<>EPA
    Agency
                      Usin8 DWSRF Funds to Comply with the Long
                                |  Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule
The Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF) program was established by the 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)
Amendments and authorizes grants to states to capitalize revolving loan funds.  The states provide low-interest loans to eligible
systems for infrastructure improvements needed to ensure compliance with the SDWA and protect public health.  The
DWSRF program can play a significant role in helping systems, especially small systems, to meet the challenges of complying
with new drinking water standards.

The LongTerm 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LTlESWTR), published in January 2002, requires all water
systems serving fewer than 10,000 people and using surface water or ground water under the direct influence of surface water
to improve public health protection through the control of microbial contaminants, particularly Cryptosporidium.  These
systems must achieve 2-log (99%) removal of Cryptosporidium by complying with strengthened combined filter effluent (CFE)
turbidity performance requirements, complying with individual filter turbidity requirements, meeting disinfection profiling
and benchmarking requirements, and constructing only covered finished water storage facilities. The LTlESWTR will impose
a financial burden on some water systems. The DWSRF can provide assistance to systems to help ease this burden, increase
compliance,  and protect public health.

WHY DID EPA CREATE THIS RULE?
The 1989 Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) focused on preventing waterborne diseases through filtration and disinfec-
tion. In 1998, the Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (IESWTR) strengthened protection from microbial
contaminants for systems serving at least 10,000 people. The requirements of the LTlESWTR were based on the IESWTR,
but have been modified to reduce the burden on small systems. It  is estimated  that the LTlESWTR will reduce the number of
gastrointestinal illnesses from Cryptosporidium and other pathogens through improvements in filtration. The rule will also
reduce the likelihood of endemic illness from Cryptosporidium by an estimated  12,000 to 41,000 cases annually.

TO WHOM  DOES THIS RULE APPLY?
The LTlESWTR applies to all systems that use
surface water or ground water under the direct
influence of surface water (GWUDI) and serve
fewer than 10,000 people. These systems must
comply with all applicable LTlESWTR provisions
by January 2005-
                                                ounce Type
                                              Surface Water   v
                                              Ground Water
                                               GWUDI     /
System Type
  CWSs    /
NTNCWSs  /
 TNCWSs   /
   ipulation Type
   < 10,000    /
10,000- 100,000
   > 100,000
CRITICAL RULE  DEADLINES & REQUIREMENTS
FOR SYSTEMS
March 15, 2002
July 1,2003
January 1,2004

July 1,2004
January 1 , 2005
January 14, 2005

Construction of uncovered finished water reservoirs is prohibited.
Systems serving between 500 and 9,999 persons must begin developing a disinfection profile, unless system
has shown the state that total trihalomethane (TTHM) levels are  0.064 mg/L and five haloacetic acid (HAAS)
levels are  0.048 mg/L.
Systems serving fewer than 500 persons must begin developing a disinfection profile, unless system has
shown the state that TTHM levels are  0.064 mg/L and HAAS levels are  0.048 mg/L.
State primacy appliations due, if no extension granted.
Systems serving between 500 and 9,999 persons must complete a disinfection profile (unless the state has
determined it is unnecessary).
Systems serving fewer than 500 persons must complete a disinfection profile (unless the state has determined
it is unnecessary).
FOR STATES
January 14, 2004

Systems serving fewer than 10,000 people must comply with the applicable LT1ESWTR provisions (e.g.,
turbidity standards, individual filter monitoring, Cryptosporidium removal requirements, updated watershed
control requirements for unfiltered systems). |

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HOW WILL THIS  RULE IMPACT SYSTEMS?
The LTlESWTR provisions will impose significant costs on
small water systems. Total capital costs for investments in
treatment technology and infrastructure are estimated to be $174
million (see Figure 1). In addition, EPA estimates that annual
operation and maintenance (O & M), monitoring, reporting,
profiling, and benchmarking costs will add up to almost $20
million.  All of these capital costs will be borne by systems
serving fewer than 10,000 people (see Figure 2).
                        Figure I: TOTAL LTIESWTR PRICE TAG
                               (in millions of 1999$)
                        Capital Costs
                                                  Total Capital Costs
                                                    for Treatment
                                                   Modifications by
                                                     System Size
                         Treatment Modifications  $173.6
                         Covered Finished Water Storage   $0.8
                        CAPITAL COST GRAND TOTAL $174.4
                        Annual O & M Costs            $14.5
                        Annual Monitoring & Admin Costs   $5.2
                                                      < 100
                                                     101-500
                                                   501-1,000
                                                  1,001-3,300
                                                 3,301-10,000
                                           $7
                                          $11
                                          $32
                                          $47
                                          $77
The two primary methods for treating drinking water for
microbial contaminants are chemical disinfection (inactivation) and physical removal. The main goal of the LTlESWTR is to
improve the physical removal of microbial contaminants through the enhancement of turbidity treatment processes. Provisions
such as disinfection profiling and benchmarking will help ensure that this increased protection against microbial risks is not
compromised as systems alter their disinfection practices to meet the new disinfection byproduct (DBP) standards.

The provisions of the LTlESWTR that will generate most of the capital needs are the Cryptosporidium removal provisions
implemented through the CFE turbidity performance standards.  Of the 11,411 systems subject to the LTlESWTR, 8,991
filter their water and will be subject to these turbidity provisions.  The EPA estimates that 2,207 of these systems will need to
modify their water treatment process to comply with the new standards.  In addition, 2,327 will need to install individual filter
turbidimeters to meet the individual filter effluent turbidity monitoring requirement. An estimated 314 small systems will
need to  comply with the covered finished water reservoir provision. Although thousands of systems will need to develop
disinfection profiles and benchmarks, this will not require systems to make capital improvements.

To be in compliance by January 2005, systems will need to make capital investments over the next three years. Most of the
systems  that will have  to modify treatment serve more than 1,000 people (see Figure 2).  Figure 3 shows how much it will cost
systems  annually (on average) to modify treatment to meet new turbidity standards. For most systems, the annual O & M
costs imposed by the LTlESWTR will be at least as significant as the annual capital costs. In order to comply with the rule,
systems  will have to make a range of investments, from  flocculation basin structural improvements to additional filter media
(see Exhibit 1).
Approximately 6.3 million households are served by water systems subject to the LTlESWTR provisions.  EPA estimates that
99% of these households will see an increase in their bills of less than $10 per month.  The increase in costs per household to
meet the LTlESWTR standards will depend on the size of the water system and the treatment changes needed.
   Figure 2: Number of Systems That Will Need to Modify
   Treatment Practices to Meet New Turbidity Requirements
         
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WHAT TYPE OF TREATMENT WILL SYSTEMS HAVE TO PUT IN PLACE?
The LTlESWTR contains several significant turbidity provi-
sions. The CFE standards apply only to systems that use
filtration and differ based on the type of filtration technology
used (see Figure 4). For conventional and direct filtration
systems, LTlESWTR requires the turbidity level of a system's
representative CFE samples to be less than or equal to 0.3
nephelometric turbidity units (NTUs) in at least 95% of the
measurements taken each month and cannot exceed 1 NTU at
any time.  Slow sand and diatomaceous earth filtration systems
are presumed to achieve at least 2-log removal of
Cryptosporidium by meeting existing filter performance require-
ments established in the SWTR. Systems using alternative
filtration (i.e., membrane filtration, cartridge filtration) must
demonstrate to their state that their system achieves 2-log
removal of Cryptosporidium, 3-log removal of Giardia lamblia,
and 4-log removal and/or inactivation of viruses.
                            Figure 4: Percentage of Small Systems Subject to CFE
                            Turbidity Requirements
                                 I Conventional or Direct Filtration  D Slow Sand or Diatomaceous Earth
                                 I Alternative Filtration         El Do Not Filter
                               0%
                                     
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HOW CAN THE DWSRF ASSIST SYSTEMS?
States use DWSRF capitalization grant monies to provide low-
interest loans to publicly- and privately-owned public water
systems for infrastructure improvements needed to continue to
ensure safe drinking water.  States may offer principal forgiveness,
reduced interest rates, or extended loan terms to systems identi-
fied by the state as serving disadvantaged communities.  States
also have the ability to reserve a portion of their grants (i.e., set-
asides) to finance activities that encourage enhanced water system
management and help to prevent contamination problems
through source water protection measures. Based on the fiscal
year 2002 appropriation of $850 million, capitalization grants
ranged from $8.0 million to $82.4 million per state.

Most capital projects  including adding new technologies and
improving  existing facilities  needed to comply with the new
LTlESWTR requirements are eligible for funding under the
DWSRF (see Exhibit  2).  In addition, the construction of covered
finished water storage facilities and the installation of individual
filter turbidimeters are eligible.

States can use set-aside funds from the DWSRF to assist systems
directly as well as to enhance their own program management
activities (see Exhibit 2). A state may use set-asides to make
administrative improvements  to the entire drinking water pro-
gram, which faces increased costs in implementing LTlESWTR.
States can provide training to  small systems on meeting the
                                                  require-
                                                  ments of
                                                  LTlESWTR
Castle Mountain Creeks
    Subdivision, Idaho
  A small development in the hills of Idaho faced
  difficulties in meeting the Surface Water Treatment
  Rule due to a lack of filtration capabilities in its
  water system. The 200-lot neighborhood received a
  $400,000 DWSRF loan to design and construct a
  diatomaceous earth pressure filtration system, a
  pipeline chlorine contact chamber, and a new
  100,000-gallon storage tank. The subdivision was
  able to complete all phases of the project under
  budget at a cost of $323,341.
Exhibit 2: Projects/Activities Eligible for DWSRF
Funding to Comply With LT1ESWTR
T > n-  /  . Eg be Under Eligible Under
Type of Project/Activity i  ._ . ,- ., o ?  .,
'* Infrastructure Fund Set-Asides
Treatment
Chemical Addition System
Coagulant Improvements
Rapid Mixing Improvements
Flocculant Improvements
Settling Improvements
Filtration Improvements
Planning & Design Activities
Turbidimeters
Covered Finished Water Storage
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes*
No
No
System Administrative Improvements
Profiling and Benchmarking
Hire Staff
Staff Training
Public Outreach
Monitoring
Rate Increase Process
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
State Administrative Improvements
Hire Staff
Staff Training
Public Outreach
Compliance Oversight
Enforcement
Pilot Studies
Sanitary Surveys
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
                                                   *For small systems only.
  as well as
  technical assistance in identifying appropriate technologies. States can
  provide assistance to small systems to cover the costs of project planning
  and design for infrastructure improvements. States can also use funds to
  support their sanitary survey program.

  Since the DWSRF program is managed by states, project and set-aside
  funding varies according to the priorities, policies, and laws within each
  state. Given that each state administers its own program differently, the
  first step in seeking assistance is to contact the state DWSRF representa-
  tive which can be found on the EPA DWSRF website.
  FOR MORE INFORMATION...
      DWSRF and LTlESWTR
 DWSRF Website:
 http://www.epa.gov/safewater/dwsrf.html
  LTlESWTR Website
  http ://www.epa.gov/s;
Printed on Recycled Paper
                  dbp/ltleswtr.i
      General Information
SDWA Hotline
1-800-426-4791
EPA's Ground Water & Drinking
Water Website:
http ://www.epa.gov/safewater/
Office of Ground Water and
Drinking Water (4606M)


EPA816-F-02-005

June 2002

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