United States
         Environmental Protection
         Agency	
Prevention, Pesticides
And Toxic Substances
I7503C)
EPA-733-R-96-002
vvEPA
               FINAL  REPORT
         Survey of 1993 Pesticide
         Usage by Certified
         Commercial Applicators of
         Non-Agricultural Pesticides

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                                   Information Resources Center
                                   US EPA
                   FINAL REPORT:

        RESULTS OF THE 1993 CERTIFIED
COMMERCIAL PESTICIDE APPLICATOR SURVEY
                       Prepared for:

                  Economic Analysis Branch
            Biological and Economic Analysis Division
                 Office of Pesticide Programs
       Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances
             U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                       Prepared by:

                  Research Triangle Institute
                   Post Office Box 12194
                   3040 Cornwallis Road
            Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2194

                EPA Contract No. 68-D2-0169
                     August 22, 1995

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 This report was prepared under EPA Contract No. 68-D2-0169 with Research Triangle Institute.
 The report was submit red to Edward Brandt, EPA Project Officer, and AI an R. Gooiner, EPA
 Work Assignment Manager, EAB/BEAD/OPP/OPPTS.  The report was submitted by Robert M.
 Lucas, Kerrie E. Boyle, Jill A. Dever, Barbara J. George, and Christy J. Jeffries ofRTI.  OPP
 staff prepared the work assignment and substantively participated in the preliminary examination
 of records, identification of population to be  sampled,  the survey design, the pilot, and (he
format for presenting the results.

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                                 Table of Contents



LIST OF EXHIBITS

LIST OF TABLES

OVERVIEW	  i

1.     Background   	   1

2.     Overview of the Survey Design	   1

       2.1    Target Population   	   2
       2.2    Sample Design	   2
       2.3    Instrument Development  	   4
       2.4    Data Collection	   4
       2.5    Data Processing  	   5
       2.6    Sampling Weights   	   6

3.     Characteristics of the Target Population	   6

       3.1    Certified Applicators   	   7
       3.2    For-hire Applicators	   9
       3.3    Not-for-hire, Certified Applicators  	    10
       3.4    For-hire Pesticide Application Businesses	    10
       3.5    Pesticide Usage Among Certified Applicators	    11

4.     Pesticide Usage Estimates  	  12

       4.1    General Estimates of Pesticide Usage	  13
       4.2    Indoor Versus Outdoor Pesticide Usage  	  16
       4.3    Pesticide Usage by Principal Target Pest   	  17

Appendix A  C\CPAS Questionnaire

Appendix B  List of Complete Active Ingredient Names

Appendix C  Expanded Versions of Table 12.

Appendix D  Expanded Version of Table 13.  Pesticide Usage by Active Ingredient

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                           Table of Contents (Continued)
Appendix E  Expanded Version of Table 14.  Pesticide Usage by Pesticide Type and
             Active Ingredient

Appendix F  Expanded Version of Table 15.  Restricted Product Pesticide Usage by
             Active Ingredient

Glossary of Selected C\CPAS Terms and Definitions

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                               LIST OF EXHIBITS
Exhibit 1.     Non-agricultural Pesticide Usage by Type of Respondent and
             Restricted vs General Use Products:  1993 C/CPAS	  x

Exhibit 2.     Distribution of Certified Applicators by Type of Respondent:
             1993 C/CPAS	xi

Exhibit 3.     Non-agricultural Pesticide User by Pesticide Type and Type
             of Respondent	  xii

Exhibit 4.     1993 C/CPAS Inference Regions	  3

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                                 LIST OF TABLES
Table 1.      Number of Certified Pesticide Applicators and Number of Certified Pesticide
             Applicators per Million 1993 U.S. Residential Population by For-hire Status
             and C/CPAS Region

Table 2.      Number of Certified Pesticide Applicators by For-hire Status and Pest Control
             Certification Category

Table 3.      Number of Non-agricultural Certifications from  1993 C/CPAS and 1992/1993
             EPA State Reports by Pest  Control Certification Category

Table 4.      Number of Non-agricultural Certifications and Number of Certifications per
             Certified Applicator by For-hire Status and Pest Control Certification Category

Table 5.      Number of For-hire Pesticide Applicators and Number of For-hire  Pesticide
             Applicators per Million 1993 U.S. Residential Population by Certification
             Status and C/CPAS Region

Table 6.      Number of For-hire Pesticide Applicators by Certification Status and
             Employer's Pest Control Certification Category

Table 7.      Number of Not-for-hire Certified Applicators by Employer's Type  of Business
             and C/CPAS Region

Table 8.      Number of Commercial Pesticide Application Businesses by C/CPAS Region

Table 9.      Number of Commercial Pesticide Application Businesses by Pest Control
             Certification Category

Table 10.     Pesticide Usage by For-hire and Not-for-hire Certified Applicators  and
             C/CPAS Region

Table 11.     Not-for-hire Certified Applicator Pesticide Usage by C/CPAS Region and
             Employer's Type of Business

Table 12.     Pesticide Usage by For-Hire Status, Employer's Type of Business and
             Pesticide Type

Table 13.     Pesticide Usage by Active Ingredient

Table 14.     Pesticide Usage by Pesticide Type and Active Ingredient

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 Table 15.     Restricted Product Pesticide Usage by Active Ingredient

 Table 16.     C/CPAS Regional Pesticide Usage by Pesticide Type and Restricted Versus
              General Use

 Table 17.     C/CPAS Regional Pesticide Usage by Pesticide Type and Active Ingredient

 Table 18.     Pesticide Usage by Site Category and Indoors Versus Outdoors

 Table 19.     Indoors  and Outdoors Pesticide Usage by Pesticide Type and Site Category

 Table 20.     Indoors  and Outdoors Pesticide Usage by Site Category and Restricted Versus
              General  Use

 Table 21.     Indoors  and Outdoors Pesticide Usage by Type of Pest and Active Ingredient

 Table 22.     Indoors  Pesticide Usage by Type of Pest

 Table 23.     Indoors  Pesticide Usage by Type of Pest, Principal Indoor Pest and Restricted
              Versus General Use

 Table 24.     Indoors  Pesticide Usage by Site  Category, Type of Pest and Principal Indoor
              Pest

 Table 25.     Indoors  Pesticide Usage by Type of Pest, Principal Indoor Pest and Active
              Ingredient

Table 26.     Outdoors Pesticide Usage by Type of Pest

Table 27.     Outdoors Pesticide Usage by Type of Pest, Principal Outdoor Pest and
              Restricted Versus  General Use

Table 28.     Outdoors Pesticide Usage by Site Category,  Type of Pest and Principal
              Outdoor Pest

Table 29.     Outdoors Pesticide Usage by Type of Pest, Principal Outdoor Pest and Active
              Ingredient

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                                    OVERVIEW
What is C/CPAS?

       C/CPAS  is an acronym for Certified/Commercial Pesticide Applicator Survey, a
       survey of pesticide applicators certified in five non-agricultural pest control
       categories:

                    turf and ornamental
                    right-of-way
                    industrial, institutional,  structural, and health-related
                    public health
                    aquatic.

Why was the survey conducted?

       P.L. 101-624, the Food. Agricultural, Conservation, and Trade Act required the U.S.
       Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S.  Department of Agriculture
       (USDA) to develop  a database and to publish annual comprehensive reports
       concerning agricultural and non-agricultural pesticide use.  The EPA and USDA
       negotiated a Memorandum of Understanding demarcating the specific application
       categories to be covered by the respective agencies to avoid duplication of effort, and
       the above five categories are EPA's responsibility.  The C/CPAS survey is one of
       many  EPA efforts required by this act.

What is a certified/commercial applicator?

       Through cooperative agreements  with states, the EPA conducts educational and
       training programs on the legal, safe, and effective use  of pesticide products.  Specific
       requirements  van' from state to state, but all must satisfy minimal EPA requirements.
       Individuals who pass these training courses are certified applicators.  Restricted use
       products can be applied legally only by or under the supervision of a certified
       applicator.  Commercial applicators work for pesticide application businesses or other
       types of businesses or organizations and routinely apply pesticides as part of their
       jobs.

       Commercial applicators who work  for pesticide application businesses, such as typical
       pest control or lawn care businesses, are termed for-hire applicators because they

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       apply pesticides on the property of others for a fee.  Not-for-hire applicators are
       pesticide applicators who apply pesticides on the property of their employers as pan
       of their job. These latter applicators work for businesses or organizations such as
       golf courses, nurseries, or federal, state or local governments.

When was the survey  conducted?

       Planning for the survey began in 1991.  The sample design, draft questionnaire, and
       other data collection forms and protocols were developed in 1992 in consultation with
       representatives  of trade associations representing pest control and lawn care firms.
       The draft questionnaire was pretested with pest control and lawn care firms and
       individuals employed at nurseries, golf courses, and other industries.  In the summer
       of 1993, final preparation for conducting the survey began.  The questionnaire was
       finalized.  Lists of certified applicators and licensed or registered pesticide application
       businesses were obtained from the states.  These lists were processed to eliminate
       ineligible individuals or businesses, and a sample of about 3,000 businesses and 2,500
       individuals was selected.  Data collection began in late January 1994 and was
       completed in early April 1994.  Data processing and statistical analysis began in April
       1994 and will continue through the completion of this report.

Who was eligible for C/CPAS?

       Two types of respondents were eligible for the C/CPAS, for-hire pesticide application
       businesses and  not-for-hire certified applicators who did not work for a commercial
       pesticide application business.  The businesses  (or their employees)  and the individual
       applicators  also had to be certified in at least one of the five non-agricultural
       categories.   The final eligibility criterion  was that the business or individual had to
       have applied pesticides during 1993.
                                            n

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Who participated in C/CPAS?

       A total of 2,000 for-hire pesticide applicator businesses and 1,645 not-for-hire
       applicators were eligible for and responded to the survey.  However, not all of the
       respondents were able or willing to respond fully.  Of the 2.000 for-hire businesses.
       about 85 percent provided sufficient information so that we could calculate the amount
       of pesticide active ingredients they used in  1993.  A large fraction of the not-for-hire
       applicators (37 percent, or 609 respondents) reported that they did not use any
       pesticides during 1993.  Of the  1,036 individuals that reported that they used some
       pesticides in this year, about 84 percent provided sufficient information so that we
       could calculate the amount of pesticide active ingredients they applied in 1993.
       Overall,  90 percent of the 1.645 responding individuals reported pesticide usage
       information (either zero  or positive usage).

What data were collected?

       The major objective of the C/CPAS was to make quantitative estimates of pesticide
       usage by active ingredient, site category, and principal target pest.  Consequently, we
       asked each respondent to list even1 pesticide product they used in 1993.  For each
       product,1 we asked them to provide the product's EPA registration  number,
       formulation code, product name, and amount of formulated product that they used
       during 1993.  The respondent was then asked to estimate the percent of the  total
       amount they used by  selected site categories and by indoor versus outdoor use. For
       each site and indoor or outdoor use, we then asked the respondent to name the
       principal target pest.  The list of site  categories included an agricultural category
       allowing  us to  exclude agricultural usage from the data analysis.

       Some additional information was collected from the respondents, depending on
       whether they were a for-hire application business or a not-for-hire applicator.   If the
       respondent was a for-hire business, we collected information so that we could define
       the "business reporting unit" and accurately analyze the data. We also asked the
       business  respondents to tell us their total number of year-round and seasonal pesticide
       applicators and the  number of year-round and seasonal applicators that were certified.
    'Because some respondents used a large number of products, we developed a special procedure to
reduce their reporting burden.  If a respondent reported that they used more than 20 products, we
asked them to provide detailed data for all restricted use products and a random sample of at most 15
general use products.

                                            iii

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        If the respondent was an individual, we ascertained if they worked for a for-hire
        pesticide application business.  If the individual worked for a for-hire business, they
        were considered ineligible because they were represented by their employer.  If they
        did not work for a for-hire business, they were classified as a not-for-hire applicator.
        The not-for-hire applicators were asked about the kind of business or organization in
        which they worked, such as a golf course, nursery, or governmental agency.  In some
        situations, the employer of the individuals was unable to provide pesticide usage
        information for only the individual selected for the survey.  In these situations, we
        obtained the  total pesticide usage information for all the applicators employed by the
        business or organization as well as the  number of applicators at  that business or
        organization  so the data could be analyzed properly.

        A second component of data collection was completed on a subsample of the
        respondents.  A random sample of their pesticides usage records was  selected and key
       data items were recorded.   The record  abstraction component was done on a pilot
        scale to gain experience in the many diverse record keeping situations that were
       expected to arise. An evaluation of record abstraction protocols and analysis of the
       data is planned and will be reported in a separate document.

How much pesticide usage was estimated?

       We estimate  that 69.2 million pounds of active ingredients2 were applied in the U.S.
       during 1993  by the businesses and individuals eligible for the survey.   The for-hire
       businesses accounted for 39.6 million pounds (57 percent) versus 29.6 million pounds
       (43 percent)  for the  not-for-hire applicators.  Of the total estimate of active
       ingredients used in 1993, 11.1 million pounds (16 percent) were contained in
       restricted use products versus 58.1 million pounds (84 percent) contained in general
       use products.

Is there any non-agricultural pesticide usage not included in the  survey?

       Yes, major components of non-agricultural pesticides usage were not included in the
       C/CPAS. The survey focused on for-hire businesses or not-for-hire applicators
   ^Pounds of active ingredient were calculated by adjusting the total amount of product reported
using the percent concentration of each active ingredient the product contained. Oils and solvents
were excluded.
                                            IV

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       certified to use restricted products in the five non-agricultural usage categories but
       collected data on both restricted and general use product usage by these businesses
       and applicators.  However, a large fraction of the general use products are applied by
       persons not covered by the survey, that is, persons not certified.  Consequently, their
       usage is not included in the C/CPAS estimates.


       One major category was intentionally excluded — wood preserving pesticide products
       used by commercial, wood-preserving plants. These plants were intentionally
       excluded because the American Wood-Preservers' Association periodically conducts a
       survey of the entire industry and publishes a comprehensive  report that includes
       estimates of the amounts of active ingredients used and the types of materials treated.
       The comprehensive report provides accurate estimates of the usage of these chemicals.
       The C/CPAS,  however, does include estimates of wood preservative  usage by
       certified applicators not employed by commercial, wood-preserving plants.


       The survey was not designed to estimate home and garden pesticide usage by home
       owners and renters.  Consequently, this major  component of general use product
       usage is not included in the C/CPAS pesticide usage estimates.


       Some other major  components of non-agricultural pesticide usage were only partly
       covered by the survey.  For example:

       •      The C/CPAS estimates that 4.5  million pounds of active ingredients were
              applied by about 11,000 employees of golf courses.   There are about 13.000s
              golf course facilities in the U.S., suggesting a potential underestimate of about
              15 percent. A comparison of the C/CPAS estimate with other information
              available in the  industry suggests that estimated pesticide usage on golf courses
              is underestimated by about 40 percent.  A possible explanation is that pesticide
              usage on golf courses by not certified applicators (but under the supervision of
              a certified applicator) was not captured in the survey.

       •      A comparison of the C/CPAS estimated  pesticide usage by employees of the
              nursery industry with other sources reveals that only  a small portion  (about 5
              percent) of pesticides used by nurseries was captured  in the survey.  Many
              states certify nursery employees as private  applicators, who were not eligible
              for the survey—this likely explains the low coverage  of this component of the
              C/CPAS.
   Statistical Abstract of the United States. 1993. page 253.  U.S. Department of Commerce.
Economics and Statistics Administration.  Bureau of the Census.

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       Other components of non-agricultural usage, such as usage by employees of federal,
       state, and local governments and utilities, compare well with other sources of their
       pesticide usage.  These comparisons suggest that the C/CPAS provides estimates for
       pesticide usage and use characteristics for pest control businesses as well as for most
       other major commercial non-agricultural usage.

How well can C/CPAS  estimate non-agricultural pesticide usage and use characteristics?

       Because the businesses and individuals participating in the C/CPAS were selected
       using scientifically valid statistical sampling procedures, estimates can be made for
       most commercial non-agricultural pesticide usage (with the exception of the two major
       components mentioned above).  The precision of these estimates reflecting  the
       "sampling error" of the survey can also be calculated.  The  "sampling error" is the
       term used to describe the uncertainty associated  with an estimate because we only
       collected data from a sample of the for-hire businesses and not-for-hire applicators as
       opposed to the entire population.

       The target population of the C/CPAS showed considerable variation among the
       respondents in number, type of products and amount of pesticide used.  Estimates
       based on a large number of respondents generally are more  reliable (that is, they have
       acceptably small sampling errors) than estimates based on a  few observations.  The
       more detailed and specific an analysis, however, the fewer the number of respondents
       who contribute to the estimate, thereby diminishing the reliability of the estimate.
       This phenomenon is true in all surveys but is exacerbated by the tremendous variation
       in the C/CPAS population's usage of pesticide products.

       As in anv survev. other sources of error mav affect the accuracy  of the estimates.
               v      rf •                         *                  *
       These other sources are discussed below.

What and how do other sources of error affect C/CPAS data quality?

       Four major sources of nonsampling errors can be  identified:  business or individual
       nonresponse. item  nonresponse. quality of the reported usage amounts, and analytic
       error.
                                           VI

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Business or individual nonresponse.

       C/CPAS was a voluntary' survey;  consequently, some businesses and
       individuals chose not to cooperate.  To reduce the potential underestimation of
       total usage, statistical analysis techniques were used to compensate for those
       who chose not to cooperate.

Item nonresponse.

       Item nonresponse results from the respondents' inability  or
       unwillingness to  answer specific questions, such as providing the EPA
       registration number for the products they used, the amount of products
       used, the percent used on the site  categories and indoors versus
       outdoors,  or the  principal target pest.

       A substantial effort was made to impute logical responses for the
       missing data items.  For cases where a logical imputation could not be
       made with confidence, the items were coded as pan of an other/missing
       category.

       Usage amounts were never imputed.  Consequently, this missing data
       introduced some  underestimation of the usage estimates.  The percent
       of missing amounts was small, suggesting that the underestimation was
       minor.

Quality of reported usage amounts.

       Source  of usage  data largely determines quality.  The respondents  were
       encouraged to  refer to usage records or purchase and inventory records
       to fill out a special form that was  mailed to them prior to the interview.
       Most respondents completed the form before the interview using
       purchase records.  Use of records, as opposed to recall,  to provide the
       product amount data should have minimized this source of error.
                                    VII

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       Analytic error.

              Convening amounts of formulated product to pounds of active
              ingredient is  another source of error.  Amounts of reported product
              were first standardized to pounds or gallons based on whether they
              were solid or liquid formulations.  Gallons of liquid formations were
              then converted  to pounds using the density of water.  Because the
              density of most liquid products is not equal to the density of water, this
              assumption introduces error into the pounds active ingredient.  This
              error is anticipated to be minor because most products'  densities are not
              substantially different from water.

              Some  illogical associations between pesticide type and pest type arise
              from some of the data collection protocols.  We asked the respondent
              to provide only one "principal" target pest for each site
              category/indoor/ outdoor usage report.  Some products contain more
              than one active  ingredient (for example, an insecticide and a herbicide).
              In these situations, some respondents reported the "insect pest" and
              others reported  the "plant pest." Consequently, there were
              inconsistencies between pesticide type and pest type.  An example was
              an insecticide used to control weeds.  The usage amounts associated
              with these inconsistencies were generally minor.

Can individual applicators or businesses who participated in  the survey be identified?

       No, the C/CPAS was confidential.  Data will be published only in aggregate form so
       that no respondents can be identified. Any data files that are provided to EPA or
       released to  the public will be constructed so that no businesses or individual
       applicators  can be identified. Only general geographic information, such as state, will
       be included on the file.

What were the results of the survey?

       The main body of this  report contains extensive tabulations and illustrations of the
       results of the C/CPAS. These results are supplemented with detailed  appendices.  We
       conclude this  overview with illustrations of a few results.
                                           vui

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Exhibit 1 illustrates the distribution of non-agricultural pesticides usage in the U.S.
during 1993 by the two types of respondents, for-hire businesses and not-for-hire
applicators, as well as by restricted versus general use product usage.  The exhibit
shows that the businesses used about 10 million pounds more of active ingredients
than the  not-for-hire applicators.  The  exhibit also shows that restricted use products
were a relatively small part of total non-agricultural pesticide usage.

Exhibit 2 compares the number of certified applicators  by for-hire  versus not-for-hire
status. The exhibit shows that the number of for-hire certified applicators (those that
work for for-hire businesses), 69.8 thousand, is about three-fourths the number of
not-for hire certified applicators,  95.7  thousand.   The  exhibit does not show that  the
for-hire business usage includes pesticides applied by 29.6 thousand applicators that
are not certified.

Exhibit 3 illustrates pesticide usage in the U.S. during 1993  by  pesticide type and
type of respondent, for-hire business and not-for-hire applicators.  The exhibit shows
that herbicides are  the most used  pesticide by both types of respondents, about 40
percent of the total.  Insecticides  rank  second in total usage.   For-hire businesses use
relatively more insecticides than not-for-hire  applicators,  39  versus 24 percent.
respectively.  Note that both respondents use a relatively  large amount of multi-type
products.  Multi-type products are so named  because they can be used to control more
than one type of pest, for example, copper sulfate can be used as both  a fungicide and
algaecide.

Some respondents applied pesticides on agricultural sites as well as on the five non-
agricultural sites.  For each product reportedly used, the  respondent allocated total
usage among the agricultural as well as the five non-agriculture site categories.
Consequently,  we were able to calculate the percent of a  specific product's usage that
was applied to non-agricultural and agricultural sites.  The estimates illustrated in
these two exhibits as well as all tabulations in the remainder  of the report exclude
agricultural usage.
                                      IX

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Exhibit 1. Non-agricultural Pesticide Active Ingredient Usage by Type
          of Respondent and Restricted vs. General Use Products:
                              1993 C/CPAS
      80
                                                       58.1
             Total      For-Hire   Not-For-Hire  Restricted
                      Business   Applicators
General

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Exhibit 2.  Distribution of Certified Applicators by Type
               of Respondent:  1993 C/CPAS
  200
          Total
For-Hire     Not-For-Hire
                            XI

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Exhibit 3.  Non-agricultural Pesticide Active Ingredient Usage by
        Pesticide Type and Type of Respondent:  1993 C/CPAS
        Total
    Herbicide
   Insecticide
    Fungicide
    Fumigant
        Other
   Multi-Type
                                              39.6
             0       10      20      30      40      50

                       Million of Pounds of Al
          For-Hire Business  L_ Not-For-Hire Appl.
                             XII

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  Highlights of the 1993 Certified/Commercial Pesticide Applicator Survey
1.     Background

       In compliance with P.L.  101-624 of the 1990 Food, Agriculture, Conservation and
Trade Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for submitting a
report to the U.S. Congress describing annual, non-agricultural pesticide usage levels
nationwide.  To obtain data for this report, the Research Triangle Institute (RTI). under
contract to the EPA. designed and conducted the 1993 Certified/Commercial Pesticide
Applicator Survey (C/CPAS). The C/CPAS  covers a target population of all applicators
certified to apply restricted use products under five certification categories defined by the
Federal Insecticide. Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA):

              turf and ornamental
              right-of-way-
              aquatic
              industrial, institutional, structural and health-related
              public health.

       This report, the first volume in a series of three, begins with a brief overview of
C/CPAS survey design, followed by estimates of the characteristics of the  target  population
and of pesticide usage levels.  The tables (and exhibits) in this  report,  which appear
sequentially after the text, illustrate tabulations that can be conducted on the C/CPAS
database.  These tables highlight the 1993 C/CPAS results—we do not purport that they
exploit the richness of this database.  Finally, the second and third volumes of this report
will provide details about the survey design and document the analysis files, respectively.
2.     Overview of the Survey Design

       The C/CPAS design focused on restricted use product/non-agricultural usage.
Restricted use products (RUPs) can be legally applied only by or under the supervision of a
certified applicator and almost entirely under state certification programs approved by the
Administrator of EPA.  The five certification categories selected for coverage by the survey-
are the major non-agricultural categories of certification outlined in FIFRA.  Therefore, non-
agricultural RUP usage is well covered except for one component that was purposely

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 excluded — industrial use of wood preservatives because that portion of usage is covered by
 an accepted secondary source of data.

       In this section, we summarize the important features of the 1993 C/CPAS design.
 We discuss the target population, sample design, instrument development, data collection.
 data  processing, and sampling weights.

       2.1    Target Population

       The target population for the 1993 C/CPAS included all pesticide applicators certified
 during 1993 in at least one of the five non-agricultural pest control categories listed above.
 This survey did not cover all non-agricultural pesticide usage.  Because the target population
 included certified applicators (that is, applicators who can legally apply restricted use
 products),  the C/CPAS covers usage of restricted use products.  However, pesticide
 applicators who only apply non-agricultural general use products were not pan of the  1993
 C/CPAS target population.  Consequently,  their usage of non-agricultural general use
 products was not reflected in the  1993 C/CPAS estimates.  The 1993 C/CPAS also excluded
 pesticide usage by commercial, wood-preserving plants and home owners or renters.
 Finally, geographic coverage for  the survey was the 48 contiguous states and the District of
 Columbia.

       2.2    Sample Design

       The sampling units for the 1993 C/CPAS were commercial pesticide application
businesses and not-for-hire certified applicators, which were selected in two stages.  The
C/CPAS primary sampling units consisted of a county or a group of contiguous counties for
counties with small residential population counts in 1990.  The selected 159 primary
sampling units were located in 46 states.  This first-stage sample was allocated over four
geographic inference regions that were formed by combining the 10 EPA regions (see
Exhibit 4).  (Many of the subsequent tables present estimates by these four regions.)

       We contacted state agencies in these 46 states to obtain the second-stage sampling
frame source materials—that is, lists of certified applicators and, when possible, of for-hire

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 pesticide application businesses.  Telephone screening of certified applicators was required in
 several states where a list of for-hire pesticide application businesses was not available.  For
 these states, we developed indirectly a list of these businesses by querying  a sample of
 certified applicators about the businesses for which they worked.

       To improve  the efficiency of our design, we constructed  dual frames:  (1) for-hire
pesticide application businesses and (2) not-for-hire certified applicators (that is,  certified
applicators  not affiliated with a for-hire pesticide application business).  We stratified  the
frames using a hierarchical definition of pest control  certification category  that prioritized the
rarely occurring categories.  We  then selected our second-stage samples of about 3,000
for-hire pesticide application businesses and about 2.500 not-for-hire certified applicators.
       2.3    Instrument Development

       In addition to the telephone screening form, we developed a lead letter tailored to
either a for-hire pesticide application business or a not-for-hire  certified applicator, a
pesticide product form,  a questionnaire, and a record abstraction form.  EPA staff reviewed
these instruments, and we pretested them  on multiple occasions to minimize respondent
burden.
       2.4    Data Collection

       The C/CPAS questionnaire contained items to determine the:
       •      eligibility of the respondent

       •      other locations, other names, mergers or splits of commercial
              pesticide application businesses

       •      pesticide product usage

       •      number of year-round and seasonal employees in businesses and
              their certification status.

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Appendix A contains a modified version of the 1993 C/CPAS questionnaire with only one
pesticide table instead of 20 and a site code card,

       RTI staff developed training materials and  conducted five C/CPAS training sessions in
January  1993 that were attended by 140 field interviewers and 14 field supervisors.
Depending on their experience, the field interviewers attended up to a five-day session.  The
training  sessions were standardized to include classroom instruction, simulated practice
sessions, and exercises.   An EPA representative observed two of the training sessions.

       To minimize respondent burden, data collection occurred during a 10-week period in
late winter 1994. the off-season for many pest control applicators.  Approximately one week
after mailing a lead letter and pesticide  product form, the field interviewer telephoned the
selected  business or individual to schedule an interview. When the field interviewer visited
the business  or the applicator at his or her place of business, the interviewer requested the
pesticide product form to facilitate completing the questionnaire.  If the business or
individual was designated for record abstraction, the field interviewer then explained the
record abstraction process and requested access to the pesticide usage records.  The field
interviewer randomly  selected approximately 25 records to complete the record abstraction
form.

       Frequently, a reporting unit for the C/CPAS was a "cluster" of for-hire pesticide
application businesses or  a  "cluster" of not-for-hire certified  applicators.  This situation
occurred when a for-hire pesticide application business (or a not-for-hire certified applicator)
was unable to provide pesticide usage information for the selected business location (or
applicator) only. In addition to collecting the available pesticide usage data for multiple
businesses (or applicators),  field staff also recorded the number  of business (or applicators)
associated with the recorded pesticide usage data to be able to make multiplicity adjustments
to the weights.
       2.5    Data Processing

       After receipt at RTI. the questionnaires and record abstraction forms were batched,
manually edited, and keyed.  Numeric data were 100 percent key-verified to minimize data
entry errors.  Computer edits included checks on ranges and skip patterns as well as

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 consistency checks. A few respondents were recontacted to confirm or clarify some of their
 responses.

       The reported pesticide usage amounts were standardized to units of pounds of active
 ingredient in a series of steps. The reported amounts were first convened to pounds or
 gallons, based on whether there were solid or liquid formulations, respectively.  Gallons
 were then convened to pounds using the density of water.  The pounds of formulated product
 were then merged by EPA registration  number with the pesticide product files maintained by
 the EPA at their National Computer Center in Research Triangle Park, NC, to ascertain
 levels of active ingredient per product.  The  concentrations of each active ingredient in the
 product were used to calculate the pounds active ingredient.  These files then were merged
 with the sampling weights file.

       2.6    Sampling Weights

       The 1993 C/CPAS sample was a probability-based sample of the target population
 defined above.   RTI used analysis weights to properly  expand the sample data to describe the
 target population and its usage of pesticides.

       The sampling weights were the inverse of the probabilities of selection.  The sampling
 weights were adjusted to reflect multiplicities identified on the frame and through data
collection. Examples of these latter multiplicities include other locations, other names, and
 mergers or splits identified via questionnaire  items Q8 through Qll (see Appendix  A).  The
 resulting analysis weights also reflect additional adjustments for unknown eligibility status
 (for example, when the interviewer encountered a language barrier) and for reporting unit
non-response.  Finally, we used our proprietary  software to produce unbiased estimates of
parameters and their standard errors properly accounting for the complex design features.
3.     Characteristics of the Target Population

       Our investigation of the characteristics of the target population for the 1993 C/CPAS
includes a description of certified applicators, for-hire applicators, not-for-hire certified
applicators, and for-hire pesticide application businesses.  We conclude  this section with a
discussion of pesticide usage among applicators.

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       3.1    Certified Applicators

       Our initial discussion of the 1993 C/CPAS results focuses on the estimated number of
certified pesticide applicators in the U.S in 1993.  We look at the distribution of certified
applicators by for-hire status and C/CPAS region in Table 1.  In addition, the number of
observations used to make these  estimates and their standard errors also appear in this table.
(In most of the subsequent tables,  we present at a minimum these three data items.)  Table 1
also contains the estimated 1993  U.S. population count used to calculate the number of
certified pesticide applicator per million population.  Two figures immediately  follow Table
1 illustrating estimates included in the table.  Tables are  presented sequential!}' after the text.
Many tables are immediately followed by a figure illustrating the table's information.

       From the C/CPAS, we estimate  that there were 165,478 non-agricultural certified
pesticide applicators in the U.S. during  1993.   Among these, 42.2 percent were for-hire
applicators and 57.8 percent were  not-for-hire applicators (that is, 69.802 versus 95,676
certified applicators, respectively).  The Northeast had the greatest number of applicators and
the Central had the least number among the four regions.  However, the Central region had
the largest number of non-agricultural certified pesticide  applicators per million population,
797;  see Table 1.

       Like Table 1. Table 2 describes  the non-agricultural certified applicators in the U.S.
during 1993  but focusses on for-hire status and pest control certification status.  Because
many pesticide applicators hold multiple certifications, combinations of certification
categories are presented in this table.  For producing this table,  we assumed that all certified
applicators who worked for a commercial pesticide application business were certified in the
categories assigned to  that business.  Many states do not  register or license commercial
pesticide application businesses in a particular pest control category; rather, they require at
least one employee to  be certified in at least one category. For  these states, we assigned
certification categories by matching addresses of the businesses and addresses of the
applicators.   The business was then assigned the certification categories of any and all
applicators that matched to it.  Frequently, there were  not any matches of the business
addresses with at least one applicator's address.  We assumed this  situation  occurred because
the applicator's home  address,  not employer's address, was on the state file. In the case of
"no matches" for a business, the certification categories for the applicator's employed by that
business  were unknown.

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        The two most common pest control certification categories among non-agriculturaJ
 pesticide applicators were industrial, institutional, structural, and health-related and turf and
 ornamental.  There were relatively more not-for-hire pesticide applicators certified solely in
 aquatic, right-of-way and public health pest control (4.4 percent. 13.8 percent, and 7.2
 percent, respectively) than there were for-hire pesticide applicators certified in these
 categories (0.8 percent. 5.7  percent, and 0.2 percent, respectively).  This difference may be
 explained by the many state and municipal (not-for-hire) pesticide applicators that were solely
 certified in these categories.  On the other hand,  relatively more for-hire than not-for-hire
 certified applicators held multiple certifications (24.9 percent versus 16.3 percent,
 respectively). The diversity in job opportunities afforded by multiple certifications might be
 necessary for a commercial pesticide application business to remain viable.

       As discussed above, many applicators were certified in more than one pest control
 category.  Thus, in addition to the number of non-agricultural certified pesticide applicators,
 we also estimated from the C/CPAS the number of certifications held by these individuals
 during 1993:  208,592 (see Table 3). The most frequently occurring pest control
 certification category was turf and ornamental followed by structural, right-of-way, aquatic.
 and then public  health.

       We also  can compare C/CPAS estimates of the number of non-agricultural
 certifications held in  1993 to estimates culled from reports submitted  quarterly by states
 (Form 5700-33H) to  the EPA.  We present the estimates from  state reports for 1992 and
 1993  in the last  two columns of Table 3.  We have included results for 1992 and 1993
because, during  our list acquisition process, some states only could send files of certified
pesticide applicators and commercial pesticide application businesses that were active in
 1992.  These lists were used for constructing the  second-stage frame for the 1993 C/CPAS.

       The estimates from the 1993 C/CPAS and from the state reports  are comparable for
 all pest control certification categories except (1)  industrial, institutional, structural and
health-related, and (2) turf and ornamental.  For these two categories, the estimated number
of non-agricultural certifications  from C/CPAS is substantially  less than  that reported by
states to the EPA.  At this time,  we do not know why our estimates for  these two categories
differ from the state reports.  One possible explanation is that when we processed the state
lists, we deleted applicators whose certifications had expired.

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       We report in Table 4 the number of non-agricultural certifications held, the number of
applicators holding these certifications, and the ratio of these two estimates — that is. the
average number of non-agricultural certifications per applicator.  These estimates of the
certifications held are for the U.S. during  1993.  The sum of the number of certifications
held and of the number of applicators over pest control certification category does not equal
the total because of multiple counting (that is,  a certified pesticide applicator may have more
than one certification).

       Non-agricultural certified applicators  in the U.S. during 1993 held, on an average,
1.26 certifications.  The  number of certifications per for-hire certified  applicator was higher
than that per not-for-hire certified applicator:  1.32 versus 1.22. respectively.  With  the
exception of the industrial, institutional, structural, and health-related pest control category,
this relationship remained when we look at specific non-agricultural pest control certification
categories.  As discussed previously,  this difference may be explained, in part,  by the fact
that for-hire  certified applicators may need versatility in the number of products used to
satisfy their customers need and therefore  seek to be certified in more  than one category  (that
is, multiple certifications) to maintain a business.  For both the aquatic and public health pest
control categories, such marketplace factors may explain the substantial difference between
the average number of certifications per for-hire applicators and not-for-hire applicators (2.43
versus 1.93. respectively, for aquatic and 2.72 versus 1.43. respectively,  for public health).
Pesticide applicators certified in structural  pest control or in turf and ornamental pest control
had the fewest number of certifications per applicator (1.44 and 1.47,  respectively).

       3,2    For-hire Applicators

       For-hire applicators are employed by a commercial pesticide application business  —
that is, a business licensed or registered by a state to apply pesticides on the property of
others for a fee.  For-hire applicators may or may not be certified.  Some of the for-hire-
business may be single-person firms where the owner also does all  pesticide applications.  In
some states,  applicators who are not certified may  apply  restricted use products under the
supervision of  a certified applicator.  Table 5 contains the distribution  of the estimated
number of for-hire pesticide applicators in the U.S. during 1993 by certification status and
region. The number of applicators per million U.S. 1993 population appears in the final
column of this table.

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        More than 70 percent of the estimated 99,330 for-hire applicators in the U.S. in 1993
 were certified.  The number of for-hire applicators per million population ranged from 263 in
 the West to over twice that number in the South (568).  Among for-hire applicators,  the
 number of certified applicators per million population was greater than the number of not
 certified applicators per million population in each C/CPAS region.  There were fewer for-
 hire,  not certified applicators per  million population  in the Northeast and West (52 and 63.
 respectively) than in the South or Central  (228 and 166, respectively) regions.

       Table 6 presents the number of for-hire applicators by pest control certification
 category and combinations thereof.  Because for-hire pesticide application businesses may
 also employ applicators that are not certified, we present the number of for-hire applicators
 by their certification status as well.  For the not-certified applicators,  we grouped them into
 certification categories  based on the certification category of their employer (or the
 certification category of the certified applicators who worked at the same location).

       3.3    Not-for-hire, Certified Applicators

       Table 7 contains the estimated distribution of 95,676 non-agricultural not-for-hire
 certified applicators in  the U.S. during 1993 by their employers' business type and C/CPAS
 region.  The type of business includes golf course; nursery;  public/governmental agency:
 utility; transportation,  industrial, and other commercial; other, refused or unknown; and no
 application.  Over 34 percent of these applicators  had an active certification but did not apply
pesticides in  1993.   (The large percent of  "inactive" applicators was unexpected and the
 questionnaire was not designed to capture  the type of business of their employer.)   Some
examples of such an individual are a state  inspector, pesticide salesman, or a supervisor in a
 state department of transportation  who manages a crew of pesticide applicators of right-of-
ways.  Over  33 percent of the not-for-hire certified applicators  were employed by federal,
state or local governments or other public  agencies.  The 11,123 certified applicators
working at golf courses represent  11.6 percent of this group.

       3.4    For-hire Pesticide Application Businesses

       There were  an estimated 33.096 for-hire pesticide application businesses in the U.S.
during 1993; see Table 8. Forty-one percent of the businesses were located in the Northeast:
 35 percent, in the South: 13 percent, in  the West; and 11 percent in the Central region.
                                            10

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       Table 9 presents the distribution of these businesses by pest control certification
category.  For-hire pesticide applicator businesses were assigned pest control certification
categories in one of two ways.  The first case is straightforward: some states license or
register businesses by category.  In the other states, we classified the businesses according to
the pest control certification categories of the certified applicators employed by that business.
About 34 and 31 percent of for-hire pesticide application businesses were "licensed" in turf
and ornamental pest control only and structural pest control only, respectively. Relatively few
businesses were just "licensed"  in aquatic, right-of-way, or public health pest control (0.7
percent,  1.8 percent, and 0.3 percent,  respectively).  As before, this pattern of "licensing"
among for-hire pesticide application businesses may reflect their need to offer versatile pest
control sendees.

       3.5    Pesticide Usage Among Certified Applicators

       During 1993, U.S. certified applicators  used over 69 million pounds active ingredients
in non-agricultural applications  (see Table 10).  For-hire applicators used the majority of these
pounds active ingredients, that is. over 57 percent. The remaining  30 million pounds active
ingredients were applied by not-for-hire certified applicators. There were regional differences
in non-agricultural pesticide usage.  Fifty-two percent of the non-agricultural pesticides used
by for-hire applicators was applied in the South while the least amount (6.3 percent) was
applied in the Central region.

       Table 11 provides additional information on the pesticide usage by the not-for-hire
certified applicators — specifically, the usage within region by employer's type of business.
Overall, 45.4 percent of pounds active  ingredient applied by not-for-hire certified applicators
in the U.S. during 1993 was used by employees of public or governmental agencies.  These
agencies include federal, state, and municipal governments.  Not-for-hire certified applicators
employed at  golf courses used an estimated 4.502 million pounds active ingredients in 1993.

       Table 12 provides estimates of non-agricultural pesticide  usage in the U.S. during 1993
by for-hire applicators and not-for-hire certified applicators specific to type of business and
pesticide type. Note that multi-type products are used  to control more than one type of pest
(for example, insects and plants).
                                             11

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        Almost 80 percent of the pesticides used by for-hire applicators was either an
 herbicide or an insecticide.  Similarly, the two most prevalent pesticides used by not-for-hire
 certified applicators were herbicides and insecticides, accounting for more than 63 percent of
 their usage.  Not-for-hire certified applicators applied relatively more  multi-type products
 than for-hire applicators (22.2 percent versus 8.7 percent, respectively).  Appendix B
 contains two expanded versions of Table 12 listing active ingredients.
4.     Pesticide Usage Estimates

       In this section, we provide estimates of pesticide usage by the C/CPAS eligible
population in the U.S. during 1993.

       Tables 13 through 29 present estimates of non-agricultural pesticides usage by  the
C/CPAS eligible population during 1993.  The tabulations follow a general pattern,
beginning with national level estimates of active  ingredient usage and proceeding to estimates
of active ingredient usage for a very specific situation.

       National level estimates  are given in Tables 13 through  15.  More detailed estimates
are then provided:  C/CPAS regional usage estimates in Tables 16 and  17, indoor and
outdoor usage estimates in Tables 18 through 21, and usage estimates by target pests in
Tables 22 through 29.

       The national and regional tables also include usage estimates by  active ingredient
contained in  restricted use products versus general usage products and by pesticide type.  The
indoor and outdoor tables describe pesticide usage by pesticide  type, restricted versus  general
use, active ingredient, or site category.

       The target pest tables are grouped by indoor usage (Tables 22 through 25) and
outdoor usage (Tables 26 through 29). Each set of four tables  follows the same pattern
presenting usage estimates by pest type, principal indoor (or outdoor) pest, site category, or
active ingredient.
                                            12

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       4.1    General Estimates of Pesticide Usage

       We present in Tables 13 and 14 estimates of non-agricultural pesticide usage in the
U.S. during  1993. Table  13 lists active ingredients is descending order of usage while Table
14 lists active ingredients in descending order of usage within pesticide type.  Chlorpyrifos.
an insecticide, was the  most-used pesticide in the U.S.  during 1993. followed by:  malathion.
another insecticide; glyphosate salt, a herbicide; 2.4-D, another herbicide; and methyl
bromide, a fumigant.  We examine pesticide usage by pesticide type. Herbicides accounted
for 40 percent of non-agricultural pesticide usage; insecticides, 33 percent; multi-type
products.  14 percent; fumigants, 7 percent; and fungicides, 5 percent.

       Note that 2-4-D and picloram salt appear twice in both tables, once representing the
amount of active ingredient in general use products and once representing the amount of
active ingredient in restricted use products. This double listing of active ingredients is
required because products, not active ingredients,  are restricted.  For example, the total
usage for 2-4-D is 3,814.000 pounds with only  11 percent in restricted use products. The
total usage for picloram is 276,000 pounds with 90 percent in restricted use products.

       A few of the active ingredient names are very long and were truncated to their first
40 characters when producing  the tables.  Appendix  C contains the  complete active
ingredient name, sorted by active ingredient code.  The interested reader can look up the
complete active  ingredient name in Appendix C, by the active ingredient code.

       Appendix D contains three expanded versions of Table 13 that list all active
ingredients, one ordered by pounds usage of active ingredient, the second ordered
numerically by active ingredient code, and the third ordered alphabetically by active
ingredient name.

       Appendix E contains an expanded version of Table 14. which lists all active
ingredients by type of pesticide.

       Because of the suppression rule  (see footnote  11 in both tables) to exclude unreliable
individual active ingredient estimates, several active ingredients with very large amounts
were not listed individually in  these tables.  Four active ingredients (MSMA. acrolein.
endothall. and copper sulfate) accounted for 18.0 million pounds (76 percent) of the
                                            13

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 estimated 23.6 million pounds included in the "Other RUPs" or "Other GUPs" categories in
 these two tables.

       The estimated usage for acrolein was 5.1 million pounds.  Because this estimate is
 based on only 6 observations, it is not considered reliable.  Most of this estimate arises from
 two respondents that used very large amounts of acrolein  to control moss in canals and
 laterals for  irrigation districts in the west.  Acrolein is a restricted use product as well as a
 multi-type product and accounted for  95 percent of the usage estimate for the  "Other RUPs"
 category. We investigated reports for acrolein and confirmed their accuracy.

       The  estimated usage for the herbicide MSMA was  6.5 million pounds.  Although this
 estimate is based on 170 observations, its  standard error is large.  Two respondents
 accounted for most of the total usage  estimate. One, a for-hire pesticide application
 business, used very large amounts to control weeds and grasses in oil fields.  The other was
 a state district highway department that used MSMA to control weeds and grasses on
 highway right-of-ways.   As above, we investigated  both of these respondents and confirmed
 the accuracy of their reports.  Furthermore, there were 51 certified applicators associated
 with this latter observation; this information was incorporated  into the analysis weights.

       Another herbicide, endothall, also  had a large usage estimate of 1.2 million pounds;
 however, this estimate was based on only  14 observations.  One respondent, a large, multi-
 location, commercial pesticide application business, accounted for most of the  estimate. This
 respondent specialized in waterway management and used  the product to control aquatic
 vegetation.

       Although the usage  estimate for copper sulfate (4.2 million pounds)  was based on 49
 observations, this estimate had a large  standard error.  The respondent who dominated the
usage estimate for copper sulfate used  very large amounts  of this pesticide to control algae in
 waterways.  Copper sulfate is a general use, multi-type product used as both an algicide and
a fungicide.  Copper sulfate accounted for 99  percent of the usage estimate for the "Other
 GUPs" category under multi-type products in  Table  14.

       Together.  MSMA and endothall accounted for 88 percent of the  estimate for the
 "Other GUPs" category under herbicides in  Table 14.  MSMA, acrolein, and copper sulfate
 accounted for 68  percent of the estimate for the "Other GUPs"  category' in Table 13.
                                           14

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       Even though the estimates for these specific active ingredients are not sufficiently
reliable to report separately, it is appropriate and necessary to include their estimates in the
total usage estimate.  The large uncertainty associated with these active ingredients arises
from sampling errors.  The four products have one major characteristic in  common:  they are
used only by a relatively small fraction of the population, ranging from less than 1 percent
for acrolein to only about 7 percent for MSMA.   Three of these products are special purpose
products, and some users apply very large quantities.  Consequently, the standard errors of
their estimates are  large and reflect the tremendous variation in their use in the population —
most do  not use products containing these active  ingredients and a very few use very large
amounts. In general, sample surveys do  not provide precise estimates for rare  or unusual
characteristics.

       Excluding these usage estimates from the  totals would underestimate those totals.
Most likely, other active ingredients have similar usage patterns — however, none of the few
"high users"  happened to be included in the survey.  Active ingredients that are
underestimated by chance are not noticed and do not appear to be problematic.
Consequently, we expect that for every estimate  that is "too big," there are estimates that are
"too small," and. on the average, these biases cancel out.

       We resume  our discussion of the tables.   The four products discussed above are
included on most of the remaining tables.

       Table 15 lists active ingredients contained in restricted use products  applied in the
U.S. during 1993.  These active ingredients are ordered from highest to lowest in estimated
usage. Only that portion of 2-4-D and picloram  usage from restricted use products appears
in Table  15.  The portion of these two pesticides' usage from general use products is
reported  in Tables  13 and 14.  Ninety-five percent of the usage in the "Other RUPs"
category' was the active ingredient acrolein, discussed above.  Appendix F contains an
expanded version of Table 15.

       Table 16 provides estimates of total pesticide usage in the U.S. during 1993 by
pesticide type and C/CPAS region.  There was large variability in usage among the four
C/CPAS regions.  The  relative amount of restricted usage product was similar for the four
regions except for the West.  The West estimate  must be interpreted  cautiously  because it
includes  acrolein as discussed above. Another factor that affected the distribution among the
                                            15

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 regions is that the regions vary substantially in their population.  The differences in pesticide
 usage among the  four regions  were reduced when we  examined usage on a per capita basis:
 the South region remained highest in per capita usage, but the Northeast region was the
 lowest, likely because of its climate and population density.  Per capita usage in the West
 region was very close to that of the U.S. overall, while per capita usage in the Central
 region, which is the most sparsely populated region, was between that of the Northeast and
 West regions.  Table 17 is organized similar to Table  16, but provides usage estimates by
 active ingredient.

 4.2    Indoor Versus Outdoor Pesticide Usage

       Tables 18 through 21 present estimates of pesticide usage in the U.S. during 1993 by
 site category and indoor versus outdoor use. in increasing level of detail.  Table 18 provides
 estimates  by the C/CPAS site categories.   Within each site category,  we present usage
 estimates  by indoor or outdoor location in addition to  the total.

       The two accompanying exhibits illustrate key characteristics of the  estimates given in
 Table  18.  The first exhibit illustrates  the difference in pesticide usage among the six  site
 categories.  (Note that in the exhibit we prorated the pesticide  usage for the "commercial
 indeterminate" category  in Table 18.)   The commercial indeterminate  category  was included
 in anticipation that some respondents would not be able to allocate their commercial
 applications to one or the other of the  two more'specific commercial  categories.) Residential
 applications represented  the largest fraction of both indoor and outdoor usage.   The second
 largest outdoor usage estimate  was for  the other category, which includes highway right-of-
 ways,  wide-area application for mosquito control, and general  weed control in oil fields.

       The second exhibit illustrates that most pesticides (that is, 86 percent) were applied
 outdoors.   The relative amounts of indoor versus outdoor usage differed substantially  among
the site categories  as illustrated in the third exhibit.  The commercial
 wholesale/manufacturing category has  the highest percent of indoor pesticide usage (70
percent) while the sanitation/utility category has the highest percent of outdoor  pesticide
usage (99.9 percent).

       The usage estimates in Table 19 are a partition by pesticide type  of those in Table 18.
The estimated 286.000 pounds of indoor usage of herbicides warrant  some comments. Most
                                            16

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of this estimate, 95 percent, is for one active ingredient, disodium octaborate tetrahydrate.
The respondents, however, reported various types of target pests: most reported insects; a
few, plant disease/organisms such as funguses; and  one. wood—destroying pests.  Most
likely this active ingredient protects wood in structures from various wood destroying pests.
Other indoor uses of herbicides may be legitimate, while others may be due to reporting or
coding errors.

       Table 21 presents estimates of  indoor and outdoor pesticide usage in the U.S. during
1993 by  site category and  restricted versus general use products.  Table 21 supplements
Table 20 by presenting estimates for specific active  ingredients organized by the type of
target pest.  Sixty-one percent of the pesticides applied at commercial
wholesale/manufacturing sites are restricted use products.  On the other hand, only 2 percent
of pesticides applied  at recreational sites are restricted use products.
       4.3    Pesticide Usage by Principal Target Pest

       Tables 22 through 29 examine pesticide usage, both indoors and outdoors, by
principal target pest.  We encouraged the respondents to provide only one "principal" target
pest realizing  that many products can be used to control, often simultaneously, many
different pests.  The data collection protocol introduced some illogical  association between
the pesticide type and the type of pest. When a  product contains two active ingredients and
they are different pesticide types, and only  one pest is reported,  an inconsistency can result
between pesticide type and pest type.  For example, some products contain both 2-4-D, an
herbicide, and chlorpyrifos. an insecticide.  Some users of this product considered the insect
as the primary target pest, resulting 2-4-D being reported  to treat an insect.   Other users
considered weeds to be the principal target  pest, resulting  in chlorpyrifos being reported to
treat weeds.  The pesticide usage estimates  associated with such inconsistencies are relatively
small, and the resulting inconsistencies are  only  apparent in the active ingredient level tables.

       Tables 22 through 25 examine indoor pesticide usage by principal indoor pest.  Table
26 through 29 follow an identical pattern focusing, however,  on outdoor usage and outdoor
pests.
                                            17

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       Table 22 presents estimates of total indoor pesticide usage in the U.S. during 1993 by
type of pests.  Table 23 provides details about the Table 22 results and shows estimates of
restricted versus general use product usage for the major indoor pests reported in the
C/CPAS.  Over 90 percent of indoor applications are for the control of insects and other
invertebrate pests.  Furthermore, termites control is the most common activity, representing
46 percent of indoor usage.  Cockroaches are second major pest, accounting for 27 percent
of the total indoor applications.

       Tables 24 and 25 provide more detail on indoor pesticide usage in the U.S. during
1993.  Table 24 presents estimates of indoor pesticide usage by site category  and principal
indoor target pest organized by type of pest.  Table 25 supplements Table 24 by listing the
specific active ingredients used to control the major indoor pests.

       The remaining tables focus on the analysis of outdoor pesticide usage and principal
outdoor pests.  Table 26 presents estimates of outdoor pesticide usage in the U.S. during
1993  by type of pest.  Plants and weeds are by far the most commonly treated outdoor pest,
representing  55  percent of the  outdoor usage. Insects and other invertebrates are the second
most common, representing 30 percent of outdoor usage.  Vertebrates are the least common,
representing  only 1 percent of outdoor usage.

       Table 27 provides details  about the Table 26 results and shows estimates  of restricted
and general use product usage  by major outdoor pests within each pest type.  Forty-one
percent of the total outdoor usage is to control broadleaf weeds.  Other major outdoor pests
in terms of total outdoor pesticide usage are  insects  and other invertebrates (30 percent),
mosquitoes (10 percent), and termites (9 percent).  The diversity of outdoor pests relative to
indoor pests  is  illustrated by the fact  that 22  percent of the outdoor usage is used to control
other pests, while only  8 percent of the indoor usage is used to control other pests.

       Tables 28 and 29 provide more detail on outdoor pesticide usage. Table  28 presents
estimates of outdoor pesticide usage by site category and principal outdoor  target pest
organized by type of pest.  Table 29 supplements Table 28 by listing the specific active
ingredients used to  control the major outdoor pests.
                                            18

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                                                                                 Page 1 of 1
               Table 1. Number of Certified Pesticide Applicators1
                  and Number of Certified Pesticide Applicators
                  per Million  1993 U.S. Residential Population2
                      by For-hire Status and C/CPAS Region:

        1993 C/CPAS Results for Five Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                           Pesticide  Applicator Categories3
For-hire Status Number of Number of
and C/CPAS Region Observations Applicators
Total Certified
Total
Northeast
South
Central
West
For-hire, Certified
Total
Northeast
South
Central
West
Not-for-hire, Certified
Total
Northeast
South
Central
West

3,645
1,553
1.010
517
565
2.000
842
548
270
340

1.645
711
462
247
225

165,47s4
73,497
48.014
16,161
27,805
69,802
28,776
26.034
5.833
9,159

95,676
44,721
21,981
10.328
18.647
Number of
1993 US Applicators
Standard Population Per Million
Error (000,000) Persons

8.357
4,966
4.561
1.983
4.523
4,641
3.012
3,136
651
1.485

7.330
3.967
2.357
1,955
5,349

256.14
113.44
76.50
20.27
45.92
256.14
113.44
76.50
20.27
45.92

256.14
113.44
76.50
20.27
45.92

646
648
628
797
605
273
254
340
288
199

374
394
287
509
406
'Source questions: Q20. Q24 and Q25 (see Appendix A).
-T.S. Bureau of the Census Press Release # CB93-29. 29 December 1993.
'Includes turf and ornamental: right-of-way: aquatic: industrial, institutional, structural and health-related: and public health.
'Total may differ from the sum of the entries because of rounding.
                                           19

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       Distribution of Non-agricultural Certified Pesticide
        Applicators, U.S. 1993, by For-hire Status and
              C/CPAS Region:  1993 C/CPAS
 200
        U.S.  Northeast  South  Central   West
Total Certified  LJ For-hire, Cert. LJ Not-for-hire,  Cert
                           20

-------
       Distribution of Non-agricultural Certified Pesticide
    Applicators per Million 1993 U.S. Residential Population
     by For-hire Status and C/CPAS Region:  1993 C/CPAS
1,000
  800
  600
  400
  2OO
    0
         U.S.  Northeast South   Central   West
 Total Certified    For-hire, Cert.    Not-for-hire, Cert
                            21

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                                                                             Page 1 of 2
               Table 2.  Number of Certified Pesticide
          Applicators1 by For-hire  Status  and Pest  Control
                          Certification Category:

1993 C/CPAS  Results  for Five Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                     Pesticide Applicator Categories2
For-hire Status and Pest Control Number of Number of
Certification Category Observations Applicators
Tola] Certified
Total
Turf and Ornamental only
Right-of-Way only
Aquatic only
Structural only1
Public Health only-
Turf & Ornamental and Right-of-Way
Turf & Ornamental and Aquatic
Turf & Ornamental and Structural
Turf & Ornamental. Right-of-Way, and Structural
Other Combinations
Unknown
For-hire, Certified
Total
Turf and Ornamental only
Right-of-W'ay only
Aquatic only
Structural only
Public Health only
Turf &. Ornamental and Right-of-Way
Turf & Ornamental and Aquatic
Turf &. Ornamental and Structural
Turf & Ornamental. Right-of-Way. and Structural
Other Combinations
Unknown

3.645
1.039
312
162
760
163
209
102
170
87
397
244

2.000
582
46
28
556
14
127
31
137
61
195
223

165.478;
58.794
17.203
4.700
37.108
7.084
8.058
3.129
9.255
2.745
9.802
7.600

69.802
19.301
3.954
529
21.946
161
3.827
611
7.104
1.320
4.510
6.539
Standard
Error

8.357
4,816
2.173
1.043
2.454
1.856
1.506
685
1,001
468
983
1.339

4,641
2.109
1,383
264
2.208
31
1.338
237
867
232
781
891
  ;Source questions:  Q20, Q24 and Q25 (see Appendix A) and state list certification information.
  "Includes turf and ornamental: right-of-way: aquatic: industrial, institutional, structural and health-
   related, and public health.
  "Total may differ from the sum  of the entries because of rounding.
  JStructural includes industrial, institutional, structural and health-related.

-------
                                                                            Page 2 of :
               Table 2.  Number of Certified Pesticide
         Applicators1 by For-hire Status and Pest Control
                   Certification Category (Continued):

1993 C/CPAS Results for Five Non-agricultural  Certified/Commercial
                     Pesticide Applicator Categories2
For-hire Status and Pest Control Number of Number of
Certification Category Observations Applicators
Not-for-hire, Certified
Total
Turf and Ornamental only
Right-of-Way only
Aquatic only
Structural only
Public Health only
Turf & Ornamental and Right-of-Way
Turf 
-------
Relative Number of Non-agricultural  Certified Pesticide
  Applicators, U.S. 1993, by For-hire Status and Pest
     Control Certification Category:   1993 C/CPAS
                                         • ;**"vt-- -**-w'." ^^- • •ģ••—.•ģ•' • -. :
                                         ,--.;.,. •.*,-.:.~. _^,'.-~--f: :. •••-* -.

                                         i-:'H*.".->Nl-*"3?'"'-\*?-'' • •

                              24

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                                                                                          Pase 1  of !
Table 3.  Number of Non-agricultural Certifications1 from 1993 C/CPAS and
     1992/1993 EPA State Reports by Pest Control Certification Category:

        1993 C/CPAS Results for Five Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                             Pesticide Applicator Categories2
Pest Control
Certification
Category4
Total
Turf and Ornamental
Right-of-way
Aquatic
Structural'
Public Health
Unknown8
1993
C/CPAS
208,59256
87,471
34,228
12,351
55,186
11,757
7,600
Standard
Error
10,385
5,912
2,758
1,499
2,999
1,936
1,339
State Reports3
1992 1993
259,634
106.991
39,276
10,202
89,865
13,300
NA9
320,152
123,365
45,816
14,563
123,680
12,728
NA9
       'Source questions:  Q20. Q24 and Q25 (see Appendix A) and state list certification information.
       :Inciudes turf and ornamental; right-of-way; aquatic; industrial, institutional, structural and health-related;
       and public health.
       3Source of state reports is EPA 5700-33H forms.
       The estimated number of certifications in any one pest control category is the number of applicators
       certified in that category.
       5This is the estimated number of certifications which is greater than the estimated number of certified
       applicators reported in Table 1  because some applicators are certified in more than one category.
       Total may differ from the sum  of the entries because of rounding.
       ^Structural includes industrial, institutional, structural and health-related.
       "The unknowns are from businesses with unknown pest control certification categories, and we assumed
       one certification per person.
       vNot applicable.
                                               25

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                                                                                         Page 1 of I
             Table 4.  Number of Non-agricultural Certifications and
                Number of Certifications per Certified Applicator1
           by For-hire Status and Pest Control Certification  Category:

       1993 C/CPAS Results for Five Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                             Pesticide Applicator Categories2
For-hire Status and Number of Number of
Pest Control Number of Certifications Number of Certifications Standard
Certification Status Observations Held Applicators per Applicator Error
Total Certified3
For-hire, Certified3
Not-for-hire, Certified3
Total
Turf and Ornamental
Right-of-Way
Aquatic
Structural5
Public Health
Unknown
For-hire
Turf and Ornamental
Right-of-Way
Aquatic
Structural
Public Health
Unknown
Not-for-hire
Turf and Ornamental
Right-of-way
Aquatic
Structural
Public Health
Unknown
3.645
2,000
1,645

1.837
874
482
1.263
353
244

1.053
347
144
901
113
223

784
527
338
362
240
21
208.592
91.960
116.632

125.842-1
59.645
25.102
81.350
20,287
7.600

55.374
22.057
5.971
49.902
7.229
6.539

70.468
37.588
19.131
31,449
13,058
1.061
165,478
69.802
95.676

87.471-
34.228
12.351
55.186
11,757
7,600

35.029
11.355
2.455
33.927
2,655
6,539

52.442
22.873
9.896
21,259
9.102
1.061
1.26
1.32
| IT

1.444
1.74
2.03
1.47
1.73
1.00

1.58
1.94
2.43
1.47
2.72
1.00

1.34
1.64
1.93
1.48
1.43
1.00
0.02
0.03
0.02

0.03
0.06
0.10
0.04
0.14
_<;

0.05
0.12
0.18
0.04
0.12
6

0.03
0.06
0.11
0.06
0.10
_6
'Source questions: Q20. Q24 and Q25 (see Appendix A) and state list certification information.
includes turf and ornamental: right-of-way: aquatic; industrial, institutional, structural and health-related; and public health.
:>Sum of certifications held and applicators over the pest control certification categories does not equal the total because of
 multiple counting across these categories. See footnote 4 for additional information.
'There are 87,471 applicators that are certified in turf and ornamental pest control. Some of these applicators are certified in
 other pest control categories. Consequently, the 87.471 applicators hold a total of 125.842 certifications. The average number
 of certifications  per applicator certified in turf and ornamental is 1.44.
'Structural includes industrial, institutional, structural and health-related.
    assumed one certification per person.
                                                26

-------
    Number of Non-agricultural  Certifications, U.S. 1992 and 1993,
   by Pest Control Certification Category and Source:  1993 C/CPAS
          350
          300
          250!
        •2200
        ro
        C/D
          150
          100
         I C/CPAS D State  Report,  1992 D State Report, 1993
1  The number of non-agricultural certifications estimated from the U.S. 1992 state
reports falls within +/- 2 standard errors of the 1993 C/CPAS estimate.
2  The number of non-agricultural certifications estimated from either the 1992 or
1993 state reports fails within +/- 2 standard errors of the 1993 C/CPAS estimate.
                                    27

-------
  Average Number of Certifications per Certified Applicator
       U.S. 1993, by For-hire Status and  Pest Control
           Certification Category:  1993  C/CPAS
3.0,
2.5
2.0
1.5!
Total Certified UFor-Hire, Cert.  LJ Not-for-hire, Cert
                            28

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                                                                           Pace 1 of 1
          Table 5.  Number of For-hire Pesticide Applicators1 and
           Number of For-hire Pesticide Applicators per Million
                      1993 U.S. Residential Population2
                 by Certification Status and C/CPAS Region:

     1993 C/CPAS Results for Five Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                        Pesticide Applicator Categories3
1993 US
Certification Status and Number of Number of Standard Population
C/CPAS Region Observations Applicators Error (000,000)
Total For-hire
Total
Northeast
South
Central
\Vesi
For-hire, Certified
Total
Northeast
South
Centra]
West
For-hire, Not Certified
Total
Northeast
South
Central
West
2.000-
842
548
270
340
2.000J
842
548
270
340
366*
124
145
42
55
99.3305
34,626
43.440
9.195
12,069
69.802
28.776
26.034
5,833
9.159
29.528
5.850
17.407
3,361
2.910
7.578
3.444
5.945
2.300
2.219
4,641
3.012
3.136
651
1.485
4.988
816
4,409
1.869
1.131
'Source questions: Q1S and Q20 isee Appendix A).
:U.S Bureau of the Census Press Release * CB93-29. 29 December 199?
•'Include:- turf and ornamental; right-of-way : aquatic: industrial, institutional, structural and
"The number of observations contributing to the estimates for tor-hire, certified applicators
256.14
113.44
76.50
20.27
45.92
256.14
113.44
76.50
20.27
45.92
256.14
113.44
76.50
20.27
45.92
health-related
is the same as
Number of
Applicators
Per Million
Persons
388
305
568
454
263
273
254
340
288
199
115
52
228
166
63
; and public health.
that for all for-hire
 applicators because for-hire businesses must employ at least one certified applicator.
Total may differ from the sum of the entries because of rounding.
"Includes only businesses that employ at least one not certified applicator.
                                         29

-------
       Distribution of Non-agricultural For-hire Pesticide
      Applicators, U.S.  1993, by Certification Status and
               C/CPAS Region:  1993 C/CPAS
   120
   100
CO

Z3
O
         U.S.  Northeast South  Central   West
Total For-hire L_ For-hire, Cert.  LJ For-hire, Not Cert
                             30

-------
  Distribution of Non-agricultural For-hire Pesticide Applicators
   per Million 1993 U.S. Residential Population by Certification
          Status and C/CPAS Region: 1993 C/CPAS
600
500
400
300
200
100:
       U.S.   Northeast  South  Central   West
Total For-hire  i   For-hire, Cert.    For-hire,  Not Cert.
                             31

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                                                                                        Page I of:
                Table 6.  Number of For-hire Pesticide Applicators1
               by Certification Status and Employer's Pest  Control
                                  Certification Category:

       1993 C/CPAS  Results for Five Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                             Pesticide  Applicator Categories2
  Certification Status and
  Pest Control Certification
  Category
  Number of    Number of    Standard
Observations   Applicators        Error
Total For-hire
Total
Turf and Ornamental only
Right-of-Way only
Aquatic only
Structural only5
Public Health only
Turf & Ornamental and Right-of-Way
Turf & Ornamental and Aquatic
Turf & Ornamental and Structural
Turf & Ornamental, Right-of-Way, and Structural
Other Combinations
Unknown
For-hire, Certified
Total
Turf and Ornamental only
Right-of-Way only
Aquatic only
Structural only
Public Health only
Turf & Ornamental and Right-of-Way
Turf & Ornamental and Aquatic
Turf & Ornamental and Structural
Turf & Ornamental, Right-of-Way, and Structural
Other Combinations
Unknown
2.0003
582
46
28
556
14
127
31
137
61
195
223
2,0003
582
46
28
556
14
127
31
137
61
195
223
99.3304
24,735
8,728
790
27.097
258
4,267
691
16,235
1,701
5,594
9.234
69,802
19,301
3,954
529
21.946
161
3.827
611
7.104
1,320
4.510
6.539
7.578
2,702
3.007
456
2.845
32
1.373
246
4,119
326
909
1.489
4.641
2,109
1,383
264
2.208
31
1.338
237
867
232
781
891
'Source questions: Q1S and Q20 (see Appendix Ai and state list certification information.
'Includes turf and ornamental; right-of-way: aquatic: industrial, institutional, structural and health-related: and public health.
The number of observations contributing to the estimates for for-hire. certified applicators is the same as that for all for-hire
 applicators because for-hire businesses must employ at least one certified applicator.
''Total may differ from the sum of the entries because of rounding
^Structural includes industrial, institutional, structural and health-related.
"Includes only businesses that employ at least one not certified applicator.
                                                32

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                                                                                         Page 2 of 2
                Table 6.  Number of For-hire Pesticide Applicators1
                by Certification Status and Employer's Pest Control
                            Certification Category  (Continued):

       1993 C/CPAS Results for Five Non-agricultural Certified/Commercia]
                              Pesticide Applicator Categories2
Certification Status and
Pest Control Certification Number of Number of
Category Observations Applicators
For-hire, Not Certified
Total
Turf and Ornamental only
Right-of-Way only
Aquatic only
Structural only
Public Health only
Turf &. Ornamental and Right-of-Way
Turf &. Ornamental and Aquatic
Turf & Ornamental and Structural
Turf & Ornamental, Right-of-Way, and Structural
Other Combinations
Unknown
366*
91
13
4
85
3
23
4
38
13
39
53
29.528
5,434
4.775
261
5,151
98
440
80
9,131
381
1,084
2.695
Standard
Error
4,988
1,235
2,329
195
1,123
5
130
46
4.052
125
262
758
 Source questions: Q18 and Q20 (see Appendix A> and state list certification information.
•Includes tun and ornamental: right-of-way; aquatic; industrial, institutional, structural and health-related; and public health.
 The number of observations contributing to the estimates for for-hire, certified applicators is the same as that for all tor-hire
 applicators because for-hire businesses must employ at least one certified applicator.
"Total may differ from the sum of the entries because of rounding.
'Structural includes industrial, institutional, structural and health-related.
'Includes only businesses that employ at least one not certified applicator.
                                                 33

-------
    Relative Number of Non-agricultural For-hire Pesticide
Applicators, U.S. 1993, by Certification Status and Employers'
      Pest Control Certification Category:  1993 C/CPAS
                               Fcr-hire, Net Certified
                             34

-------
                                                                           Pase 1 of 2
             Table 7.  Number of Not-for-hire Certified
           Applicators1 by Employer's Type of Business
                          and C/CPAS Region:

1993 C/CPAS Results for Five Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                    Pesticide Applicator Categories2
Employer's Type of Business
and C/CPAS Region
Total
Total
Northeast
South
Central
West
Golf Course
TotaJ
Northeast
South
Central
West
Nursery
Total
Northeast
South
Central
West
Public/Government
Total
Northeast
South
Central
West
Utility
Total
Northeast
South
Central
West
Number of Number of
Observations Applicators

1.645
711
46:
247
225

189
109
47
17
16

49
19
16
5
9

552
->->->
I3S
106
86

44
19
14
4


95.676J
44.721
21.981
10.328
18.647

11.123
6.309
3.128
549
1.137

3.442
1.245
1,155
154
888

31.723
13.884
6.584
4.483
6.772

2.496
1.211
532
-i-i -i
531
Standard
Error

7.330
3.967
2.357
1.955
5.349

1.000
741
461
180
454

648
304
342
72
453

3.742
2,419
981
977
2.497

665
355
145
131
527
     'Source questions: Q5. Q24 and Q25 tsee Appendix A>.
     "Includes- turf and ornamental; right-of-way: aquatic: industrial, institutional, structural and
     health-related: and public health
     "Total may differ from the sum of the entries because of rounding.
     ^Includes applicators with an active certification who did not apply pesticides in 1993.
                                     35

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                                                                           Page 2 of 2
             Table 7.  Number of Not-for-hire Certified
            Applicators1 by Employer's Type of Business
                   and C/CPAS Region (Continued):

1993 C/CPAS Results for Five Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                    Pesticide Applicator Categories2
Employer's Type of Business Number of Number of
and C/CPAS Region Observations Applicators
Transportation, Industrial, and
Other Commercial
Total
Northeast
South
Central
West
Other, Refused or Unknown
Total
Northeast
South
Central
West
No Application4
Total
Northeast
South
Central
West

71
35
16
11
9

131
71
it
20
18
609
236
209
84
80

4.933
2,787
756
655
734

8.869
4.869
975
1.135
1.890
33.089
14.417
8.849
3.130
6.694
Standard
Error

966
815
293
397
157

1,211
751
395
559
658
3.362
1.357
1.243
887
2.670
     'Source questions: Q5. Q24 and Q25 (see Appendix A).
     includes rurf and ornamental: right-of-way; aquatic: industrial, institutional, structural and
      health-related; and public health.
     :Totai may differ from the sum of the eniries because of rounding.
     Jlnc!udes applicators with an active certification who did not apply pesticides in 1993.
                                     36

-------
       Relative Number of Non-agricultural Not-for-hire Certified
     Applicators, U.S. 1993, by Their Employers' Business Type:
                           1993 C/CPAS
          Other/Refused/Unk.
                 9%
 Trans, Indus, Com
         5%
 Golf Course
     12%
    Utility
     3%
      Public/Government
             33%
                                                                 1
                                                   No Application
                                                        35%
                                                 Nursery
                                                    4%
1  includes applicators with an active certification but who did not apply pesticides in 1993.
                                 37

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                                                                             Page 1 of 1
      Table 8.  Number of Commercial Pesticide Application
                    Businesses1 by C/CPAS Region:

1993 C/CPAS Results for Five Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                     Pesticide Applicator Categories2
C/CPAS Region
Total
Northeast
South
Central
West
Number of Number of Standard
Observations Businesses3 Error
2,000
842
548
270
340
33,0964
13,594
11.553
3,709
4,240
1,328
901
688
450
525
         'Source questions:  Ql and Q2 (see Appendix A).
         includes turf and ornamental; right-of-way; aquatic; industrial, institutional, structural
         and health-related; and public health.
         'Commercial pesticide application businesses are licensed by states to apply pesticides
         on the property of others for a fee.
         'Total may differ from the sum of the entries because of rounding.
                                      38

-------
Relative Number of Non-agricultural Commercial Pesticide
 Application Businesses, U.S. 1993, by C/CPAS Region:
                    1993 C/CPAS
                          Nortneas:
            /
                                     \
                         39

-------
                                                                                       Page 1 cf 1
                 Table 9.  Number of Commercial Pesticide
                   Application Businesses1 by Pest  Control
                              Certification Category:

  1993 C/CPAS Results for Five Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                         Pesticide Applicator Categories2
Pest Control Number of
Certification Category3 Observations
Total
Turf and Ornamental only
Right-of-Way only
Aquatic only
Structural only*
Public Health only
Turf & Ornamental and Right-of-Way
Turf & Ornamental and Aquatic
Turf & Ornamental and Structural
Turf & Ornamental, Right-of-Way, and Structural
Other Combinations
Unknown
2.000
582
46
28
556
14
127
31
137
61
195
223
Number of Standard
Businesses4 Error
33.0965
11.225
612
?4'>
10.170
110
1.328
164
3,141
706
1,408
3,989
1.328
810
158
68
579
33
231
35
275
126
161
474
'Source questions:  Ql and Q2 (see Appendix A) and state list certification information.
includes turf and ornamental: right-of-way; aquatic; industrial, institutional, stnictural and health-related: and
 public health.
"Commercial pesticide applicator businesses were assigned pest control certification categories in one of two ways.
 The first case is straightforward:  some states license businesses by category. In other states, we classified the
 businesses according to the pest control certification categories of the certified applicators employed by that
 business.
^Commercial pesticide application businesses are licensed to apply pesticides on the property of others for a fee.
^Total  may differ from the sum of the entries because of rounding.
"Structural includes industrial, institutional, structural and health-related.
                                            40

-------
   Relative Number of Non-agricultural Commercial Pesticide
Application Businesses,  U.S. 1993, by Pest Control Certification
                  Category: 1993 C/CPAS
                             41

-------
                                                                              Page ! of 1
              Table 10.  Pesticide Usage1  by For-hire and
                Not-for-hire Certified Applicators and
                              C/CPAS Region:

1993 C/CPAS Results for Five Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                     Pesticide Applicator Categories2
Standard
Pounds AI Error
Region (000) (000)
Total
Total
Northeast
South
Central
West
For-hire Applicators
Total
Northeast
South
Central
West
Not-for-hire, Certified Applicators
Total
Northeast
South
Central
West
69,196?
19.597
32,697
4,325
12,577
39,618
11.875
20,668
3,079
3,996
29,578
7,722
12,029
1.246
8.581
9.062
2.331
7.317
1,074
4.690
5.345
1.768
4.885
952
817
6.803
1.977
4,387
443
4.788
         'Source questions Q12. Q14. and Q15 (see Appendix A).  Reported product amounts
         were convened to pounds of active ingredient using the concentration of the active
         ingredient given in EPA's Product Label File located on the EPA mainframe
         computer in Research Triangle Park. N.C.
         Includes turf and ornamental: right-of-way: aquatic: industrial, institutional, structural
         and health-related: and public health.
         •"Total may differ from the sum of the entries because of rounding.
                                       42

-------
Distribution of Non-agricultural Pesticide Usage in Pounds (000),
     U.S. 1993, by For-Hire Applicators and Not-for-hire by
               C/CPAS Region:  1993 C/CPAS
           U.S.   Northeast South  Central   West
       Total  I	For-hire, Appl. Li Not-for-hire, Cert
                             43

-------
                                                                                          Page 1 of 2
                Table 11.  Not-for-hire Certified Applicator Pesticide
                              Usage1 by C/CPAS Region and
                               Employer's Type of Business:

        1993 C/CPAS  Results for Five  Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                               Pesticide Applicator Categories2
Region and Employer's
Type of Business
Total
Total
Golf Course
Nursery
Public/Government
Utility
Food. Transportation, Other
Other, Refused, Unknown
Northeast
Total
Golf Course
Nursery
Public/Government
Utility
Food, Transportation, Other
Other. Refused, Unknown
South
Total
Golf Course
Nursery
Public/Government
Utility
Food, Transportation, Other
Other, Refused. Unknown
Standard
Number of Pounds AI Error
Observations (000) (000)





Commercial/Industrial






Commercial/Industrial






Commercial/Industrial

8663
179
38
457
39
59
94
393
105
14
178
16
29
51
226
45
13
124
12
14
18
29.57S4
4,502
240
13.419
3.701
1,867
5.850
7,722
2,582
92
2.603
147
1.148
1,150
12.029
1,614
39
5.300
529
278
4.270
6.803
917
100
4,292
2.978
1,120
3,965
1,977
483
53
1.577
55
1,072
598
4,387
772
27
1,481
349
167
3,908
'Source questions Q5, Q12, Q14. and Q15 isee Appendix A.I. Reported product amounts were convened to pounds of active
 ingredient using the concentration of the active ingredient given in EPA's Product Label File located on the EPA mainframe
 computer in Research Triangle Park. N.C.
Includes turf and ornamental; right-of-way; aquatic; industrial, institutional, structural and health-related; and public health.
'A total of 1.036 (= 1.645 - 609) observations are presented in Table 5 as not-for-hire certified applicators who applied pesticides
 in 1993. Pesticide usace estimates in Table 11 are based on 866 not-for-hire certified applicators. Thus. 170 ( = 1.036 - 866)
 of these applicators did not supply sufficient information to calculate pounds AI,
*Total may differ from the sum of the entries because of roundme.
                                                 44

-------
               Table 11.  Not-for-hire Certified Applicator Pesticide
                             Usage1  by  C/CPAS Region and
                       Employer's Type of Business (Continued):

        1993 C/CPAS Results for Five Non-agricultural  Certified/Commercial
                              Pesticide Applicator Categories2
                                                                                          Page : of:
Standard
Region and Employer's Number of Pounds AI Error
Type of Business Observations (000) (000)
Central
Total
Golf Course
Nursery
Public/Government
Utility
Food, Transportation, Other Commercial/Industrial
Other, Refused, Unknown

126
15
4
82
4
7
14

1.246
43
13
847
67
216
60

443
13
13
322
64
187
37
  West
    Total
    Golf Course
    Nursery
    Public/Government

    Utility'
    Food. Transportation. Other Commercial/Industna]

    Other, Refused. Unknown
121
14
7
73
7
9
11
8.581
264
95
4.669
2,958
225
370
4.788
107
79
3,693
2,956
203
297
'Source questions Q5. Q12. Q14. and Q15 (see Appendix A).  Reported product amounts were converted to pounds of active
 ingredient using the concentration of the active ingredient given in EPA's Product Label File located on the EPA mainframe
 computer in Research Triangle Park, N.C.
"Includes turf and ornamental: right-of-way; aquatic: industrial, institutional, structural and health-related; and public health.
•'A total of 1.036 t= 1.6-15 - 609) observations are presented in Table 5 as not-for-hire certified applicators who applied pesticides
 in 1993. Pesticide usage estimates in Table 11 are based on 866 not-for-hire certified applicators. Thus. 170 ( =  1.036 - 866)
 of these  applicators did not supply sufficient information to calculate pounds Al.
'Total mav differ from the sum of the entries because of roundine.
                                                45

-------
     Relative Number of Non-agricultural Pesticide Usage by
Not-for-hire Certified Applicators, U.S. 1993, by Employer's Type of
                    Business: 1993 C/CPAS
                          Other, Refuse, Unk
                                20%
Food, Trans, Comm/lnd
   Public/Gov
      45%
                                                  Golf Course
                                                     15%
Utility
 13%
                                           Nursery
                                             1%

-------
                                                                                           Page 1 of ?
            Table 12.  Pesticide Usage1 by For-Hire Status, Employer's
                          Type of Business  and Pesticide Type:

       1993 C/CPAS Results  for Five Non-agricultural  Certified/Commercial
                               Pesticide Applicator Categories2
Standard
Pesticide Pounds AI Error
For-Hire Status Type of Business Type (000) (000)
For-Hire Applicators Commercial Pesticide
Applications Businesses All Types
Herbicide
Insecticide
Fungicide
Fumigant
Other
Multi-Type
Not-for-Hire Certified All Types of Businesses
Applicators that are not Commercial
Pesticide Applications
Businesses All Types
Herbicide
Insecticide
Fungicide
Fumigant
Other
Multi-Type
Golf Course All Types
Herbicide
Insecticide
Fungicide
Fumigant
Other
39.6 185
15.993
15.325
960
3,061
850
3.428
29.578
11.468
7,204
2.240
1,851
255
6.561
4.502
1.097
607
1.988
4
106
5.345
4.150
1.623
557
763
477
2,803
6.803
4,328
1,722
359
1.213
66
3.775
917
197
142
344
-
34
 Source questions Ql. Q5. Q12. Ql-1. and Q15 (see Appendix Ai Reported product amounts were converted to pounds of active ingredient using
 the concentration of the active ingredient given in EPA's Product  Label File located on the EPA mainframe computer in Research Triangle
 Park. N.C
•Includes turf and ornamental: right-of-way; aquatic; industrial, institutional structural and health-related: and public health.
'Totals may differ from the sum of the entries because of rounding
"Usaee ereater than zero but less than 500 pounds
   " "                                          47

-------
                                                                                          Page 2 of ?
           Table  12.  Pesticide Usage1 by For-Hire Status, Employer's
                   Type of Business and  Pesticide Type (Continued):

       1993  C/CPAS  Results for Five  Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                              Pesticide Applicator Categories'
Standard
Pesticide Pounds AI Error
For-Hire Status Type of Business Type (000) (000)
Multi-Type
Not-for-Hire Certified
Applicators Nursery All Types
Herbicide
Insecticide
Fungicide
Other
Multi-Type
Public/Government All Types
Herbicide
Insecticide
Fungicide
Fumigant
Other
Multi-Type
Utility All Types
Herbicide
Insecticide
Fungicide
Other
Multi-Type
703

240
152
75
12
1
-
13.419
4.815
5.475
56
11
66
2.996
3.701
532
342
30
-
2.798
696

100
82
62
6
-
-
4.292
1,659
1.644
20
9
28
2.451
2.978
246
308
30
-
2.775
'Source questions Ql. Q5. Qll Q14. and Q15 (see Appendix A). Reported product amounts were convened to pounds of active ingredient using
the concentration of the active ingredient given in EPA's Product  Label File located on the EPA mainframe computer in Research Triangle
Park. N.C,
:lnclude
-------
                                                                                          Page 3 of ?
           Table  12.  Pesticide Usage1 by For-Hire Status, Employer's
                   Type of Business and Pesticide  Type (Continued):

       1993  C/CPAS  Results for Five  Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                              Pesticide  Applicator Categories2
Standard
Pesticide Pounds AI Error
For-Hire Status Type of Business Type (000) (000)
Not-for-Hire Certified Food.Transportation, Other
Applicators (Continued) Commercial/Industrial All Types
Herbicide
Insecticide
Fungicide
Fumigam
Other
Multi-Type
Other.Refused.Unknown All Types
Herbicide
Insecticide
Fungicide
Fumigant
Other
Multi-Type
1.867
335
154
16
1.301
21
41
5.850
4.537
551
138
539
61
23
1.120
204
108
8
1.086
12
25
3.965
3,902
307
65
539
49
15
;Source questions Ql. Q5. Q12, Q14, and Q15 (see Appendix A). Reported product amounts were convened to pounds of active ingredient using
the concentration of the active ingredient given in EPA's Product  Label File located on the EPA mainframe computer in Research Triangle
Park. N.C.
'Includes turf and ornamental: right-of-way: aquatic: industrial, institutional, structural and health-related: and public health
Totals may differ from the sum of the entries because of rounding
'Usage greater than zero but less than 500 pounds
                                                49

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     Relative Distribution of Non-agricultural Pesticide Usage
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Insecticides
   33%
                                 Herbicides
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                                                   Multi-Types
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                                        Fumigants
                           Fungicides       7%
                               5%
                               62

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        Distribution of Non-agricultural Pesticide Usage in
Pounds (000), U.S. 1993, by Restricted Versus General Use Products
              and C/CPAS Region:  1993 C/CPAS
       U.S.
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  Northeast
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                         Thousand Lbs. A.I.
                       RUP  UGUP

                                65

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      Non-agricultural Pesticide Usage in Pounds per Capita
1993 U.S. Residential Population by C/CPAS Region:  1993 C/CPAS
                               0.43
           U.S.    Northeast  South    Central    West
                                66

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-------
                                                                                                    Page 1 of !
                               Table  18.   Pesticide Usage1 by  Site
                          Category and Indoors Versus Outdoors:

        1993  C/CPAS  Results for Five Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                                  Pesticide Applicator Categories2
Site Category
All Sites


Residential


Recreational


Sanitation/Utilities


Commercial Office/Retail


Commercial Wholesale/Manufacturing


Commercial Indeterrninanr


Other


Indoors or
Outdoors
Total :'
Indoors
Outdoors
Total
Indoors
Outdoors
Total
Indoors
Outdoors
Total
Indoors
Outdoors
Total
Indoors
Outdoors
Total
Indoors
Outdoors
Total
Indoors
Outdoors
Total
Indoors
Outdoors
Pounds AI Standard
Usage Error Number of
(000) (000) Observations
69.1884
10.025
59.164
24,145
5.178
18.967
10.649
219
10.430
5.449
7
5.442
10.099
1.978
8.121
2.895
2.034
861
284
42
243
15.667
567
15.100
9.052
1.470
8.970
2.890
604
2.698
3.559
204
3.523
1.251
5
1.251
3.844
621
3,778
1.136
1.092
210
74
18
66
6,111
539
6.088
38,996
15.424
23.572
17,360
7.717
9,643
4,200
169
4.031
1,097
102
995
11.955
5,698
6.257
2,293
1.133
1.160
689
262
427
1,402
343
1,059
 Source questions Ql 2. Ql 4 Q15. Q17a, Q17b. Q17c. and Q17d isee Appendix As. Reported product amounts were converted to pounds of active
 ingredient using the concenration of the acuve ingredient given in EPA's Product Label File located on the EPA mainframe computer in Research
 Triangle Park. N.C.
 includes turf and ornamental; right-of-way: aquatic: industrial, institutional, structural and health-related: and public health
 Totals may differ from the sum of the entries because of rounding
 The total usage in this tabU' is S thousand pounds less than the totals in Tables 10. Lv !-. 16. and 17 because some respondents were not able
 to allocate their usage to indoor versus outdoor.
;Some respondents were noi able to allocate their commercial applications to the two more specific categories.
'A large fraction of this other site category is for the treatment of aquatic weeds in irrigation ditches or canals, general weed control around oil
 wells and on right-of- was;;, and for broad area mosquito control.

                                                          73

-------
           Distribution of Non-agricultural Pesticide Usage in
    Pounds (000), U.S. 1993, by Site Category and Indoor/Outdoor
                       Location:  1993 C/CPAS
                             10.0
                  Total
             Residential
           Recreational
        Sanitation/Utility
     Comm  Office/Retail
     Comm Whole/Mnft.
                                  19.0
                         0.2
                              10.4
                        0.01
                           5.4
                 Other
                               15.1
                                                    59.2
                      0    10  20   30   40  50   60   70
                         Indoor  i	I Outdoor
1 "Commercial indeterminant" was prorated over the "commercial office/retail"
  and the "commercial wholesale/manufacturing" site categories.

-------
           Distribution of Non-agricultural Pesticide Usage in
   Pounds (000), U.S. 1993, by Indoor/Outdoor Location:  1993 C/CPAS
Outdoor
  86%
                                                       Indoor
                                                         14%
                                  75

-------
                                                                                                     Page 1 of 3
                   Table  19.   Indoors and  Outdoors Pesticide Usage1 by
                                Pesticide Type, and Site  Category:

          1993 C/CPAS  Results for Five  Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                                   Pesticide  Applicator Categories2
Pesticide
T>pe
All Types




Herbicide






Insecticide







Sit* Category
All Sites'
Residential
Recreational
Sanitation/Utilities
Commercial Office/Retail
Commercial Wholesale/Nlanufactunng
Commercial Indeterrrunanf
Other
All Sites
Residential
Recreational
Sanitation/Utilities
Commercial Office/Retail
Commercial Wholesale/Manufacturing
Commercial Indetenrunanr
Other-
All Sites
Residential
Recreational
Sanitation/Utilities
Commercial Office/Retail
Commercial Wholesale/Manufacturing
Commercial Indetermmant
Other"
Total
Pounds AI
(000)
69.188"
24.145
10.649
5.-U9
10.099
:.895
284
15.667
2"',55S
6.738
2.124
4.459
4.065
501
120
9.552
22.339
15.182
1.563
46?
2.247
493
127
2.260
Standard
Error
(OOOi
9.052
2.890
1 ^0
1.251
3,844
1.136
74
6.111
6.228
1.790
351
1.152
1.624
151
33
5.292
1,929
1.838
456
298
289
180
56
1.059
Indoor
Pounds At
(000)
10.025
5.178
219
1.978
2.034
42
567
286
256
0
-'
16
t
3
Q
4.952
3.742
-
7
945
206
32
i:
Standard
Error
(000)
1.470
604
204
s
621
1.092
IS
539
94
88
0
-•
7
^
•>
5
566
41!
4
5
195
91
15
6
Outdoor
Pounds Al
(000)
59.164
18.967
10.430
5.442
S.121
861
243
15.100
27.27^
6.482
2.124
4.458
4.049
499
117
9.543
17.387
11.439
1.556
460
1.302
287
94
2.248
Standard
Error
(000)
S.970
2.69S
"? ^"*^
1.251
3.~78
210
66
6,088
6.230
1.793
351
1.152
1.624
151
33
5.292
1.821
1.809
456
298
185
127
50
1.060
'Source questions Q12. Q14, Q15. QPa. Q17b. Q17c. and Q17d iSee Appendix A)  Reported produa amount were converted to pounds of active
 ingredient using the concentration of the acme ingredient given in EPA's Produce Label File located on the EPA mainframe computer in Research
 Triangle Park. N.C.
:Includes turf and ornamental; right-of-way; aquatic; industrial, institutional, structural and health-related; and public health.
Total ma> differ from the sum of the entries because of rounding
"The total usage in this table is S thousand pounds less than the totals in Tables 10.  13. 14. 16. and  P because some respondents were not able to
 allocate their usage to indoor \ersus outdoor
-"Some respondents uerc not able to allocate their commercial usage to the two or more specific categories.
"Most of this estimate is for general weed control around oi! wells or on right-of-ways
Most of this estimate is for broad area mosquito control
'L'saee amounts or standard errors greater than zero but less than 500 pounds or precents greater than zero but less than 0 05.

-------
                  Table 19.  Indoors and Outdoors Pesticide  Usage1 by
                        Pesticide Type, and  Site  Category (Continued):

          1993 C/CPAS Results  for  Five Non-agricultural  Certified/Commercial
                                   Pesticide Applicator Categories2
                                                                                                             Page 2 of*
Pestn-idc
Type
Fungicide






Fumi ;ant






Other






Multi-Type

Site Category
. All Sites
Residential
Recreational
Santtation/Vtilmes
Commercial Office/Retail
Commercial V. holcsale'Manufactunnc
Commercial Jndeterminajit
Other
All Sues
Residential
Recreational
Sanitation/Utilities
Commercial Office/Retail
Commercia! Wholesale/Manufacturing
Commercial Indeterminant
Oiher
All Site-;
Residential
Recreational
Sanitation/Utilities
Commercial Office/Retail
Commercia! \\'holesale/Manufacwnnj
Commercial Indeterminant
Other
All Sites
Residential
Total
Founds Al
(000)
3.27S
302
:.78:
33
75
36
1
50
4.913
1.281
45
63
1.001
t."72
3
74^
1.112
so
639
183
64
45
33
68
9.988
562
Standard
Error
(000)
526
52
514
30
-ģ<
30

43
1.447
408
34
36
598
1.094
•^
576
469
35
46"
76
28
14
23
50
5.118
296
Indoor
Pounds Al
(000)
!3S
7
115


15

1
4.392
1.122
•5
0
973
1,~4S
3
543
158
19
94
-
20
•^•^
T
1
99
32
Standard
Error
(0001
112
4
111


15

1
1.373
33S
•%
0
597
1.079
-t
539
95
5
94
-
4
12
1
-
23
7
Outdoor
Pounds Al
(000)
3.14C
296
2.66"
•*;
"?4
20
1
4S
521
159
42
63
2S
25
-
203
954
61
545
IS?
44
23
31
6"
9.SS9
530
Standard
Error
(000)
44IS
52
433
30
25
15

43
24?
89
3;
36
13
r
-
203
379
34
374
76
2S
6
23
50
5.112
296
 Source questions Q12, Q14. Q15. Q17a. Q17b. Q17c, and Q17d  iSee Appendix A). Reported product amounts were convened to pounds of active
 ngredieni using the concentration ^f the active ingredient given  in EP.Vs Product Label File located on the EPA mainframe computer in Research
 Triangle Park. N.C.
:iicludes turf and ornamental. righi-of-wa>: aquatic, industrial, institutional, structural and health-related: and public health.
'Total ma> differ from the sum of the entries because of roundine
"The toiaJ usage in this table i< S thousand pounds less than the totals in Tables ID. 13. 14. 16, and 1" because some respondents v.ere not able k'
allocate their usage to indoo" versus outdoor.
^Sorne respondents were not able to allocate their commercial usage to the two or more specific categories
'Most of this estimate i> for general weed control around oil well* or on right-of-ways.
 Most of this estimate is for broad area mosquito control.
'L sage amounts or standard rows greater than zero but less than 500 pounds or precents greater chart zero but less than 0.05

                                                          77

-------
                   Table 19.  Indoors and Outdoors  Pesticide  Usage1 by
                        Pesticide  Type, and Site Category (Continued):

          1993 C/CPAS Results for Five Non-agricultural  Certified/Commercial
                                   Pesticide  Applicator Categories2
                                                                                                             Page 3 of ?
Pesticide
Type
Multi-Type
(Continued)





Site Category
Recreational
Sanitation 'Utilities
Commercial Office/Retail
Commercial Wholesale/Manufacturing
Commercial indeterminant
Other
Total
Standard
Pounds AI Error
(000) (000)
3.496
243
2.648
48
1
2.991
2.976
179
2.433
26
-
2.758
Indoor
Standard
Pounds AI Error
(000) (000>
.

24 4
41 21
1
1
Outdoor
Pounds AI
(000!
3.496
243
2.624
b
-
2.990
Standard
Error
(000)
2.976
170
2.433
•^
-
2."5S
'Source questions Q12.Q14. Q15. Ql7a. Q!7b. Ql7c. andQ17d (See Appendix A)  Reported product amounts were convened to pounds of active
 ingredient using the concentration of the active ingredient given in EPA's Product Label File located on the EPA mainframe computer in Research
 Triangle Park. N.C
•includes turf and ornamental; right-of-way: aquatic; industrial, institutional, structural and health-related: and public health
'Total may differ from the sum of the entries because of rounding
'The total usage in this table is S thousand pounds less than the totals in Tables 10. 13. 14. 16. and \? because some respondents were not able to
 allocate their usage to indoor versus outdoor
'Some respondents were not able to allocate their commercial usage to the two or more specific categories.
"Most of this estimate is for general weed control around oil wells or on right-of-ways
Most of this estimate is for broad area mosquito control
"Usage amounts or standard errors greater than zero but less than 500 pounds  or precents greater than zero but less than 0.05.
                                                           78

-------

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                                                             79

-------
           Distribution of Non-agricultural Pesticide Usage in
   Pounds (000), U.S. 1993, by Site Category and Restricted Versus
                 General Use Product:   1993 C/CPAS
                  Total
                             11.0
                         1.5
            Residential
                                   22.6
           Recreational
       Sanitation/Utility
    Comm Office/Retail
                        0.2
                            10.4
                        0.9
                          4.5
3.5

 6.8
                       I 1.8
     Comm Whole/Mnft.
                        1.1
                 Other
                              12.7
                                                   58.2
                      0    10  20   30   40  50   60   70
                            RUP  UGUP
1  "Commercial indeterminant" was prorated over the "commercial office/retail"
  and the "commercial wholesale/manufacturing" site categories.
                                  80

-------
         Distribution of Non-agricultural Pesticide Usage in
  Pounds (000), U.S.  1993,  by Site Category and Indoor/Outdoor
                      Location:  1993 C/CPAS
         Indoor
          21%
       Outdoor
         79%
      Residential
   Indoor
    2%
   Outdoor
     98%
Recreational
     Indoor
      0.1%
    Outdoor
     99.9%
Sanitation/Utility
         Indoor
          19%
   Indoor
    70%
   Outdoor                    Outdoor
     81%                       30%
 Comm  Office/Retail 1  Comm Whole/Mnft
    Indoor
      4%
                         Outdoor
                           96%

                         Other
1  "Commercial indeterminant" was prorated over the "commercial office/retail"
 and the "commercial wholesale/manufacturing" site categories.
                                   81

-------
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                                                                 —  ,  S  —     a  u-.




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                                                                  = =;  =- 5 .=  -     =.

                                                                  f ^  c  s. .O     ^:


95

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                                                                                Page 1 of 1

          Table 22.  Indoors Pesticide Usage1 by  Type of Pest:

1993 C/CPAS  Results for the Five  Non-agricultural  Certified/Commercial
                       Pesticide Applicator Categories2
Type of Pest
All Types3
Insects & Other Invertebrates
Plants/Weeds
Plant Disease/Organisms
Vertebrates
Aquatic Pests
Micro-Organisms
Other Wood Destroying Pests
Not Classified/Missing/Other
Pounds AI
(000)
10,025
9,149
10
67
120
548
88
7
37
Standard
Error
(000)
1,470
1,367
6
40
111
539
87
7
13
            'Source questions Q12, Q14, Q15, Q17c and Q17e (see Appendix A).
            Reponed product amounts were converted to pounds of active ingredient
            using the concentration of the active ingredient given in EPA's Product
            Label File located on the EPA mainframe computer in Research Triangle
            Park, N.C.
            ^Includes turf and ornamental: right-of-way:  aquatic; industrial,
            institutional, structural and health-related: and public health.
            'Total may differ from the sum of the entries because of rounding.
                                          96

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                                                                                                 Page 1 of 4
                               Table 23.  Indoors  Pesticide Usage1
                         by Type  of Pest, Principal Indoor Pest and
                                 Restricted Versus General Use:

         1993  C/CPAS  Results for the Five Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                                  Pesticide Applicator Categories2
Restricted or
Type of Pest Principal Indoor Pest3 General Use
All Types All Indoor Pests Total4
Restricted Use
General Use
Insects & Other Invertebrates All Insects &. Other Invertebrates Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Termites Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Cockroaches Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Ants - Not Fire or Carpenter Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Stored Product Pests Total
Restricted Use
Genera! Use
Ants - Carpenter Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Fleas Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Pounds AI
(000)
10.025
3.95:
6,0?:
9.149
3.94?
5.206
4.176
1.906
2.270
2.4SO
1.086
1.394
566
1
565
449
440
9
275
4
271
261
47
214
Standard
Error
(000)
1.470
1.265
807
1.367
1,265
602
899
622
628
1.091
1,050
269
339
_•
339
279
27S
4
153
•!
153
5^
10
58
Percent
of Total
100.0
39.4
60.6
100.0
43.1
56.9
100.0
45.6
54.4
100.0
43.8
56.2
100.0
0.1
99.9
100.0
97.9
2.1
100.0
1.5
98.5
100.0
18.9
82. 0
 Source questions Q12, Q14, Q15. Qi7c and Q17e (see Appendix A). Reported product amounts were convened to pounds of active
 ngredient using the concentration of the active ingredient given in EPA's Product Label File located on the EPA mainframe computer
 n Research Triangle Park. N.C.
;.ncludes turf and ornamental; right-of-way; aquatic; industrial, institutional, structural and health-related; and public health.
"includes pests with at least 500 pounds total AIs and at least 10 observations.
"Totals may differ from the sum of the entries because of rounding.
• _'sage amounts or standard errors greater than zero but less than 500 pounds or precents greater than zero but less than 0.05
                                                  97

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                                                                                                Pase 2 of 4
                              Table 23.  Indoors Pesticide Usage1
                         by Type of Pest, Principal Indoor Pest  and
                          Restricted Versus General Use (Continued):

        1993 C/CPAS Results for the Five Non-agricultural2 Certified/Commercial
                                  Pesticide Applicator Categories
Restricted or
Type of Pest Principal Indoor Pest1 General Use
Insects &; Other Invertebrates
(Continued) Spiders Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Beetles Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Caterpillars/Moths Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Flies/Gnats/Midges Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Misc Household Pests Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Misc Ornamental Pests Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Misc Lawn/Garden Pests Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Standard
Pounds AI Error
(000) (000)
23?
-
237
172
148
24
142
141
**
98

98
91
66
25
65
3
62
!9
0
19
^T>

-ni
128
127
13
100
100
I
65
-
65
67
66
14
33
3
33
16
0
16
Percent
of Total
100.0
-
100.0
100.0
85.9
14.1
100.0
98.7
1.3
100.0
-
100.0
100.0
72.3
-,-, -.
100.0
4.6
95.4
100.0
0.0
100.0
'Source questions Q12, Q14. Q!5, Ql7c and Q17e (see Appendix A). Reported product amounts were convened to pounds of active
 ingredient using the concentration of the active ingredient given in EPA's Product Label File located on the EPA mainframe computer
 in Research Triangle Park. N.C.
^Includes turf and ornamental: right-of-way, aquatic; industrial, institutional, structural and health-related: and public health.
'includes pests with at least 500 pounds total Als and at least 10 observations.
''Totals may differ from the sum of the entries because of rounding.
-Usage amounts or standard errors greater than zero but less than 500 pounds or precents greater than zero but less than 0.05.

                                                 98

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                                                                                                 Page 3 of 4
                              Table 23.  Indoors  Pesticide Usage1
                         by Type of Pest, Principal Indoor Pest and
                          Restricted  Versus General Use (Continued):

         1993 C/CPAS Results for the Five Non-agricultural" Certified/Commercial
                                  Pesticide Applicator Categories
Restricted or
Type of Pest Principal Indoor Pest3 General Use
Insects &. Other Invertebrates
(Continued) Other Indoor Pests Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Plants/Weeds All Plants/Weeds Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Broadleaf Weeds Total
Restricted Use
General L'se
Plant Disease/Organisms All Plant Disease/Organisms Tola)
Restricted Use
General Use
Fungus Tola!
Restricted Use
General Use
Blights Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Misc Plant Diseases Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Standard
Pounds AI Error
(000> (000)
112
100
13
10
-
10
8

S
67

67
45
0
45
15
0
15
6

6
73
73
4
6
-
6
6
-
6
40
-
40
?7
0
37
15
0
15
4
-

Percent
of Total
100.0
88.8
11.2
100.0
1.2
9&S
100.0
14
98.6
100C
0.1
99.9
100.0
0.0
100.0
100.0
0.0
1000
1000
1.5
985
'Source questions Q12. Q14. Q15. Q17c and Ql"e (see Appendix A).  Reported product amounts were converted to pounds of active
 ingredient using the concentration of the active ingredient given in EPA's Product Label File located on the EPA mainframe computer
 in Research Triangle Park. N.C.
"Includes turf and ornamental: right-of-way: aquatic; industrial, institutional, structural and health-related: and public health.
'Includes pests with at least 500 pounds total Ais and at least 10 observations.
'Totals may differ from the sum of the entries because of rounding.
'Usage amounts or standard errors greater than zero but less than 500 pounds or precents greater than zero but less than 0.05.

                                                  99

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                                                                                                 Page 4 of 4
                              Table 23.  Indoors Pesticide Usage1
                         by Type of Pest, Principal Indoor Pest and
                          Restricted  Versus General Use (Continued):

        1993 C/CPAS Results for  the Five Non-agricultural2 Certified/Commercial
                                  Pesticide Applicator Categories
Restricted or
TypĢ of Pest Principal Indoor Pest5 General Use
Vertebrates All Vertebrates Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Mice/Rats Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Other Indoor Pests Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Aquatic Pests All Aquatic Pests Total
Restricted Use
Genera) Use
Micro-Organisms All Micro-Organisms Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Other Wood Destroying Pests All Other Wood Destroying Pests Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Not Classified/Missing/Other All Others Total
Restricted Use
Genera] Use
Other Indoor Pests Total
Restricted Use
Genera] Use
Standard
Pounds AI Error
(000) (000)
120
4
116
9
4
6
111
-
Ill
548
-
548
88
0
88
7
0
7
37
5
?i
37
•>
31
111
T
111
5
-
^
HO

110
539

539
87
0
87
7
0
7
13
-;
13
13
3
1?
Percent
of Total
100.0
3.0
97.0
100.0
393
60.7
100.0
-
100.0
100.0
-
100.0
100.0
0.0
100.0
100.0
0.0
100.0
100.0
145
85.5
100.0
14.5
85.5
'Source questions Q12. Q14. Q15. Q17c and Q17e (see Appendix A).  Reported product amounts were converted to pounds of active
 insredient using the concentration of the active ingredient given in EPA's Product Label File located on the EPA mainframe computer
 in Research Triangle Park. N.C.
includes turf and ornamental; right-of-way; aquatic; industrial, institutional, structural and health-related: and public health.
'Includes pests with at least 500 pounds total AIs and at least 10 observations.
'Totals may differ from the sum of the  entries because of rounding.
5Usaee amounts or standard errors greater than zero but less than 500 pounds or precents greater than zero but less than 0.05.

                                                 100

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       Relative  Distribution of Non-agricultural Pesticide Usage,
       U.S. 1993, by Principle Indoor Pest and Principle Indoor
                        Insects:  1993 C/CPAS
                Other (1)
                   9%
                              Cockroaches
                                  27%
                             Other
                              8%Fleas
                                 3%
Insects & Other Vert.
       91%
      Ants (3)
        6%
Stored Prod Pests
      5%  Ants (2)
            3%
                                                           Termites
                                                             46%
       Type of Indoor Pest
            Selected Indoor Insects
      1  Other Indoor Pests includes Plants/Weeds,  Plant
      Diseases/Organisms, Vertebrates, Micro-organisms, Aquatic
      Pests, Other Wood Destroying Pests and  those pests not
      classified/Missing/Other.
      2 Ants - Carpenter
      3 Ants - Not Fire or Carpenter
                                   101

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                                                                                              Page 1 of 4
                          Table 24.  Indoors Pesticide Usage1 by
               Site Category, Type  of Pest and Principal Indoor Pest:

     1993 C/CPAS Results for the Five  Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                                Pesticide Applicator Categories2
Standard
Principal Indoor Pounds AI Error
Site Category Type of Pest Pest3 (000) (000)
Residential Insects & Other Invertebrates Termites
Cockroaches
Ants - Not Fire or Carpenter
Ants - Carpenter
Fleas
Spiders
Beetles
Misc Ornamental Pests
Misc Lawn/Garden Pests
Misc Household Pests
Other Wood Chewing Insects
Bees/HornetsAVasps
Crickets/Grasshoppers
Flies/ gnats/ midges
Ticks
Ants - Fire
Plant Disease/Organisms Fungus
Misc Plant Diseases
Vertebrates Mice/Rats
Other Wood Destroying Pescs Wood Preservative
Not Classified/Missing/Other Not Classified/Missing/Other
2.942
779
491
245
240
188
131
32
19
18
4
->
">
!
1
1
45
1
5
6
25
623
142
331
!46
48
178
114
22
16
10
3
1
^
0
1
0
37
1
5
6
11
'Source questions Q12. Q14. Q15. Q17c and Q17e (see Appendix A) and state list certification information.  Reported product ajnounts were
convened to pounds of active ingredient using the concentration of the active ingredient given in EPA's Product Label File located on the EPA
mainframe computer in Research Tnangle Park. N.C.
includes turf and ornamental; right-of-way; aquatic; industrial, institutional, structural and health-related; and public health.
'includes pests with at least 500 pounds total AI and at least 10 observations.
'Usage amounts or standard errors greater than zero but less than 500 pounds or precents  greater than zero but less than 0.05.
                                                  102

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                                                                                             Page 2 of 4
                          Table 24.  Indoors Pesticide Usage1 by
        Site Category,  Type of Pest and Principal Indoor Pest (Continued):

      1993 C/CPAS Results for the Five Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                               Pesticide Applicator Categories2

Principal Indoor
Site Category Type of Pest Pest'
Recreational Insects & Other Invertebrates Cockroaches
Termites
Weevils
Plant Disease/Organisms Misc Plant Diseases
Vertebrates Other Rodents
Aquatic Pests Algae
Micro-Organisms Micro-organism
Sanitation/Utilities Insects & Other Invertebrates Cockroaches
Termites
Commercial Office/Retail Insects & Other Invertebrates Termites
Cockroaches
Caterpillars/Moths
Flies/gnats/midges
Ants - Not Fire or Carpenter
Spiders
Ants - Carpenter
Misc Ornamental Pests
Fleas
Beetles
Misc Household Pests
Mites
Commercial Office/Retail Plants/Weeds Broadleaf Weeds
Crabgrass
Vertebrates Mice/Rats

Pounds AI
<000t
6
T
1
4
110
6
87
5
1
1.166
465
77
68
58
47
28
21
17
14
3
->
3
1
1
Standard
Error
(000>
4
2
1
4
110
6
87
5
1
602
128
77
61
31
44
10
12
8
13
1
1
•s
1
0
 Source questions Q12. Q14. QI5. Q17c and Q17e isee Appendix A> and state list certification information. Reported product amounts were
 convened to pounds of active ingredient using the concentration of the active ingredient given in EPA's Product Label File located on the EPA
 mainframe computer in Research Triangle Park. N.C
includes turf and ornamental: right-of-way; aquatic; industrial, institutional, structural and health-related; and public health.
'Includes pests with ai least 500 pounds total AI and at least 10 observations.
'Usage amounts or standard errors greater than zero but less than 500 pounds or precents greater than zero but less than 0.05.
                                                   103

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                                                                                              Page 3 of 4
                          Table  24.  Indoors Pesticide Usage1 by
        Site Category, Type of Pest and Principal Indoor Pest (Continued):

      1993  C/CPAS Results for  the Five  Non-agricultural  Certified/Commercial
                                Pesticide Applicator Categories2

Site Category
Commercial Office/Retail
(Continued)



Type of Pest

Aquatic Pests
Other Wood Destroying Pests
Not Classified/Missing/Other

Principal Indoor
Pest3

Aleae
Wood Preservative
Not Classified/Missing/Other

Pounds AI
(000)

1
1
6
Standard
Error
(000)

1
1
4
Commercial
Wholesale/Manufacturing Insects & Other Invertebrates Cockroaches
Stored Product Pests
Weevils
Misc Household Pests
Caterpillars/Moths
Termites
Flies/gnats/midges
Beetles
Ants - Not Fire or Carpenter
Misc Ornamental Pests
Fleas
Aphids
Spiders
Ants - Carpenter
Plant Disease/Organisms Blights
Vertebrates Mice/Rats
Not Classified/Missing/Other Not Classified/Missing/Other
Commercial Indeterminant Insects & Other Invertebrates Termites
Cockroaches
Stored Product Pests

1.208
446
98
69
65
40
28
21
16
12
-\
2
1
1
15
3
4
24
9
3

1.055
279
73
66
64
?">
24
12
9
12
3
i
1
0
15
T
•;
15
4
1
'Source questions Q12. Q14. Q15. Q17c and Q17e (.see Appendix A) and state list certification information. Reponed product amounts were
converted to pounds of active ingredient usvng the concentration of the active ingredient given in EPA's Product Label File located on the EPA
mainframe computer in Research Triangle Park. N.C.
^Includes turf and ornamental; right-of-way; aquatic; industrial, institutional, structural and health-related: and public health.
'includes pests with at least 500 pounds total AI and at least 10 observations.
4Usaae amounts or standard errors greater than zero but less than 500 pounds or precents greater than zero but less than 0.05
                                                    104

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                                                                                               Paee 4 of 4
                          Table 24.  Indoors Pesticide  Usage1 by
        Site Category, Type of Pest and Principal  Indoor Pest (Continued):

      1993  C/CPAS Results for the  Five Non-agricultural  Certified/Commercial
                                Pesticide Applicator Categories2
  Site Category
Type of Pest
Principal Indoor
Pest3
            Standard
Pounds AI      Error
     (000)       (000)
  Commercial Indeterminant
  (Continued)
  Other
Insects & Other Invertebrates
(Continued)
                           Aquatic Pests
Aphids

Other wood chewing insects

Ants - Carpenter

Aleae
Insects & Other Invertebrates





Plants/Weeds
Aquatic Pests
Not Classified/Missing/Oiher
Cockroaches
Beetles
Aphids
Termites
Mites
Misc Ornamental Pests
Broadleaf Weeds
Aquatic micro-organisms
Not Classified/Missing/Other
8
6
1
1
1
1
5
539
i
s
4
1
1
-
-
5
539
1
'Source questions Q12. QI4. QI5. Q17c and QI7c {see Appendix A.) and state list certification information Reported product amounts were
convened to pounds of active ingredient using the concentration of the active ingredient given in EPA's Product Label File located on the EPA
mainframe computer in Research Triangle Park. N.C.
:Inc!udes turf and ornamental, right-of-way; aquatic: industrial, institutional, structural and health-related; and public health
'Includes pests with at least 500 pounds total AI and at least 10 observations.
JU;age amounts or standard errors greater than zero but less than 500 pounds or precents greater than zero but less than 0.05
                                                    105

-------







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108

-------
                                                                               Pase I of 1
                 Table 26.  Outdoors Pesticide Usage1 by
                                 Type of Pest:

1993 C/CPAS Results for  the Five Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                       Pesticide Applicator Categories2
Type of Pest
All Types3
Insects & Other Invertebrates
Plants/Weeds
Plant Disease/Organisms
Vertebrates
Aquatic Pests
Micro-Organisms
Other Wood Destroying Pests
Not Classified/Missing/Other
Standard
Pounds AI Error
(000) (000)
59,164
17,795
32,632
2,736
644
4,737
372
52
196
8,976
2,017
7.694
383
476
3,586
351
37
96
              'Source questions Q12, Q14. Q15. Q17d and Q17f (see Appendix
               A). Reported product amounts were converted to pounds of active
               ingredient using the concentration of the active ingredient given in
               EPA's Product Label File located on the EPA mainframe computer
               in Research Triangle Park. N.C.
              "Includes turf and ornamental: right-of-way: aquatic: industrial.
               institutional, structural and health-related; and public health.
              'Total  may differ from the sum of the entries because of rounding.
                                         109

-------
      Relative Distribution of Non-agricultural Pesticide Usage,
        U.S. 1993, by Type of Outdoor Pest: 1993 C/CPAS
Plant Disease/Organis
          5%
Aquatic Pest
     8%

  Other 1
    2%
Insects & Other Vert
       30%
                                                    Plants/Weeds
                                                        55%
                                        Vertebrates
                                            1%
1  Other Outdoor Pests includes Micro-organisms, Growth Regulators,
  Other Wood Destroying Pests, and those pests not classified
                                no

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                                                                                                     Paae 1 of 8
                   Table 27.   Outdoors Pesticide Usage1  by Type  of Pest,
                Principal  Outdoor Pest and Restricted Versus General Use:

         1993 C/CPAS Results  for the Five Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                                   Pesticide Applicator Categories'
Standard
Restricted or Pounds AI Error Percent
Type of Pest Principal Outdoor Pest3 General Use (000) (000) of Total
All Types All Outdoor Pests Total*
Restricted Use
General Use
Insects & Other Invertebrates All Insects &. Other Invertebrates Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Mosquitoes Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Termites Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Grubs/Larvae Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Misc Lawn/Garden Pests Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Ants - Not Fire Or Capemer Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Fleas Total
Restricted Use
General Use
59.164
7.004
52.160
17.795
764
17.031
5.907
.--
5.907
5.109
163
4.946
1.353
235
1.118
1.163
•\
1.160
1.119
109
1.010
832
•^
830
8.970
3.656
7.TSO
2.017
261
2.000
1.896
-
1.S96
670
96
652
261
117
224
934
1
935
563
101
554
708
1
70S
100.0
11.8
8S.2
100.0
4.3
95.7
100.0
-
100.0
100.0
3.2
96.8
100.0
17.4
82.6
100.0
0.2
99.8
100.0
9.7
90.3
100.0
0.3
99."
 Source questions Q12. QI-ģ. Q1J. Q17d and Q17f (see Appendix A.I.  Reported product amounts were converted to pounds of aclise ingredient using the
 concentration of the active ingredient given in EPA's Product Label File located on the EPA mainframe computer in Research Triangle Park. N.C.
:Inc.udes turf and ornamental: right-ot'-way: aquatic; industrial, institutional, structural and health-related: and public health.
:"lnc udes pests \vith at least 500 pounds total AI and at least 10 observations.
"Teiils may differ from the sum of the entries because of rounding.
Ts:?e amounts cr standard errors greater than zero but less than 500 pounds or precents greater than zero but less than 005

                                                    111

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                                                                                                   Paae 2 of S
                   Table 27.  Outdoors Pesticide Usage1  by Type of Pest,
          Principal Outdoor Pest and Restricted Versus General  (Continued):

         1993 C/CPAS Results for the Five Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                                   Pesticide Applicator Categories2
Standard
Restricted or Pounds AI Error Percent
Type of Pest Principal Outdoor Pest' General Use (000) (OOOi of Total
Insects & Other Invertebrates
('Continued) Cockroaches Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Aphids Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Misc Household Pesis Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Ants - Carpenter Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Misc Ornamental Pests Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Crickets/Grasshoppers Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Spiders Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Beetles Total
Restricted Use
General Use
354
1
351
309
11
297
257
10!
155
222
T
221
181
50
131
142
21
120
133
-
133
130
35
95
105
1
105
106
S
103
151
101
11:
92
1
92
47
34
33
56
21
44
61
-
61
39
32
24
100.0
0.7
99.3
100.0
3.6
96.4
100.0
39.5
60.5
100.0
0.7
99.3
100.0
27.6
72.4
100.0
15.1
84.9
100.0
0.1
99.9
100.0
26.8
'-•-
 Source questions Q!2. Q14. Q15. Q17d and Q17f (see Appendix A).  Reported product amounts were convened to pounds of active ingredient using the
 concentration of the active ingredient given in EPA's Product Label File located on the EPA mainframe computer in Research Triangle Park. N.C.
Includes turf and ornamental; ngrr.-of-way: aquatic; industrial, institutional, structural and health-related; and public health.
'Includes pests with at least 500 pounds lotal AI and at least 10 observations.
"Totals may differ from the sum of the entries because of roundtng.
X'sage amounts or standard errors greater than zero but less than 500 pounds or presents greater than zero but less than 0.05.

                                                  112

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                                                                                                    Paae 3 of 8
                   Table 27.  Outdoors Pesticide Usage1  by Type of Pest,
          Principal Outdoor  Pest and  Restricted  Versus  General  (Continued):

         1993 C/CPAS Results for the Five Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                                   Pesticide Applicator Categories2
Standard
Restricted or Pounds AI Error Percent
Type of Pest Principal Outdoor Pest' General Use fOOOt (000) of Total
Insects & Other Invertebrates
(Continued) Mites Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Ants - Fire Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Caterpillars/Moths Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Flies/GnaisAlidges Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Nematodes Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Stored Product Pests Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Ticks Total
Restricted Use
General Use
ir
1
;26
III
1
no
107
!
106
100
4
95
90
->
88
18
18
1
14
-
14
36
-
36
40
-
40
43
!
43
63
4
63
37
1
37
If
i ^
-
4
-
4
100.0
0.4
996
100.0
0.5
99.5
100.0
1.2
98.8
100.0
4.4
95.6
100.0
:.i
97.9
100.0
96.1
3.9
100.0
0.7
99.3
 Suurce questions Q12. Q14. Q15. Q!"\l and Q!~f (see Appendix Ai.  Reported produci amounts were convened to pounds of active ingredient using the
 concentration of the acme ingredient euen in EPA's Product Label File located on [he EPA mainframe computer in Research Triangle Park. N.C
•Inrludes turf and ornamental: right-of-way: aquatic: industrial, institutional, structural and health-related: and public health.
'ln:iudes pests uith at least 5iKJ pounds total AI and at least 10 observations
"Tc tals ma> differ from the sum of the entries because of rounding.
•'l^ace amounts or standard errors greater than zero but less than 500 pounds or precents greater than zero but less than 0.05.

                                                   113

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                                                                                                    Page 4 of 8
                   Table  27.  Outdoors Pesticide Usage1 by Type  of Pest,
          Principal Outdoor Pest and Restricted Versus  General (Continued):
         1993 C/CPAS Results for the Five Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                                   Pesticide Applicator Categories2
Standard
Restricted or Pounds AI Error
Type of Pest Principal Outdoor Pest3 General Use (000) (000)
Insects & Other Invertebrates
(Continued) Bees/Homets/Wasps Total
Restricted L'se
Genera] Use
_J3ther Outdoor Pests Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Plants/Weeds All Plants/Weeds Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Broadleaf Weeds Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Annual Grasses Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Crabgrass Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Perennial Grasses Tola!
Restricted Use
General Use
Woody Brush/Vines Toia]
Restricted Use
General Use
12
1
11
6
1
5
32.632
6.010
26.622
24.208
3.232
20.976
2.099
43
2.055
1.096
0
1.096
744
1
743
618
38
580
3
1
3
"^
1
_Ģi
7.694
3.636
6.199
7.010
2.437
6.124
371
16
368
330
0
330
283
-
283
163
20
153
Percent
of Total
100.0
6.1
93.9
100.0
19.6
80.4
100.0
18.4
81.6
100.0
13.4
86.6
100.0
2.1
97.9
100.0
0.0
100.0
100.0
0.1
99.9
100.0
6.1
93.9
Source Questions Q12. Q14, Q15. QI~d and Q17f (see Appendix A). Reported product amounts were convened to pounds of active ingredient using the
concentration of the active ingredient given in EPA's Product Label File located on the EPA mainframe computer in Research Triangle Park. N.C.
•Includes tun and ornamental, right-of-way; aquatic; industrial, institutional, structural and health-related: and public health.
'Includes pests with at least 500 pcunds total Al and at least 10 observations.
'Totals ma> differ from the sum ot the entries because of rounding.
'Usage amounts Or standard errors greater than zero bul less thin  500 pounds or precems greater than zero but less than 0.05

                                                  114

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                                                                                                    Page 5 of S
                   Table 27.  Outdoors Pesticide Usage1 by Type of Pest,
          Principal Outdoor  Pest and  Restricted  Versus  General  (Continued):
         1993 C/CPAS Results for the Five Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                                   Pesticide Applicator Categories2
Standard
Restricted or Pounds AI Error Percent
Type of Pest Principal Outdoor Pest: General Use (000) (000 1 of Total
PlantsAVeecs (Continued.) Trees Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Weeds & Grasses Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Misc Weeds Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Nutsedge Total
Restricted Use
General Use
3lant Disease/Organisms All Plant Disease/Organisms Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Brown Patch Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Misc Plant Diseases Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Blights Total
Restricted Use
General Use
601
20
580
363
0
363
2.842
2.675
167
61
-
61
2.736
152
2.584
872
-
872
582
152
430
498
-
497
349
15
346
161
0
161
2.776
2.675
105
15
-
15
383
115
35"
216
-
217
172
115
88
122
-
122
100.0
3.4
966
100.0
0.0
100.0
100.0
94.1
5.9
100.0
0.7
99.3
100.0
5.6
94.4
100.0
-
100.0
100.0
26 1
73.9
100.0

100.0
 Source questions Q12. Q14. QI5, QI7d and Ql~f isee Appendix AI.  Reported product amounts were converted to pounds of active ingredient using the
 jcnccntraiion of the acme ingredient given in EPA's Product Label File located on the EPA mainframe computer in Research Triangle Park. N.C.
Mncludes turf and ornamental: right-oi"-wa>: aquatic: industrial, institutional, structural and health-related: and public health.
 Includes pest* with at least 500 pounds total AI and at least 1C observations.
"Totals: may differ from the sum of the entries because of rounding.
'L'::age amounts or standard errors greater than zero but less than  ?00 pounds or precents greater than zero but less than 0.0?.

                                               115

-------
                                                                                                   Pane 6 of Ŗ
                   Table 27.  Outdoors Pesticide Usage1  by Type of Pest,
          Principal Outdoor Pest and  Restricted Versus General  (Continued):
         1993 C/CPAS Results for the Five Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                                  Pesticide Applicator Categories2
Standard
Restricted or Pounds AI Error Percent
Type of Pest Principal Outdoor Pest' General Use (000) (000) of Total
Plant/Disease Organisms
(Continued) Dollar Spot Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Leaf Spot Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Fungus Totai
Restricted Use
General Use
Vertebrates All Vertebrates Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Other Rodents Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Other Outdoor Pests Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Aquatic Pests All Aquatic Pests Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Algae Total
Restricted Use
General Use
480
0
480
185
0
185
119
0
119
644
•j
641
636
<^
634
8
-
-T
4.737
S"^"
4.680
4.187
0
4.187
89
0
89
44
0
44
38
0
38
476
1
476
476
1
476
~t
-
1
3.580
34
3.580
3.515
0
3.515
100.0
0.0
100.0
100.0
0.0
100.0
100.0
0.0
100.0
100.0
0.4
99.6
100.0
0.3
99.7
100.0
4.5
95.5
100.0
i.:
98. S
100.0
0.0
100.0
Source questions Q12. QM. Q15. Q17d and Q17f isee Appendix A).  Reported produce amounts were convened 10 pounds of active ingredient using the
concentration of the acme ingredient given in EPA's Product Label File located on the EPA mainframe computer in Research Triangle Park. N C
includes turf and ornamental: right-of-wa>: aquatic; industrial, institutional, structural and health-related: and public health.
Include^ pe.<:s with at Iea>: 500 pounds tola] A! and at least 10 observations.
"Totals may differ from the sum of the entries because of rounding.
'Usage amounts or standard errors greater than zero but leĢs than 500 pounds or precenis greater than zero but less than 0.05.

                                                 116

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                                                                                                   Page ' of S
                   Table 27.  Outdoors Pesticide Usage1 by  Type of Pest,
          Principal Outdoor Pest and  Restricted Versus General  (Continued):

         1993  C/CPAS Results for the Five Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                                  Pesticide Applicator Categories2
Standard
Restricted or Pounds AI Error Percent
Type of Pest Principal Outdoor Pest5 General Use (000) (OOOi of Total
Aquatic Pests ('Continued) Fish Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Aquatic Weeds-Submerged Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Marine Animals Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Aquatic Micro-Organisms Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Aquatic Weeds-Emergent Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Aquatic Weeds-Floating Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Micro-Organisms All Micro-Organisms Total
Restricted Use
General Use
Other Wood Destroying Pests All Other Wood Destroying Pests Total
Restricted Use
General Use
263
31
TT>
16?
0
163
4~
26
20
34
0
34
28
0
28
16
0
16
372
12
361
•^2
1
51
1ST
30
1S5
78
0
78
"i —
16
20
34
0
34
20
0
20
10
0
10
351
11
351
-:
1
36
100.0
11. S
88.2
100.0
0.0
100.0
100.0
56.3
43.7
100.0
0.0
100.0
100.0
0.0
100.0
100.0
0.0
100.0
1000
3 .2.
96.8
100.0
1 ^
97.8
 Source questions Qll. Q!~. Q!5. Q]"d and Ql"f 'sec Appendix A>.  Reported product amounts were convened to pounds of acir.e ingredient using the
 concentration 01 the acme ingredient given in EPA's Product Label File located on the EPA mainframe computer in Research Triangle Park. N.C.
"Includes turf and ornamental: right-of-wa>: aquatic; industrial, institutional, structural and health-related: and public health
'Includes pest> with at least 500 pounds total AI and at least 10 observations.
"Totals may differ from the sum of the entries because of rounding.
X" ace amounts or standard errors greater than zero bui less than 500 pounds or precents greater than zero but less than 0.05
                                                 117

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                                                                                                    Page 8 of S
                   Table 27.  Outdoors Pesticide  Usage1 by Type of Pest,
          Principal Outdoor Pest and Restricted Versus General (Continued):

         1993 C/CPAS  Results for  the Five Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                                   Pesticide Applicator Categories2
Standard
Restricted or Pounds AI
Type of Pest Principal Outdoor Pest3
Not Classified/Missing/Other All Others


General Use
Total
Restricted Use
Genera] Use
lOOOl
196
6
190
Error
(000)
96
4
96
Percent
of Total
100.0
2.8
97.2
'Source questions Q!2. Q14. QI5, Q17d and Q17f (.see Appendix A). Reported product amounts were converted to pounds of active ingredient using the
 concentration of the active ingredient given in EPA's Product Label File located on the EPA mainframe computer in Research Triangle Park. N'.C.
•Includes turf and ornamental: right-of-way: aquatic; industrial, institutional, structural and health-related; and public health.
'includes pests with at least 500 pounds total AI and at least 10 observations.
"Totals may differ from the sum of the entries because of rounding.
!Usage amounts or standard errors greater than zero but less than 500 pounds or precents greater than zero but less than 0.05.
                                                  118

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     Relative Distribution of Non-agricultural Pesticide Usage,
       U.S.  1993, by Selected Outdoor Pest:  1993 C/CPAS
Annual Grasses
      4%
  Other
   22%
Misc Lawn/Garden
       2%
              Mosquitos
                 10%
Ants (1)
  2%
                                        Broadleaf Weeds
                                              41%
                                                  Qrabgrass
                                                     2%
           Algae
            7%
      Grubs/Larvae
           2%
Termites
  9%
  1  Ants - Not Fire
                              119

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                                                                                            Page 1  of 10
                        Table  28.  Outdoors Pesticide Usage1 by
              Site Category, Type of Pest and Principal Outdoor Pest:

     1993 C/CPAS  Results for the  Five Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                               Pesticide Applicator Categories2
Principal Outdoor
Site Category Type of Pest* Pest3
Residential Insects & Other Invertebrates Termites
Mosquitoes
Misc Lawn/Garden Pests
Ants - Not Fire or Carpenter
Fleas
Grubs/Larvae
Cockroaches
Ants - Carpenter
Aphids
Misc Household Pests
Misc Ornamental Pests
Spiders
Beetles
Mites
Caterpillars/Moths
Ants - Fire
Crickets/Grasshoppers
Nemazodes
Flies/Gnats/Midge s
Ticks
Bees/Homets/Wasps
Weevils
Pounds Standard
AI Error
(000) (000)
4.369
2.738
1.063
888
782
556
296
193
155
147
134
103
101
91
81
64
31
28
23
13
9
6
645
1.233
929
498
672
150
100
85
50
111
35
49
34
33
35
34
9
24
11
4
3
3
'Source questions Q12. Q14. Q15. Q17d and Q17f (see Appendix A). Reported product amounts were converted to pounds of active ingredient
 using the concentration of the active ingredient given in EPA's Product Label File located on the EPA mainframe computer in Research Triangle
 Park. N.C.
includes turf and ornamental: right-of-way: aquatic: industrial, institutional, structural and health-related: and public health.
'includes pests with at least 500 pounds total Al and at least 10 observations.
'L'saee amounts or standard errors zreater than zero but less than 500 pounds or precents greater than zero but less than 0.05.
                                                    120

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                                                                                            Page 2 of 10
                        Table 28.  Outdoors Pesticide Usage1 by
      Site Category, Type of Pest and Principal Outdoor Pest (Continued):

     1993 C/CPAS Results for the Five Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                               Pesticide Applicator Categories2
Principal Outdoor
Site Category Type of PestJ Pest1
Residential (Continued) Plants/Weeds Broadleaf Weeds
Crabgrass
Annual Grasses
Perennial Grasses
Woody Brush/Vines
Weeds & Grasses
Nutsedge
Misc Weeds
Trees
Plant Disease/Organisms Misc Plant Diseases
Brown Patch
Fungus
Leaf Spot
Dollar Spot
Blights
Vertebrates Other Nonrodents
Mice/Rats
Other Rodents
Snakes
Aquatic Pests Algae
Aquatic Weeds-Submerged
Aquatic Weeds-Floating
Other Wood Destroying Pests Wood Preservative
Pounds Standard
AI Error
(000) fOOO)
5.355
594
456
62
16
1?
8
3
1
102
69
69
53
15
9
i
1
1
1
->"!1
26
1
6
1.765
218
148
16
10
7
4
1
4
35
"K
31
17
6
->
T
1
-
-
180
18
1
6
'Source questions Q12. Ql-t. Q15. Q17d and Q17f iscc Appendix A). Reported product amounts were convened to pounds of active ingredient
u;ing the concentration of the active ingredient given in EPA's Product Label File located on the EPA mainframe computer in Research Triangle
Park. N.C.
:Ir.cludes turf and ornamental; nght-of-way; aquatic; industrial, institutional, structural and health-related: and public health.
'ir eludes pests with at least 5DO pounds total AI and at least 10 observations.
'Usage amounts or standard errors greater than zero but less than 500 pounds or precents greater than zero but less than 0.05.

                                                    171

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                                                                                            Page 3 of !0
                        Table 28.  Outdoors Pesticide Usage1 by
      Site Category, Type of Pest and Principal Outdoor Pest (Continued):

     1993 C/CPAS  Results for the Five Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                               Pesticide Applicator Categories2
Principal Outdoor
Site Category Type of Pest3 Pest3
Residential (Continued) Not Classified/Missing/Other Not Oassified/Missing/Other
Growth Regulator
Recreational Insects & Other Invertebrates Mosquitoes
Grubs/Larvae
Crickets/Grasshoppers
Misc Lawn/Garden Pests
Nematodes
Misc Ornamental Pests
Ants - Fire
Ants - Not Fire or Carpenter
Caterpillars/Moths
Beetles
Ants - Carpenter
Termites
Flies/Gnats/Midges
Aphids
Mites
Misc Household Pests
Spiders
Fleas
Plants/Weeds Broadleaf Weeds
Annual Grasses
Crabgrass
Weeds &. Grasses
Perennial Grasses
Pounds Standard
AI Error
(000) (000)
10
-1
683
605
109
63
45
23
">"*
12
9
9
4
4
3
2
;
1
1
1
1.196
352
246
144
S3
4
-1
475
154
53
13
23
19
9
5
8
5
•;
3
1
1
1
1
1
-
224
102
120
137
1~
Source questions Q12. Q14, Q15. Q17d and Qi~f (see Appendix A). Reported product amounts were converted 10 pounds of active ingredient
using the concentration of the active ingredient given in EPA's Product Label File located on the EPA mainframe computer in Research Triangle
Park. N.C.
Hnclud.es turf and ornamental; nght-of-way: aquatic: industrial, institutional, structural and health-related: and public health
'Includes pests with at least 500 pounds total AI and at least 10 observations.
4Usage amounts or standard errors greater than zero but less than 500 pounds or precents greater than zero but less than 0.05.

                                                    122

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                                                                                           Page 4 of 10
                        Table 28.  Outdoors Pesticide Usage1  by
      Site Category,  Type of Pest and  Principal Outdoor Pest (Continued):

     1993 C/CPAS  Results for  the Five  Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                               Pesticide  Applicator Categories2
Principal Outdoor
Site Category Type of Pest3 Pesr'
Recreational (Continued) Plants/Weeds (Continued) Woody Brush/Vines
Nutsedge
Misc Weeds
Trees
Plant Disease/Organisms Brown Patch
Blights
Dollar Spot
Misc Plant Diseases
Leaf Spot
Fungus
Vertebrates Other Rodents
Other Nonrodents
Aquatic Pests Algae
Aquatic Weeds-Submerged
Fish
Aquatic Weeds-Floating
Micro-Organisms Microorganism
Parasites
Not Classified/Mi ssing/Other Not ClassifieoVMissing/Other
Growth Regulator
Sanitation/Utilities Insects & Other Invertebrates Mosquitoes
Grubs/Larvae
Beetles
Termites
Spiders
Pounds
AI
(000)
47
43
34
8
766
466
460
251
127
48
635
1
3.379
57
•57
9
361
4
78
6
292
5
•>
1
1
Standard
Error
(000)
46
15
27
5
208
120
89
37
43
Tl
476
1
2,989
33
31
7
349
4
76
n
290
-i
t
1
1
'Source questions QI2. Q14. Q15. QI7d and Q17f isee Appendix A). Reported product amounts were convened to pounds of active ingredient
 using the concentration of the active ingredient given in EPA's Product Label File located on the EPA mainframe computer in Research Triangle
 Fork". N.C
"l.icludes turf and ornamental: right-of-way: aquatic: industrial, institutional, structural and health-related: and public health.
•'includes pests with at least 500 pounds total Al and at least 10 observations.
"Usage amounts or standard errors greater than zero but less than 500 pounds or precents greater than zero but less than 0.05.
                                                   123

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                                                                                           Page 5 of 10
                        Table 28.  Outdoors Pesticide Usage1 by
      Site Category, Type of Pest and Principal  Outdoor Pest (Continued):

     1993 C/CPAS Results for the Five Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                               Pesticide Applicator Categories*
Principal Outdoor
Site Category Type of Pest3 Pest3
Sanitation/Utilities Insects & Other Invertebrates
(Continued) (Continued) Ants - Fire
Plants/Weeds Broadleaf Weeds
Woody Brush/Vines
Perennial Grasses
Annual Grasses
Trees
Weeds & Grasses
Misc Weeds
Crabgrass
Plant Disease/Organisms Misc Plant Diseases
Aquatic Pests Algae
Fish
Aquatic Weeds-Emergent
Aquatic Weeds-Submerged
Aquatic Weeds-Floating
Other Wood Destroying Pests Wood Preservative
Commercial Office/Retail Insects & Other Invertebrates Termites
Grubs/Larvae
Mosquitoes
Aphids
Ants - Not Fire or Carpenter
Misc Lawn/Garden Pests
Cockroaches
Spiders
Pounds Standard
AI Error
(000) (000 1
1
3,024
477
397
339
253
no
35
1
204
179
30
22
18
5
45
569
175
148
131
104
35
31
26
1
775
147
271
169
168
65
24
1
143
175
30
20
17
4
36
96
52
85
96
55
13
8
13
'Source questions Q12. Q14. Q15. Q17d and Q17f (see Appendix A.). Reported product amounts were convened to pounds of active ingredient
 using the concentration of the active ingredient given in EPA' s Product Label File located on the EPA mainframe computer in Research Triangle
 Park" N.C.
•Includes turf and ornamental: nght-of-way; aquatic; industrial, institutional, structural and health-related; and public health
'Includes pests with at least 500 pounds total AI and at least 10 observations.
'Usage amounts or standard errors sweater than zero but less than 500 pounds or precents greater than zero but less than 0.05
                                                   124

-------
                                                                                           Paae 6 of 10
                        Table 28.  Outdoors Pesticide Usage1  by
      Site Category, Type of Pest and Principal Outdoor Pest (Continued):

     1993 C/CPAS Results for  the Five Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                               Pesticide  Applicator Categories2
Principal Outdoor
Site Category Type of Pesr1 Pesr'
Commercial Office/Retail Insects & Other Invertebrates
(Continued) (Continued) Ants - Carpenter
Mites
Beetles
Misc Ornamental Pests
Fleas
Ants - Fire
Misc Household Pests
Caterpillars/Moths
Flies/Gnats/Midges
Bees/Hornets/Wasps
Crickets/Grasshoppers
Ticks
Nematodes
Plants/Weeds Broadleaf Weeds
Crabgrass
Annual Grasses
Perennial Grasses
W'eeds & Grasses
W'oody Brush/Vines
Misc Weeds
N'utsedge
Trees
Plant Disease/Organisms Brown Patch
Misc Plant Diseases
Pounds
AI
(000)

26
19
17
12
11
10
5
3
2
-^
**
1
1
5.784
250
242
112
11
3
2
-1
1
36
16
Standard
Error
(000)

!7
6
8
3
5
4
4
~
1
1
1
1
-
3.706
169
56
41
4
1
-V
1
-
20
6
-Source questions Q12. Q]4. Q15. Q17d and Ql7f isee Appendix Aģ. Reported product amounts were converted 10 pounds of active ingredient
using the concentration of the active ingredient given in EPA's Product Label File located on the EPA mainframe computer in Research Triangle
P.irk. N.C
includes turf and ornamental: right-of-way; aquatic; industrial, institutional, structural and health-related: and public health.
Includes pests with at least 500 pounds total AI and at least 10 observations.
JU;age amounts or standard errors sreater than zero but less than 500 pounds or precents ereater than zero but less than 0.05
                                                    125

-------
                                                                                            Page 7 of 10
                        Table 28.  Outdoors Pesticide Usage1 by
      Site Category, Type of Pest and Principal Outdoor Pest (Continued):

     1993 C/CPAS Results for the Five Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                               Pesticide  Applicator Categories2
Principal Outdoor
Site Category Type of Pest3 Pest3
Commercial Office/Retail Plant Disease/Organisms
(Continued) (Continued) Blights
Leaf Spot
Dollar Spot
Fungus
Vertebrates Birds/Fowl
Aquatic Pests Algae
Aquatic micro-organisms
Aquatic Weeds- Submerged
Micro-Organisms Microorganism
Other Wood Destroying Pests Wood Preservative
Not Classified/Missing/Other Growth Regulator
Not CJassified/Missing/Other
Commercial
Wholesale/Manufacturing Insects & Other Invertebrates Termites
Cockroaches
Aphids
Stored Product Pests
Nematodes
Ants - Not Fire or Carpenter
Mites
Flies/Gnats/Midges
Ants - Fire
Mosquitoes
Grubs/Larvae
Fleas
Pounds Standard
AI Error
(000) (000)

6
5
3
*>
1
185
27
19
*t
1
60
21

126
25
19
18
15
9
9
6
6
6
6
ji

4
"}
i
i
-
175
27
17
i
1
57
9

98
23
12
15
15
-.
8
4
6
4
1
-1
:Source questions Q12. QU. Q15. Ql7d and Q)7f (see Appendix AI. Reported produce amounts were convened 10 pounds of active ingredient
using the concentration of the active ingredient given in EPA's Product Label File located on the EPA mainframe computer in Research Triangle
Park! N.C.
Includes turf and ornamental: right-of-way; aquatic: industrial, institutional, structural and health-related: and public health.
includes oests with at least 500 pounds total AI and at least 10 observations.
JUsage amounts or standard errors greater than zero but less than 500 pounds or precents greater than zero but less than 0.05.
                                                    126

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                                                                                                Page 8 of 10
                         Table 28.  Outdoors  Pesticide Usage1  by
       Site  Category, Type of Pest and Principal Outdoor Pest (Continued):

      1993  C/CPAS  Results for  the Five Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                                 Pesticide Applicator Categories2

Site Category Type of Pesr1

Principal Outdoor
Pest-
Pounds
AI
(000)
Standard
Error
(000)
  Commercial
  WholesaleA-lanufacmring
  (Continued)
 Commercial Indeterminant
Insects & Other Invertebrates
(Continued)
                            Plants/Weeds
                            Plant Disease/Organisms
Aquatic Pests


Not Classified/Missing/Other

Insects &. Other Invertebrates
Misc Ornamental Pests

Spiders

Beetles

Misc Lawn/Garden Pests

Crickets/Grasshoppers

Broadleaf Weeds

Annual Grasses

Perennial Grasses

Misc Weeds

Weeds & Grasses

Crabgrass

Nutsedge

Woody Brush/Vines

Blights

Misc Plant Diseases

Dollar Spot

Brown Patch

Marine Animals

Aquatic micro-organisms

Not Classified/Missing/Other

Termites

Fleas

Misc Ornamental Pests

Ants - Fire
-i
1
1
1
1
262
261
15
6
6
3
3
1
1
1
1
1
134
89
5
-
3
1
3
                                                               16

                                                               6
                                                                                          ?6

                                                                                           9

                                                                                           6
                                                                                                      15
 4

J9

36

 8

 6
:Sc>urce questions Q12, Q14. Q15. Q!7d and Q]~f isee Appendix AV Reported product amounts were converted to pounds of active ingredient
u;mg the concentration of the active ingredient given in EPA's Product Label File located on the EPA mainframe computer in Research Tnangk
Park. N.C.
"Includes turf and ornamental, right-of-way; aquatic; industrial, institutional structural and health-related; and public health.
'includes pests with at least 500 pounds totaJ AI and at least  10 observations.
\sage amounts or  standard errors greater than zero but less than 500 pounds or precents greater than zero but less than 0.05.

                                                      127

-------
                                                                                            Page 9 of 10
                        Table 28.  Outdoors Pesticide  Usage1 by
      Site Category, Type of Pest and Principal Outdoor Pest (Continued):

     1993 C/CPAS  Results for the Five Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                               Pesticide  Applicator Categories2
Principal Outdoor
Site Category Type of Pest1 Pest'
Commercial Indetenninant Insects & Other Invertebrates
(Continued) (Continued) Mosquitoes
Cockroaches
Ants - Not Fire or Carpenter
Nematodes
Flies/Gnats/Midges
Misc Lawn/Garden Pests
Aphids
Plants/Weeds Broadleaf Weeds
Perennial Grasses
Annual Grasses
Weeds & Grasses
Misc Weeds
Woody Brush/Vines
Crabgrass
Aquatic Pests Marine Animals
Algae
Not Classified/Missing/Other Growth Regulator
Other Insects & Other Invertebrates Mosquitoes
Ants - Not Fire or Carpenter
Misc Household Pests
Flies/Gnats/Midges
Caterpillars/Moths
Grubs/Larvae
Mites
Pounds Standard
AI Error
(000) <000)

3
->
*ģ
1
1
1
1
79
16
15
2
1
1
1
24
1
3
2.038
104
103
65
14
S
7

3
-i
1
1
I
-
-
26
14
6
1
1
-
-
*>•>
1
1
1.036
101
101
62
!2
/
3
Source questions Q12. Q14. Q15. Q!7d and Q17f (see Appendix A).  Reported product amounts were converted to pounds of active ingredient
using the concentration of the active ingredient given in EPA's Product Label File located on the EPA mainframe computer in Research Triangle
Park. Nf.C.
Mncludes turf and ornamental; right-of-way: aquatic; industrial, institutional, structural and health-related; and public health.
'includes pests with at least 500 pounds total AI and at least 10 observations.
""Usace amounts or standard errors greater than zero but less than 500 pounds or precents greater than zero but less than 0.05.
                                                   128

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                                                                                               Page 10 of 10
                         Table 28.  Outdoors  Pesticide  Usage1  by
      Site  Category, Type of Pest and Principal  Outdoor Pest (Continued):

      1993  C/CPAS  Results for  the Five Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                                Pesticide  Applicator Categories2
  Site Category
Type of Pest3
Principal Outdoor
Pest-'
Pounds
    AI
  (000)
Standard
   Error
    (000)
  Other (Continued)
Insects & Other Invertebrates
(Continued)
                            Plants/Weeds
                            Plant Disease/Organisms

                            Aquatic Pests
                            Micro-Organisms

                            Not Classified/Missins/Other
Termites

Ants - Fire

Aphids

Bees/HometsAVasps

Broadleaf Vr'eeds

Misc Weeds

Annual Grasses

Trees

Weeds & Grasses

Woody Brush/Vines

Perennial Grasses

Nutsedge

Crabgrass

Misc Plant Diseases

Algae

Fish

Aquatic Weeds-Submerged

Marine Animals

Aquatic Weeds-Emergent

Aquatic Weeds-Floating

Fish  parasites

Microorganism

Growth Regulator

Not Classified/Missina/Other
8.509
2.762
434
339
77
73
60
5
1
221
195
44
11
5
I
1
5.283
2.~57
174
306
52
38
31
5
1
109
183
23
10
5
1
1
      question* Q12. QI4. Q15. Ql~d and Q17f (see Appendix A)  Reported product amounts were converted to pounds of active ingredient
 uiina the concentration of the active ingredient given in EPA'? Product Label File located on the EPA mainframe computer in Research Triangle
 P;jk~ N.C.
:ln:ludeii turf and ornamental; right-of-way; aquatic; industrial, institutional, structural and health-related; and public health.
'ln:ludes pests with at least 500 pounds total AI and at least 10 observations.
4t":.age amounts or standard errors greater than zero but less than 500 pounds or precents greater than zero but less than 0.05.
                                                       129

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                                                                                                                       Page 1 of 7
                    Table 29.  Outdoors Pesticide Usage1  by Type of Pest,
                          Principal Outdoor Pest  and Active Ingredient:

         1993 C/CPAS Results for the Five Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                                      Pesticide  Applicator Categories2

Principal Outdoor
TvpeofPes! Vrsf1 Active Ingredients (Al) Name
Irsecu & Other Invertebrates Mosquito MALATH1ON
PIPERONYL BUTOXIDE
PERMETHRIN MIXED C1S.TRANS
CHLORPYRIFOS
Termitts CHLORPYRIFOS
PERMETHRIN. MIXED C1S.TRANS
CYPERMETHR1N
01SOD1UM OCTABORATE TETRAHYDRATE
Grubs. Larvie TRICHLORFON
OIAZINON
ISOFENPHOS
FONOFOS
CARBARVL
CHLORPYRIFOS
ISAZOFOS
MALATHION
M IK Lawn Garden Pests CHLORPYRIFOS
TRtCHLORFON
CARBARYL
OIAZINON
METALDEHYOE
An
-------
                                                                                                                       Pace 2 of-
                    Table 29.  Outdoors Pesticide Usage1 by Type of Pest,
                  Principal Outdoor Pest and  Active Ingredient  (Continued):

         1993 C/CPAS Results  for the Five Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                                     Pesticide Applicator Categories:
Principal Outdoor
T-peofPett Pesr1 Active Inrrtdients IAD Name
CHLORPYRIFOS
DIAZINON
BORIC ACID
BENDIOCARB
LAMBDA-CYHALOTHRIS
Aphids MALATHIOS
DIAZINON
ACEPHATE
CARBARYL
POTASSIUM SOAPS OF FATTY ACIDS
OXYDEM ETON-METHYL
Misc Household Pests CHLORPYRIFOS
Ana • Carperjtr CHLORPYRIFOS
DIAZINON
BENDIOCARB
M isc Ornamental Pests DIAZINON
CARBARYL
MALATHIOS
CHLORPYRIFOS
ACEPHATE
POTASSIUM SOAPS OF FATTY ACIDS
Crickets Grasshoppers ACEPHATE
D1AZINOS
CHLORPYRIFOS
Spiders CHLORPYRIFOS
DIAZISON
Beeiies CARBARYL
CHLORPYRIFOS
Irseis&O-jier Irivtnebraic!. Conun-jei! Mites POTASSIUM SOAPS OF FATTY ACIDS
DICOFOL
MALATHiON
ACEPHATE
AI Pounds (All
Code Nam*
059101 JU
05780: 51
once: 23
;os:oi id
::sa9- s
05770! Ill
05750! 67
: 0330 1 :5
056801 19
079021 !S
058-02 S
059IOI 6
05910! ::o
05780! M
ias:oi ;:
OS7J01 22
05680; :o
05770: :6
059101 11
10330: S
0-902: 6
10330: 36
05-801 :i
059101 !8
059101 36
orso: .<•
056S01 55
05910! : :
0-2:
ijiosoi :j
,75-0: s
'.03301 i
Standard
Error
iOOO>
36
--
:Ģ
-
-
93
33
8
n
11
6
i
SO
42
-
::
:-
6
3
2
^
20
s
•i
:ģ

!S
-
v
;-
}
5
•Res .'icicc 1st Pcsiicidc -RL'P  Noir thĢE ionc A is are ;r. ooUi RL'P and gcnefa. use prooyca. :"or ixitipte. 2 4-B a™: pi^foran:
Sonr:e q-jesuons 0ģ-. Ql*. Q-5. Q^7d ar:
'Consaa or Cooes 030019. U30035. 03006: iR
                                              ^iscs of Codes 0031
-------
                                                                                                                       Pace 3 of-
                    Table 29.   Outdoors Pesticide Usage1 by Type of Pest,
                  Principal Outdoor Pest and Active Ingredient  (Continued):

        1993 C/CPAS  Results  for the Five  Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                                     Pesticide Applicator  Categories2

Principal Outdoor
TvpeofPcst Pesr Active IncrtdienLv t\t} Name
Anis - Fire ACEPHATE
CHLORPYRIFOS
DIAZINON
CiKipillarsjMoihs CARBARYL
Flics Grau Midfu CARBARYL
CHLORPYRIFOS
Nemarodes CARBARYL
Tick! DIAZISON
CHLORPYRIFOS
Plains .Weeds Broadieaf Weeds 2.4-D
GLYPHOSATE, SALT
01URON
PROPANOIC ACID. :-4-CHLORO-2-METHYLPHEN
TRICLOPYR
SIMA2INE
PENDtMETHALIS
MCPA. DIMETHYLAM1NE SALT
2.4-D
DICAMBA. DIMETHYLAMINE SALT
PICLORAM. SALT
ORYZAL1N
ACETIC ACID. (2.4-DICKLOROPKENOXY)-. 2-B
PROPASOIC ACID. :-<: 4-DiCHLOROPHENOxr.-
IMAZAPYR. ISOPROPYLAMINE SALT
SULFOMETURON METHYL
2-ETHY:,J-METHYLPENTYL2.4-DICHLOROPHESO
Piams. Weeds iConimuedi Broadlea! Weeds iConlinuedi TEBLTHiURON
PROPASOIC ACID :.i2.4-DICHLOROPHENO\Y.-
PROPAMOiC ACID. 2-12.4-DICHLOROPHENOXV-
MECOPROP
ATRAZINE


Al Pounds IAD
Code Name
103301
OS910!
o$T80:
OS680I
C'JMOi
05910:
056801
057801
OS9101
030019
103601
035505
031519
II600ģ
08080"
icsso:
030516
030019
02980:
005102
:~
so
TC
55
46
4;
29
19
r
21
:o
r
'
*RcsL*icģd L'se Pesticide iRUP:.  Noie uwt some Ali are ir. tģCi Rl'P ajid penerai vise products, for example. - -ģ-B aixs pic'oran
•Soui:e questions Q\2. QU. Q15. QI"d and Q!"f is^e Appendix At. Reported product amounts uere convened 10 pounds of active mgrĢdiĢni using *Jie concertraEion o: L^e acnve infredneni giver.
EP.Ys Produce Label File located on the EPA mamrrame compuier in Research Triangle Park. N.C.
; Includes turf and ornamentsl: rtjht-oi-way-. aquatic, induiinal, insu:ui3onaJ. scructuraJ and heaii/i-rtUted: and public health
Incl-des pesa wiin at least 500 pounds total Ah and a; least 10 obsen-ations
'Consts^i o:'Codes :C360!. ;036C*i                       'Consģu or Codes 03001?. 030035. C30063 iGUP               Co^iists ot Codes 116002 ::6COi
     s of Codes 030019, 030035.030063 
-------
                    Table 29.  Outdoors  Pesticide Usage1 by Type of Pest,
                  Principal Outdoor Pest and Active Ingredient  (Continued):

        1993 C/CPAS Results for the  Five  Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                                      Pesticide  Applicator Categories2
                                                                                                                        Page 4 of 7

Principal Outdoor
T ,-pe of Pest Pest' Active Inerediencs IAD Name
CHLORPYR1FOS
ACETIC ACIO. C.-S-DICHLOROPHESOXYK COM
DICHLOBENIL
ATRAZIS'E
BROMACIL. LITHIL'M SALT
PICLORAM.SALT
BENFLURALIN
ISOXABEN
OXADIAZOS
PROMETON
TRIFLURALIS
DITHIOPYR
Annual Grasses CLYPHOSATE. SALT
PENDIMETHALIN
DIL'ROS
PRODIAMINE
BENFLL'RALIS
ORVZALIS
SIMAZINE
TRIFLL'RALIS
BENSULIDE
SULFOMETt'RON METHYL

Al Pounds (Ali
Code Name
059:0.
030016 P
0:740: u
03::oi
0!:3o: i:
005 IK ::
08430! iu
i:585! 10
109001 w
08080J
036101
::8ģ
-------
                                                                                                                     Paee 5 of"
                    Table 29.  Outdoors Pesticide Usage1 by  Type of Pest,
                  Principal Outdoor Pest  and Active Ingredient  (Continued):

        1993  C/CPAS Results for the Five Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                                     Pesticide Applicator Categories2

Principal Outdoor
TrpcoFPest Per' Active Ingredients IAD Name
DITHIOPYR
PROPANOIC ACID :-(4-CHLORO-2-METHVLPHEN
TRIFLURALIN
BENSULIDE
OXADIAZON
ORYZAL1N
CLYPHOSATE SALT
Perennial Grasses GLVPHOSATE. SALT
DIURON'
ORY2AL1S
SIMA21NE
Woody Brush Vines FOSAMINE AMMOSIL'M
TRICLOPYR
:.4-o
CLYPHOSATE SALT
PICLORAM. SALT
ACETIC ACID. i2.4-DICHLOROPHESOXYi- :-B
IMAZAPYR. ISOPROPYLAMINE SALT
PICLORAM. SALT
DICAMBA. DIM ETHYLAM1NE SALT
Weeds & Grasses GLYPHOSATE. SALT
DIURON
Sulsedse SODIUM BENTAZON
Piir: Disease Orgarasiw 8rcģn Patch CHLOROTHALONIL
Plants Disease Organisms (Continued' Bro*n Paten (Continued) MANCOZEB
THIRAM
1PRODIONE
THIOPHANATE-M ETHYL
VISCLOZOLIN
PROPICONAZOLE
TRIAD1MEFOS
PESTACHLORONITROBENZENE

Standard
AI Pounds (Mi En-or
Code Name (0001
: 28994
03:519
0?6!OI
00980:
-.09001
loco:
:0360:
;03601
035505
:0420i
08080"
: 06701
i 16004
030019
10360 i
005 to:
030053
128829
oosio:
029802
:03Ģ:
035505
103901
081901
014504
079801
10980:
:o:oo:
: u:oi
i::ioi
icwo:
0565C:
:: :o
15 S
:: ;
i; i
\
3
5 3
334 104
181 136
JO IS
18 1!
'.So 101
!3~ 49
•9 3S
50 30
13 9
:: 8
9
9 6
6
89 33
:i i:
i2 12
4TJ 1 13
136 "4
Si 60
67 iS
:4 10
19 9
i: ;
10 3
< 1
"Rtsiritted I'sc Fcsticwc iRUP) NOK that some Als arc in berth RUP and general use products, for exampJe. Z.4-B atxi picloram.
•Source cucstions Q!2, Ql-J, Qlf . Ql~cand Ql"f :see Appeocix Af Reponed product amounts w;rc convened to pounds ol'ac::\e mgreciem ustns; the c
EPA s Procuct Labc' F:.e .ocatec on ihe EPA mairrrame compuicr tn Research Tciartgle Park. N C
•irejuGes turi anc ornarrcnul • nghtof-way: aquatic: industrial, institutional, structural and health -related: and public ncat;h,
Includes DCS;* with at ;uas! 500 xģunds total Als and it least 10 observations
                                                                                               n of the active mprec:em ziv
     o: Codes !03rrf>:. 1036>i
"Consists o: Coc=s 0
              ';9. 0?0035 . 030063 (Rl'Ps
                                           'Consists ol Codes 030019 030035. 030063 i

                                           'Consists 01 Codes 005101. 005101 iRUPi


                                                          134
                                                                                      Cons:s^ Q! Codes 11600:. :;60M

                                                                                      Consists of Codes 005102. 0051
-------
                    Table 29.   Outdoors Pesticide Usage1  by Type of Pest,
                  Principal Outdoor  Pest  and Active Ingredient (Continued):

        1993 C/CPAS Results for the Five Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                                     Pesticide Applicator Categories2
                                                                                                                        Page 6 of 7
Principal Outdoor
TvpcofPest Pest' Active Ingredients (All Name
Misc Plant Diseases PENTACHLORONITROBENZENE
THIOPHAS'ATE-METHYL
CHLOROTHALONIL
MANCOZEB
COPPER HYDROXIDE
MERCUROUS CHLORIDE
CHLOROSEB
TRIADIMEFOS
IPRODIONE
Blights CHLOROTHALOML
FOSETYL-AL
METAL AXYL
PROPAMOCARB HYDROCHLOR1DE
MANCOZEB
CHLORONEB
THIOPHANATE-METHYL
IPRODIONE
Dollar Spec CHLOROTHALOWS.
MANCOZEB
VINCLOZOLIS
IPRODIONt
TRIADIMEFOS
THIOPHANATE-METHYL
P:an- Disease. -Organism* (Continued! Dollar Spot iConwiued' ANILAZINE
PROP1CON.A.ZOLE
LeifSpot CHLOROTHALOML
MANCOZEB
ANILAZINE
)PROD!ONE
V!NCLOZOLIN
Ftinpjj CHLOROTHALON1L
DISODIUM OCTABORATE TETRAHYDRATE
AI Pounds (AD
Code Name
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"Reslr c:cd t'ss Pn::z:de iRl.T>  Note L^al sij^ie A Is arr i- boL^ RL'P I.TC: psncrj' ^e prod^cli. for c^irrplc. 2,-i-B inC ciciora,T
Sour;: uuest.crj: Q'.l Q'.-. 0"?- Ql'c arc Q!*:' >SK Appcncix A  Rcponec procuc: awounu were corvtncd :c >>u,vis o:'ac:;-.c ;rtf:cct]er.t
ŖPA •, PrcxSu:: Lasci F:Je .ocated on i~e ŖPA mainrranc compute: in Research Triang.e fa.'k N.C.
:ffxriudirs ti:rt and ofrj.ner.ial: ngfii-or'-w,ay, iqu^tic: industrial, institution*., strucfjrai and health-reiaied: and pub he heaizh.
luclu^-s pĢsf4 v.sh it least 50C> pounds ;ou,i \l? ana it icasi JO observations
*Cop^:r^orCoces 105601. li>?tJkU                       "Cotaitts or Codes U30C-19. 03ĢX35. 030063 tCUP
'Cons sis of Codes 03001S. 030035. 030063 RUPi
                                            'Consists of Codes OOSlo:. iX'5:

                                                            135
                                                                                     s-.-g f-c cotKC^tration o: •_-.!; a;t:\e ing:eC:e"t g
                                                                                        Cor^isis of CoUcs Ii600Z. Ģ^600^

                                                                                       ••Consists o: Codes 005102.005104 Gl'P-

-------
                    Table  29.  Outdoors  Pesticide Usage1 by Type  of Pest,
                  Principal  Outdoor Pest and Active Ingredient (Continued):

         1993 C/CPAS Results for the Five Non-agricultural Certified/Commercial
                                      Pesticide  Applicator Categories2
                                                                                                                        Page 7 of:
Principal Outdoor
Type of Pest Per' Active Ingredients (All Name
MANCOZEB
THIOPHANATE-METHYL
Aquatic Pests Algae COPPER TRIETHANOLAMINE COMPLEX
MANCOZEB
SIMAZtNE
Standard
Al Pounds lAli Error
Code Name (000)
014504 1C 6
10:M: ft 3
0:4403 38 19
014504 3~ \S
08080" 6 5
                             Aquatic Wetds-Subnwrgol
ATRAZINE

ESDOTHALL. DIPOTASS1UM SALT

CLYPHOSATE. SALT
                                                                                              032:0!

                                                                                              038904

                                                                                              103601
54

41

 6
•Restricted L'se Pesticide !RL"P>  Note tfiai some A.h are in boch RL'Pand pencfaj use products, for example. 2.4-B anc pidoran
•So-jrce cjestions QlZ. Q\*. 0- - Qi~d and Q.~:"!$*e Appends AJ  Reponed product au-nounts <*ere convencc to pouncs of ic;:ve i-greCicn; us;np xnĢ concentrauofi of i^e acE^e
EPA s Product UabeS Fue iocaicd en the EPA ma:nrraTne computer ;n Rtsearcrt Triangle Park. N.C.
:lncMcs cur;' and ornamental, right-qf-way; iquauc, (nduscria.. irituuuonai, structural and health-relited; and public health.
'Includes pcsy, *rj) 21 least 500 pounds toui AU and at leas; }Q observances
•ConiiS'^ or Codes 103601. 1036C"                       'Coruists of Codes 030019. 030035. 050063 'GU'P'              Cc.-jiits c: Codes 31600: 11
"CoĢBtt o: Cooe* 030019. 030C'35. 030063 i
                                            'Consuls of Codes 005102. 005101 fRUP>
                                                            136
                                                                                              i" Codes 005102. 005IO-* -GL'Pi

-------
                     Appendix A
C\CPAS Questionnaire
                137

-------
    Appendix A contains a modified version of the 1993 Certified/Commercial Pesticide
Applicator Survey  (C/CPAS) questionnaire.  For simplicity, we included only the first
pesticide table in this appendix.  The remaining 19 pesticide tables, that appear on pages 6
through 24 of the questionnaire, are  identical to the first.
                                            138

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                                                            143

-------
PESTICIDE TABLE 1
1 6a. Is this the amount of the concentrated, ready-to-use, or the diluted product?
CONCENTRATED/READY-TO-USE 	 1 -ģ (GO TO 0. 17a)
12. PRODUCT NAME AS IT APPEARS ON THE LABEL.
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17b. What percent of the total product amount was used on this site?
RECORD IN COLUMN B.
17c. Of the [TOTAL %] used on [SfTE], what percent was used Indoors?
RECORD IN COLUMN C.
17d. Of the [TOTAL %] used on [SITE], what percent was used outdoors?
RECORD IN COLUMN D.
1 4. What Is the EPA Registration Number for
{PRODUCT]?
EPA REG. NO.
IF NOT AVAILABLE, ENTER "DK" ABOVE AND ASK:
a. Who Is the manufacturer of [PRODUCT]?
1 7e. What was the most common target pest for the Indoor site? RECORD IN COLUMN E.
171. What was the most common target pest for the outdoor site? RECORD IN COLUMN F.
b. What Is the percent of active Ingredient for
this product? // more than one A . I,
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POUNDS 	 4
OTHER /SPECIFY ) 	 5
144

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                                    CARDB

                   SITE TREATED CODES - QUESTIONNAIRE

       RESIDENTIAL - Permanent single and multi-family housing.
       Examples:  Single family homes, mobile homes, apartments, condominiums, retirement
       homes, common areas between buildings, vegetable gardens.

       RECREATION AREAS - Private and public recreation areas located both indoors
       and outdoors.
       Examples:    Domed  stadiums, athletic clubs,  golf  courses,  ball  fields, school
       playgrounds/recreational  areas, etc.

       MEDICAL - Medical facilities and public health services.
       Examples: Hospitals, doctor's offices, nursing homes, health departments, etc.

       PUBLIC/PRIVATE SANITATION AND UTILnTES
       Examples: Government water treatment and sewage facilities.  Electric, telephone, gas,
       and water utility right of ways.

       COMMERCIAL OFFICE/RETAIL BUSINESS/PUBLIC BUILDINGS
       Examples: Office buildings/retail businesses like banks, restaurants, hotels, convenience
       stores, etc.   Public buildings including police departments, fire  stations, community
       centers, courthouses, post offices, libraries, schools, prisons, etc.

       COMMERCIAL WHOLESALE/MANUFACTURING BUSINESS
       Examples: Furniture factory, potato chip factory, pharmaceutical company, etc. Includes
       commodity/food storage areas, transport  vehicles, and facilities.

       COMMERCIAL - INDETERMINATE

       AGRICULTURAL
       Examples: Field crops, livestock farms, fruit and nut orchards, seed crops, vegetables,
       shellfish production, bees, and forest products.

       OTHER
             DEFINITION FOR INDOOR/OUTDOOR APPLICATIONS

1INDOOR    For the purposes of this study we have defined indoor applications to include all
            living space and unoccupied areas such as basements, crawl spaces, and garages.

OUTDOOR  Except as noted above.
                                         147

-------
                      Appendix B
                      mmm^mm

List of Complete Active Ingredient

Names
                148

-------
                   Complete Active Ingredient Names Ordered by Active Ingredient Code

   AI
  Code      Active Ingredient (AO  Name

 000701             ACROLEIN
 004003     D-TRANS-ALLETHRIN
 004004           S-BIOALLETHRIN
 004401             AMITROLE
 004901             MUSTARD  OIL
 005102             P1CLORAM,  SALT
 005103             PICLORAM,  ISOOCTYL  ESTER
 005501             AMMONIUM SYLFAMATE
 006310             STREPTOMYCIN  SESQUISULFATE
 006315             HALOBROM
 006321             CALCIUM  OXYTETRACYCL1NE
 006400             BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS, BERLINER
 006401             BACILLUS TKURINGIENSIS, ISRAELENSIS
 006402             BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS, KURSTAKI
 006601             ESPESOL  3A
 007001             ARSENIC  TRIOXIDE
 008101             BASIC COPPER  SULFATE
 008102             BASIC COPPER  II!  -  ZINC SULFATE  COMPLEX
 008711             TRIMETHYL8ENZYL AMMONIUM RESIN
 009001             LINDANE
 009801             BENSULIOE
 010501             DICOFOL
 011001             BORIC ACID
 011102             BORAX
 011103             DiSODIUM OCTASORATE TETRAHYDRATE
 011104             SODIUM METABORATE
 011107             D:SODIOH OCTABORATE TETRAHYDRATE
 011402             POLYBUTENE
 011403             POLYIS06UTYLENE
 011501             BUTOXYETHANOL
 011901             BUTOXYPOLYPROPYLENE GLYCOL
 012301             BROMACIL
 012302             BROMACIL, LITHIUM SALT
 012501             CACODYLIC ACID
 012502             CACODYLIC ACID, SODIUM SALT
 312701             TERBAC1L
013505             SODIUM ARSENATE
013802            DSMA
013803            MSMA
013804            OAMA
013805            DDAMA
013806            CAMA
014503            NABAH
014504            MANCOZE6
014505            MANEB

               2 Consists of AI  codes 030001,030019,030035,030063
               3 Consists of AI  codes 103604,103601
               - Cons-sts of AI  codes 005102,005104
               5 Consists of AI  codes 116002,116004
                                                     149

-------
                   Complete Active Ingredient Names Ordered by Active Ingredient  Code
   AI
  Code     Active Ingredient (AI)  Name

 014701             CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE
 014703             SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE
 018101             CHLORMEQUAT  CHLORIDE
 021901             CITRONELLA OILS
 022703             COPPER AMMONIUM CARBONATE
 023102             COPPER NAPHTENATE
 023104             COPPER RESONATE
 023304             COPPER OLEATE
 023401             COPPER HYDROXIDE
 0235Q3             COPPER OXYCHLOR1DE  SULFATE
 024002             OXINE-COPPER
 024401             COPPER SULFATE  PENTAHYDRATE
 024403             COPPER TRIETHANOLAMINE  COMPLEX
 024405             CHELATES  OF  COPPER  GLUCONATE
 024407             COPPER ETHYLENED1AMINE  COMPLEX
 025003             COAL  TAR  CRESOTE OILS
 025004             COAL  TAR  CREOSOTE
 025601             COPPER<1) OXIDE
 027301             CHLORONEB
 027401             DICHLOBENIL
 027501             DIENOCHLOR
 028501             HYDANTOiN
 028902             SODIUM DALAPON
 029801             DICAMBA
 029802             OICAMBA, DIMETHYLAMIME  SALT
 029803             DICAMBA, D1ETHAHOLAHINE SALT
 029806             DICAMBA, SODIUM SALT
 030016             ACETIC ACID, <2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXY)-, COM
 030019             2,4-D
 030025            ACETIC ACID
 030029            ACETIC ACID
 030033            ACETIC ACID
 030034            ACETIC  ACID
 030053            ACETIC  ACID,  (2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXY)-, 2-B
 030064          2-ETHYL-4-METHYLPENTYL 2,<*-DICHL
 030501            MCPA
030502            MCPA.  SODIUM SALT
030511            MCPA,  DISTHANOLAMINE SALT
030516            MCPA,  D1METHYLAMINE SALT
030553            MCPA,  BUTOXYETHYL ESTER
030563            MCPA,  1SOOCTYL ESTER
031401            DICHLORPROP
031419            PROPANOIC ACID,  2-(2,4-DICHLORQPHENOXY)-
031453            PROPANOIC ACID,  2-(2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXY>-
031463            PROPANOIC ACID,  2-{2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXY>-

               2 Consists of AI codes 030001,030019,030035,030063
               3 Consists of AI codes 103604,103601
               4 Consists of AI codes 005102,005104
               5 Consists of AI codes 116002,116004
                                                    150

-------
                   Complete  Active  Ingredient  Names  Ordered by Active  ingredient Code

   Al
  Code      Active  Ingredient (AI) Name

031501             MECOPROP
031503             POTASSIUM 2-(2-METHYL-4-CHLOROPHENOXY)PROPIONATE
031516             PROPANOIC ACID
031519             PROPANOIC ACID,  2-(4-CHLORO-2-METHY_PHEN
031563             PROPANOIC ACID
031602             COTTONSEED OIL
031605             SOYBEAN OIL
031801             AMMONIUM  SALTS OF C8-C18 AND CIS'  FATTY ACIDS
032201             ATRAZINE
032501             DISULFOTON
034001             METHOXYCHLOR
034401             NALED
034801             FERRIC DIMETHYLDITHIOCARBAMATE
034804             SODIUM DIMETHYLDITHIOCARBAMATE
034805             ZINC DIMETHYLIDITHIOCARBAMATE
034902             FERRIC StfLFATE
035001             DIMETHOATE
035101             DAM1NOZIDE
035201             DICROTOPHOS
035302             BROMOXYNIL OCTANOATE
035303             BROMOXYNIL BUTYRATE
035503             FLUOMETURON
035505             DIURON
035506             LINURON
035509             SIDURON
035602             DAZOMET
035603         2-CTHIOCYANOMETHYLTHIO) BENZOTHIAZOLE
036101             TRIFLURALIN
036201          3-TRIFLUOROMETHYL-4-NITROPHENOL
037801            OIOXATHION
038903             ENDOTHALL, DI SOD I DM SALT
038904             ENDOTHALL, DIPOTASSIUH SALT
038905             ENDOTHALL, MONO(N,N-D WETHYLCOCOAMHE) SALT
035002             POTASSIUM N-METHYLDITHIOCARBAMATE
039003            METAM-SODIUM
039105            COPPER ETHYLENEDIAM1NETETRAACETATE
040502             LEMONGRASS OIL
040517            ORANGE OIL
041101             ETHOPROP
041401             EPTC
041405            BUTYLATE
041701              FONOFOS
042003            EDC
042203            ETHYLENE GLYCOL
042301             ETHYLENE OXIDE

               2 Consists of AI codes 030001,030019,030035,030063
               3 Consists of AI codes 103604,103601
               4 Consists of AI codes 005102,005104
               5 Consists of AI codes 116002,116004
                                                   151

-------
                   Complete  Active Ingredient  Names  Ordered  by Active  Ingredient  Code

   At
  Code     Active Ingredient (AI)  Name

 043801             G1BBERELLIC  ACID
 044301             DODINE
 044901             HEXACKLOROPHENE
 045901             HYDROGEN  CHLORIDE
 046701             IBA
 046903             NONYLPHENOXYPOLYETHOXYETHANOL  -  IODINE  COMPLEX
 046904             POLYETHOXYPOLYPROPOXYETHANOL  -  iODINE COMPLEX
 047201             DIPROPYL  ISOCINCHOMERONATE
 047802             PROPOXUR
 050507             FERROUS SULFATE MONOHYDRATE
 051503             MALEIC HYDRAZIDE,  POTASSIUM SALT
 052001             MERCURIC  CHLORIDE
 052201             MERCUROUS CHLORIDE
 053001             METALDEHYDE
 053201             METHYL BROMIDE
 053301             FENTHIOIT
 053501             METHYL PARATHION
 054101             CHINOMETH10NATE
 055801             NAPHTHALENE
 056001             NAD
 056002             NAA
 056004             AMMONIUM  1-NAPHTHALENEACETATE
 056007             SODIUM 1-NAPHTHALENEACETATE
 056502             PENTACHLORONITROBENZENE
 056702             NICOTINE
 056801             CARBARYL
 057001           N-OCTYL BICYCLOHEPTENEDICARBOXIMIDE
 057201             PHORATE
 0575C1             PARATHION
 057701             MALATHION
 057801             OIAZINON
 057901             TRICHLORFON
 058001             AZINPHOS-METHYL
 058102             CARBOPHENOTH10N
 058201             CKLORDANE
 058401             ETHION
 058702             OXYOEMETON-METHYL
 058802             SODIUM 5-CHLORO-2-(4-CHLORO-2-(3-(3,4-DICHLOROPHENYL
 059001             TEMEPHOS
 059101             CHLORPYRIFOS
 059102             CHLORPYRIFOS-METHYL
 059201             PHOSMET
 060102             THIABENDAZOLE HYPOPHOSPHITE
 061601            PARAQUAT BICHLORIDE
062201          2-BENZYL-4-CHLOROPHENOI

               2 Consists of AI codes 030001,030019,030035,030063
               3 Consists of AI codes 103604,103601
               4 Consists of AI codes 005102,005104
               5 Consists of AI codes 116002,116004
                                                   152

-------
                  Complete Active Ingredient Names Ordered by Active Ingredient Cade

  AI
 Code     Active Ingredient (AI) Name

063001            PCP
063301            DISOOIUM CYANODITHIOIMIDOCARBONATE
063501            KEROSENE
063502            MINERAL OIL - INCLUDES PARAFFIN OIL FROM 063503
064103          0-PKENYLPHENOL
066003            PHENYLMERCURIC ACETATE
066501            ALUMINUM PHOSPHIDE
066504            MAGNESIUM PHOSPHIDE
067002            PINE OIL
067501            PIPERONYL BUTOXIOE
067701            DIPHACINONE
067703            PINDONE
067704            PINDONE SODIUM SALT
067705            DIPHACINONE, SODIUM SALT
067706            CALCIUM 2-ISOVALERYL-1,3-INDANDIONE
067707            CHLOROPHACINONE
068102            METHYLENEBIS(THIOCYANATE)
068103            METHYL MUSTARD OIL
068302            POTASSIUM DICHROMATE
068501            POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE
068603            PROPYLENE GLYCOL
069001            PYRETHRINS
069003            TETRAMETHRIN
069005            PHENOTHR1N
069104            ALKYL* DIMETHYL BENZYL AMMONIUM CHLORIDE
069105            ALKY*D1METHYL ETHYLBENZYL AMMONIUM CHLORIDE*<505iCl4,40%C12,105X16}
069106            QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS, ALKYLBENZ
069111            ALKY*DIMETHYL ETHYLBENZYL AMMONIUM CHLORIDE
069141            QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS, BENZYL-Cl
069149          1-DECANAM1NIUM,  N-DECYL-N,N-DIMETHYL-,  C
069154            ALKY*DIMETHYL ETHYLBENZYL AMMONIUM CHLOR1DE*(68% C12)
069165          1-DECANAMINIUM,  N.N-DIMETHYL-N-OCTYL-..  C
069166          1-OCTANAMINIUM,  N.N-DIMETHYL-N-OCTYL-,  C
069183            POLYCOXY-1,2-ETHANEDIYL(DIMETHYLIMINO)-1
069189            QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS, BENZYL-C1
069201            AMINOPYRIDINE
071003            ROTENONE
071004            CUBE RESINS OTHER  THAN ROTENONE
072602            SILICA GEL
072605            SILICON DIOXIDE
073301            SODIUM CHLORATE
075202            SODIUM FLUORIDE
076103            POTASSIUM NITRATE
076601            METHYL SALICYLATE
076702            CALCIUM POLYSULFIDE

               2 Consists of AI codes 030001,030019,030035,030063
               3 Consists of AI codes 103604,103601
               4 Consists of Ai codes 005102,005104
               5 Consists of A! codes 116002,116004
                                                   153

-------
                   Complete Active Ingredient Names Ordered by Active Ingredient  Code

   AI
  Code     Active Ingredient (AI) Name

 076901             STRYCHNINE
 077401             NICLOSAMIDE
 077501             SULFUR
 077901             SULFAQUINOXALINE
 078003             SULFURYL FLUORIDE
 078701             CHLORTHAL DIMETHYL
 078802             TRIALLATE
 079021             POTASSIUM SOAPS OF  FATTY  ACIDS
 079401             ENOOSULFAN
 079501             SULFOTEPP
 079701             D1PENTENE
 079801             THIRAM
 080301             DIETHYL  TOLLtAMIDE
 080402             THYMOL
 080501             TOXAPHENE
 080801             AMETRYN
 080803             ATRAZINE
 080804             PROHETON
 080807             SIMAZINE
 080811             ANILAZINE
 081201             TRICHLOROETHANE
 081301             CAPTAN
 081501             CHLOROPICRIN
 081901             CHLOROTHALONIL
 082001             2,4,5-T
 083001             TRIBUTYLTIN OXIDE
 083112             TRIBUTYLTIN FLUORIDE
 083120             TRIBUTYLTJN METHACRYLATE
 083701             TETRACHLORVINPHOS
 083902             TRIS{HYDROXYMETHYL)NITROMETHANE
 084001             DICHLORVOS
 084301             BENFLURALIN
 084701             ETRIDIAZOLE
 086002             WARFARIN
 086003             SODIUM WARFARIN
 087801             ZINC CHLORIDE
 088301             ZINC NAPHTHENATE
 088601             ZINC PHOSPHIDE  (ZN3P2)
 090202             OXYCARBOXIN
 090301             METHOMYL
 090501             ALACHLOR
 090601             CARBOFURAN
 097003             PIPERAL1N
097801             RESMETHR1N
Q983Q1             ALDICARB

               2 Consists of  AI  codes 030001 ,.030019,030035,030063
               3 Consists of  AI  codes 103604,103601
               4 Consists of  At  codes 005102,005104
               5 Consists of AI  codes 116002,116004
                                                     154

-------
                  Complete Active  Ingredient Names Ordered by Active  Ingredient Code

  AI
 Code     Active  Ingredient  (AJ) Hams

098801            CHLORFLURENOL, METHYL ESTER
098901            BENZ1SOTHIAZOL1N-3-ONE
099101            BENOMYL
099801            ETHEPHON
100101          2-CHLORO-4-((1-CYANO-1-METHYLETHYL)AMlNO>-6-(ETHYLAMINO)-S-TRlAZtNE
100501            METHIOCARB
100601            FENAMIPHOS
101101            METRIBUZIN
101201            METHAMIOOPHOS
101701            PROPYZAMIDE
101801            DIBROMO-3-NITR1LOPROPIONAMIDE
102001            THIOPHANATE-METHYL
103001            NAPROPAMIDE
103201            MUSCALURE
103301            ACEPHATE
103401            THIOPHANATE
103601            GLYPHOSATE, SALT
103801            OXAHYL
103901            SODIUM BENTAZON
104201            ORYZALIN
104601            FENBUTATIN-OXIDE
105001            TERBUFOS
t05101            EGG SOLIDS
105201            BEND10CARB
105401            METHOPRENE
105402          S-METHOPRENE
105501            TEBUTHIUROH
105801            NORfLURAZON
105901            FEN1TROTH10N
106701            FOSAMINE AMMONIUM
106902            SODIUM ASULAH
107103      3(2H)-ISOTHIAZOLONE, 5-CHLORO-2-METHYL-
107104            HETHYLISOTHIA20L1NONE
107E01            HEXAZ1NONE
107502          2-PROPYNL(S-(E,E))
107901            TRJFOR1HE
"08201            DIFLUBEMZURON
'08501            PENDIHETHALIN
'08601            ANCYMIDOUA-CYCLOPROPYL-A-(P-METHOXYPHENYL)-5-PY
-------
                   Complete Active Ingredient  Names Ordered by Active Ingredient  Code

   AI
  Code     Active Ingredient (AI)  Name

 109601             DIKEGULAC SODIUM
 109701             PERMETHRIN,  MIXED  CIS,TRANS
 109702             CYPERMETHRIN
 109801             IPRODIONE
 109901             TRIAD1MEFON
 110201             PRODIAMINE
 110301             ERIOGLAUCINE
 110302             TARTRAZINE
 110401             DOOEHORPH ACETATE
 110601             ETHOFUMESATE
 110902             DICLOFOP-METHYL
 111401             PROFENOFOS
 111601             OXYFLUORFEN
 112001     3-<3-<4'BROMO-(1,1'BJPHENYl)-4-YL)-3-HYDROXY-1-PHENYLPROPL)-4-HYDROXYCOUMARlN
 112602             TRINEXAPAC-ETHYL
 112701             BRODIFACOUH
 112802             BROMETHALIN
 112900             FLURIDONE
 113201             VINCLOZOLIN
 113501             METALAXYL
 113601             PROPETAHPHOS
 114002             MEFLUIDIDE,  OIETHANOLAMINE  SALT
 114402             SODIUM ACIFLUORFEN
 114501             THIODICARB
 115001           2-EEEBC
 116001             TRICLOPYR
 116004             TRICLOPYR
 116801             CYTOK1N1N (AS 
-------
                  Complete Active  Ingredient Names Ordered by Active Ingredient Code

  AI
 Code     Active  Ingredient  CA!) Name

 124601            POE  ISOOCTADECANOL
 125301            FENOXYCARB
 125401            CLOMAZONE
 125601            PACLOBUTRAZOL
 125701            FlURPRIMIDOL
 125851            ISOXABEN
 126901            ISA20FOS
 127901            FENPROPATHRIN
 128001            AHIDOCHLOR
 128501            SULFOSATE
 128701            FENOXAPROP-ETKYL
 128711            QUIZALOFOP-ETHYL
 128825            BIFENTHR1N
 128826            D1CHLORO-5-ETHYL-5-METHYLHYDANTOIN
 128829            IHAZAPYR,  ISOPROPYLAMINE SALT
 128831            CYFLUTHRIN
 128838            LINALOOL
 128840            1MAZAQUIN, MONOAMMONIUM SALT
 128845            THIFENSULFURON HETHYL
 128857            MYCIOBUTANII
 128867            CYHALOTHRIN
 128872            CARBENDAZIM
 128879            TRIFLUMIZOLE
 128887            TRI8ENURON HETHYL
 128897            LAMBDA-CYHALOTHRIN
 128901            CHLORIMURON-ETHYL
 128923            1MAZETHAPYR, AMMONIUM SALT
 128931            DJCAMBA, D1GLYCOAMINE SALT
 128946            BACILLUS THURINGIENS1S, SAN DIEGO
 128966       (7S)-HYDROPRŖNE
 128975            FLUTOLANIL
 128992            OCTANESULFONAMIDE, N-ETHYL-1,1,2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7
 128994            DITHIOPYR
 129008            NICOSULFURON
 129029            BERGAMOT OIL
 129030            ALPHA-IONONE
 129045            BENZYLDIETHYL METHYL
 129056            METARHIZIUM ANISOPLiAE STRAIN ESF1
 202901            CHOLECALCIFEROL
 206600            FENARIMOL
 208700            CHOLECALCIFEROL
417300            GLYPHOSATE
*8630Q            HYDROPRENE
 597501            TRANS-3,7-OIMETHYL-2,6-OCTAD!Ek-1-OL
               2 Consists of At codes 030001,030019,030035,030063
               3 Consists of AI codes 103604,103601
               4 Consists of AI codes 005102,005104
               5 Consists of AI codes 116002,116004
                                                     157

-------
                                Appendix C
Expanded Versions of Table 12.


    Table 12a.  Not-for-hire Certified Applicators
    Pesticide Usage by Employer's Business Type,
    Pesticide Type, and Active Ingredient

    Table 12b.  For-hire Applicator Pesticide Usage by
    Pesticide Type and Active Ingredient
                        158

-------
       Appendix C contains two detailed versions of Table 12. Detailed Table 12a describes
non-agricultural pesticide usage by not-for-hire certified applicators in the U.S. during 1993 by
type of business of their employer, pesticide type, and active ingredient.  Detailed Table 12b
contains non-agricultural pesticide usage by for-hire applicators in the U.S. during 1993 by
pesticide type and active ingredient.
                                              159

-------




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                      Appendix D
                      ••••

Expanded Version of Table 13.

Pesticide Usage by Active Ingredient
                 192

-------
       Appendix D contains three uncensored versions of Table 13. The tables, which focus
on non-agricultural pesticide usage by certified/commercial applicators in U.S. during  1993,
list all active ingredients with positive nonagricultural pesticide usage (in pounds)  reported in
the C/CPAS survey.  The active ingredients in Table 13A are listed from maximum to
minimum usage estimates, Table 13B displays the data in numeric order by active ingredient
code, and Table 13C  provides an alphabetic listing by active ingredient name.

       As in Table 13, usage estimates were computed from the source questions Q12. Q14,
and Q15 for five certification areas (turf and ornamental; right-of way;  aquatic; industrial.
institutional, structural and health-related; and public health).  Furthermore, it should be noted
that some products, such as 2-4,D and picloram, are contained in both restricted use (RUP)
and general use pesticides.
                                             193

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    -------
                           Appendix E
                           mmmm
    
    Expanded Version of Table 14.
    Pesticide Usage by Pesticide Type
    and Active Ingredient
                    236
    

    -------
           Appendix E contains an uncensored version of Table 14.  The table, which focuses on
    non-agricultural pesticide usage by certified/commercial applicators in U.S. during 1993, list
    all active ingredients with positive nonagricultural pesticide usage (in pounds) reported in the
    C/CPAS survey by type of pesticide.
    
           As in Table 14, usage estimates were computed from the  source questions Q12. Q14.
    and Q15 for five certification areas (turf and ornamental; right-of way; aquatic; industrial.
    institutional, structural and health-related; and public health).  Furthermore, it should be noted
    that some products, such as 2-4.D and picloram. are contained in both restricted use (RUP)
    and general use pesticides.
                                                237
    

    -------
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    -------
                           Appendix F
                           m^rnm
    
    Expanded Version of Table 15.
    Restricted Product Pesticide Usage
    by Active Ingredient
                    251
    

    -------
           Appendix F contains an uncensored version of Ta"ble 15.  The table, which focuses on
    non-agricultural restricted use product usage by certified/commercial applicators in U.S.
    during 1993. list all active ingredients contained in restricted use products with positive
    nonagricultural pesticide usage (in pounds) reported in the C/CPAS  survey.
    
           As in Table 15. usage estimates were computed from the source questions Q12. Q14,
    and Q15 for five certification areas (turf and ornamental; right-of way; aquatic; industrial.
    institutional, structural and health-related; and public health).  Furthermore, it should be noted
    that some products, such as 2-4,D and picloram. are contained in both restricted use (RUP)
    and general use pesticides and thus are listed in this table.
                                               252
    

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                              Glossary
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                     255
    

    -------
                                      Glossary of Selected
                             C/CPAS Terms and Their Definitions
    C/CPAS  — is an acronym for the Certified/Commercial Pesticide Applicator Survey
    
    Certified/Commercial applicator — is an individual who has been certified by at least one State
           to apply restricted-use pesticides on their own property, the property of their employer, or
           on the property of others for a fee.
    
    Eligible population --  of the  C/CPAS was  all pesticide applicators employed by businesses
           licensed to apply pesticides to the non-agricultural sites as well as all persons certified to
           apply restricted-use pesticides to non-agricultural sites in the 48 coterminous states and the
           District of Columbia.
    
    For-hire pesticide application business — is a business licensed or registered by a state to apply
           pesticides, either restricted or not restricted, to the property of others for a fee  A for-hire
           business is a cluster or group of pesticide applicators.
    
    For-hire pesticide applicator — is a employee of a for-hire pesticide application business. For-
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    Non-agricultural sites  — are sites that are included under the five non-agricultural certification
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                         Turf and ornamental pest control
                         Right-of-way pest control
                         Aquatic pest control
                         Industrial, institutional, structural, and health related pest control
                         Public health pest control
    
    Not-for-hire certified applicator - is a certified applicator that is not employed by  a  for-hire
           businesses.
    
    Reporting unit — is the entity for which the collected data applies. A reporting unit may be one or
           the union of more than one sampling units.  If a reporting unit is more than one sampling
           unit,  all sampling units included in the reporting unit were identified so that the data for the
           reporting unit can be properly weighted to produce unbiased estimates
    
    Sampling unit — is the entity represented by one record on the sampling frame.  The first stage
           sampling units was a county or group of smaller counties  The second-stage sampling units
           were for-hire pesticide application business location or not-for-hire certified applicators.
                                               256
    

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