WASHINGTON, D.C. 20460


Acknowledgments	   i
Preface 	    1
Introduction  	    2
Insects  	    2
  Cockroaches	    2
  Sucking  Lice  	    3
  Fleas	    4
  Bed Bugs  	    4
  Bees, Wasps, Hornets, and Yellow Jackets . .    4
  Mosquitoes	    5
  Midges  	    6
  Biting Flies  	    6
  Eye Gnats  	    7
  Domestic  Flies  	    7
Mites, Ticks, and  Spiders	    7
Vertebrates  	    8
  Domestic Rodents  	    8
   Birds  	   10
  Bats 	   10


This guide has  been developed by  the California
State  Department  of Health under  U.S.  Environ-
mental Protection Agency contract number 68-01-
2908.  This contract  was issued by  the  Training
Branch,  Operations  Division,  Office of  Pesticide
Programs, EPA. The leader of the group effort was
Don J.  Womeldorf of the California State Depart-
ment  of Health,  Sacramento,  California.  Editors
were Mary Ann Wamsley,  EPA, and Donna  M.
Vermeire, North Carolina State University.

Contributors were:
William E. Currie, U.S.  Environmental Protection
  Agency,  Washington,  D.C.
Richard  F.  Darsie,  Center  for  Disease  Control,
  Atlanta,  Georgia
G.  Roy  Hayes, Jr.,  Louisiana State  Health  and
  Human Resources Administration, New  Orleans,
John  A.  Mulrennan, Jr., U.S.  Navy, Alameda,
William F. Rapp,  Nebraska  State Health Depart-
  ment, Lincoln, Nebraska
Robert  Snetsinger,  Pennsylvania  State University,
  State  College, Pennsylvania
Federal regulations establish general and  specific
standards  that you  must meet before you can use
certain pesticides. Your State will provide material
which you may study  to help you meet the general

This guide contains information you  must know to
meet the specific national  standards for applicators
who are  engaged  in public health  pest and vector
control. Because the guide was prepared to cover
the entire nation,  some information important to
your State  may not be included. The State agency
in charge of your  training can provide  the other
materials you should study.

This guide will give you information about major
pests and vectors  important  to public health, in-
• recognition of pests and vectors,
• their life cycles and habitats,
• a knowledge of disease transmission,
• methods you can  use to  control pests and vectors
  without pesticides,
• using pesticides in combination with other meth-
  ods,  and
• the effect of pest  control on the environment.



Public health pests are animals which:
• are involved in the transmission cycle of disease
  agents (pathogens) that affect  humans,
* injure humans by biting or stinging,
• cause internal and external parasitism  (myiasis),
• cause annoyance or discomfort.

Most public  health  pests are insects. There  are
others, such as:
• mites, ticks, and spiders, and
• vertebrates.

The  transmission of pathogens involves:
• a  virus,  rickettsia, bacterium,  fungus,  or proto-
• reservoir (the animal where the pathogen occurs
  in nature),
• vector (the  animal that transmits the  pathogen
  from the reservoir to man),
• host  (the animal on which the  pest  or vector

In some instances you should work with a physician
or a veterinarian to control public health pests. Your
State Health  Agency, your State  Pesticide Regula-
tory Agency, or your Cooperative Extension Service
can  advise  you.

Effective control  of  public health pests is  usually
accomplished by one or more of the following:
• sanitation—removing a pest's source of food and
   shelter; for example,  trash and  garbage  where
   rats live  and  feed;
• habitat disruption—for example, draining  areas
   where mosquitoes  breed;
* biologxal control—such as introducing mosquito-
   eating fish into aquatic areas;
* mechanical  control—designing and maintaining
   buildings  and  other structures  to  physically  ex-
  clude public health pests such as flies, mosquitos,
  and rats;
• personal protection—wearing long-sleeved  shirts,
  long trousers, and using repellents;
• suppression—use of pesticides or mechanical de-
  vices, su:h as traps, to reduce pest populations.


• destroy and  contaminate food  and  other  ma-
• produce a disagreeable odor when numerous, and
• are repulsive.

Cockroaches are oval and flat-bodied. A shieldlike
covering extends over the head.  Adults, depending
upon the species, are from Vi to 2 inches long.

The stages in the life cycle of a cockroach are:
• the egg, enclosed in a  capsule which contains
  several eggs,
• several  stages  of nymphs, which resemble the
  adults except  that they are smaller and have no
  wings, and
• the adult.

The entire life  cycle  may require 6 months to 2

• are active  in  the dark, preferring to  hide when
  it is light,
• usually prefer warm, moist places,
• are scavengers and will eat almost any food.

The four most common species in the United States
are the:
• German cockroach, which may enter houses with
  packages  and bags of food. It prefers kitchens,
  and is often  found near plumbing fixtures and
  heating ducts. This is the most common species
  in restaurants. Adults are about ₯2 inch long and
  tan to grayish in  color.
• American cockroach, a large insect found in alleys,
  sewage systems,  basements,  and  other  warm,
  moist places. Adults are up to 2 inches long and
  are generally reddish-brown.

• Oriental cockroach, usually found outdoors,  but
  may  come  indoors  during dry,  cold  weather.
  Adults are about 1 inch long and are black. Wings
  are  much shorter  than  abdomen.  Females  are
• Brownbanded  cockroach,  which  prefers  drier
  areas  indoors, so may  be found  throughout  a
  building. Adults arc about 1 inch long. They  are
  brown with two lighter bands across the abdomen.

• sanitation and  good housekeeping to eliminate
  food and harborage, and
• close-fitting doors and screens to prevent entry.

• applying residuals or space  sprays, usually with
  a hand sprayer, or
•  using baits.

Be   careful  to  observe  all  label  directions  when
using pesticides in food-handling  areas.

Louse bites cause severe itching. Scratching the bites
can  lead to secondary infections. The body  louse
also may transmit diseases.

The stages in the life cycle of a louse are:
• the egg or nit,
* three nymphal stages, and
• the adult.

The entire  life cycle may be completed in a mojith.

The sucking lice that affect people are the:
• head  louse,
• body louse, and
• crab louse.

The head louse:
• attaches  its nits  to  the hair  close to the scalp.
   As the hair grows, the nit moves  away from the
   scalp. An active infestation  is indicated  by nits
   within Vi inch of the scalp.
• nymphs  and adults are found  primarily in the
   hair close to  the scalp, most often  around the
   ears and nape of the neck. Sometimes they may
   be found in hats, combs, brushes, or upholstered
 • is  transferred between people  who  share  the
   same bed, headgear, clothes rack, or combs  and

 When looking  for head lice, examine suspected  nits
 under magnification.  Hair sheaths  and droplets of
 hair spray may resemble  nits.

 The body louse:
 • attaches its  nits  to fibers of clothing or to body
   hairs, including pubic hairs,
 • moves  out  of the clothing  to  feed, then returns
   to  hide in the seams,
 • is  acquired  by  physical contact or  when one
   shares  the  clothing  or bedding of  an infested

 The crab louse:
 • attaches its  nits to the coarse pubic  hairs and
   hairs around the anus, infrequently to other body
 • remains on  the body, usually  in the pubic area,
 • is  transferred by direct contact  (usually sexual)
   or  bv means of toilet  seats or beds.
  Body Louse and Head Louse        Crab Louse

•  drycleaning or laundering headgear, clothing, and
   bedding  to control body lice.

Control of lice should be carried out in consultation
with a  physician. It  will be  most effective if all
persons involved  in  the  infestation  (a  family,  a
school class) are examined and, if necessary, treated.

•  includes  using pesticides that kill lice. These are
   available  as   shampoos,  lotions,  emulsions, or
•  may be complicated by resistance to the pesticide.


Fleas affect people  by:
•  bloodsucking, which causes skin irritation,
•  transmitting  the  pathogens that  cause bubonic
   plague and murine typhus.

The most  common  species bothering people  in
houses are  the  cat  flea and  the  dog  flea.  Fleas
are  wingless,  laterally-compressed  insects  from
l/2a to % inch long. The legs are adapted for jump-

The stages  in the life cycle of a flea are:
•  the egg,  laid loosely  on the host or  in its nest,
•  several  larval stages, which  feed  upon  organic
   matter found in the nest of the host,
•  the pupa, which spins a silken cocoon incorporat-
   ing bits  of debris from  its surroundings,  and
•  the adult, which in most species lives in the nest
   or burrow and jumps onto the host to feed. Adults
   can  live  for  several  weeks  without food, but
   must have blood  to produce eggs.
• sanitation,  such as cleaning  and vacuuming cat
  and dog quarters,
• excluding  wild-animal  hosts  from  attics,  wall
  voids, basements, and crawl spaces.

• applying insecticides as crack and crevice  treat-
  ments, or
• use of flea collars.

The bed bug, primarily a pest of man:
• sucks blood, sometimes causing severe reactions,
• produces a disagreeable odor, and
• is repulsive.
The  bed bug is  a  wingless, flat, reddish-brown in-
sect about V* inch long. Similar bugs, normally pests
of bats  or birds, may bite people when their  usual
hosts are absent.

The  stages in the life cycle of a bed bug are:
•  the egg, glued inside cracks and crevices,
•  several  stages of nymphs  (these  resemble  the
   adult, but are smaller and  require  a blood meal
   for each molt),  and
•  the adult.

Bed  bugs avoid  light by hiding in mattress seams
and tufts,  bedframes, in cracks  and crevices,  under
wallpaper, and in  similar  places.  They feed in the
dark. The life cycle may require from 1 to 5 months.
AH stages can survive starvation for several months.
•  using a mattress sterilizer, and
•  removing bird  nests which touch houses, and
•  preventing the  entry of bats.

•  applying  insecticides  to the  hiding  places. Use
   a  pin nozzle for  cracks and  crevices and  a  fan
   or cone  nozzle for the mattress.  Make sure  the
   mattress is dry before it is used again.

The stings  of  bees,  wasps,  hornets,  and  yellow
• cause pain and swelling, and
• sometimes result in  a  severe  allergic  reaction,
  which may cause serious illness or even death.

These  insects have similar life cycles including the
egg, several larval  stages, pupa, and  adult.

Their habitats differ:
•  Honey bees are usually domesticated in hives, but
   also may establish themselves in attics, wall voids,
   or hollow trees.
•  Bumblebees and yellow jackets nest in the ground,
*  Hornets  build large paper nests above the ground.
•  Wasps (depending  upon  the species)  build mud
   nests,  build paper  nests  in sheltered  places and
   under eaves, or dig holes in the ground.

•  trapping, and
*  exclusion (screens).

CHEMICAL CONTROL:  Special pesticide formu-
lations are available  for control  of  these insects.
They may be used:
•  for treating the nest when the insects are inactive
   (either early  in the morning or after dark), or
•  as poisoned baits, which  yellow jackets carry back
   to their nest, thereby killing the larvae.

Many of these insects are highly beneficial  as  polli-
nators and predators. They should  be controlled
only if they are a threat to  people.

Mosquitoes are  bloodfeeding  pests  of  birds  and
animals, including  man. They can lower  property
values and reduce weight gain  in animals.

They transmit diseases of man, including:
•  several  kinds  of encephalitis, transmitted  from
   mammal and  bird reservoirs, and
•  malaria, yellow  fever, and  dengue fever,  pres-
   ently very uncommon  in the United States.

Mosquitoes are  two-winged insects Va  to V2  inch
long. All have scales on the wing veins and fringes
and have relatively long legs.

The stages in the life cycle of a mosquito are:
•  the egg, which may be laid on water or in  areas
   which will later  be flooded,  depending upon the
•  four  larval stages, found  only in  water,  which
   feed  upon microorganisms   and  other  organic
•  the pupa, aquatic and motile but nonfeeding, and
•  the adult.
After mating,  the female of most  species seeks a
blood meal in order to produce viable eggs.  The
male takes only plant juices, never blood.

Mosquito life cycles fall into two general types:
• Permanent-water  mosquitoes  develop  in  water
  which  stands for relatively long periods. The fe-
  males  lay the eggs on water,  either singly or in
  masses. Most  of these mosquitoes  overwinter as
  adult females.
• Flood-water mosquitoes develop in water present
  only intermittently. The females deposit eggs on
  damp  soil, debris, or plants, not water. The eggs
  are resistant to  drying and survive months or
  even years until they are  covered with water. At
  that time, the larvae hatch and development con-
  tinues.  Most of these mosquitoes  overwinter as

MOSQUITO SURVEILLANCE, a vital  prelimin-
ary step  to control, involves:
• collecting and identifying adults  and  larvae to
  confirm the existence and source of the problem,
  evaluate its importance, and help choose a con-
  trol  method. You  will need  special equipment,
  such as traps, dippers, eyedroppers, and a micro-
• recording and analyzing information about  kinds,
  numbers, and  location of mosquito adults  and
  larvae; weather; and other factors  (rainfall, tem-
  perature,  tide tables, irrigation cycles)  that con-
  tribute to mosquito production.

The goal of mosquito control is to maintain • mos-
quito numbers at  a low level so that they neither
transmit  disease nor  annoy  people.

• excluding mosquitoes from structures  by using
  screens on doors and windows, and
• altering the environment  so that the mosquitoes
  cannot complete their life  cycle. This can be done
  —managing land and water by gfading and level-
     ing, ditching, and draining  so  that water does
     not stand long enough for larvae  to develop,
  —fluctuating  water levels to  strand larvae  and
  —installing dikes and gates to keep salt marshes
     flooded so  that  salt marsh  mosquitoes cannot
     lay  eggs,

   —draining, filling, or  disposing  of  unnecessary
     water-holding containers such as auto tires, and
   —designing  and  maintaining  necessary  water-
     holding structures  (such  as  impoundments,
     water treatment facilities,  and  irrigation and
     drainage systems) to  eliminate  or minimize
     their potential as mosquito sources.

These measures  can affect  organisms  other  than
mosquitoes. In addition, they may affect the use of
the water for such things as wildlife, recreation, and
power. You must  determine whether physical control
work would cause unreasonable adverse effects.

•  introducing mosquito-eating fish  into permanent
   or semi-permanent water.  You must be sure that
   your State wildlife agency permits such introduc-
   tions.  You can increase the  effectiveness  of fish
   or other natural predators by eliminating harbor-
   age for mosquito  larvae.

CHEMICAL CONTROL includes the use of:
•  repellents,  which  provide  personal protection
   when  applied  to the body.
•  larvicides, which  kill  the  developing mosquitoes
   before they leave the water.  Proprietary  and pe-
   troleum fuel oils, organophosphates, plant-derived
   chemicals,  and  synthetic  growth  inhibitors  of
   mosquito larvae are available as larvicides.  They
   are formulated as solutions, emulsions, and  gran-
   ules (seldom wettable powders) for application to
   the aquatic habitat by air, power, or hand equip-
   ment.  Consider  accessibility of  the area  and
   ground  cover  when  selecting  the  application
   method and formulation to use. Susceptibility to
   certain  pesticides by  larvae  (depending  upon
   species) will determine which pesticide to  use.
•  adulticides, which kill  adult mosquitoes.  Several
   plant-derived  and synthetic pesticides are  avail-
   able as liquid and  dust formulations for  aerial,
   ground, power, or  hand  equipment  application.
   These include  pyrethrums, organophosphates, car-
   bamates, organothiocyanates, and  synthetic  pyre-
   throids. Some adulticides are used  to kill  mos-
   quitoes  that  alight  on  treated  surfaces.  Most
   adulticides are aerosols, which  are pesticides ap-
   plied  as fogs (sometimes vapors or fine dusts) that
   contact and kill the mosquitoes.  Fogs consist of
   very small droplets suspended in the air that con-
   tact adults flying  in the area. Suspended droplets
   remain  close  to the ground and penetrate grass
   and vegetation screens. Small droplet size is ob-
  tained through the use of  aerosol or  ultra low
  volume application  equipment. Drift can  be a
  problem with fogs.
• herbicides,  which kill  plants  that harbor  mos-
  quito larvae or adults.


Biting midges:
• are  also called punkies, sandflies, or no-see-ums;
• are  tiny two-winged  insects;
• severely annoy people by bloodsucking;
• have a body usually  less  than ]/10 inch long.

The stages in the life cycle  of a biting midge are:
• the  egg, laid  in salt  marshes, mud around  fresh-
  water ponds, in  soil cracks,  or highly organic
  water, depending  upon the species,
• several larval stages, worm-like  and slow in de-
• the  pupa,  and
• the  adult.

There is usually only one generation per year.

• applying adulticides  with aerial or ground equip-
• using repellents,  and
• using very fine mesh screens. Ordinary window
  screens will  not  keep midges  out.

There are also some nonbiting midges  which cause
annoyance when they are very abundant.


Bitting flies are  bloodsucking pests which can cause
problems in  local areas.  They include:
• blackflies,
• horse and deer flies, and
• stable flies.

The stages in the life  cycle of biting flies are:
•  egg,
•  several larval stages,
•  pupa, and
•  adult.

CHEMICAL CONTROL includes the use of:
•  adulticides,
•  larvicides  for blackflies, and
•  repellents  for personal protection.


Eye gnats annoy people by persistently flying around
the face.

CONTROL may be achieved by:
•  nontillage of agricultural breeding grounds,
•  applying suitable larvicides,
•  using traps  or poison baits to control the adults,
•  using repellents for personal  protection.

Domestic  flies are those that live  in close associa-
tion with people. The most common are:
•  housefly,
•  little housefly,
•  face fly,
*  vinegar flies or fruit flies,
•  blow flies or bottle flies, and
•  flesh flies.

Flies are  not only  annoying insects, but also are
involved  in  human  diseases,  including:
*  mechanically  transmitting  the   pathogens  that
  cause typhoid, dysentery, and  other  diseases  of
   the digestive system,
•  myiasis, which  is  the  condition  caused  by  fly
   larvae living upon or within the body.

These  flies  are  two-winged  insects, ranging  from
1-)o  to l/2 inch in length, depending upon species.
Most are about 1A inch long. The  stages in the life
cycle of a domestic fly  are:
•  the egg (deposited in a moist place),
•  several  stages  of larvae (maggots),
•  a pupa, and
•  adult.

In most species,  the larva crawls to a drier location
to pupate. The life cycle  typically  requires 2  to 3
weeks, but can  be  as short as 1  or as long  as 6
weeks, depending upon the  species and conditions.

The domestic fly develops  in many types of moist
organic matter, including:
•  animal  manure,
•  garbage,
•  decaying plant and animal material,
•  fruit and  vegetable culls and wastes.
CONTROL is based upon sanitation. This includes:
• collecting garbage  twice  a week in  residential
  areas so that flics cannot emerge.
• disposing of garbage to prevent fly  production.
  Incinerators may be allowed if they do not cause
  air pollution.  Sanitary landfills are widely used.
  Each day's  deposits must  be covered,  then the
  earth compacted.
• managing manures  by  appropriate cleanout, dry-
  ing, or  other means, to prevent fly emergence.
• properly disposing of fruit and vegetable  culls
  and dead animals.
• sanitary treatment  and  disposal of  liquid wastes
  and sludge.

• screening doors and windows and keeping them
• air barriers—fans that produce air currents which
  prevent flies from  entering openings  impractical
  to screen,
• introducing  predators and  parasites.  This is es-
  pecially effective for reducing  the number of flies
  produced in poultry manure.

• can be  a useful  supplement to sanitation.
• may  be hampered  by  resistance,  especially  to
  residual  insecticides.
• may include the use of baits.
• is difficult to attain with larvicides,  which  may
  kill fly predators and parasites.


Several  species  of  mites cause skin irritation  by
biting  man  (chiggers),  burrowing  into  the skin
(scabies mite),  or crawling over the skin (pigeon
mites, grain mites).  Mites on birds  or rodents may
invade houses and bite people if their normal hosts
leave or die.  Most species  are barely visible  to the
unaided eye.

The stages in the life cycle of a mite are:
•  the egg,
•  the six-legged larva (chiggers are larvae of certain

•  several stages of nymphs, and
•  adult.

In most  species the life cycle is completed  in less
than 4 weeks.

•  of  chiggers may be achieved by  keeping grass
   cut in public areas, or spot-treating with acari-
•  of  species infesting the human  body  must be
   guided by a physician.
•  includes use of repellents for personal protection.


Diseases  transmitted by ticks  include:
•  Rocky Mountain spotted fever, caused by a rick-
•  tularemia, caused by bacteria, and
•  Colorado  tick fever, caused by a virus.

Tick paralysis is caused not by a pathogen,  but by
tick bites around the head or neck.

The stages in the life cycle of a tick are:
*  egg,
•  six-legged larva,
•  nymph (or nymphs), and
•  adult.

The  life  cycle  may take 2 or 3 years, depending
upon the species of tick and the availability of hosts.

CONTROL  includes:
•  inspecting oneself and removing ticks,
•  clearing brush and cutting weeds to remove habi-
   tat  of  ticks and  their rodent hosts.

If  illness develops after  a  tick  bite, consult  a


Two kinds of spiders cause injury to man:
•  black  widow spiders.  A bite may cause severe
   pain. The bite is rarely  fatal. The female black
   widow spider has a red hourglass-shaped pattern
   on  the underside of its shiny, black, round abdo-
•  brown recluse  (fiddleback)  spiders. A bite  may
   result in pain, followed by death of flesh around
  the  bite.  Brown recluse  spiders  have a  dark,
  violin-shaped  pattern on  the top  of  the  fused
  head and thorax on a yellow to  brown  body.

Many  other species look fearsome, but  are  harm-
less. A spider develops from an egg into an imma-
ture spider which may molt  several  times  before
becoming  an  adult.

• can be accomplished by  applying pesticides to
  the  places  where  spiders build their  webs  and


The term "domestic rodents"  includes:
•  Norway rats,
•  roof rats, and
•  house mice.

Rats  and  mice  not  only  cause severe economic
damage,  but also damage structures,  contaminate
food  and feed, and  bite man.  They are reservoirs
for several diseases.

All three domestic rodents  have:
•  a well-developed sense of touch in their whiskers
   and guard hairs. They prefer to  run  where they
   can keep these sensors  in contact with side sur-
•  good  eyesight—readily  detect motion,  but  are
   color blind,
•  a keen sense of smell, but  are not  repelled  by
   the smell of man,
•  a discriminating sense of taste,
•  keen hearing (try to escape from unusual noises),
•  excellent balance,
•  good climbing  ability, and
•  good swimming ability, even through drains and
   toilet-bowl traps.

Domestic rodents are  nocturnal and rarely appear
during the day.  However,  they leave characteristic
signs which make it possible to tell what species are
present and  whether  an infestation is  current  or
old, heavy or light.

These signs include:
•  droppings, which are moist, soft, shiny, and dark
   when fresh, but become  dry  and hard in a few
   days. They are dull, grayish and easily crumbled
   when old.
•  outdoor runways,  which  are narrow pathways
   swept clear of debris.  Indoors,  they  are  greasy
   paths along walls, steps, and rafters (cobwebs and
   dust indicate an unused runway).
•  rubmarks,  which  are dark greasy  marks along
   the  sides of  regularly traveled  runways. Fresh
   marks are soft and will  smear if rubbed, while
   old marks are dusty and will flake off if scratched.
   Rats  leave rubmarks  along runways  at or near
   ground level (usually the  Norway rat), and leave
   swing marks  overhead where beams or  rafters
   connect to a wall  (usually the roof rat). Mice do
   not leave rubmarks unless the  infestation is heavy.
•  burrows,  used commonly by Norway  rats  and
   house mice for nesting and harborage,  only  oc-
   casionally by roof rats. Fresh burrow entrances
   are  free of  cobwebs and dust  and  may  show
   rubmarks.  There  may also  be fresh  earth  or
   food  fragments near  the  openings.
•  tooth  marks  caused  by  daily  gnawing  which
   keeps the  incisors short  enough to  use. Fresh
   gnawings in wood  are lighter  in color and show
   distinct  teeth marks, while   aged  gnawings  are
   darker  and become smoothed.
•  tracks,  sharp  and  distinct when fresh but dusty
   and less distinct  when old.  Smooth  patches  of
   dust  (flour, talc) may  be placed along runways
   and checked  for  recent  activity by holding  a
   flashlight  at  a  low  angle so  the  tracks  cast
   shadows.  Tail marks  may also  be seen.

The Norway rat:
•  lives  outdoors in any  protected place  which is
   near  the ground,  close to food  and moisture.
•  lives  indoors  between  floors   and  walls, in  en-
   closed  spaces of  cabinets, shelving,  and appli-
   ances,  in rubbish, and  in any  other concealed
•  has  an average feeding  range of  100-200 feet
   in an urban area, more in a rural situation.
•  requires % to 1 ounce of dry food, and ]/z  to
   1  ounce of water each day.

The roof  rat:
•  lives  outdoors in  any protected  place above  the
   ground near food and moisture.
•  lives  indoors in  attics,  between walls,  and  in
   enclosed spaces of cabinets  and shelving.
• has  an average feeding range of 100-200  feet,
  sometimes more.
• requires '/z to  1 ounce of dry food, and up to
  1 ounce of water each day.

The house mouse:
• lives  in any  convenient  protected  space inside
  or outside.
• has an  average feeding range  of  10—30 feet.
• requires 1i,, ounce of dry food  and ;ip,o ounce
  of water  each day.

        Field Identification of Domestic Rodents
           ROOF RAT  Ratlin tolitii            YOUNG RAT
                                     HOUSE MOUSE
       NORWAY RAT SoMtw nwngicus
Successful rodent control  depends upon controlling
entire rodent populations. A population may be the
rodents within a city  block, sewer, farm, feed  mill,
or smaller area.

NONCHEMICAL CONTROL of rodents includes:
•  managing refuse  so that it will  not provide  food
   and harborage to rodents.  It should be stored in
   leakproof containers  and either recycled or dis-
   posed of at a sanitary landfill.
•  storing usable materials so that  food  and harbor-
   are are at  a  minimum. Packaged  bulk foodstuffs
   should  be 12 to  18 inches off the  floor and
   away  from the  wall. Keep  food from opened
   packages  in   closed  glass or metal  containers.
   Sweep  floors  clean to  reduce  food  for rodents
   and to aid in detecting fresh rodent  signs. A  6-
   inch-wide white band painted on  the  floor along
   the  wall  of  food-handling   establishments  will
   make  fresh rodent signs  more  visible.
•  modifying  existing buildings or  designing  new
   buildings  to  keep rodents out.  Doors, windows,
   and other openings  must fit snugly (less  than
   '/4-inch clearance)  and be equipped  with  metal
   or concrete barriers.  Eliminate  dead spaces such
   as double  walls,  floors, or other  enclosed  areas.

•  trapping, useful when poisons fail  or  would be
   too  risky, when the  odor of poisoned carcasses
   would be a problem, or  (using live traps)  when
   rodents  must be captured  alive to collect their
   blood and ectoparasites  for disease studies.

CHEMICAL CONTROL can be  accomplished  by:
•  fumigating burrows, or
•  using poison baits,  poisoned water, or
•  poisoned tracking powders.

Types  of baits  most often  used include the:
•  single-dose poisons, which  kill quickly  if enough
   is consumed at one feeding, and
•  multiple-dose poisons, which must  be  eaten re-
   peatedly during a  period of  several days  to be

Considerations  when  using  poisoned baits  include:
•  prebaiting (using untreated bait for several days
   before offering treated bait) to increase bait ac-
•  considering the rodent  species and other food
   available when selecting  the poison  and bait,
•  avoiding  secondary  poisoning by  picking  up
   rodent carcasses before dogs or cats find them,
•  placing  baits  so  that they  will be  eaten by  ro-
   dents but not by other animals or people, and
*  possible  problems due to resistance or bait shy-


Most species of birds  are  valuable  and desirable
members of the environment, but some  are pests
of man. Birds  which  are  sometimes  pests  include
pigeons, starlings, and English sparrows. Some birds
contribute  to the spread of encephalitis, caused by
viruses and transmitted by mosquitoes from reservoir
birds to man.

•  sanitation to reduce sources of food,
• installing  screens, barriers,  and other devices  to
  keep the birds away,
• trapping,  shooting, or hand capture,
• using pesticides, which  may  be avicides, repel-
  lents, or  chemosterilants.  Poisons may kill de-
  sirable birds  or  may cause secondary poisoning
  in cats and other scavengers.


Bats are one of  the most important mammals which
are public health pests.

Bats affect man in these ways:
• Rabies is fairly common in bats, and people can
  get  the disease when they handle or  are bitten
  by an infected bat.
• Bat droppings can be a source of the fungus which
  causes histoplasmosis.
* Bat noise  and odor  can  be annoying.

Bats feed upon  insects. Some species  roost singly,
but most form colonies in caves, mines, or buildings.
They have a low birth rate  (usually only one off-
spring per  year) but may live  20 years.  Bats  are
generally beneficial. They should be controlled only
if they pose a threat to public health.

BAT CONTROL can  be accomplished by:
• bat-proofing buildings by closing openings where
  bats can  enter.  Eliminate  openings larger than
  \A  inch  by covering them with hardware cloth
  or sheet metal, or plugging cracks with caulking
  or steel wool.
• using repellents or pesticides.
• fumigation.

If bats are  controlled, you may need  to watch for
and control  their ectoparasites.

A few other mammals transmit rabies or plague.
                                                                U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1878-6151.3.1