United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Office of Water
EPA 833-B-97-001
January 1997
Rev. May 2000
U.S. EPA NPDES Permit
Writers' Course

Austin, Texas
May 8-12, 2000

Workbook

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                              TABLE OF CONTENTS
MODULE/TITLE
PAGE
1     Overview of the Clean Water Act and the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination
      System (NPDES) Program	  1-1
2     Scope and Regulatory Framework of the NPDES Program  	  2-1
3     NPDES Permits:  Types, Components, and Issuance Process	  3-1
4     The Permit Application Process	  4-1
5     Technology-Based Effluent Limits	  5-1
5A   Secondary Treatment Standards for Municipal Dischargers	5A-1
5B   Effluent Limitations Guidelines for Non-Municipal Dischargers	  5B-1
5C   Best Professional Judgement-Based Permit Limits	  5C-1
5D   Variances to Permit Effluent Limits 	5D-1
6     Overview of Water Quality Standards and Limitations  	  6-1
6A   Standards to Permits Process	6A-1
6B   Introduction to Water Quality Modeling	  6B-1
6C   Developing Chemical-Specific Water Quality-Based Effluent Limitations	  6C-1
6D   Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET)	6D-1
6E   Variances to Water Quality-Based Effluent Limits	  6E-1
7     Monitoring and Reporting Conditions	  7-1
8     Special Conditions	  8-1
8A   Special Conditions for Municipal Dischargers	  8A-1
9     Standard Conditions of NPDES Permits	  9-1
10    Administrative Process	  10-1
Exercise - Permit Writing Practical Exercise	  Ex-1

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                                 MODULE #1

           Overview of the Clean Water Act and the National Pollutant
                Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Program
OVERALL OBJECTIVES:

      «•  Identify the objectives of the Clean Water Act

      *  Discuss major provisions of the Clean Water Act

      *  State of the purpose of the NPDES Program

      *•  Illustrate the scope and size of the program in number of permittees

      *  Discuss the history and evolution of the NPDES program

      *•  Explain future direction of the NPDES program


LOGISTICS:

Presentation Format: Lecture
Approximate Presentation Time:  60 minutes
Review Questions/Exercise:  None
Applicable Statutory and Regulatory Citations:
      Clean Water Act (CWA)
33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq

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Module 1
Overview of the Clean Water Act and the National Pollutant
        Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Program
              Overview of the Clean Water
              Act and the National Pollutant
              Discharge Elimination System
                    (NPDES) Program


                                                vvEPA
              Clean Water Program Development
                         1800s - 1970s
               •  Early Legislation - Focused on removing
                 pollution from urban areas
               •  Water Quality Act of 1965
                  -  Required standards for interstate waters
                  -  Enforcement hampered by
                    •  Burden of proof with enforcing agency
                    •  Lack of standards
                    •  No criminal or civil penalties
                                                &EPA
  NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                               1-1

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Module 1
Overview of the Clean Water Act and the National Pollutant
         Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Program
                Clean Water Program Development

                     1800s - 1970s (Continued)


                 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
                 formed in 1970

                 Refuse Act Permit Program (RAPP)
                  - Joint program of the Corps of Engineers and
                    EPA
                  - Required permits for discharges to public
                    waterways
                  - No criteria for making permitting decisions
                  - Struck down by a Federal couit in 1971
                                                      &EPA
                Federal Water Pollution Control

                     Act Amendments - 1972


              Section 101 (a)

              •  Objective:  Restore and maintain the chemical,
                 physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's
                 waters

              •  National Goals
                  - Eliminate the discharge of pollutants by 1985
                  - Achieve by July 1,1983, as an interim goal, a
                    level of water quality that provides for the
                    protection and propagation offish, shellfish
                    and wildlife and provides for recreation in
                    and on the water
   NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                  1-2

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Module 1
Overview of the Clean Water Act and the National Pollutant
       Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Program
              Federal Water Pollution Control
              Act Amendments -1972 (Continued)
                Established NPDES, pretreatment,
                and construction grants programs
                 - Permits are a privilege - not a right
                 - Effluent limits must be both
                   technology- and water quality-based
                 - Maximum duration is 5 years
                                                vxEPA
              Federal Water Pollution Control
              Act Amendments - 1972 (Continued)


             • Established compliance dates
             • Provided for authorization of state
               NPDES permitting programs
             • Indicated that permit compliance is a
               shield
             • Established significant penalties for
               permit violations

            	&EPA
  NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                              1-3

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Module 1
Overview of the Clean Water Act and the National Pollutant
        Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Program
             Natural Resources Defense Council
            	Consent Decree - 1976

               •  EPA failed to adequately address
                  toxics in effluent standards
               •  NRDC sued EPA
               •  1976 Consent Decree required:
                  - List of toxic priority pollutants
                  - List of primary industries for
                    technology-based controls
                                                  S.EPA
              Clean Water Act Amendments - 1977
               Section 307(a) adopted provisions of NRDC
               Consent Decree
               Clarified that Federal facilities are subject to
               State programs
               Pretreatment program delegation
               - Authorized EPA to approve local pretreatment
                 program
               - Required NPDES states to modify programs to
                 include pretreatment oversight
                                                  v-xEPA
  NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                1-4

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Module 1
Overview of the Clean Water Act and the National Pollutant
        Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Program
                     Water Quality Act - 1987
               •  Specifies storm water permitting
                  requirements
               •  Designates that Indian tribes be
                  considered "States"
               •  Creates Federal sludge management
                  program
               •  Increased penalties for noncompliance
               •  Renewed emphasis of surface water
                  toxics control
                 NPDES Statutory Framework
            • All "point" sources
            • "Discharging
              pollutants"
            • Into "waters of the
              U.S."
                        Must obtain an
                        NPDES permit
                        from EPA or an
                        approved State
   NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                 1-5

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Module 1
Overview of the Clean Water Act and the National Pollutant
        Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Program
                    NPDES Permit Program
                  Distribution of Dischargers*
            60,459 Individual Permits
            21,176 Applications with Permits Not Issued
            *Asof
            2X9/00
Majors
4,089
2,552
111
6,752
Type of Facility
Municipal
Non-Municipal
Federal
Total
Minors
17,466
35,359
882
53,707
   NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                  1-6

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Module 1
Overview of the Clean Water Act and the National Pollutant
         Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Program
                   CWA Classes of Pollutants
                      • Conventional pollutants
                         - BOD
                         - TSS
                         - Oil and Grease
                         - Fecal Coliforms
                         - pH

                      • Toxic pollutants
                         - Heavy metals
                              Copper
                              Lead
                              Zinc
                              Nickel
                              Chromium
                              Etc.
               CWA Classes Of Pollutants (Continued)
                    • Toxic pollutants
                       - Organic chemicals
                          • Benzene
                          •1,2- Dichlorobenzene
                          • Carbon tetrachloride
                          • Etc.
                    • Nonconventional pollutants
                       - Ammonia
                       - Chlorine
                       - Toxicity
                       - Etc.
   NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                   1-7

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Module 1
Overview of the Clean Water Act and the National Pollutant
        Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Program
                  Waters of the United States
                         40 CFR §122.2
             All waters currently used, used in the past,
             or susceptible to use for interstate or
             foreign commerce including all waters
             which are subject to the ebb and flow of
             the tide...
             Examples of "Waters of the US" include:
               rivers and streams
               lakes and ponds
               tributaries
               wetlands
               - sloughs
               - playa lake:;
               - territorial seas
               - others...
v>EPA
                Waters of the US (continued)
                   • What about groundwater?
                      - May be if a direct
                        hydrological connection
                      - May be "Waters ol the
                        State"
                   • What about treatment
                     ponds or lagoons?
  NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                                 S-EPA
                               1-8

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Module 1
Overview of the Clean Water Act and the National Pollutant
        Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Program
              NPDES Accomplishments to Date
               Since 1972:

               + $70 Billion - POTW Construction

               • Pollutant loads reduced from 7 to
                 4.3 thousand tons per day

               • Water bodies meeting standards
                 increased from 37 to 57%
                                                 vvEPA
                     Rivers and Streams*
                        Threatened
                           8%
                    impaired
                     36%
                       Fully
                     Supporting
                       56%
          " 693,905 of 3.6 million miles assessed.
          Source: 1996 State 305(b) reports
  NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                               1-9
                               
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1-10

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                      CLEAN WATER ACT
                            Key Sections
Title I     Research and Related Programs
           - Section 101  Declaration of Goals and Policy
Title n    Grants for Construction of Treatment Works
Title III   Standards and Enforcement
           -Section 301 Effluent Standards
           - Section 302 Water Quality-Related Effluent Limitations
           - Section 303 Water Quality Standards and Implementation Plans
           - Section 304 Information and Guidelines [Effluent]
           - Section 305 Water Quality Inventory
           - Section 307 Toxic and Pretreatment Effluent Standards
Title IV   Permits and Licenses
           - Section 402 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
           - Section 405 Disposal of Sewage Sludge
Title V    General Provisions
           -Section 510 State Authority
           - Section 518 Indian Tribes
Title VI  State Water Pollution Control Revolving Funds
                                1-11

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1-12

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                                  MODULE #2

            Scope and Regulatory Framework of the NPDES Program


OVERALL OBJECTIVES:

   *  Identify the general NPDES program areas

   «•  Provide an overview of the Code of Federal Regulations

   «•  Identify NPDES program regulatory framework (Part 122)

   «•  List and explain essential sections of Part 122

   *  Define essential terminology (e.g., point source, pollutant)

   *  Explain the roles of Federal and State authorities

   *  Provide authorization status of States
LOGISTICS:

Presentation Format: Lecture
Approximate Presentation Time: 30 minutes
Review Questions/Exercise: None
Applicable Statutory and Regulatory Citations:

      CWA Section 402    National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
      CWA Section 405    Disposal of Sewage Sludge
      40 CFR Part 122
      40 CFR Part 125
EPA Administered Permits Programs: The National Pollutant
Discharge Elimination System
Criteria and Standards for the National Pollutant
Discharge Elimination System

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Module 2
Scope and Regulatory Framework of the NPDES Program
              Scope and Regulatory
            Framework of the NPDES
                     Program
                                        oEPA
                Learning Objectives
            Define scope of NPDES program
            Describe NPDES regulatory
            framework

            Explain role of EPA and State/Tribal
            Authorities
          • Provide program status
                                        oEPA
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                         2-1

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Module 2
Scope and Regulatory Framework of the NPDES Program
                   General Definitions
               • Clean Water Act Legislation
               • NPDES Regulations
               • Policy and Guidance
                   NPDES Regulation
           • Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)
              - Where regulations promulgated in FR
                are published annually
              - Title 40: Protection of Environment
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                            2-2

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Module 2
Scope and Regulatory Framework of the NPDES Program
                     NPDES Regulations (Continued)
                      Federal Register (FR)
                       -  Where rules are first proposed and
                          then promulgated
                       -  Includes background information
                          (i.e., preamble)
                       -  Published daily
                        Key NPDES Regulations
              40 CFR Part
                121
                122
                123
                124
                125
                129
                130
                131
                133
                136
                401
                403
               405-499
     Description
     State Certification of Activities Requiring a Federal License or Permit
     EPA Administered Permit Programs: The National Pollutant Discharge
     Elimination System
     State Program Requirements
     Procedures for Decisionmaktng
     Criteria and Standards for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
     Toxic Pollutant Effluent Standards
     Water Quality Planning and Management
     Water Quality Standards
     Secondary Treatment Regulation
     Guidelines for Establishing Test Procedures for the Analysis of Pollutants
     General Provisions
     General Pretreatment Regulations
     Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                          2-3

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Module 2
Scope and Regulatory Framework of the NPDES Program
                Scope of NPDES Program

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   40 CFR 122
   40 CFR 125
   40 CFR 405-499
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                          40 CFR 122
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                             2-4

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Module 2
Scope and Regulatory Framework of the NPDES Program
                 NPDES Implementation
           Before State/Tribal program approval:
            - EPA issues permits
            - EPA conducts compliance and monitoring
              activities
            - EPA enforces
           After State/Tribal program approval:
            - States implement as above
            - EPA role = oversight
              • Grants
              • Administrative, technical and legal support and training
              • Enforcement as necessary
             Types of NPDES Authorization

              1. Basic Municipal and Industrial
                 Permit Program
              2. Pretreatment Program
              3. Federal Facilities Program
              4. General Permit Program
              5. Sludge Permit Program
                                               xvEPA
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                             2-5

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2-6

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                   FEDERAL NPDES REGULATIONS
                                     (40 CFR Part 122)

Subpart A - Definitions and General Program Requirements
122.1   Purpose and Scope of NPDES Program
122.2   Definitions
122.3   Exclusions
122.4   Prohibitions
122.5   Effect of a Permit
122.6   Continuation of Expired Permits
122.7   Confidentiality of Information

Subpart B - Permit Application and Special NPDES Program Requirements
122.21  Applications
122.22  Signatures Requirements for Applications
122.23  Animal Feeding Operations
122.24  Aquatic Animal Production
122.25  Aquaculture
122.26  Storm Water Discharges
122.27  Silviculture
122.28  General Permits
122.29  New Sources and New Discharges

Subpart C - Permit Conditions
122.41  Standard Conditions
122.42  Standard Conditions Applicable to Specified Categories
122.43  Permit Conditions
122.44  Permit Limitations
           (a)  Technology Basis
           (b) Other Basis (not WQ)
              Reopeners
0)  Pretreatment Program
(k)  Best Management Practices
0)  Antibacksliding
(m) Private Treatment Works
(n)  Grants
(o)  Sludge
(p)  Coast Guard
(q)  Navigation
                                               (f)  Mass Based Limits
                                               (g)  Intake Water Pollutants
                                               (h)  Internal Waste Streams
                                               (i)  Discharge into Wells
           (c)
           (d)  Water Quality Basis
           (e)  Priority Pollutants
           (f)  Notification Levels
           (g)  24 Hour Reporting
           (h)  Duration of Permits
           (i)  Monitoring

122.45 Calculating Limitations
           (a)  Discharge Points
           (b)  Production Basis
           (c)  Metals
           (d)  Continuous Discharges
           (e)  Non-continuous Discharges

122.46 Duration of Permits
122.47 Schedules of Compliance
122.48 Reporting
122.49 Consideration of Other Federal Laws
122.50 Disposal to Other Points

Subpart D - Transfer, Modification, Revocation and Reissuance, and Termination of
               Permit
122.61  Transfer of Permits
122.62 Modification or Revocation and Reissuance of Permits
122.63  Minor Modifications of Permits
122.64  Termination of Permits
                                            2-7

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2-8

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Office of Wastewater Management - NPDES Permit Program
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of loftier
                                                     OFFICE OF WASTEWATER
                                                           MANAGEMENT
                         National Pollutant Discharge Elimination

                           System  (NPDES)  Permitting Program

                     I Overview | Program Areas | Training Courses | Permit Forms | Contacts |
                                          | Additional Information |

                    Overview

                    The purpose of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
                    (NPDES) Program is to protect human health and the environment. The
                    Clean Water Act requires that all point sources discharging pollutants into
                    waters of the United  States must obtain an NPDES permit. By point sources,
                    EPA means discrete conveyances such as pipes or man made ditches. This
                    does not necessarily mean that a household must obtain a permit to connect
                    to a city sewer, but the facilities where dischiirges go directly into surface
                    waters must obtain a permit. Some pollutants that may threaten public health
                    and the nation's waters are: human wastes, giound-up food from sink
                    disposals, laundry and bath waters, toxic chemicals, oil and grease, metals,
                    and pesticides.

                    To learn more about NPDES permits, please read our Frequently Asked
                    Questions and/or section on NPDES Permits Program - General Information.
                    Program Areas

                    There are numerous program areas associated with water permitting,
                    including Animal Feeding Operations, Pretreatment, and Stormwater. Water
                    Permits Program Areas provides a list of these areas, including overviews
                    and links.
                    Training Courses

                    The EPA offers numerous courses to explain the regulatory framework and
                    technical considerations of NPDES and some of its supporting programs.
                    These courses are designed for permiter writers, industrial dischargers, EPA
                    officials, and other interested parties. Click on the links beiow to learn more
                    about these courses.

                    NPDES Permit Writers' Training Course

                    Pretreatment Training Course

                    Whole Efficent Toxicity Training Course


                    NPDES Permit Application Forms

                    The following NPDES permit applications are in Adobe Acrobat PDF format.
                    You can obtain a FREE copy of Adobe Acre-bat Reader by clicking on the
Iof3
                                                    2-10
                                                                     8/18/99 3:25 PM

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Office of Wastewater Management - NPDES Permit Program
wysiwyg;//89/http://www.epa.gov/owm/npdes.htm
                     icon below.
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                                                    Reader/-?
                     Form 1: General Information (must be submitted by all facilities applying for
                     an
                           individual NPDES permit, with the exception of MS4s)

                     2A: Application for permit to discharge municipal wastewater from publicly
                           owned treatment works (POTWs)

                     2B: Application for permit to discharge wastewater - concentrated animal
                           feeding operations and aquatic animal production facilities

                     2C: Application for permit to discharge wastewater - existing manufacturing,
                           commercial, mining and silvicultural operations (Revisions proposed
                     for
                           Form 2C have been discontinued.)

                     2D: Application for permit to discharge process wastewater - new sources
                     and
                           new dischargers

                     2E: Application for facilities which do not discharge process wastewaters

                     2F: Application for permit to discharge storm water associated with
                     industrial
                           activity

                     2S: Application for sewage sludge (biosolids) permit for treatment works
                           treating domestic sewage (TWTDS)
                     NPDES Contacts

                     EPA may authorize States, Territories, and Tribes to implement the NPDES
                     Program. In most States, the state environmental protection office issues
                     NPDES permits. However, EPA Regional Offices issue NPDES permits in
                     States that have not received EPA approval to issue permits. These States
                     may require additional state permits.

                     Here are the regional and state contacts for NPDES Permits:

                     EPA Regional Contacts

                     State Contacts
                     Additional Information

                     General Permit Library

                     Selected Publications on NPDES Program

                     Catalog of Publications for NPDES (PDF File)

                     Ordering Publications
                                                     2-11
                                                                                              8/18/99 3:25 PM

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                                  MODULE # 3

          NPDES Permits: Types, Components, and Issuance Process


OVERALL OBJECTIVES:

   *  Explain the various types of NPDES permits

   *  Introduce and discuss the major components of an NPDES permit

   *  Introduce the decision-making process for effluent limits

   «•  Explain the permit development process

   *  Identify process differences for new permits vs. permit renewals vs. re-opened or
      modified permits
LOGISTICS:

Presentation Format: Lecture
Approximate Presentation Time: 30 minutes
Review Questions/Exercise: None
Applicable Statutory and Regulatory Citations:
      CWA Section 402
      CWA Section 405

      40 CFR Part 122

      40 CFR Part 125
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
Disposal of Sewage Sludge

EPA Administered Permits Programs: The National Pollutant
Discharge Elimination System
Criteria and Standards for the National Pollutant Discharge
Elimination System

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Module 3    NPDES Permits: Types, Components, and Issuance Process
                 NPDES Permits:
             Types, Components, and
                 Issuance Process
                                        &EPA
                Learning Objectives
            Describe NPDES permit types

            Discuss major components of
            NPDES permit

            Describe the overall permit issuance
            process
                                        Jffi
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                         3-1

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Module 3    NPDES Permits:  Types, Components, and Issuance Process
                     What is a Permit?
               It is a license...
                -  Issued by the government to persons
                  conducting business in the United
                  States
                -  Granting permission to do something
                  which would be illegal in the absence
                  of the permit
               There is no right to a permit and it is
               revocable for cause (noncompliance)
               For our purposes, NPDES permit is
               license to discharge
                 Types of NPDES Permits
             • Individual
                - 1 application submitted -+ 1 permit
                  issued

             • General
                - 1 permit issued •*• many applications
                  submitted
                - Issued on an area-wide (State,
                  watershed, etc.) basis
                - Available when:
                   • Same or similar operations
                   • Discharge same wastes           Q PRA
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                              3-2

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Module 3      NPDES Permits:  Types, Components, and Issuance Process
                         Permit Components
            I ndustry-Specific
             Components
Components of All Permits

     Cover Page
       J
Municipal-Specific
  Components

• Effluent Guidelines
• BPJ



Effluent Limitations
Technology-Based
Water Quality-Based



• Secondary j
• Equivalent to Secondary |

                               Monitoring Requirements   {




Special Conditions
Compliance Schedules
Storm Water
Special Studies. Evaluations, and
Other Requirements
1
Standard Conditions


* preireauTK
sit
• Municipal Sewaoe Sluctae

AEPA
              Individual Permit Issuance Process
                                 Permit Application
                                Permit and Fact Sheet
                                  Development
                                • Effluent Limits
                                • Monitoring Conditions
                                • Standard Conditions
                                • Special Conditions
                                 Public Notice and
                                 Public Comments
                                   Final Permit
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                     3-3

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Module 3      NPDES Permits:  Types, Components, and Issuance Process
                General Permit Issuance Process
                                  Identify Need and
                                   Collect Data
                                Permit and Fact Sheet
                                   Development
                                • Effluent Limit*
                                • Monitoring Common*
                                • Standvd Common*
                                •SptcW Commons
                                  Public Notice and
                                  Public Comments
                                  Notice of Intent
                                  to be Covered
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                      3-4

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                                   MODULE # 4
                         The Permit Application Process
OVERALL OBJECTIVES:

   +  Identify parties responsible for submitting a permit application

   4-  List and provide description of NPDES permit application forms

   «•  Distinguish between requirements for new and existing dischargers

   *  Discuss application submittal deadlines

   +  Identify pollutants and parameters to be sampled and reported on the application

   •»  Explain the process of reviewing applications

   *•  Identify common mistakes and omissions in permit applications

   *•  Highlight other useful information and ways of obtaining additional information

   *  Provide a practical exercise for reviewing permit applications
LOGISTICS:

Presentation Format: Lecture, exercise
Approximate Presentation Time: 45 minutes
Review Questions/Exercise:  30 minutes
Applicable Statutory and Regulatory Citations:
      40 CFR §122.21
      40 CFR §122.22
      40 CFR §122.26
      40 CFR §122.29
      40 CFR Part 122, Appendix D
      40 CFR §123.25
Application for permit
Signatories to permit applications and reports
Storm water discharges
New sources and new discharges
NPDES Permit Application Testing Requirements
Requirements for permitting

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Module 4
The Permit Application Process
               The Permit Application
                         Process
                                               x>EPA
                   Learning Objectives
             • 40 CFR 122.21 - Application for a permit
             • Who must submit permit applications?
             • When are applications due?
             • What forms and information are
               required for permit applications?
             • What are the responsibilities of the
               permit writer?
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                             4-1

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Module 4
The Permit Application Process
                Who Must Apply for a Permit


               •  Anyone who discharges pollutants or
                  proposes to discharge pollutants to
                  waters of the U.S.
                   - Signatories - 40 CFR 122.22
               •  Exceptions include:
                   - Dredged or fill materials
                   - Some marine vessel discharges
                     (e.g., laundry, shower, etc.)
                   - Non-point source runoff
                   - Indirect dischargers to POTWs
                         When to Apply
Type of
Permit
Individual
General
Type of Discharger
New
Discharger
Source
Existing
New
Existing
Schedule*
180 (lays before date of
discharge commencement
180 days before expiration of
existing permit
Specified in general permit
X number of days following
issuance of general permit
          h Authorized States may use more stringent deadlines.
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                  4-2

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Module 4
The Permit Application Process
           Additional Requirement for New Sources
              Where EPA issues permit and finds the permit to be a
              major Federal action affecting the quality of the
              human environment as defined under the National
              Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
               - EPA determines whether an environmental impact
                 statement (EIS) is required pursuant to NEPA
               - EIS includes recommendation to issue or deny the permit
              EPA not required to conduct NEPA review for a state-
              issued permit, but state environmental policy act may
              have similar requirements.
                 EPA Application Forms for NPDES
                          Individual Permits
Form
1
2A
2S
2B
2C
2D
Title/Applicability
General Information
New and existing POTWs
Treatment Works Treating Domestic
Sewage (TWTDS)
New and existing animal feeding
operations and aquatic animal
production facilities
Existing manufacturing, commercial,
mining, and silvicultural discharges
New manufacturing, commercial,
mining, and silvicultural discharges
Regulation Gte
122.21 (f)
12£21Q)
12Z21(q)
122.21(1)
122.21(g)
12121{k)
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                  4-3

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Module 4
The Permit Application Process
                EPA Application Forms for NPDES
                    Individual Permits (Continued)




Form
2E
2F
None
None
Title/Applicability
Manufacturing, commercial, mining,
and silvicultural facilities that discharge
only non-process wastewater
Stormwater discharges associated
with industrial activities & dischrges
associated with small construction
activity (no later than March 2003)
Stormwater discharges from large
and medium MS4s
Stormwater discharges from small
MS4s (no later than March 2003)
Regulation Cite
122£l(h)
122.26(c)
122.26(d)
122.33
jO,_



FPA
               Major Components of Form 2C

              I. Outfall location
              II. Flow, sources of pollution, treatment technologies
             Hi. Production information (if applicable)
             IV. Improvements (if applicable)
             V. Intake and effluent characteristics
             VI. Potential discharges not covered by analysis
            VII. Biological testing data
            VIII. Contract analysis information
             IX. Certification/signature                    f
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                  4-4

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Module 4                            The Permit Application Process
             Intake and Effluent Characteristics
             	Form 2C, Section V	
          "Part A" conventional and non-conventional
          pollutants including BOD, COD, TOC, TSS,
          NH3, flow, temperature, pH

          "Part B" conventional and non-conventional
          pollutants (e.g., oil and grease, radioactivity,
          color, etc.)
             Intake and Effluent Characteristics
                Form 2C, Section V (Continued)
            "Part C" Priority Pollutants
            - Metals, total cyanide, and total phenols
            - 2, 3, 7, 8-TCDD (dioxin)
            - Toxic Organic Pollutants
               - Volatile compounds
               • Acid compounds
               • Base/neutral compounds
               • Pesticides
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course

                             4-5

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Module 4
The Permit Application Process
              Primary Industries and Required
                      GC/MS Fractions
Industry Category
Adhesives and sealants
Aluminum forming
Auto and other laundries
Battery manufacturing
Coal mining
Coil coating
Copper forming
Electric and electronic compounds
Electroplating
Explosives manufacturing
Foundries
Gum and wood (all subparts except D and F)
Subpart O - tall oil rosin
Subpart F - rosin-based derivations
Inorganic chemicals manufacturing
Iron and steel manufacturing
Leather tanning and finishing
Mechanical products manufacturing
Nonferrous metals manufacturing
GC/MS Fraction
Volatile
X
X
X
X
-
X
X
X
X
-
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Acid
X
X
X
-
-
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Base/Neutral
X
X
X
X
-
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
x 1
Pesticide
_
-
X
-
-
-
-
X
-
-
—
X
-
-
-
-
X
-
&EPA
              Primary Industries and Required
                  GC/MS Fractions (Continued)

GC/MS Fraction
Industry Category Volatile
Ore mining (applies to the base and precious
metals/Subpart B)
Organic chemicals manufacturing
Paint and ink formulation
r\nr tiriirtnr
fesncioes
Petroleum refining
Pharmaceutical preparations
Photographic equipment and supplies
Plastic and synthetic materials manufacturing
Plastic processing
Porcelain enameling
Printing and publishing
Pulp and paperboard mills (see footnote 2)
Rubber processing
Soap and detergent manufacturing
Steam electric power plants
Textile mills (Subpart C-Greige Mills are exempt)
Timber products processing
_

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
-
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Acid Base/Neutral
X

X
X
X
-
X
X
X
-
-
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
_

X
X
X
-
X
X
X
-
-
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
1
Pesticide
„.

-
X
X
-
-
X
X
-
-
X
X
-
-
-
X
«y[~FW
4-12
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                              4-6

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Module 4                             The Permit Application Process
              Responsibility of Permit Writer
               Verify completeness of application

               Verify accuracy of application
              Reviewing Permit Applications

           • Are all spaces filled in, including N/A where
             appropriate?
           • Do the concentration, mass and flow values
             accurately characterize the discharge?
           • Are the reported values consistent with
             historical information?
           • Do concentration values correspond with
             analytical detection limits?
           • Are signatory and certification requirements
             fulfilled (40 CFR §122.22)
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course

                               4-7

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Module 4
The Permit Application Process
                  Common Omissions
          •  Map required in Form 1
          •  Flow diagram required in Form 2C

          •  Required metals
          •  Required GC/MS fractions for Primary
             Industry
          •  Expected toxics and other pollutants
          •  Production rates
           Obtaining Additional Information

           • Telephone can be used to obtain
             required or supplemental
             information (add note to permit file)
           • Permit writer may request that
             applicant submit changes in writing
           • Permit writer may request that
             applicant submit a new application
             to address deficiencies
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                           4-8

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Module 4                          The Permit Application Process
               Other Useful Information

             Review DMRs, STORET or PCS data
             Review previous applications or
             inspection reports
             Review development documents,
             EPA Treatability Manual, State Water
             Quality Standards
             Look for information on other
             permits (e.g., RCRA hazardous
             waste or air permits)
                                            v>EPA
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course

                           4-9

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4-10

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                                   MODULE #4

                             PRACTICAL EXERCISE

                        Review of NPDES Permit Applications

GIVEN:      NPDES Application Forms 1 and 2C from Luster Glass Inc.

REQUIREMENT:    Review the permit applications from Luster Glass Inc. and answer the
                   questions below.

QUESTIONS:

(1)    Is this facility a POTW or does it have a concentrated animal feeding operation?	
(2)    Who is Mr. Ceccarelli?,
(3)    What does Luster Glass Inc. make?
(4)    Did the proper official sign the application form?.
      How do you know?	
(5)    To what body of water does Luster Glass Inc. discharge its process water?
(6)    How many outfalls are there at Luster Glass?.
(7)    Has the company collected any data on the toxicity of its wastewater?

(8)    Does Luster Glass Inc. have its own analytical laboratory for the analysis of priority
      pollutants?	

(10)   Based on the water flow schematic included in the permit application, what wastewaters
      are treated at Luster Glass Inc.? What is the total treated wastewater flow?
                                       4-11

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(11)   What is the wastewater flow after treatment shown an the water flow schematic?
(12)   Does wastewater flow into treatment equal wastewater flow out of treatment on the
      water flow schematic?
                                       4-12

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  (fi/l-in areas are spaced for elite type, i.e., )2 cfitracten/inch/.
                                                                                         Form Approved. OMB No. 2040-0086 Approval expires 7-31 -88
    FORM
      1
 [ GENERAL
           vvEPA
U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL. PHOTItCTIOH AGENCY
     GENERAL INFORMATION       :
         Oonsoffdbtpd fl&tmfy Pngrwn  '
 (Read the "General Instruction*" before ttorting.)
                                                                                             I L EPA I.D. NUMBER

    "EPA MJ. NU»
      -AGILITY NAME
         UTYNJ

     „  \  \ V^TN
     'AGILITY
     MAILING ADDRESS
                                                          »M •W^Htv.MAM.t •—•	• fc.-~— •	.«Miiirr<— -*  ^t£**m
                                                          a fMvpnilieQ MQ8I nW OMfl PTOVIGOO, «TTIX
                                                        it In ttM designated space. Review the inform-
                                                        ation carefully; if any of it 1* incorrect,  crew
                                                        through ft and antar the correct data in the
                                                        appropiieie fill-in  area below. Alia, if any of
                                                        the preprinted data « absent rtne ww'fo tfce
                                                        *ff of the AtW «MC» Urn the Information
                                                        tfcef jnotftf appear),  ptaata provide It in the
                                                        proper fill-in arealW below,  if the label if
                                                        complete and correct, you need not complete
                                                        Iterro  lr Ml,  V. and VI {except  VI-8 wn*»
                                                        HMOS bf completed regardless!. Complete all
                                                        ttemt if no label hat been provided. Refer to
                                                        the  inrtmctiont for detailed  Item  descrip-
                                                        tion*  and for the  legal authorization* under
                                                        which this data is collected.     .        .
  II. POLLUTANT CHARACTERISTICS
   INSTRUCTIONS:  Complete A through J to determine whither you need to ubnut any permit application forms to the EPA. if you answer "yet" to any
   questions, you must submit this form and the supplemental form listed in the parenthesis following the question. Mark "X" in the box in the third column
   if the supplemental form is attached. If you answer "no" to each question, you need not momitany of these forms. You may answer "no" if your activity
   is excluded from permit requirements; see Section C of the instructions. See also, Section 0 of the instructions for definitions of bold-faced terras.
                 SPECIFIC QUESTIONS
                                                                                    ' •reeinc QUESTIONS
                                                                                                                                  UTTACNKO
A. Is  this facility a  publidy  owned treatment worfca
   which results  in a discharge to water* of the U.S.?
   (FORM2A)

                                                                          aquatfc animal production facility which result* in
                                                                          dbchanje to weten of the US,? (FORM 2B)
      li tnis a taciiity wmcn currently results in
      to  water* of the US. other than those described'In
      A or B above? (FORM 2C>	

                                                                    O. It tnif a propond taciiity (other Han lftc*e dtac/ftwrf
                                                                       to A or e a6o**/ which will result in a dtocharga to
                                                                       wetariof tfa* UA? 1PORM 2D)
   E.  Does or will this facility treat, store, or dispose of
      hazardous wastes? (FORM 3)
                                                                    F. Do you or will you inject« this facility industrial or
                                                                       municipal effluent below the lowemxMt stratum con-
                                                                       taining, within  one quarter  mile of the well tore,
                                                                       underground sources of drinking water? (FORM 4}
      uo you or win you inject at tnis reality any prooucea
      water or other fluids which are brought to the surface
      *in connection with conventional oil or-natural gas pro-
      duction, inject fluids used for enhanced recovery of
      oil or natural gas, or inject fluids for storage Of liquid
      hydrocarbons? (FORM 41	'_
                                                      K
                             H. Do you or wm you format thb facility flutt for spe-
                                cial procetHB such at mining of furfur by the Preach
                                process, solution mining of minerals, in sttu combus-
                                tion of fostil fuel, or recovery of gaothermal energy?
                              - "(FORM 41 • .r^&f'^r^&t^f^^f^:^: <-•••'•'   •
   I.  Is this taciiity a proposed stationary source which is
      one of the 28 industrial categories listed in the in-
      structions and which will potentially emit 100 tons
      per  yeer of  any  air pollutant regulated under the
      Clean Air Act and may affect or be located in en
      attainment area? (FORM 5)
                             J.  it tnis taciiity a prop
                                                                                                       eeuice which it
                                                                       NOT one of trie 28 industrial categories lined hi the
                                                                       instructions and which will potentially emit 250 ten*
                                                                       per yeer of any air pollutant regulated under the Clean.
                                                                       Air Act and rney «uh»i or be located in en elteinjiMHit
                                                                          e? (FORM
 III. NAME OF FACILITY
 IV. FACILITY CONTACT
                             A. NAME ft TITLE (latt. ftTtt, A title)
                                                                                             *, W40NSE (area code 4 no.)
 V. FACILITY MAILING ADDRESS
 VI. FACILITY LOCATION
                  A. STREET. ROUTE NO. Oft OTHER SPECIFIC IDENTIFIER
                                                                                                   F. COUNTY CODE
EPA Form 3510-1 (Rev. ir>80)
                                                                      4-13
                                                                                                               CONTINUE ON REVERSE

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   CONTINUED FROM THE FRONT	

    VII. SIC COOES 14-digit, in order of priority}.
   VIII. OPERATOR INFORMATION
                                                                                                                 Mm VIII-A•tooth*
                                                                                                                  muff

                                                                                                                  YES d NO
         c. STATUS OF OPERATOR (Eater the appropriate tetter into the answer box; If "Othe'", specify.)
                                                                      o. PHONE (area code * no.)
                                       than federal or state)
                       O" OTHER Specify;
                            i   i  i—i—r—i—i—r—i—i—i—i—i—i—i—i—i—\—r—i
                                                                                            Is the facility located on Indian lands?

                                                                                               CD YES     ES NO   ' - •
                                                                                              -' 12   •       •
   X EXISTING ENVIRONMENTAL PERMITS
       A. NPDES (Ditcherget to Surface Water)
                   D. PSD (Air Emuaont from Proposed Sources!
          I LQG&S'tSl
       m. uic {Underground Injection of Fluids)
                            E. OTHER (specify!
           c. RCMA tfiataraous wattes)
                            C. OTHER (specify)

   Attach to this application a topographic map of the area extending to at least one mite beyond property boundaries. The map must show
   the outline of the facility, the location of each of its existing and proposed intake and discharge structures, each of its hazardous waste
   treatment, storage, or disposal facilities, and each well where it injects fluids underground. Include all springs, rivers and other surface
   water bodies in the map area. See instructions for precise requirements.
  XII. NATURE OF BUSINESS (provide a brief description?
 XIII. CERTIFICATION (tM InttruetfootJ
*
                              ^I^'*™»l2'>*»nto«i«**n *n»r with the information submitted in this application and all
                  *""* penms imm«ii*t*lY **1>on»bk for obtaining
                                                                                                                        the
                                        * »"•* «««•» and complete. I ant aware that there ere significant penalties for submitting
              ion, induding the posstbiltty of fine and imprifomnent
                         (Type Or
 COMMENTS FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY'
                                                         ilGNATURE
                                                                               7
                                                                                                        C. OATE SIGNED
EPA Form 3510-1 (Rw. 10*))
                                                                     4-14

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4-15

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 4.813
 MGD
•^^•^•••i
  City
 Water
                      Auto Glass
                      Tempering
                     Preparation:
                       Cutting:
                      Grinding:
                      Polishing:
                      Bending:
                     Auto Glass
                     Tempering
                     Auto Glass
                     Lamination
                     Preparation:
                       Cutting:
                      Bending:
                      Washing:
                     Auto Glass
                     Lamination
                      2.5 MGD
                   Recycled Process
                    Cooling Water
                    Cooling Tower
0.96 MGD
                                        1.03 MGD
                                       1.213 MGD


Schematic of
Water Flow
Luster Glass, Inc
Morris, Indiana


                 Wastewater
                  Treatment
                   Systerr,
                                        0.91 MGD
                                    4.13 MGD
                                       0.45 MGD {Slowdown)
Outfall 001

4.563 MGD
  7.06 cfs
                     0.25 MGD
                     Atmosphere
                                                      4-16

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                                                                                                                           I
Please print at type In the unshaded ereat only.
                                      IPA I.O. NVMBER(copy from Item 1 of Form1)1
                                                                                   Form Approved.
                                                                                   OMB No. 2040-0086.
                                                                                   Approval expires 8-31-96.
FORM
.2C
                                                   U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL. PROTECTION ACKNCY
                                              APPLICATION FOR PERMIT TO DISCHARGE WASTEWATER
                            EXISTING MANUFACTURING. COMMERCIAL, MINING AND SILV[CULTURAL OPERATIONS
                                                        Consolidated Permits Program
         LL LOCATION
I For aaeh outfall, list the latitude end longitude of Its location to the nearett 1 5 seconds and the name of the receiving water.
A.^UTFAjl.1. •. LATITUDE C. LON9ITUOE
(Ifftj i. »*•. a. HW.
0ot V& S&





>, *«Cr 1. P«*. 1. MIH. 1. WC.
o. RECEIVING WATER (name/
W 3^ ILt/A/^fS RlVfi^.







li. FLOWS, SOURCES OF POLLUTION. AND TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES'^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H
A. Attac
andt
pietoi
h a 11119 drawing infflwHig the

vMtw flow through the facility. Indian* sour

rial description of tha nature and amount of any sot
B* For each outfall, provide a oaacnp
cooling water, and »iinu' wetar run
on additional ihaata if neeettary.
I. OUT-
"*S~
ODI
|
F



»

d outfalls. If a wttw bale
urn of water and any colle
[ion of: (1) AN operations contributing wastm

S. OPCRATION(B) CONTRIBUTING FLOW
a. OPERATION flttt)
Pi^-^CV&SS T^r^lAj^




CoOjLfAlfc^UJEfc.

Bt^ttSi6«A5


















b. AVITRACE FLOW
(Ineludt unltt)
T!* ll^T^l/JTb




@,4&M&b















«


ces of intake water, operations contributing wettet
m B. Construct a water balance on the Una drawin
not cannot be determined tf.g., for cavta/ff minim
ction or treatment measures.
Meter to the effluent. |
tctMOt*). provide e I
water to the effluent, including process wastewater, sanitary wsstewatef, 1
operation; and (3) The treatment received by tha wastewater. Continue 1
». TREATMENT
a. DESCRIPTION
&\!.L.t *&&?&. 3&PQ#fffZ&
S^TTt-Wfe fV^S/A)S



Mi wmft Vhw Ortt&§&&*£




-•













a. LIST COOES FROM
TABLE 1C- 1

Hi



(-0










































^acMbipj. O-VT f«ra«»»tvi«i»ee«^wtw^e.)
P^s- •
  &A form 3510-2C (8-90)
                                                 PAGE I OF 4

                                                           4-17
                                                                                             CONTINUE ON REVERSE

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CONTINUED FROM THE FRONT
 C, Exempt for norm runoff, leaks, or spill*, are »ny of th* discharge* described in Items 11-A or 8 intermittent or seasonal?
          Q YKS (complit* tfir follourfnr tobU)                                       Q NO fro fo Stetfon III)
 I. OUTFALL
  NUMBER
     (tot}
                      2. OPERATION^
                   CONTRIBUTING PLOW
                                                            3. FREQUENCY
  ». DAYS
*«K WCEK
                                                           aotragt)
b. MONTHS
PER YEAR
                                                                      autragt)
                                                                                                       *. FLOW
•. FLOW RATE
   n effluent guideline limitation promulgated by EPA under Section 304 of the Clean Witter Act apply to your facility?
          ^vcs levmplett /tern IH-B)                                               OHO (to to Section IV)
  B. An the limitation! in the applicable effluent guideline expreind In termt of production (or othgrmman ofopwrntionll
                 Itompltt* It*m OJ'C)                                                  NO UP to Stctlon IV)
 C If you answered "yw" to item III-B, list tfw quantity which represerrts an actual measurer tent of your level of production, expressed in the terms and units
    used in th* applicable effluent guideline, and indicm the tffecwd outfalls.
                                           1. AVERAGE DAILY PRODUCTION
                         b. UNIT* or M«*MJK
                                                           C. o»B««rioM, pnopucr.
                                                                        flptcify)
                                                             2. AFFECTED
                                                              OUTFALLS
                                                           flat outfall Humbert)
t\Q3W>
                                                                                                                                     O
 A. Are you now required by any Federal, State Or local authority to meet any implementation schedule for the construction, upgrading or operation of wa««-
    weter treatment equipment or practices or eny other environmental program* which mav affect the discharges described in thii application? This includes,
    but is not limited to, permit conditions, administrative or enforcement orders, enforcemeit compliance schedule letters, stipulations, court orders, and grant
    or loan conditions.
                                   OYN
                                                             a>big tabl*)
                        Q NO (go to /tern 1V-B)
  IDENTIFICATION or CONDITION.
                                     *. AP
                                                  OUTFALL*
                                  a. "•.
                                                                           *. BfllCF DCSCMIFTION Of PROJECT
 B. OPTIONAL: You may attach additional sheet* describing any additional water pollution control programs (or other environmental projects which mty affect
                  .you .now have underWay or whfch^yjBU-plan. Indioitc whether each program is now underway or planned, and indicate your actual or
                                    PtMAWK r"^ei'^bmm^turfrnnt or ADDITIONAL CONTROL fnosrt AMS is ATTACHED
EPA F«tm 381O-2C (Rev. 2-8B)
                                                          PAGE 2 OF 4
                                                                      4-18
                                                                                                                CONTINUE ON PAGE 3

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                                       EFA I.D. NUMBERCeojp* from Item 1 of Farm 1)
CONTINUED FROM PAGE 2
 A, B,'& C:  . Saa'ihitruetloni before proceeding — Complete one *et of tablet for each outfall — Annotate the outfall number in the spaca provided.
             NOTE: Table* V-A, V-B, and V-C are included on separata sheets numbered V-1 through V-9.
    . Ute the tpao* below to list any of the pollutant! listed in Tabte 2c-3 of the instructions, which you know or have reason to believe is discharged or may be
     discharged from any  outfall. For every pollutant you list, briefly describe the reasons you believe it to be present and report any analytical data in your
     possession.
        I.1»OL.«.UTAHT
                                              2. SOURCE
                                                                               1. POLLUTANT
                                                                                                                    2. SOURCE
 VI. POTENTIAL DISCHARGES NOT COVERED BY ANALYSIS
  Is any pollutant lilted in Ham V-C a substance or a component of a substance which you currently usa or manufacture as an intermediate or final product or
  byproduct?
                                YES (list all tuc/i pottuionti below)
                                                                                                 (to to Item VI-S)
 EPA Form  3S10-2C (8-90)
PAGE 3 OF A


      4-19
                                                                                                                      CONTINUE ON REVERSI

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CONTINUED FROM THE FRONT
tflll£ONTRACT ANALYSIS INFORMATION
 VII.  BIOLOGICAL TOXICITY TESTING DATA
  Do you haw any knowledge or reason to believe
  receiving water in relation to your discharge within the IMC 3 yean?
                  that any biological t*tt for acute Or chronic toxlcity hw been made on-any of yourdiaeharaesorona
                        (Identify the tettft) and de*eribt their fnirpoiet below)
Cmo*to&
        WPDEFS
                                                                                          Woes
                                                                                           1
                                                                             A**e/z»
 uutoeos
                                                                   7?3.5J5
                                                                            ^^ '3
  Were *ny of the analyses reported in Item V performed by a contract laboratory or consulting firm?
                     kres (lift the name, otfdrect, and telephone number of. and potlatuntt
                        analyzed by. each «ucft laboratory or ftrm btlow)
                                                            £3NO firo to Stetion IXI
               A. NAME
                                                  B. ADDRESS
                                        J[3

                                       G-tH
                                        boo&o
 X. CERTIFICATION
 / certify under penalty of lew that this document endallattachments were prepared under my direction or supervision in accordance with a system designed to
 assure that qualified personnel property gather and evaluate the information submitted. Be sod on my inquiry of theperson or persons who manege the system or
 thosepersonsdirecttYresponsAleforgatheringtheiriformetion. the information svorninedis. to the best of my knowledge andbdief, true, accurate, and complete.
  A. NAME * OFFICIAL. TITLE (type or print)
                                                                                  B. PHONE NO. farea code &
  C. SIGNATURE
                                                                                  0 DATE SIGNED
 EPA Form  3510-2C (6-90)
                                                     PA1E 4 OF 4
                                                          4-20

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4-21

-------
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                                         4-22

-------
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vn required to mark column 2-B (secondary industries, nonprocess
to believe is present. Mark "X" in column 2-c for each pollutant you
f you mark column 2bfor any pollutant, you must provide the results
jpb or greater. If you mark column 2b for acrolain. acrylonitrila, 2,4
is which you know or have reason to believe that you discharge in
ie analysis or brief ly describe the reasons the pollutant is expected to
h outfall. See instructions for additional details and requirements.
ins process wastewater, refer to Table 2c-2 in the instructions to determine v
ur Industry and for ALL toxic metals, cyanides, and total phenols. If you are i
ctiorts). mark "X" in column 2-b for each pollutant you know or have reason
llutant, you must provide the resiil is of at least one analysis for that pollutant .
now or have reason to believe It fill be discharged In concentrations of 10 1
u must provide the results of at least one analysis for each of these pollutar
or pollutants for which you mark cqlumn 2b, you must either submit at least 01
i part; please review each carefully. Complete one table tail 7 pages) for eac
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-------
4-26

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-------
                                                   I
                                                   4
4-29

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               MODULE 4 - SUGGESTED REFERENCE MATERIALS
Application  Form 1 - General  Information. Consolidated  Permits Program  (EPA  Form
3510-1), EPA, Office of Enforcement, October  1980.

Standard  Form A - Municipal  fEPA Form 7550-22), EPA  July 1973.

Application  Form 2B •^Concentrated  Animal Feed Operations  and  Aquatic Animal
Production  Facilities  (EPA  Form 3510-2B), EPA, Office of Enforcement, February  1985.

Application  Form 2C - Wastewater  Discharge Information.  Consolidated  Permits
Program. Existing Manufacturing. Commercial  Mining, and Silvicultural  Operations
(EPA Form 3510-2C), EPA, Office of Enforcement, February 1985.
Application Form 2D - Wastewater Discharge Information.  Consolidated Permits
Program. New Manufacturing. Commercial Mining, and Silvicultural Operations  (EPA
Form 3510-2D), EPA Office of Enforcement, February 1985.

Application Form 2E - Facilities Which Do Not Discharge Process  Wastewater  (EPA
Form 3510-2E), EPA, Office of Water enforcement  and Permits, September 1986.
Industrial User Permitting  Guidance Manual.  Appendix E.  Example IU Permit
Application.  EPA.  September  1989.

Guidance Manual for the Preparation of NPDES  Permit Applications for Storm Water
Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity (EPA-505/8-01-002), EPA. Office of
Water, April 1991.

Guidance Manual for the Preparation of Part  1 of the NPDES Permit^ Application  for
Discharges from  Municipal  Separate Storm Sewer Systems (EPA-505-8-91-003A). EPA,
Office of Water,  April 1991.
                                          4-30

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                                  MODULE #5
                        Technology-Based Effluent Limits
OVERALL OBJECTIVES:

   *  Explain the purpose of technology-based requirements for NPDES permits

   «•  Define the general types of technology requirements for pollutant categories
      (conventional, nonconventional, and toxic)

   +  Provide brief statutory history of technology-based performance standards

   4  Explain the general concept of use of best professional judgment to supplement effluent
      guidelines (for non-municipal)
LOGISTICS:

Presentation Format: Lecture
Approximate Presentation Time:  30 minutes
Review Questions/Exercise: None
Applicable Statutory and Regulatory Citations:
      CWA Section 301
      CWA Section 304
      CWA Section 306
      CWA Section 307
Effluent Limitations
Information and Guidelines
National Standards of Performance
Toxic and Pretreatment Effluent Standards
      40 CFR §122.44(a)    Technology-based effluent limitations and standards
      40 CFR §122.45      Calculating NPDES permit conditions
      40 CFR §125.3       Technology-based treatment requirements in permits

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-------
Module 5
Technology-Based Effluent Limits
            Technology-Based Effluent
                        Limits
                                           xvEPA
                 Learning Objectives
             Explain the purpose of technology-
             based requirements
             Describe the types of technology-
             based requirements
                                           AEPA
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                          5-1

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 Module 5
Technology-Based Effluent Limits
             Technology-Based Requirements


             • Purpose
               - Establish minimum level of pollutant
                  controls for all point source
                  dischargers
                  •  Conventional pollutants
                  •  Non-conventional pollutants
                  •  Toxic pollutants
               - Provide equity among dischargers
                  within categories
             Technology-Based Requirements

         •  Technology-based requirements
            implemented through NPDES permits

         •  National technology-based standards are
            available
             -  Effluent guidelines for non-municipal
             -  Secondary treatment standards for municipal

         •  In the absence of National standards
             -  Technology-based requirements developed
               on a case-by-case basis
NPOES Permit Writers Training Course
                              5-2

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                                 MODULE # 5A

     Secondary Treatment Standards for Municipal Point-Source Dischargers


OVERALL OBJECTIVES:

   *•  Define secondary treatment standards

   «•  Explain exceptions and alternatives to secondary treatment standards
LOGISTICS:

Presentation Format: Lecture, practical exercise
Approximate Presentation Time: 30 minutes
Review Questions/Exercise: 30 minutes
Applicable Statutory and Regulatory Citations:
      CWA Section 301(b)(l)(b)
      CWA Section 304(d)

      40CFR§122.45(b)(l)
      40CFR§125.3(a)(l)

      40 CFR Part 133
Effluent Limitations Compliance dates
Application of Secondary Treatment Standards

Production-based limitations
Technology-based treatment requirements in permits (for
POTWs)
Secondary Treatment Regulation

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-------
Module 5A    Technology-Based Effluent Limits for Municipal Dischargers
            Technology-Based Effluent
                Limits for Municipal
                     Dischargers
                 Learning Objectives
            •  Describe secondary treatment
               regulations

            •  Explain equivalent to secondary
               requirements
                                           vvEPA
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                          5A-1

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Module 5A      Technology-Based Effluent Limits for Municipal Dischargers
                   Flow Diagram of a Wastewater
                            Treatment Plant:
  Raw
Wastewater
                     Primary Treatment
                               Prinwiy
                             Seoul luiiuu on
                                    Secondary Treatment
            (Grit Screenings)
                  Landfill
                                          Sludge Disposal
                                                               Final
                                                              Effluent
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                     5A-2

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Module 5A      Technology-Based Effluent Limits for Municipal Dischargers
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                     5A-3

-------
Module 5A      Technology-Based Effluent Limits for Municipal Dischargers
NPOES Permit Writers Training Course
                                     5A-4

-------
Module 5A     Technology-Based Effluent Limits for Municipal Dischargers
                                                        &EPA
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                  5A-5

-------
Module 5A      Technology-Based Effluent Limits for Municipal Dischargers
                                                         vvEPA
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                   5A-6

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Module 5A     Technology-Based Effluent Limits for Municipal Dischargers
               Technology-Based Requirements for
           Municipal Dischargers Secondary Treatment







5-Day BOD
TSS
PH
Removal
30 Day Average 7 Day Average
30 mg/l 45 mg/l
30 mg/l 45 mg/l
6-9 —
85% BODs and TSS —





(40 CFR Part 133)
Note: Compliance Deadline = 7/1/88 C^FPW
               Calculation of Permit Limits
            •  Must be concentration-based
               (40 CFR §122.45 (f)(1)(ii))

            •  May also be mass-based

               - If mass-based, use design flow of the
                 treatment plant (40 CFR § 122.45(b))
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                              5A-7

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Module 5A     Technology-Based Effluent Limits for Municipal Dischargers
           Calculation of Permit Limits (Continued)
           Example calculation:
                5 day BOD:       30 day average = 30 mg/L
                POTW Design Flow = 5.0 mgd
             BOD Limit = (5 mgd)(30 mg/L)(8.34*) = 1,251 Ibs/day
             * 8.34 is the conversion factor

           What if:
                POTW Actual Flow - 7 mgd ?
                POTW Actual Flow = 2.5 mgd ?
                Exceptions/Alternatives to Secondary
           	Treatment Requirements	

            • Substitution of CBODs for BODs [I33.102(a)(4)]
            • Adjustments to reflect:
               - Combined sewers [133.103(a>]
               - Industrial wastes [133.103(b)j
               - Waste stabilization ponds [133.103(c)]
               - Less concentrated influent for separate sewers
                 [133.103{d)]
               - Less concentrated influent for combined sewers
                 [133.103(e)]
            • Substitution of COD or TOG for BODs
              [133.104(b)]                              ,
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                 5A-8

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Module 5A     Technology-Based Effluent Limits for Municipal Dischargers
               Exceptions/Alternatives to Secondary
                    Treatment Requirements
               Treatment equivalent to secondary
               Waiver from secondary treatment for
               marine discharges
                  Equivalent to Secondary
              Must be trickling filter or waste stabilization
              pond (lagoon)
              Biological treatment = 51 + % of treatment
              Plant exceeds 30/30 with proper O&M
              Water quality not adversely affected
              Equivalent to secondary limits:
              - Up to 45 mg/l (30 day average)
              - Up to 65 mg/l (7 day average)
              - Not less than 65% removal
              Guidance distributed December 1985
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                              5A-9

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Module 5A    Technology-Based Effluent Limits for Municipal Dischargers
           Conditions to Consider in Applying Equivalent
                to Secondary Effluent Limitations
              Treatment works operating beyond
              the design hydraulic capacity or
              organic loading limit are not
              considered eligible for equivalent to
              secondary limitations
              New facilities
           Conditions to Consider in Applying Equivalent
            to Secondary Effluent Limitations (Continued)
            • Calculation of equivalent to
              secondary limitations

            • Combination of biological treatment
              processes employed at a facility

            • Alternative State Requirements
              (ASRs)
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                             5A-10

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Module 5A     Technology-Based Effluent Limits for Municipal Dischargers
             Sources of Facility Information

           • Application Form 1 and Form A (2A)
           • Supplemental information (sludge,
             toxicity, CSOs, pretreatment)
           • Discharge Monitoring Reports (DMRs)
           • Pretreatment program submissions
           • Annual pretreatment reports
           • Pretreatment audits
           	vvEPA
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                            5A-11

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5A-12

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                                  MODULE #5A

                             PRACTICAL EXERCISE

                  Developing Technology-Based Effluent Limitations
                        for Publicly Owned Treatment Works
SITUATION:
You are a permit writer responsible for drafting effluent limitations for a wastewater treatment
plant that provides secondary treatment of municipal wastewater.

GIVEN:

Summary of permit application data:
Average Flow:
Maximum Flow:
Design Flow:
Population Served:
Sewer System Type:
7.4 million gallons per day (MOD)
8.5 MOD
10.0 MGD
50,000
100%  Separate
Major Industrial Contributors:     Dairy; Poultry processor; Pulp and paper mill
Influent concentration BODS = 275 mg/L
Influent concentration TSS = 240 mg/L
Schematic of treatment plant:
                                     5A-13

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QUESTIONS:

(1)     What effluent limitations would you establish for 5-day Biochemical Oxygen demand
       (BOD5), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), and pH for Outfall 001?	
(2)    Are there any other permit limitations or requirements that would be necessary in order
      to comply with secondary treatment requirements?  If yes, is this treatment plant in
      compliance?  Please calculate.	
                                        5A-14

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                                  MODULE # SB

          Effluent Limitations Guidelines for Non-Municipal Dischargers


OVERALL OBJECTIVES:

   *  Explain the general process for developing effluent guidelines

   *  Define treatment standards for point sources (i.e., BPT, BCT, BAT, NSPS)

   *  Define the terms "existing discharger," "new discharger," and "new source"

   *  Explain considerations in applying effluent guidelines

   *  Explain distinctions between mass- vs. concentration-based effluent guidelines

   *  Define point-of-compliance for technology-based effluent limits

   *  Describe concept and considerations for integrated facilities
LOGISTICS:

Presentation Format:  Lecture, practical exercise
Approximate Presentation Time: 60 minutes
Review Questions/Exercise: 45 minutes
Applicable Statutory and Regulatory Citations:
      CWA Section 301 (b)
      CWA Section 304(b)
      CWA Section 304(m)
      CWA Section 306
      CWA Section 307(a)

      40 CFR §122.44(a)
      40 CFR §122.45(b)(2)
      40CFR§125.3(a)(2)
Effluent Limitations compliance Dates
Guidelines for Effluent Limitations
Schedule for Review of Guidelines
National Standards of Performance
Effluent Standards for Toxic Pollutants

Technology-based effluent limitations and standards
Production-based limitations
Technology-based treatment requirements in permits
(fornon-POTWs)

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Module 5B   Effluent Limitations Guidelines for Non-Municipal Dischargers
          Effluent Limitations Guidelines
          for Non-Municipal Dischargers
                                            SEPA
                  Learning Objectives
           •  Describe process used in
              developing effluent limitations
              guidelines

           •  Discuss considerations in applying
              effluent guidelines

           •  Explain application of effluent
              guidelines
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course

                           5B-1

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Module 5B    Effluent Limitations Guidelines for Non-Municipal Dischargers
              Effluent Limitations Guidelines

          • Definition
              - Effluent limitations guidelines are National
                standards prescribing allowable
                discharges of pollutants from industrial
                point source categories corresponding to
                various levels of treatment or control
                technologies

          • Scope
              - Guidelines are established for most
                primary and some secondary industries
           CWA Technology-Based Control Matrix
Technology-Based Control Level
Best Practicable Control Technology
Cumntty Available (BPT)

Technology (BCT)
Best Available Control Technology
Economically Achievable (BAT)



Sources (PSES)
PfetrealMeiH Sunoanu for New
Sources (PSNS)
Type of
Discharger
(Meet
Direct
Direct
Direct
tmitimmt t
inoiraci
Inoirvct
Conventions 1
X
X

X
X
X
UAH
non-
Conventional
X

X
X
X
X
Toxic
X

X
X
X
X
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                               5B-2

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Module 5B   Effluent Limitations Guidelines for Non-Municipal Dischargers
             Type of Discharger:  Key Definitions


             New Source - Any building, structure,
             facility, or installation from which there is
             or may be a discharge of pollutants, the
             construction of which commenced:
              - After promulgation of effluent limitations
                guidelines and standards applicable to such
                source, or
              - After proposal of effluent limitations
                guidelines and standards, but only if the
                standards are promulgated within 120 days
                ofproposa,
        Additional New Source Determination Criteria


          • Constructed at a site at which no other
             source is located; or

          • Totally replaces the process causing the
             discharge from an existing source; or

          • Processes are substantially independent
             of an existing source at the same site; and
             A new source performance standard is
             independently applicable to the discharge
                                                    EPA
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course

                              5B-3

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Module 5B    Effluent Limitations Guidelines for Non-Municipal Dischargers
            Type of Discharger:  Key Definitions
            	(Continued)	
              Existing Source - Any building,
              structure, facility, or installation
              from which there is or may be a
              discharge of pollutants which is not
              a new discharger or new source
             Statutory Compliance Deadlines for
              Technology-Based Requirements
Pollutant Category
Conventional
Conventional
Non-conventional
Non-conventional
Toxic
Toxic
Level of Treatment
BPT
BCT
BPT
BAT
BPT
BAT
Compliance
Deadline
Ju»y 1. 1977
March 31, 1989
July 1 1977
March 31, 1989
July 1, 1977
March 31, 1989
                                               &EPA
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                             5B-4

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Module 56    Effluent Limitations Guidelines for Non-Municipal Dischargers
           Effluent Limitations Guidelines (Continued)
             • CWA Section 304(m)
                - Guidelines may be developed for new
                  or additional industries, such as:
                   • Centralized waste treatment
                   • Transportation equipment cleaning
                   • Industrial laundries
                   • Metal products and machinery
                    manufacturers
             Implementing Effluent Guidelines
              • Effluent guidelines
                 - Implemented and enforced through
                   NPDES permits
                 - Serve as the basis for technology-
                   based limits
                                                  vvEPA
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                               5B-5

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Module 58    Effluent Limitations Guidelines for Non-Municipal Dischargers
               Considerations Involved in Use of
                       Effluent Guidelines
              • Determination of proper category and
                subcategory
                 - Applicability section in regulation
                 - Preamble to regulation
                 - SlCCode(s)
                   (e.g., Copper Forming = SIC Code 3351)
                 - Development documents
               Considerations Involved in Use of
                  Effluent Guidelines (Continued)

         Example 1:
                                              Non-Contact
                                             Cooling Water
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                5B-6

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Module 5B    Effluent Limitations Guidelines for Non-Municipal Dischargers


                Considerations Involved in Use of
                  Effluent Guidelines (Continued)

            • Classification of plants that fall under more
              than one category
               - Must apply ail applicable effluent guidelines
               - Some guidelines supercede others
               - Considerations for common treatment
                 systems
                 • BPJ for non-regulated pollutants
                 • Account for dilution from non-regulated
                   wastestreams
               - Inconsistent limits expressions (units)
               - Use internal outfalls
                Considerations Involved in Use of
                  Effluent Guidelines (Continued)
         Example 2:
               Coil Coating                  mg/m2

               Metal Finishing:               mg/L

               Ferroalloy Manufacturing:     kg/mwh
                                                     x-xEPA
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                5B-7

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Module 58   Effluent Limitations Guidelines for Non-Municipal Dischargers
                Considerations Involved in Use of
                   Effluent Guidelines (Continued)	

          • Determination of appropriate measures of
            production and flow
             - Use reasonable measure of actual production
               and flow rate
             - Long-term average expected during the term
               of permit
             - Account for planned changes
             - Time period of measurement
                • Daily maximum production/flow •* Daily maximum limit
                • Average monthly production/flow •* Monthly average limit
                Considerations Involved in Use of
                   Effluent Guidelines (Continued)
           • Use of alternative or tiered Mm its
              - To account for variability of production/flow
                (e.g., seasonal)
              - Significant = > 20%
              - Requires careful examination of production data
              - Requires special  reporting requirements
                 •  Notification of changed productionflow
                 •  Reporting of production data
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                 5B-8

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 Module 5B    Effluent Limitations Guidelines for Non-Municipal Dischargers

                Considerations Involved in Use of
                   Effluent Guidelines (Continued)	

           • Application of effluent guidelines in permits
              - Include all regulated pollutants
              - Parameters considered by effluent guideline but
                not regulated by effluent guideline
              - Include both daily maximum and monthly average
                limits
              - Express as mass limits unless guideline allows,
                or parameter requires concentration-based limit
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                 5B-9

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5B-10

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          Federal Register /  Vol.  52. No. 214 /  Thursday.  November 5.  1987 / Rules  and Regulations   4232S
including the 85 "priority" toxic
pollutants and classes of pollutants.
  Under the Act. the EPA is required to
establish several different kinds of
effluent limitations guidelines and
standards. They are summarized briefly
below:
1. Best Practicable Control Technology
Currently Available i
  BPT effluent limitations guidelines are
generally based on the average of the
best existing performance by plants of
various sizes, ages, and unit processes
within the category or subcategory for
control of familiar (i.e., conventional)
pollutants.
  In establishing BPT effluent
limitations guidelines, EPA considers
the total cost in relation to the effluent
redaction benefits, the age of equipment
and facilities involved, the processes
employed, process changes required.
engineering aspects of the control
technologies, and non-water quality
environmental impacts (including energy
requirements). The Agency considers
the category-wide or subcategory-wide
cost of applying the technology in
relation to the effluent reduction
benefits.

2. Best Available Techno;
•^ov«^£jraiuiuivij£uiiKuiuxy
Economically Achievable (BAT)
  BAT effluent limitations guidelines, in
general represent the best existing
performance in the category or
subcategory. The Act establishes BAT
as the principal national means of
controlling the direct discharge of toxic
and nonconventional pollutants to
navigable waters.
  In establishing BAT. the Agency
considers the age of equipment and
facilities involved, the processes
employed the engineering aspects of the
control technologies, process changes.
the cost of achieving such effluent
reduction, and non-water quality
environmental impacts.
3. Best Conventional Pollutant Control
Technology tec.'!)
  The 1977 Amendments to the Clean
Water Act added section 301{b)(2)(E),
establishing "best convention*!
pollutant control technology" (BCD for
the discharge of conventional pollutants
from  existing industrial point sources.
Section 304(a)(4) designated the
following as conventional pollutants:
BOO. TSS, fecal coliform. pH. and any
additional pollutants defined by the
Administrator as conventional. The
Administrator designated oil and grease
a conventional pollutant on July 30,1979
(44 FR 44501).
   BCT is not an additional limitation but
replaces BAT for the control of
conventional pollutants. BAT remains in
effect for the toxic and nonconventional
pollutants. In addition to other factors
specified in section 304{b)(4)(B), the Act
requires that the BCT effluent
limitations guidelines be assessed in
light of a two part "cost-
reasonableness" test American Paper
Insti'uie v. EPA. 660 F.2d 954 (4th Cir.
1981). The first test compares the cost
for private industry to reduce its
discharge of conventional pollutants
with the cost to publicly owned
treatment works for similar levels of
reduction in their discharge of these
pollutants. The second test examines the
cost-effectiveness of additional
industrial treatment beyond BPT. EPA
must find that limitations are
"reasonable** under both tests before
establishing them as BCT. Id no case
may BCT be less stringent than BPT.
  EPA has promulgated a methodology
for establishing BCT effluent limitations
guidelines (51 FR 24974. July 8.1986).
4. New Source Performance Standard*
(NSPS)
  NSPS are based on the performance of
the best available demonstrated
technology. New plants have the
opportunity to install the best and most
efficient production processes and
wastewater treatment technologies. As
a result NSPS should represent the most
stringent numerical values attainable
through the application of best available
demonstrated control technology for all
pollutants (toxic conventional and
nonconventional).

5. Pretreatment Standards for Existing
Sources [PSES1
  PSES are designed to prevent the
discharge of pollutants that pass
through,  interfere with, or are otherwise
incompatible with the operation of
publicly owned treatment works
(POTWs). The Clean Water Act requires
pretreatment standards for pollutant*
that pass through POTWs or interfere
with POTWs1 treatment processes or
sludge disposal methods. The legislative
history of the 1977  Act indicates that
pretreatment standards are  to be
technology-based and analogous to the
BAT effluent limitations guidelines for
removal of toxic pollutants. For the
purpose of determining whether to
promulgate national category-wide
pretreatment standards. EPA generally
determines that there is pass through of
a pollutant and thus a need for
categorical standards if the nation-wide
average  percentage of a pollutant
removed by well-operated POTWs
achieving secondary treatment is less
than the percent removed by the BAT
model treatment system. The General
Pretreatment Regulations, which sut
forth die framework for categorical
pretreatment standards, are found at 4:)
CFR Part 403. (Those regulations contain
a definition of pass through that
addresses localized rather than national
instances of pass through and does net
use the percent removal comparison test
described above. See 52 FR 1566.
January 14.1987.)

6. Pretreatment Standards for N'ew
Sources (PSN51

  Like PSES. PSNS are designed to
prevent the discharge of pollutants that
pass through, interfere with, or are
otherwise incompatible with the
operation of a POTW. PSNS are to be
issued at the same time as NSPS. New
indirect dischargers, like new direct
dischargers, have the opportunity  to
incorporate in their plant the best
available demonstrated technologies.
The Agency considers  the same factors
in promulgating PSNS as it considers in
promulgating NSPS.

B. Overview of the Industry

  The OCPSF industry is large and
diverse, and many plants in the industry
are highly complex. This industry
manufactures over 23.000 different
organic chemicals, plastics, and
synthetic fibers. However, lass than huif
of theta products are produced in excess
of 1.000 pounds per year. The industry
includes approximately 750 facilities
whose principal or primary production
activities are covered under the OCPSF
SIC groups. There are approximately :CO
other plants which are secondary
producers of OCPSF products, i.e.,
OCPSF production is ancillary to their
primary production activities. (As
discussed above in this preamble, th:s
regulation covers OCPSF discharges
from secondary producers, with certain
exceptions.) Thus the total number of
plants to be regulated totally or in part
by the OCPSF industry regulation is
approximately 1.000. Secondary OCPSF
plants may be part of other chemical
producing industries such as the
petroleum refining, inorganic chemicals.
Pharmaceuticals, and pesticides
industries as well as chemical
formulation industries such as the
adhesive* and sealants, the paint and
ink, and the plastics molding and
forming industries.
  Some plants produce chemicals in
large volumes while others produce only
small volumes of "specialty" chemicals.
Large volume production tends to use
continuous processes. Continuous
 processes are generally more efficient
 than batch processes tn minimizing
                                                     5B-11

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Federal Register /  Vol  52. No. 214 / Thursday, Novembtrr 5.  1967 /Rules and Regulations
XHL Variance* and Modifications
  Once the OCPSF regulation is in
effect the numerical effluent limitations
for the appropriate subcategory must be
applied in ail Federal and State NPDES
permit* thereafter issued to OCPSF
direct dischargers. The pretreatment
standards are directly applicable to
indirect dischargers and become
effective a* discussed in { 414.12 of the
regulation.
  For the BPT effluent limitations, the
only exception to the limitation*
contained in the regulation i* EPA's
-fundamentally different factors"
variance. See £ /. duPont de Neatoun
and Co. v. Train. 430 U.S. 112 (1977]:
Wejrmrhaeuser Co. v. Castle, supra. This
variance recognize* factor* concerning a
particular discharger that are
fundamentally different from the factors
considered in this rulemaking. However.
the economic ability of the individual
operator to meet the compliance cost for
BPT standards is not a consideration for
granting a variance. See National
Crushed Stone Association v. EPA. 440
U.S. 84 (1980). Although mis variance
dause was originally set forth in EPA's
1973-1978 categorical industry
regulation*, it is now included in the
general NPOES regulation* and will not
be indttded in the OCPSF or other
specific industry regulation*. See 40 CFR
Part 12S. Subpart a
  The BAT limitations in this regulation
also are subject to EPA'*
"fundamentally different factors'*
variance. However, section 308 of the
Water Quality Act of 1987 added a new
section 301(0) to the Act which
somewhat limits the availability of FDF
variances from BAT effluent limitations
guide HneSt An FDF application must be
based solely on information and
supporting data submitted to EPA during
the rulemaking establishing the
limitations that discussed the
fundamentally different factors, or on
information and supporting data that the
applicant did not have a reasonable
opportunity to submit during the
rulemaking. Tbe alternative requirement
must be no less stringent than justified
by the fundamental difference and must
not result in markedly more adverse
non-water quality environmental
impacts than those considered by EPA
in establishing the guideline.
   indirect dischargers subject to PSES
 are also eligible for the "fundamentally
 different factors" variance. See 40 CFR
 403.13. They are subject to essentially
 the same new statutory provisions for
 FDF variances as discussed above for
 BAT.
   Readers should  note that EPA has not
 yet amended its FDF variance regulation
                             to conform to the provisions of th«
                             Water Quality Act of 1987. The
                             regulation promulgated today refers to
                             the existing regulatory sections.
                             However. EPA recognize* that the new
                             section 301(n| of the Act overrider the
                             existing FDF regulation to the extent of
                             any inconsistency, and EPA doe* intend
                             to modify the PDF regulation to conform
                             to the new statutory requirements
                             .  Indirect dischargers subject to FSES
                             and PSNS are eligible for credit* for
                             toxic pollutants  removed by a POTVV.
                             See section 307(b) of the CWA and 40
                             CFR 4017. The removal credits
                             regulation was remanded to EPA in
                             Natural Resources Defense Council v.
                             EPA. 790 F Jd 289 (3rd Or. 1988). The
                             court held mat some of the means by
                             which EPA considered local POTW
                             removal efficiencies were not
                             sufficiently stringent and that credits for
                             POTW removals may not be authorized
                             until comprehensive regulations for the
                             use and disposal of sludge are
                             promulgated under section 405(d) 3t the
                             CWA. However, it should be noted that
                             pretreatment standards for the OCPSF
                             industry, like other categorical
                             pretreatment standard*, have beat
                             promulgated based upon the
                             assumptions that indirect discharger*
                             will be required to comply with the
                             standards without removal creditiL and
                             thus that they are subject to the full
                             costs  of complying with PSES.
                                                 of Limitation!* and
                                      be considered in developing the more
                                      appropriate process wastewater flow:
                                        1. A review of the component flows to |
                                      insure mat the claimed flow* are. in
                                      fact process wastewater flow* as
                                      defined by the regulation:
                                        2. A review of plant operations to
                                      insure that sound water conservation
                                      practices are being followed. Examples
                                      are: minimization of process water uses:
                                      cascading or countercurrent washes or
                                      rinses, where possible: reuse or recycle
                                      of intermediate process waters or
                                      treated wastewaters at the process area
                                      and in wastewater treatment operations
                                      (pump seals, equipment and area
                                      washdown*. etc.).
                                        3. A review of barometric condenser
                                      use at the process level Often.
                                      barometric condensers will generate
                                      relatively large volumes of water
                                          laminated al
XIV.
Standards
A. Flow Baits
  The limitations promulgated today are
concentration-based and thus do ttot
regulate Dow. Tbe permit writer o ust
use a reasonable estimate of procitss
wastewater flows end the concentration
limitations to develop mass limita tions
for the NPOES permit. Process
wastewater discharge is defined in the
regulation (40 CFR 401.11) to include
wastewaters resulting from manufacture
of OCPSF products that come in direct
contact with raw material*, intermediate
products, or final products, and surface
runoff from the immediate protest area
that has the potential to become
contaminated. Noncontact cooling
waters, utility wastewaters. general site
surface runoff, ground waters, and: other
nonprocess waters generated on site are
specifically excluded from tbe definition
of process wastewater discharges In
case* where the process wastewater
flow claimed by industry may be
excessive, the permit writer may
develop • more appropriate process
 wastewater flow for use in computing
 the mns effluent or internal plant
 limitations. The following items should
                                                                                         1 at low levels.
                                                                             Replacement of banmefeic condensers
                                                                             with surface condensers can reduce
                                                                             wastewater volumes significantly and
                                                                             result in collection of eondensates that
                                                                             may be returned to the process.
                                                                               The final NFOfiS permit limitations
                                                                             will be the SOB of the mass effluent
                                                                             limitations derived as described above
                                                                             and any times effluent limitations
                                                                             developed on a case-by-case basis using
                                                                             best professional judgment by the
                                                                             permit writer to take into account
                                                                             nonprocess wastewater discharges.

                                                                             8. Relationship to NPDES Permits
                                                                                The BPT and BAT limitation* and
                                                                             NSPS in this regulation will be applied
                                                                             to individual OCPSF plants through
                                                                             NPDES permits issued by EPA or
                                                                             approved state agencies under section
                                                                             402 of the Act As discussed in the
                                                                             preceding section of this preamble, these
                                                                             limitations must be applied in all new.
                                                                             modified and reissued Federal and State
                                                                             NPOES permits except to the extent that
                                                                             variances are expressly authorized.
                                                                             Other aspects  of the interaction between
                                                                              these limitations and NPDES permits are
                                                                             discussed below.
                                                                                One subject that has received
                                                                             different judicial rulings is the scope of
                                                                              NPOES permit proceedings when
                                                                              effluent limitations and standards do not
                                                                              exist Under current EPA regulations.
                                                                              States and EPA regions that issue
                                                                              NPOES permits before regulations are
                                                                              promulgated must establish effluent
                                                                              limitations on a case-by-case basis. This
                                                                              regulation provides a technical end legal
                                                                              base for new or modified or reissued
                                                                              permits.
                                                                                One issue that warrants consideration
                                                                              is the effect of this regulation on the
                                                                              powers of NPOES permit-issuing
                                                                              authorities. EPA has developed the
                                                                              limitations and standards in this
                                         5B-12

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                                   MODULE #5B

Example of Concentration-Based Effluent Guideline Calculations (Maximum Daily Limit)
Organic Chemicals, Plastics, and Synthetic Fibers
40 CFR Parts 414 and 416
Component               Reported Average Flow (mgd)

Ground Water                    0.60
Process Water                    2.40 (1.10 mgd for metal bearing wastestream)
Cooling Towers                  0.30

Total                           330
BAT Calculation for Nitrobenzene:

Since the effluent guidelines state that only process water should be used in the calculation, the
allowable mass discharge is calculated as follows:

(68 ug/l)*(2.40mgd)*(8.34)*(.001mg/ug) = 1.36 Ib/day
BAT Calculation for Lead;

Since the effluent guidelines state that only the flow from "metal bearing" wastestreams be used
for calculation of allowable mass discharge, the limit is calculated as follows:

 (690 ug/l)*(1.10mgd)*(834)*(.001mg/ug) = 6.33 Ib/day
                                      5B-13

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5B-14

-------
                                Point
    SOWCSM the* lit* In4-«f-*1|>«  M-
    — !——>,—I TMfltHMMt
    •JlOCJICW I IWTMIVIfl

1414.90  Applicability;  description of  the
   subeateffory  of direct  discharge  point
   sources that use end-of-plpe biolofieml
 -  treatment.
  The  provisions of  this  subpart are
applicable to the  process wastewater
discharges resulting  from the manu-
facture of the OCPSP products and
product groups defined  by  {414.11
from any point source that uses end-
of -pipe biological treatment or installs
end-of-pipe biological  treatment  to
comply with BPT effluent limitations.

1414.91  Toxic  pollutant  effluent limita-
   tions and  standards  for  direct dis-
   charge point sources that use end-of-
   pipe biological treatment.
  (a) Any point source subject to this
subpart must  achieve discharges not
exceeding the quantity (mass) deter-
mined  by  multiplying  the  process
wastewater now subject  to this sub-
part times the concentrations In the
following table.
  (b) In the case of chromium, copper.
lead, nickel, sine, and  total  cyanide.
the discharge quantity (mass) shall be
determined by multiplying the concen-
trations listed in  the following  table
for  these pollutants times  the flow
from metal-bearing waste streams  for
the metals and times the flow from cy-
anide-bearing  waste  streams for total
cyanide. Metal-bearing  waste streams
and cyanide-bearing  waste streams are
defined as those waste streams listed
 in Appendix A of this  part, plus any
 additional process wastewater streams
 identified by the permitting authority
 on a case-by-case basis as metal or cya-
 nide bearing based upon  a determina-
 tion—
  (1) That such streams contain signif-
 icant amounts of the pollutants identi-
 fied above and that
  (2)   The   combination   of  such
 streams, prior to  treatment,  with  the
 Appendix A waste streams wfll result
 in substantial reduction of these  pol-
 lutants.
  This determination must be  based
 upon a review of relevant engineering,
                             §414.91

production, and sampling and analysis
information.
Effluent cnaractaristica
1.2-OfcMarotrM
1.1.1-
2-C
  phmoL.
 ,1-OfcManM*)!
i
2,4-OHraalu
Mttiyl CMo
2.4-DHIrephMl.-
4,
Ph
 Ota
 Aneraem	
 Pynra
 T«
 TohMM.
 Vinyl CMortM
 ToMOvamu
 Total Capper..
                        Effluent (Muttons
                        BATindNSPS'
                         Man-
                        mum tor
                        any on*
                            ss
                           242
                           136
                        140
                         20
                        211
                         94
                         54
                         SS
                         54
                        189
                         44
                         2S
                         25
                         54
                        112
                        230
                            041
                            108
                         190
                         4t
                         SS
                         134
                         123
                         277
                         2S
                         zn
                         57
                         203
                         47
                         as
                         «i
                         si
                         SS
                         SS
                         so
                         5S
                          87
                          SS
                          SO
                          94

                        tm
                           1.201
                            mum tor
 22
 96
 37
 IS
 IS
 68
 IS
 SS
 21
 21
 22
 21
104
 21
 31
 77
 31
 IS
 16
 21
 30
153
 29
 IS
113
251
 32
 20
 22
 27
 41
 72
 71
 7*
 15
 103
 27
 S1
 18
 22
 23
 23
 22
 22
 22
 22
 22
 22
 20
 22
 26
 21
 104
1.110
1.450
 420
 320
1,980
                                        5B-15

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§ 414.100

Effluent characteristics


Effluent k
BAT and
Maxi-
mum for
anyone
day
2.610

nutations
NSPS'
Maxi-
mum for
monthly
average
1.050

  1 All units v» micrograms per liter.
  * Total Zinc for Rayon Fiber Manufacture that uses
the viscose prpcaaa and Acrylic Fiber Manufacture
that uaaa tha zinc chloride/solvent process is 6,796
pg/l and 3,325 po/l for manrrum for -any one day
and maximum for monthly average, respectively.

(58 PR 42S68, Nov. 5. IM7. a* amended at 54
PR 87358. June 29,19891

Subpart  J—Direct  Discharge  Point
     Source* That Do Not Uto  EnoVof-
     rlDO •fOtO^MOl TrOOttnOftt

9414.100  Applicability; description of the
   •ubeateforj of direct discharge point
   sources that do not use end-of-pipe bio-
   lofical treatment
  The provisions of this subpaxt are
applicable to the process wastewater
discharges resulting from the manu-
facture of the OCPSP  products and
product  groups defined by   f 414.11
from any point source that does not
use  end-of-pipe biological  treatment
and  does not install end-of-pipe biolog*
ical  treatment to comply with BPT ef-
fluent limitations.

• 414.101  Toxic  pollutant effluent limita-
   tions  and standards for direct dis-
   charge point sources that do not use
   end-of-pipe biological treatment.
   Any point source subject to this
subpart must achieve discharges not
exceeding the  quantity (mass) deter-
mined  by  multiplying  the   process
wastewater flow subject to this sub-
part times  the concentrations in the
following table.
  (b) In the case of chromium, copper,
lead, nickel,  zinc, and total  cyanide.
the  discharge quantity (mass) shall be
determined by multiplying the concen-
trations listed  in the  following table
for  these pollutants  times the  flow
from metal-bearing waste streams for
the  metals and times the cyanide-bear-
ing  waste streams for total  cyanide.
Metal-bearing waste streams and cya-
nide-bearing waste streams are defined
         40 CM Ch. t (7-1.91
as those  waste streams listed in    .
pendix  A of this part, plus any addi.
tional  process  wastewater  streams
identified by the permitting authority
on a case-by-case basis as metal or cyt>
nide bearing based upon a determin*.
tion—
  ( 1 ) That such streams contain signif.
leant amounts of the pollutants identi-
fied above and
  (2)  That  the combination  of such
streams, prior to treatment, with  the
Appendix  A  waste  streams would
result in substantial reduction of these
pollutants.
This  determination must  be  based
upon a  review of relevant engineering,
production, and sampling and analysis
information.
                          BATefflusm
                         limitation* and
                            NSPS'
   Effluent characteristic
T
TohMTM
TiiehionMBiyHn
Vnyl CWoriat.-.
Tott Chromium
                                       56-16

-------
i»vifonmontol Protection Agoncy
                      Port 414, App. A



Tntai SnC *. 	 ,.......,,, 	 ,..,„,.


BAT*
IS.^^!^—^—
•mnvDc
NSf

Man-
mum for
anyone
day
2.810

Hmr
rfluent
ma and
»s»

Man-
num for
monthly
average
1.050


   »"W ^*vw*Hr •• w •* • ••• ^*Tf •""» ^^" •••»»•
  * Total Zinc tor Rayon fiber Manufacture that i	
the viscose procwa and Aoyic fibers Manufacture
that ua*t the zinc  cNorida/soMent process « 6.796
•in/1 and 3.325 pg/l for maximum for any one day
and maximum for monthly average, respectively.

[52 PR 42568, Nov. 5.1987, as amended at 54
PR 27352. June 29. 1989: 55 FR 26692. June
29.19901

           A TO PAET  414—Non-Con-
              MrrAL-BzAKnrc   WASTE
    STREAMS   AND
    WASTX STREAMS
               Chromium
Ifethylhydroabietate/Esterlflcation  of hy-
  droabletic add (roain) with methanol
Acrylic  acid/Oxidation of  propylene via,
  acrolein
N-butyl alcohol/Hydrocenatlon of n-Butyr-
  aldehyde. Oxo process
Cyclohexanone/Prom phenol via cyclohex-
  anol by hydrogen»tlon-dehydrotenation
Fatty amlnes/Hydrogenstion  of fatty  nl-
  trlles (batch)
Helioptropin/Oxidation of tecemfrole.  chro-
  mium catalyst
Isobutanol/Hydrogenation of  isobutyralde-
  hyde. Oxo process
Cyclohexyl Mercaptan/Cyclohexanol + Hy-
  drogen sulfide
Ethyl Mercaptan/Ethanol •+• Hydrogen sul-
  fide
Biethanol/HJ. Synthesis  from natural gas
  via synthetic gas
Oxo Alcohols, C7-Cll/Caroonation & hy-
  drogenation of C6-C10 Olefins
Polyoxypropylene  dlamlne/Polypropylene
  glycol + Ammonia
n-Propyl alcohol/Hydrogenation of proplon-
  aldehyde. Oxo process
SAN resin/Suspension polymerization
Styrene/Dehydrogenatlon of ethylbenzene
Styrene/Dehydration of methyl benzyl alco-
  hol (coproduct of propylene oxide)
1-Tetralol. 1-Tetralone mix/Oxidation of te-
  tralin (1.2.3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalene>
3.3.3-Trtfluoropropene/Cat*lyzed hydrogen
  fluoride  exchange with chlorinated pro-
  pane
Vinyl  toluene/Dehydrogenation (thermal)
  of ethyltoluene
                 Copper

Methylhydroabletate/Esterlflcation  of hy-
  droabietic add (roain) with methanol
Acetaldehyde/Oxidation of  ethylene with
  cuprlc chloride catalyst
Acetic acid/Catalytic oxidation of butane
Acetone/Dehydrogenatlon of isopropanol
Acryiamide/Catalytlc hydration of scryloni-
  trilc
Acrylic  acid/Oxidation  of  propylene via
  acrolein
Acrylonitrlle/Propylene ammoxidatlon
Adipic  add/Oxidation  of  cyclohexanol-cy-
  clohexanone mixture
Adipic  add/Oxidation  of  cyclohexane via
  cyclohexanol-cyclohexanone mixture
Allynltrile/AUychlorlde + sodium cyanide
AnlUne/Hydrogenation of nitrobenzene
Benzofurana,   2.3-Dihydro-3.2-dimethyl-7-
  benzofuranol/   from  o-Nltrophenol  +
  Methallyl chloride
n-Butyl alcohol/Hydrogenation of n-Butyr-
  aldehyde. Oxo process
1.4-Butanediol/Hydrogenation  of 1.4-butyn-
  ediol
Butryolactone/Dehydrogenation of 1.4-bu-
  tanedlol
Caprolactam/From  cyclohexane via cyclo-
  hexanone and Its oxime
Lilian   (hydroxydihydrodtronellal)/Hydra-
  tion and oxidation of dtronellol
1.2-Dlchloroethane/Oxyhydrochlorination
  of ethylene
Oialkyldithlocarbamatea. metal salts/Dial-
  kylamines + carbon diculf ide
2-Ethylhexanol/from  n-Butyraldehyde  by
  Aldo condensation and hydrogenation
Fatty amines/Hydrogenation  of  fatty  ni-
  triles (batch)
Geranlol/B-Myrcene +• Hydrogen chloride.
  esteriflcaUon of geranyl chloride, hydroly-
  sis of geranyl acetate
Furfuryl alcohol/Hydrogenation of furfural
Geranial  
-------
5B-18

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                                    MODULE #5B

Example of Production-Based Effluent Guideline Calculations (Daily Maximum)
Non-Ferrous Metals Manufacturing
40 CFR Part 421

Given:
Facility is subject to 40 CFR Part 421, Subpart J (Primary Tungsten).  The facility utilizes a
Tungstic Acid Rinse, an Acid Leach Wet Air Pollution Control system, and an Alkali Leach
Wash in its manufacturing process.

Long-term Average Production Rate:      4.7 million pounds per day of Tungstic Acid
                                       3.5 million pounds per day of Sodium Tungstate

BPT Calculation for Lead fS 421.102):
       a) Tungstic Acid Rinse

             (4.7 million lbs/day)*( 17.230 Ibs/million Ibs) = 80.981  Ibs/day

       b) Acid Leach Wet Air Pollution Control

             (4.7 million Ibs/day)*(15.040 Ibs/million Ibs) = 70.688  Ibs/day

       c) Alkali Leach Wash

             (3.5 million Ibs/day)*(0.000 Ibs/million Ibs) = 0.000 Ibs/day

       d) Total Allowable Discharge = 80.981 + 70.688 + 0.000 = 151.669 Ib/dav


BAT Calculation for Lead (S 421.103):
       a) Tungstic Acid Rinse

             (4.7 million lbs/day)*(l 1.490 Ibs/million Ibs) = 54.003  Ibs/day

       b) Acid Leach Wet Air Pollution Control

             (4.7 million lbs/day)*( 1.003 ibs/million Ibs) = 4.714 Ibs/day

       c) Alkali Leach Wash

             (3.5 million lbs/day)*(0.000 Ibs/million Ibs) - 0.000 Ibs/day

       d) Total Allowable Discharge = 54.003 + 4.714 + 0.000 = 58.717 Ib/dav
                                         5B-19

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5B-20

-------
    Subpart J—Primary Tungsten
1421.100 Applicability: Description of the
    primary tungsten subeategory.
  The provisions of  this  subpart  are
applicable to discharges resulting from
the production of tungsten at primary
tungsten facilities.

C49 PR 8812. Mar. 8, 1984]

9421.101  Specialized definition*.
  For the purpose  of this subpart the
general  information,  abbreviations,
and methods of analysis set forth in 40
CPR part 401 shall apply to  this sub-
part.

1421.102 Effluent limitation*  guideline*
    representing the  degree of effluent re-
    duction attainable by the application of
    the best practicable control technology
    currently available.
  Except as provided in 40 CPR 125.30
through  125.32, any  existing  point
source subject to  this subpart shall
achieve the following effluent limita-
tions representing  the degree of efflu-
ent reduction attainable by the appli-
cation of the best  practicable technol-
ogy currently available:
   (a) Subpart J—Tungstlc Add Rinse.

         BPT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
                                fermoMNy
                       me/kg (pounds put amen
                        pounds) of ttngsttc scid






17430
90.WO
3.4O9.QOO
1,0*2.000
(')

8.205
25.030
2.404.00

(')

    (b) Subpart J—Acid Leach Wet Air
  Pollution Control.

          BPT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
PoSutant or poftiom praearty
                        lor any 1
                          dty
                       mg/kg (peundi par rndtion
                         pounds) of tungnc tea
                         (MW) produced
                           15.040
                           S2JBO
                         4.773.000
                         t.466.000
                                  7.162
                                 21.640
                               2.096.000
                                686.300
    > WMR ma rwo* o< 7.0 to to.o tt at •

    (c) Subpart J—Alkali Leach Wash.

          BPT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
   PofluiBnt or pott^Mftt prep«vty
                      fgranyi
                        mg/kg (pounds pw m*)on
                         pounds) o» todbm feng»
                         •tski (as W) prodMesd
                            0.000
                            0.000
                                  0.000
                                  0.000
1421.103 Effluent limitations guidelines
    repr+sfnting the degree of effluent re-
    duction attainable by the application of
    the best available technology economi-
    cally achievable.
  Except as provided in 40 CPR 125.30
through  125.32,  any existing  point
source  subject to this  subpart shall
achieve the  following effluent limita-
tions representing the degree of efflu-
ent reduction attainable by the  appli-
cation of the best available technology
economically achievable:
   i VMNn *• wig* o* 7.0 to 10.0 « *
                                             5B-21

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&EPA
            United States
            Environmental Protection
            Agency
             Engineering and Analysis
             Division (4303)
             Washington, DC 20460
              Phone (202) 260-7120
              Fax (202) 260-7185
              April 1999
Industrial Wastewater
Contacts in the
Effluent Guidelines Program
Industry/Subject
      Regulation
Person
Phone (Area Code 202)
Acid Mine Drainage
Airports - see Deicing
Alternate Test Procedures (ATPs) 40 CFR 1 36
^fejuminum Forming 40 CFR 467
Analytical Methods Support 40 CFR 1 36
(Also see PBMS)
Animal Feedlots Operations 40 CFR 412
Aquaculture
Asbestos Manufacturing 40 CFR 427
Asphalt - see Paving and Roofing Materials
Battery Manufacturing 40 CFR 461
Beef Feedlots
Canmaking - see Coil Coating
Carbon Black Manufacturing 40 CFR 458
Cattle Feediots 40 CFR 412
^Bcement Manufacturing 40 CFR 41 1
Bill Telliard
Joe Vttalis

Maria Gomez-Taylor
Khouane Ditthavong
George Jett
Bill Tetliard
Maria Gomez-Taylor
Jan Goodwin
Ron Jordan
Anna Kinney
Mike Clipper
Ron Kirby

George Jett
Ron Jordan

George Jett
Ron Jordan
Ron Kirby
260-7134
260-7172

260-1639
260-6115
260-7151
260-7134
260-1639
260-7152
260-7115
260-7127
260-1278
260-7168

260-7151
260-7115

260-7151
260-7115
260-7168
                         5B-23

-------
EPA  Industrial Wastewater Contacts
Centralized Waste Treatment
               Jan Matuszko
               Tim Connor
Chemicals - see Gum & Wood, Inorganic, Organic, Pesticides
Clean Water Action Plan (CWAP)

Cluster Rule - see Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard
Coal Mining
 (Coal Remining, Western Coal,etc.)

Coil Coating
 (includes Canmaking)

Construction & Development
40 CFR 434
               Sheiia Frace
Bill Telliard
Joe Vitalis
40 CFR 465     George Jett
               Eric Strassler
               Jesse Pritts

40 CFR 401.14  Deborah Nagle
Cooling Water Intake Structures
 [Clean Water Act - Section 316(b)]

Copper Forming

Dairy Products Processing

De-icing

Detection Issues
( Low Level Detection)

Development Documents (To Order) - see Water Resource Center

Docket - see Water Docket

Drinking Water Methods - see Analytical Methods
Drum Reconditioning

Economic Analysis

Effluent Guidelines Plan
 [Clean Water Act - Section 304(m)]

Effluent Guidelines Task Force

Electrical & Electronic Components
               Bill Telliard
               Maria Gomez-Taylor

               Woody Forsht
               Eric Strassler


               Beverly Randolph

40 CFR 469     George Jett
                          260-9126
                          260-3164
                          260-7120
260-7134
260-7172

260-7151
                          260-7150
                          260-7191

                          260-2656
40 CFR 468
40 CFR 405


George Jett
Don Anderson
Shari Zuskin
Bill Telliard
Henry Kahn
260-7151
260-7189
260-7130
260-7134
260-5408
                          260-7134
                          260-1639

                          260-7190

                          260-7120

                          260-7150


                          260-5373

                          260-7151
                                                   5B-24

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EPA  Industrial Wastewater Contacts
^Pllectroplating 40 CFR 41 3
Environmental Monitoring Methods Index (EMMI)
Ethanol for Fuel
Explosives Manufacturing 40 CFR 457
Federal Register Notices (General)
Feedlots - see Animal Feedlots Operation
Ferroalloy Manufacturing 40 CFR 424
Fertilizer Manufacturing 40 CFR 41 8
(Nitrogen & Phosphate)
Fish Hatcheries
Foods - see Dairy, Fruits & Vegetables, Grain Mills, Meat
^fcoods and Beverages, Miscellaneous
Foundries - see Metal Molding & Casting
Fruits & Vegetables Processing 40 CFR 407
Glass Manufacturing 40 CFR 426
Gold Mining - see Ore Mining & Dressing
Grain Mills 40 CFR 406
Gum & Wood Chemicals Manufacturing 40 CFR 454
Hog Feedlots
Hospitals 40 CFR 460
Incinerators - see Industrial Waste Combustors
Industrial Laundries
Industrial Waste Combustors
Mike Ebner
Marion Thompson
Maria Gomez-Taylor
Bill Telliard
Joe Vital is
Bev Randolph

George Jett
Anna Kinney
Mike Clipper
Products, Poultry, Seafood,
Don Anderson
Don Anderson
Wendy Smith
Ron Kirby
Don Anderson
Don Anderson
Jan Goodwin
Frank Hund

Marta Jordan
Samantha Hopkins
260-5397
260-7117
260-1639
260-7134
260-7172
260-5373

260-7151
260-7127
260-1278
Sugar
260-7189
260-7189
260-7184
260-7168
260-7189
260-7189
260-7152
260-7182

260-0817
260-7149
(formerly titled Incinerators)
 k Formulating
40 CFR 447
Don Anderson
260-7189
                                              5B-25

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EPA  Industrial Wastewater Contacts
Inorganic Chemicals 40CFR415
Internet Information
Iron & Steel Manufacturing 40 CFR 420
Landfill Leachate
Leather Tanning & Finishing 40 CFR 425
Low BTU Gasification
Marine Discharges from Vessels of the
Armed Forces [CWA312(n)]
(Sometimes called UNDS)
Meat Products 40 CFR 432
Metal Finishing 40 CFR 433
Metal Molding & Casting (Foundries) 40 CFR 464
Metal Products and Machinery
Anna Kinney
Bev Randolph
George Jett
Kevin Tingley
Mike Ebner
John Tinger
Don Anderson
Bill Telliard
Greg Stapleton
Ron Jordan
Don Anderson
Mike Ebner
George Jett
Shari Zuskin
Mike Ebner
Tim Connor
Ahmar Siddiqui
260-7127
260-5373
260-7151
260-9843
260-5397
260-4992
260-7189
260-7134
260-0141
260-7115
260-7189
260-5397
260-7151
260-7130
260-5397
260-3164
260-1826
Mineral Mining & Processing
40 CFR 436     Ron Kirby
260-7168
Mining - see Acid Mine Drainage, Coal Mining, Gold Mining, Mineral Mining & Processing, and
Ore Mining & Dressing
Nonferrous Metals Forming
 (includes Metal Powders)

Nonferrous Metals Manufacturing

Norfolk Analytical Conference
Oil and Gas Extraction
 Offshore
 Coastal/Onshore
 Synthetic Drilling Fluids
40 CFR 471     George Jett
40 CFR 421     George Jett

               Bill Telliard
               Cindy Simbanin
40 CFR 435
               Ron Jordan
               Chuck White
               Ron Kirby
               Marv Rubin
260-7151
260-7151

260-7134
260-5019
260-7115
260-5411
260-7168
260-3028
                                                 5B-26

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EPA  Industrial Wastewatcr Contacts
Dre Mining & Dressing
Organic Chemicals, Plastics &
Synthetic Fibers
Paint Formulating
40 CFR 440
40 CFR 414
40 CFR 446
Ron Kirby
George Jett
Don Anderson
260-7168
260-7151
260-7189
Paving and Roofing Materials
 {Tars and Asphalt)

Performance-Based Measurement
  Systems (PBMS)

Pesticide Chemicals
                                    40 CFR 443

                                    40 CFR 136


                                    40 CFR 455


                                    40 CFR 419

                                    40 CFR 401.17


                                    40 CFR 439


          Manufacturing              40 CFR 422

Photographic Processing               40 CFR 459

Placer Mining - see Ore Mining & Dressing
Petroleum Refining

pH Effluent Limitations under
  Continuous Monitoring

Pharmaceutical Manufacturing
                                                   Bill Telliard

                                                   Bill Telliard
                                                   Khouane Ditthavong

                                                   Shari Zuskin
                                                   Marv Rubin

                                                   Ron Kirby

                                                   Henry Kahn


                                                   Frank Hund
                                                   Marv Rubin

                                                   Anna Kinney

                                                   Mike Ebner
Plastics Molding & Forming

Pollutants - Lists, Types, References
 Conventional-CWA Sec. 304(a}(4)
 Toxic-CWA Section 307(a)(1)
 Priority Pollutants  (Appendix A)
 EAD Analytes

Porcelain Enameling

Poultry Feedlots
                                   40 CFR 463    Woody Forsht
                                   40 CFR 401. 16
                                   40 CFR 401. 15
                                   40 CFR 423
                                   40 CFR 466

                                   40 CFR 412
                                                  Bill Telliard
                                                  Maria Gomez-Taylor
                                                  Joe Vitalis
                                                  George Jett

                                                  Jan Goodwin
260-7134

260-7134
260-6115

260-7130
260-3028

260-7168

260-5408


260-7182
260-3028

260-7127

260-5397



260-7190

260-7134
260-1639
260-7172



260-7151

260-7152
Pretreatment
 (or call Permits Division/Pretreatment
  Branch: 202-260-7539)
 Tinting & Publishing
                                                  Joe Vitalis
                                                  Don Anderson
                                                                            260-7172
                                                                            260-7189
                                                 5B-27

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 EPA  Industrial Wastewater Contacts
Publications - Also see Water Resource
Pulp, Paper and Paperboard
Rubber Manufacturing
Seafood Processing
Secondary Treatment
(Call Permits Division @ 260-9545)
Shipbuilding
Soap & Detergent Manufacturing
Solvent Recovery
Statistical Analysis
Steam Electric Power Generation
Sugar Processing
Superfund Sites - Discharges to
POTWs (Guidance Document)
Synthetic-based Drilling Fluids (SBF)
Textile Mills
Timber Products Processing
Toxicity/ WET Testing
Transportation Equipment Cleaning
(Tank Cleaning)
Center
40 CFR 430
40 CFR 428
40 CFR 408
40 CFR 133

40 CFR 41 7


40 CFR 423
40 CFR 409

40 CFR 435
40 CFR 410
40 CFR 429


UNDS -Uniform National Discharge Standards
Urban Stormwater Study

Bev Randolph
Troy Swackhammer
Don Anderson
Joe Vitalis
Don Andersor

Mike Ebner
Woody Forsht
Woody Forsht
Henry Kahn
Joe Vitalis
Don Anderson
Woody Forsht
Ron Kirby
Marv Rubin
Hugh Wise
Don Anderson
Bill Telliard
Marion Thompson
John Tinger
Jesse Pritts
Greg Stapietor
Ron Jordan
Eric Strassler
Jesse Pritts
260-5373
260-7128
260-7189
260-7172
260-7189

260-5397
260-7190
260-7190
260-5408
260-7172
260-7189
260-7190
260-7168
260-3028
260-7177
260-7189
260-7134
260-7117
260-4992
260-7191
260-0141
260-7115
260-7150
260-7191
Used Oil Reclamation
Ron Kirby
260-7168
                                            5B-28

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EPA  industrial Wastewater Contacts
  'aste Treatment - see Centralized Waste Treatment, Industrial Waste Combustors, Landfill Leachate
Water Docket (East Tower Basement)

Water Intake Structures -CWA 316(b)
(see Cooling Water Intake Structures)

Water Resource Center (WRC) - Publications
 Automated Document Ordering
 (East Tower Basement)

Water Supply

Web Sites - see Internet Information

WET - ( Whole Effluent Toxicity)  - see Toxicity
Colleen Campbell

Deborah Nagle


Mary Conway



Don Anderson
260-3027

260-2656
260-2814
260-7786
260-7189
                                                   5B-29

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5B-30

-------
                                    MODULE #5B

                              PRACTICAL EXERCISE

                   Developing Technology-Based Effluent Limitations
                  Using Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards
SITUATION:

You are a permit writer responsible for drafting a permit for a facility involved in leather
tanning operations. There is one outfall from the facility that contains all the treated process
wastewater.  You must determine the technology-based effluent limits for the facility.

GIVEN:

The facility is subject to the Leather Tanning and Finishing Point Source Category effluent
guidelines, 40 CFR Part 425 (which are attached to the exercise).

The tannery processes cattle hides into finished leather by the following process:

       Hair save unhairing - Chrome tanning - Retan-wet finishing

The long-term production rate is 500 pounds of raw material (hides)  per day, and the long-
term average process flow is 40,000 gallons per day.

QUESTIONS:

(1)    What Subpart(s) of the Leather Tanning and Finishing Point Source Category effluent
       guidelines is (are) applicable to this facility?	
(2)    What parameters are limited by the effluent guidelines?
(3)    What are the BPT effluent limits that you would impose at the outfall?
                                        5B-31

-------
(4)    What are the BCT effluent limits that you would impose at the outfall?.
(5)    What are the BAT effluent limits that you would impose at the outfall?.
                                       5B-32

-------
Environmental Protection Agency
                             PART  425
    SUBCHAPTER N—EFFLUENT  GUIDELINES  AND STANDARDS
PART  425—LEATHER TANNING  AND
  FINISHING  POINT  SOURCE  GATE-
  GORY

           GENERAL PROVISIONS

Sec.
425.01  Applicability.
425.02  General definitions.
425.03  Sulfide analytical methods  and ap-
    plicability.
425.04  Applicability of  sulfide pretreat-
    ment standards.
425.05  Compliance dates.
425.06  Monitoring requirements.

Svbport A—Hair Pulp, Chrom* T«n, R«tan-W*t
            Finish Swbcatogory

425.10  Applicability; description of  the hair
    pulp, chrome tan. retan-wet finish sub-
    category.
425.11  Effluent  limitations  representing
    the degree of effluent reduction attain-
    able by the application of the best prac-
    ticable  control  technology  currently
    available (BPT).
425.12  Effluent  limitations  representing
    the degree of effluent reduction attain-
    able by the application of the best con-
    ventional  pollutant control  technology
    (BCT).
425.13  Effluent  limitations  representing
    the degree of effluent reduction attain-
    able by the application of the best avail-
    able technology economically achievable
    (BAT).
425.14  New source  performance standards
    (NSPS).
425.15  Pretreatment standards for  existing
    sources (PSES).
425.16  Pretreatment  standards for  new
    sources (PSNS).

Svbpart •—Hair Save, Chroma Tan, R«tan-W«t
            Finish Subcatagory

425.20  Applicability; description of  the hair
    save  chrome tan. retan-wet finish sub-
    category.
425.21  Effluent  limitations  representing
    the degree of effluent reduction attain-
    able by the application of the best prac-
    ticable  control  technology  currently
    available 
-------
 Part 425
           40 CFR Ch. I (7-1.88 Edition)
425.45  Pretreatment standards for existing
    sources (PSES).
425.46  Pretreatment  standards  for  new
    sources (PSNS).

    Subport E—No S*amhewt* Subcatogory

425.50  Applicability; description of the  no
    beamhouse subcategory.
425.51  Effluent  limitations   representing
    the degree of effluent reduction attain-
    able by the application of the best prac-
    ticable  control  technology  currently
    available .
425.52  Effluent  limitations   representing
    the degree of effluent reduction attain-
    able by the application of the best con-
    ventional  pollutant control technology
    (BCT).
425.53  Effluent  limitations   representing
    the degree of effluent reduction attain-
    able by the application of the best avail-
    able technology economically achievable
    (BAT).
425.54  New source performance standards
    (NSFS).
425.5S  Pretreatment standards for existing
    sources (PSES).
425.56  Pretreatment  standards  for  new
    sources (PSNS).

  Subpart F—Throwgh-the-ftliM Swbcot*gory

425.60  Applicability;  description  of  the
    through-the-blue subcategory.
425.61  Effluent  limitations  representing
    the degree of effluent reduction attain-
    able by the application of the best prac-
    ticable control  technology  currently
    available (BFT).
425.62  Effluent  limitations  representing
    the degree of effluent reduction attain-
    able by the application of the best con-
    ventional pollutant control technology
    (BCT).
425.63  Effluent  limitations  representing
    the degree of effluent reduction attain-
    able by the application of the  best avail-
    able technology economically achievable
    (BAT).
425.64  New source performance  standards
    (NSPS).
425.65  Pretreatment standards for existing
    sources (PSES).
425.66  Pretreatment  standards  for  new
    sources (PSNS).

      Subport G—SlMoriing SubccrUgsry

425.70  Applicability;   description  of  the
    shearling subcategory.
425.71  Effluent  limitations  representing
    the degree of effluent reduction attain*
    able by the application of the best prac-
    ticable control  technology  currently
    available (BPT).
425.72  Effluent  limitations  representing
    the degree of effluent reduction attain-
    able by the application of the best con-
    ventional  pollutant control technology
    (BCT).
425.73  Effluent  limitations  representing
    the degree of effluent reduction attain-
    able by the application of the best avail*
    able technology economically achievable
    (BAT).
425.74  New source  performance standards
    (NSPS).
425.75  Pretreatment standards for existing
    sources (PSES).
425.76  Pretreatment  standards  for  new
    sources (PSNS).

       Subport H — Ptf j»kin Stfbcot»g«ry

425.80  Applicability: description of the pig-
    skin subcategory.
425.81  Effluent  limitations  representing
    the degree of effluent reduction attain-
    able by the application .of the best prac-
    ticable  control   technology  currently
    available (BPT).
425.82  Effluent  limitations  representing
    the degree of effluent reduction attain-
    able by the application of the best con-
    ventional  pollutant control technology
    (BCT).
425.83  Effluent  limitations  representing
    the degree of effluent reduction attain-
    able by the application of the best avail-
    able technology economically achievable
    (BAT).
429.84  New source  i>erf ormance standards
    (NSPS).
425.85  Pretreatment standards for existing
    sources (PSES).
425.86  Pvetreatment  standards  for  new
    sources (PSNS).
                         Fim*h-Spttt»
               Swbcat*g«ry

425.90  Applicability;  description  of  the
    retail-wet finish-splits subcategory.
425.91  Effluent   limitations  representing
    the degree of effluent reduction attain-
    able by the application of the best prac-
    ticable  control  technology  currently
    available (BPT).
425.92  Effluent   limitations  representing
    the degree of effluent reduction attain-
    able by the application of the best con-
    ventional  pollutant control  technology
    (BCT).
425.93  Effluent   limitations  representing
    the degree of effluent reduction attain-
    able by the application of the best avail-
    able technology economically achievable
    (BAT).
425.94  New source  performance standards
    (NSPS).
                                                 5B-34

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 Environmental Protection Agency

 425.95  Pretreatment standards for existing
   sources (PSES).
 425.96  Pretreatment  standards   for  new
   sources (PSNS).
         A TO PAST 425—POTASSIUM FERKX-
   CYANXDE TlTRATION METHOD
 APPENDIX   B  TO   PART   425—MODIFIED
   MONGER-WILLIAMS METHOD
 APPENDIX C TO PAST 425—DEFINITION AND
   PROCEDURE FOR THE DETERMINATION OF
   THE METHOD DETECTION LIMIT
  AUTHORITY: Sees. 301, 304(b). (e), (e), and
 
-------
§ 425.04
         40 CFR Ch. I (7-1.88 Edition)
§425.04 Applicability  of sulfide pretreat-
    ment standards.
  (a)  A POTW receiving  waste water
from a facility subject to this part may
require more stringent pretreatment
standards for sulfide than those estab-
lished by this  part  without EPA ap-
proval.
  (b) The pretreatment standards for
sulfide established by  this  part  will
not  apply  if  the  POTW  receiving
wastewater  from a facility subject to
this part certifies in writing with ex-
planation of relevant  factors  consid-
ered, in accordance with the provisions
of paragraph (c) of  this section, that
the discharge of sulfide from the facil-
ity does not interfere  with the oper-
ation of the POTW. In making this de-
termination, the POTW shall consider
all relevant factors including but not
limited to the following:
  (1) The presence and characteristics,
of other industrial wastewaters which
can increase or decrease sulfide con-
centrations, pH, or both.
  (2) The characteristics of the sewer/
interceptor  collection  system  which
either minimize or enhance opportuni-
ties for release of  hydrogen  sulfide
  (3) The characteristics of the receiv-
ing POTWs headworks,  preliminary
and primary treatment systems, and
sludge holding and dewatering  facili-
ties which either minimize or enhance
opportunities for release of hydrogen
sulfide gas.
  (4) The occurrence of any prior sul-
fide related interference as defined in
§ 425.02 of this
section, EPA shall publish a notice in
the   FEDERAL  REGISTER   identifying
those facilities to which  the sulfide
pretreatment  standards  of this  part
shall not apply.
  (5)  A POTW may certify that  the
sulfide pretreatment standards of this
pan should not apply to a new source
planning to dischiirge into the POTW.
This  certification must be submitted
prior to  the commencement of  dis-
charge, and must conform at a mini-
mum with criteria in paragraph (b) of
this  section  and  the general proce-
dures and intervals of time contained
in paragraphs (c) (1). (2),  (3), and (4)
of this section.
  (d) (1) If. after EPA and the POTW
have  determined in  accordance with
this section that rtie sulfide pretreat-
ment standards  of this Part are  not
applicable to specified   facilities,  a
POTW  then  determines  that there
have been changed circumstances  (in-
cluding but not limited to changes in
the factors specified in paragraph (b)
of this section) wliich justify applica-
tion of the sulfide pretreatment stand-
ards, the POTW shall revoke the certi-
fication  submitted under paragraph
 of this section.  The  POTW and
EPA shall then adhere to  the general
procedures and  time intervals  con-
tained in paragraph  (c) of  this section
in order to determine whether the sul-
fide pretreatment standards contained
in this Part are applicable.
  (2) If pursuant to paragraph (d)(l)
of this  section,  the sulfide pretreat-
ment standards of this Part are appli-
                                      56-36

-------
 Environmental Protection Agency
                             § 425.12
.cable to a  specified facility, the indi-
 rect discharger shall comply with the
 sulfide  pretreatment   standards  no
 later than 18 months from the date of
 publication of  the FEDERAL REGISTER
 notice identifying the facility.
  (e) At  any time after October  13.
 1983,  if  a  POTW determines that
 there  have  been  changed   circum-
 stances (including but  not limited  to
 changes  in the  factors specified  in
 paragraph (b) of this section), it may
 initiate proceedings contained in para-
 graph  of this section to determine
 that the sulfide pretreatment stand-
 ards of this Part shall not be applica-
 ble. The POTW and EPA shall follow
 the procedures  and time intervals con-
 tained in paragraph (c) of this section
 to make this determination. A final de-
 termination that the sulfide pretreat-
 ment  standards  are  not  applicable
 must be made prior to the discharge of
 sulfide not in accordance with  the
 standards set forth in this Part.
 (The information collection and  reporting
 requirements contained in paragraphs (b)
 and (c) were approved by the Office of Man-
 agement and Budget under control number
 2040-0032)
 [47 FR 52870,  Nov. 23. 1982; 48 FR 30117,
 June 30. 1983; 48  FR 31404. July 8. 1983; 48
 FR 32346, July 15. 1983; 48 FR 35649, Aug.
 5.1983; 53 FR 9181, Mar. 21.1988]

 1425.05 Compliance dates.
  The compliance date for new source
 performance  standards (NSPS)  and
 pretreatment   standards   for  new
 sources (PSES) is  the date the new
 source   commences discharge.  The
 compliance date for BPT effluent limi-
 tations and guidelines and pretreat-
 ment standards for existing sources to
 no later than  March 31.1989.
 153 FR 9182, Mar. 21. 1988]

 § 425.06 Monitoring requirements.
  Compliance with  monthly  average
 discharge limitations  is  required  re-
 gardless  of the  number  of  samples
 analyzed and  averaged.
  Subpart A—Hair Pulp, Chrome Tan,
    Retan-Wet Finish Subcategery

§ 425.10  Applicability; description of the
    hair pulp, chrome tan, retan-wet finish-
    ing subcategory.
  The provisions of this subpart are
applicable to  process  wastewater dis-
charges  resulting  from any tannery
which,  either exclusively  or in addi-
tion to other unhairing and tanning
operation,  processes  raw   or  cured
cattle or cattle-like hides into finished
leather by  chemically dissolving the
hide hair, chrome tanning, and retan-
wet finishing.

§425.11  Effluent limitations representing
    the degree of effluent reduction attain-
    able by  the application of the  best
    practicable control technology current-
    ly available (BPT).
  Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30
through  125.32,  any   existing  point
source subject to  this subpart must
achieve the following  effluent  limita-
tions representing the degree of efflu-
ent reduction  attainable by  the appli-
cation of the  best  practicable control
technology currently available (BPT):
PofcMnt or pofcilant property
BPT bnitatiora
Maximum for
any 1 day
Maximum tor
nmfilMy
average
                    kg/kkg  (or  pounds  per
                     1,000 pound* of raw ma-
                     terial
BO05 	
TSS 	
Oil & GreaM . .

pH 	 _ 	

93
13.4
3.0
0.24
C)

42
6.1
1.7
0.09
(')

  ' Wittim the range Of 6.0 to 9.0

[53 FR 9182, Mar. 21.19881

§425.12  Effluent limitations representing
   the degree of effluent reduction attain-
   able by the application of the best con-
   ventional pollutant control  technology
   (BCT).

  Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30
through 125.32, any existing  point
source subject to  this subpart  must
achieve the following effluent limita-
tions representing the degree of  efflu-
                                5B-37

-------
§ 425.13
                           40 CFR Ch. I (7-1-88 Edition)
ent reduction attainable by the appli-
cation of the best conventional pollut-
ant control technology (BCT): The ef-
fluent limitations are those for BOOS,
TSS, Oil  and Grease, and  pH con*
tained in §425.11.

§ 425.13  Effluent  limitations representing
    the degree of effluent reduction attain-
    able  by the  application  of the best
    available   technology   economically
    achievable (BAT).
  Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30
through  125.32,  any  existing  point
source subject to this subpart  must
achieve the  following effluent limita-
tions representing the degree of efflu-
ent reduction attainable by the appli-
cation of the best available technology
economically achievable (BAT): The
effluent  limitations  are  those for
Total Chromium contained in § 425.11.

0425.14 New source performance stand-
   ard* (NSPS).
  Any new source subject to this sub-
part must achieve the following new
source performance standards (NSPS):
 PoAittrit or poiulmi property
                           NSPS
Maxnwm
tor any t
  day
                            1b/1.000 to) Of
BOO...
TSS_.
CM
pH.
     6.0
     8.7
     2.5
    o.te
 2.7
 4.0
 1.1
0.08
  ' WHMn th* rang* 6.0 to 9.0.

[47 FB 52870. Nov. 23. 1982; 48 PR 30116.
June 30. 1983]

§ 425.15  Pretreatment standards for exist-
    ing sources (PSES).
  (a) Except  as provided  in § 425.04
and 40  CFR 403.7 and 403.13, any ex-
isting source  subject to this subpart
which introduces process  wastewater
pollutants into a publicly owned treat-
ment works must comply with 40 CFR
Part 403, and achieve the  following
pretreatment standards:
Pollutant or pollutant properly
PSES
Maximum
for any t
day
Maximum
for monthly
average
                                       Milligrams per liter (mg/f)
Sulfide 	
Total chromium .
pH 	

24
12
(' 1


8
(i)

  1 Wittwi the range 70 to 1 J.O.

  (b) Any existing source subject to
this subpart which processes less than
275   hides/day   shall   comply  with
§ 425.15(a). except that the total chro-
mium   limitations   contained    in
§ 425.15(a) do not apply.

[47  PR 52870. Nov. :J3.  1982; 48 PR 30116,
June 30. 1983. as  amended at S3 PR 9182.
Mar. 21.19881

9425.16  Pretreatmeitt  standards  for  new
    sources (PSNS).
  Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7
and 425.04.  any new  source subject to
this subpart that  introduces  process
wastewater  pollutants into a publicly
owned treatment works must comply
with 40 CFR Part 403, and achieve the
pretreatment standards contained in
§ 425.15.

  Subport B—Hair Save, direm* Tan,
    Retan-Wet Fini«.h Subcafogory

§425.20  Applicability;  description of the
    hair save, chrome tan, retan-wet finish
    subcategory.
  The provisions of  this  subpart  are
applicable to process wastewater  dis-
charges  resulting from any tannery
which processes raw or cured cattle or
cattle-like hides  into finished  leather
by  hair  save  unhairing, chrome tan-
ning, and retan-wet finishing.

§ 425.21  Effluent limitations representing
    the degree of effluent reduction attain-
    able  by  the  application of the  best
    practicable control technology current-
    ly available (BPT).
  Except as  provided  in 40 CFR 125.30
through   125.32. any existing  point
source subject to  this subpart must
achieve the following effluent limita-
tions representing the degree of efflu-
ent reduction attains.ble by the appli-
                                          5B-38

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Environmental Protection Agency
                             § 425.26
cation of the best practicable control
technology currently available (BPT):
Pofejdnt or poNutant property
8PT limitations
Maximum for
any 1 day
Maximum tor
monthly
average
                    Kg/kkg (or pound per 1.000
                       Ib) of raw material
BOO5 	
fSS 	
01 gnfi gnMse 	

pH 	

8.2
11 8
34
021
(')

3.7
5.4
1.5
0.08
(>)

  i WWW ttte rang* 6.0 to 9.0.

§425.22  Effluent limitations representing
    the degree of effluent reduction attain-
    able by the application of the best con-
    ventional pollutant control  technology
    (BCT).
  Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30
through  125.32.  any  existing  point
source subject to this subpart must
achieve the following effluent  limita-
tions representing the degree of efflu-
ent reduction attainable by  the  appli-
cation of the best conventional pollut-
ant control technology  Within the range 6.0 to 9.0

§ 425.25  Pretreatment standards for exist-
    ing sources (PSES).
  Except as provided in § 425.04 and 40
CPR  403.7  and  403.13, any existing
source subject to this subpart that in-
troduces  process wastewater  pollut-
ants into a publicly owned treatment
works must comply with 40 CFR Part
403, and achieve the following pre-
treatment standards:
PoUuteWt of pottuuuit property
PSES
Maximum
lor any 1
day
Maximum
for monthly
average
                     Magnum par Her (mg/l)
Suffide 	
Total Chromium
pH

24
12
(i)


8
(')

 < Within the range 7.0 to 10.0

§425.26  Pretreatment standards  for new
   sources (PSNS)
  Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7
and 425.04, any new source subject to
this  subpart that  introduces  process
wastewater pollutants into a publicly
owned treatment works must comply
with 40 CFR Part 403, and achieve the
Pretreatment  standards contained in
§ 425.25.
                              5B-39

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§ 425.30
                   40 CFR Ch. I (7-L88 Edition)
Subpart C—Hair Save or Pulp, Non-
     Chrome  Ton,  Retan-Wet  Finish
     Subcategory

§425.30  Applicability; description  of the
    hair  save  or pulp,  non-chrome  tan,
    retan-wet finish subcategory.
  The provisions of this subpart  are
applicable to process  wastewater  dis-
charges  resulting  from any tannery
which processes raw or cured cattle or
cattle-like hides into finished leather
by hair save or pulp unhairing. vegeta-
ble tanning or alum, syntans. oils and
other agents for tanning, and  retan-
wet finishing.

§425.31  Effluent limitations representing
   the degree of effluent reduction attain-
   able  by the  application of the best
   practicable control technology current'
   iy available (BPT).
  Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30
through  125.32.  any  existing point
source subject  to this subpart must
achieve  the following  effluent limita-
tions representing the  degree of efflu-
ent reduction attainable by the appli-
cation of the best practicable control
technology currently available (BPT):
 PoJMant or petulant property
                        BPT
                    Mttamumtor
                     •nylday
Mwomumfor
                          (or  pounds  p«r
                      1,000 pounds) ot iw nw-
BOOS 	 	 	
^^
Oi & GrM**
Total Chromium 	
8.7
9.7
i8
0.17
3.0
4.4
1.3
0.06
  ' WiMn dw rN«g» at 8.O to 9.0

[47 FR 52870, Nov. 23. 1982. as amended at
53 FR 9182. Mar. 21.1988]

§425.32 Effluent limitations representing
   the degree of effluent reduction attain-
   able by the application of the best con-
   ventional pollutant control technology
   (BCT).
  Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30
through  125.32,  any  existing point
source  subject to this subpart must
achieve the following effluent limita-
tions representing the degree of efflu-
           ent reduction attainable by the appli-
           cation of the best conventional pollut-
           ant control technology (BCT): The ef-
           fluent limitation:* are those for BODS.
           TSS, Oil  and  Grease, and  pH con-
           tained in § 425.31.

           § 425.33  Effluent limitations representing
              the degree of eMuent reduction attain-
              able  by the  application of the  best
              available   technology   economically
              achievable (BAT).
            Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30
           through  125.32.  any  existing point
           source  subject  to this subpart must
           achieve  the  following effluent limita-
           tions representing the degree of efflu-
           ent reduction attainable by the appli-
           cation of the best available technology
           economically achievable  (BAT): The
           effluent  limitations  are those   for
           Total Chromium contained in § 425.31.

           §42544  New soon* performance stand-
              ards (NSPS).
            Any new source subject to this sub-
           part must achieve the following new
           source performance standards (NSPS):
           PoRutint Of poiuMrti pfoptrty
                                                                   NSPS
                                                            Mmmimtar
                                                            Ko/kfc9 (or pound pm 1.000
                                                               to) of raw nMMrMI
BOO5 	 _ 	 	 	
TSS 	 __ 	 	
Off *nd grafts* 	 	 ..
ToMI etTomum
pH

5.9
8.5
2.4
0.15
(•)

2.7
3.9
1.1
0.06
C)

            ' WitNn Ote range 6.0 to 9.C.


          §425.35 Pretreatment standards for exist-
              ing sources (PSE8).
            (a) Except  as provided  in  §425.04
          and 40 CFR 403.7 ;md 403.13. any ex-
          isting  sources subject to this subpart
          that  introduces  process  wastewater
          pollutants into a publicly owned treat-
          ment works must comply with 40 CFR
          Part  403. and achieve  the following
          pretreatment standsirds:
                                             5B-40

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 Environmental Protection Agency
                              §425.44
PofcJtant or poOutant property
PSES limitations
Maximum
for any 1
day
Maximum
fof monthly
average
                      Milligrams per liter (mg/i)
                           24
                           12
  1 Not less than 7.0.

  (b) Any existing source subject  to
 this subpart which processes less than
 350  hides/day  shall  comply  with
 §425.35(a).  except  that  the  Total
 Chromium  limitations contained  in
 § 425.35(a) do not apply.
 [47 PR  52870, Nov. 23. 1982: 48 FR 36116.
 June 30. 1983. as amended at 53 FR 9182.
 Mar. 21.19881

 §425.36  Pretreatment standards for new
    sources (PSNS).
  Except as  provided in 40 CPR 403.7
 and 425.04, any new source subject  to
 this subpart that introduces process
 wastewater pollutants  into a publicly
 owned  treatment works must comply
 with 40 CPR Part 403, and achieve the
 pretreatment standards  contained  in
 § 425.35.

  Subpart D—R«tan-W«t Finish-Sid**
             Subcatogary

 1425.40  Applicability; description of the
    retaii-wet  finish-sides subcategory.
  The provisions  of this  subpart are
applicable to process wastewater dis-
charges resulting  from any  tannery
which  processes   previously tanned
hides and skins (grain side only) into
finished leather by  retan-wet finish-
ing.

§425.41  Effluent limitations representing
    the degree of effluent reduction attain-
    able by  the  application of the  best
    practicable control technology current-
    ly available (BPT).
  Except as provided in 40 CPR 125.30
through  125.32,  any  existing  point
source  subject to  this subpart must
achieve the  following effluent limita-
tions representing  the degree of efflu-
ent reduction attainable by the appli-
cation of the best practicable control
technology currently available (BPT):
PoUutant or poNutant properly
BPT limitations
Maximum for
any 1 day
Maximum for
montMy
average
                                                            Hg/kkg  {or pounds per
                                                              1.000 pounds) of raw ma-
                                                              terial
BOD5
TSS 	
Oil & Grease
Total Chromium
pH
* 	


128 58
3 7 i ! 7
0 23 0 08
Cl rn

  < Within the range of 60 to 9.0.

C47 FR 52870, Nov. 23, 1982. as amended at
53 FR 9182, Mar. 21, 1988]

§425.42  Effluent limitations representing
    the degree of effluent reduction attain-
    able by the application of the best con-
    ventional pollutant control technology
    (BCT).
  Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30
through  125.32,  any  existing point
source  subject  to this subpart must
achieve  the following effluent limita-
tions representing the degree of efflu-
ent reduction attainable by the appli-
cation of the best conventional pollut-
ant control technology (BCT): The ef-
fluent limitations are those for BODS,
TSS, Oil  and  Grease, and pH con-
tained in S 425.41.

§425.43   Effluent limitations representing
    the degree of effluent reduction attain-
    able  by the  application  of the  best
    available  technology   economically
    achievable (BAT).
  Except as provided in 40 CFR  125.30
through  125.32,  any  existing  point
source subject  to  this subpart must
achieve the following effluent limita-
tions representing the degree of efflu-
ent reduction attainable by the appli-
cation of the best available technology
economically achievable  (BAT): The
effluent  limitations  are  those  for
Total Chromium contained in § 425.41.

§ 425.44  New source performance stand-
    ards (NSPS).
  Any new source subject to this sub-
part must achieve the following new
source performance standards (NSPS):
                               5B-41

-------
§ 425.45
                      40 CFR Cli. I (7-1-88 Edition)
Pollutant or poflutant property
NSPS
Maximum
(or any i
day
Mnimxn
lor monlnly
average
                     Kg/kkg  (or  pounds  per
                       1.000 pounds) of  raw
                       material
8OD5
TSS
Oil & Grease
Total Chromium
pH

65
93
27
0 17
(')

29
43
1 2
006
(')

  1 WitNn the range ol 6.0 to 9.0.

[47  FR 52870. Nov. 23,  1982. as amended at
53 FR 9182. Mar. 21.1988]

§ 425.45 Pretreatment  standards for exist-
    ing sources (PSES).
  Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7
and 403.13, any existing source subject
to this subpart that introduces process
wastewater pollutants into a publicly
owned treatment works must comply
with 40 CFR Part 403, and achieve the
following pretreatment standards:
 PoButant or
                            PSES
                      tor any t
                            par Mar (mg/Q
Total
PH._
1*
(*)
12
(M
  > WWwi the rang* 8.0 to 10.0.

§425.46  Pretreatment standards for new
    sources (PSNS).
  Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7,
any new source subject to this subpart
that  introduces  process  wastewater
pollutants into a publicly owned treat-
ment works must comply with 40 CFR
Part  403.  and achieve  the pretreat-
ment standards contained in $ 425.45.

      Subpart E—No Boamhous*
             Subcategory

§425.50  Applicability; description  of the
    no beanthouse subcategory.
  The provisions  of this subpart are
applicable to process  wastewater dis-
charges  resulting  from  any  tannery
              which  processes  cattle hides, sheep-
              skins, or  splits (hair  previously  re-
              moved   and  pickled)  into  finished
              leather by chrome or non-chrome tan-
              ning, and retan-wet finishing.

              § 425.51   Effluent limitations representing
                 the degree of effluent reduction attain-
                 able  by the  application of the best
                 practicable control technology current-
                 ly available (BPT).
               Except as provided in 40 CPR 125.30
              through  125.32.  any  existing   point
              source  subject  to this subpart  must
              achieve  the following effluent limita-
              tions representing the degree of efflu-
              ent reduction attainable by the appli-
              cation of the best practicable control
              technology currently available (BPT):
PoMant or petulant property
BPT imitations
Maximum tar
any 1 day
Maximum lor
morthry
                                                            kg/kkg  (or pounds par
                                                              1.000 prjunds) of raw mm.
BCO5 	 	 »..
TSS 	 	 	
Oi ft Gran*™.. 	 — . 	
Total Chramum 	

8.0
11.6
3.4
0.21
3.8
S.3
1.5
0.08
  1 WHMn the rang* of a.O to 9.0.

[47 FR 52870. Nov. 23. l!»82. as amended at
53 FR 9182. Mar. 21.19881

§425.52  Effluent limitations representing
   the degree of effluent reduction attain-
   able  by the application of the best con-
   ventional pollutant control technology
   (BCT).
  Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30
through  125.32,  any  existing  point
source subject to this subpart must
achieve the following effluent limita-
tions representing the degree of efflu-
ent reduction attainable by  the appli-
cation of the best conventional control
technology  (BCT): Th« effluent  limi-
tations  are  those for BOD5, TSS, Oil
and   Grease,  and pH  contained  in
§ 425.51.
                                               5B-42

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 Environmental Protection Agency

 §425.53 Effluent  limitations  representing
    the degree of effluent reduction attain-
    able by  the application  of the  best
    available   technology   economically
    achierable (BAT).
  Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30
 through  125.32.  any  existing point
 source subject to this subpart must
 achieve the following effluent limita-
 tions representing the degree of efflu-
 ent reduction attainable by the appli-
 cation of the best available technology
 economically  achievable (BAT):  The
 effluent  limitations  are  those  for
 Total Chromium contained in $ 425.51
                                                 § 425.6!
9425.54  New source
    ards (NSPS).
performance  stand-
  Any new source subject to this sub-
part must achieve the following new
source performance standards (NSPS):
Pototart or potutart property
NSPS
Manmurntor
anyl (My
Maximum for
mortttfy
•wage
                      kg/Wig (or pound* per
                     T.OOO to) of raw i
90Q5 _ 	 _.
TSS 	 	
Ol & Grease. 	 	
Total Chfofftium
pH , , , , , , .
'
5.3
7.7
23.
0.14
(')
2.4
3.5
1.0
0.05
<')
  > WWtin the tenoe 6.0 to 9.0.


9 42&S5  Pretreatment standards for exist*
    ing sources (PSES).
  Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7
and 403.13. any existing source subject
to this subpart that introduces process
wastewater  pollutants into a publicly
owned treatment works must comply
with 40 CFR Part 403. and achieve the
following pretreatment standards:
PoNutam or pollutant property
PSES
Maximum
(or any 1
day
Maximum
lor monthly
average
                     Milligrams per liter (mg/l)

PoHutant of potiutant property
pH

PS
Maximum
for any 1
day
P I

ES
Maximum
for monmiy
average
/t }

  1 Within the range 6.0 to 10.0.

§425.56  Pretreatntent standards for new
    sources (PSNS).
  Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7,
any new source subject to this subpart
that  introduces  process  wastewater
pollutants into a publicly owned treat-
ment works must comply with 40 CFR
Part  403,  and achieve  the  pretreat-
ment standards contained in § 425.55.

     Subpart F—Through-fh«-Blue
             Subcategory

§425.60  Applicability; description  of  the
    through-ihe-blue subcategory.
  The provisions of this subpart are
applicable to process wastewater dis-
charges  resulting  from  any  tannery
which processes raw or cured cattle or
cattle-like hides through  the  blue
tanned state  by hair pulp unhairing
and chrome tanning; no  retan-wet fin-
ishing is performed.

9425.61   Effluent  limitations  representing
    the degree of effluent reduction attain-
    able  by the application  of  the best
    practicable control technology current-
    ly available (BPT).
  Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30
through  125.32,  any  existing  point
source subject to  this  subpart  must
achieve the following effluent limita-
tions representing the degree of efflu-
ent reduction attainable by the appli-
cation of the best practicable control
technology currently available (BPT):
P
-------
§ 425.62
         40 CFIR Ch. I (7-1-88 Edition)

PoOutant or potfuunt property
pH 	 	

BPTfcn
Maximum lor
any 1 day
(')

•tenons
Maximum for
1111 nillih i
nioriBwy
average
(')

  | Wrthm the range of 6.0 to 9.0.

[47 PR 52870. Nov. 23, 1982, as amended at
53 PR 9183. Mar. 21, 1988]

§425.62  Effluent limitations representing
   the degree of effluent reduction attain-
   able by the application of the best con-
   ventional pollutant control technology
   (BCT).
  Except as provided in 40 CPR 125.30
through  125.32,  any  existing point
source subject to this subpart must
achieve the following effluent limita-
tions representing the degree of efflu-
ent reduction attainable by  the appli-
cation of the best conventional pollut-
ant control technology (BCT): The ef-
fluent limitations are those for BODS,
TSS, Oil and Grease, and  pH  con-
tained in S 425.61.

§425.63  Effluent limitations representing
   the degree of effluent reduction attain-
   able by  the  application of  the  best
   available   technology   economically
   achievable (BAT).
  Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30
through  125.32,  any  existing point
source subject to this subpart must
achieve the following effluent limita-
tions representing the degree of efflu-
ent reduction attainable by  the appli-
cation of the best available technology
economically  achievable (BAT):  The
effluent  limitations  are  those  for
Total Chromium contained in $ 425.61.

§425.64  New source  performance stand-
   ards (NSPS).
  Any new source subject to this sub-
part must achieve the following new
source performance standards (NSPS):
PoButant or pollutant property
BPTSmrtatioos
Maximum for
any 1 day
Maximum for
monthly
average
                                                            kg/kkg (or  pounds  p«r
                                                             1.000 pounds) of raw ma-
                                                             terial
BOO5 	
TSS 	
(X A Greas*
Total Chromium
pH 	

32
4 7
| 4
008
(')

1 5
2 1
0 St
0 03
(>1

  > Within th* range of 6.3 to 9.0.

[47 FR 52870. Nov. 23. 1982. as amended at
53 FR 9183. Mar. 21. 19881

§ 425.65  Pretreatment standards for exist-
    ing sources (PSES).
  Except as provided in § 425.04 and 40
CFR 403.7 and 403.13,  any existing
source subject to this subpart that in-
troduces process  wastewater  pollut-
ants into a publicly  owned  treatment
works must comply with 40 CFR Part
403. and achieve  the following pre-
treatment standsirds:
             IprtJpnrty
                           PSES
                    Maximum tor
                     any t day
                             Maximum for
                     MiKp/ami par Her (mg/l)
Soffid*—
Total
PH_
24
12
 8
CM
  > WUMi the rang* 7.0 to 10.0.


§425.66  Pretreatment standards for  new
    sources (PSNS).
  Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7
and 425.04, any new source subject to
this subpart  thai: introduces process
wastewater pollutants  into a publicly
owned treatment must comply with 40
CFR Part 403. and must achieve the
Pretreatment standards  contained in
§ 425.65.
                                           5B-44

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Environmental Protection Agency

  Subport G—Shearling Subcategory

§425.70  Applicability;  description  of  the
    shearling subcategory.
  The  provisions  of  this  subpart are
applicable to process wastewater dis-
charges  resulting  from  any  tannery
which processes raw or cured sheep or
sheep-like skins with the wool or hair
retained  into  finished  leather  by
chrome tanning, and retan-wet finish-
ing.

§425.71  Effluent limitations representing
    the degree of effluent reduction attain-
    able by  the  application  of  the best
    practicable control technology current-
    ly available (BPT).
  Except as provided in 40 CFR  125.30
through  125.32,  any  existing  point
source subject to  this subpart  must
achieve the following effluent limita-
tions representing the degree of efflu-
ent reduction attainable by the appli-
cation  of the best practicable control
technology currently available (BPT):
TSS. Oil  and  Grease,
tained in § 425.71.
     § 425.75

and  pH con-
§425.73  Effluent  limitations  representing
    the degree of effluent reduction attain-
    able  by the application  of  the  best
    available   technology   economically
    achievable (BAT).
  Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30
through  125.32,  any  existing point
source subject to this subpart must
achieve  the following effluent limita-
tions representing the degree of efflu-
ent reduction attainable by the appli-
cation of the best available technology
economically  achievable (BAT):  The
effluent  limitations  are  those  for
Total Chromium contained in § 425.71.

§ 425.74  New source performance stand-
    ards (NSPS).
  Any new source subject to this sub-
part must achieve the following new
source performance standards (NSPS):
PoMant or poHulant proparty
NSPS
Maximum for
any 1 day
Maximum tor
••MMafft^*
msMivmj
CWBQG
                    kg/kkg  (or  pound* par
                     1.000 pound*) at raw ma-
                     larial
Poautant or poUutant property
NSPS
Maximum lot
any iday
Maximum tor
j • LJ LJ ia
-------
§ 425.76
         40 CFR Ch. I (7-1-88 Edition)
Pollutant or pollutant property
PSES
Maximum
for any 1
day
Maximum
lor monthly
average
                     Milligrams per Her (mg/l)
Total chromwm.
pH	
                           19
  ' Within the range 6.0 to 100.

1425.76  Pretreatment  standards for  new
    sources (PSNS).
  Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7.
any new source subject to this subpart
that  introduces  process wastewater
pollutants into a publicly owned treat-
ment works must comply with 40 CFR
Fart  403, and must  achieve the pre-
treatment  standards   contained  in
§ 425.75.

   Subpart H—Pigskin Svbcategery

§425.80  Applicability,  description of the
    pipkin subcategory.
  The provisions of  this  subpart are
applicable to  process wastewater dis-
charges  resulting  from  any  tannery
which processes raw  or cured pigskins
into  finished  leather  by chemically
dissolving or pulping the hair and tan-
ning with chrome, then retan-wet fin-
ishing.

§425.81  Effluent  limitations representing
    the degree of effluent reduction attain-
    able by  the application of the  best
    practicable  control  technology current-
    ly available (BPT).
  Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30
through  125.32.  any  existing  point
source subject to this subpart must
achieve the following effluent limita-
tions representing the degree of efflu-
ent reduction attainable by  the appli-
cation of the best practicable control
technology currently available (BPT):
Pollutant or pollutant property
8PT Imrtaboos
Maximum lor
any 1 day
Maximum lor
monthly
average
                      kg/kkg (or pounds per
                     i.OOO ID) of raw material
BOOS 	
TSS 	
OH and grease...
Total Chromium 	
pH 	

7.0
10 1
30
0 IS
I1)

3.2
46
1 3
0.07
(')

  > Within the range 6.0 to 9.0.

[47  PR 52870. Nov. 23. 1982; 48 PR 30117.
June 30.1983}

§425.82 Effluent  limitations representing
    the degree of effluent reduction attain-
    able by the application of the best con-
    ventional pollutant control technology
    (BCD.
  Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30
through  125.32,  any  existing point
source  subject to this subpart must
achieve the following effluent limita-
tions representing the degree of efflu-
ent reduction attainable by the appli-
cation of the best conventional pollut-
ant control technology (BCT): The ef-
fluent limitations are those for BODS,
TSS. Oil and Gresise and pH contained
in § 425.81.

§425.83 Effluent  limitations representing
    the degree of effluent reduction attain-
    able by  the  a|»plication of  the  best
    available   technology   economically
    achievable (BAT).
  Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30
through  125.32.  any  existing point
source  subject to this subpart must
achieve the following effluent limita-
tions representing the degree of efflu-
ent reduction attainable by the appli-
cation of the best available technology
economically  achievable  (BAT): The
effluent  limitations  are  those  for
Total Chromium contained in § 425.81.

§425.84 New sourcs performance stand-
    ards (NSPS).
  Any new source  subject to this sub-
part  must achieve  the following new
source performance standards (NSPS):
                                             5B-46

-------
Environmental Protection Agency
                                      §425.92
Pollutant or pollutant property
NSPS
Maximum (or
any 1 day
Maximum for
monthly
average
                      kg/kkg (or pounds per
                      1.000 R>> ol raw material
arms 	
JSS , ... ,„„ 	


fULJ 	 ...... 	

5.8
8.3
2.4
0.15
(')

2.6
3.8
1.1
O.OS
(')

 > Within me range 6.0 to 9.0.

3 425.85  Pretreatment standards for exist-
   ing sources (PSES).
  Except as provided in 5 425.04 and 40
CPR  403.7 and  403.13.  any existing
source subject to this subpart that in-
troduces  process  wastewater  pollut-
ants into a publicly owned treatment
works* must comply with 40 CPR Part
403,  and achieve  the following  pre-
treatment standards:
 Pohrtant or pottutant property
                           PSES
                      (or any 1
                        day
average
                      Milligrams per liter (mg/l)
Suffid*
Total crtromium
pH 	 	

24
12
{')


a
(')

 1 Within the range 7.0 to 10.0.


§425.86  Pretreatment  standards for new
   sources (PSNS).
 Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7
and 425.04. any new  source subject to
this  subpart  that introduces process
wastewater pollutants  into  a publicly
owned treatment works  must comply
with 40 CFR Part 403, and achieve the
Pretreatment standards  contained  in
§ 425.85.

 Subpart I—Retan-Wet Finish-Splits
             Subcategory

§425.90  Applicability;  description  of the
   retan-wet finish-splits subcategory.
 The provisions of  this subpart are
applicable to process wastewater dis-
charges  resulting  from  any tannery
         which processes  previously  unhaired
         and tanned splits into finished leather
         by retan-wet finishing.

         §425.91  Effluent  limitations representing
            the degree of effluent reduction attain-
            able by  the application of the best
            practicable control technology current-
            ly available (BPT).
           Except as provided in 40 CFR  125.30
         through  125.32,  any  existing   point
         source subject to this  subpart  must
         achieve the following effluent limita-
         tions  representing the degree of efflu-
         ent reduction attainable by the appli-
         cation of  the best practicable control
         technology currently available (BPT):
PoUutant or pollutant property
BPT limitation*
Maximum for
any 1 day
Maximum tor
monthly
average
                                                            kg/kkg (or  pounds  par
                                                              1.000 pounds) at raw ma-
                                                              terial
8OO5
TSS 	
Oil 4 Grease
Total Chromwrn
pH . 	 	

5.8
8.3
2.4
0.15
(')

2.6
3.8
1.1
O.OS
('}

           > WrtNn the range rt 6.0 to 8.0.

         [47 PR 52870. Nov. 23.  1982. as amended at
         53 PR 9183. Mar. 21. 1988]

         §425.92  Effluent limitations  representing
            the degree of effluent reduction attain-
            able by the application of the best con-
            ventional pollutant control technology
            (BCT).
           Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30
         through  125.32.  any  existing point
         source  subject to this subpart must
         achieve the following effluent limita-
         tions representing the  degree of efflu-
         ent reduction attainable by the appli-
         cation of the best conventional pollut-
         ant control technology (BCT): The ef-
         fluent limitations are those for BODS.
         TSS, Oil and Grease, and  pH  con-
         tained in § 425.91.
                               5B-47

-------
§ 425.93

§ 425.93  Effluent limitations representing
    the degree of effluent reduction attain-
    able by  the application of  the  best
    available   technology   economically
    achievable (BAT).
  Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30
through  125.32.  any  existing  point
source subject to this subpart must
achieve the following effluent limita-
tions representing the degree of efflu-
ent reduction attainable by the appli-
cation of the best available technology
economically  achievable  (BAT):  The
effluent  limitations  are  those  for
Total Chromium contained in § 425.91.

9425.94  New source  performance  stand-
    ards (NSPS).
  Any new source subject to this sub-
part must achieve the following new
source performance standards (NSPS):
                                                40 CFR Ch. I (7-1-88 Edition)
                     anyt dtp
                     kg/tog (or pounds par
                     i.OOO to) at a
BOO5.
TSS-
Oi*Gn
PH.
                         3.5
                         5.1
                         1.S
                         o.o>
                        (M
                                  24
 > WMNn aw rang* 6.0 to 9.0.

§ 425.9S  Pretreatment standards for exit**
    ing sources (PSES).
  (a)  Except as provided  in 40 CFR
403.7 and 403.13. any existing source
subject to this subpart that introduce*
process  wastewater  pollutants into a
publicly owned treatment  works must
comply  with 40 CFR  Part 403. and
must achieve  the following pretreat-
ment standards:

Po*rtam or poHuunt property
pH 	

PS
Maximum
tor any l
 10.0.

                                         (b) Any existing source subject to
                                        this subpart which processes less than
                                        3,600  splits/day shall comply  with
                                        § 425.95
Total Cnromurn..
                     Milligrams pw Mar
                          19
                                             5B-48

-------
                                  MODULE # 5C
                Best Professional Judgment-Based Permit Limits
OVERALL OBJECTIVES:

   *  Provide overview of when to use BPJ limits

   *  Identify the circumstances for the application of BPJ

      •  Industrial discharges
      •  Combined sewer overflows
      •  Storm water

   «•  Discuss necessary considerations when using BPJ to develop permit limits

   «•  List tools and resources available for developing limits using BPJ

   *  Provide overview of economic considerations when developing effluent limits using BPJ
LOGISTICS:

Presentation Format:  Lecture, practical exercise
Approximate Presentation Time: 45 minutes
Review Questions/Exercise: 30 minutes
Applicable Statutory and Regulatory Citations:

       CWA Section 402(a)(l)   NPDES Authority
      40 CFR §122.44(a)
      40 CFR §122.45(b)(2)
      40CFR§125.3(a)(2)
Technology-based effluent limitations and standards
Production-based limitations
Technology-based treatment requirements in permits (for non-
POTWs)

-------

-------
Module 5C
Best Professional Judgment-Based Permit Limits
                  Best Professional
              Judgment-based Permit
                        Limits
                                          v>EPA
                 Learning Objectives
              Provide overview of 8PJ derived
              limits
              Describe examples of BPJ
              application
              Discuss BPJ technical and
              economic considerations
              Present BPJ tools and resources
                                            'EPA
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                          5C-1

-------
Module 5C
Best Professional Judgment-Based Permit Limits
           BPJ Is the Permit Writer's Opinion
           •  Technology-based NPDES permit
              conditions, developed using all reasonable
              available and relevant data

           •  Why?  Technology-based effluent limits
                     must be established for all
                     pollutants regulated in a permit

           «•  When? On a case-by-case basis in the
                     absence of effluent guidelines and
                     standards for a facility or pollutant
          Hypothetical Situation for Use of BPJ
Pollutants to be
Regulated in Permit
Copper
Zinc
Benzene
Aluminum
Considered/Regulated
by Effluent Guidelines
and Standards?
Yes
Yes
No
No
BPJ Effluent Limit
Needed?
No
No
Yes
Yes
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                              5C-2


-------
Module 5C
Best Professional Judgment-Based Permit Limits
                  BPJ Application Examples
          • Combined sewer overflows
          • Hazardous waste treaters
          • Equipment manufacturers
          • Waste oil reclaimers
          • Industrial laundries
          • Paint and ink facilities
              • Pharmaceuticals
              • Barrel reclaimers
              • Transportation facilities
              • Mining operations
              • Water treatment plants
              • Petroleum industry
                       BPJ Considerations
                  For BPT requirements:
                  -  Total cost of technology in relation to the
                     effluent reduction benefits to be achieved
                     from such application
                  -  Age of equipment and facilities involved
                  -  Process(es) employed
                  -  Engineering aspects of the application of
                     various types of control techniques
                  -  Process changes
                  -  Non-water quality environmental impact
                     including energy requirements
                                                       &EFA
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                  5C-3

-------
Module 5C
Best Professional Judgment-Based Permit Limits
                     BPJ Considerations
               For BCT requirements:
                - Reasonableness of the relationship between
                  costs of attaining reduction in effluent and
                  the derived effluent reduction benefits
                - Comparison of the cost and level of
                  reduction of such pollutants from publicly
                  owned treatment works to the cost and level
                  of reduction from a class or category of
                  industrial sources
                     BPJ Considerations
            • BCT requirements (continued):
                - Age of equipment and facilities
                  involved
                - Process(es) employed
                - Engineering aspects of the application
                  of various types of control techniques
                - Non-water quality environmental
                  impact including energy requirements
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                5C-4


-------
Module 5C
Best Professional Judgment-Based Permit Limits
                      BPJ Considerations
                 For BAT requirements:
                  -  Age of equipment and facilities involved
                  -  Process(es) employed
                  -  Engineering aspects of the application of
                     various types of control techniques
                  -  Process changes
                  -  Cost of achieving effluent reduction
                  -  Non-water quality environmental impact
                     including energy requirements
                                                        EPA
                      Cost Considerations
Proposed
Treatment
Option -»
Influent
Concentration
Effluent
Concentration
Lbs
Removed
Treatment
Cost ($)
BPT
<$/lb)
BAT
(Economically
Achievable?)

A

10
5

150
600
4
Yes


B

10
3

75
750
10
No


C

10
g

100
200
2
Yes

NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                 5C-5

-------
Module 5C
Best Professional Judgment-Based Permit Limits
                   BPJ Defensibility
              Defensibility depends on
              reasonableness

              Reasonableness demonstrated by
              documentation

              Documentation should include:
              - What is being imposed?
              - Why is it being imposed?
              - How it was developed?
               BPJ Tools and Resources
            • Abstracts of Industrial NPDES
              permits

            • Treatability Manual and Database

            • Technical Support Document for
              Water Quality-Based Toxics
              Control

            • Economic achievability protocol
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                           5C-6

-------
Module 5C              Best Professional Judgment-Based Permit Limits
             BPJ Tools and Resources (Continued)
            •  Effluent guideline data/information
               -  Development documents
               -  Proposed regulations
               -  Industry summary reports

            •  Other sources information
               -  Model permits
               -  General permits information exchange database
               -  Discharge monitoring reports
               -  Compliance inspection reports
               -  Industry teams/national experts
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course

                                 5C-7

-------
                                                        5C-8
L

-------
 ^*OST%
(-' £h fr
 ^Wj? I
UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
        OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

       RISK REDUCTION ENGINEERING LABORATORY
                CINCINNATI. OHIO 45268

                 March  17,  1995
 Dear Colleague:

       As  requested,  enclosed is a copy of Version 5.0 of the "RREL
 Treatability Data Base."  The purpose of the data base is to
 provide  a  review of the removal/destruction of chemicals in
 various  types of media, including water, soil, debris, sludge and
 sediment.   The program contains physical/chemical properties for
 each compound, as well as treatability data.  The treatability
 data summarizes  the types of treatment used to treat the specific
 compound;  the type of waste/wastewater treated; the size of the
 study/plant;  and the treatment levels achieved.

       The requirements to operate the program are as follows:  IBM
 personal computer,  or compatible; 8 megabyte hard disk storage;
 640K RAM memory; DOS Version 2.0 or higher; and a 12-pitch
 printer.

       To  load the program, insert the diskette into the 3-1/2"
 disk drive and type A:install or B:install, whichever disk drive
 is assigned for  3-1/2" disks.  The installation program will
 create a subdirectory on your hard drive entitled "TDB5".  You
 will have  the opportunity to customize the installation if you so
 choose.  If you  have any questions regarding installation of this
 software,  please review the file entitled, "read.me" prior to
 installation.  To start the data base program, enter the
 subdirectory and type "MAIN."

       Some  users  have reported that they have gotten an error
 message  "Not Enough Memory" after typing in "MAIN" to start the
 data base.   If you get a "Not Enough Memory" error message,
 please type in this command:  "SET CLIPPER=F55; \\E:2000" before
 you  type in the  command "MAIN" to start the data base program.
 The  "SIT CLIPPER" (as seen above) command sets up the runtime
 variable to open enough file handles and buffers.  It also takes
 advantage  of expanded memory (if the PC has any memory above the
 640KB).  This command "SET CLIPPER=F55; \\E:2000" can be added to
 the  autoexec.bat file or you can put both commands ("MAIN", "SET
 CLIPPER=F55;  \\E:2000")  into a batch file.
                                5C-9
                                                           Printed on Recycled Paper

-------
     Beyond these suggestions, we may not be able to solve all
the operational problems with the multitude of hardware and
software configurations in existence.  Please contact your local
computer support group for additional help in problem solving
your exact set up.

     If you have any technical questions and/or comments about
this data base, please call Glenn Shaul at (513) 569-7408;
FAX: (513) 569-7787.  For any computer questions, please call
Jerry Waterman at (513) 569-7834; FAX: (513) 569-7787.

     I hope this improved version will assist you and I would be
interested in your comments after you have had an opportunity to
use the data base for a while.
                               incerely yours,
                              Glenn M. Shaul
                              Chief
                              Chemical Engineering Section
                              Toxics Control Branch
                              Water and Hazardous Waste Treatment
                                Research  Division
Enclosure
                                5C-10

-------
                             RREL TREATABILITY DATABASE

       The Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) has developed and is continuing to expand
a database  on the removal/destruction of chemicals in various types of media,  including water,
wastewater, soil, debris, sludge, and sediment. This activity is being conducted under the direction of
Mr.  Glenn M. Shaul.

       The following editing rules are being used to evaluate the data prior to entry into the database:

       o       Only primary references will be used.

       o       Bench-top  and pilot-plant data from aqueous biological treatment processes must be
               acclimated systems.

       o       Only matched pairs of influent and effluent data will be  used.

       o       Data will be from continous flow processes in equilibrium unless noted by a "(B)" in the
               "Technology" column  for the "Aqueous" data file or by a "(B)"  in the "Scale" column
               for the "Solids" data file.

       The compound name used in the database will be labeled as a "Primary Name" in the "Compound
Name List".  Other chemical names are synonyms for the "Primary Name". Even if treatability data are
not available, only information related  to chemical and physical properties, environmental  data  and
possibly adsorption data will be given.

       If you have any questions/comments concerning this database, please contact:

                      Mr. Glenn M.  Shaul
                      Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory
                      Environmental Protection  Agency
                      26 W. Martin Luther King Drive
                      Cincinnati, Ohio 45268

                      (513) 569-7408
                      (513) 569-7787 (Fax No.)

Disclaimer: The data collected herein  are a tabulation from many sources and are presented for review
by the user for informational purposes  only.  The  data presented herein does not represent a total listing
of the technologies capable of treating the target chemical compound and should not be viewed as solely
reliable for treatability system design and should be thoroughly reviewed to support regulatory guidelines.
Therefore, the conclusions and  opinions drawn are solely those  of the  user and are not necesarily the
views of the agency.  Mention of trade names or  commercial products does not constitute endorsement
or recommendation for use.

       The RREL Treatability Database is also available through the Alternative Technology Treatment
Information Center (ATTIC).   ATTIC is a comprehensive information network providing up-to-date
information on innovative treatment technologies.  ATTIC provides the information needed to make
effective decisions on hazardous waste clean-up alternatives.   It can be accessed with a PC and modem
24 hours a day,  and there are no user  fees.  For further information on ATTIC please call the ATTIC
System Hotline at (301) 670-6294.


                                             5C-11

-------
 RREL  TreatabiIi ty Database
                    Ver Mo. 5,3
                         04/21/95
                                    MERCURY
CAS NO.:    7439-97-6

COMPOUND TYPE:    IMORGAN 1C,ELEMENT

FORMULA:    HG
CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
                                                               REFERENCE
    MOLECULAR WEIGHT: 200.59
    MELTING POINT : -38.87
    BOILING POINT : 356.58
    VAPOR PRESSURE a T(C), TORR: 1.2 E-3 a 20
    SOLUBILITY IN WATER a T(C), MG/L: 0.056 a 25
    LOG OCTANOL/WATER PARTITION COEFFICIENT:
    HENRY'S LAW CONSTANT, ATM x H3 MOLE-1:  1.14 E-2 (C)
                                      333A
                                      333A
                                      333A
                                      462A
                                      2028A
                                      NA
                                      1018A
ENVIRONMENTAL DATA
                                                               REFERENCE
    CHRONIC NONCARCINOGENIC SYSTEMIC TOXIC ITY
    RISK ESTIMATES FOR CARCINOGENS
    DRINKING WATER HEALTH ADVISORIES/STANDARDS
    WATER QUALITY CRITERIA
    AQUATIC TOXICITY DATABASE
                                      NA
                                      NA
                                      349B
                                      3458
                                      SB
FREUNDLICH ISOTHERM DATA


ADSORBENT

FILTRASORB 400
MATRIX     K

  C (HG2+JO
 VN

0.46
 Ce
UNITS
 X/M
UNITS
                    »EF.

                   72E
                                                      mg/L
                                    mg/gm
                                          5C-12

-------
RREL Treatabtlity Database (Aqueous)
Ver. Mo.  5.0
04/21/95
                                  MERCURY
INFLUENT CONCENTRATION - 0-100 ug/L
EFFLUENT
TECHNOLOGY MATRIX SIC SCALE CONCENTRATION PERCENT
CODE ( ug/L ) REMOVAL
AL
AL
AL
AL
AL
AL
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
D
0
0
D
D
0
D
D
D
0
D
0
D
D
D
D
D
0
0
D
D
D
D
0
0
D
D
D
D
D
0
0
D
0
D
D
D
0
D
0
D
D
D
D
0
0
0
0
D
D
D
D
D
D
0
0
D
D
0
D
D
0
D
D
D
D
F11
F18
F1
F2
F3
F4
F12
m
F19
F51
F37
F18
F28
F
F25
F57
F6
F17
F20
F1
FA
F38
F59
F2a
F2b
F1
Fib
F7
F6
F4
F
F1a
F2
F1
F2
F3
F30
F12
F10
F26
F19
F29
F27
F31
F22
F21
F13
F15
F16
F7
F34
F37
F23
F14
F3S
F32
F9
FS
F33
F6
F5
F10
F12
F13
FU
F15
0.01 <5>
0.01 (5)
0.05 (1)
<0.03 £1)
<0.02 (1)
0.10 (1)
<0.2 (6)
<0.22 (6)
<0.23 (6)
<1.0 (6)
<0.23 <6>
0.23 (6>
<0.3 <6)
<0.3 (19)
<0.22 (6)
<1.2 (6)
0.23 (6)
<0.2 (6)
<0.2 (6)
0.40 (7)
0.45 (6)
<0.2 (6)
<0.13 (6)
<0.24 <14>
<0.23 (24)
<1 (30>
<0.21 (19)
<1 (2)
<1 <2)
5 (3)
0.16
<0.20 (20)
<1 (4)
0.02 (6)
0.03 (10)
0.04 (11)
0.02 (11)
0.02 (10)
0.01 (13)
0.02 (5)
0.02 (5)
0.02 (11)
0.04 (5)
0.05 (10)
0.02 (10)
0.01 (5)
0.01 (10)
0.08 (10)
0.03 (6)
0.03 (10)
0.03 (6)
0.03 (5)
0.03 (10)
0.05 (12)
0.01 (5)
0.02 (5)
0.01 (5)
0.01 (5)
0.02 (11)
0.10 (9)
O.S (14)
<0.03 (1)
0.05 (1)
0.03 (1)
<0.03 O
0.05 (1)
89
92.3
38
>83
>75
33
>62
>64
>62
>41
>58
56
>52
>35
>63
>76
92.8
>43
>74
0
62
>78
>68
>66
>54
>67
>48
>0
>0
0
69
>33
>50
80
81
86
95.6
93.1
96.7
60
90.0
92.0
81
89
86
96.7
90.9
70
89
90.6
81
91.9
88
88
93.8
93.5
98.8
95. 8
91.7
86
17
>91.7
81
77
>70
82
REFERENCE
868 -S-
866 -S-
255B -S-
2558 -S-
255B -S-
255B -S-
1B -S-
1B -S-
1B -S-
18 -S-
1B -S-
18 -S-
18 -S-
201B -S-
18 -S-
1B -S-
18 -S-
18 -S-
1B -S-
1B -S-
18 -S-
18 -S-
18 -S-
678 ---
67B ---
35E -S-
678 ---
35E -S-
35E -S-
35E -S-
59E ---
67B ---
35E -S-
86B -S-
868 -S-
86B -S-
86B -S-
868 -S-
868 -S-
668 -S-
86B -S-
868 -S-
86B -S-
868 -S-
86B -S-
868 -S-
868 -S-
868 -S-
868 -S-
868 -S-
868 -S-
868 -S-
86B -S-
868 -S-
868 -S-
868 -S-
868 -S-
868 -S-
86B -S-
86B -S-
140B -S-
255B -S-
255B -S-
2558 -S-
2558 -S-
2558 -S-
                                     5C-13

-------
RREl Treatability Database (Aqueous)
                                   Ver.  NO.  5.0
                                                                     04/21/95
                                   MERCURY
  TECHNOLOGY
INFLUENT CONCENTRATION -  0-100 ug/L

                          EFFLUENT
   MATRIX  SIC   SCALE  CONCENTRATION    PERCl'NT
           CODE            (  ug/L )      REMOVAL
                                                                    REFERENCE
AL
Al
AL
AL
AL
AL
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
D
D
0
D
D
D
0
0
0
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
0
0
D
0
D
0
D
0
0
0
D
D
D
D
0
0
0
0
0
0
D
D
D
D
0
0
0
D
D
D
0
0
0
0
D
D
0
0
0
D
0
D
0
D
D'
0
0
D
F11
F18
F1
F2
F3
F4
F12
fzr
F19
F51
F37
FIB
F28
F
F25
F57
F6
Ft7
F20
F1
F4
F38
F59
F2a
F2b
F1
F1b
F7
F6
F4
F
F1a
F2
F1
F2
F3
F30
F12
F10
F26
F19
F29
F27
F31
F22
F21
F13
F15
F16
F7
F34
F37
F23
F14
F35
F32
F9
F5
F33
F6
f5
MO
F12
F13
F14
F15
0.01 (5)
0.01 (5)
0.05 (1)
<0.03 (1)
<0.02 (1)
0.10 (1)
<0.2 (6)
<0.22 <6)
<0.23 (6)
<1.0 (6}
<0.23 (6)
0.23 (6)
<0.3 (6)
<0.3 (19)
<0.22 (6)
<1.2 (6)
0.23 (6)
<0.2 (6)
<0.2 (6)
0.40 (7)
0.4S (6)
<0.2 (6)
<0.13 (6)
<0.24 (14)
<0.23 (24)
<1 <30)
<0.21 <19)
<1 (2)
<1 (2)
5 (3)
0.16
<0.20 (20)
<1 (4)
0.02 <6)
0.03 <10)
0.04 <11)
0.02 (11)
0.02 (10)
0.01 <13>
0.02 (5)
0.02 (5)
0.02 (11)
0.04 (S)
0.05 (10)
0.02 (10)
0.01 (5)
0.01 (10)
0.08 (10)
0.03 (6)
0.03 (10)
0.03 (6)
0.03 <5)
0.03 (10)
0.05 (12)
0.01 (5)
0.02 (5)
0.01 (5)
0.01 <5>
0.02 (11)
0.10 <9>
0.5 (14)
<0.03 (1)
0.05 (1)
0.03 (1)
<0.03 (1)
0.05 <1>
89
92.3
38
>83
>75
33
>62
>64
>62
>41
>58
56
>52
>35
>63
>76
92.8
>43
>74
0
62
>78
>68
>66
>54
>67
>48
>0
>0
0
69
>33
>50
80
81
86
95.6
93.1
96.7
60
90.0
92.0
81
89
86
96.7
90.9
70
89
90.6
81
91.9
88
88
93.8
93.5
98.8
95.8
91.7
86
17
>91.7
81
77
>70
82
868 -S-
866 -S-
2558 -S-
255B -S-
2558 -S-
2558 -S-
18 -S-
18 -S-
18 -S-
18 -S-
18 -S-
18 -S-
18 -S-
2018 -S-
18 -S-
18 -S-
18 -S-
18 -S-
1i -S-
10 -S-
18 -S-
18 -S-
18 -S-
678 •--
678 •--
35E -S-
678 ---
35E -S-
35E -S-
35E -S-
59E •-•
678 ---
35E -S-
868 -S-
368 -S-
868 -S-
868 -S-
868 -S-
868 -S-
868 S-
868 -S-
868 -S-
868 -S-
868 -S-
868 -S-
868 -S-
868 -S-
868 -5-
868 -S-
868 -S-
868 -S-
868 -S-
868 -S-
86B -S-
868 -S-
868 -S-
868 -S-
868 -S-
868 -S-
868 -S-
140B -S-
2558 -S-
2558 -S-
2558 -S-
2558 -S-
2558 -S-
                                        5C-14

-------
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS*FU
AS*FH
CAC
ChPt
ChPt
ChPt
Fil
PACT
RBC
RO
Sed
Sed
Sed
Sed
Sed
Sed
Sed
Sed
Sed
Sed
Sed
Sed
Sed
Sed
Sed
Sed
Sed
Sed
Sed
IF I
TF I
TF I
TF I
TF (
TF I
TF I
TF 1
TF 1
TF (
AL
AL+FH
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AnFF
CAC
CAC (B)
ChOx(Cl)
ChPt
Fil
GAC
GAC
GAC
PACT
RA (B) + Fil
SS+GAC
Sed
Sed+AS 1
ChPt 1"
ChPtwPAC+Fil (
WOx+Fil (B) f
WOx+Fil (8) fl
WOx*Fil (B) (
DAF (B) i
GAC 5
D F16
D F17
D F18
D F19
D F20
D F3a
D F3b
D F
D P3
D P
D F
D F
D P
D F17
D P
B F2
D F1
D F3
B F7
D F6
D F4
B F8
B F20
D F25
B F36
B F24
D F28
B F1
B F2
B F3
) F6
J F6
) F7
3 F8
) F27
) F37
) F29
) F10
) F21
> F17
) F39
) F40
) F3
> F4
28 F11
28 F29
28 F1
28 F2
28 F25
28 F21
28 F13
10 B
28 F
49 82
28 F26
33 P
28 F16
28 F14
28 F15
29 P1
29 P2
28 F20
28 F27
31 F8
28 F28
IL F
!CRA P4
CRA B14
tCRA B1
CRA 815
>F B4
F F8
0.11 0>
0.05 (1)
<0.05 (1)
0.15 (1)
0.15 (1)
<0.20 (20)
<0.20 (16)
<0.5 (2>
2
0.93
1-2 (74)
0.13
1.8 <2)
0.03 (10)
0.1
2 (4)
3 (30)
4 (3)
1 (2)
1 (2)
0.04 (8)
0.06 (5)
0.08 (5)
0.10 (5)
0.01 (5)
0.10 (6)
0.09 (5)
0.6 (14)
0.6 (14)
0.7 (H)
1-6 (14)
0.06 (1)
0.08 (1)
<0.05 (1)
0.43 (6)
0.30 (6)
0.65 (6)
<0.2 (6>
0.27 (6>
<0.2 (6)
0.28 (6)
0.57 (6)
4 (3)
0.8 (14)
<4 (1)
1.0 (2)
<1 (1)
1 (1)
<0.2 (1)
3.0 (3)
<2 (2)
<1 (5)
0.09
0.25 (1)
66 (1)
<0.3
70 (1)
<10 (1)
70 (1)
0.9 (1)
0.5 (1)
<4 (1)
10 (3)
<1 (1)
1.0 (2)
2.7 (18)
0.1 (1)
11 CD
8 (1)
4 <1)
<0.2 (2)
<1.0 (1)
31
54
>90.0
98.5
92.5
>82
>87
>33
90
0
70
19
81
79
0
67
57
0
0
0
69
38
43
44
92.9
82
74
54
25
12
36
33
85
>38
31
46
0
>68
60
>43
47
37
0
47
>20
0
>50
0
>so
0
>17
>67
87
7
3
>57
0
>23
0
47
50
>85
85
>9
0
75
75
0
0
0
>62
>41
2S5B
25SB
255B
255B
2S5B
678
678
15B
5SE
478
1830B
59E
173E
868
144A
35E
35E
35E
35E
35E
86B
86B
86B
868
86B
868
868
1408
140B
140B
140B
255B
2S5B
255B
IB
18
IB
IB
IB
18
IB
IB
35E
1408
87B
878
32B
32B
878
878
878
45E
393A
6388
876
538
878
878
878
188A
188A
878
878
31B
878
36E
2650
266B
266B
2668
19278
2458
-S-
-s-
-s-
-s-
-s-
—
...
—
—
...
—
...
—
-s-
—
•s-
-s-
-s-
-s-
-s-
-s-
-s-
-s-
-s-
-s-
-s-
-s-
-s-
-s-
-s-
-s-
-s-
-s-
-s-
-s-
-s-
-s-
-s-
-s-
-s-
-s-
-s-
-s-
-s-
—
—
...
—
...
—
...
...
...
...
...
--*
...
—
...
—
...
—
...
—
—
--$
...
-s-
-s-
-s-
...
,--
5C-15

-------
RREL Treatabilicy Database (Aqueous)
                                   Ver.  No   5.0
 04/21/95
                                   MERCURY
  TECHNOLOGY
INFLUENT CONCENTRATION  -   >100-1000  ug/L

                          EFFLUENT
   MATRIX  SIC   SCALE  CONCENTRATION     PERCENT
           CODE            (  ug/L  }       REMOVAL
REFERENCE
AlglE
AS
ChPt
ChPt (B> > Fil
RO
SExt
ChPtwPAC+FH
ChPtuPAC+FH
ChPtwPAC+Fil


TECHNOLOGY

RO
RO
ChPt 
ChPt 1-10 mg/L
EFFLUENT
CONCENTRATION
( ug/L )
900 (2)
1,600 (2)
2,600 (1)
<1 (1)
99,4.,
0
98.0
89
78
0
98.8
99.922
0


PER :ENT
REMOVAL
82
82
10
> 99. 966
1458
878
SIS
87B
S1B
STB
2650
2650
2650



—
...
—
—
...
—
...
---


REFERENCE

18B
18B
43E
43E

...
—
—
—
                                          5C-16

-------
                                    MODULE #5C

                              PRACTICAL EXERCISE

                             Best Professional Judgement

SITUATION:

You are the permit writer responsible for drafting a NPDES permit for "Danny's Print Shop,
Inc.," a new commercial printing facility that plans to begin operation within 6 months. Processes
to be employed at the facility include lithographic and letterpress printing.  Since effluent
limitations guidelines and standards have not been promulgated for the printing industry, you must
develop technology-based effluent limits using your best professional judgement (BPJ).  For
purposes of this exercise, you must conduct research to support development of technology-based
effluent limits for copper.
GIVEN:

Based on information provided in NPDES application forms I and 2d, Danny's Print Shop plans
to utilize physical/chemical treatment plant (chemical precipitation followed by filtration) to treat
all process wastewater that will be discharged via Outfall 001.  No other wastewaters from the
facility will be treated or discharged through Outfall 001. In application form 2d, Danny's has
also indicated that it anticipates that its wastewater characteristics will be similar to  another
facility that it owns and operates at a different location.  Danny's has provided the  following
"typical" influent and effluent data for the other operation :
       Average influent copper concentration =110 ug/1
       Average effluent copper concentration = 55 ug/1
       Average flow = 25,000 gpd
QUESTIONS:

(1)    What regulatory level(s) of treatment (e.g., BPT, BCT, BAT, NSPS, PSES, PSNS) should
       be reflected in the technology-based limit to be established for copper based on best
       professional judgement?	
(2)    In general, what treatment technology (s) should you research to determine the appropriate
       performance-based effluent limits for this facility?  	
                                       5C-17

-------
(3)    Based on information in the EPA KREL Treatability Data Base, what is the expected range
       of percent removals for copper using chemical precipitation and filtration (assuming
       influent concentrations similar to Danny '$)?   Do the data provided for Danny's other
       facility indicate that it is acheiving these levels of performance?	
(4)    Based on information  contained in the NPDES Industrial Permit Abstracts for three
       facilities that contain effluent limitations for copper (see attached), which of the three could
       serve as the basis for a technology-based effluent limit: for copper for the Danny's facility?
       Explain your answer.	
(5)    Based on information contained in the EPA Summary of Available Information on the
       Levels and Control of Toxic Pollutants Discharges in the Printing and Publishing Point
       Source Category (see attached), what percent removals have been demonstrated for copper
       at printing facilities similar to Danny '5?  Explain your answer.	
(6)     Of the sources of information reviewed, which do you feel would  serve as the most
       defensible basis for a technology-based effluent limit for copper at the printing facility?
       Explain your conclusions.	
                                         5C-18

-------
   COPPER TREATABILITY DATA
           FROM THE
EPA RREL TREATABILITY DATA BASE
           (Version 5.0)
              5C-19

-------
5C-20

-------
            RREL TREATABILITY DATABASE
TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES CODE AND ABBREVIATION TABLE

                 AQUEOUS  DATA FILE
                                             is  peroxide,
                                            ChOx(Sur)   is
Treatment. Technologies  (Those  with  data)

AAS -     Activated Alumina  Sorption
AFF -     Aerobic  Fixed Film
AL -      Aerobic  Lagoons
API -     API Oil/Water Separator
AS -      Activated Sludge
Airs -    Air Stripping
AlkHyd -  Alkaline Hydrolysis
AlglE -   Algal  Ion Exchange
AnFF -    Anaerobic Fixed Film
BGAC -    Biological Granular  Activated Carbon
CAC -     Chemically Assisted  Clarification
ChOx -    Chemical Oxidation (Parantheses shows oxidation chemical
          (i.e.  ChOx(UV)   is   ultraviolet  light,  Chox(Cl)   is
          chlorine,  ChOx(Oz)  is  ozone,  ChOx(H202)
          ChOx(Cl02)   is  chlorine   dioxide,   and
          surfactant)
ChOx/Pt - Chemical Oxidation/Precipitation
ChPt -    Chemical Precipitation
ChRed -   Chemical Reduction
DAF -     Dissolved Air Flotation
ED -      Electrodialysis
Fil -     Filtration
GAC -     Activated Carbon  (Granular)
IE -      Ion Exchange  (Parantheses shows resin  type  ie.  (A)
          anionic, (C)  is cationic, and (M) is mixed)
KPEG -    Dechlorination of Toxics using an Alkoxide (Formed by the
          reaction of potassium hydroxide with polyethylene glycol
          (PEG400))
PAC -     Powdered Activated Carbon
PACT -    Powdered Activated Carbon Addition to Activated  Sludge
RA -      Resin Adsorption
RBC -     Rotating Biological  Contactor
RO -      Reverse  Osmosis
SBR -     Sequential Batch Reactor
SCOx -    Super Critical Oxidation
Sed -     Sedimentation
SExt -    Solvent  Extraction
Soft -    Water Softening
SS -      Steam Stripping
TF -      Trickling Filter
UF -      Ultrafiltration
WOx -     Wet Air  Oxidation
                                                        is
                         5C-21

-------
NOTES:
     	  +  	   is the first process unit  followed  in process
     train by the  second  ie. AS  +  Fil  - Activated  Sludge followed
     by Filtration.
           w
is  the  two  units  together  ie.  UFwPAC  -
     Ultrafiltration using Powdered Activeited  Carbon.

     	(B) is batch instead of continuous  flow.
Scale
    B - Bench Top
    P  -  Pilot Plant
F - Full Scale
Number  after letter  refers to  the plant,  number in  a specific
reference (ex. F7 - plant 7 is the seventh full scale plant  in the
indicated report).

Matrix

c -  Clean water  (ex. distilled)
D -  Domestic wastewater
GW - Groundwater
HL - Hazardous leachate
I -  Industrial wastewater
ML - Municipal leachate
RCRA - RCRA listed wastewater
S -  Synthetic wastewater
SF - Superfund wastewater
SP - Spill
T -  Tap water
TSDF -    Commercial  treatment,  storage and  disposal  facility -
          liquids
W -  Surface water

SIC (Standard Industrial Classification) Codes

For  industrial  wastewaters  a  2  digit  SIC  code  will  be  given
following the  letter designation,  i.e.  I  22 is a  Textile Mill
Products wastewater.

If the SIC code is unknown a U will be shown,  I U.

     10 - Metal mining
     12 - Coal mining
     13 - Oil and gas extraction
     20 - Food and kindered products
     22 - Textile mill products
     24 - Lumber and wood products
     26 - Paper and allied products except computer equipment
     27 - Printing and publishing
     28 - Chemicals and allied products
     29 - Petroleum refining and related
     30 - Rubber and misc. plastic products
     31 - Leather and leather products
     33 - Primary metals industries

                                5C-22

-------
     34 - Fabricated    metal    products   except   machinery    &
          transportation equip.
     36 - Electronic and electric equipment
     37 - Transportation Equipment
     39 - Misc. manufacturing industries
     47 _ Transportation services
     49 - Electric, gas, and sanitary
     99 - Nonclassifiable establishments/industries

Effluent Concentration

Effluent concentration  will be  given as a  arithmetic mean to two
significant figures. The number of samples used to calculate the
mean is given  after concentration as (n)  (ex.  13 (5) - 13 is the
mean of 5 sample values).

% Removal

Percent removal  will  be calculated  on  a concentration basis. If
data are available, it will also be calculated  on a mass basis for
physical/chemical systems. Those values calculated on a mass basis
will be noted by a (m). An example would be:

% Removal:  99.95       99.95 is based on concentration
            98(m)       98 is based  on mass

                            Influent - Effluent
         where % Removal =  —	-
                                 Influent
Reference Quality Codes

A -  Papers in a peer reviewed journal.
B -  Government report or database.
C -  Reports  and/or  papers  other  than  in  groups  A  or B  not
     reviewed.
D -  Group C papers and/or reports which have been given a "good"
     quality rating by a selected peer review.
E -  Group C papers and /or reports which  have been given a "poor"
     quality rating by a selected peer review.  These data will only
     be used when no other data are available.
Additional Codes Following Reference Codes

V -  Volatile emissions data available in Reference
S -  Sludge data available in Reference
$ -  Costs data available in Reference
                                5C-23

-------
RREL Treatability Database (Aqueous)
ver. No. 5.0
                    04/18/95
                                    COPPER
INFLUENT CONCENTRATION - 0-100 ug/L
EFFLUENT
TECHNOLOGY MATRIX SIC SCALE CONCENTRATION PERCENT
CODE ( ug/L ) REMOVAL
AL
AL
AL
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
CAC
ChPt
ChPt
FH
Fil
GAC
RBC
R8C
RO
RO
Sed
Sed
Sed
Sed
Sed
Sed
Sed
Sed
Sed
Sed
Sed
Sed
Sed
Sed
TF
TF
TF
TF

D
0
0
0
0
0
D
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
D
D
D
D
D
0
0
0
D
0
D
0
0
D
0
D
0
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
0
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
0
0
D
0
D
D
D
D
D
0
0
0
D
D
D
D
D
D

F
F3
F4
F1
F
F2
F
F2
F
F6
F30
F32
F60
F10
F2
F26
F19
F54
F2
F4
F9
F5
F
F6
F4
F7
F3
F8
F5
F9
F5
F19
F13
F21
F12
F35
F27
F10
F2
F2
P
F
F
F1
F33
F17
P1
P
F12
F10
F11
F9
F3
F4
F20
F28
F25
M
F6
F6
F7
F8
F10
F52
F40
F15

0.12 (36)
10 (1)
<10 (1)
<1 (7)
30 (33>
10
24 (35)
3
10 (14)
<1 (7)
<2 (6)
44 (6)
8 (6)
12 <6>
<1 (7)
8 (6)
15 (6)
<3 (6)
10 <7>
17 <6)
26 (6)
31 (6)
62
30 (2)
40 (3)
10 (23)
<10 (1)
50 (2)
30 (23)
20 (1)
70 (2)
10 (U
20 (2)
10 (1)
10 (2)
20 (1)
10 (1)
20 (1)
50 (14)
23 (9)
7.7
55
25
20 (27)
<2 (6)
10 (2)
3.9 (32)
0.5
20 (23)
60 (23)
50 (23)
90 (1)
60 (3)
10 (2)
20 (1>
30 (1)
10 (1)
78 (U)
85 (14)
40 (1)
30 (1)
50 (1)
10 (6>
12 C6)
30 (6)
25 (65
5C-24
36
50
>67
>98.2
77
84
72
92.3
86
>98.9
>90.0
56
92.0
83
>98.7
92.0
85
>86
82
63
63
56
33
67
33
89
>67
17
67
78
12
89
75
83
90.0
60
80
75
38
68
84
11
56
64
>94.9
75
92.6
72
50
14
0
10
33
67
60
70
80
2
12
20
0
50
86
48
48
57

REFERENCE
54E ---
2558 -S-
255B -S-
234A ---
198E -S-
243A -S-
201B -S-
167E -S-
142A •-•
234A ---
18 -S-
18 -S-
1B -S-
18 -S-
234A ---
IB -S-
1B -S-
18 -S-
18 -S-
18 -S-
1B -S-
1B -S-
59E ---
35E -S-
356 -S-
52A ---
31B ---
35E -S-
52A ---
35E -S-
35E -S-
868 -S-
86B -S-
868 -S-
86B -S-
86B -S-
868 -S-
2558 -S-
131E -S-
16828 ---
47B ---
59E ---
330 -5-
1682B ---
IB -S-
86B -S-
18B --•
144A -•-
52A ---
52A ---
52A ---
35E -S-
35E -S-
868 -S-
86S -S-
866 -S-
868 -S-
131E -S-
140B -S-
2S5B -S-
2558 -S-
2558 -S-
18 -S-
18 -S-
1B -S-
ia -s-


-------
TF
TF
AL
AnFFwGAC
AnFFuGAC
Al+FH
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AlkHyd
CAC
CAC
CAC
ChOx(Cl)
ChPt
ChPt
ChPt
ChPt
ChPt
ChPt
ChPt
ChPt
ChPt
ChPt
ChPt+FH
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+Fil CB)
ChPt+Fil (B)
ChPt+Fil (B)
ChPtuChOx(Cl)
Fil
GAC
GAC
GAC
GAC
GAC
PACT
PACT
DA
RBC
SExt
SS
SS
SS
SS
ChPtwPAC+Fil »
API S
AS S
AirS S
ChPt S
ChPt (B) S
OAF S
DAF (8) S
Fil S
Fil S
GAC S
GAC S
GAC S
D
3
su
HI
HL
26
31
31
28
28
28
31
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
37
37
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
37
34
37
34
34
37
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
10
33
33
10
33
28
28
28
28
28
31
28
28
31
28
28
28
28
28
L
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F9
F3
F2
PI
P2
F29
F5
F6
F5
F1
F9
F2
F2
F7
F25
F23
F5
F30
F24
F8
F9
F2
F34
B14
811
86
821
B9
824
864
856
859
861
815
810
813
87
88
B12
B25
B22
823
860
865
863
B57
862
B58
B
B1
B2
P2
P
F1
F14
F5
F4
F9
Fl
F8
F4
F7
F8
F12
F22
F33
F7
B1
F3
F6
F7
B
B
F3
B4
F6
FJ
F4
F2
F3
50 (23)
30 <3)
10 (3)
40
20
<9 (3)
17 (1)
8 (1)
18 (1)
26 (1)
<4 (1)
47 (1)
50 <1>
20 (1)
<8 (3)
<9 (3)
28 (3)
72 (3)
34 (3)
13 <1)
6 (1)
<8 (3)
18 (3)
7 (1)
22 (1)
59 (1)
12 (1)
36 (1)
4 (1)
2 (1)
8 
14 (1)
22 (1)
5 (1)
8 CD
6 (1)
1 (1)
1 (1)
4 (1)
8 (1)
8 (1)
3 (1)
10 CD
<20 (1)
20 (1)
13
78
40 (1)
20 (1)
21 (3)
30 (2)
<6 (2)
<10 (1)
34 (1)
43 <2)
69 (1)
18 (3)
<6 (1)
30 (1)
21 (3)
10 (1)
<5 (1)
24 (1)
<26 (5)
30 (4)
5 CD
<1 CD
37 (D
<2.Q (2)
<18 (5)
18 CD
<4.5 CD
<5.7 CD
17 CD
50
50
70
33
67
>76
82
58
0
0
>33
0
9
50
>53
>47
0
0
0
86
93.8
>77
14
77
27
32
50
59
83
90.0
60
95.0
65
83
90.8
S3
72
84
27
79
67
75
95.0
95.0
80
60
60
85
83
>33
0
74
20
0
80
25
30
>50
>76
0
0
0
47
>25
0
22
0
>89
8
>73
0
90.7
>99.00
0
>94.7
>75
51
>10
>91 .6
15
52A
35E
87B
1548
1546
87B
316
316
328
328
32B
31B
326
32B
87B
878
87S
878
878
328
328
2618
878
29B
298
298
298
298
298
298
298
298
298
298
298
298
298
298
298
29B
29B
298
298
298
298
298
298
298
176E
169E
169E
139E
53B
32B
878
878
878
87B
318
328
878
318
STB
878
878
87B
STB
265D
2458
2458
2458
91E
182A
245B
19278
2458
245B
245B
245 B
245B
                            -S-
5C-25

-------
RREL Treatability Database (Aqueous)
                                                 Ver.  Ho.  S.O
                                                      04/18/95
                                    COPPER
  TECHNOLOGY
INFLUENT CONCENTRATION  -   >100-1000  gg/l

                          EFFLUENT
   MATRIX  SIC    SCALE  CONCENTRATION    PERCENT
           CODE             (  ug/L  )      REMOVAL
                                                                    REFERENCE
AL
AL
AL
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS
AS»FH
AS*FU
CftC
D
D
0
D
D
D
D
D
D
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
D
D
0
D
0
D
D
D
D
D
D
0
D
D
0
0
D
D
D
D
0
0
D
0
D
D
D
D
0
D
D
D
D
0
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
0
0
F55
F18
F
F1
F4
F3
M
F3
F12
ne
F57
F38
F20
F14
fS
F31
F6
F17
F59
F36
F27
F55
F
F25
F13
F51
F7
F37
F1
P
F1
Fib
F2
F2a
F2b
F3
F4
F1a
F6
F4
F2
F10
F7
F1
FZ
F3
F30
F34
F10
F14
F31
F29
F32
F6
F33
F23
F15
F5
F15
F16
F18
F19
F20
F3a
F3b
F
<13 (6)
10 (1)
240 (12)
14
9
5
14
30 (7)
86 (6)
7 (6)
81 (6)
5 (6)
9 (6)
28 (6)
26 (7)
49 (6)
47 (6)
35 (6)
20 (6)
11 <6>
15 (6)
40 (6)
<20 (3>
<8 (6)
28 (6)
19 (6)
39 (6)
U (6)
27 (7)
160 (U)
160 (23)
66 (28)
100 (4)
58 (15)
99 (23)
40 (23)
38 (1)
42 (23)
70 (23)
20 (23)
20 (23)
70 (3)
200 (2)
80 C30)
140 <2>
10 <2)
10 (2)
190 90.7
98.1
76
89
93.3
96.2
87
86
90.7
94.2
90.0
96.9
95.0
90.3
86
78
93.8
81
88
90.8
93.8
84
>85
>92.7
77
94.2
82
96.1
85
80
70
84
9
89
83
83
76
92.0
90.0
86
88
60
74
62
66
90.9
96.3
68
94.4
91.7
91.7
96.8
91.7
38
92.3
94.1
90.5
60
33
84
>95.2
as
97.4
>95.3
»89
19
1B -S-
868 -S-
132D -S-
167E -S-
167E -S-
167E -S-
243A -S-
234A ••-
IB -S-
18 -S-
1B -S-
1B -S-
18 -S-
18 -S-
234A ---
IB -S-
1B -S-
1B -S-
18 -S-
18 -S-
18 -S-
1B -S-
158 -•-
18 -S-
18 -S-
18 -S-
18 -S-
18 -S-
1B -S-
16A -S-
52A ---
67B ---
35E -S-
678 ---
678 ---
S2A ---
31B -•-
678 -•-
52A ---
52A ---
52A ---
35E -S-
35E -S-
3SE -S-
868 -5-
86B -S-
868 -S-
86B -S-
868 -S-
86B -S-
868 -S-
868 -S-
86B -S-
868 -S-
868 -S-
868 -S-
868 -S-
1408 -S-
2558 -S-
255B -S-
2558 -S-
2558 -S-
255B -S-
678 ---
67B -••
158 ---
                                         5C-26

-------
CAC
ChPt
ChPt
PACT
RO
Sed
Sed
Sed
Sed
Sed
Sed
Sed
Sed
Sed
Sed
Sed
Sed
Sed
If
TF
TF
TF
TF
TF
TF
TF
TF
GAC
ChPtwPAC+Fil
At
AL
AS
AS
AS
AnFF
CAC
CAC
CAC
CAC
CAC
CAC (8)
CAC (B)
CAC (B)
CAC (B)
CACuFil
ChOx(Cl)
ChOx(Cl> (B)
ChPt
ChPt
ChPt
ChPt
ChPt
ChPt
ChPt
ChPt + Fil (B)
ChPt + Fil 
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+FH
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+Fit
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+Fil (8)
ChPtnChOx(Cl)
Fil
GAC
GAC
GAC
GAC
GAC
IE
RA
RA (B) + Fil
SExt (B)
SS
SS+GAC
D
0
0
0
D
0
D
0
D
0
D
D
D
D
D
0
D
D
D
0
D
0
0
D
0
D
D
GU
HL








I
I
I





































































31
28
28
28
28
10
28
31
31
31
31
49
49
49
33
36
28
28
34
99
34
99
34
33
34
28
36
34
34
34
99
99
34
34
34
37
49
10
10
28
28
28
28
28
28
10
23
28
28
28
28
F4
F1
F
P
P2
F2
P
F5
F1
F8
F3
F6
F36
F24
F1
F2
F3
F9
F21
F27
F11
F17
F29
F39
F37
F8
F4
F2
P7
F7
F11
F3
F21
F13
B
F
F6
F2
F7
F1
B1
B3
B2
B1
F
F26
F18
B19
P1
B16
P2
B66
P
B69
82
B1
820
BIB
B17
P1
P2
867
868
870
F
F
82
P2
F16
F3
F15
F3
F1
F10
P2
F3
F20
F32
F6
F27
160 (1)
68 (27)
88 (101)
<80 (4)
70 (4)
110 (4)
72 <4)
80 (2)
210 C30)
60 (2)
30 (1)
90 (2)
10 (1)
20 (1)
68 (14)
61 (14>
75 (14)
200 CD
150 (6)
160 (6)
62 (6)
12 (6)
68 (6)
110 (6)
120 (6)
110 (23)
47 (14)
30 (1)
<80 (1)
60 (1)
81 (3)
150 (1)
560 (3)
64 (2)
55 (5)
130
19 (1)
41 <1)
220 (1)
42 (1)
110 (1)
10 (1)
220 (1)
30 (1)
50
160 (3)
220 (3)
40 (1)
85
69 (1)
160
28 (1)
98
10 (1)
20 <1)
65 (1)
24 (1)
18 (1)
20 (1)
26
41
28 (1)
7 (1)
8 (1)
15 (6)
260
<20 (1)
SO
170 (J)
43 CD
93 <3>
370 (1)
350 (1)
860 (1)
170
67 CD
6 (1)
200 (2)
150 (1)
S7 (3)
63
73
69
>84
92.9
58
52
77
32
45
90.0
40
90.9
82
70
58
28
50
56
33
74
93.3
38
45
67
8
65
71
>43
73
83
0
0
65
92.4
66
88
64
42
61
80
95.4
73
93.9
70
0
0
95.0
87
91.4
71
96.9
90.0
98.9
92.0
85
97.0
97.8
97.5
96.2
92.3
96.9
99.22
99.11
98.4
64
>97.9
70
26
80
44
0
0
0
10
82
94.6
0
0
78
                             318 ---
                           16828 ---
                           1830B ---
                            173E ---
                             18B ---
                             356 -5-
                             44E -S-
                             35E -S-
                             35E -S-
                             35E -S-
                             31B ---
                             35E -S-
                             868 S-
                             868 -S-
                            1408 -S-
                            140B -S-
                            1408 -S-
                            2558 -S-
                             18  -S-
                             18  -S-
                             18  -S-
                             18  -S-
                             18  -S-
                             1B  -S-
                             18  -S-
                            52A  ---
                           140B  -S-
                            878  ---
                           26SD  ---
                            318  ---
                            878  ••-
                            328  ---
                            878 ---
                            878 ---
                            45E ---
                           393A •••
                            318 ---
                            31B ---
                            318 ---
                            318 ---
                           6388 ---
                           6388 ---
                           6388 ---
                           169E ---
                           2796 --
                            878 --
                            878 ---
                            298 --*
                             7E ---
                            298 --S
                             7E ---
                            29B --$
                            53B --$
                            298 --S
                           88E  ---
                           88E  ---
                           298  --*
                           298  --I
                           298  --$
                            7E  ---
                            7E  ...
                           29B  --$
                           29B  --$
                           29B  --$
                          137B  --$
                          194E  ---
                           66B ---
                          139E ---
                           878 ---
                           32B ---
                           878 ---
                           878 ---
                           878 ---
                           878 ---
                          139E ---
                           878 -•-
                           87B ---
                           878 ---
                           878 ---
                           878 ---
5C-27

-------
Sed
Sed
Sed (8)
ChPt
IE(C)
UOx»FH
AS
AirS
ChPt
FH
Fil
GAC
IE
        (8)
I
I
I
I
ML
RCRA
ftCRA
5
SF
SF
SF
SF
SF
W
31
49
33
28










F8
F1
81
F28
F
f>
B1
B
F6
F6
F2
F8
F8
P
<30 {1)
180
<20 (1)
37 (3)
87 (20)
130 (7)
120 (1)
100 (5)
110 (4>
86 (4)
HO <1>
250 (5)
<9 £5)
12 (3)
>83
56
>95.9
81
86
74
66
13
0
28
7
9
>94.3
95.C
 318 ---
6388 ---
169E —
 878 --
 36E --S
2678 ---
2668 -S-
 25A -S-
2458 --
245B ---
24SB ---
245B ---
245B -"
 42A ---
                                        5C-28

-------
RftEL Treatability Database (Aqueous)
                                   ver.  NO.  5.0
04/18/95
                                    COPPER
  TECHNOLOGY
INFLUENT CONCENTRATION -   >1-10  mg/L

                          EFFLUENT
   MATRIX  SIC   SCALE  CONCENTRATION     PERCENT
           CODE            C  ug/L  }       REMOVAL
                                                                   REFERENCE
AS 1
AS I
AS 1
ChPt 1
RO I
RO 1
Sed I
Sed I
AS
AS
AS
AS
ChPt
ChPt
ChPt
ChPt
ChPt
ChPt
ChPt
ChPt
ChPt
ChPt
ChPt
ChPt
ChPt
ChPt
ChPt
ChPt (B)
ChPt (B)
ChPt (B)
ChPt (B)
ChPt (B)
ChPt + Fil (B)
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+FU
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+Fil
ChPt+FU (8)
ChPtwFil
RO
AnFF 1*
ChPtwPAC+Fil 1*
ChPtwPAC+FU >
IE(A) J
ChPt (B) S
ChPt S
ChPt 5
ChPt+Fil (B) 5
ChPt+fil (B) S
)
)
5
)
)
)
)
)














































IL
IL
IL
CRA

F
F
F
F








28
28
28
99
34
36
36
10
34
34
34
10
33
34
34
34
33
34
34
49
49
34
34
36
U
36
36
36
34
34
33
34
33
34
34
33
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
10
34
10









F28
F
F12
P1
P3
P4
F7
F
F4
F3
F31
B
B31
84
81
F
849
871
834
P1
B39
854
B46
BS1
836
B74
F
BS
86
81
82
B
B3
B5
B3
B2
B32
B33
B38
B48
B40
952
B50
B37
B47
BS3
B5S
873
835
B72
875
B1
F2
P2
P
PS
P6
P
810
F2
F8
B1
B2
130 (6)
57
4300 (1)
1,800
180 (7)
660 (8)
770 C2)
1.200
4,800
82
890 (3)
250 <4>
240 (1)
1,900 (1)
1,800 CD
8
60 (1)
860 (1)
210 (1)
50 (12)
38 (1)
82 (1)
910 (1)
140 (1)
39 (1)
13 (1)
43 (15)
140 (1)
<500 <1>
<40 (1)

110 (5)
20 (1)
5 (1)
67 (1)
200 (1)
240 (1)
140 (1)
14 (1)
930 (1)
6 (1)
33 (1)
160 (1)
14 <1)
940 (1)
3 (1)
18 (1)
130 (1)
170 (1)
850 (1)
13 (1)
<20 (1)
550 (22)
10 (4)
1,500 (8)
1200 (1)
600 (1)
510 (7)
100 (1)
150 (1)
280 (5)
<50 CD
70 CD
92.4
95.0
0
19
93.4
89.9
36
47
16
97.5
78
80
81
17
22
99.914
97.0
22
84
99.06
99.46
98.2
54
97.1
99.44
98.8
97.8
96.5
>58
>99.60
>85
96.2
98.7
99.78
97.1
91.3
82
89
99.80
54
99.914
99.30
92.0
99.80
53
99.936
99.62
88
87
23
98.8
>98.6
90.5
99.84
74
86
93.2
89
99.00
97.7
96.1
>97.9
98.5
IB -S-
330 -S-
2558 -S-
SSE ---
188 -•-
188 ---
35E -S-
33D -S-
975B --
9758 --
878 --
268A -S
298 --
298 --
298 -•
19E --
298 --
298 --
298 --
518 •-
298 •-
298 --
298 --
298 --
298 --
298 --
898 --
24E --
24E --
129E --
129E --
1846 --
88E --
298 --
298 --
298 --
298 -
298 --
298 --
298 --
298 --
298 --
298 --
298 --
298 --
298 --
29B --
298 --
298 --
298 --
298 --
668 ---
62E ---
518 ---
41A -S-
265D ---
2650 ---
2678 ---
1818 ---
2458 ---
2458 ---
19760 -SS
19760 -S$
                                        5C-29

-------
5C-30

-------
       SELECTED ABSTRACTS
            FROM THE
NPDES INDUSTRIAL PERMIT ABSTRACTS
              5C-31

-------
                                                       5C-32
I	

-------

Facility Name: Summit Carp of America Permit Number: CT0001180
Facility Description: Natal finishing SIC Code: 3471
Monitoring
Limit ELGs WQSs BPJ Only
Basis: i I ; ^
Storm WO
Special BHPs Water Sediment Survey
Conditions: -i ; ; i
WET WET Testing Multiple Tiered
Limits Only Categories Limits Other
i •- L - -
Bio
Survey TRES MOLs Monitoring Other
- i - - J.
Abstract Information:
Complete; Outfall 001
Outfall: 001 | Receiving Water: Maugatuck River | Treatment: Neut, PF
Amount/Components :
0.376 MOD average, 0.5 MGD daily maxioun, of treated metal finishing uasteuater.
Parameter
Acute WET
Ag
Al
Au
8005
Cd
Chronic WET
CN (A), Amenable
CN
CN 
Cr (T)
Cu
Fe
Flow
Fluoride
NH3
Nt
Other
Pb
Limitations
Average
N/A
N/A
0.027200 kg/d
0.100000 mg/l
N/A
2.000000 mg/l
N/A
0.100000 mj/L
N/A
N/A
0.025000 kg/d
0.100000 ««t/l
N/A
N/A
N/A
0.100000 mg/l
0.193060 kg/d
0.220000 mg/l
N/A
1.000000 mg/l
0.218000 kg/d
1.000000 mg/l
N/A
3.000000 mg/l
N/A
K/A
N/A
20.000000 mg/l
N/A
N/A
N/A
1.000000 mg/l
N/A
N/A
0.048300 kg/d
0.100000 mg/l
Maximum
K/A
Report
0.054400 kg/d
0.500000 mg/l
N/A
4.000000 «g/l
N/A
0.500000 mg/l
N/A
Report
0.050000 kg/d
0.500000 mg/l
N/A
Report
N/A
0.200000 mg/l
0.386200 kg/d
0.400000 mg/ 1
>t/A
2.000000 mg/l
0.436000 kg/d
2.000000 mg/l
N/A
5.000000 mg/l
N/A
Report
N/A
40.000000 mg/l
N/A
10.000000 mg/l
N/A
2.000000 mg/l
N/A
Report
0.096600 kg/d
0.500000 mg/l
Other
See below





See belou





See belou



Indium

Monitoring Requirements
Frequency
1 /quarter
1/ueek
1/week
1/ueek
1 /month
1/year
1 /quarter
I/week
I/Meek
1/year
I/week
I/week
During discharg
1/ueek
1/ueek
1/ueek
1/we«k
1 /month
Sample Type
Composite
Composite
Composite
Composite
Composite
Composite
Composite
grab
Grab
Composite
Composite
Composite
Record
composite
Composite
Composite
Composite
Composite
5C-33

-------
Facility Name: Sunnit Corp of America Permit Number: CT0001180
Facility Description: Metal finishing sic Code: 3^||
Pd
PN
Sn
Temp.
TRC
TSS
TTOs
Zn

N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
2.000000 ing/ 1
N/A
N/A
N/A
0.350000 mg/l
N/A
20.000000 mg/l
N/A
N/A
0.558500 kg/d
1.000000 mg/l

N/A
Report
N/A
N/A
N/A
4.000000 mg/l
N/A
N/A
N/A
0.620000 mg/l
N/A
30.000000 Mj/1
N/A
1.000000 (IB/ 1
1.117000 kg/d
2.000000 mg/l


Between 6.0 sj and 9
.5 su

See below
See below




1/week
1 /month
1/week

I/week
1/week
1 /month
1/week

composite
Composite
	
Composite

Grab
Composite
Grab
Cenposi te

limitations/Honitoring Basis:
The limits and monitoring conditions were based on ELGs in 40 CFR Part 413 Section 22a-430*4s(2) and State WQSs.
The concentration of the pollutants limited on any grab sample is required to be less than 1.5 times the maxinun
daily concentrations. The Mass-based limitations (Cu, Cd, Pta, Ag. Zn, and CH(T)) becoM effective two years after
perMit issuance. The permittee is required at all times to record the total ft OH and the number ofhours of
discharge for each day of sample collection, and/or the instantaneous flow at the time of grab sample collection.
In lieu of analyzing for TTO, each monthly report may include a statement certifying compliance with an approved
solvent management plan. Compliance with acute UET limit is achieved whan the LCSO is greater than 3 times the 1WC.
Compliance with chronic WET limit is achieved when the LCSO is greater ttan 20 times the IUC. Acute and chronic WET
monitoring are to be conducted following specified EM guidance, specified dilution water, and a 48 hour test using
Daphnia. The mean effluent flow rate may be used to calculate the IWC. TRC is to be monitored during CN sampling. ^
Free residual chlorine is also to be monitored at this time. The temper »ture of the discharge must not raise the ^M
temperature of the receiving stream by more than 4 degrees nor increase the temperature of the receiving stream ^H
above 85 degrees Farenheit. ^*^
Special Conditions Basis:
On or before 30 days from permit issuance, the permittee is required to -eta in a qualified PE to perform studies to
achieve compliance with Mss-based effluent limits. On or before 270 davs from permit issuance, the permittee is
required to submit a report outlining remedial measures to achieve compliance with mass-based effluent limits, no
later than 2 years after permit issuance. Toxicity testing results that indicate less than 90X survival are to be
immediately retested. Any violation of the toxieity limit requires a second sample analysis. If two consecutive
test results or three test results in a single year exceed the maximum diiily toxieity limit, the permittee is
required to conduct a THE. Within 365 days after permit issuance, the permittee is required to verify that spill
containment has been provided around all CN plating baths. Quarterly stiitu* reports are required to be submitted.
Effective Date: 05/11/93 Expiration Date: 05/11/98 Abstract Date: 09/14/93
5C-34

-------
i facility Name:
Bradford
Dyeing Assoc., Inc. Permit Number: R10000043
{Facility Description: Dyes and finishes wool and woven cloth products SIC Code: 2269
Ilimit
; Basis:
! Special
'Conditions:
ELGs
J.
BMPs
WQSs
I
Storm
Water
BPJ
Sediment
Monitoring
Only
WQ
Survey
WET
Limits
Bio
Survey
WET Testing
Only
i
TRES
i
Multiple
Categories
MDLs
J
Tiered j
Limits 1 Other
1 ' M
i
Monitoring i Other
i \ i \
 Abstract  Information:
Complete; Outfall 002 (created for abstracting purposes), 002A, 002B, 002C, 0020, and 002E.
Outfall: 002 [ Receiving Water: Pawcatuck River ] Treatment: AL
Amount/Components :
3.4 cfs design flow of wastewaters from manufacturing processes, sanitary, cooling, potable, and storm Mater.
Parameter
Acute WET
Cd (T)
Coliform (T)
Cu (T)
FC
Flow
NH3 CT)
Otner
P 
-------
Facility Mane: Springfield Electroplating Permit Number: VT0000272 j
Facility Description: Metal finishing/electroplating and electroless plating SIC Code: ^^B
Monitoring I UET ; MET Testing Multiple Tiered ' "^^i
Limit ELGs UQSs 6PJ Only Limits Only Categories Limits ' Other |
Basis: 1 •_ -_ 1 ! 1 . i i - \ i \
Storm ; WQ j Bio < •
Special BMPs Water Sediment Survey | Survey • TRES MDLs Mon-toring ' Other
Conditions: 4 - 1 1 j 1 i 1 1 J. ] -
Abstract Information:
Complete; 001
Outfall: 001 1 Receiving Uater: Black River | Treatment: ChPt
Amount/Components :
1500 GPO (mix. allowable) treated electroplating uastewater including resin exchange regenerant.
Parameter
Cd
Cd
CD
CN
Cr
Cr (T>
Cu
Cu
Flow
Ni
Hi
pH
pH
TSS
TSS
TTOs
TTOS
Zn
Limitations
Average
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Maxinun
N/A
0.300000 mg/l
N/A
0.300000 ma/ 1
N/A
0.300000 n«/ 1
N/A
0.300000 mg/l
N/A
0.500000 mg/l
N/A
0.500000 mg/l
N/A
0.500000 mg/l
N/A
0.500000 mg/l
N/A
1500.000000 GPD
N/A
1.000000 mg/l
«/A
1.000000 mg/l
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
30.000000 mg/l
N/A
30.000000 mg/l
N/A
2.130000 mg/l
Oth »r











Between 6.5 su and 9
.0 su
Between 6.5 su and 9
.0 su

Metal treatimmt only

N/A
2.130000 mg/l j
N/A
1.480000 mg/l

Monitoring Requirements
Frequency
1/betch
1 /batch
1 /batch
1 /batch
1 /batch
1 /batch
1 /batch
I/batch
1/day
1 /batch
1 /batch


1 /batch
1 /batch


1 /batch
Sample Type
Grab
Grab
Grab
Grab
grab !
i
Grab ^M
Grab |
i
Grab
total
Grab
Grab
{
Grab
Grab
Grab
Grab
Grab
Grab
Grab
5C-36

-------
                                                                                                                                      1
Facility None:  Springfield  Electroplating
                                                                              Permit Numoer: VTQ000272
Facility Description:  Metal finishing/electroplating and electroless plating
                                                                                        SIC Code: 3471
 Zn
N/A
N/A
 N/A
1.480000 mg/l
1/batch
                                                                                                                     Crab
Limitations/Monitoring Basis: .
     Limits for TSS and TTO are based on ELGs (40 CFR Part 433 - Metal Finishing Point Source Category Electroplating and
     Electroless Plating).  Limits for CdfT), Cr(T), Cu(T), Ni(T), «(T), flow, and pH are based on the antibackstiding
     clause of the CWA.  Limits for Cd(T), Cr(T), Cu(T), Ni(T), Zn(T), CN(T), and TSS apply to samples collected from
     treatment batches following metals precipitation.  Permit specifies that samples are to be collected from eacn
     treatment batch at least 30 minutes after the agitator has been shut off.  CN limit applies following treatment
     batches following CN destruction.  Neither metals nor CN treatment batches may be discharged unless samples comply
     with limits.  In lieu of TTO limit, the permittee may certify that no toxic organics are discharged and submit a
     solvents management plan by 3/31/91 and analyze one grab sample for purgeable organics (list provided in permit).
Special  Conditions Basis:
     See limitations/monitoring basis
Effective Date:  12/18/90
                        Expiration Date:  09/30/95
                                                          Abstract Date:  09/20/93  ]
                                                            5C-37

-------
5C-38

-------
•EFA
               United Statu
               Environmental Protection
               Agency
               Effluent Guideline! Division
               WH-562
               Watfiington DC 20460
EPA 440/1-83/400
October 1983
               W»«r
Summary
of Available Information
on the Levels and Control
of Toxic Pollutants Discharges
in the
               Printing and Publishing
               Point Source Category

-------
5C-40

-------
Ll

2
2 a
5-2
3 to.



•8 i


I!
s
              fl
         *
        • •3

       tf-e
                           9V
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W .£ «U tl
a* »- o


!- §••-

jg I JB -5
      g
      
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  U
       t
     IK
       .l
              iff
              2 « fi  9-a
              i's.s  is
       o *
      bl .M M
      « — ff
              •^   •<••

              2   2
        .

        I
             oo
•3
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1
•s-s
o u
• ••I "••*

I
          LS
          O tji

          4^ -^    to
          o> u    •—
         *"* EL  *M ^
        «-a -  8-5  -&S
         1.2  a h.  2 -c

              F-a
                 S   8.2  T §.

             sis   ||  is
                    3 3  O M
                    aj -—  jM ^
               •* Q.

                                 J
                               i?


                               L-1
                               V .0
                  .
                 SS-S
                 S'S
                           Mfl
             .3    8?


             I    ll
             «* c  93
             41 O  J5 «
             (L-J3 8P^S
              ••« ••* O. 4J
             >» B» in   co
             g" 8. 8 -S "E.
               5 o ^ o
             •gu s.2^

              1 2 1*3
             « 9 a 5 4J


             f  ff!
                                    <*» m 
-------
                              TABLE VI-2

              TOXIC  POLLUTANT REMOVAL IN BATCH METALS
                   TREATMENT SYSTEM AT PLANT 54781
Parameter
Chromium
Copper
Lead
Nickel
Zinc
Ethylbenzene
Benzene
Chloroform
Arsenic
Influent to
Treatment (ug/1)
109,000
4,610
482,000
74
10,700
1,780
190
900
33
Effluent From
Treatment (ug/1)
1,690
771
3,830
71
:.4,300
80
10
5
6
Percent
Removal
98
83
99
4

96
95
99
82
Flow * 600 gpd  from  water-based  ink press cleaning.
                                   5CM2

-------
                              TABLE VI-5

   REDUCTION OF TOXIC, CONVENTIONAL, AND NONCONVENTIONAL  POLLUTANTS
         IN PHYSICAL/CHEMICAL TREATMENT SYSTEM AT PLANT 81901
Pollutant
Chromium (ug/l)
Copper (ug/l)
Lead (ug/l)
Silver (ug/l)
Zinc (ug/l)
BOD5 (mg/1)
COD (mg/1)
TOC (mg/1)
NH3 as N (mg/1)
TKN as N (mg/1)
Total Suspended Solids
(mg/1)
Total Volatile Solids
(mg/1)
Raw
Wastewater
1,190
52
46.1
8.5
395
570
2,700
560
8.4
1.2
40
360
Treated
Effluent
75
12
7.5
0.5
28
<6.0
31
9.0
0.4
0.7
4.0
50
Percent
Removal
94
77
84
94
93
>98
99
98
95
42
90
86
     approximately 39,000 gpd.  Chromium is added as part  of
cooling water treatment program.  Raw wastewater does not  include
contract hauled pressroom effluent.
                                 5C-43

-------
                               TABLE VI-6

                    REDUCTION OF TOXIC POLLUTANTS IN
                   LIMESTONE FILTER AT PLANT 66531*2
Parameter
PH^
Cadmium
Chromium
Copper
Lead
Silver
Zinc
Mercury
Influent
(ug/1)
8.4
70.5
281
180
22.4
51.3
553
11
Effluent
(ug/1)
9.1
1.25
11
39
0.6
29.8
—
2.1
Percent
Removal

98
96
78
97
42

81
1 Wastewater  flow  is estimated  to  be  11,500 gpd.
2 No toxic organic pollutants were detected in  either of the
  screening samples collected.
3 pH readings  from grab samples collected October  13, 1977.

—:  Not analyzed.
                              5C-44

-------
                             TABLE VI-7

                   REDUCTION OF TOXIC POLLUTANTS
                IN LIMESTONE FILTER AT PLANT 90121!2
Parameter
PH^
Cadmium
Cyanide
Zinc
Mercury
Influent
(ug/1)
8.8
319
560
35.4
3.3
Effluent
(ug/1)
9.3
8.52
120
40
1.7
Percent
Removal

97
79

48
No flow data available.
No toxic organic pollutants were detected  in either of the
screening samples collected.
pH reading  from grab samples  collected October 13, 1977.
                               SC-45

-------
                               TABLE  VI-8

                    REDUCTION OF TOXIC POLLUTANTS IN
                 METALS TREATMENT  SYSTEM AT PLANT 5430
Parameter
Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthaiate
Phenol
Butyl benzyl phthaiate
Di-n-butyl phthaiate
Diethyl phthaiate
Cadmium
Chromium
Copper
Lead
Zinc
Blended Raw
Wastewater
(ug/1)
9,800
500
200
800
89
50
13,755
20,950
4,200
220,000
Reactor
Effluent
(ug/1)
<10
500
<10
<10
<10
13
3,413
692
36
685
Percent
Removal
>99
0
>95
>99
>89
74
75
97
99
>99
A maximum of  four  3,500 gallon batches are treated per day.
                                    5C-46

-------
                                  MODULE # 5D
               Variances to Technology-Based Effluent Limitations
OVERALL OBJECTIVES:

   *  Describe the role of variances in NPDES permits

   *  Describe the types of relief granted by variances

   *  List the types of variances for technology-based effluent limits in NPDES permits

   *  Explain how variance requests are initiated and who initiates them

   *  Explain the process to grant or deny variance requests
LOGISTICS:

Presentation Format: Lecture
Approximate Presentation Time: 30 minutes
Review Questions/Exercise:  None
Applicable Statutory and Regulatory Citations:
      CWA Section 301 (c)
      CWA Section 301 (g)
      CWA Section 301 (h)
      CWA Section 301(n)
      CWA Section 316(a)

      40CFR§122.45(g)
      40 CFR Part 125, Subpart D

      40 CFR Part 125, Subpart E
      40 CFR Part 125, Subpart F

      40 CFR Part 125, Subpart G

      40 CFR Part 125, Subpart H
Economic Variance
Water Quality Variance
Secondary Treatment Variance
Fundamentally Different Factor Variance
Thermal Variance

Pollutants in intake water
Criteria and Standards for Determining
Fundamentally Different Factors
Criteria for Granting Economic Variances from Best
Available Technology Economically Achievable
(Reserved)
Criteria for Granting Water Quality Related Variances
(Reserved)
Criteria for Modifying the Secondary Treatment
Requirements
Criteria for Determining Alternative Effluent
Limitations Under Section 316(b)

-------

-------
Module 5D        Variances to Technology-Based Permit Effluent Limits
             Variances to Technology-
           Based Permit Effluent Limits
                                           v>EPA
                  Learning Objectives
           • Explain role of variances in NPDES
             permits
           • Describe types of variances
           • Discuss relief granted by variances
           • Describe variance initiation and
             review processes
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course

                          5D-1

-------
Module 5D
Variances to Technology-Based Permit Effluent Limits
           Role of Variances in NPDES Permits

             •  Allows limited relief:
                - effluent limits
                - compliance deadlines
             •  Address exceptional circumstances
             •  Provides relief of NPDES program for
                "unusual" circumstances
             •  Only granted on rare occasions
             •  Some may be granted by States, others
                require EPA approval
                     Types of Variances
CWA
301 (C)
301 (g)
301 (h)
301
-------
Module 5D         Variances to Technology-Based Permit Effluent Limits
             Initiation of Variance Requests


            • Variance applications submitted by
              the discharger, must be submitted
              before the close of the public
              comment period of the permit
            • PDF variance requests must be
              requested by the discharger within
              180 days of the guideline
              promulgation
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course

                            5D-3

-------
5D-4

-------
              MODULE 5 - SUGGESTED REFERENCE MATERIALS
Workbook for Determining  Economic Achievability for National  Pollution Discharge
Elimination System Permits. PHB, August 1982.

Treatabilitv Manual. Volumes I-V fEPA-600/8-80-Q42a-e) . EPA,  Office of Research and
Development,  July  1980.

NPDES  Industrial  Permits Abstracts  1993 (EPA 833-B-93-005). EPA, Office of Water,
October  1993.

Guidance for NPDES Permits and Compliance Personnel - Secondary Treatment
Redefinition . EPA, Permits Division, December  1985 (Draft)
                                         5D-5

-------

-------
                                  MODULE #6

              Overview of Water Quality Standards and Limitations
OVERALL OBJECTIVES

   *  Introduce the standards to permit process

   *  Provide overview and purpose of water quality standards

   *•  Discuss the components of a water quality standard
      •   Designated uses
      •   Anti-degradation
      •   Water quality criteria

   *•  Explain difference between numeric and narrative criteria and standards

   *  Explain EPA water quality criteria development process

   4  Define whole effluent toxicity and describe its role in the standards process

   *  Discuss new initiatives in criteria development

      •   Biological
      •   Sediment
      •   Wildlife


LOGISTICS:

Presentation Format: Lecture
Approximate Presentation Time: 60 minutes
Review Questions/Exercise:  None
Applicable Statutory and Regulatory Citations:

      CWA Section 301        Effluent Limitations
      CWA Section 303        Water Quality Standards and Implementation Plans
      CWA Section 304{a)(8)   Information on Water Quality Criteria

      40 CFR §130.3           Water quality standards
      40 CFR Part 131         Water Quality Standards

-------

-------
Module 6
Overview of Water Quality Standards and Limitations
               Overview of Water Quality
               Standards  and Limitations
                                                   &EPA
                     Learning Objectives
            «•  Provide brief overview of water quality standards

            •  Discuss the relationship between water quality-
               and technology-based permitting

            •  Identify the objectives and components of water
               quality standards

            •  Describe the types of water quality criteria

            •  Explain the relationship between criteria and
               standards
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                6-1

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Module 6
Overview of Water Quality Standards and Limitations
                 Clean Water Act Requirements
              • Section 101(a)(2)
                 - Establishes "fishable and swimmable" goal

              • Section 303(c)
                 - Establishes framework for water quality standards
                   program
                 - Requires States to establish water quality standards

              • Section 304(a)
                 - Requires EPA to develop and publish water
                   quality criteria

              • Section 301(b)(1)(C)
                 - Requires compliance with limits necessary to meet
                   water quality standards

                                                            AFPA
                Developing Effluent Limitations
                    Develop Technology-Based
                      Effluent Limits for All
                      Pollutants of Concern
                         Will Limits
                     Assure Compliance with
                     Applicable Water Quality
                         Standards?
                            Develop Water
                            Quality-Based
                            Effluent Limits
                    Include Applicable Effluent
                     Limits in NPDES Permit
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                     6-2


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Module 6
Overview of Water Quality Standards and Limitations
        Water Quality Standards - 40 CFR Part 131
            40CFR§131.2
            • A water quality standard defines the
               water quality goals of a waterbody,
               or portion thereof, by designating
               the use or uses to be made of the
               water and by setting criteria
               necessary to protect the uses.
            Establishing Water Quality Standards


             • States and Tribes are responsible for
               adopting water quality standards for all
               "waters of the U.S."
                - Water bodies
                - Segments of water bodies

             • Standards are reviewed every 3 years (40
               CFR §131.20)

             • EPA has oversight authority
                - Review and approval (40 CFR §131.5,131.6,
                  131.21)
                - Federal promulgation (40 CFR §131.22)
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                               6-3

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Module 6            Overview of Water Quality Standards and Limitations
           Components of Water Quality Standards
            •  Designated uses (40 CFR 5131.10)
            •  Water quality criteria (40 CFR §131.11)
            •  Antidegradation policy (40 CFR §131.12)
                                                  xvEPA
             Designated Uses - 40 CFR §131.10

               • Requires that each State specify
                 appropriate uses to be achieved and
                 protected
               • Common use categories
                  - Public water supply
                  - Fish and wildlife propagation
                  - Recreation
                     • Primary
                     • Secondary
                  - Agricultural
                  - Industrial
                  - Navigation
FPA
NPOES Permit Writers Training Course
                               6-4

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Module 6
Overview of Water Quality Standards and Limitations
                 Designated Uses (Continued)
           • Question: What if the designated
             use is not being attained? Can it be
             removed from the water quality
             standards?
           • Answer: Depends on the type of use
             and the basis for the change
                      Existing Uses
           Existing Uses ...

           • are uses actually attained in the
             water body on or after November 28,
             1975
           • must be reflected in the water
             quality standards
           • cannot be removed
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                            6-5

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Module 6           Overview of Water Quality Standards and Limitations
                  Removing a Designated Use
                      40CFR§131.10(g)	
             Designated Uses may be removed if...
             • they are not existing  uses
             • attaining the use is not feasible, as
               demonstrated by a Use Attainability
               Analysis (UAA)
                                                  vvEPA
         Water Quality Criteria - 40 CFR §131.11
             + Numeric criteria
                - Concentrations of chemicals
                - Aquatic Life
                - Human health
             • Narrative criteria
                - Statements that describe the desired water
                  quality goal
                - "Free from..."
                   • Toxics in toxic amounts
                   • Objectionable color, odor, taste, and turbidity
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                               6-6

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Module 6
Overview of Water Quality Standards and Limitations
                 Types of Numeric Criteria
              Aquatic Life Criteria
               - Designed to protect aquatic organisms,
                 including plants and animals
               - Two types
                  • Acute
                  • Chronic
               - Considers the magnitude, duration, and
                 frequency of exposure to specific
                 pollutants
              Types of Numeric Criteria (Continued)
             • Human Health Criteria
                - Single expression of the highest
                  pollutant concentration not expected
                  to pose significant long-term risk to
                  human health
                   •  Based on chronic exposure via
                     consumption of water and/or aquatic life
                   •  Accounts for bioconcentration or
                     bioaccumulation
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                               6-7

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 Module 6
Overview of Water Quality Standards and Limitations
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                      6-8

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Module 6
Overview of Water Quality Standards and Limitations
               EPA Water Quality Criteria
            • EPA responsible for establishing
              guidance and procedures
               - Establish and publish scientifically
                 derived ambient criteria [CWA Section
                 304(a)]
                 •  1968 Green     *  1980  Toxics
                 •  1973 Blue      •  1986  Gold
                 •  1976 Red      •  www.epa.gov/OST
               - Establish procedures for deriving
                 criteria
                                               AEPA
         Antidegradation Policy - 40 CFR §131.12
              Ensures that once a use is achieved
              it will be maintained

              Each State is required to adopt an
              antidegradation policy and method
              of implementation
                                                 EPA
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                             6-9

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Module 6
Overview of Water Quality Standards and Limitations
              Antidegradation Policy (Continued)
          • Three tiers
              I.  Level of quality necessary to protect
                 existing uses
              II.  Protection of actual water quality where
                 water quality exceeds levels necessary to
                 protect fish and wildlife propagation and
                 recreation on and in the water
              III. Special protection of waters designated
                 as Outstanding National Resource Waters
                 (ONRW)
              Tiers of Antidegradation Policy
              ONRW
         Better than
         Fishable /
         Swimmable

         Existing
           Use
                           TIER III

                           TIER I11/2 ??
                           TIER II
                           40CFR131.12(a){2)
                           TIER I
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                6-10

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Module 6
Overview of Water Quality Standards and Limitations
                    Outstanding National
                 Resources Water (ONRW)
            Outstanding National Resources Water
            (ONRW)
             - National and State parks
             - Wildlife refuge
             - Ecologically unique water that need
               additional protection or are of special
               significance (i.e., swamps, hotsprings, etc.)
         Implementation of Water Quality Standards

            • States must assess compliance with
              water quality standards for all water
              bodies
            • If water quality standards are not
              being achieved, controls must be
              developed to achieve water quality
              standards
               - Point sources
               - Non-point sources
NPOES Permit Writers Training Course
                              6-11

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                                 MODULE # 6A

                          Standards to Permits Process
OVERALL OBJECTIVES:

   +  Introduce permitting concepts from the Technical Support Document for Water Quality-
      Based Toxics Control (USEPA, 1991)

   »  Introduce total maximum daily loads (TMDL)

   «•  Explain concept of wasteload allocations (WLA)

   +  Introduce statistical approach for permit limit development


LOGISTICS:

Presentation Format: Lecture
Approximate Presentation Time: 30 minutes
Review Questions/Exercise: None
Applicable Statutory and Regulatory Citations:

      CWA Section 301       Effluent Limitations
      CWA Section 303       Water Quality Standards and Implementation Plans
      CWA Section 304(a)(8)   Information on Water Quality Criteria

      40 CFR §122.44(d)       Water quality standards and State requirements
      40 CFR §130.3          Water quality standards
      40 CFR Part 131         Water Quality Standards

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Module 6A
Standards to Permits Process
           Standards to Permits Process
                                            v>EPA
                  Learning Objectives
            • Introduce Total Maximum Daily
              Loads (TMDL)

            • Explain concept of Wasteload
              Allocation (WLA)
            • Summarize statistical approach to
              developing water quality-based
              effluent limitations
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                           6A-1

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Module 6A
          Standards to Permits Process
                    Standards-to-Permits Process
                    Develop Technology-
                    Based Unite for All
                      Pollutants of
                      Concern (POC)
                                      Calculate WQ-Based
                                      Wasteload Allocation
                                          (WLA)
                                             [Continued
                                                             Plac* Technology-
                                                           Based Limits in NPOES
                                                             Permits or collect
                                                               more data
                    Standards-to-Permits Process
                   	     (Continued)	
                                    Calculate WQ-Based
                                       Allocation
                                      Uso statistical
                                    procedure to develop
                                    Long Term Average
                                        tLTA>
                                  UM statistical procedure to
                                 develop Maximum OaMy Limit
                                  (MOL) and Avwage Monthly
                                      UmK(
Average R
HUAML)
                  Place Water
                Qualtty-Based limits
m                     _-.__-,»*
                     ponnn
                Ptac6 Technotogy-
                  Bss6d limits
                   in Pwinit
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                         6A-2

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Module 6A
Standards to Permits Process
          Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)
              CWA Section 303(d)(1)
              - Requires States to identify waters that
                will not achieve water quality
                standards after implementation of
                technology-based limits
              - States rank identified waters based on
                severity of pollution and uses
              - Requires TMDL for priority waters
           Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)
                         (Continued)
              Used as a tool for implementing
              water quality standards
              Defined as the amount of a pollutant
              that may be discharged into a
              waterbody and still meet water
              quality standard
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                            6A-3

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Module 6A
Standards to Permits Process
                   Components of TMDL
                             • Wasteload allocations (WLAs)
                               are assigned to each point
                               source discharge

                             • Load allocations (LAs) are
                               assigned to nonpoint sources

                             • WLAs and LAs are
                               established so that predicted
                               receiving water
                               concentrations do not exceed
                               water quality criteria

             Use of Water Quality-Based Effluent
                          Limitations
              Water quality-based limitations are
              used when it has been determined
              that more stringent limits than
              technology-based effluent limits
              must be applied to a discharge in
              order to protect "designated use" of
              the receiving waters.
              (40CFR§122.44(d)(1))
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                              6A-4

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Module 6A
Standards to Permits Process
                    Reasonable Potential
                   40 CFR §122.44(d)(l)(i)
              Limitations must be established in
              permits to control all pollutants or
              pollutant parameters that are or may
              be discharged at a level which will
              cause, have reasonable potential to
              cause, or contribute to an excursion
              above any state water quality
              standard.
          Reasonable Potential Decision Criteria
              • Cause
              • Reasonable Potential to Cause
              • Contribute
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                            6A-5

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Module 6A                             Standards to Permits Process
                Reasonable Potential Analysis
                    Without Effluent Data
             •  Effluent Variability
                - Compliance history
                - History of toxic impacts
             •  Point/nonpoint source controls
                - Existing treatment technology
                - Type of industry or POTW
                - Best Management Practices (BMPs)
            Reasonable Potential Analysis Without
                   Effluent Data (Continued)
              • Species Sensitivity
                 - In-stream data
                 - Adopted water quality criteria and
                   designated uses
              • Dilution
                 - Critical receiving water flow
                 - Mixing zones
NPOES Permit Writers Training Course
                              6A-6

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Module 6A
Standards to Permits Process
              Reasonable Potential Analysis With
                   Effluent Monitoring Data
                 Must consider uncertainty
                 associated with sparse data sets
                 and effluent variability
              Reasonable Potential Analysis with
                         Effluent Data
                    Lognormal Distribution
                           Coefficient of Variation (CV)
                         Long!
                         Average
                         (LTA)
                   Concentration
  Projected Maximum
  Expected Value
                                                   &EFA
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                               6A-7

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Module 6A
Standards to Permits Process
              Reasonable Potential Analysis
Projected Maximum
Effluent
Concentration


Water Quality
Model


Projected Receiving
Water
Concentration (Cr)
                  Determining the Need
            If Cr > State WQ criterion, then need to
            establish a WQ-based limit.
            If Cr < State WQ criterion, then no need
            to establish a WQ-based limit.
NPOES Permit Writers Training Course
                             6A-8


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Module 6 A
              Standards to Permits Process
               Determining the Need for Water
                Quality-Based Effluent Limits
            Criteria
  Type of Limit
 Regulatory Cite
        Chemical-specific
        WET numeric
        Narrative
Chemical specific


WET


WET or
Chemical specific
40CFR
40CFR
§122.44(d)(l)(iv)

40CFR
§122.44(d)(l)(v-vi)
            TMDL-Based Wasteload Allocation
                             WLA = portion of the
                             receiving water's total
                             maximum daily load
                             (TMDL) that is allocated to
                             a specific point source
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                              6A-9

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Module 6A
          Standards to Permits Process
           Facility-Specific Wasteload Allocation
          WLA = the maximum allowable pollutant
          concentration in the effluent from ABC, Inc.
          which, after accounting for available
          dilution, will meet water quality standards

          in-stream
            Developing Wasteload Allocations


              Models can help determine pollutant
              loadings that will not violate water
              quality criteria.

                        Environmental
                         Conditions
          Pollutant
            Load
                            1
MODEL
 Receiving
Water Quality
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                             6A-10

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Module 6A
Standards to Permits Process
         Maximum Daily and Average Monthly Limits
               40 CFR §122.45(d) requires all permit
               limits (unless impracticable) be
               expressed as:
                - Average weekly and average monthly limits
                  for POTWs (EPA recommends a maximum
                  daily limit rather than an average weekly limit
                  for water quality-based permitting)
                - Maximum daily and average monthly limits
                  for other dischargers
                   •  How do we use the wasteload allocation
                     to develop water quality-based effluent
                     limits?
           Goal is to Reduce Effluent Concentrations
                        to Below the WLA
                                       WLA
                           Concentration
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                6A-11

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Module 6A
Standards to Permits Process
           This Distribution Achieves the Goal
                                      WLA
                          Concentration
              We Can Characterize the Desired
                Distribution by LTA and CV
                         LTA           WLA
                         Concentration
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                             6A-12

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Module 6A
Standards to Permits Process
            We Can Determine the Effluent Limits
                  Based Upon the Distribution
                           LTA       AML   MOL
                            Concentration
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                               6A-13

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6 A-14

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                                  MODULE # 6B
                     Introduction to Water Quality Modeling
OVERALL OBJECTIVES:

   4-  Provide an overview of modeling methods and considerations

   *  Define mixing zones

   *  Describe the general considerations for implementing water quality standards

   +  Describe types and uses of water quality models
LOGISTICS:

Presentation Format: Lecture
Approximate Presentation Time: 60 minutes
Review Questions/Exercise:  None
Applicable Statutory and Regulatory Citations:

      CWA Section 303(d)        Identification of water quality-limited water bodies
      CWA Section 303(e) (3)(A)   Requirement for water quality-based effluent limits
      CWA Section 304(1)         Individual Control Strategies for Toxic Pollutants
      40 CFR §130.7
Total maximum daily loads (TMDL) and individual water
quality-based effluent limitations

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Module 68
Introduction to Water Quality Modeling
                  Introduction to Water
                    Quality Modeling
                   Learning Objectives
               Introduce modeling principles
               Explain concept of "mixing zone"
               Define steady state and dynamic
               models
                                              vvEPA
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                            6B-1

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Module 6B                       Introduction to Water Quality Modeling
                       Why Use Models?

              Models can help determine pollutant loadings
              that will not violate water quality criteria
                          Environmental
                            Conditions
Pollutant	.      ..  . .
  Load   	>     Model
               t
  hReceh
Water 0
     t
                                             Water Quality
                                                    Yes
             Decision Tree for Model Selection


        Do water quality standards allow consideration of dilution?

                  No /                  \ Yes
           No model necessary          Determine level of
                                        dilution allowed by
                                      water quality standards
                                               I
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course

                                6B-2

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Module 6B
Introduction to Water Quality Modeling
                     Allowable Dilution
            • Clean Water Act does not require
              attaining water quality criteria at the point
              of discharge
            • States have discretion to allow dilution
            • States should specify any conditions on
              dilution allowances as part of their water
              quality standards
                     Allowable Dilution
              Water Quality Standards often allow
                dilution ...
              • up to 100% of critical flow if rapid
                and complete mixing
              • within a limited mixing zone if
                incomplete mixing
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                              6B-3

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Module 6B
                                Introduction to Water Quality Modeling
              Decision Tree for Model Selection
                            (Continued)
                                 _

                    Is there rapid and complete mixing?
                 YeS|/                    \^ NO
          Complete mix assessment     Incomplete mix assessment
          Are resources available
        for dynamic modeling and is
        a dynamic model desirable?
           No /       ^Yes
                                            \
                                    Are resources available
                                  for dynamic modeling and is
                                  a dynamic model desirable?
                                     No /
        Steady state Dynamic model    Steady state Dynamic model
          model
                                      model
           What is Rapid and Complete Mixing?


          •  Rapid and complete mixing occurs when
             lateral variation in concentration in the
             direct vicinity of the outfall is small
             (e.g., less than 5%)

          •  Potential occurrences include:
             -  Effluent dominated systems (effluent flow
                greater than stream flow)
             -  Diffuser located across eintire stream width
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                               6B-4

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Module 6B
Introduction to Water Quality Modeling
               Rapid and Complete Mixing
                         < 5% variation in concentration
           Examples of Allowable Dilution in Rapid
                 and Complete Mix Situations
               • 100%of1Q10 low flow
               • 50% of 7Q10 low flow
               * 25% of 7Q2 low flow or 1 cfs,
                 whichever is greater
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                            6B-5

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Module 6B
Introduction to Water Quality Modeling
                     Incomplete Mixing
                 Incomplete Mix Assessment
                 Field Studies
                 - Actual measurement of instream
                   contaminant concentrations
                 - Dye studies
                 Modeling
                 - Calibrated to actual observations
                 - Simulate critical conditions
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                              6B-6

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Module 6B
Introduction to Water Quality Modeling
                 Regulatory Mixing Zones
             •  Definition
                - A limited area or volume of water
                   where initial dilution of a discharge
                   takes place and where water quality
                   criteria can be exceeded

             •  Constraints
                - Cannot impair integrity of the
                   waterbody
                - No significant health risks
                - No lethality to passing organisms  ,
            Regulatory Mixing Zones (Continued)
                  Outfall
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                               6B-7

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Module 6B                     Introduction to Water Quality Modeling
          Examples of Regulatory Mixing Zones

            •  < 1/4 of stream width and 1/4 mile
               downstream
            •  <1/2 stream width and longitudinal limit
               of 5 X stream width
            •  Default dilution of no more than 10% of
               critical flow
            •  No more than 5% of the lake surface
            •  Default of no more than 4:1 dilution for
               lake discharges
                    Steady State Model
               Predicts the magnitude of pollutant
               concentration for a single set of
               environmental conditions
               Used when complete data are not
               available
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course

                             6B-8

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Module 6B
Introduction to Water Quality Modeling
               Steady State Model (Continued)
             Assume "critical conditions" for
             flow, pollutant concentrations and
             environmental effects
             Choose conditions that reflect the
             duration and frequency concerns for
             the applicable criteria
               Steady State Model (Continued)
           Example Critical Condition:
           Dilution Flow
             Acute Toxicity:
             Chronic Toxicity:
             Human Health:
 1Q10 low flow
 7Q10 low flow
 Harmonic mean flow,
 30Q5 low flow
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                            6B-9

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Module 6B                     Introduction to Water Quality Modeling
                     Dynamic Model
            • Used when adequate data are
              available to estimate frequency
              distribution of effluent quality
            • Accounts for daily variations of and
              relationships between effluent,
              receiving water, and environmental
              conditions
                Dynamic Model (Continued)
                Variability in model inputs

                Results are expressed as a
                probability of exceeding criteria
                instead of a single value
                - Continuous simulation
                - Monte Carlo simulation
                - Log-normal analysis
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course

                            6B-10

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Module 6B
     Introduction to Water Quality Modeling
             Steady State Complete Mix Assessment
             Mass-Balance Equation: QdCd + QsCs = QrCr
             «• Q = Flow (mgd or cfs)
             • C = Pollutant concentration (mg/l)
             *• Mass - [Concentration] [Flow]
                     Mass-Balance Equation
                      QdCd + QsCs = QrCr
                        Cd
QrCr - QsCs
    Qd
            Cr =  applicable water quality criterion

            Qs =  receiving water flow available for dilution
                 as specified in water quality standards
                 (e.g., 50% of 7Q10 low flow)
                           EPA
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                 6B-11

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Module 6B
Introduction to Water Quality Modeling
                Incomplete Mix Assessment
           What if the applicable water quality criterion = 4.0 pg/l?
                             Natural Mixing
                             WQS Regulatory Mixing Zone
         Considerations in Water Quality Modeling

             • Applicable water quality standards
               and implementation procedures
                -  Criteria and designated uses
                -  Critical receiving wateir flows or
                   volumes
                -  Allowable dilution
             • Discharge characteristics
                -  Flow rate
                -  Pollutant concentrations
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                               6B-12

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Module 6B
Introduction to Water Quality Modeling
           Considerations in Water Quality Modeling
                                (Continued)
              Receiving water characteristics
               -  Pollutant concentrations (i.e., background)
               -  Stream flow

              Pollutant characteristics
               -  Type of pollutant
                  •  Non-conservative: mitigated by natural stream dilution and
                    degradation in the receiving stream (e.g., ammonia,
                    bacteria)
                  •  Conservative: mitigated by natural stream dilution
                    (e.g., heavy metals)
               -  Reaction rates
                         Why Use Models?
                             Environmental
                               Conditions
Pollutant 	
Load
t
Model
• Dnrln/*a 1 narl _
                                             No
               Receiving
              Water Quality
                   *
              Compliance
              with Criteria?
                   J Yes
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                    6B-13

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                                  MODULE # 6C

        Developing Chemical-Specific Water Quality-Based Effluent Limits


 OBJECTIVES:

   *  Define requirements for determining reasonable potential

   *  Explain the types of calculations required for developing water quality-based effluent
      limits

   *  Identify data requirements and considerations when developing limits for specific
      compounds

   »  Explain Technical Support Document statistical approach to permit limit development

LOGISTICS:

Presentation Format: Lecture, practical exercise
Approximate Presentation Time: 90 minutes
Review Questions/Exercise: 2 exercises/20 minutes each
Applicable Statutory and Regulatory Citations:

      CWA Section 301(b)(l)(C)    Effluent Limitations Compliance Dates

      40 CFR §122.44(d)           Water quality standards and State requirements

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Module 6C  Developing Chemical-Specific Water Quality-Based Effluent Limits
           Developing Chemical-Specific Water
               Quality-Based Effluent Limits
                                               vvEPA
                    Learning Objectives
             • Review process for determining
               "reasonable potential"
             • Discuss procedures for calculating
               wasteload allocations
             • Explain steps for translating a
               wasteload allocation into water
               quality-based effluent limits
 NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                             6C-1

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Module 6C  Developing Chemical-Specific Water Quality-Based Effluent Limits
                      Standards-to-Permits Process
                     Develop Technology-
                      Based Limits for All
                        Pollutants of
                       Concern (POC)
                                            Is there
                                          "Reasonable
                                           Potential"?
Ha* a TMOL been
developed for the
   POC?
 Place Technotogy-
BasedUmits In NPDES
 Permits or collect
    more data
                                       Calculate WQ-Based
                                       Wasteload Allocation
                                            (WLA)
                                              . Continued
                     Standards-to-Permits Process
                     	(Continued)	
                                     Calculate WQ-Ba*ed
                                        Wastaload
                                        Allocation
                                       U»e statistical
                                     procedure to develop
                                      Long Term Average
                                          (tTAl
                                   Use statistical procedure to
                                   develop Maximum Dally Limit
                                   (MDL) and Average Monthly
                                        Limit (AML)
                    Place Water
                 QualHy-Based llmtts
                     in permit
                                    Place Technotogy-
                                      BasedUmtts
                                       In Permit
 NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                          6C-2

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Module 6C  Developing Chemical-Specific Water Quality-Based Effluent Limits
                 Determining the Need for Water
                  Quality-Based Effluent Limits

Criteria
Chemical-specific
WET numeric
Narrative
Type of Limit
Chemical-specific
WET
WET or
Chemical specific
Regulatory Cite
40CFR
40CFR
§122.44(d)(1)(iv)
40CFR
§122.44(d)(1)(v-vi)
&EPA
                     Mass-Balance Equation
                      QdCd + QsCs = QrCr
        Note:
             • Q a Flow (mgd or cfs)
             • c = Pollutant concentration (mg/l)
             • Mass = [Concentration] [Flow]
             • QdCd + QsCs = QrCr
             • To determine pollutant concentration in the stream:
                        Cr = QdCd + QsCs
 NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                6C-3

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Module 6C  Developing Chemical-Specific Water Quality-Based Effluent Limits
              Is There Reasonable Potential to Exceed
                     Water Quality Standards?
           Qs     = Upstream river flow (1Q10)
           Qd     = Discharge flow
           Cs     = Upstream river concentration
           Cd     = Discharge concentration
           Water Quality Standard (acute criterion)
           Cr     =  QdCd + Qs Cs = (0.31 U 1.5) +(1.21(0.81
                          Qr             1.2 + 0.31
           Cr     = 0.94 mg/l
            1.2cfs
            0.31 cfs
            0.8 mg/l
            1.5 mg/l
            1.0 mg/l
                FPA
             Projecting a Maximum Value for Cd

               •  We must consider
                   - Effluent variability - defined by the
                     coefficient of variation (CV)
                   - Uncertainty due to a limited number of data
                     points
                   - Desired upper-bound of the expected
                     lognormal distribution
                       5 I
                       s o
                       n 3
                       "5 v
                       & £
Cd (Maximum)
Projected
                               Concentration
 NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                   6C-4

-------
Module 6C  Developing Chemical-Specific Water Quality-Based Effluent Limits
                       Statistical Approach
           Selected Percent! le
            -  What is the upper bound value of the discharge
               pollutant concentration that we want to
               determine?
                 99th percentile?
                 95th percentile?
                 Other?
                                                   Cd (Maximum)
                                                   Projected
                       Statistical Approach
            • Confidence Level
               - What confidence level do we want for our
                 upper bound value?
                  •  99% confidence?
                  •  95% confidence?
                  •  Other?
               - At the 99% confidence level:
                  •  the largest value of 5 samples is greater than
                    the 40th percentile
                  •  the largest value of 330 samples is greater than
                    the 99th percentile
 NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                 6C-5

-------
Module 6C Developing Chemical-Specific Water Quality-Based Effluent Limits
             Projecting a Maximum Value for Cd
               How do you determine Cd with a
               99% confidence level at the 99%
               upper bound?
                - Options:
                   1) Take the maximum value of 330 or more
                     samples
                   2) Project a maximum value from existing
                     data using a multiplier
           Reasonable Potential Multiplying Factors
(99% Confidence Level and 99% Probability Basis)
Sample
Number
N
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
0-2
2.5
2.0
1.9
1,7
1.7
1.6
1.6
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.3
0.4
6.0
4.0
3.3
2.9
17
2.5
2.4
2.3
12
2J
2.1
2.0
2.0
2.0
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.1
1.1
0.6
13.2
7.4
5.6
4.7
4.2
3.1
3.6
3.3
3.2
3.0
2.9
2.1
2.7
2.6
2.6
2.5
2.S
2.4
2.4
2.3
Coefficient of Variation
0.8
26.5
117
1.9
7.2
6-2
5JS
5.0
4.6
4.3
4.1
3.9
S.7
3.8
3.4
3.3
3.2
3.1
3.0
3.0
2.9
1.0
41.3
20L2
13.4
10.3
8.6
7.5
6.7
6.1
S.7
5.4
10
4.7
4.5
4.3
4.1
4.0
3.1
3.7
3.6
3.5
1-2
11.4
30.3
19.0
14.2
11.5
9.1
8.7
7.1
7.1
6.6
6.2
5.1
5.5
5.2
5.0
4.8
4.6
4.4
4.3
4.2
1.4
126.0
43.0
25.7
11.1
14.1
12.4
10.9
9.6
1.7
1.0
7.4
7.0
6-S
6.2
5.9
5.6
5.4
5.2
5.0
4.1
1.6
190.3
51.4
33.5
23.6
18.4
15.3
13.1
11.6
10.4
9.5
1.1
1.1
7.8
7.2
6.1
6.5
6.2
5.9
3.7
5.5
1.8
269.9
76.6
42.3
29.1
22.4
11.3
15.6
13.6
12.2
11.0
10.1
9.4
1.7
8-2
7.7
7.3
7.0
6.7
6.4
6.1
2.0
361.3
97.5
52.0
35.1
26.5
21.5
11.2
15.1
14.0
12.6
11.5
10.6
9.9
9.2
1.7
8-2
7.8
7.4
7.1
** oEFV\
SC-12
 NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                               6C-6

-------
Module 6C  Developing Chemical-Specific Water Quality-Based Effluent Limits
             Projecting a Maximum Value for Cd
            Re-examine data for ABC,  Inc.
               Number of samples (n)
               CV

               Maximum Observed Value
               of Effluent Concentration (Cd)
               Projected Maximum Value of Cd
                        = 8
                          0.6 (default value if
                          n<10

                          1.5mg/l
                          1.5 mg/l x multiplier
                          1.5mg/lx3.3
                          5.0 mg/l
                  Is There Reasonable Potential to
                 Exceed Water Quality Standards?
              Qs

              Qd

              Cs
              Cd

              Cr
Upstream river flow             1Q10
Discharge flow

Upstream river concentration
Maximum observed discharge concentration
Water Quality Standard (Acute Criterion)
QdCd + QsCs
    Qr
1.2cfs

0.31 cfs
0.8 mg/l
1.5 mg/l
1.0 mg/l
                                                       AEPA
 NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                  6C-7

-------
Module 6C  Developing Chemical-Specific Water Quality-Based Effluent Limits


          Is There Reasonable Potential to Exceed Water
                   Quality Standards? (Continued)


           •  Projected maximum Cd  =: 1.5 mg/l x 3.3
                                         =: 5.0 mg/l

           +  Cr  = (0.31 )(5.0) + (1.2)(0.8)
                          1.2 + 0.31

                  = 1.7 mg/l

               1.7 mg/l > 1.0 mg/l (WQS - Acute criterion)
         What is the maximum allowable pollutant concentration
          in the ABC, Inc. effluent assuming complete mixing?
           Qs  = Upstream river flow

           Qd  = Discharge flow
           Cs  = Upstream river cone.
           Cr  = Water Quality Criterion
                 Acute
                 Chronic
           Cd  = CrtQd + Qs) - CsQs
                      Qd
1Q10  = 1.2 cfs
7Q10  = 3.6 cfs
     = 0.31 cfs
     = 0.8 mg/l
     = 1.0 mg/l (applied at 1Q10)
     = 0.9 mg/l (applied at 7Q10)
                                 Cd(acute)  = 1.8 mg/l
                                 Cd(chronic) = 2.1 mg/l
 NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                  6C-8

-------
Module 6C Developing Chemical-Specific Water Quality-Based Effluent Limits
             Steps in Developing Chemical-Specific
              Water Quality-Based Effluent Limits
              Acute and Chronic Wasteload Allocations (WLAs)
                               T
          Step 1: Calculate Long-Term Average (LTA) for Both WLAs
                      Step 2: Select Lowest LTA
              Step 3: Calculate Maximum Daily Limit (MDL) and
             	Average Monthly Limit (AML)	
                   Stepl:  Calculate LTAs
             • Wasteload allocation (WLA) is
               "never to be exceeded"
             • Assume a log normal effluent
               distribution
             • Characterize "never to be exceeded"
               by a probability (e.g., WLA is the
               99th percentile concentration on the
               log normal effluent distribution)
 NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                               6C-9

-------
Module 6C  Developing Chemical-Specific Water Quality-Based Effluent Limits
           Goal is to Reduce Effluent Concentrations
                       to Below the WLA
                                     wuv
                          Concentration
            This Distribution Achieves the Goal
                                         WLA
                            Concentration
 NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                               6C-10

-------
Module 6C  Developing Chemical-Specific Water Quality-Based Effluent Limits


                  We Can Characterize the Desired
         	Distribution by LTA and CV	
                                LTA
                                 Concentration
WLA


cv

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
O.S
0.8
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
WLA multipliers
glP-S^-K]
9Sth
pcrcantite
O.S53
0.7%
0.644
O.S71
0.514
0.468
0.432
0.403
0.379
0.360
0.344
0.330
0.319
0.310
0.302
0.296
0.290
0.285
0.281
0.277
99th
per centals
0.797
0.643
O.SZ7
0.440
0.373
0.321
0.281
0.249
0.224
0.204
0.187
0.174
0.162
0.153
0.144
0.137
0.131
0.126
0.121
0.117
                                                Acute
                                    where: a =/n[CV*+1]
                                          z = 1.645 for 95th percentile
                                            occurrence probability, and
                                          z = 2.326 for 99th percentile
                                            occurrence probability
 NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                    6C-11

-------
Module 6C  Developing Chemical-Specific Water Quality-Based Effluent Limits

0,

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
WLA multipliers
ep.Sc42.za4J
95lh
percentile
0.322
0.853
0.791
0.736
0.687
0.644
0.606
0.571
0.541
0.514
0.490
0.468
0.449
0.432
0.417
0.403
0.390
0.379
0.369
0.360
99th
pefcentile
0.891
0.797
0.715
0.643
0.581
0-527
0.481
0.440
0.404
0.373
0.345
0.321
0.300
0.281
0.264
0.249
0.236
0.224
0-214
0.204
                                              Chronic
                                           (4-day average)
                                  where: o4 = Art[CW4 + 1]
                                       z = 1 .{45 for 95th percentile
                                          occurrence probability, and

                                       z = 2.326 for 99th percentile
                                          occurrence probability
                   Step 2: Select Lowest LTA
            • Protects both WLAs (acute and chronic)
            • Sets one basis for facility performance
 NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                  6C-12

-------
Module 6C  Developing Chemical-Specific Water Quality-Based Effluent Limits
           Because There Are Two LTAs, We Need
           	  to Use the More Stringent	
             o
             c
             Q)
             4)
             _>
             75
             "3
                        LTAa LTAc
                         Concentration
WLAa WLAc
             Step 3: Calculate MDL and AML
               Allows comparison to technology-
               based limits
               Uses upper-bound estimates for
               both MDL and AML
               Ties AML to planned frequency of
               monitoring
 NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                             6C-13

-------
Module 6C  Developing Chemical-Specific Water Quality-Based Effluent Limits
            We Can Characterize the Upper Bounds of
                 the Effluent from the LTA and CV
                               LTA        AMI.  MDL
                               Concentration
          Maximum Daily Limit (MDL)
          MDL=LTA.eIzo
          where: o s
               z = 1.645 for 95th percentile
                  occurrence probability, and

               z = 2.326 for 99th percentile
                  occurrence probability



CV

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.2
1.4
1.S
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
LTA multipliers
[10 -O.SoJJ
e
9Sth
percentile
1.17
1.38
1.5S
1.75
1,95
2.13
2.31
2M
2.64
2.78
2.91
3.03
3.13
3-23
3.31
3.38
3.45
3.51
3.56
3.60
99Hl
percenfile
1.25
1.55
1.90
2.27
2.68
3.11
3.S6
4.01
4.4S
4.90
5.34
5.78
6.17
6.56
6.93
7.29
7.63
7.9S
B.26
8.SS
 NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                   6C-14

-------
Module 6C  Developing Chemical-Specific Water Quality-Based Effluent Limits
          Average Monthly Limit
          where: on2=/n[CWn-H].
                z = 1.645 for 95th percentile
                  occurrence probability, and
                z = 2.326 for 99th percentile
                  occurrence probability
                n = number of samples/month.
cv
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
O.T
OJ
0.1
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.1
1.4
15
1.6
1.7
1.1
1.9
2.0
LTA multipliers
eK-'-SO
95th percentile
n=1
1.17
t.M
\M
1.7$
1.56
2.11
2.31
2M
2.<4
2.71
2.91
1.03
1.11
1.23
1J1
3.M
1.4S
U1
3.56
i.eo
n=2
1.12
US
1.31
1.52
1.66
1.90
1.94
2.07
2.20
2J3
2.45
i56
2.67
2.77
IK
2.95
1.01
3.10
3.17
1.21
11=4
1.M
1.17
US
1JC
1.4S
155
1.W
1.75
1JI
1.95
2.04
2.13
Z.23
2.11
2.40
2.4>
15*
2,«4
2.71
2.7«
nM
t.K
1.12
1.11
1.25
1.31
1.3t
1.4S
1.S!
1.S9
1.68
1.73
i.«g
1.»7
1.S4
iX
2.07
2.14
2JO
2J7
2.M
n-M
1.01
1.W
1.0>
1.12
1.16
1.11
1.22
1JS
1.29
1.19
1.M
1.19
1/U
147
1.W
1^4
1J7
1.tt
1.«4
1.«
99th p«rc*ntll«
n-1
1JS
1.5S
1.90
2J7
2.M
J.11
IjSC
4A1
44«
4.90
5J4
S.7C
(.17
tit
t.93
7J9
7.63
7.H
•J«
154
n-2
1.1«
1J7
1J9
143
2-M
2J7
2.W
2.W
3J>
3J9
1.91
4^3
44*
4M
5.17
5.47
S.7T
6.0*
1.34
C.t1
B-4
1.12
1JS
1.40
1i5
1.72
1.90
2.01
2.27
2.4»
2.6»
2.90
3.11
3.J4
1M
3.7«
4.01
4JJ
4.M
4.H
4.90
n*10
1.M
1 16
1J4
1J3
1.42
1j52
162
1.73
1.W
1.9C
2.07
2.19
2.32
2.45
IM
2.71
2.M
2.9)
1.12
1.2C
IVOO
1.O4
1.01
1.13
1.11
1.21
1J«
1.33
149
1.44
1.50
1.M
162
1.H
1.74
1,«0
147
193
2.00
2.07
114
                                                              SrFPA
                                  Example
                  Recall that we calculated the following WLAs:

                          Cd(acute)     -   1.8mg/l

                          Cd(chronic)   =   2.1 mg/l
                                                                 EPA
 NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                      6C-15

-------
Module 6C  Developing Chemical-Specific Water Quality-Based Effluent Limits
                      Stepl:  Calculate LTAs

cv


0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
WLA multipliers
gp-S^-a,]

95th
pcrcwitlc
0.853
0.736
0.644
0.571
0.514
0.468
0.432
0.403
0.379
0.360
0.344
0.330
0.319
0.310
0.302
0.296
0.290
0.285
0.281
0.277

99th
percentile
0.797
0.643
0.527
0.440
0.373
0.321
0.281
0.249
0.224
0.204
0.187
0.174
0.162
0.153
0.144
0.137
0.131
0.126
0.121
0.117
                                          Acute
                                   cv
                                   WLA(acute)
 = 0.6
                                   LTA(acute)  =
  1.8mg/l
  99th percentile value

  1.8mg/lx0.321
  0.58 mg/l
                      Stepl:  Calculate LTAs



cv

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
WLA multipliers
1 0.5 o2- is ]
e 44

95*
nmrfmntit*
pwcvniiiv
0.922
0.8SJ
0.791
0.736
0.687
0.644
0.606
O.S71
O.S41
0.514
0.490
0.468
0.449
0.432
0.417
0.403
0.390
0.379
0.369
0.360

99Hl
II •• 1 • n'*i*»
pocvnnw
0.891
0.797
0.715
0.643
0.561
0.527
0.461
0.440
0.404
0.373
0.345
0.321
0.300
0.2S1
0.264
0.249
0.236
0.224
0.214
0.204
                                CV

                                WLA(chronic)
                                             Chronic
= 0.6
                                LTA(chronic)  =
  2.1 mg/l
  99th percentile value

  2.1 mg/l x 0.527
  1.1 mg/l
 NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                   6C-16

-------
Module 6C Developing Chemical-Specific Water Quality-Based Effluent Limits
                 Step 2:  Select Lowest LTA
                  LTA(acute)  = 0.58 mg/l
                  LTA(chronic) = 1.1 mg/l
                  Select LTA(acute) =  0.58 mg/l
             Step 3:  Calculate MDL and AML


cv

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
i n
LTA multipliers
e [la -0.5
-------
Module 6C  Developing Chemical-Specific Water Quality-Based Effluent Limits
               Step 3:  Calculate MDL and AML
               	(Continued)
cv
0.1
OJ
0.)
0.4
0.5
04
0.7
O.I
0.1
1.0
1.1
ij
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.1
14
1.9
2.0
j LTA multipliers



e
fzo - 0.5o *
1 n n
95th percentite
nl
1.17
1.3S
1J*
1.75
1.M
2.13
2J1
2.4*
Z.H
2,7«
Ml
3.«3
3.13
3J3
3J1
J4»
34S
3J1
XK
3.60
n«2
1.11
1,25
1.34
1.52
1.6*
1.H
».94
2.07
2JO
2J3
US
ZM
2-«7
131
2.M
2.*5
3.03
3.tO
117
U3
0-4
1.0*
1.17
1J6
1.36
14S
1i5
1.M
1.7S
1.85
1.95
2.04
2.13
2-23
ZJ1
2JO
2M
tss
2.H
2.71
2.7>
n4
1JK
1.12
1.11
1.25
1J1
IJt
1JI
1^2
lit
1.«
1.73
1JO
1J7
1.M
2.00
2.07
2.14
2JO
227
2.33
n-3O
1.03
1.06
1.09
1.12
1.16
1.1*
1.22
1.26
1J9
1.33
1JC
1J9
143
147
1JO
1i4
1.S7
1.«1
1.M
1.M
]



99th percenlile
n-1
us
1^(
1.M
ur
2.6»
XII
3J4
4.01
4.4t
4.M
5J4
S.7(
*.17
tH
«-»3
7J»
7.<3
7J5
*J<
»J5
n>:
1.1(
1.17
149
1.13
2.09
2J7
1M
2M
3.2»
3.S9
3.91
423
43$
4.U
5.17
547
S.77
«.06
«J4
6.C1
C1-4
1.12
1J5
140
1J!
1.72
1M
ZJ»
2JT
24S
164
2.90
3.11
3J4
3Jt
3.7>
4.01
4.23
44<
4.M
4.90
»*10
1.01
1.1C
1.24
1.33
1.42
1.S1
1(2
1.71
1.M
l.ft
2.07
2.19
2J2
245
2^4
2.71
2J4
2.91
3.12
3.2C
n=M
1.04
1.01
1.13
118
1.23
13*
1J3
1J9
144
ISO
1.5C
1.C2
1.Ct
1.74
1M
1J7
1.93
2.00
2,07
2.14
                                                   AML


                                        Number of = 8 (assume twice-
                                        Samples     weekly sampling)

                                        CV       = 0.6

                                        AML      = 95th percentile value

                                        AML      = 0.58 mg/l x 1.38
                                                   = 0.80 mg/l
 NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                    6C-18

-------
                                   MODULE #6C-1

                               PRACTICAL EXERCISE

                      Determining the Need for Chemical-Specific,
                       Water Quality-Based Effluent Limitations
DIRECTIONS:
       You  are  a permit writer and have  received a  permit renewal  application from  a
       manufacturer.   The previous permit was  issued using effluent limits derived from
       technology-based effluent limitation guidelines. Since that time, the State has revised its
       water quality standards to ensure aquatic life protection.  Therefore, you must determine
       whether water quality-based limits are needed.
GIVEN:
             Cr = [(Cd)(Qd)
where:
         (Qd + Qs)

Cr = the receiving water concentration,
Cd = the effluent concentration,
Qd = the effluent flow,
Cs = the receiving water background concentration, and
Qs = the appropriate receiving water flow.
Water Quality Criteria:

Criteria for Aquatic Life Protection - Zinc

       Acute  = 120 ug/1   [Achieved at the 1-day, 10 year return frequency flow (1Q10)]
       Chronic = 110 ug/1   [Achieved at the 7-day, 10 year return frequency flow (7Q10)]

Effluent Data ffrom DMR):

       Qd = 7.06 cfs

Observed Concentrations:
       Cd(1)= 0.17 mg/1
       Cd(2)= 0.21 mg/1
             Cd(3) = 0.14 mg/1
             Cd(4) = 0.19 mg/1
CV = 0.6 (default value for < 10 observations)
                                       6C-19

-------
Receiving Water Data:
Illinois River
IQlOflow = 23.6cfs
7Q10 flow = 70.9 cfs

Receiving water background concentration (Cs) = 0.07 mg/1
Reasonable Potential Multiplier Table (Table 3-1 from Technical Support Document):
      Table 3-1. Reasonable Potential Multiplying Factors: 99% Confidence Level and 99% Probability Basis
Number of
SaVnple$
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16 *
17
18
19
20
Coefficient of Variation
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
1.6 2.5 3.9 6.0 9.0
1.4 2.0 2.9 4.0 5.5
1.4 1.9 2.5 3.3 4.4
1.3 1.7 2.3 2.9 3.8
1.3 1.7 2.1 2.7 3.4
1.3 1-6 2.0 2.5 3.1
1.3 1.6 2.0 2.4 2.9
1.2 .1.5 1.9 2.3 2.8
1.2 1.5 1.8 2.2 2.7
1.2 1.5 1.8 2.2 2.6
1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.5
1.2 1.4 1.7 2.0 2.4
1.2 1.4 1.7 2.0 2.3
1.2 1.4 1.7 2.0 2.3
1.2 1.4 1.6 1.9 2.2
1.2 1.4 1.6 1.9 2.2
1.2 1.4 1.6 1.9 2.1
1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.1
1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.1
1.2 1.3 1.6 1.8 2.0
0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
13.2 18.9 26.5 36.2 48.3
7.4 9.8 12.7 16.1 20.2
5.6 7.2 8.9 11.0 13.4
4.7 5.9 7.2 8.7 10.3
4.2 5.1 6.2 7.3 8.6
3.8 4.6 5.5 6.4 7.5
3.6 4.2 5.0 5.8 6.7
3.3 3.9 4.6 5.3 6.1
3.2 3.7 4.3 5.0 5.7
3.0 3.5 4.1 4.7 5.3
2.9 3.4 3.9 4.4 5.0
2.8 3.2 3.7 4.2 4.7
2.7 3.1 3.6 4.0 4.5
2.6 3.0 3.4 3.9 4.3
2.6 2.9 3.3 3.7 4.1
2.5 2.9 3.2 3.6 4.0
2.5 2.8 3.1 3.5 3.8
2.4 2.7 3.0 3.4 3.7
2.4 2.7 3.0 3.3 3.6
2.3 2.6 2.9 3.2 3.5
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
63.3 81.4 102.8 128.0 157.1
24.9 30.3 36.3 43.0 50.4
16.0 VJ.O 22.2 25.7 29.4
12.2 14.2 16.3 18.6 21.0
10.0 IT. 5 13.1. 14.8 16.6
8.6 <>.8 11.1 12.4 13.8
7.7 «.7 9.7 10.8 12.0
6.9 ;r.8 8.7 9.6 10.6
6.4 J.1 7.9 8.7 9.6
5.9 6.6 7.3 8.0 8.8
5.6 t-2 6.8 7.4 8.1
5.2 5.8 6.4 7.0 7.5
5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.1
4.8 5.2 5.7 6.2 6.7
4.6 5.0 5.4 5.9 6.4
4.4 48 5.2 5.6 6.1
4.2 46 5.0 5.4 5.8
4.1 4.4 4.8 5.2 5.6
4.0 4,3 4.6 5.0 5.3
3.8 4.2 4.5 4.8 5.2
1-6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0
90.3 227.8 269.9 316.7 368.3
58.4 67.2 76.6 86.7 97.5
33.5 37.7 42.3 47.0 52.0
23.6 26.3 29.1 32.1 35.1
18.4 20.4 22.4 24.5 26.6
15.3 16.8 18.3 19.9 21.5
13.1 14.4 15.6 16.9 18.2
11.6 12.6 13.6 14.7 15.8
10.4 11.3 12.2 13.1 14.0
9.5 10.3 11.0 11.8 12.6
8.8 9.4 10.1 10.8 11 J
8.1 8.8 9.4 10.0 10.6
7.6 8.2 8.7 9.3 9.f
7.2 7.7 8.2 8.7 9.2
6.8 7.3 7.7 8.2 8.7
6.5 6.9 7.3 7.8 8.2
6.2 6.6 7.0 7.4 .7.8
5.9 6.3 6.7 7.0 7.4
5.7 6.0 6.4 6.7 7.1
5.5 5.8 6.1 6.5 6.8
                                          6C-20

-------
(1)    Calculate a maximum projected value for the effluent concentration based on the observed
       values and the TSD "Reasonable Potential Multiplier Table" provided above.
       Maximum projected effluent concentration =
(2)    Calculate the projected receiving water concentrations (Cr) for zinc, using the mass balance
       equation and data supplied above, for comparison with both acute and chronic criteria.
       (a)  Zinc (acute)
(b) Zinc (chronic)
(3)    Compare the receiving water concentrations calculated in question (2) with the State Water
       Quality criteria for aquatic life protection. Which is larger?  What does this mean?  Do
       you need to set a water quality-based limit for zinc?	
(4)     What effect would a stream flow (QJ of 0 cfs have on the receiving water concentration?
       What about a stream flow of 1,000 cfs?  	
                                           6C-21

-------
6C-22

-------
                                   MODULE #6C-2

                               PRACTICAL EXERCISE

                             Calculating Chemical-Specific
                         Water Quality-Based Effluent Limits
DIRECTIONS:
       You are a permit writer  and have  received a permit  renewal  application from a
       manufacturer. The previous permit  was issued using  effluent limits derived from
       technology-based effluent limitation guidelines. Since that time, the State has revised its
       water quality standards to ensure aquatic life protection.  In the previous exercise, you
       determined that  this facility had a  "reasonable potential" to exceed State water quality
       criteria for zinc.  Using the data provided below, calculate the wasteload allocation for
       zinc.

GIVEN:            Cd = [Cr(Qd + Qs) - (CS)(QS)]
                             _


where:       Cd  = effluent discharge concentration = wasteload allocation (WLA)
             Cr = receiving water concentration,
             Cs = receiving water background concentration, and
             Qd  = effluent flow,
             Qs = appropriate  receiving water flow.
Water Quality Criteria:

Criteria for Aquatic Life Protection - Zinc

       Acute  =  120 ug/1  [Achieved at the 1-day, 10 year return frequency flow (1Q10)]
       Chronic =  110 ug/1  [Achieved at the 7-day, 10 year return frequency flow (7Q10)]

Effluent Data (from DMR):

       Qd = 7.06 cfs

Receivins Water  Data:
Illinois River
1Q10 flow = 23.6 cfs
7Q10 flow = 70.9 cfs

Receiving water background concentration (Cs) = 0.07 mg/1
                                        6C-23

-------
Tables 5-1 and 5-2 from Technical Support Document (TSQ):
                    TabteS.1. Bade Calculations of Long-Teim Average
cv
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
12
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
WLA Multipliers
(0.5 O2- *ff)
8
95th
PwnntiM
0.853
0.736
0.644
0.571
0.514
0.468
0.432
0.403
0.379
0.360
0.344
0.330
0.319
0.310
0.302
0298
0290
0285
0281
0277
9901
Pereantito
0.797
0.643
0.527
0.440
0.373
0.321
0281
0249
0224
0204
0.187
0.174
0.162
0.153
0.144
0.137
0.131
0.126
0.121
0.117
Acute
IT* tin 1 (°'S 02-Z<*J
LTA..c=WljVc-e
whe»o2=
-------
Table 5-2. Calculation of Permit Limits

CV

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
O.S
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
LTA multipliers
[20-0.5 o2]
95th
Percentile
1.17
1 36
1.55
1 75
1.95
2.13
2.3-
2.48
2.64
2.78
2.91
3.03
3.13
3.23
3.31
3.36
3.45
3.51
3.56 ,
3.60
99th
« Percentile
1.25
1.55
1.90
2.27
2.68
3.11
3.56
4.01
4.46
4.90
5.34
5.76
6.17
6.56
6.93
7.29
7.63
7.95
8.26
8.55


Maximum Daily Limit

[ 2 
-------
(1)    Calculate the wasteload allocations (WLA) for zinc using the equation and data supplied
      above.
(2)    Using the statistical methodologies recommended in the EPA Technical Support Document
      for Water Quality-based Controls (March 1991) calculate the long-term average (LTA),
      Maximum Daily Limit (MDL), and the Average Monthly Limit (AML)?

      [NOTE: Assume a CV=0.6; monitoring requirement of 4 samples per month; LTA
      percentile = 99%; MDL percentile = 99%; and AML percentile = 95%]
                                       6C-26

-------
(3)    Compare  the chemical  specific water quality-based limits calculated above with  the
       technology-based effluent limitations given below for Outfall 001.  In which case(s) is the
       water quality-based limit(s) less stringent?
       Pollutant
       Zinc
       Technology-Based Effluent Limitations

Maximum Daily Limit (MOD     Average Monthly Limit (AMD
       0.15mg/l
0.10mg/l
(4)    Discussion Question: How could a permit writer account for technology-based limitations
       prior to calculating water quality-based effluent limits for a specific chemical?  	
                                          6C-27

-------
6C-28

-------
                                  MODULE # 6D

                          Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET)
OVERALL OBJECTIVES:

   «•  Discuss the applicability and uses of whole effluent toxicity (WET)

   «•  Describe WET test endpoints

      •  Acute
      •  Chronic

   *  Explain the use of toxicity units

   •»  Define acute-to-chronic ratio

   *  Describe WET test methods

   *  Describe the purpose of toxicity reduction evaluations


LOGISTICS:

Presentation Format: Lecture
Approximate Presentation Time:  45 minutes
Review Questions/Exercise:  None
Applicable Statutory and Regulatory Citations:

      CWA Section 301(b)(l)(C)   Effluent Limitations Compliance Dates

      40 CFR §122.44(d)          Water quality standards and State requirements

-------

-------
Module 6D
Whole Effluent Toxicity
                Whole Effluent Toxicity
                   Learning Objectives
              Foster better understanding of scientific
              underpinnings of WET
               - Describe uses and iimitations
              Discuss WET implementation
              requirements
              Describe WET test methods
              Explain the purpose of toxicity reduction
              evaluations
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                             6D-1

-------
Module 6D                                 Whole Effluent Toxicity
               What is Whole Effluent Toxicity
              	(WET) Testing?
             Part of water quality-based toxics
             control approach

             Measures the aggregate toxic effect of
             effluent or ambient water
              - measures the response of exposed
                aquatic organisms
                        Why WET?
           • Allows for the protection of the
             narrative standard "no toxics in toxic
             amounts"
              - Implementation Policy
           • Integrated Approach to Water Quality-
             Based Toxics Control
              - Chemical specific approach
              - Biological criteria approach
              - Whole effluent toxicity approach
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course

                             6D-2

-------
Module 6D
Whole Effluent Toxicity
                       Acute Toxicity
              Acute Tests
              -  Test duration: 96 hours or less
              -  Endpoint: Mortality (expressed as LCso)
              -  Example: Pimephales promelas (fathead
                 minnow) 96 hour test
                      Chronic Toxicity
            •  Short-term Chronic Tests
               - Test duration: 1.5 hours (sea urchins)
                  to 9 days (sheepshead minnows)
               - Endpoint: Growth, reproduction, etc.,
                  (expressed as NOEC, LOEC, or IC2S)
               - Example:  Ceriodaphnia dubia (water
                  flea) 7-day reproduction test
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                              6D-3

-------
Module 6D
                                     Whole Effluent Toxicity
               Acute WET Statistical Endpoints:
                            Definitions
               - Concentration of effluent that is lethal to
                  50 percent of the exposed organisms
                   • uses a dilution series

               pass/fail
               - instream waste concentration (IWC) or
                  ambient toxicity test measured against a
                  control
                Example of Acute Test Data and
                        Statistical Analysis
100%     50%     25%     12.5%    «..25%     0%
                 y   _
                                                     % Effluent
                                                    Concentration
100%     80%     40%     20%
                                         0%
                                     0%   % Mortality
                   100
                §?
                s~
                So 10
                11
                fe c
                 o
                 O
                          UCso = 30%
                          20     40     60     80     100
                               Percent Mortality
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                 6D-4

-------
Module 6D
Whole Effluent Toxicity
                  Example of Pass/Fail Acute
                    Test at IWC or Ambient
             • Instream Waste Concentration (IWC)
               equals 75%

             • Statistical evaluation using student-t test
               compares mortality rates of ambient or
               IWC sample against the control
                - Is there a "significant statistical difference"?
                  IWC = 75%
                                       Lab Control
              Chronic WET Statistical Endpoints
          	(Hypothesis Testing)	

           * LOEC
              - Lowest Observed Effect Concentration
                (LOEC) - the lowest concentration of an
                effluent or a toxicant that results in
                observable adverse effects in the aquatic
                test organisms
           • NOEC
              - No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC) -
                the highest concentration of an effluent
                or a toxicant at which no adverse effects are
                observed on the aquatic test organisms A
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                               6D-5

-------
Module 6D
                             Whole Effluent Toxicity
               Example of Chronic Test Data
           100%
50%
25%
12.5%
                 u   u
                   13
        33
        33
6 25%
        33
0%
        33
 % Effluent
Concentration


# of young
(Total = 33)
I
o
•s
I.
s
1
z
I
M
3

35 -
30-
25-

20-
15-

10-

5-
. ^-HOEC





<-LOEC



10 100
Percent Effluent (log scale)
                                                     v>EPA
              Chronic WET Statistical Endpoints
           	(Point Estimates)    	


            Inhibition Cone. (ICp) / Effect Cone. (ECp)

            • a point estimate of the toxicant of effluent
              concentration that would cause:
               — (ICp) a given percent reduction in a nonlethal
                 biological measurement of the test organisms
                 (e.g., reproduction, growth)
               — (ECp) an observable adverse effect on a given
                 percentage of the test organisms (e.g., death,
                 immobilization)
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                6D-6

-------
Module 6D
                            Whole Effluent Toxicity
          100%
               Example of Determining an IC25
                   from Chronic Test Data
 50%
u
                 13
25%    12.5%    6.25%    0%
               33
              33
33
01
3
o
•5
81

1
3
•o
S
3
5*


35-
'
30-
25 -

20-

15-

10 -
5 -
0_



• • •

AICW




*



10 100
Percent Effluent (log scale)
 % Effluent
Concentration

# of young
(Totai = 33)
                                                 AEPA
               Considerations When Selecting
                   Toxicity Test Methods

               Approved acute and chronic
               methods found in 40 CFR Part 136
               Must determine:
               - Acute or chronic toxicity (based on
                 calculated limits or available dilution)
               - Fresh water or marine discharge
               - Most appropriate species (e.g., three
                 species quarterly for 1 year)
                                                 x-,EPA
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                              6D-7

-------
Module 6D                                 Whole Effluent Toxidty
           Options for Expressing WET Values

             •  Option A
                -  Use statistical end point (e.g., LCso,
                   NOEC, LOEC, or IC2s) directly
                   Example: LCso = 30% effluent
             •  Option B
                -  Use toxic units

                     TUa="^
                     TUc= NOEC
                 Examples of Toxk Units
                • Acute (TUa)
                   - Assuming LCso = 28%
                       TUa =--  *_-=: 3.6
                                   28
                • Chronic (TUc)
                   - Assuming NOEC = 50%
                       TUc =  100   =  100  =20
                       IUC   NOEC    50    ^°
                   - Assuming \Czs = 30%
                            -4?fi- = -4g?- -3.3
                             IC25      30
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                             6D-8

-------
Module 6D
Whole Effluent Toxicity
              Whole Effluent Toxicity Criteria
              Narrative - "no toxics in toxic amounts"

              Numeric  -  (TSD recommendations)
              - Acute =  0.3 TUa (e.g.,
                                       50
              - Chronic  =  1.0 TUc (e.g.,
               Whole Effluent Toxicity Criteria
                           (Continued)

           Applying toxicity criteria with allowable dilution:
                                            1.0 TUc
NP0ES Permit Writers Training Course
                               6D-9

-------
Module 6D                                     Whole Effluent Toxicity
               Steps in Developing WET Permit
                           Limitations
                     Acute and Chronic Wastetoad Allocations
                    Step 1: Convert Acute WLA into C Tronic WLA
                      	(WET only)	
                        Step 2: Calculate LTA for Etoth
                                 1
                          Step 3: Select Lowest LTA
                   Step 4: Calculate Maximum and Average Limits
             Definition of Acute-Chronic Ratio

               4- Acute-chronic ratio (ACR) - the ratio
                 of the acute toxicity of an effluent or
                 a toxicant to its chronic itoxicity

               • Calculated as the average of the
                 ratios between at least 10 pairs of
                 acute and chronic toxicity test
                 results for the same species
               • Default ACR = 10 in the absence of
                 data to develop an ACR
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course

                                6D-10

-------
Module 6D
                 Whole Effluent Toxicity
                Example ACR Calculations
           Using test results expressed as percent effluent:
                        _ LCso  _ .65% _
                          NOEC    25%
           Using test results expressed as toxic units:
                    ACR-
                    ACR~
TUa
                                   1.5
                       Why an ACR?
            •  Acute and chronic toxicity test results
               are not directly comparable
            •  ACR is a factor for estimating chronic
               toxicity on the basis of acute toxicity
               data, or for estimating acute toxicity on
               the basis of chronic toxicity data
            •  Allows expression of toxicity results or
               requirements in the same units
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                              6D-11

-------
Module 6D
             Whole Effluent Toxicity
                         Example Step 1
              WLAa = 1.5TUa
WLAc = 16TUc
              Observed ACR = 8.0


              WLAa c  = Acute WLA expressed in TUc


              WLAa>c  = WLAa x ACR

                                       Til*. »
                                            = 12 TUc
               Steps in Developing WET Permit
                           Limitations
                     Acute and Chronic WasteJoad Allocations
                                 I
               J
                    Stepl: Convert Acute WLA into Chronic WLA  I
                              (WET only)             |
                        Step 2: Calculate LTA for Both
                          Step3: Select Lowest LTA
                   Step 4: Calculate Maximum and Average Limits
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                6D-12

-------
Module 6D
Whole Effluent Toxicity
              Toxicity Reduction Evaluations
              What is a TRE?
                -Procedures for investigating the
                causes and identifying corrective
                actions for effluent toxicity problems

              Why are TREs necessary?
                -Achieve compliance with limits or
                requirements for effluent toxicity
                contained in NPDES permits
         Toxicity Reduction Evaluations (Continued)


           • How are TREs performed?

           • Site-specific study designed to:
              - Identify the causative agents of effluent
                toxicity
              - Isolate the sources of the toxicity
              - Evaluate the effectiveness of toxicity
                control options
              - Confirm the reduction in effluent toxicity
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                             6D-13

-------
Module 6D                                Whole Effluent Toxicity
            Mechanisms for Requiring TREs
           • Special conditions in NPDES permit
           • Section 308 letter
           • Section 309 Administrative Order or
             a Consent Decree
                  Permits Must Specify
                • Test species and method
                • Testing frequency
                • Statistical end points
                • Steps to address toxicity
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                           6D-14

-------
 Module 6D
Whole Effluent Toxicity
                           WET Example
                   Developing WET Effluent Limits
                                                         &EPA
         What is the Maximum Allowable Whole Effluent Toxicity for
             the ABC, Inc. Effluent Assuming Complete Mixing?
          Qs    = Upstream river flow
          1Q10  = 1.2 cfs
          7Q10  = 3.6 cfs
          Qd    = Discharge flow = 0.31 cfs
          Cs    = Upstream river concentration = 0 TUc
          Cr    = Water quality criteria
                Acute - 0.3 TUa applied at 1Q10 low flow
                Chronic = 1.0 TUc applied at 7Q10 low flow
      vvEPA
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                   6D-15

-------
Module 6D                                  Whole Effluent Toxicity
                         Acute WLA
                       . Cr(Qd + Qs) - CsQs
                                Qd
             Cd Acute  = 0.3 (0.31+ 1.2]* -(0X1.2)
                                 0.31
             Cd Acute  = WLAa  = 1.5 TUa
                       Chronic WLA
                                                 v>EPA
             Cd         -  Cr(Qd + Qs) - CsQs
                                   Qd

             Cd chronic =   1.0(0-31+3-6)-(0)(3.6)
                                    0.31
             Cd chronic =  WLAC = 13TUc
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course

                              6D-16

-------
Module 6D
                       Whole Effluent Toxicity
              Step 1:  Convert Acute WLA into
                      Chronic Toxic Units
             Observed ACR = 10
             WLAa c  = Acute WLA expressed in TUc
             WLAac  = WLAa x ACR
= 1.5 TUa
                                        = 15 TUc
                  Step 2:  Calculate LTAs


cv


0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
U
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.8
2.0
WLA multipliers
[O.Str-Io]

95*
pcfcontilo
0.853
0.736
0.644
0.571
0.514
0.468
0.432
0.403
0.379
0.360
0.344
0.330
0.319
0.310
0.302
0.296
0.290
0.285
0.281
0.277

99th
(MTCMtile
0.797
0.643
0.527
0.440
0.373
0.321
0.281
0.249
0.224
0.204
0.187
0.174
0.162
0.153
0.144
0.137
0.131
0.126
0.121
0.117
                                   Acute LTA
                               CV     = 0.6
                               WLAa,c  = 15 TUc
                                      - 99th percentile value

                           LTAa,c = 15 TUc x 0.321 = 4.8 TUc
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                             6D-17

-------
Module 6D
Whole Effluent Toxicity
                  Step 2:  Calculate LTAs


cv

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
WLA multipliers
gtO.So.'-lcJ
95th
pwwitito
0.922
0.853
0.791
0.736
0.687
0.644
0.606
O.S71
O.S41
0.514
0.490
0.468
0.449
0.432
0.417
0.403
0.390
0.379
0.369
0.360
99th
P*rc*ntile
O.S91
0.797
0.715
0.643
0.581
0.527
0.481
0.440
0.404
0.373
0.345
0.321
0.300
0.281
0.264
0.249
0.236
0.224
0.214
0.204
                                   Chronic LTA
                                CV  = 0.6
                                WLAc = 13TUC
                                    =: 99th percentile value
                            LTAc = 13TUc x 0.527 = 6.9 TUc
                                                 &EPA
                Step 3: Select Lowest LTA
                   LTAa,c    = 4.8 TUc
                   LTAc     = 6.9 TUc

                   Select LTAa,c = 4.8 TUc
                                                   FPA
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                              6D-18

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Module 6D
Whole Effluent Toxicity
             Step 4:  Calculate MDL and AML


cv

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.S
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
LTA multipliers
e[zo-O.S2 nM n*10 n^O
1J5 1.11 1.12 1.0* 1.04
1.54 1J7 1JS 1.1C 1.M
1.90 1J9 1.40 1.24 1.13
2J7 1.(3 1^5 1J3 1.1*
2.U 2.09 1.72 142 1.23
3.11 J-37 1.10 142 1J»
3^4 2.M 2.0» 1.62 1.13
4.01 2.M 2J7 1.73 1.31
44* 1J» 24* 144 144
4.M 3J9 2.C* 1.M tJO
5M 3.11 UX> 2.07 (Jt
5.7( 4J3 3.11 2.19 1.C2
(.17 4JS 3J4 2J2 1.W
B4C 44* 3JC 245 1.74
*.» 5.17 3.71 24* 1.10
7J1 6.47 401 2.71 1.17
7.<3 5.77 4JO 2,*4 1.93
7.15 t.0t 44C IM 2.00
13% i.34 4.M 3.12 2.07
145 U1 4JO 3_2t 2,14
AML
Number of samples - 4

CV = 0.6

AML = 95th
value


AML = 4.8 TUc x 1.55







^
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                6D-19

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6D-20

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                                 MODULE #6E

                Variances to Water Quality-Based Effluent Limits
OVERALL OBJECTIVES:

   *  Define the different types of water quality standard variances

      •  Site-specific criteria modification
      •  Designated use
      •  Water quality standard variance

   *  Describe how the variances affect water quality-based effluent limits

   *  Describe the role of NPDES permit writer in implementing the variances


LOGISTICS:

Presentation Format: Lecture
Approximate Presentation Time: 30 minutes
Review Questions/Exercise: None
Applicable Statutory and Regulatory Citations:

      CWA Section 303(c)    Adopting and Modifying Water Quality Standards

      40 CFR Part 131        Water Quality Standards

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-------
Module 6E
Variances to Water Quality-Based Effluent Limits
            Variances to Water Quality-
                Based Effluent Limits
                                            v>EPA
                  Learning Objectives
           • Describe the types of variances from
             water quality standards

           • Discuss how variances affect water
             quality-based effluent limits

           • Explain the role of the permit writer
                                            v>EPA
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                           6E-1

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Module 6E             Variances to Water Quality-Based Effluent Limits
            Types of Water Quality Variances


             • Site-specific modification of water
               quality criteria
                -  Permanent change in criteria
                -  Designated uses maintained
             • Designated use reclassification
                -  Permanent change in water quality
                   standard
                -  Use and criteria change
            	AEPA
              Types of Water Quality Variances
                          (Continued) 	
            •  Water quality standard variance
               -  Short-term and temporary change to
                  standard
               -  Basic water quality standards remain
                  in place
               -  Pollutant and discharger specific
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course

                              6E-2

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Module 6E
Variances to Water Quality-Based Effluent Limits
           Affect of Variances on Permit Limits
             •  Changes the fundamental basis of
                water quality-based effluent limits
                -  May impact reasonable potential
                   determination
                -  May result in more or less stringent
                   limitations

             •  Role of permit writer
                -  Ensure that variance is reflected in
                   permit
                                                 xvEPA
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                              6E-3

-------
6E-4

-------
               MODULE 6 - SUGGESTED REFERENCE MATERIALS
Final Guidance for Implementation of Requirements Under Section 304(1) of the Clean Water
Act as Amended. EPA, Office of Water Regulations and Standards and Office of Water
Enforcement and Permits, March 1988.

Technical Support Document for Water Quality-Based Toxics Control f EPA/505/2-90-001).
EPA, Office of Water Enforcement and Permits, March 1991.

Introduction to Water Quality Standards (EPA 440/5-88-Q89V EPA. Office of Water Regulations
and Standards, September 1988.

Quality Criteria for Water. 1986 CEPA/440/5-86-OOn. EPA, Office of Water Regulations and
Standards, May 1986.

Water Quality Standards Handbook: Second Edition fEPA -823-B-94-005a). EPA, Office of
Water, August, 1994.

Guidance for Water Quality-based Decisions: The TMDL Process (EPA 440/4-91-00 H. EPA,
Office of Water, April 1991.

Methods for Measuring Acute Tqxicity of Effluents to Freshwater and Marine Organisms. Fourth
Edition (EPA/600/4-90/027F). EPA, Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, 1991.

Short-term Methods for Estimating the Chronic Toxicity of Effluents  and Receiving Waters to
Freshwater Organisms. Third Edition, (EPA/600/4-91/002). EPA, Environmental Monitoring and
Support Laboratory, 1991.

Short-term Methods for Estimating the Chronic Toxicity of Effluents  and Receiving Waters to
Marine and Estuarine Organisms. Second Edition HEP A/600/4-91/003). EPA, Environmental
Monitoring and Support Laboratory, 1991.

Short-term Methods for Estimating the Chronic Toxicity of Effluents  and Receiving Waters to
West Coast Marine and Estuarine Organisms (EPA/600/R-95/136'). EPA, Environmental
Monitoring and Support Laboratory, 1995.
                                        6E-5

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                                   MODULE # 7
                       Monitoring and Reporting Conditions
OVERALL OBJECTIVES:

   *  Explain the regulatory requirements and purpose of establishing monitoring
      requirements in NPDES permits

   «•  Discuss considerations for establishing monitoring conditions in permits

   *  Identify different methods for sample collection

      Discuss conditions under which certain sampling techniques are appropriate
4-

*•
      Describe the elements of monitoring conditions and the applicability to municipal and
      non-municipal dischargers

      Describe whole effluent toxicity monitoring requirements and considerations

      Explain analytical requirements for sample analysis

      Discuss reporting and record-keeping requirements for NPDES permits

      Define discharge monitoring reports (DMRs)

      Provide questions for reviewing monitoring conditions in a permit

      Provide examples for specifying sampling locations and setting monitoring
      requirements in a permit
LOGISTICS:

Presentation Format: Lecture
Approximate Presentation Time: 60 minutes
Review Questions/Exercise: None
Applicable Statutory and Regulatory Citations:

      CWA Section 304(h)    Guidelines Establishing Test Procedures for Analysis of
                            Pollutants
      CWA Section 405(d)(4)  Monitoring on a Case-by-Case Basis
      CWA Section 503       Sludge

      40 CFR §122.41{j)(l)     Representative monitoring

-------
40 CFR §122.41(j)(2)     Records
40 CFR §122.41(1)(4)     Discharge monitoring reports
40 CFR §122.42(a)       Pollutants subject to notification requirements
40 CFR §122.44(i)       Reporting at least once per year
40 CFR §122.45(e)       Frequency and rate of discharge for noncontinuous discharge
40 CFR §122.45(f)       Other measurements inc luding internal waste streams
40 CFR §122.48         monitoring, recording, rucordkeeping

-------
Module 7
Monitoring and Reporting Conditions
             Monitoring and Reporting
                      Conditions
                  Learning Objectives
                                           xvEPA
           4- Describe purpose of monitoring
             conditions

           • Discuss the considerations for
             establishing monitoring conditions
           • Explain analytical method
             requirements
             Describe reporting requirements
                                           oEPA
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                           7-1

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Module 7                        Monitoring and Reporting Conditions
                  Purpose of Monitoring


            • Determine compliance with permit
               conditions
            • Establish a basis for enforcement
               actions
            • Other
               -  Assess treatment efficiency
               -  Characterize effluents
               -  Characterize receiving water
            	&EPA
                   Types of Monitoring
            • Self monitoring
               - Permittee performs sampling and
                 analysis

            • Compliance monitoring
               - Permitting authority monitors effluent
                 during compliance inspection
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course

                             7-2

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Module 7
Monitoring and Reporting Conditions
             Example POTW:  Flow Diagram
               Raw
              Wastewater
                Final
                Effluent
               Gravity
              Thickenersf
               Ash to Sludge
                 Lagoon
           Example:  Industrial Flow Diagram

Acid
waste
Storage



	 > Water
	 *• Solids

Chromfunv
Containing
Wastes
Alkaline
Wastes
1 I
Chromium
Reduction
1
r
Cyanide
Oxidation
	 |

Neutralization 1

1 i
Filter L
Process [^

• ;
Clarification
1 1
Sludge to Landfill
Final Effluent
1 ^~
AEPA
74
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                              7-3

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Module 7                       Monitoring and Reporting Conditions
             Self Monitoring Considerations
                     •  Location
                     *  Frequency
                     •  Type of sample
                     •  Cost
          Considerations for Monitoring Location

            • Is it on the facility's property?
            • Is it accessible?
            • Will the results be representative of
              the targeted wastestream?
            • Are monitoring internal points
              needed?
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                             7-4

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Module 7
Monitoring and Reporting Conditions
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                      7-5

-------
Module 7
Monitoring and Reporting Conditions
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                      7-6

-------
Module 7
             Monitoring and Reporting Conditions
                 Frequency Considerations
              • Size and design of facility
              • Type of treatment
              • Location of discharge
              • Frequency of discharge
                (batch, continuous)
              • Compliance history
              • Nature of pollutants
              • Number of monthly samples used
                in developing permit limit
              Frequency Considerations (cont)
               0)
               **

               §
               E
               UJ
                                      Daily
                                    Composite
                                    Samples
  Quarterly
Grab Samples
                  Pollutant Toxicity/Variability
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                              7-7

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Module 7
Monitoring and Reporting Conditions
                     Types of Samples
             Grab Sample: Taken from a wastestream
             on a one-time basis without consideration
             of the flow rate of the wastestream and
             without consideration of time
             - Must be used to monitor certain
               parameters (e.g., pH, volatile organics,
               cyanide)
             - Used for monitoring batch discharges
               Example Situation - Case
                     Time
                                           Time
                 Slight daily fluctuation in pollutant
                 concentration and flow
                 Recommendation:  Grab Sample
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                              7-8

-------
Module 7
Monitoring and Reporting Conditions
                  Types of Samples (Continued)
          •  Composite: Sample composed of two or more
             discrete aliquots. The aggregate sample will
             reflect the average water quality over the sample
             period.
             - More representative measure of the discharge of
               pollutants over a given period of time
             - Accounts for variability in pollutant concentration
               and discharge flow rate
             - May be sequential discrete samples or a single
               combined sample
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                 7-9

-------
Module 7
Monitoring and Reporting Conditions
                  Types of Samples (Continued)
        • Composite Sample is defined by the time interval
           between aliquots, and the volume of each aliquot (t, V).
           - Time Proportional ftc. Vc):  Interval time and sample
             volume are constant        1
                                     "MINI,
                                           t
           - Flow Proportional: Interval time or sample volume
             may vary                 t
              * Constant volume (tv, Vc)    v
               Constant time (tc, Vv)
                                         I  I I
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                  7-10

-------
Module 7
Monitoring and Reporting Conditions
               Example Situation - Case #2
               iS
               0- =
                      Time
                                            Time
             • Regular fluctuations in pollutant loading
               over the course of the day
             • Very slight fluctuations in flow
             • Recommendation: Time Proportional
               Composite
               Example Situation - Case #3
               -
               ii
                      Time
                                            Time
             • Irregular fluctuations in pollutant loading
               over the course of the day
             • Erratic fluctuations in flow
             • Recommendation: Flow Proportional
               Composite
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                               7-11

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Module 7                        Monitoring and Reporting Conditions
                Types of Samples (Continued)
          • Continuous Sample: Automated collection
            and analysis of a parameter in a discharge
            - Typically used for pH and flow
            - 40 CFR § 401.17 allows excursions for pH
                                               &EPA
                   Analytical Methods
           • 40 CFR Part 136
              - Test methods in Appendix A to Part 136
              - Standard Methods for the Analysis of
                Water and Wastewater
              - Methods for the Chemical Analysis of
                Water and Wastes
              - Test Methods: Methods for Organic
                Chemical Analysis of Municipal and
                Industrial Wastewater

           • Alternative methods
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course

                             7-12

-------
Module 7
Monitoring and Reporting Conditions
                Analytical Detection Level Considerations
                                                                  Effluent Limit *1
                                                                  Minimum Level (ML)
                                                                  Method Detection Level (MDL)
                                                                  Effluent Limit #2
              • Compliance with Limit #1 - 40 CFR Part 136
              • Compliance with Limit #2 •* ? ? ?
                Estimated Costs for Analytical Procedures
                       BODS                                          $30
                       TSS                                           $15
                       TOC                                           $60
                       Oil and Grease                                    $35
                       Odor                                           $30
                       Color                                          $30
                       Turbidity                                        $30
                       Fecal colifonn                                     $15
                       Metals (each)                                     $15
                       Cyanide                                         $35
                       Gasoline (Benzene, Toluene, Xytene)                      $100
                       Purgeabte Hatocarbons (EPA Method 601)                  $113
                       Acrotein and Acrytonitrite (EPA Method 603}                 $133
                       Purgeabtes (EPA Method 624)                          $251
                       Phenols (EPA Method 604)                             $160
                       Organochlorine Pesticides and PCBs (EPA Method 608)         $157
                       Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (EPA Method 610)          $175
                       Dioxin (2, 3, 7, 8-TCDD) (EPA Method 613)                   $400
                       Base/Neutrals and Acids (EPA Method 625)                  $434
                       Priority pollutant scan*                             $2,000
                       TCLP                                           $150
                       Acute WET                                       $750
                       Chronic WET                                   $1,500
             Includes 13 metals, cyanide, dioxin, volatiles (purgeables), base/neutral and acids,
             pesticides and PCBs, and asbestos
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                              7-13

-------
Module 7
Monitoring and Reporting Conditions
          Example #1:  Annual Analytical Costs


BOD5
TSS
Fecal Coliform
Oil and Grease
Times
Per Year
104
104
104
104
Unit
Cost ($)
30
15
15
35
Annual
Cost ($)
3,120
1,560
1,560
3,640
                                       Total 9,880
          Example #2:  Annual Analytical Costs
Pollutant
Priority Pollutants
Acute WET
Phenols
Cyanide
BODS
TSS
Metals (Ni, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn)

No.
Samples
4
4
12
52
156
156
78(1

Cost/
Sample
$2,000
$750
$160
$35
$30
$15
$15
Total
Cost/
Year
$8,000
$3,000
$1,920
$1,820
$4,680
$2,340
$11700
$33,460
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                            7-14

-------
Module 7
Monitoring and Reporting Conditions
              Reporting of Monitoring Results


                • What is reported?
                   - Data required in permit
                   - Data for pollutants monitored more
                     frequently than required
                • When is information reported?
                   - At least 1/year for limited pollutants

                • Who is responsible for reporting?
                   - The Permittee

                • What format is used for reporting?
                   - Discharge Monitoring Reports
            Discharge Monitoring Reports (DMRs)
              •  Must be used to report self-
                 monitoring data
                 -  Required at 40 CFR §122.41 (1)(4)(i)
                 -  States may alter format
                                                   SERA
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                               7-15

-------
Module 7                           Monitoring and Reporting Conditions
                         Record Keeping

                 Records of monitoring must be kept
                 for 3 years
                  - Records for sewage sludge use and disposal
                    activities must be kept for J> years
                 Monitoring records include:
                  - Data, place, and time
                  - Individual performing sampling
                  - Date of analysis
                  - Individual performing analysis
                  - Analytical methods used
                  - Analytical results
                 Permit should specify where records
                 should be located
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course

                                  7-16

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-------
7-18

-------
               MODULE 7 - SUGGESTED REFERENCE MATERIALS
Standard Methods  for the  Examination  of Water and Wastewater . American  Public
Health Association, American Water  Works Association,  and Water Pollution Control
Federation. (Use most current version)

Methods for Chemical Analysis  of Water and Wastewater  (EPA/600/4-79-02Q) . EPA,
Environmental Monitoring and  Support Laboratory, March 1979.
Guidelines  Establishing Test Procedures  for the Analysis of Pollutants  under  the
Water  Act  (40 CFR Part  136). (Use most current version)
NPDES Storm Water  Sampling  Guidance  Document CEPA/833-B-92-OOn . EPA, Office
of Water,  July 1992.

Methods  for Measuring Acute Toxicity of Effluents  to Freshwater  and Marine
Organisms. Fourth Edition fEPA-6QQ/4-90/Q27) . EPA, Environmental  Monitoring and
Support Laboratory, 1991.
Short-term  Methods for Estimating the Chronic Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving
Waters to Freshwater  Organisms.  Third Edition (EPA/6QQ/4-91/002) . EPA,
Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, 1991.

Short-term  Methods for Estimating the Chronic Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving
Waters to Marine and Estuarine Organisms  (EPA/600/4-91/003)  . EPA, Environmental
Monitoring and Support Laboratory, 1991.

NPDES Compliance Monitoring Inspector Training:  Laboratory  Analysis. EPA, Office
of Water,  August 1990.

NPDES Compliance Monitoring Inspector Training:  Sampling. EPA, Office of Water,
August 1990.

NPDES Compliance Monitoring Inspector Training:  Biomonitoring . EPA, Office of
Water, August 1990.

POTW Sludge Sampling and Analysis Guidance . EPA, Office of Water, August 1989.

Handbook for Sampling and Sample Preservation  of Water and Wastewater
(EPA/600/4-82-029) . EPA, Environmental  Monitoring and Support Laboratory,  1982.

Handbook for Monitoring  Industrial Wastewater , EPA, Office of Technology  Transfer,
1973.
                                         7-19

-------

-------
                                   MODULE #8
                                Special Conditions
OVERALL OBJECTIVES:

   *  Describe the purpose of special conditions

   *  Describe the regulatory authority for establishing special conditions

   *  Describe the general types of special conditions applicable to municipal and non-
      municipal dischargers

      •   Non-regulatory monitoring
      •   Best management practices (BMPs)/pollution prevention
      •   Compliance schedules

   *  Introduce the types of special conditions unique to municipal and non-municipal
      sources
   Municipal
   Pretreatment program
   Grants
   Sewage sludge
   Combined sewer overflows
   Storm water
          Non-municipal
          BMPs/pollution prevention
          Storm water pollution prevention
          Plans
LOGISTICS:

Presentation Format: Lecture
Approximate Presentation Time: 45 minutes
Review Questions/Exercises: None
Applicable Statutory and Regulatory Citations:
      40 CFR §122.44(f)
      40CFR§122.44(k)
      40CFR§122.44(n)
      40 CFR §122.47
Notification level
Best management practices
Grants
Schedules of compliance

-------

-------
Module 8
Special Conditions
                   Special Conditions
                                               SEPA
            Special Conditions are Used in NPDES
                        Permits to...
            • Address unique situations
            • Incorporate preventative requirements
            • Incorporate compliance schedules
            • Incorporate other NPDES programmatic
              requirements (e.g., pretreatment,
              sewage sludge)
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                             8-1

-------
Module 8
Special Conditions
               Types of Special Conditions
               • Additional monitoring
               • Best management practices
                 (BMPs)/pollution prevention
               • Compliance schedules
                  Additional Monitoring
            • Used to supplement effluent limits
            • Used to collect data for future limit
              development
            • Examples:
               - Dilution studies
               - Sediment samples
               - Bioconcentration studies
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                            8-2

-------
Module 8
Special Conditions
           Definition of Best Management Practices
          "Best management practices (BMPs) are
          actions or procedures to prevent or minimize
          the potential for the release of toxic pollutants
          or hazardous substances in significant
          amounts to surface waters"
                  Best Management Practices
                     Legislative Authority
             • Section 304(e)
                - The Administrator...may publish
                  regulations supplemental to effluent
                  limitations for a class or category of
                  point sources for toxic or hazardous
                  pollutants under Section 307(a) or 311
                  of the Act to control:
                   • Plant site runoff
                   • Spillage or leaks
                   • Sludge or waste disposal
                   • Drainage from raw material storage
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                               8-3

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Module 8
        Special Conditions
                     Best Management Practices
                   Legislative Authority (Continued)
                 Section 304(6) (Continued)
                  -  ...which are associated with or ancillary to the
                     industrial manufacturing or treatment process
                     and may contribute significant amounts of
                     such pollutants to navigable waters

                 Section 402(a)(1)
                  -  In the absence of BMPs promulgated for a
                     category of point sources (such as steel mills,
                     petroleum refiners, etc.) under authority of
                     Section 304(e), permit writers may place BMPs
                     in permits on a case-by-case basis
                         BMP Candidates?
                      Facility A
                        Indoor
                      Manufacturing
                        Process
Facility B
  Outdoor
Manufacturing
  Process
NPOES Permit Writers Training Course
                                     8-4

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Module 8
Special Conditions
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                        8-5

-------
 Module 8
Special Conditions
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                        8-€

-------
Module 8
Special Conditions
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                        8-7

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Module 8
Special Conditions
                BMPs in NPDES Permits
                      BMP plan
                      Site-specific BMPs
                       - Facility-specific
                       - Pollutant-specific
           Recommended Elements of a BMP Plan
                 Minimum requirements
                  - Name and location of facility
                  - Statement of BMP policy and
                    objectives
                  - Review by plant manager
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                             8-8

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Module 8
Special Conditions
           Recommended Elements of a BMP Plan
                          (Continued)

             • Specific requirements
                - BMP committee
                - Risk identification and assessment
                - Reporting of BMP incidents
                - Materials compatibility
                - Good housekeeping
                - Preventive maintenance
                - Inspections and records
                - Security
                - Employee training
                                                v>EPA
                   Specific BMPs Are...
            • Most effectively used in conjunction
              with effluent limitations in permits
            • Qualitative - should generally
              indicate how or what, not how much
            • Procedural
NPOES Permit Writers Training Course
                             8-9

-------
Module 8
           Special Conditions
                         Procedural
                • Visual inspections
                • Training
                • Maintain maintenance logs
                • Material handling procedures
                • Preventive maintenance
                • Housekeeping
                 Other Examples of BMPs
         • Water conservation/
          non-use
         • Secondary containment
         • Nondestructive testing
         • Materials engineering
         • Covering
         • Sealing
         • Packaging
         • Waste stream segregation
« Source Elimination
« Alarm systems
• Diverting
• Paving
• Runoff control
• Sludge management
• Monitoring
• Security
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                               8-10

-------
Module 8
Special Conditions
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                         8-11

-------
Module 8
Special Conditions
                    BMPs Should Not:
           • Substitute for quantitative controls
           • Tell managers how to run their plants
           • Require costly methods when
             inexpensive ones will suffice
         Pollution Prevention and Special Conditions

            •  Hierarchy of pollution prevention
               practices
               - Source reduction
               - Environmentally sound reuse and
                 recycling
               - Treatment
               - Disposal
            •  Pollution prevention measures are
               implemented through BMPs
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                             8-12

-------
Module 8
Special Conditions
                    Compliance Schedules
               40 CFR §122.47
                - Allows for establishing schedules of
                  compliance with CWA and regulations
                   •  Interim dates if schedule exceeds
                     1 year from permit issuance
                   •  Reporting 14 days following each
                     interim date
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                8-13

-------

-------
                                 MODULE# 8A
                  Special Conditions for Municipal Dischargers
OVERALL OBJECTIVES:

   *  Describe the purpose of special conditions for municipal dischargers

   *  Describe the regulatory authority for establishing special conditions

   *  Describe special conditions unique to municipal dischargers

      •  Pretreatment program
      •  Sewage sludge
      •  Combined sewer overflows
LOGISTICS:

Presentation Format: Lecture
Approximate Presentation Time: 40 minutes
Review Questions/Exercise: 20 minutes
Applicable Statutory and Regulatory Citations:
      40 CFR §122.440)
      40 CFR §122.44(k)
      40 CFR Part 403
      40 CFR Part 503
Pretreatment programs for POTWs
Best management practices
General Pretreatment Regulations
Standards for the Use and Disposal of Sewage Sludge

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-------
Module 8A
Special Conditions for Municipal Dischargers
               Special Conditions for
               Municipal Dischargers
                 Learning Objectives
           • Define pretreatment program
             requirements
           • Define sewage sludge requirements
           • Define combined sewer overflow
             requirements
                                            •EPA
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                          8A-1

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Module 8A
Special Conditions for Municipal Dischargers
               Domestic Sewage Exclusion
          • Domestic sewage or any mixture of
            domestic sewage and other wastes that
            pass through a sewer system to a
            POTW are not considered "solid waste"
            under RCRA...
          • Unless received at the POTW by:
            - Truck
            - Rail
            - Dedicated pipeline
            National Pretreatment Program


         • Major goal is controlling discharges in
           order to:
            - Prevent interference with POTW processes
            - Prevent pass through of pollutants
            - Protect sludge management options

         • Additional programmatic goals
            - Encourage recycling and reclamation
            - Ensure POTW personnel health and safety
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                            8A-2

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Module 8A
Special Conditions for Municipal Dischargers
NPOES Permit Writers Training Course
                                     8A-3

-------
Module 8A
Special Conditions for Municipal Dischargers
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                     8A-4

-------
Module 8A
Special Conditions for Municipal Dischargers
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                     8A-5

-------
Module 8A
Special Conditions for Municipal Dischargers
              Regulatory Requirements - General
            Pretreatment Regulations (40 CFR PART 403)

             • Elements:
                - National Pretreatment Standards
                - Requirements for POTW and State
                  programs
                - Industrial and POTW reporting
                  requirements

             • Effluent Limitations Guidelines
               (40 CFR 405-471)
                - Including categorical pretreatment
                  standards
           Pretreatment Program Development


            + Who?
               - POTWs > 5 MOD
               - POTWs < 5 MGD with past problems

            • What?
               - Legal authority
               - Industrial user survey
               - individual control mechanisms for all
                 SlUs
               - Compliance/enforcement
               - Resources
               - Data management               ,
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                             8A-6

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Module 8A
Special Conditions for Municipal Dischargers
                 NPDES Permits Drive the
           Pretreatment Program by Requiring;

           • Adequate legal authority
           • Maintaining industrial user inventory
           • Development/implementation local
             limits
           • Individual control mechanisms be
             issued all SlUs
           • Compliance monitoring activities
                 NPDES Permits Drive the
           Pretreatment Program by Requiring:
            • Swift and effective enforcement

            • Data management and
              recordkeeping

            • Reporting to the approval authority
              (EPA or State)

            • Public participation
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                           8A-7

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Module 8A
Special Conditions for Municipal Dischargers
            Permits for Municipal Sewage Sludge
                          (Biosolids)	


            • Any Section 402 permit issued to a
              POTW should contain requirements
              for sewage use and/or disposal

            • 40 CFR Part 503 requirements should
              be incorporated into a permit for:
               - Incineration
               - Land application
               - Surface disposal
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                             8A-8

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Module 8A
Special Conditions for Municipal Dischargers
            Permits for Municipal Sewage Sludge
            	(BJOSOlids) (Continued)	


             • Other entities may be delegated
               responsibility to comply
               (40 CFR Part 503 standards and
               requirements may not all be placed
               in the POTW permit)

             • Permits must contain:
                - Additional standard conditions
                - Special conditions
              Typical Combined Sewer System
                       Configuration
                                               vvEPA
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                             8A-9

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Module 8A
Special Conditions for Municipal Dischargers
             Requirements for Combined Sewer
            	Overflows (CSOs)
               Technology-based requirements
               (BPJ)
                - BAT (none promulgated)
                - BCT (none promulgated)

               Applicable State water quality
               standards
           Considerations for Developing Special
                   Conditions for CSOs
             • Characteristics of the discharge

             • Control technologies

             • CSO control policy
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                            8A-10

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Module 8A
          Special Conditions for Municipal Dischargers
                Overview of CSO Control Policy Approach
                   Time
                                             Years after Phase I Permit Issuance
                                            —••  5 	»• 10+ -
NPDES Permit
Requirements
Phase 1
Phase 11
Post Phase II
            A. TKKnotogr-Bucd
                              « Nimmmlmuniconimb(NMC|,jt • NMC. at« minimum

                                                                      Naratn* » pwfomunco-
                                                                      D*M
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8A-'2

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  Office of
| Wastewater Enforcement
  and Compliance (EN-336")
                                                       The  National  Sewage
                                                            Sludge Program
Sludge Us* or Disposal Rcgu
           i Fact Sh
 Legal Authority
      As mandated by the Clean Water Act
 of 1987. EPA has issued national standards
 regulating the use or disposal of  aewage
 sludge. These standards, promulgaiedin40
 CFR Pan 503, in conjunction with  the
 permitting requirements «*»«hi«h*4 in 40
 CFR Parts 122.123, and 501, make up me
 regulatory framework of the National Sew-
 age Sludge Program.

 Who  is Regulated?
    Pan 503 generally regulates dealers and
 preparers of sewage sludge mat will be land
 applied, incinerated, or placed on a surface
 disposal site, as well as die generators and
 end users or disposers of die sewage sludge.


 What is Regulated?
     The National  Sewage Sludge Pro-
 gram generally regulates all sewage sludge
 that is used or disposed through land appli-
 cation, surface «ti«pMtii or iiK'i'w"g»*v
    What is sewage sludge ?
    Sewage sludge is defined as a "solid.
 semi-solid, or liquid residue generated dar-
 ing the treatment of domestic sewage in a
 treatment works. Sewage sludge melt
 but is not limited to, domestic septage; i
 or solids removed in primary, ••"•"•dary. or
 advanced wastewater 'I'Hiirnii pnoanea;
 and material derived from sewage stodge.'
 (Materials derived from sewage stodge in-
 clude the products of sludge oompoKen and
 digesters, treated sewage sludge which is
 bagged for saleasfertilaer.orany other type
 of processed or treated sewage sludge which
 is land applied, incinerated, or placed in a
 surface disposal site.) 'Sewage stodge does
 not include ash generated during the firing of
 sewage sludge inasewage sludge inciaeraior
or grit and screenings generated during die
 preliminary treatment of domestic sewage
in a treatment works." (§503.9 (w))
   Domestic septage is also regulated by
Pan 503.  Domestic septage is "liquid or
solid material removed from a septic tank.
                                    cesspool, portable toilet, Type m marine
                                    sanitation device, or smflar treatment works
                                    that receives only  domestic sewage..."
                                    (8503.9(0)
                                       CiuiealJy yrfUKkiil from regulation
                                    under Part 503, are industrial sludge and
                                    septage from inrtas;Tial or commerchl fr
                                    cilities. Generally, stodge genuved at an
                                    industrial facility is  not regulated by Part
                                    503. However, if the domestic wastewaw
                                    is segregated from the unless water, the
                                      If m  ni mil mn
                                       } J                      o
                     sewage sludge generated by the i
                     the domestic wastewater is covered by
                     Pan 503.
                         Sludges classified as hazardous and
                     sludges containing 50 mgfrg or more poly-
                     cUorinaied biphenyis (PCBs) are also not
                     regulated in Pan 503, but are subject toother
                     regulatory requirements.


                     When is Compliance
                     Required?
                           Deadlines for compliance wirh Pan
                     503 regulations were established in die Clean
                     Water Act of 1987.  In most cases. Pan 503
                     is a "self-implementing" regulation;  it is
                     directly enforceable even in die absence of a
                     permit. Pan 503 requires compliance with
                                                                                 Much 9. 1993

                                                          the monitoring and recordkeepuig require-
                                                          ments (except for monitoring of total hydro-
                                                          carbon emissions in incinerator exit gases)
                                                          by July 20. 1993. Pan 503 requires compli-
                                                          ance widi all other standards (including total
                                                          hydrocarbon emissions monitoring) as soon
                                                          as possible, but no later than February 19,
                                                          1994 (or February 19, 1995 if construction
                                                          of a poQutioo control facility is required to
                                                          comply with the regulation.)


                                                          Permits: Who Applies for
                                                          One, and Who Doesn't?
                                                              Section 405(f) of die dean Water
                                                          Act requires National Pollutant Discharge
                                                          EUminatiOB SysKm (NPDES) permits is-
                                                          sued to pubucty owned treatment works and
                                                                  QODBDDI C
                                                                                        MUO
                                                                       PanS03. EPA has defined treatment works
                                                                       treating domestic sewage to be "a [publicly
                                                                       owned treatment works] or any other sew-
                                                                       age sludge or wasiewater treatment devices
                                                                       or systems, regardless of ownership (includ-
                                                                       ing federal facilities) used in die storage,
                                                                       nicipal or domestic sewage, including land
                                                                       dedicated for die disposal of sewage sludge.
                                                                       Thb definition does not include septic tanks
                                                                       or similar devices. _ln States where there is
                                                                       no approved Stale sludge management
                                                                                                      may
                                                                               any person subject to the stan-
                                                                       dards for sewage sludge use and disposal in
                                                                       40 CFR Pan 503 as a 'treatment works treat-
                                                                       ing domestic sewage,'., when he or she finds
                                                                       that such designation is necessary to ensure
                                                                       that such person is in compliance with 40
                                                                       CHI Pan SOS." (5122^)
                                                                          Important Note:
                                                                          Compliance is required   by
                                                                          die dates  above, regardless
                                                                          of  whether   a permit   has
                                                                          been issued.
                                               8A-13

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Siuoge Use or DisooiaJ Hegutaaoni F»a Sheet Stn>t
    Practices and Materials
        Not Regulated by
        40 CFR Part 503
      (PM12S1-2W)
      (PC8«)  (PwtTBI)
Qlfl MM' 9OWMUHB9
during ttw

work*
      •todfl* ie et wMeh te
     PtvcdoM wnicn incy »• fejQtdvtsW
     oy ttw Naitoiwl S«MQ* Stu4e»
     PlOyiHH nl tlW IwUML
      Undermisdefinition, facilities whkh
 must apply for a pennit include Cue genera-
 tors, Btaters, anddisposers of sewuge sludge.
 All generators of sewage sludge *» will be
 landaoplicd.iirincraud.pUKadinasurfaoe
 disposal site, or sent to a municipal solid
 waste landfill, will need to apply for a
 permit.  Also, all persons who change the
 quality (Lt, change (he pathogen level, the
 vector aQjaUHm "HnctnnnKrii. or the pol-
 lutant coocefloaooBj ot sewaflB sujofle DISK
 will be land applied, incmente
-------
 Sludge Use or DispoMl Regulations Fact, SheatSenei
                                                                                                         MartfiS 1933
 Regulated Use and
 Disposal Practices

 Land Application
     Land application is defined as "the
 spraying or spreading of sewage sludge onto
 the land surface;  the injection of jewage
 sludge below the land surface; or the incor-
 poration of sewage sludge into the soil so
 chat sewage sludge can either condition the
 soil or fertilize crops or vegetation grown in
 the soil" (§503.11 (h)). Examples are oseat
 reclamation sites as a soil conditioner; use
 by sod Earms; and the distribution of stodge
 as a commercial fertilizer.

 Surface Disposal
    A surface disposal site is an area which
 contains one or more "sewage sludge units,"
 where only sewage sludge is placed for final
 disposal. This terra does not include mu-
 nicipal  solid waste landfills mat  accept
 sewage sludge. Furthermore, mis does not
 include land on which sewage sludge is
 placed  for either storage  or treatment.
 (§503.21 (n) and (p))
    Asa rule of thumb, storage is placement
 of sludge on a site far op to 2 yean. If
 sewage sludge is stored for move  than 2
 years, then a rationale supporting the need
 for the additional time should be submitted
 to the permitting authority. For more infor-
 mation on storage, can your EPA Regional
 Sludge Coordinator.
    Disposal in a municipal solid wastt
 landfill (MSWLF) is not considered surface
 disposal. A generator who sends sewage
 sludge to a MSWLF needs ID apply for a
 permit, but the MSWLF is QQ| regulaied by
 the National Sewage Stodge Piognm.
    Examples of surface itii|mial include
 disposal in a sewage sludge monofiO and the
 trenching of sepoge.

 Incineration
    Incineration is defined as the coflibut-
 tion of  the organic niiitrr and morganc
matter in sewage sludge at high tenmen-
 tures in  an enclosed device that fires only
 sewage sludge and an auxiliary fuel The
auxiliary fuel can include, but is not limited
 to, natural g»*, fuel oil, coal, md municipal
solid waste. Munkipalsolidwastecanbeup
to 30% of the combined dry weight of the
sewage sludge and the municipal solid was*.
Hazardous waste is not considered an auxil-
 iary fuel. (§503.410)), (g) and 00)
                      Are You Regulated by
         The National Sewage Sludge Program?
 Ait you i putfcty owffwd
 'wonoi or gfiBf g§mmtot of
 •iudBt regulated by Pert 503*7
  No
  t
 Do you tend towage atudgo to •
 municipal taU MOJ

  No

  t
 An  you
                           You am regulated end »• need e
                           apply tor •pern*.
                           You «• need to apply tor a permit.
                           HDVMMHV vW fnunicipov  COM WBSQI
                           tandll • not mgubwd by Pan 503
                           and «M not nod to apply tor a permit.
                           You am mgulaM and wl need &
                           apply tor a pern*.
Do you opera* a
                                 Yee
  No

  t
Do  you  net
  No

  t

Do  you  juat
       afadge?
                                            You are nguhaM and wl need to
                                            apply tare pom*.
                            You am mgufetod and wfl need to
                            apply tor •pom*.
                            You  we  mgufctod.  but  genemly
                            do  not  need  to  apply tor  •
                            permit.    Homaver. R you   treat
                            aBBa^B^M  At •  (^•rtaTBBi^^ari teAfilW
                            you may  bo mquimd to  apply tor
                            • I
                                                              but  generally
                                                          to  apply tor  a
  No

  t
Do you jut handto or
                            You am
                            do  not
                            pom*.
                     ^     You  may  bo  subject  to  some
  No
  t
You era probebly not regutaied
by t» Nation*! Se««ge Shidot
                                    Skjdge   Piognm.   but
                           genmiy  do  not  need to  apply
                           tor m pern*.
•Part 503 only mguta
 •nwgeoludgeinBin
i lawam rtriQi »t« li li ami ippfcrl. Jnfiwiari fci a
•tor. or pteoed In a aurtee dvpoaal unit
 quatty ertonm. The en»r» ere: ptftogem,
 diwaewisass. end regJcied orgenie and Irorawk
                                                  8A-15

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Sludge UM or Daootal a«quMBMn« Paa Shaat Samt
                                                                                          Marsr
  Publication
  Sources
National Ta
   NT1S
   5285 Port Royal Rd.
   SpringlMd. VA 22161
   Tola: (703)487-4*60
Malta
   NSFC
   P.O. Box 6064
   Moryan»wn,WV 266016064
   Tata: (800) 624001
C4«ttaf(EMC/C3ttEQ
   1200 Chambare M.. Room 310
   Cdwnow.OH 43212
   Tala: (614) 292-6717

Federal Register NotlCM

   Part 503 was puttMvd on Ftfcnwy H.
1993 at  58 fiMtatf Aapatar (ffl» 924*.
         » ft*
Prognvn pennvti
pUPMneO on PeBflHyy i9( i9v3i W 9o rn94QB1.
   Most Fedi)nl Oepontoiy LifafiHM

university, and public ttbrariei  are
Repoiiiory Utvenes.
                                         Regional Sludge Coordinators
          SLUDGE
      PUBLICATIONS

      Gut
    EPA'aPolor
            Ua*«*
    andttwNaw T
    tfoM, M ffl 18716 (Hay 2,1999)
    (AnMndad 2A19V93, at 66 W9404)
                                         REGION 1
                                         OiwCpngiMtSt
                                         Boston. MA 02203
                                         !•*•: (617) 566X»»

                                         REGION 2
                                         T»to: (212) 264-*S«3

                                         REGIONS
                                         AnnCwfchuff
                                         (3WM55)
                                         841 ChMtnut St.
                                         PhiaMphia, PA 19107
                                         Tcte: (21 5)597-9406

                                         REGION 4
                                         VmetMilltr
                                         34SCouitlandSLN.E.
                                         Atlama.GA 30365
                                         Tito: (404) 347-2391

                                         REGION 5       c
                                         John Calatli  HSh ^
                                         (5WQP-16J)
                                         77 W. Jackson BM.
                                         Chicago. IL 60604.3590
                                         !•)•: (312)
REGION 6
StaphanwKordzi
(6»WPM)
1445 Rea»Ao»>1200
     , TX 75202-2733
Talt: (214) 866-7520

REGION?
John Dunn
726MhmMOtaAv«.
Kansas Cty.KS 66101
Tato: (913) 551 -7594

REGION 6
99918th St. Suite 500
0«iwr. CO 60202-2405
Tab: 003) 293-1627

REGKDN9
Uuran FoodaW
TSHaMthonMSL (W-S-2)
San Frtocawo, CA 94105
T«ia: (415) 744-1909

REGION 10
Dick Hatnaringlon
1200 Sixth Av«.
S*attto.WA98lOl
Tato: (206) 553-1941

Laura Fatten
1200 Sixth Aw*. (WD-134)
Saattto.WA 98101
Tata: (206) 553-1647
                                            8A-16

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&EFA
                  SEWAGE  SLUDGE
                     OR BIOSOLIDS
       USE OR  DISPOSAL DOCUMENTS
                                   List Compiled by:
                                   Shane Camilla, USEPA, OWM/Permits
                                   Division (202) 260-6052
Sewage sludge pubfcations are avaflable from the foiowing source*. Hat afl documents are
available from afl sources.  Please note sources In margin adjacent to document name.
OWRC
Office of Water
US&A-RC-4100
401 M Straff, S.W.
Washington, O.C. 20460
Teta: (202) 260-7786
Center (OW
ERIC
CERI
                        (BUG)
         1929 Kenny Roed
         Columbus. OH 43210-1080
         Tato: (614) 292-671 7 or Fax: (614)292-0263
NT1S
      EfflMRNVRMIts
CERI Publications
26 West Martin Luther King Drive
Cincinnati, OH 45248
Tata: (513) 569-7562 or Fax: (513) 569-7566

U-S* DopvtnMnt of Cornmwo8
         5285 Port Royal Road
         Springfield. VA 221 61
         Tele: (703) 487-4650 or (800) 553-6847
                                      I by NTO
                                DO MOT u» 1MB
NSFC
                     (NSFC1
         c/o WV University
         P.O. Box 6064
         Morgsntown, West Virginia 26506-6064
         Teie: (800) 624-8301 or Fax: (304) 293-3161
                           8A-17

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                        PUBLICATIONS ON SlUDGE/BIOSOUDS
                                     August 1994
OWRC  Guidance for Writing Case-By-Case Permit Requiremtnts for Municipal Sewage Sludge (EPA
NTIS   50S/8-90-001), May 1990; USEPA OWEC/Permits Div; NTIS (PB91-145508); (1989
NSFC   document: NTIS only; revised March 1993: new titto: Guidance For Writing Permits For Use
        or Dispose/ of Sewage Stodge; draft only available from OW Resource Center; final
        available late 1994)

NTIS   PO7W Sludge Sampling end Artery** Guidence Document, August, 1989; USEPA
        OWEC/Permits Div; available only from NTIS (PB93-227957); (being revised late 1994)

OWRC  Preparing Sewege Sludge For Lend Application or Surface Dispose!: A Guide for Preperers
NTIS   of Sewege Sludge on the Monitoring, Recordkeepictg, end Reporting Requirements of the
NSFC   Federal Stenderds For Use or Dispose/of Sewoge Sludge, 40 CFR Pan 503 (EPA 831B-93-
        002a); August 1993.

OWRC  Surface Disposal of Sewage Sludge: A Guide For Owners/Operators of Surface Dispose/
NTIS   Fecfftios on the Monitoring, Recordkoeping, end Notification Requirements of the Federal
NSFC   Standards For the Use or Disposal of Stweoe Sludge. 40 CFR Part 503: May 1994.
OWRC Lend Application of I
              tdge:A Guide For Land Appears on the Recordkeeping and
                           mgt
       Notification Requirements of the Federal Standards For the Use or Disposal of Sewage
       Sludge. 40 CFR Part 503: Available September 1994 from OW Resource Center.

OWRC Questions A Answers on Part SO?, aveMo* iaut 19B4

OWRC TWC Continuous emission Monfioring Guidance for Pen 503 For Sewage
       IndnenttonK June 1994
OWRC

OWRC
       Domestic
  Notice S/2/89 final Sludge Stite Program and Remitting Regulations

  Notice 7/24/90 Genera/ Pimtieeoimit • NPDES Regulation Changes {the
age Study)
OWRC video: Sewege Sludge Sampling Techniques, 20 minutes long, USEPA OWEC Enforcement
       Division; 1993

OWRC State Sludge Management Program Guidance Manual. Oct. 1990, USEPA OWEC

Municipal Support Division Pubicatiom-Sludga Treatment and Disposal:

NTIS   Environmental Regulations A Technology: Uue A Disposal of Municipal Wastewater Sludge
       (PB 80200546 for NTIS only), March 1989

NTIS   Anaerobic Sludge Digestion: Operations Manual (EPA 430/09-76-001} (PB 250129/AS for
       NTIS only). Fab. 1976
             •*
NTiS   Apuitation of Sewage Sludge to Cropland; Appraisal of Potential Hazards of the Heavy
       Metals to Plants and Animals (EPA 430/09-76-013) (PB 264015/AS for NTIS only), Nov.
       1976

NTIS   Sludge Hendang A Conditioning - Operations Manual (EPA 430/09-78-002) (PB 279449/AS
       for NTiS only). Fab. 1978
                                      8A-18

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 NTIS   Composting Processes to Stabilize A Disinfect Municipal Sewage Sludge (EPA 430/09-81 -
        011) (PB 81240509 for NTIS only), June 1981

 NTIS   Institutional Constraints & Public Acceptance Barriers to Utilization of Municipal
        Wastewater A Sludge For Land Reclamation A Biomass Productions (EPA 430/09-81 -013)
        (PB 83128629 for NTIS only), July 1981

 NTIS   Sludge & the Land: The Role of Soff A Water Conservation Districts in Land Application of
        Sewage Sludge (EPA 430/09-82-007} (PB 83156307 for NTIS only), Sept. 1982

 NTIS   SJudge Recycling for Agricultural Use (EPA 430/09-82-O08) (PB 83164202 for NTIS only),
        Oct. 1982

 NTIS   Multiple-Hearth & Fluid Bed Sludge Incinerators: Design A Operational Considerations (EPA
        430/09-85-002) (PB 86179660 for NTIS only), Sept. 1985

 NTIS   Hoat Treatment/Low Pressure Oxidation Systems.- Design A Operational Considerations
        (EPA 430/09-85-001} (PB 86120003 for NTIS only), Sept. 1985

 NTIS   Startup A Operation of Chemical Process Technologies in the Municipal Sector: The Carver-
        Greenfield Process for Sludge Drying (EPA 430/09*89-007} (PB 90161902 for NTIS only),
        June 1989

 NTIS   Evaluation of Sludge Management Systems: evaluation Checklist A Supporting Commentary
        (EPA 430/9-8O-O01) (MCD-61/OWPO). Feb. 1980
                                                     •*
 OWRC  Domestic Septage Regulatory Guidance: A Guide to the EPA 503/tote Sept. 1993
 NTIS   (EPA/832-B-92-006)
 NSFC
 ERIC

OWRC  EPA's Poticv Promoting the Beneficial Use of Sewage Sludge arrt tfa
NTIS   Technical Sludge Hags, (pamphlet), June 1989; revised/renamed in June 1994: 'Biosolids
NSFC   Recycling: Beneficial Technology For A Better Environment-
ERIC
OWRC A Guide to the BiosoMs Risk At
NTIS   from OW Resource Center
NSFC
tsment Methodology For the EPA SO3 Rule: late 1994
OWRC A Plain £ngOsh Guide to the SPA Pert 5O3 BiosoKds Rule; October 1 994 from OW Resource
NTIS   Center
NSFC
ORD Pubfcatwna

OWRC Environmental Regulations A Technology - Control of Pathogens and Vector Attraction in
CERI   Sewage Sludge (EPA/625/R-92/01 3); Dec. 1 992
OWRC Cooperative Testing of Municipal Sewage Skidges by tr
CERI   Procedure A Compositional Analysis (EPA 430/09-91-007); April 1 991

OWRC Process Design Manual for Surface Disposal of Sewage Sludge & Domestic Septage
CERI   name: Municipal Sludge Lendfittsk being revised; revision available Oct. 1 994
                                         8A-19

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 OWRC  Land Application of Municipal Sludge-. (EPA 625/1-83-016) Oct. 1983; being revised &
 CERI   renamed: Process Design Manual For Land Application of Sewage Sludge & Domestic
        Septage"; revision available July 1995

 OWRC  Septage Treatment and Disposal; (EPA 625/6-84/009) Oct. 1984
 CERI

 OWRC  Handbook: Estimating Sludge Mgmt. Costs (EPA 625/6-85/010); Oct 1985
 CERI

 OWRC  Dewatehng Municipal Wastewater Sludges; (EPA 625/1-87/014) Sept. 1987
 CERI

 OWRC  Summary Report: In-Vessel Composting of Municipal Wastewater Sludge (EPA 62S/-8-89-
 CERI   16)

 OWRC  Autothermal Themophiic Aerobic Digestion of Municipal Wastewater Sludge; (EPA
 CERI   625/10-90/007)

 OWRC  Use and Disposal of Municipal Wastewater Sludgt (EPA 625/10-84/003)
 CERI

 OWRC  OAD BBS Users' Manual (V 2.0) (EPA 600/M-91/050)
 CERI

 OWRC  Composting Municipal Sludge: A Technology Situation (EPA 600/2-87-021); PB87-
 CERI    171252/AS for NTIS only
 NTIS

CERI   CBU/ORD ELECTROMC BULLETIN BOARD: Teto: (513) 569-7610 (24 hour* operation) To
       Qet SJudge/ttoeoide/niriilnsJi: Conference 11

USEPA  OW/Offtee of Science ft Technology; Technical Support Documents For Part
503

NTIS   TSD For Land Application of Sewage Sludge, Volume I (PB93-110575 for NTIS only)

NTIS    TSD For Land Application of Sewage Sludge, Volume II (PB93-110583 for NTIS only)

NTIS    TSD For Surface Disposal of Sewage Sludge ('PB93-11O591 for NTIS only)

NTIS   TSD For Incineration of Sewage Sludge (PB93-110817 for NTIS only)

NTIS   TSD For Pathogen a Vector Attraction Reduction in Sewage Sludge (PB93-1106O9 for
       NTIS only)

NTIS   Human Health ftis* Assessment For Use A Disposal of Sewage Sludge: Benefits of
       Regulation (PB93-111540 for NTIS only)
             *.
NTIS   The Regulatory Impact Analysis (PB93-110625 for NTIS only)
                                     8A-2D

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             United Stms
             Environmental Protection
             Agvnqr
  Otfic* at Wat«r
  (4201)
EPA 832-F-94-OC2
April
oEPA   Combined Sewer Overflow Control Policy:
             A Consensus Solution to Improve Water Quality
 Overview

       The U.S. Environmental Protection
 Agency (EPA) is issuing a 'Combined Sewer
 Overflow Control Policy" which establishes
 a national framework and provides guidance
 to communities and State/Federal officials
 for controlling combined sewer overflows
 (CSOs). The Policy calls for communities
 with CSOs to take immediate and tang-term
 actions to address their CSOs. Rather than
 a one-size-fits-all mandate, the Policy
 provides communities with the flexibility to
 develop a workable, cost-effective solution
 to a major environmental problem.

       Given the high control cost and
 serious nature of CSOs, EPA decided to
 pursue a negotiated dialogue with all
 interested stakeholders in developing the
 Policy. Representatives of communities with
 CSOs, State officials, plus environmental
 and other interest groups joined EPA at the
 table and helped develop the consensus
 Policy. Endorsements have come from
 municipal and environmental groups alike.

       President Clinton's Clean Water
 Initiative recommends that the 1994
 amendments to the Clean Water Act (CWA)
 endorse the final CSO Policy.

 What are CSOs?

       CSOs are a remnant of the country's
 early infrastructure, in the past, cities built
 sewer systems to collect both storm water
 and sanitary wastewater in the same sewer.
 These are called "combined sewers."
    CSOs are discharges of raw
       sewage, industrial and
   commercial wastes, and storm
  water. About 1100 communities,
    mostly in the Northeast and
    Great Lakes, have CSOs that
   serve a population of about 43
              million.
      During dry weather, combined sewers
carry wastewater to treatment facilities.
However, when it rains, combined sewers
may not have the capacity to carry all the
storm water and wastewater, or the
treatment plant may not be large enough to
treat all of the combined flow.  In these
situations, some of the combined wastewater
overflows untreated into the nearest body of
water - streams, lakes, rivers, or estuaries -
creating a combined sewer overflow
(CSO). These CSOs may pose risks to
your health and environment.
                                  8A-21

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 Why are CSOs a problem?

      Since CSOs are comprised of raw
 sewage, commercial and industrial wastes,
 and storm water runoff, many different types
 of pollutants may be present. The main
 constituents of CSOs are untreated human
 and industrial wastes, toxic materials like oil
 and pesticides, and floating debris washed
 into the sewer system from streets and their
 drainage area These pollutants can affect
 your hearth when you swim in CSO-polluted
 water or eat fish or shellfish contaminated
 by CSOs. CSO impacts on water quality are
 unique to each location and may be
 responsible for beach closures, shellfish bed
 closures, fish kills, and other water quality
 degradation in your community.

 How are CSOs regulated?

      CSOs are considered to be •point
 sources* of pollution under the Clean Water
 Act(CWA).  The CWA requires EPA and
 States to issue permits for controlling point
 sources, including discharges from CSOs.
 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination
 System (NPDES) permits must be issued to
 address CSOs.

      Permits are written to meet the water
quality standards for a particular
 waterbody.  Water quality standards are
 State-adopted or Federally-promulgated
 rules that serve as the goals for the
waterbody and the legal basis for NPOES
 permit requirements under the CWA.

      For example, a waterbody may be
designated for a variety of recreational
activities (e.g., swimming, boating, fishing,
etc.), and standards are developed
accordingly.
What are the key components
of the Policy?

      EPA's CSO Policy ensures that
municipalities, permitting and water quality
standards authorities, and the public
engage in a comprehensive and
coordinated planning effort to achieve cost-
effective CSO controls and ultimately
comply with the Clean Water Act The
Policy recognizes the site-specific nature of
CSOs and their impacts, and provides the
necessary flexibility to tailor controls to local
situations.  Key components include:

      Municipalities should Immediately
      Implement the nine minimum
      controls (see box on next page);
      Municipalities should use a
      targeted approach, giving the
      highest priority to environmentally
      sensitive receiving waters;
      Municipalities, in cooperation
      with EPA, States, environmental
      agencies, and water quality
      groups, must develop long-term
      CSO control plans. These plans
      should identify and evaluate various
      control strategies, and lead to
      selection of an approach that is
      sufficient to meet water quality
      standards.
      States may decide to review and
      revise, as appropriate, State water
      quality standards during the CSO
      long-term planning process.
      The financial capability of
      municipalities may be considered
      when developing schedules for
      implementation of CSO controls.
      Public participation is essential
      throughout ail CSO planning and
      implementation efforts.
                                   8A-22

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      The Policy also provides flexibility to
 accommodate ongoing or completed CSO
 projects, the special needs of small
 communities, and watershed planning.

 How expensive are CSO control
 measures?

      Past CSO proposals have carried
 national price tags as high as $160 billion or
 more. The negotiated Policy has reduced
that cost to $41 billion, a substantial
savings.  CSO costs may be high in some
communities, but low in others. The severity
and frequency of CSOs, plus the local water
quality standards, will determine the types of
controls that are needed and their costs.

      EPA recognizes that financial
considerations are often a major factor
affecting the implementation of CSO
controls. For that reason, the Policy allows
consideration of a community's financial
capability in connection with the long-term
CSO control planning effort, water quality
standards review, and enforcement actions.
However, communities are ultimately
responsible for aggressively pursuing
financial arrangements for implementation of
the minimum controls and the long-term
CSO control plan.

      EPA and State agencies will work
with CSO communities to find economically
achievable solutions that will improve public
health and create a safer environment for
everyone.

How will the Policy be enforced?

      Elements of the Policy will be
incorporated into National Pollutant
Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)
permits or other appropriate enforceable
mechanisms.
      The enforcement portion of the Policy
indicates EPA's intent to commence an
enforcement initiative immediately against
municipalities that have CSOs that occur
during dry weather.  It also provides
guidance on the enforcement of the wet-
weather elements of the Policy.
 Nine Minimum Controls

      Communities should immediately
 implement the following minimum controls:
 1.    Proper operation and regular
      maintenance programs for the
      sewer system and CSOs;
 2.    Maximum use of the collection
      system for storage;
 3.    Review and modification of
      pretreatment requirements to
      assure CSO impacts are minimized;
 4.    Maximization of flow to the
      municipal sewage treatment plant
      for treatment;
 5.    Prohibition of CSOs during dry
      weather
 6.    Control of solid and floatable
      materials in CSOs;
 7.    Pollution prevention;
 8.    Public notice to ensure that the
      pubfic receives adequate
      notification of CSO occurences
      and impacts; and
 9.    Monitoring to effectively
      characterize CSO impacts and the
      efficacy of CSO controls.
For more information
      For copies of the CSO Control
Policy, please contact the Office of Water
Resource Center in Washington, DC, at
(202)260-7786. Or write:
      Office of Water Resource Center
      US EPA, Mailcode RC-4100
      Washington, DC 20460
                                8A-23

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            Diagram of a Combined Sewer System
                       During Wet Weather
This diagram shows how domestic wastewater (sewage).
industrial and commercial wastes and storm water ani
collected in the same sewer pipes in a combined sewer
system. During dry weather, all of this wastewater should
be carried to the wastewater treatment plant for treatment.
But when it rains, some of the combined wastewater
overflows untreated into the nearest receiving water,
causing a combined sewer overflow.
                                                                Wet Weather Row
                                                                to Overflow Point
Storm water and Dry Weather Flow
Orope to imereeptor
                                             Combined Sewer Overtlc
                             8A-24

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               MODULE 8 - SUGGESTED REFERENCE MATERIALS
NPDES Best  Management  Practices Guidance Document (EPA/600/9/79-045)   EPA,
Office of Water Enforcement  and Office of Research and Development,  December  1979.

Guidance  Manual for Developing  Best Management Practices (BMPs)fEPA  833-B-93-
004). EPA, Office of Water, October  1993.
Storm Water  Management  for Industrial  Activities:  Developing Pollution Prevention
Plans and Best Management  Practices  (EPA 832-R-92-006) . EPA, Office of Water,
September  1992.

Pollution Prevention  Information Clearinghouse (PPIC) . EPA,  Office of Pollution
Prevention  and Office of Environmental  Engineering  and Technology  Demonstration,
April 1990.
          Pollution  Prevention Information Clearinghouse  (PPIC):  Electronic
Information  Exchange System (EIES) -User Guide. Version l.HEPA/600/9-89/086) .
EPA Office  of Pollution Prevention and Office of Environmental  Engineering and
Technology  Demonstration,  September 1989.

Waste Minimization Opportunity  Assessment  Manual (EPA 625-7-88-003). EPA, Office
of Research  and Development, July  1988.

Environmental  Regulations  and Technology The  National Pretreatment  Program
(EPA/625- 10-86/005) . EPA, Office of Water  Enforcement  and Permits, July 1986.

Guidance  for Developing  Control Authority Enforcement  Response Plans. EPA, Office
of Water,  September  1989.

Guidance  Manual for PQTW  Pretreatment  Program Development . EPA, Office of
Water Enforcement  and Permits,  October  1983.

Guidance  Manual on the  Development and Implementation  of Local Discharge
Limitations Under the Pretreatment  Program . EPA, Office of Water  Enforcement and
Permits, December 1985. Supplemental  Manual  on the Development  and
Implementation  of Local  Discharge Limitations  Under the Pretreatment Program . EPA,
Office of Water,  May 1991.

RCRA  Information on  Hazardous  Wastes  for Publicly Owned Treatment Works . EPA,
Office of Water Enforcement  and  Permits, September  1985.

Guidance  for Writing Case-by-Case Permit  Requirements  for Municipal Sewage Sludge
(EPA 505/8-90-001) . EPA, Office of Water, May 1990.
                                         8A-25

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                                 MODULE #9

                     Standard Conditions of NPDES Permits
OVERALL OBJECTIVES:

   +  Identify the purpose of standard conditions

   *  Discuss methods to implement standard conditions

   *  Provide understanding of standard conditions


LOGISTICS:

Presentation Format: Lecture
Approximate Presentation Time:  15 minutes
Review Questions/Exercise: 15 minutes
Applicable Statutory and Regulatory Citations:

      40 CFR §122.41   Conditions applicable to all permits
      40 CFR §122.42   Additional conditions applicable to specified categories of NPDES
                     permits

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Module 9
Standard Conditions ofNPDES Permits
               Standard Conditions of
                   NPDES Permits
                                           vvEPA
                  Learning Objectives
            • Describe the role of "boilerplate
              language

            • Discuss methods for placing
              standard conditions in permits

            • Review the types of standard
              conditions
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                           9-1

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Module 9
Standard Conditions ofNPDES Permits
            Standard Conditions in the Permit

             • 40 CFR §122.41 - Conditions
               applicable to all permits
             • 40 CFR §122.42 - Additional
               conditions applicable to specified
               categories of NPDES Permits
             • Must appear in every NPDES permit
                - Expressly (verbatim)
                - By reference                     «, CPA
         List of Standard Conditions - 40 CFR §122.41
         Duty to comply
         Duty to reapply
         Need to halt or reduce
         activity not a defense
         Duty to mitigate
         Proper O & M
         Permit actions
         Property rights
         Duty to provide information
         Inspections and entry
         Monitoring and records
   Signatory requirement
   Reporting requirements
    • Planned change
    • Anticipated noncompliance
    + Transfers
    • Monitoring reports
    • Compliance schedules
    • 24 hour reporting
    • Other non-compliance/information
   Bypass
   Upset
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                               9-2

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Module 9
Standard Conditions ofNPDES Permits
      Additional Standard Conditions - 40 CFR §122.42

        •  Notification levels for existing non-municipal
           dischargers
           -  Requirement for toxic pollutants not limited in permit
           -  Discharged on routine or frequent basis
           -  Discharged on non-routine or infrequent basis

        •  Notification for POTWs
           -  New significant indirect discharger
           -  Change in pollutant volume or character

        •  Annual report for municipal separate storm sewer
           systems

        •  Compliance within three years for initial storm water
           permits
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                 9-3

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                                  MODULE #10
                             Administrative Process
OVERALL OBJECTIVES:

   *  Explain regulatory requirements and procedures of permit issuance

   «•  Define requirements and need for fact sheet and statement of basis, and provide
      examples of good permit documentation

   *  Discuss public participation requirements

   *  Explain permit appeals process

   *  Explain EPA, State and Tribal roles in issuance process

   »  Discuss administrative activities after issuance of final permit

   *  Identify the conditions under which a permitting authority may re-open existing
      permits
LOGISTICS:

Presentation Format: Lecture
Approximate Presentation Time: 90 minutes
Review Questions/Exercise:  None
Applicable Statutory and Regulatory Citations:
      CWA Section 401

      40 CFR §122.61
      40 CFR §122.62
      40 CFR
      40 CFR
      40 CFR
      40 CFR
      40 CFR
      40 CFR
      40 CFR
§122.63
§122.64
Part 123
Part 124
Part 124,
Part 124,
Part 124,
Subpart A
Subpart D
Subpart E
      40 CFR Part 124, Subpart F
Untitled

Transfer of permits
Modification or revocation and reissuance of
permits
Minor modifications of permits
Termination of permits
State Program Requirements
Procedures for Decision Making
General Program Requirements
Specific Procedures Applicable to NPDES Permits
Evidentiary Hearing for EPA-issued NPDES
Permits and EPA terminated RCRA Permits
Non-adversary Panel Procedures

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Module 10
Administrative Process
               Administrative Process
                  Learning Objectives
            • Describe NPDES permit
              administrative procedures
            • Discuss requirements and need for
              documentation
            • Explain public participation
              requirements
            • Describe administrative activities
              after final permit issuance
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                            10-1

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Module 10
      Administrative Process
                     NPDES Permitting Process
                   Significant EPA
                    Comment*/
                    No State 401
                    Certification
                                  Develop draft permit limits


and common*
(or statement of basis)
*

record (EPA only)
t
EPA/State review of draft
PSfTMt AftofBCt SIMM
(or UiXmenl of baint)
                              No EPA Comment*
                             State 401 Certification 1
                                  PuMie notice (opportunity for
                                     pubic comment)
                                  	i	
 Significant,
Wdeapread.
Public Intemt
                                   Prepare final uemillB fact
                                   •heat, and admin, record
                                     tewe final permit
      Public Hearing
               NPDES Permitting Process (Continued)
                                     tnue final permit
                                       Request for
                                     Evtdenttary Hearing
Opportunity tor InfomsJ
•ppMltottw

No Appeal
^--^


                                  Envfn
                                            I to
                                          Appeatel
appeal to the


No Appeal
                                       OecWon
                                         »
                                    RoalA9»ncy Action
NPOES Permit Writers Training Course
                                        10-2

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Module 10
Administrative Process
             NPDES Administrative Process

           • The administrative process of developing
             and issuing a permit involves:
             - Documenting all permit decisions
             - Coordinating EPA and State review of the
                draft permit
             - Providing public notice, conducting
                hearings (if appropriate), and responding
                to comments
             - Defending the permit and modifying after
                issuance (if required)
            Reasons for Good Documentation

            • Streamlines reissua nee/com pi iance-
              m on i to ring process
            • Establishes permanent record of the
              basis for the permit
            • Explains legal basis of permit
            • Provides sound basis for future
              modifications and permits
            • Requires permit writer to be organized
              and logical throughout permit
              development process
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                             10-3

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Module 10
        Administrative Process
             Contents of Administrative Record -
                          Draft Permit

               What is it?
               What is in it?
                - Application and suppoiting data
                - Draft permit
                - Statement of basis or fact sheet
                - Documents/items cited in statement of
                  basis or fact sheet
                - Other items supporting permit
                  development
                - Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)
                  for new source draft permits
             Fact Sheet vs. Statement of Basis


Fact Sheet


Statement of Basis

            • Permit involves a
              major facility
            • Permit incorporates
              a variance
            • Permit is an NPDES
              general permit
            • Permit is subject to
              widespread public
              interest
Used when fact sheet
not required
Requires:
 - Description of
   conditions
 - Reasons for
   conditions
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                               10-4

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Module 10
Administrative Process
            Minimum Elements of a Fact Sheet

             • General facility information
                - Description of facility or activity
                - Sketch or description of location
                - Type and quantity of waste/pollutants
                  discharged

             • Summary rationale of permit
               conditions
                - Applicable statutory/regulatory
                  citations
                - References to administrative record ^ _.__
           	v>EPA
             Minimum Elements of a Fact Sheet
                           (Continued)

             Detailed rationale of permit conditions
              - Explanation and calculation of effluent
                limitations and conditions
              - Specific explanation of:
                 • Toxic pollutant limits
                 - Limits on internal wastestreams
                 • Case-by-case requirements
                 • Limits on indicator pollutants
                 • Regulation of users (Non-POTWs only)
              - Sewage sludge land application plan
              - Inappropriateness of requested variances
                   	v>EPA
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                               10-5

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Module 10
Administrative Process
             Minimum Elements of a Fact Sheet
                             (Continued) 	
               Administrative Requirements

                - Permit procedures
                   • Comment period begin and end dates
                   • Procedures for requesting a hearing
                   - Public involvement in final decision

                - Permitting authority contact name and
                  telephone
                 EPA and State/Tribal Roles
         • State/Tribal issued permits
            - EPA retains the right to review:
               • Major municipal and industrials
               • General permits
               • Class I sludge facilities
            - EPA reviews other significant permits (minor)

         • EPA issued permits
            - State/Tribal Section 401 certification required
               • Certifies that permit will achieve water quality standard
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                10-6

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Module 10
Administrative Process
                         Public Notice
               Purpose of public notice

               Types of actions requiring public notice
               - Tentative denial of application
               - Draft NPDES permit
               - Public hearing
               - Formal appeal of permit (after issuance)
               - Major permit modifications
                 (after issuance)
               - Granting of evidentiary hearing
                 (after issuance)
                                                    &EPA
                    Public Notice (Continued)
               Methods applicable to public notice
               process
                - Publication in newspaper
                - Direct mailing
               Contents of public notice
                - Name and address of regulatory authority
                - Name and address of permittee
                - Brief description of facility
                - Name, address, and telephone of contact
                - Additional information
                  (EPA-issued permits)
              	v>EPA
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                10-7

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Module 10
Administrative Process
                  Public Notice (Continued)
              Timing of public notice
               - After EPA/State review
               - Allow at least 30 days for comments

              Responding to comments
               - Significant comments must be
                 responded to in writing
                                                 FPA
                     Public Hearings
            • Public hearings may be requested
              by any party
            • Hearings are optional
            • Scheduling the hearing
              automatically extends the comment
              period until the close of the hearing
              [40CFR§124.12(c>]
            • A transcript of the hearing must be
              available to interested persons    A
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                            10-8

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Module 10
Administrative Process
            Contents of Administrative Record -
                       Final Permit
          •  All comments received
          •  Public hearing tape or transcript
          •  Response to comments
          •  Final EIS for new sources
          •  Final permit
          •  Although not mandated, records from
             the draft permit should be added
              After Final Permit Issuance
            • Permit appeals
            • Minor/major permit modifications
            • Permit termination
            • Permit Transfer
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                            10-9

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Module 10
Administrative Process
                         Permit Appeal
           • Used by permittee to contest final permit limits
             and conditions
           • Must be requested within 30 days following final
             permit issuance
              - Challenges limited to issues raised during public
                comment on draft permit (unless good cause is shown)
           • Regional administrator decides to grant/deny
             request

           • Hearing must be public noticed
           • Only contested permit conditions are stayed
                         Permit Appeal
              •  Permit writers' role during appeal
                  - Witness for permit authority
                  - Source of technical knowledge for
                    attorney
                  - Assist in developing cross-
                    examination questions
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                10-10

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Module 10
Administrative Process
                       Minor Modifications
              •  Used to make corrections to permit
                 conditions

              •  Exempt from administrative procedures
                 (i.e., draft permit, public notice, etc.)

              •  Actions considered minor:
                  1.  Typographical errors
                  2.  More frequent monitoring
                  3.  Change in interim compliance date (<120 days)
                  4.  Change in ownership
                  5.  Change in construction schedule for new source
                  6.  Deletion of point source outfall
                  7.  Incorporate approved local pretreatment program
                       Major Modifications
                Required to address new information
                that may impact permit conditions

                Administrative procedures must be followed
                (i.e., draft permit, public notice, etc.)

                Causes for modification:
                 1. Reopener condition
                 2. Correct technical and legal mistakes
                 3. Failure to notify interested State
                 4. New information
                 5. Alterations justifying new/different conditions
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                   10-11

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Module 10
Administrative Process
                     Major Modifications
              Causes for modification:
                 6. New regulations
                 7. Modification of a compliance schedule (>120 days)
                 8. Require POTW to develop pretreatment programs
                 9. Unsuccessful BPJ treatment installed
                10. Address non-limited pollutants
                11. Variance request
                12. Adjust limits to reflect net pollutant treatment
                13. Insert 307(a) toxic or Part 503 sludge use/disposal
                14. Establish notification levels
                     Permit Terminations
              • Used to retract privilege to
                discharge during permit term
              • Administrative procedures must be
                followed (i.e., public notice)
              • Causes for termination:
                 - Suspend effectiveness in emergency
                 - Terminate for falsifications,
                   recalcitrants or changed conditions
                   (e.g., plant closure)
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                                 10-12

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Module 10
Administrative Process
                       Permit Transfer
               Necessary to address change in
               owner or operator

               Transfer Options
                - Transfer by modification or revocation
                  and reissuance
                - Automatic transfer
                  • Prior 30-day notice
                  • Written agreement between new and old
                    owners
                  • Permit will not be modified or revoked
NPDES Permit Writers Training Course
                               10-13

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10-14

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EXAMPLE NPDES PERMIT
          10-15

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10-16

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                                           Permit No.:  IL0654321


                 UKITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY


                      AUTHORIZATION  TO  DISCHARGE  UNDER THE

                NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM


      In compliance with the provisions of the Clean Water Act, as amended,  {33
U.S.C. $1251 et seq; the "Act"),
      LUSTER GLASS, INC.
is authorized to discharge from a facility located in Morris, Illinois


to receiving waters named the Illinois River

in  accordance  with   discharge   point(s),   effluent  limitations,   monitoring
requirements and other conditions set forth  herein.  Authorization for discharge
is limited to those outfalls specifically listed in the permit.
      This permit shall become effective

      August 31, 1989
      This permit and  the  authorization to discharge shall expire at midnight,
August 31, 1994.
Signed this
day of
Authorized Permitting Official

Director
Water Management Division	
             Title
                                         10-17

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                                                   PART I

                                                   Page 2 of 19
                                                   Permit No.:  IL0654321
                               TABLE OP CONTENTS

Cover Sheet—Issuance  and Expiration Dates

I.    Effluent  Limitations and Monitoring Requirements

      A.    Definitions
      B.    Description of Discharge Points
      C.    specific Limitations and Self-Monitoring Requirements
               (Includes Compliance Schedules as Appropriate)

XI.   Monitoring, Recording and Reporting Requirements

      A.    Representative Sampling
      B.    Monitoring  Procedures
      C.    Penalties for Tampering
      O.    Reporting of Monitoring Results
      E.    Compliance  Schedules
      F.    Additional  Monitoring by the Permittee
      G.    Records Contents
      H.    Retention of Records
      I.    Twenty-four Hour Notice of Noncompliance Reporting
      J.    Other Noncompliance Reporting
      K.    Inspection  and Entry

III.  Compliance Responsibilities

      A.    Duty to Comply
      B.    Penalties for Violations of Permit Conditions
      C.    Need to Halt or Reduce Activity not a Defense
      0.    Duty to Mitigate
      E.    Proper Operation and Maintenance
      F.    Removed Substances
      6.    Bypass of Treatment Facilities
      H.    Upset Conditions
      I.    Toxic Pollutants
      J.    Changes in  Discharge of Toxic Substances

IV.   General Requirements

      A.    Planned Changes
      B.    Anticipated Noncompliance
      c.    Permit Actions
      D.    Duty to Reapply
      E.    Duty to Provide Information
      F.    Other Information
      G.    Signatory Requirements
      H.    Penalties for Falsification of Reports
      I.    Availability of Reports
      J.    Oil and Hazardous Substance Liability
      K.    Coast Guard
      L.    Property Rights
      M.    Severability
      N.    Transfers
      O.    State Laws
      p.    Hater Quality Standard Requirements-Reopen«r Provision
      Q.    Toxicity Reopener Provision

V.    Special Requirements

      A.    Best Management Practices (BMP) Plan
      8.    BMP Implementation
      C.    Site-Specific BMPs
                                          10-18

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                                                   PART  I

                                                   Page  3 of  19
                                                   Permit No.:
                                                                IL06S4321
I.
EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS AND MONITORING REQUIREMENTS
      A.
     -Definitions.

     1.   The "30-day (and monthly) average," other than for fecal coliform
          bacteria and total coliform bacteria, is the arithmetic average
          of all samples collected during  a consecutive 30-day period or
          calendar month, whichever is applicable.  Geometric means shall
          be calculated  for fecal coliform bacteria  and  total coliform
          bacteria.   The calendar month shall be used for  purposes of
          reporting  self-monitoring  data on discharge monitoring report
          forms.

     2.   The "7-day (and weekly) average," other than for fecal coliform
          bacteria and total coliform bacteria, is the arithmetic mean of
          all  samples collected  during a consecutive  7-day  period or
          calendar week,  whichever is applicable.  Geometric means shall be
          calculated  for  fecal  coliform   bacteria  and  total coliform
          bacteria.  The 7-day and weekly average* are applicable only to
          those effluent characteristics for which there are 7-day average
          effluent limitations.  The calendar week which begins on Sunday
          and ends on Saturday,  shall be used  for purposes of reporting
          self-monitoring  data  on  discharge   monitoring  report  forms.
          Weekly averages shall be calculated for all calendar  weeks  with
          Saturdays in the month.  If a calendar week overlaps  two months
          (i.e.,  the Sunday  is  in  one month  and  the Saturday  in the
          following month),  the weekly average calculated for that calendar
          week shall be  included  in  the data for the month that contains
          the Saturday.

     3.   "Daily Maximum* ("Daily Max.") is the maximum value  allowable in
          any single sample or instantaneous measurement.

     4.   "Composite samples"  shall  be  flow proportioned.   The composite
          sample shall,  as  a minimum, contain  at least four (4) samples
          collected  over  the  compositing period.     Unless  otherwise
          specified, the time  between the  collection of the  first sample
          and the last sample shall not be less than six  (6) hours  nor  more
          than 24 hours.  Acceptable methods for  preparation  of composite
          samples are as follows:

          a.   Constant  time  interval   between  samples,   sample volume
               proportional to flow rate at time  of  sampling;

          b.   Constant  time  interval   between  samples,   sample volume
               proportional to total flow (volume) since last sample.  For
               the first sample,  the flow  rate  at the time the  sample was
               collected may be used;

          c.   Constant  sample  volume,  time  interval between  samples
               proportional to  flow  (i.e.,  sample taken every "X"  gallons
               of flow); and,

          d.   Continuous collection of  sample,  with  sample collection rate
               proportional to  flow  rate.

     5.   A  "grab"  sample,  for monitoring  requirements, is  defined  as  a
          single "dip and take" sample collected at a representative point
          in the discharge  stream.
                                          10-19

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                                         PAST I

                                         Page 4  of 19
                                         Permit  No.:   IL0654321

 6.    An "instantaneous" measurement,  l:or monitoring requirements,  is
      defined aa a single reading,  observation,  or measurement.

 7.    "Upset"  means  an  exceptional   incident   in  which  there  is
      unintentional and temporary noncetnpliance  with technology-based
      permit  effluent  limitations because  of  factors  beyond  the
      reasonable control of the permittee.  An upset does not include
      noncompliance  to  the  extent  caused  by  operational  error,
      improperly designed treatment facilities,  inadequate treatment
      facilities,  lack of  preventive  maintenance,  or  careless  or
      improper operation.

 8.    "Bypass" means the intentional diversion  of  waste  streams from
      any portion of a treatment facility.

 9.    "Severe property  damage"  means  substantial physical  damage  to
      property, damage to the treatment facilities which causes them to
      becoae inoperable, or substantial and permanent loss of natural
      resources  which can  reasonably  lie  expected to  occur  in  the
      absence  of a  bypass.   Severe  property  damage  does  not mean
      economic loss caused by delays in production.

10.    "Director" means  director of the United  States Environmental
      Protection Agency's Hater Management Division.

11.    "EPA" means the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

12.    "Sewage Sludge" is any solid, semi-solid or liquid residue that
      contains materials removed from donnas tic sewage during treatment.
      Sewage  sludge includes,  but is  not  limited  to,  primary and
      secondary solids and sewage sludge products.

13.    "Acute  Toxicity"  occurs when SO percent  or more  mortality is
      observed for either test species  (See Part Z.C.)  at any effluent
      concentration.  Mortality in the control must simultaneously be
      10 percent or less for  the  effluent  results  to be considered
      valid.

14.    "Chronic   Toxicity"   occurs   when  the  survival,  growth,  or
      reproduction,  as applicable, for  either  test species,  at the
      effluent dilution(s) designated  in this permit (see  Part  I.e.),
      is significantly  less (at the 95 percent  confidence  level) than
      that observed for the control specimens.
                                   10-20

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                                             PART I

                                             Page 5 of 19
                                             Permit No.:  IL06S4321
B.
Description of Discharge Points
The authorization  .to discharge provided under this  permit  is limited to
those  outfalls  specifically  designated  below  as  discharge  locations.
Discharges  at any  location  not authorized  under an  NPDES permit  is a
violation  of  the  clean  Water Act  and  could   subject  the  peraon{s}
responsible for such discharge to penalties under Section 309 of the Act.
Knowingly discharging from an unauthorized location or failing to report an
unauthorized discharge within a reasonable time from first learning of an
unauthorized discharge could subject such person to criminal penalties as
provided under the Clean Water Act.
Outfall
Serial Number

     001
                Description of Discharge Point

                Discharge of effluent  from  the wastewater treatment
                oil/water separator and settling basins, and  cooling
                tower blowdown to the Illinois River.
                                10-21

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                                                   PART I

                                                   Page 6 of 19
                                                   Permit No.:  IL0654321

      Specific Limitations and Self-Monitoring B*Tiirementa

      1.   Effluent Limitations (Outfall 001)

           Effective immediately and lasting through the  life of the permit, the
           permittee,  is  authorized  to  discharge  frotn Outfall  001     Such
           discharges shall be limited by the permittee as specified below-
Effluent
Parameter

Flow, MOD

Total Suspended Solids,
Ib/day
mg/1

Oil and Grease,
Ib/day
mg/1

Total Phosphorus,
Ib/day
mg/1

Total Zinc,
Ib/day
Total Lead,
Ib/day
Whole Effluent Toxicity
(WET) , TUe b/

pH, S.u.

Temperature
30-Day  a/
Average

K/A
351.3
9.23
104.2
2.74
16.5
0.43
3.75
0.1
1.14
0.03
£/
Daily  a/
Maximum

N/A
451.1
11.86
104.2
2.74
16.5
0.43
3.75
0.1
1.52
0.04
S.9

£/
There shall be no discharge of floating solids or visible foam in other than trace
amounts.


a/    See Definitions, Part I.A. for definition of terms.

b/    The permittee shall demonstrate compliance with WET requirements specified
      in Part  I.e.3 of this permit.

c/    pH shall not be less than 6.0 s.u. nor  greater than 9.0  s.u.

d/    Temperature shall not be greater than 2.8 degzees Centigrade above ambient,
      or  1.7  degrees  Centigrade  above the  following  maximum  limits:    from
      December 1 through March 31,  16 degrees Centigrade (60 degrees Fahrenheit)
      and from April  1  through November 30,  32 degrees Centigrade  (90 degrees
      Fahrenheit).
                                          10-22

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                                                   PART I

                                                   Page 7 of 19
                                                   Permit No.:  IL06S4321

C.    Specific Limitations and Self-Monitoring Requirement3 (Cont.l

      2.   Self•Monitoring Requirements (Outfall 001)

           Aa a minimum,  upon  the effective date of this permit,  the following
           constituents shall be monitored at the frequency and with the type of
           measurement indicated; samples or measurements shall be representative
           of the volume and nature of the monitored discharge.  Zf no discharge
           occurs during the entire monitoring period,  it  shall be stated on the
           Discharge Monitoring Report Form (EPA No. 3320-1)  that no discharge or
           overflow occurred.
Effluent
Parameter

Flow, MOD   b/

Temperature

Total Suspended Solids

Oil and Grease

Total Phosphorus

Total Zinc

Total Lead

Whole Effluent Toxicity
(WET), Chronic

PH
Frequency

Daily

Daily

Weekly

Weekly

Weekly

Weekly

Weekly


2/Month

Daily
Sample Type  a/

Instantaneous or Continuous

Continuous

24-Hour Composite

Grab

24-Hour Composite

24-Hour Composite

24-Hour Composite


24-Hour Composite

Continuous or Grab
      Sampling by  the permittee -for  compliance with the monitoring requirements
      specified above shall be performed at the  following locations(s):  within
      100  feet of  Outfall 001 to  the Illinois River.

a/    See  definitions,  Part I.A.

b/    Flow measurements of  effluent volume shall be made in such a manner that
      the  permittee can affirmatively demonstrate that representative values are
      being obtained.
                                      10-23

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                                                   PART I

                                                   Page 8 of 19
                                                   Permit No.:   IL0654321

C.    Specific Limitations and Seif.-Menltori.no Requirements (Cont.l

      3.   Whole Effluent Toxicity Testing - Chronic Toxicity

           Starting  the  effective  date of  thisi permit,  the  permittee  shall
           conduct biweekly chronic toxicity tests on a 24 hour composite sample
           of the final effluent.  If chronic toxi.city ia detected, the permittee
           shall  conduct   a  Toxicity  Reduction  Evaluation,   according   to
           specifications  in Part  I.e.4  of thisi permit.   Teat  species  shall
           consist  of Piaephales promeias  (FaHhead  minnows).    The  chronic
           toxicity  tests  shall  be  conducted in general  accordance with  the
           procedures set out in the latest revis;ion of "Short-Terra Methods for
           Estimating the Chronic Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Haters to
           Freshwater Organisms",  EPA/600-4-89-001.  If  control mortality exceeds
           20 percent, the test shall  be  considered invalid.   Chronic toxicity
           occurs when the No Observed  Effect Concentrations (NOECs) (calculated
           within  a  95   percent   confidence   interval)  exceed(s)  the  permit
           limit(s).  Test  results shall be  reported  along with  the Discharge
           Monitoring Report  (DMR) submitted for the end of the calendar period
           during which  the  whole  effluent test was  run.   The  report  shall
           include all the physical testing  as specified and shall report test
           conditions, including temperature,  pH, conductivity, mortality, total
           residual chlorine  concentration, control mortality,  and statistical
           methods used to calculate an NOEC.

           If the results for one year (26 consecutive weeks) of whole effluent
           testing indicate  no chronic toxicity, the permittee may request, the
           permit issuing  authority to allow  th«  permittee to  reduce testing
           frequency.   The  permit  issuing autharity  may  approve,  partially
           approve, or deny the  request  based on  results  and  other available
           information.

      4.   Toxicity Reduction Evaluation (TRE)

           Zf the permittee fails  to meet toxicity requirements specified in this
           permit, the permit issuing  authority nhall determine  that a TRE is
           necessary.  The permittee shall  be so notified and  shall initiate a
           TRE immediately  thereafter.   The TRE nhall  include  a TRE Test Plan
           that must  be  submitted  to  the permitting authority  within  €0 days
           after notification of  a TRE requirement.   The permitting authority
           will then establish a deadline for compliance.  The purpose of the TRE
           will be to establish the cause of the toxicity, locate the source(s)
           of the toxicity,  and control or provide treatment  for the toxicity
           prior to the deadline.

           If acceptable  to the  permit  issuing authority, this  permit  may be
           reopened  and  modified  to  incorporate any  additional  numerical
           limitations, a modified compliance  schedule if judged necessary by the
           permit issuing authority, and/or a  modified whole effluent protocol.

           Failure to  conduct an  adequate TRE,  or  failure  to  submit a plan or
           program as described above, or  the submittal of a  plan or program
           judged inadequate by the permit issuing authority,  shall in no way
           relieve the permittee  from  the deadline: for compliance contained in
           this permit.
                                           10-24

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                                                   PART II

                                                   Page 9 of 19
                                                   Permit No.:  IL06S4321

II.   MONITORING, RECORDING AND REPORTING REQUIREMENTS

      A.   Representative  Sampling.   Samples  taken  in  compliance  with  the
           monitoring requirements  established under  Part  I shall be collected
           from the effluent stream  prior to discharge into  the receiving waters.
           Samples and measurements shall be representative of the  volume and
           nature•of the monitored discharge.
      B.
      E.
      F.
      G.
Monitoring Procedures.  Monitoring must be conducted according to test
procedures  approved  under  40  CFR  Part  136,  unless  other  test
procedures have been specified in this permit.

Penalties  for Tampering.    The  Act  provides that  any person  who
falsifies,  tampers  with,  or  knowingly  renders  inaccurate,   any
monitoring device  or method required to  be maintained under  this
permit shall,  upon conviction,  be punished  by a fine of not more than
$10,000 per violation,  or by imprisonment for not more than two years
per violation, or by both.

Reporting of Monitoring Results.  Effluent monitoring results obtained
during the previous tnonth(s) shall  be summarized  for each  month and
reported  on  a Discharge  Monitoring Report  Form   (EPA  No.  3320-1),
postmarked no later than  the  28th day  of the month  following the
completed  reporting period.    if   no  discharge  occurs during  the
reporting period,  "no  discharge" shall be reported.   Until further
notice,  sludge  monitoring  results  may be reported  in  the testing
laboratory's  normal  format  (there  is  no EPA standard  form at  this
time), but should be on letter size pages.  Legible copies of these,
and all other reports required herein, shall be signed and certified
in  accordance with the  Signatory  Requirements  fsee Part  IV).  and
submitted to  the  Director, water Management  Division  and  the State
water pollution control agency at the following addresses:
           original to:
           copy to:
                United States Environmental Protection Agency
                Attention:  Water Management Division
                             Compliance Branch

                State Department of Health
                Attention:  Permits and Enforcement
Compliance Schedules.  Reports of compliance or noncorapliance with, or
any progress reports on interim and final requirements contained in
any Compliance  Schedule of this permit shall  be  submitted no later
than 14 days following each schedule date.

Add itipnaJL Monitor ing by the Permittee.  If the permittee monitors any
pollutant more  frequently than required by  this  permit,  using test
procedures approved under 40 CFR 136 or as specified in this permit,
the results of  this  monitoring  shall be included in the calculation
and  reporting  of  the  data submitted  in  the  DMR.    Such increased
frequency shall also be  indicated.

Records Contents.  Records of monitoring information shall include:

1.   The date, exact place, and time of sampling or measurements;

2.   The initials  or name(s)  of the individuals) who performed the
     sampling or measurements;

3.   The date(s) analyses were  performed;

4.   The time(s) analyses were  initiated;
                                      10-25

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                                             PART ::

                                             Page 10 of 19
                                             Permit No.:  IL0654321

     S.   The  initials  or  name(s)   of  individuals)  who performed  the
        _  analyses;

     6.   References  and  written  procedures,  when  available,  for  the
          analytical techniques or methods used; and,

     7.   The  results of  such  analyses,  Including  the bench  sheets,
          instrument  readouts,  computer  disilcs  or  tapes, etc.,  used  to
          determine these results.

H.   Retention of  Records.    The permittee  shall  retain records  of  all
     monitoring  information,  including all  calibration  and  maintenance
     records  and  all original  strip  chart: recordings  for  continuous
     monitoring  instrumentation,  copies of all reports required by this
     permit, and records of all data used to complete the application for
     this permit, for a period of at least three years from the date of the
     sample,  measurement,  report or application.   This period may  be
     extended by request of the  Director  at  any time.   Data collected on
     site, copies of Discharge Monitoring Reports, and a copy of this MPOES
     permit must be maintained on site durincr the duration of activity at
     the permitted location.

I.   Twenty-four Hour Notice of Noncompliancc Reporting.

     1.   The permittee shall  report any nonccxnpliance  which may seriously
          endanger health or  the environment as soon as possible,  but no
          later than  twenty-four (24)  hours from the  time  the permittee
          first became aware  of  the circumstances.   The  report  shall be
          made to the EPA Emergency Response Branch at  (312) 293-1788 and
          the State at (312) 370-9395.

     2.   The following occurrences of noncompliance shall be reported by
          telephone to the EPA Compliance Branch at  (312)  293-1589 and the
          State at  (312) 331-4590 by the  first  workday (8:00 a.m.  - 4:30
          p.m.)  following the  day  the  permittee  became  aware  of  the
          c ircumstances:

          a.   Any  unanticipated   bypass  which  exceeds  any -effluent
               limitation  in   the   permit  (S«e  Part  III.G.,  Bypass  of
               Treatment Facilities.);

          b.   Any  upset  which  exceeds any  effluent  limitation  in the
               permit (See Part III.H.. Upset Conditions.!; or,

          c.   Violation of a  maximum daily discharge limitation for any of
               the pollutants  listed in  the permit to be reported within 24
               hours.

     3.   A written submission shall also be provided  within five days of
          the time that the permittee becomes aware of the circumstances.
          The written submission shall contain:

          a.   A description  of the  noncompliance and  its cause;

          b.   The  period of  noncompliance,  including  exact dates and
               t imes;

          c.   The estimated time noncompliance' is expected  to  continue if
               it has not been corrected; and,

          d.   Steps  taken  or planned  to  reduce,  eliminate,  and  prevent
               reoccurrence of the  noncompliance.
                                     10-26

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                                        PAJVT II

                                        Page 11 of 19
                                        Permit No.:  IL0654321

     The Director may waive the written report on a caae-by-case basis
     if the  oral report  has  been received  within 24 hours  by the
     Compliance Branch,  Water Management Division by phone,  (312) 293-
     1589.

     Reports  shall  be  submitted to  the  addresses  in  Part  II.P..
     Reporting of Monitoring Results.
Other  Noncompliance  Reporting.     Instances  of  noncompliance  not
required to be reported within 24 hours shall be reported at the time
that monitoring reports  for Part II.O.  are submitted.   The reports
shall contain the information listed in  Part II.I.2.

Inspection and Entry.  The permittee shall allow the Director, or an
authorized representative, upon  the presentation of credentials and
other documents as may be required by  law, to:

1.   Enter upon the permittee's premises where a regulated facility or
     activity is located or conducted, or where record* must be kept
     under the conditions of this permit;

2.   Have access to  and  copy,  at reasonable times,  any records that
     must be kept under the conditions of this permit;

3.   Inspect at reasonable times  any facilities, equipment (including
     monitoring  and  control  equipment),  practices,  or  operations
     regulated or required under this  permit; and,

4.   Sample  or monitor  at  reasonable  times,  for  the purpose of
     assuring permit compliance or as otherwise authorized by the Act,
     any substances or parameters at any location.
                           10-27

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                                                   PART :n

                                                   Page 12 of 19
                                                   Permit NO.J   IL0654321
III.  COMPLIANCE RESPONSIBILITIES
      A.   Duty to Comply.  The permittee must comply with all conditions of this
           permit.  Any permit noncompliance constitutes a  violation of the Act
           and  is  grounds  for-  enforcement  action;  for  permit  termination,
           revocation and reissuance, or modification; or for denial of a permit
           renewal application.  The permittee shall give  the  Director advance
           notice  of  any planned changes at the permitted  facility or of  an
           activity which may result in permit nor compliance.

      B.   Penalties for Violations  of  Permit Cond.it ion a.  The Act provides that
           any person who violates a permit condition implementing Sections 301,
           302, 306,  307,  308, 318, or  405  of the Act  is subject to  a  civil
           penalty not to exceed $25,000 per day  of such violation.   Any person
           who willfully or negligently violates  permit  conditions implementing
           Sections 301, 302,  306, 307, or 308 of  tiiie Act is subject to a fine of
           not less than $5,000,  nor more than $50,000 per  day of violation,  or
           by  imprisonment  for not more than 3 years, or both.   Except  as
           provided in  permit conditions in  Part  III.c..  Bypass of  Treatment
           Facilities and Part III.H..  Ooaet conditions, nothing in this permit
           shall be construed to relieve the permittee of the civil or criminal
           penalties for noncompliance.

      C.   Need to Halt or  Reduce  Activity not  a  Defense.  it shall  not  be a
           defense for a permittee  in  an enforcement action  that it would have
           been necessary to halt or reduce  the  permitted  activity in order to
           maintain compliance with the conditions of this  permit.

      D.   Duty to Mitigate.  The permittee  shall  ':ake  all reasonable steps to
           minimize or prevent any  discharge  in  violation  of this permit which
           has a reasonable likelihood of adversely if fee ting human health or the
           environment.

      E.   Proper Operation and Maintenance.  The  permittee  shall at all times
           properly operate and maintain all  facilities and systems of treatment
           and control (and related  appurtenances) which are installed or used by
           the  permittee to  achieve compliance  with  the conditions  of  this
           permit.   Proper operation  and maintenance  also  includes. adequate
           laboratory  controls and  appropriate  quality assurance procedures.
           This  provision  requires the operation  of  back-up  or  auxiliary
           facilities or similar systems which are  installed by a permittee only
           when the operation  is  necessary to achieve  compliance with the
           conditions of the permit. However, the permittee shall operate, as a
           minimum, one  complete set of each main iline  unit treatment process
           whether or  not this  process is  needed  to  achieve  permit effluent
           compliance.

      F.   Removed Substances.  Collected screenings, grit, solids, sludges, or
           other pollutants removed  in  the course of treatment shall be buried or
           disposed of  in such a manner so  as  to prevent  any pollutant from
           entering any waters of the state  or creating  a health hazard.  Filter
           backwash shall not be directly blended with or enter either the  final
           plant discharge and/or waters of the United States.

      G.   Bypass of Treatment Facilities;

           1.   Bypass  not exceeding limitations.   The  permittee may allow any
                bypass to occur which does not cause effluent  limitations  to be
                exceeded, but  only  if  it also is  for  essential maintenance to
                assure  efficient operation.   These bypasses are not subject to
                the provisions of paragraphs 2.  and 2.  of  this  section.
                                           10-28

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                                             PART III

                                             Page 13 of 19
                                             Permit No.:  IL06S4321
     2.   Notice:
          a.   Anticipated bypass.  If the permittee  knows in advance of
               the need  for  a bypass, it  shall submit prior  notice,  if
               possible at least 60 days  before the date of the bypass.

          b.   Unanticipated bypass.   The permittee shall submit notice of
               an  unanticipated  bypass  as  required   under Part  II.I..
               Twenty-four Hour Reporting.

     3.   Prohibition of bypass.

          a.   Bypass is prohibited and the Director may take enforcement
               action against a permittee for a bypass, unless:

               (1)   The bypass was unavoidable to prevent loss of life,
                     personal injury,  or  severe property damage;

               (2)   There were  no feasible  alternatives  to  the bypass,
                     such as  the use  of auxiliary treatment  facilities,
                     retention of untreated wastes, or maintenance during
                     normal periods of equipment downtime.  This condition
                     is not satisfied  if adequate back-up equipment should
                     have been  installed in  the  exercise  of  reasonable
                     engineering  judgement  to prevent a bypass  which
                     occurred during normal periods of equipment downtime
                     or preventive maintenance; and,

               (3)   The  permittee submitted  notices aa  required under
                     paragraph 2. of this section.

          b.   The  Director  may  approve  an  anticipated   bypass,  after
               considering its adverse effects, if the Director determines
               that  it  will  meet the three  conditions Listed  above in
               paragraph 3.a. of this section.

H.   Upset Conditions.

     1.   Effect of an upset. An upset constitutes an affirmative defense
          to  an  action brought  for  noncompliance with technology based
          permit effluent limitations if the requirements of paragraph 2.
          of  this  section  are  met.    No   determination  made  during
          administrative review of claims that noncompliance was caused by
          upset,  and  before  an  action  for noncompliance,  is  final
          administrative  action  subject   to judicial   review  (i.e.,
          Permittees will have the opportunity  for a judicial determination
          on any claim of upset only in an enforcement  action brought  for
          noncompliance with technology-based permit effluent limitations).

     2.   Conditions necessary for a demonstration of upset...  -A permittee
          who wishes to  establish the affirmative defense of upset shall
          demonstrate, through properly signed, contemporaneous operating
          logs, or other relevant evidence that:

          a.   An upset  occurred and  that  the permittee can identify  the
               cause(s) of the upset;

          b.   The  permitted facility was  at the   time  being  properly
               operated;

          c.   The  permittee submitted  notice of the  upset  as  required
               under Part 11.__!_.._ Twenty-four  Hour  Notice of Noncompliance
               Reporting; and,

          d.   The permittee complied  with any remedial measures required
               under Part  III.P.,  Duty to  Mitigate.
                                  10-29

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3.
                                         PART  III

                                         Page  14 of  19
                                         Permit No.:  IL0654321

     Burden of proof.   In any enforcement proceeding,  the permittee
     seeking to establish the occurrence of an upset has the burden of
     proof.

Toxic Pollutants.  The permittee shall  comply  with effluent standards
or prohibitions established under Section 307(a) of  the Act for toxic
pollutants within the time provided in  the regulations that establish
those standards or prohibitions, even  if  the permit has not yet been
modified to incorporate the requirement.

Changes  in Discharge  of  Toxic Substances.  Notification shall  be
provided to the  Director  as soon as the  permittee  knows  of,  or has
reason to believe:

1.   That any activity has occurred or will occur which would result
     in the discharge, on  a  routine or frequent basis,  of any toxic
     pollutant which is not limited in the permit,  if that discharge
     will exceed the highest of the following "notification levels":

          One hundred micrograms per liter (100 ug/L);

          Two hundred micrograms per liter (200 ug/L) for acrolein and
          aerylonitrile;  five hundred mj-crograms per liter (500 ug/L}
          for 2,4-dinitrophenol and for 2-methy1-4,  6-dinitrophenol;
          and one milligram per liter (1 mg/L) for antimony;

          Five (S)  times the maximum concentration value reported for
          that pollutant  in the  permit application in accordance with
          40  CFR 122.21(g)(7); or,

          The level established by  the Director in accordance with 40
          CFR 122.44(f).
     a.

     b.
    c.
    d.
    That any activity has occurred or will  occur which would result
    in any  discharge,  on a non-routin« or infrequent  basis,  of a
    toxic pollutant which  is not limited  in the  permit,  if that
    discharge will exceed the highest of the following "notification
    levels":
    a.

    b.

    c.



    d.
         Five  hundred  micrograms per liter (500 ug/L);

         One milligram per liter (1 mg/L)  for antimony:

         Ten (10) times the maximum concentration value reported for
         that pollutant in the permit application in accordance with
         40 CFR  122.21(g)(7);  or,

         The level established by the Director in accordance with 40
         CFR 122.44(f).
                               10-30

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                                                   PART IV

                                                   Page 15 of 19
                                                   Permit No.:  IL0654321
IV.   GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
      A.   Planned Changes.  The permittee shall give notice to the Director as
           soon as possible of any planned physical alterations or additions to
           the permitted facility.  Notice is required only when:

           1.   The alteration or addition to a permitted facility may meet one
                of the  criteria for  determining whether a  facility is a  new
                source as determined in 40 CFR 122.29(b); or

           2.   The alteration or addition could  significantly change the nature
                or  increase  the  quantity  of   pollutants  discharged.    This
                notification applies to pollutants which are subject neither to
                effluent  limitations   in the   permit,   nor  to  notification
                requirements under Fart IV.A.I.

      B.   Anticipated Noncompliance.  The permittee shall give advance notice of
           any planned changes  in  the  permitted  facility or activity which may
           result in noncompliance with permit requirements.

      C.   Permit Actions.   This permit may be modified,  revoked and reissued, or
           terminated for cause.  The filing  of a request  by the permittee for a
           permit modification, revocation and reissuance, or termination,  or a
           notification of  planned  changes or anticipated noncompliance, does not
           stay any permit condition.

      D.   Duty to Reapplv.   If the permittee wishes to continue  an activity
           regulated by this permit after  the expiration date of this permit,'the
           permittee must apply for  and obtain  a new permit.   The application
           should be submitted  at  least 180  days before the expiration date of
           this permit.

      E.   Duty to  Provide Information.   The permittee  shall furnish  to the
           Director,  within a reasonable time, any information which the Director
           may request to determine whether cause exists for modifying, revoking
           and reissuing, or terminating this permit, or to determine compliance
           with this permit.  The permittee shall also furnish to the Director,
           upon request, copies of records required to be kept by this.permit.

      F.   Other Information.   When the permittee becomes aware that  it failed to
           submit any relevant  facts  in a  permit  application, or  submitted
           incorrect information  in  a permit application or any  report  to the
           Director,  it shall promptly submit such facts or information.

      G.   Sianatpry  Requirements.   All  applications,  reports  or  information
           submitted to the Director shall be signed and certified.

           1.   All permit applications shall be signed as follows:

                a.   For a corporation:   by a responsible corporate officer;

                b.   For a  partnership or sole  proprietorship:   by  a general
                     partner or the proprietor,  respectively;

                c.   For a municipality, state,  Federal,  or  other public agency:
                     by either  a principal executive officer or ranking elected
                     official.

           2.   All  reports  required by  the  permit   and other  information
                requested by the Director shall  be signed by a person described
                above or by a duly authorized representative of that person.   A
                person is a duly authorized  representative only if:

                a.   The authorization is made in writing by a person described
                     above and  submitted  to  the  Director, and,
                                        10-31

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                                             PART IV

                                             Page 16 of 19
                                             Permit No.:  IL06S4321

          b.   The  authorization specified  either  an  individual  or  a
               position having responsibility for the overall operation of
               the regulated facility or activity, such  as the position of
               plant  manager,  operator  of   a   well  or  a  well  field,
               superintendent, position of equivalent responsibility, or an
               individual or  position having overall  responsibility  for
               environmental matters for the company.   (A duly authorized
               representative may thus be either  a named individual or any
               individual occupying a named position.}

     3.   Changes to authorization.   If an authorization under paragraph
          IV.c.2. is no longer accurate because a different individual or
          position  has  responsibility  for the  overall operation of  the
          facility, a  new authorization  satisfying the  requirements  of
          paragraph IV.c.2.  must be submitted to the Director prior to or
          together with  any  reports,  information, or applications  to  be
          signed by an authorized representative.

     4.   Certification.  Any person signing  a document  under this section
          shall make the following certification:

          "I  certify  under  penalty of  law  that this  document  and  all
          attachments were prepared under  my direction or supervision in
          accordance with a  system  designed to  assure that  qualified
          personnel properly gather and evaluate the  information submitted.
          Based on  my inquiry  of  the  person or persons who  manage the
          system, or those persons directly responsible for gathering, the
          information, the  information submitted is,  to the best  of my
          knowledge and belief, true, accurate, and complete.  I am aware
          that  there  are  significant  penalties  for  submitting  false
          information, including the possibility of fine and imprisonment
          for knowing violations."

H.   Penaltiesfor  Falsification of Reports.  The  Act  provides that any
     person who  knowingly makes any  false statement,  representation, or
     certification in any record or other document submitted or required to
     be  maintained  under this permit,  including monitoring  reports or
     reports  of  compliance  or noncompliance  shall,  upon  conviction be
     punished by  a fine  of  not more  than $10,000 per violation,  or by
     imprisonment for not more than two years per violation, or by both.

I.   Availability  of  Reports.     Except  for   data  determined  to  be
     confidential under 40 CFR Part 2,  all reports prepared in accordance
     with the terms  of this permit shall be available for public inspection
     at  the offices of  the  State water pollution control agency and the
     Director.  As  required  by the  Act, permit applications, permits and
     effluent data shall not be considered confidential.

J.   Oil and Hazardous Substance Liability.  Nothing  in this permit shall
     be  construed to  preclude  the  institution  of  any  legal  action or
     relieve  the permittee  from any  responsibilities,  liabilities,  or
     penalties to which the permittee  is or may  be  subject under
     Section 311 of the Act.

K.   Coast Guard.  If the Permittee  operates its  facility at certain times
     as  a means of  transportation over water, the Permittee shall  comply
     with any applicable  regulations  promulgated by the Secretary  of the
     department  in  which the Coast  Guard is operating,  that establish
     specifications  for  safe  transportation,   handling,  carriage,  and
     storage of pollutants.

L.   Property Rights.   The  issuance  of this permit  does not convey any
     property rights of any sort, or any exclusive privileges,  nor does  it
     authorize any  injury to  private  property or any  invasion of  personal
     rights,  nor any  infringement  of  federal,   state  or  local  laws  or
     regulations.
                                     10-32

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                                             PART IV

                                             Page 17 of 19
                                             Permit No.:  IL0654321

M.   Severabilitv.  The provisions of this permit are severable,  and if any
     provision of this permit, or the application of any proviaion  of this
    - permit to any circumstance,  is held invalid, the application  of such
     provision to other  circumstances,  and the remainder of this  permit,
     shall not be affected thereby.

N.   Transfers.   This permit may be automatically transferred  to a new
     permittee if:

     1.   The current permittee notifies the Director at least 30  days in
          advance of the proposed  transfer date;

     2.   The notice includes a written agreement between the existing and
          new permittees containing a specific date  for transfer  of permit
          responsibility, coverage, and liability between them;  and,

     3.   The  Director does  not notify the  existing permittee and the
          proposed new permittee of his or her intent to modify,  or revoke
          and  reissue  the permit.   If this notice is  not  received, the
          transfer  is  effective  on  the date  specified  in  the  agreement
          mentioned in paragraph  2. above.

o.   State Laws.  Nothing in  this  permit shall be construed to preclude the
     institution  of any legal  action  or relieve the permittee from any
     responsibilities,  liabilities,  or penalties established pursuant to
     any applicable state  law or regulation under authority preserved by
     Section 510 of the Act.

P.   Reooener  Prevision.    This  permit  may  be  reopened  and modified
     (following   proper  administrative   procedures)   to   include  the
     appropriate  effluent   limitations  (and  compliance  schedule,  if
     necessary), or other  appropriate  requirements  if one or more of the
     following events occurs:

     1.   water Quality Standards;   The water  quality  standards of the
          receiving water(s) to which the permittee discharges are modified
          in such a manner as  to require  different effluent limits than
          contained in this  permit.

     2.   Wasteload Allocation;   A wasteload allocation is developed and
          approved  by  the  State  and/or EPA  for incorporation  in this
          permit.

     3.   Water Quality Management Plant   A revision to the current  water
          quality management  plan is approved  and adopted which  calls for
          different effluent Limitations than  contained  in this  permit.
                                 10-33

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                                         PART  :v

                                         Page  18 of 19
                                         Permit  No.:   IL06S4321

Toxicitv  Limitation-Reooener  Provision.   This permit may  b« reoo«n-H
and modified (following proper  administrative procedures)  to inelud.
A new  compliance  date,  additional  or  modified numerical limitation.
a new or different compliance  schedule, a change in the whole effluent
protocol, or any  other conditions related to the control of toxicant.
if one or more  of the  following events occur:

1.   Toxicity was detected late in  the life of the permit near or past
     the deadline for  compliance.                               *"••«-
2.
3.
4.
5.
The THE  results indicate that compliance with the toxic  limits
will  require  an  implementation  schedule  past  the  date  for
compliance  and the  permit issuing  authority agrees  with  the
conclusion.

The  THE  results   indicate  that  the  toxicant(s)   represent
pollutant(s)  that may  be  controlled  with  specific  numerical
limits,  and  the permit  issuing authority agrees that  numerical
control* are the most appropriate  course of action.

Following the implementation of numerical controls on toxicants,
the  permit  issuing authority  agrees  that  a modified  whole
effluent protocol is necessary to compensate for those  toxicants
that are controlled numerically.

The THE reveals other unique conditions or characteristics which,
in the opinion of  the  permit issuing  authority,  justify  the
incorporation of unanticipated special conditions in  the permit.
                               10-34

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                                                    PAST V

                                                    Page X9 of  19
                                                    Permit No.;   IL06S4321

V.  SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS

      A.   B_e_f? Management Practices  fBMP)  Plan

           A BMP plan shall be developed within six months of permit reissuance,
           addressing  each  of the nine  specific requirements  described in  the
           June 1981 EPA document, NPDES  BMP  Guidance Document.   Emphasis  shall
           be  placed on  good housekeeping practices,  visual  inspection,  and
           preventative maintenance.
      B.
The  BMP  plan  shall  be  written  up  and  delivered   to  the
Environmental Protection Agency no  later than February  5, 1990.

BMP Implementation
                                                                           U.S.
      c.
The BMP plan shall be fully implemented within twelve months of permit
reissuance.  An implementation report shall be delivered to the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency no later than August 5, 1990.

Site-Specific BMPs

The following site-specific BMPs shall be included:

1.   Tank Number 42: Remedial action is required to repair the damaged
     tank.   This  shall include transfer of  the concents  to another
     vessel  (e.g.,  tank truck),  cleaning the  tank,  and  repairing,
     welding, or plugging the hole.  To prevent environmental damage
     in the future, secondary containment is required.  Monthly visual
     inspections and/or preventative maintenance  shall be conducted.

2.   Drum storage Area:  The drums shall be inventoried to identify
     the contents and amount* of chemicals therein.  The drums shall
     be  inspected  for  deterioration  or  leaks.   They  shall  be
     segregated  and  any  leaking  or  deteriorating drums  shall  be
     disposed of or repaired.   Any contaminated soil shall be removed
     and adequately disposed of.   The  remaining drums shall be neatly
     stacked  in a  manner  to  eliminate  hazards  to  humans or  the
     environment by  isolating  the drums  from walkway* or roadways,
     placing them on  an impervious pad,  covering the storage area,
     diking the area,  moving the storage area away from the river, or
     some combination thereof.
                                         10-35

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10-36

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EXAMPLE FACT SHEET
         10-37

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10-38

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  NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM (NPDES)  PERMIT
                            FACT SHEET
Permittee Name:

NPDES Permit
Number:

Mailing Address
Location:


Contact Person:

Telephone:
               Luster Glass, Inc.


               IL0654321

               P.O. Box 319
               Morris, IL  60123

               l River Ridge Drive
               Morris, IL 60123

               Mr. John Baker,  Vice President

               (312)  834-4536
I.
Status of Permit
NPDES Permit  No.  IL0654321 was issued on August  5,  1984,  became
effective on August 31, 1984,  and expired on August 31, 1989.  The
permittee submitted an NPDES permit application for the renewal of
the permit on March 1, 1989.

II.   Facility Description

Luster Glass Inc.  operates a manufacturing facility in Morris, IL.
The facility specializes in manufacturing auto glass.  On average,
40,000 sg. ft./day of auto tempered glass, and 275,000 sq. ft./day
of auto laminated glass is produced at the facility.

Ill.  Description of Discharge

All wastewater  generated  at this  facility is discharged through
Outfall 001  to the  Illinois  River.   The  primary waste streams
discharged through Outfall  001  are process and  rinse waters from
the glass manufacturing processes and cooling tower blowdown.  The
glass manufacturing process wastewaters from auto glass tempering
(cutting,  grinding, polishing  edges,  bending, and tempering) and
auto glass lamination  (cutting, bending,  washing,  and laminating)
are routed through a wastewater treatment system consisting of oil
and water separators  and  settling  basins.   The cooling  tower
blowdown is not treated prior to discharge.

IV.   Receiving Water

The receiving water for Outfall 001 is the Illinois River, Segment
16 of  the  Northern  Illinois  River  Basin.   Downstream of the
facility,  the Illinois River flows approximately  3  miles to Segment
15 of the Northern Illinois River Basin. Following is a summary of
flow data for Segment  16 of the Illinois River:
                                 10-39

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                                                   Fact  Sheet
                                                   Page  2  of 21

     Average Flow  - 446.7 cfs
     Harmonic Mean Flow  - 245.5 cfs
     7Q10 - 70.9 cfs
     1Q10 - 58.8 cfs

The use designations  for the Illinois River are given below:

     Indigenous Aquatic Life

The applicable water  quality standards  to protect these  uses are
specified  the  State  Water  Pollution Control  Rules in Part 302
{State Administrative Code,  Title 35 -  Environmental Protection;
Subtitle C - Water Pollution, Chapter l;  adopted March  17, 1980) .
The effluent standards are found  in  Part  304.
V.   Description of Discharge

     a.   Permit Application Summary

The following  table summarizes the  discharge characteristics  of
Outfall 001 as  reported in the NPDES permit application dated March
1, 1989:
Parameter
Flow (MGD)
TSS (mg/1)
COD (mg/1)
pH (S.U.)
Oil & Grease  (mg/1)
Phosphorus   (Ibs/day)
Zinc (mg/1)
Lead (mg/1)
Long-Term
Average
  4.563
 18.8
  ND
  6.6 min.
 12
 19
  0.036
  0.025
Daily
Maximum
 4.591
 50.0
 50.0
  9.0 max.
 22
 29
  0.07
  0.047
Note: Only data for parameters reported above detection limits are
shown above.

     b.    Discharge Monitoring Report  (DM.R) Data
A summary of  DMR data is given in Table  1
from March 1988 through February 1989.
                     This  data was taken
Whole Effluent  Toxicity (WET)  testing  performed during the last
year of the permit term (March  1988  to February 1989) demonstrated
acute toxicity  at  Outfall  001.   Test results indicated a fathead
minnow LC50 of  8 percent and a Ceriodaphn:,a LC50 of 15.8 percent.
Chronic Toxicity tests also demonstrated toxicity at Outfall 001.
Chronic toxicity test  results  indicated a fathead minnow NOEC of
1.3 percent and a Ceriodaphnia NOEC of  2 .'' percent.  A  summary of
WET data for Luster is also presented in Table 1.
                                 10-40

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                                                   Fact  Sheet
                                                   Page  3  of 21

VI.  Proposed Technology-Based  Effluent  Limitations

Regulations promulgated  at 40 CFR §122.44(a) require technology-
based effluent limitations  to be placed  in NPDES permits  based on
National  effluent  limitations  guidelines  and standards,  best
professional  judgement   (BPJ) ,   or  a  combination  of  the  two.
Discharges  from  Outfall  001 are  subject to effluent limitations
given in 40 CFR Part 426  for the Glass Manufacturing Point Source
Category, and State effluent and water quality  standards.

Limits were developed for Luster Glass Inc. based on an  evaluation
of the permit application and DMRs.  Lead and zinc were detected in
significant concentrations  in the discharge as reported  in DMRs.
While the previous permit did not contain limits for lead and zinc,
monitoring was required.   Thus, technology-based effluent limits
were set for zinc  found in the cooling tower blowdown.  Technology-
based limits were also established for lead which is found in the
process wastewater, however water quality-based limits  were found
to be more limiting  (see Section VII  of  this Fact Sheet).

Effluent mass limits for total suspended solids  (TSS), phosphorus,
and  oil and  grease are  based  on  the best  practicable  control
technology currently available  (BPT)  limitations specified for the
Automotive Glass  Tempering Subcategory in 40 CFR §426.62 and for
the  Automotive  Glass Laminating  Subcategory in 40  CFR  §426.72.
These limitations are shown below:

              Automotive  Glass Tempering Subcatecrorv
Pollutant

TSS
Oil and Grease
     Effluent Limits
Monthly Avg.         Daily Max.
(lb/1000ft2)        (Ib/lQOQft2)
0.25
0.13
0.40
0.13
pH shall be within the range of 6.0 to 9.0 standard units.

             Automotive Glass Laminating Subcatecrorv
Pollutant

TSS
Oil and Grease
Phosphorus
     Effluent Limits
Monthly Avg.        Daily Max.
(lb/1000ft-)        (lb/1000ft-)
0.90
0 .36
0.22
0.90
0.36
0.22
pH shall be within the range of 6.0 to 9.0 standard units.
                                10-41

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                                                   Fact  Sheet
                                                   Page  4  of 21

Effluent  limitations  for oil and grease,  TSS, phosphorus, and pH
from  the  process  wastewater  contribution  to  Outfall  001  are
calculated using the above effluent limits and the production rates
of 40,000 square feet per day of tempered  glass and 275,000 square
feet per day of laminated glass.  The TSS  effluent limitations for
cooling tower  blowdown are based on Sta~e Effluent Standards for
TSS in non-process  wastewaters,  including cooling tower blowdown.
Calculations  of the  effluent  limitations  are shown below.   It
should be noted that both mass and  concentration limits will be
applied to Outfall  001  for oil  and grease, TSS, and phosphorus.

Oil and Grease

Mass Limitations  (Monthly Average and Da:.ly Maximum)

Oil &  Grease =  (40,000 ftVday (tempered)  x 0.13 lb/1000 ft2)   +
(275,000  ftVday (laminated)  x 0.36 lb/1000 ft2) = 5.2  +  99 = 104.2
Ibs/day

Concentration Limitations - Outfall 001 (Monthly Average and Daily
Maximum)

Oil & Grease  =  (104.2 Ibs/day)(454  g/ 1 lb)(1000 mg/ 1 g)(1 gal/
3.785 1)(1 day/ 4.563 106 gal) =2.74 mg/1

TSS

Mass Limitations -  Process Wastewater  (Monthly Average)

TSS =  [(40,000  ftVday  (tempered)  x 0.25  lb/1000  ft2)  +  (275,000
ftVday (laminated)  x 0.9 lb/1000 ft2) ] /1000 =  257.5 Ibs/day

Mass Limitations -  Process Wastewater  (Daily Maximum)

TSS =  [(40,000 ftVday  (tempered)  x  0.4  lb/1000  ft2) +  (275,000
ftVday (laminated)  x 0.9 lb/1000 ft2)]/lOCO =  263.5 Ibs/day

Mass Limitations -  Cooling Tower Blowdown (Monthly Average)

TSS =  (25 mg/1) (0.45  106 gal/day) (1 lb/454,000 mg)(3.785  1/gal)  =
93.8 Ibs/day

Mass Limitations -  Cooling Tower Blowdown (Daily  Maximum)

TSS =  (50 mg/1)(0.45  106 gal/day)(1 lb/454,000 mg)(3.785  1/gal)  =
187.6 Ibs/day

Mass Limitations -  Outfall 001  (Monthly Average)

TSS = 257.5 Ibs/day +93.8 Ibs/day = 351.3 Ibs/day
                                 10-42

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                                                   Fact Sheet
                                                   Page 5 of 21

Mass Limitations  -  Outfall  001  (Daily Maximum)

TSS = 263.5  Ibs/day +  187.6 Ibs/day = 451.1  Ibs/day

Concentration  Limitations  - Outfall 001  (Monthly Average)

TSS = {351.3 Ibs/day)(454,000 mg/lb)(1 gal/3.785  1)(day  /4.563 106
gal) =9.23  mg/1

Concentration  Limitations  - Outfall 001  (Daily  Maximum)

TSS = {451.1 Ibs/day) (454,000 mg/lb) (1 gal/3.785  1) (day  /4.563 106
gal) = 11.86 mg/1

Phosphorus

Mass Limitations - Outfall 001 {Monthly Average  and Daily Maximum)

Phosphorus = 275,000 ft2/day (laminated)  x  0.06  lb/1000 ft2)  =16.5
Ibs/day

Concentration  Limitations - Outfall 001  (Monthly Average and Daily
Maximum)

Phosphorus  =  (16.5 Ibs/day) (454,000 mg/lb} (1  gal/3.785   1) (day
/4.563 106 gal) = 0.43 mg/1

EH

pH limits are  based on State effluent standards,  as follows:

                     State Effluent Standards

                                    Monthly Avg.        Daily Max.
Pollutant/Parameter Range          (mg/1) 	       (mg_/lJ	

pH                   6.0-9.0       N/A                 N/A
                                 10-43

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                                                  Fact Sheet
                                                  Page 6 of 21
Toxic Pollutants
Zinc and  lead were detected  in the effluent  discharge when the
previous permit was issued.  At that time no limits were set, but
a requirement was made to monitor for zinc and lead.  Significant
concentrations of zinc  (used  as a corrosion inhibitor in cooling
water)  and lead (from lead soldering of products) have been found,
as  reported  in  DMRs.    Therefore,  technology-based  effluent
limitations are being established and will be included in the draft
permit.

Technology-based effluent limitations for the toxic pollutant zinc
present in the cooling tower blowdown are based on the transfer of
the  best  available  technology  economically  achievable   (BAT)
limitations specified in the Steam Electric Effluent Guidelines and
Standards at  40  CFR §423.13 (d) (1) .    These  limitations  are shown
below:
                     BAT Effluent Limitations
Pollutant
Zinc (total)
Monthly Avg.
   (ma/1)
    1.0
Daily Max,
  (mcr/1)
   1.0
Using the average blowdown flow from the cooling towers (0.45 mgd) ,
monthly average and daily maximum mass limitations are calculated
as follows:

Zinc =  (1.0 mg/1) (0.45  106 gal/day) (1 lb/454,000 mg) (3.785 1/gal)
= 3 .75 Ibs/day

Equivalent end-of-pipe concentration effluent limitations are also
being established in the draft permit.  Using the total Outfall 001
flow (4.563 mgd), monthly average and daily maximum  concentration
limitations are calculated as follows:

Zinc = (3.75 ibs/day)(454,000 mg/lb)(1 gal/3.785 1)(day /4.S63  106
gal)  =0.10 mg/1

Technology-based effluent limitations for lead found in the process
wastewaters are based on transfer of BAT limitations  specified  in
the Metal  Finishing Effluent Guidelines and  Standards  at 40 CFR
§433.14(a).  These limitations,  which are based on the performance
of lime precipitation and sedimentation, are shown below.

                     BAT Effluent Limitations
Pollutant
Lead (total)
Monthly Avg
   (ma/1)
    0.43
Daily Max.
  (mg/1)
   0.69
                               10-44

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                                                  Fact Sheet
                                                  Page 7 of 21

Due  to  the  potential  for  dilution  of  the  treated  process
wastewaters by  the  cooling tower blowdown wastewaters,  both mass
and concentration limitations are established.  Using the average
process  flow  (4.113  mgd),  mass limitations  are  calculated as
follows:

Monthly Average

Lead = (0.43 tng/1) {4.113  10s gal/day) (1 lb/454,000 mg) (3.785 1/gal)
= 14.74 Ibs/day

Daily Maximum

Lead = (0.69 tng/1) (4.113  10s gal/day) (1 lb/454,000 mg) (3.785 1/gal)
= 23.66 Ibs/day

Equivalent end-of-pipe concentration effluent  limitations are also
being established in the  draft permit.  Using the total Outfall 001
flow  {4.563 mgd),  concentration limitations  are  calculated as
follows:

Monthly Average

Lead = (14.74 Ibs/day)(454,000 mg/lb)(1 gal/3.785 1)(day /4.563 106
gal) =0.38 mg/1

Daily Maximum

Lead = (23.66 Ibs/day)(454,000 mg/lb)(1 gal/3.785 1)(day /4.S63 106
gal) = 0.62 mg/1


VII. Proposed Water Quality-Based Effluent Limitations

The  State  water quality   standards  require  that   point  source
discharges  shall not cause  a  violation of any applicable water
quality standards nor interfere with the attainment  or maintenance
of that water quality which assures  the protection and propagation
of  a  balanced  indigenous population  of  shellfish,  fish,  and
wildlife and  allows  recreational activities  in and on the water.
In addition, a requirement of the State water  quality standards is
that no effluent shall, alone or  in combination with  other sources,
cause a violation of any applicable water quality standard.


Temperature

Temperature  limits  are based on State water quality standards as
fOllOWS:
                                10-45

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                                                  Fact Sheet
                                                  Page 8 of 21
                    State Water Quality Limits

Pollutant/Parameter      Range	
Temperature
Toxic Pollutants
               Not greater than  2.8°C above ambient, or
               1.7°C above the  following maximum limits:
               in December through March,  16°C  (60°F)
               and in April  through November,  32°C (90°F)
Based on evaluation of  the NPDES permit application and DMR data
submitted  by  Luster Glass  Inc.,   the  following  pollutants  and
parameters for which applicable  State water quality standards are
available are present in Outfall 001:   lead and zinc. Based on the
fact that no other  toxic pollutants are expected to be present  in
Outfall  001   at   significant   concentrations,   evaluation  for
compliance with water quality standards will only be performed for
lead and zinc.

The State  water quality  regulations  require  that water quality
standards be achieved under the following  critical  receiving water
flow conditions:

     Chronic water  quality  standards:
     7 day, 10 year return  frequency flow  (7Q10)

     Acute water quality standards:
     One-third (1/3) of the 7Q10 flow

The 7Q10 for the  Illinois River is 70.9 cubic feet per second (cfs)

The facility provided a study of the outfall which  showed that the
outfall quickly  achieved  complete  mixing  across the width of the
river.  Dilution at the edge  of the mixing zone can therefore  be
characterized by the complete mixing equation:

          Cr = (Cd)(Qd) +  (Cs)(Qs)
where
Cr
Cd
Qd
Cs
Qs
    (Qd + Qs)

the receiving water concentration,
the effluent concentration,
the effluent flow,
the receiving water background concentration, and
the appropriate receiving water flow.
The receiving water  concentrations  (Cr)  expected in the Illinois
River are calculated using  the equation described above, and the
following data-.
                                  10-46

-------
Pollutant

Lead
      Effluent
Concentration  (Cd)*
	(mcr/1)	

       0.38
               Fact Sheet
               Page 9 of 21

             Receiving Water
           Concentration (Cs)**
           	(ma/1)	
Zinc
       0.21
                  0.07
* - Maximum daily concentration reported in the application Form 2C
** - Source U.S.G.S. STORET
For comparison with acute water quality standards,  receiving water
concentrations are calculated as  follows:

Cr (lead) = [(0.38 tng/1) {7.06 cfs) + (0 mg/1) (23.6  cfs)]/(7.06  cfs
             + 23.6 cfs)
          = 0.088 mg/1

Cr (zinc) = [ (0.21 mg/1)(7.06 cfs)  +  (0.07 mg/1) (23.6 cfs)]/(7.06
            cfs + 23.6 cfs)
          = 0.102 mg/1

For  comparison with  chronic water quality  standards,  receiving
water concentrations  are calculated as  follows:

Cr (lead) = [ (0.38 mg/1)(7.06 cfs) + (0 mg/1) (70.9  cfs)]/(7.06  cfs
             + 70.9 cfs)
          = 0.034 mg/1

Cr (zinc) = [ (0.21 mg/1) (7.06 cfs)  +  (0.07 mg/1) (70 .9 cfs)]/(7.06
             cfs + 70.9 cfs)
          = 0.083 mg/1

The  following  table  compares each receiving water concentration
calculated above with the State Water  Quality Standard for aquatic
life protection:
                    State
                    Standard
     Pollutant

     Zinc
     Chronic
     Acute

     Lead
     Chronic
     Acute
    fgg/11
   110
   120
   3.2
   82
Receiving Water
Concentration
(UQ/1)	
83
102
34
88
                                10-47

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                                                  Fact Sheet
                                                  Page 10 of 21

Since the calculated receiving water concentrations are less than
the  criterion for zinc and greater than  the  criterion for lead,
water quality limits will be necessary  for lead, but not for zinc.
It should be  noted that the procedure used above does not account
for  the  variability  of  the pollutant   concentrations  in  the
effluent.   The  EPA  Technical  Support Document for Water Quality-
based Toxics Control recommends accounting for this variability by
calculating  the  reasonable  potential  for pollutants to  cause
exceedances   of  water  quality  standards.    Specifically,  the
reasonable  potential   is  calculated using the maximum  expected
effluent   concentration,    which   is   estimated   by  using   a
multiplication factor (F)  that incorporates both the  coefficient of
variation  (CV)  and  the number of  effluent samples collected.   If
this methodology were used with the existing data for Luster Glass,
Inc., there would be a reasonable potential for the concentration
of zinc in the discharge to exceed both  the acute and chronic water
quality standards, and thus water quality permit limits will also
be calculated for zinc.

The  following   equation   is   used   to  calculate  the  effluent
concentrations  [which  is  commonly referred to  as the waste load
allocation  (WLA) ] for lead and zinc that will  ensure protection of
the State water quality standard.

          Cd  = WLA =  Cr  (Qd  + Qs) - (Cs)(Qs)
     where
Cd
Cr
Qd
Qs
Cs
            Qd

WLA = waste load allocation
the applicable water quality standard
the effluent flow =7.06 cfs
the appropriate receiving water flow
the receiving water background concentration
Based on the following information,  the waste load allocations for
lead and zinc are calculated.
Pollutant

Lead
Zinc
Cr = Acute State Water
	Quality Standard

0.082 mg/1
0.12 mg/1
                         Cs = Upstream
                         	Concentration

                         0 mg/1
                         0.07 mg/1
Pollutant

Lead
Zinc
Cr = Chronic State Water
	Quality Standard

0.0032 mg/1
0.11 mg/1
                         Cs = Upstream
                         	Concentration

                         0 mg/1
                         0.07 mg/1
                                10-48

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                                                   Fact Sheet
                                                   Page 11 of  21

Lead  (acute)   Cd  =   [(0.082  mg/l)(7.06  cfs  +  23.6  cfs)   -  (0
                   mg/1) (23.6 cfs)] / 7.06 cfs
                 =0.36 mg/1

Lead  (chronic)   Cd  =  [(0.0032 mg/1) (7.06  cfs +  70.9 cfs)  -  (0
                     mg/1)(70.9 cfs)]/  7.06 cfs
                   = 0.04 mg/1
Zinc  (acute)  Cd  =  [(0.12  mg/1) {7.06  cfs  +  23.6 cfs)
                   mg/1) (23.6 cfs)] / 7.06 cfs
                =0.29 mg/1
[0.07
Zinc  (chronic)  Cd =  [(0.11 mg/1) (7.06 cfs  + 70.9  cfs)  -  (0.07
                     mg/1) (70.9 cfs)]/ 7.06 cfs = 0.51 mg/1

Given that all State water quality standards are expressed as never
to be exceeded (i.e., water quality-based limits must be protective
of  the  most  stringent  waste load  allocation) , a  maximum daily
limitation  (MDL)  and a  average  monthly limitation  (AMD  for lead
and zinc are calculated using the waste load allocations calculated
above.   It  should be  noted that the  ratio of daily maximum to
monthly average for the technology-based effluent limitations for
lead and  zinc  are used  to derive  the MDL and AML.   Specifically,
these ratios are  1.6 for lead and 1.0 for zinc.

Lead ~ Since the  chronic  WLA is more limiting than  the acute WLA
(i.e., 0.04  mg/1  <  0.36 mg/1),  it will be used as  the basis for
limitations.   Since  the chronic WLA can never  be exceeded,  0.04
mg/1 is used as the MDL.  The AML is calculated as  follows:
     0.04 mg/1
        1.6
                =0.03 mg/1
Zinc - Since  the  acute  WLA is more limiting than the chronic WLA
(i.e.,  0.29 mg/1  <  0.51 mg/1), it will be  used  as the basis for
limitations.  Since  the  acute WLA can never be exceeded,  0.029 mg/1
is used as the MDL.   The AML is calculated as follows:
     0.29 mg/1
        1.0
                =0.29 mg/1
Comparing  the   chemical   specific  water  quality-based  limits
calculated above with the  technology-based  effluent limitations
calculated  for  Outfall  001  (see  Section VI  above) ,   the water
quality-based  limits  for  lead   are  more  stringent  than  the
technology-based  limits,  so they  will  be used as  the  basis for
effluent limits in the permit.  Since the technology-based effluent
limits for  zinc  are more stringent  than the water  quality-based
                                 10-49

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                                                  Fact  Sheet
                                                  Page  12  of  21

limits,  the  technology-based effluent limits will be used.

Equivalent  end-of-pipe mass  effluent limitations  are also being
established  in the draft permit.  Using  the total Outfall  001  flow
 (4.563 mgd), mass limitations for  lead  are  calculated as  follows:

MDL =  (0.04 mg/1)(4.563 106 gal/day)(1 lb/454,000 rag)(3.785 1/gal)
    =1.52 Ibs/day

AML =  (0.03 mg/1)(4.563 106 gal/day)(1 lb/454,000 mg)(3.785 1/gal)
    =1.14 Ibs/day


Whole  Effluent Toxicitv

The previous NPDES  permit  issued  to  the  Luster  Glass  facility
contained a  requirement  for conducting  monthly acute and chronic
toxicity  tests  during the fourth and  fifth year  of  the permit
(March 1988  through  February 1989).  The test species selected by
the facility was the  fathead minnow, based on an initial comparison
of species sensitivity performed in February 1988.   The  results of
these toxicity tests  were  reviewed to determine whether an effluent
limit on toxicity should be developed for the permit.

The concentration of acute and chronic  toxicity in the receiving
water is calculated and is then compared to the State water quality
standards.   The  receiving water concentrations  for  acute  and
chronic toxicity were calculated using  the  following formula:

          Cr =  (Cd)(Qd) +  (Cs)(Qs)
Where
       Cr
       Cd
       Qd
       Cs
       Qs
       (Qd + Qs)

receiving water concentration
effluent concentration
effluent flow
receiving water background concentration
appropriate receiving water flow
The  following summarizes  the  toxicity data  submitted  by Luster
Glass for the period from  March 1988 to February 1989:
                                 10-50

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                                                  Fact Sheet
                                                  Page 13 of 21
Toxicity Data  (Fathead minnows]


(% effluent)
                            NOEC
                          [% effluent)
               58.0
               25.2
               55.0
               46.3
               44.8
                5.9
               67.8
                3 .9
               50.1
               52.0
               32.1
               41.7
                    50
                    3
                    10
                    30
                    25
                    1
                    10
                    1
                    30
                    10
                    3
                    30
All toxicity testing by Luster Glass involved the use of upstream
ambient  water  for  the  control  and  diluent,   so  that   in  all
calculations, the  upstream toxicity is assumed to  be  zero.   The
highest result of chronic  toxicity measured was an NOEC  equal to 1%
effluent.  By dividing 1 into 100, the NOEC is  converted to  chronic
Toxic Units (TUC) .  Similarly for acute toxicity, the highest acute
toxicity was measured  at  an LC50 equal  to 3.9  % which converts to
25.6 TUa.

The resultant receiving water concentration (Cr)  in toxic units for
both acute and chronic toxicity are  calculated using the following
data:

          Cs = 0
          Qs = 23.6 cfs (one third the 7Q10 for acute protection)
          Qs = 70.9 cfs (the 7Q10 for chronic protection)
          Qd = 7.06 cfs

     Acute

     Cr =  (25.6 TUJ  (7.06 cfs)/(7.06  cfs  + 23.6 cfs)
        = 5.9 TU,

     Chronic

     Cr =  (100 TUJ  (7.06  cfs)/(7.06  cfs  + 70.9  cfs)
        = 9.1
                                 10-51

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                                                   Fact Sheet
                                                   Page 14 of 21

The  State water quality standards for acute and chronic protection
are  summarized below:

      State  Water  Quality  Standard for Acute Protection = 0.3 TU,
      State  Water  Quality  Standard for  Chronic Protection =1.0 TUC

WET  limits  would be necessary since the calculated receiving water
concentrations exceed the state water quality  standards for both
acute and chronic protection:

For  acute protection  5.9  TU, > 0.3 TU,
For  chronic protection  9. l  TUC > l. 0 TUC


Using steady state assumptions, the WLAs were calculated using the
following formula:

Cd =  [Cr(Qd +  Qs)-(Cs)(Qs)]  /  Qd

where:
      Cd = Concentration of the pollutant  in  the discharge, or waste
          load allocation
      Cr = State Water Quality  Standard
          for  chronic protection  =1.0 TUC
          for  acute protection =0.3 TU,
      Qd = Discharge flow  =7.06 cfs
      Qs = Appropriate receiving water  flow
          chronic flow  (7Q10)  =70.9 cfs
          acute flow  =23.6  cfs
      Cs = Receiving water or upstream  concentration  =  0

Assuming zero  background toxicity, the  limits  are  calculated  as
follows:

WLA  (acute)  =  [{0.3 TUJ(7.06 Cfs  + 23.6  cfs)]  - [{0)(23.6 cfs) 3

                                   7.06  Cfs

            =  1.3 TU,

WLA  (chronic)   = [{1.0 TUC) (7.06 cfs  +  70.9 cfs)]  -  [(0) (70.9  cfs)]
                                     7.06 cfs
              =  11.0 TU,
An acute to  chronic  ratio (ACR)  was calculated from the  toxicity
data by taking the average ACR from each data set as follows:
                                 10-52

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                                                   Fact  Sheet
                                                   Page  15  of 21
[%  effluent)

     58.0
     25.2
     55.0
     46.3
     44.8
      5.9
     67.8
      3.9
     50.1
     52.0
     32.1
     41.7
                            NOEC
                          (%.effluent)

                              50
                              3
                              10
                              30
                              25
                              1
                              10
                              1
                              30
                              10
                              3
                              30
                              Average
                         ACR

                         1.16
                         8.40
                         5
                         1
  50
  54
1.79
5.9
6.78
3.9
1.67
5.20
10.7
1.39
4.5
The acute  WLA  (in  TU,) are  converted to TUC using  the acute  to
chronic ratio  (ACR) as follows:
     WLA  (in TUaiC)
= 1.3 TU. * ACR
  =  1.3  TUa * 4.5
  =  5.9  TUac
Given that all State water quality standards are expressed as never
to be exceeded (i.e., water quality-based limits must be protective
of  the  most  stringent  waste load  allocation) , a  maximum daily
limitation  (MDL)  and  a average monthly  limitation   (AML) for  WET
were calculated using the waste  load allocations calculated above.
A ratio of daily maximum to monthly  average of 1.6  is assumed  for
WET based upon technolgy-based effluent limits for  lead.

Since the acute WLA is  more limiting than the chronic WLA  (i.e.,
5.9 TUac < 11.0 TUC) , it  will be  used as the basis for limitations.
Since the acute WLA can never be exceeded, 5.9 TU,iC  is used as  the
MDL.  The AML is calculated as follows:
     5.9 TU,
           a.c
                = 3.7
        1.6
The permittee  shall conduct chronic  toxicity tests according  to
methods outlined in "Short Term Methods for Estimating  the  Chronic
Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater Organisms"
(EPA 600/4-89 001) .
                                10-53

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                                                  Fact Sheet
                                                  Page 16 of 21
VIII.  Proposed Effluent Limitations
Table 2  summarizes  the proposed effluent limitations for Outfall
001.  Proposed effluent limitations  for zinc are based on BPJ.  The
limitation  for  temperature  is  based   on  State  water quality
standards.  The proposed limitations for lead were calculated above
as  chemical   specific   water  quality-based  limitations.    The
remainder of the effluent limitations are based on BPT/BAT effluent
guidelines at  40 CFR Part 426 and State effluent standards.

IX.  Monitoring Requirements

Monitoring for those pollutants expected to be present in Outfall
001 (i.e., TSS, oil  and grease, phosphorus,  lead,  and  zinc) will be
required  once  per week.  Except for oil and  grease,  for which a
grab sample is required,  24-hour composite  samples are  required.
Temperature is to be monitored continuously during discharge.

Whole effluent toxicity  testing for chronic toxicity  shall  be
conducted  2/month   on  a 24-hour  composite  sample  of  the  final
effluent.
X.
Special Conditions
Luster Glass  Inc. will  be  required to update their existing Best
Management  Practices  (BMP)  plan  to  address  the potential  for
leakage of gasoline  from Tank  Number  42  and nitric acid from the
drum  storage  area.     Specifically,  Luster Glass  Inc.  should
undertake the following two site-specific BMPs and incorporate them
into their  plan.   First,  remedial action must be taken on Tank
Number  42 to  repair the  damaged  tank.    The  gasoline  must  be
transferred to another vessel {e.g., tank truck) while the tank is
cleaned,  repaired,   welded  or  holes   plugged.     To  prevent
environmental damage at this  site in the future,  the following BMPs
should be incorporated into the plan:  visual inspection, secondary
containment, preventative maintenance, or some combination thereof.
Secondly, the  drum  storage area must be  cleaned  up  by following
procedures such as the following:   inventory the drums to identify
the contents and amounts of chemicals therein,-  inspect the drums
for deterioration or  leaks, and segregate and adequately dispose of
the leaking or deteriorating drums; remove  and adequately dispose
of any contaminated  soil;   neatly  stack  the remaining drums in a
manner  to eliminate hazards  to  humans  or  the environment  by
isolating the drums  from walkways or roadways, placing them on an
impervious pad, covering the storage area, diking  the area, moving
the storage area away from  the  stream  or some combination thereof.
                                 10-54

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                                                  Fact Sheet
                                                  Page 17 of 21
XI.   Information Sources
While developing effluent limitations, monitoring requirements, and
special conditions for the draft permit,  the following information
sources were used:

(1)  EPA NPDES Application  Forms 1  and 2C dated October 1980 and
     February 1985, respectively.

(2)  State Effluent Standards,  Part 304 of the State Administrative
     Code,  Title 35 -  Environmental  Protection,-  Subtitle C - Water
     Pollution, adopted March  17, 1980.

(3)  Division files related to the Luster Glass Inc. NPDES Permit
     No. IL0654321.

(4)  State  Water  Quality  Standards,  Part  302  of  the  State
     Administrative Code,  Title  35  -  Environmental  Protection;
     Subtitle C - Water Pollution, adopted March 17, 1980.

(5)  EPA Technical Support Document  for Water Quality-Based Toxics
     Control.

(6)  40 CFR Parts 423, 433, and 426.
                                10-55

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                                                  Fact Sheet
                                                  Page 18 of 21
                             TABLE 1
                   DISCHARGE MONITORING REPORT
                        LUSTER GLASS INC.

                 March 1988 through February 1989
Date

03-88
04-88
05-88
06-88
07-88
08-88
09-88
10-88
11-88
12-88
01-89
02-89
      Flow  (mgd)
Mon.  Aver.   Daily Max.
4.575
4.554
4.552
4.568
4.585
4.588
4.571
4.568
4.553
4.551
4.550
4.560
4.583
4.567
4.569
4.573
4.589
4.591
4.581
4.572
4.573
4.541
4.561
4.570
TSS
(Ib/d)

180.4
245.2


429.3


308.7
Oil &
Grease
flb/d)

19
27
88
22
Phosphorus
(Ib/d)

14
18
29
15
                                10-56

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                                                   Fact Sheet
                                                   Page 19 of 21
Date

03-88
04-88
05-88
06-88
07-88
08-88
09-88
10-88
11-88
12-88
01-89
02-89
                       TABLE  1  (Continued)
                   DISCHARGE  MONITORING  REPORT
                        LUSTER  GLASS  INC.

                 March 1988 through February 1989
 pH
(S.U.)

6.6
7.1
9.0
8.1
Temperature
(degrees F)

80
83
78
61
Zinc
(ma/1)

0.21
0.08


0.09


0.06
Lead
(ma/1)

0.10
0.17


0.12


0.38
COD
(mg/11

50
                                  10-57

-------
                       TABLE 1  (Continued)
                   DISCHARGE MONITORING REPORT
                        LUSTER GLASS INC.

                 March 1988 through February 1989
                                                  Fact  Sheet
                                                  Page  20 of  21
Toxicity Test Data: Unless  otherwise  indicated,   acute  toxicity
                    tests were conducted using fathead  minnow and
                    reported as 48 hr.  LC50;  chronic toxicity tests
                    were  conducted  using  fathead minnows  and
                    reported as 7 day NOEC.
DATE

3/88
4/88
5/88
6/88
7/88
8/88
9/88
10/88
11/88
12/88
1/89
2/89
(% effluent)

58.0
25.2
55.0
46.3
44.8
 5.9
67.8
 3.9
50.1
52.0
32.1
41.7
     NOEC
(% effluent!

50
3
10
30
25
1
10
1
30
10
3
30
     Toxicity  tests  using  Ceriodaphnia  dubia 48  hour  survival
     (acute) and 7  day  reproduction  (chronic)
                                 10-58

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                                             Fact Sheet
                                             Page 21  of  21
                        TABLE 2
             PROPOSED EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
               NPDES  PERMIT NO.  IL0654321
                    DAILY MAXIMUM
                                   MONTHLY AVERAGE
PARAMETER
Flow (mgd)
TSS
Oil & Grease
Phosphorous
PH
Temperature
Total Lead
Total Zinc
Whole Effluent
Toxicity (WET)
a/ pH shall be
b/ Not greater
LBS /DAY MG
Report
451.1 11
104.2 2.
16.5 0.
a/
b/
1.52 0.
3.75 0.
c/
/L LBS /DAY
Report
.86 351.3
74 104.2
43 16.5
_
_
04 1.14
10 3.75
£/
MG/L

9.23
2 .74
0.43


0.03
0.10
—
within the range of 6.0 - 9.0 standard units
than 2 . 8 degrees
Centigrade above
ambient, or
c/
     1.7  degrees  Centigrade  above  the  following  maximum
     limits:
     December l through March 31
     April 1 through November 30
                              16 deg C  (60 deg F)
                              32 deg C  (90 deg F)
Discharges of  effluent  with toxicity  greater than the
following amounts are prohibited: Maximum Daily Chronic
Toxicity of 5.9 TUa!. and  Average Monthly Chronic Toxicity
of 3.7 TUC.
                            10-59

-------
10-60

-------
EXAMPLE ADMINISTRATIVE RECORD
               10-61

-------
10-62

-------
                                              EXAMPLE
                            CONTENTS OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE RECORD
    A brief explanation follows of the express statutory or regulatory precision on which permit requirements are based,
    including appropriate supporting references to the Administrative Record required by 40 CFR $124.9:
The following items are used to establish the basis of the draft permit:
  (1) NPDES Permit No. LA0002933, effective date 2/17/80, expiration date  3/31/8L
  (2) Consolidated Permit Application Forms No. 1 and 20 received 4/3/82.
  (3) Louisiana Water Quality Criteria, LSCC, 1977.
   (4)  Louisiana Water Quality Management Plan, Department of Natural Resources, including Appendix D
       (Ponchartrain Basin) and Appendix F  'Mississippi River), Phase n, Vob. L
  (5) 40 CFR Part 415 Subpart F, [47 £R 28260,6/29/83].
  (6) 40 CFR Part 415.65(b) [39 £R 9616,3/12/74].
  (7) Letter White (EPA) to Vlacos (Vulcan) dated 3/29/76.
  (8) Letter White (EPA) to Campbefl (Vulcan) DAted 6/9/76.
  (9) ROC Hale (EPA) to Leonard (Vulcan) dated 11/10/76.
  (10) 40 CFR Part 12129 (d)(l) [48 EE14146,4/1/83].
  (11) Letters Gordon (Vulcan) to McHam (EPA) dated 5/17/82 and 7/19/82.
  (12) 40 CFR Part 40L17,6/4/82.
  (13) Letters Gordon (Vulcan) to Hate (EPA) dated 1/30/8L
  (14) Discharge Monitoring Reports 1980-1982.
  (15) 40 CFR Part 12Z62(a)(3) [48 ££ 14146,4/1/83].
  (16) 40 CFR Part 122.44<1X2)(1) [48 m 14146,4/1/83].
  (17) 40 CFR Part 415.65(b) [47 £R 28260,6/29/82J.
  f 18) 40 CFR Part 415.62(b) [47 FJR 28260,6/29/82J.
  '19) Final Development Document for Inorganic Chemicals,
      EPA 440/1-82/007, June 1982.
  (20) Utter Gordon (Vulcan) to Ferguson (EPA) dated 10/30/79.
  (21) 40 CFR Part 125J(aX2)(v) [44 EE 32948,6/7/89, as amended at 45 fB 33512,5/19/80].
  (22) 40 CFR part 4l5.63(b) [47 £R 28260,6/29/82].
  (23) 40 CFR Part 12Z29(d)(2) [48 £R 14146,4/1/83].
  (24) 40 CFR Part 14U2 [40 ffi 59570,12/24/75, as amended at 44 fR 68641,11/29/79.
  (25) PrgjupM* tn litfirfpur CVpikal gffh*«* t JmSfatinns Guideliaes 47 FR 28263,6/29/82, Column 3J.
  (26) ROC McHam (EPA) to Gordon (Vulcan) dated 5/25/83.
  (27) EPA Treatabifity  Manual, EPA 600/2-82/001, September 1982 (Revised).
  (28)  Work Book for Detenq«njng Economic Achievabilitv for NPDES Permits;  prepared for Hap Thron, Permits
       Division; prepared by Putnam, Hayes & Bartlett, Inc. August 1982.
  (29) Moody's Industrial Manual 1982, pp. 4602-4605
  (30) C E Plant Cost Index. Chemical Engineering Magazine, 6/13/83, page 7.
                                                     10-63

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10-64

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EXAMPLE RESPONSE TO COMMENTS
               10-65

-------
10-66

-------
                             RESPONSE TO .COMMENTS
                             FINAL PERMIT DECISION

This is our response to comments received on the subject draft permit in
accordance with regulations promulgated at 40 CFR Part 124.17.
Permit No.

Applicant:



Issuing Office:




Prepared By:
Permit Action:
Date Prepared:
LA0006181

Allied Chemical Corporation
P.O. Box 226
Geismar, Louisiana  70734

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Region 6
1445 Ross Avenue
Dallas, Texas  75202*2733

Edward C. McHaa, Engineer
Industrial Permits Section (6V*PI)
Permits Branch
Water Management Division
(214) 655-7180

Final permit decision and response to comments
received on the draft permit publicly noticed on
7/7/84.

9/S/84
Unless otherwise stated, citations to 40 CFR refer to promulgated regulations
listed at Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, revised as of 7/1/83.

The  following comments have been received on the draft permit:

      Letter Dessert  (Allied) to Caldwell (EPA) dated 7/30/84

ISSUE NO. 1

The  draft permit establishes biomonitoring  requirements at Outfall 004.  The
company  requests deletion of these requirements.

RESPONSE NO. 1

The  request is denied.

The  permittee states  that biomonitoring will be duplicative and  unnecessary
because:

       (1)   EPA has identified  the  toxic  pollutants  of  concern.

       (2)   The proposed permit places  BAT  limits  and monitoring requirements
            on  these  pollutants.
                                      10-67

-------
PEBMIT NO. LA0006181
RESPONSE. TO COMMENTS
      (3)   The BAT limits are more restrictive than water quality-based
            limitations.

      (4)   Blomonitoring results could be distorted and masked by the osmotic
            stress on test organises exerted by the salts present in an H?
            plant effluent.

The biomonitoring method is * standardized method used throughout EPA Region 6
to measure the toxicity of various effluents which contain toxic cornponer.es.
The test is not based on water quality impacts of a specific receiving scream.
Under Section 308 of the Clean Water Act, EPA Region 6 has the authority to
require permittees to support development of data, bases such as those
associated with toxics.  Therefore, biomonitoring requirements as established
in the draft permit are retained in the final petalt.
                                   10-68

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0 P
*t".
S: .
         Chevron Chemical Company
         PO Boi 78. St. Jamas. LA /D086 • Phone iS04| 473 7946
                                  January 12, 1990
             CERTIFIED MAIL -  RETURN RECEIPT * P 965 729 397
 Ms.  Ellen  caldwell
 Permits  Branch (6W-PS)
 U.S.  EPA Region VI
 1445 Ross  Avenue
 Dallas,  TX  75202-2733

 SUBJECT:    CHEVRON CHEMICAL COMMENTS
              NPOES PERMIT NO.  LA0029963

 Dear Ms. Caldwell:

 We  have  reviewed  draft  NPDES  Permit  No.  LA0029963  for  chevron
 Chemical's St. James Plant  issued for public comment by the  EPA on
 December 16, 1989.   We  have  the following comments:

    1.   As  represented in the Fact Sheet (Part VTII. Sect ion  C  1), we
        understand an administrative  order will be issued concurrent
        with  the   final  permit   decision.     we   understand   the
        administrative order  will establish  interim limits which will
        be  in,effect until 2/1/91, when our upgraded effluent treatment
        plant will be operational.   As a result, we have not reviewed,
        and are not  providing comments on the draft permit relative to
        it  being in effect during the  interim period (i.e. from final
        permit  issuance  to 2/1/91).

    2.  We  want to clarify that the discharge description included in
        Part V  of  the  Fact  Sheet  is representative  of  our current
        facility  discharge.     Following  completion  of  our  ongoing
        facility  expansion,  the concentration of  pollutants  in  our
        discharge will significantly decrease and the discharge flowrate
        will increase from  current  levels.   These  changes  to  our
        . discharge were detailed in our submittals  to the EPA and have
        been properly recognized in development of  the proposed pern it
         limits.

    3.  we  request that you change the pH of the outfall 002 frca 9.0
        to  10.0. The plant's clarified water and firewater  is purchased
        and is  lime  softened  with a pH of  10.  This  water has  a  high pH
        but a low alkalinity  and is not hazardous to personnel  nor to
        the environment.

         In  the  last 6 months we have had 2  permit ei
         these water systems.   In the first instance, b
         the paved areas of the plant with firewater, we
         pH  limit.   In the second instance,  a number of clariL
                                                          JAN18<^
      '. v/ashifig
ceeded the  9 . C
                                    10-69
                                                           OW-ro

-------
       and  firewater lines failed due  to the hard  December freeze.
       This water overflowed the retention pond and again we had a
       permit exceedence.

       We  have  developed and  have  begun  implementing  a plan  to
       eliminate  continuous  sources  of  high  pH  water  currently
       discharged to our retention pond.  This work will be completed
       by the 1/1/91.  He therefore feel that a change of the pH limit
       on Outfall 002  from 9.0  to  10.0  would not endanger people nor
       the environment and would eliminate nuisance excursions.

We appreciated  receiving the well-organized  and  readable fact sheet
which  clearly  established the  basis  for  the permit  requirements.
Although the proposed permit limits are  substantially lower than those
in our previous permit,  we expect  to be able to achieve and maintain
compliance  once  our  upgraded  effluent  treatment  plant  is  fully
operational.

If you have any questions or wish to  discuss  our comments further,
please do not hesitate to contact me or my staff.

                           Very truly yours.
                              P. Teichman
LLR/vho
                                 10-70

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   FORM
 GENERAL
            &EPA
                                        U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ACENCV

                                             GENERAL INFORMATION
                                                 Consolidated Permirs Program.
                                         • Read t*.e "Gtnrrat tmtrur!>Q.-.s" bfto'e stsrT.ng. •
                                                                                             \. EPA l.D. NUMBER
                                                                                             Fl
                                                                                                     GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
                                                                                              If a preprinted lasel has been provided, affix
                                                                                              it in tr,a designated space. Review the inform-
                                                                                              ation carefuiiy; if any of it is incorrect, cross
                                                                                              tnrougn ii  and enter ths  correc:  data in the
                                                                                              appropriate fid—in area  below. Also, if ary of
                                                                                              the preprinted data is absent  (the  area to the
                                                                                              left  of  the label space lisa  the  information
                                                                                              that should appear), please provide  :t in the
                                                                                              prope- fill—in area/sJ below,  i!  the  laoel  is
                                                                                              complete and correct, you need not complete
                                                                                              hems I,  111,  V. and VI {except  VI-8 which
                                                                                              must he completed  regardlesst. Complete all
                                                                                              items if no label has been provided. Refer to
                                                                                              the  instructions for detailed item  descrip-
                                                                                              tions and for the legal authorizations under
                                                                                              which this data is collected.
                                      \  \
                                                  \

                                               \

                                                 \
    h—.   -.   •••  \'  ..   •••   \  \  \
    'FACILITY NAME  \  '•    \  \  \  \


 v- MAILING ADDRESS        X   >LEASE PLACE LABEL IN^THIS SPACE \
 x  \  X  '    N  \   v .   '-   \   -    \   \  \  "-    \   \   \   X   X  \  \
-  \-   X\   -   \\.\\\\\\\\\\  \\  \  ^
 \ \  \  \  \  ^  \  \  \  \  V  x
-   FACILITY  \  \   x  X  ''
 Vl- LOCATION   X   \  i \   s

\X\\v\K\
 It. POLLUTANT CHARACTERISTICS
  INSTRUCTIONS:  Complete A  through j to determine whether you need to submit any permit application forms to the EPA. If you answer "yes" to any
  questions, you must submit this form and the supplemental form listed in the parenthesis following the question. Mark "X" in the box in the third column
  if the supplemental form is attached.  If you answer "no" to each question,  you need not submit any of these forms. You may answer "no" if your activity
  is excluded from permit requirements; see Section C of the instructions. See afso. Section 0 of the instructions for definitions of bold-faced terms.
               SPECIFIC C.UE5TIONE

                                                                                  SPECIFIC QUESTIONS
                                                                                                                          MARK '
  A.  is :n-s fac.':ty a  publicly owned treatment work!
     which results  m a discharge  to waters of the U.S.?
     •;FO=ifv12Ai
                                                                     B. Does or will this facility /either existing or propo&dl
                                                                        include a concentrated animal feeding operation or
                                                                        aquatic animal production facitrty which  results in a
                                                                        ditchwg* to waters of the U.S.? [FORM 2BI
  C.  is ihij a *3C!.itv ,vnrc- cu-'ensiy 'esuits m discharges
     •o waters of the U.S. o:he' f:an those desc-ibed in
     A or s a'jeve' ;FQRV 20	
                                                                    0. Is this a proposed facility (other than those described
                                                                       in A  or 8 thovei which will result in a discharge ?c
                                                                       waters of the U.S.? (FORM 2D)
                                                                                                                            X
  E.  Does  3r ft-''. th-$ faci..ty treat, store, or disaose of;
     hazardous wastes? tFORV 2)
                                                         y
                                                       ' /\
                                                                    F. Do you or will you inject at this facility industrial or
                                                                       municipal effluent below the lowermost stratum con-
                                                                       taining, within  one quarter mile of  the well  bore,
                                                                       underground sources .of drinking water? (FORM 4^
•
     Do you or wi«i voi, :i|6Ct at tr.:s ^acuity any oroouceo
     water O' other i-uics wn.-c* arj Brought to :he surface
       correction wits', csnvent'onal O;l or natural ;as pro-
     duction, miect ^-L'is used fo>- enhanced recovery of
     O'i or natural ca>. or inject fluids for storage of liquid
     hydrocarbons? (PQRM 4i	______^_	
                                                                    H. Oo you or will you inject at this facility fluids for spe-
                                                                       cial  processes such as mining of sulfur by the Frasch
                                                                       process, solution mining of minerals, in situ combus-
                                                                       tion of fossil fuel, or recovery  of geothermal energy?
                                                                       (FORM 41
      Is tn;s raci'ity a procosed stationary source w.nicrs ts
      one o*  :ne 23 -ndustnal categories listed in the in-
      structions and  wh;ch will potentially  emit 100 tons
      per  year or any air oailutant  regulated under the
      Clean Air Ac:  and nay  affect  or be located in an
      attainment area'(FORM 5)
                                                       \  /
                                                       \/'
                                                        \f
                                                       /\
                                                       ' \
                                                                    J.  is this facility a proposed stationary source which is
                                                                       NOT one.of the 28 industrial categories listed in the
                                                                       instructions and which will potentially emit 250 tons
                                                                       per year of any air pollutant regulated under the Clean
                                                                       Air Act and may affect or be located in an attainment
                                                                          •MFORM'5)
 IV.
             CONTACT

C
2!

CAT HDP

E
A. NAME
IMA ,
& TITLE
'PR'E
flatt
S
tint. & titlct
IPEN

T 	
B. PHONE (arvy coile & rro.i
i 'o •?
1 L 3
i4£'6

7890
 V. FACILITY MAILING ADDRESS
 riEABVILLE
 VI. FACILITY LOCATION
                 * STREET. ROUTE NO. OR OTHER SPECIFIC IDENTIFIER
til  23   JUHPS.TA.RT.    STREET
                           8  COUNTY
j i*
, — __ — ^ — . ... ,. — . — . — ^^ — _ 	 -•••-- — • — • 	 ' — ^n
i C.CITVORTOWN |o. STATE! E. IJPCOOE F' C?^,ITT-^°DE '
Hr
i6

LEAPV i L t E 	


MA



1 23^5
:tl-8l !

EPA Form 3510-1  18-30)
                                                                                                               CONTINUE ON REVERSE

-------
 111. OPERATOR INFORMATION
                                                                                                            ;6. It tn« nimt listM In
                                                                                                               I Mm Vlll-A »(»
                                                                                                               Owner?
            CATHODE
                                                                                                            JS YES  iH NO
                                                                  if "Other", s?ecif\J
     c. S14ATUS Of OPERATOR l£mr* fife a?Fr$r,na:t it:i>.rui!o .•>••-'
                    M » PUBLIC totner than federai or start.*
                    O « OTHER (specify!
F-FEDcRAL
S"STATE
P -PRIVATE
                                                                                           Is the fscii.ty located en Indian lards'
  LEAPVlLLb
                                                                            I .Z.3'1.5
YES      S! NO
 EXISTING ENVIRONMENTAL PERMITS
A. NPOCS (Discharges to Surface Water)
T
N

T-
II
Ik
••«•
B. I.
,

w*
_• — I — 1 — 1 — 1 — l-TJ — •• — 1 — I — 1 — 15-
jic (Vnderfrouna infection ofFluidsi
	 1 	 r- T I i r . i i i i i
D. fSO iAir Emiaians (ram Proposed Sources*
e
9

c
19
-,,'"' . 3D

T
P

t


1



•'
_. 	 . 	 , 	 1 	 1 	 L_J 	 1 	 1 	 1 	 ! 	 L-^-
e. OTHER (specify?


•- i.
.- " .V
:' ' "
. • -=-.
(specify)
        c. RCMA i Hazardous Wastes/
                                                       E. OTHER (specify;
g^HHHHHHHl
EH>
•9HHHMHH

(specify/ ^^M

Attach to this application a topographic map of the area extending to at lean one mile beyond property bounderies. The map must show ? .^
the outline of the facility, the location of each of its existing and proposed intake and discharge structures, each of its hazardous waste £$
treatment, storage,  or disposal facilities, and each well where it injects fluids underground. Include all springs, rivers and other surface ^3
water bodies in the map area. See instructions for precise requirements.

COMMENTS FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
:PA Form  3510-1  (8-90)

-------
EPA l.o. NUMBER (copy from Item I of Form I)
?l«ase print or type in the unshaded areas only.
FORM
2C
m
For each
OMBN(x204CK)Oe6.
Approval expires 8-31 -98.
A APPLICATION FOR PERMIT TO DISCHAROE WASTEWATER ~- |
ti*S»f r"MI"\ EXISTING MANUFACTURING, COMMERCIAL, MINING AND SILVICULTURAL OPERATIONS 1
^^*~" ** Consolidated Permits Program I
^^^^ottj^ffjjf^^fff^fg^f^fjf^ffffg^fggjjgjjjjjffgj^^^^fjgfi
outfall, list the latitude and longitude of its location to the nearest 1 S seconds and the name of the receiving water.
A.J3jjyf«^.L B. LATITUDE C. LONGITUDE
^^ f^. 4 r^
OO1 HeisrjN£
D. RECEIVING WATER (name/
CRC-EK





II. FLOWS. SOURCES OF POLLUTION. AND TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES J^|
A. Attach a line drawing showing the water flow through
and treatment units labeled to correspond to the more «
pictorial description of the nature and amount of any sou
•••
.••.•.•.•
the facility. Indicate sources of intake water, operations contributing waste*
detailed descriptions in Item B. Construct a water balance on the line drawin)
1 outfalls. If a water balance cannot be determined /«.*, nxeerta/n mining
tees of water and any collection or tfeetment measures*
B. For each outfall, provide a description of: (1) All operations contributing wastawater to the effiu
cooling water, and storm water runoff; (2) The average flow contributed by each operation; and K
on additional sheets if necessary.
1 . OUT-
rA ^P
-------
CONTINUED FROM THE FRONT
Q YKS (complete th* following teMe; •••;..-.
t. OUTFALL.
NUMBER
(/&*;

2. OPERATION//;
CONTRIBUTING FLOW
- (list)

3. FREQUENCY
«. DAYS
PER WEEK
(tp*ctfy
averag t)

b. MONTHS
re» YEAR
(tpicify
sutrafe)

B liiiprrmttent «>r eeMOIMri? . .. • 1
J&JNo rro to section uu ' '• - j

(In mfdj
1. LOM« TCffM
AVBIIA9*

1. MAXIMUM
DAILY

t. FLOW ' ' ' 1
b, TOTAL VOLUME
(tpeeity with unit*)
1. kOMA TKRH
AVBMA9B

». MAXIMUM
QAIIpT

c. OU^fti
ATl^Hj
fln. AFFECTED OUTFALLS
•.HO.

&.IOUACB of PI0CMAMOB




ASS£i
&JSK,

gS?e
&c'«K
1
 B. OPTIONAL: You may attach additional sheets describing any additional water pollution control programs (or other environmental projects which may affect
    Your discharges) you now have underway or which you plan. Indicate whether each program is now underway or planned, and indicate your actual on; >
    planned schedules for construction.  QMAMK -x- ir DESCRIPTION or AOPITIONAU CONTROL. PROOBAMS t« ATTACHED
EPA Form 3S10-2C (Rev. 2-85)                                  PAGE 2 OF 4
                                                      CONTINUE ON PAGE 3

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CONTINUED FROM PAGE 2
                                     EPA I.D. NUMBERfcopy from Item 1 of Form 1)
 V. INTAKE AND EFFLUENT CHARACTERISTICS

 A, 8, & C:   Sea instructions before proceeding — Complete one sat of table* for each outfall — Annotate the outfall number in the spaca provided.
             NOTE: Tables V-A, V-8, and V-C are included on separate sheets numbered V-1 through V-9.

        i the space below to list any of the pollutants listed in Table 2c-3 of the instructions, which you know or have reason to believe is discharged or may be
    Discharged from any outfall. For every pollutant you list, briefly describe the reasons you believe it to be present and report any analytical data in your
     possession.
        J. POLl-UTANT
                                            2. SOURCE
                                                                           S. POLLUTANT
                                                                                                               2. SOURCE
 VI. POTENTIAL DISCHARGES NOT COVERED BY ANALYSIS
  byproduct?
                              1 YES (lilt all such pollutant* below!
                                                                                         NO (go to Hem Vl-i)
           LEAD
                                                             PAGE 3 OF 4
                                                                                                                CONTINUE ON REVERSE

-------
CONTINUED FROM THE FRONT
 VII., BIOLOGICAL TOXICITY TESTING DATA
                        or mum to baliew that jny bkrtoglcal
' receiving v«t«f In relation to your discharge within the taft 3 yewt ? -3
                                                                    orchrorite toxicity hat been made on •ny«ou
                                                                    -. - ,                              '   Tvu


                    D YES (identify tht teit(t) and detcrib* their purport* below)
tftllfONTRACT ANALYSIS INFORMATION
  Were eny of the wialyses reported in item V performed by a contract laboratory or consulting firm?


                      YES (lift tht name, addrctt. and telephone number of. end pollutant!
                          analyzed by, each tuck laboratory or firm belowj
                                                                                      C~| NO (to to Section IX)
                A. NAME
                                                        •. ADORKS*
                                                                                    C.
                                                                                    farra code < no./
                                                                                                        O.
                                                                                                                   (lilt)
                                                                                                                       ANALYZED
                                            321    T£ST
                                                              MA   I73ZI
                                                                                                                        Sou IDS


                                                                                                                   6-REASE
                                                                                                          COP

                                                                                                          TOC
X CERTIFICATION
 I certify under pMBltr of taw that this document and »ll tnechmentt wmprtpand under my direction or supervision in accordance with a system designed to
 •ssurethetquoMbdpersonnelpoperhf gather andevelu»teth«Morm»tionsvbmitte&
 those penonsdirectlyresponsililetorgatheringtheinformmon, the information suiimitu
 I wn aware that there ant significant penalties for submitting falsa information, j
                                                                      
-------

-------

AKC (optional)
1-
£
*»
tn
?
3
«•



EFFLUENT
m


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X
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Total :
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Total
(7440-42-81












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-------

-------
Water
              Scrubber
                                »>     Wastewater to WWT
      Raw
     Materials
Lead Oxide
Production
Pasting
Plate Stacking
     &
  Welding
                           f


                        Forming
                              Floor
                                                  Wastewater to WWT
                           T

                         Drain
                                                  Hand Wash
                                                                          Wastewater to WWT
                           Laboratory   	^-    Wastewater to WWT
      Water       ^.     Rinse
                                                   Employee
                                                   Showers
                       Wastewater to WWT
                                                    Water
                                                   Wastewater to Leadville POTW
                                                                                     Truck Wash
                                                                                       Oil
                                                                                     Skimming
                     Dry & Assemble
                             Wash
                   - -+~      Test
                          Ship Off-Site
                                               Wastewater to WWT
                  Water/Wastewater Flow Diagram — All Charged Up Corporation

-------
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-------
                                    EXERCISE MODULE

PERMIT WRITING EXERCISE
Application Review

It's that time again!  The State's automotive battery manufacturer (All Charged Up Corporation) just
submitted its application for re-issuance of its NPDES permit.  All Charged Up Corporation has been in
operation since 1991 and has not made any modifications to its operations since the plant opened. The State
recently modified water quality criteria, the specifics of which are provided herein. You are tasked with
reviewing the All Charged Up Corporation permit file (attached to this exercise) and following the
instructions provided below.

Instructions:  Review the attached NPDES  application  form, discharge monitoring data,  and facility
inspection report (see next page) and determine the following:
1.     Is this facility subject to effluent limitation guidelines  and standards?  If yes, which effluent
       limitations guidelines (i.e., CFR Part(s)) should apply? [Note: not looking for subpart - just part #]
2.     Which level(s) of treatment apply to this facility (BAT, BPT, BCT, PSES, PSNS, NSPS)?
3.     Is this a primary industry?
4.     Has the facility provided all the information required in the NPDES application form? If not, what
       information is missing? [We will go through this together]
5.     In general, for which types of parameters must you establish technology-based effluent limits? (Do
       not list specific pollutants covered.)
6.     In general, for which types of parameters must you develop water-quality based effluent limits?

-------
PERMIT WRITING EXERCISE
Developing Effluent Limits
Technology-Based Limits Worksheet

Summary of Recent NPDES Compliance Inspection of All Charged Up Corporation

The report for an inspection performed by EPA in June 1999 at the AH Charged Up Corporation facility
noted the following information:

    •   Although production volume has remained relatively consistent (see data below), the facility's
       wastewater flow has decreased due to water conservation/reuse practices, including installation of
       a 100% recycle system for truck wash water. In addition, the facility uses a portion of the battery
       wash water as rinse water for its formation operations.
    Production volume fib/day):
    Lead Used

       Other Observations
1995
696,000
 1996
802,000
 1997
724,000
 1998
778,000
  Avg
750,000
       The drains in the trenches around the process areas are clogged with lead paste and support grids.
       The process wastewater spills overflow the trenches instead of draining to the treatment system.
       Numerous spills in the pasting area are due to operators accidentally overfilling drums.
       All workers' uniforms are shipped off-site for laundering.
       In 1995, the facility installed a complete recycle truck wash system.  The  facility generates
       approximately 50 pounds of sludge and 100 gallons of oily wastewater monthly. These wastes are
       drummed and hauled off-site to the Blue Skies Landfill in Wobegon, MA.
       Production for the next year or so is anticipated to similar to the previous few years.
       All wastewater from treatment is discharged via one outfall (001) to Pristine Creek.
       Effluent sampling is done at the proper location, after treatment and flow monitoring.
       The facility does not have any storm water discharges associated with industrial activity.
       Wastewater from the restrooms and employee showers is discharged to the local municipal treatment
       plant (i.e., Leadville POTW).

-------
PERMIT WRITING EXERCISE
Developing Effluent Limits (Cont.)
Technology-Based Limits Worksheet

Instructions: Based upon the information reviewed thus far in this exercise and the attached permit
application, determine the following:

1.  What Subpart(s) of the  applicable effluent limitations guidelines  apply to  the  All Charged Up
    Corporation discharge?
2.  What regulated processes within the applicable Subpart(s) apply to the All Charged Up Corporation
    discharge?
3.  What parameters are regulated by the applicable effluent limitations guidelines?
4.  What production rate should be used to calculate applicable discharge limitations?

-------
PERMIT WRITING EXERCISE
Developing Effluent: Limits (Cont.)
Technology-Based Limits Worksheet

5.  Calculate daily maximum and monthly average mass-based limitations for copper. [Put your answers
   in the table at the bottom of the page.]
                MASS-BASED TECHNOLOGY-BASED EFFLUENT LIMITS
Parameter
Copper
Lead
Iron
Oil and Grease
TSS
pH
Daily
Maximum

0.605 Ibs/day
2.60 Ibs/day
2 1.7 Ibs/day
32.5 Ibs/day
7.5 - 10.0 s.u.
Monthly
Average

0.275 Ibs/day
1.32 Ibs/day
2 1.7 Ibs/day
26.0 Ibs/day
7.5-1 0.0 s.u.
                                                                                          _

-------
PERMIT WRITING EXERCISE
Developing Effluent Limits (Cont.)
Water Quality-Based Limits Worksheet

Instructions: Answer the following questions to determine the applicability of water quality based effluent
limitations (WQBELs) for copper.  If necessary, calculate appropriate WQBELS.

[NOTE: Calculations for lead showed no reasonable potential.]
The State Water Quality Criteria applicable to the above designated uses are provided in the following Table:

                  APPLICABLE STATE WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
Parameter
Total Residual Chlorine
Whole Effluent Toxicity
Cadmium
Copper
Chromium (HI)
Lead
Nickel
Zinc
pH
Units
ug/1
TUx
ug/1
us/I
ug/1
ua/1
Ua/1
ua/1
s.u.
Aotiati
Amte
19
0.3 TUa
12
18
1,700
320
800
220
cLife
Chronic
11
1.0 TUc
3
12
210
20
95
150
Human
Health
..
__
10
1,000
170,000
50
600
5,000
Within range of 6.5 to 9
For the purposes of determining reasonable potential and developing wasteload allocations, the following
design stream flows shall be used:

[NOTE: In this exercise the State only allows half of the available stream flow for mixing.]

1.  50% of the 1-day, 10-year (1Q10) flow for acute protection of aquatic life
2.  50% of the 7-day, 10 year (7Q10) flow for chronic protection of aquatic life
3.  50% of the Harmonic Mean Flow for protection of human health.

-------
PERMIT WRITING EXERCISE
Developing Effluent Limits (Cont.)
Water Quality-Based Limits Worksheet

Receiving Water Information

A search of the EPA STORET database identified a monitoring station on Pristine Creek less than 1 mile
upstream from the All Charged Up Corporation outfall. The data extracted for the last 6 years include:
Parameter
f""rtpp*»r
Minimum
Concentration (ug/1)
•) (\
Maximum
Concentration (ug/1)
«n
Number of Data
Points
94
Current United States Geological Survey (USGS) flow gauge data for Pristine Creek, provided the following
information [NOTE: 1 MOD = 1.55 cfs]:

    lQ10=100cfs
    7Q10=160cfs
    Harmonic Mean = 300 cfs

Summary of Effluent Data for Copper from Application and DMR
Cd(1) = 0.59mg/L
Cd{2) = 0.55 mg/L
C
-------
PERMIT WRITING EXERCISE
Developing Effluent Limits (Cont.)
Water Quality-Based Limits Worksheet

 Table 3-1 from the EPA Technical Support Document for Water-Quality Based Toxics Control
             Table 3-1. Reasonable Potential Multiplying Factors: 99% Confidence Level and 99% Probability Basis
Number of
Simpto
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
IS
16
17
18
19
20
Coefficient of Variation
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
1.6 2.5 3.9 6.0 9.0
1.4 2.0 2.9 4.0 5.5
1.4 1.9 2.5 3-3 4.4
1.3 1.7 2.3 2.9 3.8
1.3 1.7 2.1 2-7 3.4
1.3 1.6 2.0 2.5 3.1
1.3 1.6 2.0 2.4 2.9
1.2 1.5 1.9 2.3 2.8
1.2 1.5 1.8 2.2 2.7
1.2 1.5 1.8 2.2 2.6
1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.5
1.2 1.4 1.7 2.0 2.4
1.2 1.4 1.7 2.0 2.3
1.2 1.4 1.7 2.0 2.3
1.2 1.4 1.6 1.9 2.2
1.2 1.4 1.6 1.9 2.2
1.2 1.4 1.6 1.9 2.1
1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.1
1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.1
1.2 1.3 1.6 1.8 2.0
0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
13.2 18.9 26.5 36.2 48.3
7.4 9.8 12.7 16.1 20.2
5.6 7.2 8.9 11.0 13.4
4.7 5.9 7.2 8.7 10.3
4.2 5.1 6.2 7.3 8.6
3.8 4.6 5.5 6.4 7.5
3.6 4.2 5.0 5.8 6.7
3.3 3.9 4.6 5.3 6.1
3.2 3.7 4.3 5.0 5.7
3.0 3.5 4.1 4.7 5.3
2.9 3.4 3.9 4.4 5.0
2.8 3.2 3.7 4.2 4.7
2.7 3.1 3.6 4.0 4.5
2.6 3.0 3.4 3.9 4.3
2.6 2.9 3.3 3.7 4.1
2.5 2.9 3.2 3.6 4.0
2.5 2.8 3.1 3.5 3.8
2.4 2.7 3.0 3.4 3.7
2.4 2.7 3.0 3.3 3.6
2.3 2.6 2.9 3.2 3.5
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
63.3 81.4 102.8 128.0 157.1
24.9 30.3 36.3 43.0 50.4
16.0 19.0 22.2 25.7 29.4
12.2 14.2 16.3 18.6 21.0
10.0 11.5 13.1 14.8 16.6
8.6 9.8 11.1 12.4 13.8
7.7 8.7 9.7 10.8 12.0
6.9 7.8 8.7 9.6 10.6
6.4 7.1 7.9 8.7 9.6
5.9 6.6 7.3 8.0 8.8
5.6 6.2 6.8 7.4 8.1
5.2 5.8 6.4 7.0 7.5
5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.1
4.8 5.2 5.7 6.2 6.7
4.6 5.0 5.4 5.9 6.4
4.4 4.8 5.2 5.6 6.1
4.2 4.6 5.0 5.4 5.8
4.1 4.4 4.8 5.2 5.6
4.0 4.3 4.6 5.0 5.3
3.8 4.2 4.5 4.8 5.2
1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0
90.3 227.8 269.9 316.7 368.3
58.4 67.2 76.6 86.7 97.5
33.5 37.7 42.3 47.0 52.0
23.6 26.3 29.1 32.1 35.1
18.4 20.4 22.4 24.5 26.6
15.3 16.8 18.3 19.9 21.5
13.1 14.4 15.6 16,9 18.2
11.6 12.6 13.6 14.7 15.8
10.4 11.3 12.2 13.1 14.0
9.5 10.3 11.0 11.8 12.6
8.8 9.4 10.1 10.8 11.5
8.1 8.8 9.4 10.0 10.6
7.6 8.2 8.7 9.3 9.9
7.2 7.7 8.2 8.7 9.2
6.8 7.3 7.7 8.2 8.7
6.5 6.9 7.3 7.8 8.2
6-2 6.6 7.0 7.4 7.8
5.9 6.3 6.7 7.0 7.4
5.7 6.0 6.4 6.7 7.1
5.5 5.8 6.1 6.5 6.8
Question 1:    Determine whether there is reasonable potential for copper to exceed State water
               quality standards.

-------
PERMIT WRITING EXERCISE
Developing Effluent Limits (Cont.)
Water Quality-Based Limits Worksheet
Question 2:    If necessary, calculate the wasteload allocations for copper.
                                           8

-------
PERMIT WRITING EXERCISE
Developing Effluent Limits (Cont.)
Water Quality-Based Limits Worksheet

Question 3:   If necessary, determine the long term averages for copper. Note: Use 99th Percentile
             Values. See Table 5-1.
Question 4:   If necessary, calculate the mass- and concentration-based maximum daily limit
             (MDL) and the average monthly limit (AML) for copper. Assume All Charged Up
             Corporation samples its effluent four times a month for copper. [Put your answers
             in the table at the bottom of page 12.] [NOTE: Assume a CV=0.6; monitoring
             requirement of 4 samples per month; LTA percentile = 99%; MDL percentile =
             99%; and AML percentile = 95%]

-------
PERMIT WRITING EXERCISE
Developing Effluent Limits (Cont.)
Water Quality-Based Limits Worksheet

Table 5-1 from the EPA Technical Support Document for Water-Quality Based Toxics Control
                     Table 5-1.  Back Calculations of Long-Tenh Average
CV
0.1
02
0.3
0.4
05
0.6
0.7
08
0.9
1.0
1.1
12
1.3
1.4
15
15
1.7
15
1.9
25
WU Muftiplierc
^Kww2-**]
»8>
0553
0.736
0544
0571
0514
0.468
0432
0.403
0579
0560
0544
0530
0519
0510
0.302
0298
0290
0285
0281
0277
PWOTM*
0.797
0.643
0527
0.440
0273
0521
0249
0224
0204
0.167
0.174
0.162
0.153
0.144
0-137
0.131
0.126
0.121
0.117
AcutB

wh«* o 2- In [CV2 f 1],




LTAc=
i^A^kM
iNVlVfl
2 = 2.
I
Chronic
(4-day average)
646 far 95tf» pwcwitto occurrenco protMbHy. and
32£fbf 99Ut pomntilt occuMtncc (XOtMbtty
CV
0.1
02
0.4
05
05
0.7
05
t5
t.t
1.4
15
1.6
1.7
1.9
2.0
WLA Multipliers
e»is0/.,a4j
^95th^ _ 98ttl^
PffDMllto PQT06IW6 '
!
0522
0.8S3
0.791
0.736
0587
0544
0506
0571
0541
0514
0490
0.468
0449
0.432
0417
0.403
0.390
0579
0.369
0.360
0591 !
0.797 :
0.715
0.643
O.S81
0.527
0.481
0.440
0.404
0573
0545
0521
0500
0281
0264
0249
0236
0224
0214
0204
                                            10

-------
PERMIT WRITING EXERCISE
Developing Effluent Limits (Cont.)
Water Quality-Based Limits Worksheet

Table 5-2 from the EPA Technical Support Document for Water-Quality Based Toxics Control
                           Table 5-2. Calculation of Permit Limits

cv

0.1
02
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
OS
1.0
1.1
12
1.3
1.4
1-5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
LTA multipliers
Izo-O.So2!
O
95th

1.17
1.36
1.55
1.75
1.95
2.13
2.31
2.48
2.84
2.78
2.91
3.03
3.13
323
3.31
3,38
3.45
3.51
3.56
3.6O
99th
1.25
1.55
1.90
227
2.66
3.11
3.56
4.01
4.46
4.90
5.34
5.76
6.17
656
6.93
729
7.63
7.95
826
8.55




Average Monthly Limit





2i
AML = LTA»e Z0n~ ' °"

where <*02 = »(CV2/n + 1 ],
z = 1.645 tor 95th pefcentite.
z - 2.326 tor 99th pefcairtte. and
n m number oi samples/month










CV


0.1
02
O.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
12
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
«.7
1.8
1.9
2.0


Maximum Dally Limit

[zo-OSc2]
MDL = LTA • 6

where 0* = /ft [CV2+1
z = 1.645 tor 95th percan


= ZJ32G lor Syill percenwc WAAJMCI ".e prooaDniiy













LTA Muftptien
6
95th
Percentile

n=1 n=2 rv=4- n=lO n*30
1.17 .12 .08 .06 1.03
1.36 .25 .17 .12 1.06
1.55 .38 .26 .16 1.09
1.75 .52 .36 .25 1.12
1.95 .66 .45 .31 1.16
2.13 .80 55 .38 119
2.31 .94 .65 .45 1.22
2.48 2.07 .75 .52 1.26
2.64 2.20 1.85 .59 1.29
2.78 2.33 1.95 .66 1.33
2.91 2.45 2.04 .73 1.36
3.03 2.56 2.13 .60 1.39
3.13 2.67 2.23 .67 143
323 2.77 2.31 .94 1.47
3.31 2.86 2.40 2.00 1.50
3.36 2.95 2.48 2.07 1.54
3.45 3.09 2.56 2.14 1.57
3.51 3.10 2.64 220 T.61
3.56 3.17 2.71 227 1.64
3.6O 3.23 2.78 2.33 t.6fi
99th
Percentile

rot rt-2 n=4 n=lO n«30
125 1.18 1.12 1.08 1.04
1.55 1.37 1.25 116 109
1.90 1.59 1.40 124 .13
227 1.63 1.55 133 .18
2.60 2.09 1.72 1.42 .23
3.11 2-37 1.90 1.52 .28
3.56 2.66 2.06 1.62 .33
4.01 2.96 2.27 1.73 .39
4.46 328 2.48 1.84 44
4.90 3.58 2.68 1.96 .50
544 3.91 2.90 2.07 .56
S.76 423 3.11 2.19 .62
6.17 4.55 3.34 2.32 .68
6.56 4.86 3-56 245 .74
6.93 5.17 3.78 2.58 .80
729 5-47 4.01 2.71 .87
7.63 5.77 4.23 2.84 .93
7.95 6.06 4.46 2.98 2.00
926 6.34 4.66 3.12 2.07
6.55 6.61 4.90 326 2.14
                                           11

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PERMIT WRITING EXERCISE
Developing Effluent Limits (Cont.)
Water Quality-Based Limits Worksheet
                   WATER QUALITY-BASED EFFLUENT LIMITS
Parameter
Copper
Lead
Iron
Oil & Grease
TSS
PH
Daily Max.
Cone.

No Reas. Pot.
«.
__
<•»
Mass

No Reas. Pot.
»
	
--
30-Day Average
Cone.

No Reas. Pot.
_—
__
„
Mass

No Reas. Pot.
__
—
--
Within the range of 6.5 - 9.0 s.u.
                                      12
                                                                                   J

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PERMIT WRITING EXERCISE
Developing Effluent Limits

Instructions:

Complete the following tables based on the calculations performed above. Provide a brief justification for
each parameter for which limits are required. If limits are not required or are not appropriate for a
parameter, also provide a brief justification. (Be sure to indicate the appropriate units.)
                               FINAL EFFLUENT LIMITS
Parameter






Daily Max.
Cone.





Mass






30-Dav Average
Cone.





Mass






                        JUSTIFICATION FOR EFFLUENT LIMITS
  Parameter
Justification
                                           13

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PERMIT WRITING EXERCISE
Developing Monitoring Conditions

Instructions:

Indicate in the following Table the appropriate monitoring frequencies and the sample type for each of the
parameters to be monitored. Provide a brief justification for each decision (i.e., why that frequency is
required, and why that sample type must be used.)

                              MONITORING FREQUENCIES
Parameter
Copper (T)
Leadfl)
Iron(T)
O&G
TSS
PH
Existing
Monitoring
Frequency
6/year
6/year
6/year
4/month
4/month
daily
Proposed
Monitoring
Frequency



4/month
2/week

Sample
Type


24-hr
composite

24-hr
composite
grab or
continuous
Justification for Sample Type and Monitoring
Frequency




2/week based on DMR data indicating routine
exceedances of new permit limits. Composite
sample required to ensure adequate
characterization of effluent, which may vary
during a 24-hour period.

What sample location would be specified in the permit?  Do any parameters require any unique sampling
requirements (i.e., special sampling location)?
                                            14

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PERMIT WRITING EXERCISE
Developing Special Conditions

Questions:

1.      Should the facility's permit require development and implementation of specific BMPs or a BMP
       Plan? Is yes, what would these be?
2.     Would you require whole effluent toxicity monitoring of the effluent? If so, briefly outline the
       condition and justification.
3.      What other, if any, special conditions would you impose?
                                             15

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PERMIT WRITING EXERCISE
The Administrative Process

Instructions:

You have now completed permit development, documented your decisions in the Fact Sheet, provided
notice of the draft permit to interested parties, and issued the final NPDES permit for All Charged Up
Corporation (whew!). However, the owner of the facility, unhappy with your work, seeks an
administrative appeal of the permit and in so doing, raises the following issues:

    •  The permit is improperly based on the provisions of 40 CFR Part 461 (Subcategory C);

    •  The effluent limitations for copper and oil and grease are calculated incorrectly;

    •  The facility's written comment to delete the "duty to mitigate" standard condition was improperly
       ignored;

    •  The weekly monitoring requirements for copper and oil and grease are excessive; and

    •  The Agency violated its regulations and established policy by refusing to hold a hearing as
       requested by the facility.


QUESTIONS:

(1) Assuming the facility's appeal is granted, what effect will this have on the effectiveness of the NPDES
    permit?	
(2) What standard of review should the Hearing Officer use to evaluate the permit?
                                              16
I

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PERMIT WRITING EXERCISE
The Administrative Process (Cont.)

(3) You have been called upon to testify on behalf of the Permit Authority. How do you respond to each
   of the issues raised?

   (a) The improper application of effluent guidelines regulations:    	
    (b) The calculation of limitations:
    (c) The inclusion of the duty to mitigate condition:
    (d) The excessive monitoring requirements:
    (e) The failure to hold a hearing:
(4) In addition to this logically organized and undeniably scientific testimony concerning your actions in
    developing this permit, what other assistance might you be asked to lend to your attorney?
(5) Once the Hearing Officer has made a decision, what is the next step in the process of getting the All
    Charged Up Corporation permit final and effective?	
                                              17

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Pt. 461
                                  40 CFR Ch. I (7-1-99 Edition)
by chis  paragraph, which  may be dis-
charged  from Che hospital  point source
subject to  the provisions of this  para-
graph  after   application  of  the  best
practicable   control  technology  cur-
rently available:
   Effluent characteristic
   Effluent limitations

         Average of daily
Maximum    values for 30
for any 1  consecutive days
  day      shall not ex-
            ceed—
                        Metric units {kg/1,000
                          occupied beds)
BOOS
TSS ...
pH 	
    41.0
    55.6
33.6
33.8
                        English units (lb/1.000
                          occupied beds)
BODS .
TSS ....
pH 	
    90.4
   122.4
74.0
74.5
  1 Within the range 6.0 to 9.0.

[41 FR 18777.  May  6. 1976. as amended at 60
FR 33972. June 29. 1995)

PART   461—BATTERY    MANUFAC-
   TURING   POINT   SOURCE   CAT-
   EGORY

           GENERAL PROVISIONS
Sec.
461.1  Applicability.
461.2  General definitions.
461.3  Monitoring  and  reporting
    ments.
461.4  Compliance date for PSES.
             require-
    Subpart A—Cadmium Subcategory

461.10  Applicability; description of  the cad-
    mium subcategory.
461.11  Effluent  limitations representing the
    degree of effluent  reduction  attainable
    by the application of the best practicable
    control  technology currently  available
    (BPT).
461.12  Effluent  limitations representing the
    degree of effluent  reduction  attainable
    by the application  of the best available
    technology   economically   achievable
    (BAT).
461.13  New  source  performance  standards
    (NSPS).
461.14  Pretreatment standards  for  existing
    sources (PSES).
461.15  Pretreatment   standards  for  new
    sources (PSNS).
     Subpart B—Calcium Subcategory

461.20  Applicability: description of the  cal-
    cium subcategory.
461.21-461.22  [Reserved]
461.23  New source  performance  standards
    (NSPS).
461.24  [Reserved]
461.25  Pretreatment   standards  for  new
    sources (PSNS).

      Subpart C—Lead Subcategory

461.30  Applicability: description of the lead
    subcategory.
461.31  Effluent limitations  representing the
    degree  of effluent  reduction  attainable
    by the  application of the best practicable
    control  technology currently  available
    (BPT).
461.32  Effluent limitations  representing the
    degree  of effluent  reduction  attainable
    by the application of the best available
    technology   economically   achievable
    (BAT).
461.33  New source  performance  standards
    (NSPS).
461.34  Pretreatment standards  for existing
    sources (PSES).
461.35  Pretreatment   standards  for  new
    sources (PSNS).

    Subpart D—Leclanche Subcategory

461.40  Applicability;   description  of   the
    Leclanche  subcategory.
461.41-461.42 [Reserved]
461.43  New source  performance  standards
    (NSPS).
461.44  Pretreatment standards  for existing
    sources (PSES).
461.45  Pretreatment   standards  for  new
    sources (PSNS).

     Subpart E—Lithium Subcategory

461.50  Applicability; description of the lith-
    ium subcategory.
461.51-461.52 [Reserved]
461.53  New source  performance  standards
    (NSPS).
461.54  [Reserved!
461.55  Pretreatment   standards  for  new
    sources (PSN'S).

   Subpart F—Magnesium Subcategory

461.60  Applicability; description of the mag-
    nesium subcategory.
461.61-461.62 IReserved]
461.63  New source  performance  standards
    (NSPS).
461.64  Pretreatment standards  for existing
    sources (PSES).
461.65  Pretreatment   standards  for  new
    sources (PSNS).
                                         434

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 Environmental Protection Agency
                                §461.3
       Subpart G—Zinc Subcategory

461,70  Applicability: description of the zinc
    subcategory.
461.71  Effluent limitations representing the
    degree of effluent reduction attainable
    by the application of the best practicable
    control technology currently  available
    (BPT).
461.72  Effluent limitations representing the
    degree of effluent reduction attainable
    by the application of  the best available
    technology   economically   achievable
    (BAT).
461.73  New source performance standards
    (NSPS).
461.74  Pretreatment standards for  existing
    sources (PSES).
461.75  Pretreatment  standards  for  new
    sources (PSNS).
  AUTHORITY:  Sees. 301. 304 (b).  (c).  (e). and
(g), 306 (b) and (c). 307 (b) and (c). 308 and SOI
of the Clean  Water Act (the Federal Water
Pollution Control Act Amendments  of 1972.
as amended by the Clean Water Act of 1977)
(the "Act").  33 U.S.C. 1311. 1314 (b). (c). (e).
and (g}, 1316  (b) and (c). 1317 (b) and (c). and
1361; 86 Stat. 816. Pub. L. 92-500; 91 Stat. 1567.
Pub. L. 95-217.
  SOURCE: 49 FR 9134, Mar.  9. 1984. unless oth-
erwise noted.

         GENERAL PROVISIONS

§461.1  Applicability.
  This part applies to any battery man-
ufacturing  plant  that   discharges or
may discharge a pollutant to waters of
the United  States  or  that  introduces
pollutants to  a publicly owned treat-
ment  works.  Battery  manufacturing
operations subject to regulation under
this part shall not be subject to regula-
tion under part 413 or 433.

§461.2  General definitions.
  In  addition to  the  definitions  set
forth in 40 CFR part 401, the following
definitions apply to this part:
  (a)  "Battery" means a modular elec-
tric power source where part or all of
the fuel  is  contained within the  unit
and electric power is  generated  di-
rectly from  a chemical  reaction rather
than indirectly  through  a heat cycle
engine. In this regulation there is no
differentiation  between a single  cell
and a battery.
  (b)   "Battery  manufacturing  oper-
ations" means all of the specific proc-
esses used to produce a battery includ-
ing  the  manufacture   of  anodes  and
 cathodes and associated ancillary oper-
 ations.   These  manufacturing  oper-
 ations are  excluded  from  regulation
 under any other point source category.
   (c) "Ancillary operations" means all
 of the operations  specific  to battery
 manufacturing and not  included  spe-
 cifically  within anode or cathode man-
 ufacture  (ancillary operations  are  pri-
 marily associated with battery assem-
 bly and  chemical production  of anode
 or cathode active materials).
   (d) "Plate soak" shall mean the proc-
 ess operation  of  soaking  or  reacting
 lead  subcategory  battery plates, that
 are more than 2.5  mm (0.100 in) thick,
 in sulfuric acid.
   (e)  "Discharge allowance" means the
 amount of pollutant (mg per kg of pro-
 duction unit)  that  a plant will be  per-
 mitted to discharge.  For this category
 the allowances are specific to battery
 manufacturing operations.
   (f)     "Miscellaneous     wastewater
 streams"  shall  mean  the  combined
 wastewater  streams  from  the process
 operations  listed below  for each sub-
 category. If a plant has one  of these
 streams then the plant receives the en-
 tire miscellaneous waste  stream allow-
 ance.
   (1)  Cadmium  subcategory. Cell  wash.
 electrolyte  preparation,  floor   and
 equipment wash, and employee  wash.
   (2) Lead subcategory. Floor wash,  wet
 air  pollution  control,  battery  repair,
 laboratory, hand wash,  and respirator
 wash.
   (3)  Lithium  subcategory.  Floor  and
 equipment wash,  cell testing, and lith-
 ium scrap disposal.
   (4) Zinc subcategory. Cell wash, elec-
 trolyte preparation, employee wash, re-
ject cell  handling, floor and equipment
 wash.
   (g)  "Trucked batteries"  shall mean
 batteries moved  into  or  out  of  the
 plant by  truck when the  truck is actu-
 ally washed  in the  plant to remove res-
 idues  left in the truck  from the  bat-
 teries.

 §461.3  Monitoring  and  reporting  re-
    quirements.
   The  "monthly  average"  regulatory
 values shall  be the  basis for the month-
 ly average  discharge  in  direct  dis-
 charge permits  and  for  pretreatment
                                     435

-------
§461.4
          40 CFR Ch. I (7-1-99 Edition)
standards. Compliance with the month-
ly discharge  limit is  required regard-
less  of the number of samples analyzed
and  averaged.

§461.4  Compliance date for PSES.
  The     compliance      date     for
pretreatment  standards  for  existing
sources is March 9, 1987.

       Subpart A—Cadmium
            Subcategory

§461.10  Applicability;   description  of
   the cadmium subcategory.
  This subpart  applies to discharges to
waters of the United States, and  intro-
ductions  of  pollutants into  publicly
owned treatment works from the man-
ufacturing of cadmium  anode batteries.

§461.11  Effluent    limitations    rep-
   resenting the  degree of effluent re-
   duction attainable  by  the applica-
   tion of the  best practicable control
   technology    currently    available
   (BPT).
  (a) Except as  provided  in 40  CFR
125.30 through 125.32, any existing point
source  subject to  this subpart  must
achieve the  following  effluent limita-
tions representing the  degree of efflu-
ent  reduction attainable by the  appli-
cation of the best practicable control
technology currently available:
  (1)  Subpart  A—Pasted  and Pressed
Powder Anodes.

        BPT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
        BPT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
 Pollutant or pollutant property
Maximum
for any 1
  day
Maximum
for monthly
 average
                    |   Metric units—mg/kg ot
                           cadmium
                    I English units—pounds per
                    ;   1.000.000  pounds  oi
                    ;   cadmium

Nickel
2inc 	
Cobalt 	

TSS 	
pH 	
237.0
1 3382
1.017.6
1464
139400
28,577.0
(')
1046
8852
425.2
627
83640
13,592.0
(')
 1 Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times.

 (3) Subpart A—Impregnated Anodes.

        BPT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
Pollutant or pollutant property
Maximum
for any 1
day
Maximum
for monthly
average
                       Metric units—mg/kg of
                           cadmium
                    i English units—pounds per
                    I   1,000,000   pounds  of
                    :   cadmium

Nickel
Zinc
Cobalt

TSS 	
pH 	
3393
i 19162
1 457 1
: 2096
199600
	 40.918.0
	 I (')
1497
1.2675
6088
898
1 1 976 0
19.461.0
n
 'Within the range ol 7.5 to 10.0 at all times.

  (4) Subpart A—Nickel  Electrodepos-
ited Cathodes.

        BPT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
Pollutant or pollutant property
Cadmium 	
Nickel 	
Zinc 	
Cobalt 	

TSS 	
pH

Maximum Maximum
for any 1 for monthly
day average
Metric units — mg/kg of
cadmium
English units — pounds per
1.000.000 pounds ot
cadmium
0.92 0.41
5.18 3.43
3.94 1.65
0.57 0.24
54.00 32.40
111.00; 52.65
(') (1)
1 Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times.
(2) Subpart A— Electrodeposited An-
odes.
Pollutant or pollutant property




Oi! and grease 	 	 	 	
TSS
pH

Maximum ! Maximum
for any 1 ( for monthly
day ! average
Metric units — mg/kg of
nickel applied
English units— pounds per
1,000.000 pounds ol
nickel applied
193.5 i 85.4
1,092.5 722.6
830.7 347.1
119.5 ' 51.2
11.380.0 6,628.0
23,329.0 11,095.5
(') ' (')
' Within me range ot 7.5 to 10.0 at all times.
(5) Subpart A — Nickel Impregnated
Cathodes.
                                      436

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Environmental Protection Agency
                                  §461.11
         BPT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
         BPT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
Pollutant or pollutant property
Cadmium
Nickel
Zinc 	
Cobalt 	
Oil and grease 	
TSS 	
PH 	
Maximum ' Maximum
for any ( i tor monthly
day ' average
Metric units— mg/Xg of
nickel applied
English units— pounds per
1,000,000 pounds of
nickel applied
557.6
3.148$
2.394.4
344.4
32.800.0
67.240.0
(')
246.0
2.082.8
1,000.4
U7.6
19.680.0
31.980.0
(')
1 Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times.
Pollutant or pollutant property
Cadmium 	
Nickel
Silver 	
Zinc
Cobalt 	

TSS 	
pH
Maximum Maximum
lor any 1 for monthly
day average
Metric units— mg/kg of
silver powder produced
English units— pounds per
1,000,000 pounds of sil-
ver powder produced
7.21 3,t8
40.70 26.92
8.69 3.61
30.95 12.93
4.45 1.91
424.00 254.40
869.20 413.40
n c)
  (6) Subpart  A—Miscellaneous Waste-
water Streams.

         BPT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
  ' Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times.

   (9)  Subpart  A—Cadmium  Hydroxide
Production.
Pollutant or pollutant property

Nicfcet 	
Zinc 	
Cobalt 	

TSS
pH
Maximum
tor any 1
day
Maximum
for monthly
average
Metric unite — mg/kg of
cells produced
English units— pounds per
1,000,000 pounds of
cells produced
6.29
35.54
27.02
3.89
370.20
758.91
(')
Z.77
23.50
11.29
1.66
222.12
360.94
{')
1 Wrttiir the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times.
(7) Subpart A — Cadmium Powder Pro-
duction.
BPT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
Maximum
Pollutant or pollutant property tor any 1
day
Metric urats
Maximum
for monthly
average
. — mo/ka at

Pollutant or pollutant property
Cadmium
Nickel
Zinc 	
Cobalt
Oil and grease
TSS 	
pH 	 .^

Maximum Maximum
for any 1 lor monthly
day average
Metric units — mg/kg of
cadmium used
Engfish units — pounds per
1,000.000 pounds of
cadmium used
0.31 0.14
1.73 1.14
1.31 0.55
0.19 0.08
18.00 10.80
36.90 i 17.60
(') (')
1 Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all limes.
(10) Subpart A— Nickel Hydroxide
Production.
BPT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
Pollutant or pollutant property
Maximum ' Maximum
for any 1 for monthly
day i average
                       , cadmium powder produced
                        English  units—pounds per
                         1,000,000  pounds  of
                       ;  cadmium  powder pro-
                       |  duced
                       i  Metric units—mg/kg of
                       |      nickel used
                       i English units—pounds per
                       '  1.000.000  pounds  of
                         nickel used

Nickel 	
Zinc
Cobalt

TSS
pH 	
22.34
126.14
95.92
13.80
1 31400
269300

9.86
83.44
40.08
5.91
78840
1 281 20

Cadmium 	
Nickel
Zinc 	
Cobalt 	

TSS
pH
37.4 :
211 2
1606 •
231 '
22000'
4 5100
(M,
16.5
1397
67 1
99
1 3200
2 145 0
(')
  ' Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times.
  (8)  Subpart A—Silver Powder Produc-
tion.
  • Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all limes.
  (b) There shall be no  discharge allow-
ance for process wastewater pollutants
                                         437

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§461.12

from any battery manufacturing oper-
ation  other  than  those battery manu-
facturing operations listed above.

§ 461.12  Effluent    limitations    rep-
    resenting the degree of effluent re-
    duction attainable by  the applica-
    tion  of  the  best available  tech-
    nology   economically   achievable
    (BAT).
  (a)  Except as provided  in  40   CFR
125.30  through 125.32, any existing point
source subject  to this  subpart must
achieve  the  following effluent limita-
tions  representing  the degree of efflu-
ent  reduction attainable  by the  appli-
cation of the best available technology
economically achievable:
           40 CFR Ch. I (7-1-99 Edition)
         BAT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
 Pollutant or pollutant property
Maximum
for any 1
  day
 Maximum
(or monthly
 average
                         Metric units—mg/Vg of
                            nickel applied
                       English units—pounds per
                         1.000,000  pounds  of
                      i   nickel applied
Cadmium
Nickel 	
Zinc	
Cobalt 	
    11.22
    63.36
    48.1 B
     6.93 I
     4.95
    41.91
    20.13
     2.97
  (4)  Subpart  A—Nickel  Impregnated
Cathodes.

         BAT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
odes.
BAT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
Pollutant or pollutant property
Cadmium 	 	 	 	
Nickel 	
Zinc .. ..
Cobalt 	

Maximum Maximum
lor any 1 lor monthly
day average
Metric units — mg/kg of
cadmium
English units — pounds per
1.000.000 pounds of
cadmium
1 1 .95 5.27
67.49 44.64
51.32 21.44
7.38 3.16
Pollutant or pollutant property

Nickel
Zinc
Cobalt 	
Maximum . Maximum
for any 1 ! for monthly
day ! average
Metric units — mo/kg of
nickel applied
English unils — pounds per
1,000,000 pounds of
nickel applied
68.0 30.0
384.0 254.0
292.0 | 122.0
42.0 18.0
(5) Subpart A— Miscellaneous Waste-
water Streams.
  (2) Subpart A—Impregnated Anodes.

         BAT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
                                                     BAT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
 Pollutant or pollutant property
Maximum  I  Maximum
for any 1  ' for monthly
  day    ;  average
Pollutant or pollutant property

Maximum
for any 1
day
Maximum
tor monthly
average
Metric units— mg/kg of
cadmium
Engfish units— pounds per
                                                                  ;  Metric units—mg/kg of
                                                                       cells produced
                                                                  • English unils—pounds per
                                                                    1.000.000   pounds   of
                                                                    cells produced
                        1,000,000  pounds  01
                        cadmium

Nickel 	
Zinc 	
Cobalt 	

660
	 ; 384 0
2920
	 42 o

300
254.0
122.0
180

Cadmium
Nickel 	
Zinc 	
Cobalt 	
    0.79
    4.47
    3.40
    0.49
     0.35
     2.96
     1.42
     0.21
                                              (6) Subpart A—Cadmium  Powder Pro-
                                            duction.
  (3)  Subpart  A—Nickel Electrodepos-
ited Cathodes.
                                         438

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Environmental Protection Agency

         BAT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
                                                    §461.13
                            BAT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
Maximum Maximum
Pollutant or pollutant property for any 1 for monthly
day average

Nickel 	
Zinc
Cobalt

Metric units — mg/kg of
cadmium powder produced
English units— pounds per
1.000,000 pounds of
cadmium powder produced
2.23 0.99
12.61 i 6.34
9.59 4.01
1.38 ; 0.59
Pollutant or pollutant property
Cadmium
Nickel 	
Zinc 	
Cobalt

Maximum
lor any 1
day
Maximum
tor monthly
average
Metric units — mg/ks ot
nickel used
English units— pounds per
1,000,000 pounds or
nickel used
5.61
31.68
24.09
3.47
2.48
20.96
10.07
1.49
  (7) Sufapart A—Silver Powder Produc-
tion.

         BAT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
 Pollutant or pollutant property
Cadmium 	
Nickel
Silver
ZHK 	
Cobalt

1.09
6.16
1 32
4.69
067

0.48
4.08
055
1.96
0.29

Maximum  j Maximum
for any 1   for monthly
  day      average
                         Metric units—mg/kg of
                        silver powder produced

                       English units—pounds per
                        1,000,000 pounds of sil-
                        ver powder produced
  (8)  Subpart  A—Cadmium  Hydroxide
Production.

         BAT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
Pollutant or pollutant property

Maximum
for any 1
day
Maximum
for monthly
average

                        Metric units—mg/kg of
                           cadmium used

                       English units—pounds per
                        1,000,000  pounds  of
                        cadmium used

Mickel 	
Zinc
Cobalt 	

005
0.27
0.20
0.03

0.02
0.18
009
0.01

  (9) Subpart A—Nickel Hydroxide Pro-
duction.
                     (b) There shall be no discharge allow-
                   ance for process wastewater pollutants
                   from any battery manufacturing oper-
                   ation other than  those battery manu-
                   facturing operations listed above.
                                           §461.13  New    source
                                               standards (NSPS).
performance
                     (a) The discharge of wastewater pol-
                   lutants from any new source subject to
                   this subpart shall not exceed the stand-
                   ards set forth below:
                     (1)  Subpart  A—Electrodeposited  An-
                   odes—NSPS.
                                           Pollutant or pollutant property
                                         Maximum for
                                          any 1 day
   I Maximum for
    monthly aver-
       age
                                           Metric units—mg/kg of
                                               cadmium

                                       i English  units—pounds  per
                                          1.000.000 pounds of  cad-
                                          mium

Nickel
Zinc 	
Cobalt

TSS
OH 	
703
1933
3585
4 92
351 5
5273
(M
281
1301
1476
246
351 5
421 8
M
                                             1 Within the range o) 7.5-10.0 at all times.

                                              (2)  Subpart  A—Impregnated Anodes—
                                           NSPS.
                                        439

-------
§461.13
                                        40 CFR Ch. I  (7-1-99 Edition)
                                       Maximum for
Pollutant or pollutant property'   f!!L'IrJ"!Ia!?r ! monthly aver-    Pollutant or pollutant property
                           any i aay  ,
                                                                                 Maximum
                                                                                 lor any 1
                                                                                   day
                                                                •  Maximum for
                                                                 monthly aver-
                                                                     age
                             Metric units— mg/kg of
                                  cadmium

                         j English   units— pounds  per
                         :   1.000.000  pounds  ol  cad-
                                                    i  Metric units—mg/kg ol cells
                                                             produced

                                                     English  units—pounds  per
                                                       1.000.000 pounds of cells
                                                       produced

Nickel
Zinc 	
Cobalt 	

TSS
DH 	
! 400
1100
	 204.0
	 28.0
20000
	 30000
(')
160
740
84.0
14.0
20000
24000
Cl

Nickel
Zinc 	
Cobalt 	

TSS 	
pH 	
0 47 ' 0 19
1 28 0 86
2.38 0.98
0.33 0.16
23 3 23 3
35.0 i 28 0
(') {')
  1 Within the range of 7.5-10.0 at all times.

   (3)  Subpart  A—Nickel  Electrodepos-
ited Cathodes—NSPS.
                             1 Within the range of 7.5-10.0 at all times.

                             (6) Subpart A—Cadmium Powder Pro-
                           duction—NSPS.
Pollutant or pollutant properly
Maximum for
 any 1 day
                                       Maximum tor
                                      monthly aver-
                                          age
Pollutant or pollutant property
Maximum
(or any 1
day
Maximum
for monthly
average
                          Metric units—mg/kg of nickel
                                   applied
                         . English  units—pounds  per
                            1,000,000 pounds ol nickel
                            applied
                                                        Metric units—mg/kg of
                                                     • cadmium powder produced

                                                     | English units—pounds per
                                                     ,   1,000.000   pounds   ol
                                                        cadmium  powder  pro-
                                                        duced

Nickel

Cobalt

TSS
pH *

6.60 1 2.64
18.15 I 12.21
33.66 I 13.66
4.62 . 2.31
330.0 I 330.0
495.0 396.0
0) ' (')
1 Within the range of 7.5-10.0 at all times.
(4) Subpart A— Nickel Impregnated
Cathodes— NSPS.
Pollutant or pollutant properly

Maximum , Maximum
for any 1 : (or monthly
day average

Cadmium 	
Nickel 	
Zinc 	 ,
Cobalt 	
Oil and grease 	
TSS 	



1.31 '. 0.53
3.61 ' 2.43
6.70 . 2.76
0.92 ' 0.46
65.70 j 65.70
98.55 78.84
(') i (')
1 Within the range of 7.5-10.0 at all times.
(7) Subpart A— Silver Powder Produc-
tion— NSPS.
Pollutant or pollutant property
Maximum Maximum
lor any 1 for monthly
day ' average
                           I      nickel applied

                           • English  units—pounds per
                           ]  1,000,000   pounds  of
                             nickel applied
                                                        Metric units—mg/kg of
                                                        silver powder produced

                                                     i English units—pounds per
                                                        1.000,000 pounds of sil-
i
Nickel 	 ' 1100
Zinc i 204 0 •
Cobalt 28 0


pH 	 (') ;
1 Within the range of 7.5-10.0 at all times.
(5) Subpart A — Miscellaneous
water Streams— NSPS.
16.0
74.0
84.0
14.0
2.000.0
2,400.0
(')
Waste-
Cadmium 	
Nickel 	
Silver 	
Zinc
Cobalt 	
Oil and grease 	
TSS 	
pH 	

0.64 : 0.26
1.77 i 1.19
0.93 0.39
3.27 ' 1.35
0.45 0.22
32.10' 32.10
48.15 38.52
(') ' O
'Within the range of 7.5-10.0 at all times.
(8) Subpart A — Cadmium Hydroxide
Production— NSPS.
                                                 440

-------
Environmental Protection Agency
                                                        §461.14
 Pollutant or pollutant property
Maximum lor
 any 1 day
 Maximum for
 monthly aver-
    age
                                                               PSES
                         Metric units—mg/kg ol
                           cadmium used
                      English  units—pounds per
                        1,000,000 pounds of cad-
                        mium used

Nickel ! 0 077
Zinc 	 0.142
Cobalt 0019

TSS 	 2.10
DH 	 (')
0011
0051
0.058
OOOS
1 40
1.68
[')
Pollutant or pollutant property

Maximum
for any t
day
Maximum
for monthly
average
Metric units — mg/kg ot
cadmium
English units — pounds per
1,000,000 pounds ot
cadmium
                                             Cadmiun
                                             Nickel	
                                             Zinc	
                                             Cobali 	
                                                   11.95
                                                   67.49
                                                   51.32
                                                   7.38
                                                    5.27
                                                   44.64
                                                   21.44
                                                    3.16
  ' Within the range of 7.5-10.0 at all limes.

   (9) Subpart A— Nickel Hydroxide Pro-
duction— NSPS.
                         (2) Subpart A—Impregnated Anodes.

                                         PSES
Pollutant or pollutant property
                        -,
                       any i way
1 Maximum lor    Pollutant or pollutant property
I monthly aver-   	
                                                                     Maximum
                                                                     for any 1
                                                                       day
                                                         Maximum
                                                        for monthly
                                                         average
                       Metric units—mg/kg of nickel
                               used
                      English  units—pounds  per
                        1.000.000 pounds of nickel
                                                Metric units—mg/kg of
                                                    cadmium
                                              English units—pounds per
                                                1,000,000  pounds  of
                                                cadmium
0E\J


Zinc 1683
Cobalt 	 2.31
Oil and grease ........—......... 165.0
TSS 247 5
pH 	 (')
1.32
6.11
6.93
1.16
165.0
198.0
(')

Nickel 	 '
Zinc 	
CobaH 	 '

(3) Subpart A— Nickel
ited Cathodes.
6B.O , 30.0
384.0 ' 254.0
292.0 122.0
42.0 18.0
Electrodepos-
  1 Within the range of 7.5-10.0 at all times.
  (b) There shall be no discharge allow-
ance for process wastewater pollutants
from  any  battery  manufacturing  oper-
ation other than those battery manu-
facturing operations listed above.
[49 FR 9134. Mar.  9. 1984: 49 FR 13879,  Apr. 9.
1984]

§461.14  Pretreatment  standards  for
    existing sources (PSES).
  (a) Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7
and §403.13, any existing source  subject
to  this  subpart  which introduces pol-
lutants  into  a  publicly  owned  treat-
ment works must  comply  with  40 CFR
part 403 and achieve the pretreatment
standards   for  existing  sources  listed
below:
  (1) Subpart A—Electrodeposited An-
odes.
                                                               PSES
                        Pollutant or pollutant property
                                     Maximum
                                     for any 1
                                       day
 Maximum
for monthly
 average
                                                Metric units—mg/kg of
                                                  nickel applied
                                              English  units—pounds per
                                             ,   1.000.000  pounds  of
                                             I   nickel applied

Nickel
Zinc 	
Cobalt

11 22
6336 I
48.18 !
693 |

4 95
41 91
20.13
2 97

                         (4)  Subpart  A—Nickel  Impregnated
                       Cathodes—PSES.
                                          441

-------
§461.15
                                      40 CFR Ch. I  (7-1-99 Edition)
Pollutant or pollutant property

Nickel 	
Zinc
Cobalt 	

; Maximum Maximum
lor any 1 lor monthly
i day average
J Metric units — mg/kg of
: nickel applied
1 English units — pounds per
1 1.000.000 pounds ol
i nickel applied
68.0 30.0
i 384.0 254.0
292.0 122.0
42.0 18.0
(5) Subpart A— Miscellaneous Waste-
water Streams — PSES.
Pollutant or pollutant property

Nickel 	



I Maximum Maximum
lor any 1 for monthly
' day : average
' Metric units— mg/Vg ol
cells produced
I English units— pounds per
1.000,000 pounds of
! cells produced
' 0.79 0.35
I 4.47 2.96
| 3.40 1.42
0.49 0.21
(6) Subpart A— Cadmium Powder Pro-
duction— PSES.
Pollutant or pollutant property

Maximum Maximum
for any 1 lor monthly
| day average
i Metric units — mg/kg of
1 cadmium powder produced
(8) Subpart A— Cadmium Hydroxide
Production— PSES.
! Maximum ' Maximum for
Pollutant or pollutant properly lor any 1 monthly aver-
day I age
; Metric units — mg/kg o(
' cadmium used
I English units — pounds per
1,000,000 pounds o) cad-
I mium used
Cadmium 0 05 0.02

Zinc | 0 20 | 0 09
Cobalt | 003 j 0012

(9) Subpart A— Nickel Hydroxide Pro-
duction— PSES.
; Maximum Maximum
Pollulani or pollutant property : for any 1 for monthly
day average
Metric units — mg/kg of
nickel used
English units— pounds per
1 ,000.000 pounds of
nickel used
Cadmium 	 5.61 2.48
Nickel 	 31.68 ' 20.96
Zinc 	 	 24 09 i 1007
Cobalt 3 47 1 49

(b) There shall be no discharge allow-
ance for process wastewater pollutants
from any battery manufacturing oper-
ation other than those battery manu-
facturing operations listed above.
                       ! English unite—pounds per
                         1,000,000  pounds  of
                         cadmium  powder pro-
                         duced
Cadmium
Nickel	
Zinc 	
Cobalt 	
                             2.23 !
                            12.61
                             9.59
                             1.38
                     0.99
                     8.34
                     4.01
                     0.59
  (7) Subpart A-
tion—PSES.
-Silver Powder Produc-
 Pollutant or pollutant property
       Maximum
       for any 1
        day
 Maximum
tor monthly
 average
           $461.15  Pretreatment   standards   for
               new sources (PSNS).
             (a) Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7
           any new source subject to this subpart
           that introduces pollutants into a  pub-
           licly  owned   treatment  works   must
           comply  with  40  CFR  part  403   and
           achieve  the pretreatment standards for
           new sources listed below:
             (1) Subpart  A—Electrodeposited  An-
           odes—PSNS.
                                              Pollutant or pollutant property
       Metnc units—mg/kg of
       silver powder produced
      English units—pounds per
       1.000,000 pounds  ol sil-
       ver powder produced
                                                                     Maximum
                                                                     tor any 1
                                                                       day
 Maximum
Jor monthly
 average
                                                                      Metric units—mg/kg of
                                                                          cadmium
                                                                   • English units—pounds per
                                                                      1.000.000   pounds  of

Nickel 	
Silver 	
Zinc 	
Coball 	
1 09
	 ! 6.16 '
	 1.32 ,
	 4.69
	 i 0.67 '
048
4.08
a.ss
1 96
0.29


NiCkeJ
Zinc
Cobai1 	


19 33
35 85 -
	 4.92

2 81
13 01
14 76
2.46
                                         442

-------
 Environmental Protection Agency
                                                             §461.15
   (2)  Subpart A—Impregnated Anodes—
PSNS.
                          (6) Subpart  A—Cadmium Powder Pro-
                       duction—PSNS.
  Pollutant or pollutant property
Maximum  !  Maximum
tor any 1    lor monthly
   day       average
                                                    Pollutant or pollutant property
                                        Maximum
                                        tor any 1
                                          day
 Maximum
lor monthly
 average.
                            Metric units—mg/kg of
                                  cadmium
                           English units—pounds per
                            1.000,000  pounds   of
                            cadmium
                                                   Metric units—mg/kg ol
                                                  cadmium powder produced

                                                '  English units—pounds per
                                                   1.000.000   pounds   of
                                                   cadmium  powder  pro-
Cadmiurr 	
Nickel
Zinc
Cobalt

40.0 16.0
110.0 • 74.0
204.0 ! 84.0
28.0 | 14.0
(3) Subpart A— Nickel Electrodepos-
ited Cathodes— PSNS.
Pollutant or pollutant property !
Maximum ; Maximum
for any 1 : for monthly
day average
Cadmium 	
Nickel 	
Zinc
Cobalt

(7) Subpart A
tion— PSNS

duced
	 , 1.31 0.53
	 3.61 ! 2.43

| 0 92 j 0 46

-Silver Powder Produc-

r Maximum Maximum
                            Metric units—mg/kg of
                                nickel applied
                          English units—pounds per
                            1.000,000   pounds   of
                            nickel applied
Cadmium , 	 , 	
Nickel 	
Zinc 	
CobaK






6.60
16.15
33.66
4.62
2.64
t2.21
13.86
2.31
(4) Subpart A— Nickel Impregnated
Cathodes— PSNS.
                           Maximum !   Maximum
 Pollutant or pollutant property |  for any 1  ]  for monthly
                         :     day    '   average

                         i   Metric units—ing/kg of
                         •       nickel applied
                         ' English units—pounds per
                         :   1,000,000   pounds   of
                            nickel applied
Cadmum 	 40.0
Nickel 	 110.0
Zinc ' 204.0
Cobalt 28.0

16.0
74.0
134.0
14.0

   (5)  Subpart A—Miscellaneous Waste-
water Streams—PSNS.
 Potlutant or pollutant property
Maximum
for any 1
  day
 Maximum
tor monthly
 average
                         :   Metric units—
-------
§461.20
Pollutant or pollutant properly
Maximum
for any 1
day
Maximum
for monthly
average
                       Metric units—mg/kg of
                          nickel used
                     English units—pounds per
                       1,000,000   pounds  ot
                       nickel used

Nickel
Zinc
Cobalt 	

330
908
1683
2.31

1 32
611
693
1.16

  (b) There shall be no discharge allow-
ance for process wastewater pollutants
from  any battery manufacturing oper-
ation other than those battery manu-
facturing operations listed above.

 Subpart B—Calcium Subcategory

§461.20  Applicability;   description  of
    the calcium subcategory.
  This subpart applies  to discharges to
waters of the United States and intro-
ductions  of  pollutants  into  publicly
owned treatment works from manufac-
turing calcium anode batteries.
§§461.21-461.22  [Reserved]
§461.23  New   source
    standards (NSPS).
performance
  (a) The discharge of wastewater  pol-
lutants from any new source subject to
this subpart shall not exceed the stand-
ards set forth below.
  (b)  There shall be  no discharge for
process  wastewater  pollutants  from
any battery manufacturing operations.

§ 461.24  [Reserved]

§461.25  Pretreatment  standards   for
    new sources (PSNS).
  (a) Except as provided in  §403.7  any
new source subject to this subpart that
introduces  pollutants  into  a publicly
owned  treatment works must comply
with 40 CFR  part  403  and achieve the
pretreatment    standards    for   new
sources listed below.
          40 CFR Ch. I (7-1-99 Edition)

  (b)  There  shall  be no discharge  for
process  wastewater  pollutants  from
any battery  manufacturing operations.

  Subpart C—Lead Subcategory

§461.30  Applicability;  description   of
    the lead subcategory.
  This subpart applies to discharges to
waters of the United States  and intro-
duction  of  pollutants  into publicly
owned treatment works from the man-
ufacturing of lead anode batteries.

§ 461.31  Effluent    limitations   rep-
    resenting the  degree of effluent re-
    duction attainable by the applica-
    tion  of the best practicable control
    technology   currently   available
    (BPT).
  (a)  Except  as  provided  in 40  CFR
125.30 through 125.32, any existing point
source subject  to  this subpart must
achieve  the  following effluent limita-
tions  representing the degree of efflu-
ent reduction attainable by  the  appli-
cation of the best practicable control
technology currently available:
  (1)  Subpart  C—Closed  Formation-
Double Fill, or Fill and Dump.

        BPT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
               Pollutant or pollutant property
                      Maximum
                      for any 1
                        day
                                           I
Maximum
for monthly
 average
                                   I Metric units—mg/kg of lead
                                   :       used
                                   English units—pounds per
                                     1.000.000   pounds  of
                                     lead used

Lead

Oil and grease 	
TSS
pH 	
085
0 19
054
	 ; 9.00 1
1845 !
	 (')i
045
0090
027
5.40
878
C)
                ' Within the range of 75 to 10.0 at all times.

                (2)  Subpart C—Open Formation—De-
              hydrated.
                                     444

-------
Environmental Protection Agency
        BPT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
                     §461.31
BPT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
Pollutant or pollutant property

Lead


TSS
pH 	
Maximum Maximum
for any 1 ' for monthly
day average
Metric units— moA9 °l !ead
used
' English units— pounds per
1.000.000 pounds of
lead used
20.99 11.05
4.64 2.21
16.13 6.74
221.00 132.60
453.05 215.47
C) C)
< Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times.
(3) Subpart C — Open Formation— Wet.
BPT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
Pollutant or pollutant property

lead , , .... 	 	


TSS
pH 	 	
Maximum Maximum
tor any 1 ! for monthly
day ; average
Metric units— trig/kg of lead
used
English units— pounds per
1,000,000 pounds ol
lead used
0.10 0.05
0.02 0.01
0.06 0.03
1.06 0.64
2.17 1.03
n n
1 Within tie range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times.
(4) Subpart C — Plate Soak.
BPT &FLUENT LIMITATIONS
Pollutant or pollutant property




TSS
pH 	
Maximum Maximum
for any 1 lor monthly
day average
Metric units— mg/kg of lead
used
English units— pounds per
1 ,000,000 pounds of
lead used
0.040 0.020
0.009 0.004
0.030 0.010
0.420 0.250
0.860 0.410
H (l)
< Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times.
(5) Subpart C— Battery Wash (with
Detergent) .
Pollutant or pollutant property
Copper
Lead 	
Iron 	
Oil and grease 	
TSS
pH 	
Maximum Maximum
for any 1 for monthly
day | average
Metric units — mg/kg of lead
used
English units— pounds per
1 ,000,000 pounds of
lead used
1.71 0.90
0.38 ! 0.18
1,08 0.55
18.00 10.80
36.90 17.55
C) (')
1 Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times.
(6) Subpart C— Battery Wash (Water
Only).
BPT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
Pollutant or pollutant property
Copper 	
Lead 	


TSS 	
pM 	
Maximum Maximum
for any 1 for monthly
day average
Metric units— mg/kg of lead
used
English units— pounds per
1,000,000 pounds of
lead used
1.12 ' 0.59
0.25 0.12
0.71 ! 0.36
11.80; 7.08
24.19 i 11.51
(
-------
§461.32
         BPT &FLUENT LIMITATIONS
                              40 CFR Ch. I (7-1-99 Edition)
                                                    BPT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
 Pollutant or pollutant property
Maximum
for any 1
  day
 Maximum
for monthly
 average
                                             Pollutant or pollutant property
                      • Metric units—mg/kg of lead
                               used
                       English units—pounds per
                      :   1.000,000  pounds  of
                         lead used
Maximum    Maximum
for any 1  ! lor monthly
  day      average
                                          Metric units—mg/kg of lead
                                                 used
                                          English  units—pounds per
                                           1,000.000  pounds  of
                                           lead used
Copper
Lead 	


TSS 	
DH 	
0011
0.002
0007
0 120
0246
(')
0006
0001
0004
0072
0 117
(1)

Lead


TSS 	
DH 	
0.81
0 18
051
854
1751
(')
043
009
026
5 12
833
(')
  ' within (he range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times.
  (9) Subpart C—Truck Wash.

         BPT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
• Maximum
Pollutant oc pollutant property lot any 1
day

Lead

Oil and grease 	
TSS 	
pH 	
Maximum
for monthly
average
Metric units — mg/kg of lead
in trucked batteries
English units — pounds per
1.000,000 pounds of
lead in trucked batteries
0.026
0.005
0.016
0.280
0.574
C)
0.014
0.002
0.008
0.168
0.273
I1)
  1 Within me range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times.
  (10)  Subpart C—Laundry.

         BPT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
Maximum
Pollutant or pollutant property ; tor any 1
day
Copper
Lead


TSS
pH 	
Maximum
for monthly
average
Metric units— mg/kg of lead
used
English units — pounds per
1,000.000 pounds of
lead used
0.21
0.05
0.13
2.18
4.47
(')
0.11
0.02
0.07
1.31
2.13
C)
  1 Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times.

  (11)  Subpart C—Miscellaneous Waste-
water Streams.
                     'Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times.
                     (b) There shall be no discharge allow-
                   ance for process wastewater pollutants
                   from any battery  manufacturing oper-
                   ation other than  those battery manu-
                   facturing operations listed above.
                   [49  FR 9134. Mar. 9.  1984; 49  FR  13879, Apr. 9.
                   19841

                   $461.32   Effluent   limitations    rep-
                       resenting  the degree  of  effluent re-
                       duction attainable  by the  applica-
                       tion  of  the best  available  tech-
                       nology   economically   achievable
                       (BAT).
                     (a) Except  as  provided   in   40  CFR
                   125.30 through 125.32, any existing point
                   source  subject  to this  subpart  must
                   achieve  the following  effluent limita-
                   tions representing the degree  of efflu-
                   ent reduction attainable by the appli-
                   cation of the  best  available technology
                   economically  achievable:
                     (1)  Subpart  C—Open  Formation—De-
                   hydrated.

                            BAT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
Pollutant or pollutant property


Lead


Maximum Maximum
for any 1 for monthly
day ! average
Metric units— mg/kg ol lead
used
English units — pounds per
1.000.000 pounds 01
lead used
319' 1 68
071 ; 034
2 02 ' 1 02

                                             (2) Subpart C—Open Formation—Wet.
                                        446

-------
Environmental Protection Agency

         BAT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
                                                     §461.32

                      (6) Subpart C—Mold Release Formu-
.. , , : Maximum lor
Pollutant or pollutant property ; ™ , '^ay monthly aver-
i ' 1 age
Metric units— mg/kg ol lead
used
English units — pounds per
1.000.000 pounds of lead
used
Copper . . 	 	 	 	 OlOOj 0053
Lead 0 02? • 0 01 0
Iron . . 0.06 0 03

(3) Subpart C— Plate Soak.
BAT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
Maximum Maximum
Pollutani or pollutant property for any 1 for monthly
| day . average
Metric units— mg/kg ol toad
used
English units— pounds per
1,000,000 pounds of
lead used
Copper 	 0.039 0021
Lead 	 • 0 008 0 004
Iron . 0030 0010


gent) .
BAT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
Maximum Maximum
Pollutant or Pollutant Property lor any 1 for monthly
Day average
Metric units— mg/kg of lead
used
English units— pounds per
1 .000,000 pounds of
lead used
Copper 	 1 71 0.90
Lead 	 038 018
Iron 	 1.08 0.55

(5) Subpart C— Direct Chill Lead
Casting.
BAT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
lation.
BAT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
; Maximum Maximum
Pollulart or pollutant property • for any 1 for monthly
: day average

Lead 	


Metric units — mg/kg of lead
used
English units — pounds per
1.000.000 pounds of
lead used
0.011 0.006
0.002 0.001
0.007 0.003
(7) Subpart C— Truck Wash.
BAT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
Pollutani or pollutant property

Lead 	


Maximum Maximum
lor any 1 tor monthly
day average
Metric units— mg/kg of lead
in trucked batteries
English units— pounds per
1.000.000 pounds of
lead in trucked batteries
0.026 . 0.014
0.005 0.002
0.016 0.008
(8) Subpart C — Laundry.
BAT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
Pollutant or pollutant property

Lead 	
Iron 	 	 	 	 	

Maximum Maximum
for any 1 for monthly
day average
Metric units— mg/kg of lead
used
English units— pounds per
1,000,000 pounds ol
lead used
0.21 0.11
0.05 0.02
0.13 0.07

Pollutant or pollutant property
                          1 day


                      (9) Subpart C—Miscellaneous  Waste-
                   water Streams.
                       Metric units—mgAg of lead
                     I         used
                      English  units—pounds  per
                     ,   1,000.000 pounds of  lead
                        used
Copper .
Lead	
Iron	
0.0004
0.00006
0.0002
0.0002
0.00004
0.0001
                                          447

-------
§461.33
40 CFR Ch. I (7-1-99 Edition)
BAT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
Maximum Maximum
Pollutant or pollutant property lor any 1 for monthly
day : average
. Metric units— mg/kg of lead
used
English units — pounds per
1 .000,000 pounds of
lead used
Copper 	 0-58 031
Lead 013 006
Iron 	 0.37 0.19

(b) There shall be no discharge allow-
ance for process wastewater pollutants
from any battery manufacturing oper-
ation other than those battery manu-
facturing operations listed above.
(49 FR 9134. Mar. 9. 1984: 49 FR 13879. Apr. 9.
1984. as amended at 51 FR 30816. Aug. 28. 1986)
$461.33 New source performance
standards (NSPS).
(a) The discharge of wastewater pol-
lutants from any new source subject to
this subpart shall not exceed the stand-
ards set forth below:
(1) Subpart C — Open Formation — De-
hydrated— NSPS.
Maximum ' Maximum
Pollutant or pollutant property , (or any 1 for monthly
day ; average
Metric units — mg/kg of lead
used
English units — pounds per
1,000.000 pounds Of
lead used
Copper .... 215 1 02
Lead 047 Q2i
Iron ... 2 01 1 02
Oil and grease 16 80 16 80

PH 	 ' n c)
1 Within the limits of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times.
(2) Subpart C— Open Formation—

i May m rn tnr ' Maximum for
Pollutant or pollutant property any i day ' mon|h|y aver"
• Metric units — mg/kg of lead
used
English units — pounds per
1.000.000 pounds of lead
used




TSS 	
pH

0.067 0.032
0.014 0.006
0.063 0.032
0.53 , 0.53
0.80 0.64
ri n
1 Within the limits of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times.
(3) Subpart C— Plate Soak— NSPS.
Pollutant or pollutant property ™
/Tdaf £**!£
Metric units — mg/kg of lead
, used
English units — pounds per
1.000,000 pounds of lead
used

Lead 	 .

Oil and grease 	
TSS
pH

0.026 j 0.012
0.005 0.002
0.025 i 0.012
0.21 0.21
0.32 0.25
C) '• (M
1 Within the limits of 7.5 to TO.O at all times.
(4) Subpart C— Battery Wash (Deter-
gent)— NSPS.
Pollutant or pollutant Property M^
_.,». (~. Maximum for
1 Day i mon™y ave"
age
Metric units — mg/kg of lead
used
English units — pounds per
: 1.000,000 pounds of lead
used
Copper 	 1.152 0.549
Lead 	
OH and grease 	
TSS
pH

. . .
0.252 0.117
1.08 0.55
9.0 9.0
135 , 10.8
(') C)

                                          'Within the limits of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times.
                                          (5)  Subpart  C—Direct  Chill  Lead
                                        Casting—NSPS.
                                     448

-------
Environmental  Protection  Agency
                                                                               §461.34
Pollutant or pollutant property j
                                                                      Maximum  >  Maximum
                                              Pollutant or pollutant property ;  tor any 1   for monthly
                                                                    i    day      average
                       Metric units—mg/kg of lead
                     :          used
                      English  units—pounds  per
                        1.000.000 pounds of  lead
                        used
                                                                    I Metric units—rng/kg of lead
                                                                    I        used
                                                                    i English  units—pounds per
                                                                    '  1.000.000  pounds  ol
                                                                      lead used

Lead 	


TSS
pH

0.000256
0.000056
0.000240
I 0.0020
{ 0.0030
! (')
O.OOOT22
0.000026
0.000122
0.0020
0.0024
O'l
'Witntn the limits of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times.
(6) Subpart C— Mold Release Formu-
lation— NSPS.
Pollutant or pollutant property
Maximum lor
! any 1 day
Maximum for
monthly aver-
age
Copper ... . . 0 14 i 0 07
Lead 	 0 03 i 0 01
Iron 013! 0 07
Oil and grease 1 09 1 1 09
TSS 	 1 64 ; 1 31
pH p) 1 (i)

'Within the limits of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times.
(9) Subpart C— Miscellaneous Waste-
water Streams— NSPS.
Ua . , Maximum lor
Pollutant or pdulant property "Jj? , .] fj ™ monthly aver-
                       Metric units—mg/kc. of lead
                     i          used

                     I English  units—pounds  per
                       1,000,000 pounds or  lead
                     :  used
                                                                    Metric units—mg/kg of lead
                                                                            used

                                                                   English  units—pounds  per
                                                                     1.000.000 pounds of  lead
                                                                     used

Lead :

Oil and grease 	 |
TSS I
PH 	 1
1 Within the limits ol 7.5 to 10.0 at
(7) Subpart C— Truck
0.0077 0.0037
0.0017 0.0008
0.0072 0.0037
0.060 0.060
0.090 0.072
all limes.
Wash-NSPS.

Lead
Iron 	

TSS
pH 	
0.39 0.19
0.085 . 0.039
0.37 0.19
3.07 3.07
4.61 3.69
(') I1)
' Within the limits ol 7.5 to 10.0 at all times.
(b) There shall be no discharge allow
^nrp fnr nrrwiar rwllnt-sint-«;
Pollutant or pollutant properly I
                     1 Metric units—mo/kg of lead in
                     j     trucked batteries

                     I English  units—pounds  per
                       1.000,000 pounds of  lead
                       in trucked Batteries

Lead


TSS 	
pH 	
0006
0.001
0006
0050
0.075
(')
0003
0.0007
0003
ooso
0.060
(')
 1 Within the limits of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times.

  (8) Subpart C— Laundry— NSPS.
                                             from any battery manufacturing oper-
                                             ation  other  than those battery manu-
                                             facturing operations listed above.

                                             [49 FR 9134, Mar. 9. 1984. as amended at 51 FR
                                             30816, Aug. 28. 1986]

                                             §461.34  Pretreatment   standards  for
                                                 existing sources (PSES).

                                               (a) Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7
                                             and 403.13, any  existing source subject
                                             to this subpart  that  introduces pollut-
                                             ants into  a publicly owned treatment
                                             works  must comply  with 40  CFR part:
                                             403  and   achieve  the  pretreatment
                                             standards  for  existing sources  listed
                                             below:
                                               (1) Subpart  C—Open  Formation—De-
                                             hydrated—PSES.
                                          449

-------
§461.34
         40 CFR Ch. I (7-1-99 Edition)
Pollutant or pollutant property

Lead

Maximum Maximum
lor any 1 ; for monthly
day average
Metric units — mg/kg of lead
used
English units — pounds per
1.000,000 pounds ol
lead used
3.19 1.66
0 71 ' 0.34
(2) Subpart C — Open Formation —
Wet— PSES.
Pollutant or pollutant property
Copper 	
Lead

Maximum Maximum
for any 1 for monthly
day average
Metric units — mg/kg of lead
used
English units— pounds per
1 .000.000 pounds of
lead used
0.100 O.OS3
0.022 0.010
(3) Subpart C— Plate Soak— PSES.
Pollutant or pollutant property

Lead 	

Maximum Maximum
For any 1 • for monthly
day average
Metric units — mg/kg of lead
used
English units — pounds per
1.000.000 pounds ol
lead used
0.039 I 0.021
0.008 j 0.004
(4) Subpart C— Battery Wash— (Deter-
gent)— PSES.
Pollutant or pollutant Property
Copper 	
Lead

Maximum Maximum
lor any 1 tor monthly
Day average
Metric units — mg/kg of lead
used
English units — pounds per
1,000.000 pounds o!
lead used
1.71 0.90
0.38 0.18
1 . . - . Maximum for
Pollutant or pollutant property | ^' , may ' monthly aver-
j i a9e
> Metric units — mg/kg of lead
used
English units — pounds per
: 1,000,000 pounds of lead
I used

Lead •

0.0004 0.0002
0.00008 0.00004
(6) Subpart C— Mold Release Formu-
lation— PSES.
Pollutant or pollutant property

Lead

Maximum j Maximum
for any 1 for monthly
day ' average
Metric units — rng/Vg of lead
used
English units— pounds per
1,000,000 pounds ol
lead used
0.011 i 0.006
0.002 i 0.001
(7) Subpart C— Truck Wash— PSES.
Pollutant or pollutant property

Lead

Maximum ' Maximum
for any 1 for monthly
day average
Metric units — mg/kg of lead
in trucked batteries
English units — pounds per
1 ,000,000 pounds of
lead in trucked Batteries
0.026 ' 0.014
0.005 ' 0.002
(8) Subpart C— Laundry— PSES.
Pollutant or pollutant property

Lead 	 	

Maximum Maximum
tor any 1 for monthly
day average
Metric units — mg/kg of lead
used
English units — pounds per
1.000.000 pounds ol
lead used
0.21 , 0.11
0.05 0.02

  (5)  Subpart   C—Direct  Chill  Lead
Casting—PSES.
water Streams—PSES.
                                  450

-------
Environmental Protection Agency
 Pollutant or pollutant property
Maximum
for any 1
  day
 Maximum
for monthly
 average
                      ! Metric units—mg/Vo of lead
                      •        used
                      i English units—pounds per
                        1.000.000   pounds  of
                      1  lead used

Lead

0.58 i
• 013 :
	 I i
0.31
006

                                                   §461.35
                                            Pollutant or pollutant property
                                                                I
Maximum
tor any 1
  day
 Maximum
(or monthly
 average
                                         : Metric units—mg/kg of lead
                                         '        used
                                         ' English units—pounds  per
                                         !  1.000,000   pounds  of
                                           lead used
                                           Copper 	
                                           Lead	
                                               2.15 i
                                               0.47 i
                                                1.02
                                                0.21
  (b) There shall be no discharge allow-
ance for process wastewater pollutants
from any battery  manufacturing oper-
ation other than those  battery  manu-
facturing operations listed above.
  (c)(l)  In  cases  where  battery  em-
ployee shower  wastewater  containing
concentrations  of lead  exceeding 0.20
mg/1   is   combined    with   process
wastewaters  prior  to  treatment, the
Control Authority may,  for purposes of
applying  the  Combined Wastestream
Formula under §403.6(e) of this chapter.
notwithstanding   the   provisions   of
§403.6(e),  exercise  its  discretion  and
classify   battery   employee   shower
wastewater as  an  unregulated  rather
than a dilute (Ft) wastestream.
  (2) Before the Control  Authority may
exercise  its discretion to classify such
a stream as an unregulated stream,  the
battery manufacturer must provide  en-
gineering,  production,   and   sampling
and analysis information  sufficient  to
allow a determination  by the Control
Authority on how the stream  should be
classified.
[49 FR 9134, Mar. 9. 1984. as  amended at 51 FR
30816. Aug. 28. 1986]

§461.35 Pretreatment  standards  for
    new sources {PSNS).
  (a) Except as provided in  §403.7, any
new source subject to this subpart that
introduces pollutants  into  a  publicly
owned  treatment  works must comply
with 40 CFR part 403 and  achieve  the
following pretreatment  standards  for
new sources:
  (1) Subpart  C—Open Formation—De-
hydrated—PSNS.
                     (2)   Subpart  C—Open   Formation—
                   Wet—PSNS.

                                         '  Maximum i  Maximum
                    Pollutant or pollutant property  I  tor any 1 |  for monthly
                                         !   day      average
                                         I
                                         I Metric units—mg/kg of lead
                                         >        used
                                         • English units—pounds  per
                                         I  1.000.000   pounds  of
                                           lead used
                   Copper
                   Lead ...
                                     0.067 '
                                     0.014
             0.032
             0.006
                     (3) Subpart C—Plate Soak—PSNS.
                    Pollutant or pollutant property
                                  Maximum   Maximum
                                  lor any 1 >  for monthly
                                   day      average
                                         i Metric units—mg/kg of lead
                                                 used
                                          English units—pounds per
                                         '  1,000.000   pounds  ol
                                         i  lead used
                   Copper .
                   Lead	
                                     0.026
                                     O.OOS '
             0.012
             0.002
                     (4) Subpart C—Battery Wash—(Deter-
                   gent)—PSNS.

                                           Maximum !  Maximum
                    Pollutant or pollutant Property  i  for any 1 I  for monthly
                                            Day   !   average

                                          Metric units—mg/kg of lead
                                                 used
                                          English units—pounds  per
                                           1.000.000   pounds  ot
                                           lead used
                   Copper 	
                   Lead	
                                     1.152
                                     0.252
                                                        0.549
                     (5)   Subpart  C—Direct  Chill  Lead
                   Casting—PSNS.
                                        451

-------
§461.40
40 CFR Ch. I  (7-1-99 Edition)
i Maximum ' Maximum
Pollutanl or pollutant property for any 1 tor monthly
i day average
Metric units — mg/kg ol lead
| used
I English units — pounds per
1.000.000 pounds of
lead used
Copper 0 000256 ' 0 000122
Lead 	 0.000056 i 0.000026
(6) Subpart C— Mold Release Formu-
lation— PSNS.
Pollutant or pollutant property . JjJJ,™^!? ' \ (or monthly
i average
Metric units — mg/kg of lead
used
i English units — pounds per
1.000.000 pounds of lead
used
Copper 	 0.007 00037
Lead 0 001 7 0 0006

(7) Subpart C— Truck Wash— PSNS.
Maximum I Maximum for
Pollutanl or pollutant property tor any 1 1 monthly aver-
day ! age
Metric units — mg/kg of lead
in trucked batteries
English units— pounds per
i 1.000.000 pounds of lead
in trucked battenes
Copper 	 ! 0.006 0.003
Lead 	 i 0.001 00007

(8) Subpart C— Laundry— PSNS.
I Maximum : Maximum
Pollutant or pollutant property I for any 1 for monthly
' day average
, Metric units — mg/kg of lead
used
: English units— pounds per
i 1,000.000 pounds of
lead used
Copper 	 014 007
Lead 	 : 0.03 0.01
(9) Subpart C— Miscellaneous Waste-
water Streams— PSNS.
Ma m m in • Maximum for
Pollutant or pollutant property f?. , "J. ° monthly aver-
any i oay age
. Metric units — mg/kg of lead
used
English units — pounds per
1.000.000 pounds of lead
used
Copper 	 0.39 0.19
Lead 	 r 0.085 0.039
(b) There shall be no discharge allow-
ance for process wastewater pollutants
from any battery manufacturing oper-
ations other than those battery manu-
facturing operations listed above.
US FR 9134. Mar. 9. 1984. as amended at 51 FR
30817. Aug. 28. 1986!
Subpart D — Leclanche
Subcategory
§ 461.40 Applicability; description of
the Leclanche subcategory.
This subpart applies to discharges to
waters of the United States, and intro-
ductions of pollutants into publicly
owned treatment works from manufac-
turing Leclanche type batteries (zinc
anode batteries with acid electrolyte).
Ǥ 461.41^61.42 [Reserved)
§ 46 1.43 New source performance
standards (NSPS).
(a) The discharge of wastewater pol-
lutants from any new source subject to
this subpart shall not exceed the stand-
ards set forth below:
(1) Subpart D— Foliar Battery Mis-
cellaneous Wash— NSPS.
Maximum fnr Maximum tor
Pollutant or pollutant property fr J T Ja ' monthly aver-
i age
Metric units — mg/kg of cells
produced
1 English units — pounds per
! 1.000.000 pounds of cells
I produced
Mercury 	 • 0.010 0004
Zinc 0 067 0 03O

Oil and grease 0 66 0 66
TSS 	 0.99 0.79
pH 	 (') (')
                                           ' Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times.

                                           (b) There shall be no  discharge allow-
                                         ance for process wastewater pollutants
                                      452

-------
 Environmental  Protection Agency

 from any battery manufacturing  oper-
 ation  other than those battery manu-
 facturing operations listed above.

 §461.44   Pretreatment   standards  for
    existing sources (PSES).
  (a) Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7
 and 403.13,  any existing source subject
 to  this subpart that  introduces pollut-
 ants into a publicly owned  treatment
 works must comply  with 40 CFR  part
 403   and   achieve    the   following
 pretreatment  standards  for existing
 sources listed below:
  (1)  Subpart  D—Foliar Battery  Mis-
 cellaneous Wash—PSES.
 Pollutant or pollutant properly
Maximum tor
 any 1 day
 Maximum
for monthly
 average
                    i Metric units—mg/kg of cells
                           produced
                    ' English units—pounds  oer
                    1   1.000.000 pounds ol cells
                       produced
Mercu'y	
Zinc	
Manganese .
     0.010
     0.067
     0.019
    0.004
    0.030
    0.015
  (b) There shall be no discharge allow-
ance for process wastewater pollutants
from  any  battery  manufacturing oper-
ation  other than  those battery manu-
facturing operations listed above.

[49 FR 9134. Mar. 9.  1984; 49 FR 27946. July 9.
1984,

§461.45  Pretreatment  standards  for
    new sources (PSNS).
  (a)  Except  as provided in §403.7  any
new source subject to this subpart that
introduces  pollutants  into  a publicly
owned  treatment  works  must comply
with 40 CFR part  403  and achieve the
following  pretreatment standards  for
new sources listed below.
  (1)  Subpart D—Foliar  Battery  Mis-
cellaneous Wash—PSNS

                       Maximum  '  Maximum
 Pollutant or pollutant property ::  for any 1  j tor monthly
	j   day   i  arerase

                     !   Metric units—mg/kg ol
                     i     cells produced
                      English units—pounds per
                        1.000.000  pounds   ot
                       cells produced
Mercury	
2in=	
Manganese .
     0.010 :
     0.067 |
     0.019 i
    0.004
    0.030
    0.015
                                                   §461.53

                      (b) There shall be no discharge allow-
                    ance for process wastewater pollutants
                    from  any battery  manufacturing  oper-
                    ation other than those battery manu-
                    facturing operations listed above.

                      Subpart E—Lithium Subcategory

                    §461.50  Applicability;  description  of
                        the lithium Subcategory.
                      This subpart applies to discharges to
                    waters of the  United States and intro-
                    duction  of  pollutants  into  publicly
                    owned treatment works from the  man-
                    ufacturing of lithium anode batteries.
                                          $§461.51-461.52  [Reserved]
                                          $461.53  New    source
                                             standards (NSPS).
                                               performance
  (a)  The discharge of wastewater pol-
lutants from any new source subject to
this subpart shall not exceed the stand-
ards set forth below:
  (1)  Subpart  E—Lead  Iodide  Cath-
odes—NSPS.
Pollutant or pollutant property

Lead 	

TSS 	
pH 	
!
any 1 day i
Maximum
for monthly
average
Metric units — mg/fcg of lead
English units— pounds per
1.000.000 pounds of lead
23.34 |
17.66 i
75.70
946.2 1
0 1
9.46
8.20
38.48
756.96
(')
                     1 Within the range ol 7.5-10.0 al all times.

                      (2)  Subpart  E—Iron  Disulfide Cath-
                    odes—NSPS.
                    Pollutant or pollutant property '
                              Maximum for
                               any 1 day
                                                 ; Maximum for
                                       [  Metric units—mg/kg of Iron
                                       I        dtsulftde

                                       I English units—pounds  per
                                       i  1.000,000 pounds of Iron
                                       :  disulfide

Lead

TSS
pH 	
' r
	 i 2.79 i
211 '
! 905 '
I 113 1 I
<'' ,
1.13
09S
460
905
(')
 'Within the range o< 7.5-10.0 at al! times.

  (3) Subpart E—Miscellaneous  Waste-
water  Streams—NSPS.
                                      453

-------
§461.54
                            40 CFR Ch.  I (7-1-99 Edition)
j
Pollutant or pollutant property j
•

Lead 	
Iron 	 !
TSS 	
pH 	
--C^-
Metric units — mg/kg of cells
produced
English units— pounds per
1.000.000 pounds of cells
produced
0.039 ' 0-016
0.030 ; 0.014
0.129 i 0.066
1.62 1.30
(') I (')
' Within the range of 7,5-10,0 at all times.
(4) Subpart E— Air Scrubbers— NSPS.
Pollutant or pollutant property
TSS
pH
1 Within the ranoe of 7.5-10.0
Maximum Maximum
for any 1 ! for monthty
day average
Metric units — mgftg of
cells produced
English units — pounds per
1.000.000 pounds of
cells produced
434.0 : 207.0
nl o
at all times.
(2) Subpart E— Iron Disulfide Cath-
odes— PSNS.
Pollutant or pollutant property

Lead 	
Maximum Maximum
for any 1 for monthly
day average
Metric units— mg/kg of iron
disutfide
English units— pounds per
1 .000,000 pounds of iron
disulfide
2.79 ' 1.13
2.11 0.98
(3) Subpart E— Miscellaneous Waste-
water Streams— PSNS.
• Maximum ' Maximum
Pollutant or pollutant property for any 1 tor monthly
i day | average
Chromium 	
Lead

Metric units — mgAg of
cells produced
English units— pounds per
1.000.000 pounds of
cells produced
0.039 I 0016
0030 ; 0 014

  (b) There shall be no discharge allow-
ance for process wastewater pollutants
from any battery manufacturing oper-
ation other than those  battery  manu-
facturing operations listed above.

§461.54  [Reserved]

§ 461.55  Pretreatment  standards  for
    new sources (PSNS).

  (a) Except  as provided in §403.7 any
new source subject to this subpart that
introduces pollutants into a  publicly
owned  treatment works  must comply
with 40  CFR part  403 and achieve the
following pretreatment  standards  for
new sources listed below:
  (1)  Subpart   E—Lead   Iodide  Cath-
odes—PSNS.
                    (b) There shall be no discharge allow-
                  ance for process wastewater pollutants
                  from any battery  manufacturing oper-
                  ation other than  those  battery manu-
                  facturing operations listed above.

                        Subpart  F—Magnesium
                             Subcategory

                  §461.60  Applicability;  description  of
                     the magnesium subcategory.
                    This subpart applies to discharges to
                  waters of the United States and intro-
                  duction  of  pollutants  into  publicly
                  owned  treatment works  from the man-
                  ufacturing of  magnesium  anode  bat-
                  teries.
                                        §S 461.61-161.62  [Reserved]
 Pollutant or pollutant property
Maximum  '  Maximum
for any 1   for monthly
  day     average
     §461.63  New   source
         standards (NSPS).
                                                                 performance
                    I Metric units—mg/kg of lead

                    } English units—pounds per
                    ! 1.000,000 pounds of lead
Chromium ...
Lead	
   23.34
   17.66 .
9.46
8.20
  (a) The discharge of wastewater pol-
lutants from any new source subject to
this subpart shall not exceed the stand-
ards set forth below:
  (1) Subpart F—Silver Chloride Cath-
odes—Chemically Reduced—NSPS.
                                     454

-------
Environmental Protection Agency
§461.64
Mav'mntn Inr Maximum for
Pollutant 3r pollutant property f~" , J fJJJr monthly aver-
ary oay age
Metric units — mg/kg of silver
processed
English units — pounas per
1,000,000 pounds of silver
processed

Silver 	
Iron 	
TSS 	
COD 	 j

pH 	 i
'Within the range ol 7.5-10.0
odes — Electrolytic — N
Pollutant or pollutant property
Lead 	
Silver

TSS 	
COD
pH 	
22.93 10.65
23.75 9.83
9626 49.96
1,228.5 982.8
4,095.0 1.999.0
at all times.
rer Chloride Cath-
ISPS.
Maximum : Maximum
for any 1 | for monthly
day | average
Metric units— mo/kg ol
silver processed
English units — pounds per
1,000.000 pounds of sil-
ver processed
40.6 16.9
42.1 17.4
174.0 86.5
2,175.0 1,740.0
7,250.0 3.540.0
"Within the range of 7.5-10.0 at all times.
(3) Subpart F— Cell Testing— NSPS.
Pollutant or pollutant property
Lead
Silver 	

TSS 	
COD 	
pH 	
Maximum Maximum
for any 1 for monthly
day j average
Metric units— mg/kg of
cells produced
English units — pounds per
1 ,000.000 pounds of
cells produced
19.5 i 7.89
15.3 : 6.31
63.1 . 32.1
789.0 631.2
2.630.0 I 1.290.0
< Within the range ol 7.5-10.0 at all times.
(4J Subpart F — Floor and Equipment
Wash— NSPS.
Pollutant or pollutant property
Maximum for I Maxirnum for
age
Metric units— mg/kg of cells
produced
: English units — pounds per
1,000,000 pounds o1 cells
produced
Leao 	
Silver


TSS

.- i
0.026 0.012
0.027 ! 0.01 1
0.112! 0.057
4.70 ; 2.30
1.41 ' 1.13
1 Within the range of 7.5-10.0 at all times.
(5) Subpart F— Air Scrubber— NSPS.
Pollutant or pollutant property
TSS 	
pH
Maximum Maximum
tor any 1 for monthly
day average
Metric units— mg/kg of
cells produced
English units — pounds per
1,000.000 pounds of
cells produced
8.467.0 4,030.0
'Within the range of 7.5-10.0 at all times.
(b) There shall be no discharge allow-
ance for process wastewater pollutants
from any battery manufacturing oper-
ation other than those battery manu-
facturing operations listed above.
(49 FR 9134. Mar. 9. 1984; 49 FR 13879, Apr. 9.
1984]
$461.64 Pretreatraent standards for
existing sources (PSES).
(a) Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7
and 403.13, any existing source subject
to this subpart that introduces pollut-
ants into a publicly owned treatment
works must comply with 40 CFR part
403 and achieve the following
pretreatmenc standards for existing
sources listed below:
(1) Subpart F— Silver Chloride Cath-
odes—Chemically Reduced— PSES.
Pollutant or pollutanl property
Lead 	
Silve' 	
! Maximum Maximum
i for any 1 lor monthly
day average
Metric units — mg/kg of
silver processed
English units — pounds per
1,000.000 pounds of sil-
ver processed
1.032.36 491.60
1.007.78 417.86
                                455

-------
§461.65
          40 CFR Ch. I (7-1-99 Edition)
(2) Subpart F— Silver Chloride Cath-
odes— Electrolytic— PSES.
Pollutant or pollutant property
Lead


Maximum ' Maximum
lor any 1 (or monthly
day • average
Metric units — trig/kg ol
silver processed
English units— pounds per
1,000,000 pounds of sil-
ver processed
60.9 | 29.0
S9.4 , 24.7
(3) Subpart F— Cell Testing— PSES.
Pollutant or pollutant property

Silver 	

Maximum , Maximum
lor any 1 | tor monthly
day | average
Metric units— mg/kg of
cells produced
English units — pounds per
1.000,000 pounds of
cells produced
22.1 ! 10.5
21.6 | 89
(4) Subpart F — Floor and Equipment
Wash— PSES.
' Maximum Maximum
Pollutant or pollutant property for any 1 for monthly
day i average
Lead 	
Silver .

Metric units — mg/kg ol
cells produced
English units — pounds per
1,000,000 pounds of
cells produced
0.039 ' 0.018
0.038 ' 0.015
(b) There shall be no discharge allow-
ance for process wastewater pollutants
from any battery manufacturing oper-
ation other than those battery manu-
facturing operations listed above.
jj 461.65 Pretreatment standards for
new sources (PSNS).
(a) Except as provided in §403.7 any
new source subject to this subpart that
Max
Pollutant or pollutant property for
c
imum Maximum
any 1 for monthly
ay average
: Metric units— mg/kg of
silver processed
! English units — pounds per
i 1.000,000 pounds ol sil-
! ver processed
Lead 	
Silver 	

22.93 1 10.65
23.75 9.83
(2) Subpart F— Silver Chloride Cath-
odes—Electrolytic PSNS.
! Maximum Maximum
Pollutant or pollutant property I for any 1 for monthly
1 day ! average
f
Me
Engli:
l.CH
ver
Lead .. '


trie units — mg/kg of
silver processed
,h units— pounds per
00,000 pounds of sil-
processed
40.6 18.9
42.1 ! 17.4
(3) Subpart F— Cell Testing— PSNS.
Max
Pollutant or pollutant property lor
; C
mum Maximum
any 1 tor monthly
ay average
Metric units— mg/kg of
cells produced
' English units — pounds per
; 1,000,000 pounds ol
cells produced
Lead
Silver 	


Wash— PSNS.
19.5 ' 7.89
15.3 | 6.31
nd Equipment
| Maximum ; Maximum
Pollutant or pollutant property i for any 1 ; for monthly
day , average
Metric units' — mg/kg of
celts produced
English units — pounds per
' 1.000,000 pounds ol
cells produced

Silver :

0.026 0.012
0.027 0.01 1
                           a
owned treatment works must  comply
with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the
following  pretreatment  standards  for
new sources listed below:
  (1) Subpart F—Silver Chloride Cath-
odes—Chemically Reduced—PSNS.
  (b) There shall be no discharge allow-
ance for process wastewater pollutants
from any  batten,' manufacturing  oper-
ation other than those  battery manu-
facturing operations listed above.
                                   456

-------
Environmental Protection Agency
                                §461.71
   Subpart G—Zinc Subcategory

§461.70  Applicability;  description   of
    the zinc subcategory.
  This subpart applies  to discharges to
waters of the United States, and intro-
ductions  of pollutants  into  publicly
owned treatment works from the man-
ufacturing of zinc anode batteries.

§461.71  Effluent    limitations   rep-
    resenting the degree  of effluent re-
    duction  attainable  by  the applica-
    tion of the  best practicable control
    technology    currently    available
    (BPT).
  (a)  Except as provided  in 40  CFR
125.30 through 125.32, any existing point
source  subject  to  this  subpart must
achieve  the  following  effluent limita-
tions representing  the degree of efflu-
ent, reduction attainable  by the  appli-
cation  of the best  practicable control
technology currently available:
  (1)  Subpart   G—Wet  Amalgamated
Powder Anodes.

         BPT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
         BPT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
Pollutant or pollutant property

I Maximum for
any 1 day
Maximum tor
monthfy aver*
age
Metric units — mg/Xg of Zinc
                      English units—pounds per
                      1.000,000 pounds of Zinc


Silver 	
Zinc 	

Oil and grease
TSS
PH 	
.... i 1.67 1
' 095 '
	 ] 1.56 i
i 5.55 i
i 2 SB ,
	 | 76.0 |
1558 '
(i)
0.68
038
0.65
2.32
1 10
45.6
74 1
(')
 ' Within the range of 7.5—10.0 al all times.

  (2)  Subpart  G—Gelled  Amalgam An-
odes.
 Pollutant or pollutant property
Maximum for
 any 1 day
Maximum
tor monthly
 average
                    I  Metric units—mg/kg of Zinc
                      English units—pounds per
                      1.000,000 pounds of Zinc


Silver
Zinc 	


TSS
DH 	
030
0.17
0.28
0.99
046
136
27 9
in
0 12
0.07
0.12
042
020
8 16
1326
('»
 'Within the range of 7.5—10.0 at all Mines.
  (3)  Subpart  G—Zinc  Oxide. Formed
Anodes.

         BPT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
Pollutant or pollutant property
Chromium .. 	
Mercury .. 	 	
Silver 	
Zinc 	


TSS 	
pH . . 	 	 	

Maximum Maximum
for any 1 tor monthly
day average
Metric units— mg/kg of Zinc
English units — pounds per
1 .000.000 pounds of Zinc
62.9 25.7
35.8 14.S
Sfi.7 24.3
208.8 87.2
97.2 41.5
2.860.0 i 1,716.0
5,863.0 2,789.0
(') O
< Within the range of 7.5-10.0 a* all times.
(4) Subpart G— Electrodeposited An-
odes.
BPT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
Pollutant or pollutant property

Maximum j Maximum
for any 1 I for monthly
day j average

                            deposited
                      English  units—pounds  per
                       1,000,000 pounds of zinc
                       deposited
Criromiu
Mercury
Silver ..
Zinc
Mangan
Oil and
TSS ..
pH 	
m 	







1. 404.0 i
798.0 i
1.308.0 I
4.657.0
2.169.0
63.800.0 '
130.700.0
{')
S74.0
319.0
543.0
1,946.0
625.0
38.280.0
62.210.0
n
                                           1 Within the range of 7.5-10.0 at all times.

                                            (5)    Subpart    G—Silver   Powder,
                                          Formed Cathodes.
                                       457

-------
§461.71
                                     40 CFR Ch. I  (7-1-99 Edition)
         BPT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
Pollutant or pollutant property



Silver 	

Manganese . 	

TSS 	
pH 	
Maximum Maximum
tor any 1 for monthly
day average
Metric units— mg/kg of
silver applied
English units — pounds per
1.000.000 pounds of sil-
ver applied
86.2 ! 35.3
490' 19.6
80 4 33.3
266.2 119.6
133.3 56.8
3 920 0 2 350 0
8 036 0 3 622 0
o : o
                            (8)  Subpart  G—Nickel  Impregnated
                          Cathodes.

                                   BPT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
                                                 Pollutant or pollutant property
                                                   Maximum  i  Maximum
                                                   for any 1   for monthly
                                                     day      average
                                                                          Metric unite— mg/kg of
                                                                             nickel applied
  1 Within the range of 7.5-10.0 at all limes.

  (6) Subpart G—Silver Oxide  Powder,
Formed  Cathodes.

          BPT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS


Nickel
Silver
Zinc ...


TSS
pH 	
English units— pounds per
1.000.000 pounds of
nickel applied
721.6
410.0
3.149.0
672.4
2.394.4
1.115.2
32.800.0
67.240.0
n
295.2
164.0
2.083.0
279.0
1 .000.4
475.6
19,680.0
31,980.0
 Pollutant or pollutant property
    Maximum
    for any 1
      day
 Maximum
for monthly
 average
                        I   Metric units—moAg of
                        1      silver applied
  'Within the range ol 7.5-10.0 a1 all limes.

  (9) Subpart G—Miscellaneous Waste-
water Streams.

          BPT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
English
1.000
ver ap


Silver 	
Zinc . . 1

Oil and grease 	 i 2.6
TSS 53
pH 	
units — pounds per
000 pounds ol sil- Pollutant or pollutant property
plied
57.7 23.6
32.8 13.1
53.7 22.3
91.3 79.9
39.1 38.0
20.0 1,570.0
70.0 2.554.0
,n /,) Chromium 	
' Within the range of 7.5-10.0 at all limes. Mercurv
(7) Subpart G— Silver Pe
odes.
BPT EFFLUENT LIMITAT
Pollutant or pollutant property j |£y™'Jja

roxide Cath- ™ 	
Silver 	
Zinc . 	

ONS Oil and grease


Maximum | Maximum
for any 1 j for monthly
day | average
Metric units — mg/kg of
cells produced
English units— pounds per
1.000.000 pounds ol
cells produced
3.85 1.58
2.54 1.05
2.19 0.88
16.82 11.12
3.59 1.49
12.79 '. 5.34
5.96 ': 2.54
175.20: 105.12
359.16 ' 170.82
V i aoe " '
i a 'Within the range ol 7.5-10.0 a! all times
  Metric units—mg/kg of silver
         applied
, English  units—pounds  per
   1.000.000 pounds of silver
!   applied
                                                  (10J Subpart G— Silver Etch.

Mercury
Silver
Zinc
Manganese .

TSS
pH

• 138
7.85
129
458
21.4
6280
1 2870
{')

565
3.14
534
192
9 11
3770
6120
(1)

 1 Within Ihe range of 7.5-10.0 at all limes.
                                            458

-------
Environmental Protection Agency
                                §461.72
         BPT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
Pollutant or pollutant property
Maximum
for any 1
day
Maximum tor
monthly aver-
age


Silver . .
Zinc 	

Oil and grease 	 	 ..... 	
TSS
DH 	
21.6
12.3
202
71 7
334
982.0
20131
(')
8.84
4.91
8.35
30.0
14 3
589.2
957 5
I')
                      Metric umts—mg/kg ol silver
                            processed
                      English  units—pounds per
                       1,000.000 pounds of silver
                       processed
  'Within the range ol 7.5-10.0 at all times.
  (11) Subpart G—Silver Peroxide Pro-
duction.

         BPT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
Pollutant or pollutant property
Maximum
tor any 1
day
Maximum for
monthly aver-
age
                     ! Metric units—mgflsg o) silver
                     •    peroxide processed
                      English  units—pounds per
                       1.000.000 oounds of silver
                     1  peroxide processed



Zinc 	
Manganese 	
Oil and grease 	
TSS 	 	
pH 	
1 230
i 13 1
21 4
! 762
	 35.5
	 1.044.0
	 21400
(')
940
522
888
31 80
15.10
627.00
1.018.00
Ci
  'Within the range of 7.5-10.0 at all times
  (12)  Subpart G—Silver Powder Pro-
duction.

         BPT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
  (b) There shall be no discharge allow-
ance for process wastewater pollutants
from  any  battery manufacturing oper-
ation other than those battery manu-
facturing operations listed above.
[49 FR  9134,  Mar.  9. 1984. 49 FR 13879. Apr. 9.
1984]

8 461.72  Effluent    limitations    rep-
    resenting the degree of effluent re-
    duction  attainable  by  the applica-
    tion of the best  available tech-
    nology   economically    achievable
    (BAT).
  (a)  Except  as provided  in  40  CFR
125.30 through 125.32, any existing point
source  subject  to  this  subpart must
achieve the following  effluent  limita-
tions representing  the degree of efflu-
ent reduction attainable  by the appli-
cation of the best available  technology
economically achievable:
  (1)  Subpart   G—Wet  Amalgamated
Powder Anodes.

        BAT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
Pollutant or pollutant property

Mercury

2inc
Manganese 	 	 	

Maximum • Maximum tor
for any 1 • monthly aver-
day age
Metric units — mgAg of Zinc
English units — pounds per
1 ,000,000 pounds ol Zinc
0.24
0.14
0.23
0.80
0.37
0.099
C.OS5
0.093
0.34
0.16
  (2)  Subpart  G—Gelled  Amalgam An-
odes.
Pollutant or pollutant property M™™^*'
Maximum for
monthly aver-
age
Metric units— mg/kg of silver
j powder processed
English units — pounds per
1.000,000 pounds of silver
powder processed

Mercury 	 5.30
Silver 	 i 8.69
Zinc 	 : 30.95
Manganese 	 , 14.42
Oil and grease 	 i 424.0
TSS 	 ' 869.0
pH 	 , (')
3.82
2.12
3.61
12.93
6.15
254.40
413.40
('}
BAT EFFLUENT
PoElutant or pollutant property



Zinc


LIMITATIONS
, Maximum Maximum
i for any 1 for monthly
' day ; average
i Metric units — mg/kg of Zinc
: English units— pounds per
i 1 .000.000 pounds of Zinc
' 0.030 0.012
1 0.017 0.007
0.028 0.012
| 0.099 0.042
0.046 0.020
(3) Subpart G— Zinc Oxide Formed
  1 Within the range of 7.5-10.0 at alt times.
                                           Anodes.
                                        459

-------
§461.72
        BAT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
  40 CFR Ch. I (7-1-99 Edition)
BAT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
Pollutant or pollutant properly






" 	 '
(4) Subpart G Ele
Maximum i Maximum
for any 1 I tor monthly
day | average
Metric units — rng/kg of Zinc
English units— pounds per
1.000.000 pounds of Zinc
9 53 3.90

8 89 3 68
31 64 ' 1 3 22


ctrodeposited An-
Pollutant or pollutant property



Chromium 	
Mercury 	
Silver 	

Manganese 	
Maximum ! Maximum
tor any 1 i lor monthly
day ' average
Metric units — rng/kg of
silver applied
English units— pounds per
1.000.000 pounds ot sil-
ver applied

8.73 3.5?
4.96 1.99
8.14 3.37

13.50 , 5.76
odes.
        BAT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
                                          (7) Subpart G—Silver Peroxide Cath-
                                        odes.
Pollutant or pollutant properly



Zinc

g •- •
Maximum • Maximum
tor any 1 ] tor monthly
day i average
Metric units— mg/kg ol zinc
deposited
English units — pounds per
1 .000,000 pounds of zinc
deposited
94.47 | 38.65
53.68 I 21.47
88.03 i 36.50
313.46 I 130.97
146.00 1 62.26
(5) Subpart G— Silver Powder Formed
BAT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
Pollutant or pollutant property
Chromium 	
Mercury 	
Silver 	

Manganese 	
Maximum i Maximum
for any 1 • lor monthly
day : average
Metric units — mgfljg of
silver applied
English units— pounds per
1,000,000 pounds of sil-
ver applied
2.09 0.87
1.19 0.46
1.95 , 0.81
6.9S ; 2.90
3.24 ' 1.38
Cathodes.
        BAT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
                                          (8)  Subpart  G—Nickel  Impregnated
                                        Cathodes.
Pollutant or pollutant property
Chromium 	

Silver
Zinc

* :
Maximum Maximum
for any 1 for monthly
day average
Metric units — mg/kg ol
stiver applied
English units — pounds per
1.000.000 pounds of sil-
ver applied
13.07 5.35
7.43 2.97
12.18 5.05
43.36 1812
20.20 8.61
(6) Subpart G— Silver Oxide Powder
Formed Cathodes.
BAT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
Pollutant or pollutant property
Chromium 	
Mercury 	
Nickel 	

Zinc 	 	


Maximum • Maximum
for any i ' lor monthly
day . average
Metric units — mg/kg o)
nickel applied
English units—pounds per
1.000.000 pounds of
nickel applied
88.0 : 36.0
50.0 | 20.0
384.0 ! 254.0
82.0 I 34.0
292.0 122.0
136.0 58.0
                                          (9) Subpart G—Miscellaneous Waste-
                                        water Streams.
                                     460

-------
 Environmental Protection Agency

          BAT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
                                                                                §461.73
                                                       BAT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
Pollutant or pollutant property
Maximum
for any i
  day
                                    Maximum
                                    for monthly
                                     average
                                              Pollutant or pollutant property
                               Maximum
                                lor any 1
                                  day
                                    Maximum
                                   tor monthly
                                    average
                           Metric units—mgJtg of
                        ,     cells produced
                        . English units—pounds  per
                        ,   1.000.000   pounds  or
                        '   cells produced
                                                                       Metric units—mg/kg of
                                                                       silver powder produced

                                                                     English units—pounds per
                                                                       1,000,000 pounds ot sil-
                                                                       ver powder produced
Chromium 	 . 	

Me'cury
Nickel


Manganese , 	 	

0.57 1
0.36 ;
0.32 '
2.48 '
O.S3
1.88
0.88
023
0.16
0.13
1.64
0-22
0.79
0.37


Silver
Zinc


(b) There
i
i
	 I
i



shall be no
1.41
0.80
1.32
469
2.18
0.58
0.32
0.55
1.96
0.93
discharge allow
  (10) Subpart G—Silver Etch.

          BAT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS
 Pollutant or pollutant property
                        Maximum   Maximum
                        for any 1  . for monthly
                          day      average
                        \  Metric units—mgfkg of
                        1    silver processed

                         English units—pounds per
                          1.000.000 pounds of sil-
                          ver processed
Chromium ...
Mercury	
Silver	
Zinc	
Manganese .
                             3.27'
                             1 B6
                             3.05
                            10.86
                             5.06 '
1.34
0.74
1.26
4.54
2.16
  (11) Subpart G—Silver  Peroxide Pro-
duction.

         BAT EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS

                        i  Maximum    Maximum
 Pollutant or pollutant property  i  for any 1  ' for monthly
                        |   Hay    :  average

                        1  Metric units—mg/kg of
                        I  silver peroxide produced
                        j English  units—pounds per
                        !  1,000,000 pounds ot sil-
                        i  ver peroxide produced



Zinc


348
1 98
324
11 55
538

1 42
0.79
1 34
4.83
2.29

  (12)  Subpart  G—Silver  Powder Pro-
duction.
      ance for process wastewater pollutants
      from any  battery manufacturing  oper-
      ation other than  those  battery manu-
      facturing operations listed above.

      [49 FR 9134. Mar. 9.  1984:  49 FR  13879,  Apr.  9.
      1984]
                                             §461.73  New     source
                                                 standards. (NSPS).
                                    performance
  (a) The discharge of wastewater pol-
lutants from any new source subject to
this subpart shall not exceed the stand-
ards set forth below:
  (1)  Subpart  G—Zinc   Oxide  Formed
Anodes—NSPS.
                                               Pollutant or pollutant property
Chromium 	


Zinc


TSS

Metric units — mg/kg of zinc
Engftsh units — pounds per
1.000,000 pounds of zinc
4.55
2.82
4.55
0.87
6.50
216.7
325.0
n
1.97
1.19
1.97
0.39
4.98
216.7
260.0
                                                'Within the limits of 7.5-10.0 at all times.

                                                 (2)  Subpart  G—Electrodeposited An-
                                               odes—NSPS.
                                           461

-------
§461.73
            40 CFR Ch. I (7-1-99 Edition)
Pollutant or pollutant property

Chromium
M






pH 	
Maximum > Maximum
for any 1 ! for monthly
day ; average
Metric units— mg/kg ol zinc
deposited
English units— pounds per
1 .000,000 pounds of zinc
deposited








(') I (')
Pollutant or pollutant property

Chromium 	 	 	 	
Mercury 	
Silver 	
Zinc 	
Manganese 	
Oil and grease 	
TSS

pH 	 ;
^*H«~
Metric units — mg/kg oJ silver
applied
English units— pounds per
1 ,000.000 pounds of silver
applied
1 00 0 43
0.62 0.26
1 .00 0.43
0.19 0.09
1.43 1.09
47.6 47.6
71 4 57 1

(') O
  'Within the limits of 7.5-10.0 at alt times.

  (3) Subpart G—Silver Powder Formed
Cathodes—NSPS.
Pollutant or pollutant property
I
Maximum i Maximum
for any 1 i lor monthly
day average
Metric units — mg/kg ot
silver applied
                         I English units—pounds per
                         |  1.000.000 pounds of Sri-
                         •  ver applied
   (6)  Subpart  G—Nickel   Impregnated
Cathodes—NSPS.

                          Maximum i  Maximum for
 Pollutant or pollutant property    for any 1  ,  monthly aver-
                            day    :     age

                           Metric units—mg/kg of
                        :      nickel applied
                        ; English units—pounds per
                          1.000.000 pounds ot nick-
                          el applied
Chromium
Mercury
Silver
Zinc
Manganese
Oil and grease
TSS
pH

6.24 '
! 386
	 : 624 '
• 1 19 '
891
	 : 297 00
4455
(') '•

2 70
1 63
2.70
053
683
297.00

(')

Chromium
MfirCu ry
Nickel
Silver
Zinc
Manga.n esc
Oil 3nd Gr£3S€
TSS
PH 	
420
260
420
42 0
80
60 0
20000
3 0000
o
182
110
182
182
36
46 0
20000
2 400 00
(')
  'Within the limits of 7.5-10.0 at all times.

  (4)  Subpart G—Silver  Oxide  Powder
Formed Cathodes—NSPS.
  ' Within the limits of 7.5-10.0 at all times.

   (7) Subpart  G—Miscellaneous Waste-
water  Streams—NSPS.
Pollutant or pollutant properly
                                                 Pollutant or pollutant property !
                        Maximum for
                         any 1 day
1 Maximum for
 monthly aver-
:     age
                        Metric units—mg/kg of silver
                                applied
                        English  units—pounds  per
                         1.000,000 pounds of silver
                         applied
                       '  Metric units—mg/kg of cells
                       j        produced
                       ! English  units—pounds  per
                         1.000.000 sounds of  cells
                       ;  produced
•
°m 	 ;
Sitver



TSS 	 i
pH 	 |
4.17 ! 1.81
2.58 i 1 .09
4.17 ! 1.81
0.79 1 0.36
S.96 ! 4.57
198.5 j 198.5
297.8 ; 238.2
(') (')
1 Within the limits of 7.5-10.0 at all limes.
(5) Subpart G— Silver Peroxide Cath-
odes— NSPS.
Chromium 	
Cyanide 	
Mercury 	
NickeJ 	
Silver 	
Zinc 	


TSS
pH

0.27 0.12
j 0.039 0.016
i 0.17 . 0.07
j 0.27 ' 0.12
! 0.27 0.12
0.05 : 0.02
0.39 : 0.30
12.90 12.90
19.35 15.48
• ("i (')
1 Within the limits ol 7.5-10.0 at all times.
(8) Subpart G— Silver Etch— NSPS.
                                             462

-------
Environmental Protection Agency
                             §441.74
| Maximum i Maximum
Pollutant or pollutant property i lor any 1 ; lor monthly
day i average
1 Metric units — mg/kg of
silver processed
English units — pounds per
1,000,000 pounds of sil-
ver processed
Chromium . .. 	 . 1 56 0.66
Me-cury 	 097 041
Silver 	 1.56 0.68
Zirc 	 0.30 0.13
Manganese 	 2.23 1.71
Oil and grease 	 74 40 • 74.40
TSS ' 1 1 1 60 • 89.28
pH 	 ; (') | (')
' Within the limits of 7.5-10.0 at all times.
(9) Subpart G— Silver Peroxide Pro-
duction— NSPS.
Maximum Maximum
Pollutant or pollutant property for any 1 ' for monthly
i day ; average
Metric units— mg/kg of
i silver peroxide produced
English units — pounds per
1.000.000 pounds ol sil-
i ver peroxide produced


Silver 1 66 0 72
Zinc 0 32 014
Manganese 	 2.37 1.82
Oil and grease 	 79.10 1 79.1C
TSS 	 ' 118.65' 94.92
PH 	 i (')  Maximum Maximum
Pollutant or pollutant property for any 1 hr monthly
; day average
Metric units — rrg/Kg of zinc
English units— pounds per
| 1.000.000 pounds ol zinc
Chromium 	 9.53 3.90
Mercury 	 5.42 •. 2.17
Silver 	 ! 8.89 3.68
Zinc 	 31 64 1322
Manganese 1474 628

from any battery manufacturing  oper-
ation other than those battery manu-
facturing operations listed above.
  (4) Subpart G—Electrodeposited  An-
odes—PSES.
                                   463

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§461.74
                                      40  CFR Ch.  I (7-1-99 Edition)
 Pollutant or pollutant property
Maximum
tor any 1
  day
 Maximum
for monthly
 average
                                                        Pollutant or pollutant property
Maximum  ••  Maximum
tor any 1  j for monthly
  day     !   average
                            Metric units—rug/kg of zinc
                                   deposited

                            English units—pounds per
                              1.000,000 pounds of zinc
                                                   '    Metric units—mg/kg of
                                                          silver applied

                                                   i English units—pounds per
                                                   |    1.000,000 pounds of  sil-


Silver 	
Zinc .


deposited
94.47 38.65
53.68 21.47
88.03 36.50
313.46 130.97
146.00 62.26
(5) Subpart G— Silver Powder Formed
Cathodes— PSES.
Pollutant or pollutant property



Zinc 	


Maximum ' Maximum
lor any 1 for monthly
day average
Metric units — mg/kg of
silver applied
English units— pounds per
1,000.000 pounds of sil-
ver applied
13.07 5-35
7.43 2.97
12.18 5-05
43.36 18.12
20.20 B.61
(6) Subpart G— Silver Oxide Powder
Formed Cathodes— PSES.
Pollutant or pollutant property
Maximum Maximum
for any 1 for monthly
day average



Silver 	
Zinc 	


ver applied
2.09 0.87
1.19 0.48
1.95 0.81
6.95 2.90
3.24 1.38
(8) Subpart G— Nickel Impregnated
Cathodes— PSES.
Pollutant or pollutant property
Chromium „.„..„.„ 	 .......... 	

Nickel
Silver 	



Maximum \ Maximum
tor any i i for monthly
day ! average
Metric units — mg/kg of
nickel applied
English units— pounds per
1.000,000 pounds of
nickel applied
88.0 ; 36.0
50 0 ; 20.0
384.0 ; 254.0
82.0 ; 34.0
292.0 i 122.0
136.0 i 58.0
(9) Subpart G— Miscellaneous Waste-
water Streams— PSES.
Pollutant or pollutant property
Maximum ; Maximum
for any 1 • for monthly
day average
                                  silver applied

                           ! English units—pounds per
                           ;   1.000,000 pounds of sii-
                           1   ver applied
                                                   |   Metric units—mg/kg of
                                                   |       cells produced

                                                    English units—pounds per
                                                   :   1.000.000   pounds   of
Chromium

Silver 	
Zine
Manganese 	 	

(7) Subpart
odes— PSES.
8 73
4.96
' 8 14
1 2898
	 i 13.50

3.57
1.99
3.37
12.11
5.76
G— Silver Peroxide Cath-



Nickel 	

Zinc



1 057
! 038
032 i
	 ' 248 '•

1 88 !
1 088


0.23
0.16
0.13
164
0.22
0.79
0.37
                                                         (10)  Subpart  G—Silver  Etch—PSES.
                                                  464

-------
Environmental Protection Agency
§461.75
Pollutant or pollutant property


Silver 	
Zinc 	
Manganese 	
Maximum Maximum
for any 1 lor monthly
day average
Metric units— mg/kg of
silver processed
English units— pounds per
1,000.000 pounds of sil-
ver processed
3.27 1.34
1.86 0.74
3.05 1.26
10.86 4.54
5.06 2.16
(11) Subpart G— Silver Peroxide Pro-
duction— PSES.
Pollutant or pollutant property


Silver
Zinc 	
Manganese 	
Maximum Maximum
for any 1 (or monthly
day average
Metric units— mg/kg of
silver peroxide produced
English units— pounds per
1,000,000 pounds ol sil-
ver peroxide produced
3.48 1.42
1.98 0.79
3.24 1.34
11.55 4.83
5.38 2.29
(12) Subpart G— Silver Powder Pro-
duction— PSES,
Pollutant or pollutant property


Silver
Zinc


Maximum < Maximum
(or any 1 for monthly
day i average
Metric units — mg/kg of
silver powder produced
English units — pounds per
1.000,000 pounds of sil-
ver powder produced
1.41 ! 0.58
0.80 0.32
1.32 0.55
4.69 : 1.96
2.18 : 0.93
(b) There shall be no discharge allow-
ance for process wastewater pollutants
from any battery manufacturing oper-
ation other than those battery manu-
facturing operations listed above.
(1) Subpart G— Zinc Oxide Formed
Anodes— PSNS.
Pollutant or pollutant property
Chromium 	

Silver 	
Zinc 	

Maximum > Maximum
lor any 1 ' (or monthly
day I average
Metric units — mg/kg ol zinc
English units — pounds pe-
1,000,000 pounds of zinc
4.55 1.S7
2.82 1.-.9
4.55 1.97
0.87 0.39
6.50 4.98
(2) Subpart G— Electrodeposited An-
odes-PSNS.
Pollutant or pollutant property

Mercury 	 	 	 	 	
Silver 	
Zinc


Maximum Maximum
for any 1 for monthly
day average
Metric units— mg/kg o* zinc
deposited
English units — pounds per
1.000,000 pounds of zinc
deposited
45.09 19.54
27.91 ! 11.81
45.09 I 19.54
8.59 I 3.86
64.41 ! 49.38
(3) Subpart G— Silver Powder Formed
Cathodes— PSNS.
Pollutant or pollutant property


Silver
Zinc 	 	


Maximum Maximum
for any 1 ; (or monthly
day : average
Metric units — mg/kg ol
silver applied
English units— pounds per
1.000.000 pounds of sil-
ver applied
6.24 2.70
3.86 : 1.63
6.24 2.70
1.19! 0.53
8.91 6-83
(4) Subpart G— Silver Oxide Powder
§461.75  Pretreatment  standards  for
   new sources (PSNS).
  (a) Except as provided in §403.7 any
new source subject to this subpart that
introduces  pollutants into a  publicly
owned  treatment works  must comply
with 40 CFR part  403 and  achieve the
following  pretreatment  standards for
new sources listed below:
                                      Formed Cathodes—PSNS.
                                   465

-------
§461.75
                                   40 CFR Ch.  I  (7-1-99 Edition)
 Pollutant or pollutant property
Maximum  I  Maximum
for any 1  I  for monthly
  day    I   average
                                                   Pollutant or pollutant property /
Maximum for
 any t day
i Maximum for
1 monthly aver-
     age
                             Metric units—mg/kg of
                                silver applied

                           English units—pounds per
                             1,000,000 pounds  of  sil-
                             ver applied
                                               i  Metric units—mg/kg ol cells
                                               i         produced

                                               I English   units—pounds   per
                                               |   1,000,000 pounds of  cells
                                               i   produced


SiJvcr 	 .. 	 	
Zinc


4.17
2.58
4.17
0.79
5.96
1.81
1.09
1.81
0.36
4.57
(5) Subpart G— Silver Peroxide Cath-
Chromium 	
Cyanide 	
Mercury 	
Nickel . 	
Silver



O.Z7 i
0.039
0.17
0.27
0.27
0.05 i
0-39 ;
0.12
0.016
0.07
0.12
0.12
0.02
0.30
odes—PSNS.
r
Pollutant or pollutant property
Maximum
for any 1
day
Maximum
for monthly
average
Metric units— mg/kg of
silver applied
                                                     (8) Subpart  G—Silver Etch—PSNS.
                                                    Pollutant or pollutant properly
                                                   Maximum    Maximum
                                                   for any 1    for monthly
                                                     day       average
                          . English  units—pounds per
                          |   1,000,000 pounds of sil-
                          ,   ver applied
                                                    Metric units—mg/kg of
                                                      silver processed

                                                  English units—pounds per
                                                    1.000,000 pounds ol sil-
                                                    ver processed





a ga ese 	
1.00
0,62
1.00
0.19
1.43
0.43
0.26
0.43
0.09
1.09
(6) Subpart G — Nickel Impregnated
Cathodes —PSNS.
Pollutant or pollutant property

Maximum
for any 1
day
Maximum
for monthly
average

'
Chromium 	 '
Mercury 	 ]
Silver 	 ,
Zinc 	 i

9 •- - - 1

1.561
0.97 i
1.56 i
0.30 '
2.23 |

0.68
0.41
0.68
0.13
1.71
(9) Subpart G— Silver Peroxide Pro-
duction— PSNS.
Pollutant or pollutant property i
Maximum ;
for any 1 !
aay i
Maximum
for montnly
average
                          1      nickel applied

                           English units—pounds per
                            1.000.000   pounds  of
                            nickel applied
                                                    Metric units—mg/kg of
                                                   silver peroxide produced
                                                  English units—pounds  per
                                                    1.000.000 pounds of sil-
                                                    ver peroxide produced


Nickel

Zinc
Manganese 	 	

i 260
! 420
' 40 n
	 	 	 1 4*-u
8 0
60-0


18 2

3 6
46.0


Mercury 	
Silver 	
Zinc 	
Manganese 	

1.66
1.03 i
1.66 i
0.32
2.37 !

0.72
0.44
0.72
0.14
1.82
  (7)  Sufapart  G—Miscellaneous  Waste-
water Streams—PSNS.
                          (10)  Subpart  G—Silver  Powder  Pro-
                       duction—PSNS.
                                               466

-------
Environmental Protection Agency
Pollutant or pollutant property
Maximum
lor any 1
day
Maximum
for monthly
average
                          Metric units—mg/kg of
                          silver powder produced
                       i English units—pounds per
                          1.000.000 pounds of  sil-
                          ver powder produced
Chromium 	

Silver 	
Zinc 	


0.67
042
067
0 13
096

0.29
0 18
029
006
074

   (b) There shall be no discharge allow-
ance for process wastewater pollutants
from any  battery  manufacturing oper-
ation other than those battery manu-
facturing operations listed above.
(49 FR 9134. Mar.  9. 1984: 49 FR 13879. Apr. 9.
1984]

PART    463—PLASTICS    MOLDING
   AND  FORMING  POINT  SOURCE
   CATEGORY

            GENERAL PROVISIONS
Sec.
4B3.1  Applicability.
463.2  General definitions.
483.3  Monitoring   and  reporting
    ments.
require-
 Subpart A—Contact Cooling and Hearing
            Water Subcategory

463.10  Applicability; description of the con-
    tact  cooling  and  heating  water  sub-
    category.
463.11  Specialized definitions.
463.12  Effluent  limitations  guidelines  rep-
    resenting the degree of effluent reduction
    attainable by the application of the best
    practicable control  technology currently
    available.
463.13  Effluent  limitations  guidelines  rep-
    resenting the degree of effluent reduction
    attainable by the application of the best
    available    technology    economically
    achievable.
463.14  New source performance standards.
463.15  Pretreatment standards for existing
    sources.
463.16  Pretreatment   standards   for   new
    sources.
463.17  Effluent  limitations  guidelines  rep-
    resenting the degree of effluent reduction
    attainable by the application of the best
    conventional  pollutant   control   tech-
    nology.
                                    Pt. 463

  Subpart B—Cleaning Water Subcategory

 463.20  Applicability,   description   of   the
    cleaning water Subcategory.
 463.21  Specialized definitions.
 463.22  Effluent  limitations  guidelines  rep-
    resenting the degree of effluent reduction
    attainable by  the application of the best
    practicable control technology currently
    available.
 463.23  Effluent  limitations  guidelines  rep-
    resenting the degree of effluent reduction
    attainable by  the application of the best
    available    technology    economically
    achievable.
 463.24  New source performance standards.
 463.25  Pretreatment standards for  existing
    sources.
 463.26  Pretreatment for new sources.
 463.27  Effluent  limitations  guidelines  rep-
    resenting the degree of effluent reduction
    attainable by  the application of the best
    conventional   pollutant   control  tech-
    nology.  (Reserved!

  Subpart C—Finishing Water Subcategory

463.30  Applicability: description of  the fin-
    ishing water Subcategory.
463.31  Specialized definitions.
463.32  Effluent  limitations  guidelines  rep-
    resenting the degree of effluent reduction
    attainable by the application of the best
    practicable control  technology currently
    available.
463.33  Effluent  limitations  guidelines  rep-
    resenting the degree of effluent reduction
    attainable by the application of the best
    available    technology    economically
    achievable.
463.34  New source performance standards.
463.35  Pretreatment standards for existing
    sources.
463.36  Pretreatment  standards   for   new
    sources.
463.37  Effluent  limitations  guidelines  rep-
    resenting the degree of effluent reduction
    attainable by the application of the best
    conventional   pollutant   control  tech-
    nology.  [Reserved)

  AUTHORITY: Sees.  301.  304 (b).  (c). (e).  and
(g). 306 (b)  and (c). 307. 308. and  501. Clean
Water  Act (Federal  Water Pollution Control
Act  Amendments of  1972.  as amended  by
Clean  Water  Act of  1977)  (the  "Act"):  33
U.S.C.  1311. 1314 (b). (c), (e)  and (g).  1316 (b)
and  (c).  1317  (b)  and  (c). 1318.  and 1361: 86
Stat. 816.  Pub. L. 92-500; 91 Stat.  1567. Pub. L.
95-217.
  SOURCE: 49 FR 49047.  Dec.  17.  1984. unless
otherwise noted.
                                         467

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