Industrial,  Institutional
Structural and  Health
 Related  Pest  Control
         WASHINGTON, D.C. 20460


Using Pesticides  Safely  	   2
General Insect Pests	
  Ants  	   3
  Bees  and Wasps  	   4
Parasitic Pests  of Man  	   5
  Bed  Bug	   5
  Fleas  ?	   5
  Ticks  	   5
  Mosquitoes  	   6
Occasional Invaders  	   6
  Clover Mite 	   6
  Millipedes  	   6
  Flies  	   7
  Silverfish and  Firebrats 	   7
  Booklice  	   8
  Spiders  	   8
  Fabric Pests 	   8
Wood-Destroying Pests  	    9
  Termites  	    9
  Powder-Post Beetles  	   10
  Long-Horned Beetles	   11
  Wood Decay Fungi  	   11
Stored  Product Pests  	   11
  Grain and Flour Beetles 	   11
  Cabinet Beetles  	   12
  Indian Meal Moth  	   12
  Angoumois Grain Moth 	   12
  Grain Weevils   	   12
Vertebrates  	   12
  Rodents  	   12
  Birds  	   13
  Bats  	   14
  Skunks  	   14
  Squirrels  	   14
  Moles   	   14
  Snakes  	   14
Weeds   	   14


This guide has  been developed  by Purdue Univer-
sity under U.S.  Environmental  Protection Agency
(EPA) contract  number 68-01-3117.  This  con-
tract  was issued by the  Training  Branch,  Opera-
tions  Division, Office of Pesticide Programs, EPA.
The leader of this  group effort  was Gary W.  Ben-
net,  Purdue  University.  Editors were  Mary  Ann
Wamsley, EPA, and Donna  M. Vermeire, North
Carolina  State University.

Contributors were:
Joel R. Meltzner, Environmental Protection Agency,
  Washington, D.C.
Harry B. Moore, North  Carolina State  University
Vernon  E.  Waiter,  Terminix  International,  Inc.,
  Memphis, Tennessee
Eugene  D.  Young,  California   State  Polytechnic
Federal regulations establish general  and  specific
standards that you must  meet before  you can use
certain pesticides. Your State will provide material
which you may study to help you meet the  general
standards. This  guide  contains  basic  information
to help you  meet the specific standards for appli-
cators  who are engaged in industrial,  institutional,
structural and health-related pest  control.

Because the  guide was prepared to cover the entire
nation, some information  important to your State
may not be included. The State agency in charge of
your training can provide the other materials  you
should study.

This guide will give you information about:
• pest control and pesticides,
• using pesticides safely, and
• recognizing and controlling common pests.


Proper identification  of pests  and a knowledge of
pest  development and behavior are  keys  to  effec-
tive  pest  control.  After  you  have  identified the
pests, you must decide how to control them. Re-
moval of food, water, and habitat (place  in which
to live) is an important part of effective pest control,
but should be combined with  appropriate  chemical
and  mechanical control methods. If  you choose to
use a pesticide, select a product that has label direc-
tions for the  intended use.

The  various formulations can  be  used on a wide
variety of jobs in  many  different types of  equip-
ment. But each formulation has its own characteris-
tics which help determine which is the best to use
in a  given situation. For example:
• for a space spray, you might use  an insecticide
  in oil;
• for long residual  activity in a dry situation, a dust;
• for a residual spray, either an oil solution or water
* for a surface application of a residual where ap-
  pearance is not too important, a wettable powder
• for use around open flames and heat, an emul-
• for use around electrical installations, an oil solu-
• for spraying on or around plants, a wettable pow-
  der or  selected emulsion;
• for use on  or around linoleum, rubber, asphalt
  floor tiles, and some synthetic fibers, a water-base

Do not release pesticides into  soil,  air or water
except where you  intend to do so as a safe and
approved part of your work.  Pesticides put in  the
wrong place,  or on the wrong plant,  or where  the
wrong animal can contact or consume them  are pol-
lutants and may  cause serious harm.

Use  special  care  in  sensitive areas such  as food
handling establishments and where children, elderly
people or ill  people are  located.  Pets  and their
eating places  also must be kept  in mind. Pesticides
used in or around  such  areas should be the safest
ones available that are effective. Apply them so that
contamination does not occur.


Four species of cockroaches are  commonly found
throughout the United States. They vary somewhat
in appearance and habits hut in general  are all flat,
brownish or dark,  and fast-running.  Cockroaches
seek cover in  the  daytime or when  disturbed at
night. They may be carried into buildings in boxes
and beverage cases, and with groceries. In apart-
ments and larger buildings, they readily migrate
from one room to another along water pipes, cracks
in the walls, and wall voids. Some species may enter
structures from outdoors or come in through sewer

The stages in the life cycle of a cockroach are:
• the egg, enclosed  in a  capsule  which  contains
  several eggs,
• several  stages  of nymphs, which look like  the
  adults  but are smaller  and have no  wings, and
• the adult.

German  Cockroach

• A common species found in kitchens.
• Adults are about \'i inch long.
• Tan with two dark stripes running lengthwise on
  the area just behind the head.
• Often occur in large numbers.
American Cockroach

• Reddish-brown;  margins  of  prothorax  (behind
  head) lighter.
• Largest of the common cockroaches (adult about
  P/2  inches long).
• Found in dark,  moist areas such as  basements,
  sewers,  and  steam  heat tunnels.

  American Cockroach
 Oriental Cockroach

 • About  1 inch long as an adult.
 • Shiny black or very dark brown.
 • Female has small wings; wings of the  male cover
   about :ii of his abdomen.
 • Often found in damp places  such as  basements.
   May enter buildings through sewer openings.
 • May live  outdoors during the summer  months
   and move  from building to building.
Hrown-Bamlccl Cockroach

•  About  1-2  inch long.
»  Brown  with two  lighter bands  across the base  of
   the wings  and abdomen.
•  May  infest an entire building.
•  Infestations usually start from  luggage, furniture,
   or  other  materials  shipped  from  one  place  to
In some areas of the country, there are other cock-
roach pests. Some of these  are  very similar in ap-
pearance to those described above but differ in their
habits. As  a result, proper identification is essential
to control.  Contact local experts for information on
other species that  may be important. The removal
of food and water  sources and destruction of breed-
 ing places is essential in obtaining satisfactory cock-
 roach  control.

 In  kitchens and  living areas, apply  insecticides as
 crack and crevice or spot treatments to places where
 the insects  hide.  Label directions of residuals per-
 mit only crack and crevice  treatment to be used in
 commercial food  handling  areas. Common "hide-
 outs"  are behind  and beneath built-in  shelves and
 cabinets,  in and  beneath stoves and refrigerators,
 under  sinks, anil behind baseboards.

 In  basements,  cockroaches  hide beneath trash,  in
 cupboards and  washing machines, and in cracks and
 crevices  in  concrete,  brick, or block walls. Sprays
 are usually preferred  to dusts  because they  are
 easier  to  apply and  the residue is  not as visible.
 Dusts,  however, can sometimes be blown into places
 difficult to reach  with spray.

 Use ULV (ultra low  volume) and aerosol applica-
 tions of contact sprays and Hushing agents  to sup-
 plement residual sprays and dusts. Use them alone
 where  the label prohibits use of residuals.

 The stages in the  life cycle of an ant are:
 • egg,
 • larva,
 • pupa,  and
 • adult.
 During the year, ant colonies  produce winged indi-
 viduals. These  arc often mistaken for termites.
                                                                Basic Differences between Ants and Termites
Carpenter Ants
• Variable in size, measuring up to  '/2  inch  long.
• Red to black.
• Either winged or wingless.
• Build nests in hollow trees, logs, telephone poles,
  posts,  porch  pillars, and  other  wood  used  in
• A small pile of coarse sawdust  beneath wood
  with a higher  than normal  moisture content  is
  a common sian.

 • Do not  eat  wood but simply hollow  it out  to
   form  nests.
 • Can weaken structures.
                     Carpenter Ant
 Other Ants
 • Most build their  nests in soil.
 • Those that  invade  buildings usually nest near
   foundation walls, in lawns, or  under  concrete

 Control both carpenter ants and other  indoor- or
 outdoor-nesting  ants  by  direct  treatment  of the
 nests.  Locate the entries  of carpenter ants.  Then
 blow an insecticide dust into the nesting area. Con-
 trol  other ant species with  sprays,  dusts, or granular
 insecticides directed at the nest and surrounding
 area. Baits may  be  used effectively.

 If you cannot locate the nest site, apply insecticides
 where the ants gain entry or  hide—along founda-
 tion walls; at doorways, windowsills.  and baseboards:
 behind  built-in cabinets and furniture; or  beneath
 refrigerators and other heavy  appliances.


 Bees and wasps are nuisances  and may be danger-
 ous  to man because of the female's  ability to sting.
 These  insects have similar life  cycles, including:
 *  egg,
 •  larva,
 •  pupa, and
 •  adult.

 Paper  Wasps

Paper  wasps  include  the   single  comb  (Politics)
wasps,  hornets,  and yellow jackets.  Single  comb
 wasps build open comb nests under caves of houses,
in shrubs,  and in other protected places. Hornets'
nests are large, covered, grayish-brown paper struc-
 tures usually seen hanging in trees or bushes. Yellow
jackets  often  build  their  nests above  as  well  as
underground. These  wasps  vary in color. As a gen-
                                                                                 Single Comb Wasp and Nest
eral rule,  the hornets are largest (about l'/2 inches
long),  the single comb  wasps are intermediate in
size (about 1  inch) and the yellow jackets are small-
est (about *A inch).
                                    Yellow Jacket
Special  protective  clothing  is  needed  when  con-
trolling  paper wasps. Insecticide sprays  work  well,
but they must  be applied  at night  with a sprayer
large  enough to do the job quickly  without getting
too close to the nest. Dusts may be blown into the
nest openings of hornets and yellow jackets. Baits
are also available for use against  some  specie-; of
Solitary  Wasps

Solitary wasps may dig holes in lawns or bare earth
to build their nests. The cicada killer:
•  is a  black  and  yellow  wasp  about 1V4  inches
•  will  not sting or otherwise  cause  harm (only the
   males buzz around people), and
•  can  be  controlled by directing  dusts  or  sprays
   at the entrance to its burrow.
Mud Dauber  Wasps

These wasps:
• arc so named because they construct their nests
  of mud in protected places,
• are usually  black  with yellow  markings,
• arc not dangerous since  they do not aggressively
  defend their nests.
• can be eliminated simply  by  tearing down their


 Bees such as the honey  bee, bumble bee, and car-
 penter bee are pests in and around buildings. Struc-
 tural damage results from their nest-building activi-

 Honey bees may build nests in walls, chimneys, and
 attics. Their combs may melt and allow  honey to
 seep  through  walls.  In addition,  the  combs may  be
 infested  by other insects.

 Bumble  bees build their nests  in the ground,  in
 straw or rags, or in buildings.
       ./. '
       Worker         Queen
             Three Castes of Honey Bees
 Carpenter  bees  drill  Vi  inch  holes  into exposed
 wood. The holes make a  90-degrce turn  below the
 surface and  run with  the grain  of  the  wood for
 distances up  to  12  inches.

 Bumble bees  and carpenter bees  look very  much
 alike.  Bumble bees, however,  have yellow hair on
 the top of the abdomen.

 Control bees  by directing insecticides  at the  nest,
 It is wise to  wear clothing to protect against  stings
 when treating nests  of honey bees and bumble bees.


 Many insects, such as bed bugs, fleas, ticks and mos-
 quitoes, feed  directly upon man  and other  warm-
 blooded animals. In addition to their bloodsucking
 activities,  many  are able  to carry disease-causing
 organisms from  one animal to another or to  man.


 •  Prefer man as their host.
 •  Hide in cracks and crevices and come out to feed
   in the dark, usually as the host sleeps.
•  Adults are  about '4 inch long, reddish-brown,
   with oval, flat bodies.
The stages in the life cycle of a bedbug are:
• the egg. glued inside cracks and crevices,
• nymphs, and
• the adult.

Either sprays or dusts can be used for control. Dusts
are preferred behind baseboards, window and door
casings,  and in other cracks  and crevices.  Do not
treat surfaces that  will  come  in direct contact with
humans.  Treat  tufts and scams  of mattresses and
cover them with sheets after  the spray has dried.
Fleas arc small insects without wings.
The stages in the life cycle of a flea are:
• the egg,
• larva,
• the pupa, and
• the adult.

Flea infestations in homes are usually noticed after
a host animal  (usually  a cat or dog) has been re-
moved.  Adult  fleas  that  develop  from eggs laid
earlier begin to bite people in the absence of normal
hosts. Eggs may hatch over several months.

Control fleas  in  structures by  using surface and
crack and crevice sprays. Control them on animals
by using dips,  sprays,  flea collars,  or dusts. The
pest  control specialist can treat  the premises; how-
ever, the pet should be treated by the owner or  by
a veterinarian.

A number of ticks are parasites of  man and  other
                                 Hard Tick
The stages in the life cycle of a tick are:
* egg.
• six-legged larva,
• nymph  (or nymphs), and
• adult.

The brown dog tick:
• is a common  household pest,
• may be found on  other  animals, although the
  main host  is  the dog,
• will drop off the host  after feeding and  conceal
  ilself in any  available  crack or crevice such as
  behind  cove  moldings and  window  frames  and
  in furniture.

This tick is difficult to control because of its many
potential  hiding   places.  Eggs may  hatch  over  a
period of  up to 5 months. Hiding places may need
to  be sprayed  at monthly  intervals to  eliminate
this tick. The owner or  a veterinarian should treat
dogs, using dips, sprays,  or  dusts.


• May occur in large numbers in the warm-weather
• Adult  females feed on  warm-blooded  animals
  and birds.
• May develop in standing water.
The stages in the life cycle of a mosquito are:
* the egg, which may be laid on water or in areas
  which  later will be  flooded, depending  on the
•  larva, found only in water,
•  the pupa, also found only in water, and
•  the adult.

Effective control requires community-wide efforts.
Elimination of  all mosquito  breeding  habitat  is
essential. Control mosquitoes  in smaller areas for a
limited time by using sprays,  aerosols, or fogs.

The term "occasional invaders" includes those pests
which may occur in buildings at some stage of their
life cycle, but which do not usually complete the
entire life cycle within  the building.


•  Is an annoying household pest, especially in hous-
   ing  developments where  turfgrasses  are  newly
   established and there is a heavy growth close to
   foundation walls.
Stages  in the life cycle of a clover mite are:
• the  egg — laid in foundation cracks  and other
  protected  places,
• larva,
• nymph, and
• adult.

Clover mites are difficult to control.  Methods that
keep the mites from getting indoors  give  the best
results. These methods include:
• establishing a plant-free strip 18 to 24 inches wide
  along  foundation walls  and directing  pesticide
  sprays at  the strip and walls, or
• if a  plant-free strip  cannot be established, spray-
  ing the foundation walls and the adjacent 10-foot
  strip of grass.
• Are gray or brown cylindrical worms
  inches  long.
                                         to  \l/2

   Have two pairs of short  legs on each body seg-
   Curl up when disturbed.
   Are common on the forest floor, in compost piles,
   and in  heavily mulched areas.
The stages in the life cycle of a millipede arc:
• egg,
• nymph, and
• adult.

When  millipedes leave  their natural  habitats,  they
crawl  over  lawns and  sidewalks  and may  invade
buildings in large numbers. They cause no damage.

Prevent invasion by removing  leaves and  compost
around buildings and by sealing  cracks in founda-
tion walls  and  around  doors,  basement  windows,
crawl spaces, and vents.

Spraying a 10-foot wide strip around the foundation
is helpful in control. Repeat  applications may be
necessary during periods of heavy migration.


Several species  of flies may be found in and around

The stages in the life cycle of a fly are:
* the  egg. deposited in  a  moist  place,
• larva,
• pupa,  and
• adult.

Filth Flies

The more common of these  are  the  house fly and
the  black blow fly. The black blow fly is slightly
larger  than  the house  fly and  is  a  shiny  black or
green.  These flies arc annoying and  also may carry
diseases of man.
                        Black Blow
                  House Fly
Successful  fly control  must include a combination
of sanitation, physical barriers (such as  screens),
and  insecticides. Garbage,  manure,  and  decaying
plant and animal material must be removed. Con-
trol  adults  by spraying resting  places.  Baits  can
also  be used.  Impregnated resin strips can be  used
in some  indoor  situations.

Control  of  adult  filth  flies  around  livestock   and
poultry feeding  operations requires  the  coopera-
tion  of  the  pest  control  specialist,  the  livestock
producer, and the county  sanitarian.

Cluster Fly

• Often  a pest indoors, buzzing around and collect-
  ing in  large numbers in light fixtures and at  win-
  dows on warm, sunny days.
• Slightly larger than the house fly and  more slug-
• Adults seek protected places such  as  wall voids
  and attics to spend the  winter.
• Screens  are ineffective  since the flies prefer  to
  crawl in through small  openings  elsewhere.
• On warm days, they enter rooms  through window
  pulley  holes,  around  baseboards   and  through
  other small openings.

Control is  difficult.  If possible, close all openings
through which the  flies can enter. Apply  sprays and
dusts to surfaces  where  flies  are  frequently  seen
and, where possible, into wall voids and  other  con-
fined spaces where the flies may be. In unventilated
areas,  impregnated  resin strips are  effective.


Silverfish  and firebrats are wingless  insects about
'/z inch long as  adults.  They have three  long "bris-
tletails" at  the end of their body.
The stages in the life cycle of silverfish and  fire-
brats  are:
• the egg,
• young, and
• adult, which continues to molt throughout its life

They feed on stored foods, paper, and almost any-
thing containing proteins or carbohydrates. Directed
sprays applied to cracks and crevices that serve as
hiding and resting places are most frequently used
for control;  dusts and baits may also be used.


Booklice (psocids) are very small (H0 to 1'10 inch).
light-colored insects that may be found indoors and
out.  Indoors  they  frequent  damp  places  around
stored foods and books and in crawl spaces. They
feed on molds and fungi. They do little damage and
are pests  by  being present,  often in tremendous
The stages in the life cycle of booklice are:
• egg,
• nymph, and
• adult.

They can be serious pests for manufacturers of food
products  and containers. Control booklice  by  re-
moving moisture  and  food  sources. Directed sprays
and aerosols are effective in control.

Spiders  are pests because of their webs.  The black
widow and the brown recluse (fiddleback) can seri-
ously injure  humans.  Neither spider  bites  unless

A spider develops from an  egg  into an  immature
spider which  may molt several times before becom-
ing an adult.
                                                                                  Black Widow Spider
                                                    The brown  recluse spider  is tan to brown with a
                                                    dark brown fiddle-shaped pattern on the front half
                                                    of its back.  It is usually  found  in buildings such as
                                                    barns,  sheds, garages,  and  houses that are  dry,
                                                    littered, undisturbed and contain insects that  serve
                                                    as food. Favorite hiding places  seem to be the arms
                                                    or legs of  garments left hanging undisturbed. People
                                                    are sometimes bitten  while sleeping  in  beds or
                                                    wearing clothes that have been  unused for a length
                                                    of time.
                                                       Brown Recluse Spider
                                                    Control spiders  by  controlling  insects that serve
                                                    as food,  and  by removing  webs. Direct  pesticide
                                                    sprays  or dusts at hiding  areas.

                                                    FABRIC PESTS

                                                    Carpet beetles and clothes moths attack  a variety
                                                    of woolen products, furs, feathers, and hair. Infesta-
                                                    tions are common in boxes of old clothing, over-
                                                    stuffed furniture, woolen  carpets, and  piano felt.
                                                    The larval  stage causes the damage. The presence
                                                    of adults in an  area may be the first  sign  of  an

                                                    The stages in  the life cycle  of beetles and  moths
                                                    • egg,
                                                    • larva,
                                                    • pupa, and
                                                    • adult.
The female black widow is shiny black and  dis-
tinctively marked with a red or yellow spot on the
underside of the body, sometimes in  the  form of
an  "hourglass".  This  spider lives  under  rocks  and
boards and in or around buildings.
                                                    Black Carpet Beetle

                                                    • These are the most widespread and  damaging of
                                                      the carpet beetles.
                                                    • Adults arc shiny black and about Vs  inch long.

   Larvae are up to '/i  inch long, yellowish-brown,
   carrot or  cigar-shaped, and  have a  long  brush
   of  tail bristles.
     Black Carpet Beetle
 Other Carpet Beetles
 •  Adults are oval, about V» inch  long, and brightly
   colored in various patterns of white, brown, yel-
   low,  and  orange.
 •  Larvae are about !/4  inch long, light brown  to
   black, fuzzy, and slow-moving.
Webbing  Clothes  Moth  and
Casemaking Clothes  Moth
The webbing clothes moth adult is buff-colored with
reddish hairs on the top of its head. The casemaking
clothes  moth  is light brown  and has three  dark
spots on each wing.  The larva of the webbing clothes
moth usually  spins feeding  tunnels  of silk  as it
moves  over its food  sources. The casemaking clothes
motl. larva carries with  it  a small silken case that
it spins around itself. To this case arc attached bits
of the  fiber on  which  the  larva is  feeding. It at-
taches  the case to walls  or ceilings  when  it enters
the pupal stage.

Prevention is a very important part  of fabric pest
control.  This can  be  done  by cleaning fabrics
correctly and storing them  in  tight containers  with
moth crystals. Control infestations by treating all
infested areas  with  directed sprays.


The  stages in the life cycle of a termite are:
•  egg,
•  nymph, and
•  adult.

Termites are social insects having colonies in which
there  is a division of labor between different  types
of individuals.  Nearly all species have reproductive
and soldier castes, and many have a worker caste.
If a worker caste is lacking, the nymphs handle the
nest  building and food gathering  activities. These
workers are responsible for damage done to wooden
structures. Within the reproductive caste are  pri-
mary  reproductives which arc winged. They emerge
from  the colony during the  warmer months of the
year to disperse and form new colonies.

Subterranean Termites

• So  named  because  the  colony  extends below
  ground  with the workers attacking wood above
• White, soft-bodied workers eat the soft grain of
  wood, leaving a thin shell outside and the harder
  portion in layers.
• They use bits of soil and excrement to build shelter
  tubes and to close up breaks in the surface of
  infested wood.
•  If  "swarmer"   (reproductive) termites  have  not
  been seen,  the presence  of a colony can be de-
  termined by probing  wood  near the  foundation
  or  soil  or by  observing  earthen  "shelter tubes"
  on  foundation walls or wood.
This termite must have wood for food and usually
needs soil for  moisture.  Wood in contact with soil
is ideal for termite development. However, termites
may build shelter tubes across foundation walls and
other surfaces  between the wood and the soil. Ter-
mites occasionally become established without soil
contact when  a  leaky roof or pipe provides  mois-
ture.  Infestations may  become established under

 concrete  slabs,  garage floors,  patios, and filled dirt
 porches.  Termites  may  then  enter  the  building
 through  structural  wood or  foundation  walls ad-
 jacent  to the slab.  In houses built  partly or  com-
 pletely on  slabs,  termites enter through  expansion
 joints,  cracks, and  utility openings.
                                     Common r,-pe o
                                     whicn involves
                                     a DIM Filled
                                     Conc'eH1 Po*ch
                                     Attachea loa
Breaking the connection between  wood  and soil  is
essential in termite control. This may be done with
either a chemical or mechanical barrier.

Soil  on both  sides  of  exposed  foundation walls
and soil  surrounding  supporting  piers  should  be
drenched down to the footing with insecticide. Apply
the  insecticide by trenching and  backfilling or  a
combination of trenching and rodding.

For outside basement  walls  (where the  footing  is
deep), dig  a  V-shaped  trench  against the  wall.  It
should be  deep enough to insure penetration to the
footing.  After trenching,  use a perforated  hollow
rod to inject insecticide to the  footing of the base-
ment wall. When treating concrete  block  or brick
foundation  walls, drill them above  the  grade line
and flood  all  voids with  insecticide.

To- treat  slab-constructed  buildings,  saturate  the
soil beneath the  slab.
                Slab-Floor Construction

Inject  insecticide  either  through  holes  drilled  in
the slab  or  by drilling  and  rodding horizontally
under the slab. Either method must be done carefully
to avoid  heat ducts, pipes and vapor barriers located
under the slab.

Treat filled  porches by:
 • drilling the slab from the top,
 • drilling the porch foundation  horizontally at each
   end next to the  building and  injecting the chemi-
   cal by rodding, or
 • making openings in the foundation wall, excavat-
   ing  the porch fill immediately under the slab, and
   drenching the soil with insecticide.

 Dry-Wood  Termites

 • Directly  attack  wood  and  make galleries  in it,
   rather than below  ground.
 • As  they  feed,  they  cut  across the  ligneous grain
   of  wood, excavating large  galleries  which are
   connected by small  tunnels.
 • They produce hard fecal  pellets  with  six distinct
   concave  surfaces on the sides. These pellets are
   often pushed out of  the  infested  wood  through
   small holes.
         Drywood Termite
         Fecal Pellets
Control dry-wood termites  by fumigating the  entire
structure with a toxic gas, using a gas-tight tarpaulin.
Control small, localized infestations by injecting in-
secticides through holes drilled into the termite gal-
leries. Furniture and other  movable objects may be
fumigated  in  special chambers.


There are  several  kinds  of  powder-post  beetles.
The most  common  are Lyctid powder-post beetles
and Anobiid  powder-post  beetles.  The  adults  are
small (about '.-, inch long) and usually reddish-brown
to nearly black.
  Lyctid Powder-Post Beetle
                            Anobiid Powder-Post Beetle
Small  "shot hole"  exit  openings  in  the wooden
surfaces  are  a  sign  of  infestation. Slight jarring of
the wood causes a  fine powder to sift from these
holes. When the wood is cut or broken, the interior
reveals galleries filled with a finely-packed powder

 which  is  produced  by  the  feeding  of grub-like
 larvae. Joists, subflooring, hardwood flooring,  sills,
 plates,  and interior trim  are the parts of buildings
 most frequently attacked. Furniture and other wood
 products also may  be damaged.

 Ta  prevent  infestations or to control  existing in-
 festations,  wet all surfaces thoroughly with insecti-
 cide. Furniture  and other movable objects may be
 fumigated  in special  chambers.


 Long-horned beetles are large (!/2  to 3 inches long)
 and brightly colored.  They have long, thin antennae
 which may be longer than the body. Eggs are usually
 laid on  unseasoned,  rough-sawed  timbers  or logs.
 The  larvae,  called  round-headed  borers,  feed in
 the wood. They bore  large, oval holes as they move
 through  wood.

 The only species that requires control in structures
 is the old-house borer.  The adult  is about s.', inch
 long, grayish-brown to black,  and has  two white
 patches on the wing  covers.  Its galleries have  dis-
 tinctive  ripples  on  the interior surface. The  old-
 house borer usually damages  only  pine sapwood.
 surface of wood should not be confused with decay.
 The moisture content of the wood may be measured
 with  a moisture meter to  accurately  determine  the
 need for  control.
                   Old House Borer

For  control, infested wood must be  treated  repeat-
edly with a liquid insecticide.  Heavy timbers may be
drilled to allow penetration into infested areas. Fumi-
gation under a tarpaulin may sometimes be required.


Severe wood decay  occurs  only in wood with  a
moisture content  greater than  20  percent.  Most
wood-rotting  fungi grow  only  on wood  which  is
subject  to  wetting by rain,  roof  leaks,  plumbing
leaks, condensation, or contact with moist  soil.  Two
species, however,  can  conduct  water  directly  to
wood.  Fungi take their food from the wood as they
grow and reduce the strength of wood, often making
it  brown and  crumbly or white and stringy.  Dis-
coloration  and powdery  mold  growth below  the
                   Wood Decay

 Fungicides will  not stop  wood  decay once  it has
 started, though  they  sometimes slow  its progress.
 The key to complete control of wood decay is to
 eliminate the source of moisture. This may be done

 •  proper drainage,
 •  breaking contact between wood and soil,
 •  ventilation,
 •  the use of vapor barriers, and
 •  other good construction practices.

 Lumber, pressure-treated  with  preservative chemi-
 cals before use,  may  prevent  attack  by  wood-
 destroying  fungi.


 Most food products  may  be attacked by  insects
 commonly referred to  as "pantry pests". They eat or
 contaminate the  products and may make them unfit
 for human  consumption. They  often  leave the in-
 fested products  and move about inside structures.
 To eliminate  infestations,  find and destroy infested
 materials and treat  the area where they are stored.
 Infested  materials  can be fumigated.  Thorough
 cleaning is  essential to remove spilled food to pre-
 vent reinfestation.


The confused and red flour beetles, the saw-toothed
grain beetle, and the cigarette and drugstore beetles
are small, reddish-brown  insects  usually less than
 '/s inch long. Their larvae are small and yellowish-
white with  brown  heads.  The  adults  often  crawl
over infested material  and  adjacent surfaces. Larvae
and  adults will be found in the  infested material.

          Cigarette BeetM-


Adults have various colored patches of scales on the
back  and are  l« inch  long. The larvae are fuzzy,
light brown  to black, and about '/-* inch long. The
larval stages do most  of the damage.  Adults  feed
mainly on (lower pollen outdoors but may  feed on
stored food  products.


The Indian meal moth  is a small moth with a wing-
spread of about  l/2  inch. Its forewings  have a  cop-
pery color on the outer two-thirds  and  whitish  gray
near the body. The pinkish-white caterpillars cover
the materials on  which they feed with loose webbing.
The adults fly about near the site of the infestation.
The larvae may also leave their food and crawl  over
adjacent surfaces. This  is the  most common moth
which attacks  stored food products.

The  Angoumois  grain moth  is a tiny  moth similar
in size and color to clothes moths. It  may be seen
flying about in the daytime,  whereas  clothes  moths
avoid light. The caterpillars  develop  within whole
kernels of  grain.
                                                   GRAIN WEEVILS
                                                   The granary  and  rice  weevils  primarily  attack
                                                   stored  whole grain.  Adults are reddish-brown to
                                                   black,  about '/»  inch long, and have  pronounced
                                                   snouts. Their larvae  are small,  white, legless grubs
                                                   that feed  and develop inside individual kernels of
The stages  in the life cycle of a weevil are:
A ftfttt
• larva,
• pupa,  and
• adult.


• Contaminate and destroy food products.
• Damage furniture, clothing, structures, and other
  noncdible  items.
• Carry diseases and ectoparasites.
• Sometimes bite children and adults.
• Can cause fires.
• Have the  ability to coexist with man.

The  three most common kinds are:
• Norway, brown, or common  rat,
• roof or black  rat, and
• house mouse.

        Field Identification of Domestic Rodents
          ROOF RAT  Ratlvs rottui           ^UNC "AT
                    EAR   EYE  NOSE
                                                                                       HOUSE MOUSE
                                                                                       Mui mintutta
                                                          HOKUM HAT Rallus oontgitus

The  Norway rat  prefers to  live  in  underground
burrows,  but can climb readily. The roof rat pre-
fers to live  in  upper  portions  of  a building,  but
may  use  burrows. The house  mouse  lives in  any
convenient protected space inside or outside.

A rat or mouse control  program is  based on know-
• where they live. feed, and travel,  and
• the extent of  the  infestation.

You  must eliminate  shelter,  food,  and  water.  All
entrances the rats or  mice use to come and go from
buildings  must be closed. These preventive measures
are the key to successful control. To prevent rodent
migration, it-is best to poison or trap before making
environmental changes.

The two categories of rodenticides are multiple-dose
anticoagulants and single-dose  toxicants. F.ach  ro-
dcnticide  has special  characteristics, uses, and haz-
ards. Some  are  highly  toxic  to humans  and  pets.
Mix, handle, and apply them according to  label
directions. Keep  baits away from people and  desir-
able animals. Place them deep  into  burrows or  use
bait  stations. Dispose  of  excess   baits   and  dead
animal  carcasses frequently.

Mice will eagerly sample new food. Rats, however,
usually approach new food with caution. If it  tastes
bad or  makes them sick, they will not cat it again.
This is "bait shyness".  When  using  bait for control,
use a bait that is fresh  and identical to the food  the
rats are using. If you use a different bait base, pre-
bait in  the area for a  few nights before  using a toxic
bait.  Rats require water  to  drink.  Mice  may  get
water from the  food  they eat.  If all water sources
can be  eliminated, liquid baits are very cll'eetive  for
rats but only moderately so for mice.

Both rats and mice prefer to run  next to walls or
other surfaces. Place traps and baits in  these run-
ways. Traps  may be  used with bait, or  the trigger
device  may  be   expanded and used without  bait.
Place  trigger end of  the trap toward  the  wall.
Rats  approach new objects cautiously and  may be
"trap shy".

The mouse investigates any  new object  or change
in its territory, so that  changing placement of baits
or  traps  will improve   control.  Each  male  house
mouse establishes a terrilorv which  may  not extend
                                                                       more  than 10 feet from  the nest.  For this  reason,
                                                                       baits  and traps should be placed no more than 10
                                                                       to  20 Feet apart. To  encourage  mice  to range
                                                                       farther to find food and water, disrupt their environ-
                                                                       ment  as often as is practical.


                                                                       Birds  are pests when they:
                                                                       • deface  and  destroy  structures, plants,  and other
                                                                       • cause disturbances with their noise and droppings,
                                                                       • contaminate food supplies,
                                                                       • carry various diseases  and ectoparasites.

                                                                       Birds  that may require control  are  pigeons, English
                                                                       sparrows and starlings.

                                                                       Pigeons arc pests in towns  and cities where they
                                                                       deface buildings with their droppings  and nests.
                                                                       Sparrows are small birds that  often  nest in or  on
                                                                       Starlings are pests in the city and  rural areas. They
                                                                       are  dark, short-tailed  birds,  intermediate  in size
                                                                       between pigeons and sparrows. They are objection-
                                                                       able  when they roost in large  numbers near  Siuman
                                                                       Sanitation is the lirsl step in  control.  Remove food,
                                                                       wuter, and habitat. Control methods include building
                                                                       out. removing food,  and using repellents,  traps, or

Building out involves using new construction features
or modifying existing features  so that birds cannot
rodst or nest.  Repellents include various devices or
substances installed on buildings,  such  as  noise
makers (distress calls), charged wires, and  repellent
glues or jellies. Traps are often used successfully in
pigeon control, especially when prebaited  for a few
days. Population reduction includes shooting (where
permissible) and the use of avicides. Chemical con-
trol  is probably the most effective method. Follow
label directions closely.


Bats are night flying mammals. They have leathery
membranous  wings.  They roost  in attics, hollow
walls,  chimneys,  caves, barns, hollow  trees  and
other similar  places.  In addition  to the  general
nuisance and odors associated with bat infestations.
they  harbor  ectoparasites that may attack  man.
They carry and are subject to rabies. Bats can best
be controlled by closing all openings through which
they may enter structures to  roost.  Carefully ob-
serve bats leaving  roosting areas. Locate  and close
entrance openings.
                            Little Brown Bat

Skunks  create nauseating  odors,  damage  fawns,
harbor ectoparasites, and are subject to rabies. They
may enter buildings. Entrances  should  be  closed
when the  skunk is  outside or it  may  be baited to
trap outside the building for  removal  to a remote

Squirrels of various species may enter buildings and
be a nuisance or do damage  to the structure.  They
may bite when cornered.  They carry ectoparasites.
Squirrels can be controlled by  closing openings, by
using repellents or by using live  traps to  remove
them to remote areas. Where it is  permitted, squir-
rels  may be shot.
Moles  burrow underground  and rarely come above
ground. Their burrows deface lawns and  they may
damage the roots of ornamental plants as they search
for earthworms  and insects. Traps specifically de-
signed  for mole  control  may be useful in some
Snakes may find their way into and around buildings.
Most of  them are not poisonous but may frighten
humans and may bite  when disturbed. Removal of
food and hiding places will usually force  snakes out
of an  area.  Keep  snakes  from  getting inside  by
closing all  points of entry.
                                                    Weeds around structures may need control because:
                                                    •  they create  a  fire hazard,
                                                    •  they harbor insects or rodents, and
                                                    •  they shorten the life of metal fences and buildings.

                                                    Weed control  can be done by:
                                                    •  Non-selective  vegetation control (bare ground)—
                                                       residual, broad-spectrum  herbicides used to kill
                                                       all  plant growth and prevent new growth for a

   season  or more.  Used where reduction of  fire
   hazard  is important.
   Short-term   vegetation  control—herbicides   are
   used at rates  that  give a good knockdown  of
   existing vegetation and retard  the regrowth. Used
   where bare ground is not necessary.
   Selective weeding—control of  certain plants with-
   out  permanent injury to desirable plants.
   Chemical trimming  and pruning—use  of contact
   herbicides  lo give  narrow  bands  of  controlled
   weeds around desirable plants  or buildings. Often
   used to give mowing strip around trees or under
   guard rails.
   Mechanical  or  cultural  control—use  of  hoes,
   blades,  fertilization,   landscaping,  competitive
   planting, or  other nonchemical methods to con-
   trol  unwanted vegetation.
Herbicides can be applied as prccmcrgence or post-
emergence treatments. A  herbicide can affect plants
by:  ~
•  killing the plant or plant parts that it contacts,
*  killing when the herbicide is absorbed by foliage
   and transported throughout the plant, or
•  killing when roots  absorb the herbicide dissolved
   in soil moisture  and translocated throughout  the
   plant (may last a season or more  in the soil  but
   requires rain, irrigation, or mechanical incorpora-
   tion—discing—for activation in the soil).

Factors affecting herbicide performance:
•  Type of weed—all  herbicides arc selective to some
   extent and will fail to  kill  some types  of plants.
   Some herbicides will work  better on  grasses and
   some  will  work  better on   broadleaf  plants.
   Perennial  weeds can often grow back from their
   extensive root systems  and  will require multiple
   treatments  or  special techniques  and  herbicides.
   Brush control may be particularly difficult  but
   can  be done in the following ways:
     Foliage  absorbed—usually applied  in the sum-
     Basal  stem—applied to  soil around stems  or
     clumps  in late winter or early summer.
     Stump treatment—application of herbicides to
     freshly cut stump.
     Dormant cane  treatment—applications of fuel
     oil during winter.
•  Type of soil—sand or other  soil  low in  clay and
   organic  matter will not absorb the herbicide  as
   much,  so  lower  amounts will  give  equivalent
   results.  Leaching  will be  more  of  a  problem.
   Soils high in  clay or  organic matter will absorb
   some of the herbicide. More  herbicide and  more
   rainfall is usually necessary for effective control.
•  Rainfall—too  much  rain soon  after a  contact
   herbicide is applied  can nullify  its effectiveness
   but  the same amount  of  rain might facilitate the
   action of a root-absorbed herbicide. Rainfall may
   also wash herbicides away from the target plants,
   injuring  nontargct plants and animals.
•  Growth  stage  of  plant—foliage-absorbed herbi-
   cides will usually  work only when the  plant  is
   actively  growing.  Prcemcrgence  herbicides  must
   be  applied  before the weeds  have  emerged  or a
   contact  herbicide  will  have  to be  added to kill
   those that have emerged.  Where  selective herbi-
  cides are used, it  is important that  the nontarget
   plants be healthy.
•  Sunlight-—some herbicides can be nullified if they
   remain on the  soil surface loo long before a rain
   washes them in.

Choose equipment for the  type of  herbicide treat-
ment  desired.

The pump will usually be a high volume  (10 gpm
or more) but  low pressure (50-100 Ibs psi). Noz/les
will usually be selected  to give  uniform  coverage
with large droplets  to minimize  drift.  Mechanical
agitation in the tank is required if wettable powders
will he used.