United States
                Environmental Protection
Research  and


                Prepared for

                Office of International Activities
                U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                Prepared by

                Environmental Research
                Athens GA 30613
                September 1986

                    .POLLUTANT MODELS FOR PRC
                       Rosemarie C. Russo
               U.S.  Environmental'Protection  Agency
                Environmental Research Laboratory
                       College Station Road-
                            Athens ,  GA
              This document is for internal use only
                 401 if Street, S.».
                 Washington.  DC   20460

1.  INTRODUCTION                                                         1

1.1  Background of Agreement                                             1

1.2  Description of Joint Research Program                              .1

1.3  PRC Environmental Institutes                                        1
       Institute of Environmental Protection - Nanjing
       Xinjiang Institute of Environmental Protection - Urumchi
       Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences - Beijing

1.4  Allocation of Resources                                             2

2.  OVERVIEW OF FY85 ACTIVITIES                                          3

3.  SUMMARY OF FY86 ACTIVITIES                                           3

4.  ACTIVITIES TENTATIVELY PLANNED FOR FY87                              6


    A.  Annex 3, Item 4 of US-PRC Protocol

    B.  Information on PRC Institutes Visited in Fall 1986

        1.  Environmental Protection Bureau - Changzhou
        2.  Environmental Protection Bureau - Zheng Jiang
        3.  Institute of Environmental Sciences - Nanjing
        4.  Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences - Beijing
        5.  Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences - Beijing
        6.  Environmental Protection Bureau - Kuerle
        7.  Xinjiang Institute of Environmental Protection - Urumchi
        8.  Central Monitoring Station of Environmental Protection - Xi'An
        9.  Huangpu River Research Department - Shanghai

1.1  Background of Agreement

          The joint activities were undertaken under Annex 3,  Item 4 of  the
     US-PRC Protocol for Environmental Protection.   This  component of the  pro-
     tocol provides for a cooperative research program on the  application  of
     transport and transformation models.   Although this  report primarily
     focuses on the application of these models,  there is some discussion  of
     the environmental processes and effects  research because  of the integrated
     nature of this joint research with the PRC.

1 .2  Description of Joint Research Program

          Specific areas of cooperation in environmental  research include  field
     evaluation of selected transport,  exposure and risk  models; application
     of models for environmental decision-making  concerning organic pollution
     in semi -arid conditions;  heavy metal  pollution;  and  permissible loading  of
     conventional and toxic pollutants in  Chinese rivers.  Activities include
     seminars, workshops, joint symposia,  training programs, joint research,
     and publications exchange.

1.3  PRC Environmental Institutes

          It should be noted that the Chinese Research Academy of Environmental
     Sciences (CRAES) is not part of the formal agreement with the PRC.  How-
     ever, there are future plans to include  them at their request.

        Institute of Environmental Sciences,  Nanjing University, Nanjing,  PRC
          Director — Ding Shurong,  Associate Professor
              institute's  water pollution program focuses  on water quality  mod-
          eling,  environmental processes  research,  and environmental biology
          studies.   The staff has  studied pollution effects  in both marine  and
          freshwater environments  including modeling studies of  phenols  in  the
          Yangtze River and of solute transport in unsaturated soil.  Work  is
          underway on heavy metal  speciation and on analysis techniques  for
          metals  in soils  and sediments.   Other projects involve aquatic tox-
          icity of organics and heavy metals in industrial wastewaters.   Planned
          work of the Institute includes  hydrological modeling of waterways,
          chemical transport, bioassay methods,  and microelemental analysis.

        Xinjiang  Institute of Environmental Protection, Urumchi,  PRC
          Deputy  Director — Liu Bin,  Engineer

          Itie institute studies the  transport and transformation of industrial
          and agricultural pollution under arid and semiarid conditions. The
          effects of domestic sewage and  industrial effluent on  water used  for
          irrigation is examined with emphasis of self-cleaning  power of reser-
          voir.  Research  interests  include effects of irrigation water  on
          ground  water. Additional  water pollution modeling studies are needed.

        Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences (CRABS),  Beijing,  PRO
          President—Liu Hongliang
          Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences (CRABS),  which was
          founded in Beijing in 1980, is the technical and research  arm of

          Chinese National Environmental Protection Agency (NEPA)  with a com-
          prehensive capacity in the field of environmental sciences and also
          serves as a research center of environmental analysis and  measuring
          as well as environmental information.

          The Academy, with its total staff of 502 (of which 357 are researchers)
          is organized into 6 research institutes:  Water Environmental Research
          Institute, Atmospheric Environment Institute, Institute  of Environmen-
          tal Ecology, Environmental Management and Planning Institute,  Environ-
          mental Information Institute and National Environmental  Analysis and
          Measuring Center.

          The Academy is equipped with more than 1,400 pieces of small and large
          instruments, of which about 200 are large or sophisticated facilities
          such as Large-scale Wind Tunnel,  Photochemical Smog Chambers,  Water
          yuality Field Study Vehicles,  Gas Chromatography-Hass Spectrometry,
          Mulri-functional Computer (VAX-11/785), Fourier Infrared Spectrometer,
          Large Kytoon and Accelerator for PIXE Analysis, etc.

          The main tasks of the Academy are to study and advise on matters re-
          lating to nation-wide environmental management and environmental pro-
          tection and construction.

1.4  Allocation of Resources

          FY86 resources from B101/B32/20,  China Agreement-Water Quality,  allo-
     cated to Athens ERL were 0.0 FTE, $140K S&E, and $85K R&U; these  support
     joint research in two major areas:   water quality modeling and  transforma-
     tion processes.  The R&D funds were expended in the modeling  area to sup-
     port the maintenance of and enhancement to water quality models deemed to
     be particularly useful for addressing PRC problems and presented  in the
     1985 Nanjing Workshop; i.e., SWMM and C4JAL2E.  The S&E funds  were used to
     support EPA staff travel tc the PRC and water quality model development
     and applications activities.

          Planned FY87 resources are 0.0 FTE, $140K S&E, and $100K R&D.   Ex-
     penditures similar to those of FY86 are anticipated and include hosting
     two PRC scientists at the Athens Laboratory for work in the areas of
     water quality modeling and metals studies plus a WASP workshop  in Beijing
     for PRC researchers from three institutes.

          For succeeding fiscal years, planned resource requirements are:
     FY88—0.0 FTE, $200K S&E, $200K R&D;  and FY89—0.0 FTE,  $200K S&E,
     $200K R&D.


         Joint activities began in FY85 between the Athens  Environmental Re-
    search Laboratory and three institutes  of the People's  Republic  of  China—
    Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences,  Beijing Institute of Environ-
    mental Chemistry, and Xinjiang Institute of Environmental Protection.
    Two U.S. scientists visited the institutes in the first quarter  of  FY85
    to evaluate their scientific capabilities and to develop practicable plans
    for joint environmental studies.  Two engineers from the Athens  Laboratory
    presented workshops in the third quarter on the EXAMS and QUAL2E models
    at Nanjing for modelers from several PRC institutes,  and information in
    the form of journals, reprints,  and correspondence was  exchanged.


         Dr. Rosemarie Russo and Dr. Robert Swank visited the three  cooperating
    PRC institutes from August 17 to September 2, 1986.  They also visited the
    Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences.  The visit allowed the
    U.S. scientists to further evaluate scientific capabilities  of the  institutes
    and to lay out specific practicable plans for joint studies  in FY87.  At
    the Nanjing Institute of Environmental  Sciences,  these  plans involve estab-
    lishment of a national Water Quality Modeling Center that would  assist
    other Chinese institutes in the use of  O.UAL-II, EXAMS,  SWHM, HSPF,  and
    MEXAMS, models supported by Athens ERL's Center for Water Quality Modeling.
    At the Xinjiang Institute of Environmental Protection,  joint work involves
    assisting agencies in the application of wasteload allocation models in
    the diversion of wastewaters into reservoirs  and water  quality model vali-
    dation studies.

         A summary of FY86 activities with  each institute follows below.

        Institute of Environmental Sciences - Nanjing

          The first FY86 visit by PRC scientists  under the  joint program
          occurred October 2-31,  1985.  Before arriving at  the Athens Labora-
          tory on October 11, Mr. Xu Ouyong of the Nanjing  Institute of Envi-
          ronmental Sciences and Mr. Zhang  Guo-an of the Xinjiang Environmental
          Research Institute spent two days with  J. MacArthur Long of Athens
          at the Water Chemistry Laboratory and other departments at the
          University of Wisconsin-Madison and then attended with Mr. Thomas
          Barnwell of Athens the Water Pollution Control Federation  Meeting
          in Kansas City.  During the Athens portion of the visit, Mr.  Xu
          received instruction on state-of-the-art inductively coupled  plasma
          spectrometry for inorganic chemicals and was introduced to current
          research on distribution coefficients and their modeling application
          to meet Agency regulatory needs by Dr.  R.V. Moore and  Dr.  D.S. Brown.
          Metals chemistry research was reviewed  by Dr. L.V. Azarraga and Dr.
          G.W. Bailey.

  Mr. Xu took back to the PRC operating programs of QUAL2E that were
  calibrated for canals around Nanjing for oxygen waste load assess-
  ment and waste treatment plant planning.  He also received PC ver-
  sions of MINTEQ with expanded data base for metals assessment.

  Arrangements were made for a Chinese researcher, Mr. Qian Song,
  from the Department of Environmental Sciences at Nanjing to spend a
  year in the United States at Tufts University conducting collabora-
  tive research with Athens Laboratory and Tufts University water qual-
  ity modelers.

Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences (CRAES) - Beijing

  A delegation from CRAES visited tne Athens Laboratory June 11-12,
  1986.  During their visit, the following candidate cooperative re-
  search areas were proposed and discussed briefly.  Some of these
  apply to the joint transformation research and some to modeling.

  1.  Assistance to CRAES in Water Quality Modeling for conventional
      pollutants, toxic organics and metals and the field evaluation
      of these models (and their updates) via PRC site application.

  One site mentioned of particular interest to CRAES was the Pearl
  River through Canton down to its tidal mouth at Hong Kong.  Main
  interest is on conventional pollutants, i.e., BOD/NBOD and dissolved
  oxygen with some toxics.  CRAES would like to send engineers to
  Athens to learn appropriate models for such a study.  A more cost
  effective use of Athens CWQM staff might be to present a series of
  model training courses in the PRC.  This was a subject for further
  discussion with Mr. Liu Peizhe (Vice President of CRAES) during
  the visit to PRC in August 1986.

  2.  Assessments of Ground and Surface Water Threats from Hazardous
      Waste Sites.

  Mr. Liu would like to have his metals specialist (Mr. Jin Xiangoan)
  come to Athens ERL to work with Drs. Bailey and Moore on speciation
  kinetics and sorption and with Dr. Brown on metals speciation model-
  ing.  Mr. Jin's resume is included in the appendix containing CRAES
  information.  A possible field test of the new MEXAMS-MINTEQ code
  in PRC is a possible cooperative project.  More discussions are
  definitely needed here.

  3.  CRAES wants to establish a formal working relationship with
      Athens ERL including a routine exchange of papers, reports,
      manuals, computer tapes/diskettes, etc.

  The GRABS delegation received a CWQM package and were placed on the
  Athens CWQM mailing list.  They will get our newsletters,  announce-
  ments of new codes, codes/manual updates, announcements of workshops
  and Users' Group Meetings, etc.  Our Technical Information Coordinator
  (Robert C. Ryans) will regularly provide CRAES with a publications
  and code/ tape update list and help them obtain copies as  desired.
  Furthermore, CRAES technical staff was encouraged to establish their
  own one-on-one network with appropriate Athens ERL staff members upon
  their return to the PRC.

  CRAES wants to have its own formal agreement with us with  their
  priority being to get CRAES staff to Athens ERL for training and
  hands-on research.  More cost-effective cooperative efforts; e.g.,
  extended hands-on modeling training courses at CRAES conducted by
  CWO,M/other Athens staff and/or our extramural cooperators  need to
  be included as a major 'component of any future formal arrangement.
  From a technical point of view, CRAES offers to us a vehicle to
  field evaluate many of our new toxic organic and metals exposure
  assessment codes relative to surface water quality management and
  toxicity reduction.  The PRC engineers at CRAES seem much  more dis-
  posed to modeling assessments and field evaluations for regulation
  than does our own Office of Water.  ORD does not have a budget sup-
  porting "field testing of the integrated approach to WO, management"
  necessary to do the job? maybe work in the PRC can partially meet
  this need.

Xinjiang Institute of Environmental Protection

  The first FY86 visit by PRC scientists under the joint program
  occurred October 2-31, 1985.  Before arriving at the Athens Labora-
  tory on October 11, Mr. Xu Ouyong of the Nanjing Institute of En-
  vironmental Sciences and Mr. Zhang Guo-an of the Xinjiang  Environ-
  mental Research Institute spent two days with J. MacArthur Long of
  Athens at the Water Chemistry Laboratory and other departments at
  the University of Wisconsin-Madison and then attended with Mr. Thomas
  Barnwell of Athens the Water Pollution Control Federation  Meeting in
  Kansas City.  During the Athens portion of the visit, Mr.  Zhang was
  introduced to applied modeling packages supported by ORU's Center
  for Water Cuality Modeling and assisted in their potential applica-
  tion to a real water quality assessment of interest to Mr. Zhang.
  Emphasis was on models installed on microcomputers so Mr.  Zhang
  could take his "models" and problem application back to China with
  him for competition/expansion.  Candidate models include QUAL2E,
  EXAMSIIa and WASPS.1.  Mr. Zhang was assisted in this effort by
  Mr. R.B. Ambrose and Mr. T.O. Barnwell.


         Dr. Rosemarie Russo and Dr.  Robert Swank visited PRC August  17  -
         September 2, 1986.  The purpose of this  visit was to review  the status
         of the joint research projects in progress  and to develop specific
         plans for FY87 with the Institute of Environmental Sciences  at  Nanjing
         University, Research Center  for Eco-Environmental Sciences at Academia
         Sinica,  and the Xinjiang Institute of Environmental Protection.  The
         itinerary also included visits with environmental groups  at  the Envi-
         ronmental Protection Bureau  and Kuerle,  the Chinese Research Academy
         of Environmental Sciences at Beijing, the Environmental Protection
         Bureau at Shanghai, the Institute of Environmental Protection Science
         at Xi'An, the Environmental  Protection Bureau at Changzhou,  and the
         Environmental Protection Bureau at Zheng Jiang.  More detailed  infor-
         mation about each place visited is included in Appendix B.


         A written agreement between  Athens ERL and  each PRC institute involved
    in modeling research will be developed in early  FY87.  The joint  research
    conducted by Athens ERL and three PRC institutes involves groundwater  and
    applied fate and transport modeling for the prevention of water pollution.
    Three distinct activities are being pursued:   (a)  collaborative  work  by
    US and PRC researchers at one another's laboratories? (b) US researchers
    conducting work at AERL in support of the joint  projects; (c)  PRC re-
    searchers conducting work at their own institutes in support of the  joint
    projects.  The actual side-by-side collaborative work (i.e., having  a  US
    scientist spend prolonged time in the PRC or  vice versa) is constrained by
    time and money considerations; prolonged working periods in each  other's
    laboratories are sometimes difficult to provide.  The projects selected for
    joint research, therefore, are those that relate well to on-going work at
    AERL and the PRC institutes, thereby keeping  progress and momentum going
    continuously on the projects even during those times when researchers  are
    not physically together.  Accordingly, the following activities are  planned/
    proposed for FY87.

    A Chinese researcher, Mr. Qian Song, from the Department of Environmental
    Sciences at Nanjing University, will spend a  year in the United States
    conducting collaborative research with Athens Laboratory and Tufts Univ-
    ersity water quality modelers. The planned work will involve  assisting
    with improvements to yUAL2E in the area of pH alkalinity-nitrogen relation-
    ships, and/or the development of  a receiving  water quality model  to  inter-
    face to the Storm Water Management Model  (SWMM).  It is proposed  that  after
    improvements are incorporated in  yUAL2E either this model or the  WASP  model
    can be extended into a network model for application in the canal network
    around Changzhou.  Mr. Qian arrived in the US September 17, 1986.

A joint US-PRC project under consideration with Nanjing University for PY87
is for Nanjing staff, possibly Mr. Zhuo Yuhui to apply WASP to a water quality
management analysis of Zhengjiang city harbor modifications.  Sampling and
analysis protocols will have to be developed; Nanjing staff will carry out
the experimental work.  Then both they and we will use the data generated
in this study to calibrate the model and run under different management

GRABS has indicated an interest in pursuing a collaborative research effort
with the Athens Laboratory.  If an agreement can be worked out, Athens ERL
will host Mr. Jin beginning in early CY87 for 6-8 months to work a portion
of this time with Dr. Brown on the MINTED model.

Athens ERL will conduct a workshop at CRAES in early summer of 1987 on WASP,
Staff from CRAES, Beijing Institute of Eco-Environmental Sciences, and
Nanjing University would be involved.

It is also proposed that Mr. Zhang from the Xinjiang Institute of Environ-
mental Protection in Xinjiang be trained in the application of QUAL2E and
WASP.  Athens ERL may also develop, in collaboration with Mr. Zhang,  a
salinity management model for Lake Boston.  The mineral content of tnis
lake has increased form 300 to 1800 mg/1 over the past 30 years and the
water level has dropped over 2 meters.  Reed production has dropped 30% in
the last 5 years due to this.  The proposed research would help predict
the future mineralization of the lake, determine what models are needed,
and determine how to reduce mineralization and hence, return the lake to a
freshwater situation.



                       ANNEX 3


                        ITEM 4


                        OF THE



                                    ANNEX 3


I.  GENERAL                              , .
                                                   ' " I
     This Annex presents selected study areas for cooperative research  on

environmental processes and effects research.  A detailed joint  proposal

for each specific project will be approved by the Working Group. Joint

proposals for each project will be prepared by the performing institution .

and/or scientists and the corresponding counterpart.   The selected  study  areas

below do not exclude other cooperative activities or  projects which might

be deemed desirable by the parties for inclusion under this Protocol.



          1.  The U.S. side will provide information  on the methods and  results

of laboratory testing programs for determining the toxicity of pollutants (especially

carcinogens) to aquatic life, methods will include static  (P) bioassay,  flow-through

bioassay, and chronic bioassay techniques "for both marine  and aquatic systems."

          2.  The Chinese side will provide information on  its aquatic toxicity

testing programs and on field studies of aquatic pollution.

          3.  The U.S. side will provide information  on the use of models,  micro-
cosms, and field ecology studies to validate the significance of laboratory results.
          4.  The U.S. side will provide information  on its approaches to the

problem of establishing water quality criteria to protect aquatic  life.

          5.  The U.S. side will provide information  on biomonitoring and

assessment techniques in which aquatic organisms are  utilized to measure the

buildup of contaminants in the environment, including its mussel watch program.

          6.  The U.S.  side will send a delegation of experts to China in
1980 or 1981 to facilitate cooperative activities on environmental  processes
and effects research.  This delegation will visit the'Beijing Institute of
Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; the Institute of Atmospheric  Physics,
Chinese Academy of Sciences; the Institute of Environmental Chemistry, Chinese
Academy of Sciences; the Institute.of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Wuhan; the Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of, Sciences, Quingdao;
the Beijing Municipal Institute for Environmental Protection Research; and
other research Institutes as appropriate.  This delegation will also make
arrangements for subsequent visits of U.S. specialists or information exchanges
with these facilities as appropriate.  The U.S. side will pay the international
travel costs and China will pay for the expenses {such as board, lodging,
transportation and emergency medical services) incurred by the U.S. experts
while they are in China, as allowed by Chinese laws and regulations.
          7.  The Chinese side will send a -delegation of experts to the U.S.
to visit the facilities of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze
Environmental Research Laboratory, Narragansett Environmental Research Laboratory,
Corvallis Environmental Research Laboratory, and other research institutions,
as appropriate.  The Chinese side will pay the. international travel costs and
the U.S. will pay for expenses  (such as travel, lodging, board, and emergency
medical expenses) incurred by the Chinese experts while  they are in the United
States, as allowed by U.S. laws and  regulations.
          8.  In addition to information exchange,  the exchange of delegations  is
aimed at exploring the opportunities for joint or parallel studies, e.g.,  the
toxicology of common pollutants in fish, which are  designed  to extend  and  supplement
the information base.  These may include parallel studies  of the same  pollutants,
using different aquatic species to extend  the  range of information of  toxic effects;
joint studies of different classes of  chemicals using the  same or  similar  aquatic
species; and joint biomonitoring studies.

                                      -3-               .             ....
          1.  The U.S. side will  provide information, on its. studies of ground
water pollution, including development of  ground water transport models.
          2.  The Chinese side will  provide  information on studies of the contami- .
nation of soil, ground water,  and food crops  stemming from the  use of municipal
sewage for farmland irrigation.
          3.  The U.S. side will  provide information on studies of contamination
of soil by bacteria, metals, viruses and other pollutants stemming from  use  of
soil systems for municipal waste disposal.
          4.  The U.S. side will  provide techniques  for the  separation,  identi-
fication, and determination of trace quantities of organic  pollutants.
          5.  The U.S. delegation pf experts to China will  visit ground  water research
facilities in Beijing, and will make arrangements  for  subsequent working exchanges
of experts or information exchanges as appropriate.   The  U.S. side will  pay  the
international travel costs and China will  pay for the  expenses (such as  board,
lodging, transportation and emergency medical expenses)  incurred by  the  U.S. experts
while  they are  in China, as allowed by Chinese laws and regulations.
          6.   In 1981 the Chinese side will send a delegation of experts to
visit  the U.S.  Environmental  Protection Agency laboratories at Ada,  Oklahoma and
Athens,  Georgia.  The Chinese  side will pay the international  travel costs and
the  U.S. will  pay for expenses (such  as transportation, board, lodging, and
emergency medical expenses) incurred  by the Chinese experts while they  are in
the  United  States,  as allowed by U.S.  laws and regulations.
          1.   The U.S.  side will provide  information on measures for the detection
of short-,'medium-  and  long-range air transport and local detection of  horizontal
flow fields  for particulates, sulfur  dioxide,  oxidants, and  aerosols, and on  the
establishment and  use of models  in  developing  control strategies.
          2.   The  Chinese side will provide  information on its studies  of atmospheric
                                                *            -  .
 transport and transformation.

          3.  The U.S.  side  will  provide  information qri  the techniques for characteri-
zation and modeling of the atmospheric  transformation  of contaminants  (participates,
sulfur dioxide, polynuclear  aromatic  hydrocarbons,  and oxtdan-ts, particularly
chemical oxidants).
          4.  In 1980 or 1981,  the U.S. delegation  of  experts  to China will visit the
Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing and other
appropriate research facilities and will  make  arrangements  for subsequent working
exchanges or information exchanges as appropriate.  The  U.S.  side  will pay the
international travel costs and  China  will pay  for the  expenses {such  as  board,  lodging,
transportation and emergency medical  services) incurred  by  the U.S.  experts while
they are in China, as allowed by Chinese  laws  and regulations.
          5.  In 1980, a delegation of Chinese scientists will visit  the
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's  Environmental Research, Monitoring and
Support Laboratories; several Department  of Energy  National  Laboratories currently
participating in the development of sulfate transport  models  for the Environmental
Protection Agency; and the National Center  for Atmospheric  Research.   The Chinese
side will pay the international travel  costs and the U.S. will pay for expenses
(such as travel, lodging, board, and  emergency medical services) incurred by  the
Chinese experts while they are  in the United States, as  allowed by U.S.  laws  and
          1.  The U.S..side  will provide  information  on  techniques for modeling
pollutant transport and transformation in surface water, including the EXAM model,
urban storm water models, and other hydrologic and sanitary engineering models.
          2.  The Chinese side will provide information on their experiences in
modeling pollutant  transport.
          3.  The U.S. delegation of experts to China  will  visit the Institute
of  Environmental Chemistry,  the Chinese Academy of Sciences and other facilities
conducting work on  pollutant transport and behavior in surface water, and will

make arrangements for subsequent working exchanges or information exchanges as
appropriate.  The U.S. side will pay the international travel costs and China
will pay for the expenses (such as board, lodging, transportation and emergency .
medical services) incurred by the U.S. experts while they are in China, as
allowed by the Chinese laws and regulations.
          4.  The Chinese side will send a delegation !of experts to visit the
U.S. Environmental Protection.Agency's Athens Environmental Research Laboratory and
several academic institutions active in water pollution transport modeling.
The Chinese side will pay the international travel costs and the U.S. will pay
for expenses (such as travel, lodging, board and emergency medical services)
incurred by the Chinese experts while they are in the United States, as allowed by
U.S. laws and regulations.
     The exchange of expert delegations as described  in Sections  II.A, B,
C» and D of Annex 3 will be of equal size and duration.
     The Project Leaders designated at this stage for the United  States are:
     A.  Aquatic Effects of Environmental Pollution
          Dr. Allan Hirsch
          Deputy Assistant Administrator for
            Environmental Processes and Effects Research
          Office of Research and Development
          U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
          Washington, D.C.  20460

     B.  Pollution of Soil and  Ground Water
          Dr. Allan Hirsch
          Deputy Assistant Administrator for
           . Environmental Processes and  Effects Research
          Office of Research and Development
          U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
          Washington, D.C.  20460

C.  Modeling of Air Pollutant Transport and Transformation

     Dr. Allan Hirsch
     Deputy Assistant Administrator for
       Environmental Processes and Effects Research"
     Office of Research and Development
     U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
     Washington, D.C.  20460
D.  Modeling of Water Pollution Transport

     Dr. Allan Hirsch           ,
     Deputy Assistant Administrator for
       Environmental Processes and Effects Research
     Office of Research and Development
     U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
     Washington, D.C. • 20460
The Project Leaders designated at this stage for China are:

A.  Aquatic Effects of Environmental Pollution

     Mr. Li Xian Fa
     Deputy Director, Environmental Protection Institute
     Municipality of Beijing
     Beijing, People's Republic of China

     Institute of Hydrobiology
     Chinese Academy of Sciences
     Wuhan, People's Republic of China

B.  Pollution of Soil and Ground Water

     Ms. Wu Peng Ming
     Deputy Director, Environmental Monitoring Station
     Beijing, People's Republic of  China

C.  Modeling of Air  Pollutant Transport and  Transformation

     Ms. Liu Jing Yi
     Deputy Director
     Institute of Environmental Chemistry
     Chinese Academy of Sciences
     Beijing, People's Republic of  China

D.  Modeling of Water Pollution Transport

     Ms. Liu Jing Yi
     Deputy Director
      Institute of Environmental Chemistry
     Chinese Academy of Sciences
     Beijing, People's Republic of  China

    I                        WASHINGTON. D.C. 20460
                                OEC  2  I  :.:
                                                                OFFICE OF
                                                         RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
SUBJECT:  US-PRC Environmental  Protection Protocol:   Chinese Delegation
          Visit                     '              ,
                                           S" /
FROM    :  Erich W. Bretthauer,  Director    }  ^'v
          Office of Environmental  Processes/end  Effects Research  (RD-682)

TO      :  William Donaldson, Acting Director
          Environmental  Research Laboratory -  Athens

          Alfred Ellison, Director
          Environmental  Sciences Research Laboratory  - Research Triangle Park

          Clinton Hall,  Director
          RSK-Environmental  Research Laboratory  - Ada

          Norbert^Jaworski,  Director
          Environmental  Research Laboratory -  Duluth

     I would like to take this  opportunity to  thank you for your  assistance
and cooperation in receiving the Chinese  delegation during their  recent
visit to your laboratory. You  and your staff  have done a great job  in
hosting the visitors and negotiating mutually  interesting and beneficial
cooperative research programs.

     Attached for your information is  a copy of  the signed RECORD of the
visit.  Appendix 3 of the RECORD lists the proposals  for cooperative

     Thanks again for a  job  well  done!


                of  Che Visit  of Chinese Specialists  to  the U.S.A.
                             under  the Terms of  the
                   US-PRC Environmental Protection  Protocol  .
      In  accordance with  the provisions of Annex Three of  the US-PRC
Environmental Protection Protocol, a delegation .of Chinese specialists
visited  the United States  in the period November 27-Decetnber 12, 1983, as
guests of  the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  The  Chinese delegation
was headed by Mr. Qu Geping, Director, Environmental Protection Bureau,
PRC Ministry of Urban and  Rural Construction and Environmental Protection,
and Acting Co-Chairman,  US-PRC Environmental Protection Working Group.
The participating Chinese  specialists are .listed in Appendix 1; principal
US participants are listed in Appendix 2.

      During the period indicated above, the Chinese delegation visited
several  laboratories under the management of the Office of Environmental
Processes  and Effects Research (OEPER), EPA Office of Research and Develop-
ment.  In  joint discussions, the Chinese and American scientists developed
outline  proposals for collaborative research in the topic areas indicated
in Part  II, Annex Three  (Environmental Processes and Effects Research) of
the aforementioned Protocol.  These outline proposals, subject to final
approval by both sides,  are contained in Appendix 3.

      The delegation also visited EPA regional offices in Chicago and Atlanta,
as well  as the West-Southwest Treatment Plant of the Chicago Metropolitan
Sanitation District.  In each case the Chinese specialists were briefed on
the organization and operations of the facility and its role in the imple-
mentation  of State and national environmental programs.

      In  furtherance of the objectives of Annex Three, the delegation's
itinerary  included technical presentations by several private American
firms on topics of air quality monitoring and modeling, environmental
engineering, and related areas.

      While in Washington,  the Chinese delegation met with the US Co-Chairaan
of the US-PRC Environmental Protection Working Group, Mr. Fitzhugh Green,
other US members of the Working Group, and principal representatives of EPA's
Office of  Research and Development.  The participating Chinese scientists
reported on their discussions with US counterparts in the various OEPER
laboratories and presented the outline proposals contained in Appendix 3 of
this  document.  The delegation also met with Members and staff of the Special
Subcommittee on US Trade with China of the US House of Representatives
Committee  on Energy and Commerce, and were received by EPA Administrator
William  D. Ruckelshaus,

   "  As Acting Co-Chairman of  the joint Working Group, Mr. Qu Geping joined
wich Mr.  Fitzhugh Green and other EPA  representatives in discussions of
other aspects of US-Chinese cooperation in environmental" protection:
implementation of joint research under Annex Or.2 concerning the health
effects of coal combustion products; the possibility of future activity
under Annex Two (Environmental Pollution Control Technology); the Chinese
side's reaction to the US side's earlier proposal for cooperation in the
area of environmental impact assessment; and other facets of environmental
planning  and management on a national scale.

     The  two sides agree that  the current .Chinese delegation visit represents
a significant step in implementation of the US-PRC Environaental Protection
Protocol  and should, accordingly, be brought to the attention of the US-PRC
Joint Commission on Science and Technology Cooperation at Its next regular
     The  US side wishes to express its deep regret at the passing of Mr. Li
Chaobo, the late PRC Co-Chairman of the joint Environmental Protection
Working Group, and to convey its condolences to his family and co-workers.

     The  Chinese delegation wish to express their appreciation for the
hospitality extended by their American colleagues and their satisfaction
with the  program of this visit.

     This document is signed on December 9, 1983, in the city of Washington,
DC, in English and^Chinese versions of equal authenticity.
(for the US side)
(for the Chinese side)

Appendix 1  -  Chinese  Delegation Members
Mr. Qu  Geping
Mr. Wu  Zijin
Mr. Zhang  Chonghua
Mr. Xia Kunbao
Mr. Ye Changming
Mr. Zhang Xifu
Mr. Wang Deming
Mr. Wang Shaotang
(Ex officio:)
Mr. Wu Yikang
Mme. Feng Feifei
Director, Environmental Protection Bureau, PRC Ministry of
Urban and Rural Construction and Environmental Protection,

Deputy Division Chief and Senior Engineer, Foreign Affairs
Bureau, PRC Ministry of Urban and Rural Construction and
Environmental Protection, Beijing

Associate Chief Engineer, Environmental Protection Bureau,
PRC Ministry of Urban and Rural Construction and Environmental
Protection, Beijing

International Activities Coordinator, Institute of Environmental
Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

Research Chemist, Institute of Environmental Chemistry, -
Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

Associate Research Fellow, Institute of Atmospheric Physics,
Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

Associate Research Fellow, Institute of Hydrobiology,
Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan

Engineer, Beijing Municipal Research Institute of Environmental
Protection, Beijing
Counsellor for Science and Technology, Embassy of the
People's Republic of China, Washington, DC

Second Secretary (Science and Technology), Embassy
of the People's Republic of China, Washington, DC

 Appendix 2"-  Principal  IKS.  Participants
 EPA,  Region V,  Chicago,  Illinois:

 Mr. Vaidas  Adamkus

 Mr. Clifford Risley

 Mr. Basil Constantelos

 Mr. David Kee,  Director

 Mr. Dale Bryson
Regional Administrator

Chief, Surveillance and Research Staff,
Great Lakes National Program Office

Director^ Waste Management Division

Air Management Division

Deputy Director, Water Division
Chicago Metropolitan  Sanitary District, West-Southwest Sewage Treatment Plant:
Mr. Earl Knight

Dr. Cecil Lue-hing

Mr. Donald Harper

Dr. David Lordi

Dr. David Zenz

Mr. Richard Heil
Plant Manager and Assistant Chief Engineer
Maintenance and Operations Department

Director, Department of Research and Development

Coordinator of Quality Control, Research and
Development Laboratory

Coordinator of Technical Services

Coordinator of Research

Chief of Plant Operations
EPA, Environmental Research Laboratory, Duluth, Minnesota:

Dr. Norbert Jaworski             Director

Dr. Rosemarie Russo              Associate Director for Research

Dr. Nelson Thomas                Chief, Water Quality Branch

Dr. Gillraan Veith                Chief, Toxics Research Branch

Mr. Richard Siefert              Chief, Pesticides Research Branch

EPA, Region IV, Atlanta, Georgia:

.Mr. Chgrles R. Jeter             Regiona-1 Administrator
Mr. Howard 0. Zeller

Mr. Paul J. Traina

Mr. George L. Harlow
Assistant Regional Administrator for Policy
and Management

Director, Water Management Division

Deputy Director, Air & Waste Management Division
EPA, Environmental Research Laboratory, Athens, Georgia:
Mr. William T. Donaldson

Dr. Walter M. Sanders, III

Dr. George W. Bailey

Mr. George L. Baughman

Dr. Robert R. Swank, Jr.

Dr. Harvey W. Holm^

Dr. Arthur W. Garrison
Acting Director

Associate Director for Water Qualitty Research

Associate Director for Soil Systems Research-

Chief, Environmental Processes Branch

Chief, Technology Development & Applications Branch

Chief, Environmental Systems Branch

Acting Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch
EPA, Environmental Sciences Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, North Carolim

Dr. Alfred H. Ellison            Director

Dr. William E. Wilson            Scientific Director, Regional Field Studies Office

Dr. Jack H. Shreffler            Chief, Model Development Branch

Dr. Kenneth T. Knapp             Chief, Stationary Source Emissions Research Branch

Mr. John W. Spence               Senior Research Chemist

EPA, Environmental Research Laboratory, Ada, Oklahoma:

Mr. Clinton W. Hall              Director

Mr. Marvin L. Wood               Deputy Director

Mr. Jack W. Keeley               Chief, Groundwater Branch

Mr. H. George Keeler             Chief, Wastewater Branch

EPA, Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park,  NC

Mr. Frank Princiotta             Director

EPA, Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Research Triangle Park,  NC

Dr. Thomas R. Mauser             Director

EPA, Health Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC

Mr. Robert E. Lee                Deputy Director
EPA Headquarters, Washington, DC

The Honorable William D. Ruckelshaus
Mr. Fitzhugh Green

Dr. Bernard Goldstein

Mr. Milton Russell

Mr. Jospeh A. Cannon

Mr. Donald J. Ehreth

Dr. Roger S. Cortesi

Mr. Erich Bretthauer

Dr. Allan Hirsch

Dr. Chieh Wu

Dr. Gary R. Waxmonsky
Associate Administrator

Assistant Administrator for Research and

Assistant Administrator for Policy, Planning
and Evaluation

Assistant Administrator for Air, Noise and

Deputy Assistant Administrator for Research
and Development

Director, Office of Health Research

Director, Office of Environmental Processes
and Effects Research

Director, Office of Federal Activities

Office of Environmental Processes and Effects
Research (escort/interpreter)

Office of International Activities
(US Coordinator, US-PRC Environmental
Protection Protocol)

Appendix 2 -  Ouriine Proposals for Cooperative Research under Annex Three,
              Environcental Processes and Effects Research
     The following outline proposals are intended as working documents
expressing the interests of the two sides in carrying out cooperative
research on the basis of equality, reciprocity, and mutual benefit.

     The rwo sides undertake to initiate joint research as soon as possible,
and to pursue it as vigorously as possible, subject to the final approval
of the US-PRC Environmental Protection Working Group.  In general, collabo-
rative research will begin on a quantitatively modest scale and proceed to
more complex forns as the cooperative relationship natures.

     The funding provisions of part II, Annex Three, will apply for all
exchange visits indicated in the following outline proposals, unless otherwise
agreed by both sides.

     In the interests of effective cooperative research, the two sides agree
that ability to read and converse freely in English is an important consider-
ation in selection of Chinese scientists to participate in long-term research
visits at EPA laboratories.

     All_results of joint research will be taade available co both sides and
will be published in either U.S. or Chinese journals under joint authorship
of the scientists involved.  All internal reviews, editing and publishing
guidelines normally required by either side will be followed.

 A.  Effects  of  Pollution on Freshwater Organisms

 General Considerations

      Joint research projects conducted collaboratively between scientists
 at the Environmental Research Laboratory at Duluth and scientists at the
 Institute of Hydrobiology at Wuhan will be planned to last for a period of
 five yars, to permit long-term research plans to be made.  Each year's
 specific research activities will be planned in the previous year, with
 each year's agreement being valid for that year.  The scope of research
 effort will be  focused on a relatively small number of projects with in-
 depth effort on the part of each institution, rath»r than attempts to carry
 out several projects simultaneously with only limited effort.

 Joint Research Topics

      Three major areas of rautal research interest have been identified:

      1)  Development of toxiclty test methods for freshwater fishes and
             other aquatic organisms.

      2)  Effects of environmental variables on toxicity of pollutants.

      3)  Toxicity of mixtures of pollutants.

 All of the above areas will have both laboratory and field components.

 Program of Activities

      Of the above areas,  collaborative research will begin with thfe primary
 focus concentrated on the development and standardization of toxicity
 methods,  for both laboratory and field applications,  and for fish and
 aquatic macroinvertebrates.   It is recognized that this  research area has
 application to the other  two areas;  therefore,  research  endeavors on test
 methods development  will  involve preliminary  experimentation on areas two
 and three "as  well.

      The  following cooperative  activities are contemplated in 1984-85 in
 the sequence  indicated:

.1.   One or two researchers  from ERL-Duluth will visit  the Institute of
     Hydrobiology at  Wuhan to become  familiar  with the  overall research
     program being conducted  at  that  Institute,  and to  learn firsthand-about
     the facilities,  instrumentation,  and  other  resources available at the

 2.   After the visit  of U.S.  specialists,  the  two sides will prepare a
     detailed  research plan  for  the following  year.

 3.   ERL-Duluth  and  the Institute  of  Hydrobiology will  exchange information
     and publications  on each institute's  research in water pollution.

4.  One or  cwo  researchers from the Institute of Hydrobiology will travel Co
    ERL-D^lutli  Co conduct collaborative research experimentation on toxicity
    tesc methods development.  The visiting scientists will concentrate on
    accute  and  chronic toxicity test methods for fish and aquatic macroinverte-
    brates.  The period of this on-site research at ERL-Duluth will be up
    to 12 months. -Both laboratory tests and their application in the field
    will be investigated.  Pollutants studied will include pesticides, metals
    (mercury, cadmium), and other inorganics (ammonia, nitrate).  As selected
    methods become refined and standardized, preliminary toxicity testing will
    be conducted to investigate both effects of environmental variables on the
    toxicity of selected pollutants and toxicity of mixtures of pollutants.

5.  At the end of the research period, a written report detailing progress
    along with recommendations for additional research shall be jointly
    prepared by the U.S. and Chinese researchers.  If appropriate, a manuscript
    shall be jointly prepared for publication in a technical journal.

6.  Simultaneously, researchers at the respective institutes will be carrying
    out additional research on the general topic of toxicity test methods
    development, and information will be exchanged on progress via corres-

B.  Pollution  of  S'oil  and Groundwater

General Considerations

     This project envisions cooperative research between the R. ,S. Kerr
Environmental  Research Laboratory at Ada, Oklahoma, and the Beijing Municipal
Research Institute of Environmental Protection.

Joint Research Topics

     The following area of mutual research interest has been identified:
the transformation mechanisms and control of groundwater contamination
generated by land treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater.  Ex-
change of information on related topics is also envisioned (e.g., contami-
nation of soil, groundwater, and crops due to use of various types of
wastewater for farmland irrigation;  analytical techniques for identifying
and studying trace amounts of organic and inorganic pollutants).

Program of Activities

     The following cooperative activities are contemplated in 1984-85 in
the sequence indicated:

     1)  One or two researchers from ERL-Ada will visit the Beijing Municipal
         Research Institute of Environmental Protection for a period of 1-2
         weeks to become familiar with the research being conducted there and
         to learn first-hand about the facilities, instrumentation, and other
         resources available at the  Institute.

     2)  Detailed research project of mutual interest will be prepared and
         finalized by correspondence.

3)  One or.two Chinese scientists will work at ERL-Ada for at least
    two months in research related to land treatment of wastewater.

4)  One or two U.S. scientists will work for one or two months at the
    Beijing Municipal Research Institute of Environmental Protection in
    research related to land treatment of wastewater and control of
    groundwater pollution.
5)  The two sides will cooperate in compiling data, analyzing research
   • results, and preparing the fir.-al report.  In this connection, addi-
    tional short-term visits to Beijing by U.S. specialists may be

C.l.  Dispersion of Pollutants  in the Atmosphere

General Considerations

     This project envisions joint research between the EPA Environmental
Sciences Research Laboratory at.Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, and
the Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the Chinese -Academy of Sciences,
Beijing.  The cooperative program will involve studies of the dispersion of
pollutants over various scales  (including local, meso-, and regional) and
over terrain of varying roughness and physical features.  Some studies to
be carried out in China will take advantage of special facilities, such as
the 330 m. meteorological tower in Beijing, which is one of three such
facilities in the world and the only one in an urban area.  Other studies
will deal with flow over various types of complex terrain.  Some joint
studies would be done in the U. S. and others in China, thus providing
a larger data base for both sides at lower cost.  These data sets would be
utilized in joint evaluation of complex terrain models.

Joint Research Topics
                             ,     •                                 •
     The following areas of mutual research interest have identified:

     1)   Dispersion of pollutants during flow over an urban area;

     2)   Dispersion of pollutants during flow over complex terrain,

     3)   Dispersion of pollutants during regional flow.

Prograa of Actix'ities   -                                                     .

     The following cooperative activities relate to each of the three topics
indicated above:

     1)  Cooperative plans and funding arrangements are well developed for
joint tracer studies to be conducted in the Beijing - Tianjin region in
October 1984.  Two or three U.S. scientists will visit the PRC in the spring
of 1984 to complete plans and to check out U.S. equipment to be used in the
studies.  Two to five U.S. scientists will participate in the October 1984
field study in China.  (Visits of U.S. scientists totalling up to one man-month
in 1984 will be supported by the Chinese side on receiving-side-pays basis in
accordance with the terms of Annex Three; the remainder of U.S. scientists' •
time in China will be funded by the American university scientists involved.)
Following exchange of data bases, a Chinese scientist will visit the U.S. for
a period of one to two months for data interpretation and analysis.  This
will be followed by^a short-term visit by two to four U.S. scientists to
participate in a•joint symposium.

     2)  During 1984 and 1985, the two sides will discuss a cooperative study
of flow over complex terrain, aiming for a joint field study in 1986.
     3)  In the period 1984-87, the two sides will discuss a cooperative
study of regional flow encompassisng one or more diurnal cycles.  A joint
field study is envisioned in 1988.

..                    -                -14-

                                       ':                      .               •'  ":
 C.2~.   Traiis'fornation of Sulfur Dioxide to Sulfate in the Ataosphere

 General  Considerations
	.	r-

      This project  envisions  joint  research between the EPA Environmental Sciences
 Research Laboartory at  Research Triangle Park,  North Carolina,  and  the Institute
 of  Environmental Chemistry of  the  Chinese Academy of'Sciences,  Beijing.   Some
 of  ths joint  research will be  carried out in China to take advantage of  special
 conditions,  such as SC-2 and  particle  concentrations higher than those typically
 found in the  U.S.

 Joint Research Topics                                                      .    :

      Three major areas  of mutual research interest have been identified:

      1)  Field studies of the conversion of S02  to sulface,  especially as
         influenced^by suspended particulate matter.

      2)  Laboratory studies to  investigate the rate of conversion of  SO?  to
         sulfate on particles.

      3)  Chamber studies to investigate the influence of particles on 502 trans-
         formation  and on the transformation of  other pollutants such as  ozone
         and nitric acid.

 Program.of Activities

      The following cooperative  activities relate to each of the three topics
 indicated above:

      1)  Cooperative plans and  funding arrangements are well developed for
         a joint study intended  to  investigate the influence of  aerosols  on
         the conversion  of S02  to sulfate.   One  or 2 U.S.  scientists  will

    visit Beijing in the spring of 1984 to complete plans and check
    out U.S. equipment used in the study.  One or 2 U.S. scientists
    will visit China to assist in the field studies to be conducted
    in July and December 1984.  (Visits of U.S. scientists totalling
    up to one man-month in -1984 will be supported by the Chinese side
    on receiving-side-pays basts in. accordance with the terms of Annex
    Three; the remainder of U.S. scientists' time in China will be
    funded by the American university scientists involved.)  Following
    exchange of data, 1 or 2 Chinese -scientists will visit the U.S.
    for data interpretation and analysis.

2)  Discussions on joint flow reactor studies to be conducted in China"
    are underway and will continue in 1984.  These include use of a
    flow reactor to study the reaction of S02 on particles and to
    determine the deposition rate of S02 to particles and the transfor-
    mation ratTe of S(>2 to sulfuric acid on particles.
3)  Discussions on joint bag chamber studies to be conducted in China
    are underway and will continue in 1984.  A teflon bag chamber,
    probably using sunlight for radiation, will be built in China with
    assistance of U.S. scientists.  This chamber will be used to study
    the influence of experimentally generated particles and particles
    existing naturally in the Chinese atmosphere on the transformation
    of SC>2 to sulfuric acid and the influence of particles on other
    atmospheric chemistry reactions such as the formation of ozone and
    nitric acid.

                             •>••"_.                                   "

 D.  Modeling of Water Pollution Fate and Transport:,

 General Considerations

      This project envisions cooperative research between the Environmental
 Research Laboratory at Athens,  Georgia, on the U.S.  side, and the following
 Chinese research organizations:  The Institute of Environmental Chemistry,
 Chinese Academy of Sciences;  the Institute of Environmental Sciences,
 Nanjing University;  and  the Institute of  Environmental Sciences of  Xinkiang.
 Detailed 'proposals,  work plans,  and  budgets will be  defined after joint
 evaluation  of  the  capability and  applicability of available research methods,
 techniques,  instrumentation,  and  computer hardware.   Considering the magnitude
 of  the  proposed  research and  resource limitations on  both sides,  the research
 topics  presented below will  be  ranked and  addressed in order  of priority as
 agreed  by the two  sides.

Joint Research Topics

     The two sides have agreed upon the following major areas of cooperation:
     1)   Inorganic chemical characterization and measurement methods;

     2)   Inorganic chemical transport and  transformation process characterizations;

     3)   Biological degradation  process  characterizations;

     4)   Oxidation/reduction process  characterizations;

     5)   Field evaluation of  selected  transport,  exposure  and  risk model
         subroutines  under serai-controlled  conditions;

     6)  .Selection, application, evaluation and modification of a range of
         mathematical models for environmental decision-making relative to
         the following problem areas:
         a)  organic pollutants in semi-arid regions
         b)  heavy metal pollution
         c)  pennissable loading of conventional and toxic pollutants in
             rivers of south China

     Also envisioned is the transfer of scientific and technical information
(via seminars, workshops, joint symposia, training programs, exchange of scien-
tific papers, users' manuals, etc.) and of the providing of scientific
equipment and accessories as required for the successful completion of the   *
Joint research efforts indicated above.  All such materials remain the property
of the provider, unless otherwise agreed by both sides.
Program of Activities
     Scientists from ERL-Athens will visit the PRC in 1984 or 1985 for a
period of 14—21 days to become familiar with the capabilities and resources
available at the participating Chinese research Institutes and-to initiate
detailed planning.  Further exchange activities, including short and long-
term visits by Chinese scientists, will be discussed at that tine.



1.  Environmental Protection Bureau - Changzhou
      Information from August 1986 Visit of US Scientists to PRC

2.  Environmental Protection Bureau - Zheng Jiang
      Information from August 1986 Visit of US Scientists to PRC

3.  Institute of Environmental Sciences - Nanjing
      Background information
      Information from October 1985 Visit of PRC Scientists to US
      Information from August 1986 Visit of US Scientists to PRC
      Resume ot Mr. Qian Song

4.  Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences - Beijing
      Background Information
      Information from August 1986 Visit ot US Scientists to PRC
      Resume of Mr. Lin Yuehuan

5.  Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences - Beijing
      Background Information
      Information from June 1986 Visit of PRC Scientists to US
      Information from August 1986 Visit of US Scientists to PRC
      Resume of Mr. Jin Xiangoan

6.  Environmental Protection Bureau - Kuerle
      Information from August 1986 Visit of US Scientists to PRC

7.  Xinjiang Institute of Environmental Protection - Urumchi
      Background Information
      Information from August 1986 visit of US Scientists to PRC

8.  Central Monitoring Station of Environmental Protection - Xi'An
      Information from August 1986 Visit of US Scientists to PRC

9.  Huangpu River Research Department - Shanghai

                           Changzhou, PRO
Ms. Zhen He-jin, Environmental Engineer and Associate Director of
Mr. Xu Chen, Environmental Engineer

                      INFORMATION PROM AUGUST 1986 VISIT
                           OF US SCIENTISTS TO PRC
Changzhou City

Changzhou has a population of 520,000 and an area of 94 km2.

  City has undergone rapid industrial development with an increase in
  factories of 1 3%/year.

City potable water supply is from groundwater, and some from Yangtse River.

Water transport system of city is a very old, very long 40 km canal.

  Canal has severe pollution problems:  COD is at least 6 and BOD at least 35
  mg/1 upon leaving city (sometimes > 100 mg/1); DO always < 2, sometimes
  zero; above city .COD = < 5, BOD = < 5, D.O. = > 4 mg/1.  Types of factories
  discharging into canal: coke, petrochemical, dyes, pharmaceutical, oil,
  chemistry, plastics.

  Water flow in canal = 18.6 m^/sec; average canal depth = 2 to 3 m; average
  width is 30-50 m;  wall collapse-siltation obvious; average velocity =
  0.2 m/sec.

  Canal splits into 3 parts in city; small barge traffic very congested.  It
  receives effluent from 3 small sewage treatment plants for the city totaling
  0.12 billion m^/year, which is 20% of the canal flow through the city.  The
  canal also receives about 300 ton/day total industrial wastes of which only
  about 70% receives any treatment inside the factories or the 3 city treatment

  The canal is monitored once/2 months, at several places for the following:
  BOD, COD, D.O., heavy metals (e.g. Cd, Cr, Kg, As, Pb, phenol, CN~, NH-j-N,
  NO2~N, Mn, NO^-N), and some pesticides (e.g. DDT).

  Std = NH3-N un-ionized 0.5.     Measured = 0.5 up, frequenntly 10-15 ppm - N.

  Most industrial process H^O taken from groundwater, some from canal.
  City wants to investigate either a central (Regional) wastewater treatment
  plant to handle both domestic and industrial wastewaters with discharge to
  the canal to augment its winter (dry season flow) or consider diversion of
  selected, untreated industrial and domestic wastes to the Yangtse directly
  to utilize its vast dilution potential.  (See descriptions under Nanjing.)

                    Zheng Jiang, Jiangsu Province, PRC
Mr. Jin Fo-Song, Director of EPB-ZhengJiang

                      INFORMATION PROM AUGUST 1986 VISIT
                           OF US SCIENTISTS TO PRC
Zhengj iang City

City has population of 330,000, is growing rapidly with heavy industrialization.
  The Yangtze River is to the north.  Old part of Grand canal is 1500 years
  old—18 km long—comes up from Changzhous City.  New part from east end to
  connection with Yangtze built in 1950's, with floodgate at each end.  Canals
  tie into Zhengjiang harbor on Yangtze (sketch available).

Dimension of canal:  summer 2.5-3 m deep, 10-15 m wide
                     winter < 1 m deep, 8 m wide
                     average velocity = 0.01-0.02 m/sec - flow reversible

Problem focuses on proposal to modify the harbor significantly to reduce
  sedimentation impacts of Yangtze on harbor itself.  Proposal involves
  building 3 dams to close off old harbor channel and dig a new 120 m wide
  channel to upstream of Yangtze.

This proposal is under Chinese EPA and Hydraulics Department aegis.  If done,
  this would convert the harbor into a waste (canal) dominated lagoon—maybe
  becoming a cesspool.  The task is to prevent this by adequate hydraulic
  modifications of the proposed harbor revisions and canal flow management.

1 m'/sec domestic waste water pumped into old canal, which is used only for
  drainage.  New channel for boat traffic.  Most industrial waste water untreated
  before put into canal—lots of it.  Also remember this canal drains Changzhou
  City, and is terribly polluted already.

Even though Zhengjiang City is 300 km from the Yangtze estuary, the Yangtze
  is tidal.  The Yangtze itself is a huge river at ZhengJiang.  As a result,
  160,000 m3/day untreated municipal waste water is discharged directly into
  Yangtze whose high (summer) flow exceeds 60,000 m3/sec and whose low (winter)
  flow exceeds 6,000 m^/sec.

The problem is the canal—harbor system which is 6 parts Yangtze freshwater:!
  part wastewater in summer with "no" pollution problems, but in the winter
  becomes all wastewater (no flow from Yangtze) with very severe pollution

                           Nanjing University
                              Nanjing, PRC
Mr. Ding Shurong, Director of the Institute
Mr. Xu Ouyong, Deputy Director and Associate Professor (visited AERL
  in 1985)
Mr. Zhuo Yuhui, Environmental Systems Engineer (Qian Song's Research
Mr. Qian Song, Engineer (Visiting Scientist)
Mr. Fong, Vice President of Nanjing University
Mr. Chen Hua, Engineer (candidate for AERL visiting.scientist)
Mr. Zhu, Computer Programmer
Mr. Ni, Interpreter from Geography Department

                              NANJING UNIVERSITY

     Nanjing University is located in the center of the ancient city of Nanjing,
with its beautiful rivers and mountains.  One of the major universities in
China, it includes faculties in both liberal arts and natural sciences.  The
university was founded in 1902 as Sanjiang Normal School.  Since then it has
been successively known as Liangjiang Normal School, Nanjing Teachers'  College,
Southeastern University, Fourth Zhongshan University and Central University.
In 1949 it was renamed Nanjing University.  With the reorganization of insti-
tutions of higher learning in 1952, the liberal arts and natural sciences
faculties of Nanjing University and Jinling University were joined to form
the present university which is chiefly a college of arts and sciences.

     Since 1949, the university has embarked on the training of young people,
and its teaching and scientific research have made continued progress.   During
the past 35 years, over 26,000 undergraduates and graduates have received their
education here, and many of them have made valuable contributions nationally.

     The university has 15 departments:  Chinese, History, Philosophy,  Econ-
omics, Law, Foreign Languages, Astronomy, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry,
Computer Science, Geology, Geography, Meteorology and Biology.  There are now
students working for B.A./B.S. degrees in 44 disciplines, for M.A./M.S. degrees
in 53 disciplines and for Ph.D.'s in 24 disciplines.  There are also 9 research
institutes and 10 research groups in the university.

     Among the 9 research institutes is the Institute of Environmental Sciences.
The major field of research is the study of the movement of major pollutants
existing in the Yangtze Valley, such as heavy metals, petroleum and its deriva-
tives.  The university has established academic relationships with more than
ten well-known universities all over the world.  The present faculty, which
numbers over 1,900, includes scientists and scholars renowned both at home and
abroad.  The university library contains over 2,700,000 volumes as well as
3,700 periodicals in Chinese and foreign languages.  The university also includes
some 10,000 historical and cultural relics.  There are over 160 laboratories
equipped with advanced scientific apparatus.

                                                                        cy Russo
                      Itinerary - Chinese Delegation
Mr. Xu Ouyong - Chairman, Department of Environmental Sciences, Nanjing University
       Mr. Zhang Guo-An - Xinjiang Environmental Research Institute
Wednesday, October 2

   3:52 PM - Long leaves Atlanta Airport (EA#926)
   5:50 PM - Arrives New York City — Kennedy International

   7:40 PM - Chinese Delegation arrives at Kennedy International,
             Pan Am Terminal (CAAC#981 )

   Taxi to New York City

   Hotel:  Milford Plaza   (1 single @ $51; 1 double @ $61)
           8th Avenue & 45th Street
Thursday, October 3

   Taxi to LaGuardia Airport

   8:25 AM - Leave New York City—LaGuardia (NW#203, Breakfast)
  10:33 AM - Arrive Madison, WI

   Rental Car - Avis, Buick Regal
                Unlimited mileage, $31/day

   Hotel:  Concourse Hotel   (1 single @ $50;  1  Double @ $58)
           1 West Dayton

Sunday, October 6

   3:35 PM - Leave Madison, WI (OZ#577, Snack)
   7:25 PM - Arrive Kansas City,  MO

   Tom Barnwell meets Chinese Delegation

   Hotel:  Hilton Plaza Inn (Double $49—10/6; $81—rest of stay)

Thursday, October 10

   1:56 PM - Leave Kansas City, MO (EA#323, Snack)
   4:45 PM - Arrive Atlanta, GA

   Travel to Athens with Tom Barnwell

   Hotel:  Quality Inn History Village

   Dr. Russo to meet Delegation at the registration lobby.
Tuesday, October 29

   5:33 PM - Chinese Delegation leaves Atlanta (EA#542, Dinner)
   7:31 PM - Arrives New York City—LaGuardia
Wednesday, October 30

   Sightseeing in New York City

Thursday, October 31

  11:00 AM - Chinese Delegation leaves USA

                                  Mac "Long/


A Division of Lockheed Corporation
Marietta, Georgia 30063
   October 22,  1985
   Dr. Rosemarie C. Rosso
   United States Environmental Protection Agency
   Environmental Research Laboratory
   Athens, GA  30613

   Dear Dr.  Russo:

   In reference to your letter of October 8, 1985 requesting a facility
   tour of our plant for Messrs. Xu and Zhang from the People's
   Republic  of China, we are delighted to schedule a public information
   tour of Lockheed on Friday, October 25,  1985 at 10:00 a.m.

   I understand Messrs. Xu and Zhang will be accompanied by
   J. MacArthur Long and Nan Long of the  Environmental Research

   We look forward to seeing them on Friday.  Please remember that
   no cameras are allowed on the  premises since Lockheed is located
   on government-owned property.
                                   Ed Garner, Customer Relations

                                                                      • OD

                       ENVIRONMENTAL HE SEARCH LABGftATum
                              ATHENS. GEORGIA 30613
                                  2 May 1986
Dr. Xu Ouyong
Department of Environmental  Science
Nanjing University
Peoples Republic of China

Dear Dr. Xu»

     Thank you for your letter of April 8.   It arrived about April  15 but  it
took me a couple of weeks to collect the material  you  requested.  I called Dr.
Grady and he told  me  that he had not completed writing the paper he presented
at the WPCF meeting but he  sent me another paper that describes earlier  work.
I am also enclosing  a Project Summary of a report describing earlier  work.
Also enclosed  1s  another paper on  landfill leachate  recycle that arrived
recently.  I believe that you had  also  requested a copy of this.

     I could not  find  a comprehensive  listing  of upcoming conferences  1n
environmental quality but am enclosing  a copy of Transactions* American Geophy-
sical Union that includes several related conferences planned  In 1986 and  1987.
I'm also enclosing a brochure on Symposium on Systems Analysis in Water Quality
Management  planned for 1987 in London.  I am a member of the technical group
that is sponsoring the conference and I hope to be able to attend it. I hope
this 1s sufficient for your  purposes.  If I come upon  a better listing* I will
send it to you.

     Finally,  I have enclosed a copy of the  report  on  the Chesapeake Bay
Restoration  and Protection Plan.  Let me know if I  can help further.   And give
my  regards to Dr.  Ding  and  the other staff at the Department of Environmental
Science 1n Nanjing.  Bob Ambrose and I have many fond memories  of our visit
                                      Thomas 0.  Barnwell, Jr.
                                      Center for Water Quality

cc: Office of International  Activities

                               October  IS,  1985
Or* David  £. Armstrong
Water Chenistry Program
University or Wisconsin  •
660 North  Park Street
Madison, Wisconsin  53706

Dear Davet

     I appreciate your arranging  for  our  Chinese visitors,  Mr*  Xu and Mr.
Zhang, the recent meetings with scientists  in  your Water Chemistry Program,
and fron the various other departments at the  University*   I'm  very grateful
for your help, especially on  such short notice.

     Mac Long, who accompanied Mr.  Xu and Mr.  Zhang  in  Madison, told sae not
only o£ the warm reception accorded our visitors, but also  of the highly
informative and enthusiastic  discussions  held  with them by  all  ot the scien-
tists on their agenda.

     Please also thank for us those scientists at the University for their
participation in this scientific  and  cultural  exchangei Marc Anderson and
Anders Andren in the Water Chemistry  program,  John Haynuson and Arthur Hasler
in the Center for Limnology,  Doug Dube in the  State  Laboratory  of\Uygiane,
Arthur Sacks in the Institute for Environmental Studies, and John harkin in
-the soil Science Department.                                        I

               ,,,                      Best  regards.
                                       Roseuarie  C.  Russo,  Ph.D.

                        WATER CHEMISTRY PROGRAM

                    University of Wisconsin-Madison
                       Current Research Projects

The Water Chemistry Program is an interdepartmental program involving
the Civil and Environmental Engineering (CEE)  Department in the College
of Engineering and four other departments (Chemistry, Geology and
Geophysics, Chemical Engineering and Soil Science). Training and
research emphasize the chemical processes controlling the
concentrations, chemical forms, and transformations of trace elements,
nutrient elements, and organic compounds in natural waters and in water
and wastewater treatment.

Current research programs deal with reactions  at the solid-solution and
air-water interfaces, fate assessment of organic chemicals in the
environment, lake eutrophication, nutrient elements, trace metals and
hazardous organic chemicals in lake systems, atmospheric chemistry and
its relation to water quality, the colloid chemistry of ceramic
membranes, photocatalysis on hydrous oxides, and heterogeneous reaction
mechanisms in aqueous systems.  These research programs are supported by
both state and federal agencies in addition to the University.

Most of the teaching and research activities in the program are carried
out by the Water Chemistry faculty of the CEE Department housed in the
Water Chemistry Laboratory (Hydraulics Lab) on the shore of Lake
Mendota.  Current research projects of the Vlater Chemistry faculty in
CEE are summarized below:


The Chemical Mechanisms and Variables Affecting the Transport of
Inorganic and Organic Microcontaminants in Subsurface Environments.
Professor Marc A. Anderson, Dr. M.I. Tejedor-Tejedor; W. Zeltner,
M. Machesky.

This project is designed to determine equilibrium binding constants for
solid-liquid interactions as a function of concentration, pH, ionic
strength, surface potential and surface site density.  It also addresses
the kinetics of these processes and attempts to describe adsorption
mechanisms.  The constants and environmental parameters will serve as
inputs to a transport model being developed as part of a large
consortion of research scientists working as a team on subsurface
transport problems.
U.S. Department of Energy

Heterogeneous Adsorption-Desorption Kinetic Expressions Governing the
Availability of Microcontaminants in Groundwater
Professor Marc A. Anderson; E. Yost, D. Hansmann

In'groundwater modeling  it is usually assumed that equilibrium
expressions may be used to describe the retardation factor in transport.
'While the movement of water in many cases may be slow with regard to

chemical reaction rates, there are lots of instances where this is not
the case.  In this proposal we examine adsorption/desorption kinetics of
several contaminants on well characterized soil components to assist our
understanding of contaminant transport.  Experiments on kinetics produce
information on reaction order, possible reaction scenarios, and should
also make it easier to discern whether adsorption or desorption is the
rate limiting reactivity process.
Office of Water Resources Research
Photocatalysis of Organics on Hydrous Oxide Surfaces.
Professors Marc A. Anderson, Arthur B. Ellis (Chemistry) and Charles G.
Hill (Chemical Engineering); Brian Bischoff, Simonetta Tunesi and Juan

Light energy in excess of the semiconductor band gap causes electrons to
be promoted to the conduction band leaving holes in the valence band of
hydrous oxide semiconductors.  These electron-hole pairs are free to
migrate to the surface of these microelectrodes where they can initiate
oxidation-reduction reactions with adsorbed solutes.  In our case we
hope to photooxidize trace organics and reduce water with end products
being  C02 and  HL respectfully.  These reactions will be followed using
"in situ" Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in order to understand
the nature of surface species and light induced transformations of these
National Science Foundation; University Industrial Research; Graduate
School; and Engineering Experiment Station.

A-Colloid Chemical Approach to the Function of Phosphate-Ordered Ceramic
Professors Marc A. Anderson, Arthur B. Ellis (Chemistry) and Charles G.
Hill (Chemical Engineering); Mary Giesleman and Vince Hackley.

Ceramic membranes prepared by sol-gel synthesis have several advantages
over conventional organic based reverse osmosis membranes.  They can be
sterilized at high temperatures.  Disinfection by CL2 can be performed
without problems.  They can be operated at tremendous pressures and they
have good pH stability.  Unfortunately, until now, they have been
difficult to produce without cracks.  Using sol-gel (colloidal).
synthesis we can prepare membranes having very small.pores ( 5nm) and
narrow pore size distribution.  Phosphate induced aggregate order
coupled with ionic strength and pH control allows us to alter particle-
particle bridging and therefore pore size distributions.  The calcined
particles produce superior ceramic membranes.  These membranes are
studied in terms of both their physical as well as chemical
characteristics using such techniques as electron spectroscopy, thermal
gravimetric analysis, Hg porisometry, BET surface area analysis,
electrophormetry and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.
University Industrial Research.

Atmospheric Concentrations and Transport of Organic Chemicals Across the
Air/Water Interface in the Upper Great Lakes.
Professors Anders W. Andren, Edwin N. Lightfoot (Chemical  Engineering)
and Theodore Green III; J. Manchester, M. Meyer.

Measurements of PCB and PAH concentrations in  air over Lake Michigan
have been made by this laboratory for the summer of 1977 and 1978.   This
data set does not permit an evaluation of time trends.  Information on
historical trends is important if one is to discern whether the ban on
open PCB systems (and generally decreasing use) has had any influence on
air concentrations.  Similarly, PAHs and toxaphene seem to be
transported through the atmosphere.  Very few  air measurements are
available for these compounds, especially around the Great Lakes.   This
study is designed to study spatial and temporal trends in atmospheric
concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants. Also transport rates of
these substances across water surface from a knowledge of hydrologic and
meteorological conditions will be evaluated.
National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Sea Grant Program.

Fate Assessment of Organic Chemicals In Aqueous Environments.
Professors Anders W. Andren and David E. Armstrong; W. Doucette,
R. Dickhut, K. Jones.

The project is designed to improve and evaluate present assessment
procedures which can be used to predict the fate of hydrophobic (mainly
chlorinated hydrocarbons) in aqueous systems.   The approach involves the
integration of physico-chemical properties of  chemicals with physical
and biological properties of the system in question.  Much of the effort
is designed to explore and further develop our ability to measure and
predict such properties as solubilities, vapor pressures, Henry's Law
constants, sorption coefficients, octanol-water partition coefficients,
volatilization rates, degradation rules, and microbial transformation
National Oceancgraphic and Atmospheric Administration Sea Grant Program.
Groundwater Studies Around a Fly Ash Basin.
Professors Anders W. Andren and Gordon Chesters (Soils); G.  Simsiman.

The burning of coal in the production of electricity produces a
tremendous amount of fly ash, which must be disposed of so as to
minimize any environmental damage.  The plant under study has an ash
basin which receives between 1000-2500 tons of fly ash per day.  The pH
of the basin water ranges from about 10-12, making it very alkaline.  A
large number of chemical reactions are being modelled.  Groundwater
monitoring stations have been installed around the site where our intent
is to follow the movement of groundwater and associated chemicals.
Wisconsin Power and Light.

Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Lake Michigan.Tributaries,  Water,  and
Professor David E. Armstrong; E. Marti, D.  Swackhamer, D.  Liebl.

The presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)  in Lake Michigan raises
concern over the sources, fate, and effects of these compounds.
Investigation of PCBs in the lake system can provide information on  the
processes controlling these compounds and other compounds with  similar
chemical properties.  This project is concerned with the efficiency  of
removal of PCBs from the lake water to the bottom sediments,  the rate of
burial in bottom sediments, and the response of levels in the lake to
changes in input from external sources.  The approach involves
characterizing the types and concentrations of PCBs in major
tributaries, lake water, and bottom sediments.  Combined with other
information, this data will be used to evaluate relationships between
input from external sources and in-lake concentrations and
distribution.  Sediment profiles of PCB concentration will be used to
obtain historical information on PCB input and accumulation in  the
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Role of Particulate Matter in Controlling Microcontaminant Behavior  in
Lake Michigan.
Professors David E. Armstrong and Anders W.  Andren; M. Shafer,
P. Polando, and P. Enroling.

The association of trace elements and organic substances with suspended
particulate matter and the settling of the particulate matter from the
lake water plays an important role in controlling the accumulation of
these potentially harmful microcontaminants in the lake  water.  However,
the efficiency of removal depends on the properties of both the
microcontaminant and the suspended particles and the processes
controlling particle production and removal.  The purpose of  this
project is to characterize the particle-specific processes and
mechanisms controlling the transport of microcontaminants in  the water
column and to the bottom sediments.  The approach involves obtaining the
suspended particulate matter samples by intensive (biweekly)  sampling
over the spring through fall period.  The particulate matter  is then
fractionated according to particle size, and the samples are
characterized by detailed chemical, biological, and physical  analyses to
provide information on particle-specific interactions and processes.
The results will be used to determine whether removal processes are
sufficiently efficient to maintain acceptable levels of  chemical
constituents in the lake water.
National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Sea Grant Program

Status Reports on Priority Pollutants in the Great Lakes.
Professor David E. Armstrong; J. Sullivan; K. Jones; P. Enroling.

The presence of microcontaminants in the Great Lakes is a major concern
of both the United States and Canada.  The U.S. Environmental  Protection
Agency, as the result of a court settlement, has established a list of
129 priority pollutants.  This list was developed to provide  a basis
for regulation of toxic chemicals in the United States.  The list of 129
chemicals includes some chemicals recognized as important in the Great
Lakes.  However, others may not be included and some on the list are
probably unimportant in the Great Lakes.  Because of the regulatory
implications of the list, however, widespread interest exists  concerning
the available information on sources and occurrence of these chemicals
in the Great Lakes region.  Consequently, this project is designed to
develop a series of status reports focused on priority pollutants in the
Great Lakes.  The approach involves collection and evaluation  of
existing data and information.  These data will be assimilated, and
status reports will be written in a semi technical form usable  by a wide
range of groups.
National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Sea Grant Program

Sources and Diagenesis of Organic matter in Lake Sediments.
Professor D.E. Armstrong; J. Hurley.

The organic components in lake sediments are determined by the sources
of organic matter to the sediments and the alterations occurring  during
sedimentation and burial.  Thus, sediment cores contain a record  of the
sources and pathways of organic matter to the sediments and the
stability of these sources (e.g., primary production) in lake
ecosystems.  These relationships are under investigation in lakes of the
northern highlands area of Wisconsin.  The pigments and their
degradation products (chlorophyll, phaeopigments, carotenoids) will be
used to evaluate phytoplankton primary production, variability in
phytoplankton type, and zooplankton grazing.  The alkanes will be used
as markers of allocthonous organic carbon.
Graduate School.
Transport and Fractionation of Hydrophobic Organic Compounds by
Suspended Particulate Matter, in Lake Michigan.
Professor D.E. Armstrong; L. Lefkowitz, P. Emmling.

Particulate matter plays a major role in controlling the transport and
fate of compounds such as PCBs in lakes, but the effects of properties
of the suspended particulate matter are not well understood.  While
laboratory experiments indicate hydrophobicity  and particle organic
matter content are major factors, evidence from more complex field
systems is limited.  Particulate matter will be collected using
centrifugation and sediment traps.  Size fractionation will be used to
separate particle types.  Relationships controlling the distribution
among phytoplankton, zooplankton, fecal pellets, and suspended sediment
will be investigated.
National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Sea Grant Program

Perspectives on Research on Chemical  Contaminants in the Great Lakes.
Associate Professor William C.  Sonzogni; K.M.  Bro.

This project analyzes the relative hazards of  selected toxic  chemical
contaminants at current levels  in the Great Lakes.   Such hazards  as
carcinogenic risk to humans and aquatic ecosystem effects are being
incorporated into a flexible decision framework to assist with priority
setting and coordination of research  on chemical  contaminants in  the
lakes.  Nearly 1000 industrially derived chemical compounds have  been
identified in the Great Lakes,  and there are not adequate data to make
appropriate regulatory decisions about many of the potentially toxic
substances.  Therefore, it is necessary to set priorities for research.
The framework uses a microcomputer software program that can  be updated
as new data on each contaminant become available.  This way,  research
can be focused on those efforts most  likely to reduce the toxic effects
of these pollutants in the Great Lakes ecosystem.
National Oceeanic and Atmospheric Administration Office of Marine
Pollution Programs.

Workshop on Methods for Analysis of Organic Compounds in the  Great
Lakes, II.
Associate Professor William C.  Sonzogni; D.T.  Dube (Wisconsin State
Laboratory of Hygiene).

Following up on a workshop held in 1980 to exchange information on
analytical techniques used to measure organic  contaminants in the Great
Lakes, a second workshop will be held in October of 1985 in Madison,
Wisconsin.  The workshop will focus on sharing recent advances, problems
and experiences related to the analysis of organics in the Great  Lakes.
A report will be prepared and disseminated which documents the results
of the workshop.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Sea Grant Program.

Assessing Risks of Contaminants Using Short-Term Mutagenicity Assays in
Combination with Chemical Analyses.
Associate Professors William C. Sonzogni and Lorraine Meisner
(Environmental Toxicology); G.  Wilson.

The mutagenicity or carcinogenicity of environmental contaminants is
being investigated through short-term assays.   Tests considered include
the Ames test, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase induction test, chromosome
breakage tests, and specific gene mutation tests.  Results from a
battery of these tests will be used with results of chemical  analyses  to
assess the potential toxicity of environmental samples (fish, water,
sediment).  A combination of short-term assays and chemical analyses
will also be used to investigate the  additive or synergistic  effects of
the variety of pollutants that are often found in environmental samples.
Center for Disease Control.


     The Water Chemistry Program includes 10 faculty members,
approximately 25 graduate students, and several  post-doctorates,
specialists and technical staff.
     The research interests and recent publications of the faculty in
the Water Chemistry Laboratory (Civ. Engr.) are  as follows:

Marc A. Anderson
Applications of physical chemistry in aquatic systems, the
thermodynamics and kinetics of heterogeneous reactions, hazardous waste             [
movement, environmental arsenic chemistry, aquatic colloid chemistry.
Recent Publications (1980 to present)

Anderson, M.A.  1981.  Kinetic and equilibrium control of interfacial
  reactions involving inorganic ionic solutes in environmental
  speciation and monitoring needs for trace metal-containing substances
  from energy-related processes. F. Brinkman and R. Fish (eds.)  NBS
  Special Publication 618.

Anderson, M.A., C. Bauer, R.R. Stanforth, N. Loux, and D. Hansmann.
  1981.  Limitation and expectations in adsorption modeling. J_n
  Adsorption of Inorganics at Solid-Liquid Interfaces.  M.A. Anderson
  and A.J. Rubin (eds.), Ann Arbor Science Publishers.

Hassett, J. and M.A. Anderson.  1982.  Effects of dissolved organic
  matter on adsorption.  Water Research 16:681-686.

Tejedor, I., M.A. Anderson, and A.^+ Herbillon.   1983.  An investigation
  of the coordination number of Ni   in nickel bearing phyllosilicates
  using U.V. reflectance spectroscopy.

Yost, Eric and Marc A. Anderson.  1984.  Absence of phenol adsorption on
   goethite.  Environ. Sci. and Techno!.  18:101-106.

Anderson, M.A., M.H. Palm-Gennen, P.N. Renard,,  C. Defosse and  P.6.
   Rouxhet.  1985.  Chemical and XPS study of the adsorption of
   iron(III) onto porous silica.  J. Colloid and Int. Sci. 102:328-336.

Stanforth, R.R. and M.A. Anderson.  1985.  The kinetics of phosphorous             ||
   adsorption onto goethite.  Water Resources Research.  (Submitted  for

Anderson, M. A., M. I. Tejedor-Tejedor, and R.R. Stanforth.  1985.
   Influence of aggregation on the uptake kinetics of phosphate by
   goethite..  Environ. Sci. Technol. 19:632-637.

Hansmann, D.D. and M.A. Anderson.  1985.   U.sing  electrophoresis in
   modeling the adsorption of sulfate selenite and phosphate onto
   goethite.  Environ. Sci. and Technol.  19:544-551.


 Anders W. Andren
 Atmospheric chemistry and its relation to water quality, chemistry of
 air-water interfaces, aquatic fate assessment of organic substances,
 compound property estimation techniques, structure-activity
 relationships of organic compounds, the impact of energy on geochemical
 cycles, geochemical cycling in watersheds, analytical chemistry of trace

 Recent Publications (1980 to present)

 Schmidt, J.A. and Andren, A.M.  1980.  The atmospheric chemistry of
  nickel.  jh^ Nickel in the Environment.  Nriagu, J. (ed.).  John
  Wiley and Sons, New York,  pp. 93-136.

 Andren, A.W., Doskey, P.V., and Strand, J.W.  1980.  Atmospheric
  deposition of particulate organic carbon and PCBs to Lake Michigan.
  In Proceedings of the 10th Conference on Environmental Toxicology,
  School of Medicine, University of California-Irvine.  Nov. 13-15,

 Stolzenburg, T.R. and Andren, A.M.  1980.  An acid digestion method for
  the determination of ten elements in ambient aerosols by flame atomic
  absorption spectrometry.  Anal. Chim. Acta 118:377-380.

 Doskey, P.V. and Andren, A.M.  1981.  Modeling the flux of atmospheric
  PCBs across the air/water interface.  Env. Sci. Technol.  15:705-711.

 Stolzenburg, T.R. and Andren, A.W.  1981.  Elemental composition of
  aerosols in a small  mixed land use watershed.  Water, Soil, and Air
  Pollution.  15:263-270.

 Doskey, P.V. and Andren, A.W.  1981.  Concentration of airborne PCBs
  over Lake Michigan.   J. of Great Lakes Res.  7:15-20.

Andren, A.W. and Strand, J.W.  1981.  Atmospheric deposition of
  particulate organic carbon and polyaromatic hydrocarbons to Lake
  Michigan.  Ijn  Atmospheric Pollutants in Natural Waters.
  S. Eisenreich (ed.).   Ann Arbor Science, Int., Chapter 23.

Strand, J.W. and Andren, A.W.  1981.  Polyaromatic hydrocarbons in
  aerosols over Lake Michigan.  Jji Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons:
  Chemistry and Biological Effects.  Bjorseth, A., and Dennis, .A.J.
  (eds.)  Batelle Press, Columbus, Ohio.  127-137.

Stolzenburg, T.S., and  Andren, A.W.  1982.  Source reconciliation of
  atmospheric aerosols.   Water, Soil, and Air Pollution.  17:75-85.

Andren, A.W.  1982.   Processes determining flux of PCBs across air/water
  interfaces.   Jji Physical Behaviour of PCBs in the Great Lakes.
  Mackay, D.;  Paterson,  S.;  Eisenreich, S.; and Simmons, M.  (eds.)  Ann
  Arbor Science.  Chap.  8, pp. 127-140.

Talbot, R.W. and Andren, A.W.   1982.   Relationships  between  common  Pb
  and  Pb-210 in aerosol and precipitation;at a  semi-remote  site  in
  northern Wisconsin.  J. of Geophysical  Research.   88:6752-6760.

Schmidt, J. and Andren, A.W.  1983.   Deposition  of airborne  metals  into
  the Great Lakes: an evaluation of  past  and present estimates.   In .
  Toxic Contaminants in the Great Lakes.   Nriagu, 0.  and  Simmons, M.
  (eds.)  J. Wiley and Sons.  Chap.  4, pp. 124-145.

Schmidt, J.A. and Andren A.W.   1983.  "Atmospheric Pollutants in the
  Great Lakes: An Evaluation of Past and  Present Estimates."  In
  "Contaminants in the Great Lakes,"  Nriagu, J.  (Ed.).  John Wiley  and
  Sons.  Chapter 4  pp. 50-61.

Stolzenburg, T. and Andren, A.W.  1983.  The Aqueous Solubility
  Determination of 4-Chlorobiphenyl.   Analytica  Chimica Acta.

Burkhard, L.P., Andren, A.W., and Armstrong, D.E.   1983.   Structure
  Activity Relationships Using Molecular  Connectivity Indices with
  Principal Component Analysis.  Chemosphere, 12: 935-943.

Talbot, R.W. and Andren, A.W.   1984.   Seasonal Variations of Pb-210 and
  Po-210 Concentrations in an Oligotrophic Lake. Geochimica et
  Cosmochimica Acta. 48:2053-2063.

Woodburn, K.B., Doucette, W.J.  Andren, A.W.  1984.   Generator Column
  Determination of Octanol/Water Partition Coefficients for Selected
  Polychlorinated Biphenyl Congeners.  Env. Sci. Technol. 18:457-459.

Burkhard, L.P., Armstrong, D.E., and Andren, A.W.   1984.   Vapor
  Pressures for Biphenyl, 4-Chlorobiphenyl, 2,2',3,3',5,5',6,6'
  Octachlorobiphenyl, and Decachlorobiphenyl.  J.  Chem. Engr. Data.

Burkhard, L.P., Andren, A.W., and Armstrong, D.E.   1985.   Estimation of
  Vapor Pressures for Polychlorinated Biphenyls:  A Comparison of Eleven
  Different Predictive Methods.  Env. Sci. Technol.  ^9:500-506.

Burkhard, L.P., Armstrong, D.E., and Andren, A.W.   1985.   Henry's Law
   Constants for the Polychlorinated Biphenyls.   Env. Sci. Technol.

Kramer, J., Andren, A.W., Johnson, A., and Smith,  R.A.  1985. Analysis
   and Comparison of Past and Present Aquatic Chemistry Data.  In
   "Monitoring and Assessing Trends in Acid Deposition".   Chapter 3.
    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C.  (August, 1985).  62p.

Andren, A.W. and Bischoff, B.   1985.  Analysis of Historic Lake
   Alkalinity and pH Data:  An Application of Chemical Adjustment
   Techniques.  International Journal of Environmental Analytical
   Chemistry.  In press.


Ragland, K.W., Andren, A.M., and Manchester, J.   1985.   Particulate and
   Vapor Phase PAH Emissions from Unvented Kerosene Heaters.   J.  Sci.
   Total Env.  In Press.

Bauer, C.F. and Andren, A.M.  1985.  Emissions of Vapor-Phase Fluorine
   and Ammonia from the Columbia Coal-Fired Power Plant. Environ.  Sci.
   Technol.  In Press.

Andren, A.W.  1985.  Contaminant Cycling and Accumulation in  the  Great
   Lakes.  Can J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.  In press.

BostrOm, K. and Andren, A.W.  1985.  A Comparison of Microcontaminant
   Behavior in Baltic and Great Lakes Ecosystems.  Can.  J.  Fish.  Aquat.
   Sci.  In press.
David E. Armstrong
Chemical limnology, chemistry of phosphorus in waters and sediments,
trace metal-particulate matter interactions in lakes, analysis and
behavior of organic microcontaminants in lake systems, nutrient cycles
in lakes.

Recent Publications (1980 to present)

Holdren, G.C. and D.E. Armstrong.  1980.  Factors affecting phosphorus
  release from intact lake sediment cores.  Environ.  Sci. Technol.

Eisenreich, S.J. and D.E. Armstrong.  1980.  Association of organic
  matter, iron, and inorganic phosphorus in lake waters.  Environ.
  Internat.  3:485-490.

Burkhard, L.P. and D.E. Armstrong.  1981. Labeled perchlorination
  reagent for determination of polychlorinated biphenyls.  Anal. Chem.

Weininger, D. and D.E. Armstrong.  1980.  Organic contaminants in the
  Great Lakes.  Proc. Internal. Symp. for Inland Water and Lake
  Restoration, EPA/OCED, EPA 440/5-81-010, pp. 364-372.

Holm, N. and D.E. Armstrong.  1981.  Role of nutrient limitation and
  competition in controlling the populations of Asterionella formosa  and
  Micrgcystis aerugenosa in semi-continuous culture.   Limnol.  Oceanogr.

Holm, N.P. and D.E. Armstrong.  1981.  Effects of Si:P Concentration
  Ratios and Nutrient Limitation on the Cellular Composition and
  Morphology of Asterionella Formosa (Bacillariophyceae).  J.  Phycol.
  17:420-424.   ~~

Armstrong, D.E. and A.W. Elzerman.  1982.  Trace metal accumulation in
  surface microlayers.  J. Great Lakes Res. 8:282-287.

Sonzogni, W.C., S.C. Chapra, D.E.  Armstrong, and T.J.  Logan.   1982.
  Bioavailability of phosphorus inputs to lakes.  J.  Environ.  Qua!.

Armstrong, D.E. and D.L. Swackhamer.   1983.   PCS accumulation  in
  Southern Lake Michigan sediments.   In Physical Behavior of PCBs> In  The
  Great Lakes, D. Mackay et al. (eds.TT pp.  229'-244.   Ann Arbor Science
  Publishers, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Weininger, D., D.E. Armstrong, and D.L. Swackhamer.   1983. Application
  of a sediment dynamics model for estimation of vertical burial rates
  of PCBs in Southern Lake Michigan,   jr^ Physical Behavior of  PCBs  In
  The Great Lakes, D. Mackay et al.  (eds.),  pp.  423-439.

Burkhard, L.P., A.M. Andren, and D.E. Armstrong.  1983.   Structure
  activity relationships using molecular connectivity indices  with
  prinicpal component analysis.  Chemosphere 12:935-943.

Colman, J. and D.E. Armstrong.  1983.  Horizontal diffusivity  in a
  small, ice-covered lake.  Limnol.  Oceanogr. 28:1020-1026.

Stauffer, R.E. and D.E. Armstrong.  1984.  Lake mixing and its
  relationship to epilimnetic phosphorus in  Shagawa  Lake, Minnesota.
  Can J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 41:57-69.

Burkhard, L.P., D.E. Armstrong, and A.M. Andren.  1984.   Vapor pressures
  for biphenyl, 4-chlorobiphenyl, 2,2',3,3',5,5',6,6'-octachlorobiphenyl
  and decachlorobiphenyl.  J. Chem.  Engr. Data 29:248-250.

Hurley, J.P., D.E. Armstrong, G.J. Kenoyer,  and C.J.  Bowser.   1985.
  Groundwater as a silica source for diatom production in a
  precipitation-dominated lake.  Science 227:1576-1578.

Burkhard, L.P., A.M. Andren, and D.E. Armstrong.  1985.   Estimation of
  vapor pressures for polychlorinated biphenyls:  A comparison of  eleven
  different predictive methods.  Env. Sci. Techno!.  19:500-507.

Burkhard, L.P., D.E. Armstrong, and A.M. Andren.  1985.   Henry's Law
   Constants for the polychlorinated biphenyls.  Env. Sci. Technol.

William C. Sonzogni
Recent research has focused on interdisciplinary, practical problems in
water resources management, with special emphasis on the North American
Great Lakes and their watersheds.  Specific interests include  applied
aquatic chemistry, analytical chemistry of surface and groundwaters,
quantification of pollutant loads, and multiobjective water quality
planning.  Much of the research has been geared to bridging the gap
between science and management.  Dr.  Sonzogni also serves as  Editor-in-
Chief of the Journal of Great Lakes Research.                  :


Recent Publications (1980 to present)

Johnson, M.G., J.C. Comeau, T.M. Heidtke, W.C.  Sonzogni  and B.W.
  Stahlbaum.  1980.  Modelling effects of remedial  programs to aid Great
  Lakes environmental management.  J. Great Lakes Res.  6:8-21.

Magnuson, J.J., H.A. Regier, W.J. Christie and  W.C. Sonzogni.   1980.   To
  rehabilitate and restore Great Lakes ecosystems.   In  J. Cairns  (ed.)
  Recovery of Damaged Ecosystems, Ann Arbor Science,^fnn Arbor,

Sonzogni, W.C., O.N. Jeffs, J.C. Konrad, J.B. Robinson,  G. Chesters,
  D.R. Coote and R.C.(Ostry.  1980.  Pollution  from land runoff.
  Environ. Sci. and Technol. 14:148-153.

Thomas, N.A., A. Robertson and W.C. Sonzogni.  1980.   Reviews  of  control
  objectives, new target loads and input controls.   IT± R. Loehr (ed.)
  Phosphorus management strategies for lakes.  Ann  Arbor Science, Ann
  Arbor, Michigan.

Donovan, M., C.A. Job and W.C. Sonzogni.  1981.  The Milwaukee pollution
  case - implications for water resources planning.  Water Res. Bull.

Sonzogni, W.C. and W.R. Swain.  1981.  Perspectives on  U.S. Great Lakes
  chemical toxic substances research.  J. Great Lakes Res.  6:265-274.

Sonzogni, W.C., S.C. Chapra, D.E. Armstrong and T.J.  Logan.  1982.
  Bioavailability of phosphorus inputs to lakes.  J.  Environ.  Qual.
  4. 11:555-563.

Sonzogni, W.C.  1982.  Great Lakes: a look to the future.  Oceans

Steinhart, C., L. Schierow and W. Sonzogni.  1982.   An  environmental
  quality index for the Great Lakes.   Water Res.  Bull.   18:1025-1031.

Sonzogni, W.C.,  P. Rogers, W. Richardson and T.J.  Monteith.   1983.
  Chloride pollution of the Great Lakes: current assessment.   J.  Water
  Poll. Control Fed.  55:513-521.

Sonzogni, W.C., Robertson, A. and A.M. Beeton.   1983. Great Lakes
     Management: Ecological Factors.   Environ.  Mgt.  7:531-542.

They have 4 of our models, 2 translated into Chinese (EXAMS & QUAL II).   These
  are being disseminated for use by other institutes in other cities. Nanjing
  will run workshops in various parts of China,  starting next year.  The
  other models are HSPF - currently being translated by Geography Department
  and SWMM - upon which work has not yet been started.

In this present (7th) 5-year plan, PRC has emphasized environmental data and
  information.  CH is in charge of this overall program.  They're using  ABRL
  models to assist this effort.  Want to coordinate Nanjing "CWQM" type
  activities into this new National EPA 5-year plan effort with CH.

Research to Date

They've worked 4 years in Changzhou.  They've used the following models  on
  data collected in .Changzhou.

  1.  EXAMS - Professor Xu
  2.  QUAL II - Professor Liu
  3.  River System (Network) Model - Professor Zhou

They have carried out 60 tests of QUAL II:  for 10 the model predicted well -
                                            30% error BOD, DO, NH3

For the other 50 results were not good:
             1.  canal is in flat plain, lots of back flows
             2.  difficult to get simultaneous data for BOD, and BOD test
                 difficult to get enough data
             3.  Sediment oxygen demand difficult to measure
             4.  Reaeration calculation - they'll have to develop their
                 own K2 relationship for the channel by measurement

They want to calculate how much pollution can be endured by the canal; i.e.,
  how much needs to be treated or diverted from the canal, in the Changzhou
  City area.

Future cooperation possibilities were discussed in light of 3 administrative
  problems:  funding stability and reference data, software and lab measure-

The Nanjing Institute has gotten some real money, but only for part of
  planned projects at Changzhou City.

For the Zhengjiang Harbor assessment, they should be able to get funds during
  the current 5-year plan.

How much pollution can the harbor endure?  They (Nanjing) must study this to
  have information regarding the ultimate water quality impacts in the harbor
  as a result of the building of dam(s) or not.  They need 2-d models for
  this due to tidal flows—both conventional pollutants and toxics.

Page 2
Athens will have Bob Ambrose send them (Zhuo) software and manual for HASP 3.2.
  [Also send McCutcheon or Ambrose to teach them how to use it and to design
  experimental study?—see later discussions at GRABS.]   One possible product
  might be a joint paper, say to ASCE, describing applicatiion of WASP (Eutro
  WASP and TOXIWASP) to the harbor evaluation.

Another area of potential cooperation discussed involved General PRC Modeling
  Workshop help — can we do it (vis a vis their info system)?

The final potential project focused on an assessment of Yangtze River pollution
  due to wastewater management at Changzhou City.  This is part of another
  5-year study just starting to focus on Industrial Waste Water vs. management
  options vis a vis the Canal:

       1.  Build several secondary treatment plants in city (or one large
           regional plant) and pretreat in factories before routing into the
           new plants,  then into canal?

       2.  Pretreat in factories,  collect industrial waste water and primary
           treat, then divert directly into Yangtze via pipeline—bypass canal?

"Pretreatment means take off heavy metals and highly toxic organics."

(EPA/ORD could maybe have an OEET or Region engineer help via treatability
  studies for either route 1  or 2.)

  Disadvantage.  Cost to build and operate large regional plant(s)  would be
  very high (World Bank?).

  Advantage.  Water Supply (drinking water) from ground water wells is not
  keeping up with population growth; the city's moving closer to Yangtze and
  they'll have to use Yangtze Y.R. for water supply in future.  Treated waste
  water would augment canal low flows, improve oxygen transfer and  levels,
  etc.  Some treated water could be industrially recycled relieving pressure
  on groundwater withdrawals.

Questions to Study

  1.  What kind of waste water is coming from the factories?
  2.  What is its toxicity?

Xu will send in 1 month list of 200 chemicals they've analyzed in canal,  RCR
  will provide toxicity data.

Zhou will compile list of industry type, process, product,  volumes.  Approxi-
  mately 6 months to 1  year.

Page 3
Nanjing will start biotesting of effluents from each factory (Deng)—possible
  help from Duluth ERL or Region IV biomonitoring experts?

Zhou will try to get us English version of QUALII Changzhou test data/
  results.  Further development of River Network Model for  Canal System will
  be undertaken at Tufts by PRC/Nanjing visiting engineer,  Chien Sung.

                             ATHENS. GEORGIA 30613
                               August 13,  1986
Qian Song
Department of Environmental Science
Nanjing University
Nanjing, China
                             i I
Dear Qian Song:

     I an pleased at the interest you have shown about working as a research
specialist under Dr. Lin Brown at Tufts University located in Medford,

     You should have already received from Dr. Waxmonsky an IAP-66 form in
support of your visit to the U.S. under Annex 3 of the US-PRC Environmental
Protection Protocol.

     Also, you should have received from Dr. Brown instructions for your
temporary position at Tufts University.  Please follow all of Dr. Brown's
instructions very carefully so as not to delay your visit anticipated to
begin September 1, 1986, at Tufts.

     Dr. Brown will be sending you information soon on the kind of research
you'll be involved in.

     I look forward to your arrival in the U.S. and hope your work at Tufts
University will be productive.
                                      Rosemarie c. Russo, Ph.D.
cc:  Gary Waxmonsky, OIA '

NAME:.               Qiam Song
ADDRESS:     .       Environmental Science  Dept.. Nanjing.
                    University    Nanjing  ,  P^R^C.
PHONE                                  "•'           '
CITIZEN:        .    PJ=UC.
DATS OF BIRTH:     How.4', 1962
HEALTH:             Excellent
           EDUCATION               	 -   -   r-. '-.^ ,.~^
July,1985.-pre3entt Nanj'ing University    '•         '  ..  ;
                    Environmental Science. Dep.1;..
                    graduate  student
                    Speciality:ftnvljronmental system•• '*  '*
                               engineering     '      -
 Sep.,1980-July,1985 tTalnghua University
                      Dept«.of envrironmenlial  engineering
                      undergraduate: student
                      Specialty environmental  engineering
             RESEARCH WORK _       ••   '
  Mas;, 1985-June ,.1985:Tainghua Uniiwersity         .     .,•
                       Environmental  engineering     •    -.'
                       Research area: Ecosystem*! of
                            stabilization pondi     ..'.     -.
   Aug. ,,1985-present.t  Hanjlng Unlveralty                .;
                  .-..  Derpti..  of  envlronmejital  science  •;:;;
                       Research  area:Mathematical mo-
                             dels  o-f  economic develop..—
                             nrent and water quality
             HEFERSNC23                        •     '....-
    Ms:,' Qlan YJi „  Professor of Environmental  Engineering
                 Tsinghua Univ«p3ity,,Beijlng,P.R.C,
  .  Mr.. ^H0e-J!fi*iHJ5 , Asaociate  ProfieEsaor of  Environ.-   "••v
                 K"-'   mental acience

Higher mathematics
Inorganic chemistry
Spacial analytic geometry
 andi linear algebra
(Teneral physics
Mathematical  analysis
Organic chemistry
Higher algebra*
Chinese history*
Analytic  chemistry  .
 General physics
 Engineering cartography
 Differential equation      / •
 Computer language and program
 Experiment of general physics
 Engineering mechanics
 Physical chemistry
 Hi'storj:  of Chinese  revolution
 Numerical!, analysis
First team


                                           Sec end! term
    " A-"
  Scientific. English
  Experiment of physics
  Environmental monitoring
  Political economy  •

First term
 Chemical engineering
 Chinese literature*
 Water pump
 Environmental science
The engineering metarial
 and construction^ of
 environmental engineering
Technological economy
Metal processing
Applications of electrotechnology
Conduit engineering** of
 Wwatar supply and sswadge draing*
Water treatment engineering      A
Environmental microbiology
Theory of probability and
 mathematical^ tat is tic 3
Waste gaa treatment engineering
Waste water treatment plant design*
Waste water treatment plant designe  fC
Engineering structure
Experiment of water treatment
Water treatment engineering
Environmental system  engineering
Grdduate paper
secend term




  Every term we had .ports class,I got -A" In .very tern,
W. also had English in the first to., three years.I also
passed in  e.very term  examination.
   The suoject^hich has  •••  at  the  end  are Selective =au-
rses gi«n *y other departments of  Tsinghua University.

                	A geranal fctudy of stabilization pond
      Stabilization pond has been used as a wastewater
   treatment process for many decades. . But how to study
   it is still a problem . In Environmental Engineering
   fields,,the Environmental Engineers use their traditi-
   onal method which is used to study the biological  tr-
   eatment processes. But stabilization' pond  is am more
   difficult process , it's different from those  tradit-
   ional processes,, it has two special characteristics;
   the first ., the free oxygen is producedfby  algae,, not
   from the mechenical aeration; second,  the  hydraulic
   retention time is very long. Stabilization pond is a
   more complex ecosystem then that  of any other  biolog-
   ical treatment process. That is why a  different meth-
   od must be used in studying it. In  this paper, the au-
   thor tries to study it by ecological way.
       A, The Stnucture of a stabilization Pond Ecosystem
        1. Biological Structure *—- Food gj*aig;=  Chain;
        In the experimental pond,  there are  many  kinds:
   of algae, bactieria and ptrotozoa. They composed a ty-
   pical semi-artificial  ecosystem,.
% ^^ p«\>i''ViJ? *•«.< £l»«^»t^«.  &„.£+>.,
  ''     In this paper, temperature,  DO, and  pH are exam-
   ined.. In facultative pond,  temperature changes a  lit-
   tle at the bottom, but changes  a  lot  on  the surface.
   For DO, also changes a little at  the bottom;  but  DO ,
   is very low  in morning and  night, and  higher then the
   satarature value  from  noon  to dusk  in  up-layer.  Some
   times, particulaly from  12:oo to  4:oo  a.m. ,  DO in. up-.
   middle-layer is  higher then that  in the  surface*
   According  to  some  papers,,  the pH in pond will change
   a lot during the  day,  but  that  is not  found in the
   experiment.  It's  believed  that  the. changes of the pH
   depends  on the  activities  of  both the  algae and bact-
   eria. The  active  of  bacteria gives off 002, that will
   make  the  pH  down,  and  the  active  algae adsorbs 002,so
   the  pH will  be  up.  The pH  value of pond water is a

reflection of the balance between bacteria and algae goad-
The pH will not change a lot if the concentration of algae
is not very high because of some limiting factors such
aas- light,water depth , etc. .
      B-  The Puntion of the Pond System
      1. Productive ability              ;
      The author tries to measure the velosity which algae
assimilate the inorganic nutriement, especially the NHf-
H. first the velosity of the productdion of oxygen is mea-
sur^ed,. then, according to W.J.Oswald's formula*sea,the
efficiency of photosynthetica is calculated;finally, acc-
ording to "The Standard Methods"(l3th ed.)f. the productive
ability is calculated. It's concluded that the remove
efficiency of inorganic nutriment is directly proportional
to hydraulic retention time of the pond.
      2.A General Study of the Law of the Degradation
        of the Organic Waste In the Algae-Bacteria
        Symbolic System*
      (1).Degradation of Waste
       According to author's experiment,  the degradation
of SOD cannot be expressed in the way of  chemical reac-
tion engineering. It's a more difficult process. The de-
gradation velosity is the function of algae density and
the concentration of GOD of the sewage. There are opti-
mum value for both.-
        (2). Matter Flow
       In aseries pond system:, every single pond has its
own characteristics. By calculation, it is found that
the organic waste (COD) are degraded mainly in the first
pond 	 facultative pond and the inorganic nutriments
are removeed mainly in the second pond  	 aerobic  pond.
A matter flow diagram is given in the paper.
        C. The Factors Which Have Impacts on the
           Function of Stabilization Pond Ecosystem.
        Light, temperature and nutriment  are examined.
        It is believed that  the nutriment (organic and
inorganic) are the most important factor, for both bac-
teria and  algae  depend  on them. It's difficult and maybe

useless for engineers to assaas the impact of all the
single nutrient element. So here, GOD is used as an index.
of all nutriment. A series of experiment are done to see
what the impact of the sewage COD concentration will have
on the growth of alg^e, for if algae can grow well,it
can give off more free oxygen and support bactrria to
degrade the organic waste (COD). The*** result shows
that the growth rate of algae will increase with the
increasing of COD concentaration when, it is below a cr-
itical valus, but the growth rate of algae will be  a
constant when COD concentration is higher than 
            (formerly Institute of Environmental Chemistry)
                           Academia Sinica
                             P.O. Box 934
                             Beijing, PRC
Dr. Jennie Ching-I Liu, former Director of the Institute
Mr. Ye Changming, Group Leader, Water Pollution Modeling
Dr. Deng Yi-Uei, Researcher with the institute
Mr. Lin Yue huan, Metals Sorption and Modeling Research (candidate for
  study at AERL)
Mr. Tang, Head of Environmental Chemistry and Ecological Chemistry
Mr. Hang, Endemic Diseases Project Head
Mr. Cheng Qing-Yin, Lake Eutrophication Study

 P.O.Box 934      Institute of  Environmental Chemistry
 Beijing,China                  Academia Sinica                 .   \

1900-1986:  Division of water pollution chemistry,  Institute of Environmental Che-
            mistry, Academia Sinica.Associate research scientist.
            Research /jroup :  Heavy metal pollution.
            Kesearch topics:  Speciation,  Distribution,  Transport and transformation
                             of mercury pollutant in river system.

        1.  Compressibility of the Shanghai clay in leaching,  (summary of ground-
            sinking in Shanghai 1968).
        2.  Investigation of the microstructure of Shanghai-clay in microscope.
            ( ibid. 1968).
            The raicrostruture of the explosive synthetic diamond by X-Ray diffac-
            tion and microscope { Explosive Work M  147, 1978).
        4.  Investigation of the dynamic properties of solid material.  (Inform.
            of Mechanics  2,  p.5, 1979)
        5.  fhe microstruture of ocean sediments (proceeding of the 3rd civil En-
            gineering Meeting china, 1980).
        6.  The development of sea soil engineering (LIXUE JINZHAN  Vol. 10, 4 ,
            p. 1,  1980).
Recent publications:
           Modeling of the transport of heavy metal pollutant in river .(Env. Sci.
           % p. ?5, 1981).
        8. A study on mathematical modelling of transport of mercury-polluted sediment
           in JIYUN River {ACTA SCIENTIAE CIKCUM3TANTIAE  Vol..5,_No.3,  p.276,1985).
        9. The distribution of the mercury speeies.in the JIYUN Itiver sediments.
           (ENvir. Chem.  VOL.  2,..LI0.6, p.TO, 19<°>3).       ~~        '_  ._..	
	     10*- The study of the change and potentiality of the concentration of mercury
            in JIYIJN River_sc4iments. ( Envir. Scii VGi.5,_4,  p.5,  19H4). 	
        11. The hydraulics transport of the mercury polluted sediments in JUKUN
            River. {Envir. Scte.  Vol.5» 5, p.?5 1984)                             .. _

P.O.Box 934    ' Institute of Environmental  Chemistry         "
Beijing, China         ;         Academia Sinica
      12.  Investigation  of raethyiation on the inorcury compounds with the humic
           matter in sediment.  (Envir. Chem. Vol. 4, No. 2, p. ,18,. 1985).
      13.  Investigation  of methylmercury pollution in the chloric-alkaline plant
           (Envir.  Chem.  Vol. 4, No. 5, p. 47, 1985).
      14.   The  relationship of the concentration -of mercury , the particle size,
           and  the  content of organic matter in sediment. (proceeding of" 1th
           meeting  on the heavy metal in environment, china. 1985).
       15.  Study on the treatment of river sediment containing Hg in JIYUN River
           (Environ. Chem. Special Issue. March, p. 19, 1985).
      16.   The  molecular weight and configuration of humic acid and fulvic acid
           in sediment by the viscosity research. (  proceeding of 2th meeting on
           ocean and limnology chemistry, china. 1985).

    The  Institute  of  Environmental Chemistry,  Academia  Sinica
was  set  up in  March, 1975.  It  is located  in Qinghua Donglu,
Xiaozhuang, Beijing.

    It mainly  engages  in  the  research of environmental analytical
chemistry,  environmental  pollution  chemistry and  environmental
pollution  control  and abatement.  There are  12 laboratories  in
the institute.  In addition,  there  is the  Information Department,
the Editorial  Department and  the Department  of  Advisory.Service
and Development of Science and Technology.

    There are over 500 people, of which more than 350 are scienti-
fic  and  technical  personnel  including  9  research  professors
and 19 associate research professors.

    Since  its  establishment,  it  has made  some achievements  in
scientific  research in  the   fields  of   control  and  abatement  of
industrial  wastes,  study  of  analytical  methods  of  inorganic
and organic pollutants,  study and  preparation  of  environmental
reference materials, study of environmental analytical and struc-
ture and toxicity  of  carcinogens  and  organic pollutants,  study
of  the   speciation  and distribution  of heavy metals  in aquatic
systems  and their mathematical  models,  characterization of  air-
borne  particulates,  environmental  impact  assessment,  study  of
acid  rain,   research  on  environmental  information,  editing  of
journals on environmental sciences, and  etc..

    The  Institute  of   Environmental Chemistry  has  been  making
efforts  in  developing   international   scientific   exchange.   It
is making more  and more contacts and exchange with  West  Germany,
United States,  Japan,  Canada, United Kingdom, Sweden, and  etc.,
increasingly developing  the  understanding  and  friendship  with

  scientists in other countries.

     wow the  people  in the  institute are  striving  to build  Lhxj>
 institute  into  a  research  institution  with  advanced levels  and
 make greater  contributions  to  the  modernization  of  China  and
 to the  development of environmental science in our country.

     The institute has following  laboratories and  departments:
 1. Laboratory of Environmental  Inorganic Analytical  Chemistry
    It works  on the development of analytical methods for  inorganic
    pollutants,   and  preparation,  analysis  and  certification  of
    environmental reference  materials.  It also studies new metho-
    dologies  and  techniques in the field of  environmental  inorganic
    analytical  chemistry.

 2.  Laboratory  of Environmental Oganic Analytical  Chemistry
    It mainly studies  the analytical methods  of organic pollutants.
    In connection with the exploitation and utilization of energy
    and  water resources,  it carries out the .study on the struture
    and  toxicity  of carcinogens and other organic  pollutants.

 3.  Laboratory of Catalysis and Biochemistry
    It mainly engages  in  the study of  new  catalytic  systems  for
   pollution  control  and the  analysis  and  evaluation of control
    techniques.   Besides, there  is  a group working on the biologi-
    cal conversion of industrial wastes.

 4. Polymer Membrane Laboratory
   It studies  new-type ultrafiltration  and  reverse  osmosis merr.b-
   ranes- and  their   corresponding  equipments  for   the  treatment
   of industrial waste water  and recovery of useful materials.
   It also  studies   the  basic  theories  "of synthetic  membranes
   and their mass transport processes.

5. Laboratory of Atmospheric Pollution Chemistry

    It  studies -the  chemistry  of   atmospheric  pollution   mainly
    caused by the combustion of coal and the physical  and chemical
    behaviour  of  some  organic  and  inorganic  pollutants  in  the
    atmosphere. The  emphasis  is on the  characterization of airborne
    particulates,  sulfur   dioxide  and  some  organic   pollutants,
    and  their chemical  reactions, etc..

 6.  Laboratory of Water Pollution Chemistry
    It mainly  studies  physical  and chemical   processes  of  heavy
    metals   and  organic  substances   in  aquatic  systems,   their
    mathematical   models  and   environmental   effects,  including
    their  speciation,   processes  of   transport  and transformation,
    equilibrium and  dynamic models,  biological  effects, poll-ution
    control  techniques  and  environmental capacity  of   pollutants.
7. Laboratory of Pesticide Pollution Chemistry
   It  studies  the  situation of  the  residues  of  pesticides and
   other  synthetic  organic  chemicals   in  various  ecosystems,
   their  rules  of  transport  and  mechanisms  of   degradation  in
   the simulation systems.  It also predicts  the  pollution trends
   and  potential  risks  of  pesticides   and  other chemicals  in
   the environment,  and makes safty evaluation of these chemicals.

8. Laboratory of Regional Environmental Chemistry
   It   comprehensively   analyses   the   regional   environmental
   pollution  situation,-  studies   the  chemical   characteristics
   of  typical  ecosystems  so  as to provide scientific  basis for
   the pollution control and environmental management.

9. Organic Synthesis Laboratory
   It  mainly  engages   in  the  study  of ' organic  synthesis  and
   enzymology  in  the  carbohydrates  field  so as  to provide new
   methods  and  techniques  to  environmental  protection,   life
   science and  food  industry.

10. Environmental Analytical instrumentation Laboratory
    It  studies  the   application  of • new .technologies  in  the
    environmental  analy-s^is'vand  monitoring.  It  also  studies  and
    develops   simple,  ^high-speed  and   sensitive  environmental
    analytical and monitoring instruments.

11. Central Analytical'Laboratory
    It  mainly does  analytical  and  sampling  work for  the  major
    projects   of   the   institute.    Zhongguancun  Environmental
    monitoring  Station  is  under  this  laboratory.  It  carries
    out   routine   monitoring  of  the   environmental  pollution
    situation in Zhongguancun  area,  the  location of many research
    institutions under the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

12. Public Analytical Laboratory
    It  possesses  GC-MS,   ICP  and  FT-IR  and  some other  equip-
    ments,  doing  analytical  work  for this  institute  and  other

13. Information Department
    It  studies  and  compiles  the  information  of  environmental
    sciences.  Assisting   the  Environmental   Science  Committee,
    Academia  Sinica,  it  is also responsible  for the  organiza-
    tion  of  the  Network  of   Evironmental  Science  Information
    in  the  Academy.  There is  a library serving  the institute.
    The  China  National  Focal   Point  of  International  Referral
    System for  Sources  of Environmental  Information   (Infoterra),
    UNEP is  in this department.

14. Editorial Department
    The Editorial Department edits the following journals:

                   Environmental Sciences in China

 1. Organizations
    1.  Chinese Academy of Sciences
       Committee of Environmental Sciences
       Research Centre for Eco-environmental Sciences and related laboratories and
    .   research groups at nearly 40 institutes  ( 700-800 scientists and technicians )
    2. Chinese Academy of Social Sciences
       Institutes of Philosophy , Industrial Economics , Law etc.
    ol National Bureau of Environmental Protection (NBEP)
       1)  Academy of Environmental Sciences :    ( 250 scientists and technicians )
          Institutes of Atmospheric Science,, Water and Soil , Ecology
          Information and Environmental Management
       2)  Provincial and municipal research institutes     e.g. Beijing , Shenyang ,'
          shanghai , Tianjin , Hunan ,  etc .  about 40 institutes^ZOOO scientific personnels .
       3) Environmental Monitoring stations  :                  .
          a. General station                      .           .  •. •  '":;
          b. Provincial , municipal and local stations (more  than 1000 stations )
    4. National Committee of Education ( formerly ,iWinistry;bf Education )
      Research Institutes or Laboratories in.environmental scubiices related departments
       at universities and colleges : e.g. Departments -of Chemistry , Biology , Geography ,
       Physics , geophysics , Oceanography , chemical engineering , Civil engineering ,
       Sewage engineering ,  Medicine , Public health , Laws etc . Totally 40-50 departments
    5. Research institutes or laboratories at different ministries and related industries
      e.g. Ministry of Health .Metallurgy ,  chemical Industry , Light Industry , Agriculture-
       Husbandry-Fishery , Hydrology , Etectropower-,communication , Nuclear Industry,
       Bureau of Oceanography and Meteology
    ( 1-5 ) totally about 200 Institutes or laboratories , 6000-7000 scientific personnels
2. Important Environmetnal Activities (events )
    1) National Environmental Protection Conferences (1975  , 1984 )
    2) Chinese Environmental Protection law ( to be revised , 1979)
    3) Formulation of National Environmental Sciences Research Plans (1980-85, 1980-90)
    4) Establishment of Chinese Association of Environmental Sciences , with different
      subcommittees on :  environmental chemistry , biology , physics , geochemistry  ,
      chemo-geography , medicine , atmospheric science , engineering ,  management,
       law- planning , monitoring and analysis , economics  , theoretical study , planning ,  ect.
    5) Establishment of State Council of Environmental Protection Committcs-e (1984 )


         Environmental Sciences related Keaearcli GJ £<*;*:'*'.•:dill
                   Chinese Academy of Sciences

Committee of Environmental Sciences
(1) Research Centre for Eco-environmental Sciences , Beijing
       Ecosystem and ecological engineering
       Environmental! chemistry
       Environmental analytical chemistry
       Pollution control technology
       Environmental information
       350 scientists and technicians , 14 laboratories
(2) Research laboratories
       1) Earth science division
          1.  Institute  of Geography ( chemical geogrciphy )
          Z.  Institute  of Geochemistry ( environmental geochemistry )
          3.  Institute of Atmospheric Physics ( atmospheric pollution meteology )
          4.  Institute of Oceanography { protection of oceans , esturines )
       2) Biological science division
          5.  Institute of Forestry and soil Science (pollution ecology )
          6.  Institute of Soil Science ( protection of soils)
          7.  Institute of Hydrobiology ( protection of aquatic biota )
          8.  Institute of Entomology ( pesticides , toxicology )
       3) Physico- mathematical sciences division
          9.  Institute of Acoustici ( environmental acoustics )
       250 scientists and technicians
(3) Research  groups
       1) Earth science division
          1. Institute of Oceanography of South Sea
          ~L. Ghangchun Institute of Geography ( protection of northeastern China )
          3.  Nanking  Institute  of  Geography ( lakes , urban environment }
       2} Biological science division
          4. Institute of Zoology ( ecology , pesticide toxicology )
          5. Institute of Botany with botanical garden ( ecology )
          6. Institute of Microbiology ( microbiological treatment of waste water )
          7.  Wuhan Institute of Virology (environmental microbiology )
          8. Institute of Plant Physiology
          9. Institute of Molecular Biology ( toxicology )
       3) Physico-mathematical science division
          10. Institute of High Energy Physics { neutron activation analysis )
       100 scientists and technicians

(4) Related research projects
       1) Eart.li science division
           1. Institute of Applied Remote Sensing
           Z. Institute of Desorts
           3.Chengdu Institute of Geography
       2) Biological science division
           4. Westnorthern Institute of Soils and water Conservation
           5. Institute of Biophysics
           6. Yunan Institute of Tropical Plants
       3) Chemical science division
           7. Institute of Organic Chemistry
           8. Institute of applied Chemistry
           9- Dalin Institute of  Chemical Physics
           10. Institute of Photochemistry
           11. Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry
           ( 7-11; chemical analysis , pollution control technology , materials  e.g.
            membrane  , resins , etc . for separation  )
       4) Physico- mathematical science division
           12. Institute of metiijjineering Therm oplijsics ( energy related }
           14. Institute of Anu-ru-i'icii
           15. Institute of f!yf-'cr.i Science
           16. Institute of  Atomic  Nucleus                      '
Totally , 700-800 scientists and technicians .   37-38 insHtutes; /.f: ,;;,

                  d ecological and environmental studies (before 1975 )
                        Establishment of

Institute of Environmental
(1975-1985 )


Ecological Centre
(1980-1985 )

[Research Centre for Eco-environmental Sciences (1986)

Ecosystem and






chemistry &

. aquatic

1 chemistry

- pollution

~ substances
k health





j energy
J related
1 studies

- of agricul-
tural waste

chemistry &



' nanlysis

J mentation

- centre




nanlysis &
editorial ,




data bank


Research fields in environmental sciences , Chinese Aca-le;.»y o*" Srie*:ce:= ;
   (1) environmental pollution survey , monitoring and assessment
      1. Guanting and Baiyangdian rcserviors
      2. Bohai and Yellow Sea , Bohai Bay (oil spill)
      3. Pearl River (heavy metals )
      4. Environmental assessment of Beijing western suburb
   (2) Regional environmental study
      l.Beijing-Tianjin-Bohai Bay Region
        water , air , soil and noise pollution , environmental quality and modelling assessment
      2. Second Song-hua  River
         Hg and organics pollution and control
      3. Xiang River , heavy metals and pesticides pollution , control and prevention
      4. Ji river , Hg and  chloro-organo-pesticides pollution , control and prevention
         Design reservior for waste  water treatment
      5. Tai lake  ,   water quality control and protection of surrounding villages
         Biological and ecological study
   (3) Pollution control technology and prevention
      1. Chemical-physical means  :   catalysis , ion exchange , solvent extraction ,
         membrane technology , flocculation , adsorption
      2. Recycling of pollutants  in electroplating
      3. Microbiological treatment of waste water , e.g. for textile industry
      4. Oxidation pond  e.g. Yaer Lake , chloro-organo pesticides
      5. Adsorption by plants
      6. Land treatment for waste-water , e.g. Cd hydrocarbons
      7. Noise control , by setting up standards , instrumentation
   (4) Analytical technique and instrumentation
      1. study on standardized analytical methods of analysis
      2. Preparation of reference materials (fly asy ,peachleaves , river sediments , soils from
        Tibet ,  PCB etc .  )   Jntercalibration
      3. Application of new techniques , e.g. laser , ESCA .'}  MAA
      4. biological indicator
      5. Instrumentation , e.g. samplers , handy monitors
      6. Application of remote sensing in monitoring
   (5) Baseline study
      Water , soil , air and biological samples from different locations in the country .

 (6) Ecological effects , toxicity and toxicology
     1. Epidemiological study of the effects of heavy metals and some  organo-toxicants
       inroquatic ecosystems
     2.Ecological effects of atmospheric pollutants on plants, trees and human health
     3. Degradation of pesticides in river sediments and soils
     -1. Wastewater irrigation and their ecological effects (planta-soil-ecosystems)
     5.chemical carcinogens (e.g. PAH ,nitrosoamines ) their occurrence , structure
      and carcinogen]city
     6. Environmental diseases  (Keshen Beck disease , flurosis )
     7.lexicological and ecotoxicological study ( pesticides )
 (7) Transport and transformation  of pollutants in the environment
     ]. Methylation of Hg  in river sediment
    •?,. Microbiological degradation of pesticides and some organics in water and sediments
    3. Transformation of  SOjinto sulfate in atmosphere
       Effects of different oxidants , catalysts
    4, Transformation of  Irichloroacet-aldehyde into trichloro-acetic in the soil
 (8) Eco-eiivironmental study
    1. Natural ecosystems e.g.  soil, water and urban environment (e.g. Tai Lake )
    2. Ecological engineering    theoretical study.arid its.applications   e.g. application
       of system ecology  and system analysis and urban environment planning ,
       hydrological projects
    3. Study of eco-environmental characteristics in Beijing- Tianjin ecosystems
 (9)  Study of ecological effects of forests by human activities
(10) Study of desert :  its formation , degradation and prevention
(11) Information and publication of journals  :
    e.g. UNEP Inforterrn , national focal point in china
    Review on " Environmental  Sciences in China "
              ".Acid Rain in China " etc .
    Journals   : Acta Circumstanlia  (1982- 1986 )
                Journal of Environmental Sciences   (1977- 1986 )
                Journal of Environmental Chemistry (1982-1986)
                Journal of Ecology

                                   J.^..  OO
 1. Regional environmental planning and urban ecosystem study
 Z. Air pollution control and optimization study of coal-utilization
   (desulfurization , acidification )
 3, Water pollution control and optimization study of municipalise wage water utilization
 •J. Environmental pollution and health effect;; ( carcinogens from combustion of coal ,
   heavy metals in waste water irrigation }
 5. Degradation of natural e co-environment and its control
   ( desertification .destruction of tropical and subtropical forest )
6. Cycling of S, C, N , in the environment
7. Environmental behaviors of chemical components and their ecological and health effects
8. Application of new techniques and technologies in environmental sciences .
9. Eco-environmental study on urban environment and agro-ecosystems .
 10. System ecology : theoretical study , methodology and its application .
 11. Influence of hydrological engineering on ecosystems

           Beijing - Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences
Mr. Ye - WQ Modeling studies of several rivers throughout eastern China
                                                           Three theories
Mr. Wang - discussed endemic diseases; e.g., Kashen-Beck,
  postulated as cause of disease:
    Se deficiency
    Humic acid poisoning—Scavenges Se
    Bacterial (fungi) poisoning of cartiledge

  1.5 million people out of 20 million in northeast,  north central,  and south-
    west China have this disease.  The disease is also found in USSR just
    north of China (Soviets think it's due to Mn and phosphorus poisoning).
    Australia (only in animals), Canada also have it, but to lesser extent.

The Institute has discovered that:

    Humic acid degradation products are similar to the fungal toxics.

    Free radical Se acts as a protective agent—perhaps as fungi antagonist?

    Lab simulation of humic acid degradation—then identification of the
    degradation products progressing.

Mr. Lin-—interests include:
  Speciation and sorption of Hg on sediments
  Transport and transformation of Hg in streams, thermodynamic processes, and
  Microbiological effects

His Hg river model includes:  diffusion/dispersion, absorption/desorption,
  deposition/suspension of particulates.

The Institute has conducted a field study to evaluate the Hg model with a
  resulting error of 16.4% (total Hg?).  We asked for English write up of his
  model and the test (1976) flow data.

Tests were performed using a sequential extraction of Hg in sediment in order
  to model the various components:
  Water - soluble ions fraction
  Ion - exchangeable fraction
  Oxide fraction
  Humic/fulvic acid complex fraction
  Easily oxidizable organic complex fraction (30% H2O2).

Main species of Hg found/needed to be modeled—humic/fulvic acids and other
  organic complexes and colloidal/particulate-associated organics/oxides.

Speciation by size fractions was obtained using 0,2. urn and 0.45 urn membrane

Page 2
Benthic core samples were also analyzed near chlor-alkali plants to study
  methylation:  (not much methyl Hg found)  plus determine:  the distribution
  of MeHg in sediment and water; distribution of Humic acid and Hg;  flocculate
  from chlor-alkali plants?  and absorption/desorption of Hg on sediments.

Mr. Cheng Qing Yin interest is in Lake Eutrophication Study

    Study involves more than 1000 lakes in SE China,  all eutrophic,  e.g.
    Lake Chao on Yangtze is 5th largest fresh water lake in China and is
    seriously eutrophic.  For Lake Chao, Institute has about 100 years of
    observational data.  Hefei City (near Nanjing) draws one third of its
    drinking water from the lake.  This lake water has high algae, suspended
    solids, yellowish color, dissolved solids low, no aquatic weeds, average
    depth = 2 m.  It- receives untreated municipal sewage and industrial
    wastes (middle size industries/flood processing).  WASP may be a useful
    tool for Mr. Yin.

Dr. Tang's interest is in heavy metal pollution (from mining and smelting)  in
  rivers, i.e. Cu, Pb, Cd in river water and sediments.  Most of the metals were
  found in sediments.  He has some 27 years of data.   He is using the equilibrium
  model (REDICULII/MINICUL)  with some measured equilibrium/sorption constants
  to study the Shang Ya River near plants.   He is modeling 13 metals and  13
  complexes in the river/sediments—but no loading samples/data?

Key findings to date:

  1.  Most of the metals are in sediment—organically bonded or sorbed oxides
      (200-300 ppm)
  2.  Low concentrations of free ions or easily oxidized organic complexes  of
      metals in water  (10-30 ppb)
  3.  Data and model most useful to determine critical pH for river management
      to avoid release from sediment.  Current pH of river is 7.5-8.  Modeled
      critical release pH _>. 5.  MINTEQ II plus Prodef might be of great use to
      these modelers.

P.O.Box 934
Beijing, China
Institute of  Environmental  Chemistry
             Academia Sinica :
    Dr. R.C. Russo
    Director, Environmental Research Laboratory
    United States Environmental Protection Agency
    Athens, Geogia 30613

    Dear Dr. Russo:
                                                       r-j  rxj    J
                                                       -i  u>   -
                                     Feb. 18, 1986
    Thank you very much for your letter dated on Jan. 12, 1986.
    I ani glad to know that we will start our  cooperation this year and one of our
    colleagues can work in your lab. for one year.As you suggested in your letter
    I contacted with Dr. Randall and invited him to visit us, but he couldn't come
    because of his busy schedule in China. (I imagine he had told you already).
    Thus I think I will write to you directly.
    After discussing with my collegues of Division of water pollution chemistry,
    Prof. Tang H.X. , head of this Division and I agree with your suggestion on the
    cooperation Project " Metal Interaction At Environmental Surfaces". We recommend
    Mr. Lin Yue Huan .to you( enclosed his resume). Mr. Lin worked with us on
    the project of heavy m«=.:.al pollution study in the past 5-6 years,  mostly on the
    speciation,  complexation and adsorption of Hg in the transport and transformation
    of Hg in the river sediments. He has good physical chemistry and pretty math
    background and he has gained quite a lot lab and field work experiences in both
    Institutes. He has got study independent work ability and is hard working. Comparing
    to Mis Ma. as you have contacted, Mr. Lin is  more appropriate in the above
    mentioned cooperation project.
    Mr.lin's   English is fairly enough for him in his work. He has some oral training
    but he didn't have enough chance to talk with English speaking people. Thus
    I will ask  him to have a few months (maybe 4-5 months) oral English Training
    if you agree him to come. As you mentioned there will be a stipend covering
    living and necessary travelling expences, I will be glad to know more if it is
    Mrs. Ma is a good biologist, if you can consider her to work in your lab next
    year, it will be greatly appreciated.
    With best regards to you .
                                           Yours Sincerely

                                           cy Baughman/Garrison/Long
                                                      .„     USEPA
P.O.Box 934      Institute  of Environmental Chemistry      22 MAY l985 '*   °8
D ...   ~,.                  A  j   .  c. .               OFFICE CFlHEf-iKa'TCil
Beijing, China              ,  Academia Sinica

      Dr. E.G.  Russo,  Director
      Environmental Research Laboratory
      U.S.  EPA
      Athens, Georgia  32613
      U.S.A.                                   May 11, 1986
      Dear  Dr.  Russo:
       .1 haven't heard  from you for sometime and wonder if you-
       have received my  letter about my colleague (Mr. Lin) work-
       ing  in your Laboratory. However, I was glad to receive your
       telex copy via  your  Embassy last week. After getting contact
       with Madame Liang  of our EPO, njknew that your visit will be
       prosponed  as she  cannot arrange it this May. ijhope you will
       come to  China this coming fall.
        The topic of  our collaborative research project on metal
       interaction at  environmental surface as you suggested ic an
       interesting one and  we are working on it now.
        Mr. Lin  is making  up his oral English this semester. I won-
      der  whether it  is  possible for you to inform me about the
      possibility of  Mr. Lin's  visit to your Laboratory before
      your comjng to  China.  Please don't hesitate to tell me if
      you  have any difficulty to do so.
        With best wishes.

                                      Sincerely yours,

                                                 <*• ^<
                                                C. I. Liu

                                                 It- !/ ' I   & «
United States

Environmental Protection Agency

Environmental Res. Lab.
College Station Road
Athens, Georgia 30609
                                               April 4, 1986.
Dear Robe'ft B. Ambrose,
      I am glad to learn that Director Rosemarle C. Russo, ph.D
has told my Director, Jennie Chlng-I Liu Inviting one scientist
of our Institute to conduct research with your scientists on
metal Interaction at environmental surface, frof. Liu has com-.
mended me to Dr. R. C.' Russo for this research work. I am anxious
to know the result that Dr. R. C. Russo has decided on this Invi-
tation.          	   i
      I would appreciate your helps to arrange for me to visit t
your Institute for conduction of collaboration.
      I am looking forward to seeing your words.
                      1                 Sincerely Yours
                                       Lin Yue-Huan

P^O.Box 934
Beijing, China

Name:  l>in Yuehuan
Serulity:  Male
                    Institute of Environmental  Chemistry
                                Academia Sinica
Date of birth:  August 5, 19T7
Place of birth:  Guangdong |China
Health;  Good
Address:  Institute of Environmental Chemistry Academia Sinica
          P. 0. Box 934 Beijing,. China
Education                   i
1957-1963:  Dept. of Chemistry, Beijing University

            Specialty-:  Colloid and suspension system physical chemistry
Research work               ;
196V1968:  Division of .Soil  Mechanics., Institute of Mechanics Acadamia Sinica.
            liesep-rch process:  Siol and underground-water composition, clay micro-
            structure and ion exchange, hydrological chemistry studies of the layer
            of cla.y under Shanghai city, (including the study of the ground sinking
            in Shanghai, China)
l9fiBJ-1978:  Division of explosive Mechanic.--, Institute of Mechanics Acaderaia Sinica.
            Group head of the explosive synthetic diamond.
                            ',              - *
            Study of the synthetic of diamond and its raicrostructure.
                              Beiyuan, Anwai
                        ;       Beijing, PRC
                          (Tel. 465561 ext. 513)

Liu, Hongliang, President of CRAES, Deputy Director of Commission of
  Sciences and Technology, Ministry of Urban and Rural Construction and
  Environmental Protection
Liu Peizhe, Vice President of CRAES; Deputy Director of National Envi-
  ronmental Analysis and:Measuring Center
Zhang Yong Liang, Director of Research Institute of Water Environmental
Xia Qing, Engineer and Project Director, Institute of water Environmental
Mr. Zhan Lanyu, Director',

I .  Research Projects Completed by the Institute from 1980 - 1985
    1 .  Hater  quality  Management  planning  for  Tuojiang  River ( Sichuan
        Province )
    2 .  study on discharging sewage to the sea construction ( Shenzhen City ,
        Guangdong Province )
    3 .  Regional  pollution  control  programme  for  Zhuzhou  City  ( Hunan
        Province )
    4 .  Modified  O'connor Model  and new method for parameter identification
    5 .  Evaluating  SBOD and Kn values with increasing curves method
    6 .  Tracer Technique for 200  km river  section  and  the  modified two -
        station formula
    7 .  Study on nixed transport  parameter of rivers and its fornulars
    8 .  Determination of the  heavy  metals  adsorption  and  desorption  by
        suspended substances in rivers
    9 .  The  migration  model   of  heavy  metals  ( among  water ,  suspended
        substances  and sediment }
    10.  Regional model for non -  point pollution loads
    11.  Optimum model for technology,  economy and water quality management
    12.  System analysis model  by  using assimilating capacity of water bodies
II.  Research Projects Being Carried out from 1986 -  1990 :
    1  .  Water quality management  planning in  the delta of  the Pearl  River
    2  .  Hater quality  modeling  and  its  application  for  tidal  reaches,
        tida! river network,  estuaries and bays
    3  .  Multi -  target planning for water  pollution   control  of  Guangzhou
        City ( Guangdong,Province )
    4  .  Control  strategies  for  eutrophication   of  Dainchi   Lake  ( Yunnan
        Province )
    5  .  The application of  the  water  environmental  capacity  in  Yichang
        reach, Yangzi River
    6.   Water quality management  for the unexpended area located in the east
        side of  Kuangpu River
    7  .  Water quality management  mod ling for  Songhua  River during  its  high
        flow season
    8  .  Investigation and assessment on eutrophication in  some large lake of
        China           I
    9  .  Laboratory    determination   for   modeling   parameters   of   lake
    10.  Study on the  clearing  mechanism,  design   parameters  and  optimum
        combination of oxidation  pound
    11.  Study on the  patterns  of  migration,   and  transformation of toxic
        substances  within  oxidation pound
    12.  Study on oxidation pound  simulation techniques

Head 'of  the  delegation,  Vice President of Chinese
Research Academy of Environmental Sciences ( CBAES ),
Deputy Director of  National  Environmental  Analysis
and Measuring Centre ( NEAMC ), Engineer
Deputy  Chief  of  Science  and  Technology  Division,
Chinese  Environmental  Protection  Agency   ( CEPA ).
Director  of  Hater  Environmental  Institute.  CRABS.
Associate Professor
Research   Project   Director,   Hater   Environmental
Institute, CBAES, Engineer
Research   Project   Director,   Hater   Environmental
Institute, CRABS, Engineer
International Programme  Coodinator,  Foreign  Affairs
Office of  CRABS, Interpreter
Address  For  Communication :
Chinese  Research  Acadamy  of
Environmental  Sciences
Beiyuan,  Beijing         :
                                      Tel:     461025
                                      Cable:   1064

                          'ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES  ( CRAES )
I. Background
       Chinese  Research  Academy  of Environnetal Sciences  ( CRAES ), which
   was founded in Beijing < in  1980,   is  the  technical  and  research  arm
   of Chinese National  Environmental  Protection  Agency   ( NEPA )  with  a
   comprehensive capacity in the field of environmental  sciences  and  also
   serves as a research centre of environmental analysis  and  measuring  as
   well as environmental information.

       The Academy,  with its total staff of 502 ( of which 357 are  research
   people ) ,  is orgnized into 6 research  institutes:  Water  Environmental
   Research  Institute,   Atmospheric  Environment  Institute,  Institute  of
   Environmental Ecology,  Environmental Management and  Planning  Institute,
   Environmental Information Institute and National  Environmental  Analysis
   and Measuring Centre.

       The Academy is equiped with more  than  1,400  pieces  of  small  and
   large instruments,   of  which  about  200  are   large  or  sophisticated
   facilities such as Large-scale Hind Tunnel,  Photochemical Smog  Chambers,
   Water Quality Field Study Viehcles, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroraetry,
   Multi-functional  Computer (VAX-11/785),  Fourier  Infrared  Spectrometer,
   Large Kytoon and Accelerator for PIXE Ana lysis,etc.

       The main tasks of the Academy are to  study  and  advice  on  matters
   relating  to  nation-wi!de   environmental  management  and  environmental
   protection and construction, chiefly as follows:

   — Undertake important and comprehensive national key  research  projects
      in the field of environmental sciences with stress  on  the  study  of
      regional and general  strategies  on  pollution  control  and  applied
      environmental  sciences and bring into full play to the  advantages  of
      the  Academy's  multi-professional  potentialities  and  its  research

   — Undertake environmental soft-ware studies assigned  by  the government
      environmental  administrations,  covering  environmental  information,
      environmental    standards,   technical   policies   on   environmental
      protection,  environmental economy  and  environmental  assessment  and

   -- Orgnize  the  national  environmental  information  network  and  edit
      several  academic publications on environmental sciences.

   -- Carry out international scientific exchanges and collaborations.
II.  Environmental Research institutes Attached to CRAES

   1.  Water Environmental Research Institute

       The scientific research work performed by the  institute  focuses  on
   the study of systematic control of water pollution, chiefly as follows:
                         ,~ .  1 .

 -  Studies  on  the  regularity  of   migration   and   transformation   of   water
   pollutants  and  control  techniques  of  water  pollution

 -  Studies  on   the applied   and   laboratory   techniques   on   hydrography,
   hydraulics  and  hydrochemistry.

 -  Water pollution control strategies and water environmental  regulations

 -  Quality  control for  different  water  bodies  and  their   mathematical
   modeling techniques ,

 -  The  end-results  of  the  pollutants  in   soil  and   their ecological
   assessment          ,

 -  Developaent   of   new  techniques  and   their  applications   in   water
   environmental sciences
    Equiped with  advanced facilities, the  institute .with  its 48 research
 staff,  undertakes  national  research projects for rivers, lakes, gulfs,
 reserviors and so on. :To further  its research work, the  institute, in  the
 country's  7th five-year-plan  period  ( 1986-1990 )  will  establish   its
 computerized  comprehensive  research   labs   including   water   pollution
 simulation lab and civil engineering simulation lab.
2. Atmospheric Environment Institute

    The institute is principally concerned with  the  following subjects:

- Air pollution statues and its basic physical and chemical features   in
  the atmospheric boundary layer

- Regional air pollution features and atmospheric environmental planning

- The  process  and  regular  patterns  of the formation,  transmmission,
  migration, transformation and clearence of air pollutants

- Ambient air quality' standards, air pollution  control  techniques  and
  regional air pollution control strategies

- New techniques which  can be  applied  in  the  field  of  atmospheric
  environmental sciences

- Provide research findings for governmental decision-making

    The institute conducts its work through the following  groups (labs)
with 57 research staff and various field study facilities:

    * Ambient air standard and pollution control
    * Pollution control strategies on particulate matters
    * Acid rain study
    * Atmospheric chemistry  and smog chambers
    * Simulation and-planning for air pollution regularity
    * Mind tunnel
    * Atmospheric measurement and new technology

       — ;  ..-                   rt
      — i.-- .   ,.--..             .. .£ .

3. Institute of Eav'T>i!»«fml Fcoiogy

      The institute has 37  research  staff  principally  conducting  its
research on two aspects: natural ecology and pollution  ecology,  detailed
as follows:

- Ecological zoning and ecological environmental planning

- Ecological   and   environmental   impact   assessment   for  important
  constructive projects

- Environmental   pollution   impacts  toward  terrestrical  and  aquatic

- Optimum management and ecological index system for natural conservation

- Safety assessment on toxic chemicals
4. Environmental Management and Planning Institute

      The institute ,  with 21 research staff, serves
directly for the central and  local  environmental  administrations  with
its study area covering:

- Developement strategies and  policy  study  on  environmental  sciences

- Environmental prediction and planning

- Environmental economy

- Information   system   of  environmental  management  and  its  control

5. Environmental Information Institute

      The institue has 60 staff and  is  orgnized  into  the  information
study groups, the editorial departement, the  library,  and  the  central
office of national  environmental  information  network.  Its  tasks  are
chiefly as follows:

- Study environmental  technical  informations,   index  data and research
  papers   and   editi  translate  and  publish  environmental   research
- Orgnize and coodinate the national scientific and technical information
  network of  environmental  protection  and  manage  the  data  bank  of
  national research achievements on environmental protection.

6. National Environmental Analysis and Measuring Centre

      This  centre  is  charged  with  the  study  of  new or significant
developments in methods of environmental analysis  and measuring  and  of
providing specialist services to various environmental units in China and

  ...   -    ££-.    '   J     -    "-. 3'.           _         .  -

    also serves as a training centre for environmental staff of the  country.
    Its  work  is  undertaken  through  4  laboratories  and  a  centre:  the
    environmental  chemical analysis lab, the environmental physical analysis
    lab,  the  comprehensive  environmental  analysis  lab  and  the computer

           The laboratories and the-computer centre,  while  completed,  will
    gradually open to public  uses,   for  both  domestic  and  foreign  users
    together with research and  training  programes on environmental analysis
    and measuring. It also plans  to  study  and  produce  standard reference
    materials and become a branch of International  Registration  Centre  for
    Potencial Toxic Chemicals.
III.  Environmental Research Projects Completed by CRAES  During  the  Pas-t  5

     Years (1980-1985)  and Hill Be Performed in the_Next 5 Years  (1986-1990)

          Many national key research projects in the field  of  environmental
     sciences were completed by CRAES during  China'  6th  five - year - plan
     period (1980-1985),  chiefly as follows:
     — Study on Hater Environmental Assimilating  Capacity  for  Significant

           Sellect several representative Chinese rivers, estuaries and  bays
        to study their water environmental capacities for organic  pollutants
        and heavy metals and try to properly  use  the  natural  assimilating
        capacity of the water bodies, and provide scientific  statistics  for
        making comprehensive  plans  for  prevention  and  control  of  Hater
        pollution and for making water quality management plans  for  studied
      - Study  on  Atmospheric   Environmental   Capacity   for   Significant

           Study the atmosphertic  capacity for significant pollutants in the
        industral  areas  including  basin  area  like  Taiyuan  City, Shanxi
        Province,and plain area like Shenyang City,  Liaoning Province through
        various environmental  disiplines  of  physics,  chemistry,   ecology,
        systematic engineering,  environmental  economy  and so on to provide
        scientific  data ' for  comprehensive  control  of  the  regional  air

       Comprehensive  Control Strategies  for the Photochemical Smog in Xigu
       Region of Lanzhou City,  Gansu Province

       Study on fttmosphric Environmental Assessment for Taiyuan Area, Shanxi
       Province -- the biggest coal producing area  of China

       Environmental Problem  and  Ecological  Balance  Study  in  Beijing -
       Tianjin - Tangshan Area

-- A  Input-output  Study  and  Linear  Programming  for Enterprises with
   Environmental Concerns

-- Study  on  National Scientific and Technical Policies on Environmental
    The  national  key  projects  being  performed at present or mill be
carried out in near-future by CHEAS chiefly as follows:

— A nation-wide investigation on environmental capacity of soil,  water.
   and air

— Research on the formation, trend and control strategies of acid rain

— Soil treatment for urban sewage

-- National environmental information system and data bank

— A predictive study of the natural environment in China in the year of

— Lake eutrophicatioh study

— Quantitative study on economic parameters for environmental management

— Ecological engineering and  cost-benefit  analysis  for  urban  sewage

— The effects of air!pollutants on plants

-- Regulations, safety assessment,analytical methodology  and  management
   for toxic chemicals
                                  .  o .

                      icNVifiutiMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY
                             ATHENS, GEORGIA 30613

                   Chinese Water Quality Delegation Visit
                              June 10-12,  1986

Liu Peizhe, Vice President of Chinese Research Academy of Env. Sciences (CRAES)
            (Head of Delegation)
Meng Xianyuan, Deputy Chief of Science & Technology Division, Chinese EPA
Zhang Yongliang, Director:of Water Environmental Institute, CRAES
Xia Qing, Research Project Director, Water Environmental Institute, CRAES
Jin Xiangoan,  Research Project Director, Water Environmental Institute, CRAES
Meng Jisi, International Programme Coordinator, CRAES (Interpreter)

Tuesday, June 10
       8:15 pm   Arrive in Atlanta on Eastern Airlines Flight 117
       9:15 pm   Leave Atlanta on Jet-A-Way  Limo
      10:45 pm   Limo arrives in Athens (stops @ History Village)
                 Check in.at Quality Inn History Village

Wednesday, June 11

       8:45 am   Leave Motel
       9:00 am   Arrive  at Lab

 9:00- 9:30 am   Meet with Dr.  Russo, Laboratory Director

 9:30-11:30 pm   Meet with Dr.  Bailey and  selected Chemistry Branch personnel

11:30- 1:00 pm   Lunch at Botanical Gardens  Tea Room
                 (Dr. Swank, Dr. Garrison, Dr. Bailey, Mr. Long)

 1:00- 2:00 pm   Meet with Mr.  Donaldson and selected Measurements Branch personnel

 2:00- 3:15 pm   Laboratory Tour

 3:15- 4:30 pm   Meet with Mr.  Mulkey and  selected Assessment Branch personnel
 4:30- 6:00 pm   Free Time

       6:00 pm   Dinner  at Peking Restaurant
                 (Dr. and Mrs.  Robert Swank, Mr. and Mrs. J. M. Long)

Thursday, June 12

       8:45 am   Leave Motel
       9:00 am   Arrive  at Lab

 9:00-10:00 am   Meet with  Dr.  Holm and selected Biology Branch personnel

10:00-10:30 am   Meet with  Dr.  Swank, Director of Research

      10:30 am   Leave for Limousine
      11:00 am   Depart  for Atlanta

                              ATHENS, GEORGIA 30613
                           .Travel Itinerary
                   Chinese Water Quality Delegation Visit
Tuesday, June 10           '•
   5:05 PM   Leave Providence, Rhode Island,  on Eastern Airlines  Flight  117,
   8:15 PM   Arrive at Atlanta Hartsfield International Airport.

       Eastern Airlines Skycap will meet your plane and escort
       you to Jet-A-Way Shuttle Bus for travel to Athens,  Georgia.
       Directions to Jet-A-Way Shuttle are as follows:

       From the Baggage Claim area, follow the Ground Transportation
       signs.  At "Ground Transportation," go out the doors.   There  will
       be 10 or 15 flagpoles.  Below the flagpoles is a long,  brown
       canopy.  Jet-A-Way boards all the way  to the left of  the canpoy,
       in the "Non-Metro Buses" section.  Jet-A-Way Shuttle  buses are
       blue and white, with,the name printed  on the doors.)

       Cost of Jet-A-Way Shuttle:  2 persons  round-trip $99.00.

   9:15 PM   Leave Atlanta on Jet-A-Way Shuttle.

  10:45 PM   Shuttle arrives  in Athens.  You  will get off  at
             Quality Inn History Village Motel.   Mr.  Mac Long
             will meet you there and help you check in.
Wednesday, June 11

   8:45 AM   Mr. Long will meet you at the History Village Motel
             and drive you to the Environmental Research Laboratory,

                             '  Beijing - GRABS
1.  Pearl River Study
    Pearl River from Canton City to Lion Sea  to Ling Ding Sea  (60 km city
    to Lion Sea) all tidal.  River mouth at sea is  60 km wide  (a bay)—many
    wide bays from Canton to mouth—complex geometry and flows, e.g.  Ling
    Ding Sea = 2100 km2.      '

    Pollution problems are:  ,
      oil pollution
      small quantity of heavy metals

    In Canton City they have 8 water purification plants for drinking water, 5
      out of 8 cannot meet the national drinking  water  standards 3 months out
      of the year.  Industrial development is increasing rapidly, and pollution
      problems will be aggravated.

    Water quality from Lion Sea (tidal bay) to Ling Ding Sea  (tidal bay) "not
      too bad"—NOTE:  Chinese "not to bad" may be  "very bad"  by US standards.
      Some of the industrial waste water is being "primarily treated" within
      plant/factory—means screening plus maybe some highly toxic organics/
      metals and oils removed.  No municipal  waste  water treatment.

2.  Lake Eutrophication Study
      Dian Chi Lake
      Yunan Province
      Near Kunming City (Provincial capital)

3.  Coastal Study
      At 2 places they're trying to manage discharge of domestic sewage  to
        the sea.  Also in 2 bays across from  Taiwan trying  to  assess possible
        impacts of proposed industrialization on  bays and the  sea.

4.  Yangtze River - calculate impact of sewage (BOD, COD, NH^, organics) on
      this huge national river—basically a facilities  planning screening
      study—WQAM would be a very useful document for this  use.

5.  Nationwide Study of Eutrophication of Large Lakes
      Selected 20 large lakes throughout China
      Surveying for existing condition
      Predict potential for future with regard to eutrophication~WQAM also
        of great potential use here.

6.  They want to apply HSPF to predict water  quality response  of Songhua,
      River in NE of China, Harbin section.  This is in Manchuria  (Harbin was
      former capital of Manchuria).  The Songhua  is the biggest river in Nl
      China; flows into Black Dragon River then to USSR.  Problem areas  for
      assessment include:  BOD, COD, suspended solids.

Page 2	

    River has 0.3% slope - on a plain - HSP-F may not be applicable too
      low head - we should check on this - send CRAES latest updates on
      conventional pollutant sections of HSP-F.  QUALII might be a better
      model for their use, or something else, e.g. WASP3.
    One CRAES person, Mr. Wang, attended Nanjing workshop on QUALII last
      may.                    .

Preliminary results of possible cooperation with CRAES (not under current

    1 .  Jin to Athens to work with Bailey approx. 9 months, 3 months Brown
          MINTEQ/PRODEF.      '

    2.  Joint mini-workshop on WASP3 in Beijing for Beijing Institute of
          Eco-Environmental Chemistry plus selected invitees from Nanjing,
          Urumchi and CRAES.  :Course and application/study planning sessions
          should last at least 2 weeks.  AERL would send 2 Assessment Branch
          engineers (probably Ambrose and McCutcheon) to conduct it with
          considerable preplanning and logistics in concert with CH and
          CRAES.  Schedule tentatively for spring-early summer 1987.  Applica-
          tion sites-Zhengjiang Harbor and Lake Boston.

    3.  Jin stipend to be negotiated—he will get his regular salary from
          CRAES.  Will offer  formal invitation after arrangements completed.
          Target timing—start Jin at AERL about January of 1987 for 1 year
          study.             :
    4.  CRAES will provide for WASP workshop: VAX 785, terminals, interpreter,
          facilities, etc.  will also coordinate invitations/announcements
          and logistics with CH, etc. CRAES will insure appropriate people
          from Hanging (Zho), Urumchi (Zhang), and Beijing Institute are
          invited, etc.

    5.  AERL will send advance copies of tapes, manual, e.g. QUALII E, WASP3,
          HSP-F, MINTEQ, etc^ to Liu (CRAES) ASAP.  In May of 1987 AERL will
          send them outline ('itinerary of the mini-workshop — include 2
          set-up days, etc.) plus course notes for translation by CRAES to

    6.  CRAES/CH will take care of invitations, logistics, class photos, travel,
          etc. of attendees plus pay AERL staff "in China expenses."  AERL will
          pay for international travel.

    7.  A possible product of the Jin-AERL collaboration effort might be to:
          compare MINTEQ vs. .REDICUL for stream/river application, i.e.
          Lin and Jin and Brown publish a paper using both Chinese and US
          data/experience.  They might also try to combine MINTEQ/Redicul
          with a transport model; e.g., WASP.

Page 3	
For later years, maybe a- cooperative CRAES/AERL field study to validate
  a model (to be selected) in the context of a real PRC environmental
  assessment/decision would appropriate.  Start planning 1  1/2-2 years
  from now,

BEIYUAN, BEIJING, CHINA                TEL, 46.1025    CABLE,  1064
                                      K ATHSITS LAB
pofl DR.  iiusso A:H> Da. SWAIIK PI
            Aug. 22, 1986
   Arrive at GHA35
   Meeting with CHA33 leaders
 10:  40     lieeting v'ith Prof sZiang and then visit labs of
           Water Institute

 11:10      Visit Institute of ^nvironr-iental :'jas,lysis &nd
           Ileasuring   !

 11:40      Lunch at dirniiia- room of C?ul33

 1:30 pm    Visit ITational Snvironnientc.1 Monitoring Gentor

 2:00 pm    Leave CRA2S for Yanninyan by CRA3S car
 2:30 pia    Visit Yanminsyan escorted by GRASS official

Birth Date*
Nat tonal Ity
               Jin X i an 9 c an
               Chinese   Research   Academy  of   Environmental
               Sciences  Belyuan,   Be IJing, China
Educati on*
        InstI tut I on
                                        1964-1969   Geochemistry
  1982-Present «
1.  DePt. of Geology. BelJIns
   University. China
2.Dept. of  Geography  Bel-r
  J!n9 University In china    M.S.      1979-1982
  as post-graduate student
Employment'                 !
                   Engineer of Water Research Institute,  Chinese
                   Research     Academy     of      Environmental
                   ScIences,Be IJIng China
                   As Post-graduate in BelJing University BelJIng
                   Ch Ina
                   Institute  of  Mar I re  Environments  In  Dalian.
                   China    :
Research Specialty «
  1. Study on metal behavior on  Lake and water
  2. Study on Impact of toxic substances on environment
  3. EutrophIcation of bay  and lake

Social Service*                      ._•_„..

   The  member of specialist sroup on' water environment  capacity
for  scientific  technical national key project  in  China  during

Main Research Project at Present'

   Be in charse of inverstisat I on of lake all over the country  in
China—the  one  of :scietific technical national key  project   In
China,  Durlns 1986-1990.
                                2 ,

                       LIST OF PUBLICATIONS
                     ;      Jin Xianscan

1.  Jin Xianscan
   Lead,Copper and Zinc Adsorption by Suspensions  from  the Middle
Reaches of the Yellow River.   Environ.  ScI.  In China.  No. 4,  10-
17, 1983             !

  Suspended  substances  were sampled from  thte Middle  Reaches of
•the Yellow River in June to July,1981, and phx's i c-chemlcal nature
of the samples were analyzed. Under different temperature, pH  and
Ionic  concentration of Na*and Ca**>  adsorption  experlnments   of
lead,  copper  and  zinc bx suspended substances   were  done.   The
results showed that' <1> the adsorption  isotherm of  lead,  copper
and zinc by the suspended subtances all obeyed Lansmulr equation.
<2> Lead can be sreatlx adsorbed by suspended substances  from  the
                        Yellow  River' the  order  of   adsorption
                        order of adsorption ability  for different
                        HJF > HF > TF > LF > SF  Cu>2n»the
suspended substances  is
of the Yellow River,HJF
Hua Xian of the Mel He
yelllow  River,  LF. Lon9
adsorption capacity  of lead  Is  closely  related with SI02/R2O3,
organic  matter  and  clay  percent.  (3>The adsorption of  lead  by
suspended substances from the Middle  Reaches of the Yellow River
is very rapid and the order of adsorption rate constants   for
lead Is HF> TF>, LF> SF.  <4) Analysis  of variance for experlnment
data  is  found that the most  Important  one  of  factors  which
influnce on adsorption value of lead  Is pH value, secondary  Ionic
concentration,  final termperature.  The  most  optimal  conditions
of adsorption process are that pH  is  5,  concentration  of Na +Ca
is Zero and temperture is 4  decrees  centigrade, respectivery.
2.  Jin Xianscan
   Study  on the Adsorption and Release Copper, Lead  and  zinc   by
Suspensions from ther Middle Reaches of the Yellow River,  Environ.
Sci.  In China,  No.  4, 54-60, 1984

  Suspended substances were sampled from  the  Middle  Reaches  of
the Yellow River In June to July,1981.Under different  temperture,
pH and ionic concentration of Na and Ca,studies on the adsorption
and release of copper,  Lead and zine  in rever water  by suspended
substances  were done. The results showed that>   (1)   because   of
adsorption  of lead by suspension  in the river  water, dissoluble
part  of lead was very Low.  (2) Release rate of these metals   in
suspensions  is much  slower than adsorption rate of same  metals,
and  order of release ability is Zn > Cu > Pb.  (3)  Analysis   of
varianice for experlnment  data was found that, the most  important
one  of  factors which Influnce on release of lead  Is  pH  value,
secondary Ionic concentrations,  final temperture.

3. Cao Hongfa, "Jin Xiangcan,  Xu Nann I
   Nitrogen   and Phosphorus  Dynamics and Models
In Lake, Series of Envlronl  ScI.•  No.  Q,  13-20,
 oi Eutroph lc»t
4.  Jin XIanscan.  et  al.
    Chemical  Behaviours  of! Chromium In Environments.
the Chanachun College  of  Geo-logy,  No.  3.  91-99,  1984.
       Journal  of
  Chromium  is  one  of  -the  -toxic  elements,   which,   especially Cr ,
has toxlcity -to human  bodies,   animals  and Plants.   Chromium  has
strons   oxidation,  reacting  with  organic  matter especially In the
acid solution, and  Cr**belng  reduced  into  Cr**.  The main mineral of
chromium Is chromite  (Fed. Cr2O3>   that   occurs  in the ultrabasic
rocks.The ores of  chromiurn: have greatly anti-weathering capacity,
and it  is difficult to have  soluble  chromium In  water.  Chromium
Is widely used in  Industry,  Including smelting,  electroplate  and
dyeing,  which  are  the-main- sources of chromium pollution.  Through.
studies   in  the   distribution  of  chromium in  each  part  of  the
earth's   crust,  the   present   paper approaches  the  problem  of
migration,  transportation   and fate of chromium in environments.
Usually   chromium  In  four  valent  state  exists  In the environment,
but In water,   Cr**and  Cr**componds  are the main forms.  In the case
of  PH ranging from 5.0 to 9.0  and Eh values less than +0.5V  and
in the presence of  chlorides, compounds of trl valent chromium, Cr**
»   precipitate.  Soluble   compounds   of hexavalent chromium  vary
with pH  and Eh.  In natural  water,   kinetic  conditions,   complex
formations,    and   biological   interactions  may  Influence  the
achievement of e«iul 11 br lum states,   and,   therefore,  the precisem
levels   of chromium species may  be not   correspond   with   the
thermodynamic  predlctIons. 1 Trivalent chromium  is  greatly adsorbed
by  soil,  whereas  hexavalent chromium  is  little  adsorbed.   The
difference  of  adsorption,  nature  of  chromium  is  due  to  the
existence of trtvalent chromium  In the  forms of cation,  which is
easily   adsorbed   by natural colloid In the environment,  and  the
existence of hexavalent chromium  in  the forms  of  anlon,  which is
difficultly adsorbed by suspended  substances and  soil.
5. Jin Xiangcan
   Assess ment on pollution  of water  body  used
Variety Index, ScI.  of Marine Environ., No.  1,
by  the Biological
101-109,  1980.
6. Zou CaNIng, Jin Xiangcan
   Heavy  metal  mathematical  Models   of   Transport   for
Systems,  Environ.  ScI.  In China, No. It 25-30,  1985.
  The   inputs of heavy metal  pollutants  to  river  systems  usually
take  Place  by  adsorption,  complexion,   settling.   re—floating
processes.  Hence  the  present  paper  discussed  In   detail  heavy
metal mathematical models  In  one—demensIonal,  two—dImensional  and
trl-demenslonal river systems,   and  developed  mathematical models

 respectively.          '             •
 <1) For one-demens I onal river systems

 10. Wang Blnachen,  Jin;Xianscan
   On   -the  Research   of  EnvIronmental  Capacity of  Ground  Water
 Containing  Heavy Metallic  Elements.  Geotechnlcal  Invest i sat i on
 No. 2  (Total,  No.79),  35-40.  March,  1986.
11. Xu nannl.  Jin Xlanscan
   The Rate  of Adsorption  and  Desorptlon of Cu and As by Sedment-
suspenslon from  the XiansJians River.   Environ.  Sci.  in China.  No.
3, Uol. 6, 29-35, 1986.

   In  present  paper,   simulation  experiments In adsorption of  Cu
and As are made  and K  values  < rate  of  adsorption and desorptlon)
are   calculated  in order to  further  ascertain the  transportation
and   transformation  of Cu and As In a  river water?   at the  same
time,   Important environmental factors effect I   on Kl values are
selected?  flnaly, the rate  constants of adsorption are modified.
Results have shown that' the  adsorption Isotherms of Cu and As by
sediment-suspensions   from    the   Xlansjians   River  all  obey
Freundllch   equation!  rates   of    adsorption   are described by
ds/dt=Kl  Vfc (c/w)-K2X*s«  variation of environmental factors has
an apparent  effect  on  Kl   value of copper.   (Environ.   Factors'
temperature,  Initial concentration and  concentration of sediment-
suspensions).  Thus  we  have   developed   a   modified  equation
      IftKlo-591. 72-7X<50w)+150  13(1000+Co)-957. 9/(68.25+T)
(w=concentratIon of sedment-suspensIons,  Co^lnitlal  concentration
and   T-temperature).   Application of water quality model   in the
XI anaJfans River has   shown  that the   modified equation  In this
paper Is very  satisfactory.
12. Jin Xianacan et al. :
    The  Distribution Patter  for  the Speciatlon  of Heavy metal  of
suspension  from  the  Midstream  of the   Yellow  River   and  the
Application  of Computer Prosram  In the Analysis of  Heavy Metal
speciat ion. Imformatlon of Environ. Sci.,  No.  1  40—46, 1986.

  Authors   improved upon determination of  chemical forms of heavy
metal  in soil,  sediment' and  suspended matter  of water by  method
of volume-welsht.  The amount and percentage of  chemical form of
metal  extracted  In each extractant were  calculated  by   program.
The  sequential extraction procedure described here was  only  one
time  needed to decant supernatant  In each extractant,   contents
after decant ins*would not affect  amount of next  chemical form  of
metal extracted,   concentration of a metal In  previous   extratant
supernatant could be reduced  by calculation.
  The  chemical  forms  and   distribution  of Cd,   Cu  and  Pb  in
suspended  matter  of  middle reaches of the   Yellow  River  were
determined  by the sequential extration procedure  modified.  The
results indicated that suspended matter of middle reaches of  the
Yellow  river was not polluted by human activities,   the residual
form was main chemical form of Pb, Cu and  Cd  in  suspended matter.
The total content of Pb.  Cu and Cd  In suspended  matter In the Wei

 He  River  was-higher,  and -those In the Fen He
 content of organic form of Pb.  Cu and Cd  In
 small,  which  has  related to  lower  content
 suspended matter.
                                              mver was  less.  The
                                              suspended matter was
                                              of organic matter In
 13.  Jin  Xiangcan  et al.;
    Study on  Kinetics of Heavy Metals adsorption and Desorption in
 Suspension-sediments from the XiangJiang River.
 1981-1985, 70-80

   This   paper   studied , kinetics of heady metals  adsorption  and
 desorptlon in  suspension-sediments from the XiangJlang River.  The
 purpose   of  this  paper Is firstly to offer  adsorptIon-desorptI on
 rate  constants  of  Cd,  Pb.  Hg and As in suspension-sediments for  a
 transport model   of  heary   metal  In the XiangJlang River,   and
 secondly to  understand a chemical behavior of heavy metals   In  a
 river profoundly. AdsorptIon-desorptI on rate model on heary  metals
 In  water body were discussed,   rate  constants   .   Adsorptlon-desorptI on rate constants of Cd,  Pb,  Ha  and As
 In  the suspension-sediments  from the XI ana Jiang River are 2.71E-3
 —9. 07E-3, 1. 43E4—1. 35E5,  0. 63—1. 61,  1. 08E-5-^-3. 69E-2 and  3. 21E-
 8—1.83E-5,   1.66E-14—1.51E-13,    5. 57E-10—7. 71E-9,   1.41E-9—
 7.87E-7  I/sec,  separately.
   <3)  Influences  of temperature and adsorbent   concentration  on
 the   Kl   value  of  Cd adsorption  and  influences  of  adsorbent
 concentration   and pollutant concentration on the Kl  value  of Pb
 adsorption are  obviously found.
  Finally usage  has shown that  the results In  the study Is  very
14. Liu Hongllang,  Jin Xiangcan
    Water  resourse  In China  and water  Qual
Imformatlon of Environ. ScI.  No.1,  1986
                                             ty  Pollution  Control
  Total water resources reserves  In China  are  2.7 mllllonsEG
Of  these,  the'  average  river runoffs  for  many  years   are
millions  E6  M^3/year.  Six watershed reserves
region  of  China  cover about 20^  of
watershed reserves in
                                                 in   the   northern
                                         all   over   Country.   Four
                      the southern  region  of  China  cover  80/i.  The
distribution  of  water; resources  In   China   Is  different.   The
efficiency  of  water  resource  exploitation  and  utilization  is
higher  In the northern region  of China  and lower  In the   southern
region  of China.  Qroundwater exploitation  is  centralized  in the
plain region of the northern region of  China.   Water resources of
China  also  are affected by wastes in   industry.   Urban  sarface
waters are polluted to a different  extent.  Organic pollutions is

universal. Groundwater  hardness  In  -the round city -trends to going
UP.  Organic " pollutants excessed -the  s * and atd. .Urban lakes  show
eutroph Icat I on.  The  data  show,  'the  main factors affecting  the
duality of water resources  are wastes  In  Industry.Our country has
made general polities and concrete  measures to ensure the overall
layout and management of water resources.
15. Jin Xiangcan
   On the Environmental Capacity  of
Environ. Sci., No. 1, 5-15.  198G.
                                     Heavy  Metal.   Imformatlon  of
16. Jin Xlangcan et al. •
   The  Influnce of the Ionic  Concentration
the Rate of Adsorption for Cd,   Imformatlon
1. 25-33, 1986.         ;
                                             and the Adsorbent  on
                                             of Environ.  Sci.,  No.
17. Xu nannl, Jin Xlangcan.
    A Qeochemlcal Characteristics  of Lead and Its Behavour In the
a Environment, Information  of  Environ.  Sci.,  No. 1,  54-61,  1986.
18. Xu nannl, Jin Xlangcan.
    Distribution  of  Fluorine
Quality  from Luan He river  to
Set., No. 1, 61-68, 1986.
                                and Influnce of Fluorine on  Water
                                Tian Jin.  Imformatlon  of Environ.
19. Wan TingJian, Hong
    Study  on Chemical
in Sample treatmant  of
No. 1, 68-73, 1986.
jihua,  Jin
Spec i at I on
                                   X i an 9 c an
                                   Transformation of Heavy  Metals
                                    Imformatlon of Environ.   Sci..
20. Hong  jthua, Jin Xlangcan  et  al.
    Research Procedure  and  method  of Water Environment
for Heavy Metal In the  XlangJing River.   Imformatlon of
Sci., No. 1, 73-82, 1986.;
21. Jin Xiangcan
      On  management measure  of  Protecting Heavy Metal Pollution
a River. Information of  environ.  scl.»  No.  1,  82-86,  1986.

                              IN PRESS
 1.  Jin Xianscan. et al.
    Studx  on  Rate of Adsorption and Desorption  of   Heavx Metals.
 Cadmium  and Mercurx.  bx Sediment-suspension  from the  XlansJians
 River. Acta Scientlae Circumstantiate, 1986.

   This paper studied rate of adsorption and desorption of cadmium
 and mercurx bx sediment-suspensions from  theb XiansJins River.  In
 the  paper  adsorption-desorption  rate   model   on  heavx metal  in
 water bodx Is discussed* rate  constants (Kl and  K2>  of adsorption
 and desorption of Cd and  Ha   is  Calculated  and   influences   of
                      changes on the values of two rate  constants
                      modified.   The  result   shoved  that  (1)   a
                      of Ca and;H9 all obexed  Freundlich equation.
                      Cd and Hs'for adsorption and desorption were
 2. 7E-3—9. Q7E-T3 I/sec,   0.63—1.61 and  3. 21E-6—1. 83E-5.   5. 57E-
 10—7.71E-9 I/sec,   separatelx.  <3) Influence of temperature and
 adsorption  for Cd Is found and (4) The modified equation for   Cd
 has been developed,  le.
              19K1--6. 58+0. 044(W*T> *2
 Thus the result in the paper was verx satisfactorx.
environmental factor
is  identified  and
adsorption   isotherm
<2)rate constants of
 2.  Jin Xianscan.  et
    An  Analxsis  of
 Suspension from the
 Research.  1986.
                    al.         ,
                     difference's  for
                    Middle Reaches of
PhxsIc-chemical  Nature   of
the Yellow River, Geoaraphx
 3.  Jin Xianacan.
    Adsorption of
>Sxstem.  Environ.
                 et al.
                 Cd.Cu. Pb.As an!d Ms In the
                 Sci.  and Technique,  1986.
     XlansJlana River Water
 4.  Jin Xlanscan                ;
    Studx on Kinetic of Competitive adsorption of Heavx Metals  in
 River  Water.  Qeotechnical  Invest I sation.  1986

                             Kuerle, PRC
Mr. He, Director of EPB
Mr. Zhou Guo-Liang, Head of Monitoring Station
     ?    , Lieutenant Governor of state of Ba in Xinjiang Autonomous
Mr. Jing, County Mayor
Mr. Zhang, Party Secretary
Mr. Liu, Chief Engineer of City ot Kuerle


                                 Kuerle City
State of Ba is located in the! Xinjiang Autonomous Region with an area of 440
  km2 and a population of 800,000.  Their major problem is the continuing
  salinization of Lake Boston—the major/only freshwater resource in the State.

Surface area of Lake Boston is 980 km2 plus 260 km2 for a smaller lobe of the
  lake—we have some reports and sketches of the lake.  It is surrounded by
  mountains and Gobi desert — snow melt is the only water source.

Snow melt source is 700 km away in NW Kaidu River Region.  The Kaida River
  brings this melt to Lake Boston at a current rate of 2.8 billion m /yr—
  down from 3.3 billion m3/yr over the last few (5) years.  Lake Boston contains
  about 8 billion m^. ,of total' water, is about 45 km long (east to west) and 25
  km wide (north to south), but is only 8 meters deep (wind mixed).  Its level
  has dropped some 2.2 meters over the last 10 years.  Outlet of lake is the
  Peacock River which runs 500 km into a dry lake (Gobi).  Estimated evaporation
  from lake = 970 mm/year, direct input precipitation is only 68 mm snow/year
  Highest temperature = 39°C; lowest temperature = -30.4°C.  Icing period =
  97 days (early December to late March) down to depths of 7 meters.
The "small lake" section (SW corner) produces reeds: 60,000 acres' worth
  or 250,000 tons/year.  Current fish yield is 2500 tons/yr.  Both reed and
  fish production are down sharply over the last 10 years since widespread
  irrigated agriculture initiated.  For example, >30 years ago had 20,000
  acres of cropland in this watershed; today it is 10 times that and growing--
  all irrigated with withdrawal from the Kaidu.  Soils are very saline with
  both gypsum and chlorides present.  As a result.  Lake Boston has experienced
  a 300 to 1800 mg/1 mineral .content increase over 30 years.  Water level has
  dropped over 2m.  Reed production has dropped 70% in last 5 years due to
  this.  Peacock River now has 900-1000 mg/1 mineral content.  75% of the
  land irrigated by Peacock River has become saline.  They now have to pump
  from Lake Boston to Peacock River due to water level drop in lake.  The
  lake is considered a very important multi-purpose resource (i.e. power,
  fish, reeds, irrigation, drinking) which is being destroyed,  what can
  be done to save it?        !

Due to lack of good data and assessments, hard to develop a management/treatment
  plan the farmers or government will accept or act on.  In the last 3 years,
  the Urumchi Institute has had a monitoring station on the lake to determine
  salinity profiles, lake shape, flows, etc.  For example, in the inlet
  portion, where Kaidu River enters, total dissolved solids = 1000-1300 mg/1,
  primarily sulfate (formerly was carbonate).  On the southern shore, at the
  Peacock River outlet, total dissolved solids = 700-900 mg/1.  Portions of
  the open waters in the Lake Boston center go up to 1800 mg/1 (we have some
  isosalinity plots—getting.more data from Urumchi.  The average increase
  in Lake Boston salinity levels is now over 40 mg/1 per year.

For the future, the state wants to increase agriculture,  use more hydroelectric
  plants on Kaidu, plus develop industries on the Kaidu above the lake without
  destroying its quality.

4 Questions:                 >

  1 .  How can they predict future mineralization and other quality degradation
      of Lake Boston?
  2.  What kind of models to use?
  3.  How to set monitoring points on lake and for what parameters?
  4.  How to reduce mineralization; i.e., return the lake to freshwater
The bottom line is, the State of Ba officials would like to have a management
  plan/strategy for effective utilization of the lake resources.  Contacts
  here include:  Mu He, Director of EPB and Mr. Zhou, Guo-Liang, Head of
  Monitoring Station.

The key technical issues involve water balance and pollutant/salt loadings to
  Lake Boston as a function of development and management options.  For
  example, of the 3 billion m3/year from Kaidu plus the 2 other small rivers
  coming to Lake Boston, 1 billion m3 goes to irrigation, 1 billion evaporates,
  and the rest plus tailwater goes through the lake down the Peacock.  Some
  parameters, e.g.  BOD, COD,. Hg, Cr, NH3, NO^, NO^, phenol have been
  measured; pH = 8.6 DO = > 6 (6.9).  Fish are restocked each spring, won't
  reproduce in lake.  There are also rooted aquatic weeds in the lake.  The
  officials are already reducing water diversion to irrigation.  This is
  what's needed, but they need more proof — don't really know how much
  should/could reduce this yet.  They really don't know what the tailwater
  volumes are or how much they can reduce them by better irrigation technology.
  Use of fresh groundwater is a possibility, but recharge is almost zero, so
  they are reluctant to do this without much more data/assessment.

During our discussions, it was suggested that 2 models could be useful to
  them:  a BLM/Ada salt loading model developed for similar Western USA
  irrigated agricultural problems, plus a hydrodynamic model of the lake
  parameterized to model TDS; e.g., DYNHYDE (WASP3).  Protection of the lake
  outlet quality, i.e.  the Peacock, is crucial since Kuerle City is SW of
  the lake on the Peacock river  (150,000 people) and even though National
  policy here is that those living near mountains where GW table is very high
  are supposed to use GW; the people hate to pump groundwater when river is
  right there, so they dig a .ditch and use river water.

Proposed Cooperative Lake Boston Study

Objective:  To develop jointly a salt-loading and mineralization management
  model for Lake Boston, to evaluate various salinity management options, and
  to provide a salinity management plan  for the lake for official review and

Page 3	
Footnote: In Urumchi we were interviewed by a reporter from Xinjiang Daily
  News.  Article on Lake Boston is supposed to appear soon in that newspaper.
  We apparently were the first western scientists to visit Lake Boston and
  the officials seemed very appreciative of our concern/efforts.

Mr. Kao, Director of institute
Mr. Newar, Director of EPB-Xinjiang
Mr. He Fu-Yuan, Deputy Director of Institute
Mr. Liu Bin, Deputy Director of Institute
Mr. Zhang, Guo-An, Engineer (visited AERL in 1985)
Mr. Zhang, Engineer

      Xinjiang Institute of Environmental Protection - Urumchi
A.  Overview

    83 people
     5 branches
    30 technicians	chemists, biologists,  geologists,  4 computer people
       (>1/3 are chemists)
     1 head engineer -.
    14 engineers
    30 asst. engineers

    Study areas:
    . soil
    . water and air
    . want to study a nearby river and Mushroom Lake (Moguhu)
    . protection of natural resources
    . effect of development of agriculture  and industry
    . ecology of this desert area (100 cm snow/year)
    Hultidisciplinary research:
    . they have done air and water pollution modeling

    Five Branches:
    1.  Dry and Semi-Dry Ecological Research Branch
    2.  Environmental Engineering Research Branch (12 people - water
        pollution and environmental pollution)
    3.  Analysis of Apparatus (18 people - monitoring)
    4.  Maintenance of Apparatus
    5.  Information Branch

    Mos tly inorganic s tudies
    Major pollution:  paper factory, dye industry, tannery, small H2SO4 plant
       . industrial 2/3
       . municipal 1/3

B.  Summary of On-going Work:

    1. Haste channel with domestic sewage - Hang Yi Jian
       . Used to irrigate trees.
       . They want to study:  After 10 years does this  wastewater contaminate
         groundwater or get cleaned?
       . They're investigating best way of managing this wastewater.
       . Mostly organics (suspended, dissolved, colloidal)
       . Dissolved part contains small amount metals, especially Cr
       . BOD 120-150 mg/1 winter; 30-50 in summer
       . SO meters to groundwater table
       . They say independent analysis showed well water in the area to be OK
         for drinking.

Shui Mo River (northwest of Institute)
. In 1762 headwaters were a scenic spot (still use this for drinking
. Steel plant there in 1732
. 1876 a military factory
. All the present 27 factories were built after 1950.
. All the wastewater, goes to irrigation.
. 680 mg/1 total dissolved solids @ source
. Industrial wastes 86% of total wastewater volume
. Biggest polluters:  paper factory, tannery, textile mill, 2 chemical
. Main pollution is organic, BOD/COO; second is suspended solids;
  next is arsenic; next zinc.
. 3768 tons suspended solids per year
. 1000 tons BOD/year
. Total salt 16,171 tons/year
. Cr3+ 3.6 tons/year
. Phenol 1.9 tons/year
. Arsenic 2.8 tons/year
. They say the river self-cleans.

Transport and transformation of pollutants in arid and semiarid
. Change in soil in Urumchi area over 200 years
. Formerly mostly 'grassland—not farming, which started in 1755
. 1755-1776 farming increased; 320,000 fields were plowed out of the
. 15-20% organic matter in the soil originally, but after 20 years of
  plowing only 1.5-2% organic matter in soil.
. Bach kg of soil absorbs 21 g of organic matter from their irrigation
  water of wastewater.

Site Visit to Shui Mo River
. 30 km long
. <1 day rate of flow
. Wheat, rice, vegetables grown
. 1.7 m/sec flow  .
. 20 cm deep
. 0.3 of total volume is wastewater

S.  Municipal Wastewater
   . Formerly (in 1700's) a gunpowder factory in Urumchi
   . KN03 mined here '
   . 60 mg/1 NO3~ (15 mg/1 N03~N)  and 0.2 rag/1 802~ (0.07 mg/1 NO?-N)
   . 1800 mg/1 NO3~ maximum (450 mg/1 N03~N)
   . Drinking water standards:   0.02 mg/1 As
                                0.001 mg/1 Hg
                                0.01 mg/1 Cd
                                0.05 mg/1 Cr(VI)
                     ;           0.01 mg/1 CN

6.  Mr. He - Mushroom.Lake (100 km west of Urumchi)
    . 1,000,000 population city
    . Lake used for irrigation only
    . Volume 180 million m3
    . 20 x 106 m3 wastewater input each year
    . Deepest point 30m;  surface area maximum = 31  km2
    . They want to divert the wastewaters to  a nearby reservoir already
      without fish so:Mushroom Lake can support a viable fishery.
Cooperative Projects Suggested by Mr.He

   1.  Test self-cleaning power of reservoir using our models
   2.  Want to build a 15 km channel for the wastewater diversion.
       water self-clean over this 15 km?

   They have been allocated 2,000,000 yuan to build the channel.

   Mostly sewage; also industrial wastewaters
   Need information on BOD requirements for carp.
   Oxidation ponds for sugar processing wastes.
   Impacts of such ponds on groundwater
                                                                     Can the


August 27
Lake Boston fisheries review held at local biological institute near Kuerle.
  Three kinds of indigenous species originally present in the lake are gone.
  Started stocking grass carp, other carp, from South China in early 60's.
  In 70's, started stocking perch from N. Xinjiang.  Currently there are 4
  major kinds of commercial fish:  40-50% perch, carp and grass carp 30-40%,
  "little white stripe" 10%. 'Altogether 24 fish species have been noted.
  Total yields are still dropping because of increased TDS and drop in water
  level.  Best food sources for fish are the benthic organisms, but these
  aren't very available.  There are too many perch, which eat other species.
  Fishery biologists want to introduce other species.  Total production
  theoretically should be 0.0,12 million ton per year.  They're only getting
  1/4 that now.  They want .to introduce some species at bottom of food chain;
  i.e., not carnivorous like carp.  Also need to introduce more benthic

Perhaps some guidance from our sister OEPER labs at Duluth and Gulf Breeze
  plus the Fish and wildlife Service may be in order here once the proposed
  salinity assessment efforts are underway.

                              October 3, 1905
SUBJECTt  Projoaed Project for Mr. Zhang Guo-An

TO i
Robert H. Ambrose, Jr.
Environmental Engineer

Robert R. Swank, Jr.
Actiny Chief, Assessment Branch
     Here is A logical project for Mr. Zhang,  if QUAL2E is choac-n, aome
help fron Too Earnwoll will be necessary*  He will need a PC and some CSC

1.   Define the water quality probleas in Xinjiang and the feasible
     nanagenent options to be studied.

2.   Study QUAL2E or other surfact water model supported by CWQH (i.e.,
     WASP3.1, EX&MS2) that should address the water quality problems to
     b« analyzed in Xinjiang.

3.   Define the data needs ror properly a net ly ring this probleai  Estimate
     likely values for important coefficients and forcing functions (refer
     to "Rates, Constants, and Kin-jtic Fortaulatione in Surface water
     Quality Modeling").

4«   Operate QUAL26 (or other model) on PC with estimated data set.
     Conduct sensitivity study and identify most important variables and

S.   Design an environmental monitorlny program to bt> implemented in
     Xinjiang to better define the [.roblera, to calibrate, and to validate
     the simulation model.

6.   Write a case study report.

                                    cy Waxmonsky, Baughman
                            April  24,   1985
Mrs. Rosemarie C. Russo
Ph. D.             '
Environmental Research Laboratory
Athens, USA
Dear Mrs. R. Russo:
                                                    : ;>
     Thanking you  in anticipation  for you will send
copies of the chemistry  journal  Analytical Chemistry
for the years 1962 to 1982  for our institute library.
Please send these, by regular surface mail,  to the adress
of your favour of lOnd inst.,

     I hope that someday it will be possible for you
and Mr. G. Baughman, to visit our institute again. And
I also hope your staff at EPAs" laboratory in Athens to
visit our institute. I would do  my best  to entertain

                           He Fu-
                           Deputy Director

                                 May 10, 1905
Mr. He fu Yuan
Deputy Director
Xinjiang Institute ot Environmental Protection
People's Republic of China
Dear Mr* Met

     Here are the Analytical.' Cheuistry journals for the years 1962 to

1982 for your institute library.  I have also included single copies of

some other journals that I thought you wight find interesting.  I would

appreciate your letting me know that nil 0 box«is have arrived aafely.

                               Koswruarie C. Rusao, Ph.D.
cci  Dr. Gary Waxwonsky

be:  Ricky Hardigree
     George  Baughman

                                April  10,
l!r. He Ku Yuan
Dfcptity Director
Xinjianq Institute of Environmental Protection
People's Republic of China

Dear Mr. He:                 ;

     When Mr. George Baughman and I visited your  institute  in Uruir.cn i
in December iyU4, I promised I would send  copies  of  the cheiuistry
journal, Ana 1 ytica 1 Cnemit>try for the years 1962  to  1982 for your
institute library.

     I am told by our U.S. postal otticiais that  delivery by regular
surface nail will take approximately 8 weeks.   Please let me know it
the above addruas and r.;«ans ot Benviiny these are  convenient for you.

                                       e C. Kusso,  Ph.D.
GCJ  Dr. Gary Waxmoneky

bc»  Ricky hardigretj



    *  I " ""
                                                           / v r
                      MAY  24, 19S.-=
5  o>
ni  c=:
ci  -£
           C.  Russo, Ph.D.
Environmental  Research Laboratory
AthenBj Georgia, U.S.A.

Dear Dr.  Rassc;
      I was happy tojreceiva 10 bo;;es of  SCIENCE journal1
that  you  sent nur institute library, this  will be o-f a
great assestancs to us.
     Mr.  shanq end cbthar  col leagues are  studying an the
approach  o-f  hydro/netr a-fter he -Finished  to run the wat&r
quality model  which ' ycu sent  LSS, ANNIEQ,  QUAL2E and
ENVSIM  (William B. trills  sent us) on our  micro-computer
IBM PC/XT with 8087'math  co-processor.
      I would appreciate  getting some new  works on
hydrometry.  Would you help  me ?
      I  am  appreciative  o-f  yoisr helps and  hope you will
visit XINji'ng this year.
     Best  wishes.and have  a nice trip.

lJuii-*_i  *—
             Sincerely yours,
             He  Fu  Yuan
             Depury Director
             Xinji«ng institute of Environmental
               Protect i on

                         29 Chang'An Road (N)
                              Xi'An, PRC
                        (Tel. 5-1684,,5-1231)
Tian, Bao-Yin, Engineer and Head of Central Monitoring Station
Kang, Jing-Wen, Deputy Chief Engineer, Central Monitoring Station
Li Huo-Ping, Head of Foreign Affairs Office of Environmental Protection
Zhang, De, Deputy Director of Dept. of Integrated Management
Zhou, Zonlung, Engineer, Dept. of Integrated Management
Zhou, Ling, (Ms.), Head Secretary, Environmental Protection Bureau


In Xian, we visited the local provincial EPS monitoring lab (Shaanxi  Monitoring
  Station of Environmental Protection,  25 Chang-An Road (N.),  Xian, China
  Tel. 51684) which has about 130 employees.  (Altogether there are 1600
  monitoring stations the PRC.)
The station is well equipped with a Jarrell-Ash ICP,  2 IBM PC's,  and  an
  Apple II computer,  Its main concern is air pollution/acid rain.  It is
  one of 12 provincial Monitoring Stations in Province;  each city has at
  least 1 monitoring station also.  It monitors 70 sites for air and  water
  quality including special sites for AID.  It also conducts environmental
  quality assessments for management purposes.  These include detailed
  environmental-social quality assessments for various sections of Xian City.
  The assessments consider such factors as population density, services,
  roads, trees, water/air quality, etc.


                            114 Beijing Dong Road
                                Shanghai, PRC
                             (Tel. 233603 218908)
Deng, Tai Ho, Assistant Engineer