticides
   .1.6         Fungicides
   .1.7         Carpet
   .1.8         Carpet padding
   .1.9         Paints
   .1.10        Insulations: thermal, fire and acoustic
   .1.11        Wood paneling
   .1.12        Composite wood products such as particle board,
                     cardboard, wafer board, chipboard, etc.
   .1.13        Gaskets
   .1.14        Glazing compounds
   .1.15        Control joint fillers
   .1.16        Floor coverings
   .1.17        Wall coverings
   .1.18        Ceiling tiles, panels

B.l.2.6   DESIGN

   .1       The design  of the HVAC system shall  minimize conditions conducive to microbial
            growth, chemical contamination, and particulate matter releases and distribution of such
            within the building. Designs shall minimize conditions of accumulated moisture which,
            together with warmth and darkness, encourage the growth of microorganisms.
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   .2       Reliable control of humidity shall be provided.   Water shall not be permitted to
            accumulate in drain pans.  Drip or drain pans must be readily maintainable.  Carbon-
            containing materials shall be avoided in areas where water accumulates.

   .3       The HVAC system must be readily  accessible to allow for maintenance,  frequent
            inspection and cleaning of surfaces exposed to the air stream. Care must be taken to avoid
            use of materials which will release non-biological particles into the air stream.

B.1.3    HVAC SYSTEM DESIGN

B.l.3.1   IMPORTANT IAQ ISSUES

   .1       The selection and installation of components and materials.

   .2       Control of moisture accumulation within the system.

   .3       Delivery of required outside air to the occupants' breaming zone.

   .4       Design of a readily maintainable system.

   .5       Implementation of energy management strategies which do not compromise indoor air
            quality.

   .6       Space air distribution (bom supply and return).

   .7       Humidity control

   .8       Isolation zones for IAQ control

B.l.3.2   VENTILATION STANDARD

   .1       The most recent version of the ASHRAE Standard 62-1989, Ventilation for Acceptable
            Indoor Air Quality shall be followed.  Additionally requirements of 2.3.1 and 2.3.2 shall
            be followed.  Certain aspects of the  ASHRAE standard are highlighted within this
            document.

   .2       Emphasis on maintenance of ventilation system equipment is presented in  terms of
            "readily maintainable" installations. This is a change from earlier language which read
            "readily accessible."

B.l.3.3   OUTSIDE AIR SUPPLY

   .1       The HVAC system design must reflect the anticipated ventilation efficiency as  the basis
            for assumptions which result in the sizing of equipment which impacts outside air supply
            quantities.
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   .2       The general office minimum ventilation rate is 20 dm/person. This refers to the quantity
            of outside air actually delivered to the breathing zone.  It will require a larger quantity
            at the building intakes to compensate for ventilation efficiency below 100%.   20
            dim/person is the required minimum quantity of outside air delivered to the occupants
            under conditions of minimum outdoor air supply. Where multiple spaces with dissimilar
            ratios of outside air to total air are served by a common air supply system, air quality
            shall be determined by equation 6-1 of the ASHRAE Standard 62. Performance will be
            determined by tracer gas injection at supply fan and measured at representative locations.

   .3       It is important  to note that the minimum outside air requirements in the ASHRAE
            standard are predicated on an indoor environment that is free of significant sources of
            pollution.

   .4       The presence of unavoidable sources will require a higher percentage  of outside air
            supply. Thus, the HVAC system must be capable of providing  and sustaining higher
            outdoor air supply rates.

B.13.4   AIR CLEANING

   .1       The facility will utilize the most technologically advanced and cost effective techniques
            to minimize the presence of gas, vapor and participate phase pollutants to the maximum
            practical extent

   .2       The trade-offs between cleaning and recirculating return air and conditioning outside air
            vary greatly from time to time.  The HVAC system and Building Automation System
            (BAS) must be capable of detecting critical factors which will allow the automatic
            selection of the most cost effective mix of air cleaning, outside air supply volume, and
            recirculated air. The critical factors are the thermal properties and contaminant contents
            of both the outside air and the return air relative to the design conditions.

   .3       OUTSIDE AIR CONTAMINANTS

   .3.1         Air cleaning devices (Le. scrubbers) may be required which are capable of removing
                outdoor pollutants  which periodically exceed  established standard (National
                Ambient Air Quality Standards - NAAQS - and Table E-l, Ambient Air Quality
                Guidelines) from the ASHRAE Standard 62-1989.

                This may involve  the provision of air cleaning beyond the usual panel type
                particulate filters used in most commercial building currently.  However, as stated
                earlier, preripitators, absorption or scrubbing should be avoided because of their high
                maintenance costs. Where proposed, a cost/benefit study must be submitted.

   .4       RE-CIRCULATION AIR CONTAMINANTS

   .4.1         Furthermore, additional air cleaning technologies must be used if necessary to
                achieve acceptable indoor air quality where re-circulation air contaminant levels
                result in supply air quality problems.
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B.l.3.5   SPACE AIR DISTRIBUTION

    .1       This method of indoor contaminant control presents a large potential for significant
            improvement in ventilation efficiency, and thereby, in indoor air quality.   Poor
            ventilation efficiency results in deterioration  of indoor air quality and  increased
            operational costs.  The Government requires that the design professional address the
            ventilation efficiency of the system.

    .2       The Government requires mat Air Distribution Performance Index (ADPI) exceed 80% and
            that the design professional must describe the approach and provide calculations.

    .3       Ceiling plenums may be used for return air provided that sufficient return dampers and
            duct headers are provided to permit accurate air balancing and all code wiring provisions
            are followed for smoke and fire safety.

B.1.4    INDOOR AIR QUALITY REFERENCE GUIDELINES
The design professional shall review and respond to the latest edition of the EPA document Building
Air Quality, A Guide for Building Owners and Facility Managers as well as the latest edition of the
AIA documents comprising the Environmental Resource Guide.

B.2      SUPPLEMENTAL INDOOR AIR QUALITY INFORMATION

B.2.1    GENERAL
The accompanying material has  been provided to advise the design professional as to the nature of
testing and evaluative procedures for which the facility may be subject

B.2.1.1   SITE EVALUATION

    .1       Valuable air quality and weather data are available from local air quality monitoring
            and regulatory agencies. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration monitoring
            stations, airports, harbors, and even certain resort and athletic establishments. Data on
            prior uses of sites may be available through historic building surveys or documentation,
            older fire insurance maps, municipal land use records, assessors' and recorders' files, and
            other state and local health, waste disposal, or hazardous materials control agencies.

    .2       A set of manuals for air quality considerations in residential planning was prepared for
            the United States  Department of  Housing and  Urban Development in 1978.  While
            written for the residential environment, the methods and procedures described there will
            be useful for any  type of building.  These manuals provide illustrative base maps,
            calculations sheets, and other aids to the preparation of a comprehensive assessment.

    .3       The following references are for the manuals referred to above; they will be helpful in
            the site evaluation.  Thuillier, R.H. 1978.  Air quality  considerations  in residential
            Djann]nir_Volume \f Guide for raniH assessment of air quality at hpnying sites.  Volume 2
            Manual for  air quality considerations for residential locations.  Volume 3, Scientific
            support and documentation. Washington, D.C.:  United  States Department of Housing
            and Urban Development
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B.2.1.2  CONTAMINANTS SOURCE DISTRIBUTION

   .1       Table D.2.1.2.1 - SOURCES CONTRIBUTING TO INDOOR AIR POLLUTION provides a
            summary of likely sources which contribute to indoor air pollution.

   TABLE B.2.L2.1 - SOURCES CONTRIBUTING TO INDOOR AIR POLLUTION
   Type of Location

   Outdoor Air -
   Base Building
   Occupants and their activities
    Building Maintenance
Description ynd Characteristics

Cyclical
Daily traffic patterns
Diurnal thermal patterns
Seasonal thermal patterns
Seasonal air quality variations
Daily or seasonal releases from neighboring structures or
            land

Episodic
Extreme weather conditions
Accidental releases

Building materials and equipment
Exposed to interior
Exposed to air distribution system
Concealed

Metobolic activity
Work recreational, food preparation, personal hygiene
Operation of machines and equipment

Routine cleaning
Dusting, vacuuming
Waxing and polishing
Repair of building equipment
Treatment for pests, odors
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B.2.1.3  BUILDING MATERIALS EVALUATION PROCESS

   .1       PHASE 1-IDENTIFYING TARGET PRODUCTS

   .1.1         The first step is to become familiar with the overall project, design, and space
               planning program building design, and construction schedule. This understanding is
               essential for other tasks as well  as for the building materials evaluation work.  The
               simultaneous tuning of certain construction tasks in relation to installation of major
               interior furnishings and workstation components increases the potential for retention
               of airborne contaminants from construction processes on large surface area materials
               such as carpets and textiles  until long  after initial occupancy.  Table  2.3.2.1.3 -
               POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS warranting  particular
               attention is presented below.

   TABLE B JZ.13.1.1 - POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS
   Adhesives
   Sealants
   Caulking
   Wood preservatives and finishes
   Pesticides
   Fungicides
   Carpet
   Carpet padding
   Paints
   Insulations: thermal, fire and acoustic
   Wood paneling
   Composite wood products such as particle board, chipboard,
       wafer board, cardboard, etc.
   Gaskets
   Glazing compounds
   Control joint fillers
   Floor coverings
   Wall coverings
   Ceiling tiles, panels
   .1.2         This is followed by a review of the design professional intended use of major interior
               finish materials including floor coverings, wall coverings, ceiling system, HVAC duct
               materials, and furnishings. Considerations include the criteria for selection of certain
               products (for example, maintenance, cost, acoustics, aesthetics, and functional
               performance) as well as the quantities and applications contemplated.  This review
               phase concludes with identification of products and materials that might emit toxic
               or irritating chemicals in the completed building.  At this point, all questionable
               products and materials are considered for further screening.


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   .1.3         The "Environmental. Resource Guide" published by the American Institute of
               Architects may be of assistance in evaluating building materials.

   .2       PHASE 2-SCREENING TARGET PRODUCTS

   .2.1         Screening of major components of the building fabric and furnishings is done by the
               following:

   .2.1.1           Determining their quantity and distribution in the building.

   .2.1.2       ,    Chemical composition.

   .2.1.3           Stability of chemical substances of concern.

   .2.1.4           Toxic or irritation potential of their major chemical constituents.

   .2.2         The result of mis screening process is the identification of products and materials for
               further investigation.

   .3       PHASE 2 (A)- QUANTTTATrVE ASSESSMENT


   .3.1         Quantitative use and distribution assessment involves identifying the major classes of
               materials, furnishings, and finishes to be used and determining the extent of use, use
               per unit of floor area, and potential exposure of occupants due to the nature of the
               productuse

   .4       PHASE 2 (B)-CHEMICAL CONTENT

   .4.1         At this phase, chemical content is assessed from published general information on
               building products and materials, information obtained from the building's  interior
               designers, or from manufacturers' and suppliers' product literature and data sheets.
               These  are obtained by requiring all potential vendors to provide Manufacturer's
               Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) for all products assembled by them and the names of
               suppliers of each  product not assembled by mem. Additionally, they should be
               required to provide contact information for each of their suppliers and to request the
               contact individual to cooperate with the design team. These secondary suppliers and
               manufacturers are contacted and additional MSDSs and  other information is
               obtained.

   .4.2         MSDS are United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
               mandated documents listing all hazardous substances contained in the product they
               cover; they are generally available for most products of interest OSHA requires that
               MSDSs be available for most products of interest.  OSHA requires that MSDSs be
               available to workers for all  hazardous substances to which the worker  will be
               exposed. Thus, whether in a factory or at the construction site, each substance used in
               building materials, products, and  furnishings is theoretically covered by an MSDS.
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   .5       PHASE 2 (C) - CHEMICAL STABILITY

   .5.1     •    Stability (chemical emissions) assessments are done by reviewing the vapor pressure
                and molecular weight data for chemicals of concern as identified on the MSDSs.
                Many sources can be used to obtain the data:

   .5.1.1           American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists 1988: Industrial
                             . A Manual of Recommended Practice.
    .5.1.2           National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health 1982, 1984:  Registry of
                   Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. 1981-1982. Volumes 1-3 (RTECS) plus the
                   BIECS.1983-4 Supplement (2 volumes).

    .5.1.3           National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health 1985:  Pocket Guide to
                            Hazards.
   .5.1.4           Sax, NX 1970: Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 5th Edition. New
                   York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
   .5.1.5           Verschueren, K. 1983: Handbook of Environmental pa
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    .6       PHASE 2 (D) EXPOSURE: AND TOXIOTY EVALUATION

    .6.1     •    Toxicity or irritation potential of the constituent compounds is evaluated using
                standard reference sources (ACGIH 1980). Exposure evaluations by computer modeling
                may  also be required.  Documentation of the threshold  limit values,  4th ed.
                Cincinnati: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Use the
                latest edition of sources listed:

    .6.1.1           Clayton, G.D. and F.C. Clayton, eds. 1981.  Party's industrial  hygiene and
                   toxicology. 3d rev., ed. Volumes 1-3. New York John Wiley and Sons.

    .6.1.2           Gosselin, G.D., and F.C. Clayton, eds. 1981.  Patty's  industrial  hygiene and
                   toxicology. 3d rev., gd. Volumes 1-3. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

    .6.1.3           NIOSH. 1983.  Registry of toxic effects of chemical substances. 1981-2. Volumes 1-
                   2i Cincinnati:  National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Public
                   Health  Service.

    .6.1.4           NIOSH. 1985.  Registry of toxic  effects  of chemical substances. 1983-4.
                   Supplement. Volumes 1-2. Cincinnati: National Institute of Occupational Safety
                   and Health, U.S. Public Health Service.

    .6.1.5           NIOSH. 1985. Pocket guide to chemiral hararrU Cincinnati:  National Institute
                   of Occupational Safety and Health, US. Public Health Service.

    .6.1.6           Olishifski, J.B., ed 1979.  Fun<^airpgntals of industrial hygiene.  National Safety
                   Council
    .6.1.7           Sax, N.L 1979. Dangerous properties of industrial matcri^Si 5th *^i New York:
                   Van Nostrand Reinhold.

    .6.1.8           Sparks, L 1989. IAO Model

    .6.2         For example, Sax (1979) lists a "summary of toxicity statement" or rating (THR) for
                each substance covered.  Ratings  of "none", Tow", "moderate", "high", or "unknown"
                are given.  The route or routes of entry are  given for specified toxic effects.  LD50
                (lethal dose for 50% of experimental animals) are given for various exposure routes;
                tests and experimental species. Human irritation potential and target organs or sites
                are also listed and carcinogenic and mutagenk assessment is reported.

    .6.3         NIOSH's Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. 1981-1982. Volumes 1-3
                (RTECS) plus the RTECS1983-4 Supplement (2 volumes) provide an annotated listing
                of toxicity  and irritation research for tens of thousands of chemical substances.
                RTECS also provides a comprehensive list of alternative trade and generic names by
                which products may be known or marketed, chemical formulas, and cross-references to
                the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) number for each chemical.
                                   ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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Appendix B                                                              Page     B-15
   .6.4         A database on building materials emission rates is now being developed by EPA.
                There also exists a a large database developed by NASA for spacecraft design and
                operation. Work currently in progress will make bom of these databases  accessible
                and useful to the design professional at this point in the process. From this review,
                determinations are made regarding materials which will require laboratory testing
                according to the outcome of the combination of reviewed factors. A combination of
                high volatility and moderate toxitity would result in further consideration of the
                substance and the product A very low volatility and moderate toxicity would be
                examined in terms of the quantity of the product and the quantity of the substance
                present in that product  No algorithm has been established for this evaluation; a
                qualitative assessment is the most reasonable approach given the limited amount of
                data currently available.

   .7       RESULTS

   .7.1         The results of this screening process allows identification of the products most likely
                to emit significant quantities of irritating or toxic substances. These are likely to be
                the  carpet system  (carpet, pad or backing, and adhesive), workstation (office
                furnishings) work surfaces and interior partitions, and  the ceiling  tiles.  Shelving
                materiab, adhesive, caulking compounds, and some wood finishes are also materials
                of concern. These materials should be evaluated by emissions testing.

   .8       PHASE 3-EMISSIONS TESTING

   .8.1         Test methods include bulk testing and environmental chamber and headspace air
                sampling. Air sampling can also be done in the first completed building prior to,
                during,  and after materials  installation to develop air  quality  profiles of the
                installation. Chamber tests can be conducted in a very small chamber (less than 0.1
                cu m) or in a medium size chamber capable of accommodating full size samples.

   .8.2         Cut samples create problems of distorted ratios between surface area and edges, and
                cuts through materiab can expose materiab not normally exposed in the assembled
                product Sealing the edges reduces some of these effects. Room size chamber can also
                be used, but they are expensive and require larger quantities of materiab.

   .8.3         Ratios of materiab surface area and weight to chamber volume and wall area should
                be kept reasonably similar to the ratios found in actual building situations. Multiple
                material tests may also be run to determine "sink" effects, the tendency of materiab
                to absorb airborne substances on their surfaces and re-release them to the air.

   .8.4         Air movement, temperature, and relative humidity as well as outdoor (or pure) air
                exchange rates in me chamber should approximate those found in buildings. Airflow
                should be controlled within the  chamber to assure good mixing and to minimize
                unusually high velocities at material surfaces,  guidance is available from "A
                Standard Guide for Small-Scale Environmental Chamber Measurements of Organic
                Emissions from Indoor Materiab / Products" now under development by ASTM
                Subcommittee D-22.05 on Indoor Air, 1916 Race St, Philadelphia, PA 19103.
                                   ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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   .8.5          Material samples are generally conditioned by placing them  in the chamber at
                controlled temperature and under forced air circulation for several hours or even days
                prior to testing. In order to best meet the purpose of the testing, handling of the
                material should resemble that employed in actual installations  of the materials in
                buildings.  Products are stored in factory containers until testing.  Once opened, they
                are kept in a normally ventilated room containing typical, new office furnishings
                until additional testing is  conducted. Complete and careful record keeping is
                essential to interpretation of testing results.

   .9       ANALYSIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

   .9.1          Based on the results of the four-phase materials evaluation process, products can be
                selected, modified, treated or otherwise managed to improve indoor air quality.

   .10      DEFINITIONS

   .10.1         Breathing  zone. The air space bounded by the lower and upper horizontal planes
                where human respiration occurs.  For office space, this zone is  between 42 and 64
                inches above the floor. All breaming zone measurements shall be made at a height
                of 42 inches.

   .10.2         Room ventilation efficiency.  Percentage of  the outdoor air per  person entering the
                room mat  actually ventilates the breaming zone.

   .10.3         Overall fhiiilrHncr) v
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Appendix B                                                              Page    B-17
B.3.1.1   CHANGE ORDERS, SHOP DRAWINGS

   .1       'Changes made and details supplied by contractors or designers during construction can
            significantly impact indoor air quality.  Changes made  in response to previously
            anticipated problems or events during construction must meet the design intent and the
            established performance criteria outlined in the IAQ Quality Assurance / Quality
            Control Manual

   .2       The design professional must review, evaluate, and follow-up on change orders, field
            orders, and shop drawing approval requests for items determined significant to indoor
            environmental quality. These include HVAC system design and components, insulations,
            sealants, finish materials, and furnishings, among others.  The list of items requiring
            special attention with respect to IAQ shall have been identified in the IAQ Quality
            Assurance/Quality Control Manual and the procedures and criteria for their selection
            specified.

B.3.2     COMMISSIONING

   .1       Simultaneous thermal and air balance must include complete system balancing under
            heating, cooling, and economizer cycles. Limitations imposed by weather conditions
            shall  be overcome by completion of the  balance work at  the earliest available
            opportunity.

   .2       The design professional must assure that effective training programs will be included in
            control system and HVAC equipment construction contracts.

   .3       Evidence that the facility's ventilation system is fully functional and that air quality is
            acceptable prior to initial occupancy of any specific area will be the responsibility of the
            design professional. This will be accomplished through performance testing during or
            immediately after the "commissioning" of the completed facility.

   .4       While no specifics for performance verification are included in the proposed standard, it
            is the intent that the actual facility be  measured prior to occupancy and periodically
            after occupancy to determine IAQ conformance to ASHRAE, the requirements of this
            document, and other specified code and Governmental requirements in force.

B.3.3     AIR-OUT PROCEDURES
Refer to the requirements of Chapter 4, Paragraph 3.b. and Chapter 5, Paragraph 12.C. of the current
version of the Facility Safety Manual for off-gassing.

   .1       An IAQ control procedure known as the "air-out" will be employed after completion of
            the building, commissioning of the equipment, and installation of major furnishings.
                                   ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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            The purpose of the air-out is to remove chemical emissions from materials in the building
            in order to reduce occupant exposure to these chemicals once occupancy commences. The
           ' air-out is achieved by the use of adequate ventilation for an extended period of time.
            This will require an additional time period of one to three weeks after commissioning and
            prior to occupancy.

            Some material such as carpets and other flooring systems may require  elevated air
            temperatures to  accelerate their chemical emissions.  Refer to the IAQ Quality
            Assurance/Quality Control Manual and/or the building acceptance test manual for
            appropriate recommendations.

            Supplemental air movement devices such as portable fans shall be used to increase air
            flow within enclosed spaces to improve the efficacy of the air-out procedure.

            The air-out must be carefully planned and conducted to avoid adverse effects on building
            components and equipment.  The design professional  shall refer to the IAQ Quality
            Assurance/Quality Control Manual and/or building acceptance test manual.

            Such a process requires careful planning of commissioning and occupancy. The Government
            will provide the design professional with an occupancy schedule for purposes of planning
            the air-out process.
END OF APPENDIX
                                   ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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       APPENDIX C




ROOM DATA SHEETS

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Appendix C                                    -                        Page     C-l



                                     APPENDIX C

                                ROOM DATA SHEETS
Cl      GENERAL
This section contains the Room Data Sheets for various typical functional layouts for EPA laboratories
and laboratory support spaces. These data sheets should be used as guides and references by the design
professional during the programming and design process of a specific project Final laboratory layouts
must be developed with the individual users and their research requirements as provided in Section 3 -
GUIDE FOR FACILITY DESIGN AND LAYOUT. Specific criteria and requirements should be verified
by the design team with the EPA, local, state and federal regulatory agencies.

C2      TYPICAL ROOM REQUIREMENTS

C2.1     ROOM DATA SHEETS
The Room Data Sheets for typical rooms are shown in the following laboratory and laboratory support
room  layouts.  These Room  Data Sheets indicate typical room/laboratory requirements  as well as
preferred floor plans with regard to installed equipment Specific requirements, developed  during the
programming process with the individual user of the room, shall be in accordance with Section 3 under
SPECIFIC ROOM REQUIREMENTS. The final layouts for these areas will be the responsibility of the
design professional with approval by the EPA.

C2ฃ     STANDARDS AND SYMBOLS
In addition to the typical requirements as shown in the room data sheets, standard requirements for
each area or room as indicated in the various sections of the this document must also be included. A
listing and definition of the standard requirements, symbols and abbreviation indicated on the Room
Data Sheets are provided in the following paragraphs.

C3      DEFINITION OF STANDARD REQUIREMENTS
All standard requirements shall be in accordance with codes and with all other requirements of this
document  The narrative description of requirements in this Section and elsewhere in the Space
Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities, shall take precedence over drawings.  If  an item is
described in the  narrative but not shown in a drawing that is not to be taken as a waiver of the
requirement The drawings are provided for illustrative purposes only.  The following are  definitions
of the standard requirements used in the Room Data Sheets.

C.3.1     LABORATORY CLASSIFICATION STANDARD
The required construction for all laboratory units shall be classified as Fire Hazard  Class B
laboratories per NFPA - 45.
                               ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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C3.2     ARCHITECTURAL STANDARDS

C.3.2.1   FLOORING
Provide chemical resistant vinyl tile or seamless vinyl flooring.  When a seamless vinyl floor material
is required, the base shall also be  seamless and integrally coved.  Floor and base materials are
described in Section 5.

C.3.2JZ   BASE
Provide 4 inch high vinyl or rubber base with matching end stops and preformed or molded corner units.

C.3.2.3   WALLS
Masonry or gypsum wallboard partitions extending from the floor to the underneath of structural slab.
Wall surfaces shall be painted with semi-gloss enamel paint In instrumentation rooms, where sound
absorption is required, walls shall be properly attenuated. Reverberating wall areas should be reduced
to a minimum.  See also Section 5 under PARTITIONS for flamespread  and smoke development
specifications.

C.3.2.4   CEILING
Finished ceilings shall be suspended acoustical tile system. Tiles shall be of a non-flaking material.
Ceilings in extraction, preparation,  glassware washing, microbiology and similar wet  laboratories
shall be of water resistant tile materials or painted gypsum wallboard.   Ceiling height in all
laboratory spaces shall be a minimum of 9 feet 8 inches.

C3.2.5   DOORS
Open doors should not protrude more than 6 inches into exit corridors. Door sizes and hardware as
follows:

    .5.1     Hallway access doors:  pair doors; 3 foot (active) with 1 foot panel (top and bottom bolts
            at inactive); wire glass (4" x 25" or 5" x 20" vision panel); no threshold; ADA compliant
            hardware; automatic closure.

    .5.2     Interconnecting (between laboratories): 3 foot; push plate; vision panel; dual swing.

    .5.3     Interconnecting (between Blocks); 4 foot (minimum) with panic bar hardware; automatic
            closures.

    .5.4     Exterior fire doors: 4 foot with panic bar hardware; automatic closures.

    .5.5     All doors shall be a minimum height of 7 feet 0 inches.

C.3.2.6   CASEWORK
Laboratory casework shall be of modular design and interchangeable.  Standard casework shall be of
metal construction; Room Data Sheets will indicate exceptions (wood or approved plastic laminate) to
these requirements. Casework shall be as described in Section 5 under LABORATORY CASEWORK.
Unless otherwise noted in the Room Data Sheets, peninsulas shall not have reagent shelves. Six inch
drawers are standard in the base drawer units.  All units shall include label holders on all  drawers and
doors.
                               ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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    .6.1     Vented Storage Cabinets:  Vented acid/base storage cabinets shall be 3'-0" wide metal
            cabinets. The  inner surfaces of the cabinet shall be factory coated to resist acid/base
            fumes and spills. One adjustable shelf shall be provided. Venting shall be as for vented
            chemical storage cabinets.

    .6.2     Countertops:  Man-made stone impregnated with chemical (e.g., acids, bases, solvents)
            resistant epoxies. A depth of 33" shall be standard depth for all casework. Countertops
            adjacent to sinks shall have grooved  drainboards.  Casework along walls shall have a
            four inch high backsplash.

    .6.3     Knee Space: Unless otherwise noted  in specific room data sheets, knee spaces  shall be
            three feet (3'-0") in length and 29"  in height.

C.3.2.7   EMERGENCY RESPONSE EQUIPMENT CLOSETS
Six hallway closets approximately 3' x 3' shall be located throughout the laboratory block with equal
travel distance between closets.  These closets will house laboratory supplies for spill cleanup and
should include shelves on two walls.

C.3.3     MECHANICAL STANDARDS

C.3.3.1   HVAC
The laboratory HVAC system shall be designed  as a one pass air system with exhaust through hoods
where hoods are used. HVAC systems should be continuously operational 24 HR., seven days a week
both summer and winter. Design temperatures shall be as follows:

    .1.1     Every laboratory room shall be controlled individually in accordance with the following:
            summer: 72ฐ FDB ฑ 2ฐF and 50% RH ฑ 5% and winter, 72ฐ FDB ฑ 2ฐF and 30% RH ฑ  5%. For
            laboratories that are primarily instrumentation rooms, the standard shall be 72ฐ FDB ฑ
            2ฐF.

    .1.2     See also MECHANICAL REQUIREMENTS Section 8 under FUME HOOD EXHAUST for
            additional requirements.

C.3.3.2   EMERGENCY EYE/FACE WASH
Emergency eye/face wash stations shall be provided at a minimum of one per single module (308 NUSF)
in accessible locations, away from fume hoods, requiring no more than 10 seconds to reach and should be
within a travel distance no greater than 30.5 meters (100 feet) from the hazard.   See also the
ARCHITECTURAL REQUIREMENTS and MECHANICAL REQUIREMENTS (Sections 5 and 8) for
additional requirements.
                               ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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Appendix C                                                             Page     C-4
C.3.3.3   EMERGENCY SHOWERS
Emergency showers shall be provided in all work areas where, during routine operations or foreseeable
emergencies, areas of the body may come into contact with a substance which is corrosive or severely
irritating to the skin or which is toxic by skin absorption. Emergency showers shall be in accessible
locations, away from fume hoods, that require no more man 10 seconds to reach and should be within a
travel distance no greater than 305 meters (100 feet) from the hazard.  See the Room Data Sheets for
recommended locations. Refer also to the ARCHITECTURAL REQUIREMENTS and MECHANICAL
.REQUIREMENTS (Sections 5 and 8) for additional requirements.

C3.3.4   CENTRAL DI WATER SYSTEM
A central deionized water (DI) system shall be provided at a resistivity > 10 mega-ohms at tap. Refer
to Mechanical Requirements (Section 8) under Deionized Water (DI) System for specific requirements.

C3.3.5   NON-FLAMMABLE GAS DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Outlets shall be provided every 10 feet or as specified in the Room Data Sheet (exact location to be
determined by the Government  during  an early  design stage).  See also the MECHANICAL
REQUIREMENTS (Section 8) for additional requirements.

C.3.3.6   FIRE PROTECTION
The whole structure shall be sprinklered. Instrumentation laboratories shall have a dry pipe sprinkler
system.   Portable fire  extinguisher  shall  be provided in  all laboratories.    Refer to  the
ARCHITECTURAL REQUIREMENTS and MECHANICAL REQUIREMENTS (Sections 5 and 8) for
additional requirements.

C3.3.7   FUME HOODS
All fume hoods called for in the specific design criteria of mis document shall satisfy all requirements
stated in Section 8 MECHANICAL REQUIREMENT under LABORATORY FUME HOODS.

   .7.1      All hoods shall have two 120V duplex outlets and one 220V outlet on the face of the
            hood. The following services shall be standard in all hoods:  industrial cold water (non-
            potable), laboratory vacuum, gas, and compressed air (15 psig).  Fume hoods shall be
            equipped with a safety alarm system designed to signal unsafe operating conditions
            whenever fume hood velocity falls below 70% of specified design value.  Alarm system
            shall consist of an audible and visual alarm to indicate malfunction or unsafe operating
            conditions.

   .7.2      Noise Control  The noise level at the face of the hood shall not exceed 70 dB with the
            system operating; nor shall it exceed 55 dB at bench top level elsewhere in the laboratory
            room.

C.3.3.8   LABORATORY SERVICE FITTINGS
Laboratory service fittings for piped  utilities (e.g., water faucets and spigots, gas jets or nozzles, etc.)
shall have a solvent and acid-resistant epoxy powder coating or be made of PVC or equivalent corrosion
resistant materials; chrome plated fixtures shall not be used.
                               ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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Appendix C                                                             Page     C-5
C3.4    ELECTRICAL STANDARD

C.3.4.1  ELECTRICAL OUTLETS
Laboratory standard electrical outlets shall be duplex convenience 20 amp/120V outlets in surface
metal raceways as defined in the ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS (Section 9) of this document These
outlets should be provided in addition to specific electrical outlets called for or shown in the respective
Room Data Sheet, and to outlets needed to feed the equipment used in each room. These outlets shall be
located either on the reagent shelf, or if no reagent shelf is required, 8" above counter top level when
base cabinets are used and 44" above floor level in other locations. These outlets shall be no more than
3'-0" apart in either situation.

    .1.1      Additional requirements:

    .1.2.1       Peninsulas Without Reagent Shelf: Provide a quadraplex pedestal outlet every 3'-0"
               in the center of the peninsula; pedestal units shall have brass, waterproof covers.

    .1.2.2       Peninsulas With  Reagent Shelf:  Provide duplex outlets in surface metal raceway
               every 3'-0" flush along the face of the bottom shelf on each side of the peninsulas.

    .1.23       Equipment Outlet Location: Electrical outlet location shall be near the equipment to
               powered; the exact location of equipment and outlets shall be determined by  the
               Government during early design stage

C.3.4J2  LIGHTING
Laboratory standard lighting should be fluorescent uniform lighting with two levels of lighting at
bench top and double switching. The high level should be 100 FC and the low level should be 50 FC.
See also the ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS (Section 9).

C.3.4.3  EMERGENCY LIGHTING
Provide a minimum of 5 footcandles throughout exit path, laboratory modules are included. See also
the ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS (Section 9) for specific criteria.

C.3.4.4  SWITCHES
Provide one electrical  switch at each door that provides hallway egress at 54 inches above  the
finished floor. See also the ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS (Section 9) for specific criteria.

C3.4.5  EMERGENCY POWER SYSTEM
Emergency power system shall be provided by a diesel driven emergency generator or UPS system. See
Room Data Sheets and the ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS (Section 9).

C.3.4.6  FIRE ALARM SYSTEM
Fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with criteria set forth in the ELECTRICAL
REQUIREMENTS (Section 9).
                               ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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C.3.4.7   TELEPHONE OUTLETS
Telephone outlets shall be provided one per single laboratory module (308 NUSF) space.  The exact
location for outlets shall be determined by the Government at an early design stage.  Provide one
telephone outlet per 125 NUSF of office space. If work stations are identified and are smaller than 125
NUSF, one outlet per work station will be required.

C.3.4.8   LAN COMPUTER OUTLETS
LAN computer outlets shall be provided one per single module (308 NUSF) space. The exact location for
outlets shall be determined by the Government at an early design stage. Provide one LAN outlet per 125
NUSF of office space.  If work stations are identified and are smaller than 125 NUSF, one outlet per
work station will be required.

C.3.4.9   UMS COMPUTER OUTLETS
LIMS computer outlets shall be provided one per single module (308 NUSF) space. The exact location
for outlets shall be determined by the Government at an early design stage. Provide one LIMS outlet per
125 NUSF of office space.

C.3.4.10  OUTLET COVER PLATES
All telephone, computer and electrical outlets shall be PVC or equivalent corrosion resistant cover/face
plates; metal covers shall not be used.
                               ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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Appendix C
                             Page    C-7
C.4     LABORATORY SYMBOLS LIST
           ARCHITECTURAL SYMBOLS
           (ZED
Cup Sink


 Epoxy Sink
                             Stainless Steel Sink
                             Fume Hood
                             Biological Safety Cabinet
                             Government Furnished Equipment
                             Umbilical 5" x 18"
                             Snorkle
                             ISOcfm Exhaust  (U.N.O.)
           COUNTERTOP MATERIAL

           /g>                Epoxy Top
                             Acid Resistant  Plastic Laminate
                             Stainless Steel
                        ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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Appendix C
                                            Page    C-8
C.4     LABORATORY SYMBOLS LIST (CONTINUED)
            PLUMBING SYMBOLS
            A        Alt,  COMP.    (100 PSI6 U.O.H.)    HW
             LA       AIR, LAB   (15 PSIG U.H.O.)
             C02      CARBON DIOXIDE
             RO       REVERSE OSMOSIS WATER
             SS       SAFETY SHOWER
             CW       COLD WATER
             CHWS      CHILLED WATER SUPPLY
             CHWR     CHILLED WATER RETURN
                                          HOT WATER
                                  C3D      CUP SINK
                                          LAB SINK
                                                          FD .   FLOOR DRAIN
                                    FLO   FUNNEL DRAIN
                                                         |FD    FLOOR SINK
                                  {X}-   SHUT-OFF VALVE
                                  EW
                                                                EYE WASH
             ELECTRICAL SYMBOLS
             SD
             •e
DIMMER SWITCH
20A SGL REG 120V
20A DUPLEX REC  120V
30A SGL REC 208V SINGLE PHASE
wD
 a
•Cf
                      30A SGL REC 120. 208V SINGLE PHASE CZH
                      20A SGL REC 208V 3 PHASE          ><
                      SPECIAL PWR ERC
                      PEDESTAL BOX WITH REC
                      SURFACE RACEWAY
                            ISSUED: APRIL 1994
                                  WP
                                  EP
                                  EM
JUNCTION BOX
WARNING LIGHT
LIGHT FIXTURE

SAFE LIGHT

DISC SWITCH
TELEPHONE
WEATHERPROOF
EXPLOSION PROOF
EMERGENCY CRT
COMPUTER OUTLET

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Appendix C
                   Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                                       for EPA Facilities
                          Page    C-9
                              APPENDIX C

                          ROOM DATA SHEETS
SPACE TYPE-1



SPACE TYPE-2



SPACE TYPE-3



SPACE TYPE-4



SPACE TYPE-5
STANDARDS PREPARATION LABORATORY
ORGANIC EXTRACTION LABORATORY
WET CHEMISTRY LABORATORY
PARTIAL CONTAINMENT LABORATORY
GLASSWARE PREPARATION AREA
                         ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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Appendix C                                                              Page    C-10


                                 ROOM DATA SHEETS

                                     SPACE TYPE-1
SPACE TYPE
Information given to generally describe type of laboratory space by function.
Preparation Laboratory

AREA
Information provided as part of a specific space requirement for a particular project.
Example is used to illustrate a Typical 1-Module Laboratory.
330 Net Square Feet

SPACE NAME
Information provided as part of specific description of space usage for a particular project.
Standards Preparation Laboratory

ACTIVITY / PROGRAM NAME
Information provided to assign responsibility for a specific space to a particular Branch / Section for a
project.
Analytical Support Branch

OCCUPANCY
Identifies number of personnel in a given space for a defined period of time.
1-2 Persons

BUILDING SECTION
Identifies functional grouping in which space is to be located.
Block C

ADJACENCIES
Information is to be developed  during programming by the design professional in  consultation with
representative facility users and approval  by the EPA.
None

OPERATION / TASK DESCRIPTION
Information is to be developed  during programming by the design professional in  consultation with
representative facility users and approval  by the EPA.
This laboratory is used for the preparation of analytical standards which are used in both organic and
inorganic chemical analyses.

LIST OF REQUIREMENTS

    Ceiling
       •     10' Acoustical Ceiling
                                ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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   Doora
       •    Double Doors 3' Active Plus 1' Equipment Leaf
       •    Emergency Exit To Adjacent Space

   Flooring
       •    Sheet Vinyl

   Walls
       •    Metal Stud & Drywall reinforced for Wall Hangings

   Window Treatment
       •    Windows Required
       •    Standard Window Shades

   Special Construction
       •    None required

   Outfitting
       •    None required

   Fixed Laboratory Equipment
            Metal Casework - "C" Frame
            (21) LF of Base Cabinets - 36" High
            (6) LF of Wall Cabinets - Glass Door
            (12) LF Adjustable Wall Shelving - 2 Tier
            EpoxyTop
            (1) 6' Fume Hood with Services
            (2) Vented Solvent Storage Cabinet Below Hood
            (1) Vented OSHA Cabinet (30 Gallon)
            Lab Sink
            Cup Sink
            (2) Lab Desks with Bookshelves, Tackboards and File with Storage Cabinets

   Mechanical Service
       •    Temperature and Humidity Control
       •    100% Supply and Exhaust - 24 hour operation
                              ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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   Electrical Service
            120V/20 Amp AC at Fume Hood
            120V/20 Amp Receptacles 24" on Center in Raceway  -
            208V/30 Amp-1 Phase, 4 Wire AC at Fume Hood
            Disconnect Switch at Door for 120/208V Lab Power
            Telephone
            Cable Tray
            Emergency Power
            Fluorescent Lighting -100 Footcandles at 36" AFF
            Security
            Computer Outlets

   Plumbing / Fire Protection
            Industrial Hot and Cold Water, Sink
            Industrial Cold Water, Cup Sink
            Deionized Water
            Lab Drain (Acid Waste)
            Compressed Air, 15 psi Serrated Connection
            Nitrogen Cylinder
            Lab Vacuum
            Water Sprinklers
            Dry Chemical and Carbon Dioxide Extinguisher in Safety Niches
            Safety Shower/Eyewash Station

CHEMICALS USED IN THIS ROOM
Types and quantities used are  to  be identified during programming by the design  professional in
consultation with representative facility users and approval by the EPA.  The following is used as an
example:
Small quantities of organic solvents, acids and bases (generally less than one gallon of each at any one
time) in concentrations ranging from weak solutions to concentrated materials.  Standard reagent
chemicals in gram proportions.

MOVABLE EQUIPMENT & FURNISHINGS
List  of Government  furnished / Government Installed (GFGI) equipment and furnishings  is to be
identified during programming by the  design professional in consultation with representative facility
users and approval by the EPA.  The following is used as an example:
            (2) 2'-6" x 4'-0" Desk
            (2) Chairs
            (2) 2-Drawer File Cabinet
            (2) Analytical Balances
            (3) Bench Top Drying Ovens
            (2) Refrigerators
            PC Work station
                               ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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                     Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                   Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities
Appendix C
Page    C-13
                                 SPACE TYPE-1
                    STANDARDS PREPARATION LABORATORY
     ELECTRICAL^
     PANEL —
     LOCATION
                                           TALL
                                           STORAGE
                                           CABINETS
                                           (GLASSWARE)
                                           DROP SKIRT AT
                                        I /  CEILING OR
                                           CANOPY HOOD.
                            ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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                                                                                               I
                      Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                     Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities
Appendix C                                                           Page    C-14


                               ROOM DATA SHEETS

                                   SPACE TYPE-2
SPACE TYPE
Preparation Laboratory

AREA
660 Net Square Feet

SPACE NAME
Organic Extraction Laboratory (Low-level)

ACTIVITY / PROGRAM NAME
Analytical Support Branch

OCCUPANCY
4 Persons

BUILDING SECTION
Block C

ADJACENCIES
This laboratory should be located next to the Organic Extraction Laboratory and away from the Gas
Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry Volitales & Air Laboratories.

OPERATION / TASK DESCRIPTION
Preparation of environmental samples (drinking water and other very clean samples) for analysis of
organic  constituents, including:  semi-volitales, pesticides, herbicides, and PCB compounds.
Preparation includes extraction of the samples with specifided organic solvents, concentration of the
solvent extract, clean-up of extract if required, and final vialing and labeling of the extract in
preparation for analysis.

LIST OF REQUIREMENTS

   Ceiling
       •     10' Acoustical Ceiling

   Doors
       •     Double Doors 3' Active Plus 1' Equipment Leaf
       •     Emergency Exit To Adjacent Space

   Flooring
       •     Sheet Vinyl
                              ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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                       Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                     Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities
Appendix C                                                             Page    C-15
   Walls
       •    Metal Stud & Drywall reinforced for Wall Hangings

   Window Treatment
       •    Windows Required
       •    Standard Window Shades

   Special Construction
       •    None required

   Outfitting
       •    None required

   Fixed Laboratory Equipment
            Metal Casework - "C" Frame
            (46) LF of Base Cabinets - 36" High
            (16) LF of Wall Cabinets - Glass Door
            (4) LF Adjustable Wall Shelving - 2 Tier
            (24) LF Adjustable Reagent Shelving - 2 Tier
            (4) LF of Tall Storage Cabinets - Glass Door
            EpoxyTop
            (2) 6' Fume Hood with Services
            (4) Vented Solvent Storage Cabinet Below Hood
            (1) Vented OSHA Cabinet (30 Gallon)
            Lab Sink
            Cup Sink
            (4) Lab Desks with Bookshelves, Tackboards and File with Storage Cabinets

   Mechanical Service
       •    Temperature and Humidity Control
       •    100% Supply and Exhaust - 24 hour operation

   Electrical Service
            120V/20 Amp AC at Fume Hood
            120V/20 Amp Receptacles 24" on Center in Raceway
            208V/30 Amp-1 Phase, 4 Wire AC at Fume Hood
            Disconnect Switch at Door for 120/208V Lab Power
            Telephone
            Cable Tray
            Emergency Power
            Fluorescent Lighting -100 Footcandles at 36" AFF
            Security
            Computer Outlets
                              ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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                       Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                     Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities
Appendix C                                                            Page    C-16
   Plumbing / Fire Protection
       •    Industrial Hot and Cold Water, Sink
       •    Industrial Cold Water, Cup Sink
       •    Deionized Water
       •    Lab Drain (Acid Waste)
       •    Compressed Air, 15 psi Serrated Connection
       •    Nitrogen Cylinder
       •    Lab Vacuum
       •    Water Sprinklers
       •    Dry Chemical and Carbon Dioxide Extinguisher in Safety Niches
       •    Eyewash At Main Sink
       •    Safety Shower/Eyewash Station

CHEMICALS USED IN THIS ROOM
Methylene chlorine - approximately 3 gallons /day
Acetone - approximately 0.5 gallons / day
Methanol - approximately 0.5 gallons / day
Hexane - approximately 0.5 gallons / day
Diethylether
Sulfuric acid - 500  ml  maximum
Hydrochloric acid - 200 ml maximum
Organic compound standards
          - 500 ug / ml or less
          -100 mg for most neat standards

MOVABLE EQUIPMENT & FURNISHINGS
            (4) 2l-6" x 4'-0" Desk
            (4) Chairs
            (4) 2-Drawer  File Cabinet
            Sonicator probe
            GPC
            Continuous extractor water baths
            KD evaporator water baths
            Refrigerator/Freezer
            Soxhlet heat  rack
            Balance
            Oven
            Undercounter Glassware Washer
            PC Work  station
                              ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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                     Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                    Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities
Appendix C
Page    C-17
                                  SPACE TYPE-2
                      ORGANIC EXTRACTION LABORATORY
                        FUME HOOD
                        AWAY FROM
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-------
                      Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                    Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities
Appendix C                                                           Page    C-18



                               ROOM DATA SHEETS

                                  SPACE TYPE-3
SPACE TYPE
Laboratory

AREA
990 Net Square Feet

SPACE NAME
Wet Chemistry Laboratory

ACTIVITY / PROGRAM NAME
Analytical Support Branch

OCCUPANCY
4-6 Persons

BUILDING SECTION
Block C

ADJACENCIES
This  laboratory should be located next to the Instrumental Chemistry Laboratory and near the
Glassware Preparation Area and in vicinity of the Metals Laboratories.

OPERATION / TASK DESCRIPTION
Analysis requiring drying, refluxing or distillation are conducted in this laboratory.  BOD dilutions and
set-up for titrations and colorimetric determinations.  Field preservatives for sampling crews are made
up; color reagents for instrumentation are made and laboratory is the general center of activity in
support of the other laboratories.

I .TfiT OF REQUIREMENTS

   Ceiling
       •    10' Acoustical Ceiling

   Doors
       •    Double Doors 3' Active Plus 1' Equipment Leaf
       •    Single Door 3'-6" Wide (Standard Lab Door)

   Flooring
       •    Sheet Vinyl

   Walls
       •    Metal Stud & Drywall reinforced for Wall Hangings


                              ISSUED: APRIL 1994

-------
                       Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                     Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities
Appendix C                                     -                        Page    C-19
   Window Treatment
       •    Windows Required
       •    Standard Window Shades

   Special Construction
       •    None required

   Outfitting
       •    None required

   Fixed Laboratory Equipment
            Metal Casework - "C" Frame
            (73) LF of Base Cabinets - 36" High
            (14) LF of Wall Cabinets - Glass Door
            (48) LF Adjustable Reagent Shelving - 2 Tier
            (4) LF of Tall Storage Cabinets - Glass Door
            EpoxyTop
            (2) 6' Fume Hood with Services
            (1) 10' Distillation Fume Hood (No Sash) with Services
            (4) Vented Solvent Storage Cabinet Below Hood
            (1) Vented OSHA Cabinet (30 Gallon)
            Lab Sink
            Cup Sink
            (6) Lab Desks with Bookshelves, Tackboards and File with Storage Cabinets

   Mechanical Service
       •    Temperature and Humidity Control
       •    100% Supply and Exhaust - 24 hour operation

   Electrical Service
       •    120V/20AmpACatFumeHood
       •    120V/20 Amp Receptacles 24" on Center in Raceway
       •    208V/30Amp-l Phase, 4 Wire AC at Fume Hood
       •    Disconnect Switch at Door for 120/208V Lab Power
       •    Telephone
       •    Cable Tray
       •    Emergency Power
       •    Fluorescent Lighting - 100 Footcandles at 36" AFF
       •    Security
       •    Computer Outlets
                               ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

-------
                       Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                     Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities
Appendix C                                                             Page    C-20
   Plumbing / Fire Protection
            Industrial Hot and Cold Water, Sink
            Industrial Cold Water, Cup Sink
            Deionized Water
            Lab Drain (Acid Waste)
            Compressed Air, 15 psi Serrated Connection
            Nitrogen Cylinder
            Lab Vacuum
            Water Sprinklers
            Dry .Chemical and Carbon Dioxide Extinguisher in Safety Niches
            Eyewash At Main Sink
            Safety Shower/Eyewash Station

CHEMICALS USED IN THIS ROOM
This laboratory contains stock chemical storage cabinets and includes a broad range of chemicals and
acids/alkali.  Mineral salts, acids, phenol, pyridine, barbituric acid (color),  indicator compounds,
CFC's and other reagents.  Chemicals are in concentrated form and may be in individual quantities of up
to five pounds.

MOVABLE EQUIPMENT & FURNISHINGS
            (6) 2'-6" x 4'-0" Desk
            (6) Chairs
            (6) 2 - Drawer File Cabinet
            (2) Incubators
            UV/VIS Spectrometer
            (6) Distillation Heaters
            (2) pH Meters
            (2) DO Meters
            Millipore DI Water  Polisher
            (2) Balances
            Drying Oven
            Drying Cabinet
            Muffle Furnace
            COD Heater (Reflux)
            Undercounter Glassware Washer
                              ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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                    Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                  Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities
Appendix C
Page   C-21
                               SPACE TYPE - 3
                       WET CHEMISTRY LABORATORY
'
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                          ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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                      Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                     Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities
Appendix C                                                           Page    C-22


                               ROOM DATA SHEETS

                                   SPACE TYPE-4
SPACE TYPE
Laboratory

AREA
660 Net Square Feet

SPACE NAME
Partial Containment Laboratory

ACTIVITY / PROGRAM NAME
Analytical Support Branch

OCCUPANCY
2-4 Persons

BUILDING SECTION
Block C

ADJACENCIES
This room should be located close to autoclave and shower facilities. The design of this room should
consist of a "room-within-a-room" type arrangement

OPERATION / TASK DESCRIPTION
This laboratory will be used to handle toxic and hazardous materials and will be designed to control
all airborne and liquid effluent that may be generated in the room. Concentrated toxic and hazardous
materials will be diluted to acceptable levels in the Containment Room glove box and fume hood and
further analyzed thereafter in the Main Laboratory.

LIST OF REQUIREMENTS

   Ceiling
       •    10' Drywall Ceiling, Epoxy Painted

   Doors
       •    Double Doors 3' Active Plus 1' Equipment Leaf
       •    Single Door 3'-6" Wide (Standard Lab Door)

   Flooring
       •    Sheet Vinyl
                              ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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                       Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                     Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities
Appendix C                                                            Page    C-23
   Walls
       •    Metal Stud & Drywall reinforced for Wall Hangings
       •    Epoxy Paint

   Window Treatment
       •    Windows Not Required

   Special Construction
       •    HEPA/Charcoal Filtered Exhaust on separate Laboratory HVAC Exhaust System
       •    Entry to Containment Room through Main Laboratory

   Outfitting
       •    None required

   Fixed Laboratory Equipment
            Metal Casework - "C" Frame
            (68) LF of Base Cabinets - 36" High
            (7) LF of Base Cabinets - 30" High
            (21) LF of Wall Cabinets - Glass Door
            Epoxy Top
            (1) 6' Fume Hood with Services
            (1) 4' Fume Hood with Services
            (1) 5' Class m Safety Cabinet (Glovebox)
            Lab Sink
            Cup Sink
            (3) Solvent Storage Cabinet Below Hood

   Mechanical Service
       •    Temperature and Humidity Control
       •    Fume Hood Exhaust
       •    100% Supply and Exhaust (HEPA/Charcoal Filters)

   Electrical Service
            120V/20 Amp AC at Fume Hood
            120V/20 Amp Receptacles 24" on Center in Raceway
            208V/30 Amp -1 Phase, 4 Wire AC at Fume Hood
            Telephone (Main Laboratory)
            Intercom (Between Main Lab & Containment Room)
            Emergency Power
            Fluorescent Lighting - 100 Footcandles at 36" AFF
            Security
                              ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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                      Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                     Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities
Appendix C                                                            Page    C-24
   Plumbing / Fire Protection
            Industrial Hot and Cold Water, Sink
            Industrial Cold Water, Cup Sink
            Deionized Water
            Lab Drain (Acid Waste)
            Compressed Air, 15 psi Serrated Connection
            Nitrogen Cylinder
            Lab Vacuum
            Water Sprinklers
            Dry Chemical and Carbon Dioxide Extinguisher in Safety Niches
            Eyewash at Main Sink
            Safety Shower/Eyewash Station

CHEMICALS USED IN THIS ROOM
A variety of organic solvents, acids, bases and analytical standards.  Samples suspected of containing
high concentrations of toxic and/or hazardous materials will be weighed out, extracted and prepared in
this room.

MOVABLE EQUIPMENT & FURNISHINGS
       •    Drying Oven
       •    Analytical  Balance
       •    EP Toxitity Tumbler
       •    (2) Hot Plates
       •    Soxhlet Extractor
       •    Undercounter Glassware Washer
                              ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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                     Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                    Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities
Appendix C
Page    C-25
                                 SPACE TYPE - 4
                     PARTIAL CONTAINMENT LABORATORY
             CYLINDERS
             W/STRAPS
             SAFETY SHOWER
             & EYE WASH
             TECHNICIAN
             DESK
             FUME HOOD
             AWAY FROM
             PRIMARY DOOR."
                                     EXTERIOR
                         r  r
                                                     iz-
                          OMWMIC KซLC
                            ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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                      Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                    Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities
Appendix C
Page   C-26
                                                                                             I
                              ROOM DATA SHEETS

                                  SPACE TYPE-5
SPACE TYPE
Preparation Laboratory

AREA
660 Net Square Feet

SPACE NAME
Glassware Preparation Area
ACTIVITY / PROGRAM NAME
Analytical Support Branch

OCCUPANCY
3-5 Persons

BUILDING SECTION
Block C

ADJACENCIES
This room should be close to the organic and metals preparation laboratories.

OPERATION / TASK DESCRIPTION
This area will serve as  the central glassware washing and preparation area for all laboratory
operations.

LIST OF REQUIREMENTS

    Ceiling
       •     10' Drywall Ceiling, Epoxy Painted
    Doois
            Double Doors 3' Active Plus 1' Equipment Leaf
    Flooring
       •    Ceramic Tile, Floor Drain

    Walls
       •    Metal Stud & Drywall reinforced for Wall Hangings
       •    Ceramic Tile

    Window Treatment
       • .   Windows Not Required
                             ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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                       Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                      Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities.
Appendix C                                                              Page    C-27
   Special Construction
       •    None Requited

   Outfitting
       •    None Required

   Fixed Laboratory Equipment
       •    Stainless Steel Scullery with Double Bowl Sink
       •    (8) LF of Tall Storage Cabinets-Glass Door

   Mechanical Service
       •    Temperature and Humidity Control
       •    100% Supply and Exhaust - 24 hour operation

   Electrical Service
       •    120V/20 Amp AC Weather-proof Receptacles
       •    220V AC
       •    Telephone
       •    Vapor-proof Fluorescent Lighting -100 Footcandles at 36" AFF

   Plumbing / Fire Protection
            Industrial Hot and Cold Water, Sink
            Industrial Hot and Cold Water, Sink
            Low Pressure Steam
            Deionized Water
            Floor Drain
            Floor Sink (at Glassware Washer & Sterilizer)
            Lab Drain (Acid Waste)
            Water Sprinklers
            Dry Chemical and Carbon Dioxide Extinguisher in Safety Niches
            Eyewash At Main Sink

CHEMICALS USED IN THIS ROOM
The primary chemicals used in mis area are: mineral acids (Le., nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, sulfuric
acid), dish washing detergents and acetone. These chemicals will be used in concentrated and diluted
form. The form of chemical will be limited to not more man one gallon of each chemical.

MOVABLE EQUIPMENT & FURNISHINGS
       •    (2) Glassware Washer
       •    (2) Glassware Dryers
       •    (1) Sterilizer - 20" x 20" x 38" Chamber
       •    (1) High Temperature Drying Oven
                               ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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                    Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                  Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities
Appendix C
Page    C-28
                               SPACE TYPE-5
                       GLASSWARE PREPARATION AREA
                                   EXTERIOR
                           ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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        APPENDIX D




DESIGN GUIDELINES

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                        Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                      Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities
Appendix D                                                               Page      D-l



                                      APPENDIX D
                                 DESIGN GUIDELINES
D.I      AMENITIES
Amenities in laboratory facilities are spaces and/or features that provide an enjoyable environment for
staff and visitors.  An amenity exceeds the minimum functional requirements established by the
program and may include the following:

    .1       Interaction spaces, lounges, and break areas should be  strategically located to  foster
            maximum interaction while being convenient to both offices and laboratories.

    .2       Conference and meeting room spaces appropriate to the laboratory/office functions should
            be provided in close proximity to the laboratory.  The meeting room spaces should be of
            various sizes and shapes to accommodate a wide range of conference needs. At least one of
            these conference rooms should be designed to accommodate  teleconferencing.

    .3       Lunch room facilities should be sized specifically to each facility. Quality design of food
            service areas, concession areas, and seating areas will contribute to an enhanced quality of
            life for the researchers.  Refrigerator space needs to be integrated into coffee and vending
            areas to  eliminate  the  temptation to store  lunches  in refrigerators within the
            laboratories.   Consideration should be given  to appropriate microwave  and oven
            appliances. A "white board" for impromptu conversations should be considered.

    .4       Toilets  and  lockers in close  proximity to the laboratories and  offices should be
            coordinated to provide maximum benefit to the staff. These facilities could be contiguous
            in most cases. Where appropriate the toilet/locker combination should accommodate a
            shower.  The shower could satisfy staff after exercise  and  be used to stabilize a chemical
            accident victim prior to medical assistance.

    .4.1         Attempt to locate lockers and toilets close to laboratories and offices in such a manner
                that clothing and valuables are easily accessible to the staff, precluding co-location
                of casework in the laboratory for personal  items.  Avoid placement of lockers in
                corridors.

    .5       Space for an employee wellness center with appropriate facilities should be considered.

    .6       Provide special attention to art work and/or photos  and  how they are to be integrated
            into the design.  The solution should include an integrated design for the  display of
            research materials throughout the laboratory. Displays should be easily, quickly, and
            inexpensively changeable.

    .7       For reasons  of safety, day or elder care facilities  should not be included inside  a
            laboratory facility.
                                   ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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                        Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                      Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities
Appendix D                                                               Page      D-2
D.2      AESTHETICS
Aesthetics refers to  the  nature of both  the  interior and  exterior of the facility.   Aesthetic
considerations should include, but not be limited to the following:

    .1        Contextual relationship of the adjacent buildings and environment. Color, texture and
             massing of building components should be investigated.  Historical and  contextural
             details should be considered.

    .2        The landscape design shall integrate site and building into one concept.

    .3        The sequence of access, entry and use of the building from the view point of both staff and
             visitor must be considered.

    .4        The interior finishes must be integrated into a single concept for the entire facility. This
             shall include all visible materials.

    .5        Consider accent and background colors with special attention to their psychological effect
             on people.

    .6        Consideration  shall be given to lighting from the view of both visual comfort and
             aesthetics.  Visual Comfort Probability (VCP) for lighting fixtures should be a factor for
             selection. Consider accent, indirect, artwork and general lighting.

    .7        Consider the introduction of natural light in the design.  Consider methods to introduce
             natural light into the interior circulation  spaces.

    .8        Special aesthetic consideration should be  given to all building entrance lobby spaces.


D.3      INTERACTION
Interaction of researchers is important  in  a research facility.  There is a relationship between
researcher interaction and the flow of technical information (Managing  the Flow of Technology.
Thomas Allen, 1977,1984, MIT Press).  Incorporate appropriate interaction space where feasible.

D.3.1    DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Design  considerations to promote researcher interaction shall include, but not be limited to, the
following:

    .1        Communication is a function of both organization and proximity. People communicate
             more if they work on a similar project or  are in dose proximity to each other. For weekly
             contact, it has been shown that communication drops off dramatically after 30 meters.  It
             is desirable to  duster researchers in 30 meter diameter groups with shared facilities in
             between these research dusters.
                                    ISSUED: APRIL 1994

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                        Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                       Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities
Appendix D                                                                Page      D-3
    .2        Building form has an influence on communication. Whenever possible, the researchers
             that need to communicate should be located in close proximity on the same floor.  It has
             been shown that floor space less than 10,000 square meters (108,000 square feet) should be
             located on one floor if possible.

    .3        The laboratory director shall be located strategically among his research staff.  The
             director's office would best be located toward the center of  the  facility.  From an
             interaction perspective, a corner office with the best view is not the best location for the
             director's office.

    .4        Offices in a cluster may be a better form to promote communication and interaction among
             researchers.  To minimize separation, a square configuration is desirable. Buildings that
             are  arranged in odd shapes to provide everyone with an outside office view, often
             compromise researcher communication. Solutions that provide for both natural light and
             office dusters should be strongly considered.

    .5        When offices are put near labs, the researchers located in these offices have a greater
             sense of territoriality  than if offices are further away.

    .6        Direct access should be provided to managers. Secretaries located directly outside the
             manager's door often inhibit a subordinate from initiating informal contact with that
             manager.

    .7        Library space appropriate  to the laboratory/office  functions  should  be located
             strategically to promote researcher interaction and efficiency.

    .8        Shared building  facilities  can be used as  a  tool  to promote greater researcher
             communication.   Place the  shared facilities  to  provide maximum  inter-group
             communication.   Shared building facilities should be located by proximity and in
             locations which enhance the users ability to positively influence researcher interaction.
             Shared building facilities include, but are not limited to, the following:

    .8.1         Washrooms
    .8.2         Copy machine areas
    .8.3         Coffee areas
    .8.4         Computer rooms
    .8.5         Secretarial and Message areas
    .8.6         Computer printer terminals
    .8.7         Instruction areas
    .8.8         Lounges
    .8.9         Special test equipment
    .8.10        Libraries
    .8.11        Conference rooms
    .8.12        Supply rooms
    .8.13        Food vending
    .8.14        Common refrigerator
    .8.15        Locker facilities
                                    ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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                        Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
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    .8.16        Exercise facilities
    .8.17        Day care facilities
    .8.18        Elevators
    .8.19        Stairs
    .8.20        Reception
    .8.21        Drinking fountains

D.4      COLOR
Color selection for building exterior and interior shall be responsive to die local environment, provide a
favorable psychological effect on people and minimize maintenance.

D.4.1    SITECpNTEXTURAUSM
Color of both building and landscape elements should complement the context environment.

D .4.1.1   LANDSCAPE MATERIAL
Concepts for the design shall include the color and texture of the landscape material, how it relates to
existing vegetation, how accent colors are to be used, and how color changes throughout the year.
Establish a concept or strategy for landscape material selection.

D.4.1.2   SITE AND BUILDINGS
Concepts for the design shall include the color, texture and details, and how they relate to the existing
site and buildings. Establish the existing materials.  New building materials  shall relate to the
existing materials.  New details shall relate to the existing details in a coherent manner.

D.4.1.3   MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS
Color affects the maintenance requirements of buildings. Care should be exercised to take color and
maintenance into consideration during the color selection process.

D.5      LABORATORY / OFFICE LOCATION
There are four basic locations of researcher offices related to the laboratories:

    .1       Offices separate from laboratories.
    .2       Grouped offices across the corridor from laboratories.
    .3       Offices not grouped, but across the corridor from the laboratories.
    .4       Offices not grouped but on the same side of the corridor as the laboratories.

D.5.1    ASSETS AND LIABILITIES
There are assets and liabilities for each design choice.  The following questions shall be answered on a
building by building basis.  After the questions are answered, the designer needs to "test" various
lab/office options  with the users.  The designer must keep in mind that clustered offices offer the
greater  potential for researcher interaction over offices lining the corridors.

    .1       Do the offices require an exterior view, interior view or no view?
    .2       What is the relationship  of secretarial support relative  to the offices?
    .3       What is the proportion of offices to laboratories?
    .4       What are the user needs and how does this affect office configuration and location?
    .5       How are the laboratories to be configured?
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    .6       How should the offices relate to the laboratories?
    .7       What are the sizes of the offices?
    .8       Are there any special psychological influences regarding office location?
    .9       Who will use the offices?
    .10      Where will technicians be located?
    .11      Is constant visual supervision over the laboratories required?

D.5.2    DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Design considerations to keep in mind while configuration is under design:

D.5.2.1   OFFICES SEPARATE FROM LABORATORIES

    .1       Advantages:

    .1.1         Noise or vibration to offices is minimized.

    .1.2         Some offices may  need to be separated from prime researchers  to foster  other
                administrative needs.

    .1.3         In renovated building solutions, the close proximity of labs and offices may not be an
                option due to other factors.

    .1.4         There is less researcher territoriality of labs if researchers are farther from their
                laboratories.

    .1.5         Separate HVAC System allowing for recirculated air thereby reducing operational
                costs.

    .2       Disadvantages:

    .2.1         Longer circulation between offices and laboratories.

    .2.3         Reduced researchers interaction unless offices are clustered.

D.5.2.2   OFFICES NOT GROUPED, BUT ACROSS THE CORRIDOR FROM THE LABORATORIES

    .1       Advantages:

    .1.1         Close office laboratory relationship reduces walking distance for researchers.

    .1.2         Very efficient use of a double loaded corridor.

    .1.3         Relatively easy to integrate this massing into an easy and  efficient structural
                solution.

    .1.4         Relatively contiguous building mass that will be more energy efficient than  other
                solutions.
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    .2       Disadvantages:

    .2.1         The advantages of clustering offices in terms of interaction is not possible.

    .2.2         Exterior light normally does not penetrate wall to the corridor nor to the laboratories
                   unless clerestory lighting is used.

    .2.3         Promotes an uninteresting corridor environment.

    .2.4         Promotes territoriality of laboratory space.

D.5.2.3  GROUPED OFFICES ACROSS THE CORRIDOR FROM LABORATORIES

    .1       Advantages:

    .1.1         Offices in relatively dose proximity to laboratories.

    .1.2         Outside light to offices, laboratories and corridors.

    .1.3         This concept presents increased opportunity for researcher interaction.

    .1.4         Offices are slightly removed from laboratories, thereby reducing noise and vibration
                to and from offices.

    .1.5         Allows offices to be on separate HVAC system from the laboratories thereby reducing
                operational costs.

    .2       Disadvantages:

    .2.1         Does not provide for flexibility in reconfiguration of office space.

    .2.2         The clustered office configuration significantly increases the exterior envelope of the
                building resulting in higher energy and construction costs.

D.5.2.4  OFFICES NOT GROUPED BUT ON THE SAME SIDE OF  THE CORRIDOR AS THE
         LABORATORIES

    .1       Advantages:

    .1.1         Provides for close proximity to the laboratories which reduces walking time between
                offices and laboratories.

    .1.2         Provides greater safety due to the almost  constant supervision of  the research
                laboratories.

    .1.3         Promotes natural lighting to corridors since exterior is not lined with offices.
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    .2       Disadvantages:

    .2.1         Office dimensions are more controlled by the laboratory module than other concepts.

    .2.2         Because the office is between the corridor and the lab, this tends to reduce the amount
                of light available to the laboratory.

    .2.3         Premium cost for office space in locations better allocated for laboratories or lab
                support.

    .2.4         HVAC costs cannot be reduced as office space is on laboratory ventilation system.

D.6      LOCKERS AND SHOWERS
Lockers must be provided for both sexes.  Each locker room can be designed as a separate element or
integrated into a locker/toilet/shower group. There are some advantages to providing these functions
in a coordinated group.

    .1       Utilities are clustered for service to both toilet and shower areas.
    .2       Duplicated functions in these areas can be eliminated.
    .3       Close proximity provides for greater efficiency in use of facilities.

D.7      ENVIRONMENTALLY CONSCIOUS DESIGN
The Agency's objective is to foster environmentally conscious design in its facilities.  To that end the
design professional shall consider but not be limited to the following:

    .1       Site planning that is environmentally based.

    .2       Facility designs that reflect environmental as well as energy conscious concepts.

    .3       Material selection based on low energy consumption both in the production as well as
            transportation to  the site.

    .4       Material selection based  on using indigenous materials  and to refrain from using
            ecologically sensitive materials.

    .5       Material selection based on reducing hazardous chemicals within the buildings due to off
            gassing of the material.

    .6       Material selection based on the products life cycle energy use.

    .7       Ecologically sensitive use  of water within the facilities.

    .8       Sensitive use of HVAC components to reduce pollution, conserve energy and maintain the
            appropriate quality for the interior environment.

    .9       Concepts that focus on recycling of materials.
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D.8      OFFICE (ADMINISTRATION)
The administrative offices shall be designed considering the following factors :

D.8.1    CIRCULATION PATTERNS OF VISITOR GROUPS
If there are visitors expected at the facility, the design shall reflect not only tour groups, but all other
visitors and their potential circulation patterns from the administration area to their destination
point. Staging areas for tours should be anticipated.

D.8.2    CIRCULATION PATTERNS OF RESEARCH STAFF
Often, the placement of administration and administration support between research groups will foster
intergroup interaction. Consider researchers interaction as a prime determinant for location of
administration and administration support.

D.8.3    EFFICIENT ACCESS TO ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT AREAS
The  use  and control over administration support functions necessitates their close proximity to
administrative offices, especially the resource center and meeting rooms.

D.8.4    SUPPORT SPACE FOR ADMINISTRATION OFFICES
The support space shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

   .1       Security Control / Reception
   •2       Conference Room
   .3       Teleconference Room
   .4       Storage
   .5       Copier
   .6       Coffee Area/Vending
   .7       Computer Access/Printer Output
   .8       Visitor Information Center

D.8.4.1 SECURITY CONTROL / RECEPTION
Security control shall be at the main entrance to the facility. The security control area shall have good
visual control over the building entrance and lobby area.  Administrative areas shall be in close
proximity to the security control to provide reception function activities to support the security control
staff.

D.8.4.2   CONFERENCE ROOM
Conference room areas must be sized in proportion to the number of staff and conference activities
anticipated.  In most building program:!, conference room areas have been under programmed. The
proper and adequate design of conference space for administrative areas and research areas reduces
travel time and promotes interaction.  "Satellite conference rooms" can also double as "satellite resource
centers" for periodicals related to special laboratory groups.

    .1       Conference areas that are centrally located for general administrative meetings are often
            designed to be subdivided with the use of folding sound resistant doors. A vending area
            and related seating area may be coordinated adjacent to the main conference area to
            provide a broader use of the conference area.  When conference areas and food related
            areas are adjacent to one another, walls and doors need to provide adequate sound control.
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D.8.4.3   TELECONFERENCE ROOM
The teleconference room shall be designed to the specific teleconferencing needs of the facility.
Additional Issues to Resolve include:

   .1       Number of participants anticipated
   .2       Special lighting requirements
   .3       Special acoustic requirements
   .4       Acoustic isolation from adjacent spaces
   .5       Storage requirements
   .6       Control room requirements
   .6.1         Define if a common control room for two conference rooms is required
   .6.2         Define control room requirements
   .6.3         Identify equipment requirements
   .6.4         Is a control room even required

D.8.4.4   STORAGE
Storage areas adjacent to administrative offices are required to hold paper stock and miscellaneous
equipment storage. Storage areas are often under programmed in facilities.  Special attention shall be
exercised regarding storage needs related to administrative conference space to hold extra supplies,
(i.e., tables, chairs, overhead  projectors, slide projectors, and easels).

D.8.4.5   COPIER
Copier area shall be provided in close proximity to administrative areas.  It  shall be located to
promote researchers/staff interaction.  Area shall be exhausted to the outside to provide adequate air
quality. Adequate space adjacent to the copier is needed for proper storage, recycle paper bins, and
collating or layout areas for sorting copies.

D.8.4.6   COFFEE / VENDING
A coffee/vending area shall be strategically located within short travel distance from the area
serviced.  The coffee/vending  area should be located to promote communication  and researcher
interaction. Adequate area shall be provided for storage of various kinds of recycled products. Often
coffee/vending areas are co-located with concession purchased items. Special attention is required to
design concession areas to be designed for both functional use and good aesthetic design.

D.8.4.7   COMPUTER ACCESS/PRINTER OUTPUT
Computer areas  including computer staff offices, paper storage and computer tape storage are often
designed into a "computer suite". Often times, the "suite" will include printer output areas.

   .1       The computer area shall be located as centrally as possible to reduce travel as well as
            wiring to computer terminals. The computer printer output areas are good interaction
            areas for researchers and should be located to promote interaction.

   .2       Special care is required to design both floor loading and fire ratings for film and paper
            storage areas.  Special fire protection consideration is required for the computer areas. A
            preaction fire protection  system  shall be a part of the fire protection analysis for these
            areas.
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    .3       Computer areas will probably have access flooring which may require accessible ramps
            (ADA compliance required) to these areas. Special acoustical consideration is required in
            computer and printer output areas. If a glass wall is used to view into the computer area,
            adequate attention shall be given to fire protection of this glass wall.

D.8.4.8   VISITOR INFORMATION CENTER
If the laboratory will be open to domestic and/or foreign visitors, a Visitor Center should be considered.
A Visitor Center shall include, at a minimum, the following amenities:

    1.       Relaxation Area
    2.       Projection / Sound equipment
    3.       Large Screen T.V. with V.C.R.
    4.       Coffee Area

D.8.5    SIGNAGE
Provide coordinated  and integrated signage in compliance with ADA requirements.  The signage
solution should encompass the following:

    .1           Exterior facility signage

    .2           Directory signage (lobby)

    .3           Directional signage

    .4           Room signage (integrate with safety information)

    .5           Employment information

    .6           Employee photo information

    .7           Current event notices

    .8           New publications display

    .9           Position opening notices

D.9     LABORATORIES
The laboratory  layout results from an in-depth analysis of research type, workflow patterns, and
relationships to  support spaces and other labs.

D.9.1    MODULE
A laboratory module is usually 11 feet in width and between 24 to 33 feet in length.  Laboratories with
heavy instrumentation requirements may require the wider module dimension due to equipment wire
and service access.
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D.9.2    DISTRIBUTION OF SERVICES
An important consideration for the laboratory design is the distribution of services on a modular basis
within the laboratory. Special design attention shall be paid to location of structural members related
to penetrations for services both along the walls and benches located in the center of the laboratory.

D.9.3    FUME HOOD PLACEMENT
Fume hood placement is important and shall be located away from egress and circulation patterns. A
5'-0" minimum aisle width shall be maintained in front of fume hoods. It is good design practice not to
have "dead-end" circulation patterns that may trap an individual in case of a laboratory accident.
Two means of egress from a laboratory with any fume hood is required. Refer to Chapter 5, paragraph
13.c.(3) of the latest edition of the Facility Safety Manual for additional requirements.

D.9.4    EYEWASH AND SAFETY SHOWER
Eyewash and safety shower placement is important. A good location for both safety items is at the
hinge side of the egress laboratory door out of the path of travel. A fire extinguisher location in the
laboratory is preferable.  Refer to Chapter 7, paragraph 12 of the latest edition of the Facility Safety
Manual for additional requirements.

D.9.4.1   SAFETY SHOWER
Safety showers shall be located in a position away from the face of a hood; if a hood accident occurs,
staff will be able to use the safety shower facility.

D.9.5    ELECTRICAL PANEL/FIRE EXTINGUISHER
The electrical panel to "shut down"  the laboratory may be located  outside of the laboratory; if an
accident occurs, researchers may exit the lab and "shut it down" from the outside. It is good practice to
locate a fire extinguisher in the corridor outside the laboratory in addition to those located within the
laboratory.

D.9.6    SIGNAGE
The laboratory signage should contain the room number, room name, occupants by name, hazardous
chemicals within the laboratory, emergency telephone number and special procedures in case of
emergency. Provide coordinated and integrated signage in compliance with ADA requirements. The
signage solution should encompass the following:

   .1       Directional signage
   .2       Room signage (integrate with safety  information)
   .3       Special chemical information for each space containing hazardous chemicals
   .4       Employment information
   .5       Employee photo information
   .6       Current event notices
   .7       New publications display
   .8       Position opening notices
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D.9.7    DOORS
The laboratory doors shall swing in the direction of egress from the laboratory.  The laboratory door
consists of a 3'-0" active leaf and a l'-0" inactive leaf to facilitate movement of equipment into the
laboratory.

D.9.8    HVAC DIFFUSERS
HVAC diffusers shall be located so they do not "short circuit" the air flow to a hood.

D.9.9    WALLS
Laboratory walls shall be considered for extra structural reinforcing due to the potential loads they
may support due to shelving or cabinets. This consideration shall include future modifications to the
room layout and additional shelving or cabinet requirements.

D.9.10   LABORATORY SUPPORT
Laboratory support space shall suit the needs  of the specific laboratory.  In some cases, a service
corridor is used for laboratory support:.  In some cases, special support spaces are needed between
laboratories.

D.9.11   LABORATORY TECHNICIAN
It is desirable to provide work space for technicians outside of the laboratories in order to reduce their
exposure to the laboratory chemicals. There is also a need to provide some work space in the laboratory
for laboratory related work.  Ideally, both requirements can be met to provide the greatest productivity
to technicians within the most healthful environment possible.

D.10     LIBRARY
The library shall be located with good access to  storage, services elevator and conference facilities.
Additional issues are as follows:

    .1       Identify type of library storage.
    .2       Identify computer terminals required.
    .3       Identify study carrels required.
    .4       Identify work space required.
    .5       Floor loading/structural requirements.

D.11     OUTSIDE RESEARCH FACILITIES
Any outside related research space shall be constructed and designed of a quality in keeping with the
research complex environment.

D.11.1   EXTERIOR SPACES
The exterior spaces on the property shall be adequately secured to eliminate the  potential for
unauthorized individuals gaining access to the property. Potentially hazardous or accident prone
exterior areas shall be secured by adequate perimeter security.
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D.12     CUSTODIAL SPACE
Custodial space shall be strategically located on each floor for efficient maintenance with adequate
storage space for cleaning equipment and supplies. Besides the custodial space located on each floor, a
central custodial office, locker rooms and storage space shall be considered during the early phases of
design.  This area shall be located in close proximity to other building services areas.

D.12.1   SHOP FACILITIES
Shop facilities shall be located with exterior access appropriate to their function.  The shop facilities
shall be remotely located from vibration, noise, or dust sensitive areas.

D.12.2   OVERHEAD HOISTS
Overhead hoist requirements shall be defined early in the programming and design phases.

D.12.3   WELDING
Welding areas shall be designed to meet all code requirements.

D.13     LOADING DOCK / STAGING
Appropriate loading dock/ staging facilities are required relative to the size, function and material
requirements of each laboratory.

D.13.1   LOADING DOCK SIZE AND REQUIREMENTS
The truck turning radius to loading facilities should be appropriate to the truck size anticipated. The
loading dock might include a leveling device for accommodating different size trucks.  A  covered
loading/unloading area is desirable.

D.13.2   HVAC INTAKE
Special  care shall be exercised not to locate mechanical  air intakes toward  the loading dock area.
Idling trucks located in loading dock areas may cause contamination of intake air.

D.13.3   VIDEO MONITORING
The loading dock area shall be considered for video monitoring for security purposes. Issues to resolve
are as follows:

   .1       Nitrogen storage requirements and location; note security fence requirements
   .2       Breakout area size
   .3       Bulk mail process defined
   .4       Access for emergency vehicle and ramps
   .5       Truck parameters (dock height, leveler requirements)
   .6       Security requirements
   .7       Concrete paving for loading dock area
   .8       Define dumpster and compaction requirements
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D.14     CHEMICAL STORAGE
The chemical storage area location shall be researched related to the quantity and type of chemicals
stored.  Chemical storage and gas cylinder storage may be located in close proximity.  Special code
consideration shall be taken to provide adequate fire protection and separation. Special consideration
shall be given to contaminated chemicals and contaminated fire protection water. The response time of
the fire department is a factor that shall be considered.  Special attention shall be paid to explosion
relief panels and their location and safety.  Refer to NFPA 30 and 45, Chapter 7 for additional
requirements.

D.14.1   ADDITIONAL ISSUES TO RESOLVE:

   .1        Type of chemicals to be stored
   .2        Quantity of chemicals to be stored
   .3        Dispensing procedures
   .4        Explosion relief panel requirements
   .5        Fire rating separation requirements
   .6        Building code requirements
   .7        Zoning requirements
   .8        Government agency requirements
   .9        State agency requirements
   .10       Agency having jurisdiction
   .11       Safety officers for facility
   .12       Local fire marshal

D.15     RECYCLING / WASTE HANDLING
Recycling design considerations are important and must be considered at  the early programming and
design phases.  Recycling receptacles must be sized and adequate space provided on each floor and in
the central loading area.  Special attention is also required in vending locations for various types of
recyclables. Waste handling in laboratories with animal research requires special consideration at the
early program and design stages. At early program and design, identify the type and size of facilities
anticipated for waste storage, waste compaction and waste removal.

D.16     GENERAL STORAGE
General storage is usually required  on every floor. General storage facilities are the most typically
forgotten or undersized spaces in EPA research facilities. In government research facilities, where it is
difficult to  resolve equipment disposition, adequate storage  space is critical.

D.16.1   ADDITIONAL ISSUES TO RESOLVE:

   .1        Good access to service elevator
   .2        Size rooms with freezers relative to freezer dimensions and layout
   .3        Check corridors for movement of equipment
   .4        Resolve signal runs to central control area as required by program
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D.17     FOOD SERVICE
Food service must be located with good access to the loading dock and service elevator. The food service
shall be as centrally located as possible with an exterior view if possible.

D.17.1   ADDITIONAL ISSUES TO RESOLVE:

    .1       Identify quantity of seating required
    .2       Identify type of food service to be provided
    .3       Identify secondary uses of food service spaces

D.18     EMERGENCY GENERATOR LOCATION

D.18.1   LOCATION PARAMETERS:

    .1       Locate with fresh air intakes
    .2       Locate with exhaust, away from fresh air intakes
    .3       Locate away from vibration, acoustic, or electrically sensitive equipment

D.18.2   ADDITIONAL ISSUES TO RESOLVE:

    .1       Identify size and shape of room, including usable space around generator
    .2       Identify fuel supply and location (note code and environmental requirements)
    .3       If located outside, determine the screening parameters of such equipment
    .4       Exhaust requirements

D.19     FLOOR LOADINGS
The design professional must secure any special requirements for floor loading from the Project Officer
with the understanding that building codes, local codes, and agencies having jurisdiction regulate these
requirements.  Analysis in the early planning stages of a project is required to establish the loadings for
specific pieces of equipment since these equipment loads may exceed the design floor loads. The timing
and sequencing that the equipment is placed into the building must be considered; this will affect the
design or construction phasing.  The travel path of the equipment into the building must also be
considered. The most stringent floor loading requirements shall govern.

D.20     PARKING
Parking and its related circulation shall be separated from the service circulation to minimize conflicts.

D.20.1   GENERAL RULES/LOCAL CODE
Parking  at EPA facilities varies with the  function  of the facility.  Some facilities  range  from
approximately 19 to 24 cars per 10,000 gross square feet of building.  These ranges tend to have parking
problems. As a general rule, parking requirements shall follow local codes. If the parking falls under
25 cars per 10,000 gross square  feet of the facility, a more detailed analysis shall be made to verify
adequate parking  is provided.  If local  codes require more  parking spaces, the more stringent
requirements shall apply.
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D.21     FIRE DEPARTMENT ACCESS
Fire access to buildings is very important. In designing buildings, and fire access to them, assure that
the fire access road is far enough away from the building (road to be at least 20* in width with the edge
of the road at least lO'-O" from building as per NFPA 1) such that the distance will not hamper fire
fighting.  Dead-end roadways for fire fighting vehicles shall not be allowed.

DJ21.1    HIGH RISE BUILDINGS
For high rise buildings, special attention to fire fighting apparatus areas is required. A fire control
room inside the building is required.

D.21.2    AUTHORITY HAVING JURISDICTION
In conjunction with local and EPA requirements, the local fire marshal shall be consulted to address and
resolve any of his special concerns.

D .21.3    ELEVATORS AND FIRE VICTIMS
Special attention shall be provided to the elevator/service elevator design and its function in a fire
fighting mode. Special consideration shall be given to the removal of fire victims from the building.


END OF SECTION
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                   APPENDIX E




ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

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Appendix ฃ
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                                         APPENDIX E

                                     ABBREVIATIONS
                                     AND ACRONYMS
ABS
Acrylonitrile-BuUdlene-Styrenne
                                                    BAS
           Building Automation System
AC
Alternating Current
bhp
brake hone power
ACMD     Atmospheric Characterization and
               Modeling Division
                                         BTU
           British Thermal Unit
ADP
Automated Data Processing
                                                    C-Frame     Cantilevered Frame
ADPI       Air Distribution Performance Index
                                                    CADD      Computer Aided Drafting Design
AEERL     Air and Energy Engineering Research
               Laboratory
AHU       Air Handling Unit
AQMD     Air Quality Management Division
AREA      American Railway Engineering Association
AREAL     Atmospheric Research and Exposure
               Assessment Laboratory
                                                    CCTV      Closed Circuit Television
                                                    CERLLA    Comprehensive Environmental Response
                                                    CFCs       Chloroflurocarbon Compounds
                                                    CFM
                                                    Cubic Feet Per Minute
                                                    CMD      Contracts Management Division
                                                    CMU       Concrete masonry unit
AT&T      American Telephone and Telegraph
           Company
                                         CPVC      Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride
AWG       American Wire Gage
                                         CVTS      Cabled Video Teleconference Space
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Appendix E
                                                                         Page      E-2
dB
decibels
EPAB       Engineering, Planning and Architecture
            Branch
db
dry bulb
                                                       ESD
                                                       Emission Standards Division
DC
Direct Current
DDC       Direct Digital Controls
DI
Deionized Water
DOF        Dioctyl Phthcelate
DTD        Developmental Toxicology Division
e.g.         for example
EA         Environmental Assessment
ECAO       Environmental Criteria and Assessment
            Office
EERD       Ecosystem Exposure Research Division
                                                       etc.         et cetera, and other unspecified items of
                                                                       the same class
                                                       ETD        Environmental Toxicology Division
                                                       FC
                                                       FFL
                                                       FM
                                                       Footcandles
                                                       Carpet pill test
                                                       FGCC       Federal Geodetic Control Committee
                                                       Factory Mutual
                                                       FMSD       Facilities Management and Services
                                                                   Division
                                                       FMSD-C     Facilities Management and Services
                                                                       Division - Common Facilities
EIS
Environmental Impact Statement
FMSD-O    Facilities Management and Services
                Division - Office Facilities
EM
Engineering Memorandum
FFM
feet per minute
EMS
Energy Management System
GCMS      Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer
EMT        Electrical Metallic Tubing
                                            GDHS      Geometric Design of Highways and Streets
                                        ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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                          Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                         Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities
Appendix E
                                                                        Page      E-3
GECD      Global Emission and Control Division
                                           HTW       High Temp Water
GPS        Globaling Positioning System
                                           HVAC      Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning
GTD        Genetic Toxicology Division
                                           Le.
            that is
HCFC       Hydrochloroflurocarbons
                                           IAQ        Indoor Air Quality
HD
Heavy Duty
                                           IBM
           International Business Machine
HEFRD      Human Exposure and Field Research
                Division
                                           ID
            Inside Diameter
HEP A       High Efficiency Particulate Air
                                           "K" Rated   Transformers specially constructed for use
                                                      with non-linear loads
HERL       Health Effects Research Laboratory
                                           kv
            Kilovolt
HFC        Hydroflurocarbons
                                                       leva
                                                      kilovolt - ampere
HID        High Intensity Discharge
                                           KWD        Kilowatt Demand
HMSF       Hazardous Materials Waste Storage Facility        KWH       Kilowatt Hours
hp
horsepower
Lab
Laboratory
HP
High Pressure
LAN        Local Area Network
HPLC       High Plasma Liquid Chromatograph
                                           LCC        Life Cycle Cost
HRMD      Human Resources Management Division
                                           LCCA       Life Cycle Cost Analysis
                                       ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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                          Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                         Standards and Guidelines for EPA Facilities
Appendix E
                                                                         Page      E-4
low E glass   low emissivity glass
MDF        Main Distribution Frame
MEF
Main Entrance Frame
MIL-F       Military Federal Specification
MRDD      Methods Research and Development
                Division
                                           NEMAKSL1  Safety Guidelines for the Application
                                                       Installation and Maintenance of Solid
                                                       State Control
                                                       NEPA      National Environmental Policy Act
                                                       NGVD     Navigible Ground Vertical Datum
                                                       No.
                                                       Number
                                                       NRC       Noise Reduction Coefficient
MSDS      Manufacturer's Safety Data Sheets
                                                       NTD       Neurotoxicology Division
N Value     Number of blows per lineal foot
NAAQS     National Ambient Air Quality Standards
NAD       North American Datum
NAVD      North American Vertical Datum
                                                       OAQPS     Office of Air Quality Planning and
                                                                      Standards
                                                       OAR        Office of Air and Radiation
                                                       OARM      Office of Administration and Resources
                                                                      Management
NC
Noise Criteria
OD
Office of the Director
NCF        Network Control Facility
                                           OD
            Outside Diameter
NCPD      National Contracts Payment Division
                                           ODF        Ozone Depletion Factor
NDPD      National Data Processing Division
                                           ORD        Office of Research and Development
NEBB       National Environmental Balancing Bureau
                                           OSA        Outside Air Ventilation Systems
                                        ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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                          Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                         Standards and Guidelines lor EPA Facilities
Appendix E
                                                                        Page      E-5
OSORD     Office of the Senior Offidal for Research
                and Development
                                           R (valuei)   Thermal Resistance
PB
            Polybutylene
                                                       RCRA      Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
PBX
Private Branch Exchange
                                                      RG59       Cable Model Number
PCD        Pollution Control Division
                                                       RJ11
                                                      Cable Model Number
PCI-MNL    Precast Concrete Institute Manual
                                                       RJ45
                                                      Cable Model Number
PDU
Power Distribution Unit
                                                       RSD        Research Support Division
ph
phase
RTECS      Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical
            Substances
pH         potential of Hydrogen, measure of the
            acidity or alkalinity of a solution
                                           SDR-PR     Standard Dimension Ratio - Pressure
                                                       Rated
plf
pounds per lineal foot
SOW A      Safe Drinking Water Act
FOR        Program of Requirements
                                           SFO
            Solicitation for Offers
psf
pounds per square foot
SHEMD     Safety, Health and Environmental
            Management Division
Pปปg
Pounds Per Square Inch Gage
                                                       STC
                                                       Sound Transmission Class
PURPA      Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act
                                                       STL
                                                       Sound Transmission Loss
PVC        Poly Vinyl Chloride
                                                       TC
                                                      Telecommunication Closet
QATSD     Quality Assurance and Technical Support
                Division
                                           Telco / Data   Telecommunications / Data
                                       ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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                         Engineering, Planning, Architecture and Space
                       Standards and Guidelines for EPA FaciliHes
Appendix E
                                                                     Page      E-6
TM
Technical Memorandum
•Fdb       Degrees Farenheit dry bulb
TSD       Technical Support Division
                                                    Degrees Farenheit
TV
Television
TypeK     Type of Pipe
Type L      Type of Pipe
U-factor    a coefitient of heat loss
U.S.
United States
UPS
Unintemiplible Power Supply
USA        United States of America
UTP        Unshielded Twisted Pair
VAV        Variable Air Volume
 VCP        Visual Comfort Probability
 VCR        Video Cassette Recorder
 wb
 wet bulb
            Degrees Celecius
                                      ISSUED:  APRIL 1994

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