FINAL  SUPPLEMENTAL  ENVIRONMENTAL  IMPACT STATEMENT

               Wastewater Treatment  Facilities  for  the  Columbus, Ohio Metropolitan  Area
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                Prepared by the

United States Environmental Protection Agency

                   Region V

              Chicago, Illinois
            Science Applications
            International  Corporation

            McLean, Virginia
                     and
                    With
Triad Engineering
Incorporated

Milwaukee, Wisconsin
                                             August 1988
                                                              Approved by:
                                                              VaTdas V. Adamkus
                                                              Regional A/ministrator
    CO
            HEADQUARTERS LIBRARY
            ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
            WASHINGTON, D.C. 20460

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                              EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

( )  Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement
(X)  Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region V
230 South Dearborn Street
Chicago, IL  60604
1.   NAME OF ACTION
     Administrative (X)
     Legislative    ( )
2*\ LEGAL BASIS FOR ACTION
    V
     The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is the administering
agency for a major federal environmental program, provided for by Title II of
the Clean Water Act, entitled "Grants for Construction of Treatment Works."
This program allows the EPA administrator to provide financial aid to any
state, municipality, interraunicipal agency, or interstate agency for the
construction of publicly owned water pollution control facilities.  The
program encourages reduction of point sources of water pollution and
improvement of water quality.

     The EPA's granting of funds for a water pollution control facility
requires a review to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
and may require an environmental impact statement (EIS).  Each proposed water
pollution control facility is evaluated on a case-by-case basis by the
appropriate EPA regional office to determine whether the proposed facility is
expected to have significant environmental effects.  This review is utilized
in determining whether the proposal appears to be a cost-effective solution to
area water quality problems.
     Given that the Columbus project involved; 1) substantial changes in the
proposed action and possible significant environmental impacts associated with
those changes; and 2) new information which raises substantial concerns not
addressed in the original EIS, it was reasonable and prudent for USEPA to

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 proceed  with  the  preparation of  a supplemental EIS in accordance with 40 CFR
 1502.9(c).
3.   PURPOSE AND NEED FOR PROJECT
     The city of Columbus, owns and operates two major wastewater treatment
facilities.  The Jackson Pike WWTP is located in southwest Columbus.  The
Southerly WWTP  is located approximately 8 miles south of downtown Columbus.
Both of these plants discharge to the Scioto River and will require upgrading
to ensure compliance with revised National Pollutant Discharge Elimination
System  (NPDES)  permits.

     Original NPDES permits  for Jackson Pike and Southerly set effluent'-"
limitations of  30 mg/1  (30-day average)  for five-day carbonaceous biochemical
oxygen demand (CBODS) and total suspended  solids (TSS).   In 1985, the NPDES
                   D                                                  /
permits for both plants were revised.  Tables 1 and 2 present the effluent
standards of the revised permits.  The limits vary on a seasonal basis.   CBODc
and TSS limits are more stringent and standards  for  ammonia and dissolved
oxygen have been added to the permits.  The plants are required/to be in
compliance with these final  effluent  limits  by  July  1, 1988.  ,Until that time,
the Jackson Pike and Southerly plants are operating under interim limits of
25 mg/1 for CBOD5 and 30 mg/1  for TSS.

4.   PROJECT HISTORY
     In 1976,  the city of Columbus prepared the  Columbus  Metropolitan
Facilities Plan  for  wastewater management up to the year 1995.  The 1976
facilities plan  concluded that the cost-effective solution to improved
wastewater treatment was  rehabilitation and expansion of both the Jackson Pike
and Southerly WWTPs.

     After reviewing the original facilities plan,  the USEPA initiated
preparation of an EIS on the 1976 facilities plan.  The EIS,  when completed in
1979,  contained  recommendations for wet  stream treatment and solids handling

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                    TABLE 1.  NPDES FINAL EFFLUENT LIMITS
                              JACKSON PIKE WWTP
                                            CONCENTRATION
PARAMETER

Suspended Solids
 (rag/1)

CBOD5
 (mg/D

Ammonia
 (rag/D

Fecal Coliforra
 (count/100 ml)
    SUMMER
(30-day/7-day)

  16.0/24.0
   8.0/12.0


   1.0/1.5


  1000/2000
    WINTER
(30-day/7-day)

   30.0/45.0
   20.0/30.0
    5.0/7.5
      MAY
(30-day/7-day)

   26.0/39.0
   13.0/19.5
    2.5/3.75
The Dissolved Oxygen shall be maintained at a level of not leas than 7.0 mg/1
and shall be monitored continuously and the lowest value reported daily.

The Chlorine Residual shall be maintained at a level not to exceed 19 ug/1 and
shall be monitored continuously and the highest value reported daily (summer
only).

Source:OEPA Permit No. 4PFOOOOO*GD
Summer = June - October
Winter = November - April
                                   iii

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                    TABLE 2.  NPDES FINAL EFFLUENT LIMITS
                                SOUTHERLY WWTP
                                            CONCENTRATION
PARAMETER

Suspended Solids
 (mg/1)

CBOD5
 (mg/1)

Ammonia
 (mg/1)

Fecal Coliform
 (count/100 ml)
    SUMMER
(30-day/7-day)

  16.0/24.0
   8.0/12.0


   1.0/1.5


  1000/2000
    WINTER
(30-day/7-day)

   30.0/45.0
   25.0/40.0
    5.0/7.5
      MAY
(30-day/7-day)

   26.0/39.0
   13.0/19.5
    2.0/3.0
The Dissolved Oxygen shall be maintained at a level of not less than 7.0 mg/1
and shall be monitored continuously and the lowest value reported daily.

The Chlorine Residual shall be maintained at a level not to exceed 26 ug/1 and
shall be monitored continuously and the highest value reported daily (summer
only).

Source:  OEPTWrmit No. 4PF00001*HD
Summer = June - October
Winter = November - April
                                    IV

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that differed from the recommendations  of  the original facilities plan.   The
differences in wet stream treatment recommendations were due to process
selection, reliability, and design criteria differences.   With regard to
solids handling, the  EIS differed from the original facilities plan by
proposing that land application and composting rather than incineration/
landfill be adopted as the primary means of solids disposal.

     In order to address the differences in design parameters between the EIS
and the original facilities plan, in the final EIS USEPA  directed Columbus to
establish a Design Finalization Overview Team (DFOT)  to review and recommend
the final design parameters for both plants.

     The DFOT Report  was completed in May  of 1984.  On July 9, 1984, the city
submitted a Plan of Study which set the  groundwork for a  facilities  plan
update.  The Plan of  Study for the facilities plan update proposed  significant
changes from the original facilities plan.   Therefore, the DFOT Report was
never formally reviewed by Ohio EPA or USEPA.

     The Columbus Metropolitan Area Facilities  Plan Update (FPU) Report  was
submitted to Ohio EPA in December  1984.   The FPU recommended phasing out the
Jackson Pike WWTP and sending all flow to an upgraded and expanded  Southerly
WWTP.  Ohio EPA reviewed this document and prepared detailed  comments and
questions for the city.

     In September of 1985, the city submitted the Revised Facilities Plan
Update (RFPU)  as  a  supplement to the  FPU.   The specific objectives of  the RFPU
were:
       To revise the recommendations of previous documents based on revised
        design parameters;
       To respond to comments by Ohio EPA relative  to  the  FPU;
       To present conclusions and recommendations of planning analyses
        undertaken since completion of the FPU;  and  to  develop treatment
        facilities which would serve the city's  needs though the year 2015.

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     The RFPU contained the following basic conclusions and recommendations:

       It is cost effective to expand the existing Southerly WWTP to treat
        all wastewater from the Columbus service area and to phase out the
        existing Jackson Pike WWTP.

       Phasing out the Jackson Pike WWTP will have no significant adverse
        environmental impacts.

       The Southerly WWTP expansion will be based upon a design average flow
        of 178 MGD and a peak process flow of 300 MGD.  Peak flows of up to
        430 MGD may be generated from a CSO control program.  Flow in excess
        of 300 MGD would be settled and chlorinated prior to discharge.

       The proposed treatment facilities would utilize a semi-aerobic
        process.

       Additional standby incineration capacity beyond that presently under
        construction at Southerly is not recommended since sludge composting
        and land application of digested sludge will continue as the preferred
        method of solids disposal.
5.   EIS ISSUES

     During review of the Revised Facility Plan Update, a number of
potentially significant environmental impacts were identified.  These impacts
were the subject of USEPA's action to issue a Notice of Intent (June 11, 1986)
to prepare a supplemental EIS.  This supplemental BIS addresses the following
issues:
       The reliability of the serai-aerobic process to effectively treat the
        wastewater to meet NPDES permit limits.

       Water quality impacts resulting from a single plant discharge.

       The iraact on river flow resulting from the elimination of Jackson
        Pike's flow.

       The impacts expected from the fulfillment of the population projec-
        tions and development for the planning area.

       Environmental effects of the sludge treatment and disposal alterna-
        tives.
                                       VI

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       The induced growth and secondary environmental effects of an expanded
        Southerly WWTP.

       The cost-effective treatment of combined sewer overflows as an
        integral part of the system.

       The impact of expanding the south end of Interconnector by extending
        the 156-inch gravity sewer to Southerly and placing four 78-inch pipes
        across  the Scioto River.

       The reliability of the Southerly WWTP as the only plant treating
        sewage  in Columbus.

       The economic effects of the proposed plan.   What  is the cost-effective
        solution to the wastewater management problems in Columbus?

NOTE:  USEPA has prepared this SEIS based on the conditions as of 1985.
6.   WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES

     In addition to a no action alternative,  three comprehensive management
alternatives were evaluated in the Supplemental EIS.  They include the
following:
        Two-Plant: Upgrade Southerly and Jackson Pike,  provide wet  stream
        treatment and solids handling at both plants.

        Two-Plant One Solids:  Upgrade Jackson Pike and Southerly,  provide all
        solids handling at Southerly.

        One-Plant:  Eliminate Jackson Pike,  upgrade and expand Southerly.
     Each comprehensive wastewater management alternative includes the

following components:


       Interconnector/Headworks

       Biological Process
       Sludge Management


     Options for each of these components were also evaluated.  They  include

the following:
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        Interconnector/Headworks
        -  A/A-1  (additional pumping, force mains, and headworks)
        -  B/B-l  (extension of gravity sewer and separate headworks)
        -  O/B-2  (extension of gravity sewer and entirely new headworks)

        Biological Process
        -  Semi-aerobic
        -  Trickling Filter/Activated Sludge (TF/AS)

        Sludge Management
        -  JP-B (Primary Sludge  (PS) Thickening, Waste Activated Sludge (WAS)
           Thickening, Anaerobic Digestion,  Dewatering, Incineration/Landfill,
           Land Application)

        -  JP-C (PS Thickening, WAS Thickening, Anaerobic Digestion, Thermal
           Conditioning, Incineration/Landfill, Land Application)

        -  SO-C (PS Thickening, WAS Thickening, Anaerobic Digestion, Dewatering,
           Incineration/Landfill, Composting)

        -  SO-D (PS Thickening, WAS Thickening, Anaerobic Digestion, Dewatering,
           Incineration/Landfill, Composting, Land Application)

        -  SO-F (PS Thickening, WAS Thickening, Dewatering, Incineration/
           Landfill, Composting)
     Table 3 summarizes each wastewater management alternative with its

respective component option.


     Each of the component options were evaluated with respect to technical

criteria consisting of cost,  reliability,  flexibility,  implementability, and

operational convenience.   The optimum option to fulfill each component was

selected for both the one-plant and two-plant alternatives.


One-Plant Alternative

     The selected component options for the one-plant alternative include:


       Interconnector/Headworks Option B/B-l
       Biological Process - Semi-Aerobic

     .  Sludge Management Option SO-D
                                     viii

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           TABLE 3 SUMMARY OF ALTERNATIVES AND OPTIONS
WASTEWATER
MANAGEMENT
ALTERNATIVE
ONE-PLANT
TWO-PLANT
TWO-PLANT ONE SOLIDS
COMPONENT
INTERCONNECTOR/HEADWORKS
BIOLOGICAL PROCESS
SLUDGE MANAGEMENT
BIOLOGICAL PROCESS
SLUDGE MANAGEMENT
BIOLOGICAL PROCESS
SLUDGE MANAGEMENT
OPTION *
A/A-1
B/B-1
B/B-2
SEMI- AEROBIC
TF/AS
SO-C
SO-D
SO-F
SEMI-AEROBIC
TF/AS
SO-C
SO-D
SO-F
JP-B
JP-C
SEMI-AEROBIC
TF/AS
SO-C
SO-D
SO-F
* DETAILED DESCRIPTION IN CHAPTER 5.
                              IX

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     The Interconnector/headworks option B/B-1 consists of extending the
 156-inch diameter gravity Interconnector Sewer to Southerly, using four
 parallel 78-inch pipes for the Scioto River crossing, and constructing
 separate headworks at Southerly for the Interconnector flow.  This option was
 selected based on cost and reliability.  Option B/B-1 was approximately the
 same cost  as option A/A-l (force mains) and 15 percent less costly than option
 B/B-2 (gravity sewer and entirely new headworks).  The gravity sewer was
 considered to be more reliable than the force main since there is less chance
 that the gravity sewer will  rupture.  Furthermore, failure of a gravity sewer
 normally results in infiltration to the conduit,  while a rupture of the force
 mains would  cause exfiltration  to  the environment.   In addition, the gravity
 sewer does not rely on the operation of a pumping facility to perform.

     The semi-aerobic process is a modified form of  the conventional activated
 sludge process which currently exists at the  Southerly WWTP.   It differs from
 conventional activated sludge in that the first 25 percent of the reaction
 basin is not aerated.   Only mixing is provided.  This maintains that a portion
 of the basin is in an anaerobic or anoxic state,  depending on the level of
 nitrates present.   The process also includes  an internal  mixed liquor recycle
 loop to provide the capability of recycling nitrates  from the last bay of the
 aeration basin back to the first bay to accomplish denitrification.

     The semi-aerobic process was selected over the  trickling filter/activated
 sludge process due to its reliability.   The semi-aerobic  process is considered
 more reliable due to the fact that more process control flexibility is
 inherent in the process.   Furthermore,  the  trickling  filter  process would be
difficult to implement in that it would require major restructuring of the
 conduits between the existing primary clarifiers and aeration basins.  The
 trickling filter/activated sludge process would also  be subject to an adverse
environmental review due to  its resultant odor and pests.
     The selected sludge management option for the one-plant alternative,
SO-D, includes gravity thickening of PS,  centrifuge thickening of WAS,

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anaerobic digestion, centrifuge dewatering, composting, land application, and
incineration/landfill.   This is consistent  with the  current  sludge management
scenario at Southerly,  with the exception of land application.  Southerly does
not land apply sludge at the present time.  However, land application is
employed at Jackson Pike.

     Option SO-D was chosen over SO-C and SO-F because it provides more
flexibility and reliability in that it includes three methods of final
disposal.

Two-Plant Alternative
     The two-plant  alternative does not require expansion of the Interconnector
Sewer or additional headworks  at Southerly.  Therefore, selection of an
Interconnector/headworks option was not necessary.  The two-plant alternative
does require new headworks  for Jackson Pike located  at the  plant  site.

     The selected component options for the two-plant alternative include:

       Biological Process - Semi-Aerobic
       Sludge Management Option SO-D
       Sludge Management Option JP-B

     The semi-aerobic process was  selected over the trickling filter/activated
sludge process for the Jackson  Pike and Southerly WWTPs under the two-plant
alternative for the same reasons which were presented for the one-plant
alternative.   These reasons  include more  reliability  with  the semi-aerobic
process due to process  flexibility; and difficulty in implementing the
trickling filter/activated sludge process due  to existing plant configuration
and environmental concerns.  In addition,  the semi-aerobic process is 20 percent
less costly than the trickling filter/activated sludge process.
                                      Xi

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     Similar to the one-plant alternative, option SO-D was selected for
Southerly under the two-plant scenario.  Option SO-D provides more flexibility
and reliability due to three methods of final disposal:  composting, land
application, and incineration/landfill.

     Option JP-B was selected for Jackson Pike under the two-plant scenario
based on cost and ease of operation.  Option JP-B includes gravity thickening
of PS, centrifuge thickening of WAS, anaerobic digestion, centrifuge
dewatering, incineration/landfill, and land application.  Option JP-B is
approximately 16 percent less costly than option JP-C which includes thermal
conditioning in addition to the processes included in JP-B.  Thermal
conditioning is difficult and expensive to operate and maintain.  Therefore,
it is recommended that the thermal conditioners be phased out of service when
they reach the end of their useful life.

     The two-plant one solids alternative was eliminated from consideration
following the analysis of the one-plant and two-plant solids options.  The
analysis showed that it was less costly to maintain solids processing at both
Southerly and Jackson Pike if both facilities are providing liquid treatment.

7.   EVALUATION OF COMPREHENSIVE WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES
     The one-plant and two-plant comprehensive wastewater management
alternatives were evaluated based on the same technical criteria used to
evaluate the component options.  These criteria included present worth cost,
reliability, flexibility, implementability, and operational convenience.

     In addition to the technical evaluation, an environmental evaluation was
performed for the one-plant and two-plant alternatives.  The evaluation
considered physical, biological, and human environmental criteria.  Physical
criteria included water, air quality, and prime agricultural land.  Biological
criteria included terrestrial and aquatic biota as well as threatened and
endangered species.  The human or man-made environmental criteria included
land use, noise, energy, economics, transportation, and historic and
                                      XI1

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archaeologic resources.  Indirect environmental consequences such as induced
growth were also considered.

Technical Evaluation
     Table 4 presents the capital, annual O&M, and total present worth costs
for the one-plant and two-plant alternatives.  The two-plant alternative
exhibits a total present worth cost approximately 10 percent lower than the
one-plant alternative.

     Both the one-plant and two-plant alternatives are equal with respect to
their reliability in meeting the final effluent limits.  However, the two-
plant is considered more reliable with respect to shock loads.  Under the
one-plant alternative, a plant upset at Southerly could result in a
significant loss of biological treatment capacity and may cause a serious
water quality problem.  However, if the shock and/or toxic load can reach only
one of the two plants, the impact may not be as severe.

     The two-plant alternative is judged more flexible than the one-plant
alternative.  With both facilities operational, the city would have more
flexibility to adapt to increased future flow, to more stringent effluent
limits, and to address combined sewer overflows.  The two-plant alternative
would leave more land available at Southerly for expansion.  The two-plant
alternative would improve and upgrade Jackson Pike to provide a solid 100 MGD
treatment capacity.  The two-plant alternative would allow for future
expansion of the Interconnector system to divert more flow to Southerly while
optimizing the use of the Jackson Pike facility.

     The two-plant alternative is considered easier to implement since the
majority of the facilities already exist.  Most of the construction would
consist of rehabilitation of existing facilities.  There would be no
expansion of the conveyance system between the plants under this alternative.
                                      Kill

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                      TABLE 4,  ALTERNATIVE COST SUMMARY
                                                                   Total
One-Plant [Southerly]

Two-Plant [So. and JP]

Difference From One-Plant

Percent Difference
Capital
268,711,000
207,076,000
-61,635,000
-30
Annual O&M
16,849,000
19,078,000
*2,229,000
+13
Present Worth
436,911,000
397,016,000
-39,895,000
-10
NOTE:  These costs are based on a 2008 average flow of 154 MGD and a peak flow
       of 231 MGD.  Present worth costs are in 1988 dollars.
                                       xiv

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     The one-plant alternative is considered easier to operate and maintain
since all facilities would be consolidated at one location.

Environmental Evaluation
     The environmental evaluation identified four major impacts which were in
the following areas:

       Surface water quality
     *  Surface water flows
       Aquatic biota/habitat
       Endangered species

Surface Water Quality
     The principal variable affecting surface water quality under either
alternative is the location of wastewater discharge.  Comparable levels of
treatment will be provided under either the one-plant or two-plant
alternative, and either alternative will protect stream standards for DO and
ammonia.

     Regardless of the one-plant or two-plant alternative, the treated
effluent will contain a residual wasteload, which will be assimilated by the
river, resulting in a downstream DO sag.  The severity of the sag, and the
extent of the river affected, vary between alternatives.

     Under the no action alternative, no improvement in the degraded water
quality conditions in the Scioto River would occur.  With projected future
growth in the sewered population (and corresponding increases in wastewater
flows), age-related deterioration of the existing WWTPs and increases in urban
non-point runoff due to continued urban growth, further deterioraton in
current water quality conditions would be expected.  Under these conditions,
more frequent water quality standard violations could be expected and the
impacted zone of the Scioto River below Southerly may be extended to
Circleville, interfering with other point source discharges.
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      The  two-plant  alternative  would  release the residual effluent DO demand
 to  the  Scioto River at two  locations  (Jackson Pike and Southerly).   Two DO
 sags  would  therefore  result; however, neither sag would result in contraven-
 tion  of water quality standards.  Significant improvements to in-stream DO
 conditions would  result  from  this alternative.  Because significant pollutant
 loads would continue to enter the Scioto River  upsteam of Jackson Pike (from
 urban runoff and CSOs from  Whittier Street), the degree of water quality
 improvement below Jackson Pike  would be less complete than below the Southerly
 WWTP.  Under certain flow conditions,  DO levels below the 5.0 mg/i standard
 could occur below Jackson Pike, related to CSO loadings.   However,  the
 presence of Jackson Pike effluent during low flow events could lessen the DO
 impacts of CSOs and upstream urban runoff.

     The impacts of the one-plant  alternative would be variable for the river
 reach between Jackson Pike  and  Southerly, and depending on background river
 flow  conditions at average river flow  levels, water quality would be improved
by the elimination of Jackson  Pike effluent.  However, under  critical  low flow
conditions,  elimination of  the  Jackson Pike effluent would reduce Scioto River
 flows by nearly 90 percent,  while a large background pollutant load would
remain in the form of urban runoff and CSO loading.  This  situation would
result in a significant reduction in the river's wasteload  assimilative
capacity due to reductions in flow volume, velocity, and reaeration.  Decay of
pollutants from upstream sources could,  therefore,  result  in  severe water
quality deterioration in  slow, shallow pools during  warm weather, low flow
events.

     Downstream of the Southerly WWTP, the DO sag resulting from the one-plant
alternative  would be more severe and would affect  a longer stretch  of the
river, when compared with the two-plant alternative.  This situation results
from the release of the entire residual wastewater  DO demand  from Columbus at
a single point in the river, creating  a  greater  assimilative demand.  In
addition,  the  increased nutrient release  under  the  one-plant  alternative  would
further stimulate algal biomass below  Southerly which may depress low flow DO
                                     xvi

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below  in-stream standards due  to algal metabolism.  The combination of these
factors results in a possiblility that the one-plant alternative may impact
the Circleville area, interfering with other point source dischargers near
Circleville.  Based on these considerations} the two-plant alternative is
considered preferable over the one-plant alternative with regard to water
quality impacts.

Surface Water Flows
     The no action and the two-plant  alternatives will have little or no
impact on surface water flows  in the  Scioto River.  The one-plant alternative
would cause significant reductions in flows in the Scioto River during dry
weather periods in the eight-mile reach between the Jackson Pike and Southerly
WWTPs.  This reduction in  flow would  have negative impacts on water quality,
aquatic biota,  and recreation in that portion of the Scioto River.

Aquatic Biota/Habitat
     The no action alternative would  result in continuation of the current low
dissolved oxygen and high residual chlorine condition and related aquatic
habitat degradation in the Scioto River below Columbus.  Pollution intolerant
species would continue to be excluded from the affected areas of the Scioto
River,  below the Jackson Pike WWTP and below the Southerly WWTP.

     Under the  two-plant alternative,  water quality should  improve which in
turn would have a favorable impact on aquatic biota and habitat.  Sensitive
species that currently inhabit the area should persist  and increase in
abundance.   New species may move into the area and increase community
diversity.  .However,  more sensitive species  may suffer  due  to marginal DO
levels  immediately below  each of the  two treatment plants.  In addition,  the
continuing negative impacts of general urban runoff  and pollutant loads  from
the Whittier Street CSO will prevent  free biological recovery in the Central
Scioto.
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      The  one-plant alternative would  impact  aquatic habitat and biota due to
 the  elimination of the  discharge  at Jackson  Pike, the increase in discharge at
 Southerly, and  the placement  of four  78-inch sever pipes across the Scioto
 River near  Southerly.

      The  elimination of the Jackson Pike discharge would decrease the flow in
 the  Scioto River between Jackson Pike and Southerly.   Under  critical  low flow
 conditions, a significant loss of benthic habitat area would result.   This
 condition could dissrupt spawning, feeding, and migratory activities  of the
 fish.  Furthermore, as  previously  discusssed  under  low flow conditions the
 loss of the Jackson Pike discharge could result in  degraded  water quality
 conditions which  in turn would have negative impacts  on aquatic biota.

     Under normal flow  conditions, the elimination of the  Jackson Pike WWTP
 discharge would result  in improved water quality conditions to the extent that
 this effluent affects  water quality.   These improvements would result in
 favorable aquatic community responses.

     The  increased discharge at the Southerly WWTP would result in an increase
 in the length of the  river affected by the  DO sag.  Degradation of aquatic
communities can be expected in the vicinity of  the  DO sag.

     Construction across the Scioto River would have  localized,  short-term
 impacts on aquatic biota and habitat.  Impacts  will stem primarily from
 increases in sediment  transport and deposition  downstream  of the construction
site.  Fish  would suffer fewer short-term impacts than benthos as they can
avoid the construction site,  but stresses  and mortalities  should be expected.
Increased turbidity would also temporarily  damage habitat  of species  which use
pools due to  lowered oxygen  levels caused by  organic loads associated  with
eroded soils.  The distance affected and the  degree of stress would depend on
the amounts of sediment which  would be displaced; however, mitigation
techniques should minimize impacts.
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Endangered Species
     Terrestrial endangered species should not be affected by the no action
alternative.  However, the aquatic endangered species habitat would suffer due
to continued degradation of water  quality.  Several federal and state
designated endangered and rare fish have been sighted in the Central Scioto
River mains tern within the past five to seven years, and those species would
most  likely be disturbed.  The degraded habitat would prevent their
populations from growing in the affected areas.

     Small populations of other endangered or rare fish live in tributaries to
the Scioto River where water  quality  is better.  The Central Scioto River
mainstera potentially could provide habitat for these species if water quality
was improved.   Continued degradation of water quality would decrease the
chances  for these fish to expand their ranges into the Scioto River.

     Endangered aquatic species should benefit from implementation of the two-
plant alternative.   Improvements in water quality should allow the endangered
fish species that have been identified in the Scioto River to increase in
number and allow the species  inhabiting tributaries to expand their ranges.
Specific information on the tolerances of these species to turbidity and
lowered DO is not available,  preventing an assessment of the conditions under
which these species would establish permanent breeding populations.  Increased
habitat for feeding) however,  should benefit populations.

     Long-term  impacts of the one-plant alternative stem from:  1) modified
water quality below Jackson Pike and Southerly,  and 2) reduction in flow
between the Jackson Pike and Southerly WWTPs.

     Below Jackson Pike, water quality  would be somewhat improved under most
flow conditions.  These  improvements may encourage rare, threatened, and
endangered aquatic fauna to increase in range and abundance entering the
Scioto River from tributaries  or less  impacted river areas further downstream.
                                     xix

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     Under the one-plant alternative, however, the critical low flow
conditions will be the limiting factor on re-colonization of the Upper Scioto
River (between Jackson Pike and Southerly) by rare, threatened, and endangered
species.  Because of the nearly 90 percent reduction in river flows during low
flow conditions, residual DO demands from other upstream sources will result
in degraded water quality in shallow, still pools during warm weather.  Under
these conditions, the sensitive species will be reduced or eliminated,
cancelling the benefits to water quality which will occur under higher flow
conditions.

     The nearly 90 percent reduction in river flows between Jackson Pike and
Southerly under low flow conditions, will exert additional negative impacts on
aquatic fauna due to the physical effects of reduced flows and diminished
habitat area.  Reduced velocities associated with low flow could stress some
species and possibly limit their range.  Because many of the species feed in
riffles, drying out of riffles also could hinder the movement of these species
into the affected river segment.

       Table 5 summarizes the technical and environmental evaluations.

8.   PREFERRED PLAN
     Based on the technical and environmental evaluations, the two plant
alternative is recommended as the preferred plan.

     Implementation of two-plant alternative requires the following actions:

       Upgrade the Jackson Pike WWTP to treat an average flow of 70 MGD and a
        peak process flow of 100 MGD.
       Upgrade the Southerly WWTP to treat an average flow of 84 MGD and a
        peak process flow of 131 MGD.
       Complete the north end of the Interconnector Sewer to allow Jackson
        Pike flows to be diverted to the Southerly WWTP when dry weather flows
        exceed 70 MGD and wet weather flows exceed 100 MGD.
                                      XX

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           TABLE 5 ONE PLANT/TWO PLANT COMPARISON
CRITERION
PRESENT WORTH
COSTS
RELIABILITY
FLEXIBILITY
EASE OF
IMPLEMENTATION
EASE OF OPERATION
AND MAINTENANCE
SURFACE WATER
QUALITY
SURFACE WATER
FLOWS
AQUATIC BIOTA
ENDANGERED
SPECIES
ONE-PLANT




X




TWO-PLANT
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X-
PREFERRED ALTERNATIVE
                          XXI

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       Construct new headworks at Jackson Pike rated at a capacity of 100 MGD
        which include screening, pumping, and grit removal.

       Modify the existing aeration basins at each plant to operate in the
        semi-aerobic mode.

       Add two new aeration basins to the existing Center Train at the
        Southerly WWTP.

       Replace the existing rectangular clarifiers at the Southerly WWTP with
        six new circular clarifiers.

       Add two new rectangular clarifiers to the B Plant at Jackson Pike.

       Construct chlorination, dechlorination, and post aeration  facilities
        at both Jackson Pike and Southerly.

     *  Modify the four existing decant tanks at Southerly to be utilized as
        gravity thickeners.

     *  Modify two of the existing anaerobic digesters for use as  gravity
        thickeners at Jackson Pike.

       Add one new centrifuge for thickening at both Jackson Pike and
        Southerly.

       Rehabilitate the existing anaerobic digesters at both Jackson Pike and
        Southerly.

       Add two new dewatering centrifuges at Southerly.
     Solids disposal will be accomplished at Southerly in the following
manner:
       50 percent of the solids will be incinerated and the ash landfilled.
        The two most recently installed incinerators will be utilized.  It is
        not recommended that the older incinerators be renovated.

       25 percent of the solids will be composted at the Southwesterly
        Composting Facility.  The compost will be marketed as a soil
        conditioner.

       25 percent of the solids will be land applied on nearby farmland.
     Solids disposal will be accomplished at Jackson Pike in the following
manner.
                                      xxil

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       SO percent of the solids will be incinerated and the ash landfilled.
        The two existing incinerators should be renovated.
       50 percent of the solids will be land applied on nearby farmland.

     The preferred plan  does  not  incorporate measures to deal with combined
sewer overflows.  A detailed CSO study is required to'determine a cost-
effective solution to CSO problems within the planning area.
                                    xxiii

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                              TABLE OF CONTENTS


                                                                         Page

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 	     i

1,   PURPOSE AND NEED FOR ACTION	1-1

     l.l  PROJECT BACKGROUND  	   1-1

     1.2  PURPOSE AND NEED FOR PROJECT	1-6

     1.3  DECISION TO PREPARE A SUPPLEMENTAL EIS	1-7

     1.4  DESCRIPTION OF THE GRANT APPLICANT'S PROPOSED ACTION  ....   1-8

     1.5  ISSUES	1-9

     1.6  EIS PROCESS AND PUBLIC PARTICIPATION  	   1-12

2.   ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING	2-1

     2.1  NATURAL ENVIRONMENT 	   2-1

          2.1.1  Atmosphere	2-2
          2.1.2  Water	2-5
          2.1.3  Land	2-18
          2.1.4  Biota	2-23

     2.2  MAN-MADE ENVIRONMENT  	   2-54

          2.2.1  Income	2-55
          2.2.2  Public Service	2-60
          2.2.3  Public Finance	2-74
          2.2.4  Cultural Resources 	   2-78

3.  EXISTING FACILITIES 	   3-1

     3.1  JACKSON PIKE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT 	   3-1

          3.1.1   Major  Interceptors	   3-1
          3.1.2  Preliminary Treatment (O.S.I.S. Flows) 	   3-3
          3.1.3  Major Treatment Processes  	   3-3
          3.1.4  System Performance 	   3-5
          3.1.5  Present Condition of Plant 	   3-12
                                      xxiv

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                        TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
     3.2  SOUTHERLY WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT  	  3-13

          3.2.1  Major Interceptors 	  3-13
          3.2.2  Interconnector Pump Station  	 .....  3-14
          3.2.3  Treatment Processes  	  3-14
          3.2.4  System Performance 	  3-19
          3.2.5  Present Condition of Plant 	  3-26

     3.3  COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS  	  3-26

     3.4  SOUTHWESTERLY COMPOSTING FACILITY 	  3-30

4.  EVALUATION OF WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT DESIGN FACTORS  	  4-1

     4.1  PLANNING PERIOD	4-2

     4.2  POPULATION	4-2

          4.2.1  Existing Population	 .  4-3
          4.2.2  Population Projections 	  4-5

     4.3  LAND USE PATTERNS	4-10

     4.4  WASTEWATER FLOWS AND LOADS  	  4-18

          4.4.1  Existing Wastewater Flows  	  4-19
          4.4.2  Existing Wastewater Loads  	  4-31
          4.4.3  Projected Flows and Loads	4-34
          4.4.4  Comparison of EIS and Facility Plan Flows and Loads  .  4-34

     4.5  COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS  	  4-39

5.  ALTERNATIVES	5-1

     5.1  COMPREHENSIVE WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES  	  5~7

          5.1.1  No Action Alternative	5-7
          5.1.2  Upgrade Jackson Pike and Southerly, Provide Wet Stream
                 Treatment and Solids Handling at Both Plants .....  5-8
          5.1.3  Upgrade Jackson Pike and Southerly, Provide All Solids
                 Handling at Southerly  	  5-9
          5.1.4  Eliminate Jackson Pike, Upgrade and Expand Southerly .  5-9
                                      XXV

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                        TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
     5.2  INTERCONNECTOR/HEADWORKS OPTIONS  	   5-9

          5.2.1  Interconnector	5-9
          5.2.2  Headworks	5-12

     5.3  BIOLOGICAL PROCESS OPTIONS  	   5-15

          5.3.1  Semi-Aerobic	5-16
          5.3.2  Trickling Filter Processes 	   5-19
          5.3.3  Conventional Activated Sludge  	   5-23

     5.4  SOLIDS HANDLING	5-27

          5.4.1  Sludge Production  	   5-27
          5.4.2  Unit Processes	5-30
          5.4.3  Sludge Management Options  	   5-39

     5.5  SUMMARY OF ALTERNATIVES AND OPTIONS 	   5-57

6.   DETAILED ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES  	   6-1

     6.1  ENGINEERING EVALUATION  	   6-2

          6.1.1  Interconnector/Headworks Component 	   6-3
          6.1.2  Biological Process Component 	   6-6
          6.1.3  Solids Handling	6-10
          6.1.4  One-Plant vs. Two-Plants	6-15
          6.1.5  User Costs	6-28

     6.2  ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES - PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 	   6-31

          6.2.1  Surface Water Quality  	   6-31
          6.2.2  Surface Water Flow	6-49
          6.2.3  Groundwater	6-52
          6.2.4  Air Quality/Odor	6-56
          6.2.5  Soils/Prime Agricultural Land  	   6-69

     6.3  ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES - BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT 	   6-71

          6.3.1  Terrestrial and Wetland Biota/Habitat  	   6-71
          6.3.2  Aquatic Biota/Habitat  	   6-75
          6.3.3  Endangered Species/Habitat 	   6-81
          6.3.4  Conclusions  	  .......   686
                                      XXVI

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                        TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)

                                                                         P_age

     6.4  ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES - HUMAN ENVIRONMENT  	   6-88

          6.4.1  Planning and Land Use	6-88
          6.4.2  Noise	6-89
          6.4.3  Public Health	6-89
          6.4.4  Energy Use	6-90
          6.4.5  Economics and Employment	6-90
          6.4.6  Historic/Archaeologic Resources  .....  	   6-91
          6.4.7  Recreation	6-93
          6.4.8  Transportation	6-93
          6.4.9  Conclusions	6-94

     6.5  ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES - SECONDARY IMPACTS/INDUCED GROWTH  6-96

          6.5.1  Secondary Impacts:  Growth and Development  	   6-96
          6.5.2  Secondary Impacts:  Air Quality/Climate  .  	   6-100
          6.5.3  Secondary Impacts:  Water Quality  	   6-102
          6.5.4  Secondary Impacts:  Community Facilities .......   6-106
          6.5.5  Conclusions	6-114

     6.6  CONCLUSIONS ON ALTERNATIVES 	   6-115

7.  PREFERRED PLAN	7-1

     7.1  DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED PLAN  	   7-1

          7.1.1  Interconnector/Headworks 	   7-1
          7.1.2  Wet Stream Treatment	7-5
          7.1.3  Sludge Management  	   7-6

     7.2  IMPACTS OF THE PREFERRED PLAN	7-14

          7.2.1  Financial Impacts  	   7-14
          7.2.2  Environmental Impacts	   7-14

     7.3  COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW 	   7-29

8.   RESPONSE TO COMMENTS ON THE DRAFT SEIS	8-1

     8.1  INTRODUCTION	8-1

     8.2  COMMENT LETTERS	8-1

     8.3  COMMENT RESPONSES 	   8-19

9.   REVISED APPENDIX PAGES 	   9-1
                                     XXV11

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                        TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)
INDEX

REFERENCES

APPENDIX A

APPENDIX B

APPENDIX C

APPENDIX D

APPENDIX E

APPENDIX F

APPENDIX G

APPENDIX H

APPENDIX I


APPENDIX J

APPENDIX K

APPENDIX L

APPENDIX M
BRIEFING PAPER NO. 1 - WASTEWATER FLOWS AND LOADS

BRIEFING PAPER NO. 2 - SOLIDS HANDLING

BRIEFING PAPER NO. 3 - BIOLOGICAL PROCESS SELECTION

BRIEFING PAPER NO. 4 - O&M AND CAPITAL COSTS

BRIEFING PAPER NO. 5 - COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS

BRIEFING PAPER NO. 6 - ONE-PLANT VS. TWO-PLANT

GRAPHS OF STORET DATA FOR DO, BOD, AND AMMONIA

TABLES OF ENDANGERED SPECIES

SITES AND STRUCTURES IN THE COLUMBUS AREA LISTED ON
THE NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES

ARCKAEOLOGIC BACKGROUND

POPULATION PROJECTIONS AND METHODS

DRAFT CRITIQUE OF WATER QUALITY MODELING ISSUES

USEPA, WATER QUALITY BRANCH, MEMORANDUM ON COLUMBUS
WATER QUALITY MODEL
APPENDIX N - THE INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECT 1985 - 1986
             FINAL REPORT:  EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

APPENDIX 0 - SEIS DISTRIBUTION LIST
                                    XXVI Ll

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                               LIST OF FIGURES


Figure                                                                  Page

1-1   Planning Area	1-2

2-1   General Soil Map of Franklin County, Ohio	2-21

2-2   Comparison of Segment Mean Composite Index Values of the
      Middle Scioto River Mainstem . . 	  2-27

2-3   Composition of the Fish Community by Number in the Central
      Scioto River Mainstem  	  2-34

2-4   Composition of the Fish Community by Weight in the Central
      Scioto River Mainstem  	  2-35

2-5   Longitudinal Trend of the Mean (and Standard Error) Composite
      Index in the Central Scioto River Mainstem   	  2-37

2-6   Longitudinal Trend of the Mean (^SE) Number of Species/Zone
      in the Central Scioto River Mainstem 	  2-38

2-7   Comparison of Mean (and Standard Error) Composite Index Values .  2-39

2-8   Number of Benthic Macroinvertebrate Taxa	  2-49

2-9   Columbus Water System  	  2-64

2-10  Sewer Trunk Design vs. Industrial Park Sites 	  2-66

2-11  School District Boundaries 	 .  2-71

3-1   Columbus Metropolitan Area Interceptors and Treatment Facilities  3-2

3-2   North End Interconnector   	3-4

3-3   Jackson Pike WWTP Flow Schematic	3-6

3-4   South End Interconnector	3-15

3-5   Southerly WWTP Flow Schematic	3-16

3-6   Location of Combined Sewer Overflows 	  3-29
                                      XXIX

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                         LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)






Figure                                                                  gage




4-1   Planning and Service Area Boundaries	4-9




4-2   Sewer Service Areas	4-14




4-3   High Growth Areas	4-17




4-4   Diurnal Flow Variations	4-27




4-5   Diurnal Flow Variations for Dry Weather	4-29




5-1   South End Interconnector Option A	5-11




5-2   South End Interconnector Option B	5-13




5-3   Semi-Aerobic Process 	  5-17




5-4   Semi-Aerobic Process Modes of Operation  . . 	  5-18




5-5   Trickling Filter/Activated Sludge  	  5-21




5-6   Trickling Filter/Solids Contact  	  5-22




5-7   Single-Stage Activated Sludge  	  5-24




5-8   Two-Stage Activated Sludge   	  5-26




5-9   Jackson Pike Existing Sludge Management Schematic  	  5-28




5-10  Southerly Existing Sludge Management Schematic 	  5-29




5-11  Jackson Pike Option JP-A Sludge Management Schematic 	  5-41




5-12  Jackson Pike Option JP-B Sludge Management Schematic 	  5-43




5-13  Jackson Pike Option JP-C Sludge Management Schematic 	  5-45




5-14  Southerly Option SO-A Sludge Management Schematic  	  5-47




5-15  Southerly Option SO-B Sludge Management Schematic  	  5-48




5-16  Southerly Option SO-C Sludge Management Schematic  	  5-50




5-17  Southerly Option SO-D Sludge Management Schematic  	  5-52
                                       XXX

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                         LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)






Figure                                                                  Page




5-18  Southerly Option SO-E Sludge Management Schematic  .......  5-54




5-19  Southerly Option SO-F Sludge Management Schematic  	  5-56




6-1   Southerly One-Plant Site Layout  	  6-17




6-2   Southerly Two-Plant Site Layout  	 .....  6-20




6-3   Jackson Pike Two-Plant Site Layout	6-24




6-4   Non-Attainment Areas for Total Suspended Particulates  	  6-60




6-5   Locations of Potential Odor Sources in Southern Franklin County   6-64




7-1   Recommended Plan Flow Schematic  	 .....   7-2




7-2   Jackson Pike WWTP Flow Schematic	   7-3




7-3   Southerly WWTP Flow Schematic	   7-4
                                      XXXI

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                                LIST OF TABLES


Table                                                                  Page

1     NPDES Final Effluent Limits Jackson Pike WWTP  	   iii

2     NPDES Final Effluent Limits Southerly WWTP 	   iv

3     Summary of Alternatives and Options  	 .....   ix

4     Alternative Cost Summary 	 .....   xiv

5     One-Plant/Two-Plant Comparison 	   xx

2-1   Selected Climatological Data for Columbus, Ohio  	   2-3

2-2   USEPA & Ohio EPA Ambient Air Quality Standards	   2-4

2-3   Air Quality Data for the Franklin County Local Area	   2-6

2-4   Noteworthy Natural Terrestrial Areas	   2-23

2-5   Location and Description of the Six River Segments	   2-28

2-6   Overall Composition of the Fish Community in the Central
      Scioto  River Mainstem  	    2^30,  31

2-7   Species Group Designations Used to Assess Community
      Composition Patterns in the Mainstem Scioto River and
      Major Tributaries	   2-32

2-8   Metrics and Numerical Rankings Used in the Index of
      Biotic Integrity 	   2-41

2-9   Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) Scores for the Scioto River
      Mainstem .... 	 ......   2-42

2-10  Incidence of Lesions, Tumors,  Fin Erosion, and External
      Parasites Among Individual Fish Collected in Six Segments
      of the  Scioto  River	    2-45

2-11  Industries of Franklin County (1982) 	   2-57

2-12  Columbus MSA Employment (1978-1983) Trends 	   2-58

2-13  Per Capita Income Levels for the Columbus MSA	   2-59

2-14  Per Capita Taxes by County	   2-75
                                   xxxi i

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                          LIST OF TABLES (Continued)


Table                                                                  Page

2-15  Columbus Annexations Since 1986  	   2-76

3-1   Jackson Pike Existing Facilities 	   3-7,8

3-2   1985 Operating Data Jackson Pike WWTP	   3-9

3-3   Jackson Pike WWTP 1985 Performance Data	   3-10

3-4   Jackson Pike WWTP Nitrification Data - 1985	   3-11

3-5   Southerly WWTP Existing Facilities 	 .....   3-17,18

3-6   Southerly WWTP 1985 Operating Data	   3-20

3-7   Southerly WWTP 1985 Performance Data	   3-21

3-8   Southerly WWTP Nitrification Data - 1985	   3-22

3-9   Southerly WWTP Flow Data	   3-25

3-10  Summary of Bypass and CSO Locations in the Columbus
      Planning Area	   3-28

3-11  Southwesterly Compost Facility Operating Data  	   3-33

4-1   1980 Demographic Profile for the Columbus Area	   4-4

4-2   Population and Per Capita Income by Political Subdivision  .  .   4-6

4-3   Population Projections for the State of Ohio and the Counties
      in the Columbus Service Area	   4-7

4-4   Population Projections for Columbus  	 ....   4-8

4-5   Sewer Service Contracts for the City of Columbus as of
      May 1988	   4-12,13

4-6   Residential Plats by Municipality or Township, 1980-1982,
      Franklin County  	   4-15,16

4-7   1985 Water Pump age vs. Wastewater Flow	   4-23

4-8   Industrial and Commercial Flow Estimates	   4-25
                                     xxxiii

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                          LIST OF TABLES (Continued)
Table
4-9   1985 Estimated Flow  .....................   4-26

4-10  1985 and 1986 BOD and TSS Loads  ...............   4-33

4-11  1985 Flows and Loads .....................   4-33

4-12  1985 Per Capita/Connection Flows and Loads ..........   4-35

4-13  1988 Projections .......................   4-36

4-14  2008 Projections .......................   4-36

4-15  Comparison of Design Flows and Loads ....... . .....   4-37

4-16  2008 Recommended Tributary Flows and Loads ..........   4-39

5-1   Solids Analysis  .................. .....   5-31

5-2   Summary of Alternatives and Options  .............   5-58

6-1   Interconnector/Headworks Costs ................   6-4

6-2   One-Plant Biological Process Costs ......... .....   6-8

6-3   Two-Plant Biological Process Costs ..............   6-9

6-4   Cost Comparison of Sludge Management Options
      (Southerly One-Plant)   ....................   6-12

6-5   Cost Comparison of Sludge Management Options
      (Southerly Two-Plant)   ....................   6-13

6-6   Cost Comparison of Sludge Management Options
      (Jackson Pike Two-Plant)  .. .................   6-13

6-7   Southerly One-Plant Required Facilities   .....  . .....   6-18,19

6-8   Southerly Two-Plant Required Facilities   ...........   6-21,22

6-9   Jackson Pike Two-Plant  Required Facilities ..........   6-25,26

6-10  Alternative Cost Summary  ...................   6-23

6-11  Service Charge Estimates  ...................   6-29
                                      xxx iv

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LIST OF TABLES (Continued)
                                             Page
Table	

6-12  Median Family Income for the United States, Ohio,
      Franklin County, and Columbus in 1969 - 1979	   6-30

6-13  Mitigation on Sewer Line (Interconnector)  	   6-42,43,44,45,46

6-14  Surface Water flows in the Olentangy and Scioto Rivers at
      Columbus, Ohio	   6-51

6-l5a Estimates of Pollutants Generated Per Ton of Sludge
      Incinerated	   6-58

6-15b Projected Air Pollutant Emissions Associated with the
      No Action Alternative	 .   6-58

6-15c Projected Air Pollutant Emissions Associated with the
      Two-Plant Alternative  	   6-59

6-15d Projected Air Pollutant Emissions Associated with the
      One-Plant Alternative  	   6-59

6-16  Potential Odor Sources in Southern Franklin County, Ohio . . .   6-61,62,63

6-17  Annexations that have Occurred in Columbus 1984-1986 	   6-99

6-18  Current and Projected Levels of Total Suspended
      Particulates Due to Population Growth  	   6-101

6-19  Percent Improvements by Site Category	   6-102

6-20  Current Levels of Service  	   6-110

6-21  School District Information 1985-1987  	   6-111

6-22  One-Plant/Two-Plant Impacts Comparison 	 6-116,117,118

6-23  One-Plant/Two-Plant Comparison 	   6-119

7-1   Jackson Pike Wet Stream Process Design Criteria  	 . .   7-7,8

7-2   Southerly Wet Stream Process Design Criteria 	   7-9,10

7-3   Jackson Pike Solids Handling Design Criteria 	   7-12

7-4   Southerly Solids Handling Design Criteria  	   7-13
             XXXV

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                          LIST OF TABLES (Continued)
Table

8-1   Total Precipitation and Combined Monthly Average Dry Weather
      Flows from Jackson Pike and Southerly	
8-2   Design SEIS Flows and Loads

8-3   Design Data 	
8-29

8-33

8-34
                                       XXXVI

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                              LIST OF PREPARERS

     This Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) is
published by the Environmental Impact Unit of the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency (USEPA), Region V.  The Final Environmental Statement (ES)
which forms the basis of this SEIS was prepared under contract to USEPA by
Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), McLean, Virginia, and
Triad Engineering Incorporated, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.  Staff from USEPA, SAIC,
and Triad Engineering involved in preparation of the ES/SEIS included:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Dale Luecht
Rita Bair
Chief, Environmental Impact Unit
Project Monitor
Science Applications International Corporation
Geoffrey Kay
Carl Mitchell
Hunter Loftin
Candy Bartoldus
Margaret Kerr
Cindy Hughes
Marlene Stern
Dennis Borum
Dorothy LaRusso
David Hair
Teresa Dowd
April Hood
Audrey Knight
Kim Finch
Debbie Ryan
Alena Motyka
Tricia Codd
Project Administrator, Biologist
Planner
Hydrologist
Biologist
Biologist
Editor
Biologist
Bibliographer, Editor
Transportation Analyst
Civil Engineer
Planner, Socioeconomist
Planner, Socioeconomist
Planner, Socioeconomist
Planner, Socioeconomist
Air Quality Analyst
Information Specialist
Project Coordinator
                                     xxxvi i

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Triad Engineering Incorporated
Thomas Meinholz
Rick Pulk
Michael Sylvester
Ed Manning
Renee Beggan
Mark Miller
Steve Lepak
Tom Robak
Project Manager, Senior Engineer
Senior Engineer
Senior Engineer
Senior Engineer
Project Engineer
Planner, Editor
Project Engineer
Project Engineer
                                     XXXV111

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                   CHAPTER 1.  PURPOSE AND NEED FOR ACTION

l.l  PROJECT BACKGROUND
     This Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) addresses plans
submitted by the city of Columbus, Ohio, to meet wastewater treatment needs in
the Columbus Facilities Planning Area (FPA).  The planning area includes
essentially all of Franklin County and portions of surrounding counties.  The
planning area boundaries were reconfirmed by the Ohio Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) in a letter to the city of Columbus on October 23, 1986.  This
approved planning area is depicted in Figure 1-1.

     The city of Columbus, owns and operates two major wastewater treatment
facilities.  The Jackson Pike Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in southwest
Columbus was constructed in the late 1930's with an original hydraulic design
capacity of approximately 115 MGD.  The Southerly WWTP is located 8.5 miles
south of downtown Columbus.  The Southerly plant was constructed in 1967 with
a hydraulic design capacity of 100 MGD.  Both of these plants discharge to the
Scioto River.

     Formal facilities planning for the Columbus metropolitan area was
initiated on October 3, 1974, when the city contracted with Malcolm Pirnie,
Inc., for preparation of a facilities plan.  On December 12, 1974, a Step 1
grant application to request Federal Funds to conduct planning and a plan of
study were submitted to the Ohio EPA.  The plan of study was subsequently
approved, and a grant was made to the city by USEPA on September 23, 1975.

     In 1976, the city of Columbus prepared the Columbus Metropolitan
Facilities Plan for wastewater management up to the year 1995.  The 1976
facilities plan concluded that the most cost-effective solution to improved
wastewater treatment was rehabilitation and expansion of both Jackson Pike and
Southerly wastewater treatment plants.  Since then, the following studies and
reports on the Columbus, Ohio, wastewater treatment system have been prepared:
                                      1-1

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A
!%  JACKSON PIKE WWTP

    SOUTHERLY WWTP
                              APPROXIMATE SCALE:  1 INCH = 4.12 MILES
 [3]  SOUTHWESTERLY COMPOST FACILITY
  PLANNING AREA BOUNDARY
                                                      FIGURE 1-1
                                                      PLANNING  AHEA

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       USEPA Environmental Impact Statement Reports
        - Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) - February 1978
        - Evaluation of the Wastewater Treatment Process Proposed for
          Columbus, Ohio, in the Draft EIS - July 1978
        - Final EIS - June 1979
       USEPA - Advanced Waste Treatment Task Force Review - 1979
       Columbus Metropolitan Area Facilities Plan Update prepared in  the
        following segments:
        Segment 1 - Interim Solids Handling Facilities - 1980
        Segment 2 - Long-term Solids Handling Facilities - 1982
        Segment 4 - Combined Sewer Overflow - 1983
        Segment 5 - Blacklick Interceptor - 1981
       Design Finalization Overview Team (DFOT) Review Report  - May 1984
       Columbus Metropolitan Area Facilities Plan Update Report  - December
        1984
       Draft Central Scioto River Mainstem Comprehensive Water Quality Report
        August 1983 - (Revised February 1985)
       Revised Facilities Plan Update - September 1985
       Municipal Compliance Plan - September 1985

     After reviewing the original facilities plan, the USEPA initiated
preparation of an EIS.  The  1979 Final EIS contained recommendations for wet
stream treatment and solids handling that differed from the  recommendations of
the original facilities plan.  It  primarily focused on the selection of
additional mainstream  treatment and solids handling facilities  at Jackson Pike
and Southerly WWTP's as well as construction of  separate sanitary sewer
interceptors within the Columbus  planning area.   The 1979 EIS made the
following recommendations:

       Completion of the Interconnector Sewer between the Jackson Pike WWTP
        and Southerly WWTP.
                                     1-3

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       Installation of facilities for the addition of metal salt coagulant to
        the raw wastewater and  the influent to the clarifiers for phosphorus
        removal  flexibility at  the Southerly  and  Jackson Pike plants.
       Utilization of a two-stage wastewater treatment concept which includes
        trickling filters  followed by activated sludge at the Jackson Pike
        plant.
       Continued use of the single-stage activated sludge process at the
        Southerly plant.
       Pretreatment and regulation of brewery flows..
       Effluent filters,   that are capable of treating 80 to 85 percent of the
        hydraulic capacity,  at each plant.
       Expansion of the chlorine disinfection capacity and addition of post
        aeration and declorination processes at Jackson Pike and Southerly.
       Optimum utilization of existing sludge handling facilities,  two
        operable sludge incinerators at each plant,  and additional dewatering
        equipment.
       Investigation and  implementation of alternatives to incineration.

     Based on future flexibility considerations and  dissatisfaction with the
performance of the thermal conditioners, the 1979 EIS included a recommenda-
tion for continued testing  of a  chemical conditioning-belt  press system as a
possible alternative for the production of an autogenous sludge cake.   It was
stated that thermal conditioning could  be abandoned  in favor of  this new
method in the future depending on advances in belt press dewatering
technology.

     The 1979 EIS did not  recommend completing  the  sludge line.  Rather, it
was recommended in the EIS  that additional facility  planning be conducted to
evaluate alternative solids handling options.   The alternatives suggested by
the EIS included  strip  mine reclamation projects,  composting,  and land
application.   Upon implementation of an alternative  disposal technique,
incineration would become  a backup system.
                                      1-4

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     The  1979 CIS evaluated 11 subareas for connection to the Columbus sewer
 system.   Only 3 (Minerva Park., Blacklick, and Rocky Fork) had a documented
 need for  sewer  service.  The EIS recommended  that  additional  facility planning
 was required in the remaining 8 subareas to establish the need for regional
 sewers  during  the  planning period.

     In order to address the differences in design parameters between the
 Draft EIS and original facilities plan, USEPA in the Final EIS required that
 Columbus  establish a Design Finalization Overview  Team  (DFOT) "as a separate
 but integral part of the  Value Engineering Team  to  review and  recommend the
 final design parameters  of both plants."  AWARE, Inc.,  was selected as the
 DFOT by the city in 1982 and the report was completed in May  1984.  On July 9,
 1984,  the city submitted a Plan of Study which set the groundwork for a
 facilities plan update.   The DFOT Report was not formally reviewed by USEPA or
 OEPA,  since significant changes  were proposed in the Plan of Study for a
 Facilities Plan Update.

     Approximately 9 years have passed since completion of the original
 facilities plan with little implementation of the 1979 EIS recommendations.
 Deterioration of the concrete structures and other facilities at the Jackson
 Pike WWTP has occurred during this  time.   (O&M at Jackson Pike was a concern
 in the late 1970's.)  Recently, the city decided to reevaluate the facilities
 plan and introduced the Columbus  Metropolitan Area Facilities Plan Update
 Report,  December 1984, as  an update to the original facilities plan.   This.
 plan represents the first time that a single wastewater  treatment plant
 alternative for Columbus  was proposed.

     The Revised Facilities Plan Update Report (RFPU),  September 1985,
 supplements the Facilities Plan Update Report (FPU) and  related facilities
 planning documents.  The  specific objectives of the RFPU were:  (1) to revise
 the recommendations of previous  documents based upon revised design parameters
and NPDES permit limits;  (2)  to  present the  conclusions  and  recommendations of
                                      1-5

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 planning  analyses undertaken since completion of the FPU; (3) to respond to
 comments  by the OEPA relative  to  the  FPU; and (4)  to develop treatment
 facilities which would serve the city's needs through the year 2015.

 1.2  PURPOSE AND NEED FOR PROJECT
     As with most major metropolitan  areas, Columbus has experienced a wide
 range of air, water, and land pollution control  problems.   Columbus is
 increasingly looking toward its natural resources for recreation and an
 improved  quality of  life.  One area of concern to citizens and local officials
 is the resolution of environmental problems relating to  wastewater management.
 The most significant concern centers on water quality.

     The quality of the Scioto River is impacted by the  effluent from the two
 treatment plants and combined  sewer overflows (CSO).  Currently, the effluent
 from Jackson Pike and Southerly does not meet ammonia and BOD standards set by
 their respective National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)
 permits.  In addition, during periods  of wet weather (high groundwater
 resulting from rain or snow melt)  clear water enters the sanitary system and
 is conveyed to the treatment plant.  The Jackson Pike and Southerly WWTPs are
 unable to treat the increased flow and bypass it directly to the Scioto River.

     In order to reduce the overloading of the system, overflow points were
 established in the combined sewer  area where both sanitary and  stormwater are
 collected in the same pipe.  During periods  of wet  weather these combined
 sewer overflows discharge untreated wastewater directly to the Scioto River.
 According to the 1979 EIS, this can occur up to  50  times a year.

     Finally, the most significant need for  action  relates  to  the Clean Water
Act which currently mandates that  all  wastewater treatment facilities be in
compliance with NPDES permit limits by July  1, 1988.
                                     1-6

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1.3  DECISION TO PREPARE A SUPPLEMENTAL EIS
     USEPA is required to prepare a supplemental EIS in accordance with 40 CFR
1502.9(c) which states:
     (c)  Agencies
     (1)  Shall prepare supplements to either draft or final environmental
          impact statements if:
          (i)  The agency makes substantial changes in the proposed action
               that are relevant to environmental concerns; or
         (ii)  There are significant new circumstances or information relevant
               to environmental concerns and bearing on the proposed action or
               its impacts.
     (2)  May also prepare supplements when the agency determines that the
          purposes of the Act will be furthered by doing so.
     (3)  Shall adopt procedures for introducing a supplement into its formal
          administrative record, if such a record exists.
     (4)  Shall prepare, circulate, and file a supplement in the same fashion
          (exclusive of scoping) as a draft and final statement unless
          alternative procedures are approved by the Council.
     Given that the Columbus project involved 1) substantial changes in the
proposed action and possible significant environmental impacts associated with
those changes; and 2) new information which raises substantial concerns not
addressed in the original EIS, it was reasonable and prudent for USEPA to
proceed with the preparation of a supplemental EIS.

     Federal funding for wastewater treatment projects is provided under
Title II of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.  The dispersal of
Federal funds to local applicants or communities is made via the Municipal
Wastewater Treatment Works Construction Grants Program administered by USEPA.
If a community chooses to construct a wastewater collection and treatment
system with USEPA grant assistance, the project must meet all applicable
requirements of the Grants Program.  The Clean Water Act (CWA) stresses that
the most cost-effective alternative is the one that will result in minimum
                                      1-7

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total resource costs over the life of the project, as well as meet federal,
state, and local requirements.  Nonraonetary costs also must be considered,
including social and environmental factors.  The analysis for choosing the
cost-effective alternative is based on both capital costs and operation and
maintenance costs for a 20-year period.  Selection of the most cost-effective
alternative must also consider social and environmental implications of the
alternative.  An alternative with higher monetary costs but lesser social and
environmental impacts may be selected over an alternative that has low
monetary costs but undesirable environmental impacts.

1.4  DESCRIPTION OF THE GRANT APPLICANT'S PROPOSED ACTION
     The proposal by the applicant, the city of Columbus, for wastewater
treatment was submitted as the 1985 Revised Facilities Plan Update (RFPU) and
includes the following major elements:

       The Jackson Pike Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) would be phased out
        of service by 1993, with flows transported to the Southerly WWTP
        through the completion of the existing Interconnector Sewer.
       The Southerly Wastewater Treatment Plant would be enlarged to treat
        all wastewater flow from the service area until the year 2015.
       The design average wastewater flow is 178 MGD with a peak process flow
        of 300 MGD.  Wastewater flows in excess of 300 MGD would be settled
        and chlorinated prior to discharge.  Peak flow of up to 430 MGD may be
        generated from a CSO control program.
       The proposed treatment facilities would use a semi-aerobic process.
       The disposal of solids would be through composting and land
        application, with incineration as a back-up.

     The RFPU proposes to divert wastewater flows from Jackson Pike to
Southerly via completion of the north end of the Interconnector Sewer and
modification at the south end.  They also propose to abandon the existing pump
station and force main at the south end of the Interconnector and replace them
with a 156-inch diameter gravity interceptor to the Southerly WWTP.  The
                                      1-8

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gravity crossing of the Scioto River would consist of four 78-inch parallel
lines placed beneath the river bed.

     The 1985 RFPU recommends that the Jackson Pike Wastewater Treatment Plant
be abandoned in the early 1990's and wastewater flows be conveyed to an
expanded and upgraded Southerly plant for treatment and discharge.

     The RFPU states that combined sewer overflow control is not warranted
based upon water quality modeling and sampling results.  As required in the
NPDES Permit, the city intends to continue to monitor overflows.

     The RFPU also proposes abandoning the existing headworks at Southerly and
replacing it with a new headworks designed for a peak hydraulic flow of
430 MGD and peak process flow of 300 MGD.

     Composting and land application are proposed as the primary methods of
solids disposal although incineration facilities would be maintained for
contingency puposes.

1.5  ISSUES
     During the review of the Revised Facilities Plan Update, a number of
possible significant environmental impacts were identified.  These issues were
the subject of USEPA's action to issue a Notice of Intent (June 11, 1986).
The environmental impacts that were identified include:

       Impacts expected from the fulfillment of the population projections
        and development for the planning area.
       The reliability of the Southerly WWTP needs to be evaluated in the EIS
        process.  (The ability of Southerly to meet its NPDES limits was a
        major concern in the original EIS due to the unique problems it has
        experienced from the Anheuser-Busch (AB) BOD loadings).  An analysis
        needs to be done to verify the reliability of the currently proposed
        treatment process to effective meet NPDES limits.
                                      1-9

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     *  The concerns about the water quality and stream use impacts related to
        a one-plant discharge and other upstream and downstream impacts.

       The alternatives for environmentally acceptable sludge treatment  and
        disposal.

       The induced growth and secondary environmental effects of an expanded
        Southerly WWTP.

       The cost-effective treatment of combined sewer overflow as an integral
        part of the system.


     The RFPU covered a 30-year planning period (1985-2015),  however, federal

regulations require a USEPA review and cost-effective decision based upon a

20-year planning period.  Within the city's  30-year  planning  period,  four
phases were contemplated.
     Phase 1:
     Phase 2:
Upgrade Jackson Pike and Southerly treatment plants in order to
meet Clean Water Act requirements of permit compliance by
July 1, 1988.   These components are detailed in the Municipal
Compliance Plan with a  construction  schedule.  The proposed
improvements  were estimated to cost $147,241,718.  A list of
these improvements is provided below.
                                                  Jackson Pike WWTP

                                                  Aeration Tanks
                                                  Chlorine Tanks
                                                  Interconnector
                                                  Interconnector (North Segment)
     Southerly WWTP

     Sitework
     Preaeration
     Primary Settling
     Aeration Tanks
     Secondary Settling
     Effluent Filters
     Chlorine Tanks
     Dilution Water Pumps
     Gravity Thickeners
     Dewatering Centrifuges
     Sludge Cake Storage
     Lime Stabilization
     Primary Electrical Dist.
     I&C

     deleted from the plan

The improvements required during this phase are needed to stay in
compliance.  The city's  recommendation calls for abandoning Jackson
Pike with its replacement of capacity at Southerly by 1993.
                                     1-10

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     Phase 3:  This phase addresses facilities and sizing to accommodate
               combined sewer overflows.
     Phase 4:  If population projections increase as expected, additional
               capacity and interceptors will be needed at Southerly beginning
               in 2000.  This phase addresses facilities needed for this
               growth.

     USEPA has prepared this SEIS based on facilities that existed as of 1985.
This base was used since the completed NEPA review in 1979 recommends
different conclusions than the 1985 Revised Facilities Plan Update.  The
planning period used is 1988 - 2008.  The USEPA review was conducted as it
would have been had the city sought Federal review and compliance with NEPA
prior to undertaking the construction in 1986.  Although the city was required
to attain NPDES permit limits by 1988, that requirement does not change the
base for analysis under the Construction Grants Program.

     This SEIS will not refer to the Columbus project phases since the city
has not completed facilities planning for their Phases 3 and 4, but will
emphasize the facilities required for a 20-year solution of wastewater
treatment needs.  With this as a given the scope of this SEIS was limited to
the 20-year needs of the Columbus FPA without design for CSO capacity or
future interceptors.  USEPA1s analysis determined the cost-effective
alternative for treating dry weather flows to identify potential grant awards
consistent with the proposed facilities.

     During the development of this SEIS including data gathering on the
facilities plan update, USEPA has funded two grant requests which were
consistent with the 1979 EIS.  Both of these actions were reaffirmations which
determined that those facilities were consistent with the cost-effective
two-plant alternative as identified by the 1979 EIS.  These actions approved:  1)
construction at Southerly of 3000 feet of interceptor sewer (north end
Interconnector) between the existing Jackson Pike and Southerly treatment
plants, along with construction at Southerly of chlorine contact tanks,
dechlorination, and post aeration facilities (1986); and 2) rehabilitation at
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Southerly of the existing grit removal and primary settling tanks, new final
clarifiers, instrumentation and control for both the final clarifiers and
existing aeration tanks, and necessary site restoration (1987).

1.6  EIS PROCESS AND PUBLIC PARTICIPATION
     On July 22, 1986, the USEPA held two sessions of the Scoping Meeting  in
Columbus after the decision to prepare a supplemental EIS was announced  in the
Notice of Intent of June 11, 1986.  The Scoping Meeting, which was advertised
to the general public and public officials, was held to gather public input in
developing the scope of issues to be addressed in the SEIS.  The scope of the
SEIS included the issues in the Notice of Intent and those raised at the
scoping meeting.

     The draft SEXS was issued on January 22, 1988.  It is comprised of  two
volumes; one contains the SEIS, and the second includes the appendices.  A
Public Hearing was held in Columbus at City Hall on February 16, 1988.  Two
sessions were convened by USEPA at 1:00 p.m. and 7:00 p.m. to receive public
comment.  The analysis and conclusions of the SEIS were summarized in a brief
presentation.  The following major issues were raised by those commenting on
the draft document:

       Annexation
        Commentors, both at the Public Hearing and in writing, questioned
        whether USEPA could require the city of Columbus to provide service
        without annexation in light of the 1979 EIS and the federally funded
        Blacklick Interceptor.
       Service Area
        Several commentors requested additional clarification on the service
        area for the recommended treatment facilities.  Two local governments
        requested that USEPA review the situation as it relates to the
        Blacklick Interceptor which passes near and presents a cost-effective
        opportunity for them.
                                      1-12

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       Odor

        One commentor at the Public Hearing questioned to what extent the city
        of Columbus is committed to controlling odors and if the city plans to
        incorporate state-of-the-art controls and containment.

       Process Design

        -  Average Wastewater Flows and Loads
           The city commented that they do not agree with flows and loads
           presented in the draft SEIS.

        -  Peak Wastewater Flows/Peaking Factor
           The city recommended that the peak flow should be larger than that
           presented in the SEIS.  They believe the difference is based on the
           peaking factor.

        -  Nitrification
           The city commented that they do not feel the SEIS recommendation
           provides adequate aeration capacity for nitrification.  They also
           provided revised nitrification data for review.

       Water Quality

        Numerous questions were raised on the discussions in the draft SEIS
        on water quality.  Previous water quality modeling efforts have been
        interpreted differently by some commentors who believe the one-plant
        alternative has advantages over the two-plant alternative.


     Following the close of the 45-day comment period, this Final SEIS was

prepared which incorporates the results of the public input on the Draft SEIS.

The individuals and organizations on the mailing lists, any additional

requestors, and those who comment on the SEIS will receive copies.  After a

30-day comment period following publication of the Final SEIS, DSEPA will

issue a Record of Decision (ROD) identifying the cost-effective environ-

mentally sound alternative for the Columbus FPA.  This ROD will then form the

basis for any funding decisions by the DSEPA.


     This Final SEIS presents textual changes in highlighted or boldface text.

A Chapter 8 which responds specifically to all comments on the Draft SEIS
has been added.  Also, Chapter 9 has been added which includes revised pages

to the appendix as needed to respond to comments.  The entire appendix of this
SEIS was not reprinted.
                                      1-13

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                      CHAPTER 2.  ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING

     The environmental setting, for purposes of description and analysis, can
be defined as the natural environment and the man-made environment.  The
natural environment includes the land and underlying geologic structure; the
air, water, and mineral resources; and the naturally occurring vegetation and
animal life.  The man-made environment includes the structures man has built
for shelter, transportation, industry, commerce, and recreation.  In
describing the man-made environment, certain characteristics are important
such as:  land use patterns, demographic and economic characteristics, the
exploitation of natural resources, and the degradation of air and water
quality that has been encouraged by technology, urbanization, and an agressive
attitude toward the natural environment.  The presentation of land use
patterns and deraongraphic characteristics are presented in Chapter 4 as design
criteria.  The following discussions present more of the conditions of the
environment at the onset of this review.

2.1  NATURAL ENVIRONMENT
     Located in central Ohio, the study area includes the city of Columbus,
Ohio; most of the 552 square mile area of Franklin County, including numerous
satellite communities; and a portion of Delaware County near the Hoover
reservoir.  Columbus, the capital of Ohio and a major commercial and
industrial center, is located in the central portion of the county.  This
urban area accounts for 20 percent of Franklin County and contains over one-
half of the Scioto River Basin population.  The remaining, primarily rural,
land is utilized mainly for agriculture, including the grazing of cattle.

     In this section, the following characteristics are described:

       Atmosphere
       Water
       Land
       Biota.
                                     2-1

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2.1.1  Atmosphere
2.1.1.1  Climate
     The climate of Franklin County may be characterized as continental.  The
region is subject to invasions of continental, polar air masses from central
and northwest Canada during winter, and tropical, Gulf air masses in summer
and occasionally in fall and winter.  Precipitation is abundant, about
37 inches, and is distributed rather evenly throughout the year.  The maximum
monthly precipitation total was 10.7 inches and the greatest 24-hour rainfall
rate was 4.8 inches.  The snow season lasts from December through February,
with 5 to 7 inches falling during each of these months.  Annual snowfall
totals average 28 inches, but have varied from 5 to 47 inches.  The maximum
amount to fall in one month was 29 inches.

     Winds, for the most part, are from the south-southwest at 9 mph, with a
high frequency of calms or low wind speeds.  Wind direction frequency varies
considerably throughout the year, as evidenced by the frequently changing
weather patterns.  Damaging winds and local flooding sometimes occur during
thundershowers.  An average of.42 thunderstorms occur during the year, most
frequently during the late spring and summer months.  Additional climate data
is provided in Table 2-1.

2.1.1.2  Air Quality
     The city of Columbus lies within the Metropolitan Columbus Intrastate Air
Quality Control Region (AQCR) as designated by USEPA.  The region is subject
to National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and to standards imposed by
the State of Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA has designated
standards identical to the NAAQS).  These standards are listed in Table 2-2.

     Areas where the NAAQS are not being attained are designated non-
attainment areas.  In such areas, the State is required to develop permit
requirements which will bring the area into compliance with the NAAQS.
Specifically, new or modified sources locating in these regions must obtain a
high degree of emission control and obtain emission reductions, offsets, or
tradeoffs for problem pollutants.  Currently,  portions of Columbus are
designated non-attainment for total suspended particulates.
                                     2-2

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    i
           8
           *3 v_x
           CO
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   4-> s
   %*>
  a
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           in
           9
                                             in
                                         t/1 C/J 
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           dddocor-   sovovor
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                    TABLE 2-2.   USEPA AND OHIO EPA AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS*
   Pollutant
Duration
Restriction
                                                                           Maximum Allowable
                                                                            Concentrations**
Primary
Secondary
Total Suspended   Annual geometric
  Particulates    mean
                   Not to be exceeded
                  24-hour concentration   Not to be exceeded more
                                          than once per year
                         75 ug/m3      60 ug/m3***
                                                  260 ug/m3      150 ug/m3
Sulfur Dioxide


Carbon Monoxide

Ozone
Nitrogen Dixoide
Lead
Annual arithmetic mean
24-hour arithmetic
mean concentration
3-hour arithmetic
mean concentartion
8-hour arithmetic
mean concentration
1-hour mean
concentration
1-hour mean
concentration
Annual arithmetic
mean
3-month arithmetic
mean concentration
Not to be exceeded
Not to be exceeded more
once per year
Not to be exceeded more
than once per year
Not to be exceeded more
than once per year
Not to be exceeded more
than once per year
Not to be exceeded on more
than one day per year,
average over three years
Not to be exceeded
Not to be exceeded
80 ug/m3
(0.03 ppm)
365 ug/m3
(0.14 ppm)

10 mg/m3
(9.0 ppm)
40 mg/m3
(35.0 ppm)
0.12 ppm
(244 ug/m3)
0.53 ppm
100 ug/m3)
1.5 ug/m3


1300 ug/m3
(0.5 ppm)





Notes:

Primary standards are established for the protection of public health
Secondary standards are established for the protection of public welfare

  *USEPA and Ohio EPA Air Quality Standards are identical
 **400 CFR 50.4 - 50.12
***Air Quality Guidelines

ug/m  = micrograms per cubic meter
ppm   = parts per million
mg/m3 = milligrams per cubic meter
                                                2-4

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     The Ohio EPA has established numerous air quality monitoring  stations
 throughout  the State.  Within  the Columbus AQCR,  the following pollutants are
 monitored:  TSP at 16 sites, PM-10  (particulate matter of less than  10 micron
 diameter) at one site, lead at  two  sites, sulfate at one site, sulfur dioxide
 at six sites, oxides of nitrogen at one site, carbon dioxide at  three sites,
 and ozone at three sites.  Data for sites in and around Franklin County are
 summarized  in Table 2-3.

 2.1.1.3  Odors
     Southern areas of Franklin County have been plagued by ambient odors for
 many years.  The 1979 EIS noted that one positive impact of the proposed
 project would be the reduction  of odors that plagued the Jackson Pike and
 Southerly WWTPs.  To date, many odor complaints have still been made to local,
 State, and  Federal agencies.  It appears that the main cause of odor in the
 area is the Southwesterly Composting Facility.

     Southwesterly Composting was first put into service in August 1980.  The
 first known registered complaint was filed in January of 1981.  A subsequent
 study by Ohio EPA confirmed that "...objectionable odors are frequently
 emitted from the facility" (Ohio EPA 1981). In particular, the process of
 sludge mixing and breaking of an incompletely composted pile were felt at that
 time to be  the operational causes of the objectionable odors.  In addition, it
has been stated by several individuals that the type of odor is easily
distinguishable, e.g., a septic sewage odor is attributed to the primary
 clarifiers and/or anaerobic digestors at the Southerly Waste Water Treatment
Plant (VUTP); a burnt ash sewage odor is attributable to the incinerators at
Southerly WWTP;  and finally, an earthy sewage odor is attributable to the
Southwesterly Composting Facility (McCarthy 1986).  Similar descriptions have
been offered by Maxwell (1986) and Bonk (1986).

2.1.2  Water
2.1.2.1  Hydrology
     The two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that are the subject of this
environmental review (Jackson Pike and Southerly) are located on the Scioto
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     TABLE 2-3.  AIR QUALITY DATA FOR THE FRANKLIN COUNTY LOCAL AREA
Pollutant
(Units)
Avg. Time
TSP
(ug/m3 )
Annual
TSP
(ug/m3 )
24-Hr
S02
(ug/m3 )
Annual
S02
(ug/m3 )
24-Hr
S02
( ug/m3 )
3-Hr
CO
(mg/n3)
1-Hr
CO
(mg/m3 )
8-Hr
NOx
(ug/m3 )
Annual
OZONE
(ug/m3 )
1-Hr
LEAD
(ug/m3 )
3 -Mo
Year
1985
1984
1983
1985
1984
1983
1985
1984
1983
1985
1984
1983
1985
1984
1983
1985
1984
1983
1985
1984
1983
1985
1984
1983
1985
1984
1983
1985
1984
1983
Columbus
57
71 .7
67.9
184
209
229
37.3
64.3
40.4
170
260
224
339
572
828
12.6
16. 1
18.4
7.2
10.2
9.8
46.7
44.4
42.8
225
212
231
0.35
0.62
0.57
Franklin Grandview
Co. Heights
34.6 45.8
41.8 48.9
41 .1 48.7
93 116
104 127
127 154
20. 1
18. 1
90
71
190
193





Grove
City
38.6
41 .8
39.8
93
99
120








The maximum values  of  several downtown sites has  been reported.
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River.  The Scioto River is a major tributary of the Ohio River, originating
in northwestern Ohio (vest of Kenton) and flowing 135 miles southeast to the
Ohio River at Portsmouth.  The river basin drains 6,510 square miles in 31
counties of central and southern Ohio.

     The study area in Franklin and Pickavay Counties, is part of the Central
Scioto River Basin.  This basin is located on a flat glacial till plain with
the mainstem flowing from north to south and its tributaries following well-
defined gorges.  The Scioto River enters Columbus from the northwest, joins
with the Olentangy River within the City, and then flows south.  To contain
erosion and flooding, the river channel within Columbus has been modified,
reinforced with concrete, and bounded by levees.

     North of Columbus, the Scioto River is somewhat incised, with a substrate
alternating between exposed limestone bedrock and largely silt/muck deposits.
However, south of the city, the river valley is broad and poorly defined,
flowing over a buried valley filled with glacial .outwash material (mostly
coarse sand and gravel).  In this area, the channel is typical of a large
compound river, exhibiting meanders and riffle-pool sequences.  Flooding in
this area covers extensive areas of the floodplain (OEPA 1983).

     There are two major Scioto River tributaries in the study area.  They are
the Olentangy River (543 square miles) entering roughly five miles upstream of
the Jackson Pike WWTP, and Big Walnut Creek (557 square miles) entering about
one mile downstream of the Southerly tfWTP.

     The major tributaries affecting the water quality of the Scioto River
between Columbus and Circleville are the Olentangy River (confluence at RM
132.2); Big Walnut Creek (confluence at RM 117.2), with its tributaries Alum
Creek and Blacklick Creek; Walnut Creek (confluence at RM 102.1); and Big
Darby Creek (confluence at RM 100.8).  Flow summaries and water quality
characterizations for these Scioto River tributaries are provided in the
following discussions.  These discussions are excerpted from the most recent
305(b) reports (biennial water quality reports prepared by the individual
States).
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  Olentangy River

   The Olentangy is crucial to the Scioto River because it provides the
   only guaranteed release below Griggs Reservoir, and thus during
   critical low flow periods may be the only source of dilution to the
   Jackson Pike WWTP.  A minimum flow of 5 cfs is required leaving
   Delaware Reservoir above the town of Delaware, but flow almost always
   exceeds this minimum.  Low flow into the Scioto from the Olentangy
   usually exceeds 19 cfs and almost never drops below 10 cfs.  Effluent
   from the Delaware WWTP enters the Olentangy River, at RM 24.8, and
   affects water quality for a short distance downstream.  However, this
   does not significantly degrade water quality at the confluence with
   the Scioto River.  Nevertheless, water quality in the lower 10 miles
   of the Olentangy is rated FAIR (OEPA 1986b) and the last half-mile
   before entering the Scioto received a POOR rating.  The ratings are
   based on low faunal diversity indices and violations of fecal
   coliform, iron, and lead water quality standards.  Combined sewer
   overflows and urban runoff from Columbus have been noted as the major
   causes of the poor water quality.  Dissolved oxygen usually exceeds
   7.0 mg/1, but the Columbus Consolidated Environmental Information
   Document (URS Dalton 1986) reports violations of DO standards (5.0
   mg/1) during low flow conditions.  Elevated nitrate levels have also
   been reported and may contribute to the DO problem.

  Big Walnut Creek

   The water quality of the lower segment of this creek, before it enters
   the Scioto, was not rated in the 305(b) report.  The two main
   tributaries into this creek, Blacklick and Alum Creeks, both have
   water quality problems.  Blacklick Creek is given a FAIR rating due to
   serious violations of water quality standards for dissolved oxygen,
   ammonia, and fecal coliform.  Blacklick Estates WWTP is currently the
   major source of degradation, although the Reynoldsburg WWTP also
   discharged into this creek in the past.  Alum Creek is given a GOOD
   rating, but the lower portion (below the two reservoirs) is subject to
   urban point source and nonpoint source pollution, as is Big Walnut
   Creek downstream of the Alum Creek confluence.  Sporadic dissolved
   oxygen and total iron WQS violations have been reported in these
   areas,  but data are insufficient to assess overall water quality.

  Walnut Creek

   Although the upper reaches of Walnut Creek have exhibited some water
   quality problems,  due to effluents from Crown Zellerbach and the
   Baltimore WWTP,  the lower 24.3 mile section leading to the confluence
   with the Scioto River is rated GOOD in the 305(b) report.   Fish and
   macroinvertebrate community indices reflected good water quality, with
   a possible decline reflected in the macroinvertebrates downstream of
   RM 5.5.  This decline may have been due to the effects of organic
   enrichment from nonpoint source runoff from agricultural lands.   The
   CWQR (OEPA 1986a)  reports violations of total iron water quality
   standards near the mouth of Walnut Creek,  which could also reflect
   agricultural runoff (iron bound to eroded soil).   The reported
   dissolved oxygen concentrations always exceeded 5.0 mg/1.
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     *  Big Barby Creek

        This tributary is characterized as having exceptional water quality  in
        the 30-mile segment upstream of its confluence with the Scioto River
        (OEPA 1986B).  Concentrations of nitrogen compounds, total phosphorus,
        and BOD were relatively low and not indicative of problems.  Heavy
        metals concentrations were indicative of point and nonpoint sources
        but did not reflect severe loadings problems.  Dissolved oxygen
        concentrations generally were high.

     The Olentangy River floodplain is narrow, with an average width of about

1,500 feet.  The river flows through a gorge section, from north of

Worthington upstream to Delaware, Ohio.  It has an average slope of 6.2 feet
per mile.


     The river stretch in that portion of the study area north of the Jackson

Pike WWTP is interrupted by two major impoundments, three low head dams on the

Scioto River, and one impoundment on the Olentangy River.  These structures

supply Columbus with drinking water sources, flood control, and recreational

sites.  They are discussed below in upstream-to-downstream order.
        0'Shaughnessy Reservoir was built in 1924 and upgraded in 1987 to
        include an electric power plant that has a Maximum generating capacity
        of five megawatts and requires 1,380,000 cubic feet per second to
        generate maximum power.  This plant generates auxiliary power and is
        not expected to alter the river's water quality.  The area of the
        seven-mile-long pool is 829 acres.  The concrete spillway is 70 feet
        high and 1,005 feet long.  The dam is located at RM 148.8.

        The Julian Griggs Reservoir was built in 1905 for water supply.  The
        six-mile-long reservoir is also pipular for power boating and a park
        and marina exist along the shoreline.  The concrete ogee dam is 33
        feet high and 500 feet long.  It is located at RM 138.8.

        The Dublin Road Water Treatment Plant withdraws water from behind a
        low head dam about 17.7 feet high by 310 feet long.  The dam is at RM
        133.4.  (This plant is considered to be part of the Griggs Reservoir.)

        The Delaware Reservoir is located on the Olentangy River.  Completed
        in 1951, the reservoir primarily serves as flood control although the
        conservation pool is operated to provide five cubic feet per second
        during low flow conditions to preserve downstream water supply and
        pollution abatement uses.  The Olentangy River joins the Scioto at RM
        132.3.

        The Main Street Dam is a low head dam 15.7 feet high and 545 feet
        wide.  It creates a pool for a downtown park.  The pool is not used to
        control releases downstream.  The dam is at RM 131 (OEPA 1983).

        The Greenlawn Avenue Dam, like the Main Street Dam, is not used for
        water conservation.  It is a low head dam 11 feet high, 422 feet wide
        and is located at RM 129.6.
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     The flow regime of the Scioto River can be characterized by river dis-
charge data taken at United States Geological Survey (USGS) gaging stations.
However, in analyzing this data for current river discharges, the period of
record considered must recognize the effect of flood control and water supply
impoundments, the most recent of which is the Delaware Dam (constructed in
1951).  These impoundments have a moderating effect during flood conditions
reducing peak downstream discharges.  During low flow conditions, water supply
withdrawals have occasionally resulted in no discharge passing the Dublin Dam;
Scioto River flows downstream are then supplied solely by Delaware Dam
releases on the Olentangy River.

     The primary source of river flows is from precipitation with the greatest
amount of precipitation occurring from February to July and the least amount
from August to January.  Previous studies indicate a certain amount of ground-
water inflow to the river during low flow periods (OEPA 1983).

     Of the water bodies in the study area, low flow conditions are the most
critical on the Scioto River.  Columbus is authorized, by a 1913 statute, to
divert all flows of the Scioto River for the purpose of maintaining the public
water supply.  Since the Griggs Reservoir and the Dublin Dam were designed for
public water supply, this statutory authority has resulted in occasional "no
flow" conditions over the Dublin Dam.  The only assured water sources during
low flow periods are from the Delaware Reservoir and the two WWTPs.

     The Corps of Engineers has guaranteed a minimum release of 5 cfs from the
Delaware Reservoir, to preserve water supply and water quality uses making the
Olentangy the principal source of dilution water for the Columbus WWTPs under
extreme low flow conditions.  The Jackson Pike WWTP can contribute as much as
98 MGD (85 MGD on average) of discharge to the Scioto River Study area, which
represents 90 to 95 percent of the extreme low flow discharge in the river
stretch between the two WWTPs.  Downstream of Southerly WWTP, Big Walnut Creek
and other tributaries provide additional water inflow.

     According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA) Flood
Insurance Study for Franklin County and the City of Columbus, the floodplain
of the Scioto River can be divided into two fairly distinct topographic
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subdivisions:  a gorge section, with narrow valleys, from the Delaware County
line to approximately Interstate Highway 670 (crossing just north of
Valleyviev); and an alluvial section with wide floodplains and rolling
uplands, from the Interstate Highway 670 crossing downstream to the Pickaway
County line.  Floodplain development along the Scioto River is extensive,
varying from residential to industrial.

     The Olentangy River flows south through Franklin County and joins the
Scioto River near the southeasterly corporate limits of Grandview Heights,
within the Columbus metropolitan area.  The land along the Olentangy River
floodplain is mostly open area and farm land in the upper reaches of Franklin
County.  However, the lower several miles of the river, from Worthington to
the mouth, are mainly developed.  Major transportation arteries, with their
associated bridges and interchanges, lie adjacent to the stream.  Many indus-
trial and research facilities, several wholesale and retail distribution
centers and several park areas adjoin  the Olentangy in the lower reaches.
Very little land adjacent to the stream along the lower three miles is
available for future development.

     The history of flooding along the Scioto River, and particularly along
the Olentangy River, indicates that a major flood can occur during any season.
However, the majority of floods have occurred during the period from January
to March and have usually been the result of spring rains and/or rapid snow-
melt.  The worst floods of this century occurred on March 25, 1913; in January
1952; and on January 21-22, 1959.

     In response to the flood of 1913, flood protection measures were imple-
mented.  The Scioto River channel improvement project widened the channel,
constructed levees and revetments, and increased bridge spans.  After the 1959
flood, Dry Run levee was raised and strengthened, and a levee was constructed
along Dublin Road.  In 1951, Olentangy River flows were regulated, for the
first time, by the Delaware Dam and Lake Project.  Although the areas along
the Scioto River protected by levees would probably be safe from minor flood-
ing events, the extent of major flooding events, such as the 100-year flood,
would be unlimited, as if the levees were not present.
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2.1.2.2  Groundwater
     Groundwater quality analyses are available from the USGS and the Ohio
Department of Health for inorganic chemical characteristics, but organic
analysis data are limited.  In 1985, the Ohio EPA began testing the ground
water quality of four large radial wells used to provide the City of Columbus
with roughly 10 percent of its drinking water supply.  In 1987, a regular
program of testing these four wells is expected to begin (Button 1986).

2.1.2.3  Surface water Quality
     The Scioto River from O'Shaughnessy Reservoir (RM 148.8) to Chillicothe,
Ohio (RM 70.7) is a moderately polluted, turbid, warm water stream fed by
several tributaries of similar or better quality.  The most significant water
quality impact is observed below the two Columbus wastewater treatment plants,
at river miles (RM) 127.1 and 118.4.  Previous studies (1980-1982) have
described degraded conditions measured in chemical/physical water quality
parameters and biological indices, below the two treatment plants.  Despite
continued improvement over the past two decades, a substantial part of the
river between Columbus and Circleville does not yet meet the goals of the
Clean Water Act.  Less severe problems occur downstream from Circleville and
upstream from Griggs Dam (RM 138.8) and in the Olentangy and Scioto Rivers
adjacent to Columbus.  The problems in Griggs Reservoir and in the Olentangy
are primarily due to runoff and/or combined sewer overflow (CSO).

     In the Scioto River, low levels of dissolved oxygen have historically
been the greatest problem associated with the two wastewater plant discharges
(Jackson Pike and Southerly).  Improvements made in these treatment facilities
in the last 20 years have contributed to improvements in water quality down-
stream.  The most noted water quality improvement has been increased dissolved
oxygen levels.  Appendix G presents graphs of STORE! data for DO, BODg, and
NH3+NH~-N (ammonia) from 1971 to 1986 at six stations between the Jackson Pike
WTP and Circleville.  Regressions on each graph (dashed line) indicate a
general trend of improving conditions (increasing DO, decreasing BOD5 and
decreasing ammonia) over the referenced time period.
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     Flow records from a USGS station just downstream from the Jackson Pike
wastewater treatment plant indicate wide fluctuations in flow, with a minimum
of 47 cfs and a maximum of 68,200 cfs during the period from October, 1920
through September, 1985 (Shindel, et al. 1986).  The impact of wastewater
treatment facilities on water quality is highest during periods of critical
low flow.

     The O'Shaughnessy and Griggs Reservoirs, upstream from Columbus, are a
source of drinking water for the City.  As Columbus is authorized to divert
the entire flow of the Scioto River for public water supply, during periods of
critical low flow there may be little or no water flowing over the dam at the
Dublin Road water treatment plant (RM 133).  Under these flow conditions, the
Scioto River relies upon its confluence with the Olentangy River (RM 132.3) to
replenish its flow, at a minimum of 5 cfs (regulated at Delaware Dam).  During
critical low flow periods, the input from the Olentangy provides the only
upstream dilution to the Jackson Pike WWTP (RM 127.1).

     The Scioto River between Columbus and Circleville is greatly affected by
wastewater discharge from the city of Columbus.  The combined discharge from
the two Columbus wastewater treatment plants (Jackson Pike at RM 127.7 and
Southerly at RM 118.4) constitutes up to 95 percent of the total discharge of
the river during low flow periods.  The effects of point and nonpoint pollu-
tion sources on Scioto River water quality have been demonstrated in the CWQR
(OEPA 1986a), based on instrearn chemical and physical data from 1980-1982.
The most notable negative impacts occurred downstream from the Jackson Pike
WWTP.  Dissolved oxygen (DO), BOD$, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), nitrate
(N03-N), total phosphorus (P-T), and total zinc (Zn-T) concentrations
reflected heavy loadings of domestic and commercial/industrial pollutants.

      Dissolved oxygen (DO) is reported to exhibit the classic decline and
recovery downstream from both the Jackson Pike and Southerly WWTPs (OEPA
1986a).  However, the data presented in the CWQR do not support this observa-
tion.  Instead, these data suggest a steady decline in DO downstream from
Jackson Pike, with recovery beginning at least 10 miles downstream from
Southerly and continuing to Chillicothe (RM 70.9).  At times, DO concentra-
tions drop at Circleville (RM 102.1).  There may be a slight increase in DO at
                                     2-13

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RM 115.3,  three miles downstream of  the Southerly WWTP, probably reflecting
the input  from Big Walnut Creek at RM 117.2.  Low dissolved oxygen levels are
considered  the overriding water quality problem in this portion of the Scioto
River, although conditions have improved over the past two decades and are
anticipated to continue improving.   This improvement is the result of
increasing DO and decreasing BOD5 loading in the WWTP effluents.  However,
over the past 5 years (1980-1985), the occurrence of WQS violations for DO
(i.e., concentration of less than 5  mg/1 mean or less than 4 mg/1 minimum) has
not steadily declined, according to  a frequency analysis of daytime DO data
(OEPA 1986a).

     Ammonia creates an oxygen demand, thereby lowering DO concentrations in
receiving waters.  On this basis, the CWQR attributes improved DO conditions
in the Scioto, in part, to the significant reduction in ammonia loading from
the two WWTPs over the past two decades.  However, a frequency analysis of
ammonia data between 1980 and 1985 reveals that there was not a substantial
improvement in ammonia levels between 1980 and 1985 (OEPA 1986a).
Concentrations exceeding 2.0 mg/1 were not unusual downstream from the VWTPs
and concentrations exceeding 1.0 mg/1 were common (30-50 percent of the
measurements).

     The major input of ammonia is from the two WWTPs.  A sharp increase in
ammonia concentrations occurs just downstream of the Jackson Pike WWTP,
followed by a gradual decline to the Southerly WWTP, where a small increase
occurs, and then a progressive decline downstream to Circleville.  Ammonia
concentrations between Jackson Pike and Southerly often exceed 1.0 mg/1 and
annual maxima may exceed 3.0 mg/1.  Downstream of Circleville, concentrations
are usually between 0.2 mg/1 and 1.0 mg/1.

     Upstream of the WWTPs, ammonia concentrations remain less than 1.0 mg/1
and often fall to less than 0.2 mg/1.  The major source of ammonia in that
portion of the river is runoff and CSO outfalls to the Olentangy and the
Scioto mainstems.
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     Ammonia is one of several nitrogen species which exert a DO demand.
Total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) is often used as a measure of collective DO
demand due to nitrogen.  TKN concentrations in the Scioto follow the same
general distributional pattern as ammonia, with the two WWTPs providing the
major inflow.

     Nitrate nitrogen (N03-N) concentrations reflect both point and nonpoint
sources.  Upstream from Griggs Dam, both the Griggs Reservoir and the
O'Shaughnessy Reservoir are enriched with nitrogen, presumably from agri-
cultural runoff.  Concentrations in excess of 4.0 mg/1 are not uncommon and
violations of the WQS for drinking water (10.0 mg/1) have been reported.
However, much of this water is withdrawn at the Dublin Road water treatment
plant.  Consequently, N03-N concentrations downstream of the waterworks dam
(RM 133) are reduced due to the diluting effect of water entering from the
Olentangy River, which exhibits lower nitrate levels (N03-N = 2.3 mg/1).

     Downstream from Jackson Pike, ambient river nitrate concentrations rise
markedly to concentrations of greater than 5 and even of up to 10 mg/1 during
periods of low flow.  Nitrate concentrations steadily decline downstream from
the initial increase caused by the Jackson Pike WWTP effluent.  Wastewater
input from the Southerly WWTP does not have a marked effect on ambient nitrate
concentrations, although it may retard the rate of decline downstream.
Nitrate contributions from the WWTPs have increased over the past several
years due to improved nitrification practices adopted for the purpose of
reducing ammonia levels in the effluent.

     Total phosphorus (P-T) concentrations are almost exclusively related to
point source input.  The major contribution comes from the Jackson Pike WWTP
where ambient river concentrations rise dramatically, usually in excess of
1.0 mg/1 and often to greater than 2.0 mg/1.  Downstream from the Jackson Pike
WWTP spike, concentrations decline steadily but never drop quite as low as
upstream levels.

     The most commonly found heavy metals in the Scioto are zinc, lead,
copper, and iron.  Cadmium, chromium, and nickel are found less frequently.
Total zinc (Zn-T) concentrations in the river are significant, however, zinc
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rarely exceeds the WQS (300 ug/1).  The Zn-T distribution reflects the impact
of the Jackson Pike WWTP and, to a lesser extent, urban nonpoint sources.

Concentrations are at their maximum near Jackson Pike and decline progres-

sively downstream.


     Total lead (Pb-T) and iron (Fe-T) increase slightly in a downstream
direction through the study area.  Both reflect primarily nonpoint source
input.  Iron is associated with both agricultural and urban runoff and is
strongly bound to suspended solids, while lead is associated primarily with

urban runoff.  WQS violations have been frequently reported for iron, but
violations of the 30 ug/1 WQS for Pb-T have been minimal.  Total copper (Cu-T)

distribution reflects inputs in the Columbus and Circleville areas, but in

general the levels are fairly low.


Water Quality Ratings of River Segments

     The 305(b) report lists six segments of the Scioto mainstem in the study

area.  They are rated as follows:


       O'Shaughnessy Dam to upstream from the Olentangy River confluence (RH
        148.8-132.4) - GOOD:  High nutrient loads but low algal density char-
        acterized this section.  Other physical/chemical water quality param-
        eters were good, and fish and macroinvertebrate indices reflected
        background conditions, although increasing stress was evidenced in
        Griggs Reservoir.

       Olentangy River confluence to Frank Road (RM 132.2-127.7) - FAIR:
        Both fish and macroinvertebrate communities reflected structural and
        sublethal stresses due mainly to contributions from urban nonpoint
        sources and combined sewer overflows, and the partially impounded
        nature of this segment causing elevated contaminant levels in trapped
        sediments.

       Frank Road to confluence of Walnut Creek (RM 127.7-106.1) - FAIR/GOOD:
        Most extensive chemical/physical and biological water quality degra-
        dation occurred in this segment, but rating has been upgraded from
        POOR to FAIR/GOOD because 1985 sampling revealed full or partial
        attainment of biological potential (based on species diversity
        indices) at several locations.

       Confluence of Walnut Creek to confluence of Big Darby Creek (RM 106.1-
        100.8) - GOOD:  Good assemblage of fish and macroinvertebrates
        reflected near complete recovery of upstream impacts, with improve-
        ments continuing through 1985.
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       Confluence of Big Darby Creek to near Delano (RM 100.8-78.3) - FAIR:
        Fish and macroinvertebrate communities improved over previous years.
        Slight stresses were still apparent, but diminished downstream.  In
        1981, there was judged to be a potential for impact from complex toxic
        substances downstream from Circleville.  In 1984-1985, almost complete
        recovery of fish and macroinvertebrate communities was reported
        between RM 100.8 and 99.7.
       Near Delano to Bridge Street in Chillicothe (RM 78.3-70.7) - GOOD:
        Fish and macroinvertebrates typical of organically enriched warm-water
        river.

     Surveys of fish and macroinvertebrate communities have been used as
indices of water quality (OEPA 1986a; OEPA 1986b; Olive 1971).  Diversity
indices are most commonly used and serve as one basis for classifying water
quality in the 305(b) report (OEPA 1986b).  In both the CWQR (OEPA 1986a) and
the 305(b) reports, improvements in species diversity were noted as indicative
of improving water quality conditions in the Scioto River between Columbus and
Circleville.  These biotic changes were attributed to overall increases in DO,
due to upgraded water treatment practices.

     It was also noted in the CWQR that improved diversity has been accom-
panied by the reappearance of pollution-intolerant fish species (including
several sport fish).  However, an increase in external anomalies (e.g.,
lesions, fin erosion) has also been recorded.  An attempt has been made to
associate the anomalies with the effects of low oxygen on intolerant species,
and the CVQR predicted that the incidence of anomalies will decrease as DO
continues to increase.  However, this prediction overlooks the potential
effect of chemical contaminants, such as chlorine, heavy metals and various
organic chemicals, to which external and internal anomalies are usually
linked.

     Fecal coliform bacteria are commonly used as raw sewage tracers.  Over
the past decade, there has been a general decline in fecal coliform concen-
trations in the segment of the Scioto River between the Jackson Pike WVTP and
Circleville.  However, this decrease is in large part attributed to increased
chlorination at the WWTPs.  Consequently, the fecal coliform count can no
longer be reliably used as an indicator of raw sewage.  Further, increased
chlorine is a water quality concern which can have an impact on the river
fauna (including, for example, external anomolies).
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2.1.3  Land
2.1.3.1  Topography and Physiography
     The Columbus planning area includes the city of Columbus, Ohio, most of
Franklin County, and small adjacent portions of Delaware, Licking, Fairfield,
and Pickaway Counties.  The topography of the study area is characterized by
level to rolling relief, with altitudes ranging from 1130 feet above sea level
in the northeast to 665 feet above sea level along the southern border.

     The major stream valleys in the northern portion of Franklin County run
parallel to each other, converging towards the centrally located valley of the
Scioto River.  Tributaries of the Scioto River include the Olentangy River and
Darby, Walnut, Blacklish, and Alum Creeks.  The Scioto River gradient within
the Facilities Planning Area (FPA) averages about 4.4 feet per mile.

2.1.3.2  Surficial and Bedrock Geology
     The FPA is located within the glaciated till plain of Central Ohio
(Goldthwait et al. 1961).  The Till Plains section of the Central Lowlands
physiographic province constitutes about four-fifths of Franklin County.
Formed when preglacial features were buried by glacial deposits, the Till
Plains are flat except in areas adjacent to streams.  The remaining one-fifth
of Franklin County is occupied by the Appalachian Plateau rising eastward near
Big Walnut Creek from an escarpment of north-south scarps and terraces at an
elevation of 800 feet.  The general area was glaciated during at least two
different glacial periods.  Evidence of Illinoian glaciation has been found in
the form of fine, well-sorted sands in buried valleys beneath the more recent
Wisconsin age glacial till (SCS 1980a).  Dominant soils formed in these
deposits are Eldean, Ockley, Warsawy, and Wea soils.

     The surface deposits in the FPA are mostly ground moraine.  The landscape
has an average of about 50 feet of till over bedrock. There are two distinct
tills within the ground moraine.  The northeastern third of the FPA consists
of a medium-lime clay loam till that contains a high percentage of sandstone
and coarse shale fragments from the underlying bedrock.  The dominant soils
formed here include Bennington, Cardington, and Pewamo soils.  The south-
western two-thirds of the ground moraine consist of a high-lime till that
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contains a high percentage of limestone and coarse dolomite fragments from the
underlying limestone bedrock..  Among the soils formed in this ground moraine
are Kokomo, Celina, and Crosby soils.  There are three end moraines in the
FPA: the London Moraine in the southwest corner, the Pickerington Moraine in
the northeast corner, and the Powell Moraine in the extreme southwest corner.

     The bedrock underlying the glacial deposits is sedimentary.  It has a
north-south strike and a dip of 20 to 30 feet per mile to the east.  Ages
range from lower Devonian in the west to lower Mississippian in the east of
the FPA.  Lithologies consist of dolomitic limestone, shale, and sandstone.

     The Raisin River Formation, dolomitic limestone exposed in places in the
valleys of Big and Little Darby Creeks, is the oldest member of the Devonian
System in the FPA.  The formations within the Devonian System to the east are
younger and located above the Raisin River.  These include the Columbus and
Delaware Limestones and the Ohio and Olentangy Shales.  The limestone is along
the Scioto River Valley and the shale is along the northern Olentangy River
Valley.

     The Mississippian System is exposed in the valleys of Big Walnut and
Rocky Fork Creeks.  The formations include, from oldest to youngest, Bedford
Shale, Berea Sandstone, Sunbury Shale, and Cuyahoga Sandstone.  These
formations occur as alternating beds of shale and sandstone.

     The geologic formations that occur near the surface in the Scioto River
Basin are of sedimentary origin.  They are comprised of two general classes:
(1) consolidated layers of sandstone and shale, and (2) unconsolidated
deposits of clay, sand, and gravel.  Sandstone formations may yield sizable
quantities of water; however, the degree of cementation of the individual
grains and the composition of the formation often deter the flow of water
through the formation.  Shale may temporarily store sizable quantities of
water; however, water does not readily pass through it.  Water in the glacial
sand and gravel deposits occurs in the pore spaces; therefore, permeability,
thickness, and regional extent of the water-bearing formation determine the
quantity of water available.
                                     2-19

-------
      Limestone bedrock is the principal source of underground water for the
 Mill Creek and Scioto River basins.   The Silurian and Devonian carbonates
 underlie the entire basin at depths  ranging from 1 to more than 220 feet.
 Industrial veils developed in these  formations have reported yields in excess
 of 450 gallons per minute.  The southern glacial outwash deposits of the
,Sciota River yield more than 200 gallons per day.  These relatively thick
 lenses of sand and gravel may be recharged by the Scioto River.

 2.1.3.3  Soils of the Facilities Planning Area
      Soil characteristics influence  the design and location of septic tank
 systems and landfills as veil as the suitability of sites for land application
 of sevage sludge.  Soil infiltration rates under different cover conditions,
 permeability,  land slopes, depth to  the bedrock/vater table, and the relation
 of these factors to the ground vater system determine the suitability of a
 site for solid or liquid vaste disposal.

      The soils have been mapped in detail for the entire FPA (SCS 1977, 1978,
 1979,  1980a,  1980b, 1981, 1982).  The association map (Figure 2-1) is provided
 to convey a general concept of soils in the FPA.   The four major soil
 associations,  covering 75 percent of Franklin County,  are described below.

      The Bennington-Pevamo association is characterized as deep,  nearly level
 and gently sloping, somewhat poorly  drained,  and very poorly drained soils
 formed in medium textured and moderately fine textured glacial till.  This
 association covers about 29 percent  of Franklin County.  It is found on
 relatively broad flats,  depressions,  low knolls,  and ridges.  The soils have
 low potential  for most building site development  and sanitary facilites.  The
 seasonal wetness, ponding, slow or moderately slov permeability,  and lov
 strength are  the main limitations.

      The Crosby-Kokomo-Celina association is  characterized as deep,  nearly
 level to sloping, moderately veil drained,  somewhat poorly drained,  and very
 poorly drained soils formed in medium textured and moderately fine textured
 glacial till.   This association covers about  12 percent of Franklin County.
                                      2-20

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It is found on broad flats with depressions, knolls, and ridges.  The Crosby
and Kokomo soils have low potential for building site development and sanitary
facilities.  Celina soils have medium potential for these uses.  Seasonal
wetness, slow or moderately slow permeability, and low strength are the major
land use limitations.

     The Crosby-Kokomo association is characterized as deep, nearly level and
gently sloping, somewhat poorly drained, and very poorly drained soils formed
mainly in medium textured and moderately fine textured glacial till.  This
association covers about 24 percent of Franklin County.  It is found on broad
flats with slight rises, low knolls, and depressions.  The soils are mainly
nearly level and gently sloping with sloping areas along some drainageways.
Most areas have low potential for most building site development and sanitary
facilities.  The seasonal wetness, slow or moderately slow permeability, and
ponding are the main limitations to use.

     The Kokomo-Crosby-Lewisburg association is characterized as deep, nearly
level and gently sloping, moderately well drained, somewhat poorly drained,
and very poorly drained soils formed in medium textured and moderately fine
textured glacial till.  This association covers about 10 percent of Franklin
County.   It is found on broad flats with depressions, low knolls, and some
discontinuous ridges.  The Kokomo and Crosby soils have low potential for
building site development and sanitary facilities, and the Lewisburg soils
have medium potential for these uses.  Soil wetness, slow or moderately slow
permeability, and erosion hazard on the Lewisburg and Crosby soils are the
main limitations.

     Most of the soil associations are described as having low potential for
building site development and sanitary facilities.  Some of the limitations
can be partially or fully overcome by specially designed facilities.  Building
sites could be landscaped for good surface drainage away from foundations and
septic tank absorption fields.  In some places artificial drainage can reduce
the wetness limitation and swell potential if proper design and installation
procedures are used.
                                     2-22

-------
2.1.4  Biota
2.1.4.1  Terrestrial Biota
     The FPA is situated within the Temperate Deciduous Forest Biome.  Once
covered primarily by climax beech forest, most of the land in Franklin County
has been cleared for agricultural use.  Forested areas which currently cover
only about 5 percent of the county are limited to relatively small scattered
woods, stream bank areas, and floodplains.  Table 2-4 identifies several
natural terrestrial areas that have been determined to have unique natural
vegetation.

     Dominated by agricultural lands, the FPA is characterized by relatively
low wildlife populations and diversity.  With modern agricultural practice, it
is common to plant "fence row to road ditch," leaving little year-round
herbaceous cover, undisturbed breeding habitat, or natural food for wildlife.
Therefore, the principal wildlife habitat in the FPA is provided by the avail-
able farm woodlots and vegetation along streams.  Species which are abundant
in the farm fields include the cottontail rabbit, the fox squirrel, the red
fox, and the woodchuck.  For these species, the farm land provides adequate
forage, while nearby woods provide protective cover and nesting sites.
Raccoons, weasels, opossums, muskrats, and minks are found in wetland areas
and forests associated with streams and ponds.  Species associated with upland
forest habitat, including white-tailed deer, gray squirrels, and gray foxes,
are also found in many parts of the FPA.

     Each spring and fall millions of bird migrants of several hundred species
pass through Ohio to and from their breeding grounds.  About one-third of
these nest in the west-central region (Thomson 1983).  This is the region
which contains the FPA.  Once vast forest land, central Ohio is now
predominantly farmland.  Those areas which serve to provide habitat include
remaining forests, bogs, tree-lined rivers (e.g. the Scioto River), sewage
treatment ponds, golf courses, airports, quarries, and landfills.

     The greatest number of migrant and overwintering waterfowl in Ohio can be
found in the Scioto River watershed.  In the northern half of the central
Scioto River basin mallards and black ducks are commonly found nesting, along
                                     2-23

-------
               TABLE 2-4.   NOTEWORTHY  NATURAL TERRESTRIAL AREAS
       Area
 Location
                                                    Description
        Slacklick  wooes
        Metropolitan Par*
 Southwest of
 Reynolcsburg
       Blendon  Woods       Northeast of
        Metropolitan Park  Columbus, along
                           Rc-te 161
        Darby  Creek
 East  sice of
        Metropolitan  Park  Darby Creek, on
                           Koebel-Suydam
                           Road
       Highbanks           Sharon Tvp. and
        .''.etropolitan Park  also Orar.ge Tvp.,
                           Delaware County
       Sharon woods        Sharon Tvp.
        Metropolitan Park
         (Spring Hollow)
       Flint Ravir.e
       Gaha.ia Woods State
        Nature Preserve
        Oehiencorf
         Woods)
       Rocky Fork
        Natural Area
       Scioto River Bank
        at Dublin
       Welch's Beech
        Woods
Sharon Tvp.
crosses Rt. 23
to the Cier.tangy
River.

Jefferson Tvp.
Gahanna, 1/2 mi.
south of Haven
Corners Rd. , on
the west sice of
of Tayicr Station
Road.

Rocky Fort Creek
vicinity
 One  of  the  finest  un-
 spoiled wcociiT.is  z:
 central Ohio.   A becch-
 maple  to  elm,  asn,  oak
 swamp-ferest.   Dedicated
 as a State  Nature  Pre-
 serve ,  April  1973.

 An area of  rough terrain
 and  second  growth  tirier,
 much kept as  wilderness
 area.   Upland  and  swamp
 forests.

 An upland area of  pri-
 ir.arily  oak-hickory  forest.
 Eroded  hillsides along the
 creek  provide  suitable
 habitat for jrain* spe-
 cies vegetation.

 Ohio shale  bluff and oak
 forest along  the East bank
 of the  Olentangy River.
 Dedicated as  a State
 Nature  Preserve, April
 1973.

 A good  beech-maple  forest
 containing  large white
 oaks.

 A terrain rich  in  fauna
 and  flora that has been
 kept in a wild  state.
A beech-maple and ash
forest with mixed mesephy-
tics, and pin cak, silver
maple and buttor.bush swamp
in lower regions.  Dedica-
ted January 1S74.
A rugged ravine on HocKy
Fork'creek, a tributary
of Big Walnut Creek.
Extends south from  The type locality of
Dublin Bridge and   Trillium nivale,  and also
                    contains .one of the best
                    colonies of 7h u j a occi-
                    dentalis in its native
                           west of U.S.  Rt.
                           33 ca 1 mile,
                           includinc an  old
limestone quarry

Washington Twp.
and Also Concord
Tvp.,  Delaware
County.
habitat in central Ohio.

Mature beech woods of
exceptional quality on the
Powell Morai.-.e.
Source:   Malcolm Pirnie,  Inc. July 1976.
                                      2-24

-------
with some blue-vinged  teal.  On  the  Scioto  River  south  of  Columbus  the  wood
duck is the principal  breeding species.

     Nesting habitat requirement  for  the wood duck are  water, mature  timber
with suitable nesting  cavities and brood voer, all within  close  proximity.
When nest sites are not available near water, the wood  duck may  nest  one  to
two miles from the nearest body  of water.

     When the reservoirs  in northern  Columbus freese, many waterfowl  fly  to
the segment of river below the Jackson Pike WWTP.  The  warm effluent  keeps the
river from freezing, making it attractive as a source of food and protection
to the migrating and residential  flocks (Watts 1987).

     A diversity of bird  fauna has been observed at the Jackson  Pike  WWTP.
This site has been identified by Thomson (1983) as one  of  the good  birding
sites in Ohio.  Thomson described the small ponds at the entrance of  the  WWTP
as a noteworthy area for  songbirds and also as a possible  area to find  a  great
blue heron or a belted kingfisher.  The sludge pond attracts shorebirds from
April through October.  Rare species  that have been seen here include piping,
lesser golden, and black-bellied plovers; whimbrel; willet; ruddy turnstone;
Willson's and red-necked  phalaropes;  long-billed dowitcher; red  knot; and
western, white-rumped  Baird's stilt,  and buff-breasted  sandpipers.  The piping
plover is a federally  endangered species.   Sitings of these birds are
considered to be accidental or casual.  Mo  recent sitings  of the piping plover
have been recorded.  The most commonly seen species during the late summer
movement of shorebirds are greater and lesser yellowlegs,  solitary  sandpipers,
and pectoral sandpipers.  Another pond on the site is attractive to blue-
winged teals, wood ducks, and American coots, and which the water is  low,
shorebirds feed along  the muddy edges.

2.1.4.2  Aquatic Biota
     The streams within the FPA are classified as "warm water habitat" by the
Ohio EPA.  Water quality  and habitat  conditions in the  individual streams
affect the species diversity and the abundance of aquatic  biota  found in  each
stream.  The following discussion addresses fisheries,  macroinvertebrates, and
bivalve moHusks as indicators of existing water quality conditions.  The
                                     2-25

-------
 primary  focus  is  the  mainstem  Scioto River, although  tributaries are also
 discussed.

     Biological and chemical/physical sampling conducted  in  the central Scioto
 River raainstem during 1979, 1980, and 1981 clearly  illustrated a significant
 impact on  the  area between  the Jackson Pike WWTP and  Circleville (OEPA 1986a).
 Both fish  and  macroinvertebrate  communities vere degraded and biological
 indices were well correlated with the observed pattern of dissolved oxygen
 concentrations.  Fish sampling conducted during 1979-1986 revealed improved
 conditions between Columbus and  Circleville, as reflected in Figure 2-2.  The
 cumulative distance of mainstem  with low mean composite index values (less
 than 8.0) was  significantly reduced, from 26.9 miles  in 1979 to 0.7 miles in
 1985 for that  area between  the Jackson Pike WWTP and  Circleville (OEPA 1986a).
 Further improvements  occurred in 1986 when none of  the sampling locations fell
 below 8.0 and  several rose above 9.5.

 Fisheries:  Mainstem  Scioto River
     Fish can  be one  of the most sensitive indicators of the quality of the
 aquatic environment in that they constitute a conspicuous component of the
 aquatic community (Smith 1971).  The relative abundance and distribution of
 fish in the central Scioto River were determined, through electrofishing, in
 1979 (Yoder et al. 1981) and 1980-1981 (Ohio EPA 1986a).  The study area
 extended for 74.8 miles between  the O'Shaughnessy Dam and Chillicothe.  The
 results of these studies are reported and discussed in detail in the
 Comprehensive Water Quality Report (CVQR) (OEPA 1986a).  Much of the
 information presented  in this section is derived from the the CVQR, unless
 stated otherwise.

     The study area was divided  into six segments based primarily on the
position of major point sources of wastewater and physical features.   The
limits of these segments are given in Table 2-5.   River segments 3 and 4 are
situated within the Columbus Facilities Planning Area.
                                     2-26

-------
         to
         u

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  10
ee x
O X
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1979- T-
J980


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      130
125          120


     RIVER
IIS
110          105


  MILE
                                                                10
100
      FIGURE 2-2.   COMPARISON OF SEGMENT MEAN COMPOSITE INDEX VALUES OF

                           THE MIDDLE SCIOTO RIVER MAINSTEM
NOTE:  Based on electrofishing results during the period July-September 1979,
       1980, 1981,  1985, and 1986 (lines and arrows indicate direction of
       change between each year).  Source:  OEPA 1986a.
                                    2-27

-------
         TABLE 2-5.   LOCATION AND DESCRIPTION OF THE SIX RIVER SEGMENTS
  River Segment    Subsegment

       1                1A


                       16


       2                2A


                       28
      5


      6
                      4A



                      46



                      4C
      Location  and  Description

 RM 145.5-138.7;  Downstream from  O'Shaugnessy
 dam to  Grlggs  dam.

 RM 138.6-134.0;  Downstream from  Grlggs dam to
 Dublin  Rd. WTP dam.

 RM 133.9-129.7;  Downstream from  Dublin Rd.
 WTP dam to Greenlawn dam.

 RN,  129.1-127.2; Downstream from Greenlawn
 dam to  upstream  from Jackson P1ke WWTP.

 RM 127.1-118.9;  Downstream from  Jackson P1ke
 WWTP  to upstream Columbus  Southerly WWTP 002
 raw wastewater bypass.

 RM 118.8-116.7; Downstream Southerly 002
 bypass  to upstream from CSOE-P1cway EGS.

 RM  116.6-108.9; Downstream  from  CSOE-P1cway
 EGS to "RM 108.9.

 RM  108.8-99.7; Downstream  from RM 108.9 to
 upstream from Container Corporation of
 America (CCA) 001.

 RM 99.6-89.7; Downstream CCA and Clrclevllle
WWTP to upstream from Sdppo Cr. (PPG)

 RM 89.6-70.7; Downstream from Sclppo Cr.  to
 Bridge St.  In Chllllcothe
Source:   Ohio EPA 1986a.
                                    2-28

-------
     A cumulative  total of 68 species and nine hybrids were sampled  in  the
entire 1979-1981 period.  These species are listed  in Table 2-6.  A  total of
72 species and 10  hybrids were sampled for the 1979-1986 study period.  The
same cumulative numbers were collected in 1986 as for the entire period,
indicating an increase in diversity over time.  General indications  of  the
relative tolerance to pollution of many species in  Table 2-6 may be  derived
from Table 2-7.

     In the 1979 sampling, common carp, river carpsucker, and golden redhorse
dominated catch by weight, comprising 73, 6, and 3  percent of total  weight,
respectively.  In  1980, common carp, river carpsucker, and the smallmouth
buffalo dominated  catch by weight, comprising 66, 11, and 4 percent  of  total
weight respectively.  In 1981, common carp, river carpsucker, and golden
redhorse again dominated the catch, contributing 52, 12, and 9 percent  of
total weight respectively.  In 1986, the catch was  dominated by the  same three
species as in 1981, with the common carp contributing 62 percent of  total
biomass, the river carpsucker at 11 percent and the golden redhorse  at  5 per-
cent.  The golden  redhorse is considered to be less pollution tolerant  than
the common carp, river carpsucker and small mouth buffalo, and its gradual
increase in biomass reflects improved habitat.  The common carp biomass showed
a decreasing trend over the study period, while the river carpsucker showed an
increasing trend,  suggesting improving habitat conditions (see Tables 2-6 and
2-7).

     In terms of numbers of fish caught, the dominant species show more
variation from year to year.  In 1979, gizzard shad, common carp, and bluegill
dominated the catch, comprising 16, 16, and 8 percent of total numbers,
respectively.  In  1980, the common carp, river carpsucker, and green sunfish
dominated catch, accounting for 18, 11, and 10 percent of total numbers
caught, respectively.  The gizzard shad decreased to 5 percent of the catch in
1980.  However, in 1981, it was once again the most dominant fish by number,
comprising 27 percent of the total catch.  Other dominant species for 1981
were the common carp and golden redhorse, accounting for 12 and 10 percent of
catch numbers, respectively.  In 1986, the gizzard shad and common carp
remained the two most dominant species, followed by the spotfin shiner.  The
percentages of total numbers caught are gizzard shad: 14; common carp:  12;
                                     2-29

-------





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                                                           2-31

-------
             TABLE 2-7.  SPECIES GROUP DESIGNATIONS USED TO ASSESS
                COMMUNITY COMPOSITION PATTERNS IN THE MAINSTEM
                      SCIOTO RIVER AND MAJOR TRIBUTARIES.
      Group
Species of Genera Included
       GS      Gizzard  shad  (Dorosoma):   omnivores, highly  pollution  tolerant

       G       Carp, goldfish  (Cyprinus,  Carrasius);  omnivores, highly
               pollution  tolerant

       R       Round-bodied  catostornidea  (Moxostoma, Hypentelium,  Minytrema,
               Catostomus):  insectivores, moderately to highly polluttion
               intolerant

       C       Deep-bodied catostomidea (Carpiodes, Ictiobus);  mixed
               omnivores and insectivores - moderately pollution tolerant

       M       Minnows, chubs  (Semotilus, Pimephales, Hybopsis, Nocomis,
               Phenacpbius,  Campostoma);  insectivores, herbivores,
               generalists - most highly  intolerant to intolerant  but some
               highly pollution  tolerant

       N       Shiners  (Notropis, Notemigonus);  insectivores - highly
               pollution intolerant to moderately pollution  tolerant

       B       Basses,  crappies  (Micropterus, Pomoxis);  top carnivores,
               moderately pollution intolerant

       S       Sunfishes (Lepomis);  insectivores, top carnivores, highly
               pollution tolerant to moderately intolerant

       F       Catfishes, drum (Ictalurus. Pylpdictis, Aplodinotus):  top
               carnivores, insectivores, one piscivore - highly to moderately
               pollution tolerant

       V       Sauger,  walleye (Stizostedion);  Piscivores

       W       Large River (Morone, Alosa, Hiodon);  piscivores

       L       Gars (Lepisosteus)t   piscivores

       0       Other (rare and uncommon species not included in abovde group
               designations)


NOTE:  Information on feeding preferences and selective level of pollution
       tolerances is included when known.

SOURCE:  Adapted from Ohio EPA 1983a.
                                     2-32

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and spotfin shiner: 10.  The most recognizable trends are that gizzard shad
fluctuated annually while the common carp exhibited a gradual decline.  Of the
other species mentioned, the golden redhorse is the least pollution tolerant.

     OEFA used percent similarity and relative community composition to assess
changes in the composition of the Scioto River fish community over the 75 mile
study area.  Similarity matrices showed a three-year trend of decreasing
faunal organization in the upstream segments and increasing similarity in the
lower reaches.  The Ohio EPA indicated that this data may reflect increased
stresses upstream from Columbus and improved conditions downstream.  However,
this postulate is not entirely consistent with OEPA water quality discussions
(OEPA 1986a and 1986b), which suggest improving water quality conditions in
upstream segments attributed to improvements in wastewater treatment.

     Notable differences in community composition exist between the six river
segments studied.  In terms of total biomass, the 1980 fish community sampled
from Segment 1 (see Table 2-5 for key to segments) was dominated by carp-
goldfish (G), round-bodied Catostomidae (R), bass-crappie (B), and sunfish (S)
groups.  (Refer to Table 1-1 for key to lettered species designations.)  The
remaining segments, including the Columbus study area, were each comprised
mainly of carp-goldfish (G) and deep-bodied Catostomidae (C) groups (over
80 percent combined biomass).  The round-bodied Catostomidae (R) and catfish-
drum (F) groups increased in their contribution to total biomass further
downstream in Segment 6.  Numerically, there was a gradual downstream shift
from a sunfish (S), bass-crappie (B), and round-bodied Catostomidae (R) pre-
dominant composition to a carp-goldfish (G) and deep-bodied Catostomidae (C)
community.  Data from 1979 (Yoder et al. 1981) exhibited very similar commun-
ity composition to that found in 1980.

     Compositional differences in fish communities between the six river seg-
ments studied in 1981 are characterized in Figures 2-3 and 2-4.  Comparing the
1980 and 1981 data, a noticeable change occurred in Segment 1 in 1981,  with
the round-bodied Catostomidae (R) replacing carp-goldfish (G) as the
predominant group in terms of total biomass.  Numerical composition in 1981
also differed from that of the previous year.  In Segment 1, the round-bodied
Catostomidae (R) and gizzard shad (GS) groups were equal in compositional
                                     2-33

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       FIGURE 2-3.  COMPOSITION OF THE FISH COMMUNITY  BY  NUMBER IN THE
                             CENTRAL SCIOTO RIVER MAINSTEM
NOTE:  Study area based  on numbers during July-October 1981.   Species  group
       symbols are those given in Table 2-8.   The  size of each circle  is
       proportional to the mean density (numbers/km) of fish in each segment.
       Source:  Ohio EPA 1986a.
                                    2-34

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                      3(ml 3 (IZTI -lll.fi    O

                                       O

                                       O
        FIGURE 2-4.   COMPOSITON OF THE FISH COMMUNITY BY WEIGHT  IN THE
                                CENTRAL SC10TO RIVER MAINSTEM
NOTE:  Study area based on weight during July-October  1981.  Species group
       symbols are those given in Table 2-8.  The size of each circle  is
       proportional to the mean biomass (kg/km) of  fish  in  each  segment.
       Source:  Ohio EPA 1986a.
                                    2-35

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 dominance  to  the  sunfish  (S)  and  bass-crappie  (B) groups.  The  fish community
 from Segment  2  through  5,  including  the Columbus study area, was dominated by
 the gizzard shad  (GS),  carp-goldfish  (G), and  deep-bodied Catostomidae  (C)
 groups.  The  sunfish  (S)  group was equally important above the  Jackson  Pike
 WWTP,  in Segment  2.

     Compared to  the  1979  and 1980 data,  the 1981 data shoved a predominance
 of the pollution-tolerant  groups  (C and G) downstream from Columbus.  In
 general, these  results  indicate somewhat  improved conditions in this section
 of the mainstern.

     The composite index  (Gammon  1976), which  incorporates density, biomass,
 and the Shannon index (a diversity index), was used to evaluate the overall
 condition of  the  fish community.  The composite index values were plotted
 against river mile for  the 1979,  1980, and 1981 results.  The results of this
 comparison are depicted in Figure 2-5.  The mean number of species per  zone
 was also plotted  against  river mile for this same period.  The  results  of this
 second comparison are depicted in Figure  2-6.  Downstream from  the Jackson
 Pike WWTP, the composite  index values declined.  In 1979-1980,  similar  pat-
 terns of gradual  decline,  followed by a gradual recovery, occurred downstream
 from the Jackson  Pike WWTP, the Columbus  Southerly WWTP, the Container  Corpor-
 ation of America, and the Circleville WWTP.  This pattern was weakly evident
 in 1981.  The mean composite  index values in 1981 were considerably lower than
 in previous years, especially immediately downstream from Greenlawn Dam.

     A comparison of mean composite index scores for 1981, 1985, and 1986 is
 shown in Figure 2-7.  From 1981 to 1985, all stations improved, particularly
 those between Southerly and Walnut Creek.   Not only do these stations have
 higher overall values, but the decline apparent in 1981 is also less pro-
nounced in 1985.

     The composite index is used  to assess structural characteristics of fish
 communities,  which are described in terms of biomass, abundance, and
diversity.  The OEPA has also analyzed fish sampling results using the  Index
of Biotic Integrity (IBI)  (Karr 1981, Fausch et al.  1984; as cited in OEPA
 1986a) which incorporates both structural and functional characteristics in
                                     2-36

-------
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 9


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 7


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 9


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 7
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                                  Good

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                                               4.981;

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                                                                    15


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                                                                    S
                  130
       125
                       120
US
110
IDS
100
                               RIVER                        MILE

 FIGURE 2-7.  COMPARISON OF MEAN  (AND STANDARD ERROR) COMPOSITE INDEX VALUES
NOTE:  At sampling locations in the central Scioto River  mainstem based on

       sampling  conducted  in  the  summers of  1981, 1985,  and  1986.  (Shaded

       areas separate biological  criteria category  boundaries).

       Source:  OEPA 1986a.
                                         2-39

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 the assessment of aquatic communities.   The  characteristics,  or  metrics,  used
 in the IBI,  are listed in Table 2-8.   Each sampling location  is  assigned  a
 score of 5 (best),  3,  or 1 (worst)  for each  metric,  based  on  the criteria
 shown in Table 2-8.  The scores are then added  and  the  total  used to  describe
 the fish community  at  that particular  sampling  location.   The highest possible
 index score  is 60,  which would  describe a virtually undisturbed  habitat in  a
 pristine environment.   Scores above 50 are excellent.   Scores between 20  and
 30 indicate  an impacted community with little structural and  functional
 integrity.

      Scores  for selected sampling locations  are shown in Table 2-9.   Scores in
 the 20-30 range were much more  common  from 1979-1981 than  from 1985 to 1986.
 In 1985  and  1986, most  stations had scores in the 36-44 range, indicating
 marginally good to good conditions,  but  with some problems remaining.  The
 metrics  which  reflected problems in the aquatic community  were as follows:
 higher portion of hybrids,  higher incidence  of  external anomalies, higher
 percentage of  omnivores,  and lower  percentage of round-bodied suckers and/or
 insectivorous  species.

      While all stations improved over  time,  some longitudinal trends  persisted
 throughout the study period.  The station immediately below the  Whittier  St.
 CSO  (RH  129.1)  was always  higher on both  indices than all  stations between
 Jackson  Pike and Southerly  (RM  126.4-RM  119.9).  The station  just  below South-
 erly  (RM  118.1) always  scored higher than the station just  upstream from  it
 (RM  119.9).  This observation correlates  with modeling  information in the CWQR
 which shows  that the dissolved  oxygen sag below Jackson Pike  reaches  its  low-
 est point just  above Southerly.

     From RM 118.1 to RM 109.2,  the Index of Biotic Integrity  declines in all
years but the  delcine was more  prounounced from 1979-1981  than from 1985-1986.
This  trend is  also evident  in the Composite Index.  According  to  the  CWQR,  the
gradual decline in dissolved oxygen concentration below Southerly is  primarily
 responsible for the decline in  structure and function of the  fish community
 throughout this segment of  the  river.  These conditions are probably  linked to
 the impacts of  the Southerly WWTP discharge.
                                     2-40

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              TABLE 2-8.  METRICS AND NUMERICAL RANKINGS USED IN
                        THE INDEX OF  BIOTIC  INTEGRITY
Metric
Cumulative Species
Numbers /km*
Sunfish Species
Sucker Species
Intolerant Species
% Round-bodied Catostomids
% Omnivores
% Insectivorous Cyprinidae
& Ca tost ami dae
% Carp/Goldfish
% Top Carnivores
% Hybrids
% Anomalies
5
>35
>350
>6
>8
>9
>40
<25
>30
<5
>10
<0.5
<0.2
3
22-34
175-350
3-6
4-8
5-9
15-40
25-50
10-30
5-20
5-10
0.5-3
0.2-3
1
>22
<175
<3
<4
<5
<15
>50
<10
>20
<5
>3
>3
"less than 50 individuals/km scores 1 in all proportional metrics.

Source:  Adapted from table provided by Yoder, January 1987a.
                                     2-41

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           TABLE 2-9.   INDEX OF BIOTIC  INTEGRITY (IBI) SCORES FOR THE
                               SCIOTO RIVER MAINSTEM















a
b
c
d
River
M11e
129.1
126.4
122.9*
119. 9b
118.1
117.1
112. 8C
109.2
108.8
d
104.8
102.0
100.2
RM 123.3
Moved to
RM 114.0
RM 10S.2

1979
32
22
24
26
34
22
6
.
8

10
46
32
1n 1985 and 1986.
RM 119.0 1n 1986.
1n 1979 and RM 11
1n 1985 and 1986.

1980
34
26
30
22
36
26
26
-
14

36
40
28
3.5 In 1985


1981
26
22
28
26
32
26
24
-
26

32
38
22
and 1986


1985
34
24
32
32
44
44
36
42
38

44
46
40



1986
36
32
40
34
44
36
36
44
36

44
48
44


NOTE:  Study conducted during 1979-1986 using a modification for boat
       electrofishing samples.   Source:  Ohio EPA  1986a.
                                       2-42

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     The sampling station below the Whit tier St. CSO (RM 129.1) shoved little
improvement from 1979 to 1986 on the IBI scale, although the composite index
for that station (Figures 2-5, 2-7) and for the segment including that station
(Figure 2-3) shoved considerable improvement.  This indicates that the commun-
ity is more impacted functionally than structurally.  Improvements at the
Whittier Street CSO site vere due to increased numbers of fish and increased
diversity, which included an increase in numbers of desirable groups (such as
sunfish) and pollution tolerant species.  Despite this improvement, no nev
insectivores moved in and the percentage of ominvores and hybrids increased.
As a result, the community supports a large number of individuals and species,
giving it a high structural rating, but the species are predominantly pollu-
tion and silt tolerant.  Im dence of external anomalies and percentage of
sunfish hybrids vere consistently high and resulted in lover IBI scores.

     The IBI scores for the sampling station below Jackson Pike (RM 126.4)
vere lover than those belov the CSO for all years, but shoved more overall
improvement from 1979 to 1986.  Composite index values for this station vere
also lover than for those just belov the CSO.  Effluent loadings of BOD, TSS
and NH3-N shoved increases or remained about the same over this time period
but loadings of chlorine decreased, although levels are still considerably
high.  Reduction in chlorine may account from some of the noted improvement in
IBI scores belov Jackson Pike.

     The metrics accounting for improvement at the Jackson Pike station vere
number of species and number of fish per kilometer.  Nev species vhich moved
into the area and contributed to increased diversity vere sunfish and intoler-
ant species.  The percentage of top carnivores increased and the percentage of
omnivores decreased,  vhich improved the community functionally.   Metrics
indicating continuing problems at the station vere a substantial increase in
percentage of anomalies,  disproportionately small numbers of the round-bodied
catostimid group,  and disproportionately large occurrences of hybridization
among species.

     At the station immediately belov Southerly (RM 118.1), metrics reflecting
improvement included increased density, and increased numbers of sunfish
species,  intolerant species and sucker species.  A portion of the increase in
                                     2-43

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 sucker  species was  due  to  increases  in numbers of round-bodied catostimids,
 which is  one of  the more sensitive types of suckers.  It  is noted  that while
 the  percentage of anomalies  did not  increase on  the metric scale,  despite  the
 increase  in pollution tolerant species, this station had  a consistently high
 percentage of anomalies in all years.  The percentage of  anomalies actually
 showed  some reduction in percentages  from 1979-1986.

     The  station at RH  108.8  reflects the impacts of decreasing dissolved
 oxygen  downstream from  Southerly.  This station  is situated where  DO
 concentrations whould be near their  lowest (i.e., near  the maximum DO sag).
 Metrics from 1979 reflect  this observation, being very  low in all  categories
 except  percent anomalies,  percent hybrids, percent top  carnivores  and number
 of sucker species.  The more sensitive sucker species are not represented.
 From 1979 to 1986,  eight out of eleven categories improved on the  metric
 scale.  This station is typical of most stations below  Southerly in that it
 showed substantial  improvement over  time.

     In summary, both indices show that the fish communities improved over
 time at all stations.  The greatest  improvement occurred  below Southerly and
 the least occurred  between the Whittier St. CSO and Jackson Pike.  The segment
 between Jackson Pike and Southerly showed moderate improvement.  These results
 correlate well with the fact that reductions in waste water loadings were
greatest below Southerly in  the referenced time period.
     The stations in the river below Southerly show the greatest increase in
IBI scores and composite index scores over time.  The improvement is
attributed to reductions in loadings of BOD, solids, and ammonia, which
reduced the severity of oxygen depletion.  The reductions were primarily a
result of decreased bypassing at Southerly.  Loadings of chlorine also
decreased at Southerly during this time period, further reducing stress-
inducing factors to the aquatic environment below Southerly.

     The frequency of external anomalies among individual fish from 1979-1981
(all species combined) was assessed in the study area as a possible indication
of sublethal stress based on data in Table 2-10.  The incidence of external
anomalies ranged from as little as 9 percent in Segment 1 (1979 and 1980) to
                                     2-44

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     TABLE 2-10.   INCIDENCE OF LESIONS,  TUMORS, FIN EROSION, AND EXTERNAL
                     PARASITES AMONG INDIVIDUAL FISH COLLECTED IN SIX
                              SEGMENTS OF THE SCIOTO RIVER
Number of Msh Affected/
Segment
Segment 1
(RM 145.5-134.0)
Segment 2
(RH 133.9-127.2)
Segment 3
(RM 127.1-118.9)
Segment 4
(RM 118.8-99.7)
Segment 5
(RM 99.6-89.7)
Segment 6
(RM 89.6-70.7)
Olentangy River
(RM 132.3. 0.5)
B1g Walnut Cr.
(RH 117.2. 0.5)
Walnut Cr.
(RM 106.1. 0.4)
Total Number of Fish
1979 1980
0/1839. 0/1177
62/1256 29/1005
3/309 6/273
3/709 38/1075
3/281 2/185
4/901 3/327
11/261 0/179
0/134 1/181
1/42 7/126
1981
11/991
47/996
4/381
54/1360
3/277
7/608
15/162
9/186
4/33
Percent Affected
1979 1980 1981
OX 0* 1-2X
4.9%
l.OX
0.4X
l.OX
0.4X
4.2X
OX
2.4X
2.9X
2.2X
3.5X
1.1X
0.9X
OX
0.6X
5.6X
4.7X
1.1X
4. OX
1.1X
1.2X
9.3X
4.8X
12. IX
Source:  Ohio EPA 1986a.
                                   2-45

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as much as 12.1 percent in  the mouth of Walnut Creek.  Located upstream of the
Jackson Pike WWTP, fish in  Segment 2 consistently had high affliction rates
ranging from 2.9 percent in 1980  to 4.9 percent higher than background in
1979.  Since this segment is partially impounded, it has a tendency to
exaggerate the impact of intermittent inputs of heavy metals, oxygen demanding
wastes, and other detrimental substances.  Segment 4, which receives loadings
of oxygen demanding wastes  from the Southerly WTP, had high percentages of
affected fish in 1980 (3.5  percent) and 1981 (4.0 percent).  These results
correspond well with the degradation implied by the composite index.

     OEPA developed a method combining the composite index and narrative
biological criteria to evaluate the condition of the central Scioto River
mainstern based on the 1979-1981 data.  Based on these evaluations, the primary
cause of observed negative  effects on the mainstern fish community was deter-
mined to be the change in water quality attributable to point sources of
wastewater.  Less serious effects were attributed to urban and possibly
agricultural nonpoint sources.  Physical factors identified included river
discharge, the influence of tributaries and dams, and variable habitat
quality.

     Of the 38 total active point sources located in the mainstem study area,
the Jackson Pike WTP and the Columbus Southerly WTP were identified as
having the greatest impact  on the mainstem fish communities.  The primary
impact was from the discharge of oxygen-demanding wastes, which resulted in
lower dissolved oxygen concentrations downstream from each WTP.  In
combination with elevated concentrations of ammonia and zinc, the low
dissolved oxygen levels depressed fish community diversity and abundance,
resulting in a fish fauna comprised of predominantly tolerant species.

     OEPA considers the potential for the full recovery of the central Scioto
River mainstem fish communities to be good, primarily because of the existence
of the high number.of relatively undamaged tributaries (which provide a refuge
for endemic species) and the apparent lack of serious residual effects (i.e.,
habitat modification, contaminated sediments) in the mainstem.  The main trib-
utaries expected to contribute to the recovery are Big Walnut Creek, Walnut
Creek,  Big Darby Creek,  and Deer Creek.   The recovery observed in the vicinity
                                     2-46

-------
of the Columbus Southerly WTP in 1980 and 1981 was considered partially a
function of the availability of Big Walnut Creek as a refuge and repopulation
epicenter.  Tributaries undoubtedly played a part in the observed recovery
upstream from Circleville in 1981.  This location was in close proximity to
both Walnut and Big Darby Creeks.  The continued recovery of the mainstern fish
communities, however, is dependent on efforts aimed at further reducing point
source loadings of BOD5, NH3-N, suspended solids, and other detrimental
substances (OEPA 1986a).

Fisheries:  Tributaries to the Scioto River
     Alum Creek, near the Franklin County line, supports 51 species of fish.
Minnows, including the rosyface shiner, the bluntnose minnow, and the stone-
roller minnow, are the most abundant.  Also found in large numbers is the
orange-spotted sunfish.

     Nine of the 47 species of fish in Hellbranch Run are found along the
entire length of the stream.  Several of the species occurring in this stream,
including shiners and minnows, are characteristic of prairie streams such as
Hellbranch Run.  These streams are frequently turbid, rich in organic matter,
and have a lower gradient (Phinne 1967).

     Of the 74 species of fish that occur in Big Walnut Creek, six species,
including the endangered muskellunge, are introduced.  Two other endangered
species listed by the Ohio Department of Natural Resources (ODNR) that occur
in Big Walnut are the blacknose shiner and the American brook lamprey.  The
large population of minnows in the stream serves as a source of food for other
fish (Cavender and Crunkilton 1974).

     Due to its high water quality and diversity of aquatic habitats, Big
Darby Creek supports an unusually large variety of fish.  One Federally
endangered species (Scioto madtorn) and several State-endangered species have
been found in Big Darby Creek (bigeye shiner, river redhorse, tippecanoe
darter, sand darter, and silver lamprey) (Cavender 1982).  During the 1981
Scioto madtorn survey, Cavender (1982) collected 59 species, representing 80
percent of all species recorded for a 10-year period.
                                     2-47

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Hacroinvertebrates
     Benthic macroinvertebrates have been widely used in pollution studies
involving flowing waters since they have a number of characteristics that make
them useful indicators of water quality.  They form permanent or semi-
permanent stream communities, are less transient than fish, are less sporadic
in occurrence than microrganisms, and usually occur in statistically
significant numbers.  Species composition and community structure of benthos
are determined by environmental factors that have existed throughout the life
span of the organisms.  Consequently, most types of pollution can alter the
existing community structure.

     A number of macroinvertebrate studies have been conducted in the Scioto
River during the past 15 years (Olive and Smith 1975 cited in OEPA 1986a).
The most recent survey was conducted by Ohio EPA in 1981.  A summary of these
findings and a detailed comparison to previous studies are contained in the
CWQR (OEPA 1986a).

     Figure 2-8 illustrates the number of benthic macroinvertebrate taxa
collected at stations along the Scioto River in 1974, 1980, and 1981.
Community composition and density of benthic macroinvertebrates between RM 130
and RM 106 reflects considerable variability. In general, the numbers of taxa
are depressed in a stretch of the Scioto between Whit tier Street CSO/Jackson
Pike VWTP and Southerly, with rapid recovery at the confluence of Big Walnut
Creek. Below Big Walnut Creek, the numbers of taxa remain relatively constant.
The rapid recovery at the confluence of Big Walnut Creek is believed to result
from benthos repopulating the Scioto as "drift" from the higher quality
aquatic environment of Big Walnut Creek.

     Data from 1980 and 1981 are typified by the general pattern described
above.  Data from 1974 also reflected the characteristic decline from Whittier
Street/Jackson Pike through Southerly; however, the downstream recovery was
much more gradual, and the numbers of taxa did not return to the upstream     ;
levels until much further downstream (below Deer Creek).  This observation
correlates well with water quality records and other observations which indi-
cate improved habitat conditions in the downstream Scioto in recent years.
                                     2-48

-------
      
      te
      O
  40
                * a -
                I   V r>
                              in    V)
                               
                              SS?
    CD U
                         ^ LJ  "
                       255-
                       Bu O U
                                                                 I
 30-
 20-
 10-

                                                                             O
                 130
120
110
 RIVER 1IUE
                                                    1OO
                                                                90
                                                                           BO
                                                                                       70
            FIGURE 2-8.  NUMBER OF BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE  TAXA
NOTE:  Collected from artificial substrata/samplers in  the  central Scioto
       River  raainstein study  area in 1974, 1980, and 1981.
       Source:   Ohio EPA  1986a.
                                       2-49

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Reductions  in bypassing at Southerly during low flow periods in 1981 and
higher effluent qualities are hypothesized as influencing the improvement in
benthos  (OEPA 1986a).

     Most recent macroinvertebrate data (1981) reflected strong improvement in
water quality compared to past sampling efforts, especially these by Olive in
1969 and OEPA in 1974.  Stations downstream from the Columbus WWTP in  these
surveys  reflected severe water quality degradation while comparable 1981
stations had consistently higher diversity, larger number of taxa, and
improved species composition.

Mollusks
     Mollusk populations of the Scioto River have not been thoroughly sampled
and described since Biggins (1856).  Fauna below the WWTP effluent discharges
are considered significantly reduced and almost nonexistent (Stansbury 1986).
Stansbury indicated that sampling between 1955-1970 revealed some species of
mollusks in the banks of the Big Darby Creek near its confluence with the
Scioto River and within the Circleville Riffle, a mixing zone of the Scioto
River and Big Darby Creek.  Some species were also found in Big Walnut Creek.
No species of mollusks were found in the Scioto River proper.  Stansbury noted
that relatively good fauna may be found above and below areas significantly
influenced by WWTP effluent, particularly above the Jackson Pike WWTP.  The
potential for reestablishing a viable mollusk population through the removal
of inadequately treated WWTP effluent may be good,  although other limiting
factors (e.g., pesticides) may affect the repopulation of these areas.

2.1.A.3  Wetlands
     National Wetland Inventory Maps are not available for the Columbus area;
however,  several of the soil series within the FPA indicate good potential for
wetland habitat.  These series include Carlisle, Condit, Kokomo, Montgomery,
Pewamo, Sloan, and Westland.  Using these series as an indication of wetland
coverage within the FPA,  an estimated 15.7 percent of Franklin County could
potentially be comprised of wetlands.  If these lands are used for agricul-
tural purposes,  they may not be designated wetland areas within State or
Federal regulatory jurisdiction.   The Scioto River wetlands appear to have
                                     2-50

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       in


       3
   40-
   30H
I
-i*
i is
I *
UJ (U mm
o 51
                              -.
                                                      iu
                                                    (Bu U
                       /%
                        *

                       S



                       I
                                                                       4***>

                                                                       O**0 1fT4
       uo
 130
                             120
110


 RIVER
                                                   100
                                                                          80
                                                                                     70
             FIGURE 2-8.  NUMBER OF BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE TAXA
 NOTE:  Collected from artificial substrata/samplers in  the central Scioto

        River mainstem  study area in 1974,  1980,  and  1981.

        Source:  Ohio EPA 1986a.
                                       2-A9

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Reductions  in bypassing at Southerly during low flow periods in 1981 and
higher effluent qualities are hypothesized as influencing the improvement in
benthos  (OEPA 1986a).

     Most recent macroinvertebrate data (1981) reflected strong improvement in
water quality compared to past sampling efforts, especially these by Olive in
1969 and OEPA in 1974.  Stations downstream from the Columbus WTP in  these
surveys  reflected severe water quality degradation while comparable 1981
stations had consistently higher diversity, larger number of taxa, and
improved species composition.

Mollusks
     Mollusk populations of the Scioto River have not been thoroughly sampled
and described since Higgins (1856).  Fauna below the WTP effluent discharges
are considered significantly reduced and almost nonexistent (Stansbury 1986).
Stansbury indicated that sampling between 1955-1970 revealed some species of
moHusks in the banks of the Big Darby Creek near its confluence with the
Scioto River and within the Circleville Riffle, a mixing zone of the Scioto
River and Big Darby Creek.  Some species were also found in Big Walnut Creek.
No species of mollusks were found in the Scioto River proper.  Stansbury noted
that relatively good fauna may be found above and below areas significantly
influenced by WWTP effluent, particularly above the Jackson Pike WWTP.  The
potential for reestablishing a viable mollusk population through the removal
of inadequately treated WTP effluent may be good, although other limiting
factors (e.g., pesticides) may affect the repopulation of these areas.

2.1.4.3  Wetlands
     National Wetland Inventory Maps are not available for the Columbus area;
however, several of the soil series within the FPA indicate good potential for
wetland habitat.  These series include Carlisle, Condit, Kokomo, Montgomery,
Pewamo, Sloan, and Westland.  Using these series as an indication of wetland
coverage within the FPA,  an estimated 15.7 percent of Franklin County could
potentially be comprised of wetlands.  If these lands are used for agricul-
tural purposes,  they may not be designated wetland areas within State or
Federal regulatory jurisdiction.   The Scioto River wetlands appear to have
                                     2-50

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been considerably altered, as evidenced by shoreline development, dikes, and
the presence of large ponded areas adjacent to the river, but separated from
the river by roadfills.  A corridor of forested and emergent floodplain and
vetland species is present throughout most of the length of the study area.
Further informtion on wetlands is presented in chapter 6.

2.1.4.4  Endangered and Threatened Species
     Appendix H lists all rare animal and plant species known to occur or with
the potential of being found within the FPA.  Federal and State status of
these species are provided.

Plants
     Several Ohio State threatened plant species have been sighted in the FPA
based on records of the ODNR Natural Heritage Program.  The locations of these
plants in the FPA is well removed from the Scioto River, so they should not
suffer from direct impacts.  The sighted species are the following:  Narrow-
leaved Toothwort (Dentaria mulfida), Three-birds Orchid (Triphora triantho-
pora), Prarie False Indigo (Baptisia lactea), Spider Milkweed (Asclepias
virdis), and Showy Lady's-slipper (Cypripsadium reginae).

Terrestrial Animals
     Four Federally endangered animal species may be present within the FPA.
These species are the Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis), the bald eagle (Haliaeetus
leucocephalus), the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), and Kirtland's
warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii).

     The Indiana bat was sited in Pickaway County and it is likely that it may
be found within the FPA (Multerer 1986).  The Indiana bat winters in caves and
is found along streams and adjacent woodlots during summer.  The Indiana bat
has been found to use loose bark of a dead tree for the nursery roost, but
sometimes the bats temporarily move to the bark crevices of a living shagbark
hickory tree (Humphrey et al. no date).
                                     2-51

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     The bald eagle, the peregrine falcon,  and the piping plover have been
recorded within the FPA (Thomson 1983).   All  of the federally endangered bird
species migrate through the FPA, but none of  these species have  been known  to
nest in Ohio (Milterer 1986;  Ohio Department  of Natural  Resources 1983).

Mollusks
     None of  the Federally endangered bivalve  roollusks  are expected to be
found within  the FPA  (Multerer  1986).  However,  13 of the 16 unionid mollusks
listed  by Ohio as  endangered animals have  been recorded from the Scioto River
below Columbus, Ohio  (Stansbury 1986).   The  endangered  unionid  mollusks
recorded below Columbus are listed  in Appendix H.   One  of these species,
Lampsilis orbiculata  (pink mucket pearly mussel),  is also listed as a
Federally endangered  species, but has not  been recorded in the  area in the
recent  past.  Based on  records  of the ODNR Natural Heritage  Program, only  five
of  the  species listed in Appendix H have been  sighted in the FPA since 1950.
These species are:  Simpson's Shell, Cob Shell,  Club Shell,  Northern Riffle
Shell,  and  Fragile Heelsplitter (Stansbury 1987).

Fishes
     No Federally  endangered fish species  are  expected  to occur within the
mainstem Scioto River in the proposed impact area (Multerer  1986).  Only one
Federally endangered  fish, the  Scioto madtom  (Noturus trautmani),  is found
within  the  Facilities Planning  Area.  However,  this species  is  found only  in
Big Darby Creek.

     The Scioto madtom  (Noturus trautmani) is  a fish species endemic to the
facilities  planning area which  is FPA listed as both Federal and State ,
endangered.  This  particular species is  considered endemic to Big Darby.Creek.
Cavender (1982) conducted a 1-year  survey  (Nov.  1981-Oct 1982)  on Big Darby
Creek in an attempt to  find the extant population of the Scioto madtom; how-
ever, this  species was  not collected and has not  been collected to date
(Cavender 1986).   Assuming the  Scioto madtom  is not extinct,  Cavender (1982)
hypothesized  that  it  lives in the lower  end of Big Darby Creek,  but is so  rare
that in most years it cannot be sampled  by seining.  The other  hypothesis  is
that the Scioto madtom  no longer lives in  Big  Darby Creek (its  habitat was
                                     2-52

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taken over by other species), but it may live elsewhere in the Scioto River
basin.

     Eight state-listed fish have been sighted in the Columbus study area,
based on ODNR Natural Heritage Program data.  These species are:  blacknose
shiner, Tippecanoe darter, spotted darter, slenderhead darter, northern brook
lamprey, mooneye, river redhorse, and paddlefish.  Two additional species,
lake chubsucker and shortnose gar were reported by OEPA as being sighted in
the study area (OEPA 1986a).

     The river redhorse, mooneye, and shortnose gar were the endangered
species collected in 1985 and 1986 by OEPA during the Scioto River surveys.
These species were also caught during the 1979-1981 surveys of the Scioto
mainstem.  Known populations of blacknose shiner, slenderhead darter, and
spotted darter currently exist on tributaries to the Scioto (Fritz 1986).  The
lake chubsucker was collected in the Scioto by OEPA during the 1981 survey but
not during 1985 and 1986 surveys.  The paddlefish has not been seen on the
Scioto or in the study area since 1976.

     The river redhorse was the state endangered fish most often found during
the fish surveys conducted during 1979-1981 and 1985-1986 by OEPA on the
central mainstem of the Scioto River.  It was captured at several locations
ranging from RM 138.6 to RM 70,7.  The population in the Scioto may be growing
because the numbers caught each year have increased steadily.  In 1986 eight
were caught and prior to that between one and four had been caught per year.

     The river redhorse is generally found on medium sized streams having
gravelly or rocky bottoms and continuous strong flow.  It is highly sensitive
to siltation, turbudity, and intermittent flow.  It feeds in pools on small
mollusks, snails, and insects.  Spawning occurs in spring and is proceeded by
upstream movements.  The spawning fish gather in schools over shallow gravelly
riffles.

     Little information exists on the habits and life history of the mooneye.
In 1986 it was sighted at RM 102 and RM 100.2 in the Scioto.  It is generally
found in larger pools of streams and in open areas of reservoirs.  Its diet
                                     2-53

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 consists  primarily  of  insects and small fish caught near the waters surface.
 It  spawns  in spring.

     A population of Tippecanoe darters is believed to exist in Big Darby
 Creek near the  town of Fox and in Deer Creek.  This darter is usually found on
 riffles with slow or moderate currents and a bottom of clean gravel and sand.
 The species spawns  during spring along fringes or riffles in water three to
 eighteen  inches deep.  The Tippecanoe darter, like most darters is highly
 intolerant of silt.  In winter months it abandons riffles for pools two to
 five feet  deep where currents are sluggish.

     The slenderhead and spotted darters are similar to the Tippecanoe darter
 in  habitat requirements and life cycle.  These darters are intolerant of
 turbidity  and spawn in spring on riffles.  Both darters are commonly found in
 larger clean streams among larger rocks in swift currents.  The slenderhead
 exhibits more variability in habitat selection than the spotted darter.  The
 spotted darter is believed to have a relict distribution pattern in the Ohio
River basin.

     The lake chubsucker, shortnose gar, and paddlefish are not common
 inhabitants of the  central mainstern of the Scioto River.  These species are
most commonly found in ponds, oxbows, or backwaters where currents are
 sluggish.  Waters are clean and submerged aquatic vegetation abundant.  Such
habitat is apparently not well developed within the Columbus study area.  Thus
 presence in the Scioto is historically rare.

2.2  MAN-HADE ENVIRONMENT
     The objective  of this section of the environmental setting chapter is to
discuss present socioeconomic characteristics of the planning area that are
essential for identifying and assessing primary and secondary impacts of the
proposed action as  presented in Chapter 6.  Therefore, the description of the
man-made environment focuses on the following factors:

       Income (Economy)
       Public Service
        -  Transportation
        -  Water and Sewer Services
                                     2-54

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        -  Other Public Utilities
        -  Public Safety
        -  Health Care
        -  Education
        -  Community Services

       Public Finance
       Cultural Resources.

2.2.1 Income
     There are five aspects of income that are used to indicate the economic
health or stability of an area.  These aspects are listed below:

       Unemployment
       The number of new jobs created
       The number and type of employers
       The number and type of jobs in the area
       Personal income levels.

Using these indicators, the Columbus area appears to have a healthy economy
and diverse economic base.

     The area's unemployment rate has remained low, even during recessionary
times.  According to the Ohio Bureau of Employment Services, the area's
unemployment rate peaked at 9.3 percent in the 1982 recession; the State's
rate peaked at 12.5 percent; and the Nation's rate peaked at 9.6 percent.
Franklin County's unemployment rate remained under these levels at 8.8 per-
cent.  This rate dropped to 6.2 percent for the first 6 months of 1985
(Columbus Area Chamber of Commerce 1985).  Franklin County outperformed the
Nation in number of new jobs created during the period between 1978 to 1984.
Over 42,000 new jobs were added to the Columbus MSA employment base during
that period.  This brought the total number of persons employed in the county
to 557,000.  This figure represents an average increase of 7,000 jobs per year
in Franklin County.  As these figures indicate, the area is not susceptible to
recessionary trends and has a strong growing economy.
                                     2-55

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      Columbus  weathered the 1982  recession  better  than  expected  for  several
 reasons.   First,  it  is  not  an industrial  tovn.   Columbus  has  a service-based
 economy.   The  largest employer is the  State University  followed  by the  State
 government.  Combined,  these two  State institutions  provide 48,000 jobs.
 The  Federal government  is the third  largest employer with 10,533 employees.
 Table 2-11 lists  the number and type of firms  in the Columbus area along with
 the  number of  employees each industry  employs.   As this table indicates,
 service industries provide  the largest number  of jobs,  over 94,000.
 Table 2-12 lists  the employment trends of these  industries.   As  this table
 indicates, the financial and service industries  are  the fastest  growing
 sectors of the local economy.   Second,  Columbus  is the  corporate headquarters
 for  two Fortune 500  companies  and over 250  firms with sales in excess of
 $10  million.   Some of these firms include Borden, Inc.; Bob Evans Farms;
 Nationwide Investing; Wendy's  International; and The Limited  Co.  Finally, the
 city of Columbus  and its Chamber  of  Commerce actively promote economic
 development in the region.   This  policy has resulted in a diverse economy that
 is able to absorb fluctuation  in  the national  economy.

      As a  result  of  this diverse  economy, income levels are higher than
 average in the Columbus  area.   The per capita  income in Franklin County is
 higher than the MSA, State,  and Nation.  The county  per capita income is
 102  percent of the national average  and 106 percent  of  the State average (see
 Table 2-13).   The per capita incomes for political subdivisions  within
 Franklin County are  shown in Chapter 6.  Several areas  within the county have
 unusually  high income levels.   These areas  include Bixby,  Dublin, Riverlea,
 Marble Cliff,  Upper  Arlington,  and Vorthington.  Comparing growth rates with
 income levels  indicates  that  the  county is  growing both in the upper income
 and  lower  income  communities.   The growth rate for Dublin, a  community  with an
 average per capita income of $18,392 was 29.1  percent,  while  the rate for
 Urbancrest, a  community  with an average per  capita income  of  $5,091 was
 23.4  percent in the  period  between 1980 and  1984.  The  per capita income in
 1984  for Franklin County was $13,035.  The  county's  median family income in
 1980 was $20,970.  This was  104 percent above  the State median family income
and  105 percent above the Nation.   The median  family income in the State was
 7.6 percent above the median national  family income  in  1969;  this difference
had decreased  to 5 percent  by  1979.  Furthermore, the median  family income in
                                     2-56

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                TABLE 2-11.  INDUSTRIES OF FRANKLIN COUNTY  (1982)
Agricultural Services
  Forestry, Fisheries

Mining

Contract Construction

Manufacturing

Transportation and Other
  Public Utilities

Wholesale Trade

Retail Trade

Fire

Services
                           Number of Firms/
                            Establishments
  197

   73

1,353

1,003


  534

1,702

4,565

2,087

6,354
Annual
Payroll ($000)
$ 25 j 596
$ 18,899
$ 293,775
$1,375,581
$ 478,871
$ 579,953
$ 802,207
$ 635,173
$1,287,821
Number of
Employees
1,736
984
13,640
63,899
20,581
29,150
80,760
38,289
94,516
Sources:  Bureau of the Census 1983; Columbus Area Chamber of Commerce 1985.
                                     2-57.

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            TABLE  2-12.   COLUMBUS MSA EMPLOYMENT  (1978-1983) TRENDS
Finance, Insurance,
  and Real Estate

Services

Wholesale/Retail

State and Local
  Government

Transportation
  & Public Utilities

Manufacturing

Mining

Construction
1987
Employment
34.6
92.5
127.5
82.8
23.6
116.2
1.3
22.2
1983
Employment
44.2
110.1
132.9
85.9
23.2
99.2
1.0
17.1
% of Total
1983
Employment
8.5%
21.335
25.7%
16.6%
4.5%
19.2%
.2%
3.3%
Percent
Change
1978-1983
-(-27.6
+19.0
+4.2
+3.7
-1.6
-14.6
-19.2
-22.7
Source:  Columbus Area Chamber of Commerce 1985.
                                     2-58

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          .TABLE  2-13.   PER CAPITA INCOME LEVELS FOR THE COLUMBUS MSA
.State  of  Ohio

MSA

Delaware

Franklin

Fairfield

"Licking

Madison

'Union
                  '.Personal Income
                   Average Annual
                    Growth Rate*
   Per Capita
 Personal.Income
1980         .1984
Per Capita Income
-as a *% of  National
 .Average in 1984
7.48
8.35
9.38
8.11
9.22
8.57
8.77
9.41
$9,401
$9,282
$9,251
$9,577
$8,771
$8,625
$7,696
$8,720
$12,326
$12,609
$12,508
$13,035
$12;025
$11,621
$10,016
$11,479
97
99
98
102
94
91
100
90
 Source:   Bureau of .Economic Analysis 1986.
                                      2-59

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 Franklin County was 2.7 percent  above the  State  income  in  1969,  but was  only
 .3 percent higher in 1979,   By 1979,  the county  income  was 12.7  percent  higher
 than the city income level,  up from 8.8 percent  in  1969.   This reflects  a
 concentration of higher income white  collar households  in  the suburban areas.
 Median  family income levels  are  also  higher for  Franklin .County  than  the U.S.
 or Ohio.   Median family income is.discussed further in  chapter 6.

 2.2.2   Public Service
     Local governments  provide a number of essential services.   These include
 fire and  police protection,  water and sewer service, local roads, and public
 education.  Public utilities  provide other services  such as electricity.  Those
 services  that are required as  part  of the development process or require a
 large physical plant  are part  of a  community's infrastructure.   This  infra-
 structure includes water and sewer  lines, roads  and bridges, and in some
 communities electric  and gas lines.   Many communities require impact  fees to
 pay  for  these services  or require a staged development  plan to limit  the
 impacts of growth upon  these services.  Although local  planners  advocate such
 sound planning practices, these  techniques are not  formally practiced in the
 Columbus  area.   This  rapid and uncontrolled development has placed a  strain on
 many of the area's  essential services.  In most  cases each of these essential
 services  has  been strained as a  result of this constant and ever increasing
 growth.

     The  Development  Committee for  a  Greater Columbus is in the  process  of
 studying  the  area's infrastructure  needs.   This  committee  is working  with the
 Mid Ohio  Regional  Planning Commission (MORPC) and other public agencies  to set
 criteria  for  funding  availability,  health and safety standards,  and minimizing
 the impacts of development on  the local community.  Bridge  repairs, road
 repairs,  increasing the city's water  supply, and upgrading  the sewer  system
 are the four  areas of most concern  to  this local citizens group.  The
 committee recommends  a consistent method of financing capital improvement
 projects and  increased surtaxes and fees to finance these  improvements
 (Development Committee for a Greater  Columbus 1986).  It is  the  responsibility
of the State and  local government to anticipate necessary  improvements and
 incorporate the  funds to provide these improvements in the  budget process.
                                     2-60

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     Below is a discussion of each of  these services:

       Transportation
       Water and Sewer Services
       Other Public Utilities
       Public Safety
       Health Care
     *  Education
       Community Services (Cultural Activities)
       Recreation.

2.2.2.1  Transportation
     Transportation systems, both public and private, play a vital role in the
growth and economy of the Columbus Metropolitan Area.  Because of Columbus'
strategic location, its transportation systems provide easy access to the
markets throughout the United States.  As a result, Columbus is becoming a
major distribution center.

     The Columbus Metropolitan Area has a network of more than 200 miles of
expressways.  This network of roads consists of local streets and an inner
beltway that feeds into the outer beltway at various junctions.  The following
roads serve the city of Columbus:  1-71, east; 1-70, south; State Road 315,
west; and 1-670, south.  Interstates 70 and 71 (670 when it is completed) and
State Road 315 comprise the inner beltway.  1-670 will be completed in the
early 1990s.  Traffic congestion usually occurs east and north of the downtown
Columbus area during morning and evening rush hours.  It is expected that
1-670, when it is operational, will relieve much of the traffic congestion
from 1-71.

     The northwestern section of the Columbus Metropolitan Area is
experiencing severe traffic congestion during morning and evening rush hours
and on weekends.  The roads in this area have exceeded their overall traffic
capacity.   As a result, Bethel Road from east of Sawmill Road to Olentangy
River Road is expanding to four lanes.  This project has already been funded
and is under construction.  There is a plan to widen Sawmill Road but it has
                                     2-61

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 not yet been funded.   Road improvements  for  the  Dublin  area have  not  been
 planned.

      During morning and  evening rush  hours,  traffic  congestion  occurs near and
 around  1-270 access roads.   Projects  that  have been  funded include widening
 Broadway  from two  to  five  lanes from  Southwest Boulevard  to 1-270, widening
 Cemetery  Road from Leap  Road to 1-270, and widening  Cemetary Road from two to
 four lanes  from Main  Street  to  Leap Road.

      The  city of Columbus  receives financial assistance from the  Ohio State
 Department  of Transportation to maintain all roadways (including  State owned)
 for the Columbus Metropolitan Area.   Developers  are  100 percent responsible
 for repairing and  constructing  roadways within their areas of construction.
 Through negotiations  with  the city or Planning Commission, developers become
 responsible for offsite  improvements, such as widening  a  roadway  on the
 outskirt  of their  jurisdiction.

      Four airports located in Franklin County serve  the Columbus  Metropolitan
 Area.  Port  Columbus  International Airport is owned  and operated  by the city
 of  Columbus.   There are  direct  flights from Port Columbus International
 Airport to  22  major cities,  including New  York,  Boston, Washington, Chicago,
 and  Los Angeles.   Port Columbus  International Airport is not directly
 accessible  from any of the interstates.  Major traffic  congestion usually
 occurs during  rush hours between the  airport and downtown Columbus.   By the
 early 1990s,  traffic  congestion  should be  reduced when  the 1-670  interchange
 is  completed.

     Other  airports that serve  the Columbus Metropolitan Area are Don Scott,
Bolten Field, and  Rickenbacker.  Don  Scott, a general aviation  airport, is
owned and operated by Ohio State University.  It is  the fourth  busiest  airport
 in  the State, and  serves private and  corporate jets.  Don Scott Airport is
located in  the northwestern  part of Franklin County.  The city  of Columbus
owns and operates  Bolten Field Airport.  This airport serves only private
planes.   Rickenbacker Airport is the  largest air-freight hub of the Flying
Tigers Air Cargo Company.  The Columbus Port Authority  owns and operates this
airport.
                                     2-62

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     Columbus  is a major rail junction  for  the Chessie, Conrail, and Norfolk
and Vestern railroad lines.  Conrail's  new  Buckeye Yards have enabled  local
businesses to  conveniently and economically transport supplies and products  in
and out of Central Ohio.

     Over 100  trucking companies provide  freight movement for Columbus
businesses with at least 19 companies transporting goods to any North American
location.

     The Central Ohio Transit Authority (COTA) provides bus transportation
within the Franklin County service area.  COTA is expanding its bus routes to
serve the nonradial travel patterns of  suburban residential and work areas by
use of crosstown route expansion and reverse commute planning.

2.2.2.2  Water and Sewer Services
     The Columbus Division of Water serves  over 200,000 accounts in the
greater Columbus metropolitan area.  Each year, over 45 billion gallons of
water are treated and pumped to supply  the  industrial, commercial, and
domestic needs of a growing Columbus.   Operating with an annual budget of over
$50 million, the Division maintains 17,000  fire hydrants and over 2,500 miles
of water lines.  The Scioto River, Big  Walnut Creek, and the South well field
are sources of raw water for the Division's three treatment plants.  The
combined supply capacity of these facilities is over 175 million gallons a
day.

     Figure 2-9 shows the location of city water treatment plants and
reservoirs.  Reservoirs include 0'Shaughnessy and Alum Creek located in
Delaware County, Hoover located partly  in Delaware County, and Griggs located
in northwestern Franklin County.  A sewer interceptor line runs under the
Griggs reservoir.  This interceptor line is reaching capacity.  If an overflow
occurs, this water source may be contaminated.  Water from these sources is
treated at the Dublin Road and Morse Road plants; the Nelson Road plant serves
as a backup.  The deep well field on Parsons Avenue has been completed.  This
facility is presently used to supplement the current surface sources as well
as to be the primary source of water to new development in the southern part
of Franklin County.
                                     2-63

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                                               6
       r
^IfWJBiS^ City ef Columbul
^P *iiting Wo>f Piont Sitn
1.
2.
3.
*
DuMin Rood
Nlio*> tood
Monc Rood
Proaoied Woic Plo
-------
     The  safe  yield  of  vater  from these  sources  is  presently 175 HGD;  peak
 load is 235  HGD (City of Columbus 1986c).  This  capacity is sufficient to
 sustain the  present  rate of growth until the  year 2000 provided  additional
 sources are  found  by 1991 (Development Committee for  a Greater Columbus 1986).
 During the  summer of 1986, the city  was forced  to  implement a dry  vater
 conservation program.   To meet  long-term demands, however,  new sources must  be
 developed.   One source  under  consideration is the Upper Darby Creek.
 Development  of this  source is still in the planning stage.

     The  city  of Columbus sewer system consists  of  over 2,780 miles of storm,
 sanitary, and  combined  sewers.   The system receives an average of 149  million
 gallons of sewerage  per day at  the Southerly  and Jackson Pike Treatment
 Plants.   Figure 2-10 shows the  location  of sewer facilities and  the existing
 service areas.   The  system is primarily  a gravity system with minimal  pumping
 and conforms to the  downstream  flow which runs north-south  through  Franklin
 County (City of Columbus 1986c).

 2.2.2.3   Other Public Utilities
     Natural gas,  oil,  and coal are all  produced in Ohio, with coal the most
 abundant  resource.   Ohio ranks  fifth  among the states in coal production and
 has a supply of coal that is  estimated to be  enough for about 500 years.   Ohio
 has excellent  electric  generating capacity, well in excess  of demand.   Nearly
 96 percent of  Ohio's electricity comes from coal-fired boilers.

     The  Columbus  area  is served by Columbus  and Southern Ohio Electric
 Company,  one of the  eight operating companies of the  American Electric Power
 system.  This  system operates in six  states and  has a generating capacity  of
 over 22 million kilowatts. "About  85  percent  of  this  generation  is  from coal-
 fired units.

     The  city  of Columbus, through the Division  of  Electricity,  provides power
 for the city's  street lighting  and other facilities.   This  plant is also a
 member of the  American  Electric  Power Grid System.  The Columbus Refuse and
 Coal Fired Municipal Electric Plant,  owned and operated by  the city of
 Columbus,  generates  electricity  through  the burning of refuse.   The plant  is
capable of burning 3,000 tons  of refuse per  day and  has the  capacity to
generate 90 megawatts of electricity (City of  Columbus 1986b).  Columbus plans
to purchase new collection vehicles and expand its  collection area once the
shredder system is  upgraded.
                                     2-65

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             r
        r
                                        ?M&2$.wi-*s    !'%-
    L.
              !ng end Planned I
                Pcrltj
             ntiling Trunk line
SOURCE: COLUMBUS, OHIO. DEPARTMENT OF
        DEVELOPMENT DIVISION OF PLANNING
                                     2-66
FIGURE 2-10
SEWER TRUNK DESIGN VS.
INDUSTRIAL PARK SITES

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     Additional electricity is generated by the recently completed
O'Shaugnessy Power Plant adjacent to the reservoir.  This plant's peak
generating capacity is five megawatts.  It provides street lighting to several
subdivisions within the city (approximately 2,000 to 6,000 homes) and is
operated by the Water Division (Bowman 1988).

     Columbus Gas of Ohio, Inc. distributes natural gas throughout Columbus
and the surrounding area.  Gas is fed into the city system through five border
stations located on all sides of the city.  This gas goes into a high-pressure
loop system which nearly parallels the outerbelt.  From this high-pressure
belt, the pressure is reduced to medium pressure (5-50 psig), intermediate
pressure (1-5 psig), and low pressure for distribution to the 260,984
residential, 16,505 commercial, and 208 industrial customers in the area.

2.2.2.A  Public Safety
     There are 55 different public safety agencies operating at various levels
of government in Franklin County.  Although all of these agencies work hard  to
meet the needs of the citizens they serve, there is an obvious duplication of
services when so many different units are operating in one area.  The problem
is compounded by the city's separate annexation pattern.  There are many
pockets of unincorporated areas nestled within Columbus.  These areas are
served by the Franklin County Police and Fire Departments.  This sporadic
pattern of development forces the rural-oriented County Sheriff's office to
increase its surveillance in urbanized areas.

     In February 1977, MORPC completed a  report on fire protection services  in
Franklin County.  It describes and analyzes services available in all
townships and incorporated areas.  According to the report, Franklin County  is
served by a total of 25 fire departments:

       15 township departments
       5 city departments
       3 village departments
       2 federal facilities
       1 unincorporated private department.
                                      2-67

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Seven jurisdictions have contract arrangements for fire services.  Coordina-
tion of fire services is not the responsibility of any single organization.
Several groups perform various training, prevention, and coordination
functions.

     The City Fire Department has 843 employees and the following fire
equipment:  28 stations, 4 heavy rescue vehicles, 28 engine companies, 4
paramedics, 10 ladder companies, and 9 squads.  The city plans to hire an
additional 108 recruits in fiscal year 1987 (City of Columbus 1986b).

     There are 31 different police forces operating in Franklin County.  These
units vary from the part-time marshall monitoring a small village to the city
of Columbus police force which includes over 1,500 full-time employees.  The
County Sheriff patrols the entire county but has a special contract for the
unincorporated areas of Praire, Hamilton, Norwick, and Washington townships.
The towns of Pleasant, Jackson, Truro, Jefferson, Cain, and Brown do not have
a contract for increased service nor do they have their own police force.  The
County Sheriff has 10 to 12 patrol cars on duty per shift.  There is one
deputy per car.

     According to Chief Kramer, the Franklin County Sheriff's office is
understaffed and is experiencing an increase in crime as the county shifts
from a rural area to a suburban/urban economy.  The crowded roads have
decreased the sheriff's response time.  Traffic accidents are more frequent
and more serious.  In 1985, there were less than 10 fatal accidents in the
county.  In the first nine months of 1986, this number had increased to 23.
The newly renovated county jail is at capacity and is considering further
expansion.

     The sheriff's department keeps, a fire radio in all patrol cars in order
to keep in constant touch with the fire service.  On July 1, 1986, the county
expects to implement 911 service from its new communication center at the Old
Woman's Work Bouse.  At that time, the County Sheriff will be responsible for
dispatching all fire and police equipment (Kramer 1986).
                                     2-68

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2.2.2.5  Health Care
     The Columbus area has 12 operating hospitals with 5,565 beds.  This is
approximately one bed for every 160 persons.  The area has 2,500 physicians,
leaving one physician for every 350 individuals.  In addition, there are
90 dentists in the area and 90 clinics serving the area.  Six of these clinics
are financed by the city of Columbus.  The city also offers a variety of at
home nursing services.

     Of the 12 hospitals, one (Grant Medical Center) has a Lifeflight
operation that carries critically injured patients as far as 125 miles away to
its emergency care facility.  Childrens Hospital in Columbus, one of the three
largest pediatric care facilities in the nation, will open its expanded
research facility in 1987.  Ohio State University is a leader in diagnostic
care and is an authorized cancer center.  According to the American Hospital
Association, Columbus health care costs are lower than the national average
(Columbus Area Chamber of Commerce 1985).

2.2.2.6  Education
     There are 17 different school districts operating 226 public schools in
Franklin County.  In addition, there are 26 private and parochial schools with
over 12,000 students.  There are 13 colleges located in the county with an
enrollment exceeding 75,000 students.  In addition, there are 35 public
libraries:  one main branch, 20 branches in the city of Columbus, and 14
suburban branches (Columbus Area Chamber of Commerce 1986).

     In the public school system, there are 141,289 students and 7,804
teachers; this results in a student teacher ratio of 18 students per teacher.
Almost half of these students or 66,158 pupils attend one of the city of
Columbus' 130 schools.  The remaining 75,131 students are divided between the
remaining 16 districts.  Since these districts are considerably smaller than
the Columbus school system, the city offers special programs for the learning
disabled or visually or hearing impaired to students outside the city's school
district boundaries (Columbus Area Chamber of Commerce 1985).
                                     2-69

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     In 1971, the Columbus school system had a record high enrollment of 111,000
students.  Enrollment has declined due to a national decline in birth rates and
a realignment of suburban school districts associated with a 1979 Desegregation
Ruling by the U.S. Supreme Court.  In 1985, enrollment leveled off.

     The system1s-enrollment decreased and the district was forced to close some
schools.  Now that the birth rate is increasing and the overall population in
the city of Columbus is also increasing, the district is studying the
possibility of reopening six closed schools for the 1987 school year (Lower
1987).  These schools will be used to help augment the city's alternative school
and neighborhood school programs.  The Columbus area population is well educated
in 1980.  Over 73 percent had a high school education and 21.2 percent were
college graduates (Bureau of the Census 1983).  Figure 2-11 shows the various
school districts within Franklin County.  The smaller developed districts such
as Bexley, Whitehall, Upper Arlington, and Grandview Heights, have experienced
declining enrollments and have been forced to close some of their schools.
School districts located in growth areas, such as Dublin, Worthington, and
Hilliard, have inceasing enrollments and plan to build new facilities.  The
Dublin school district is forced to lease space in order to accommodate its
enrollment.  All of these growing suburban areas are overcrowded.

     Prior to 1986, annexation into the city of Columbus occurred without the
requirement that the newly annexed area be included in the Columbus Independent
School District.  In 1986, this policy changed.  Today all properties annexed
into the city are to be included in the Columbus Independent School District.

     2.2.2.7  Community Services
     The Columbus area has an adequate number of diverse community services.
There are over 120 neighborhood associations, 88 shopping centers, 69 hotels
and motels with over 10,000 rooms, over 750 Protestant churches, 54 Catholic
churches, and 11 Jewish synagogues.  Additional services include the following:
City Parks           141
Metropolitan Parks     7
State Parks            6
Auto Race Tracks       2
Ball Fields          120
Bowling Facilities    30
Country Clubs       15
Golf Courses        25
Indoor Movies       25
Major Auditoriums    9
Museums              9
Outdoor Movies       6
Skating Rinks     7
Swimming Pools   50
Tennis Courts    12
YMCAs             8
YWCAs             2
                                      2-70

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                                   II
                                    
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      Cultural  events  and activities  include:

      *  The  Columbus  Symphony  Orchestra
         The  Ballet  Metropolitan
        Music  in  the  Air
        The  Columbus  Museum of Art
        The  Center  of Science  and Industry
      *  The  Ohio  Historic Center
        The  Greater Columbus Arts Festival
        A 100-acre  city-owned  zoo
        The  Ohio  State Fair.

2.2.2.8  Recreation
      The Scioto River provides opportunities for a variety of active
recreational uses,  and serves  as a major scenic resource for the Columbus
community.  Access  to the Scioto River is available through scenic easements
and a series of 21  parks located along the river in Franklin County.

     The majority of  water-related recreational activity centers around the
O'Shaughnessy and Julian Griggs Reservoirs in the northern section of the
river.  Boating and fishing are the major active uses, while picnicking,
hiking, bicycling,  and sightseeing are the predominant passive uses.  In 1986,
there were 132 boats  registered for primary use on Griggs Reservoir and
143 boats for use on  O'Shaughnessy (Bazler 1987).  There are 243 boat docks
available for rental  at the two reservoirs through the City of Columbus
Recreation and Parks  Department.  Demand for these docks is high (Slaughter
1987).  Boat launching ramps are located on each side of the Scioto River for
day-boating use, which is permitted from 7:00 am until 11:00 pm.  No quanti-
tative studies of recreational river use have been undertaken, but indications
are that it is relatively high in the portions of the Scioto River north of
Jackson Pike WWTP.
                                     2-72

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     Fishing occurs along the entire length of the river in the FPA, but is
most active north of Greenlavn Dam.  The latest creel survey of the Scioto
River, taken between 0'Shaughnessy Reservoir and Greenlavn Dam between April
14 and October 12, 1986, revealed a total fishing pressure of 153,080 angler
hours.  Approximately 133,044 fish were caught and 58,470 were kept (Schaefer
1987).

     Swimming or bathing is prohibited by city ordinance at any location along
the Scioto River within the Columbus city limits, in order to protect the
city's water supply and for public safety reasons (Deitz 1987).

     The downtown core of Columbus, upstream of the Jackson Pike site, hosts a
series of water-related urban parks that provide paddleboat concessions,
pontoon pleasure and shuttle rides, a floating amphitheatre, scenic overlooks,
fishing piers, waterskiing exhibitions, boat races, and riverfront festivals.

     Limited access and limited recreational quality restrict recreational
activities from Frank Road to the juncture of Big Walnut Creek and the Scioto
River in Harrison County.  Recreation activities along the lower portion of
the Scioto, south of the Jackson Pike WVTP, consist largely of duck hunting
and fishing.

     In 1974, a master plan for the waterways of Columbus was prepared and
adopted to protect and enhance the water resources of the county.  "The
Watercourse Plan for Columbus and Franklin County" (City of Columbus 1974) is
the only land-use master plan adopted by Columbus and Franklin Counties.  The
plan proposes a major park network along the seven watercourses that flow
through the county, including the Scioto River.  The master plan identifies
the land along the southern portion of the Scioto River for potential
development as parks and scenic open space.

     The northern portion of the river, from the zoo in Delaware County
through downtown Columbus, is identified for a variety of uses consisting of
urban waterfront parks, open space, and waterfront development.  The water-
course plan has been used as a guide to development in the area, although the
corresponding zoning needed to fully implement the plan is lacking.  The
                                     2-73

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 northern section of the  river  has  developed more or  less according  to  the
 plan.   Currently,  the  city of  Columbus  is  pursuing the  purchase  of  conser-
 vation  and  scenic easements along  the lover Scioto River as  opportunities
 arise.

     Even lacking more quantitative  data,  it  is evident that the Scioto  River
 is heavily  used  as a community resource, and  will experience additional
 pressure in the  future as  a result of projected development  in the  Columbus
 area, and anticipated  demand along the  river's edge.  Currently,  there are
 proposals for a  floating restaurant  and a  heliport along the Scioto River in
 the downtown area;  several  of  the area's incorporated municipalities have park
 projects  in the  planning stage that  will make use of the river as either an
 active  recreational or aesthetic resource.

 2.2.3   Public.._Financ_e
     The  study area includes most of Franklin County and parts of Fairfield,
 Delaware, and Licking  Counties.  Table  2-14 compares the per capita property
 taxes with  the per  capita expenditures  for these four municipalities.  Of
 these four  counties, Franklin  has the highest tax rate and the highest
 expenditure level.  This is due to the  large  number of incorporated areas
 within  Franklin County.  Host  of these  incorporated areas have their own
 school  districts.  Although  the State makes a large contribution to school
 district  operations from the State Foundation Fund, schools  are  largely
 financed  through the local property  tax.

     The  largest incorporated  area within Franklin County is  the city of
Columbus.  The city's  fiscal health  is an indicator of the area's economic
vitality.  Columbus has a strong and growing economy.  The performance of the
city income tax over the last  3 years reflects this strength.  The  economic
outlook suggests sustained growth in 1987.   The city continues to increase its
 revenue base through annexation.  Most of the recent annexations have been for
properties located within the municipal boundaries.  Table 2-15 lists the most
recent annexations.
                                     2-74

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                  TABLE 2-15.   COLUMBUS ANNEXATIONS SINCE 1986
Year
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986 to Present
   Totals
Fringe Annexation
                Infill Annexations
Cases
7
1
1
2
6
11
4
Acres
1,157
365
72
448
288
616
164
  32
3,110
Cases
15
17
21
12
22
20
23
130
Acres
66
91
169
116
205
277
1,041
1,965
     In anticipation of decreased Revenue Sharing funds, the city cut its 1987
budget.  The city increased user charges and regulatory fees to compensate for
this $10 million loss.  Although cuts were made, basic services will receive
full funding in FY 1987.  Public safety forces are slated to expand as the
city grows.  The police budget includes two classes totaling 65 recruits and a
police cadet program expected to free up more officers for patrol.  The fire
budget funds three classes with a total of 108 recruits.  Equipment replace-
ment, particularly for refuse collection and roadway maintenance, is
especially critical due to the age of the fleet.

     In 1986, the city's long-term credit rating was increased by both
national rating agencies.  Standard & Poor's Corporation and Moody's Investors
Service currently rate Columbus as AA+ and Aa, respectively.  These ratings
constitute the highest credit quality position in Columbus' history.  The
city's short-term ratings also reflect Columbus' credit quality, with a
Standard & Poor's rating of SPI+ and Moody's rating of MIG-1 and VMIG-1.  The
1987 Executive Budget combines the city's operating and capital budgets to
allow for a greater understanding of the relationship between capital projects
and operating costs.  It also provides for dual and simultaneous consideration
of each city division's total operations,  both in the operating arena and in
the capital improvements area.
                                     2-76

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     The Division of Planning prepares an annual Growth Potential report as
part of an overall Columbus development strategy.  The report attempts to
identify the Columbus metropolitan area's future population growth in resi-
dential development, determine the site of such development, and assess the
city's ability to accommodate that growth.  Specific capital project proposals
are developed to address the needs identified in the Growth Potential report.
The report indicates that growth is expected on the far south side of
Columbus.

     The city of Columbus has a FY 1987 operating budget of $437.3 million.
The city's general fund generates revenues of $212.5 million.  These revenues
will fund 49 percent of the FY 1987 operating budget.  Special revenues,
internal services, and block grants comprise 7.5 percent of the city's
operating budget.  The enterprise fund comprises the remaining 43.5 percent of
the budget.  The city has four enterprise operations.  These are as follows:

       Airports with an estimated revenue of $19,815,755 in 1987
       Electricity with an estimated revenue of $49,738,804 in 1987
       Water with an estimated revenue of $74,982,467 in 1987
    .  Sewers with an estimated revenue of $93,915,047 in 1987.

     The next largest revenue source for general fund operations is the income
tax.  In 1987, this source is expected to yield $139,5 million or 64.7 percent
of total general fund revenues.  This estimate exceeds project 1986 receipts
by $8.3 million, or 6.3 percent, and reflects continued economic growth.  The
city of Columbus levies a 2 percent income tax on all wages, salaries, com-
missions,  and other compensation paid by employees and on the net proceeds of
business operation in the city.  The most recent tax increase, 0.5 percent,
was approved by the votors on November 2, 1982, and became effective on
January 1, 1983.  Pursuant to Columbus City Code, Section 361.36, 75 percent
of all income tax collections are deposited in the general fund for general
fund operations, and 25 percent of collections are deposited in a separate
fund to service debt on capital improvements.
                                     2-77

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2.2.4  CulturalRe_sourc_e_8
2.2.4.1  Historic Resources
     The Columbus area is the second largest metropolitan area in Ohio, second
only to Cleveland.  Columbus was established as the state capital by the Ohio
General Assembly soon aEter statehood in 1812 and was named for Christopher
Columbus.  Columbus was made the seat of Franklin County in 1824.

     Improvements in transportation corridors spurred growth in the Columbus
area.  During the 1840's, Columbus was linked to the National Road (from
Maryland) and to the Ohio and Erie Canel.  By 1850, the first railroad
arrived, and by 1900, the population of Columbus exceeded 100,000 people.  The
city contained a diversity of industry and government services important to
Ohio.  The areas surrounding the city remained predominantly rural and
agricultural until after the second world war.  World War II agricultural
lands have been converted to subdivisions in a large-lot sprawl pattern.  The
Columbus metropolitan area of today covers over 2,000 square miles, making it
geographically the largest metropolitan area in Ohio.

     The Ohio Historical Society (OHS) was established in 1885.  Its
headquarters are in Columbus.  The Ohio Historic Preservation Office, a
division of the Ohio Historical Society, maintains the Ohio Historic Inventory
(OHI) which is a collection of over 60,000 historic properties throughout the
state.  The OHI contains properties that have been:  1) listed in the National
Register of Historic Properties; 2) determined eligible for listing in the
National Register; and 3) determined not eligible for listing in the National
Register or not evaluated against the National Register criteria.

     The National Register of Historic Places lists 27 historic sites or
structures (excluding archaeological sites) in Delaware County; 34 in Fairfield
County (2 additional structures are eligible); 99 in Franklin County (11
additional structures and sites are eligible, and 27 are pending inclusion on the
Register); 39 in Licking County (1 additional is eligible); 6 in Madison County;
and 15 in Pickaway County (1 additional structure is eligible)  (See Appendix I.)
                                     2-78

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2.2.4.2  Archaeologic Resources
     Information about archaeologic resources was obtained primarily from the
archaeologic survey report prepared for the Columbus Southerly and Jackson
Pike Wastewater Treatment Plants, published January 25, 1985, by John E.
Blank, Ph.D., Department of Anthropology, Cleveland State University.
Archaeologic resources are derived from a succession of prehistoric cultures,
extending back in time to a period of 18,000 years B.C., that made extensive
use of the Scioto River Valley.

     The archaeologic background analysis of the Blank survey (see Appendix J)
was used to characterize prehistoric cultural information.  This background
analysis suggests that prehistoric manifestations would occur on the raised
elevations on both the floodplains and terraces of the Scioto River throughout
the project area.

     According to William S. Dancey, Ph.D., an Associate Professor of
Anthropology at Ohio State University, in a letter dated January 2, 1987,
"...the valley floor and bluff edges of the rivers in the study area were
preferred locations for human settlement."  Further, he stated that "...within
the study area, where intensive surveys have been conducted  (e.g., along Big
Darby Creek from Orient to S.R. 40, Alum Creek in the Westerville vicinity, and
the Scioto River from 1-270 to Circleville), sites have been found to be
nearly continuous along the floodplain and on adjacent bluffs."  Dr. Dancey
concluded in his letter that "...development of any kind in  the region will
encounter archaeologic sites and because of the poorly known character of the
sequence and structure of prehistoric occupation nearly all  sites are
potentially significant by any measure."

     The National Register of Historic Place lists:  1 archaeologic site in
Delaware County; 3 in Fairfield County; 6 in Franklin County; 5 in Licking
County; 1 in Madison County; and 5 in Pickaway County.   The Ohio Historic
Inventory lists those archaeologic sites that may or may not be eligible for
inclusion to the National Register but are, nonetheless, important cultural
resources to the State.  The site  inventory of the Division  of Archaeologic
Services of the Ohio Historic Preservation office includes over 500 sites from
Franklin County and over 330 sites within Pickaway County.
                                     2-79

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                       CHAPTER 3.   EXISTING FACILITIES

     This chapter describes the  Jackson  Pike and  Southerly  Wastewater
Treatment Plants, the Combined Sewer Overflow System, and the Southwesterly
Composting Facility.

     Figure 3-1 shows the locations of the two treatment plants,  the
composting facility and the area served  by combined sewers.  Separation of a
portion of the combined sewer area is currently  underway.  This area is noted
on the map.

     The following sections of this chapter will define the equipment,
influent and effluent characteristics,  and the overall condition  of the
facilities.
                                                 4
3.1  JACKSON PIKE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT
     The Jackson Pike Wastewater Treatment Plant began operation in 1937.   The
plant was modernized  and expanded in capacity in the mid-fifties.  Currently
there are two parallel flow trains for wet stream treatment consisting of
preaeration,  primary  settling, aeration, and final clarification.  The
original train is called Plant A,  and the newer  train is called Plant B.  The
two trains operate relatively independently of each other during liquid
processing but share  sludge handling facilities.

3.1.1  Major Interceptors
     Wastewater  arrives at  the Jackson Pike plant by the 108-inch diameter
Olentangy-Scioto Interceptor Sewer (O.S.I.S.)  and the 72-inch diameter Big Run
Interceptor Sewer.  The maximum hydraulic capacity of the Jackson Pike plant
is 100 MGD.  Currently average daily  flows are approximately 84 MGD.  The
plant accepts all of the flow from the Dig Run Interceptor but limits the  flow
from  the O.S.I.S. so the hydraulic capacity of  the plant  will not be
exceeded.  The major diversion point for  the  O.S.I.S. flows  is  at the Whittier
Street Storm  Standby  Tanks.
                                     3-1

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                                           i Ji*.; ... ;li:  ' ?:'>.   y*'
JACKSON PIKE WWTP

SOUTHERLY WWTP

SOUTHWESTERLY COMPOST FACILITY


APPROXIMATE SCALE:
   1  INCH = 4.12 MILES
        SEPARATION UNDERWAY OR COMPLETE

        COMBINED SEWERS REMAINING

        MAJOR INTERCEPTOR
FIGURE 3-1
COLUMBUS METROPOLITAN AREA
INTERCEPTORS &: TREATMENT FACILITIES
                           3-2

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     The major  portion of a connecting sanitary interceptor sewer (i.e., the
Interconnector) is currently in place between the Jackson Pike and Southerly
WWTPs.  Currently  the  Interconnector consists of approximately 7 miles of 150-
inch and 156-inch diameter sewer.  It begins 3000 feet from the Jackson Pike
WWTP  and connects  with a pump station  on the west  side of the Scioto River
near the Southerly WWTP.  In September of 1986, USEPA provided funding for the
construction of the remaining 3,000 feet of the sewer (Figure 3-2),  which will
complete the Interconnector between the two plants.  Included in the north end
construction will  be a diversion chamber which will connect the Interconnector
with  the O.S.I.S. north of Jackson Pike.  When  completed,  the Interconnector
will allow the flow to Jackson Pike to be controlled by diverting excess flows
to Southerly.

3.1.2  Preliminary Treatment (O.S.I.S.  Flowja)
     Preliminary treatment is provided for flows entering Jackson Pike through
the O.S.I.S.  at a facility called the Sewer  Maintenance Yard which is located
approximately one mile north of Jackson Pike.   These preliminary  treatment
facilities were constructed in 1948.  They are  rated at a capacity of 160 MGD
and provide preliminary  screening and  grit  removal for flows in  the  O.S.I.S.
prior to their arrival at Jackson Pike.

3.1.3  Major Treatment Processes
     The Jackson Pike Wastewater Treatment Plant consists of the  following
treatment processes:

       Preliminary Treatment
       Primary Treatment
     *  Secondary Treatment
       Disinfection
       Solids Handling
       Solids Disposal.
                                     3-3

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                                               !   (
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 (    \
                                                   \   \
                                                    \   \
                                                    I
                      JACKSON PIKE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT
                       PROPOSED 150"
                       INTERCONNECTOR  EXTENSION
                       & 8" SLUDGE  LINE EXTENSION
SOURCE: REVISED FACILITY PLAN UPDATE
                                     FIGURE 3-2
                                     NORTH END INTERCONNECTOR
                          3-4

-------
     Figure 3-3 shows a flow schematic of the Jackson Pike WWTP,  Table 3-1
identifies the specific unit processes and their respective facilities.

3.1.4  System Performance
     Wastewater characteristics and operating performance for the Jackson Pike
plant were assembled from monthly summaries  of  plant operating data.  These
parameters are presented in Tables 3-2 through 3-4.   The  following sections
discuss these  tables.

3.1.4.1  Influent Wastewater Characteristics
     Influent wastewater characteristics for  1985 are shown at the top of
Table 3-2. The average  influent carbonaceous biochemical  oxygen demand
(CBODt)  and total  suspended  solids (TSS) concentrations of 145 and  185  mg/l
represent low to medium strength domestic sewage. Ammonia and phosphorus
concentrations represent a  weak domestic sewage.

3.1.4.2  Final Effluent Quality
     The effluent wastewater characteristics  for 1985 are shown at the bottom
of Table 3-2.  The yearly average  CBODc  and TSS  concentrations are 16  mg/l and
8 mg/l, respectively.  Table 3-3 shows the 1985 monthly average raw, settled,
and final concentrations for CBOD^ and TSS.   The annual average  removal rate
for CBODj is 90 percent.  The TSS annual average removal rate is 96 percent.
Table 3-4 presents monthly  nitrification data for 1985.  Effluent  ammonia
concentrations range from 57 to 90 percent of influent ammonia concentrations.

     Effluent limitations for the  Jackson Pike plant are  specified in  OEPA
Permit No. 4PFOOOOO*HD.   The plant  is  currently  operating  under  interim
effluent limitations established by  the  permit.   The  interim limitations
require a 25/30 effluent (i.e.  CBOD/TSS;  30-day  average).  The permit  also
sets forth a  compliance schedule for attainment  of compliance with final
effluent limitations.  The  final limits established  by the permit for  the
Jackson Pike  plant have been previously presented in Table l-l.   The final
limits are more stringent than the interim limits with respect to CBODe and
                                      3-5

-------
3-6

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-------
  TABLE 3-2.  1985 OPERATING DATA JACKSON PIKE WWTP
Parameter
INFLUENT
Flow, mgd
CBOD5, rag/1
TSS, rag/1
COD, mg/1
Ammonia, mg/1
Nitrite, mg/1
Nitrate, mg/1
TKN, mg/1
Total
Phosphorus, mg/1
EFFLUENT
TSS, mg/1
CBOD5, mg/1
DO, mg/1
COD, mg/1
Ammonia, mg/1
Nitrite, mg/1
Nitrate, mg/1
TKN, mg/1
Total
Phosphorus, mg/1
Fecal Coliform
(count/100 ml)
Average
84.3
145.0
185.0
359.0
11. 0
0.17
0.9
20.6
6.4
8.0
16.3
4.6
39.6
3.1
0.58
10.4
4.9
4.4
9.2
Maximum
Monthly
Average
95.1
179.0
235.0
429.0
14.4
0.57
4.8
24.9
7.8
16.0
25.5
6.9
47.9
5.0
1.37
13.3
6.9
6.2
20.0
Minimum
Monthly
Average
74.5
124.0
141.0
275.0
6.3
0.02
0.2
15.1
4.8
5,0
2.03
3.4
30.1
0.6
0.15
8.3
2.2
3.3
3.5
Source:  Plant Operating Reports
                         3-9

-------
             TABLE 3-3.   JACKSON PIKE WWTP 1985 PERFORMANCE DATA

CBOD5
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Average
SUSPENDED
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Average
Raw (mg/1)

179
159
133
132
135
164
137
141
142
167
125
124
145
SOLIDS
182
173
172
149
186
235
" 219
190
182
193
192
141
185
% Removal
Raw to
Settled (mg/1) Settling

102
95
100
91
72
98
95
99
101
113
65
69
92

66
98
75
65
61
83
100
86
69
79
55
56
74

43
40
25
31
47
40
31
30
29
32
48
44
37

64
43
56
56
67
65
54
55
62
59
71
60
64
Final (mg/l)

21
18
12
22
13
17
15
2
18
26
7
_7
16

10
9
7
7
7
9
5
8
5
16
9
_6
8
Z Removal
Raw to
Final

88
89
91
83
90
90
89
99
87
84
94
94
90

95
95
96
95
96
96
98
96
97
92
95
96
96
Source:  Plant Operating Reports
                                    3-10

-------
           TABLE 3-4.  JACKSON PIKE WWTP NITRIFICATION DATA - 1985
               Ammonia (mg/1)
Nitrite (rog/1)
Nitrate (mg/ll

January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Average
Raw
13.4
f
11.5
9.3
10.6
9.8
12.0
10.4
11.5
13.4
14.4
6.3
9.0
11.0
Final
2.8
1.7
1.7
4.2
2.2
4.3
4.4
5.0
5.0
3.8
0.6
1.9
3.1
% Reduction
79
85
82
60
78
64
58
57
63
74
90
li
72
Raw
0.05
0.41
0.38
0.14
0.12
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.32
0.57
0.17
Final
1.37
0.61
0.35
0.59
0.47
0.50
0.54
0.62
0.60
0.52
0.15
0.68
0.58
Raw
0.4
1.8
1.0
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.6
4.8
0.9
Final
11.1
13.3
11.7
10.2
11.0
9.9
9.6
8.3
9.1
10.1
10.5
9.6
10.4
Source:  Plant Operating Reports
                                      3-11

-------
TSS, and include discharge limitations  on ammonia and  establish a minimum

dissolved oxygen concentration which must be maintained in the final effluent.

The compliance  schedule stipulates that construction of wet stream facilities

must be completed prior to May 23, 1988,  and final effluent  limitations must

be attained no  later  than July I,  1988.


     Operating data presented in Table 3-2 through 3-4 illustrates that the

Jackson Pike WWTP is not capable of consistently meeting the final effluent

limitations without upgrading and expansion.  The monthly  average CBOD^

concentrations shown in Table 3-3 exceed  the final 30-day permit  limits six

months of the year.   The required minimum dissolved oxygen concentration of

7.0 mg/1 was never achieved (Table 3-2).  Ammonia limits were exceeded for the

months of June  through  October (Table  3-4).


3.1.5  Present Condition of Plant

     In August and September of 1985, a detailed survey of  the facilities at

the Jackson Pike Wastewater Treatment Plant was conducted.   The  purpose of the

survey was to determine the remaining  useful service life of existing

equipment and structures.   The conclusions  of the survey, taken  from the

General Engineering Report and Basis of Design prepared by URS Dalton (January

1986),  are  listed below:
       Tanks
       Buildings
Visual inspection of the open-air tanks out of
service indicates that the majority of the
concrete deterioration has occurred above the
water line, with the concrete below in good
condition.   A complete handrail system is needed
around all the open-air tanks but can only be
constructed after concrete restoration.

Work is required on all buildings,  some of which
are in need of more extensive rehabilitation
than others.  Those  requiring the most work are
either the oldest or subjected to the most
severe environment.  These include  the
Incinerator Buildings, Boiler Building, Sludge
Control House No. 2 and the Bar Screen Building.
                                      3-12

-------
       Power System
        Instrumentation
        & Control
        HVAC
        Plumbing

        Wet Stream Process
       Solids Handling
The power system  is generally adequate and in
good condition.  Two transformer substations in
the Aeration Control Building "A" should be
replaced along with the motor control center in
Aeratioa Control  Building "B".   The  power
generator system  should be abandoned.  Part of
the site is not lighted and should have pole
fixtures installed.

Inadequate.   The I&C system requires complete
replacement and expansion to meet final NPDES
limitations.

In general,  the buildings appear to have
adequate heating and the heating equipment
overall has been kept in good condition.
Buildings that have ventilation equipment
generally have the equipment in operation.  Bach
building should be evaluated on an individual
basis to determine heating and ventilation
requirements.

Adequate.  Some renovation  required.

There is a significant amount of useful life in
the raw sewage pumps, the main air blowers, and
the primary sludge pumping system.  However, the
primary collection mechanisms, air diffusion
equipment and secondary clarifier equipment
need to be replaced.

Adequate, but requires  renovations and minor
expansions due to the need for increased
pollutant removals.
3.2  SOUTHERLY WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

     The Southerly Wastewater Treatment Plant began operation in 1967 with a

single treatment train.  In the  early seventies, an additional wet  stream

train was constructed.  The original wet stream treatment train is  termed the

Center Section.   The newer train is called the West Section.


3.2.1  Major Interceptors

     Southerly receives approximately 50 to 60 MGD via the Big Walnut Sanitary

Outfall Sewer which  serves the northeast, east, and  southeast portions of
Columbus and Franklin County.  An additional 5 MGD of flow is carried
                                     3-13

-------
to Southerly by the Interconnector Sewer which serves a portion of western
Columbus.

3.2.2  Interconnector Pump Station
     The purpose of the Interconnector Pump Station is to pump flows from the
Interconnector across the Scioto River to the Southerly WWTP.  The
Interconnector Pump Station is located on the south end of the Interconnector
near Southerly (Figure 3-4).  Flows from the 156-inch Interconnector Sewer
enter a 58-foot wide by 25-foot long by 16-foot deep chamber to be distributed
to three channels containing coarse bar racks and mechanically-cleaned bar
screens.  Each channel is 6 feet wide by 30 feet long.  Flows from the
screening channels enter a 20-foot wide by 66-foot long by 23-foot high wet
well and are pumped by two 20 MGD and two 30 MGD extended shaft centrifugal
pumps through one 36-inch and one 48-inch force main to the Southerly
headworks.  The pump station is rated at a capacity of 70 MGD with the largest
pump out of service.

3.2.3  Treatment Processes
     The Southerly Wastewater Treatment Plant consists of the following
treatment processes:

       Preliminary Treatment
       Primary Treatment
       Secondary Treatment
       Disinfection
       Solids Handling
       Solids Disposal

     A schematic flow diagram of the facilities is presented in Figure 3-5.
Table 3-5 identifies the specific unit processes and their respective
facilities.
                                     3-14

-------
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     Construction of additional facilities is presently taking place at
Southerly.  These new facilities were not included in Table 3-5.  This
construction phase is called Project 88.  This construction is being
undertaken by the city as part of their Municipal Compliance Plan to bring the
treatment facilities into compliance with revised NPDES permit limits by
July 1, 1988.  It includes the following:

       4 preaeration tanks
       2 primary settling tanks
     *  6 aeration tanks
       6 secondary settling tanks
     *  chiorination/dechlorination/post aeration facilities
       4 gravity thickeners
     *  4 DPF dewatering presses
       sludge cake storage facilities
       lime stabilization facilities.

3.2.4  System Performance
     Monthly summaries of wastewater characteristics and operating performance
for the Southerly plant were assembled from plant records and reports.  These
summaries are presented in Tables 3-6 through 3-8.  The following paragraphs
discuss these tables.

3.2.4.1  Influent Wastewater Characteristics
     Influent wastewater characteristics for 1985 are shown at the top of
Table 3-6.  The average CBOD5 and TSS levels of 171 mg/1 and 193 mg/1,
respectively, represent medium strength domestic wastewater.  The ammonia and
phosphorus concentrations represent a weak domestic sewage.

3.2.4.2  Final Effluent Quality
     The bottom of Table 3-7 shows average, maximum monthly average, and
minimum monthly average parameters for the Southerly plant effluent during
1985.  These values do not incorporate the flow that is bypassed directly to
                                       3-19

-------
    TABLE 3-6.   SOUTHERLY WWTP  1985  OPERATING  DATA
Parameter
INFLUENT
Flow, MGD
TSS, mg/1
CBODr, mg/1
COD, mg/1
Ammonia, mg/1
Nitrite, mg/1
Nitrate, rag/ 1
TKN, mg/1
Total
Phosphorus, mg/1
EFFLUENT
TSS, mg/1
CBOD5, mg/1
DO, mg/1
COD, mg/1
Ammonia, mg/1
Nitrite, mg/1
Nitrate, mg/1
TKN, mg/1
Total
Phosphorus, mg/1
Fecal Coliform
(count /100ml)
Average
64.8
193.0
171.0
433.0
12.4
0.04
0.2
24.6
7.5
8.0
11.0
8.1
38.0
3.8
0.63
5.0
5.8
1.4
386.0
Maximum
Monthly
Average
87.2
222.0
238.0
546.0
18.9
0.14
0.3
33.6
9.4
18.0
17.0
8.8
53.0
7.8
1.13
8.6
10.6
2.6
950.0
Minimum
Monthly
Average
51.7
139.0
115.0
328.0
8.2
0.02
0.2
17.7
5.1
5.0
7.0
7.6
27.0
1.2
0.28
2.2
3.2
0.8
119.0
Source:  Plant Operating Reports
                          3-20

-------
               TABLE 3-7.  SOUTHERLY WWTP 1985 PERFORMANCE DATA

CBOD5
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
Augus t
September
October
November
December
Average
SUSPENDED
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Average
Raw (mg/1)

183
149
139
160
163
183
171
189
233
238
115
134
171
SOLIDS
198
191
174
193
196
212
210
199
222
210
139
168
193
% Removal
Raw to
Settled (mg/1) Settling

122
109
92
97
123
142
128
132
151
185
88
91
122

85
88
74
79
99
120
96
86
83
120
75
65
89

33
27
34
39
25
22
25
30
35
22
23
3_2
29

57
54
57
59
49
43
54
57
63
43
46
61.
54
Final (mg/1)

14
11
10
13
17
15
8
7
8
8
9
_9
11

7
10
13
9
18
7
5
6
7
5
10
_
8
% Removal
Raw to
Final

92
93
93
92
90
92
95
96
97
97
92
93_
94

96
95
93
95
91
97
98
97
97
98
93
96
96
Source:  Plant Operating Reports
                                     3-21

-------
             TABLE 3-8.  SOUTHERLY WWTP NITRIFICATION DATA - 1985
                Ammonia (mg/1)
Nitrite (mg/1)
Nitrate (mg/1)

January
February
March
April
Hay
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
AVERAGE
Raw
12.9
11.0
9.2
11.1
11.6
13.9
11.3
12.3
18.0
18.9
8.2
10.7
12.4
Final
5.0
5.7
2.9
3.3
4.0
4.8
1.8
1.2
3.1
7.8
3.0
2.8
3.8
% Reduction
61
48
68
70
66
65
84
90
83
59
63
74
69
Raw
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.05
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.14
0.04
0.04
Final
1.13
0.94
0.85
0.52
0.63
0.97
0.55
0.28
0.52
0.56
0.33
0.30
0.63
Raw
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.2
Final
3.1
2.2
2.8
4.7
4.1
4.6
7.1
7.5
8.6
6,3
4.0
4.4
5.0
Source:  Plant Operating Reports
                                     3-22

-------
the Scioto River.  The annual average CBOD5 and TSS concentrations are 11 rag/1
and 8 mg/1, respectively.   Table 3-7 shows the 1985 monthly average raw,
settled, and final concentrations for CBODj and TSS.  The CBOD5 annual average
removal rate is  94 percent.  The TSS annual average removal rate is 96
percent.  Table 3-8 presents monthly nitrification data for 1985.   The
effluent ammonia concentrations range from 48 to 90 percent of the influent
ammonia concentrations.

     Similar to  the Jackson Pike WWTP, the Southerly WWTP is also operating
under interim effluent limits of 25/30 as established in OEPA Permit No.
4PF00001*HD.   This permit also sets forth a compliance schedule for attainment
of compliance with final effluent limitations.  The final  effluent limits were
presented in Table 1-2.  The limits are more stringent with regards to CBOD^,
TSS, and fecal coirform levels than the interim limits.   The final limits also
include standards for dissolved oxygen and ammonia which are not included in
the current permit.  The Southerly  WWTP must attain compliance with the final
limits  by July 1, 1988.  Based on the operating data presented in Tables 3-6
through 3-8,  the  Southerly WWTP is  not be capable  of meeting these final
limits  on a consistent basis without  some upgrading or expansion.  The CBOD^
limits were exceeded  for  the months  of May and  June (Table  3-7), and the
ammonia limits were exceeded six months of the year (Table  3-8).

3.2.4.3  Operational Considerations
     Storm flows periodically cause hydraulic overloading and operational
upsets at Southerly.   In the past,  when the biological portion of the plant
was threatened by potential flooding, untreated influent was diverted to the
treatment plant  bypass.  In 1983, a cooperative effort by Ohio EPA and the
City to reduce bypassing resulted in another method of resolving this problem
termed Blending  of Flows.

     When incoming flows  begin  to  increase,  the plant increases pumping  rates.
When the biological part of the  plant begins to show signs of potential
washout, then flow to the biological part is fixed.  Influent flows above this
                                      3-23

-------
fixed flow, but less than the capacity of the primary tanks, are bypassed
around the biological portion and blended with the final effluent, thus
                                                                 
receiving only primary treatment and chlorination.  Once the primary treatment
facilities are operating at capacity, then influent flow above that rate is
bypassed directly to the Scioto River through a 108-inch diameter pipe
originating in the  screen building.

     In reviewing plant operating data it is difficult to pinpoint the exact
flow rate above which flows must be blended or bypassed.   Blending occurs at
flows as low  as 45  MGD  and bypassing occurs at flows as low as 65 MGD.  Table
3-9 gives information on the frequency of bypassing and blending.  The
average flow values in the table include treated, blended, and bypassed flows.
The occurrences of blending and  bypassing seem to correspond with the level of
precipitation and the time of year.  The  monthly average precipitation for
1984 through 1986 is 3.0  inches.  The greatest  frequency of bypassing and
blending occurs when the total monthly precipitation exceeds  this average.
However, during February and  March of 1986,  the monthly precipitation totals
are slightly below average and bypassing and blending occurs in significant
amounts.  This may be due to snowmelt.

     Southerly has also been plagued in the past by bulking problems.  A
bulking sludge exhibits poor settling characteristics and poor compactability.
Filamentous organisms are one of the principle causes of bulking due to their
poor floe-forming and settling characteristics.  Excessive organic loads in
the form of carbohydrates in the wastes can cause excessive growths of
filamentous bacteria, which in  turn cause bulking.

     The Anhueser-Busch Brewery contributes a considerable amount of organic
load to the Southerly plant.  The brewery has  a contract with the city dated
August 11,  1981,  which limits their discharge to 45,000 Ibs/day BOD averaged
over a month and 75,000 Ibs/day BOD on a  daily basis.   It  is estimated that
the brewery contributes 40 percent of the organic load and 6 percent of the
hydraulic load to the Southerly HWTP.  Thus,  the  brewery loads are suspect as
a significant contributor to the bulking problem.
                                     3-24

-------
                      TABLE 3-9.  SOUTHERLY WWTP FLOW DATA
Month/Year
Flow
Average (MGD)
Blending
Freq. (days)/
Total (MG)
Bypassing
Freq. (days)/
Total (MG)
Precipitation
Total .(Inches)
1/84
2/84
3/84
4/84
5/84
6/84
7/84
8/84
9/84
10/84
11/84
12/84
1/85
2/85
3/85
4/85
5/85
6/85
7/85
8/85
9/85
10/85
11/85
12/85
1/86
2/86
3/86
4/86
5/86
6/86
7/86
8/86
9/86
10/87
11/86
12/86
56.7
68.2
78.0
84.5
78.2
57.7
56.7
54.9
53.5
54.5
62.0
64.5
60.6
83.1
77.6
68.2
67.6
56.3
63.5
55.2
51.4
53.5
101.2
73.7
65.1
86.7
80.3
57.7
52.3
64.2
62.8
56.2
58.5
65.0
60.6
75.4
2/ND
10/ND
3/ND
4/ND
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0 
8/ND
8/ND
2/ND
10/ND
0/0
0/0
3/1.9
0/0
0/0
16/292
6/41
5/31
15/231
8/95
0/0
2/5.7
12/84
10/65
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
2/ND
8/ND
9/ND
12/ND
16/ND
0/0
1/ND
0/0
0/0
2/ND
5/ND
3/ND
0/0
6/ND
4/ND
1/ND
2/ND
4/ND
6/ND
2/6.1
0/0
0/0
13/366
3/57
2/7.6
6/207
4/192
0/0
0/0
3/52
4/9.0
0/0
2/0.3
4/81
2/16
4/125
1.04
1.97
3.89
4.10
4.93
0.71
3.15
2.96
1.48
2.91
4.41
2.84
1.31
1.67
3.78
0.56
4.96
1.41
6.88
ND
ND
1.98
10.67
1.81
1.54
2.96
2.61
1.31
2.47
5.53
3.60
1.61
3.44
4.16
3.00
2.81
  Flow includes blended, bypassed, and treated flows.

  Source:  Plant Operating Reports

  ND - No Data Available
                                     3-25

-------
3.2.5 Present Condition of Plant

     In August and September of 1985 an engineering team surveyed both
Columbus wastewater treatment plants.  Their purpose was to determine the

remaining useful service life of the existing facilities.   The results of  the

Southerly survey, taken from the General Engineering Report and Basis of

Design (January 1986)  are listed below:
       Tanks
       Buildings
       Electrical
       11VAC
       Plumbing

       Instrumentation
        & Control

       Wet Stream Process
       Solids Handling
Minor concrete rehabilitation is needed.  Many
of the tanks,  walls,  and walkways exhibit
vertical and transverse cracks.

Work is required on practically all of the
buildings to repair cracks in the concrete, roof
leaks, and damaged handrails.

A new primary  loop is required for future expan-
sion.

The majority of the buildings appear to have
inadequate or no ventilation and  some facilities
have less heat than is required.   The equipment
does not operate or is in poor condition due to
an apparent lack of regularly scheduled preven-
tive maintenance.

Some O&M  renovation required.

The I & C system requires renovation and
expansion.

The wet stream process equipment is well
maintained but it is incapable of effectively
treating its design capacity of 100 MGD.
Sometimes flows are bypassed around the
biological portion of the plant and receive only
primary treatment and chlorination or else they
are directly bypassed to the Scioto River.

All sludge pumps should be replaced.  Digesters
need to be rehabilitated.   Minor expansion of
existing facilities is required.
                                    3-26

-------
3.3  COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW
     The Columbus wastewater  collection  system includes an area of 10.7
square miles that is served  by a combined stormwaCer and wastewater collection
system (Figure 3-1).  This constitutes approximately 7 percent  of  the  service
areas of the two Columbus wastewater  treatment plants.  Points  of  combined
sewer overflow  in the City include 21 regulator chambers,  3 overflow
structures and 2 storm tanks.   These  structures detain and divert wet  weather
combined sewer  flows that would otherwise hydraulically overload the Jackson
Pike and Southerly wastewater treatment plants.  The locations  of  CSO  are
listed in Table 3-10 and shown on Figure 3-6.

     Seven of the regulator chambers discharge to the Olentangy River  and
eleven overflow to  the Scioto River.  Two of the regulator chambers discharge
overflows to storm sewers.  One of the regulatory chambers diverts  overflows
to the Old Main Interceptor while the outfall of the last  regulatory chamber
(Sullivant Avenue) has been  bulkheaded causing  local  surcharging during wet
weather periods.

     Two of the overflow  structures discharge to the Scioto River  through
24-inch and 18-inch pipes.  The third  overflow  structure discharges  to Alum
Creek via a 48-inch storm sewer.

     The Whittier Street Storm Detention Tanks, situated south  of  Whittier
Street on the east bank of the Scioto River, were designed to provide  relief
for wet weather combined sewage flow in the O.S.I.S.   The  three equal  volume,  open,
reinforced concrete tanks provide a total storage capacity of 4,011,000
gallons.   They are  capable of  acting  as a holding system for  flows until the
flow in the interceptor subsides and they can be  bled back into the  system and
carried to the Jackson Pike WWTP.  If the flows  exceed the capacity of the
tanks,  they overflow to the Scioto River.  Flows  can also  be  directly  bypassed
along side the tanks, through an emergency  bypass, to the  Scioto River.
                                     3-27

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TABLE 3-10.  SUMMARY OF BYPASS AND CSO LOCATIONS IN THE COLUMBUS PLANNING AREA
OUTFALL
NUMBER

001
002
003
004
005
006
007
008
009
010
Oil
012
013
014
015
016
017
018
019
020
021
022
023
025
026
027
028
029
030
031
032
033
034
035
036

001
002
003
004
005
006
007

DECRIPTION - LOCATION
JACKSON PIKE WWTP
Jackson Pike WWTP final effluent
Plant raw sewage bypass
Plant settled sewage bypass
Regulator chamber - Hudson Street
Regulator chamber - Frambes Avenue
Regulator chamber - OSU Water Res.
Regulator chamber - King Avenue
Regulator chamber - Cozzins Street
Regulator chamber - West Street
Regulator chamber - Chestnut Street
Regulator chamber - Spring Street
Regulator chamber - Long Street
Overflow structure - Capital Street
Overflow structure - State Street
Regulator chamber - Town Street
Regulator chamber - Rich Street
Regulator chamber - Broad Street
Storm standby tanks - Whittier Street
Bypass - Whittier Street standby tank
Regulator chamber - Moler Street
Sluice gate - Mound Street
Overflow - Sewer Maintenance Yard
Overflow - Williams Road pump station
Overflow - Neff Avenue pump station
Overflow - Frank Road - South High Street
Sanitary relief - 3rd Avenue
Regulator chamber - Henry Street
Regulator chamber - Markinson Avenue
Regulator chamber - Whittier Street
Regulator chamber - First Avenue
Regulator chamber - Third Avenue
Regulator chamber - Doe Alley
Regulator chamber - Peter's Run
Regulator chamber - Spring & West Street
Regulator chamber - Sullivant Avenue
COLUMBUS SOUTHERLY WWTP
Southerly WWTP final effluent
Plant raw sewage bypass
Plant settled sewage bypass
Overflow structure - Roads End
Alum Creek storm standby tank
Alum Creek storm standby tank
Ash lagoons
RECEIVING
STREAM

Scioto River
Scioto River
Scioto River
Olentangy River
Olentangy River
Olentangy River
Olentangy River
Scioto River
Scioto River
Scioto River
Scioto River
Scioto River
Scioto River
Scioto River
Scioto River
Scioto River
Scioto River
Scioto River
Scioto River
Scioto River
Scioto River
Scioto River
Scioto River
Kian Run
Kian Run
Olentangy River
Scioto River
Scioto River
Scioto River
Olentangy River
Olentangy River
Olentangy River
Scioto River
Scioto River
Scioto River

Scioto River
Scioto River
Scioto River
Alum Creek
Alum Creek
Alum creek
Scioto River
Source:  Central Scioto River Mains tern CWQR - 1985
                                3-28

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                JACKSON PIKE  WWTP
SOURCE:  CENTRAL SCIOTO RIVER
       MAINSTEM CWQR-1985
 - OVERFLOW STRUCTURE
A = REGULATOR OVERFLOW CHAMBER
 = STORM STAND-BY TANK FACILITY
 = JACKSON PIKE WWTP  FINAL EFFLUENT
    APPROXIMATE SCALE:  1 INCH = 1  MILE
                               FIGURE 3-8
                               LOCATIONS OF COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW
                                 3-29

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      The Alum Creek Storm Tank is  situated  on the west bank of Alum Creek just
 south of Main Street.  This covered reinforced tank provides a storage
 capacity of 857,000 gallons before overflows are bypassed to Alum Creek.  A
 sewer separation program  is taking place in the portion of the Southerly
 service area  that  is  tributary  to  the Alum  Creek Storm Tanks  (Figure 3-1).   It
 is being undertaken  to address  localized surface and residential flooding
 problems.  The city expects that the potential for an overflow will be greatly
 reduced; however,  the actual  amount of  the  reduction has not  been quantified.

     An evaluation of all overflow points from October 1977 to October 1978 is
 contained in the Combined  Sewer Overflow Monitoring Report  prepared  by Malcolm
 Pirnie,  Inc.   This  study indicated  that  over 90 percent of  the overflow  volume
 is discharged through the  Whittier Street Storm Detention Tanks, 7.5 percent
 is discharged at the Alum Creek Storm Tank, and the remaining 2.5 percent is
discharged through the regulators and  other minor points of overflow.
Overflows monitored during the Combined Sewer Overflow Monitoring study
 conservatively estimated overflows from the Whittier Street Storm Detention
Tanks, Alum Creek Storm Tank, and  all other overflow points at 2200, 184, and
 55 million gallons per year?  respectively.

     Following completion of the Combined Sewer Overflow Monitoring Report,
OEPA authorized an  evaluation  of combined sewer overflow  effects on  the  Scioto
River. This study, entitled Combined Sewer  Overflow Progress  Report - July
 1983,  asserts that during periods  of medium to high stream  flow,  dissolved
oxygen and BODc concentrations in the  Scioto River  are  largely unaffected by
 loadings  from combined sewer overflows.  However,  during  periods of  low  river
flow, the study maintains that  the overflow loadings drop the  dissolved  oxygen
concentration of the river slightly below recommended concentration (5.0 mg/1)
and cause an increase in stream BODc concentrations.

3.4 SOUTHWESTERLY COMPOSTING FACILITY
     The  Southwesterly Compost Facility is  located  approximately 7 miles south
of the Jackson Pike Wastewater Treatment Plant and  2 miles due west  of the
                                      3-30

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Southerly Wastewater  Treatment Plant.  Construction began in May  1980.
Composting began on site  in July  1980.

     The plant uses the extended-pile aeration method of composting and was
originally designed to handle 200 wet  tons of sludge/day.  It was the first
facility of its type  in the midwest  and has attracted considerable attention
from a variety of  interested  groups.

     Dewatered primary and waste  activated  sludge  is- trucked to the site and
mixed with a bulking agent,  either previously composted material or woodchips.
The mixture is then placed on a 12-inch deep layer of woodchips,  in which
perforated plastic pipes have been buried.   A pile,  10-feet  high,  250-feet
long,  and 8-feet wide, is generated daily.   An 18-inch layer of previously
composted material is placed  over the  pile to provide insulation.  Air is
drawn through the pile by small blowers attached to the buried pipes and
exhausted into a deodorizing pile  of woodchips and unscreened compost.  The
composting operation takes approximately 21  days and  requires a minimum of
three consecutive days with temperatures greater than 55 degrees Centigrade.
Following the composting  period, the piles are torn down and restacked for a
curing period of 30 days.  After this period,  the mixture is screened and the
woodchips recovered for reuse.

     This process creates one difficulty for Columbus.   Typically,  material
composted by the aerated  static pile  method,  utilizing low aeration rates,
does not dry significantly during the composting or the curing period.
Columbus realized, early in their  operation,  that additional drying was
required if they were going to compost 200 wet  tons of  sludge per day.

     Additional drying of compost  may be obtained by either  a passive solar
process or some mechanical method.  Passive solar drying consists of spreading
composted and cured material on a  drying  area  and continually  stirring it with
a tractor and harrow while it  is dried by the sun and wind.   This  method
requires a large area and is labor intensive.  This method would  not be
                                      3-31

-------
 sufficient  to handle solids generated at Southwesterly.  Therefore, the city
 chose to implement a mechanical method  of  drying.

     A mechanized drying system was  recently  installed at Southwesterly.  The
 system  consists of reactor bins, conveyor belts, and air handling units in a
 70 foot by 338 foot building.   There are two reactor bins that are 200 feet
 long by 20 feet wide and 10 feet deep.  Front-end loaders carry cured compost
 into the building and dump it  into a bin feeder-hopper.  From there it is
 conveyed onto a 48-inch  conveyor belt which delivers 'the material to the bins
 utilizing a tripper car and a shuttle conveyor.   The material is placed in the
 bins and will be dried  until  proper moisture is obtained.  The material is
 turned and eventually withdrawn from the bins by a digging machine.  As the
 material is removed from the bins it is  discharged  to a conveyor belt,  which
carries the dried cured compost into the next building for screening.

     The drying bins are aerated from beneath by 4 large air handling units.
The units are completely self-contained with integral fans, heat exchangers,
 and monitoring equipment.   They transfer heat  from  water to air for drying
compost.  Heat collection for the  hot water system is accomplished by a solar
collection field.   On some occasions only  ambient air is used for drying.

     Biological drying  can also occur in the compost under the right
conditions.   Biological  drying occurs as a  result of the inherent biological
activity in the composted mass.  Oxygen is required to maintain this
biological activity.  Microorganisms generate  heat  which in turn evaporates
moisture in the pile.   This biological drying  can occur in the aerated curing
piles and in the solar  drying  building where forced air  is available.

     The mechanized drying system provides an efficient means of drying
compost 365 days a  year  and permits  Southwesterly  the capability of
processing their original  design capacity  of 200 wet tons of sludge/day.   The
 final product of the composting process, Corn-Til,  is  marketed as a soil
conditioner and top soil substitute.
                                    3-32

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     The city owns approximately 200 acres of land at the  Southwesterly
facility,  approximately IS to 25  percent  of  which is being used to process  and
store compost.  Table 3-11 shows the quantities of incoming sludge to the
compost facility from January 1984 to September  1986.   A total of 130,560
wet tons of sludge were processed during that period.  This is  approximately
129 tons/day,  or 30 percent of the total  sludge production at Southerly.
                                     3-33

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TABLE 3-11.  SOUTHWESTERLY COMPOST FACILITY OPERATING DATA
                                      INCOMING SLUDGE (Wet Tons)

January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
TOTAL (Wet Tons)
DAILY AVERAGE (Wet Tons /Day)
PERCENT SOLIDS INCOMING SLUDGE
DAILY AVERAGE (Dry Tons/Day)
1984
3,929
5,056
6,632
5,630
6,091
3,116
4,179
4,970
4,836
6,446
5,502
3,517
59,904
164
15.8
25.9
1985
2,920
3,062
3,622
'2,559
3,878
4 , 233
3,390
3,498
3,626
2,317
3,733
2,454
39,292
108
17.0
18.3
1986 ,
3,142
3,158
1,470
4,197
4,623
3,926
3,473
3,844
3,531



31,364
115
17.3
19.9
  Source:   Plant Operating Reports
                               3-34

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        CHAPTER 4.  EVALUATION OF WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT DESIGN FACTORS

     In the facility planning process, once the objectives have been
established and base line conditions described, the next major task is
identification of reliable design criteria.  The establishment of design
criteria involved reviewing existing regulations and guidelines and projecting
future conditions in the planning area to serve as a base line in evaluating
facility needs and alternatives.
     The basic design factors described in this chapter are:

       Planning Period
       Population
       Land Use
     *  Wastewater Flows and Loads
       Combined Sewer Overflows.

     Existing and projected wastewater flows and loads are based on a detailed
analysis, documented in Briefing Paper No. 1 - Wastewater Flows and Loads,
which is contained in Appendix A.  Data contained in the facility planning
documents was evaluated to develop an accurate picture of existing conditions
and to project future conditions.

     Currently, the city of Columbus does not have adequate data documenting
the quality and quantity of combined sewer overflows (CSO).  In the fall of
1987 the city of Columbus began an extensive study of the CSO problem.  The
USEPA conducted an independent study and  literature search of the CSO problem.
This study is summarized in this chapter and is described more fully in
Appendix E entitled Briefing Paper No. 5 - Combined Sewer Overflows.
                                      4-1

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4.1  PLANNING PERIOD
     The USEPA regulations mandate a 20-year planning period.  The planning
period established by USEPA for this SEIS is July 1, 1988, through July 1,
2008.

     In 1985 the city of Columbus published the Revised Facility Plan Update,
which recommended a one-plant approach to meeting Clean Water Act
requirements.  Previously, the city had promoted upgrading the existing
Jackson Pike and Southerly WWTPs.  The planning period selected in the update
report is 30 years (1985-2015).

     The Clean Water Act requires that wastewater treatment facilities be in
compliance with final NPDES Permit requirements by July 1, 1988.  Construction
is presently underway at both treatment plants to meet the final NPDES permit
limits.  Currently, the city is operating under interim permit limits until
1988.

     This description of the determination of the SEIS planning period takes
precedence in this chapter because it sets the boundaries for the'discussion
of design criteria used in this chapter.  Existing and projected population,
land use, and wastewater flows and loads are based on a 20-year planning
period which is different from the planning period used in the facility plan.

4.2  POPULATION
     Population is one of the most important parameters used in designing a
wastewater treatment facility.  Population forcasts are used to project
wastewater flows and loads used for design.  Approximately 35 percent of the
wastewater flow at Jackson Pike and 47 percent of the wastewater flow at
Southerly is estimated to be generated from domestic or residential sources.
As the planning area's population increases, wastewater flows are also
expected to increase.
                                       4-2

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4.2.1  Existing Population
     In order to project future growth, it is necessary to examine  the present
population levels and past trends.  Table 4-1 presents a demographic profile
of the Columbus area based on 1980 Census data.  It lists 1980 population
levels, median age and income, the number of housing units, household size,
and the change in population and housing units between 1970 and 1980.  This
table indicates that the Columbus Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) is a
high growth area.  The population increased by 25 percent, and the  number of
housing units increased by 32 percent from 1970 to 1980.  The area's average
family income is higher than the state's.  The bulk of the Columbus area
population is between the child bearing years of 25 to 35.  Three-quarters of
the area's housing units are single-family dwellings.

     Table 4-1 also lists the percent of the overall population for each
county that is included in the Facility Planning Area (FPA).  Most  of Franklin
County (99 percent) and a small pecentage of Delaware (3 percent),  Fairfield
(1 percent), and Licking Counties (3 percent) are included in the FPA.   All
of the city of Columbus is included in the FPA.  Since the city of  Columbus
and Franklin County comprise the bulk of the land and population in the FPA,
growth in these two municipalities are indicative of growth levels  in the FPA.

     In Franklin County, the population reached 869,132 in 1980 and 898,345 in
1985.  This represents an increase of 6,000 persons per year.  In 1984, there
were 6,551 building permits issed in Franklin County; 2,875 of which were for
apartments and townhouse units.  The remaining 3,676 were for single family
homes.  On the average, 4,000 dwelling units have been built each year since
1980.
                                       4-3

-------


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     Columbus is experiencing, along with much of the nation, a decline in
household size.  This trend along with the growth in population has increased
the demand for housing.  In 1980, Franklin County had a household size of 3.08
persons per household; by 1984 this had decreased to 2.56 persons per
household.  The major component of this decline in household size is the rise
in the number of households headed by a single person.  In 1970, 17 percent of
the households in Columbus were included in this category; by 1985 that number
had increased to 27.9 percent (City of Columbus, 1985).

     In the past 25 years, the population in the city of Columbus has
increased by 112,406 persons.  The number of households has almost doubled in
the period betwen 1960 and 1985.  (The number of households in 1960 was
142,378; by 1985, this number had grown to 229,804) (City of Columbus, 1985).
In smaller suburban communities (Table 4-2) such as Dublin, Gahanna,
Westerville, and Worthington, the population between 1960 and 1980 doubled and
in some cases more than tripled in that 20-year period.  The growth that has
occurred in the Columbus area in the last 25 years generally placed
unanticipated demands on community services.  These services include the local
infrastructure; that is roads, water and sewer system as well as public
services such as fire and police protection, health and community services,
and public education.

4.2.2  Population Projections
     Population projections for the Columbus area are available from a number
of sources.  These include:

       Ohio Data Users Center (ODUC), a division of the Ohio Department of
        Economic Development
       Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA.)
       Mid-Ohio Regional Planning Commission (MORPC).
                                      4-5

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    TABLE 4-2.   POPULATION AND PER CAPITA INCOME  BY POLITICAL SUBDIVISION
Columbus
Bexley
Dublin
Gahanna
Grandview Heights
Grove City
Groveport
Milliard
Lockbourne
Marble Cliff
Minerva Park
New Albany
New Rome
Obetz
Reynolds burg
Upper Arlington
Westerville
Whitehall
Worthington
Population
July 1984
566,114
13,588
5,437
20,222
7,945
17,442
3,613
' 8,647
419
566
1,691
441
68
3,284
22,390
36,067
24,878
22,754
18,721
Population
1980
564,871
13,405
3,855
18,001
7,420
16,793
3,286
8,008
373
630
1,618
409
63
3,095
20,661
35,648
23,414
21,299
15,016
% Change
1980-84
+ 0.2
+ 1.4
+29.1
+63.1
+ 6.6
+ 3.7
+ 9.1
+ 7.4
+11.0
+11.3
+ 4.3
+ 7.3
+ 7.4
+ 6.1
+ 8.4
+ 1.2
+ 6.3
+ 6.8
+24.7
Per Capita
Income 1983
8,800
15,096
18,392
10,444
11,689
9,661
8,438
8,549
7,093
17,815
13,987
10,442
9,095
8,174
10,811
18,711
10,875
9,677
14,622
SOURCE:  Ohio Data Users Center and Columbus Chamber of Commerce.

NOTE;  Shawnee Hills is located in the facility planning area; however, data
       necessary to complete this table were unavailable.
                                     4-6

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     However, each agency uses different parameters:  ODUC prepares  its
projections only on the county Level, OEPA prepares  its projections  by Sewer
Service Areas, and MORPC prepares its projections by traffic zones.  Although
OEPA and MORPC's projections are prepared for smaller areas than ODUC's,  they
must be certified by the state as agreeing with the raost current ODUC
projections.  In 1985, ODUC updated its projections based on 1980 U.S. Census.
Since MORPC and OEPA agree that the 1985 ODUC estimates are the best available
projections, these were used as the basis of projections used in this BIS.
Table 4-3 lists the ODUC projections for the area.
       TABLE 4-3.  POPULATION PROJECTIONS FOR THE STATE OF OHIO AND THE
                    COUNTIES IN THE COLUMBUS SERVICE AREA

Ohio
Delaware
Fairfield
Franklin
Licking
1980
10,797,630
53,840
93,678
869,132
120,981
1990
10,681,863
61,709
98,655
924,592
127,390
2000
10,583,083
71,381
104,033
975,013
132,154
2010
10,398,338
81,164
107,577
1,026,008
136,765
Source:  Ohio Data Users Center, 1985.

     Although the population in the state of Ohio is expected to decline in
the future, the population of all of the counties included in the FPA is
expected to increase.  The population of Franklin County is expected to
increase at an average annual rate of six percent for the next 30 years.
These forecasts show the 2010 Franklin County population will exceed 1 million
persons.
                                      4-7

-------
     As mentioned earlier, roost of Franklin County is included in the Columbus
Facilities Planning Area (FPA).  The FPA represents the geographic area that
could be served by the Columbus sewer system.  The FPA is defined by OEPA.
OSPA assigns each sewer district an FPA in order to coordinate the planning
activities of various sewer authorities.  The FPA includes the potential
service area.  The service area must be located within the FPA boundary.  The
service area boundary, as shown on Figure 4-1, represents the area presently
served as well as those areas most likely to be served during the 20-year
planning period or prior to 2008.

     Population projections were prepared for use in this Supplemental EIS for
both of these areas.  These projections were based on the most recent ODUC
projections and were prepared for the 20-year planning period starting in
1988.  Appendix K details the methodology used to disaggregate the county
projections into the 2008 Service Area.  Table 4-4 lists these projections for
the 2008 design year.

               TABLE 4-4.  POPULATION PROJECTIONS FOR COLUMBUS
              Sub-Area
       Planning Area
       Total Service Area
       Jackson Pike Service Area
       Southerly Service Area
       RFPU Total Service Area
       Forecasts (11/86)
1988
925,900
888,000
499,000
389,000
870,427
2000
982,600
941,600
529,200
412,400
951,861
2008
1,018,000
986,000
544,600
441,400
995,159
     The above table indicates, the planning area population will increase by
92,100 individuals during the 1988 to 2008 planning period, reaching 1,018,000
persons by 2008.  This table also shows the 2008 Service Area population
increasing by 98,000 persons during the same period.  The Service Area
population is shown as reaching 986,000 persons by 2008.
                                      4-8

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                        / \ U j
SERVICE AREA BOUNDARY

PLANNING  AREA  BOUNDARY
                 4-9
FIGURE 4-1
PLANNING AND SERVICE
AREA BOUNDARIES

-------
     Preparing population projections for small areas requires a good estimate
of existing land use, the amount of vacant developable land, and a number of
other economic trends.  Different forecasting techniques can result in slight
variations in small area population projections.  The projections prepared for
the RFPU vary slightly from those prepared for this Supplemental EIS.  The
RFPU assumed a slower growth rate between 1980 and 1988 and a higher growth
rate between 2000 and 2008 than assumed by ODUC.  This resulted in the RFPU
presenting a lower initial population and a higher population in 2008 than
those shown in Table 4-4.  A detailed memorandum explaining the methods used
in the RFPU is included as Appendix K.

4.3  LAND USE PATTERN
     Land use in Franklin County is controlled by local zoning ordinances.
There are 234 incorporated areas and 17 towns in Franklin County that guide
growth through zoning.  Some of these incorporated areas also have a master
plan; most do not.  In Franklin County, eleven of the towns have delegated
their zoning powers to MORPCthe regional planning agency.

     The largest incorporated area in Franklin County is the city of Columbus.
They are in the process of developing a comprehensive plan to guide growth.
Until a plan is adopted, the city will continue to use over 20 different
documents to guide and control growth.  Some of these documents are updated on
a regular basis, these include the Growth and Development Report and the
Capital Improvement Program.  Others are updated as the need arises, such as
the recently completed plan for the Columbus International Airport.  Due to
its physical size, large population, and large employment base, the city's
policies greatly influence development in the smaller incorporated areas.

     Columbus is the state capital and houses several corporate headquarters
and a major state university.  It has never been known as an industrial town.
The city has a densely developed inner core with mixed office space and other
                                      4-10

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services such as hotels and retail stores.  Low density research and
development and distribution centers have moved from the inner core to  the
1-270 corridor.  This redevelopment has not affected the city's tax base since
many of these newer developments have been annexed to the city in order to
receive its services.

     The city of Columbus provides sewer and water services to city residents
and by contract to suburban municipalities.  In the past, the city has used
water and sewer service as an incentive to developers to annex to Columbus.
Twenty communities have contracts with Columbus.  Table 4-5 lists the
municipalities that have sewer service contracts with the city, and Figure 4-2
identifies suburban communities with sewer service contracts as of 1988.  This
service area includes 89 percent of Franklin County.  During the summer of
1987, the county made an administrative review of its sewer service contracts
and cancelled those contracts that were considered to be inactive.  The
contract with New Albany was cancelled at this time.  (Cabot 1988)

     In the Columbus area, growth has been influenced by annexation of various
incorporated areas, changes in school district boundaries, highway construc-
tion, and the availability of public water and sewer.  Suburban growth,
particularly in the northern and western sections of Franklin County is
directly related to completion of the interstate highway system (1-270 and
1-170).  The areas most affected are Dublin, Worthington, Westerville and to a
lesser extent Gahanna.

     Most of the unincorporated areas are either vacant land or farmland.
Some of the smaller incorporated areas mix some industrial and commercial uses
with predominantly residential uses.   This development has been dominated by
the construction of single-family homes.  Table 4-6 lists subdivisions filed
in the Columbus area between 1980 and 1982.  This table confirms that aside
from Grove City most of the area's residential development is occurring in the
northern sectors.  Figure 4-3 presents these high growth areas in a
                                     4-11

-------
TABLE 4-5.  SEWER SERVICE CONTRACTS FOR THE CITY OF COLUMBUS AS OF MAY 1988
Existing Contracts with Incorporated Cities and Villages.
  Bexley1
  Brice*
  Dublin^
  Grandview Heights'-
  Grove
Billiard2*4
Marble Cliff1
Minerva Park*
Obetz2*3
Reynoldsburg2
Riverlea^
Upper Arlington^
Urbancrest^
Valleyview*-
Whitehall1
Worthington^
Existing Contracts with Franklin County (Unincorporated Subdivisions).
  Briarbank Subdivision
  Brookside Estates
  Clinton (Sections 2 and 3)
Franklin (Sections 1 and 4)  Truro (Section 1)
Hamilton Meadows             Worthington Hills
Mifflin (Section 1)          Timberbrook Subdivision
Existing Contracts with other entities.

  Defense Construction Supply Center'
  Rickenbacker Air Force Base-*
Pending Contracts with Franklin County (Unincorporated Subdivisions).
  Briar Wood Hills
  Forest Ridge
Franklin County Landfill
Ridgewood Subdivision
Windsor Subdivision
Contracts under negotiation with Incorporated Cities,

  New Albany
Contracts under negotiation with Franklin County.
  Century Acres
  Enchanted Acres
  HoIton Park
Oakhurst Knolls
Taylor Estates
Village Park
Windrush Creek
Young Estates
Source: Hunsberger 1988.
                                                (Table continued on Page 4-13)
                                      4-12

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TABLE 4-5.  SEWER SERVICE CONTRACTS FOR THE CITY OF COLUMBUS AS OF MAY 1988 (CONT.)
'This city or village is entirely surrounded by other incorporated places, and
 therefore has no opportunity to expand its corporate limits through annexa-
 tion of adjacent unincorporated areas.

2 This city or village has a clause in its sewer service contract with Columbus
 which  limits  sewer  service expansion to the city  or  village's  corporate
 limits.    The  contract  also  clearly   defines an area outside the city or
 village where, if preceded by annexation into the city or village,  new sewer
 service can be offered without prior approval   of  the  City  of   Columbus'
 Director of Public Service.
      city or village has a clause in its sewer service contract with Columbus
 which limits sewer service expansion to the city or village's corporate
 limits.  The contract also clearly defines an area outside the city or
 village where t if preceded by annexation into the city or village, new sewer
 service may be offered, only with prior approval of the City of Columbus'
 Director of Public Service.
      city or village has a clause in its sewer service contract with Columbus
 which limits sewer service expansion to the city or village's corporate
 limits.  The contract also permits undefined areas outside the city or
 village to be offered new sewer service as part of annexation into the city
 or village with prior approval of the City of Columbus' Director of Public
 Service.
                                      4-13

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     r
                    SOUTHWESTERLY
                    COMPOST FACILITY
                      SOUTHERLY
                      WASTEWATER
                      TREATMENT PLANT
SOURCE: City of Columbus (Scott, March 1988)
COLUMBUS SEWER SERVICE  AREA
                City of Columbus

                Service Contract Areas

                           4-14
FIGURE 4-2
SEWER SERVICE AREAS

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TABLE 4-6.  RESIDENTIAL PLATS BY MUNICIPALITY OR TOWNSHIP,
                1980-1982, FRANKLIN COUNTY

                                                New     Total
    Year    Flats  Re subdivisions^  Acreage   Acreage^  Lots
Columbus



Dublin



Gahanna



Grandview
Heights


Grove City



Billiard



Upper*
Arlington


Westerville



1980
1981
1982
TOTAL
1980
1981
1982
TOTAL
1980
1981
1982
TOTAL
1980
1981
1982
TOTAL
1980
1981
1982
TOTAL
1980
1981
1982
TOTAL
1980
1981
1982
TOTAL
1980
1981
1982
TOTAL
31
23
15
69
3
1
2
6
1
4
1
6
1
0
0
1
3
1
1
5
1
0
0
1
1
2
2
5
6
1
3
10
7
6
7
20
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
2
0
0
2
2
368.297
275.110
93.193
736.600
41.389
7.447
23.267
72.103
15.980
59.613
7.896
83.489
4.170
0.000
0.000
4.170
48.086
34.182
0.596
82.864
2.074
0.000
0.000
2.074
10.847
8.904
4.006
23.757
77.801
2.115
37.742
117.658
316.359
260.912
70.879
648.150
41.389
7.447
23.267
72.103
15.980
59.613
7.896
83.489
4.170
0.000
0.000
4.170
48.086
34.182
0.596
82.864
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
10.847
7.371
2.149
20.367
77.801
2.115
36.119
116.035
1659
965
487
3111
83
1
30
114
45
181
30
256
9
0
0
9
120
92
3
215
10
0
0
10
25
28
9
62
204
11
101
316
                                                                1567
                                                                 901
                                                                 400
                                                                2868

                                                                  83
                                                                   1
                                                                  30
                                                                 114

                                                                  45
                                                                 181
                                                                  30
                                                                 256

                                                                   9
                                                                   0
                                                                   0
                                                                   9

                                                                 120
                                                                  92
                                                                   3
                                                                 215

                                                                   3
                                                                   0
                                                                   0
                                                                   3

                                                                  25
                                                                  27
                                                                   9
                                                                  61

                                                                 204
                                                                  11
                                                                  94
                                                                 309
                            4-15

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          TABLE 4-6.  RESIDENTIAL PLATS BY MUNICIPALITY OR TOWNSHIP,
                            1980-1982, FRANKLIN COUNTY (CONT.)
              Year    Plats  Resubd ivis ions *  Acreage
                                            New
                                          Acreage^
                                          Total
                                          Lots
Worthington
Bexley
Reynoldburg
Townships
Franklin
County
Total
1980
1981
1982
TOTAL

1980
1981
1982
TOTAL

1980
1981
1982
TOTAL

1980
1981
1982
TOTAL
1
2
2
5

0
1
0
I

0
2
1
3

3
2
2
7
TOTAL   119
0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1

0
0
0
0

0
0
2
2
          29
3.250
47.527
6.601
57.378
3.250
47.527
5.588
56.365
9
101
19
129
0.000
1.319
0.000
1.319
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0
3
0
3
0.000
13.216
26,252
39.468
0.000
13.216
26.252
39.468
0
88
72
160
  9
101
 18
128

  0
  0
  0
  0

  0
 88
 72
160
68.239
14.914
6.263
89.416
68.239
14.914
0.000
83.153
155
42
10
207
155
42
3
200
          1310.296  1206.164   4592
                          4323
'The number of resubdivisions is included in the total plat count.
 Resubdivision occurs when a large number of undeveloped lots are consolidated
 under one owner and broken into new lots with different acreages and
 locations.

^New acreage refer to the total platted acreage minus any resubdivided land.

*New lots refers to the total platted lots minus those lots created by a
 resubdivision where previous lots existed.  For example, if a resubdivision
 plat of 4 acreas contained 20 lots and the previous plat for the same 4 acres
 contained 16 lots, then the resubdivision resulted in no new acreage and 4 new
 lots.

*Interviews with local officials indicate that less than 10% of the land in
 the municipalities is available for development.

Source:  City of Columbus, 1983.
                                       4-16

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TRAFFIC ZONES WITH
PROJECTED INCREASES
OF 1,000 PERSONS  OR
500 HOMES FROM 1980
TO 2000

SERVICE AREA BOUNDARY
                 4-17
FIGURE 4-3
HIGH GROWTH AREAS

-------
generalized manner.  This  figure depicts growth according to traffic zones.
There are over 800 such zones in the service area.  Approximately 30 of these
zones are considered to be high growth areas.

     Because there are numerous vacant parcels of land adjacent to  the city of
Columbus and within the service area, it is assumed all of the projected
growth can be located within the service area.  These parcels of land were not
developed during the first wave of suburban expansion.  Development of these
parcels will be part of an infill process and will require resubdivision of
less-attractive parcels.  Given current land use controls and development
patterns, projected development is most likely to occur in the suburban areas.
In order to keep development in the service area, planning measures could be
taken to make these infill parcels more attractive, thereby encouraging a more
efficient pattern of development.

4.4  WASTEWATER FLOWS AND LOADS
     The development of average daily and peak daily flow rates and daily
loadings of total suspended solids (TSS) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)
are necessary to evaluate facility planning alternatives.  The following
sections present the existing flows and loads developed for the Columbus WWTPs
from an independent analysis of the 1985 and 1986 plant data, as well as
projected flows and loads for the 2008 design year.   The detailed documenta-
tion for this portion of the report is contained in Appendix A entitled
Briefing Paper No.  1 - Wastewater Flows and Loads.

     An analysis of existing conditions established the current average day
flows.   The average day flow is disaggregated into domestic, infiltration,
industrial, and commercial flows.  Diurnal flows are evaluated, and a diurnal
peaking factor is established.   A process peaking factor is established to
project peak flow rates which will be used for hydraulic sizing of WWTP unit
processes.   Wet weather flows are discussed briefly with a more detailed
discussion included in Section 4.5 - Combined Sewer Overflow.  Due to the lack
of comprehensive combined sewer overflow (CSO) data, projected design flows
were developed independent of CSO.
                                     4-18

-------
     The analysis also includes a review of existing influent BOD and TSS
loads.   BOD and TSS loads are used to determine sizings for WWTP unit
processes and to aid in the selection of the treatment processes.

     Wastewater flows and loads are projected for the design year (2008) using
existing per capita flows and loads and 2008 population projections.

4.4.1  Existing Wastewater Flows
     Jackson Pike and Southerly Monthly Operating Reports (MORs) and
precipitation data for the 1985 and 1986 calendar years were used to establish
existing wastewater flows.  The MORs are submitted to Ohio EPA in accordance
with the NPDES permits.

     The Southerly MORs include data on amounts of raw sewage bypassed and
settled sewage bypassed as well as treated flow.  The Southerly plant has a
method of treatment termed Blending of Flows.  When incoming flows increase to
the point where the biological portion of the plant begins to show signs of
potential washout, the flow to the biological part of the plant is fixed.  The
increase in flow above this fixed flow, but less than the capacity of the
primary tanks, is bypassed around the biological portion and blended with the
final effluent, thus, receiving only primary treatment and chlorination.
These flows are reported on the MORs as settled sewage bypassed.  If the
primary treatment facilities are operating at capacity, then all excess flows
are bypassed directly to the Scioto River through a 108-inch diameter pipe
originating in the screen building.  These flows are reported on the MORs as
raw sewage bypassed.  After August of 1986, no blending of flows was recorded
on the MORs for the Southerly WWTP, however, bypassing was still reported.

     The Jackson Pike MORs provide flow monitoring data for the plant.
Jackson Pike does not blend as Southerly does, nor do they bypass raw sewage.
The major diversion point for Jackson Pike flows occurs at the Whittier Street
Storm Standby Tanks before the flows reach the plant.  The tanks are capable
of acting as a holding system for the excess flows until the flow in the
                                     4-19

-------
 interceptor subsides and they can be bled back into the system and carried to
 the Jackson Pike plant.  If the flows exceed the capacity of the tanks, they
 overflow to the Scioto River.  Flows can also be directly bypassed along side
 the tanks, through an emergency bypass, to the Scioto River.

    Flow monitoring did not take place at the Whittier Street Storm Standby
 Tanks until November of 1986.  However, hours of operation of the storm tanks
 were recorded during 1985 and 1986 on the Monthly Report of Operations.  The
 fact that hours of operation were reported does not necessarily mean there was
 bypassing or overflowing occurring at the tanks.  It only means that the gates
were open and flows were being diverted into the tanks.  In November of 1986,
 the city began monitoring the overflow but not the bypass.  Therefore, the
 data is still incomplete with respect to determining the total volume of flow
 entering the Scioto River at the Whittier Street facility.

    Dry weather flows were determined through an analysis of 1985 and 1986
 flow data.  However, only 1986 flow data was used to determine wet weather
 flows.  An analysis of 1985 MORs showed that*data on raw and settled sewage
 bypasses at Southerly were not complete.  Up until August of 1985, only a
 bypass flow rate (MGD) was reported with no duration specified.  These
 bypasses did not always occur 24 hours a day, therefore these rates could not
be converted to the volume bypassed during that day.  In August of 1985,
monitoring of the duration of the bypasses began which provided a more
 accurate determination of the volume of the bypasses.  Therefore, the 1986
 calendar year data were used to estimate wet weather flows.

     Wet weather total system flow cannot be determined solely based on the
volume of flow arriving at the Jackson Pike and Southerly WWTPs.  There are
 numerous points of combined sewer overflow throughout the Columbus Sewer
 System.  The Jackson Pike service area has several regulator chambers and
 overflow structures in addition to the Whittier Street Storm Standby Tanks
 discussed previously.  The Southerly service area includes an overflow
 structure at Roads End and the Alum Creek Storm Standby Tank.  There is no
 comprehensive flow monitoring data available for the regulators, overflows,
                                     4-20

-------
and storm tanks.  The city began monitoring some of the points of combined
sewer overflow in November of 1986; but according to the MORs, the flow
monitoring equipment malfunctioned frequently providing no data.  Thus, the
only flow data included in the wet weather analysis, other than plant flow
data, was that which was reported for the Whit tier Street overflow during
November and December.

     The following paragraphs present the existing average flow, diurnal flow,
peak process flow, and wet weather flow as determined from the analysis of
available data.

4.4.1.1  Existing Average Flows
     USEPA guidelines require WWTP design flows to be determined based on
existing dry weather flows and non-excessive I/I.  Therefore, the existing
average flow was determined through an analysis of dry weather/no bypass
flows.  The 1985 and 1986 flow record contained 214 dry weather/no bypass
days.  Analysis of these days showed a combined maximum monthly average of
145 MGD for the Jackson Pike and Southerly WWTPs.  This flow was established
as the existing average flow.  Distributed between the two plants, it is
84 MGD for Jackson Pike and 61 MGD for Southerly.

Infiltration
     A current infiltration/inflow report was not available for the Columbus
sewer system; therefore, wastewater flow, water use, and precipitation data
were utilized to estimate infiltration.

     The maximum monthly average dry weather/no bypass flow of 145 MGD
occurred in May of 1985.  The data base consists of two four-day periods of
dry weather/no bypass conditions.  This month, which had 3.92 inches of
precipitation, had the second highest monthly rainfall recorded during 1985.
Therefore, May would represent a high groundwater condition resulting in
increased infiltration. November had the highest precipitation with 10.67
inches, but there were no dry weather/no bypass days during that month.
Therefore, it was not possible to determine infiltration using November data.
                                     4-21

-------
     Based on the two years of records evaluated, September of 1985 had the
 lowest combined (i.e., total for both WWTPs) monthly average dry weather/no
 bypass flow of 124 MGD; and it had 24 dry weather/no bypass days which
 occurred in one two-day period and one 22-day period.  Due to the extended dry
 weather period, September was used to represent a low groundwater condition.
Water usage vs. wastewater flow data presented in Table 4-7 reinforce May and
 September as representing high and low groundwater conditions.  The month of
May has an average water pumpage figure of 120 MGD which is very close to the
 annual average of 121 MGD.  However, it has an average dry weather wastewater
 flow figure of 145 MGD which is the highest value reported for 1985.  The
wastewater flow is 20 percent higher than the water pumped suggesting
 increased infiltration resulting from a high groundwater condtion.  September,
on the other hand, has the highest water pumpage figure of 142 MGD and the
 lowest wastewater flow of 124 MGD.  In this situation the wastewater flow is
 15 percent lower than the water pumpage.  This implies that a lot of water is
being used for lawn sprinkling due to the dry weather.

     The difference of 21 MGD between the high groundwater month (May) and the
 low groundwater month (September) represents that portion of the total
 infiltration which is attributable to a high groundwater condition.

     However, this is only a portion of the total amount of infiltration
occurring since there is also some infiltration occurring during low ground-
water conditions.  Therefore, the amount of infiltration occurring during low
groundwater conditions roust be determined and added to the 21 MGD in order to
establish a total infiltration rate.
                                     4-22

-------
TABLE 4-7.  1985 WATER PUMPAGE VS. WASTEWATER FLOW
            Average Water
Average Dry Weather/
Month
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Pumped (MGD)
Ul.23
108.32
109.65
115.60
120.33
128.53
127.15
130.66
141.74
124.88
117.23
116.46
No Bypass Flow (MGD)
132.30
139.94
142.55
140.25
144.75
134.03
138.87.
127.03
124.02
124.8.8 .
No Data
143.16
                         4-23

-------
     A common method of estimating total infiltration involves using monthly
water records to establish the domestic, commercial, and industrial portion of
the wastewater flow.  The difference between the water supplied and wastewater
collected under dry weather conditions is then taken to be infiltration.

     Since September 1985 has been established as a low groundwater month,
water usage rates frora this month will be used.  As reported in Table 4-8, the
September 1985 water pumpage rate is 141.74 MGD.  Literature states that
approximately 60 to 80 percent of water pumped becomes wastewater.  The 20 to
40 percent which is lost includes water consumed by commercial and manufactur-
ing establishments and water used for street cleaning, lawn sprinkling, and
extinguishing fires.  It also includes water used by residences that are not
connected to the sewer system as well as some leakage from water mains and
service pipes.  If it is assumed that 70 percent of the water becomes
wastewater, then the return flow for September would be 99.22 MGD.  Referring
to Table 4-8, the wastewater flow for September is 124.02 MGD.  The difference
between the actual wastewater flow (124.02) and the expected wastewater flow
(99.22) is 24.80 MGD.  This value is assumed to represent the amount of
infiltration occurring during a low groundwater condition.  Thus, the total
infiltration occurring during high groundwater conditions is obtained by
adding 20.73 MGD to 24.80 MGD.  This total infiltration figure of 45.53 MGD,
converts to 52 gpcd.

     It must be remembered that 52 gpcd is only a rough estimate of
infiltration.  It is not known if all of the water customers are sewer
customers or if all the sewer customers are water customers.  Some sewer
customers may have their own private wells.  In addition, the consumptive use
of the brewery and the other industries is unknown.

     It is, however, considered to be a non-excessive infiltration rate when
compared to infiltration rates in the USEPA document entitled Facility
Planning - 1981 Construction Grants Programs.  This document states that 2000
to 3000 gpd/inch-diameter mile is considered a non-excessive infiltration rate
for sewer systems with lengths greater than 100,000 feet.  The Columbus Sewer
                                     4-24

-------
System has a total length of 9,975,000 feet or an estimated 32,930 inch-
diameter miles.  Multiplying the inch-diameter miles by 2000 gpd/inch-diameter
mile results in 66 MGD or 76 gpcd.  Therefore, 52 gpcd of infiltration would
be considered non-excessive.

     The Revised Facility Plan Update uses a peak infiltration rate of
72 gpcd.  Divided between the two plants, it is 82 gpcd for Jackson Pike and
58 gpcd for Southerly.  Assuming more detailed information was available to
establish this number for the facility plan and considering 72 gpcd is also a
non-excessive infiltration rate according to the USEPA document, it will be
used in this briefing paper as the existing infiltration rate.  It converts to
22 MGD for Southerly and 40 MGD for Jackson Pike, totaling 62 MGD for the
entire Columbus Sewer System.

Industrial and Commercial Flows
     Current information on industrial and commercial wastewater flows was not
available.  Therefore, estimates were made by updating those values presented
in the Columbus Industrial Pretreatraent Program Report as prepared by Burgess
and Niple.  The industrial flows presented in the Columbus Industrial
Pretreatraent Program Report were updated proportional to the increase in
population from 1980 to 1985 since they were based on 1980 water consumption
records.  The 1985 estimates of industrial and commercial flows are presented
in Table 4-8.

                 TABLE 4-8.  INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL FLOW ESTIMATES
Jackson Pike
Southerly
TOTAL
1980
Population
472,503
368,228
840,731
1980
Industrial
Flow (MGD)
8.7
6.7
15.4
1980
Commercial
Flow (MGD)
4.3
3.1
7.4
1985
Population
489,000
381,000
870,000
1985
Industrial
Flow (MGD)
9.0
6.9
15.9
1985
Conner cial
Flow (MGD)
4.5
3.2
7.7
                                     4-25

-------
Domestic Flows
     Domestic flows were estimated simply by subtracting infiltration,
industrial, and commercial flows from the maximum dry weather/no bypass flow
of 145 MGD.  The Jackson Pike domestic flow is 30.4 MGD and Southerly  is 28.8
MGD.  Table 4-9 presents the breakdown of the existing flow for each plant
and the two plants combined.

                       TABLE 4-9.  1985 ESTIMATED FLOWS
Design Average Flow (MGD)
       Infiltration
       Industrial
       Commercial
       Domestic
Jackson Pike
84
40.1
9.0
4.5
30.4
Southerly
61
22.1
6.9
3.2
28.8
Total
145
62.2
15.9
7.7
59.2
4.4.1.2  Diurnal Flow
     Just as demand for water fluctuates on an hourly basis, so do wastewater
flow rates.  Fluctuations observed in wastewater flow rates tend to  follow a
diurnal pattern.  (See Figure 4-4.)  Minimum flow usually occurs in  the early
morning hours when water use is low.  The flow rates start to increase at
approximately 6 a.m. when people are going to work, and they reach a peak
value around 12 noon.  The flow rate usually drops off in the early  afternoon,
and a second peak occurs in the early evening hours between 6 p.m. and 9 p.m.
In general, where extraneous flows are excluded from the sewer system, the
wastewater flow-rate curves will closely follow water-use curves.  However,
the wastewater curves will be displaced by a time period corresponding to the
travel time in the sewers.

     Diurnal curves are also affected by the size of the community.  Large
communities with more industrial and commercial flows tend to have flatter
curves due to industries that operate on a 24-hour schedule, stores  and
                                     4-26

-------
                                                    CO
                                                    sz
                                                    o
                                                    ,-J
                                        c
                                        o
                                        a
                                        u
                                        V
                                        (I
                                        u.
                                        I

                                        e
                                        o
                                        3
                                        H
                                        f-t

                                        9
                                        a
                                        3e
                                       u
                                       u
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                                       O
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-------
restaurants that are open 24 hours a day, and due to the expansiveness of the
collection systems.  These 24-hour operating schedules also result in more
people working second and third shift, thus altering normal flow patterns.
Longer travel times in the collection system dampen peak flows observed at the
WWTP.

     An existing average flow of 145 MGD was determined in Section 4.4.1.
This flow was determined from an analysis of dry weather flows and it is
generally used in the design of wastewater facilities to determine quantities
                            *
of chemicals needed, O&M costs, labor, and energy requirements.  However, the
peak hourly flow must be used for hydraulic sizing of pumps.  Therefore, a
diurnal peaking factor must be determined.

     Figure 4-5 presents wastewater flow rate curves for the Jackson Pike and
Southerly plants compiled from September 1985 dry weather/no bypass days.  The
diurnal peaking factor was determined for the Jackson Pike and Southerly WWTPs
through an analysis of hourly wastewater flows for February and September
1985.  These two months represent minimum and maximum water consumption,
respectively for 1985.  The 1985 months were chosen since the existing average
flow occurred in May of 1985.  Diurnal peaking factors were calculated by
dividing the maximum hourly flow by the average hourly flow for each dry
weather/no bypass day during February and September.

     The maximum diurnal peaking factor seen at Jackson Pike during this
period was 1.40, and at Southerly it was 1.51.  Jackson Pike's value of 1.40
occurred several times and was selected as the diurnal peaking factor for
Jackson Pike.  Southerly's maximum value of 1.51, however, was considered to
be excessive.  It occurred, only once, on September 21 when the average hourly
flow was at a low of 45 MGD.  The next peaking factor in the series was 1.37
which is more representative of the maximum diurnal peaking factor seen at the
Southerly plant.  Thus, 1.4 was chosen as a representative diurnal peaking
factor for both plants.
                                      4-28

-------
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                                   O
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                              to
                              O

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              4-29

-------
4.4.1.3  Peak Process Flow
     A peak process flow must be developed for use io sizing various
processes.  This flow establishes the maximum process capability of the wet
stream treatment facilities.  Flows greater than the peak process flow will
cause the treatment facilities to operate beyond their intended design
criteria.  Sustained operation above the peak process flow may result in a
violation of permit limits.

     The peak process flow is most reliably established through an analysis of
existing flow.  This approach was not possible in the Columbus system due to
the nature of the flow record.  As discussed in Section 2, the flow records
for the two Columbus plants provided limited information regarding the amount
of sewage bypassed.  As a result, a reliable record of the total flow arriving
is not available.  Furthermore, peak wastewater flows normally include some
combined sewage.  A combined sewage overflow study, which will define a CSO
control strategy, is currently being prepared by the city.  The impact of the
CSO recommendation on the wastewater treatment facilities will be evaluated at
the conclusion of that study.

     In the 1979 SIS, the following empirical formula was utilized to develop
a peak process flow, due to the absence of a comprehensive flow record:

     Peak Process Flow  1.95 (Average Daily Flow) *95

     Lacking flow information which would substantiate a peak process flow,
the 1979 EIS formula provides a reasonable method for developing a peak
process flow.  Based on the 2008 average design flow of 154 MGD, the formula
yields a peak process flow of 233 MGD.  This corresponds to a process peaking
factor of 1.5.

     The 1.5 process peaking factor was evaluated relative to the 1986 flow
data to assess the extent of its range.  The 1986 flow record includes flows
treated at Jackson Pike and Southerly and also the flows which are bypassed at
Southerly.  The flow record does not include flows which were bypassed at
                                     4-30

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Whittier Street or any other combined sewer overflows.  The  1986 average  flow
of the two plants was 145 MGD.  Applying the 1.5 process peaking factor to
this average flow yields a peak process flow of 218 MGD.  Comparing this  flow
with the 1986 record indicated that the daily flow rate of 218 MGD was
exceeded only nine days during the year or approximately 2.5 percent of the
time.  In light of these few exceedances, the 1.5 process peaking factor
established by use of the formula in the 1979 BIS provides a reasonable
approach to establish a peak process flow.

4.4.1.4  Wet Weather Flow
     The maximum monitored wet weather flow as determined from 1986 records
is 309.52 MGD.  Note that this maximum wet weather flow only includes flow
that arrives at the treatment plants.  Any flow being bypassed at the various
points of combined sewer overflow is not included.  This flow occurred on
March 14.  It includes 95.57 MGD for the Jackson Pike WWTP and 213.95 MGD for
the Southerly WWTP.  The Southerly flow can be broken down into 78.05 MGD
receiving complete treatment, 30.30 MGD receiving primary treatment and
chlorination, and 105.60 being bypassed directly to the Scioto River.

4.4.2  Existing Wastewater Loads
     Monthly average influent total suspended solids (TSS) and biochemical
oxygen demand (BOD) loads were determined for ail weather conditions.

     The sampling point at Jackson Pike for TSS and BOD concentrations is
located at the grit chambers on the O.S.I.S.  The O.S.t.S. carries approx-
imately 65 to 70 percent of the flow to Jackson Pike.  The remaining flow
comes through the Big Run Interceptor.  Therefore, the samples are not
representative of the flow from the Big Run Interceptor.    Plant staff
believe that the flow arriving through the O.S.I.S. contains the majority of
the industrial flow in the Jackson Pike service area.  If this is accurate,
then waste loadings established by evaluating this data may  overestimate  the
actual loadings coming into the Jackson Pike plant.  The Southerly flow is
sampled between the screens and the grit chambers.  The samples are
representative of 100 percent of the flow entering the Southerly plant.
                                     4-31

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     Only 1985 data were used Co determine existing BOD loads because there
were insufficient data available for 1986.  At Jackson Pike, BOD values were
only recorded for 304 days in 1986.  There were 341 days of data for Jackson
Pike in 1985.  Southerly reported BOD values on 362 days in 1986 and 364 days
in 1985.

     The 1985 annual average BOD load for Jackson Pike is 100,702 Ibs/day.
The maximum monthly average load is 118,466 Ibs/day, and it occurred in
January.  The ratio of maximum monthly average to the annual average results
in a peaking factor of 1.2.

     The 1985 annual average BOD load for Southerly is 87,258 Ibs/day.  The
maximum monthly average load, which occurred in October, is 105,446 Ibs/day.
The peaking factor, as determined by dividing the maximum month average by the
annual average, is 1.2.

     The 1985 and 1986 data were used to establish TSS loads for Jackson Pike
and Southerly.  Jackson Pike had 365 and 363 days of TSS data for 1985 and
1986, respectively.  There were 364 days of TSS data reported for Southerly
for both years.

     The average TSS load was obtained by computing the average of the annual
averages for 1985 and 1986.  The Southerly 1985 and 1986 average is 97,289
Ibs/day; and Jackson Pike is 126,006 Ibs/day.  Peaking factors were
established for each year in the same manner as was used for BOD loads.  The
peaking factors for Jackson Pike are 1.2 and 1.1 for 1985 and 1986,
respectively.  The higher value of 1.2 was chosen as the Jackson Pike TSS
peaking factor.  The Southerly TSS peaking factors are 1.1 for both 1985 and
1986.  Table 4-10 summarizes the 1985 and 1986 average and peak BOD and TSS
loads.
                                     4-32

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                 TABLE 4-10.  1985 AND 1986 BOD AND TSS LOADS
Jackson Pike
100,702
118,466
1.2
126,006
151,207
1.2
489,000
Southerly
87,258
105,446
1.2
97,289
107,018
1.1
381,000
Total
187,960
223,912
1.1
223,295
251,925
1.1
870,000
BOD LOADS
       Average (Ib/day)

       Peak (Ib/day)

       Peaking Factor

TSS LOADS
       Average (Ib/day)

       Peak (Ib/day)

       Peaking Factor

POPULATION
     A summary of the 1985 population figures and historic wastewater flows

and loads is presented in Table 4-11.  These quantities were used as a basis

for projecting flows and loads to the design year.


                       TABLE 4-11.  1985 FLOWS AND LOADS
                                Jackson Pike
Southerly
TOTAL
     Total Flow
     Ave. (MGD)

               Infiltration

               Industrial

               Commercial

               Domestic

     BOD Load (Ib/day)

     TSS Load (tb/day)

     Population
84
40.1
9.0
4.5
30.4
118,500
151,200
489,000
61
22.1
6.9
3.2
28.8
105,400
107,000
381,000
145
62.2
15.9
7.7
59.2
223,900
258,200
870,000
                                     4-33

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4.4.3  Projected Flows and Loads
     Table 4-12 presents the flows of Table 4-11 in per capita/connection
form.  These data support the figures presented in Table 4-11 since they
represent reasonable values in agreement with the literature.

     Holding infiltration and industrial flows constant and using the existing
per capita commercial and domestic flows (Table 4-12) and the population
projections for 1988 and 2008, wastewater flows were projected for 1988 and
2008.

     There was insufficient information available to disaggregate the
industrial loads from the total loads.  Therefore, the existing total per
capita BOD and TSS loads from Table 4-12 were multiplied by the population
projections and the respective peaking factors to obtain the 1988 and 2008
projected loads.  In doing so, growth of industrial loads is proportional to
residential growth.

     Table 4-13 presents the 1988 projected population, flows, and loads; and
Table 4-14 presents the projected population and average flows and loads for
the 2008 design year.

4.4.4  Comparison of SEISand Facility Plan Flows and Loads
     This section compares the facility plan flows and loads with the flows
and loads developed in the preceding sections of this SEIS (Table 4-15).  The
facility plan flows and loads have been brought back to 2008 for purposes of
comparison, and the loads from Whittier Street have been eliminated.

     The SEIS average flows are approximately 10 percent lower than the
facility plan flows, and the SEIS peak process flows are approximately
20 percent lower than the facility plan flows.

     There is a difference in the average flows because the flow projections
in the SEIS were developed by holding the infiltration and industrial portions
of the flow constant and increasing only the commercial and domestic flows
                                     4-34

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           TABLE 4-12.  1985 PER CAPITA/CONNECTION FLOWS AND LOADS
                                    Jackson Pike      Southerly
Per Capita
Domestic WastewaCer Flow (gpcd)         62.2

Per Capita
Commercial Wastewater Flow (gpcd)        9.2

Per Capita
Industrial Wastewater Flow (gpcd)       18.4

Per Capita
Industrial, Commercial, and
Domestic Wastewater Flow (gpcd)         89.8

Per Capita
Infiltration (gpcd)                       82

Per Connection
Commercial Wastewater Flows*
(gal/connection day)                     ND

Per Connection
                           JL,
Industrial Wastewater Flows
(gal/connection day)                     ND

1985 Per Capita
Water Pumped
Industrial) Commercial, and
Domestic (gpcd)                          ND

1985 (industrial. Commercial, and
Domestic) Water Pumped to Wastewater
Discharge Factor                         ND

Per Capita
Average BOD Loads (Ib/capita day)        0.206

Per Capita
Average TSS Loads (Ib/capita day)        0.258
 75.6


  8.4


 18.1



102.1


   58



  ND



  ND
  ND
  ND
  0.229
  0.255
             TOTAL
  68.1
   8.9
  18.2
  95.2
    72
 816.7
62,109
 139.1
  .976
   0.216
   0.257
ND = No Data

*
  SOURCE:  City of Columbus, Division of Sewerage and Drainage, December 1986.
                                     4-35

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TABLE 4-13.  1988 PROJECTIONS
   Jackson Pike
Southerly
TOTAL
Total Flow
Ave. (MGD)
 Infiltration
 Industrial
 Commercial
 Domestic
BOD Load (Ibs/day)
TSS Load (Ibs/day)
Population
84.8
40.1
9.0
4.6
31.1
123,400
154,500
499,000
TABLE 4-14. 2008
Total Flow
Ave. (MGD)
 Infiltration
 Industrial
 Commercial
 Domestic
BOD Load (Ibs/day)
TSS load (Ibs/day)
Population
Jackson Pike
87.9
40.1
9.0
5.0
33.8
134,600
168,600
544,600
61.7
22.1
6.9
3.3
29.4
106,900
109,100
389,000
PROJECTIONS
Southerly
66.0
22.1
6.9
3.7
33.3
121,300
123,800
441,400
146.5
62.2
15.9
7.9
60.5
230,300
263,600
888,000

TOTAL
153.9
62.2
15.9
8.7
67.1
255,900
292,400
986,000
       4-36

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              TABLE 4-15.  COMPARISON OF DESIGN FLOWS AND LOADS
Design Average Flow (MGD)

       Jackson Pike
       Southerly
     *  Combined

Peak Process Flows (MGD)

       Jackson Pike
       Southerly
       Combined

Design BOD Load (Ib/day)
                                  Facility Plana  SEIS   PercentDifference
 96
 72
168
163
122
285
 88
 66
154
132
 99
231
 -8.3
 -8.3
 -8.3
-19.0
-18.9
-18.9



Design



Jackson Pike
Southerly
Combined
TSS Load (Ib/day)
Jackson Pike
Southerly
Combined
141,600
126,600
268,200

161,600
121,300
282,900
134,600
121,300
255,900

168,600
123,800
292,400
-4.9
-4.2
-4.5

+4.3
+2.1
+3.2
a Adjusted to reflect 20-year planning period ending 2008 and to eliminate
  loads associated with Whittier Street CSO structure.
                                     4-37

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proportional to the population increase; whereas the flow projections in the
facility plan were developed by increasing all the flow, including
infiltration and industrial, proportional to the population increase.

     Projected increases in infiltration do not appear justified if the
population increase is located within the existing service area.  The facility
plan does not document why an increase in infiltration should be included.
Projected industrial increases should be based on documented industrial growth
by existing industries and/or policy decisions by the municipality to plan for
future undocumented growth.  Furthermore, such industrial growth should be an
identifiable part of the total design flows since capital cost recovery for
the added capacity must be addressed.

     The difference in the peak process flows is due to the differences in
design average flows and different peaking factors.  The peaking factor is 1.5
for this SEIS and 1.7 for the facility plan.  The 1.5 peaking factor for the
SSIS is consistent with the peaking factor used in the 1979 EIS.  The facility
plan's peaking factor of 1.7 is based on the maximum hydraulic capability of
the conduits between the primary ciarifiers and aeration basins in the
existing trains at the Southerly WWTP.  Since CSO is not a component of this
SSIS, it did not seem appropriate to endorse a peaking factor of 1.7.

     As a result of the significant differences in average design and peak
process flows, the flows developed for this SEIS will be used for further
alternative analysis and recommended process sizing.

     The SEIS loads, on the other hand, are all within 5 percent of the
facility plan loads.  Therefore, the 2008 facility plan loads will be accepted
as the SEIS loads, and they will be used for further alternative analysis in
the SEIS.  Table 4-16 summarizes the SEIS recommended tributary flows and
loads.
                                      4-38

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           TABLE 4-16.  2008 RECOMMENDED TRIBUTARY FLOWS AND LOADS
Average Flow (MGD)
Peak Process Flow (MGD)
BOD Load (Ib/day)
TSS Load (Ib/day)
Jackson Pike
88
132
141,600
161,600
Southerly
66
99
126,600
121,300
Total
154
231
268,200
282,900
4.5  COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS
     The Revised Facility Plan Update (RFPU) and the General Engineering
Report and Basis of Design (GERBOD) documents provided a brief analysis of
the CSO problem.  The analysis was conducted on a limited data base not
adequate for planning and design of CSO abatement measures.  Consequently, the
city is planning to conduct a detailed CSO study. The SETS briefly reviewed
the CSO analysis that was prepared during the facilities plan preparation.
Appendix E entitled Briefing Paper No. 5 - CSO provides a review and critique
of the city's analysis.

     A review of the OEPA Central Scioto River Mainstera Comprehensive Water
Quality Report (CWQR) indicates that combined sewer overflows contribute
significant pollutant loadings to the Scioto River.  The majority of the data
reviewed in the CWQR was collected between 1976 and 1982.  The CWQR states
that "combined sewer overflows, and as previsouly discussed, plant bypasses
also contributed significant loadings of BOD, NH3~N, TSS, and other
substances to the Central Scioto River MainsCera."  In addition, page 317
states "Reductions in the magnitude and frequency of combined sewer overflow
discharges is needed to improve aquatic community function, alleviate
aesthetic problems, and reduce risks to human body contact recreation in the
segment between Greenlawn Dam and the Jackson Pike WWTP."  The particular
sources of pollutant loadings discussed in the CWQR are the Whittier Street
CSO and the Southerly raw sewage bypass.
                                       4-39

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     The Whittier Street Storm Standby Tanks provide short-terra storage and
some clarification for flows in excess of the Jackson Pike WWTP's hydraulic
capability.  The Jackson Pike WWTP is hydraulically limited to 100 MGD.  As
previously discussed in this chapter, the estimated peak process flow for the
Jackson Pike Service Area is 132 MGD.  Following completion of the north end
of the Interconnector, 32 MGD can be diverted to the Southerly WWTP for
treatment.  This may alleviate some of the combined sewer overflows occurring
at the Whittier Street facility.

     Some of the combined sewers in the Southerly Service Area have been
separated in recent years.  The entire CSO drainage area has decreased from
18.4 square miles to 10.7 square miles.  This may have reduced the quantity
and frequency of bypasses at the Southerly WWTP and at the overflows within
the Southerly Service Area.

     In order to assess the magnitude of the combined sewer overflows at the
present time, a comprehensive study must be performed using current monitoring
data.  This study must include a determination of the inflow problem from the
separate sewer area.  As discussed in the CSO analysis in Appendix E, the
volume of inflow from the separate sewer area could be greater than the volume
of runoff and inflow from the combined sewer area.
                                     4-40

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                           CHAPTER 5.  ALTERNATIVES

     This chapter presents comprehensive wastewater management alternatives
and options for the components that comprise these comprehensive wastewater
management alternatives.  The comprehensive waatewater management alternatives
include the following:

       No action
       Upgrade Jackson Pike and Southerly, provide wet stream treatment and
        solids handling at both plants
       Upgrade Jackson Pike and Southerly, provide all solids handling at
        Southerly
       Eliminate Jackson Pike, upgrade and expand Southerly.

     Each of the comprehensive wastewater management alternatives includes the
following components:

       Interconnector/headworks
       Biological process
       Sludge management.

     Options for these components will be presented in this chapter.  Options
will not be presented for primary treatment and post treatment.  It is assumed
for all comprehensive wastewater management alternatives that primary
treatment will consist of preaeration and primary settling, and post treatment
will consist of chlorination and post aeration.

     Numerous studies have been completed since the 1979 Environmental Impact
Statement (EIS) that have influenced the development of the alternatives and
options presented in this chapter.  These major studies include:

       1981 -  Segment 2 - Long-Terra Solids Handling
       1984 -  DFOT Review of the City of Columbus Facilities Plan and EIS
                Reports
                                      5-1

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       1984 -  Feasibility Study for Wastewater Treatment
       1984 -  Facilities Plan Update Report
       1985 -  Revised Facilities Plan Update.

     The principal elements of each of these studies, which contribute to the
development of alternatives, are summarized in the following sections.

Segment 2 - Long-Term Solids Handling Report (1981)
     The objective of the Segment 2 report was to evaluate solids processing
and handling at each treatment plant and develop an environmentally acceptable
and cost-effective long-term solution for solids treatment and disposal.

     The Segment 2 study concluded that the solids treatment process at
Jackson Pike and Southerly should include the following components:
       Primary sludge:  gravity thickening, anaerobic digestion, centrifuge
        dewatering, land application, or incineration.
       Waste activated sludge:  centrifuge thickening, possible anaerobic
        digestion, centrifuge dewatering, composting, or incineration.
       Emergency storage for thickened and dewatered sludges, and backup
        stabilization with lime addition.
     A Segment 1 report entitled, "Interim Solids Handling," was also
submitted to the OEPA in 1980.  This report proposed constructing three new
incinerators at Southerly and two new incinerators at Jackson Pike.  It also
proposed increasing composting at Southwesterly from 200 to 400 wet tons per
day.  This solution was intended to solve the immediate problem of solids
disposal until a long term solution could be developed and implemented under
Segment 2.  As a result of these recommendations, Southerly is currently
installing two new incinerators.  These new incinerators have a total capacity
of 520 wet tons per day at 20 percent cake solids.   The two existing
incinerators are rated at 300 wet tons per day at 20 percent cake solids.
                                     5-2

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This gives a total incineration capacity of approximately 820 wet tons per

day.


DFOT Report (1984)

     The Design Finalization Overview Team (DFOT) Report, a recommendation of
the 1979 EIS, contains an independent design evaluation of wastewater treat-
ment facility improvements for the Jackson Pike and Southerly treatment
plants.  The primary objective of the DFOT was to review the recommendations
and suggested design criteria presented in the facilities plan with respect to
the 1979 EIS and to reconcile any differences.  The primary recommendations
of the DFOT for the Jackson Pike and Southerly Wastewater Treatment Plants are

summarized below:


     Jackson Pike

       Increase primary clarification capacity slightly more than recommended
        in the EIS and original facilities plan.

     *  Adopt facilities plan recommendation for trickling filter capacity.

       Provide approximately 50 percent more intermediate clarifier capacity
        than recommended by the EIS and original facilities plan.

     *  Adopt the EIS proposal for activated sludge aeration basin capacity of
        31.5 million gallons.

       Increase final settling capacity slightly more than recommended in the
        facilities plan.

       Adopt original facilities plan proposal for effluent disinfection but
        add post aeration.

       Perform a trial study of thermal conditioning prior to anaerobic
        digestion and incineration.

       Design effluent filters and phosphorus removal facilities.  These
        facilities would not be constructed unless their need is verified by
        water quality studies.

       Adopt the proposal made by the Segment 2 - Long-Terra Solids Handling
        Report for gravity sludge thickeners and centrifuges.

       Use incineration as the preferred means of sludge disposal.
                                     5-3

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     Southerly

       Use a trickling filter/activated sludge treatment system.

       Restrict Anheuser-Busch BOD^ loads to 45,000 Ibs/day.

       Increase trickling filter and intermediate clarifier capacity
        approximately 40 percent more than the recommendations of the original
        facilities plan.

       Provide activated sludge aeration basin and final ciarifier with
        capacities less than those proposed in the original facilities plan
        and EIS.

       Adopt effluent disinfection system as proposed in the original
        facilities plan.

       Design effluent filters and phosphorus removal facilities.  These
        facilities would not be constructed unless their need was verified by
        water quality studies.

       Adopt the proposal made by the Segment 2 - Long-Term Solids Handling
        Report for sludge thickening and digestion.

     *  Use incineration as the prime sludge disposal system until the market
        and dependability of composting and land application alternatives are
        assured.


Feasibility Study for^Wastjwater^jrreajmentC 1984)

     This report presents the findings of a preliminary investigation to

screen treatment plant site alternatives.  The alternatives include various

combinations of new plant construction,  plant rehabilitation, and plant

expansion at the Jackson Pike, Southerly, and Southwesterly treatment plant

locations.  The Southwesterly plant would be located near the compost

facility.  The conclusion of this study was that alternatives involving

elimination of Jackson Pike and development of a new plant at the
Southwesterly site were economically feasible and should be more closely

investigated for possible implementation in the Columbus wastewater management
program.
                                     5-4

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FacilitiesPlan Update Report (1984)

     The USEPA asked the city of Columbus to update its facilities plan to

conform to the recommendations of the EIS.  The Facilities Plan Update Report

(FPU) contained a review of numerous combinations of site and treatment

process alternatives.  Some new wet stream treatment process alternatives were

assessed that had not been evaluated in the previous reports.  The city also

looked at the possibility of constructing a new wastewater treatment plant

near the Southwesterly Composting Facility.


The recommendations of the FPU include:
       Elimination of the Jackson Pike WWTP, expansion and upgrading of the
        Southerly WWTP to handle all flows.

       Construction of a new pump station to transport the flow from the
        Jackson Pike service area.

       Implementation of an Anaerobic Anoxic Flocculation (AAF) process for
        biological treatment.

       Effluent polishing by granular media filters, if necessary, to satisfy
        the proposed NPDES permit requirements.  The report recommends that
        construction of these filters be postponed until operating results for
        the new wet stream treatment facilities are available.

       Expansion of existing chlorine feeding equipment and new chlorine
        contact tanks.

       Expansion of the effluent pump station.

     *  Sludge processing which consists of thickening, digestion, and
        dewatering.

       Ultimate disposal of sludge by incineration, composting, and land
        application.
     The FPU also recommended  that  the expanded plant be equipped with
distributed automatic monitoring  and control systems in each major  process
area,  linked to a centralized  monitoring  and control station.   In addition,  a
video  display  terminal  should  be  provided in the Office and Maintenance
Building to enable  the  plant managers  to  perform routine monitoring tasks.
                                      5-5

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Revised Facilities Plan Update (1985)

     The Revised Facilities Plan Update Report (RFPU) was developed to

supplement the FPU.  The specific objectives of the document were:  (1) to

revise the recommendations of previous documents based upon revised design

parameters and NPDES permit limits; (2) to present the conclusions and

recommendations of planning analyses undertaken since completion of the FPU;

(3) to respond to comments by the OEPA relative to the FPU; and (4) develop

treatment facilities which will serve the city's needs through the year 2015.


The following basic conclusions and recommendations were presented in the

RFPU:
       It is cost effective to expand the existing city of Columbus Southerly
        wastewater treatment facility to treat all wastewater from the
        Columbus service area and to phase out the existing Jackson Pike
        wastewater treatment facility.

       Flows should be diverted from Jackson Pike to Southerly via completion
        of the North End and expansion of the South End of the Interconnector
        Sewer.

       Biological treatment should be accomplished through a semi-aerobic
        process.

       Solids processing consists of gravity and centrifuge thickening,
        anaerobic digestion, dewatering of nondigested sludge for composting,
        and land application of digested sludge.

     *  Maintain current incineration capacity,  but land disposal and
        composting are the preferred sludge disposal methods.
     The above paragraphs have summarized the recommendations of previous

studies which have contributed to the development of alternatives in this
report.  The following sections of this chapter provide discussions on options
for plant location, conveyance, headworks,  biological treatment processes, and

sludge management alternatives.  These alternatives are subjectively screened
                                     5-6

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in this chapter to eliminate the alternatives which are not suitable for the
Columbus facilities.  Those alternatives which advance from the subjective
screening will be evaluated in greater detail in chapter 6.

5.1  COMPREHENSIVE WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES
     The existing wastewater treatment facilities for the Columbus
metropolitan area consist of the Jackson Pike and Southerly Wastewater
Treatment Plants (WWTP) (See Figure 3-1).   Previous planning documents have
evaluated other alternatives for treatment plant location.  These studies have
evaluated continued operation of the existing facilities as well as abandoning
the Jackson Pike WWTP and constructing a new Southwesterly plant to handle
Jackson Pike flows or expanding the Southerly WWTP to handle all the flow from
the Columbus area.  None of the previous studies found it to be cost effective
to build a new facility at a Southwesterly site.   However, the FPU and the
RFPU found that expanding Southerly to handle all flows was cost effective.
Therefore, this study will evaluate the following alternatives:

       No action
     *  Upgrade Jackson Pike and Southerly, provide wet stream treatment and
        solids handling at both plants
       Upgrade Jackson Pike and Southerly, provide., all solids handling at
        Southerly
     *  Eliminate Jackson Pike, upgrade and expand Southerly.

     The following sections discuss these four alternatives and their impacts.

5.1.1.  No Action Alternative
     The development of a no action alternative is consistent with EPA
quidelines for preparing an EIS.  A no action alternative cannot be eliminated
during a preliminary screening.
                                      5-7

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     Implementation of a no action alternative would involve normal
maintenance but no improvement to the existing facilities.  Failure to
implement procedures to correct wastewater management problems in the Columbus
facilities planning area will result in permit violations for the Columbus
treatment facilities.  The Columbus wastewater treatment plants, without
improvements, cannot meet final NPDES permit limits.  In accordance with the
city's Municipal Compliance Plan, the plants are required to be in compliance
with the final permit limits by July of 1988.  An inability to meet permit
requirements may result in sanctions by OEPA and USEPA that could'have adverse
social and economic impacts in the facilities planning area.

     The no action alternative will be retained and used in chapter 6 as a
baseline for comparing and evaluating action alternatives.

5.1.2  UpgradeJackson Pike and Southerly, Provide Wet Stream Treatment and
       Solids Handling at Both Plants
     This alternative will be referred to as the two-plant alternative.  It
was the recommendation of the 1979 Environmental Impact Statement.  In this
alternative the existing treatment plant sites will be maintained.  Each plant
will be rehabilitated and expanded as necessary to provide advanced wastewater
treatment on site for wastewater flows expected through the year 2008.  Due to
site limitations at Jackson Pike, the wet stream treatment capacity cannot be
expanded.  However, the existing facilities could be upgraded to provide
necessary treatment to meet proposed effluent requirements for an average flow
of 70 MGD and a peak flow of 100 MGD.  Any excess flow would be diverted to
Southerly via the Interconnector Sewer.

     The Southerly WWTP would be upgraded and expanded to treat an average
flow of 84 MGD and a peak process flow of 131 MGD.

     This alternative will be retained as it is consistent with existing
operating practice.  It will be evaluated in further detail in chapter 6.
                                      5-8

-------
5.1.3  Upgrade Jackson Pike and Southerly, Provide All Solids Handling at
       Southerly
     This alternative will be referred to as the two-plant one solids
alternative.  Under this alternative, both plants would be upgraded to provide
wet stream treatment.  All solids handling processes would be provided at
Southerly.  Jackson Pike's solids would be transported to Southerly via sludge
pipelines.  This alternative was developed because an 8-inch sludge pipeline
currently  exists  between the Jackson Pike and Southerly WWTPs.   It will  be
evaluated in further detail in chapter 6.

5.1.4  Eliminate Jackson Piket Upgrade and Expand Southerly
     This alternative will be referred to as the one-plant alternative.  It
was recommended by the city in the Facilities Plan Update and the Revised
Facilities Plan Update.  Under this alternative, Jackson Pike would be phased
out and all Jackson Pike flows would be diverted to Southerly via the
Interconnector.  The existing facilities at Southerly would be expanded and
upgraded to treat an average flow of 154 MGD and a peak process flow of
231 MGD.  This alternative merits further consideration, and it will be
retained for a more detailed evaluation in chapter 6.

5.2  INTERCONNECTOR/HEADWORKS OPTIONS
     This section discusses the options for the Interconnector/headworks
components under each of the alternatives.

5.2.1  Interconnector
     Each of the comprehensive wastewater management alternatives require
completion of the north end of the Interconnector (Figure 3-3).  The city
maintains that, due to site limitations and existing hydraulic constraints
within the facility, Jackson Pike is not capable of handling more than 100
MGD.  Consequently, the diversion chamber and the Interconnector must be
completed to allow flows in excess of 70 MGD under average conditions and
100 MGD under peak conditions to be diverted from Jackson Pike to Southerly.
                                      5-9

-------
     The  Interconnector  Sewer  that  is  being constructed between Jackson Pike
 and  Southerly  is near completion.   It  runs in a north-south direction along
 the  west  side  of the Scioto River and  it crosses  the river on  the  south end to
 connect with the Southerly WWTP.

     The  main  section of the Interconnector has a diameter of  156  inches.  It
 connects  with  a pumping  station on  the south end.  The South End Pumping
 Station,  with  a capacity of 70 MGD, pumps the flow across the  river  to
 Southerly through a 48-inch force main and a 36-inch force main.   The north
 end  of the Interconnector is incomplete.  The Municipal Compliance Plan states
 that it will be in place by May of  1988.  It will be constructed along the
 west and  north sides of  Jackson Pike (Figure 3-3).  A diversion chamber will
 be built  to connect the  O.S.I.S. with  the Interconnector.  This will allow
 regulation of  flows to Jackson Pike and diversion of flows to  Southerly.

     Based on  the flows  developed in this document, the pump station and force
 mains at  the south end of the  Interconnector are  adequate to handle  the flow
 under both two-plant alternatives.  The maximum potential flow which will be
 diverted  from  Jackson Pike under peak conditions  is 32 MGD.  Approximately
 6 MGD is  projected to flow through  the Interconnector from a connection at
 Grove City.  This total  flow of 38 MGD is within  the capabilities  of the
 current pump station and force mains.

     The  south end of the Interconnector will require some expansion
 under the one-plant alternative.  The sewers must be sized to  accommodate
 flows through  the year 2008.  The projected peak process flow  for  Jackson Pike
 is 132 MGD.  The expanded facilities must accommodate this flow in addition to
 the 6 MGD from Grove City.

     The RFPU proposed two options for expansion of the south  end  of the
 Interconnector.  One option (Option A) involves expansion of the existing
 Interconnector Pump Station to a capacity of 160 MGD and construction of
additional 36-inch and 48-inch force mains (Figure 5-1).
                                       5-10

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     The second option  (Option B) proposes abandoning the existing force mains
and extending the 156-inch gravity Interconnector to Southerly.  Three options
were evaluated for the  Scioto River crossing.  Extending the 156-inch pipe
across the river bed would raise the water level of the river by seven feet.
Tunneling the 156-inch  pipe beneath the Scioto River was also investigated.
However, the excessive  costs associated with the depth of this pipe and the
increased depth of the  Southerly headworks prevented this option from being
considered economically feasible.  The third option requires the installation
of four 78-inch pipes across the river bed (See Figure 5-2).  This will raise
the water level approximately three feet and is the option recommended by the
city in the RFPU.

     Each of these Interconnector options must be evaluated in conjunction
with the headworks option prior to eliminating any of them.  Therefore, they
will be retained for further consideration.  Chapter 6 will evaluate the
Interconnector options  in detail with the headworks options.

5.2.2  Headworks
5.2.2.1  Jackson Pike
     The Jackson Pike headworks are located approximately one mile north of
the treatment plant at  the Sewer Maintenance Yard on the west bank of the
Scioto River.  These remote headworks consist of bar screens and aerated grit
tanks.  The bar screens were originally mechanically cleaned but due to their
age and deteriorated condition, manual screen cleaning is now necessary.  Flow
enters the headworks via the O.S.I.S.  The flow that enters the Jackson Pike
plant comes from the remote headworks on the O.S.I.S. and the Big Run
Interceptor.  The combined flow enters a wet well in the pump and blower
building where it is screened and pumped to the wet stream treatment
facilities.  Therefore, flows entering Jackson Pike from the Big Run
Interceptor are not subject to grit removal.
                                       5-12

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     Under the one-plant alternative, the headworks at Jackson Pike would only
require necessary maintenance until the plant is phased out in the 1990's.
The two-plant alternatives would require entirely new headworks consisting of
pumping, screening, and grit removal for Jackson Pike located at the plant,
rather than at the sewer maintenance yard two miles away.

5.2.2.2  Southerly
     The existing headworks at Southerly consist of bar racks, bar screens,
aerated grit tanks, and pumps rated at a capacity of 170 MGD.  Flow enters the
plant from the Interconnector and from the Big Walnut Sanitary Outfall Sewer
which serves the northeast, east, and southeast portions of Columbus and
Franklin County.

     Under both two-plant alternatives, the Southerly WWTP will be required to
treat an average flow of 84 MGD and a peak process flow of 131 MGD.  Since the
current headworks are rated at a capacity of 170 MGD, no expansion of these
facilities is required.

     The one-plant alternative requires that Southerly treat an average flow
of 154 MGD and a peak process flow of 231 MGD.  At these flows, the current
headworks are inadequate.  The determination of the optimum headworks option
(i.e., expand the existing or provide new facilities) is related to the
Interconnector option selected.  Interconnector Option A, which involves
expanding the existing pump station and adding additional force mains, would
allow expansion of the existing headworks.  Expansion of the existing
headworks will be called Option A-l.  If Interconnector Option B is selected,
                                                 \
the 156-inch gravity sewer extension would enter the Southerly headworks
approximately eight feet lower than the Big Walnut Interceptor.  This
Interconnector option would require separate headworks (Option B-l) to handle
the flow from the Interconnector or completely new headworks (Option B-2) to
handle the flows from both.
                                      5-14

-------
     Option B-l consists of utilizing the existing 170 MGD headworks at
Southerly for handling the flows from the Big Walnut Interceptor and
constructing new 150 MGD headworks for handling the Interconnector flows.  The
new Interconnector headworks will be located adjacent to the existing
headworks.  They will include coarse bar racks, raw pumping, followed by
mechanical screening and aerated grit removal; all designed for 150 MGD.
Mixing of the Interconnector and Big Walnut flow would follow aerated grit
removal.

     Option B-2 involves constructing completely new headworks which include a
mixing chamber, coarse bar racks, pumping, and aerated grit chambers.  The
flows from the Big Walnut Interceptor and the Interconnector would combine in
a mixing chamber and be conveyed through manually cleaned bar racks.  The
combined flow will then enter a wet well to be pumped to mechanical bar
screens followed by aerated grit chambers.  The new headworks will be designed
for a peak process flow of 231 MGD.

     Based on the subjective screening, all three headworks options merit
further consideration.  Each of the headworks options will be evaluated in
conjunction with the Interconnector options in chapter 6.

5.3  BIOLOGICAL PROCESS OPTIONS
     This section presents the options for the biological process component.
The current biological process used at both the Jackson Pike and Southerly
WWTP's is conventional single-stage activated sludge. This single-stage
activated sludge process is preceeded in the wet stream treatment process by
preaeratton and primary settling and it is followed by chlorination prior to
discharge to the Scioto River.

     Both plants were designed based on NPDES discharge limitations of 30 mg/1
for BOD and TSS.  These limits have become more stringent and the plants can
no longer successfully treat the original design capacity flows.
                                      5-15

-------
     Through the course of the facilities planning process for the Columbus
wastewater treatment system, other process options were proposed and
evaluated.  The 1979 EIS recommended a trickling filter process for the
Jackson Pike plant.  The Facilities Plan Update (FPU) and Revised Facilities
Plan Update (RFPU) recommended serai-aerobic treatment processes.  In the
following sections the semi-aerobic, trickling filter, and conventional
activated sludge processes including variations are discussed.

5.3.1  Semi-Aerobic
     The semi-aerobic process, being proposed by the city of Columbus, is a
modified form of the activated sludge process.  The process consists of a
non-aerated reaction zone ahead of the aerated activated sludge zone.  These
non-aerated zones may be anoxic (oxygen concentration less than or equal to
0.3 mg/1 and nitrates present),  anaerobic (no oxygen or nitrates present) or
a combination of anoxic and anaerobic zones.  Figure 5-3 provides a schematic
of the semi-aerobic process.  Figure 5-4 shows the process in three different
modes of operation.

     The semi-aerobic process employs a high to low food-to-microorganism
(F:M) gradient and a high oxygen uptake rate to dissolved oxygen ratio
(OUR/DO) in the first two bays of each aeration tank to produce a non-bulking
sludge.  The semi-aerobic process is physically the same as the conventional
activated sludge process with the exception of two additional baffles in the
first bay of each aeration tank and an internal sludge recycle system in each
tank.  The baffles are added to eliminate backmixing.  The sludge recycle
system provides the ability to denitrify by recycling nitrates from Bay 8 back
to Bay 1.

     Jet aerators would be installed in the first two bays of each aeration
tank to provide the flexibility for aerating or mixing these bays.  Normal
operation will consist of mixing.  However, air will be employed in Bay 2 and
Bay I, if necessary, when the ammonia breaks through Bay 6 or Bay 7.  The
                                     5-16

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remaining six bays of each aeration tank would be equipped with fine bubble
diffusers.  The semi-aerobic process has the ability to control sludge bulking
and to nitrify.  It can easily be incorporated into the existing tankage.
Therefore, it will be retained for further evaluation in chapter 6.

5.3.2  Trickling Filter Processes
     Trickling filter systems are commonly used for secondary treatment of
municipal wastewater.  Primary effluent is uniformly distributed on a bed of
crushed rock, or other media, coated with biological films.

     The microbial film on the filter medium is aerobic to a depth of only O.I
to 0.2 mm.  The zone next to the medium is anaerobic.  As the wastewater flows
over the microbial film, the soluble organics are rapidly metabolized and the
colloidal organics absorbed into the surface.  Microorganisms near the surface
of the bed, where food concentration is high, are in a rapid growth phase,
while the lower zone of a bed is in a state of endogenous respiration.
Dissolved oxygen extracted from the liquid layer is replenished by reoxygena-
tion from the surrounding air.

     Major components of the trickling filter are the filter media, underdrain
system, and rotary distributor.  The filter media provides a surface for
biological growth and voids for passage of liquid and air.  The underdrain
system carries away the effluent and permits circulation of air through the
bed.  A rotary distributor provides a uniform hydraulic load on the filter
surface.

     Two variations of trickling filters have been presented in previous
studies.  They are:

       Trickling filter/activated sludge (TF/AS)
       Trickling filter/solids contact (TF/SC).

     The following sections describe each of these processes.
                                     5-19

-------
5.3.2.1  Trickling Filter/Activated Sludge
     This trickling filter process option includes trickling filters coupled
with activated sludge basins.  (See Figure 5-5).  The trickling filter
treatment units are packed with cross flow plastic media.  The filters are
designed for approximately 35 percent BOD removal.  The aeration tanks that
follow the filter remove the remaining BOD? and provide the required
nitrification.

     The activated sludge tanks are sized for the amount of solids generated
from the trickling filters and activated sludge tanks.  This method utilizes
existing aeration tanks.  The trickling filter provides a selector mechanism
for nonfilamentous bacteria growth in the same manner as the anaerobic zone
operates in the semi-aerobic process.  Slightly reduced aeration tank capacity
and aeration energy is required due to the portion of the BODc removed in the
trickling filter process.  This process is capable of controlling sludge
bulking and performing nitrification; therefore, it will be evaluated further
in chapter 6.

5.3.2.2  Trickling Filter/Solids Contact
     In this treatment process, trickling filter units are coupled with a
solids contact channel prior to secondary clarification (See Figure 5-6).  A
portion of the sludge which is settled in the secondary clarifiers is
recirculated to the influent of the solids contact channel.  An aeration time
of approximately one half hour is required in the solids contact channel.  The
contact of the return sludge with the trickling filter effluent in the solids
contact channel enhances the BOD removal and suspended solids removal in the
secondary clarifiers.   Both BOD^ and ammonia removal are achieved in the
trickling filters prior to the solids contact channel.  The TF/SC process
satisfies the required BOD^ removal and nitrification, but it also has some
disadvantages.  An excessive number of trickling filter units are required
(approximately 50 for a one-plant scenario),  and only one aeration tank is
required for use as a solids contact channel.  The remaining aeration tanks at
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either treatment plant would remain unused.  Due  to its high capital costs and
the fact that it does not make full use of  existing facilities, this process
alternative is eliminated from further consideration.

5.3.3  Conventional Activated Sludge
     The conventional activated sludge process is the current biological
method used at both the Southerly and Jackson Pike WWTP's.  It consists of
rectangular aeration basins with air diffusers to provide aeration and mixing,
followed by secondary clarifiers.   Settled raw wastewater and return activated
sludge enter the head of the tank.   The  flow proceeds  to  a clarifier where the
solids are settled out.

     The activated sludge process consistently removes 85 to 95 percent of the
BOD and suspended solids.  The  amount of nitrogen and  phosphorus removed can
vary considerably depending on the design and operating parameters of the
system.

     Two forms of  the activated sludge process are being evaluated in this
report.  They are:

       Single-stage activated sludge
       Two-stage activated sludge.

     The following sections discuss these two processes.

5.3.3.1  Single-Stage Activated Sludge
     A single-stage activated sludge system consists of an aeration basin
followed by a clarifier (Figure 5-7).  The aeration  basin is typically
operated as a plug-flow system.  Air diffusers are installed along the length
of the tank to provide aeration and mixing.   One  mode of operation is to taper
the air flow along the length of the tank to provide a greater amount of
diffused air near the  head where  the rate of biological metabolism and
resultant oxygen demand are the greatest. Another mode of operation, which is
                                     5-23

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consistent with the mode of operation for the semi-aerobic process, is to
reverse taper the air supply to create an anaerobic/anoxic zone at the head of
the aeration basin.  This anaerobic/anoxic zone acts as a selector mechanism
against filamentous organisms, thus it assists in controlling sludge bulking.

     Since the semi-aerobic process is simply a modified version of the
single-stage activated sludge process, they can be evaluated as one process
with operational flexibility.  Therefore, the single-stage activated sludge
process will be eliminated at this point and the semi-aerobic process will be
evaluated in Chapter 6.

5.3.3.2  Two-Stage Activated Sludge
     With strong domestic wastewaters, staged treatment may be beneficial and
produce a better effluent than the same reactor volume in a single stage.  In
the first stage, conditions are optimized for carbonaceous removal, while the
second aeration basin is optimized to develop the maximum nitrifying
population.  The disadvantages for this approach include disposal of more
waste sludge, the cost of intermediate clarification units, as well as those
costs for separating the reactor basins of the two stages and possible costs
for additional lime for pH control.  Controlling the loss of second-stage
solids is also critical.  To maintain sufficient aeration solids for cell
synthesis it Ls sometimes necessary to bypass a portion of the influent  flow
to the second stage, add return sludge from the first stage to the second
stage, or bypass, in part, the intermediate settling basin.  A two-stage
activated sludge system is shown in Figure 5-8.  Due to the additional capital
cost associated with adding intermediate clarifiers and difficulties
associated with process control, this option does not merit further
evaluation.
                                       5-25

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5.4  SOLIDS HANDLING
     Combinations of physical, chemical, and biological processes are employed
in handling the solids (sludge) generated during the wastewater treatment
process.  The objective of processing sludge is to stabilize the organic
material, to extract water from the solids, and dispose of the dewatered
residue.  The sequence of the various processes is critical to the ultimate
performance of the facility.

     This section will discuss sludge production and available sludge
processing methods and then present feasible combinations of these methods for
evaluation as sludge management options.

     Both plants current sludge processes  (Figures 5-9 and 5-10) include
centrifugal thickening and dewatering.  Jackson Pike also utilizes anaerobic
digestion and heat treatment.  Southerly has digesters, but they are not
currently operational.  Incineration, landfill, and land application are used
at Jackson Pike for ultimate disposal.  Southerly disposes of their solids via
incineration, landfill, or composting.  The solids handling capacity at both
plants is limited by either inadequate equipment or poor performance due to
aging equipment.

5.4.1  Sludge Production
     The Jackson Pike WWTP currently produces 230 to 250 wet tons per day of
dewatered sludge at a cake solids concentration of about 17 percent.  On a dry
weight basis, approximately 50 dry tons per day (dtpd) of dewatered solids are
produced for ultimate disposal.  Based on recent operating records, approxi-
mately 50 percent of the dewatered sludge is incinerated and 50 percent is
land applied.

     The Southerly WWTP currently produces 350-400 wet tons per day of
dewatered sludge at a cake solids concentration of about 17 percent.  On a dry
weight basis, approximately 64 dry tons per day (dtpd) of dewatered solids are
produced for ultimate disposal.  Based on recent operating records,
                                      5-27

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approximately 70 percent of the dewatered sludge is incinerated and the
remaining 30 percent is composted.

     The anaerobic digestion process is mainly responsible for the  smaller
quantity of dewatered solids at Jackson Pike.  Digestion breaks  down organic
matter in two phases.  In the first phase complex organic substrate is
converted to volatile organic acids.  In this phase little change occurs  in
the total amount of organic material in the  system.  The second phase involves
conversion of the volatile organic acids to methane and carbon dioxide.
Anaerobic digestion results in a decrease in the amount of solids.

     Table 5-1  presents  data on  the  amount  of metals present  in the processed
sludge at Southerly and Jackson Pike.   Zinc,  cadmium,  and lead concentrations
are important factors to be considered  in evaluating the land application and
composting programs.  Jackson Pike sludge has significantly higher  metal
concentrations  than Southerly.   This could  impact a one-plant alternative
because the combination of Jackson Pike and Southerly sludge  could  change the
compost classification.

5.4.2  Unit Processes
     The following sections present each of the solids handling processes
being considered in this report.   The unit  processes are limited to those
alternatives which have been presented in previous Columbus facility planning
studies.    They include:

       Sludge  Thickening
       Anaerobic Digestion            1
       Thermal Conditioning
       Dewatering
       Lime Stabilization
       Incineration
       Composting
       Land Application
                                     5-30

-------
                         TABLE 5-1.  SOLIDS ANALYSES
                              METALS  (rag/kg TS)

                     CADMIUM   CHROMIUM   COPPER
SOUTHERLY*

  1985
September
October
November
December

  1986
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August

AVERAGE

JACKSON PIKE**

  1985
September
October
November
December

  1986
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August

AVERAGE

*  To Compost Facility
** To Land Application
 No Data Available
13
39
                            LEAD   NICKEL  ZINC
16
12
18
18
184
193
153
140
258
233
223
194
218
240
230
162
36
28
27
32
1940
1700
1750
1480
15
14
17
10
6
8
5
111
164
152
149
140
110
119
178
166
197
211
249
258
240
143
202
212
149
168
250
175
31
36
45
31
56
53
53
1400
1086
1167
859
789
843
788
147
219
195
602
625
379
39
151
1255
50
49
38
50
796
820
685
680
686
652
713
613
358
-392
398
565
134
162
173
303
5500
5175
4250
3900
36
40
44
32
30
30
26
565
608
577
480
462
478
473
565
539
559
643
640
658
608
315
386
319
332
376
375
358
125
125
147
128
144
113
110
3925
3559
3184
2485
2357
2575
2800
3610
                                     5-31

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5.4.2.1  Sludge Thickening
     Thickening is a common  practice  for  concentrating sludge.  It is employed
prior to subsequent sludge processes to reduce the volumetric loading and to
increase the efficiency of the downstream processes.  At present, there are no
facilities for thickening primary sludge  (PS) at the Southerly or Jackson Pike
treatment plants.  Waste activated  sludge  (WAS) is thickened at both plants by
centrifuges.   They were installed in recent years to replace the dissolved air
flotation units.  Rehabilitation costs of  the dissolved air flotation units
dissuaded the city from their continued operation.  The following paragraphs
will discuss gravity,  and centrifugal  thickening.

     Gravity thickening is the simplest process for concentrating sludges.
Gravity thickeners are applied principally for thickening of primary sludge,
lime sludges, combinations of primary and waste activated sludges, and to a
lesser degree,  waste activated sludge.  Gravity thickening is a sedimentation
process which is similar to  that which  takes  place  in all  settling  tanks.
Solids settle by gravity to  the bottom of  the basin forming a sludge blanket
with a clearer liquid  (supernatant)  above.  The  supernatant is  removed from
the basin over weirs located near the top  of  the tank.   A scraper arm rotates
at the bottom of the tank gently stirring  the sludge blanket.  This  aids in
compacting the sludge  solids and releasing the water from the mass,  as well as
scraping the  sludge toward a  center  well where it  can be  withdrawn by pumping.
Thickener supernatant is usually returned to either the primary or secondary
treatment process.

     Centrifugal thickening can have substantial maintenance and power costs,
but it is very effective in thickening waste activated sludge.   The  centrifuge
is essentially a dewatering device in which the solids-liquid separation is
enhanced by rotating the liquid at high speeds.  The centrate stream is
usually returned to the plant influent.   Centrifuges have been used  for both
sludge thickening and dewatering.
                                     5-32

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     Conditioning prior to  thickening provides improved  thickening and solids
capture.  The thickening process makes primary and waste activated sludge
difficult to blend  together.  Therefore, a mechanical mixing device is needed
in  sludge holding  tanks.

     The RFPU recommendation for the one-plant scenario  included gravity
thickening of PS and centrifugal thickening of WAS.

5.4.2.2  Anaerobic  Digestion
     Biological digestion of sludge from wastewater treatment is widely
practiced to stabilize and break down the organic matter prior to ultimate
disposal.  Anaerobic digestion is used in plants  employing primary
clarification followed by either trickling filter or activated sludge
secondary treatment.  The end products of anaerobic digestion are methane,
unused organics, and relatively small amounts of cellular protoplasm.
Anaerobic digestion is basically a destructive process, although complete
degradation of the organic matter under anaerobic conditions is not possible.

     The Columbus treatment facilities currently have primary and secondary
digesters.   However, the digesters at Southerly have been out of service since
1979.  Upgrading and possible expansion at both plants may be required.   The
areas of contention in previous  studies  were whether primary solids,  secondary
solids, or both should be digested; if post thickening is necessary;  and what
the volume requirements should  be.

Anaerobic digestion provides a stabilized solids  product that is suitable for
land application.   Digestion is  generally not  considered conducive to
composting.   The reduction in volatile solids  would generally reduce  the bio-
activity in the  composting piles,  which is considered essential to generate
heat in the piles.
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5.4.2.3  Thermal Conditioning
     Thermal conditioning in the form of heat treatment consists of grinding
the sludge first and then heating it between 350F and 450F under pressures
of 150 and 300 psi in a reactor.   Under  these conditions,  the water contained
in the solids is released.  Sludge is fed  from a reactor to a settling tank
where the  solids are concentrated.  Heat treatment releases water that is
bound within the cell structure of the sludge and  thereby  improves the
dewatering and thickening characteristics of the sludge.  Heat treatment
improves the production rate and the cake  solids content of the dewatering
process.  Heat treatment has an added advantage in that it also stabilizes the
sludge.   It destroys pathogenic organisms and successfully disinfects the
sludge.   A disadvantage of the  heat treatment process is that it ruptures the
ceil walls of biological organisms, releasing not  only the  water but some
bound organic material.  It returns to solution some organic material
previously converted to particulate form and creates other fine particulate
matter.   The breakdown of the biological cells as a result of heat treatment
converts these previously particulate cells back to water and fine  solids.
This process aids the dewatering process,  but creates a separate problem of
treating this highly polluted recycle stream.

     Treatment of this water or  liquor requires careful consideration in
design of the plant  because  the organic  content of the liquor can be extremely
high.   It may require a separate treatment system.

     The Jackson Pike treatment plant currently operates thermal conditioning
(heat  treatment)  units.  They are operated  approximately six months of the
year.  The  Revised Facilities Plan  Update does  not recommend operating heat
treatment equipment at Southerly under the one-plant alternative.  However, in
the two-plant alternative,  they do  recommend continuation  of the operation at
Jackson Pike where the operation is well established.
                                     5-34

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5.4.2.4  Dewatering
     This process is generally necessary for all options.   Basically,  the
reduction in volume of solids is critical to incineration, land application,
and composting.

     The three most common systems currently specified for mechanical sludge
dewatering are centrifugation, belt filter presses,  and  diaphragm plate and
frame  filter  presses.

     Centrifugation causes the mechanical dewatering of sludge through
centrifugal force.    The  centrifugation process was  previously described under
the sludge thickening section.  Pretreatment such as chemical conditioning or
thickening is recommended prior to centrifugal  dewatering to increase solids
dewatering capacity.
              x
     The belt filter press utilizes two porous  mono-filament polyester cloth
belts which dewater the sludge in three zones;   gravity  zone,  the wedge and
low pressure  zone,  and the shear and high pressure zone.  The  dewatered cake
with high solids content is discharged after the high pressure zone.   The
water removed by the belt filter press is captured in trays where it  is
ultimately returned to the wet stream process.

     Diaphragm plate and frame  (DPF) filter presses  used for sludge dewatering
consist of a  series  of  plates, recessed or with frames, mounted in a framework
consisting of head  supports connected by two heavy horizontal and parallel
bars on an overhead rail.  Sludge dewatering using this  treatment approach
consists of a gradual thickening, dewatering, and compression stage brought
about by subjecting the sludge to high pressures, thus causing solid-liquid
separation.   The  use of chemicals such as lime, ferric chloride,  and polymers
for conditioning  is generally required for sludges to aid  in coagulation of
the solids and release of the absorbed water.   This  allows for better
filtration times  and assists in cake-cloth disengagement.
                                     5-35

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     Centrifuges are presently used to dewater mixtures of primary and waste
activated sludge at the Jackson Pike and Southerly WWTP's.  The RFPU recom-
mended additional centrifuges for dewatering.  A recent report entitled
Preliminary Design Evaluation of Sludge Dewatering recommended replacing the
existing centrifuges with DPF presses.

5.4.2.5  Lime Stabilization
     The addition of lime, in sufficient quantities to maintain a high pH
between 11.0 and 11.5, stabilizes sludge and destroys pathogenic bacteria.
Lime stabilized sludges dewater well on sandbeds without odor problems if a
high pH is maintained.  Sludge filterability can be improved with the use of
lime; however, caution is required when sludge cake disposal to land is
practiced.  Disposal in thick layers could create a situation where the pH
could fall to near 7 prior to the sludge drying out, causing regrowth of
organisms and resulting in noxious conditions.  Essentially, no organic
destruction occurs with lime treatment.  The key factor in assuring a proper
stabilization process is to maintain the pH above 11.0.

5.4.2.6  Incineration
     Sludge incineration is usually preceded by sludge thickening and dewater-
ing.  It requires an incinerator feed system, air pollution control devices,
ash handling facilities, and the related automatic controls.  Two major
incineration systems employed in the United States are the multiple-hearth
furnace, the rotary kiln, and the fluidized-bed reactor.  The multiple-hearth
unit has received widest adoption because of its simplicity and operational
flexibility.  The Columbus facilities employ these furnaces for incineration,
but they also rely on land application and composting for sludge disposal.

     A primary consideration in the cost-effectiveness of sludge incineration
is the effect of sludge feed composition on auxiliary fuel requirements.  Heat
yield from a given sludge is a function of the relative amounts and elemental
composition of the contained combustible elements.  Primary sludges are higher
                                       5-36

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in heating value than biological sludges because of their higher grease
content.  It is more economical to burn undigested solids than digested solids
since digestion significantly reduces the heat content of the remaining
solids.  Therefore, critical design factors for any wastewater sludge
incineration system are heating value and moisture content of the sludge,
excess air requirements, and the economics of heat recovery.

     Another significant consideration for incineration is its relative
stability in regard to environmental and aesthetic factors.  The state of the
art of incineration is such that various controls and equipment modifications
are possible to meet a variety of potential environmental standards above and
beyond those currently in place.  These potential modifications are costly,
but at least the basic advantage exists that the ultimate control is within
the facilities operation and not as subject to the variations in raw sewage
composition as other ultimate disposal processes such as land application and
composting.

5.4.2.7  Composting
     Composting is an aerobic biological process designed to biologically
stabilize organics, destroy pathogenic organisms, and reduce the volume of
waste.   The Southwesterly Composting Facility in Columbus uses the aerated
static pile method to process unlimed, raw sludge.  The final product from the
composting process, Corn-Til, is marketed as a soil conditioner.

     The aerated static pile process involves mixing dewatered sludge with a
bulking agent, such as wood chips, followed by active composting in specially
constructed piles.  Typically, both recycled bulking agent and new bulking
agent are used for mixing.  Induced aeration, either positive (blowing) or
negative (suction), is provided during active composting and sometimes during
curing and/or drying.

     Temperature and oxygen are monitored during active composting as a means
of process control.  The active composting period lasts at least 21 days,
following which the piles are torn down and restacked for a curing period of
                                      5-37

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following which  the piles are torn down  and res tacked for a curing period  of
30 days.  After this period,  the  mixture  is  screened  and  the  wood chips
recovered for  reuse.

     The issues of concern in composting are the odor problem and a market
demand  for the final product.  The RFPU recommended composting in addition to
land application as the preferred means of solids disposal with incineration
as a back-up.   The FPU recommended additional incineration due to the  tenuous
nature of composting and land application.

5.4.2.8  Land Application
     Following the recommendations of the original EIS,  the city of Columbus
has developed a program for land application of sludge.   A benefit of the
process results from the nutrient value of nitrogen and phosphorus in the
sludge,  which reduces  the quantities  of chemical  fertilizer necessary on the
agricultural land.   The key factors in considering land  application as  an
alternative in sludge  disposal are haul  distance,  climate,  and availability of
land.  Environmental concerns  regarding land application  include  surface water
and groundwater pollution,  contamination of  soil  and  crops  with toxic
substances,  and transmission of human and animal disease.

     Although nitrogen is a plus in this  process,  it  is also  a limiting  factor
in considering the amount of sludge which can be safely applied.  Adding
excess nitrogen to  the  soil  involves  the  risk  of  polluting  the groundwater
with nitrates.  High nitrate concentrations  are toxic to humans and livestock.

     Cadmium concentrations in sludge are also a  limiting factor in the
application rate.   Cadmium is taken up by plants  and  enters the human food
chain.   The  primary chronic  health effect of excessive  dietary intake of
cadmium is damage  to the kidneys.

     To keep excessive  amounts of cadmium, nitrate,  and other toxic substances
from entering the soil,  monitoring of the sludge,  soil, and crops  should be
                                     5-38

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done during utilization.   Aquifers should also be monitored for potential
nitrate pollution.

     Only stabilized sludge should be spread on farmland.  Sludge can be
stabilized by aerobic or anaerobic digestion,  lime, or thermal conditioning.
Farmers are usually advised to allow six weeks or more after sludge
application before harvesting crops or allowing animal grazing.   Preferred
vegetation is non-food-chain crops like cotton.   Feed  grains for  animal
consumption are also commonly fertilized by tilling sludge solids into the
soil before planting the crops.

     Sludge can be applied on the surface if local regulations  permit, or it
can be injected into the subsurface.   Subsurface  injection is the most
environmentally desirable since it eliminates exposure of the sludge to  the
atmosphere.  Surface application can be done by spreading or spraying.
Spraying through irrigation nozzles can only be practiced where insects  and
odor are not a problem.

     The continued use of land application as  a preferred means of sludge
disposal is mainly dependent on the available  land for application and the
cost of transporting the sludge.

5.4.3  Sludge Management Options
     Sludge management options were formulated in  light of several goals and
objectives.  These goals and objectives included  the following:
       The sludge management options roust consist of processing and disposal
        methods that will provide for environmentally sound processing and
        ultimate disposal of sludge.
       The option must provide a reliable means for future processing and
        disposal.
       The options should offer some flexibility allowing the city to modify
        the processing and disposal  methods  to relieve pressures created  by
        equipment failures or temporary loss of the ultimate disposal methods.
                                     5-39

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     The options developed should consider,  to the extent possible,  optimizing
the reuse of the existing facilities  thus  minimizing implementation costs.

     This preliminary evaluation identified options for the two-plant
scenario, where Jackson Pike and Southerly would be operated independently;
for the two-plant one solids scenario, where  Southerly and Jackson Pike are
upgraded for wet stream treatment and Southerly is expanded to provide all  the
solids handling facilities; and for the one-plant scenario, where Southerly  is
expanded to handle the projected flows and loads and the Jackson Pike  facility
is abandoned.  Under the  two-plant two solids scenario,  three sludge
management options were  identified for Jackson Pike,  and six sludge  management
options were identified  for Southerly.  For  the two-plant one solids and one-
plant scenarios the sludge management options which were identified for the
Southerly two-plant scenario were considered  appropriate to evaluate.

5.4.3.1  Jackson Pike Sludge Management Options
     Three potential sludge management options were identified for the Jackson
Pike WWTP.  Each option  is discussed separately in the following paragraphs.

Jackson Pike Sludge Management Option JP-A
     Figure 5-11 presents the sludge managment schematic for option JP-A. The
option would involve the following sludge processes:

       Gravity thickening of PS
       Centrifuge thickening of WAS
       Thickened sludge storage and blending
       Stabilization by anaerobic digestion
       Dewatering.

     Dewatered digested sludge would strictly be land applied in an
agricultural reuse program.
                                     5-40

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                                     5-41

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     Based on the subjective  review of this management option,  it was
eliminated from  further consideration.  Relying strictly on land application,
for ultimate disposal of the projected sludge quantities,  lacks the
flexibility critical to maintaining a successful disposal program.   This  lack
of flexibility would require an increased degree of conservatism in design and
implementation to ensure plant performance during an interruption of the
disposal process.  Furthermore,  the seasonal  nature of the agricultural
application program would require substantial sludge storage facilities.
Normally, such storage facilities experience  community relation difficulties
associated with aesthetics and odors.

Jackson Pike  Sludge Management Option JP-B
     Figure 5-12  presents  the sludge  management schematic for option JP-B.
This option would consist of the following sludge processes:

       Gravity thickening of PS
       Centrifuge thickening of WAS
       Thickened sludge storage and blending
       Stabilization by anaerobic digestion
       Dewatering
       Incineration.

     Dewatered sludge would be disposed of as follows:

       50 percent of the  dewatered sludge would be incinerated and the  ash
        product landfilled.
       50 percent of the dewatered sludge would be land applied.

     The 50:50 ratio is  approximately consistent with current Jackson Pike
disposal practices.   In  this  brief analysis,  a comprehensive review of
alternate ratios  to determine an optimum ratio was not performed.  Since land
application is not a limiting factor and the  incinerators at Jackson Pike
require some rehabilitation,  a split equal to current practices appears
appropriate.
                                     5-42

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     Subjective screening of JP-B indicated that the option adequately
addressed the goals and objectives.   Therefore,  it will  go  through a more
detailed evaluation in chapter 6.

Jackson Pike Sludge Management Option JP-C
     Figure 5-13 presents the sludge management schematic  for option JP-C.
This option would consist of the following sludge processes.

       Gravity thickening of PS
       Centrifuge thickening of WAS
       Thickened sludge storage and blending
       Stabilization by anaerobic digestion
       Stabilization by thermal conditioning
       Dewatering
     *  Incineration.

     Dewatered sludge  would be disposed of as follows:

     *  50 percent of  the dewatered  sludge would be  incinerated  and  the ash
        product landfilled.
     *  50 percent of the dewatered  sludge would be  land applied.

     As previously discussed, the 50:50 disposal ratio  is consistent with
current practice.   The stabilization processes  would each handle 50  percent of
the thickened sludges  produced under normal operating conditions.  The
dewatered, thermally conditioned sludge would be incinerated while the
dewatered, digested sludge would be  land applied.

     Sludge management option JP-C was also determined by the subjective
screening to merit more detailed consideration.   It  will be evaluated  further
in chapter 6.
                                     5-44

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                                    5-45

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5.4.3.2  Southerly Sludge Management Options
     Six potential sludge management options were identified  for  the  Southerly
WWTP.  Each option is discussed separately in the following paragraphs.

Southerly Sludge Management Option SO-A
     Southerly sludge management option SO-A is graphically depicted by  the
schematic presented in Figure 5-14.   Option  SO-A  would  utilize  the  following
sludge processes:

       Gravity thickening of PS
       Centrifuge thickening of WAS
       Thickened sludge storage and blending
       Stabilization by anaerobic digestion
       Dewatering
       Incineration.

     Dewatered digested sludge would be incinerated and landfilled.

     Option SO-A was eliminated from further consideration for  two  basic
reasons.   First,  the option proposes to abandon the existing  compost
operations.   Such a  move would forfeit  the substantial  investment the city has
placed in the relatively new facilities and would substitute disposal of all
of the sludge product by landfilling in lieu of the current practice  which
reuses a portion of the sludge as soil  conditioner.   Second,  option SO-A lacks
the flexibility needed to allow the city to  modify disposal operations subject
to equipment failures or external pressures such as public dissatisfaction or
regulatory requirements.

Southerly Sludge Management Option SO-B
     Figure 5-15 presents the sludge management schematic  for option SO-B.
The option would feature the following sludge processes:

       Gravity thickening of PS
                                     5-46

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                                     5-48

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     *  Centrifuge thickening of WAS
       Thickened sludge storage and blending
     *  DewaCering
       Composting.

     Ultimate sludge disposal would be accomplished through the marketing and
distribution of compost as a soil conditioner.

     The subjective evaluation eliminated option SO-B  from further
consideration.   Flexibility to alter disposal operations was  the  critical
factor in the evaluation.   Composting the entire volume of dewatered  sludge
would mean a 2 to 3 fold increase in compost product over current conditions.
If Southerly were operated in a one-plant scenario,  5  to  6 times  the  current
compost product would be produced.   An aggressive  and  successful  marketing
program would be mandatory to locate and maintain sufficient receptors  for the
compost.  The long-term reliability of an option which relies solely  on
distribution of compost was not considered adequate  to merit  more detailed
development and evaluation.

Southerly Sludge Management Option SO-C
     The sludge management  schematic  for option SO-C is  presented in  Figure
5-16.   Southerly sludge  management option SO-C would consist  of the following
sludge processes:

       Gravity thickening of PS
       Centrifuge thickening of HAS
       Thickened sludge storage and blending
       Stabilization by anaerobic digestion
       Dewatering
       Composting
       Incineration.
                                     5-49

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     Dewatered sludge would be disposed of as follows:
       75 percent of Che  dewatered  sludge  would be incinerated,  and  the  ash
        product would be  land filled.
       25 percent of the  dewatered  sludge  would be composted and the.compost
        would be distributed as a soil conditioner.
     The 75:25  ratio is  approximately consistent with current Southerly
disposal practices.   The digestion  facilities  would be sized  to  process  that
portion of the  sludge that would be incinerated.  The portion of the  sludge
that would be composted would not receive stabilization prior to dewatering.

     Option SO-C represents current practice  at  Southerly when the  digestion
facilities are  operational.   Therefore,  subjective screening  concluded that
the option merits more detailed development and evaluation in chapter 6.

Southerly Sludge Management Option  SO-D
     Southerly  sludge management option SO-D is graphically depicted  by  the
schematic presented in Figure 5-17.  Option SO-D would utilize the  following
sludge processes.

       Gravity thickening of PS
       Centrifuge thickening of WAS
       Thickened sludge storage and blending
       Stabilization by anaerobic  digestion
       Dewatering
       Composting
       Incineration.

     Ultimate disposal of the sludge would be accomplished through  the
following disposal methods:
        25 percent of the sludge would be dewatered,  composted,  and distri-
        buted as a soil conditioner.
                                     5-51

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       25 percent of the sludge would be digested, dewatered, and land
        applied.
       50 percent of the sludge would be digested, dewatered, incinerated,
        and landfilled.

     Option SO-D meets the goals and objectives of the subjective screening.
The option offers  continuation of the  existing incineration and composting
processes at Southerly and introduces land application as a disposal process.
The city has indicated there is adequate acreage suitable for land application
within an economically feasible distance of the plant.  Option SO-D was
advanced for further development and evaluation in chapter 6.

Southerly Sludge Management Option SO-E
     Figure 5-18  presents the sludge management schematic  for Option SO-E.
Southerly sludge management option SO-E would consist of the following  sludge
processes:

       Gravity thickening PS
       Centrifuge thickening of WAS
       Thickened  sludge  storage and blending
       Stabilization by  anaerobic digestion
       Dewatering
       Composting.

     Dewatered sludge would be disposed of as follows:
        50 percent would be composted and distributed as a soil conditioner.
        Sludge sent to compost would not go through the digestion process.
        50 percent would be land applied as a fertilizer to agricultural
        acreage within a reasonable distance from the plant.
     Based on the  subjective  evaluation option SO-E was eliminated  from
further consideration.   The reliability  of utilizing  only  compost distribution
and land application as ultimate disposal options did not appear reasonable.
                                     5-53

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                                            5-54

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The plant currently practices incineration and relies heavily on incineration
and landfilling of the ash for disposal.   Furthermore, it is critical that the
plant have a disposal method  that  is  completely  within their control,  i.e.,
not influenced by sludge quality, weather, market demand, public perception  or
other external pressures.

Southerly Sludge Management Option SO-F
     Figure 5-19 presents the sludge management  schematic  for Option SO-F.
Ths sludge management system would consist of the following processes:

       Gravity thickening PS
       Centrifuge thickening WAS
       Thickened sludge storage and blending
       Dewatering
       Composting
       Incineration.

     Ultimate disposal of the sludge would be accomplished through one  of the
following disposal methods:

       50 percent would be composted and distributed as a soil  conditioner.
       50 percent would be incinerated and landfilled.

     Option SO-F is similar to option SO-C with  the exception that digestion
is not provided.   The evaluation  of option SO-F was  prompted due to the fact
that digestion prior to incineration has  normally not proven to  be cost-
effective.  Although  digestion diminishes the amount of solids to be handled
in subsequent processes, the heat content of digested sludge is  significantly
reduced.  Furthermore, digested sludge  tends  to be more difficult to dewater
than combined raw sludges.  These factors cause digested sludge  to be more
difficult,  and consequently more expensive on a  unit basis (i.e.  dollars per
dry ton),  than raw sludges to incinerate.  Since  the Southerly plant has a
portion of the required digestion facilities and  adequate incineration
                                     5-55

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                                         5-56

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facilities in place, the cost effectiveness of digestion prior to incineration

is less dependent on capital cost than an evaluation where these facilities

are not in place.  This option will be evaluated further  in chapter 6.


5.5  SUMMARY OF ALTERNATIVES AND OPTIONS

     Alternatives for comprehensive wastewater management that have advanced

for further evaluation in chapter 6 include the following:


       One-plant (all treatment at Southerly)
       Two-plant (solids handling at Jackson Pike and Southerly)

       Two-plant (all solids handling at Southerly)


     The following options for treatment plant components have been advanced

for further evaluation in chapter 6.


       Interconnector/Headworks
        -  A/A-1 (additional pumping, force mains,  and headworks)
        -  8/B-l (extension of gravity sewer and separate headworks)
        -  B/B-2 (extension of gravity sewer and entirely new headworks)

       Biological Processes
        -  Semi-aerobic
        -  Trickling Filter/Activated Sludge (TF/AS)

       Sludge Management
        -  JP-B (PS thickening,  WAS thickening, anaerobic digestion,
           dewatering, land  application, and incineration/landfill)

        -  JP-C (PS thickening,  WAS thickening, anaerobic digestion,  thermal
           conditioning,  dewatering, land application, and incineration/
           landfill)

        -  SO-C (PS thickening,  WAS thickening, anaerobic digestion,
           dewatering, composting, and incineration/landfill)

        -  SO-D (PS thickening,  WAS thickening, anaerobic digestion,
           dewatering, composting, land application, and incineration/
           landfill)

        -  SO-F (PS thickening,  WAS thickening, dewatering,  composting, and
           incinerat ion/land fill)

                                                    \
     Table 5-2 summarizes each of the wastewater management  alternatives with
their respective component  options.
                                      5-57

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TABLE 5-2 SUMMARY OF ALTERNATIVES AND  OPTIONS
WASTEWATER
MANAGEMENT
ALTERNATIVE
ONE-PLANT
TWO-PLANT
TWO-PLANT ONE SOLIDS
COMPONENT
INTERCONNECTOR/HEADWORKS
BIOLOGICAL PROCESS
SLUDGE MANAGEMENT
BIOLOGICAL PROCESS
SLUDGE MANAGEMENT
BIOLOGICAL PROCESS
SLUDGE MANAGEMENT
OPTION
A/A-1
B/B-1
B/B-2
SEMI- AEROBIC
TF/AS
SO-C
SO-D
so-r
SEMI-AEROBIC
TF/AS
SO-C
SO-D
SO-F
JP-B
JP-C
SEMI- AEROBIC
TF/AS
SO-C
SO-D
SO-F
                  5-58

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                CHAPTER 6.  DETAILED ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES
     This chapter presents a detailed evaluation of the two comprehensive
wastewater management alternatives:  the one-plant and two-plant alternatives.
Section 6.1 describes the engineering evaluation, while Sections 6.2 through
6.5 present the environmental evaluations.  In Section 6.6, the engineering
and environmental evaluations of the one-plant and two-plant alternatives are
summarized, and a recommended comprehensive alternative is identified.

     Previously in chapter 5 three basic components of the comprehensive
alternatives were identified.  These three components are:

       Interconnector/headworks
       Biological process
       Solids handling.

     Also in chapter 5, the feasible options that fulfill the components were
identified and subjected to a preliminary screening.  In Section 6.1 -
Engineering Evaluation, the options for the basic components that advanced
from the screening in chapter 5 are evaluated with respect to technical
criteria consisting of cost, reliability, flexibility, implementability, and
operational convenience.  The optimum option which fulfills each component is
selected for both the one-plant and two-plant alternatives.  After the optimum
options for each component are identified, the comprehensive one-plant and
two-plant alternatives are defined and evaluated with respect to the technical
evaluation criteria.

     The environmental evaluation addresses the comprehensive system
alternatives.  This evaluation considers physical, biological, and human
environmental criteria.  These criteria were derived from the data collection
effort documented in chapter 2.  Physical criteria include:  water, air
quality, and prime agricultural land.  Biological criteria include:
terrestrial and aquatic biota as well as threatened and endangered species.
                                       6-1

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The human or man-made  environmental  criteria  include:  land use,  noise,
energy, economics, transportation, and historic and archeologic resources.
Indirect environmental consequences such as induced growth are also discussed.

6.1.  ENGINEERING EVALUATION
     In the engineering evaluation, technical  criteria are applied  to  evaluate
the options for the components  that formulate  an alternative,  as well  as  to
evaluate comprehensive alternatives.   First,  the technical evaluation  is
applied to identify the optimum options for the components.  Then,  components
are assembled into the one-plant and two-plant comprehensive alternatives and
a second technical evaluation is performed.

     In evaluating planning alternatives,  it is usually necessary to evaluate
the comprehensive alternatives  due to the  interrelationships between the
components which formulate the alternacives.  For example, where  options  for
the biological  process  component produce substantially different quanities of
sludge, the solids handling evaluation must be coupled with the biological
process evaluation to determine the optimum alternative.   However,  based  on
the options for the components that have been advanced from chapter 5  such an
evaluation process is not necessary.    Selection of the optimum option for the
Interconnector/headworks does not influence the subsequent liquid and  sludge
treatment components.  The biological process  options that have been advanced
will yield approximately  the same  quantity of sludge.  Similarly  the solids
handling options remaining under consideration do not exhibit  significantly
different impacts on other components.  Consequently, the individual
components will be evaluated independently and an optimum option  for each
component will be identified for both  the one-  and two-plant alternatives.

     The technical criteria applied in the engineering evaluation are
identified and  defined  below.

       Cost -  The lowest total present worth  cost.
       Reliability - Ability to treat the projected  wasteload and  continuously
        discharge an  effluent capable of meeting NPDES permit standards.
                                      6-2

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       Flexibility - Ability to change and meet differing conditions.
       Irapleraentability - Ease of implementation.
       Operational Convenience - Ease of operation and maintenance.

     Cost is an objective criteria with the differences in total present worth
establishing the ranking of component options and comprehensive alternatives.
The remaining four criteria are subjective criteria.  A brief narrative
discusses how the component options and alternatives compare with the
subjective criteria.

6.1.1   Interconnector/Headworks Component
     This section provides an evaluation of the Interconnector and headworks
components of one-plant and two-plant alternatives.

6.1.1.1  One-Plant
     As discussed in chapter 5, no work would be required at the Jackson Pike
headworks under the one-plant alternative because the plant would be phased
out of service and the flow tributary to Jackson Pike would be diverted to the
Southerly WWTP via the Interconnector Sewer.  Completion of the north end of
the Interconnector would be required to convey the flows from Jackson Pike to
Southerly.

     The one-plant alternative also requires that the capacity of the south
end of the Interconnector Sewer and the Southerly headworks be expanded.
Chapter 5 presented two options for expanding the south end of the
Interconnector and three options for expanding the capacity of the Southerly
headworks.  Due to the interrelationship between the headworks and the
Interconnector the headworks options were developed based on the
Interconnector options.  Three potential Interconnector/headworks combinations
are identified and described below.  They include the following:
                                       6-3

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        Option A/A-1 -  Increase  the capacity of  the south end of  the
        Interconnector  from  70 MGD to  160 MGD by constructing a new pumping
        facility and by installing one new 48-inch and one new 36-inch  force
        main  from  the pumping facility to the Southerly headworks.  Increase
        the capacity of the  existing Southerly headworks from 170 MGD to  231
        MGD by adding additional pumps, screens, and grit chambers.

        Option B/B-1 -  Extend the 156-inch gravity Interconnector Sewer to the
        Southerly WWTP.  Use four 78-inch pipes  for the Scioto River crossing.
        Construct new 150 MGD headworks which include pumping, screening, and
        grit  removal for the Interconnector flows.  Use the existing headworks
        for preliminary treatment of flow from the Big Walnut Interceptor
        Sewer.

        Option B/B-2 -  Extend the 156-inch gravity Interconnector Sewer to the
        Southerly WWTP.  Use four 78-inch pipes  for the Scioto River crossing.
        Construct entirely new headworks rated at a capacity of 231 MGD for
        preliminary treatment of flows from the  Interconnector Sewer and  the
        Big Walnut Interceptor Sewer.  The new headworks will include a mixing
        chamber, screening,  pumping, and grit removal.  Demolish  the existing
        headworks.
     Table 6-1 presents capital, annual O&M, and total present worth costs  for
each of the options.


                  TABLE 6-1.  INTERCONNECTOR/HEADWORKS COSTS
Option A/A-1

Option B/B-l

Option B/B-2
                             Capital
Annual O&M
Total Present Worth
$15,239,000
$19,282,000
$25,382,000
$1,771,000
$1,289,000
$1,169,000
$31,064,000
$30,279,000
$34,928,000
     Option B/B-1 exhibits the lowest present worth cost.  However,

practically speaking the present worth of A/A-1 is equal to B/B-1.  The

gravity sewer options (B/B-1 and B/B-2) are more reliable than the force main
option (A/A-1) since there is less chance that the gravity sewer will rupture.

Furthermore, failure of the gravity sewer normally results in infiltration to

the conduit, while a rupture of the force mains would cause exfiltration to
the environment.  In addition, the gravity sewer does not rely on the
                                       6-4

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operation of a pumping facility to perform.  The pumping facility causes the
force main option to be considered more difficult  to  operate  and  maintain and
also somewhat less reliable due to the dependency  on  its pumps.

     With respect to flexibility to adapt to higher flows both the gravity
sewer and the pump station/force main  are considered  similar.  Both would be
sized to handle  the  projected  peak flows  and would require  modifications to
increase capacity.

     The force mains, on the other hand,  will not  require as  deep of an
excavation as the gravity sewer; and therefore,  may be easier to  implement.
Also, the force  main option (A/A-1) and  the gravity option (B/B-2) only have
one headworks which would be easier to operate and maintain than  the two
separate headworks as  proposed under option B/B-1.

     Based on the cost and reliability of the gravity sewer,  Option B/B-1 is
the recommended  Interconnector/headworks component for the one-plant
alternative.

6.1.1.2  Two-Plant
     The existing Jackson Pike headworks provide screening and pumping only.
Preliminary screening and grit removal  facilities are  located at  the Sewer
Maintenance Yard upstream  of  the  Jackson Pike headworks on the O.S.I.S.   These
facilities,  however,  provide pretreatment only for flows entering the plant
through the O.S.I.S. Interceptor.

     Due to the  fact that flows from the Big Run Interceptor  are  not provided
with grit removal and due to the age of the  existing equipment, it is
recommended that entirely new headworks  be constructed at Jackson Pike under
the two-plant alternative.   The new headworks would include screening,
pumping, and aerated grit removal, and they would be  located  on the Jackson
Pike plantsite.
                                      6-5

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     As discussed  in chapter 5,  the peak flow to the Jackson Pike WWTP will be
 limited to  100 MGD.  The 2008  projected peak process flow  tributary to Jackson
 Pike is 131 MGD.   Therefore, the north end of the Interconnector would require
 completion under the two-plant alternative to allow flows  in excess of 100 MGD
 to be transported  to the Southerly WWTP.

     The pumping station and force mains at the south end  of the
 Interconnector Sewer (i.e. tributary to Southerly) are rated at a capacity of
 70 MGD.  These facilities are  adequate to handle the 2008  flows from  the Grove
 City connection which are projected to be 6 MGD as well as the 31 MGD that
would be diverted  from Jackson Pike under peak conditions.  Therefore, no
expansion of the conveyance system is required.

     The existing  Southerly headworks, rated at a capacity of 170 MGD, is
capable of handling the 31 MGD from Jackson Pike in addition to Southerly1a
projected peak flow of 99 MGD.  Therefore, no expansion is required at the
Southerly headworks under the  two-plant scenario.

6.1.2  BiologicalProcess Component
     This section provides an evaluation of the semi-aerobic and trickling
filter/activated sludge biological process options for the Jackson Pike and
Southerly WWTPs under the one-plant and two-plant alternatives.  The  detailed
documentation of the biological process evaluation is contained in Appendix C
entitled Briefing Paper No.  3 - Biological Process Selection.

6.1.2.1  One-Plant
     The serai-aerobic and trickling filter/activated sludge processes were
evaluated for biological treatment at the Southerly WWTP under the one-plant
alternative.
                                      6-6

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     The semi-aerobic process is similar to Che conventional activated sludge
process which currently exists at the Southerly WWTP.  Existing basins could
be modified to operate in the semi-aerobic mode by installing two additional
baffles in the first bay of each aeration basin and by installing an internal
mixed liquor recirculation system in each basin.  In addition to modifying the
existing basins, two new basins would be added to the Center Train, and a new
East Train would be built with nine basins.

     The trickling filter/activated sludge process would utilize the existing
aeration basins in the West and Center Trains.  Four trickling filters would
be needed for the existing West and Center Trains; and a new East Train would
be constructed with two trickling filters and four aeration basins.

     Circular clarifiers are recommended for the Southerly WWTP under either
biological process option to provide the capability of rapid sludge return to
maintain a high mixed liquor suspended solids concentration (MLSS - 3500 mg/1);
and due to the historic rising sludge observed as denitrification occurred in
the rectangular final clarifiers.  The existing rectangular clarifiers and
associated sludge removal equipment cannot maintain the necessary mixed liquor
concentrations in the return sludge or provide the proper sludge removal rate.
Circular clarifiers provide more rapid sludge removal than rectangular
clarifiers, thereby lessening the potential for denitrification in the final
clarifier.  New circular clarifiers would be equipped with helical scraper arm
sludge removal mechanisms to ensure high rate sludge removal without
denitrification.

     Under the one-plant alternative, six new clarifiers would be required for
the existing Center and West Trains and four new circular clarifiers would be
required for the new East Train.
                                       6-7

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     Table 6-2 provides the capital, annual O&M, and total present worth costs
for the trickling filter/activated sludge and semi-aerobic process options
under the one-plant scenario.

                TABLE 6-2.  ONE-PLANT BIOLOGICAL PROCESS COSTS
                                      Capital      Annual O&M
Trickling Filter/Activated Sludge   $87,462,000    $2,773,000
Semi-Aerobic                        $81,995,000    $3,148,000
    Total
Present Worth
 $109,571,000
 $107,958,000
     The semi-aerobic process exhibits the lowest total present worth cost.
However, practically speaking the present worth cost of the trickling
filter/activated sludge process is equal to the present worth cost of the
semi-aerobic process.

     From a reliability standpoint, the semi-aerobic process is more reliable
than the trickling filter/activated sludge process.  Both processes have the
ability to select against filamentous organisms which cause bulking and both
processes are capable of providing nitrification.  However, the semi-aerobic
process is considered more reliable due to the fact that more process control
flexibility is inherent in the process.  The ability to maintain the initial
bays of an aeration basin in either an anaerobic, anoxic, or aerobic
conditions through mixing and aeration and the ability to return mixed liquor
through a recycle loop enhance the process1 ability to perform and meet
effluent limits.

     The trickling filter/activated sludge process would be subject to an
adverse environmental review due to its resultant odor and pests.  Trickling
filters have been cited in odor complaints particularly under conditions of
high organic loadings.  In addition, fly larvae and flies breed on these
filter media resulting in nuisance complaints.  Control of odors and flies
requires covering the trickling filters, installing a positive ventilation
system, and scrubbing the off-gases.  This would add significant capital and
                                       6-8

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O&M costs to the system and may result in reduced efficiency during the summer
months.

     The trickling filter/activated sludge process would also be very
difficult to implement in that it would require major restructuring of the
conduits between the existing primary clarifiers and aeration basins.  There
is inadequate area between these two processes for the trickling filters.
Therefore, they would have to be located some distance from the preceeding and
subsequent treatment process, and primary effluent flows would have to be
pumped to them.

     Due to the fact that there is increased reliability with the semi-aerobic
process and due to the problems associated with implementing the trickling
filter/activated sludge process, the serai-aerobic process is recommended as
the preferred biological process for the Southerly one-plant alternative.

6.1.2.2  Two-Plant
     The semi-aerobic and trickling filter/activated sludge processes were
evaluated for Southerly and Jackson Pike under the two-plant alternative.
Table 6-3 presents the capital, O&M, and total present worth costs for these
processes under the two-plant alternative.
                TABLE 6-3.  TWO-PLANT BIOLOGICAL PROCESS COSTS
Southerly
Trickling Filter/Activated Sludge
Semi-Aerobic
Jack s on-P ike
Trickling Filter/Activated Sludge
Semi-Aerobic
	Capital


$38,732,000
$32,805,000


$41,140,000
$31,193,000
Annual O&M


$1,491,000
$1,638,000


$1,804,000
$1,794,000
                                                                     Total
                                                                 Present Worth
$ 51,034,000
$ 46,808,000


$ 56,311,000
$ 46,766,000
                                     6-9

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     The semi-aerobic process exhibits the lowest total present worth cost  for
Jackson Pike and Southerly under the two-plant scenario.  The cost difference
between the serai-aerobic process and trickling filter/activated sludge process
is approximately 10 percent for the Southerly plant and 20 percent for the
Jackson Pike plant.  The evaluation with respect to the reliability and
irapleraentatiblity previously discussed under the one-plant analysis holds true
in comparing the options for the two-plant alternative.

     Since the semi-aerpbic process is 10 to 20 percent less costly and  is
considered more reliable than the  trickling filter option, the semi-aerobic
process is selected as the optimum biological process option for Jackson Pike
and Southerly under the two-plant  alternative.

     Six circular clarifiers are required for the Southerly WWTP under the
two-plant scenario.  Circular clarifiers are recommended  for Southerly under
the two-plant scenario for the same reasons that were given for the Southerly
one-plant scenario.  These reasons include the need to rapidly return
activated sludge to increase nitrification rates, and the need to maintain  a
high mixed liquor suspended solids concentration and to maintain a minimum
sludge blanket in the final clarifiers to prevent denitrification.

     At Jackson Pike the required mixed liquor suspended  solids concentration
is lower due to higher observed nitrification rates and because overpumping of
the final clarifiers is not necessary since rising sludge has not been a
problem.  Therefore, the continued use of the existing rectangular clarifiers
is recommended along with the addition of two new rectangular clarifiers for
final settling.

6.1.3  SolidsHandling
     This section presents an evaluation of the sludge management options
developed in chapter 5 for the one-plant and two-plant alternatives.  Appendix
B entitled Briefing Paper No. 2 - Solids Handling, provides detailed
documentation of the evaluation.
                                       6-10

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     The evaluations performed for the sludge management alternatives in the
following sections are based on the use of centrifuges for dewatering.  The
Revised Facility Plan Update (RFPU), prepared in September of 1985, recom-
mended the continued use of centrifuges for dewatering.  Subsequently, in a
document prepared in December of 1.986, entitled Preliminary Design Evaluation
of Sludge Dewatering, the city recommended installing diaphragm plate and
frame presses (DPF) for dewatering.  Following the review of the planning and
preliminary design documents, an evaluation of sludge dewatering was performed
as part of the SEIS.
                                                           4
     The results of the SEIS evaluation (Appendix B) concluded that
centrifuges were the cost-effective dewatering option.  In the SEIS
evaluation, the total present worth cost of the centrifuge option is 7 percent
lower than the cost of the DPF option.  The conclusions reached in this
evaluation differed from those developed in the planning and preliminary
engineering documents for several reasons:

     *  A higher capacity rating for the centrifuges was utilized.
       The operating costs associated with the dewatering options and the
        incineration process differed.
       A nominal cost for ash disposal was incorporated in the analysis.

     Consequently, the following evaluation of sludge management options is
based on the continued use of centrifuges for dewatering.

6.1.3.1  One-Plant
     Under the one-plant alternative (all treatment at Southerly) three
options were retained from chapter 5. They include the following:
       SO-C - PS thickening, WAS thickening, digestion, dewatering,
        composting, and incineration/landfill.
       SO-D - PS thickening, WAS thickening, digestion, dewatering,
        composting, land application, and incineration/landfill.
                                       6-11

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       SO-F - PS Chickening, WAS thickening, dewatering, composting, and
        incineration/land fi 11.
     Table 6-4 presents the capital, annual O&M, and total present worth costs
for each  option.
           TABLE 6-4.  COST COMPARISON OF SLUDGE MANAGEMENT OPTIONS
                            (Southerly One-Plant)
Option SO-C
Option SO-D
Option SO-F
                             Capital
Annual O&M
Total Present Worth
$45,770,000
$45,770,000
$40,700,000
$6,080,000
$6,230,000
$7,110,000
$89,590,000
$90,710,000
$92,440,000
     All options exhibit approximately the same present worth costs, with SO-F
the highest present worth being only 3 percent higher than SO-C which has the
lowest present worth cost.

     Option SO-D with composting, land application, and incineration provides
more flexibility and reliability in final disposal options than SO-C and SO-F.
Option SO-C and SO-D provide more flexibility and reliability than SO-F with
respect to stabilization of the sludge through digestion since option SO-F
does not include digestion.  Based on reliability and flexibility, SO-D is the
recommended option for Southerly under the one-plant alternative.

6.1.3.2  Two-Plant
     The three sludge management options retained from chapter 5 for Southerly
under the two-plant alternatives are the same as those which were retained
under the one-plant alternative.  Table 6-5 provides the capital, annual O&M,
and total present worth costs of SO-C, SO-D, and SO-F under the two-plant
alternative.
                                      6-12

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           TABLE 6-5.  COST COMPARISON OF SLUDGE MANAGEMENT OPTIONS
                            (Southerly Two-Plant)
                             Capital
               Annual O&M
Total Present Worth
Option SO-C
Option SO-D
Option SO-F
$15,220,000
$15,220,000
$14,570,000
$3,260,000
$3,340,000
$3,940,000
$39,080,000
$39,680,000
$42,770,000
     Similar to the costs for the one-plant alternative, options SO-C and SO-D

can be considered equal.  However, SO-F is approximately 9 percent higher than

SO-C.


     As with the Southerly one-plant alternative, option SO-D is recommended

as the preferred Southerly two-plant sludge management scheme.  Option SO-D

provides three reliable disposal paths and adequate flexibility.


     Two options were retained from chapter 5 for Jackson Pike under the two-

plant alternative.  They include the following:


       JP-B - PS thickening, WAS thickening, anaerobic digestion, dewatering,
        land application, and incineration/landfill.

       JP-C - PS thickening, WAS thickening, anaerobic digestion, thermal
        conditioning, dewatering, land application, and incineration/landfill.


     Table 6-6 provides the capital, annual O&M, and total present worth costs

for these options.
           TABLE 6-6.  COST COMPARISON OF SLUDGE MANAGEMENT OPTIONS
                           (Jackson Pike Two-Plant)
                             Capital
               Annual O&M
Option JP-B

Option JP-C
$19,727,000    $3,070,000

$21,307,000    $3,770,000
Total PresentWorth

    $41,827,000

    $48,597,000
                                       6-13

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     Option JP-B, which provides for digestion, dewatering, and a 50:50 split
of sludge to land application and incineration/landfill, has the lowest total
present worth cost.  This option is approximately 16 percent less costly than
JP-C which proposes to retain the thermal conditioning units for processing a
portion of the sludge.

     Option JP-C provides more flexibility in that sludge can be stabilized
through digestion or thermal conditioning.  However, the thermal conditioners
are more costly and difficult to operate and maintain than the digesters.

     Due to the lower present worth coat of option JP-B and the greater ease
of operation and maintenance of digestion, option JP-B is the recommended
sludge management scheme for Jackson Pike.

6.1.3.3  Two-Plant Liquid Treatment/One-Plant Solids Treatment
     A third system configuration which was conceptually identified in the
SSIS involved providing liquid treatment facilities at two plants (i.e.,
Southerly and Jackson Pike) and consolidating solids processing facilities at
one-plant (i.e., Southerly).  Currently, a single 8-inch sludge transfer
pipeline links Jackson Pike and Southerly.  This sludge transfer pipeline
prompted the identification of the two-plant liquid treatment/one-plant solids
treatment alternative.

     The two-plant liquid treatment/one-plant solids treatment alternative was
eliminated from consideration following the analysis of the one- and two-plant
solids options.  In the previously presented section, the recommended one-
plant solids option, SO-D, was shown to have a present worth cost of
$90,710,000.  Similarly, the recommended two-plant solids options (i.e.,
Southerly SO-D and Jackson Pike JP-B) exhibited a total present worth cost of
$81,507,000.  Based on these present worth costs, it is approximately
11 percent less costly to maintain solids processing operations at both
Southerly and Jackson Pike if both facilities are providing liquid treatment.
                                    6-14

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     The 11 percent difference is based strictly on required facilities for
processing and disposal.  This margin would widen if an appropriate level of
reliability and redundancy in the sludge conveyance system is added to the
analysis.  The existing, single 8-inch pipeline would not be sufficient to
allow consolidation of sludge processing operations.  At a minimum, a second
parallel pipeline would be necessary to provide redundancy.  Potentially a
third pipeline may be appropriate, allowing one dedicated pipeline for
transfer of primary sludge, one dedicated pipeline for transfer of waste
activiated sludge, and one dedicated stand-by pipeline.  Providing the
necessary redundancy in the sludge conveyance system would cause the option
for consolidating sludge processing at Southerly to be from 15 to 20 percent
more costly than maintaining separate facilities at each plant.  As a result,
the two-plant liquid treatraent/one-plant solids treatment alternative was
eliminated from further consideration.

6.1.4  One-Plant vs. Two-Plants
     This section summarizes the recommended component options for the one-
plant and two-plant alternatives based on the evaluations previously
presented.  After defining the recommended components for the one-plant and
two-plant alternatives, a technical evaluation is conducted.

6.1.4.1  Required Facilities
     The previous sections evaluated options for Interconnector/headworks,
biological process, and solids management components.  Recommendations on
these components were made for each plant alternative based on cost,
reliability, flexibility, iraplementability, and operational ease.

     The recommendations for the Southerly One-Plant Alternative include the
following:
       Complete the north end of the Interconnector Sewer.  Construct a flow
        diversion chamber.
       Extend the 156-inch gravity Interconnector Sewer to the Southerly
        WWTP.  Use four 78-inch pipes for the Scioto River crossing.
                                        6-15

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       Construct new 150 MGD headworks at Southerly to handle the flows from
        the Interconnector.  Use the existing 170 MGD headworks for the Big
        Walnut Interceptor flows.

       Adopt the semi-aerobic process as the method of biological treatment.

       Upgrade and expand the solids handling facilities to include gravity
        thickening of PS, centrifuge thickening of WAS, anaerobic digestion,
        centrifuge dewatering, incineration/landfill, composting, and land
        application.


     Figure 6-1 provides a site layout, and Table 6-7 presents the sizes of

the required facilities for the Southerly One-Plant Alternative.


     The recommendations for the Southerly Two-Plant Alternatives include the

following:


       Adopt the semi-aerobic process as the method of biological treatment.

     *  Upgrade and expand the solids handling facilities to include gravity
        thickening of PS, centrifuge thickening of WAS, anaerobic digestion,
        centrifuge dewatering, incineration/landfill, composting, and land
        application.


     Figure 6-2 provides a site layout of the Southerly Two-Plant Alternative,
and Table 6-8 presents the sizes of the required facilities.


     The recommendations for the Jackson Pike Two-Plant Alternative include
the following:


       Complete the north end of the Interconnector Sewer.  Construct a flow
        diversion chamber.

       Construct new headworks rated at a capacity of 100 MGD which include
        screening, pumping, and grit removal.

       Adopt the semi-aerobic process as the method of biological treatment.

       Upgrade and expand the solids handling facilities to include gravity
        thickening of PS, centrifuge thickening of WAS, anaerobic digestion,
        incineration/landfill, and land application.
                                      6-16

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     Figure 6-3 provides a site layout of the Jackson Pike Two-Plant
Alternative and Table 6-9 presents the sizes of the required facilities.
6.1.4.2  Technical Evaluation
     Table 6-10 presents the capital, annual O&M, and total present worth
costs for the one-plant and two-plant alternatives.  These costs include the
costs for facilities which are common to the respective one-plant and two-
plant alternatives (i.e. preaeration, primary clarification, chlorination,
post aeration).
                    TABLE 6-10.  ALTERNATIVE COST SUMMARY
One-Plant [Southerly]
Two-Plant [So. and JP]
Difference From One-Plant
Percent Difference
                                                                 Total
Capital
268,711,000
207,076,000
-61,635,000
-30
Annual O&M
16,849,000
19,078,000
+2,229,000
+13
Present Worth
436,911,000
397,016,000
-39,895,000
-10
NOTE:  These costs are based on a 2008 average flow of 154 MGD and a peak flow
       of 231 MGD.  Present worth costs are in 1988 dollars.
     Detailed cost estimates prepared during the facilities planning process
by the Turner Construction Company were utilized in preparing the capital
costs.  These detailed cost estimates were reviewed and considered reasonable
facility planning estimates.  These costs were adjusted in the SEIS evaluation
to account for differences in facility requirements due to different flow
projections and sizing criteria.  Operation and maintenance costs were
developed independent of the analysis presented in the facility plan.  Details
on the development of the costs are included in Appendix D entitled Briefing
Paper No. 4 - O&M and Capital Costs.
                                   6-23

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     The two-plant alternative exhibits a total present worth cost
approximately 10 percent lower than the one-plant alternative.

     Both the one-plant and two-plant alternatives are equal with respect to
their reliability in meeting the final effluent limits.  However, the two-
plant is considered more reliable with respect to shock loads.  Under the
one-plant alternative, a plant upset at Southerly could result in a
significant loss of biological treatment capacity and may cause a serious
water quality problem.  However, if the shock and/or toxic load can reach only
one of the two plants, the impact may not be as severe.

     The two-plant alternative is judged more flexible than the one-plant
alternative.  With both facilities operational, the city would have more
flexibility to adapt to increased future flow, to meet more stringent effluent
limits, and to address combined sewer overflows.  The two-plant alternative
would leave more land available at Southerly for expansion.  The two-plant
alternative would improve and upgrade Jackson Pike to provide a solid 100 MGD
treatment capacity.  The two-plant alternative would allow for future
expansion of the Interconnector system to divert more flow to Southerly while
optimizing the use of the Jackson Pike facility.

     The two-plant alternative is considered easier to implement since the
majority of the facilities already exist.  Most of the construction would
consist of rehabilitation of existing facilities.  No expansion of the
conveyance system between the plants is required under this alternative.

     The one-plant alternative is considered easier to operate and maintain
since all facilities would be consolidated at one location.
                                    6-27

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6.1.5  User Costs
     The Columbus Department of Public Utilities and Aviation owns and
operates the Jackson Pike and Southerly WWTPs.  This department finances most
of its capital improvement projects through revenue bonds and has the power to
assess user charges.  User charges are assessed to finance both capital
construction costs and O&M costs of operating public facilities.  Columbus has
operated wastewater facilities for some time and has a proven financial
capability.  The city has earned an AA bond rating, and has accumulated a
large cash reserve with established procedures for assessing and raising
required revenues.

     Currently, Columbus uses a combination of methods to assess appropriate
user charges to its customers.  These methods include annual user charges
(regular fees based on usage) and permits and connection charges (one-time
fees).  Annual service charges for processing standard strength effluent are
applied to all users.  Additional service charges for processing extra-
strength effluent are applied to industrial users.  Inspection and permit fees
are applied to new and rehabilitated units, both commercial and residential.
House connection and front footage fees are applied primarily to new users.
System capacity charges are assessed according to either the size of the pipe
installed for residential users or the size of the structure for commercial
and industrial users.  System capacity charges are designed to recoup the
costs of capital construction by assessing an appropriate fee on new users
(City of Columbus Code, Chapter 1147).  Table 6-11 presents estimated
additional annual user charges for the one-plant and two-plant alternatives.

     Due to the uncertainty as to the amount and time of current and future
grants of Federal funds, it is useful to present estimated user costs in a
range for both alternatives from assuming no Federal funds available vs.
assuming a 55 percent grant for all capital construction.  This approach is
presented in Table 6-11 and shows the full range of possible additional annual
user charges for the one-plant alternative ($42 to $76) and the two-plant
alternative ($40 to t66).
                                   6-28

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                   TABLE 6-11.  SERVICE CHARGE ESTIMATES
                                                One-Plant
                                               Alternative
                   Two-Plant
                  Alternative
Estimated Capital Costs (Present Worth)
       With 55% Federal Funds
       Without Federal Funds
$120,829,950
 268,511,000
* 93,094,200
 206,876,000
Annual Amortized Grant Fundable Capital Costs*
     *  With 55% Federal Funds
       Without Federal Funds

Annual Operation & Maintenance (O&M) Costs

Anticipated Annual Revenues from
Sewer Service Hook-up Fee
       Residential User
       Commercial & Industrial User
 $14,192,041
  31,539,201

  16,849,000
   4,400,000
     500,000
Annual Extra-Strength Processing Charge Revenues  4,000,000

Annual Costs to be Recovered through Annual
Service Charge
  (Comercial & Industrial Users)

Estimated Number of Users
  (Total DUs and EDUs)
     522,576
 $10,934,810
  24,299,577

  19,078,000
   4,400,000
     500,000

   4,000,000
 With 55% Federal Funds
 Without Federal Funds
Estimated Dwelling Units (DUs)
Equivalent Dwelling Units (EDUs)
22,141,641 21,112,810
39,488,201 34,477,577
370,000 370,000
152,576 152,576
     522,576
Additional Annual Service
Charges per User for the SEIS Alternatives
 With 55% Federal Funds
 Without Federal Funds
1985 Annual Service Charge Per User
 Residential Users
Projected Annual User Charges


$ 42
76

108
$150-184


* 40
66

108
1148-174
* Assumes a 20-year bond with an interest rate of 10Z.
                                   6-29

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     As of the most recent Columbus budget, $117,730,000 has been obligated
toward construction to meet 1988 water quality limits at the Jackson Pike and
Southerly WWTPs.  Annual residential user fees in Columbus have been increased
since 1985 to reflect the obligation of those funds.  For this reason, user
fees in 1985 are combined with new costs for the alternatives to estimate
future residential costs.  User fee increases for costs to complete either the
one-plant or two-plant alternatives are estimated to result in future annual
residential user fees of $150 to $184 for the one-plant alternative and $148
to $174 for the two-plant alternative.

     Median family income is often used to assess the affordability of
increases in user charges to average residents.  As shown in Table 6-12,
Franklin County, which includes most of the service area, had median family
incomes over $17,000 in 1979.  Based on EPA guidelines, an annual user charge
of $367 would not be considered excessive for this income category.  Based on
these guidelines, none of the estimated additional user charges will make
total user charges excessive.
           TABLE 6-12.  MEDIAN FAMILY INCOME FOR THE UNITED STATES,
             OHIO, FRANKLIN COUNTY, AND COLUMBUS IN 1969 AND 1979
                                                 Median Income
                                               1969         1979
9,586
10,309
10,579
9,729
10,282
19,917
20,909
20,970
18,612
20,882
              Source:  Bureau of Economic Analysis, April 1986.
                                   6-30

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6.2  ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES - PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
6.2.1  Surface Water Quality
     The principal variable in the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement
(SEIS) alternatives, with respect to surface water quality, is the location of
effluent discharge.  Functionally, only two alternatives exist.

       Effluent discharge at two locations (Jackson Pike and Southerly)
       Effluent discharge at a single location (Southerly).

     Comparable levels of treatment will be achieved prior to effluent
discharge, with each one-plant or two-plant alternative.

     Raw effluent entering the wastewater treatment plants (or plant) will
receive biological treatment for substantial reduction in the concentration of
biodegradable components of the wastestream, prior to discharge.
Nevertheless, the treated effluent will contain residual amounts of
biodegradable contaminants, which will undergo final decay in the receiving
water.  In this final decay, dissolved oxygen will be consumed, exerting an
oxygen demand in the Scioto River.  The extent of this oxygen demand is a
consequence of the loading rates of oxygen-consuming pollutants in the
effluent, and is expressed as 5-day carbonaceous biological oxygen demand,
CBODj.  The CBOD5 loading rates are defined by the National Pollutant
Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits.  In addition to CBODj, nitrogen
decay also creates an oxygen demand in the receiving water.  Nitrogen limits
in the NPDES permit are expressed as ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N).

     In the Scioto River, CBOD5 and NH3-N decay will result in a temporary
reduction in dissolved oxygen (DO) downstream of the outfall(s).  The extent
of the DO reduction, and the length of the river affected, is governed by
physical, chemical, and biological parameters in the receiving water.  These
parameters define the rates at which oxygen-demanding residual constituents in
the effluent are decayed (assimilative capacity).  The NPDES effluent limits
                                       6-31

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established for the Jackson Pike and/or Southerly Wastewater Treatment Plants
(WWTPs) one- or two-plant scenarios are intended to preserve a minimum DO
level  in the receiving water (5.0 mg/1 mean and 4.0 mg/1 minimum), by
carefully matching loading rates of oxygen-consuming pollutants with the
assimilative capacity of the receiving water.

     To assist in selecting the appropriate NPDES discharge limits, the Ohio
Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA) developed an empirical model of the
Scioto River, which provides a mathematical simulation of the river's
assimilative capacity.  This model (QUAL2) was used as the basis  for wasteload
allocations and subsequent effluent limits in the draft Scioto River
Comprehensive Water Quality Report (CWQR) (OEPA 1983).  The original QUAL2
model was updated by the city of Columbus.  The updated model (QUAL2E) was
used by OEPA as the basis for modified wasteload allocations and  related
permit limits as contained in an amended CWQR (OEPA 1986a).  Although the
amended CWQR has not been approved by the USEPA, the NPDES permit limits have
been accepted and are the basis of the facilities planning decisions evaluated
in this SEIS.

     In developing this SEIS, the QUAL2E model was evaluated.  This evaluation
concluded that a number of technical assumptions used in the model (including
steady state conditions, benthic oxygen demand, phytoplankton, organic
nitrogen demand, and flow/depth/velocity relationships) were questionable.
Collectively, these assumptions put in question the reliability of the
wasteload  allocations, permit limits, and related DO predictions for the
receiving  water.

     The results of the QUAL2E model evaluation are summarized in Appendix L.
The USEPA Water Quality Branch has reviewed the QUAL2E model evaluations and
has concurred that model calibration and verification could be improved.
However, the USEPA has concluded that the error margin in the existing QUAL2E
model is acceptable and that the permit limits based on this model are
reliable and would achieve DO and NH^ water quality standards.  Based on the
                                      6-32

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results of the QUAL2E model and professional judgement, the USEPA Region V
Water Quality Branch has "... endorsed the two-plant analysis" (Fenner, 1987).
The results of the USEPA review of the QUAL2E model evaluations are included
in Appendix M.  Consequently, the following discussion of water quality
impacts reflects the conclusion that proposed permit limits are sufficient to
meet minimum water quality standards under either the one-plant or two-plant
alternative.

     Based on existing data in the CWQR and as previously discussed in chapter
2, the biological quality of the mainstem Scioto River is primarily impacted
by discharges from the two Columbus treatment plants.  This section of the
river has been well-studied, and the historic data indicate that significant
improvements have occurred in water quality and the fish community structure
during the past decade.  However, water quality continues to be degraded from
the confluence of the Scioto and the Olentangy to just upstream of
Circleville.  The CWQR states that "the principal chemical/physical water
quality problem in the central Scioto River mainstream has been, and continues
to be, low dissolved oxygen."  The low dissolved oxygen conditions are caused
by discharges from Jackson Pike, Southerly, and from the Whittier Street
Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO).

     Effluent monitoring data collected by the city of Columbus at their
Jackson Pike and Southerly WWTPs show that neither facility can consistently
meet its final water-quality-based NPDES permit limitations.  The Jackson Pike
and Southerly WWTPs are required to be in compliance with these final limits
by July 1, 1988.  Jackson Pike data for 1985 show that the plant usually
                         i
exceeded the CBODr and NH -N limits in the summer and occassionally violated
these limits in the winter.  The effluent did not achieve the minimum required
DO concentration of 7 mg/1.  The 1985 performance at Southerly indicates that
this facility could normally achieve the minimum required CBODc limit, but
exceeded final ammonia limits in the summer.
                                       6-33

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     The preceding discussion of effluent quality at Jackson Pike and
Southerly only concerns flow which is treated.  The Southerly plant has a raw
sewage bypass at the WWTP and the Jackson Pike plant has the capability to
bypass flows at Whittier Street.

     During periods of low flow, algal metabolism can influence DO levels in
the Scioto River (OEPA 1986a).  The impact of algal metabolism on DO is
evident in the data collected by OEPA on July 19-22 and September 1982, for
water quality modeling of the Scioto between Jackson Pike and Circleville.  DO
levels below 5 mg/1 are seen along the entire river reach studied.

     Fecal coliform data from facility self-monitoring reports, the CWQR, and
EPA's STORET system show elevated counts of bacteria along the Scioto River
throughout the Columbus area.  Data contained in the CWQR show occasional high
numbers of fecal coliform bacteria even upstream of the discharge from the
Whittier Street CSO.  According to the CWQR, 31 percent of the fecal coliform
data collected by the OEPA exceed the primary recreation standard of 2,000
counts/100 ml.  Sixty percent of the data collected by the city of Columbus,
as part of their cooperative program with the state, exceed the standard.  The
elevated levels are likely caused by combined sewer overflows and bypasses and
by urban runoff.

6.2.1.1  No Action Alternative
     The no action alternative assumes no improvements to the existing
facilities, although normal maintenance would continue (see Section 5.1.1).
Because the no action alternative does not provide for the rehabilitation or
upgrading of the existing facilities, violations of the final discharge limits
may occur.  The aquatic environment of the Scioto River in the Facilities
Planning Area (FPA) is degraded, largely as a result of current inadequacies
in wastewater treatment.  The no action alternative will result in a
perpetuation of the current water quality/aquatic ecology impairments (see
chapter 2).  Generally, depressed DO conditions and reduced aquatic biota will
exist from Columbus to Circleville.
                                       6-34

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     As the existing facilities age and the wastewater loads to the exisitng
facilities increase (through growth in the sewered population), the frequency
and duration of permit violations and degree of impact on the receiving water
is also expected to increase, under the no action alternative.  These
increases will have two effects.  First, water quality in the already impacted
section of the Scioto River will deteriorate, displacing the less tolerant of
the already reduced aquatic species inhabiting this area.  Second, the zone of
impact will expand downstream as the length of river needed to assimilate a
growing residual effluent wasteload increases.  Based on currently available
water quality data, it is probable that the zone of impact would reach
Circleville within a number of years.  Under these conditions, the Scioto
River below Circleville no longer would be capable of fully assimilating the
residual effluent oxygen demand from the Circleville POTW, and a second zone
of water quality/aquatic biota impairment would result.  This scenario could
result in an inability of the Circleville POTW and industrial NPDES
dischargers in the Circleville area to meet water quality standards at current
treatment levels.

6.2.1.2  Two-Plant Alternative
     The two-plant alternative will result in signficant water quality
improvements in the Scioto, particularly in DO levels.  The upgraded Jackson
Pike and Southerly plants will be capable of consistently meeting final
limits, and few violations of the DO standard would be expected in the river.
However, since only limited nutrient removal would accompany the plant
upgrades, algal metabolism would likely continue to affect dissolved oxygen,
expecially during periods of low flow.

     Effluents from the Jackson Pike and Southerly WWTPs will contain a
residual DO demand which will be assimilated by the Scioto River, resulting in
a DO sag downstream of each plant.   The DO sag below either plant will not
exceed the in-stream DO standards.   The critical point in the sag below
Southerly will occur approximately 12 miles downstream of the WWTP outfall,
near the confluence of Walnut Creek.
                                       6-35

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      Improvements in riverine DO levels resulting from the two-plant
alternative will be partially masked by continued discharges from the Whittier
Street CSO.  Although the city is currently studying the CSO problem, no CSO
corrections are included in the current facilities planning efforts.
According to the CWQR, "on an annual basis, the Whittier Street CSO
contributed nearly as much BODr loading (32.7 percent) in 1982 as did the
Jackson Pike WWTP (38.8 percent)" (OEPA 1986a).  Although the loadings are
highest during the spring and winter, some discharge does occur during periods
of low flow and high temperature when the river is most sensitive to depressed
DO.

     Field data collected for a report on CSOs by Malcolm Pirnie, Inc. (1983)
show that the Whittier Street inputs can depress in-stream DO levels below the
standard during periods of low flow.  Therefore, although the proposed
discharge limits will protect in-stream DO standards based on the Jackson Pike
and Southerly WWTP effluents, occasaional violations of the standards may
continue to occur resulting from other sources.  However, the section of the
Scioto River exhibiting continued depressed DO levels will be reduced
significantly under the two-plant alternative and will be essentially
constricted to an area below Whittier Street.  Consequently, downstream areas
(near and below Southerly) of the Scioto River will exhibit the greatest
overall improvement in DO conditions under the two-plant alternative, while
improvements in upstream areas, closer to Whittier Street and Jackson Pike,
will be reduced.

     Although the two-plant alternative will significantly reduce loadings of
certain oxygen-consuming pollutants (e.g. BODc), resulting in improvements to
in-stream DO levels, nitrogen compounds in the effluent will continue to exert
a DO demand.  The existing modeling does not provide a reliable basis for
evaluating the DO impact of ammonia, nitrite/nitrate, organic nitrogen, and
TKN.   However,  because background sources of these nitrogen compounds tend to
be concentrated in the urban areas of the watershed, nitrogen-related DO
impacts will be greatest in the area of the Scioto River immediately
downstream of Columbus.
                                       6-36

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     Treatment processes at Jackson Pike and Southerly will prevent  any
significant  fecal coliform loading to the Scioto River.  However,  fecal
coliform discharges will continue from  the Whittier Street CSO and other
urban sources in the Columbus metropolitan area.  Although significant fecal
coliform loading to the Scioto River does not presently occur from the two
WWTPs, excess chlorine discharged from  the Jackson Pike and Southerly plants
produces a measurable decrease in in-stream fecal coliform levels below the
two plants.  Under the two-plant alternative, the total residual chlorine
limits in the discharge permits (JP - 19 ug/1, SO - 26 ug/1) will result in
little or no in-stream fecal coliform kill, and future fecal coliform numbers
may exceed present levels under certain flow conditions.  Because most
remaining fecal coliform sources (after implementation of the two-plant
alternative) will be concentrated in the urbanized areas near the confluence
of the Olentangy and Scioto Rivers, the area of continued water quality
impairment (relative to fecal coliforms) will be concentrated in this zone.

6.2.1.3  One-Plant Alternative
     The one-plant alternative provides for the complete elimination of the
Jackson Pike WWTP with all flows routed to Southerly.  The Jackson Pike flow
will be conveyed to Southerly through the existing gravity Interconnector
Sewer.  This Interconnector Sewer will  be extended to the Southerly  plant.
Four 78-inch pipes will cross the Scioto River in the alignment of the
existing force mains.

     The water quality impacts of the one-plant alternative are similar to
those of the two-plant alternative for  many parameters as discussed  in the
preceding section.  Consequently, the following discussion focuses only on
those impacts that are not common to the one-plant and two-plant
alternatives.

     Under the one-plant alternative, critical low flows in the upper Scioto
River, between Jackson Pike and Southerly, would be significantly reduced.
The city of Columbus is authorized to remove 100 percent of Scioto River
                                       6-37

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 flows  at  the  Dublin  Dam water  intakes.   Consequently,  Scioto  River  flows may
 drop  to essentially  zero below the  Dublin  Dam during critical  low flow
 periods,  at which  time  river  flow  is  sustained by Olentangy River discharges.

     Flows in the  lower Olentangy River  are  regulated  by  the  Delaware  Dam
 during low flow  periods.  The  guaranteed minimum release  is 5  cubic feet per
 second (cfs)  from  the Delaware Dam.   Although the actual  measured minimum  is
 11 cfs in the lower  Olentangy  River,  the observed minimum for  the 7-day/10-
 day critical  low flow period  is  13  cfs.    Assuming  a 13 cfs low flow discharge
 from the Olentangy River, a zero low  flow  over the  Dublin Dam,  a correction
 factor for groundwater  recharge  which is cited as insignificant (Francis,
 1987a), seepage  under or  around  the Dublin Dam, and miscellaneous industrial
 direct dischargers;  the minimum low flow immediately above Jackson  Pike  is
 estimated at  approximately 20  cfs.

     The average daily  dry weather discharge  at Jackson Pike  is approximately
 78 MGD, or 121 cfs,  based on 1985-1986 flow  records.   This effluent flow is
 six times the estimated 20 cfs flow rate in  the Scioto River,  upstream of
 Jackson Pike, during critical  low  flow periods.  Consequently,  removal of
 Jackson Pike  flows will reduce present flows  in the upper Scioto River,
 between Jackson  Pike and  Southerly, by as  much as 86 percent during critical
 low flow periods.  (Current low  flows below Jackson Pike  are  the sum of 20 cfs
 from upstream flow and  121 cfs from Jackson Pike.)  This  decrease in flows
 will result in more  pronounced pooling and longer riffle  areas  between pools.
 The surface areas of the  riffles will increase as a function of length, but
 the wetted area will be  laterally constricted.

     The city of Columbus has  compared flow versus  depth  for Scioto River
 cross  sections between  Jackson Pike and Southerly,  comparing the one-plant
versus two-plant alternatives.   For nine cross sections affected by the one-
 plant  alternative,  flow depth  would be reduced by an average of 39  percent,
with a range of 13 to 72 percent.  In three cross sections (QUAL2E  stream
reaches 3, 4, and 8), flow depth will be less  than  1 foot  (0.15  foot,  0.84
 foot,   and  0.35 foot,  respectively).  Because  the flow  calculation component of
                                       6-38

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the available modeling is not considered reliable, the true nature of the low
Clow impact cannot be determined.

     Elimination of the Jackson Pike effluent will remove a major source of
water quality impact on the Central Scioto River.  However, it is important to
realize that other sources (e.g., general urban runoff and the Whittier Street
CSO) also exert a major water quality impact (the calculated BODj loading from
the Whittier Street CSO approximates the current loading from Jackson Pike and
has been shown to result in violations of in-stream DO standards).
Consequently, the impacts of the one-plant alternative will be different on
the stretch of the Scioto between Jackson Pike and Southerly and the stretch
between Southerly and Circleville.  In the following discussion, the stretch
betweeen Jackson Pike and Southerly is referred to as "below Jackson Pike" and
the stretch between Southerly and Circleville is referred to as "below
Southerly".

     Below Jackson Pike, the impacts of the one-plant alternative will be
strongly flow-dependent.  Under most flow conditions, elimination of the
Jackson Pike effluent loading will result in improved water quality
conditions, to the extent that this effluent affects water quality.  However,
for the one-plant alternative, it is possible that water quality in the upper
Scioto River would deteriorate under certain flow conditions.

     Under critical low flow conditions water quality in the Scioto River
below Jackson Pike will be dominated by wasteload sources not affected by the
one-plant alternative, including the Whittier Street CSO and general urban
runoff.  Under these flow conditions, removal of the Jackson Pike effluent may
result in diminished water quality and aquatic biota conditions below Jackson
Pike, for the following reasons:  1) the Jackson Pike effluent represents 86
percent of Scioto River flow under low flow conditions, 2) this effluent would
meet water quality standards, and 3) the other wasteload sources entering the
Scioto River near Jackson Pike (CSO and urban runoff) contribute pollutant
loads equal to or greater than Jackson Pike.  For these reasons, elimination
of the Jackson Pike effluent may remove a beneficial dilution effect which
would be present under the two-plant alternative.
                                       6-39

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     Below  the Southerly WWTP, no change in river flows will occur as a result
of the one-plant alternative.  Downstream water quality conditions are
expected to generally improve with respect to DO, residual chlorine, and
CBOD5.  However, an oxygen demand will remain in the effluent, in the form of
residual BODj, nutrients, and various nitrogen compounds.  This residual
demand will result in a DO sag downstream of Southerly.  Although this sag
would occur under either the one- or two-plant alternative, the severity of
the sag and length of river affected is expected to be greater under the one-
plant alternative.  This is a result of all residual effluent wasteload from
Columbus being released to the river at a single location with no increase in
river flows or other parameters affecting assimilative capacity.

Water quality modeling has determined that final effluent limits for the
Southerly WWTP will protect in-stream DO standards below Southerly, under the
one-plant alternative (see Appendix M).  While the critical point in the DO
sag will occur at essentially the same location under either the one-plant or
two-plant scenario (approximately 12 miles downstream of the Southerly WWTP),
the severity of the sag is greater under the one-plant alternative (i.e.,
downstream DO levels are higher under the two-plant alternative) based on the
QUAL2E model results.  Although the stream standard will not be contravened by
the one-plant alternative, the DO sag resulting from the residual wasteload
demand of the Southerly WWTP effluent will affect a longer stretch of the
river than would occur under the two-plant alternative and may affect a
longer stretch than is impacted by the present DO sag.  In addition, the
increased nutrient release associated with the one-plant discharge may
further impact downstream DO due to increased algal metabolism, which has
been shown to have a significant impact on in-stream DO levels at low flow.
Any increase in the length of river affected by the expanded DO sag will be in
a downstream direction.   Therefore, the one-plant alternative represents a
greater probability of interfering with other downstream dischargers, because
the severity and length of the sag would be extended downstream.  The QUAL2E
model does not extend far enough downstream to assess this possible impact.
                                       6-40

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     Under current conditions, the critical point in the DO sag from Southerly
is located much closer to Circleville than Southerly and water quality at
Circleville reflects residual BOD5 from the Southerly effluent discharge.
Under the one-plant alternative, the increased wasteload discharged at
Southerly will result in a greater probability that the DO sag, residual
BODj, ammonia, and other pollutants will impact Circleville.  This impact
could impair the ability of the river to assimilate oxygen-consuming wastes
from existing dischargers in the Circleville area of the Scioto (e.g.,
Container Corporation at RM 99.6; Circleville POTW, and DuPont at Rm 95.9).
The existing water quality modeling is inadequate to assess this potential
impact, and the OEPA has recommended that "...all discharges maintain their
current NPDES permit limitations" in that portion of the Scioto River, from
just above Circleville (RM 99.2) to river mile 77.7 "...due to the
uncertainty regarding this segment" (OEPA  1986a).

     Finally, the one-plant alternative will require placement of four 78-inch
gravity sewer pipes across the Scioto River.  The crossing will occur parallel
to the existing force mains in the immediate vicinity of the Southerly plant
site.  If pipes are buried in Che stream bed, short-term increases in
turbidity and sedimentation downstream of the construction area vill occur.
Because this stream crossing poses a number of significant impacts, a variety
of mitigative measures have been proposed by USEPA, OEPA, and the city of
Columbus.  These measures concentrate on construction techniques which should
minimize the impact.  These include timing of construction in the fall when
river flows are low; isolation of the in-stream construction zone to prevent
river water from flowing through the disturbed streambed area during
construction, replacement of the natural streambed materials following pipe
placement; and stabilization of the cut bank areas during and after
construction.  These mitigating measures are described in Table 6-13.

     A list of conditions and specifications designed to limit the environmen-
tal impacts of this interconnector should be included with the final site plan
and agreed to by the contractor.  This list should include the recommendations
                                       6-41

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                      TABLK 6-13.   MITIGATION ON SEWER LINE
                                 (Interconnector)
Construction Activities

I.   Sewer on Flood Plain

     a.  Pre-clearing
    Attributes
Existing Vegetation
     b.   Clearing and Grading    Slight  Slopes


                                 Drainageways


                                 Daily Maintenance
    Mitigative Measures
Clearly mark construction
easement.  Mark trees to
be saved and identify
stockpile areas,
locations of hay bales,
jute mesh, silt barriers,
rip rap, and other
erosion control measures.
Detailed inserts showing
proper construction
techniques for these
various erosion controls
should also be included.

Begin in low precipita-
tion month.

Staked hay bales and/or
mesh of jute.

The contractor shall
backfill and rough grade
all trenches at the end
of each workday.  The
disturbed area over the
trenches shall be graded,
seeded, and mulched
within 72 hours after
backfilling.  The
contractor shall maintain
all seeded and mulched
areas in accordance with
the specifications until
final acceptance of the
work.
                                      6-42

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                       TABLE 6-13.  MITIGATION ON SEWER LINE (cont.)
                                 (Interconnector)
Construction Activities
b.  Clearing and Grading (cont.)
Attributes
    Mitigative Measures

The clean-up and disposal
of cleared materials
shall be done as soon as
practical after laying of
the pipe and as the
resident project engineer
may direct.  However,
clean-up work shall not
fall behind the pipe
laying more than 600
feet.  Should the
contractor not keep his
clean-up work within the
a foremen t ioned d i s tance,
the contractor shall be
required to cease further
pipe laying until such
clean-up work is accom-
plished.

If work on this project
is suspended for any
reason, the contractor
shall maintain the soil
erosion and sedimentation
control facilities in
good condition during the
suspension of work.
Also, when seasonal
conditions permit and the
suspension of work is
expected to exceed a
period of one month, the
contractor shall place
topsoil, fine grade,
seed, fertilize, and mulch
all disturbed areas left
exposed when work is
stopped.
                                      6-43

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                       TABLE  6-13.  MITIGATION ON SEWER LINE  (cont.)
                                  (Interconnector)
Construction Activities
                                 Attributes
     c.  Excavation of Trench    Excavated Material
     d.  Restoration             Exposed Topsoil
         (after final grading)
         Restoration
                            Established
                            Vegetation
2.
     e.  Final Landscaping
Sewer on Stream Bank
(only one bank at a time)

a.  Pre-clearing
                            Existing Flora
                            Damage
                                 Water Quality
                                 and Soil
    Mitigative Measures

 Stockpiled upslope  from
 trench.   Separate top
 soil  from subsoils.
 Cover  stockpile with
 plastic  if not returned
 immediately  to trench.
 Expose only  small lengths
 of  sewer  at  a time.

 Final  grade  with stock-
 piled  topsoil; seed with
 naturally occurring
 grasses during spring or
 fall planting season.
 Use hydroseeding or air-
 seeding at a rate of
 3.5 Ib. of seed/1,000
 square feet.  Mix
 fertilizer and mulch per
 manufacturer.

 Maintain  sediment
 barriers  until vegetation
 is established.  A
 maintenance  contract for
 all landscaping (trees
 and grass) should include
 immediate revegetation
 for two years after the
 initial planting.

 Prune trees  as required if
 root damage  occurred and
 replace trees as directed
by owner.
Low stream flow.
                                       6-44

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                       TABLE 6-13.  MITIGATION ON SEWER LINE (cont.)
                                 (interconnected1)
Construction Activities
    Attributes
    Mitigative Measures
     b.  Clearing and Grading    Stream and Bank
     c.  Excavation
     d.  Restoration
Stream and Bank
Sloped Area
3.   Sewer in Streambed

     a.  Pre-construction
Aquatic Habitats
and Water Quality
Establish dry area at
interface between bank
and stream and use hay
bales or steel sheetings
to catch any sediment.
Clearing and grading shall
not begin prior to July.

Clearing shall be done in
stages near the river to
avoid vast exposure of
bare soils.

Tree removal shall be
minimized along the river
banks.

Maintain dry area inter-
face and remove excess
sediment as required.

Restore existing grade,
place rip-rap at water
line, reseed and cover
with mesh or jute or net
to stabilize bank,
maintain silt barrier
until vegetation has been
established, ground cover
to be used where shade
may prevent grass from
being established or
compatible with existing
vegetation.
Low flow established
(timing).  Obtain Army
Corps of Engineers
Section 10 and 404
permits.  Establish
minimum construction
easement.  Keep to
permanent easement if
possible.
                                        6-45

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                       TABLE 6-13.  MITIGATION ON SEWER LINE (cont.)
                                 (Interconnector)
Construction Activities

3.  Sewer in Streambed (cont.)
    Attributes
     b.   Excavation
Aquatic Habitats
and Water Quality
     c.   Restoration
Aquatic Habitats
and Water Quality
    Mitigative Measures

No construction in or
near the Scioto River
shall be permitted during
the spring spawning
months.

Block only one-half to
one-third of the stream
at a time.  Remove
streambed and stockpile
separate from sub-bed
material.  Keep area
dewatered.  Collect
discharge water and
separate silt.  Place all
excavated material upland
from stream with sediment
catchbasin around
stockpile area.  No
material to be placed in
river outside of dry
construction area.

Backfill above sewer with
substream material.  Place
excavated streambed
material to final eleva-
tion.  Fill area with
stream water slowly to
prevent washout.  Remove
any excess excavated
material to upland
disposal site as shown on
plans.
                                       6-46

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made in a Phase III Archaeologic Survey, current best management practices,
construction easement restrictions, and other state and local erosion and
sedimentation requirements.

6.2.1.4  Conclusions
     The principle variable affecting surface water quality under any
alternative is the location of wastewater discharge.  Comparable levels of
treatment will be provided under either the one-plant or two-plant
alternatives, and either alternative will protect stream standards for DO and
ammonia.

     Regardless of the one-plant or two-plant alternative, the treated
effluent will contain a residual wasteload, which will be assimilated by the
river, resulting in a downstream DO sag.  The severity of the sag, and the
extent of the river affected, vary between alternatives.

     Under the no action alternative, no improvement in the degraded water
quality conditions in the Scioto River will occur.  With projected future
growth in the sewered population (and corresponding increases in wastewater
flows), age-related deterioration of the existing WWTPs and increases in urban
non-point runoff due to continued urban growth, further deterioration in
current water quality conditions is expected.  Under these conditions, more
frequent water quality standards violations can be expected and the impacted
zone of the Scioto River below Southerly may be extended to Circleville,
interferring with other point source dischargers.

     The two-plant alternative will release the residual effluent DO demand
to the Scioto River at two locations (Jackson Pike and Southerly).  Two DO
sags will therefore result, however, neither sag will result in contravention
of water quality standards.  Significant improvements to in-stream DO
conditions will result from this alternative.  Because significant pollutant
loads will continue to enter the Scioto River upstream of Jackson Pike (from
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urban runoff and CSOs from Whittier Street), Che degree of water quality
improvement below Jackson Pike will be leas complete than below the Southerly
WWTP.  Under certain flow conditions, DO levels below the 5.0 mg/l standard
may occur below Jackson Pike, related to CSO loadings.  However, the presence
of Jackson Pike effluent during low flow events may lessen the DO impacts of
CSOs and upstream urban runoff.

     The impacts of the one-plant alternative are variable for the river reach
between Jackson Pike and Southerly, depending on background river flow
conditions.  At average river flow levels, water quality will be improved by
the elimination of Jackson Pike effluent.  However, under critical low flow
conditions, elimination of the Jackson Pike effluent will reduce Scioto River
flows by nearly 90 percent while a large background pollutant load will remain
in the form of urban runoff and CSO loading.  This situation will result in a
significant reduction in the river's wasteload assimilative capacity due to
reductions in flow volume, velocity, and reaeration.  Decay of pollutants from
upstream sources could therefore result in severe water quality deterioration
in slow, shallow pools during warm weather, low flow events.

     Downstream of the Southerly WWTP, the DO sag resulting from the one-plant
alternative will be more severe and will affect a longer stretch of the river,
when compared with the two-plant alternative.  This situation results from the
release of the entire residual wastewater DO demand from Columbus at a single
point in the river, creating a greater assimilative demand.  In addition, the
increased nutrient release under the one-plant alternative will further
stimulate algal biomass below Southerly which may depress low flow DO below
in-stream standards due to algal metabolism.  The combination of these factors
results in a possibility that the one-plant alternative may impact the
Circleville area,  interfering with other point source dischargers near
Circleville.

     Based on these considerations, the two-plant alternative is considered
preferable over the one-plant alternative with regard to water quality
impacts.
                                       6-48

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6.2.2  Surface^ Water Flow
     Current construction activities at the Southerly WWTP should have little
or no impact on the 100-year floodplain.  Construction at the Southerly WWTP
location includes increasing the plant's foundation and building berms around
the facility.  Both of these construction activities would tend to increase
the flood boundary during a 100-year flood compared to preconstruction
conditions.  These activities are similar under either system alternative.  To
minimize potential flood increases, Columbus was able to have the flood fringe
redefined by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) by guarantee that
portions of the land bordering the Scioto River that would be inundated during
the 100-year flood, and that could feasibly be developed, would not be
developed.  This land is either owned by the city or is in the process of
being purchased.  The city's study was reviewed, approved, and printed for
public release by FEMA.  The new 100-year flood elevation, after redefining
the flood fringe, is at most about one-fourth foot higher than before.

6.2.2.1  No Action
     By taking no action, no significant changes are expected in the  flows
observed in the Scioto River.  The volume of surface water Columbus currently
removes from the Scioto River is about the maximum possible limit, especially
during the critical low flow months of summer and fall.  Therefore, no
future manraade reductions in the volume of flows in the Scioto River are
expected around the Columbus area.  Because the stretch of the Scioto River
affected by the Jackson Pike WWTP is small, and because the river bed is
believed to be at least partially sealed by industrial and WWTP sludges,
little or no impact upon the groundwater system by changes in surface water
quality is expected.

6.2.2.2  Two-Plant Alternative
     The two-plant alternative will discharge flows from the Jackson Pike WWTP
at about the same levels as currently occur.  For this reason, impacts from
the two-plant alternative are not expected to significantly alter the physical
                                    6-49

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parameters of Scioto River surface water between the Jackson Pike and
Southerly WWTPs.

     Another factor affecting Scioto River flows is the O'Shaughnessy
hydroelectric power plant (dedicated in 1987) which was built as part of an
upgrading of the existing dam.  At present, flows through the O1Shaughnessy
Dam are based on the downstream needs of the Griggs Reservoir/Dublin Road
Water Treatment Plant (DRWTP).  Following construction of the new power plant,
flows may be released more quickly to the Griggs Reservoir, but not above the
Griggs Reservoir capacity (Bell 1987).  However, the expected6effeet of this
power plant on Scioto River flows is uncertain.  There may be an increase in
the number of days when low-flow conditions occur.  The latter condition may
occur if the 0'Shaughnessy Reservoir retains more water than in the past to
provide maximum hydraulic head (maximum potential water elevation) to power
the hydroelectric turbines.  Some of the buildup of hydraulic head would occur
during periods when the Scioto River flow might normally pass the DRWTP.
Since the power plant is an auxiliary unit, it is likely that operations at
this plant would be suspended during low flow conditions (Bowman 1988).

6.2.2.3  One-Plant Alternative
     The Jackson Pike WWTP discharges a daily mean flow of 130 cubic feet per
second (cfs), or 85 million gallons per day (MGD), into the Scioto River.  The
USGS surface water gauge at Jackson Pike WWTP (003227500) records a daily mean
flow of 1,390 cfs, as shown in Table 6-14.  The removal of Jackson Pike WWTP
discharges, as proposed under the one-plant alternative, will result in an
average flow reduction of less than 10 percent.  This reduction will have a
negligible effect during average flow conditions and no effect at flood
conditions.  However, at low-flow conditions, the effects will be significant.
The 7Q10 low-flow used for environmental reasons, as discussed in chapter 2,
is 13 cfs.  At this background flow, removal of Jackson Pike WWTP discharge
will result in a reduction of Scioto River flows, between the Jackson Pike and
Southerly WWTPs, of more than 90 percent.  The Scioto River flow regime along
this stretch will become slower, shallower, and narrower during low-flow
conditions.  Pools will receive less mixing (and have an increased flushing
                                       6-50

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            TABLE 6-14.  SURFACE WATER FLOWS* IN THE OLENTANGY AND
                         SCIOTO RIVERS AT COLUMBUS, OHIO
Durat ion/Recurrence
               Olentangy Flows  in
               Cubic Feet per Sec.
                       Scioto Flows  in
                      Cubic Feet per Sec.
7 consecutive
     7Q10 low
     3Q10 low
     1Q10 low

1 day mean low
     1Q2 low
     1Q5 low

1 day mean high
     1Q2 high
     1Q5 high
     3Q10 high
     7Q10 high
     1Q50 high
     1Q100 high
     daily mean
day  raean  low
 21.4
 11.1
 10.0
  9.1

 17.4
 14.9
 10.6

 4660
 4230
 5150
 5080
 4640
 8610
10100
457.0
118.0
 65.8
 62.4
 59.6

102.8
 95.6
 70.0

18800
17300
25300
23000
16400
41500
46000
 1390
*These values were obtained using a log Pearson type II analysis of US6S
WATSTORE data bases.

 River gauge #003226800 on the Olentangy River below the Delaware Dam.

2River gauge #003227500 on the Scioto River at Jackson Pike WWTP.
                                      6-51

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time), while riffles may have reduced turbulence.  If the discharge structure
is designed and constructed properly, erosion of the river bed and banks, the
most potentially deleterious effect, will be prevented.

6.2.2.4  Conclusions
     The no action and two-plant alternatives will have little or no impact
on surface water flows in the Scioto River.  The one-plant alternative will
cause significant reductions in flows in the Scioto River during low-flow
periods in the eight mile reach between the Jackson Pike and Southerly WWTPs.
Impacts of this change are reviewed in Section 6.2.1, 6.2.3., 6.3 and 6.4.7.

6.2.3  Groundwater
     Beginning in the early 1980rs, groundwater became one of the sources of
raw water for Columbus' municipal drinking water system.  All public water
supplies downstream of Columbus along the Scioto River and all private and
industrial water consumption in Columbus relies on groundwater sources.
Columbus' growing water demands exceeded the available surface water supplies
at the Dublin Road Water Treatment Plant (DRWTP) and the Morse Road Water
Treatment Plant (MRWTP), particularly during summer months, leaving
groundwater as the next available water source.  In response, the Parsons
Avenue Water Treatment Plant (PAWTP) was constructed to mine groundwater from
the Teays aquifer, a buried glacial braided river system in southern Franklin
County.

     Data on bacterial levels in Columbus area groundwater are not available.
Tests are needed to determine the bacterial content of groundwater taken from
wells close to area streams, since these streams and buried valley aquifers
are usually hydraulically connected.  Also, the infiltration of Scioto River
water, a significant portion of which is WWTP effluent, could have a negative
impact on the groundwater quality.  However, groundwater pollution is most
likely to occur in areas using shallow aquifers and in such recharge sites as
eskers, Kames, and outwash gravel terraces.  These aquifers lying close to
streams or beneath inadequate septic tanks are highly susceptible to
contamination.
                                       6-52

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     Various studies of the Teays aquifer were performed to determine safe
yields.  Safe yield is the volume of groundwater that can be withdrawn from an
aquifer without exceeding the ability of natural recharge (from surface water
and other groundwater sources) to keep the water table constant over a given
tiraeframe, typically 1 year.  The city of Columbus contracted with a private
firm to install radial wells with a safe design yield of approximately 30 MGD.
Four wells were eventually installed and 7-day, long-term pump tests were
performed to determine the safe rate of withdrawal (Francis 1987).  From the
available data, safe design yields for the four wells were estimated to range
from 8.5 to 14.5 MGD, for a total withdrawal of 46 MGD (Hughes 1987).  The
PAWTP is designed to handle roughly 150 MGD (Francis 1987), allowing for
future expansion of the well system as needed.

     Because of the importance of the Teays aquifer and the lack of available
data, the USGS is currently studying that portion of the southern Franklin
County aquifer that is directly affected by the reach of the Scioto River
between the Jackson Pike and the Southerly WWTPs.  This study is intended to
encompass groundwater quality from the Southerly WWTP to the PAWTP.  Areas
under investigation include groundwater quality, surface water quality, and
the impact of Scioto River water on the aquifer (Shindle and Childress 1987).
This study should provide information on surface water impacts to the
groundwater, recharge rates, safe yields, and the physical parameters
necessary to predict the cone of depression created by a pumping source, as
well as the movement rate and chemical fate of groundwater contaminants.

     Although there is sone evidence that sections of the Lover Scioto River
may be sealed by industrial and WWTP sludges and that these sludges may
interrupt the natural flow of water between the Scioto River and the Teays
aquifer, recent tracer dye test indicate that this blockage is insignificant
and/or nonexistent.  These tests prove that the effect of Scioto River water
upon groundwater quality and water table elevations may be greater than
previously believed.  Since future increases in Columbus' water demands will
have to be met by groundwater pumping, the relationship between the quality
                                        6-53

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and quantity of the water in the Scioto River to the Teays Aquifer and the
level of recharge contamination with respect to the safe groundwater yield,
are important in considering the one- and two-plant alternatives for Columbus'
WWTP options.

     At this point, no significant impacts to groundwater resources are
anticipated from any of the alternatives.  A draw-down of groundwater
elevations and drinking water wells occurred in 1986 to the town of
Shadeville, a suburb of Columbus.  This was caused by a dry spell,
construction dewatering at the Southerly WWTP, and groundwater pumping from
the PAWTP.  This caused the water table to drop about 8 feet leaving many of
Shadeville's wells inoperatLonal.  To mitigate this problem, Columbus has
extended water distribution mains to the Shadeville area.

6.2.3.1  No Action
     The no action alternative, maintaining the status quo in the Columbus
area, should have no significant impacts on groundwater.  Even if the (JSGS
groundwater study currently underway establishes there is a more direct
connection between the Scioto River and area groundwater, current groundwater
quality at the city's wells remains good, even after several decades of
potential influence from the Jackson Pike WWTP.

6.2.3.2  Two-Plant Alternative
     The two-plant alternative is not expected to cause significant impacts to
area groundwater resources, since WWTP discharge levels and any associated
impacts will remain similar to current practices.

6.2.3.3  One-Plant Alternative
     Under the one-plant alternative, the Jackson Pike WWTP effluent will be
diverted downstream, leaving river water elevations during low-flow periods
between the Jackson Pike and Southerly WWTPs drastically lower than under the
two-plant and no action alternatives.  These low-flow conditions will occur
during dry summer and fall months at the same time that groundwater
                                        6-54

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elevations are lowered by the reduction in recharge from precipitation
(surface water infiltration), other groundwater sources, and surface water
sources (impoundments, wetlands, and streams).

     If connections between the Scioto River and the Teay aquifer are more
direct than currently believed, groundwater elevations may become lower than
they currently are and they may even become critically low during extended
drought conditions,  requiring the PAWTP wells to be pumped above safe design
yields.  Since any additional drinking water supplies required to meet
Columbus' growing needs will be drawn from groundwater sources, long-term
impacts on the radial well system could include an increase in capital and
O&M costs as safe design yields of individual wells are reduced during dry
periods, and additional wells are required to meet demands.

     Groundwater quality was not closely monitored by Columbus until
groundwater was used as a component of the municipal drinking water supply.  A.
monitoring system to sample well water on a periodic basis is projected to be
in place by 1987 or 1988 (Button 1986).  Raw groundwater quality is superior
to raw surface water sources used for drinking water purposes in Columbus;
however, some non-health hazard problems are present according to data
analysis of two PAWTP well samplings.  Levels of hydrogen sulfi'de, iron, and
manganese are near or above water quality standards.  This is one reason lime
soda ash softening is required to treat raw water to meet drinking water
standards.

     Ranney field is located on a parcel of land known as Hartman Farm.  A
number of legal agreements have been negotiated between Columbus and the
affected property owners on this six hundred acre tract in order to protect
the city's drinking water supply (Briegel 1987).  Although various agencies
have recommended land use controls such as drainage retention basins that
would include a five to twenty-five square mile area surrounding Ranney field,
the city of Columbus has not adopted any well head protection laws (Kelly
1987).
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6.2.3.4  Conclusions
     When the USGS groundwater study mentioned above is completed in 1988,
better data on the groundwater system will be available.  A more definitive
evaluation should then be possible of future impacts from the one- and two-
plant alternatives.  When water quality data become available at the end of
1987 or in 1988, these data compared to the USGS findings will provide an
indication of industrial and Scioto River water impacts upon groundwater
quality.

6.2.4  Air Quality/Odor
     Air quality impacts do not differ significantly among the various
alternatives.  The most significant long-term impact to air quality will
result from the operation of the incinerators as a primary method for ultimate
solids disposal.  The current practice, which would continue under the no
action alternative, consists of incineration of approximately 25 dry tons per day
(dtpd) of dewatered solids at Jackson Pike and 45 dtpd at Southerly.

     Both the one- and two-plant alternatives would result in a decrease  in
the total amount of solids incinerated due to the fact that anaerobic
digestion would be practiced and also because the quantity of sludge land
applied would increase.  The engineering evaluation developed the one-plant
and two-plant alternatives to optimize utilization of the sludge reuse
options.  The Southwesterly Compost Facility was assumed to process 24 dtpd on
an annual average under both alterantives.  Under the one-plant alternative,
25 dtpd would be land applied.  Under the two-plant alternative, 38 dtpd would
be land applied, approximately 25 dtpd from Jackson Pike and approximately 13
dtpd from Southerly.

     The two-plant alternative would decrease the amount of solids incinerated
at Southerly by about 70 percent and the level of incineration at Jackson Pike
would remain approximately the same.  The one-plant alternative will phase out
all operations at Jackson Pike and Southerly incinerators will be used to
incinerate about 17 percent more (to account for the current amount
incinerated at Jackson Pike) than current demands.  Current estimates of
                                    6-56

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pollutants generated per ton of sludge incinerated are listed in Table 6-15a.
Projected air pollutant emissions associated with the no action, two-plant,
and one-plant alternatives are listed in Tables 6-15b, c, and d respectively.

     Portions of Franklin County are designated as non-attainment of the
National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for particuiate matter.  In
particular, the Jackson Pike WWTP is located in an area that is designated as
non-attainment of the secondary standard, and regions north of the facility
are designated as non-attainment of the primary standard.  Figure 6-4
illustrates the pattern of NAAQS non-attainment areas.

     All six incinerators (two operating incinerators at both Jackson Pike and
Southerly, and two permitted incinerators in start-up at Southerly) are
equipped with wet scrubbers designed to reduce particuiate matter emissions to
meet the emission control standards imposed by the State of Ohio and the
Federal New Source Performance Standards for municipal sludge incinerators.

     Odor problems have historically plagued southern Franklin County, with
frequent complaints of burnt ash sewage odors attributable to the
incinerators, earthy raw sewage odors characteristic of Southwesterly
composting operations, and a septic sewage odor attributed to the primary
clarifiers and/or anaerobic digesters at the Southerly WWTP (McCarthy 1986,
Bonk 1986, and Maxwell 1986).  Based on the available data, it appears that
the Southwesterly Composting Facility is the major cause of the odor problems
in Southern Franklin County.  Other odors may be due to a variety of
industrial and agricultural-related sources, as identifed in Table 6-16 and
Figure 6-5.  This figure also identifies the residential areas that have
registered the majority of complaints to local, state, or Federal agencies.

     Several odor control-related procedures or design improvements have been
put into operation at Southwesterly.  However, complaints are still received.
Design changes recently completed at the Southwesterly composting facility
include addition of a pug mill designed to achieve a better mix of wood chips
and raw sludge and a solar drying facility to control moisture content.
Additional improvement in the sludge may be seen with the implementation of
the recommended additions to the solids handling at the Southerly WWTP.
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            TABLE 6-15a.
  ESTIMATES OF POLLUTANTS GENERATED PER TON
      OF SLUDGE INCINERATED
                                   Estimated Emission Rate
                                    in Ib/ton Dry Solids
     Particulate Matter
     Oxides of Sulfur
     Oxides of Nitrogen
     Cadmium
     Lead
     Mercury
     Zinc
        Jackson Pike

            1.1
            0.102
            2.18
            0.011
            0.037
            0.0065
            0.327
Southerly

   1.1
   0.074
   2.18
   0.013
   0.028
   0.0087
   0.24
Emission estimates are based on the following:
     Particulate matter emissions are limited to the Ohio EPA standard.  Other
     pollutants are estimated from the difference in the pollutant concen-
     tration in the sludge and ash of Jackson Pike and Southerly incinerators
     prior to emission controls.  However, oxides of nitrogen and sulfur
     oxides rates have been decreased by 80 and 50 percent, respectively, to
     account for the removal efficiency of the wet scrubbers.  Values for
     other heavy metals, organic matter, and pathogenic organisms are not
     available.  Source:  USEPA 1978
          TABLE 6-15b.
PROJECTED AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS ASSOCIATED
       WITH THE NO ACTION ALTERNATIVE

          Estimated Emissions (Ib/day)
           No Action Alternative
     Particulate Matter
     Oxides of Sulfur
     Oxides of Nitrogen
     Cadmium
     Lead
     Mercury
     Zinc
        Jackson Pike

           27.5
            2.55
           54.5
            0.275
            0.925
            0.1625
            8.175
Southerly

  49.28
   3.3152
  97.664
   0.5824
   1.2544
   0.3898
  10.752
Values are based on current production of 64 dtpd of dewatered solids and 70
percent incineration at Southerly, and 50 dtpd dewatered solids and 50 percent
incineration at Jackson Pike.
                                       6-58

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               TABLE 6-15c.
     PROJECTED AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS ASSOCIATED
            WITH THE TWO-PLANT ALTERNATIVE

          Estimated Emissions (Ib/day)
            Two-Plant Alternative
     Particulate Matter
     Oxides of Sulfur
     Oxides of Nitrogen
     Cadmium
     Lead
     Mercury
     Zinc
                            Jackson Pike
        28.6
         2.652
        56.68
         0.286
         0.962
         0.169
         8.502
                     Southerly
Total
15.4
1.036
30.52
0.182
0.392
0.1218
3.36
44.0
3.688
87.2
0.468
1.354
0.2908
11.862
Values are based on projected incineration of 26 dtpd of dewatered solids at
Jackson Pike and 14 dtpd of dewatered solids at Southerly.  Values for
Southerly will be higher when handling overflows from Jackson Pike.
          TABLE 6-15d.
PROJECTED AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS ASSOCIATED
       WITH THE ONE-PLANT ALTERNATIVE

          Estimated Emissions (Ib/day)
           One-Plant Alternative
                            Jackson Pike
                     Southerly
Total
     Particulate Matter
     Oxides of Sulfur
     Oxides of Nitrogen
     Cadmium
     Lead
     Mercury
     Zinc
          0
          0
          0
          0
          0
          0
          0
58.3
3.922
115.54
0.689
1.484
0.4611
12.72
58.3
3.922
115.54
0.689
1.484
0.4611
12.72
Values are based on the projected incineration of 53 dtpd of dewatered solids
at Southerly.

NOTE:  The one-plant alternative would generate a greater total amount of
       emissions per day than the two-plant alternative due to a greater
       quantity of solids being sent to incineration and a smaller quantity of
       solids being sent to land application.
                                        6-59

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JACKSON PIKE WWTP

SOUTHERLY WWTP

SOUTHWESTERLY COMPOST FACILITY
PLANNING AREA  BOUNDARY
DENOTES PRIMARY NON-ATTAINMENT AREA
FOR TOTAL SUSPENDED PART1CULATE MATTER
                                   6-60
ALL AREAS INSIDE THE INTERSTATE 270 LOOP
   ARE DESIGNATED AS NON-ATTAINMENT OF TOE
   SECONDARY STANDARD FOR TOTAL SUSPENDED
   PARTICULATES.
      FIGURE 6-4
      NON-ATTAINMENT AREAS  FOR
      TOTAL  SUSPENDED PARTICULATES

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   TABLE 6-16.  POTENTIAL ODOR SOURCES IN SOUTHERN FRANKLIN COUNTY, OHIO
1.   Franklin County Replacement Landfill:  3851 London-Groveport Road

     Size:  118 acres
     Types of Waste:  municipal, commercial, industrial
     Opened:  August 1985
     Unaware of any odor problems

2.   Model Landfill:  3299 Jackson Pike

     Size:  approximately 100+ acres
     Types of Waste:  municipal, commercial, industrial
     Closed:  August 1985.  Adequate cover.
     Odors are noticeable.  Methane gas recovery is proposed.

3.   Jackson Pike Landfill:  2460 Jackson Pike

     Size:  approximately 30-40 acres
     Types of Waste:  municipal, commercial, industrial
     Operated from 1969 to 1978.  Adequate cover.
     In 1979 sludge from the Jackson Pike Sewage Treatment Plant was stored
     on top.  Three to four feet of sludge remains and is potential source
     of odors.

4.   Columbus Municipal Refuse Electric Plant - 2500 Jackson Pike

     Six 238 million BTU input coal or refuse derived fuel steam
     generating boilers.
     Air emissions control equipment include cyclones with electrostatic
     precipitators.
     Refuse composition varies between summer and winter.
     Short-time storage of refuse may allow odors to become apparent.

5.   Sloter's Demo Site:  South of Southview Park, East of 1-71.

     Size:  10 acres
     Types of Waste:  demolition
     In operation.
     A potential source of odor as material was dumped into water.

6.   Cowan's Demo Site:  South of Southview Park, East of 1-71.

     Size:  15 acres
     Types of Waste:  demolition
     In operation.
     A potential source of odor as material was dumped into water.
                                   6-61

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TABLE 6-16.  POTENTIAL ODOR SOURCES IN SOUTHERN FRANKLIN  COUNTY,  OHIO (CONT.)
7.   Craig's Demo Site:  South of Southview Park, East of 1-71.

     Size:  15 acres
     Types of Waste:  demolition
     In operation.
     A potential source of odor as material is being dumped into water.

8.   Scott's Demo Site:  1377 Harmon Road

     Size:  approximately 100+ acres
     Types of Waste:  demolition
     In operation.
     A potential source of odor as material is being dumped into water,

9.   J & B Mining:  3041 Jackson Pike

     Size:  approximately 20 acres
     Types of Waste:  demolition
     Opened in 1982 and is in operation today.
     Low odor potential.

10.  Loewendick's Demo Site:  715 Frank Road

     Size:  approximately 50+ acres
     Types of Waste:  demolition
     In operation.  Adequate cover.
     Low odor potential.

11.  Southerly Waste Water Treatment Plant - Portsmouth Cols. Road

     2 municipal sludge incinerators
     2 additional incinerators currently under construction
     Incinerators may result in odors.

12.  Southwesterly Composting - East of SR 104, south of SR 665.

     200 wet tons/day steady-state capacity
     300 wet tons/day short-term capacity
     Composting processes may result in odors.

13.  Jackson Pike Waste Water Treatment Plant - Jackson Pike Road

     2 municipal sludge incinerators
     Incinerators and digested sludge used in land application and may
     cause odors.
                                  6-62

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TABLE 6-16.  POTENTIAL ODOR SOURCES IN SOUTHERN FRANKLIN COUNTY, OHIO (CONT.)
14.  Inland Products, Inc. Rendering Plant - Frank Road and Scioto River

     Rendering process/product, tallow storage.
     Air emissions control equipment include air evaporator cooler with non-
     condensibles transferred to boilers for incineration, and chlorine
     scrubbing of all fugitive emissions.
     Typical processing time:  3 pm to midnight, 6 days per week.
     Control malfunctions may allow odors to escape.

.Other regional potential odor sources include Columbus and S. Ohio Electric
Boilers in Pickaway County, Container Corporation Paper Plant in
Circleville, Mead Paper Plant in Chillicothe, and locations of various
agricultural activities.

Source:  McCarthy, 1986.
                                   6-63

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                                                        Scon's Demo Site
                                                          :~.5. Slocr's Demo Site
                                                              II     \
                                                             Cowan's Demo Site
                                                           .
                                                          .-7. Craig's Demo Site
                                                             3. Jackson Pike Waste Water Treatment Plant
                                                                     I
                                                              Rendering Plant
Locwendick's Demo S
                                                              Jackson Pike Landfill
                                                             VI      I t
                                                           Trash Burning Power Plant
                                                     9. J & B Mining
                                                     2.  Model Landfill
            Franklin County Replacement Landfill
                                                                11. Southerly Waste Water Treatment Plant
                                                                      \
                                                            12. Southwesterly Composting
                                                                                  City of Lockboum
* SITE OF  NUMEROUS ODOR COMPLAINTS
SEE  TABLE  6H6  FOR ADDITIONAL
INFORMATION  ON POTENTIAL  SOURCES.
      6-64
FIGURE  6-5
LOCATIONS  OF  POTENTIAL-
ODOR  SOURCES  IN  SOUTHERN
FRANKLIN  COUNTY

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     Recently the city has designated an Odor Control Committee comprised of
city employees, chemists, and local residents.  The Committee has designed an
odor control action plan, which involves the employment of an independent
consultant to conduct a qualitative study of the problem, with specific
efforts aimed at correlating odor complaints with plant operations and
meteorological conditions.  It is expected that with the results of these and
other proposed studies, the odor source(s), including individual processes
                                         L. i
within a facility, will be identified.  This knowledge can then be used to
establish feasible control measures designed to alleviate or substantially
reduce the odor levels.  This may be accomplished through decreasing the
emissions of odorants and/or enhancing the dispersion potential of the
source.

6.2.4.1  No Action Alternative
     The no action alternative will result, in continued use of both the
Jackson Pike and Southerly WWTPs, with only normal maintenance.

     Air quality impacts of the no action alternative, excluding odors, are
essentially neutral in that they do not degrade present ambient air quality.
However, this alternative does not provide for further progress toward
achieving compliance with ambient air quality standards for particulate
matter.  Odor impacts from the no action alternative would be represented by a
continuation of current problems.

6.2.4.2  Two-Plant Alternative
     Direct air quality impacts associated with the two-plant alternative will
include short-term, adverse air quality  impacts experienced during the
construction phase of the project, with  the generation of fugitive dust and
increased vehicular exhaust.  These impacts will be concentrated in the locale
of both the Jackson Pike and Southerly facilities.  Project specifications
will include provisions for minimizing such impacts through the use of
practical mitigating measures, such as watering of haul roads and exposed
soil.
                                    6-65

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     Operation of the two-plant alternative is not expected to result in any
long-term deleterious impacts on air quality.  Based on current operating
records, the operations at Southerly produce approximately 64 dtpd of
dewatered solids, of which 45 dtpd are incinerated.  The two-plant alternative
substantially decreases the amount of solids processed through the
incinerators at Southerly due to the incorporation of anaerobic digestion in
the processing scheme.  An approximate 70 percent reduction in the amount of
dewatered sludge incinerated compared with current conditions would be
observed.  Consequently, a corresponding reduction in air pollutant emissions
from the Southerly incinerators would result.  The two-plant alternative would
require sludge incineration at Jackson Pike consistent with current practice
and does not provide for further progress toward achieving the NAAQS for
particulate matter.  Table 6-15 provides an estimate of emissions from
incineration associated with the two-plant alternative as well as the one-
plant and no action alternatives.

     Odor impacts will not occur as a direct impact of the construction phase.
However, operation of the two-plant alternative should result in a reduction
in ambient odor due to the reduction in the usage of the incinerators at
Southerly which should reduce to some extent the occurrence of nuisance odors,
which are characteristic of burnt sewage odors.  The 25 percent increase in
the amount of solids composted will result in increasing the odor potential,
which may or may not be offset by process changes, renovations, and the
installation of new units, which are expected to reduce the occurrence of
earthy sewage odors characteristic of this facility through the reduction of
moisture and maintenance of optimum temperature, pH, and oxygen content
through improvements to aeration and dewatering at the Southwesterly
Composting.  However, the potential for odorous emissions from the operation
of the incinerators and solids handling facilities to impact local residents
is dependent on meteorology.  Therefore, expected impacts of these changes on
the potential for emissions from these facilities to result in nuisance odors
cannot be quantified without further analysis.
                                     6-66

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6.2.4.3  The One-Plant Alternative
     Direct air quality impacts associated with the one-plant alternative will
include short-terra, adverse air quality impacts experienced during the
construction phase of the project, with the generation of fugitive dust and
increased vehicular exhaust.  These impacts will be concentrated in the locale
of the Southerly WWTP and Southwesterly Composting Facility.  Project
specifications will include provisions for minimizing such impacts through
the use of practical mitigating measures, such as watering of haul roads and
exposed soil.

     Direct impacts associated with the long-term operation of this
alternative will include a decrease in pollutant loading similar to that of
the two-plant alternative, and a  local redistribution of pollutants.  The
phasing out of the Jackson Pike facility and diversion of all flows to
Southerly will result in the following impacts to air quality:

       The increased activity at Southerly will result in higher local levels
        of ambient pollutants due to the increased quantity of sludge
        incinerated.  The Southerly incinerators would be handling an
        estimated 53 dtpd of dewatered solids instead of the current value,
        45 dtpd.  This 18 percent increase in the volume of sludge incinerated
        at Southerly would result in an increase in air pollutant emissions.
        Likewise, there would be minor increases in emissions of hydrocarbons,
        carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and particulate matter from
        increased vehicular activity.
       Local air quality near the Jackson Pike facility would improve due to
        the reduction of emissions from the incinerators.

     Because the Jackson Pike WWTP is located in a more industrial locale, and
in a region that exhibits a higher ambient level of particulate matter than
that of the Southerly WWTP, it may be concluded that implementation of the
one-plant alternative may result  in a benefit to local air quality by more
widely distributing the industrial sources of particulates and providing for
further achievement toward compliance with ambient air quality standards for
particulate matter.  However, without an in-depth modeling analysis, this
cannot be reliably predicted.
                                        6-67

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     Ambient odor impacts associated with the long-terra operation of the one-
plant alternative are not readily discernible.  The increase in the quantity
of sludge incinerated may be associated with a higher incidence of nuisance
odors (characteristic of a burnt sewage odor); however, it is expected that
the operation of two new incinerators, which will be on-line at Southerly in
the near future, will provide further process control and result in a
lessening of nuisance odor generation.

     Similarly, an increase in the amount of waste composted may be associated
with a higher incidence of nuisance odors; however, proposed process changes,
renovations, and the installation of new units in conjunction with this
alternative should alleviate to some extent the potential for the generation
of nuisance odors.  In particular, the reduction of moisture and maintenance
of optimum temperature, pH, and oxygen content through improvements to
aeration and dewatering at the Southwesterly Composting Facility will reduce
the occurrence of earthy sewage odors characteristic of this facility.
However, the potential for odorous emissions from the operation of the
incinerators and solids handling facilities to impact local residents is
dependent on meteorology; therefore, expected improvements, or the expected
decrease in the potential emissions from these facilities to result in
nuisance odors, cannot be quantified without further analysis.

     At Jackson Pike, it is clear that the phasing out of operations will
result in reduced emissions of odorous compounds from the incinerators and
associated facilities; however, this area has not been associated with a
majority of the recorded odor complaints.

6.2.4.4  Conclusions
     Air quality impacts do not differ significantly between the various
alternatives.  Pollutants generated through incineration of sludge will not
cause violations of NAAQS beyond those currently found in the Columbus area.
Odor problems should decrease under either of the action alternatives and may
increase slightly under no action.
                                        6-68

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6.2.5  Soils/Prime Agricultural Land
     The physical and chemical characteristics of local soils will govern the
extent of impacts from two segments of the proposed improvements to the
Southerly and Jackson Pike WWTPs.  First, the direct impact of soil
disturbance during the construction of new facilities and the removal of
existing facilities will result in exposure and accelerated erosion within the
limits of the project site.  Second, the land application of anaerobically
digested waste activated sludge to agricultural lands will modify the
composition of the existing soils.  The impact of both segments of the
project will involve areas that have been designated, based on soil
classification, as "prime agricultural" lands.

     The land application of anaerobically digested waste activated sludge is
a well-known and accepted method of solids management.  Potential adverse
impacts of land application include heavy metal contamination, nutrient
overloading, and pathogenic contamination of soils; however, if properly
regulated and implemented, these impacts are minimal and easily controlled.
Potential benefits to the affected lands include increased productivity and
enrichment of existing soils.  In general, the benefits greatly outweigh the
adverse effects.

     The OEPA provides oversight to the land application program, which
follows the guidelines presented in their Land Application of Sludge Manual
(OEPA 1985b).  Under this program, the application rate is based on both the
concentration of cadmium contained in the sludge and the physical and chemical
capacity of a given soil to assimilate this applied volume of sludge.  The
assimilative capacity is soil specific; thus, it is impossible to quantify
accurately the acreage of land required for future land application needs.
The prime agricultural lands involved in this practice will have two short-
term restrictions placed on their potential uses.  First, lactating dairy
animals should not be grazed on these lands for one year.  Second, vegetable
crops that may be eaten raw should not be grown on these lands for 1 year.
                                        6-69

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6.2.5.1  No Action Alternative
     This alternative would involve the continuation of current practices.  No
new construction would occur, therefore, no additional soil erosion would
occur due to construction.  The current solids management program at Jackson
Pike includes land application of roughly half of the sludge produced (25
dtpd).  This practice has proven successful, and no contamination or adverse
human health problems have been reported.  None of the sludge produced by the
Southerly WWTP is land applied.

6.2.5.2  Two-Plant Alternative
     Under the two-plant alternative, there will be no additional land outside
the current site boundary required for construction of the proposed upgrading
of the Southerly or Jackson Pike WWTP.

     Under this alternative, roughly 38 dtpd of sludge will be land applied,
13 dtpd from Southerly and 25 dtpd from Jackson Pike.  Based on 1985-1986
cadmium concentration figures and a range of soil assimilative capacities
typical for this region, an application rate of 3.4 to 5.1 dry tons per acre
per year can be estimated.  This results in an annual land requirement of
2,755 to 4,133 acres per year.  Comments from OEPA and Columbus indicate that
site lives will be limited to 16 years because of zinc concentrations.  Based
on the city's estimate of 200,000 acres available for land application within
40 miles, site availability should not be a problem.  As explained above,
current land application operations have proven successful with no reported
contamination or adverse health effects; this performance should continue
based on current guidelines.

6.2.5.3  One-Plant Alternative
     Under the one-plant alternative, the quantity of sludge to be land
applied is estimated at 25 dtpd.  As explained earlier, based on 1985-1986
cadmium concentration figures and a range of soil assimilative capacities
typical for this region, it is estimated that, the application rate will be
limited to 3.4 to 5.1 dry tons per acre per year.  Based on these application
                                        6-70

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rates, the one-plant alternative will require 1,832 to 2,748 acres per year.
Based on the city's estimates of site availability and estimated quantity of
solids to land application, no significant impacts are anticipated.

     No significant impacts are forecast to area soils or prime agriculture
land under any of the alternatives.

6.3  ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES - BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT
6.3.1  Terrestrial and Wetland^Biota/Habitat
6.3.1.1  No Action
     Implementation of the no action alternative and continued operation of
the Columbus wastewater facilities should not create substantial impacts to
terrestrial biota.  However, some minor impacts may occur on vegetation along
the Scioto River banks.  Nutrient enriched waters may support higher growth
rates of plants that are flooded periodically by the river, thereby
increasing the food supply of wildlife feeding on these plants.  The Scioto
River is used heavily by waterfowl, most of which feed on plants*  These
animals would benefit from nutrient enriched waters (Watts 1987).  Waterfowl
also use Scioto River waters for breeding and to escape predators, and these
activities would not be affected by degraded water quality from the unimproved
treatment facilities (Watts 1987).   The no action alternative will not impact
wetlands.

6.3.1.2  Two-Plant Alternative
     No impacts to previously undisturbed terrestrial habitat are expected
under the two-plant alternative.  The two-plant alternative will not impact
wetlands.

6.3.1.3  One-Plant Alternative
     Impacts to terrestrial habitat and biota under the one-plant alternative
will result from:  1) extension of the Interconnector across the Scioto River
and part of the flood plain and 2) elimination of the discharge from the
Jackson Pike WWTP.
                                        6-71

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     Construction of the river crossing will have locally significant impacts
on terrestrial biota, primarily vegetation.  The local fauna will be
displaced, but should be able to find refuge in similar habitats nearby.

     The banks of the Scioto River in the vicinity of the river crossing are
lined with trees indicative of riparian habitat.  Observation of the site in
January 1987 indicated the dominant tree species were red maple (Acer rubruro),
box elder (Acer negundo), and poplar (Populus tremuloides).  Less common
species were sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) and hackberry (Celtis
occidentalis).

     The stands of trees on the east and west banks differ in several
respects.  Trees on the east bank form a swath about 10 feet wide bordering
the river like a ribbon.  The stand on the west bank is much wider, extending
about 400 feet back from the bank at the site of the crossing.  The floodplain
on the west bank is broad and rises in elevation gradually with distance from
the river.  The east bank is steep and resembles a levee or the cut bank side
of a meander.  The trees on the east bank are considerably smaller in diameter
and height than those on the west, and understory growth is denser on the east
side, indicating the east stand is younger than the west.  Aerial photography
of the proposed crossing site, taken April 6, 1976, shows an absence of trees
on the east bank and a fairly dense stand on the west bank.  This confirms the
youth of the east bank stand.

     It is possible that the land near the banks of the Scioto at the site of
the river crossing could be classified as wetland.  The area is subject to
flooding of short duration (primarily from October to June); however, the
soils are not listed as typical of those that support wetland plants or
animals, in the Franklin County Soil Survey (Soil Conservation Service 1980a).
The west bank more strongly resembles a forested floodplain than the east
because it has larger trees with little understory growth or ground cover.
Evidence of overbank flooding on the east bank was apparent during the January
1987 site visit because the shrubs and grasses were uniformly flattened within
                                       6-72

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approximately 20 to 60 feet of the bank.  The east bank has been disturbed
recently by clearing and farming and is possibly in a transitional state.
Areas to the north and south of the east bank river crossing bear a stronger
resemblance to a typical forested wetland and have apparently not been
disturbed as recently as the crossing zone.

     Based on soils classifications and direct site observations, the specific
areas to be directly impacted by the one-plant alternative are not considered
to be wetlands.  Therefore, the one-plant alternative, as proposed, will have
no significant impacts on wetlands.

     Construction on the west bank will destroy trees of substantial age and
size and disrupt a mature forest habitat.  Such action reduces the amount of
suitable habitat for the Indiana Bat and increases the threat to this
federally endangered species.  Regrowth to the present state will  take
decades.  Construction on the east bank will have a less severe impact on
habitat because the trees are younger and the stand is much narrower.
Regrowth to the present state, based on the aerial photography mentioned
earlier, should require approximately 10 years.  However, the east bank is
much steeper than the west and will be subject to more severe erosion problems
until vegetative cover is re-established.

     It is advisable to retain the maximum amount of vegetation possible on
both banks to reduce erosion.  When construction is completed, efforts should
be made to restore the river banks to their present slopes.  This will ensure
that a similar forest community will revegetate the area (see Table 6-14 for
additional mitigating measures proposed for the one-plant alternative.)

     In addition to crossing the Scioto River, pipes carrying flows from the
Interconnector sewer will traverse a field, located to the north of the
Southerly WWTP, in order to connect with proposed headworks.  The field,
covering about 120 acres, is owned by the city of Columbus, Division of
Sewerage and Drainage, and is currently leased to a farmer for crop
production.  The field is considered prime agricultural land, but was not
                                        6-73

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planted during 1986.  A site visit in January 1987 determined vegetation in
the field to be dominated by rapidly growing grasses and woody shrubs.  The
condition of vegetation just behind the river bank indicated the field
recently had been flooded.  Vegetation was flattened in a range of 20 to 60
feet from the river bank.  Conversation with Southerly WWTP personnel during
the site visit indicated flood waters may exceed that distance during storras
and that such flooding was not uncommon.

     Proposed activities in the field will result in removal of vegetation
over the trench and construction easements.  Because the vegetation is only 1
to 2 years old, it will be easily replaced after construction is completed.
Similar fields exist nearby and wildlife in the area will not be forced long
distances to find suitable habitat.  Tree lines will be left intact.

     Erosion of soil poses a potential threat to area habitat.  Construction
should be undertaken during the summer when rainfall and river flow are
lowest.  The field should be reseeded before the weather becomes too cold to
prevent rapid regrowth of vegetation.  Clearing the field in portions would
be preferable to clearing the entire field at once.  Recommendations of the
city of Columbus for mitigative measures pertaining to this part of
construction are listed on page one of Table 6-14.

     The impacts on terrestrial habitat and agricultural land from
Interconnector construction are considered minimal and can be easily mitigated
(see Table 6-14).  Any additional localized impacts resulting from headworks
expansion of Southerly are also considered minimal and easily mitigated.
Construction of the new headworks will occur on the existing plantsite.

     Elimination of Jackson Pike WWTP may affect birds near the plant.  A wide
variety of bird species, including several rare species, have been observed at
the plant and it has been noted as a good birding site in Ohio (Thomson
1983).  Great Blue Herons and Belted Kingfishers have been known to visit the
ponds and settling basins at the Jackson Pike site and the brushy edge
                                         6-74

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vegetation surrounding the ponds provides habitat for a variety of songbirds.
The sludge ponds are visited by shorebirds from April through October.  Rare
shorebirds sighted here include the Piping, Lesser Golden, and Black-bellied
Plovers, Red-necked Phalaropes, and the Long-billed Dowitcher.  A pond
adjacent to the sludge pond attracts waterbirds, including the Blue-winged
Teal, Wood Ducks, and American Coots.  This pond also attracts shorebirds when
the water level is low.

     Effluent from the plant also provides river habitat for waterfowl during
the winter months when the reservoirs north of Columbus become frozen.  It
keeps the river water warm, making it a source of food and protection to
migrating stocks (Watts, 1987).  Closing Jackson Pike would eliminate this
habitat.  Because the Scioto is a major migration route, the passage of birds
is not likely to change; however, their distribution along the river probably
will change.  The distribution probably will become more dispersed.  Visits of
rare birds to the area will decrease to the extent that they are presently
attracted by open water habitat provided during the winter.  Depending on
habitat requirements of rare species, they may find suitable habitat elsewhere
or suffer mortalities.  The removal of open water habitat in the Scioto River
during winter, through elimination of Jackson Pike effluent, will diminish
waterfowl visits in general.

6.3.2   Aquatic Biota/Habitat
6.3.2.1  No-Action
     Water quality in the Scioto River, between Columbus and Circleville, is
degraded by point source and general non-point runoff from the metropolitan
areas.  The key water quality problem is considered to be low DO.  Although
the low DO problem is clearly related to discharges from the Jackson Pike and
Southerly WWTPs (degraded fish populations have been associated with the DO
sags resulting from these two point sources), other sources contributing to
the problem include the Whittier Street CSO and general urban runoff.
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     Implementation of the no-action alternative will result in continuation
of the current DO problems and related aquatic habitat degradation in the
Scioto River below Columbus.  Impacts will be most severe in the summer, as
the Jackson Pike plant is currently unable to meet summer ammonia limits and
unable to consistently meet summer CBOD5 limits.  Under this alternative, any
significant changes in DO conditions in the Scioto River below Columbus will
be more directly related to possible changes in the nature and amount of
Whit tier Street CSO and urban non-point loadings (the other principal sources
presently contributing to the current DO problem).  Because the city of
Columbus is currently studying the CSO problem with the objective of
decreasing the CSO related pollutant loadings to the Scioto River, DO
conditions in the Scioto River may improve in the future, due to factors
unrelated to the Jackson Pike WWTP.  However, improvements in DO conditions
related to diminished CSO loadings may be at least partially offset by
increased urban non-point loadings associated with projected future population
growth in the Columbus area.

     Implementation of the no-action alternative will also result in a
continuation of the current problems related to the impacts of high residual
chlorine in the WWTP effluents since Jackson Pike and Southerly have no
dechlorination facilities.  In the event that CSO loadings from Whittier
Street are decreased and DO levels increase in the Scioto River independently
of the treatment plants, the impacts of the continuing high chlorine loadings
from Jackson Pike and Southerly would represent a locally significant obstacle
to recovery of the aquatic habitat.

     Under the no-action alternative, pollution intolerant species will
continue to be excluded from the affected reach of the Scioto River due to
mortality, lowered reproductive success, and/or avoidance (OEPA 1986a).  The
aquatic community will continue to be dominated by a reduced number of
tolerant species.  If water quality conditions deteriorate further (as could
result from no change in either the Jackson Pike WWTP or Whittier Street CSO,
but a general increase in the Columbus area population), pollution tolerant
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species will suffer a loss of biomass followed by a loss in density (OEPA
1986a).  The more sensitive of the tolerant species which would be lost first,
under a scenario of deteriorating water quality conditions, including the
round bodied catostoraidae, basses, crappies, freshwater drum, and catfishes
(these species have increased their numbers in the Central Scioto over the
past five to seven years, reflecting gradually improving water quality
conditions during this time period).  Certain pollution tolerant species may
increase in biomass and density with gradual deterioration of water quality,
including gizzard shad, carp and goldfish, and the deep bodied suckers.
Increased hybridization would also be experienced under the conditions of
biological stress resulting from a decline in water quality.  This effect,
combined with the loss of less tolerant species and an increase in tolerant
species, would be reflected in a general decline in the biotic index.

     The benthic community will respond to the scenarios of no change or
gradual deterioration in water quality in patterns similar to those discussed
for the fish community.  Mollusk species are extremely sensitive to wastewater
effluent and will not be able to recolonize the affected segment of the Scioto
River under the no-action alternative.

6.3.2.2  Two-Plant Alternative
     Upgrading both treatment plants will result in no effluent-related water
quality violations and subsequent water quality improvements.  Such action
will have a favorable impact on aquatic biota and habitat.  Sensitive species
that currently inhabit the area should persist and increase in abundance.  New
species may move into the area and  increase community diversity.

     Decreased turbidity will create a more favorable habitat for turbidity-
sensitive species.  These species,  such as darters, which now inhabit Scioto
River tributaries, may begin to move into the Scioto mainstream in greater
numbers.
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     Although violations in DO standards will not occur under the two-plant
alternative, residual wasteloads in the effluents from both WWTPs will
continue to exert a DO demand in the receiving water, and a reduced DO sag
will persist below both treatment plants.  As a result, fish communities will
continue to show some degradation as oxygen levels are depressed downstream.
These effects will be most noticeable in the sections of the river where the
residual DO sags are most critical (i.e., where DO levels approach 5.0 mg/1).
Effects of degradation in fish communities include increased numbers of
omnivorous fish relative to insectivorous fish, increased hybridization,
(lowered biotic index) and decreased diversity.  In all fish surveys conducted
on the Scioto River from 1979 to 1986, degradation of fish communities
occurred in the vicinity of the DO sags associated with discharges from the
Jackson Pike and Southerly WWTPs.  Although the structure of the benthic
community will also improve under the two-plant alternative, benthic
communities will continue to exhibit decreased abundance and diversity in
areas experiencing the oxygen sag.

     Over the past 6 years, the fish community in the Central Scioto has
improved.  The two-plant alternative will result in a continuation and
acceleration of this trend.  Although significant improvements will occur, the
collective, continuing impacts of WWTP effluents, general urban runoff, and
the Whittier Street CSO will prevent free biological recovery in the Central
Scioto, when compared with comparatively unimpacted segments upstream of
Columbus and downstream of Circleville,

6.3.2.3  One-Plant Alternative
     Aspects of the one-plant alternative that will impact aquatic habitat and
biota are the following:  1) elimination of Jackson Pike WWTP; 2) upgrading
and expansion of Southerly WWTP; and 3) construction at Southerly WWTP.

     Between Jackson Pike and Southerly, the impacts of the one-plant
alternative will be strongly flow-dependant.  Under most flow conditions,
elimination of the Jackson Pike effluent loading will result in improved water
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quality conditions, to the extent that this effluent affects water quality.
These improvements will result in favorable aquatic community responses, as
discussed under the two-plant alternative.

     However, under low flow conditions, pollutant loadings from background
sources (Whittier Street CSO and urban runoff) will persist, while the
capacity of the river to assimilate this wasteload will be sharply diminished,
through the elimination of nearly 90 percent of river flows.  Therefore, under
low flow conditions, it is hypothesized that elimination of the Jackson Pike
effluent will result in degraded water quality conditions (see Section 6.2.1)
and negative impacts on aquatic biota.  Although these impacts will likely be
short-term, dependant on the length of any critical low flow conditions during
summer months, the impacts could be severe.  Because flow will be
significantly reduced, aquatic species forced to retreat to pools will be
especially susceptible to impaired water quality conditions which may develop
at low flow.

     A significant loss of benthic habitat area will result from the reduction
in river flows.  Under critical low flow conditions, riffle areas will be
reduced, significant areas of benthic habitat will be exposed to drying and
pools could become very shallow and still due to the reductions in water
levels associated with the elimination of Jackson Pike flows (see Section
6.2.2).  These conditions could disrupt spawning, feeding, and migratory
activities of fish and water levels.  Depending on the length of time that the
benthos is exposed and on the capability of individual species to withstand
such impacts, significant reductions in benthic productivity could occur in
selected riffle areas of the Scioto River between Jackson Pike and Southerly
under the one-plant alternative.

     Downstream of Southerly, the impacts on the one-plant alternative on
aquatic fauna are difficult to assess because expected changes in water
quality have not been clearly described.  Because the level of wastewater
treatment will be improved under this alternative, concentrations of BOD and,
to a lesser extent, NH3 will be lower in the effluent.  However, by routing
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all flows to Southerly, the entire residual wastewater DO demand from Columbus
will be released to the river at a single location.  Because reductions in
nutrient concentrations in the effluent (other than ammonia) will be minimal,
and because the total volume of wastewater released at Southerly will be
significantly increased, without any increase in river flows below Southerly,
a proportionate increase in residual wastewater DO demand from Southerly will
result.  This residual DO demand will be assimilated by the river, and a DO
sag will be evident in that portion of the river where the DO demand is
assimilated.  Although the 5.0 mg/l DO standard will not be contravened, the
length of river affected by the sag will be increased.  Because no changes
will occur in flows, the area of the river affected by the DO sag will be
extended in the downstream direction.

     Degradation of aquatic communities can be expected in the vicinity of the
DO sag and in the additional portion of the river that will become exposed to
a higher level of water pollution.  Effects of degradation have been discussed
under the no action alternative and include reduced diversity, higher
percentage of omnivorous species relative to insectivorous species, and
increased hybridization (depressed biotic index).  It is possible that the
Circleville Riffle will be exposed to higher levels of pollution.  Currently,
the aquatic community in the vicinity of the riffle is considered to be in
very good condition.  It supports a high diversity of species.  In the 1960s
and 1970s it was seriously degraded and has only recently recovered in the
early 1980s.  These factors indicate the community may be sensitive to habitat
degradation.  It is possible that this community will experience degradation
under the one-plant alternative, reversing the recent trend of improved
conditions.

     Construction across the river bed of the Scioto may have a localized,
short-term but severe impact on aquatic habitat and biota.  Impacts will stem
primarily from increases in sediment transport and deposition downstream of
the construction site.  Fish will suffer fewer short-term impacts than benthos
as they can avoid the construction site, but stresses and mortalities should
be expected.  Localized populations may be reduced if riffles used for feeding
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and spawning become covered with sediment.  Increased turbidity will also
temporarily damage habitat of species which use pools, due to lowered oxygen
levels caused by organic loads associated with eroded soils.  The distance
affected and the degree of stress depend on the amounts of sediment which
will ultimately enter the water; however, mitigation techniques proposed for
this project alternative (see Table 6-13) should minimize these impacts.

     To minimize damage to aquatic biota, construction will be scheduled when
river flow is low.  Also, construction during springtime will be avoided not
only because of potential high flows, but also because most, if not all, fish
in the Scioto spawn at that time (Yoder 1987b).  These and other mitigative
measures proposed by the city of Columbus as part of the one-plant alternative
are listed on pages 2 and 3 of Table 6-13.

6.3.3   Endangered Species/Habitat
6.3.3.1  No Action
     Terrestrial endangered species should not be affected by the no action
alternative.  However, the aquatic endangered species habitat will suffer due
to continued degradation of water quality.  Several federal and state
designated endangered and rare fish have been sighted in the Central Scioto
River mainstera within the past 5 to 7 years and those species are most likely
to be disturbed.  The species are the river redhorse, mooneye, goldeye, and
Tippecanoe darter.  Poor water quality will exclude them from the affected
portions of the Scioto River through avoidance, lowered reproductive success,
and/or mortality.  The degraded habitat will prevent their populations from
growing in the affected areas.  The shortnosed gar, lake chubsucker, and
paddlefish have been sighted in the Central Scioto, but generally favor a
habitat type not well-developed in the Scioto River.  This species probably
would not establish a population in the river even under natural conditions
(Yoder 1987b).

     Small populations of other endangered or rare fish live on tributaries to
the Scioto River where water quality is better.  The Central Scioto River
mainstem potentially could provide habitat for these species, if water
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quality was improved.  Continued degradation of water quality will decrease
the chances for these fish to expand their ranges into the Scioto River.  The
restriction of available habitat will prevent populations from increasing in
numbers.  These species include the bluebreast darter, slender head darter,
spotted darter, and blacknose shiner.

     The only federally listed endangered fish in the area is the Scioto River
raadtom.  The fish was last sighted in Big Darby Creek in 1957, although
efforts to find it were made as recently as 1981.  Implementation of this
alternative will probably not have a direct impact on the fish, if it still
exists in Big Darby Creek, but it will preclude any potential for the
expansion of the present habitat.

     Several state endangered" mollusks may inhabit Big Darby Creek and the
Circleville Riffle of the Scioto River.  They are native to the Central Scioto
River, but are highly sensitive to pollution from WWTP effluent (Stansbury
1986).  Continued degradation of the Scioto River below the WWTPs will depress
the potential for these species to re-enter their former habitat.  Based on
surveys conducted from 1955 to 1970, species that may currently live in the
region are the cob shell, Simpson's shell, northern riffle shell, fragile
heelspiitter, and ridged pocketbook (Stansbury 1986, 1987).  Although there
have been no recent surveys of the Scioto River, a survey of Big Darby Creek
conducted within the past 3 years identified the following species:  smooth
minishell, smooth cob shell, northern club shell, fragile heelspiitter, and
northern riffle shell.  A few endangered mollusks have occasionally been
sighted in the Scioto River in earlier surveys.

6.3.3.2  Two-Plant Alternative
     Endangered aquatic species should benefit from implementation of this
alternative.  Improvements in water quality should allow the fish species that
have been captured in the Scioto River (river redhorse, mooneye, gold eye, and
Tippecanoe darter) to increase in abundance and allow those species inhabiting
tributaries (bluebreast darter, slenderhead darter, spotted darter, and
blacknose shiner) to expand their ranges.  Specific information on the
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tolerances of these species to turbidity and lowered DO is not available,
preventing an assessment of the conditions under which these species would
establish permanent breeding populations.  Increased habitat for feeding,
however, should benefit populations.  Improved water quality in the Scioto
River may increase potential for the Scioto raadtom population to expand its
numbers and range.

     Mollusk populations should benefit from this alternative because it could
offer them an expanded habitat and therefore the opportunity to increase in
abundance.  Because they are sensitive to WWTP effluent, they would most
likely move into areas further downstream from outfalls.  As larvae, the
unionid moHusks are carried to new environments on gills of fish.  Little
information is available on suitable fish species, but freshwater drum is
believed to be one such species (Stansbury 1987).  Freshwater drum is a
pollution sensitive species.  The potential for increased numbers of
freshwater drum in response to improved water quality also may play a role in
the migration of mollusks.

6.3.3.3  One-Plant Alternative
     Long-term impacts of  this alternative stem from:  1) modified water
quality below Jackson Pike and Southerly, and 2) reduction in flow between the
Jackson Pike and Southerly WWTPs.  Short-term impacts stem from construction
at the Southerly WWTP site.

     Below Jackson Pike, water quality will be somewhat improved under most
flow conditions.  These improvements may encourage rare, threatened and
endangered aquatic fauna to increase in range and abundance, entering the
Scioto River from tributaries or less impacted river areas further downstream.
Species most likely to migrate from downstream areas include the river
redhorse, mooneye, goldeye, and Tippecanoe darter.  Species most likely to
move into the river from tributaries include the bluebreast slenderhead and
spotted darters, and the blacknose shiner.  (Although some of these species
have already been observed is this area, current nigration patterns could be
affected.)
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     Under the one-plant alternative, however, the critical low flow condition
will be the limiting factor on re-colonization of the Upper Scioto River
(between Jackson Pike and Southerly) by rare, threatened, and endangered
species.  Because of the nearly 90 percent reduction in river flows which will
result from this alternative during low flow conditions, residual DO demands
from other upstream sources (urban runoff and the Whittier Street CSO) will
result in degraded water quality in shallow, still pools during warm weather.
Under these conditions, the sensitive species will be reduced or eliminated,
cancelling the benefits to water quality which will occur under higher flow
conditions.

     The nearly 90 percent reduction in river flows between Jackson Pike and
Southerly under low flow conditions, will exert additional negative impacts on
aquatic fauna due to the physical effects of reduced flows and diminished
habitat area.  Of the species mentioned above, the river redhorse is thought
to be particularly sensitive to slow and intermittent flows.  Reduced
velocities associated with low flow could stress this species and possibly
limit its range.  Because many of the species feed in riffles, drying out of
riffles also could hinder the movement of these species into the affected
river segment.  Unionid mollusks favor riffle habitats and require shallow to
medium depth, fast flowing water for feeding.  Should mollusks move into the
area, a dryout could cause mortalities and stress the population.
Reproduction of mollusks is dependent on swift currents and fertilization
occurs in fall.  It is possible that low flow conditions could prevent
permanent expansion of the mollusk population into this reach of river.

     Construction at the Southerly WWTP may threaten endangered terrestrial
and aquatic fauna.  The loss of trees along the Scioto's banks may damage
potential habitat for the federally endangered Indiana Bat.  The bat nests in
shaggy barked trees, preferably the shaggy barked hickory, along river banks
i.n summer.  Because the bat has been sited recently in nearby Pickaway County,
precautions should be taken to protect its nesting habitat.  Tree removal
associated with implementation of the one-plant alternative, if selected,
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should be timed to avoid the May through August (Multerer 1986) nesting
periods.  Because this alternative would result in an insignificant
incremental reduction in habitat area available to this species throughout its
range, this potential impact is considered minimal.

     Endangered fish with the greatest potential to be effected by
construction at Southerly include those most recently found in the area:
river redhorse, mooneye, and goldeye.  These species are all highly sensitive
to turbidity.  It is likely that individuals will be able to avoid the area,
but if not, they may be stressed or suffer mortalities.  The Tippecanoe
darter may be at risk if substantial quantities of sediment are carried as far
downstream as the Circleville Riffle.  However, this darter has not been
sighted above Circleville for the past 5 to 7 years.  Should sediment
concentrations increase markedly in lower Big Walnut Creek, the resident
population of slender-head darters might be disturbed, as these darters are
also highly sensitive to turbidity.  Because most of the endangered fish spawn
in spring, construction should not be scheduled at this time.  Mitigative
measures outlined by the city of Columbus indicate construction will proceed
during a low flow period, which should not coincide with spawning.  The impact
of construction on fish should be temporary and should not prevent these
species from expanding their ranges and numbers once the habitat recovers
(Yoder 1987b).

     Because no moHusks are believed to live in the Scioto River near the
Southerly WWTP, construction should not be problematic.  In surveys conducted
between 1955 and 1970, mollusks were found on the Circleville Riffle and in
the banks of lower Big Darby Creek.  The riffle is known to support
populations of rare, threatened, or endangered fish and may support some
unionid mollusks (Stansbury 1987).  Should sediment be transported down to the
riffle, moHusk populations may be harmed by increased turbidity.  Estimates
of sediment transport associated with construction are not available; however,
it is considered unlikely that any signficant impact would be felt in the
Circleville Riffle.
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6.3.4  Conclusions
     No impacts to terrestrial and wetlands biota/habitat will occur as a
direct result of either the no action or two-plant alternatives.  Under the
one-plant alternative, minimal impact will occur for potential habitat of the
Indiana Bat and piping plover, both endangered species.  Wetlands habitat is
not impacted by any alternative.

     The one-plant alternative will require removal of a narrow band of
forested area on both sides of the Interconnector crossing of the river.  This
impact will remove mature trees on the west bank and younger specimens on the
east bank.  Although the removal of forest habitat is signficant and long term
locally, the increment is quite small regionally and the overall impact is
considered minimal.

     Direct impacts associated with construction of the one-plant alternative
would require mitigation.  The city of Columbus has proposed an array of
mitigation measures which will minimize the potential impacts of construction.

     Elimination of the Jackson Pike WWTP under the one-plant alternative will
remove a localized area of attraction to waterbirds, shorebirds, and
songbirds, including several rare species.  These birds are presently
attracted by the ponds and settling basins, the brushy edge vegetation
habitat, and the open water of the Scioto River, which is prevented from
freezing during winter by the warm effluent.  The Jackson Pike site is popular
as a birding site due to the variety of species which may be observed at this
location.

     No significant additional changes in aquatic biota/habitat will occur
under the no action alternative, although little recovery of the currently
degraded conditions is expected.

     Under the two-plant alternative, improvements in aquatic biota/habitat
will occur below Jackson Pike and Southerly.  Because of the impacts from
remaining pollutant sources upstream of Jackson Pike (urban runoff and CSOs),
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the greatest Improvements in aquatic biota/habitat will be realized below
Southerly.

     The one-plant alternative will improve water quality below Southerly,
compared to the no action alternative, but to a lesser extent than the two-
plant alternative.  This comparatively reduced beneficial impact results
from a greater residual wasteload demand discharged at Southerly under the
one-plant alternative and the enlarged resulting DO sag, compared to the one-
plant alternative.  It is possible that this enlarged sag may extend to
Circleviile and interfere with existing point source dischargers in the
Circleville area.

     Below Jackson Pike, water quality would be improved under most flow
conditions, resulting in an average improvement in aquatic habitat/biota.
However, under critical low flow conditions, the continuation of extreme low
river flows, resulting from the loss of the Jackson Pike effluent and the
remaining background loadings of pollutants (urban runoff and CSOs) may result
in short term but severe water quality stress.  This stress will result in
critical impairment of aquatic habitat/biota and will be the dominating factor
in the riverine ecology between Jackson Pike and Sourtherly during the
critical warm weather season.

     The reductions in river flows, resulting from elimination of Jackson Pike
effluent under the one-plant alternative, will further limit aquatic
biota/habitat below Jackson Pike through removal of physical habitat.  Because
critical low flow in the river below Jackson Pike will be reduced by nearly
90 percent under the one-plant alternative, aquatic habitat will be impaired
through exposure to drying and reductions in the volume of remaining aquatic
habitat.  These impacts will be especially severe in shallow riffle areas.

     Generally speaking, it is believed that impact to the biological
environment would be wore significant under the oneplant alternative than
under the two-plant alternative.  Therefore, the two-plant alternative is
preferred.
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6.4  ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES - HUMAN ENVIRONMENT
6.4.1   Planning and Land Use
6.4.1.1  No Action Alternative
     Under this alternative, use of the Jackson Pike and Southerly WWTPs would
continue with only minor maintenance.  No land acquisition or zoning changes
would be necessary and, therefore, no Impact would be anticipated.

6.4.1.2  Two-Plant Alternative
     No land acquisition or zoning changes will be required under this
alternative.  Under this alternative, a smaller portion of the Southerly site
would be used for wastewater facilities than under the one-plant option.  As
previously explained this land has already been purchased and disturbed during
construction to meet compliance with water quality standards by 1988.  In
addition, there will be no expansion outside the current site boundary of the
existing Jackson Pike  facility.

6.4.1.3  One-Plant Alternative
     Ho land acquisition or zoning changes will be required under this
alternative.  Under the one-plant alternative, a larger portion of the
Southerly site would be used for wastewater treatment facilities than under
the two-plant option.  The land required for these facilities already has been
purchased by the city  and was disturbed and graded as the city pursued
construction to meet compliance by 1988.  The one-plant alternative will
require expansion of the river crossing.  The necessary land is already owned
by the city and was previously disturbed.  Upgrading of these facilities may
disturb day-to-day farming activities of several farms located on Route 665;
however, these effects will be short-term and minimal.
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6.4.2  Noise
6.4.2.1  No Action Alternative
     The no action alternative would not involve new construction or its
associated noise impacts.  Noise from the regular operation of the Jackson
Pike and Southerly WWTPs would continue at current levels.  These are not
considered a nuisance at this time.

6.4.2.2  Two-Plant Alternative
     Ambient noise levels near both treatment plants will increase during
construction activities.  As mentioned above, construction specifications will
minimize these effects.  Operational noise is not expected to be a nuisance.

6.4.2.3  One-Plant Alternative
     Ambient noise levels in the area will increase during construction.  The
one-plant alternative will result in the concentration of construction
activities at Southerly and therefore increase noise levels at that location.
However, project construction specifications will include provisions for
minimizing these short-term impacts, and, in accordance with standard
practice, all construction activities will be performed during regular working
hours and all vehicles will be equipped with mufflers.  Noise associated with
operation of the improvements to wastewater treatment facilities at the
Southerly WWTP will occur due to the operation of the machinery and traffic
serving the facilities.  These increases are not expected to be a nuisance to
nearby residents.

6.4.3   Public Health
     Adequate disinfection of the effluent from sewage treatment facilities  is
required for the protection of public health during warm weather months.
Untreated effluent can result  in the release of pathogenic microorganisms
capable of causing widespread  outbreaks of disease.  Current disinfection
practices at both the Southerly  and Jackson Pike WWTPs are successfully
controlling the release of pathogenic  microorganisms to the Scioto River, as
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evidenced by low effluent fecal coliforra counts.  Treatment levels are
expected to improve slightly with the upgrading of facilities under either the
one- or two-plant alternatives.

     Land application of anaerobically digested sludge is a widely practiced
method of sludge disposal.  The primary public health concern regarding this
disposal method is the entrance into the food chain of contaminants contained
in the applied sludge.  The state of Ohio has issued strict guidelines
regulating this practice in order to protect public health interests.
Adherence to these regulations under either the no action, one-plant, or two-
plant alternatives is expected to protect the public from any adverse health
effects.

6.4.4  Energy Use
     The energy requirements associated with the upgrading of facilities at
Jackson Pike and/or Southerly WWTPs include:

       Gasoline and diesel fuel for construction equipment and for hauling of
        solids to landfill, land application, or composting.
       Electric power for the operation of pumps, aerators, miscellaneous
        plant equipment, and heating and cooling.
     *  Methane gas (produced by anaerobic digestion) for use as an energy
        supplement within the plants.

     The impact of these energy requirements is not projected to deplete local
reserves significantly.  Current requirements will increase slightly under the
two action alternatives as flows increase.  The one-plant alternative is
estimated to require 10 to 20 percent less energy than the two-plant
alternative due to efficiencies of scale.

6.4.5  Economics and Employment
     Employment levels at the two treatment plants under the no action
alternative would remain constant at approximately 212 persons.  Employment
requirements are estimated at 135 people for the one-plant alternative and 191
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people for the two-plant alternative.  The two-plant alternative requires less
personnel than the no-action due to more efficient computerized control
equipment.  Employment requirements are the least under the one-plant option
due to economies of scale.  These differences are reflected in annual
operation and maintenance (O&M) estimates.

     The economic impact in the Columbus area of combined capital and O&M
expenditures would be roughly similar under the one- and two-plant options.
The no action alternative would not provide economic benefits from these
expenditures.  Quantification of indirect economic benefits cannot be
performed at the current level of project planning and financial analysis.

6.4.6   Historic/Archaeologic Resources
     Neither the no action nor the two-plant system alternatives will have
direct impacts on known historic resources.  However, the one-plant option
could impact an archaeologic site at the point of the river crossing.

     Archaeologic surveys were performed in 1985 by Dr. John Blank in order to
evaluate impacts from site work planned by Columbus to meet 1988 compliance
with water quality criteria.  During Dr. Blank's Phase I and Phase II survey,
four sites of some significance were identified within the boundaries of the
Southerly WWTP site.  Dr. Blank recommended a further (Phase III) archaeoiogic
survey.  However, at a meeting in March of 1986 the Ohio Historic Preservation
Officer (OHPO) approved the initiation of site work necessary to build
improvements to comply with water quality limits at the Southerly WWTP; this
work has since been completed.  Additional construction under the one-plant
alternative may still require a further (Phase III) investigation.  The OHPO
has been contacted to determine the need for this work.  At this time, no
significant impacts are expected.  Since documentation and recovery of these
sites will mitigate potential impacts, a complete Phase III study should be
completed before any further expansion occurs.
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6.4.6.1  No Action
     The no action alternative will not involve new construction at either
WWTP.  No impacts to known or unidentified archaeologic resources are
anticipated.

6.4.6.2  Two-Plant Alternative
     Impacts to archaeologic resources at the Southerly WWTP under the two-
plant option will be minimal.  During 1985 Dr. Blank, Professor of Archaeology
at Cleveland State University, surveyed the Jackson Pike WWTP site.  Dr. Blank
estimates that Jackson Pike was built on approximately 20 feet of fill
material, isolating any archaeologic resources below from disturbance.  For
this reason the two-plant alternative should have no direct impact on
archaeologic resources at Jackson Pike.

6.4.6.3  One-Plant Alternative
     Construction at the Southerly WWTP under this alternative is not expected
to disturb archeologic resources identified during surveys in 1985.

     The one-plant alternative involves extending four 78-inch gravity sewers
across the Scioto River.  This may directly impact at least one known
archaeologic site.  The Ohio State Historic Preservation Officer recommends an
archaeologic survey of the site to determine  if this site is eligible for the
National Register of Historic Places.   Since Dr. Blank's original survey
uncovered previously unknown sites at the Southerly WWTP site, it is probable
that construction activities associated with  the extension of the gravity
Interconnector Sewer may also disturb unknown resources in the area.  An
archaeologic investigation of all potential construction areas, including
temporary roads and rights-of-way, within the path of the gravity sewer should
be undertaken to ensure that these activities do not adversely impact unknown
archaeologic resources since these are predicted to occur frequently in this
area.
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6.4.7   Recreation
     Direct impacts on recreational use of the Scioto River are expected to be
minimal under either of the system alternatives.  Under the one-plant
alternative, discharges currently returned to the river at the Jackson Pike
WWTP will be shifted to the Southerly WWTP and discharged downstream.
Watershed models indicate that this change in discharge location only will
affect the water elevation of the river during low-flow periods.  The lower
section of the Scioto is generally shallow, slow-flowing, and lacking in
aesthetic and other qualities that promote recreational use on the northern
section of the river.  Minor impacts on water elevation will not change the
current uses of this area.  These include mostly duck hunting and fishing.
Boating in this area is largely limited to infrequent canoeing due to water
depths, which average 3 feet.   None of the alternatives are expected to alter
these patterns of use significantly.  Fishing on this section of the river,
while not as frequent as in areas north of the Greenlawn Dam, is directed
toward species adapted to the aquatic ecosystem existing here.  The one-plant
alternative, while occasionally lowering the river elevation minimally, is not
expected to cause so prolonged or significant an impact as to alter the basic
ecology of the area and thereby affect recreational use of the Scioto River.

     Neither of the project alternatives will affect the park acquisition and
conservation easement program, which the city of Columbus is undertaking on
the lower Scioto River in accordance with the "Watercourse Plan for Columbus
and Franklin County.

6.4.8   Transportation
     Direct impacts of the proposed project alternatives on vehicular
transportation in the Columbus area will involve short-term effects on traffic
flow due to construction.

6.4.8.1  No Action Alternative
     The no action alternative will not produce short- or long-term primary
impacts, leaving circulation patterns in their current status.
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6.4.8.2  Two-Plant Alternative
     Under the two-plant alternative, short-term construction impacts can be
expected at both the Southerly and Jackson Pike facilities, related to
construction vehicles and employees.  These effects will be marginally greater
at the Jackson Pike site due to the more congested traffic patterns in the
downtown area.  In neither case will impacts be significant enough to affect
the level of service in the area.  Under the two-plant alternative, no off-
site construction is anticipated that would impact vehicular flow.

6.4.8.3  One-Plant Alternative
     Transportation impacts of the one-plant alternative will be concentrated
at the Southerly plant during the construction process.  Short-term increases
in traffic may occur, but are unlikely to affect the level of service on State
Route 23, which is currently functioning well.

     Some disruption of traffic flows along State Route 23 and intersecting
roads may occur as connections are made from the Jackson Pike WWTP to the
Southerly WWTP, but the use of proper traffic management should minimize this
over the affected period.

6.4.9  Conclusions
     None of the alternatives are anticipated to cause significant impacts to
planning or land use.  No land acquisition or zoning changes will be
necessary.  With the one-plant alternative, the land necessary for a river
crossing is already owned by the city of Columbus.

     Ambient noise levels near the Jackson Pike and Southerly WWTPs will
increase during construction.  The one-plant alternative will result in a
concentration of construction activities and related noise at Southerly.
Operational noise is not expected to be a problem.
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     Both the one-plant and two-plant alternatives will provide for the
adequate disinfection of wastewater.  The no action alternative would prove
slightly less reliable than either action alternative.  No significant public
health impacts are expected.

     All alternatives will result in energy usage, however, no alternative is
projected to deplete local reserves signficantly.  Construction equipment will
use gasoline and diesel fuel, while electric power is necessary to operate
plant equipment.  The one-plant alternative should require less energy due to
efficiencies of scale.  However, it is not possible to qualify this at the
facility planning stage.

     The city currently has approximately 212 employees operating its
wastewater treatment plants.  Under the no action alternative, these
employment levels would remain constant.  Employment levels are reduced to 191
employees under the two-plant alternative due to the proposed installation of
computerized control equipment.  The one-plant alternative has the lowest
manpower requirements (135 employees) due to efficiencies of scale.

     The three system alternatives will not have direct impacts on known
historic resources.  However, the one-plant option could impact an
archaeologic site at the point of the river crossing.  Additional survey work
is suggested for all construction areas to ensure construction activities do
not disturb archaeologic resources.

     Direct impacts on recreational use of the Scioto River are expected to be
minimal under a one-plant or two-plant option.  None of the alternatives are
expected to alter present patterns of river use.

     Direct impacts of the proposed project alternatives on vehicular
transportation in the Columbus area will involve short-term effects on traffic
flow due to construction.
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6.5  ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES - SECONDARY IMPACTS/INDUCED GROWTH
6.5.1  Secondary Impacts;  Growth and Development
     Sustained growth in the Columbus metropolitan area ia projected through
2008.  Upgrading existing wastewater facilities will accommodate this growth.
This discussion centers on secondary impacts projected to occur as part of
forecast growth.  Secondary impacts are defined as indirect or induced
changes in population and economic growth or land use as well as other
environmental impacts resulting from these changes (USEPA 1975a; USEPA 1975b).
Secondary impacts from induced growth include: 1) increased demand for public
services; 2) increases in non-point source pollution and erosion and runoff
created by disturbances of stable areas; and 3) increased fiscal outlays
required to mitigate other secondary impacts, that is, provide additional
services.

6.5.1.1  No Action Alternative
     Market demand for housing in the Columbus area, demonstrated by low
vacancy rates, increased housing and office space costs, as well as a large
number of subdivision and building permit requests are expected to remain
high.  This demand for residential, commerical, and industrial uses is
concentrated in the parts of Columbus that already have water and sewer
service.  Local planners feel that this demand will continue well into the
future.  Since federal law mandates compliance with provisions of the Clean
Water Act by 1988, the no action alternative is not considered a viable
option.

6.5.1.2  One-Plant and Two-Plant Alternatives
     Although some interceptor sewers in the Columbus area are nearing full
capacity and future growth could be restricted in some service areas, this EIS
cannot assess the capacity or potential for growth inducement of these lines,
since plans for suburban interceptor expansion are not yet finalized.
However, some of the growth projected in the northwest section of Franklin
County may not occur if interceptor lines do not improve.
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     In general, during past studies of growth inducement, in those areas of
the country where no sewer service existed or expansion of trunk or sewer
interceptor lines increase service areas, the act of providing sewer service,
the location and size of treatment plants, as well as sewer interceptor
routes was found to potentially induce growth or redirect development.
However, since the Columbus area already has sewer service provided by two
major treatment plants and 3,735 miles of sewer lines, and locations and
sizes of new interceptors are not finalized, the secondary impacts of
upgrading both of the existing treatment plants or phasing out one plant in
order to expand the other will be limited.  For these reasons, growth
projections, dispersement of the projected population, and the size of the
future service area will not be affected by the one- or two-plant
alternatives.

     Several factors have influenced growth and development in the Columbus
area over the past 20 years.  These include the following growth determinants:

       In-place linkages to interstate  transportation systems:  railroads,
        highways, and major airports
       Availability of public facilities, primarily water and sewer
       Public policies encouraging economic growth and development
       Public policies regarding public land use regulation and taxation
        (fiscal) policies
       Public perception of suburban amenities, such as schools and parks.

     As long as the Columbus economy is  strong and continues to expand, and  as
long as vacant land is available, the northern suburbs of Columbus will
continue to grow (see chapter 4).  Developers and local residents find this
section of the county to be most attractive because of its readily available
recreation resources, existing public services, fine public schools, and close
proximity to the Columbus central business district (CBD).  Although some
infilling has occurred, the city is also expanding its boundaries through
annexation in the northwest sector of the county.  This is an area where the
incorporated areas of Dublin and Milliard are also expanding their boundaries.
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     Although State law limits annexation to contiguous parcels of land (land
adjacent to the established corporate limits of a city or village) the
political boundaries of the city of Columbus are not compact.  The city has a
checkerboard pattern of annexation.  Other incorporated areas in Franklin
County have similar disjointed municipal boundaries.  Most of these
municipalities use annexation to gain the fiscal benefits of new commercial,
industrial, and residential developments.  In the city of Columbus, developers
usually negotiated for water and sewer service.  In these cases, water and
sewer service was withheld until proposed developments were annexed into the
city.

     This reactive method of providing essential services has resulted in an
inefficient pattern of development.  The Office of Strategic Planning
recognizes these inefficiencies and is encouraging infilling.  Infilling is
the process of developing vacant parcels of land that are surrounded by
developed parcels of land.  Most of the growth projected for the planning
period can be accommodated by these vacant parcels of land located near the
Columbus city limits.  Table 6-17 shows that this type of infill annexation
has already started to occur.

     One community most likely to absorb secondary impacts from upgrading of
existing facilities is New Albany.  This community is inside the future
service area, but outside areas presently served by water and sewer.  As
discussed in chapter 2, strict septic system requirements are limiting growth
in this area to single homes on large lots of approximately  1 acre or more.
Once water and sewer is available, the average residential development in the
area will probably shift to one-quarter acre lots.  This will reduce both
housing and development costs.  Columbus has no plans to extend sewer
interceptor lines into the rural areas adjacent to New Albany (Joyce 1987).

     The most obvious impacts of continued forecast growth will be degradation
in air and water quality and the increased demand for public services
together with the increased taxes and user fees required to  finance these
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            TABLE 6-17.
      ANNEXATIONS THAT HAVE OCCURRED IN COLUMBUS
               1984-1986
 Number of
Annexations
    1
    3
    4
Townships
                                     1984
Franklin TWP
Mifflin
Perry
Norwich
Sharon
Plain
Jackson
Violet, Fairfield Co.
Blendon
Clinton
Praire
Acres Annexed
By Townships
   .98
  8.4
125.451
  4.260
212.662
111.8
 23.157
  4.86
   .13
  4.9
  2.09
                     Acres
                     Acres
                     Acres
                     Acres
                     Acres
                     Acres
                     Acres
                     Acres
                     Acres
                     Acres
                     Acres
                                             1984 Total:   493.837 Acres
                                      1985
    1
    4
     2

     3
Perry
Sharon
Franklin
Blendon
Norwich
Praire
Plain
                                              1985  Total:
340.63  Acres
 73.436 Acres
 18.188 Acres
 15.902 Acres
250.001 Acres
  1.65  Acres
200.00  Acres

899.807 or 892.961 Acres
 No.  of  Acres  Annexed  by  TWP
                   1986
     3
     1
     2
     4
Franklin
Sharon
Perry
Clinton

Blendon
Mifflin
Praire
Norwich
Plain
Truro
  6.6    Acres
  12.92   Acres
  40.57   Acres
 983.197  Acres  (940.8  Ohio
          State  University)
  12.79   Acres
         Acres
                5.18
                2.167 Acres
              156.57  Acres
               37.618 Acres
                 .528 Acres

1986 Total:  1256.81  Acres
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services.  Section 6.5.4 discusses the impacts of growth on community
facilities.  These facilities include transportation, public utilities, police
and fire protection, and public education.

6.5.2  Secondary Impacts;  Air Quality/Climate
     This section presents an assessment of the impact of anticipated
population and related commercial and industrial growth on the ambient air
quality and climate in the Columbus area.

6.5.2.1  Secondary Impacts:  Air Quality
     Since portions of Franklin County have been designated as non-attainment
for total suspended participates, the impact of projected growth on future
ambient particulate concentrations was assessed.  Overall population increases
in the study area, with or without improved wastewater treatment facilities,
are not forecast to differ significantly.  The analysis presented, therefore,
reflects impacts from overall population growth, rather than any incremental
increases due to the proposed project.

     Growth forecasts (see chapter 4) show a 10 percent growth rate for the
period 1988 to 2000, and a 20 percent increase from 1988 to 2015.  This
population growth will be accompanied by increases in particulate generating
activities such as residential and commercial fuel combustion, automotive
exhaust, tire and brake wear, and solid waste burning.  The effect of  the
increased particulate loading will depend primarily upon the local
meteorological conditions; however, in order to estimate impacts it may be
assumed that these growth rates would be accompanied by a corresponding
increase in particulate emissions.

     The Ohio EPA (OEPA) operates several monitoring sites for total suspended
particulates throughout Columbus and the metropolitan area.  The monitoring
sites closest to the two wastewater treatment plants are located at Woodrow
Avenue, about 1.5 miles northeast of the Jackson Pike WWTP, and Dennis Lane
in Grove City, about 5 miles west-southwest of Jackson Pike.
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     The monitoring locations closest to the high growth areas as outlined in
Figure 4-3 are Maple Canyon in the northeast, South Hamilton Road in the east-
northeast, Dennis Lane, Grove City in the southwest, and Cranston Drive in the
northwest.  Assuming for simplicity that each of these high growth areas will
experience one-fourth of the expected increase in population and an associated
increase in ambient particulate matter levels, and furthermore, that the
Woodrow Avenue area would experience a like increase in particulate tnatter
levels, yields the following:
TABLE 6-18.  CURRENT AND PROJECTED LEVELS OF TOTAL SUSPEND'iD PARTICIPATES
                       DUE TO POPULATION GROWTH (ug/m3)
Monitoring
Station
Maple Canyon
So. Hamilton
Monitoring
Station
Cranston
Grove City
Woodrow
Avg.
Time
24-hr
Annual
24-hr
Annual
Avg.
Time
24-hr
Annual
24-hr
Annual
24-hr
Annual
1985
131
49.3
92
47.0
1985
74
36.8
93
38.6
132
49.5
1988
133
50.0
93
47.7
1988
75
37.4
94
39.2
134
50.3
2008
135
50.7
94
48.3
2008
76
37.8
96
39.7
136
50.9
     All values are well below  the  secondary standards of  dO ug/ra^  for  the
annual period and 150 ug/m3  for  the 24-hr average.  Therefore,  it is expected
that air quality impacts due  to  project-related growth will not contribute  to
the exceedance of any air quality standards, add to the  local non-attainment
areas, or inhibit progress toward achieving ambient air  quality standards.
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     In reality, however, it is not expected that particulate matter levels

will increase at the rates estimated above.  Data compiled by Ohio EPA (1985a)

for the years 1976 to 1985 have shown a significant reduction in the levels of

suspended particulates throughout Ohio.  Percent improvements are shown in

Table 6-19 below.  Data have been grouped according to whether an area is

considered urban or rural, and population- or source-oriented, indicating the

presence or absence of nearby major pollutant sources.


              TABLE 6-19.  PERCENT IMPROVEMENTS BY SITE CATEGORY
       Site Category

Urban/Source-Or iented
Urban/Population-Oriented
Non-Urban/Source-Oriented
Non-Urban/Population Oriented
% Improvement

      39
      38
      36
      31
     Similar levels of improvement have been monitored at sites near the

service area.


6.5.2.2   Secondary Impacts:  Climate

     Since the population growth and development are expected to change the

result in 24 hour or annual average air quality only slightly, it is very
unlikely that growth will contribute to changes in the climate of the area.


6.5.3  Secondary Impacts;  Water Quality

     To the extent that growth in the Columbus area can be related to the

proposed project, secondary impacts on water quality in the FPA can be .
expected.   However, the project is not projected to change the specific
locations and levels of local growth because the location of new or expanded
interceptors is presently unspecified.
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     Based on the current pattern of population distribution and growth
trends, generalized areas within the FPA have been identified where future
growth is probable.  These generalized areas are depicted as "High Growth
Areas" in Figure 4-3.  These growth areas can be grouped into four  general
zones, based on watersheds, for the purpose of indirect water quality  impacts
discussions.  Moving clockwise around Columbus, the four general  growth
impact zones are the Big Walnut Creek basin, including Blacklick Creek  and
Alum Creek; a small area draining directly to the lower Scioto River,
southeast of Grove City, in Jackson Township; the Big Darby Creek basin; and
the upper Scioto River, including the Olentangy River.

6.5.3.1  Secondary Impacts:  Water Quality - Big Walnut Creek
     Growth projected for this drainage basin occupies the northeastern and
eastern fringes of the Columbus metropolitan area, roughly following the
Route 270 corridor (see Figure 4-3).  This growth will directly affect
the headquarters of Big Walnut Creek, Blacklick Creek, and Alum Creek.  Water
quality impacts will include those typical of urbanization:

       Modified hydrograph (higher peak flows, lower base flows) and bank
        erosion
       Elevated turbidity, dissolved solids, and sedimentation
       Elevated water temperatures
       Increased organic load (higher BOD, COD, TOG, and nutrients) and
        decreased DO
       Elevated levels of non-point toxics (pesticides, herbicides, and
        complex organic compounds)
       Increased coliforra bacterial levels.

     The extent of these impacts will be dependent on the rate and degree of
urbanization actually realized and on the extent to which stream management
practices are integrated with this growth.
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     Current information is inadequate to determine either the quantities of
particular pollutants, or the specific impacts of these pollutants.  However,
all three streams comprising the Big Walnut Creek system are already subject
to water quality deterioration due to urban point sources and non-point source
loadings (see Section 2.3.5.2).  The projected growth pattern in this stream
system will aggrevate existing DO, ammonia, and fecal coliform problems.
Although existing water quality degradation in the upper portions of the Big
Walnut Creek system will be exacerbated by projected growth, the lower
sections of this stream system are not projected to experience high growth
rates (Figure 4-3).  Consequently, some water quality improvement will occur
(from natural wasteload assimilative capacity in the stream) before Big
Walnut Creek enters the Scioto River.  The extent of this improvement, and
the degree of possible impacts on the Scioto (resulting from any residual
wasteload in Big Walnut Creek discharge) cannot be quantified with the
currently available data base.

6.5.3.2  Secondary Impacts:  Water Quality - Lower Scioto
     A small area east of Interstate 71, north of Route 665, south of
Interstate 270, and west of the Scioto is projected for high growth
(Figure 4-3).  This area drains directly to the Scioto through a series
of small streams, including Grant Run and other unnamed permanent and
intermittent drainages.  Although the streams will be severely impacted by the
same generic water quality effects of urbanization cited in the preceding
discussion, these small streams are not known to represent significant aquatic
habitats within the FPA.

     Because of the proximity of this area to the raainstem Scioto, little
natural wasteload assimilation will occur prior to the release of any urban
pollutants to the river; therefore, caution should be exercised during
development of these areas to control non-point runoff.  The current data base
is not adequate to quantify potential impacts on the Scioto from this area.
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6.5.3.3  Secondary Impacts: Water Quality - Big Darby Creek
     High growth rates are predicted to occur on the west and southwest
fringes of the Columbus metropolitan area, outside of Interstate 270, north of
Interstate 70, and south of Interstate 40 (see Figure 4-3).  Generic water
quality impacts will be as cited for Big Walnut Creek.

     This growth zone is concentrated in the Hellbranch Run subdrainage basin
of Big Darby Creek.  Hellbranch Run occupies a predominantly north/south
orientation, approximately midway between Interstate 270 and the mainstem of
Big Darby Creek, discharging to Big Darby Creek at the Interstate 71 bridge
(immediately north of the Franklin County/Pickaway County Line), north of
Harrisburg.

     Because most of the growth in this zone will be captured by the
Hellbranch Run subbasin, impacts on Big Darby Creek upstream of the confluence
of Hellbranch Run will be minimal.  However, Hellbranch Run will be directly
impacted by the projected growth in this zone.  Due to the projection of high
growth along much of the stream's length, water quality in Hellbranch Run is
expected to exhibit significant deterioration over time.

     Big Darby Creek currently exhibits "exceptional" water quality (see
Section 2.3.5.2).  Upstream of the confluence of Hellbranch Run, little change
is expected based on the current projection of growth in this zone.  However,
Big Darby Creek will be impacted by gradually deteriorating water quality
discharges from Hellbranch Run due to the small flow from Hellbranch Run, in
comparison with Big Darby Creek, and the high water quality in Big Darby
Creek, the severity of impact should be small.  After the confluence of
Hellbranch Run, Big Darby Creek flows more than 25 miles before discharging
to the Scioto River.  Therefore, Big Darby Creek water quality is expected to
recover from  the impacts of future growth in Hellbranch Run before joining
the Scioto River and little or no impact will be evident in the Scioto
itself.
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6.5.3.4  Secondary Impacts:  Water Quality - Scioto/Olentangy Rivers
     High growth is predicted for the north and northwest fringes of the
Columbus metropolitan area along the Scioto and Olentangy river mainstems
(Figure 4-3).  General water quality impacts will include those cited
previously for Big Walnut Creek.  Because this growth is predicted to occur in
the immediate proximity of the Scioto and Olentangy mainstems, urban
pollutants will enter these streams with little if any attenuation.

     Water quality in the sections of the Scioto and Olentangy affected by
growth in this zone exhibit some degree of urban pollution; however,
conditions have improved in recent years (see Section 2.3.5.1).  The degree to
which growth impacts will arrest or reverse this trend or the degree to which
water quality impacts will carry to more critical downstream areas in the
Scioto cannot be accurately determined with the currently available data base.

6.5.4  Secondary Impacts;  Community Facilities
     In rapidly growing metropolitan areas such as Columbus there are two
requirements in providing adequate community services.  The first involves
maintenance of the existing facilities; the second involves expansion of these
services to meet increasing demands.

     There are a number of ways to finance facilities to meet increased
service needs.  These include:

       Increasing existing fees and charges
       Increasing income and property taxes
       Assessing impact fees on developers
       Assessing new fees and taxes for special districts
       Issuing bonds for capital improvements
       Coordinating service delivery among local municipalities
       Expanding the tax base.

     One of the primary methods used to finance services in the Columbus
region has been expansion of the tax base via annexations.  While expanding
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the tax base, new growth in these areas places demands on existing services.
If fees or taxes are inadequately assessed, the supply of community facilities
is adversely affected.  Older facilities and services may not be properly
maintained or supported, and the demand for new facilities and services may
not be provided for in a timely manner.

     In the Columbus area, demand for services has increased as each community
has expanded its boundaries.  Many services are currently at capacity and are
showing signs of deterioration or stress.  The services and resources with the
greatest potential for impacts from sustained growth are listed below:

       Public water and sewer
       Roads and highways
       Public schools
       Fire and police protection
       Cultural resources.

6.5.4.1  Secondary Impacts:  Community Facilities - Public Water and Sewer
     The city of Columbus provides water and sewer service to most of Franklin
County.  Parts of this system were installed as early as 1935.  The Columbus
Infrastructure Report included in Appendix N lists the location of sewer and
water lines along with associated problems with each system.  Almost 4,000
miles of sewer and water lines must be maintained throughout the Columbus
system.  Although developers usually pay for the installation of sewer
interceptors, the city must include operation and maintenance charges in its
rate structure.  As the system ages and its size increases, operation and
maintenance costs also increase.  Projected growth will increase the number of
system users.  The impacts of maintaining other operations are discussed in
the Columbus Infrastructure Report.  This report indicates that each
community will have significant  funding shortfalls and that new revenue
sources must be tapped in order  to maintain this system.  The report urges an
increase in user charges and assessment fees to cover operation and
maintenance costs.
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     Aside from maintaining a system of water lines, the city is also
responsible for maintaining adequate water supply reserves.  Columbus
currently draws 95 percent of its drinking water from surface water supplies.
As mentioned in the water quality section (Section 6.5.3), increased
recreational use and development heightens the potential for runoff into these
waterways.  As described in the city's watercourse plan, providing a buffer
will limit the impacts of future development.

     A recently completed water supply study prepared by the State of Ohio for
Columbus (Witlatch & Martin 1985) confirms that the city can meet its water
supply needs through the early 1990's.  This study recommends, however, that
additional sources be found.  The city has four deep water wells.  In order to
meet growth demands, the city may need to add more wells in the future.

6.5.4.2  Secondary Impacts:  Community Facilities - Transportation
     No secondary impacts on transportation are anticipated as a result of
this project under any of the alternatives.  As previously described, the
Columbus area is active and growing.  Road capacity problems currently exist
in several areas; some will be addressed under planned and/or programmed
transportation improvements.  Future growth and development will aggravate
existing traffic capacity problems.  However, none of the proposed
alternatives will result in growth that is more extensive or earlier than
that currently anticipated.

     The level of service provided by the Columbus area highway system appears
to be adequately meeting current needs of the system, although some roads in
some communities are approaching capacity.  While data were not available to
precisely quantify the levels of service, experts as well as previously
referenced documents (see chapter 2) indicate that level of service capacity
has been reached in some communities and is approaching capacity in others.
Qualitative conclusions as to level of service are summarized in Table 6-20.
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     Table 6-20 identifies a poor level of service for highways in
Westerville.  A major factor contributing to this over-capacity condition is
limited east/west access to 1-71 from the entire community, resulting in
severe traffic congestion.  This traffic condition is reported to occur even
during non-rush hour periods.  As indicated in Table 6-20, Dublin also is
experiencing traffic congestion.  Dublin is a relatively small community with
a recent history of rapid growth where road systems are not adequate to
handle the increased traffic.  New Albany is projected to experience the same
type of growth as Dublin, and it is reasonable to expect that the same type
of traffic congestion experienced in Dublin will occur in New Albany as
development proceeds.

     In looking at the general results of levels of service estimates, it
seems reasonable to conclude that in many cases highway/road capacity has been
reached without regard to additional growth anticipated in the future.  It is
also clear that growth is anticipated to continue and that the proposed
project is only one factor in determining the magnitude of that growth.  It
does not appear from the available information that the implementation of the
project will increase growth beyond that already projected.

6.5.4.3   Secondary Impacts:  Community Facilities - Public Education
     Franklin County has 17 independent school districts including Columbus.
Each district operates its own schools and raises the funds to finance these
schools through local property taxes.  Most of the schools in high growth
areas such as Dublin, Westerville, Worthington, and Milliard are at capacity
and will require expansion in the near future.

     These areas may be forced to increase their property taxes in order to
pay for new schools.  Added to other public improvement needs the tax rate
may need to be increased, or taxpayers may be forced to decide between school
improvements or roadway improvements.  One method of limiting educational
costs that is being considered by the city of Columbus would be to request
that developers dedicate parcels within new developments for future
neighborhood schools.  Table 6-21 lists the enrollment figures, existing
capacity, and other parameters for each school district.
                                        6-109

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                    TABLE 6-20.  CURRENT LEVELS OF SERVICE
Incorporated Area
   Highway  (federal,
state, and interstate)
C ounty Road
Dublin
Westerville
New Albany
Hillard
Reynoldsburg
Pickerton
Gahanna
        D - E
          F
        C - D
        D - E
        D - E
        D - E
        D - E
    D - E
    E - F
    C - D
    D - E
    D - E

    D - E
 Levels of Service Definitions:
                                  Definition

A -  Highest quality of service that represents free traffic flow,
     indicates no restrictions on operating speed.

B -  Stable traffic flow with few restrictions on operating speed.

C -  Stable flow with high traffic volume and more restrictions on speed
     and lane changing.

D -  Approaching unstable flow with little freedom to maneuver.

E -  Unstable flow, lower operating speeds than level D, short headway,
     and accident potential high.

F -  Forced flow operations where highway acts as a storage area and
     there are many stoppages.
Source:  Institute of Traffic 1976.
                                       6-110

-------
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                                             6-111

-------
6.5.4.4   Secondary Impacts:  Community Facilities - Fire and Police Protection
     In 1977, MORPC prepared two reports:  one addressing police protection
and the other addressing fire protection (Mid-Ohio Regional Planning
Commission 1977b).  Neither of  these studies have been updated.  Both of
these reports indicated that  providing adequate police and fire protection
for the Columbus area would  require increased coordination of services and
additional manpower.  These  reports found that the inconsistent pattern of
annexation by Columbus  disrupted the delivery of these services.  The
problems referred to in these  reports have not been directly addressed in the
intervening 10 years.

     Some efforts have been made to mitigate problems.  Columbus is currently
recruiting and training new police and fire fighters, and has plans to open
four new fire stations in the next three years.  These stations will be
located in  the northern sections of Columbus where most of the new service
demands associated with rapid growth have occurred.  In addition, Franklin
County plans to make 911 service available by the end of 1987.  However, as
these efforts have gone on, new problems have arisen.  In order to cut the
costs of increased service demands, some smaller communities have dropped
their police forces without making contractual arrangements with Franklin
County for protection.  Although this does not leave a community unprotected,
it does change the type of service provided.  A comprehensive community
services plan, sound financial planning, and increased coordination of
services to the various communities would lessen the negative impacts of such
changes in service.

6.5.4.5  Secondary Impacts:  Community Facilities - Cultural Resources
     Secondary impacts on historic resources could occur as a result of
changes in land use and zoning patterns as well as changes in the evolution of
neighborhoods during the growth process.  Historic resources have been
inventoried in the study area.  Land use changes may affect historic
properties adversely in numerous ways without stringent zoning codes, zoning
enforcement, containment of strip commercial and zoning map changes.
                                       6-112

-------
     As communities grow and expand outwards from the central core,
neighborhoods lying between the commercial business core and new suburban
communities often go through a period of decline.  Many of these older homes,
particularly in the midwest, are of historic significance.  Examples of
historically significant communities are areas of American bungalows and
neighborhoods of turn-of-the-century catalog homes.  During the cycle of
neighborhood decline there is a tendency for greater absentee ownership,
and lack of basic maintenance and repair.  Moreover, without stringent zoning
enforcement, neighborhood integrity can decline as former dwelling units are
turned into marginal business locations.  In addition, during new suburban
development, many older estates or farms are sold to developers.  Without the
capacity within the local community to inventory significant farms or estates
of historic interest, many of the original estate/farm homes will be
demolished to make way for suburban progress.

     To minimize loss of historic resources, Federal Community Development
Block Grant Funds could be applied to inventory older neighborhoods of
indigenous American architecture and draft public policies for preserving
these resources.  Ohio Historic Inventory Districts that may be impacted the
roost by induced growth are districts:  1-4, 8-10, 15-17, 20, and 22.

     As described in chapter 2, archaeologic sites have been found to be
nearly continuous along the floodplain and on adjacent bluffs along the Scioto
River in the area of the Southerly WWTP.  Since insufficient data have been
collected and inventoried, knowledge of prehistoric culture along the Scioto
River and within the study area is not complete.

     Increased urban development along the Scioto River in the vicinity of the
Southerly plant may increase the disturbance of unknown sites.  As part of the
recreation plan for the Scioto River, conservation of the southern Scioto
riverbanks is recommended as a means of mitigating secondary impacts on these
resources.
                                       6-113

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6.5.5  Conclusions
     Growth forecasts show a 10 percent growth rate for the period 1988 to
2000 and a 20 percent overall increase from 1988 to 2015.  This population
growth will be accompanied by increases in particulate generating activities
such as residential and commercial fuel consumption, automotive exhaust, tire
and brake wear, and solid waste incineration.  Calculations were made based on
the project growth rates.  Based on this analysis, it is expected that air
quality impacts due to project related growth will not contribute to the
exceedence of any air quality standards, add to the local non-attainment
areas, or inhibit progress toward achieving ambient air quality standards.

     Since the population growth and development are not expected to result in
a violation of ambient air quality standards, it is unlikely that growth will
contribute to changes in the climate of the area.

     Based on the current pattern of population distribution and growth
trends, four generalized areas have been identified where future growth is
probable.  These growth areas are grouped in four zones based on watersheds
for the purpose of water quality analysis.  Water quality improvement is
anticipated to occur in the Big Walnut Creek before it enters the Scioto.
Little natural wasteload assimilation will occur in the lower Scioto prior to
the release of any urban pollutants to the river, therefore, caution should be
exercised during development of these areas to control non-point runoff.  Big
Darby Creek currently exhibits exceptional water quality upstream of the
confluence of Hellbranch Run and impacts from development in Hellbranch Run
will be mitigated prior to Big Darby joining the Scioto River.  Development
along the Scioto/Olentangy mainstems will result in urban pollutants entering
the streams with little if any attenuation.

     In the Columbus area, demand for community services has increased as each
community has expanded its boundaries.  Many services are currently at
capacity and are showing signs of deterioration and stress.  Local reservoirs
must be protected from the negative impacts of increased development and
additional drinking water sources should be located.  No secondary impacts on
                                       6-114

-------
transportation are anticipated as a result of this project under any of the
alternatives.  Host of the schools in high growth areas such as Dublin,
Westerville, Worthington, and Hilliard are at capacity and will require
expansion in the future.  Fire and police protection will continue to face
problems from expanded urban development.


6.6  CONCLUSIONS ON ALTERNATIVES

     The previous sections of this chapter presented evaluations of the one-

plant and two-plant alternatives based on engineering criteria and

environmental impacts.  Table 6-22 provides a comparison of the one-plant and
two-plant alternatives based on the environmental impacts.  Table 6-23
provides a comparison between the one-plant and two-plant alternatives based

on engineering criteria and major environmental issues.


     The two-plant alternative is recommended over the one-plant based on the

following:


       The  two-plant alternative has a  ten percent lower present worth cost
        than the one-plant alternative.

       The  two-plant alternative will he more reliable than the one-plant
        with respect to shock loads of pollutants to the sewer system.

       The  two-plant alternative will provide more flexibility to adapt to
        increased future  flow, to adapt  to more stringent effluent limits, and
        to address combined sewer overflows.

       The  two-plant alternative will be easier to implement since the
        majority of the facilities at each plant already exist.

       The  two-plant alternative will result in more positive impacts with
        regard to the quality of surface water flows (Scioto River).

       The  two-plant alternative will not result in any negative impacts
        with regard to the volume of surface water flows in the Scioto River
        between Jackson Pike and Southerly.

       The  two-plant alternative will result in more positive impacts on
        aquatic biota and endangered species.
                                       6-115

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                       TABLE 6-22.  ONE-PLANT/TOD^LANT IMPACTS COMPARISON
Criteria
Ann. User Costs
Sur. W. Qual.
Air/Odors


Soils/10 Ag


GW


Proj. 88:GW


Surface Flows


Terr. Bio.
Aq. Bio.
               One-Plant

       m - $42-76 add' 1 user charges
           (new total:   $150-184)
           <$500/yr = not excessive

       M - Impaired upstream water quality
       M - WQ impaired  @ normal flow
       M - Enlarged downstream DO sag
       M - Potential for conflicts w/down-
           stream dischargers
       M - Short-terra constr. impacts due
           to river x-ing

       m - Sludge incineration impacts -
           no addtl. violations of standards

       m - Construction-related erosion -
           easily mitigated

       m - Possible reductions in OT recharge
           along upper  Scioto

       M - Wells dewatered due to constr.
       M - Low flow reduction (86%) in
           upper Scioto

       m - Habitat loss due to constr. at
           Southerly (incl. river x-ing;
           greater on W. bank)

       ra - Reduction in open-water habitat
           @ J.P. in winter

       M - Habitat reduction and impairment
           @ IP between J.P. and Southerly

       M - Habitat impairment below Southerly
                     m - Short-term habitat disruption
                         due to river x-ing
Key:

   Issue

M = Mijor
m = Minor
        Two-Plant

m - $40-66 add' 1 user charges
    (new total:  $148-174)
    <$500/yr = not excessive

m + minor improvement in WQ at LF
m + WQ improvement at normal flow
m ) Downstream DO sag minimized
m + Potential for downstream conflicts
    minimized
m o no impacts
m - [Repeat of one-plant]
m + Construction-related erosion
    minimized - easily mitigated

m o No impacts
M - [repeat of one-plant]
    @ Southerly - mitigated

m o No change in current low flow
    conditions

m o No impact
                                                                   m o No impact
m o No change
m + Minor habitat improvement below
    Southerly

m o No impact
   Impact

- = Negative
+ = Positive
o = Neutral
                                                 6-116

-------
                            TABLE 6-22.   OEHPLAOT/TWH'LANr IMPACTS COMPARISON (OCKT.)
Criteria
Endangered Sp.
Plann./L.U.
Noise



Pub. Health

Energy Use


Econ./Bnploy.



Hist./Arch.
Recreation
        One-Plant

m - Impaired habitat below J.P. at IF

m - Loss of bird habitat at J.P.

m - Reduction in Indiana BAT habitat
    due to river x-ing (greater on
    W side); easily mitigated

M - Impaired habitat below Southerly

m - Poten. short-term disruption of
    farming (easily mitigated)
m - Short-term constr. increase/
    long-term QSM increase:  both
    easily mitigated
m + Slightly less (10-20%) energy
    use due to economies of scale

m + Construction expenditures:
    $269 million
    Annual employment:  135

m - Potential disrupt, of 2-3 non-
    eligible sites; can be mitigated
    through recovery (Phase III)

m - Potential disrupt, of one possibly
    eligible known site and other
    unknown sites @ Scioto River crossing

m - Water level reductions during U;
    attenuated by low use levels of
    affected areas during LF
        ftp-Plant

m -i- Minor improvement in habitat at IF

m o No change at J.P.

m o No Impact



m + Minor improvement below Southerly

m o No impact


ni o Expansion of SE corner of J.P.

m - [repeat of one-plant]
m - Slightly higher (10-20%) energy
    use due to less economics of scale

m + Construction expenditures:
    $215 million
    Annual employment:  191

m - [repeat of one-plant]
                                                                  m o No impact
m o No change
Keyj.
Issue
M = Major
m - Minor

Impact
- - Negative
+ = Positive
o  Neutral
                                                 6-  117

-------
                            TABIE 6-22.   OC-PtAW/lWD-PLANr  IMPACTS COMPARISON (CONT.)
Criteria

Transportation


2:Develop.



2:Aix Qual.

2:Water Qual.


Pub. Water/Sew.



Transportation



Pub. Education



Fire/Police Prot.


Cultural Res.
               One-Plant

       m - Short-term constr.  impacts on roads
           near Southerly

       M o Acconmodates future growth;
           distribution of growth tied  to
           future local development  plans
       M - Non-point WJ deterioration (long-
           term);  worst in tellbranch Sun

       M - Increased 08M costs/potential
           funding shortfalls in surrounding
           comunities

       M - Declining levels of service in
           suburban camnunities (New Albany,
           Westerville, Dublin)

       M - Increased crowding in 17 Franklin
           Co. school districts; possible
           property tax increases

       m - Potential service level/coverage
           problems

       ra - Potential losses of hist.
           structures and arch, sites due
           to incomplete inventories and
           limited ability to require
           preservation and/or recovery
        Two-Plant:

m - Short-terra constr. impacts on
    roads near both WWIPs

M o [repeat of one-plant]
M - [repeat of one-plant]


M - [repeat of one-plant]



M - [repeat of one-plant]



M - [repeat of one-plant]



m - [repeat of one-plant]


m - [repeat of one-Tplant]
   Issue

M = Major
m = Minor
- = Negative
+ " Positive
o - Neutral
                                                  6-118

-------
         TABLE 6-23 ONE-PLANT/TWO-PLANT COMPARISON
CRITERION
ONE-PLANT
TWO-PLANT
PRESENT WORTH
COSTS
                         x
RELIABILITY
                         x
FLEXIBILITY
                         x
EASE OF
IMPLEMENTATION
                         x
EASE OF OPERATION
AND MAINTENANCE
  X
SURFACE WATER
QUALITY
                         x
SURFACE WATER
FLOWS
                         x
AQUATIC BIOTA
                         x
ENDANGERED
SPECIES
                         x
   = PREFERRED ALTERNATIVE
                              6-119

-------

-------
                          CHAPTER 7.  PREFERRED PLAN

7.1  DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED PLAN
     Based on the engineering and environmental evaluations presented in
chapter 6, the two-plant alternative is  recommended as the preferred
alternative.   This alternative involves upgrading Jackson Pike and Southerly
to provide wastewater treatment Eor the Columbus area through 2008.
Figure 7-1 presents a flow diagram  of the two-plant alternative.  Figures 7-2
and 7-3 present flow schematics of the Jackson Pike and  Southerly  WWTPs,
respectively.   The following sections describe the required facilities.

7.1.1  Interconnector/Headworks
     Under the two-plant alternative, the north end of the Interconnector
(i.e. tributary to Jackson Pike) would require completion  to allow diversion
of excess Jackson Pike flows to the Southerly WWTP.  The north end of the 150-
inch diameter Interconnector Sewer would be constructed  along  the  west and
north sides of the Jackson Pike WWTP.  A diversion chamber would be installed
on the O.S.I.S. ahead of Jackson Pike  at  the  intersection of  the  O.S.I.S. and
the Interconnector Sewer.

     New headworks are required at the Jackson Pike WWTP.  The new headworks
would include:

       Four coarse bar racks
       Four 35 MGD raw sewage pumps
       Four mechanically cleaned bar screens
       Four aerated grit chambers.

     The south end of the Interconnector  (i.e.  tributary to  Southerly) would
not require expansion or modification under the two-plant alternative.  The
existing pump station and force mains are adequate to convey projected flows.
The existing Southerly headworks are also capable of processing projected flows.
                                     7-1

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7.1.2  Wet Stream Treatment
     The recommended wet stream  treatment  scheme at both plants would consist
of  the following processes:

       Preaeration
       Primary Settling
       Aeration
       Final Settling
       Chlorination/Dechlorination
       Post Aeration
       Effluent Pumping.

     The existing primary treatment facilities at both plants, which include
preaeration and primary settling, have adequate capacity to treat the
projected flows.  Some rehabilitation of the existing facilities would be
required.

     The semi-aerobic process is the recommended biological process for both
plants.  The semi-aerobic process is a modified form of the conventional
activated sludge process.  It offers more  flexibility to achieve nutrient
removal and control sludge bulking than the conventional activated sludge or
trickling filter/activated sludge processes.  It differs from the conventional
activated sludge process in that the first 25 percent of the reaction basin is
not aerated.  Therefore, this section of each basin is in an anaerobic or
anoxic state.  To eliminate backmixing from the aerated zone to the anaerobic
or anoxic zone, two baffles would be installed in the first bay of each
aeration basin.  An internal mixed liquor  recycle loop connecting the effluent
end of the aeration basin with the initial bay would be necessary.  The
recycle loop would be utilized to achieve  denitrification in the aeration
basin.  It is desirable to have denitrification occur in the aeration basin in
order to insure that it would not take place in the final clarifiers where it
would cause a rising sludge problem.
                                      7-5

-------
     The semi-aerobic process would be easily incorporated into the existing
tankage.  Both plants would utilize existing aeration basins.  The Southerly
WWTP would require two new basins, added to the Center Train, to treat the
projected flows and loads.

     Post treatment at both plants would include chlorination, dechlorination,
and post aeration.  Post aeration would take place in the final pass of the
chlorine contact tanks.

     Existing effluent pumping at the Southerly plant is adequate to handle
the projected flows.  Jackson Pike does not have an existing effluent pumping
facility.  However, there are two 3.6 MGD effluent pumps on the A train.  In
the Revised Facility Plan Update the city indicated that a new 100 MGD
effluent pumping facility would be required at Jackson Pike if the two-plant
alternative were to be implemented.  In subsequent correspondence the city
referred to high river levels as the reason a pumping facility would be
required.  Until further documentation is produced by the city on the
frequency and duration of high river elevations, a new effluent pumping
facility cannot be recommended.  The cost estimates include approximately
4.5 million dollars for the facility.  This cost will be subtracted if
documentation is not produced.

     Tables 7-1 and 7-2 provide details on the recommended wet stream treat-
ment facilities at Jackson Pike and Southerly, respectively.

7.1,3  Sludge Management
     The recommended solids handling scheme at both plants includes the
following processes:

       Gravity thickening of PS
       Centrifuge thickening of WAS
       Anaerobic digestion
       Centrifuge dewatering.
                                      7-6

-------
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                                                 7-10

-------
     Solids disposal of the annual solids production at Jackson Pike would be
accomplished by the following processes:

       50 percent would be incinerated, and the ash product landfilled.
       50 percent of the dewatered sludge would be land applied.

     Disposal of the annual solids production at Southerly would be
accomplished by the following processes:

       50 percent of the sludge would be incinerated, and the ash product
        landfilled.
       25 percent of the sludge would be composted and distributed as a soil
        conditioner.
       25 percent of the sludge would be land applied.

     Redundancy of sludge disposal methods at both plants is provided through
the incineration process.   At Jackson Pike, the two existing incinerators are
capable of incinerating approximately 50 percent more sludge than Jackson Pike
will produce.  At Southerly, the two new incinerators constructed in 1986 are
capable of incinerating aproxinsately 100 percent more sludge than the
Southerly plant is projected to produce under the two-plant alternative.  In
light of the redundancy exhibited by the new Southerly incinerators,
rehabilitation of the older incinerators at Southerly does not appear
justified.

     Tables 7-3 and 7-4 provide details on the recommended solids handling
facilities at Jackson Pike and Southerly, respectively.
7.2  IMPACTS OF THE PREFERRED PLAN
7.2.1  Financial Impacts
     User charges are assessed to finance both capital construction costs and
O&M costs of operating public facilities.  Due to the uncertainty as to the
amount and time of current and future grants of Federal funds, it is useful to
present estimated user costs in a range from assuming no Federal funds

                                      7-11

-------
           TABLE 7-3.  JACKSON PIKE SOLIDS HANDLING DESIGN CRITERIA
GRAVITY THICKENING PS

       Number of units


       Total surface area

       Solids loading rate

       Hydraulic loading rate


CENTRIFUGE THICKENING WAS

     *  Number of units

       Feed rate


ANAEROBIC DIGESTION

       Number of units

     *  Total volume

     *  VSS loading rate

       Solids retention time


CENTRIFUGE DEWATERING

       Number of units

       Feed rate

       Polymer dosage


INCINERATION

       Number of units

       Rated capacity
2 modified anaerobic digesters f 85 ft dia.
x 10 ft SWD

11,350 sq ft

9 Ib/day/sq ft

250 gpd/sq ft
2 existing and 1 new

500 gpm @ 1% solids




6 existing @ 85 ft dia. x 23.5 ft SWD

0.8 million cu ft

0.13 Ib VSS/day/cu ft

20.9 days




6 existing

1,000 Ib/hr @ 4% solids

12 Ib/dry ton




2 existing 7-hearth @ 22.25 ft dia.

200 wet ton/day @ 20% solids
                                  7-12

-------
            TABLE 7-4.  SOUTHERLY SOLIDS HANDLING DESIGN CRITERIA
GRAVITY THICKENING PS




       Number of units




       Total surface area




       Solids loading rate




       Hydraulic loading rate






CENTRIFUGE THICKENING WAS




       Number of units




     *  Feed rate






ANAEROBIC DIGESTION




       Number of units




     *  Total volume




       VSS loading rate




     *  Solids retention time






CENTRIFUGE DEWATERING




       Number of units




       Feed rate




       Polymer dosage






INCINERATION




       Number of units




       Rated capacity
4 existing @ 45 ft dia. x 17 ft SWD




6,362 sq ft




20 Ib/day/sq ft




590 gpd/sq ft











4 existing and 1 new




250 gpm @ 1% solids











6 existing @ 85 ft dia. x 23.5 ft SWD




0.8 million cu ft




0.12 Ib VSS/day/cu ft




21 days











6 existing and 2 new




1,000 Ib/hr 
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available to assuming a 55 percent grant for all capital construction.  This
approach shows the full range of possible additional.annual user charges.
For the recommended alternative, this range is $40 to $66.  Added to 1985
annual user fees of $108, this range results in total future annual
residential user fee estimates of $148 to $174.  These estimated fees only
apply to residential users.  Commercial and industrial users pay similar fees,
and additional charges for extra strength effluent are also levied on some
industries.

     Median family income often is used to assess the affordability of
increases in user charges to average residents.  Franklin County, which
includes most of the service area, had median family incomes over $17,000 in
1979.  Given EPA guidance, an annual user charge of $367 would not be
considered excessive for this income category.  Based on this guidance,
estimated additional user charges for the recommended alternative would not
make total user charges excessive.

7.2.2  Environmental Impacts
7.2.2.1  Primary Impacts
Surface Water Quality
     The recommended two-plant alternative would protect stream standards for
DO and ammonia.  However, the treated effluent would contain a minimal
residual wasteload, which would be assimilated by the river without violating
water quality standards.

     The recommended alternative would release the residual effluent DO demand
to the Scioto River at two locations (Jackson Pike and Southerly).  Two DO
sags would therefore result, however, neither sag should result in contraven-
tion of water quality standards.  Significant improvements to in-stream DO
conditions would result from this alternative.  Because significant pollutant
loads would continue to enter the Scioto River upstream of Jackson Pike (from
urban runoff and CSOs from Whittier Street), the degree of water quality
improvement below Jackson Pike would be less than below the Southerly WWTP.
                                      7-14

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Under certain flow conditions, DO levels below the 5.0 mg/1 standard may occur
below Jackson Pike, related to CSO loadings.  However, the presence of Jackson
Pike effluent during low flow events may lessen the DO impacts of CSOs and
upstream urban runoff.

Air Quality/Odor
     The most significant long-term impact to air quality from the recommended
alternative would result from the operation of incinerators as a primary method
for ultimate solids disposal.  However, the recommended alternative should
result in a decrease in the total amount of solids incinerated at Southerly
due to the fact that anaerobic digestion would be practiced and also because a
portion of the solids at Southerly would be land applied.  The level of
incineration at Jackson Pike would remain approximately the same.

     A 25 percent increase in the amount of solids composted would result in
increasing odor potential near the composting facility.  This increase may or
may not be offset by process changes, renovations, and the installation of new
units, which are expected to reduce the occurrence of earthy sewage odors
characteristic of this facility.  Improvements to aeration and dewatering at
the Southwesterly Composting Facility could reduce odors through the reduction
of moisture and maintenance of optimum temperature, pH, and oxygen content.

Soils/Prime Agricultural Land
     The physical and chemical characteristics of local soils govern the
extent of impacts from proposed improvements to the Southerly and Jackson Pike
WWTPs under the recommended alternative.  First, the direct impact of soils
disturbance during the construction of new facilities and the removal of
existing facilities would result in exposure and accelerated erosion within the
limits of the project sites.  Second, land application of anaerobicaliy
digested waste activated sludge to agricultural lands would modify the
composition of the existing soils.  The impact of both segments of the project
will involve areas that have been designated, based on soils classification,
as "prime agricultural" lands.
                                       7-15

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     Under the recommended alternative, there would be no additional land
outside the current site required for construction of Che proposed upgrading
of the Southerly or Jackson Pike WWTP.

     Land application of anaerobically digested waste activated sludge is a
well-known and accepted method of solids management.  Under the recommended
alternative, approximately 38 dtpd of sludge will be land applied, 12 dtpd
from Southerly and 26 dtpd from Jackson Pike.  Based on 1985-1986 cadmium
concentration figures and a range of soil assimilative capacities typical for
this region, an application rate of 3.4 to 5.1 dry tons per acre per year can
be estimated.  This results in an annual land requirement of 2,755 to 4,133
acres per year.  Comments from OEPA and Columbus indicate that a site will be
limited to 16 years of active life because of zinc concentrations.  Based on
the city's estimate of 200,000 acres available for land application within
40 miles, site availability should not be a problem.  Current land application
operations have proven successful with no reported contamination or adverse
health effects; this performance should continue based on current guidelines.

     No significant impacts are forecast to area soils or prime agricultural
land under the recommended alternative.

Groundwater
     The recommended alternative is not expected to cause significant impacts
to area groundwater resources through potential interaction with the Scioto
River since WWTP discharge levels and any associated impacts will remain
similar to current practices.  Because the stretch of the Scioto River
affected by the Jackson Pike WWTP is small, little, or no impact on the
groundwater system by improvements to surface water quality is expected.

     A draw-down of groundwater elevations and drinking water wells occurred
in 1986 to the town of Shadeville, a suburb of Columbus, due to a dry spell,
construction dewatering at the Southerly WWTP, and groundwater pumping for the
city's Parsons Avenue Water Treatment Plant.  This caused the water table to
drop about 8 feet leaving many of Shadeville's wells inoperational.  This
                                       7-16

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impact v-.-j nltigated through the extension of centralized water service to
Shadeville by the city.  Any future impacts due to construction dewatering
should also be mitigated through provision of city water by extension of the
city's centralized water distribution system.

Surface Water Flows
     The volume of surface water Columbus currently removes from the Scioto
River is about the maximum possible limit, especially during the critical low
flow months of summer and fall.  Therefore, no future manraade reductions in the
volume of flows in the Scioto River area are expected around the Columbus area.

     The recommended alternative would discharge flows from the Jackson Pike
WWTP at roughly the same levels as currently occur.  Average daily discharge
will be reduced from 85 to 70 MGD, a decrease of 20 percent.  For this reason,
impacts from the recommended alternative are not expected to significantly
alter the physical parameters of Scioto River surface water between the
Jackson Pike and Southerly WWTPs.

Terrestrial and Wetland Biota/Habitat
     No impacts to previously undisturbed wetlands or terrestrial habitat are
expected under the recommended two-plant alternative.

Aquatic Biota/Habitat
     Water quality in the Scioto River, between Columbus and Circleville, is
currently degraded by point sources and general non-point runoff for the
metropolitan area.  The key water quality problem is considered to be low DO.
Although the low DO problem is clearly related to discharges from the Jackson
Pike and Southerly WWTPs (degraded fish populations have been associated with
the DO sags resulting from these two point sources), other sources
contributing to the problem included the Whittier Street CSO and general
urban runoff.
                                       7-17

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     Upgrading both treatment plants would result in water quality improve-
ments and no water quality violations due to WWTP effluent.  Nonpoint and CSO
contributions of pollutants will continue to cause problems.  These changes
should have a favorable impact on aquatic biota and habitat.  Sensitive
species that currently inhabit the area should persist and increase in
abundance.  New species may move into the area and increase community
diversity.

     Decreased turbidity should create a more favorable habitat for turbidity-
sensitive species.  These species, such as darters, which now inhabit Scioto
River tributaries, may begin to move into the Scioto mainstream in greater
numbe rs.

     Although the effluent from the WWTPs should not cause violations in DO
standards under the recommended alternative, residual wasteloads in the
effluents from both WWTPs would continue to exert a DO demand in the receiving
water, and a reduced DO sag would persist below both treatment plants.  As a
result, fish communities would continue to show some degradation as oxygen
levels are depressed downstream.  These effects would be most noticeable in
the sections of the river where the residual DO sags are most critical (i.e.,
where DO  levels approach 5.0 mg/1).  Effects of degradation in fish
communities include increased numbers of omnivorous fish relative to
insectivorous fish, increased hybridization, (lowered biotic index) and
decreased diversity.  Although the structure of the benthic community would
also improve under the recommended alternative, benthic communities would
continue  to exhibit decreased abundance and diversity in areas experiencing
the oxygen sag.

     Over the past 6 years, the fish community in the Central Scioto has
improved.  The recommended alternative would result in a continuation and
acceleration of this trend.  Although significant improvements should occur,
the collective, continuing impacts of WWTP effluents, general urban runoff,
                                       7-18

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and the Whittier Street CSO would prevent free biological recovery  in  the
Central Scioto, when compared with comparatively unimpacted segments upstream
of Columbus and downstream of Circleville.

     Endangered aquatic species should benefit from implementation  of  this
alternative.  Improvements in water quality should allow the fish species that
have been captured in the Scioto River (river redhorse, mooneye, gold  eye, and
Tippecanoe darter) to increase in abundance and allow those species inhabiting
tributaries (bluebreast darter, slenderhead darter, spotted darter, and
blacknose shiner) to expand their ranges.  Specific information on  the
tolerances of these species to turbidity and lowered DO is not available,
preventing a precise assessment of the conditions under which these species
would establish permanent breeding populations.  Increased habitat  for
feeding, however, should benefit populations.  Improved water quality  in the
Scioto River may increase potential for the Scioto madtom population to expand
its numbers and range.

     Mollusk populations should benefit from this alternative because  it could
offer them an expanded habitat and therefore the opportunity to increase in
abundance.  Because they are sensitive to WWTP effluent, they would most
likely move into areas further downstream from outfalls.  As larvae, the
unionid mollusks are carried to new environments on gills of fish.  Little
information is available on suitable fish species, but freshwater drum is
believed to be one such species (Stansbury 1987).  Freshwater drum  is a
pollution sensitive species.  The potential for increased numbers of
freshwater drum in response to improved water quality also may play a role in
the migration of mollusks.

Planning and Land Use
     No land acquisition or zoning changes should be required under the
recommended alternative.  Under this alternative, a portion of the current
Southerly site would be used for new wastewater facilities.  This land has
already been purchased and disturbed during construction to meet compliance
                                       7-19

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with water quality standards by 1988.  In addition, there would be no
expansion outside the current site boundary of the existing Jackson Pike
facility.

Noise
     Ambient noise levels near both treatment plants would increase during
construction activities; however, construction specifications would minimize
these effects.  Operational noise is not expected to be a nuisance.

Public Health
     Current disinfection practices at both the Southerly and Jackson Pike
WWTPs are successfully controlling the release of pathogenic microorganisms to
the Scioto River, as evidenced by low effluent fecal coliform counts.
Treatment levels would improve slightly with the upgrading of facilities under
the recommended alternative.  The state of Ohio has issued strict guidelines
regulating land application of sludge in order to protect public health
interests.  Adherence to these regulations under the recommended alternative
would protect the public from any adverse health effects.

Energy Use
     The energy requirements associated with the upgrading of facilities at
Jackson Pike and/or Southerly WWTPs include gasoline and diesel fuel, electric
power, and methane gas.  The impact of these energy requirements is not
projected to deplete local reserves significantly.  Current energy require-
ments would increase slightly under the recommended alternative as flows
increase and higher levels of treatment are achieved.

Economics and Employment
     Employment levels under the recommended alternative would drop from
approximately 212 persons to 191.  The economic impact in the Columbus area of
combined capital and O&M expenditures would be positive, however,
quantification of indirect economic benefits cannot be performed at the
current level of project planning and financial analysis.
                                       7-20

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Historic/Archaeologic Resources
     The recommended alternative would have no direct impacts on known
historic resources.

     Construction at the Southerly WWTP under the recommended alternative is
not expected to disturb archaeologic resources identified during surveys in
1985.  Phase I and II archaeologic surveys were performed by Dr. John Blank,
Professor of Archaeology at Cleveland State University, in order to evaluate
impacts from site work planned by Columbus to meet 1988 compliance with water
quality criteria.  Four sites not eligible for the National Register were
identified during Dr. Blank's survey within the boundaries of the Southerly
WWTP site.  Dr. Blank recommended a further (Phase III) archaeologic survey.
However, at a meeting in March of 1986 the Ohio Historic Preservation Officer
(OHPO) approved the initiation of site work necessary to build improvements to
comply with water quality limits at the Southerly WWTP.  This work has since
been completed.

     During 1985 Dr. Blank also surveyed the Jackson Pike WWTP site.  Dr.
Blank estimates that Jackson Pike was built on approximately 20 feet of fill
material, isolating any archaeologic resources below from disturbance.  For
this reason, the recommended alternative should have no direct impact on
archaeologic resources at Jackson Pike.

Recreation
     Direct impacts on recreational use of the Scioto River would be minimal
under the recommended alternative.

Transportation
     Direct impacts of the proposed project alternatives on vehicular
transportation in the Columbus area would involve short-term effects on
traffic flow due to construction at both the Southerly and Jackson Pike
facilities.  These effects would be marginally greater at the Jackson Pike
                                       7-21

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site due to the more congested traffic patterns in the downtown area.  In
neither case.would impacts be significant enough to affect the level of
service in the area.  No off-site construction is anticipated that would
impact vehicular flow.

7.2.2.2  Secondary Impacts
Growth and Development
     Sustained growth in the Columbus metropolitan area is projected through
2008.  Upgrading existing wastewater facilities under the recommended
alternative would accommodate this growth.  Secondary impacts projected to
occur as part of forecast growth are evaluated below.  These include:  1)
increased demand for public services, 2) increases in non-point source
pollution and erosion and runoff created by disturbances of stable areas, and
3) increased fiscal outlays required to mitigate other secondary impacts, that
is, provide additional services.

     Although some interceptor sewers in the Columbus area are nearing
capacity and future growth could be restricted in some service areas, this EIS
cannot assess capacity or potential for growth inducement of these lines,
since plans for suburban interceptor expansion are not yet finalized.
However, some of the growth projected in the northwest section of Franklin
County may not occur if sewer service is not extended.

     As long as the Columbus economy is strong and continues to expand, and as
long as vacant land is available, the northern suburbs of Columbus should
continue to grow (see chapter 4).  Developers and local residents find this
section of the county to be most attractive because of its recreation
resources, existing public services, and close proximity to the Columbus
central business district (CBD).  Although some infilling has occurred, the
city is also expanding its boundaries through annexation in the northwest
sector of the county.  This is an area where the incorporated areas  of Dublin
and Milliard are also expanding their boundaries.
                                       7-22

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     The most obvious impacts of continued forecast growth would be
degradation in air and water quality, increased demand for public services,
and increased taxes and user fees required to finance these services.

     Since portions of Franklin County have been designated as non-attainment
for total suspended particulates, the impact of projected growth on future
ambient particulate concentrations was assessed.

     Growth forecasts (see chapter 4) show a 10 percent growth rate for the
period 1988 to 2000, and a 20 percent increase from 1988 to 2015.  This
population growth will be accompanied by increases in particulate generating
activities such as residential and commercial fuel combustion, automotive
exhaust, tire and brake wear, and solid waste incineration.  An analysis of
changes in emissions due to forecast growth conclude that air quality impacts
due to project-related growth will not contribute to the exceedance of any air
quality standards, add to the local non-attainment areas, or inhibit progress
toward achieving ambient air quality standards.

     Since the population growth and development are not expected to result in
a violation of ambient air quality standards, it is unlikely that growth would
contribute to changes in the climate of the area.

     Based on the current pattern of population distribution,  generalized
growth areas within the FPA have been identified in Figure 4-3.  These growth
areas can be grouped into four general zones, based on watersheds, for the
purpose of indirect water quality impacts discussions.  Moving clockwise
around Columbus, the four general growth impact zones are the Big Walnut Creek
basin, including Blacklick Creek and Alum Creek; a small area draining
directly to the lower Scioto River, southeast of Grove City, in Jackson
Township; the Big Darby Creek basin; and the upper Scioto River including the
Olentangy River.
                                      7-23

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     Hater quality impacts in these basins would include those typical of
urbanization:

       Modified hydrograph (higher peak flows, lower base flows) and bank
        erosion
       Elevated turbidity, dissolved solids, and sedimentation
       Elevated water temperatures
       Increased organic load (higher BOD, COD, TOO, and nutrients) and
        decreased DO
       Elevated levels of non-point toxics (pesticides, herbicides, and
        complex organic compounds)
       Increased coliform bacterial levels.

     The extent of these impacts would be dependent on the rate and degree of
urbanization actually realized and the extent to which stream management
practices are integrated with this growth.

Public Water and Sewer
     The city of Columbus provides water and sewer service to most of Franklin
County.  Farts of this system were installed as early as 1935.  The Columbus
Infrastructure Report indicates that each of the communities in the Columbus
area would have significant funding shortfalls in providing local sewers and
water lines and that new revenue sources should be tapped in order to maintain
this system.  The report urges an increase in user charges and assessment fees
to cover operation and maintenance costs.

     Aside from maintaining a system of water and sewer lines, Columbus is
also responsible for maintaining adequate water supply reserves.  A recently
completed water supply study (Witlatch & Martin 1985) confirms that the city
can meet its water supply needs through the early 1990s and recommends that
additional sources be found.  In order to meet growth demands, new wells
should be located and tested regularly.
                                      7-24

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Roads and Highways
     The level of service provided by the Columbus area highway system appears
to be adequately meeting current needs of the system, although some roads in
some communities are approaching capacity.  While data were not available to
precisely quantify the levels of service, experts indicate that the level of
service capacity has been reached in some communities and is approaching
capacity in others.  In many cases highway/road capacity has been reached
without regard to additional growth anticipated in the future.  It is also clear
that growth is anticipated to continue and that the recommended alternative
would represent only one factor in determining the magnitude of that growth.  It
does not appear from the available information that the implementation of the
project would increase growth beyond that already projected.

Public Education
     Franklin County has 17 independent school districts including Columbus.
Each district operates its own schools and raises the funds to finance these
schools through local property taxes.  Most of the schools in high growth
areas such as Dublin, Westerville, Worthington, and Hilliard are at capacity
and should require expansion in the near future.

Fire and Police Protection
     In 1977, MORPC prepared two reports:  one addressing police protection
and the other addressing fire protection (Mid-Ohio Regional Planning
Commission 1977).  Neither of these studies have been updated.  Both of these
reports indicated that providing adequate police and fire protection for the
Columbus area would require increased coordination of services and additional
personnel.  These reports found that the inconsistent pattern of annexation by
Columbus disrupted the delivery  of fire and police services.  The problems
referred to in these reports have not been directly addressed in the
intervening 10 years.
                                      7-25

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Cultural Resources
     Secondary impacts on historic resources could occur as a result of
changes in land use and zoning patterns as well as changes in the evolution of
neighborhoods during the growth process.  Historic resources have been
inventoried in the study area.  The Ohio inventory, in particular, is
extensive.  Land use changes may affect historic properties adversely in
numerous ways without stringent zoning codes, zoning enforcement, containment
of strip commercial and zoning map changes.

     As described in chapter 2, archaeologic sites have been found to be
nearly continuous along the floodplain and on adjacent bluffs along the Scioto
River in the area of the Southerly WWTP.  Since insufficient data have been
collected and inventoried, knowledge of prehistoric culture along the Scioto
River and within the study area is incomplete.  Increased urban development
along the Scioto River in the vicinity of the Southerly plant may increase the
disturbance of unknown sites.  As part of the recreation plan for the Scioto
River, conservation of the southern Scioto riverbanks is recommended as a
means of mitigating secondary impacts on these resources.

7.2.2.3  Mitigative Measures
     Direct air quality impacts associated with the recommended alternative
would include short-term, adverse air quality impacts experienced during the
construction phase of the project with the generation of fugitive dust and
increased vehicular exhaust.  These impacts would be concentrated in the
locale of both the Jackson Pike and Southerly facilities.  Project
specifications should include provisions for mitigating such impacts, through
such measures as watering of haul roads and exposed soil.

     Noise impacts should be minimized by the following techniques:
       Vehicles and motorized equipment should be properly muffled to state
        standards.
       Surface construction work should occur only during normal workday
        hours.
                                       7-26

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       Any activity potentially causing excessively high noise levels (e.g.,
        blasting) should be carried out in accordance with applicable state
        and local regulations.
       Noise barriers should be used around sites where required by the local
        authorities.
     Erosion and sedimentation impacts should be minimized by the following
techniques:
       Permanent erosion control structures, such as rip-rap or rock fill,
        should be incorporated into the site design where appropriate.
       The contractor should grade, fertilize, seed, and mulch areas as
        called for on the plans or as directed by the engineer.
       The contractor should provide for temporary seeding or sodding as
        called for on the plans or as directed by the engineer.
     Well-planned construction phasing takes into consideration the adverse
effects on construction sites in which work will be left partially completed
while construction continues elsewhere.  A preferred phasing policy would
call for completion of all necessary construction in a section before
proceeding to the next section.  This will prove more expensive in short-term
costs, but environmentally advantageous in the long-term.

     Finally, growth-related impacts (i.e., "secondary growth") will occur in
the Columbus area in the future.  Although these impacts are not a direct
consequence of the proposed project, mitigation should be considered by the
city where possible in the interest of sound environmental management to
control water quality impacts.  Best Management Practices (BMP) should be
employed including:  construction or farming set-backs from stream corridors
as well as other erosion control measures discussed above.
                                      7-27

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     In the area of fiscal and infrastructure planning, greater care should be
directed to anticipating and planning for future infrastructure needs and
development of longer term financing options.  Specific opportunities in this
area are included in the Infrastructure Project Final Report, included as
Appendix N.

7.3  FUTURE FACILITIES PLANNING
     This SEIS has evaluated only a component of a complete waste treatment
system; therefore, any grant funds awarded to the city of Columbus would be
contingent upon EPA approval of facilities planning for both combined sewer
overflow and future interceptors.  The last two grant awards to the city have
included such grant conditions.

Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO)
     The RFPU stated that the environmental impacts of the existing combined
sewer overflows were insignificant according to documentation in the draft
OEPA Central Scioto River Water Quality Report (CWQR).  However, information
in the CWQR suggests that the environmental impacts of the existing CSOs are
significant.  On page 195 the CWQR states that "combined sewer overflow, and
as previously discussed, plant bypasses also contribute significant loadings
of BODj, NHj-N, TSS, and other substances to the Central Scioto River
Mainstream".  Further, page 317 states, "Reductions in the magnitude and
frequency of combined sewer overflow discharges is needed to improve aquatic
community function, alleviate aesthetic problems, and reduce risks to human
body contact recreation in the segment between Greenlawn Dam and the Jackson
Pike WWTP".
     Water quality impacts of CSOs have been identified; however, detailed CSO
data is not available to assess the magnitude or determine control methods.
Therefore, completion of facility planning to produce a CSO study is required
by OEPA to identify the magnitude of CSOs, mitigation measures, and a cost-
effective, environmentally sound solution to the CSO problem.  The city is
also required within the NPDES permit to monitor the combined sewer overflows
and report monthly for the permitted discharges.

                                      7-28

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Future Interceptors
     This SEIS addressed only general population growth and secondary impacts
associated with growth.  Since the city has not completed planning for future
interceptors, spacially located growth and impacts could not be identified.
The city is also required to complete facilities planning for future
interceptors.
                                      7-29

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             CHAPTER 8.  RESPONSES TO COMMENTS ON THE DRAFT SEIS

8.1  INTRODUCTION
     In December 1987, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency published the
Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement on the Wastewater Treatment
Facilities for the Columbus, Ohio Metropolitan Area.  Copies of the Columbus
Draft SEIS were circulated to a large number of federal, state, and local
agencies and organizations as well as private citizens who had expressed
interest in the project.  On February 16, 1988, a public hearing was held in
two sessions, 1:00 p.m. and 7:00 p.m., at the Columbus City Hall to allow the
public the opportunity to comment on the Draft SEIS.  The period for receipt
of comments was 45 days.

     The comments received during the public hearing and in writing are
included in Section 8.2 in full text.  Numbers were placed beside the comments
to identify those comments for which responses were prepared.

     Comments received from the city of Columbus led to a change in the flow
split between the two WWTPs under average flow conditions.  Other minor
changes have been made to the SEIS as a result of the comments received.  The
disinfection facilities and final clarifiers at Jackson Pike have been
relocated to avoid construction in the lagoon area.  Responses were prepared
for all numbered comments, and they are included in Section 8.3.

8.2  COMMENT LETTERS
                                       8-1

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               t. $vlN +1    to5t'l, P^p, to*
                                                                                                              p        .
                                                                                                              Oort KNrtt, IS* fl
                                                                                                              UllM. Oh)*  5
                                                                                     M.(
                                                                                   Catiri-WM
                                                                                          t CoMftlltlwiri          PHtwlp* CoHTiii
                                                                                          ,,..,. =-!,...   MJ^i. ,.,.,
                                                                                   HDMK>I CMMV tafivwl
                                                                                                               d-Mntvri, Ohio Jl*t
                                                                                                               MJaC.cU
                                                                                                               O twill HH* Siff)
                                                                .
                                                       Mtkouw. BMP 9
                                                       krcUvill*, (*!  4SII
                                                      tHMJ Cowff l.^[npl
                                                      PlMiM &*!.*)
                                                      JJ Ikxtfi Nrk llrMF
                                                      MftH*lr Okie  "9W
                                                      ttwlbf CouKft ttflatti
                                                      FiMtftfM CawUltw
                                                      m <* co*i .'
                                                      liMf, i  D
                                                                                                                                                          
                                                                                   UTH
                                                     o. won
                                                    CD m/v
                                                               
V.U.. T.
ttllen S EF>
               , U>l>tMratpr
       . a  M*M
 I ! la rvcklpt oi th* Drift SapplMtntil !nvlrbni*ntil Iipiet SkKttwnt toi
 th Viicvwittr Trtiuint FullUlti fr tht ColHAbui, CM Kttrpalttu Aril.
 Thil il not vlthln  im o< npittln IX t vtvli tpprtcllM 1C II ye*
 voula rvo** 7 ma* lte tin rt*ltv Ltit.
                                                                                    |    JU  -AA^"
                                M ol CMttvtiwi Oiiuktl
                      MMtbStnf4 Point, wiwonun S4taV28S&
                                      -
                                                                            
-------
                       AlBERS AND  AlBEM
                                       i. me
 UNITED mils ammmsirtu. MORCHIM KEHCY
 xeolon rivt
 230  South Dearborn Street
 Chicago,  Illinoll 004

 ktttntioni  Kri. Klti  Btir
         HZ:  Jtfftraon  wattr * Stwtr Dlttriet, I9 far
              tut wattt  wir Trtttntnt raciiltlat ror
              tht Colmbul, Ohio Mtropolltan Jkrta

 Dr Bra. Bain
         Think you (or tht iorun to t*prta our eonctrn rtaaraing tht
 abovt rtftrtnctd SEIS  and tht ability o[ tht Jtfftrion waltr t
 Stwtr BiMrlet CO acctis tht ColUKDOt Stwtr Sytttia.  I tlao
 pprtelatt waiving tht USE?* ntttlltl  regtidlng tniwutloil.
 Hawtvtr.  upon rwlw o( thl MttrKl. tnl t rtvltv of tht Itw. I
 till  >oMwhtt confiutd notrdlng tht tbllltr of our  Dlittlct to
 tcet tht Colubui Systtn.  SptclUully. eoul you pltttt tddtto
 tht following on vttr t, Ctvtr DUtllct htn tht  right to
             tccti*  that inttretptor?
         31  Owltr rtt circvmttiet.  If tny, uouU  tut HSCTX
             coop. 11 tlit City of talaOnt to ptnilt ui  to ieet
             thtir Btvtr fytttm}
                                                                                         UNITED STTTS prviMWDIKTIuV ntanCTIIW kSIKCY
                                                                                         Ktglon Flv*
                                                                                         Ktttntloni   Hr. Hit Btlr
                                                                                         rtbrutry  17.  int
                                                                                         Ptgt two.
                                                                                                41   rio* provide citation* for any law which fon the
                                                                                                     b**l* of your opinion in aft*v*rino; any of th* abov
                           Thank you Cot your attention to thU natt*r.
                                                      v*ry truly your*.
                                                      jam B. loans
o
                                                                                                                                     DOQinENTB
                                                                                                                                     THE LIIAMiieS
                                                                                                                                     COLORADO STATE WlVERSIT
                                                                                                                                     FDKT COLL1WS, CO  t>32?
N*rUn 0. RlrC. ChUf
          al ?l*nnlnt StcttM, StfrT
                     r*brury B.  IVflt


                     Cnvlr-omwntBl Prptvctiwt
                     flvglon V
                     23O B, Dr||0rn  Etr**t
                     0>IC4>00. IL  MA04
  ilciBO, lUlitfi*  MM*

 < Kr. Htrt:

     i*: &rifc  5upp.*B**tBl E
        Vt*tvtttr Tr**t(Mnt
                                 lM Cor tht CIw*u*, Obte
                                                                    th 4ot.e**lg.   It i*
                                                                                                CIS Mo.  08OOOV, DSuppl
                                            f Jftnry I, I9M
Tfitt l*ct*r !  tn r*pon to your cr
an4 tM rprt.  noitd *r>ovr  My it(( |iM Ttrttrwc! tl InCorvBtlo*
provided,  u reo*.M-Mj  chat  cortteelon b* **<  p|*> >'?*.  Hi*
third ?Etr*ph iheald b caTcd c rd  follvw*]

     Tht iie KitOTll Society (CMS) vt it*r>llh4 tn IMS)
     it r.ttt^girttr.1 ' in ColuAWv  HM Ch1o rlUt*rle rr**mtloi
     Offiet,   lTlIm of th* Ohio Hitter.c*! Seclcty. Mlnttlnt
     the Ohio RKtarle lavtoterr COH1) Mhlch !  collect la* of o*r
     (0,000 historic prop*Ttli thr**|)MMt th* >ut.  Hit OHI
     cmttttu proprilt> that hiw ki t) llmtmA la th* l>ileMl
     ti|lit*r f Htatorli: I>rtt9rtli*i 1> d*t*nlM4 11|UL Cor
     llitlrtt la th* **t.0nl IU(latTi *M 3) rift !*
-------
                                                                                            0(r*IIMNT Of MIALTH * HUMAM
                                                                                                                                                AtHM* G* 9B3X)
                                                                                                                                                rkv*nr it.
                            February  ,  1I9
Hr.  Karlin D. Hlrt
Chief,  Envlroneantel planning section, SMTP
U.S.  Enviroraevntal Protection Agency
Fefioni  S
210  S.  Dearborn ttreet
Chicago, Illinois  COC04

Oear Hr. Dlcti

The  drft  *upp)oental  envtroiwental lejpeet  atateawnt  for the
<>tt
                                                                                            D*r Hr. Urki
                                 Sincerely your*,

                                 tnnla v. Hotheoct
                            Byr
                                 PL D. Qulnn
                                 Rttgion*!
                           Public Utilities and Aviation Department
                           M***ID Una-CMPtl*
                                  lUrch 4. IS88
Mr,  Hirlla Htrt
CftleF, EKCCUttvt S*c'U'
USC, >tgln V
230 S. no-born
Chlcige, ItKooli (MM
Dtar Mr. Dirt:
                      plit
                                  It:  Colntin StIS Cwmntl
                                          i>U ind Un BM> Mitt of
Oetobtr. 19V It roltid (of pnrpotti of nrvlj it  Itolud rt1Htj Pltn.

    PI, 115 BOH the (ollwlng dllUnctloni:

    1.  GEMOO "otfl the 5en.nl tnglMtrtng l|nrt . lull of Otlljn  (>t
       ftctobtr, lies, ryln Jinujry, 19861.

    2.  RffU HU> Uit >l4 Ficlltty run UpliU Iditii Stpteatttr M. I9IS).

       Iiv otmrll. lk( HFNI tM UW irt sl.lll'. iltliMljtl tin 6EtOO ll
       ore tunllt inl l rolltd It a liter lt tlxrl 1 nw laronutlon eontltKll In tht UUP Ind StIS Camntl
thlt w9 not Drevloyfly iviftialt to OCPA Ifld USE9A.  Ceniltftrlflg tA nar
cmgrucMl 0'  SE1S IM Uur, w lu>M thlt tlw tiolinattw ofl.rtd ll our
tomcats Kill lllon l" degrtt of cliuir> bet-,11 tkt too rttomended llini.  It
(i midiritood U>it i (Igolflcmt irfi f Hid pliitnlAg ll rcltted to ongoing C50
lUldlfS i"d thlt ctruln  CIMOt be reiolxd until coaoletlM of  Uiat xort.
        i wlti or call  If you
                                  W >ttoni.

                                   Very truly ywrt,

                                   OKI si 9N or stniuu uio DMIWUE
                                         rFrMCll,
                                   Aatnlttritor
                                                                                                                     IUV1EH OF THE SfIS

                                                                                                                           FM

                                                                                                                      OHUKBIK. OHIO
                                                                                                                         PAEM8EO

                                                                                                                           F0
                                                                                                                     cm or coujuus
                                                                                                                      OX.IMUS. CW10
                                                                                                                                , IK.
                                                                                                                    It HMTH HIGH S1KCT
                                                                                                                      OX.UIU$. OHIO
                                                                                                                      FCIMJUr It. Illl
 ct:  Sinit tinil. OEPA
     Flit
                                                                         -8-4

-------
                              TMU or canons
                                                                                                                             utif at mium
     Swwry OvtrvU. of SCIS I Poit-K00..

     null  MII	

     gtndl> * - mtrlflcatiai Cilculitlooi.

     Appindli t - Hlsto'lcil ltlt	
                                                                    Cut
                                                                    I - I.

                                                                    I - 10
                                                                                                        Efftct of Pkig factor M ffriunt too 
                                                                                                          Sottkirly mt	
                                                                                                        rut rim TOO loadings to Sclolo Kluir..
                                                                                                                                                                   tut
                                                                                                                                                                   21

                                                                                                                                                                   22
UUu
  I

  u
         fur 2001 Projtcttd Flo d leads.,
         Calculation at Tablt I
             20M loading li )acklM Plka..
         loadings Olschargt bitvtIA
             I.S -  1.7 Making factor..
         nt Utathtr Olsciiirgi or
             ft - i.s  n - i...
                                                                     m

                                                                     ti

                                                                     11

                                                                     ii
         Coovarlson or IS I IKS Dtllgn loidlngs For
             Jickion Pill ind Sogtttrly . JOOg	
         Coooirlscn of  511$ l"d UIS Olllgn loiolnts II
             Jickton PUt t 10(100 WD	
         ConoiHson or 5!IS ind MS 0m
             for Soulhtrly Hat	     II

         Poking Factors Ustd In DiglM V
             mjP Mllgnt	     
 rtourts

   1
         Southtrly Clirlfltr loading
             Pir Oalggir-lonir	
                                           	     II

                                           	     It

         tffKt of Pllkln) Factor on Cfflunt TOO -
           Jackie* Hit "TP	     
         BOO vi. Stoir Mov.,
                           SMtunr pvmvioo
lTKICIini

    Inltv of  Iki  StIS ind Ui eiRWO Upottt (COUP) IMIutn tut Ihtri
ll On* kly rn of dUfvrtnct rtgartflilff tkt triitMRt 9roctll.

    PirtUtillrly tkl  >gpr<  to 11<  til  IH  lend lllocttlw lo
Jtckton Piki.  Apir*ntly tNtri 4rc ftttort ar pltcti of  InrorMAttoi tkit
 mr  of thtt milt to
thttt dlffirtitcft.

    In tKl foMovltif oitcuttlon,  vt vlll lltMpt to
concret  l
tl bin   >m)   koptfullr  Mlkllgkt  It.  tpMwt  oltlc
        ci  bitMtM COUP tnd SttS (vch t4t a motollo* will  l obtllnio.
    Tkl tlfU inS CCIWO  (DBS) co>irtd tn (lint I Md oni  plut on thf
            ill for fur  !OIS.
    So - IP
    So - P
                      IS?     IK       WO
                       79      M       200
                       10      10       100
    IHI f  >nd Uf  il virl  gintrttld  ttllt on  Mtli pirctntlli
intlyill  for  lov.  firourid  vitir  and  lilgh  grovntf   vittr condition!
ritptctUlly.   Ilil  dltl a*  etnirittd  fro* 1M4  -  IS Dlint opinttM
rnordi.  !H tool flon art IntircoUtM fro* lli Jin ii 'ol 1o.i:
    So- IP
    So- !P
                       10
                               N
                               u
                                        100
    It ItMiri thit till COUP tn4 I5 irt In gtnfrtl  Igrnxnt on tilt dry
viltntr  flov.  tH( dill Kllliblt.   Hovovtr.  considering  Ihit Ihl
dltl Ivllllbll  ftiy not t* bind upon tht htghift groand vltir condltlonl.
lt>.  Tlii SCtS quittloni  tiling tMrillld flo>
ritu upon pollution grovth.  llut com it ll ill ttktn.

    IM Ohio Stltt Unlvtrilly kit imltond groundvllif llvll tlnco Itout
1910.   Tf Itltl  Indlciltl  tut hlgb ground J>tr Itvili  hivi b>  I'  to
10' hlghir  tlun  livili ooiirvtd  fro* lit]  to HI'.  Tbirifon.  It tl
Ilktly that  tnflltratlon riovt vlTI bf hlghir tlun thf dill bait nltd for
thtlf  Itudllt.                                                         -.
    In 11 nocb  ii  tntn  Ii  riiion to npict that ulitlng data don not
account for  ailnw dry viatbtr  ftovs.  It  It  rtaionabl*  to  oakt  IMI
llomwtl  for toll  illuitlon. it u ttfltclid In tkl  toll!  110 HO) *"'.
Ikll  Itin ticonll  or  licorlinci  In  tb conildiratlo* of  r1o and load
tranifir to  Sootbtrly. 11 dlicuitid ptloo.                              _

    Tbi ni1ll>llj of tbt  Sclolo ll'ir lo bypami  U  vill  fowidid aM~
notid 1n til SttS.  Tht  CCP.NO  ricognlztl  Int nttd  lo  control  byplllll
nd for Ihli  rtaion hai  provided   piaklnt factor  nan conilttint vtth
tbi crltUlllly  of  thi ricililng  itrtaa.

    II vwlt    to bi taroprlati  to  dntgn  a  f.cllltj  vnlcb  It
tncapablt  of  bindllng Qkwf/QoHT  volont of  2.0  or  ori for  thi  Scloto
ftlvtr.  A  few lev tlrti ftovt.  tuMir  nor*  flow bypaiftt could  nigati
tbf btniflll  of  thll S200* iltllon dollar iipindlturt.
    Iriatwnt  plantl  which hivi lo intit viry ttrlct Itandardt (Mlt havi
hlgbir  than  noraal  laftty  flclon  than  out  irklcli Mlt  Mlt  t tt'M
Ifflutnt crltlrli.  Tht Colunbuf plantt do not hivt polfthlng  fltttri. at
I tlvlligi of 150.000.000. hit  thll alu ripritinti in tncrtait In  rlik of
filling to Mil tht tfriulht  Itandirf of  I *g/l  UOOj.  It  g/1  TSS ind
1 >gM NH4N.
                                                                                               mmifj s
                                                                                                               toko
                                                                                                   Olltllllton ll  tht  wiling or  Ftbruary IT.  ]?  Indlcatld that  tht
                                                                                               SCIS >ai pridlcltld on till aiiunptlon that tht Milttltr Strut  I old  Ii  In
                                                                                               fact Inclvdld In  thl J.tk.oo Plkl Hl.

                                                                                                   OliciflilM vtlb City ptrionflll  Indlcttlt that tkt  porKil situation ll
                                                                                               tlllt tt vtathtr  flovl  usually  Plflllt In  till  syltn to a lulh I  hlgk
                                                                                               drgrtl  of  cuintlty  and  duritlofi of  flov  that thi  tlhlttltr Strut
                                                                                               itndirflov load ovirflovs at Btnlck, Urn mil of tht tlM.

                                                                                                   This  iltoatlon bat  probably  not  bun  dlicoutd  >tlh   tki   SOS
                                                                                               consultant and II  It  mdiritandablt thit SUS  atalyils did not  IntluJt
                                                                                               thi allmanct  std In  tilt GtMOO  and  CUP.   Again,  tht  klgn  irrlvint
                                                                                               ouillly  rtculroMntt  Md  tbt lack of  Iffluint  flltirs  art  significant
                                                                                               coosldtratlons.                                                       ""
                                                                             8-5

-------
  MOCKS OISIOI

      ft. lltuttdlicimid 100*1 to>btfltd .Illl sptciric proctll fit Ion in
  brlifly tunwrlitd blo.  furtMr dtlill 1l  protldtd irtir tbl twiry.

      It tin  bi concludtd  t thl Mill llgr.lflc.nt  dUririnctt In till In
  dtllj; ipproichtt If. tM dltinlnltlon ef  IM  Kj ind    loidlngi to
  lirltlon inj  Ik! M|| initial, puking f.clor for lt CdluMxil >llt|w,t,r
  trulMnt plintl,

      TM dlrrtrmcil  In tM llltlgn  bltwitn GEP.BOO  ind SHS It thl 10/100
  Clov condition to Jlckton Mil In Ittrlbutld to  four fit Ion.  Ikiy In:

      I.   Olrnrint pnktng  fitter, duel loid ifilft It Southtrly.

      2,   !(iiluilon/i>cln
  • 1 tiling thl wtnodology thorn In tl>i kpptndli A. In Noi>ir . DicMir' !!!?: 'i,"" "' * ' '!< -I* 'i - "i IWIb MOs, inn thl ifrict .., to rtduci tnl ST of IM illicit* iiritlon v.lw to J . 10 iyt, Iy .14 UK. tM Stt work dnonitntld thit tut nit tludgi ylild would bi on tin oritir of O.I - O.t Ib/lb it South.rly. which Mlulttd In In SP.T of I - diyi In till It lirltlon bislnt dtllgntd for Southirljr. Slnci thl lownt S7 occurrtd In thi KlMlr ind tKi SM tlitl Indlcitid thit I - g Ciyt HI would bl ldloill In thl Iblince of Inhibitory nltrlflcitlon cocponmtl M) chmgit In tl fll dnlgn MI conildind. Honvtr. It .11 rKOfiillld llilt till IMS dtilji. for Southirlj ind Onkion Plki und u st >ln|flcintly loir IMn tkl EM Nltrooin O,l ro- Kuniil. or th KKf UltTOCln Cwitrjl Ninuil dlilgn proctdun tmtld tmriti. PtUIL KltK Ai dlicuiiKl l tni iwiNrliittM. tht ditillid iMIyiU of tw l-o dulgni Ti focvud on four ir. rurthir ditilt tt provldid 11 fehowt. Thl SHS >nd p>indlcti xtn ri'tntd to dlflnl thi mirinci> In thi cone I BI I out drivn In thi SEti v, thoti In thi CtlBOO ind (Of riportt. Thit iivllytll tuf'lrl froa Ulk of quintlflcitlQA of prlairv ff1ucnt loidlngi ind thi of I I.S piling flttor IP.r.) rithir thtn thi 1.7 fictor und by CCOKD ritultid In )oir loidlngi It Sorthirly for tM SCtS dlllgn. i, S(1S 4ll|lrJ thi . stern tlftlct riturn loldlngi fro* Milttlir Strut, thut riduclng loigi I Jicliw Ptkt. *. SE1S mid Mjhir prtory triitmnt ifflclimy it Jltkton Pit* ind ScHithirly >Mch tkirrty ridund thi loldlnjl on thi blotoglcil unltl it Jutton Ptki ind Southirly. SIlKl tht SEIS riconHndld only thi W/irjo dttln. thm loldlng llviU Idd plint flltlgn vlll bl rivltwid for t cc*ptrittvl inilyilt. rr ?< ma mint., sir.it Limiia. Tibli J-l In thi tppindti to thl SEIS provtdid thi 2091 tomlogt to Jukton Pit. ind Soithirty. Ihl CEtlOO loidlogt tornctld to Yr 2001 mlng dltl fro* Ilblll S-1) high (lo pirlod. Thl I It conlldirid to bl I rtllllMt ntlmtl of thl Idling (ifrtid on tki fitllltlri lln or 231 1KB ohlll till tCMOO dltlgn Ml MO WO. In nvltwlng thi commit In thi SIIS. It lt obvlout wi irnd In pritlntlng thi vit mithir puk flMI. At of inS-IWC. puk Movi In both |i lickton lk| ind Sotlthirly tirlcl grutly I'll! licild ISO HCO tich. Thit cm bi m*!ly ittibllihvd fro* thi to* livilt ind quintltlit of BOO; ind othir contulnintt niching thi Oickioti Plki ind Soulhirly WTP during thin tvintl. Tht vlt %*lthir flmt for Soutnlrly viri projictld In tat COW. Fvrthtrport, toncirn rmtnt tMt ictuil MllM try Mithir Movt (AOF or UF) uybi ntghtr tlun ritmt dltl thoj. Thl SEtS ind Itlictatatt point ot thi [rltlclllty of thi ttir dltchirglt fro* Jickten ptkl ind Soulhirly WT?. Tht low flovf ind uniHUIty or thi icloto Rlvir to oiygin dmnd of thl plint ifflvinti It -til docuPlMld. Alto, notld b> SttS It thl ftct thit it In lilt rlot thi Jickiwi Plki rlo cm conttltuti got of thi voluo* in thi ttrcl*. Thill flltort lid to OCPA rirtt tupoilng I S Pffl Ks. 10 1" TSS nd i I.S -s'l WiN ll-H 0 thi dltihtnil fro* both plint!. Litlr thll "11 wdlflld to I ('> tOOc. It eg/1 TSS ind 1.0 -9'I Wtt. Thll ifflvint qulUty ritgTtt n I Bllchlrje vMch lll contlln lilt thin 20 ?/! TOO (I i BOO . I.S H,N) or I vlry high flulllty ifflmnt. Al I mult of tM! chlngi In (frlvtnt goillty thl dtdllon lilt udi to dilttl thl ifflmnt IMd flltl'I. Tht SC1S Itio propirly notll thit ovtrflovt Ind feypnilt COAtrlblttt *3or dllchirgi loldt 10 thi Scloto atvir ind thit thin leldt nitd to bt controlltd. Control of ttora flov loidlngt vlll bl dlpmdtnt on I hi puklni flttor uiid for thi tillgn. Thit It. I pilling filter of I.S 111 riililt In llgnlflemtly Mghir untmtid fl dlicnirgid Into thi Scloto nivir thin mild 1.7 or > t.o r.t. ritlo. It It iquilly Itportlnt tnit tM ton ttrtngint thl iffluint gmllty. thl MgMr thi ptlMng fitter thould Dt. Tint 11. I puking fictor of I.S M bi ipproprtili for 30 *g/l MOc'U ag/l 1SS .tflvtnt pirmlt. out ll not i trill.Ii >hlch thoolf lilld for I 8/lt/I.O lffl>ll>t rMtllrmnt. Thl 10/90 Ifllmnt hn i TOO of ISO >g/l > 10 5'l 'Or t/li/1.0 Ifflutnt. ' - Tiblt > thowt tM guiittlty of UOc which tould bi dlithiriid rro* Jickton Plkt nd SoutMrty bitvlln ptiVIng rictor of I.S md 1.7. TM bypuitd toot I tht P.F. o' I.S would bt tit *gll it JP md 15! no/I it SoutMrly. 1M 100 or IM by pi i nd wiitiwittr It US >n ll g/l. riipictlvtly. TM TOO or IM wlttlwlttr bltwitn I P.F. of I.S ind I.) ll S,IOO Ib'd. Tht currint ptr.1t proldil for I totil of M.UO Ibid it tlO HSO. Thus. tM dlithirgi totil for thtt ivint would bt it 123,SOO Ib'd TOO 11 ihown In liblt I. Slnci tM flow piikt iri hlgMr thin I.? In both thi JlcklM PUl md Southtrly ttrvlct irtlt, tM dllcMrtt eftin lictldt thit loidlng. H tht plint It optrttlng In thi ringi of ivirigi diyfoonth ind iilauo) vttk/aonth crlttrli. thi totll dUchirgi could bi 11 Kh II 4701 of IM lllowibll dltchirgi undtr tM piralt It IK) NEC, It ll gintrilly rtcogntiid md icctotld nicittiry to provldi IM hlghir P.F. for crltlcil tfriuint wittrt In ordtr to inuri thit thi diiugl doit not rimlt froa I ftw dltchirgit/yiir. Tht Scloto Alvtr cmnot bt upgrieid to tht litint pllnntd U dltchirgtl of .100.000 Ib'd TOO plrlodlcilly OCCurl. A riw atrlodlt D.O. diprttilont CIA Mvt I long-lira Ifftct. Tht ifftct of HIS mlng thl lowir P.f. It i lowir loidlng it Sovlhirly tlncl till flow would bt trilttd It SoutMrly md lilt flow would bl trintfirrid 'ro. Jitkion Plki to SoutMrly In wtt wtithlr. It ll prttuMtd tnit Itsuil rigirdlnf th tffict of *it vnthir flovt Ind ovirflowt on thl trilt*tnt plintl tnd rtcttvlng ttrtia cm ind will bl ritolvld 1n ditlll by thl coapltllon of tht ongoing CSO Study. Hi>irthilili, wi llnd tMt IOM ricognttlon of tM lititlng wit wiitMr tltuitlon. tiowivir llalttd thi currmt dltl. It nicttilry to Iniurt thi continuing optnblltty of thi ricllltllt undtr tM piraltt. IM Clty'i currint plmnlng hit thtrtfori Incorporitld whit iri blllivid to bl prudint mtf rtitombli itiuapttont on thttt Ittuti. but wtilcb wy bl btyono thi tcopt of thi currint SEIS. Unit Pratm rfflcltntv - C*ninl It Ii difficult md In Mil CUM tapoitlblt to ditmlnt unit procitt ifflcliney In tM SCIS. TM dttc It not provldid. On Pigi C-21 of tht Appindtl. thl lickion Plki trickling flltirt irt loidld It 121 Ib/IOOO rt>.d whlct producil I llul of It.fOO Ib'd HOj In thl nekton Plki prlairy ifllurM or JOt 100) rtacwil icrott thi prlwiry. TMrt It no Intflcltlon of thi Mitt bllmcl for tht nttrogtn In ordir to dlllralni ritlt of nltrlricltlon Moloytd. By tht tint aithod. Ihl SoutMrly PI tOOj wit dltirilnid to bl 1II.JOO Ib'd utlng InrorMtlon for tM trickling fllttr loidlngt proldtd for tht oni plint tcinirle on Pigi C-31. Thlt ll llto I 301 rtnovil icrott thl pr1ry clirlflirl. 0>20 8-6

  • -------
        IM dislgn  rtx.nl  of KOt mid  In  UIMO ll  11. n  of IM K~
    >t  Jickion  Plk*  It  (0/100 HGO flol.   Tl.ll aor* conitrlltl  >lll >ll
    cMstn  sine*  tritrt  Is  no  ictuit  plint  diti  Indlcttlng  tht  prlnir*
    clarlflir tmtwty.   Ik* >lluis  of ri .lilmlir  MM In  tM HIS do
    not rtprisint  tht letil  do. tntirlng  thi action Plk* pilot  Hoc* IMy
    irt  tlktli  II  tin  grit  li  .Ithoot  till  ind  it, 1,tt  or  nitiri  dftnindl
    notion In ditl IMlysli  ind itllBOtloni.  )  >Hm  lltir.  Ifll  l.ritlcn
    feislns ir* iNllir thin montindtf ty IM CM Ultrojtn Contra)  Naiwll.
    
        for SovtMrly.  GCMOO moloyld I prlnry  cllrl'lc.tlon tffliltncy of
    HI. vlitrm th* SEIS DIM 101.  THi HI it bit.d  on tki krwltdg* thit
    IKI  nntnly  pircinl  rwovil  ll oft..  In!  tkin  IM  innull Irlngi  11
    showi  In  Tiblt  3-7.  Plot 3-11 If thi  SIIS.  -flirt S  Konthl  of  II hid
    prliry clirlflcitlon tfflcUncy mull  tp or 1*11 tt.li. lit.  II 0U not
    bl  ipproprtit*  to  nit 301  MO;  rnovil  In  IM  prUiry clirtfKltton
    Itigi  In  light  or  Hitting  Mil ind  loncirni for  IM  llvll of tfflont
    anility rigulrid. ll  notrd  Ibovi.  Anitroblc  dlgiltlo* rtturn tin  low
    rnovils >h tt ll In pint ind Optra Inc.
    
        In  th*  SoutMrly  tvo pllnt llinirlo,  IM SEIS ulld  301 rnvvil  It
    l*rigt ind  gut floxl.  TM  CEIHO  dlllgn  HIM  XI  HOt rnoll for
    riiioni lit  fortd iV).  it  ikoiild pt  notld IUI >oil1t1on.
    
        In ortif  lo lomi'l  tllflflir ind lirillon tuln null rr Jltip
    Ptkt ind SoulMrly it 0/IM  ind Tl/111   not  ivilliblt fro*  IM  SEIS.
    Jptrlrkilly.  |ht PC TO irllvl   nudid.  Slnci  IMri  "111 bl conilltr-
    ibli riiyclf fro* tni mttrople  dtftitlon.  tbi prlwry  ifriymt Tin 1II
    (I hlgntr  tku th. lr.flu.nt  TM.
              tM dill  of Tlblt  I.  till kydrillllc loidlngi IM| rll otkir
               viri  cllCMlltld  to dltlrnlnl  tM  unit  BntrlHoni*  klnittc
                 		IM SEIS ind UIK.
                                                       ri viry clou vfcm
                                                        for  tki  Jicklon
    Plki drllgn.  "       "   "  "  "'  ~~"'      ''
    piriiiiiri  vtrt  tllCMlltld  to 0ltlr1nl  tM  tint!  Dp
    rim In thi Jukion flkf ind Sonthtrl; dulgni or IM
    At  iN  In Tlbltl  ! ind  (.  |h  unit  Ililng  bull  in
    /%.  itr...
                                                                                                       Ihf dirftrinei  In  r.wlrlnj  Is  iirillon Mllns (GO?) it Jukion Kit
                                                                                                   Is U>t CHIP dltlgn loidlnj of 109.2;S  It/d  P.t.  Ki   M.gm  Ib/d  In
                                                                                                   tnt SEIS.   Tbl K5  loidlnji  iri  ;.II? Ib/d-bllln  for COW ud 7.492
                                                                                                   Ib/rf tllln for SflS.   Tbf rt.li.s dlllgn plu for Jlrtson rtkt  Ullng  10
                                                                                                   lintlon  blllni  rJd  <  Indlnf of  Ml*  1b   lOOj/l-bnl.  l)ns/l-
                                                                                                   1*11 Kit IM loldlnf for Ihf turr.nl dnlgn for tni  Jmion plkl lintlon
                                                                                                   baitni ritid It 40 HGO IMP).   Por  th* rilioni provldid In th* dUcuilton
                                                                                                   on loidlngi ind prlry c1irlfl*r lltlclinc).  Ibl oil  of I KJO. loldlng
                                                                                                   f IO).I!I Ib/J 11 ri"
                                                                                                       Tjbli  I dm ihmi  ivbitmtllMy Imr SIT,, for tb* SEIS dtilgn.
                                                                                                   Tbi 1.7 diy Smn  11  tilm tki EM ricomndid SHI  or  9.1  dlyi bifori
                                                                                                   iddlng Iki ipproprlili  dnlgn  puking  ind ilflty  ficter    Thi  PE  H0<
                                                                                                   ll hlghir  U tM COUP' tflllgn du lo tni nil of  1e**r prtntry ilirUlcitlefi
                                                                                                   OOc  rnovil   (ill  ! WI1  ind   lirgir  told  tntft  dm  to triitlra  
                                                                                                   MjS.r tolil   flo.   COW mold not  mnMnd I  lonr  MT-,  tbi>  till
                                                                                                   vilm Mt*d In Tiblf t ondir CEMOP.
    
                                                                                                       Tkl riaulrid  I'trljt  rill of HtrUkltlon g  TW^/gn  NlVSS-br.   l Ibon  In Appmdli .  tM  MtUodOloey
                                                                                                   In tbi EP* Kltragin Control  Kinptl IKK) ovld IndUltl thil  Jouthirly ll
                                                                                                   i vtry tight  diitgn  ihd  vlll  not  support tki dufgn priitnlid by  tb*
                                                                                                   SEIS.  A cavirtwrT fro* tkti pitbHcillon U is follo.ii
    
                                                                                                                           CM        EP
                                                                                                                           CK        wx         SEIS          our
                                                                                                                        4/<>Sr    II.UPF      eiilgn        dlten
                                                                                                                         I P.F.I       . 1   (tlbll 51	  Hlbll 5U1
                                                                                                   tonthtrlu
    
                                                                                                       ST . diy
                                                                                                       SRI - diy
                                                                                                       k, .
                                                                                                                          t.l
                                                                                                                          0.17
                           (.1
                           0.57
                                                 rS.
    U.I
     0.73
                                t.7
                                O.IS
    7.7
    1.10
                       ilfd fron OUT Vam ind SIIS KLVSSei
    
        tM  dltl  for  Jickson  Plkl  vil  dltiratlnid  tn till  IIP*  mnntr  14
    Soutbirly II snawi  In tkf Cllcvlltteni pruintfd In Appindli A.
    
        > Itxwn bo>l. IM COUP dlllgn  doll  not bin i ctitotiry Itv.l  of
    ttflly flctor ind puking ficlor.  bind on Ihl CP 117; Ullrojtn Control
    Hinpil (Sti Tibll -!.  ttc,).   It  li only Ikrougli IM  itirfl.i  rondxtid
    by Calwtlll  (SW ind  Co-Uriel  20) thit  fid lo Ibl contlnlon IMI Ib*
    llll of tM Itritlon bltlni could  bl hiTd ililus v*>.  Slttkout I puking ficlor.   tki  9.1  UT  dlyl * 1.31 Sr Ind M
     ll  II.1 diyi.
    
         This Infort1on Indlcitll  thit ivin  vttk lovlr impintan corric-
     tlnn.  Ihl  5EI5 dislgn  >ou1d  npl   bl  conttdirid  prvdnt ind  Ihl CEMOO
     dlllgn  urglnll.  licipt for  Mvlng thi pilot  irpirlincil  vhtch  viri
     Cltly  conductld  ondir  fivoribl*  conditions.  It Is  ricognllld thit  to
     intori  tkit tbi giitgn for Soothirly Is oplrlbl*. It  ll nmssiry for IM
     City to control Inhibitory Inputs Into  th* sivir.
    
         Uborltory ind fllld tistl viri conductld on both  llcksan Plki Ind
     Soutbirly  lstlltiri  to dlliralm nltrlflcitlon  rlttl  of  thi  MISS.
     This*  tistl  Indlcitld thit  tM  SootMrty ritn n*r* lovlr  Ihln Mrpilly
     HDictid md  lictson  PUfj viri  hlgkir thin  Kirigi.  Honxr,  m4H
     brilktMough  occurrid It both  plints. during Contrict 20 inft lislns 11 i
     12  Jickson Plkl  tistl.   Fortkir.   U  Ml  found  In  Ittt  1917 thit Ihl
     llborltory nttrlftcitlon ntis win tnhincid by conducting tb it blghir
     0.0. In tM Uborltory  thin In tM fllld.   ItSld on  thi  EM MM,  tM
     tfftct  of 0.0. on nltrlflcitlon nils ll
                     knit]    I0.0.)/(ko  . t.t.)
    
    
                                  (D.0.1/11.1  0.0.)
                     <(ttir.nct pg. }-li to 1-11 MX}   .
    
    
         this  voilld  Indlcitl  thit  i tist 0.0. of (  pgVl  >aild  Incrusi  Ihl
     C.;0 vi I ti.  to  I3SI  or  thi  I g/l 0.0.  riti.   A  D.O. of  1 *g/t It
     plinnir)  for  tbi opiritton of Jiclion P1k> ltd Soutkirly.   Wonir.  tkls
     rlttr dois  net billivi  IM EPA KN Is  cornet In iddlng  Hitting fictors
     such ll  D.O..  ptt.  tiwirituri  ind  ruldul  *t  (Ml  Appindtl   A).
     Ihm,  thi  hljl.tr  0.0.  My  hivt  (nhincid tM  llborltory  Jiclo  Plkl
     nltrlftiltlon rltll  to  hlgbir thin  noml  Uv.ls.  but  thty bllrl  hid
     llttlt  tff.ct on  tM llmdy lupprimd rills  It SoulMrly;  1. 1.,  fir
     lowir tblfl ziro Ordlf .                                               "
    
         ftir Idlistlng tbi ftslgn for th us* of klgbr llnittc  ritn  In  thi
     StIS dlllgn.  tM dislgn  hydrnllc pitting flctor for ColMOus  Is I Mjor
     flttor  .hlcb  risultl  fn tllfinncil   In  tM  dislgn nthodoloty   for
     Southirly.   P-ivliw of  tM dtilgn pllUivtngi flow of  son* of th* plintl
     In thi EPA Htglon V My  b< ipproprlltl.   Tnti Informilloo It prwtdld In
                                                                                                       Thif*  irt  i nunbir  of  sutstlonibTi  conctpti  In thi SEIS document
                                                                                                   vhlch,  tn-pirt  ippurs  to  bl   Isundiritindlng  of  thi  SnMiroblc
                                                                                                   Procnt.  A flv kly polntl irt II follovs:
    
                                                                                                   PIJI C-l 1. C-H                                                       _
    
                                                                                                       Witll thi SEIS proplrly  iwtis thit thi KLSS of 3KO >g/l Is MgMr
                                                                                                   thin nori>ly lifiloytd. Ih*  riison  ll  not  thi  nltrlflcitlon  rlttl.  it I
                                                                                                   oar* C0lntlonil  2000 off)  HISS, T.   This Itirll of KISS dots Itr.is tht
                                                                                                   flnll  clirlfliri.  FurlMr,  hlghtr KISS cln rtitrltt  tbi nltrtflcitton
                                                                                                   rltll irhtn th* D.O. U  sB?rits*d during  ptlk dcmnds.
    
    
                                                                                                   Put C-iO
    
                                                                                                       TMtl iri livtr* llnllltloft on  cllrtflir floor loidfngs IS I function
                                                                                                   of  M.SS conctntrittM  ind SVI  irMch ippiiri to.bi Ignorid  In tki list
                                                                                                   pirigrlpk  of Plfl C-!0.   IM us*  of SO  l/ft''d  floor loidliig oould
                                                                                                   CIUSI  fittur*  of  tki  clirjfliri  It dlllgn conditions.   Host  dislgnirs
                                                                                                   1I)  not licild 30  ltm!-d  loidlngi for thllr dislgns.   Hol>*r. thi
                                                                                                   1ti3 Ollgg*r Bopir curv* ris used  In  th*  Celunbus dislgn ind ts wldily
                                                                                                   vs*d  *lllktri.  It  11 incloild  IS Flguri 1.  It ll nov In I 1917 EPA
                                                                                                   publicities  on  bulking ilndg* control.   Thil ci  ikons  thi  nulMl
                                                                                                   toidlng it SVI . 170 >g/l to bt Ibout W  Ib/ft'-d.
    
                                                                                                       Ikirifori.  both  SEIS ind  CCUOO  dlllgn it  31  tb/ft'-d  Is  it th*
                                                                                                   olKM point ind thi  dtffirinc* In n*tr  ind  sli* of untti Is  111 WO
                                                                                                   vs  IM ICO Pllk flov.                                                  _
    
    
                                                                                                   pint t,n                                                             _
    
                                                                                                       If th* UMwIl concinlntlon mildt  I tit In Bly I, Iht Kritlon In
                                                                                                   >iy ! vlll b*  ictlvtt.d is vill it i giniril  0.0.  Inerin* oblch vlll
                                                                                                   inkinci nltrlflcitton rit*.   If this  Is not  Uncut* to  riduc*  mt to
                                                                                                   1.0 *4'l.  thtn tki  Inttrnil ricycll pan lll  b* sMt do>n to tncrlltl
                                                                                                   rill tlo* dltntlon.  tb* Intirnil ricycl*  P '111  ridlK* nttrlflcltlon
                                                                                                   cipictly dv*  lo voluM us*d for dinltrirlcitlon.  It Mist b* nottd thit
                                                                                                   It  My bl nictssiry to rvn Ihi rtcyclt pu*es during norn*l optrltlons to
                                                                                                   Inhibit dtnltrlflcitlon tn tbi flutl It  Soutbtrly.                     _
                                                                                                                                       - 7 -
                                                                                     8-7
    

    -------
        Thiri  m not b oltrlflcitlon In liy I or 2. ind wry  unit lit My
    1  Ore.  tl  CKOt  Hit  bt  prooiltd felfori  nitrification  tin  Kur.
    thi OnfO.O.  or  it  Kill 2SO:I  li  Iht otjrttt"! of  Ihl  oplrttlon to
    control  bulking ind  l|  rat 1nolld In nltrirlcitlo*  or  dtllrlflca|loil.
    Thli  li  nplitnid In tht April  1913  JHPCF  piptr provided  for  tht SE1S
    Em c-'Q                                                            _
    
        Tht  biologic*!   phoiphorwi  proem   and  nltrtflcitlon  an  not
    Uttrrelited.  llo P rewal  occur I 1|h and vlthout nitrification.  Toll
    ll will docuwnttd  In any piperi.  However. tht iludtl yield of  thi Rio
    P  proem  cai>  dicrllll  nitrification  t  
                                                                                                                      hirplll rMIi.OM produci I l * IOX TS
                                                                         Thi  thickener area required to bt added to Southerly vii equivalent
                                                                    to a 57  ft  dlwitir  unit with a 10/100 NOD capacity  a	
                                                                    Curd on  I dull* or  tO/il/109 hCG lOW/UF/hHFI at  Jack
                                                                    balamt It Sowthlrlv.  Ihl  ni K ft dlaottir  Ihlcktner li
    
                                                                         The  SEIS recomlnd
                                                                    for  Southerly  KVIP.
                                                                    ltalt-oMI->rt SI
        ie fro. the  duiitlon  of waking l(id  lubiewint  '"<  M  <
    Southerly  the  prlM*. dlfferince In tht recoi-wndatloni of StIS tat VK
    relit! to"  Souther".' Tht  .pielflc  )or  differentia  art I.  tt aril
           [  for gravity thickening and dnattrlng.
         Southirly
              Oli - ft.
             area - ft'
             TSSt - 
              HP! . mi
              ws	
             Total - Ib/d
    
            Aria Hinulred
                                   tit   ul
     'siH.
    n.ioo
    
    M.OOO
    
    
      .ISO
    
     I.4M
                                                         aim
                                                      tit       eui
                                                      is
    
                                                      51.0
                                                   19.3"
                                                   It.HT
                                                   II.(II
                                                           IS
                                                          4
                                                           SO.}
                                                        15.510
                                                       115.401
                                                    J.4>
                                                    1.M7
                                                    I,S3
      UPS - ft'
      HtS - ft2
     total - ft>
    
    n>,,| defined. ritlMtiJ rro tblcktntr  loading of 14
          Ib/ft'-d
    
    <2))5I of yllld - effluent ISS i 10 '!
                                                                .ns
                                                                i.iii
                                                                1.173
                                                                                                         Thirifort. U vll obllfltory on thi pirt of UP.S to ineloy
                                                                                                    tqulpMKt  that  i^ould Inlalzt tht laount of vittr In tht  slutfgt.   for
                                                                                                    IJill  rtlion.  tht w>hrint  ftlttr  prill  INFP)  ll  llltcttd.  >t  Oufflil
                                                                                                    CrttV.  Ontirto.  tht new bilt  prtitti  (19COI  ven  ibindontd  tlnct  thiy
                                                                                                    proiiictd  II -  111 TS  for coMwitlon.  Thtrt >iri rtplicid  by Mfp vhlch
                                                                                                    in producing 3' - 4tl IS.
                                                                                                          Iht ttntfltl  prodlKld by drlir lollHl I
                                                                                                     OUT rtport.
                                                                                                                                                       i In Chtptlr IT of thi
                                                                                                          It  ihouli *t  nolid  thit  thi rmon for th tml.iirohlc  proem  li
                                                                                                     bulking  flodgi  control,  Mt  photphorut  rtvovll.   Th* Southerly  plint
                                                                                                     milt bt In >  filturi H>. net 200 mil,, *.
                                                                                                     ititid.  Thi Mill  for tht SIIS SVI vilui or 200 il/g n not gtvin.
                                    Ttlt 1
    
                       Ytir 2001 Prolictid Flo* wd l04d
                                                                                                               Cilculitloo of liblt I - 2001 toidtni lo Jickion Pitt
               BOO (lb/d
               TSS (Ib/dly)
               ten (It/dly)
               IP  (Ib/tfiy)
               A.trio. tMF (HCD)
               Pllk Flo-. 
               in (lb/d>y)
               Tl>  tlhSdly)
               *vtrltt OUr 
               piik Mo 
                                           HI.WO
                                           III.600
                                            11.512
                                             6.057
                                                
                                               132
                                           IJ6.6CO
                                           121.300
                                           H.S70
                                            S,2I
                                               tf
                                           2U.200
                                           212, MO
                                            35.102
                                            II.JOS
                                              IS
                                              231
                        CUED1"
    
                           159.IK
                           III.'ID
                           20.1H
                            6.39!
                               II
                              163
                           IJ6.07S
                           121.101
                           It.SII
                            S.2J2
                               ss
                              112
                           2>9.TII
                           MS.llt
                            ,U>
                            11.121
                               I SI
                               KX>
            Fro* Table 2-1, Page C-l of SUS
    
          <2>  Includti Khnttir Strut ilor. tank drainage
    
                M0|  -  10.000 Ib/d
                 TSS  -  20.000 Ib/d
                 in  -   i.o ibid
                  TP  -     221 Ib/d
    
    
        [:    Thi  dlfftrtnct  In  loading hitmen  St  and GWBOO at  Jatkion
              Plkt  and  tht  total  planning  area  reflecta  tbt  VAIttttr Strett
              loading  it Kln a ceMtant  load  owir  that pirlod.  Datt  for
              2001 >l Intirpolattd frt> thl CHIOO.  Stt Tatll 1A.
                                                                                                    HE
    
                                                                                                  C - WO
    
                                                                                              too5  - ifc'd
    
                                                                                                TSS - Ib/d
    
                                                                                                T -  Ib/d
    
                                                                                                 TP -  lh/4
      Vlir
      20H
    
         90
    
    1S8.620
    
    1W.3M
    
     tO,t20
    
      6.US
       LlII
    Khllllir St
    
           90
    
      HI. 620
    
      170,390
    
       I,S20
    
        t.aa
                                                                                                                                                      tnr
                                                                                                                                                      2CPJ
    14J.HS
    
    174.710
    
     tt.iet
    
      (.1(2
                                                                                                                                                                     PlUI
         17
    
    IS3.6M
    
    1K.IIO
    
     20,119
    
      (.117
                                                                                                                 WMtlln- Unit toadl
                                                                                                          B005 -  10.000 Ib/d
                                                                                                           TSS -  20,000 Ib/d
                                                                                                           TO) .  1,300 Ib/d
                                                                                                            TP -    22S Ib/d
                                                                                                                  Tht Y20M  XMttUr Stfttt tott ud In Ublt 1.
                                                                                          8-8
    

    -------
                          ttUU
    Indlngt Oltchargtd Sttwtin 1.5
                                   UltlJ
                 Ktt Htlthtr OllChirgi of Ff .  |.s l PF .
    Ot I.S f! -H0>
    toos - g/i
    iss - g/l
     . tg/i
    100 - >g/lCU
    0 ( 1.7 If . HCD
    MO} - g/l
    ISS - g/I
    lot - g/l
    100 -g/Hl>
    nautd Otuntltlii
    0- *
    HO; - It/d
    ISS - Ib/d
    I . Ib/d
    100 - lb/4(l)
    Pirili trltirlilll 
    '" 100 - 1 UDj 
    <" Avtrigt Juni -
    01201
    111
    111
    147
    U.I
    335
    ISO
    111
    III
    IS.O
    3IS
    f&ERBGO - SIISJ
    II
    II.4(S
    11.111
    2.2S1
    47. 2M
    (0
    1.I9S
    7.IW
    M
    10. US
    i.t na (<)
    tktobir toidtngi
    - 18 -
    
    113
    141
    20.0
    111
    111
    us
    130
    17.7
    351
    
    11
    14. (17
    14.011
    1.119
    31.101
    110
    7,590
    1S.I7
    tl
    20.S7S
    
    
    
                                                       Inlil
                                                           31
                                                       11.102
                                                       11.313
                                                        4,171
                                                       IS .311
    
                                                          IW
                                                       12.010
                                                       14.011
                                                        l.ltl
                                                       JO.MO
                                                                                                      0 - WO
                                                                                              (III. 100; - Ib/d
                                                                                              trr I. HK< - ib/d
                                                                                                    TOO - It/4
                Q.NGO
        Cffl. KXJs - lb/4
              101 - lb
              loo - ib/d
    
                0- HGO
        un. tooj - it/4
              100 - Ib/d
    [fflumt Ptr.ll I IM  3
    
             Xl^N . It/4
              100 - It/4
                                     111
                                   I.U7
                                   1,101
                                  11,171
                                                                                                                         2.2S2
                                                                                                                        47.211
                                                                                                                           ISO
                                                                                                                        1T.172
    17.010
    
        19
    14.(J7
     1,919
    31.101
    
       112
    21,242
    55.111
    iBiil
    
    
    1S.4I2
     I.H7
    39.111
    
        31
    91.102
     4.171
    IS.lIt
                    11.010
                     1,411
                    30.IM
        toil:    for ilxllclt},  Ikt  by>ltll4 floot irt Ham In tt unlit
                (r.   In  rtillty.  thi  Jltkun  Pllt rim "y fcwttpit  b<
                Irtnltcrttd to lilt Soutnirlj until iril intf mirdoid  In
                t(i4t lri4 during high Mewl 14  thl Soutliirly llrvlci irii.
                       of SEIS n COUT Ollt
                dwtrliwi or SCIS I CtW Otilgei Tor Jickion Pill
                                 I 10 / 100 MO)
    
    
    licks
    K5
    ISS
    119)
    too*
    ISS
    
    Sfitil
    HO;
    US
    la
    Ki
    ISS
    JtN
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    fin PUt Inrluint
    - *0
    - It/d
    StIS
    Aa D
    
    to
    121.700
    1K.MO
    It BtA
    - Ib/d ,,*
    W >lk> >r7.17
    US
    KS
    T.F. Uldlngt
    W
    
    
    
    
    
    BiO
    
    100
    107,100
    122.400
    14.040
    
    "
    US
    
    111
    1(0.900
    1(0, 500
    11.0(0
    111.411)
    KS
    US
    
    
    
    
    
    COUP
    JvgJ
    
    10
    141. Kl
    1(1 .HI
    n.sii
    
    10M2I
    11.1(7
    20.IS7
    
    71
    !!>
    11.141
    IOS.20I
    (I.IIS
    I>.IS(
    
    
    
    
    
    B|k_B
    
    100
    II ,4(1
    I09.*4(
    12.00S
    
    70.10S
    Iliod
    
    200
    111.27]
    IIS ,172
    24.612
    Hl.MJ
    9S.S77
    2(.l(4
    
    
     .
    
    InfliiMt
    flow  HGO
    eooj - ib/d
    in - ib/4
    Prlurv tUrlfltatlm
    iiXilr of Unit!
    O'Flov Rltl * g4l/fti*d
    OSR-I
    ttetivjt.rd iludo*
    
    Ntpvbtr of Unit i
    VoluM - HGO
    Hiss - g/l (H4>)
    HIII ms>
    1 7it - It
    KLVSSo, - It
    MOjx - 'd
    Tr.Kg,~- Ib/d
    f/Hy - Ib
    CtOi/lb H.VSSOI.d
    Y, - It/d <>UI
    S>rOI - diyi 
    511 - diyi (Kin)
    k" " ? vSJ
    CUTlflcUlM
    Miflhlitr af Unltt
    Art! - ftz~
    OTlo itt - gil/rt<-<
    Soll4t t-wdtiig - U/ft'd
    illi
    
    BO/ 100
    121,700
    11,850
    1
    9K 000
    131/1041
    30
    
    ) J
    10. U
    i.soo
    471.100
    411.400
    M.IOO
    Unknown
    Unknavn
    0.21
    74.715
    7.50
    1.57
    WUMWI
    
    14
    111. 520
    (21/171
    22/21
    UBS
    
    10/100
    141.301
    ll.SK
    1
    9( 000
    (13/1041
    12.7
    
    (J
    31.21
    I.SOO
    St7,t2S
    S21.000
    101,211
    Illlll
    0,21
    II. H2
    7.S5
    1.74
    1.10
    
    14
    121. 520
    122/771
    22/21
                                                                            8-9
    

    -------
                        MIUJ                   _
    
    Cmurlion of Slis 1 CIMOO Upditt for Southerly NMTP
         flov . HGO
         Ks - lo/J
        KuMbtr of unltt
        ftl . ft2
        0-flo- l< - l/fi'-<
    
    
    EctWlUd Sludga
    
        HMttr of Unltl
        VoluM -  US
        HISS - pg/1 (Ktl)
        Hill IVSS) t Jn - Ib
        HLvssj, . u
    
        TW, - u/d
        im0, - 1b/d
        r/Hy - ib
          00}/lb HLVSS01.d
       It - IbM (Hit)
        k -  *<>'
             vss-hr
    
    CUrlfliltlM
    
        Nvmbtr of Unit I
        Rrn - n1
        PTlmr Kit. . tll
        Solldl loidln| .
                                     SUi
                           M/131
                          IM.900
                           ll.Mt
                                      I
                                    iJo,too
                                    ID/IDM
                                     12
                                     30. SI
                                      .
                                    SH.J'O
                                      .
                                    11J.110
                                   UnkMwn
                                                   n/wo
                                                  111.771
                                                   14. UI
                                          10
                                         nt.no
                                         "2S/1US
                                          u
                                         *0.7I
                                          l.SDD
                                        MZ.5W
                                        7W.MO
                                        HJ.IM
                                         1MM
                                         11.111
    
                                          0.13
                                        I.MO
                                          1.7
                                        1M.WO
                                        Ml'lOU
                                         D'U
                                                                                                                          IMU_2
    KIM of Plwt
    cly Ukf. OH
    CtiMtrvlllt. OH
    Ollltnlllt. OH
    0 Holntl. HI
    Clyrll, OH
    4inivi. OH
    Cjlllpolll. OH
    CtMtn. IL
    Huiliy. IA
    lora Cltj. U
    Lorilii. OH
    Ulpllj. OH
    Hchtnut>11ll. 1
    HI 1 ford. OK
    Hl1>o
    -------
    
        EFFLUENT  TOD Ib./d
                no. 
                - 20 
                                                                                             EFFLUENT  TOD lb
                                                                                                    FIQ. 4
                                                                                                     - Jl -
                                                                                                   WEKOIX 
    
    
                                                                                         CM KIIKKM OXTHX KMUH. 
    
    
                                                                           A.   Hltrllltr frldlM "stroich, fj 3-JI  thru )-!t
    
                                                                                  tktrlr
    
                                                                                    Tnn - 11.141 lb  [TlBIl (1
    
    
                                                                                    Y^   . 2721 lb/1 t O.IS Ib 1*  n<> !  OI
    
    
                                                                                     100; VH  120.020 lt/4 (Ub)i  6)
                                                                                    101 KltrlMlrl t,   . 0.1 Ib/Ib HLVSS-d irijurt 3-1)
                                                                                    *  .  0.0127 (0.3)  (10)
                                                                                    la,, - 0.0611  (MO.MO Ib VSi) (T.Ht E)
    
                                                                                           -  SI. I 19 lb'<
                                                                        Corrtlt  for \fC ld (fflMot , tnll to 0.$ pg/I.  '> Mft  1.0 *>><
                                                                        fflgiivt "". thi 
    -------
                Ttwptriturt Corrtctlon:
                   e  -  i.i!j
                                                (tut,, ylrll
                                                ll*t rnultl
                    tflguri  ]-))
    
               ^  .  1.13 *g no,, / J- NLVSJ-hf
    
               1.   .  I.II (l.>tj"->
    
                       . I.IJ w> Tirjij^jaj "IVJS-hr
                  Corrictlon:
    
    Utt plug fliw 4IMr it ihon on pg. 4-20 of KM.
    
    
    
            I.   -    I'n.l) () -I nil
              11       ; - ir, . i, In   <,*,>
            I,   -
                         i.i; no - o.si
                       (ID - O.S)  O.S In
    
                     O.W
            if . SLSJI
                 0.S
            (l)l   li  (hi  IIX 11 I4.r,|; ind till bl Illtttlluttd Into
                            /
            tki ignition.
    
            
                                                                                                        1,0        SIT lr> r,rolk ApBTOiCh
    
                                                                                                                   not:  fltjDia 1-1  fir i air1
                                                                                                    Coma for  iffluant imonli of O.S gM  In 4 ()j fin riicltr.
                                                                                                                        (0.1811 (IB - C.M _
                                                                                                                      (10 - O.S) . 0.5 In (10/0.5)
    
    
                                                                                                                    .  O.IM7 4|>H
                                                                                                                t   9.1
                                                                                                                       LJ
                                                                                                                       J.1
                                                                                                                     O.H        dill 1M 1.0!)
    
    
    
                                                                                                    It My ti notfd thit no torfictlon If Mdi of pN or D.O. 11 propoud In
    
                                                                                                    tkl IP* Klitrlmt Control KtMlll.  It tl till oplmlon of tlill luther lr.it
    
                                                                                                    tin Iffictl  of ill HTiatlfl in not Iddltlvi 11 Inftcitid In lha Kintll.
    
                                                                                                    IlHil. no corwtlon for ft or 0.0. If 0.0. tl gfllttr thin 1
                                                                                                                                              Orrll (. llt.rtion,  f.f.
                                                                                                                                              Pr6Cff* ConiultIRt
    
                                           [V][N
    
         thi erdtr n4 lfU for tlfnlflcint  tfictslent iri outUAid below:
         Dfi.gn  itam Dietatblf 191
                                   Stptntir -  Octotir  HI5,  lltllt KO
                                      Reports  ctwarid  t  plant   in
                                      plinti 4A4 rtcon.tfi.444 1 pilot
    
                                      Ont   pi tnt   rtCD-MCAili t Ion   vi
                                      ritlfltd
    
                                      Pre3*A btili that at
                                      wth     a      [uil>i     ricitu.M
                                      tetitrvcttd  would be imful  Tar  tlthtr
                                      alttrntlvt:  )  pltftt or t pUnt
    
    J,  Rt^itv of pUnt H3*Vi  tiad.ttttl  P9i>tbli  tnmntt toMltlty:  0*n.j*r)f
        antf rfbruary tuifi.
    
    4.  Kr* "POtS  ptrMit  tn prtparatlon  tfid  MHffl  tfcltUd frvi  tftilgd:
        StjMiir ISJ6.
    
    5.  E-ctt. yl*1d 4nd  tailclty  iwivd  U SR9 stvdl".  ConclviloA  li  tMt
        rHl>1Uty of  Ihi  prectn ii  rtfocti). D*ft  tbt 4ti>gn rtxcl tt
        Kill  fcailblt  U  IH re of  iltiutlon  ftxvud iiptcllll) on M IIPDES
         pcrklt ind  pilot  diti.   Cott   Indlcttil t I  pllnt rttomfndtd plm.  rurtlunorf. ui
         t Mtt   Sits llifd:  Otemttr IM7.   Itctlvid by Colmbui:  Juioiry |9||.
    
     10.  mi Otilgn Crint ApplUjtlon mb*lttpplMflllL drift vnvlreflMBtll Ivpact 9t*t4ftt (5tltMnt)
                                                                                                         rr tbl v*lttv>t*T tr*itint (ictlitlM fei cha GclmbW! Chic,
                                                                                                         rttitop11tu Arci.  Cvtfiii. vi lupycrt th pr*frr*d twe'plr.e
                                                                                                         lltfrrnitlwi.  lBpltrnt*ttn of th*c  Itvrr.Btli-* vtll T>ult iB  lnlftl
                                                                                                         lapiclf to autlc tnd [rrcitrlil vtldllf* hbttA>.  *> la !>*  tti<
                                                                                                         rllovlnf ipiclfic cBmatnii.
    
                                                                                                         F*| 2-3S Itltvl thlt Plptn| plevtT*  > ttn JlckSBn tiki k'lfllt  U*T
                                                                                                         TrtBt Plant.  Plf4*' * *wara th*t the piptnl plevt vl 44*4 la th
                                                                                                         fXiril .i!-ni.r.J >pl tut on r.t>t II. 19(5.  Oiicoolcni r(
                                                                                                                           et tncliidi I aiieussioa e[ tTi tjir't. 1OB*. dlattt
                                                                                                                           l. r tBn of .  twch  dtlcuaalcA IB tlla
                                                                                                                           lt I beKttr undf It IBd 1 Bf f r.h Ittpact* f (n*
                                                                                                        SaclUn S.l.l.t.  pl|* 9-3S dlacaaaal the land apallc*ttpA e-F frvaea
                                                                                                        rtori lltaBtlink h0vl4 ka pal< In thla
                                                                                                        teCMulltlon in tBT BOll* frfla] llfld ppl
                                                                                                        Sl*tBat Ittould Indlcita tf th*
                                                                                                        d**p r*eerJi of (1>  Undt to vhiK ih*
                                                                                                        tft>n 10 lnfrti I-M  ttmit r oth.tr >ji
                                                                                                        In r)dltlo->, th Si*tMnt fthduld 
    -------
        Nr. ?M* .
        5*ttlo *..). p|* *J *i*r* th*c "Ad*a*t dlilnfvttlHt f th* affluent"""
        tfM i***t* tTutwnt reUllt* 1 critical lot pretvcttm ( public
        hiattft."  A IJIJ Tipeit to *h feBgrti* fey tlit C*ntr*l tecventfnt pjffte
        tltl*<* "tlu)*C4f*r? **J ttrfwl U**l at DowtMtt Svi|( tnlri*tln
        Shovl* * Stepped" ccroelud*! that. cept IB *ie D( fhtllfKIHiirvmlna:
        r irtirtiJcttd irritatlM, diiltifcctlvn af trt*4 vattti u wit v**4*4 t
                        w*t*rt In ]*d (or  visaing, or
        official poiltlen that 4Ulnfctloa fll  MV*** prtrvld** liitl public
        titntFtt.  vidpt4 ttw^ti 41ilftct1n 1* * fltlw*ly rc*
        In th* Vlct4 Sit vith Itttlt Acco^inylPt lKpzvflt IB public
        In fact, th* dlMnftcilnt f (* i  nt pictlc*4 itB*t*lj IB tb*x
        tn*BtillliH tfltr!*t liK public hltli xri*nci (ltl*r to chit f
        lh* t*ntttt4 SHIM.  If lh(* U * f4ctu*l ! for vttEir cblrlitjM
        thit tronglr rni gclnlt th* palil*n c( **> Cnt*r for V!MM
        Cfrntrel *ai IP* Cvntril kcew6tlt Office. w woU *ppTclBCt
        v*i* 01 th itirtifir
              , It ! <
                                Jlni th*t th* f(*cilvtiti *( i
                                g B th p*eifle V*t*rt*T dlt
    t*cu* 4l*lnf*ctin *E*Rd*r4t fr vmmt vAt*r* *T* t*nllBh
    llht ta >usi)t thit *ltm*[l. iiKh * ultrivl
    b* Hdi*>4 ! th ScBC*flt. tow*r, v* ! pl**fd thit t
                             it a thl* St*t*m*nt !
                                                                  ll|htf
                                   Shell* lUaor Buff
                                  ,               k        .
             hio XnvtrewMnUL rtat*ttn ***/, V*t*r rollutian centtfl. CvlwAu*. 0r*31
             *tUn 9. "in, CKi.f, lUwiMiitiiI FUwiio, Settton fjWI1). U.t. A * ,S
               Chic|0. IL 60&M                    *
                                                                                                  VILLAGE OF NEW  ALBANY
                                                                                                            P.O. BOX  198 2t EAST MAIN
                                                                                                            NEW ALBANY, OHIO 43054
                                                                                                                                                         '"'
                                                                                           Hrln D. Hirt,  Chief
                                                                                           Environmental  Pl*nnin
                                                                                         "
                                                                                       U.S.  Knvtr oriental  Protection
                                                                                        *l*ri*y
                                                                                       Rnt
                                                                                                     ra an identified
    pollution  problem.  The SEI5 appears to Ignore th* pollution
    problem in Nev Albany arc*, identified  by both th* state and
    federal  EPAs;  ftutftsunf only that the  ViHarc of  ))* Albany, but
    not adjacvnt rural areas, vili >t *one  unspecified tutur* tine be
    vithin  the ColuftbuS service area.  (SE15, p. 6-96).  (>ew Albany
    perceives  tnst th policy of th* City of Colunbu*  of not
    providinf  sever service to unincorporated areas win prevent th*
    most  cost~elt*etiv* solution to scv*g  treatment in the  Hcv
    Albany  area.
    
             Columbus h* performed tscilities  plannlni (or  a re|ion
    pxtftfidinf  beyond the Columbus corporate boundaries pursuant to
    federal  construction grants.  Improvements  to  Columbus'
    vtevater treatment facilities, an4 construction of interceptor
    severs  to  implement parts of th* facilities plan,  have been
    funded  vith federal noney und*r th* construction grant prDrran.
    
             Given th* benefits Columbus has received frost th* irant
    progt-M, U.S.  EPA should not permit Columbus to apply a  *no-
    nhexation. no-servie*9 policy when this Agency ha d*tersiln*d
    that  th* extension of service to >n area la th* Most cott-
    *rr*ettv*  and  environmentally beneficial.   A tOMhunity such *
    Columbus that  has benefit ted fro* federal money* to construct
    sever improvements v>tK capacity lor futur* expansion should not
    be permitted to deny scrvic* to unincorporated areas that vr*
    Included in th* regional planning solely because of an ann*Mtion
    policy,  uher* federal grant money has  been provided to  a
    conntjnity  for  regional planning and improvements,  that coMunity
    should  not be  permitted to thvsrt or ignore the goals of regional
    planning by insisting en annexation or  other unreasonable ttr*4
    as a,  prerequisite to service.
                              *v Albany would Ilk* to know whether
                                                                                       part of  its planning area if that area is prepared to pay
                                                                                       reasonable costs  for th* servie*?
    
                                                                                                The village ol  He* Albany would appreciate your response
                                                                                       to these comments and questions.
    
                                                                                                                          very truly yours,
                                                                                                                               , village of
                                                                               8-13
    

    -------
    ONeEF*
    P 0 Bo> KM", iQO WaWMsrk Dr,
                                                      RECEIVED
          Mr.  Marten 0, Hiit, Chief Uwrl)
          Cnvironpetital lapaet Section
          V..  Cf. ftcglOA V
          JJ6  south Dearborn Street
          Chicago, Illinois MH                              U5EPA
    
          Der   Hirt;
    
          This  letter  trensMlts  ths ceilo Epa't cosmnt* on th* Dr(t sejs For ths City
          of  Co!\**v Vastewster  Treatawnt  facilities.   first,  we  would Ilk*  to
          acknowledge  the enorsnus technical  effort  put forth by  the  U.S. tf*, and their
          contractors  in compiling the SElt.   Ths document  1  wall prepared, technically
          sound* iaplefttruablt: snd It a Major step toward water quality UfioveMnts  kn
          th* scloto "ivr.
         The following review
                                   Hi [ prov!4e4 for your consideration;
          1.  Th* potential prlury itpecis fro* constructing (our seventy-eight Inch
              sewer* t iht proposed location Upproilasltly RN 111) ut significant*
              taong thet  tracts  irt th* following;
    
              1   vest bsnk construction would destroy trrcs  of  substantial  age and
                  Ue. tAlIt  disrupting 4 Mturt forest hablUt  tpaj*. 4-71, fJIS.}.
    
                  ClientIvt construction snd deep excavations would b necessity In ths
                  Sciow liver fh4Uln.
    
              *   Tree* along the Scloto River My provid* habitat  Cor  the federally
                  endangered Indlsna at  alghttd recently In Pleksway  County  c croing would twee** nccctMry,  th*
                                  mUl9*tlon  ltit* tn ibt* *-tl of th*  Sll* nd ih* ttioo*t
                                  vitiation  Outlined in thli coMM-nt thould b* rqutr*4 Iwth tn th*
                                  pto]*ct pclllcitent *nd   jiiwfil not** 0*9* in th* *ct*t
                                  4t*ll*d Pufll ind Iniurt UPJwu,Hon by th contact or.  TTi**i
                                  dt*ll*d B!M would r*quli* apprevtl fey th* onto EPA prior to
                                  construction.
    
                                  ITwj $11* nhould pirscctbt eonvtructton **fntnt Halt*,  x
                                  conilructlon ***<*nt width ut 190 rt Nt pi*vioutty propotvd
                                  (U'July,  1M).  PL* 44i*n th* *ppfOprUt*nft of tMi
                                  **wni jivrt iht tutur ot th* n*c*ry comtruct ln *n*
                                  ttwlittd  tmlioncntll *ofttn*.   ifet *f>tr*l note* pi?* vhoutd
                                  cUcrty it*t* thl work M*Mnt *r* hot to b* *KC**d4.
    
                                  Th* dtttlltd pUn *h**tt fhould cU*rly 4lln.t ti*t to b* .
                                  wrk  rtanl*. tlOCVfH* *rcu. loCAtlort* of hay b*t*s. JuU *!.
                                  tit  b*rrl*rrr rtf rap. end th*r notion control *!.  D*t*t)*d
                                  innrtt chowlng propvr construction teehnlqu** for tht< vcrloui
                                  rotlon control* itould !K b* Include* (pl*u ** nclostfi *MpU
                                  (ot My bil* cntcktf.
    
                                  Cl*ln nd 4r*dln4 thclt not bifln prior lo July,
    
                                                                      th* rtvr to *id vst
                                 Cl**rln) shall ta don* tn *i9i
                                 *ipOur* of br Mils.
                                                                       th* rtvr bftti.
                                 HO con* true I Ion la or ir  th*  scleto *tv*t htU b* piraitttd during
                                 th* srrlnq ip*wnln9 Month*.
    
                                 Th* contactor shell bck(lll and  rov^h grid* )1 trrneht* t th* end
                                 or *ch workday.  Th* 4t*turt*d *r* ov*r th* trenches tI! b*
                                 9r*d*d, *f*d*4* *Ml nulchcd within U howis *lti b*ckmifn?.  Th*
                                 contrwler IM|I ihttln all *** *n4 milled *t**t In ccoii*ne
                                 with tb* *p*c trie*l Ions until [ln*l accept *nc of the watk.
    
                                 Th* ci*n-up 4r>4 41spo**l ot cleared *t*tt* shell be don<  moon
                                 * practice! *ftU Ujlf> of the ptp end  th* resident project
                                 engineer "*y direct.  However.  ct*en-up voik shall not (!! behind
                                 th* plot leylne, -or* then 6M Ee*t-  Should the contractor net keep
                                 hts elen-up work vliMn the foT*entlon*d dt*tanet. the contfsetor
                                 hell b* required to cets further pipe Uyihf until such c)e*n-up
                                 work Is aceonp/l Ished ,
    
                                 1C work on this projct  Is *upend*4 for eny ffe**on, ih* con t rector
                                 Shsll Maintain (he Mil erosion *t*d edtewi t ton contiel fectlttle*
                                 In food condition Utirtno, th* suspension of wotk.  Also,  when s*eson*t
                                 endlllns perill M1 the suspension of work Is expected to net*4 
                                 period f on* exmtli. the contfeCtor shall plec* topsetl. fine ft*de.
                                 esd. ftttllUe. *nd wKh *U  itatutbed *ie* left exposed when *ork
                                 is stopped.                                                       _
        Merlen 0. Httt
        H*rh 10, 19S
        Pag*  3
    
             K.  U dewetertj^ flew* ie to b* kept free of tilt. sedlMMatlon,
                d*tlfr and other polluUnt* through epproptlat* e*ni (settling
                b*9lns. IHteia, etc.) end following this, the flow* sh*lt only b*
                released dlivctly Into store) drslnf. *it>eji chsnnels, ot other
                stafclllied dr*ln*<|* eourse* n4 not onto eipose-J sell* or steep
                slopes.
    
             L.  if st ny tlH bttore the eiplrtlon of th* contr*et IKMii (usually
                on* year aEter final psyiMnt 1* **de) any p*rt of lh st*d*4 art* Is
                not Jft oood condition^ the contractor shall re*s**d as o(i*n si
                nc*nr to get * good steAd of grsis.                             _
    
        2,    Pt?* 6-83 states th*t downitr*** ettoat*s of sedl*nt irsnsgort ais not "~
             available.  However, previous ftcllltles planning toMMnt responses
             Indicated th*t b*s*d on a hydrogreph with  90 MO dlschrje Jitm Jackson
             f\n. river velocity t Rn lit would B* -Ol feet per vecondi with  wetet
             flesth of thic* feet during low rim* periods (ins-July. l>).  Plt
             4drets the accurecy oE this velocity figure e,nd define th* anticipated
             dounstrewi Alstsnc* of construction related sdlsjentatlon taasets
             ssoclated with any eitpenslon ot ih* ir>terconn*>
                            Tsble 4-4 ot  the scis.
    
                            Additional clsrtfIcatton is needed to dtlne th* vslsting.  ttestMnt n
                            nd  twenty-year service area fee the city of colvnbus.
    
                       1.    PU** Inclvd* s MSP of the **tting ColMbu* itrvjc* *r* In the sCH
    
                       t.    construction  grams regulation* pper to require  IMB! ent at Ion
                            itat*M*n(S fro* all entitle* Included In the city's existing  service
                            area. Tneu  *lalr**nt* would provide *4Ch entity's agreement to acce]
                            tcrvice vis th* twetity-yesr capacity being provided for  th*M  at the
                            colistfru* VWTfri,
                       g.
    it also eppears that  at  *  MlnlMvst each entity tnclvded in the tiltli>*f
    twenty-year service area far Coiisriw* should b* dt/ectly notified at the
    city's Intent to provlce vervlcc.  This notification s>ay proMpt the
    neces*ry negotiations nd the city In coMOletlng tha renalnlng
    fscilltiea plsnntng for  Interceptors.
    
    Is the city required  to  provide service to th* entitle* no*n tn the
    ultimate tervlce *r*a (Figure 4-1* dt*tt Sttsi If a grsnt I* provided to
    i*f>leent th* Stt altCTnativ*7
    
    Klw. pl*** discus*  snncRatlon ss it relates to thl* IBSIM.           ~
    
    TM *rrcha*ologlcai survey wtn be required to MOT* precisely
    define the hetliontel boundaries of the Us end deternlne If the *lt*
    srs sllglbU tot Inclusion on th* tfstlonai Register of Historic Placet.
    
    sea oft Dr. BUrtk'a  reconeteMatIon* snd our recant discussions with the
    OHPO. two revision* should b* *ad to th* SE2S.  rirat. the SttS states
    that the (owe Southerly  *rchs*ologtC4t *lte 4re net eligible for the
    tUtlonel Register of  Historic Pl*ces.  This deterinattoA pp*r* to
    requli* completion of th*  Ph*s* iijjurvey work.
    
    Secondly, th* SC1S should  cUiily st*t* that the Phase Itjjurvey w*! be
    undertaken prior to *ny construction n*ac th* Identified arehseologlcal
    sit** si Southerly.                                                   	
                                                                                               8-14
    

    -------
     Italian B. M|it
     larch 10. |9*
    U.     tut >
         t.ly on clfk   _.n,  o  ,
         to the ppllc.Uan of lh (am*!*:
                                 ill.  i.ci or no Inforxtien.
               ..> t.. it th. g.,iy> n, .!, rr MOOO, MM ,M  .eutt., ly
          re ..p.r.t.1, , in,,  ,. .TO.,1.,,.  . e^u[. . TO clow   *
          1.6.  Sine. ..Jo not M. M. thll Mellon ~. torlv.4. ~  b,l.o,.
          tint thi. My   iiuppiiciiign 01 u tomi..  PI..I. .>!.
    
           tc. r*P h.vt ilgnirtc>c> to > rtnl !. IMrolixtlc caMllla, taX~
           po-.to ..i-ariv i,,fiu, .no.   i, ,M m r.i.t.1   tn
          dls'uli?""'" " l"e*" "*p*cu* "  MtoloiJc Kn.,  PI..
    
          .lologlc.l  photpheroin rnov.l
        .l.m MM. .1 )r*init4 for your eofulartton:
    
         A vwKrtn Mtlcilly focw en tht t*iontn9 u>*4 In tht  HIS to
         conclud* th,tt * tvo-pltnt *en*rl ! Bori nvlformntBUy cpt*bu
         lh*n thi ont-pl*nt  propocit.  in out vlnr. MM of th* pt*dlctlon of
         *nv|iorwnt*l tunm r* iiroiwout. Uck surrtct
         not eonl*i futut* rtw^Ul ctiocu to control C90 *
                                                                                                                i SKIS concludes th*t It U t**ntl*t thtt th* Jrtton Ftki
             provide  lov^ttw lu^Mntttlon tor i.l milt* of  th* Sclote nlvtt
             dutlnf dry with*r p*rloi;
         )   provlo* dilution [oc t
             Str*tt CM;
                                                                                                                                           dl*ch*r9*d uptr*w (ro th* WHlttttr
    
    
                                                                                                             C)  piovldi * -bufftf for *ny shock Imidln^* th*t "liht uptt WT*
                                                                                                            it}  pr*v*nt  *n lncc***ij tvet on th* Kioto iiiver dowtftr**! fio*
                                                                                                                Xauih*ity ct*4 by 4t*eh*f9ln9 th* Mhol* lo*d *t n* paint  intt4
                                                                                                                Of t-a-
    
                                                                                                            On th* i or (AC* It y ** prwdcnt to be eonc*rMd *bovt  -|<3ftnj-  130 cfi  |
                                                                                                            o( itit*ln*d dry w**thr How trUu*tlon without JccMon PU*.
    
        th* b*nflel>l lp*ct of coHl*t* wa9t*)o4 t*wwil   uhd*r*stlMid In
        th* Mrs ptt*bly b*c*u* It M ovrth*4ov*d by  ether concern* <)* f
        cSO dilution, loss Q( low-flow oiMnt*tlon *tc.l.   if the** oth*r
        eoM*m* can b* ellMlntd or r*4uc*d then  th* b*n*fii, of WTP tMovsl
        *r fhlfltd.  Th*[* 1* no 4Uttln that biological cojHunltle* p*rton
        b*ttr In i(T*4* and rivers t4t*r* such 1*r* wifp dlmch*f4M *r
        b*n( .  Thl* 1* not to y thtt th* Scloto *lv*l ! Mt  C*p*bl* of
        *(1A4 tti* [" tr habitat (UWH> u* with in  lnc*  btoloqlcsl
        Pt(omne, particularly with coMpunltlts  that inptooeh  and *van attain
        ic*ptleci*l ltv*l* Ilk* th* Scloto nlv*r *M It*  trlbutait**.  For
        iMtafte* w* Htlfht *ip*ct th* II (or iCt n4 |wh) to attain  th* Mm
        criterion (42) with lh* WT **ttn Its Mn*l 1UU*.  Haw*v*r. It y
        attain closer to Mt without th* dlachar^*.   Thu*  b*ttar biologic*!
        ptlEorBane* could tt* axp*ct*4 with co>pl*t* WtfTP r**ovl.
    
        Th* *bov* ap*EttOA I* valid only if th* otlwc nnecrnt *bout' *>l*nd*d
        CSO l*jp*ct> and )ow-f]owi c*n b* reduced or dlial>i*4.  llh r*r4 to
        low- flow* th*r* *f other str*M In th*. b*sln that  >u>port  high quality
        WK and *v*n fwn biological parforaanc* *v*n though  th*lr critical
        low-flow* ai |*s> th*n that project** foe  th* Kioto llwr without
        J*Ck*on lh*.  tlf tarbT Cr*k at O*rbyvlll I pproxlMit* ly  10 !!> tro-
        th* Muth) h* * Ol >n tH*r  ovee**r) flow of 1.3  cfa and  * fXrt flow
        of 1? C(P.  Th* *tt*ptlon*l t*tu* of th* Uik faun*
        for thli **9Mnt of Blq twrby Cr**h *r* well known - tht  BUS
        Cknowledfei this (*ct.  Hott It not *lt of th* *nd*ntrd fish *p*cl*
        14tnttH*4 by th* SElS * etlnoj thr**t*n*d  by UVTP flow renowal ha**
        abundMt and videly dlitrlbuUd populations In lowtr 1  Barby Ct*k.
        Kll of this occur* dtapU*  flow i*o,l*i* |ow*t than  thai  proj*ct*d for
        th* seloto Klvr.  Th* habitat aM H[*M ehnn*l ot th*  Be lot o liver
        downttfeaa fro* Jackson *tk* t* not Mrk*dly dl**l*ll*r 10 that ptovload
        by )*. C**by.  Thus w* could *p*xt th* Seloto llv*r to tali* on *
        phytlc*! *pp**r*ftc* Blnllar to tht of  it*  Mtler  tributaries 1U* lv
        5*fby cr*ek *?M) ! V*lnut Crttk,   Th*  biological perforwuv:* of lh*
        Scloto Rtw*r *>*y not *clly *>*tch that of  Blf Me by Ci*tb b*c*t>H of
        KM* inherent habtut dlff*r*ncf* tJH*lHy *ub*tr*l* diversity), but
        Hi bloloflcak pcrtorHne* would b* btuar  without  IM  eft wrp
        [fluent,
                                                                                                      M*rlan 0, Mitt
                                                                                                      lurch 10, in*
                                                                                                      Paft                                                                     	
    
                                                                                                           Thi concern *boul th* lo*.a of dilution for  th* VMitler !ti( CSO *eu
                                                                                                           to b* bated on an attertlon th*t  thla  dlachatf* h*s t load eiu*l to
                                                                                                           Jtclson Hit* *nA would<  thercfoi*. cnr**vh*lf th* **llt*tlv* capacity of
                                                                                                            such rtducrt flow r*)U*.  If this wr* th* case *4 th* CSO h*d
                                                                                                           alBltar p*tUl and t*pora( ehar*tt*rl*tic* a* th* J*chicn pili*
                                                                                                           dlcchart* th*n we would  |jk*wti*  b* concrp*4.  T*s***vt, nrlth^t
                                                                                                           *auat>tlen li really correct.  Th* cantral  fclotft River CQ* *it*pt*< to
                                                                                                           cnfiar* loadings between lh* CSO  wv) th* two wm.  T*bl* J-18 shows th*
                                                                                                           co^iarlwm for th* y*art 1*16 - !!.   csO  d*t* w** av*llabl* for 1*7*
                                                                                                           and IMJ only.
    
                                                                                                           on an *nnMal baala th* CM 4Ueh*fa4  S5\ an4 *<% of th* Jaetton PIN* toe
                                                                                                           load In 1*1* 4nA 1H2, r*petiv*]y.   On   third qutrttt {July 1 -
                                                                                                           s*ie*dwr 90) b*tl iK*  tr*ctton  decreased  to 22% and m. ***p*ct! ly.
                                                                                                           Th* POT* **v*r* isa>actt  would b*  expected In th* third quart*; because of
                                                                                                           reduced flowa, higher t**pi*tur**. and lowr Mblent B.e.  This Is not
                                                                                                           eonsiatcnt with th* CIS  cUl that th* cso  load 1* *qul to th* WT7
                                                                                                           load,  tt Is In fact Mich U*s and mtfti *cf* variable,  Th* CIO toadlnga
                                                                                                           r* ttlh**t wh*n river (low* *r*  hl4h*r and thua *or* dilution Is
                                                                                                           av*ll*bl to lllfet  ih* lapaet.
    
                                                                                                           Th* SttS likplltltly ev*iut* th* ctt  M *  lowriow. dry whether lj*p*et
                                                                                                           which Is Actually whan th* cso lotdtnqt af* towcat. uch lowtr thn tha
                                                                                                           auatalned low-flow, dry  w**tn*r load produc*d by th* WTF.  HO on* wfli
                                                                                                           contest that the CM> la  not havlnf an  *dv*rk* impact on th* Kioto >tv*E
                                                                                                           between th* Cr*rnl*wn Daw #04 ft*r.k Id. Th* di*ch*rfe of tew*** solid*
                                                                                                           and their **ttlin. on th* botto*  1* of (articular concern-  However, this
                                                                                                           It th* nost Mow* In clO**r protlnlty to  th* CSO outfall and Its eff*ct
                                                                                                           4Ulnlsh* Mlth lncre***d distance downstrtan.  *4dltien*lly. w* should
                                                                                                           ofwrai* under th* eitp*etatton th*i lo*41n* ftoa this ai*d ether cso* will
                                                                                                           b* ceduced Ln th* near futur*.
    
                                                                                                           with regard to th* two-plant scenario  providing  better 'buffer- lnit
                                                                                                           bO*slbU shock leodln**  th*t* t>  Itttl* *elo9icl benefit,  ft shock
                                                                                                           loading *t * wr wh*th*r It Is a to HGD or 150 HOP ftcHfly e*n h*v*
                                                                                                           erloui coT*^u*nc*a Ln  th* receiving  *tr**J*.  Und*r  two-plant
                                                                                                           BCtntrlO. thi* cllk 1* **t*nd*d to two river >9tnt ln*1ad of on*.
                                                                                                           Under * om-pUnt scenario, tht unlf*ct*4  tt^tent uptt* ftoo.
                                                                                                           southerly would s*rv* aa a refuT* and  rtpopuUtlon eplc*nt*i for *ny
                                                                                                           short-tern lpacli downitren*.  Th* aeo**nt dowistrM fro* southerly it
                                                                                                           el**rly bitter suited to respond  to a  short-let" Incident 4tH primarily
                                                                                                           to th* closet pro*llty  of larger tributaries {! Walnut, tfatntit Cr*t,
                                                                                                           tig tMitby Cr**k> which are totally absent between southerly *** Jeckion
                                                                                                           rik**  Ttnte trlbut*rU* **rv* ai refuae* and r*popul*tlon epetcvnt*i* M
                                                                                                           well.  Durina th* 14H flah s*Bllnf.  w* p*Et*nc*d ihli tBllity
                                                                                                           tlrtt-hand when South*ily had a teilogs tnctfimt which resulted In 
                                                                                                           snail fish. kill.  ThU was detected by our  second nptln* P* ton* week
                                                                                                           tt*r th* incident).  On th* thttd p**n On* *onth  later thf ccMMunity had
                                                                                                           letufned to its pr*-lnctdent cowiliton.
                                                                                        8-15
    

    -------
    MiCtl IB.  l*M
         Tht itiu* of dixlMtglng U  of lh lo4 *t CatuMmk KoutlMrly ! partly
          wodaUn*. question,  Kowtvtf.  slon? *ltn  lncr**t4 |od COM* lner*attd
         [low which should b* ot niWrH iaearune* in in tfOiwnt *e*ln*l*i
         situation.  COM It tvtlly ll*f fro*  *n  munt/itT* MOM
         pr*p*ctW 1* 10 * ( OBitrtM. Clow  dlluto 0 ei l HCO of
         Etuwnt?  eeolole*lly * oewbt if it  Is  tl)y tenltlcatit.         _
    ; In* l*r u*llty M>d*Unf Jt*vl*w In ttw
    ltttd in th*  MrCh 2). I Ml ttttl fit*
         fha Ohio IP* ***nta concM
         5EIS r Xhf * as tho 
         Me. Tumj  10 nr. sutfln.                                            _
    
         Th* SE1S iwo-plwrt option was anviroiMMnUUy  Jwitlfl** by eUin*     "
         txntrin C dilution prov|d*4 by tiw Jackson r>lk *tftunt **leh WM14
         Pltlqt* Up-cti ot uib.rv runotr *n4 CSO'i.  Ttila *pprch dM not
         4 Scioto liver 0wnitrtw
         enclii9lont t triv.
         0.0- *Etr riplr*t1w> and ivr,  and nd tlth* ortiw. * 1**<1 < nutrl>M to tM ctote
         Plvir H i**tly t**y*"d Etc* *illlnfl condition*.                    _
    
         nod*UA4 i 4t h siwi]ly eo:l4d Uw fiM-plMt *c  t*-p]*it
         linnilv (fKt on D,o, 1 eavwAI*.  Th o.O.  *  cMrvi (pif> *-46. ->>>?  Th InctMttd  s*v*rliy ot ilw
         D.O. ** bl-  Th IncriM* l 
         Ubotln 414 Intvittrenca with fawnftiew 41scMrs \t  conjvetutt.
         Th itl*tnt r9*idln9 Modeling on p9 6-  *t* out ol mtit * "et
         v?n InlerMd.  TM Mils for not M6*Ung th Clrltvtll* *r Is feus*
         olvly on * Uek ot pny*lcl dat* coll*tLon and 1*  not  r1td 10
         dicturfr  imtctlon.  u MM* to bt ifteonslitnt to  t*l upon th
         odfling (01 Mjor dtctslons (such *s ftrmLt llm\t*t\tnm *n4 ptojtetlom
         of st>ndi4 t(*lr*Mnt) *nd tcknowlvd)* >t *d*vucy ror  th putpo.
         yhli* polnt^ 10 ^lel*iielt in th* Bod*l   MM* of  Ju.lUylr^ on*
         UtBHv* ovr tnottfrr.  M**4 upon aodvl T>*ult*. ltn*r altrn*liv
         vli! ptcvta* [cr rot*ction ftl st*ndrds ind recovery of ua*f **
         lafiC*i, lik rowrwoil*. lpNin ibort t^tw *
                                                                          qusntlty condlllons.  KVM It *!( r*eh*r*4 U  vt^ntCiCMt f
                                                                          tht ihoit t*r Mtuta ot low flow* and In* *buns*m: of iutl*c <
                                                                          tki d qiMirl** adjtcnt to tM rlvtt should ftcttv*)y alil
                                                                          shoit tr tBTct,  Ohio E?K tMvys ot phyvtesl conditions oo n
                                                                          suMl*ntUt lh* tmriion th* tt*r iutMt*t* Is *l*d y tndu
                                                                                  ! ilwo^s  (c*nttl Sclote llvtr CHQR. **M.  ff J^VJMI.
                           n,  ih* dltcvitlen oC voundwat*r riM-down tn  8ht*vl11* x**t
                                is unrltt*4 to th* oejmiv* of ths discutnlon in  thU Action (v**
                                *-H) ,
    
                           Tnsnfc you (ec  *odiMln4 our eoncsrm.  If you ft*v* *ny  qutstlons H94^9
                           thtkt cM*nt. pl**s* contact 41* sonlt *t <14) 4*1-10*1.
                                                                     tlncttaly.
                                                                      n. i. nn, r.e., cntf
                                                                      Otvttlon ot w*ur Pollution Control
                                                 rilrri.ll CM*	  *t>ll*M CMMI L*
                                                                                                                   lMl<^M I* tt* 
    -------
      .*:
                                                      HCKMINOTWI.OMIOOUMJSI
                                                                                    n
                                 January 18. 19
    Ur4t*d State* Qitfrcrnntal Fi-otaciion Agency
    Regions
    c30 SouUi Dou-boni Str**t
          . lUlnoLa  6Q60b
    Aitn:  Mr. Harlwi D. Hlrt. Chief
          EhvlrOTpmUl naming Section, $T?
    Dear Mr. Hirt:
        TJie ?A tau wisely *upported certain polIclM r4jftrdlnf prollT*reUm of aall
    satellite Mstevater plant*, conclderatlon cf hlafi growth area* In plan-ting for
    fedemlly f\3*lth on-line or project*l capacity of exSitlng plant* ill considered, proceailng
    capacity will l between 3KS3 and *Ka) during the pluming period.  Ther* an EPA
    and local concerns re&rding th water*hed'a capacity to handle more effluent
    inan * MD.
        It Mould tes appropriate, wider EPA* rglonallitlen criteria to reevaluiw I
    the project  ra In order to mtlpt probable effluent prt*lw after 1993-        /-^
    7h9 pms of the "Blaekllck Irwik* and ita potential u *n Interceptor of all  \(TT\
    eactlAg Vidvt Tbrtiahlp pUnta present* a at-efftlve opportuiity teiieh -4    |v> /
    reapeetfulljf request tht EPA to corulder.                                    J
        TJw* you for th opportmity to comoit,
                                       Sincerely,
           HEWJWS - FEBRUMV 16,  19B>
             BY JOHN AUOS
                                                                92
    ptOCM* that w*  ar wndar^etng, that  i*<  the EIS piece!!, I
    and *y Btarf win tft*l vith tha.  Th  thnie*l 4v*Uon* ve
    will  Ctfec  thaai  to U> technical afcafC.   W don't guarantee
    w can MBWC th quatfcin> today b*cti* OP ( th can b
    iwry  technical and rvquii* tttm addltioflal thinking.
    BOM*vri coi-**intion of th* apeak*r* will n*t b*
    ptrmitt*d.  tnd if you do vlah to van* coantRta tbn,  pl*a>*
    tatt yeac  naaM  and affiliation,  ftnd if  you wUn,  cettainlr
    yon ar InTited  to coa op and ask th*  qu*itten* from th*
    front. *o we can all hear you better.   Kith that then* John
    Albera ttom the  Jeffenon semr and Hitvr District.        _
             HK. KLBCMSt  Right.  Thank you.   fly naa* |a  John
    Albfri.  I  aa an attorney.  I a her* ipccantlng  the
    Jeffeceen Hater  and Sever Dlitrlet vhlch  has eeeently been
    informed the Jff*rn and. Hater Diatrlet neovpaaie* the
    ntUt anlneorportd portion of Jafferaan Tvn>hip.   Me are
    In the procte* o( prtpailn? and looking at the featibilltr <>'
    pi o id ing vitec  and >en*er **rvices to th* c*sf4*nt of our
    dlatrict.   We have* therefor** b*coatt v*(e of th*  SiS, and
    w* hav* beeoB* evar*~ of the (act that th* Jeffereon Matte and
    ew*r Diatrlet ia Included within the planning district ae
    et forth In th*  SZIfl.
             Aa  aoch, it would appear tbet our district it
    Included with r**pct to th* projection!  foe eipanaion and
    ipprovenatit  of th* faellitl*! under either plan within th*
                                                                                                               kWtSTROHG 4 OKETt INC.. ColuaivUa.  Ohio
    
                                                                        53
            SEIS.  Aa  ioch,  when federal fund* *i u*d  fov  tb  planning |
                iovenenb  and  cKpanaion of th* Coluaboe  lystmi and **rle* ,
            to  cue ajea  la provided for in the clty'a  ftelliti**
            planning,  can aceeea to-th* unlneerporattd. area  aueb  ouc
            dlatrlct b*  d*ni*dr
                       would a*k th* federal EVA to CQaM to ft
            detvtaination to for aw let* a policy  tad  eiprtM  to tta that
            policy*   It  would eeeai t ua if federal  funda mtm b*lng eo
              a*d  each  ai {or Interceptor* that at* lcat*dj wlthtn clos*
            proviBlty to ua, w wondic about th* ability of  thot*
            facllitlea to b* denied to ac*a* which *ta unincorporated
            thtt  ar* not Included within th* ate* of th* City of
            Coluabu.   e, of course, deelen to  cotniat  peacefully with
            th* City of  Coluttotia and all other aunictpaliti**.  We would,
            however, lite* acc*M to any ayate* for which ** would 
            which w* Bight b* tntltled where  federal fund* *r* utilised
            for construction or plan thoa* aytte***   Thank you.
                      HCAUJBG OrriCER BIHTi  Okay.  Z believe youc
            guattion la en* that EPA haa apent con*id*rabl* tla* dealing
            with In other place** other coavatniti**, and we do  have a
            *tat*d policy which can b* atad* available, will b*  refeienced
             I expect In ajiBwerlng your cjuevtion.  ftaaically w*  do -- th*
            policy baBlctlly atatea we work: within the eiltting atal  and
             local lawa  regarding annciiatien.   We do not have  a  policy
             that *y* you auat ann to gt  vervlc*.  w* don't  say th*
                        A.AMSTAOMC  I OIET,  INC.,
    
                                                                                                      FUBUC HENUNG - HIUIPUV 1$, 19*8
                                                                                                      Tcsman ft GDWIWDJ.
                                                                                                                                                                
              NX.  HMKIU.I  My rm II C4 Mumll.   I  n
     itprxtnCIng  . ntlghboihatd fhleb H )nt 
     Couthtrlr "c! 6outhvitrly co^oit [iclllty.   >foc. i b?i
     I  voulfl rMlly 1U to CflBacnd these vbo prepared this
     Aoctnwit.  It ii truly unln9 thet  deconent of this tlif
     produc.d bf the r*dei>l CoveinMnt cealt be  thl  Intereiting
         tbli loforutlTt.  I tully en}i>re4 ie*4ini it.  And
     gentltMfl, 1  k>ve got to / eftir re<4ing  thit too I hire to
        ent on the legnltude o( your re'poneibtllty too.  It 1>
     truthly Hfreillne.
              1 vant to telk e Klirate ebout  odor.  It Is s uill
     pert of tbe lepoit. but It is of ciHlcel  Isportence to e
     who Live In southwest treflklfn county,  our populetion grovth
     doesn't reflect on your density grepbs, but ve hv people
     there who live s sort at different lifestyle.  Typically tbeyj
     vlll beve fro. to to fits acres, end  for  e*a>ple, *e beve
     right now on *y Street Cone bousss onder  construction end e
     ntnMr of tboss bousee are In the I1SO.OOO  to 1200,000 price
     range,  we can't be  Ignored.
              After doing son. heswverfc and discussing  these
     'arlaie problos* with sooe of your eiperts, I find tbst the
     nse of the aene In  odor control  le  containment.   This iveuis
     tntt whatever stlnss haa to be enclosed.   These ere your
     tanks, youc dlgeetote* end vhstnot.   The gases of  these
     sources need to be scrubbed and  this includes the  effluent
                                                                                                                           I OlItT,  IXC., Colusbus, Ohio
                                                                                    8-17
    

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                                                              tt
     from incineration or itaeks.  There  sis  known current odor
     problm both tt Jackson rlk< and at Southerly.  Jackson Hke
     tt  one of the big three of the odor  producers kbit on
     detects II you drive down Interstate 11.  Jackson nut has 
     atrong sludge Ilk* odor, and southerly has  powerful burned
     odor from the incinerator.
             I would like to know * my  first question with these
     known prot>le and  budget In excess of 140 Billion vtMttar
     or  not stat* of CM art odor containment ha toin
     Incorporaixl into Projict II?
             Hy cvcond coaiHnt relate* to a pa[ao,raph in chapter
     (  page 6} of thil revived inpact ataktawnt.  It rcada at
     Collovi, If I Bay.  -Recently the city ha> deal^nated an odoi
     control conalttee conptlted of city  evployeea, chelltf and
     local realoenta.  The conlttee till dealfned In odot control
     action plan which Involve! an enployBent of an Independent
     contalttflt to conduct a qualitative  atody of piotcu lth
     ipeelflc cffotta alated at correlating odoc coaA>lalnte with
     the plant optratlona and Met lofical condition*.  It it
     expected that vith leaultl of thea*  and other ptopoaed
     atildiea the odoc aonreei Includln9 individual proceaaat In
     the facility olll b* identified.1
             Ho, the laat tvo tentenceo are critical.  "Tnia
     knoxledge can then Be uted to eatabliah control acaaurea
    detiQned to alleviate ec aubetantlally reduce the odor
               ARMSTRONG t OKEY 1M.* COluabut* Ohio
                                                             SO
    levels.  This aay be accomplished through decreasing  the
    eailsalon of odor and/or enhancing the dlaperalon potential  of
    the source.
             fty question U art these last tvo sentences  a
    contract?  Do they commute a coeits*nt by the city of
    Colusbgs and the united states Envirnntsl Protection
    Agency with the laaidentl of southwest franklin county? If
    they don't, they should.  If they do, can be and y  be
    should be ehsnged to will be.  And a tiae fras* should be
    specified.  Zf covletlon of the current work in Project la
    can be required by 1 July, ISM, let's set specific sbout  a
    reasonable but aandated completion date foe odor control.
             So l would like to heve responses to ny first
    question to what extant are they Incorporating into Project
    II atate of the art odor contiols containnent, and aecondly,
    to what extent can we. conclude that these cosaenta that t
    have just read to you sis a conitxnt that we will get this
    odor probleaj under control?  Thank you.                    	
             HR. DIKTl  Okay.  This being st this point the only
    ststeient I think I will ask the technical ataff  If they can
    addraas any of the -- those two apeclfio Questions In tis
    Of their understanding of what's in the CIS.  The firat one
    being  1 had theae down here, stats of the art  in Project
    I.
             MR. BCllSBOI.il  1 would have  to  say that's the  city's
                                                                                                   ARH5TK>G i OKCY, tKC., Coluefeus, Ohio
                                                                       8-18
    

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    8.3  COMMENT RESPONSES
    Comment 1
    Comment:      Several commentors questioned whether USEPA has the ability to
                  require the city of Columbus to allow service to unannexed areas
                  in light of the 1979 EIS and the federally funded Blacklick
                  Interceptor which passes near these entities.
    Commentor/s:  Jefferson Water & Sewer District, Village of New Albany, and
                  Ohio EPA
    Response:
    The questions, which specifically address both the Blacklick Interceptor,
    constructed with a previously awarded grant, and interceptors in general, are
    not within the scope of this SETS.
    
    This SEIS was based on the treatment facilities required for a 20-year
    solution of wastewater treatment needs.  Since the city has not completed
    facilities planning for CSO or future interceptors, the SEIS was limited to an
    analysis that determined the cost-effective alternative for treating dry
    weather flows.  For a discussion of future service areas, see comment 27.
    
    The federal policy which applies to this annexation issue includes the follow-
    ing main elements:
    
        "1.  Cost-effective solutions to water pollution problems cannot be
             discarded because of local annexation disputes.  One cost-effective
             project may not be split up into less cost-effective segments because
             parties cannot resolve an annexation problem.
        "2.  Federal grant assistance intended for pollution abatement cannot be
             used to cause annexation.  Annexation is a local and state question
             involving both legal and political considerations that should not be
             resolved solely by the Construction Grants Program."
    A copy of this national policy is attached for reference.  In view of this
    policy, USEPA has concluded that annexation is a local  issue to be decided in
    accordance with state and local laws.  The issue will continue to be reviewed
    as it relates to conditions of service under previous and/or future grants.
                                              8-19
    

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                      UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                                           Region V
    
      DATE.   July  28, 19 BO
    
    SUBJECT:   Annex* t ion aa  Prerequisite for
                          Treatment Services
      FROM  ^CWd A, Gayer, Assistant Division Director
          Q   for Construction Grants
    
       -T0.   Construction Grant Program Branch Chiefs
               and Region V State Agencies
             Enclosed ie a copy of  June 19, 1960 memorandum from Mr. Longeat
             aubject aa above.  The memorandum restates the Agency *s construction
             grant program policy on the matter through elaboration on the policy
             principle* eet forth In the September 29, 1978 memorandum, a copy of
             which ii attached.  A copy of the CUy of Columbia, South Carolina,
             grant appeal decision, referenced on page one of the June 19 memorandum,
             was provided to you on August 27, 1979.
    
             Simply stated, the policy in to keep Che construction grant program
             from being uaed to force or preclude annexation contrary to local and
             State laws and objectivee.  It should be noted that the policy in
             conjunction with the coat-effective analysis guidelines affirmatively
             upport the President1* urban policy.
    
             Those guidelines are intended to minimize urban sprawl induced by
             unplanned or unnecessary sewerage infrastructure*.  They do so by allowing
             only justifiable reserve capacity for treatment works and by careful
             airing, staging and location of interceptor line*,  Through the guidelines
             EPA discourages placement of facilities in environmentally sensitive
             areas such as floodplalns, wetlanda and prime agricultural lands.  These
             policies reflect not only the Agency's desire to fund Only cost-effective
             projects but also an awareneaa that provision of sewage treatment and
             collection services represent serious inducements to development that
             could override local planning effort*.
    
             In terms of implementation it 1* essential that the section of the
             facilities plan concerning implemontability  40 CFR 35.917-6  thoroughly
             address annexation in context of the policy.  Along these lines
             the Facilities Planning Branch la responsible for modifying its facilities
             plan review documents to ensure that annexation issues are adequately
             addressed in facilities plans for Indiana and Ohio municipalities.
             The modified review documento should explicitly provide for identification
             that appropriate agreements , pursuant to State and .local law, have been
             or will be provided where a facilities plan alternative is proposed to
             serve a constituency of more than one political entity or that an existing
             established policy requiring areas contiguous or adjacent to the
             municipality to submit to annexation in order to receive utility services
             preclude auch agreements.
                                         8-20
    

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    Effective immediately any municipality whose facilities plan proposed
    annexation aa a mean* of implementation must document that It has
    an established annexation policy in accordance with the June 19, 1980
    policy before the facilities plan id approved.  If there are questions
    concerning the subject natter of this memorandum please discuss them
    with the Facilities Planning Branch Chief or me, preferably in that
    order*
    Cy to;  Division Director
            Construction Grant Program
              Section Chiefs
                                 8-21
    

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                  UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
    
                                WASHINGTON, D.C. 204CO
                                         1 > '8B0
                                                                     OFFICE OF WATCH
    
                                                                  AND WASTE MANAGEMENT
     MEMORANDUM    .       .                                      '-;
    
     SUBJECT:  Annexation  as  a Prerequisite for Hss'.ewatcr Treatment Services
                                                           /   / '
     FROM:     Henry L.  Longest II,  Deputy Assistant Administrator
              for Water Program Operations (KM 516)       ^  '
                                                          I\L '.A'
     TO:       Water Division Directors, Regions I-X
         In  a September  29,  1978,  msnttrandum from John  Pvhett to Charles
     Sutfln,  Environmental Protection  Agency's  (EPA)  Construction  Grants
     Program policy on annexation  was  set  forth (copy attached).
    
    . f   This policy has had essentially two main  elements.:
    
         1.    Cost-effective solutions to  water pollution  problems cannot  be
              discarded because of local annexation disputes.   One
              cost-effective project may not be split up Into  less
              cost-effective segments  because parties cannot resolve  an
              annexation problem..  -   ,
    
         2.    Federal grant  assistance intended for pollution  abatement  cannot
              be  used to cause  annexation.   Annexation  is  a  local  and State
              question involving both  legal  and political  considerations that
              should not be  resolved solely  by  the Construction Grants Program.
    
     "Annexation"  in the context of EPA policy  means  the complete  absorption
     of  an area by a municipality  and  Involves  all municipal services (fire,
     police,  schools, etc.)
        ~A"few controversies-have-ar-Vsen-which  seem  to indicate  that our
    attempt to completely  disassociate our Federal actions from a clearly
    non-Federal  Issue may  have had  the opposite effect, unintentionally
    injecting .the Construction Grants Program  into State  and  local
    decision-making, and inhibiting or preventing what would  have otherwise
    occurred.  This situation is discussed further in the grant appeal of the
    CUy of Columbia, South Carolina (Docket No. 77-20).  I have, therefore,
    decided to restate our policy and address  the grant appeal decision.
                                      8-22
    

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        As the September 29,  1978, memorandum  states,  "annexation  may be
    acceptable where all parties  agree  that annexation is  in  their joint
    interest and such action  is voluntary, or  where  there  is  a  valid  basis
    under State law to assume that a proposed  annexation will occur."  That
    is, if a State has a statute  dealing with  annexation and  provision  of
    municipal services our policy is not meant to  preclude  its  normal
    functioning.  Similarly, where a municipality  by ordinance,  resolution or
    other means consistent with State law  has  on  established policy
    requiring areas contiguous or adjacent to  the  city to  submit to
    annexation in order to receive utility services, EPA policy  is  not  meant
    to preclude these local processes from taking  place.
    
        Where voluntary annexation is the issue, regardless of whether  or not
    the municipality is able to obtain  voluntary annexation, acceptance  of a
    grant is a commitment to completion of the treatment works  in  accordance
    with the facilities plan.
    
        I want to reiterate here  the role intermunicipal agreements can  play
    in meeting the same concerns  that annexation addresses.  Intermunicipal
    agreements need not be executed by  two Incorporated municipalities.  The
    definition of "municipality"  in 40  CFR 35,905  is very broad  and Includes
    nearly every public body having a principal responsibility for  the
    disposal of sewage.  An agreement between  a county, on behalf of  a
    portion of unincorporated territory, and an Incorporated city would  be an
    "intermunicipal agreement" for the  purpose of  the  regulation.   Further,
    such agreements can be.structured to minimize  the  potential  for urban
    sprawl; annexation is not the only means of controlling it.    ..   ...  ....
    
        EPA Regions must use the  basic  EPA policy  on'annexation  issues:
    Annexation .is a local, issue to be decided  in accordance.with. State  and..
    local laws.  The Regions must be sure the  Construction Grants Program -
    as an outside element - 1s not being used  to force or preclude  annexation
    contrary to local and State objectives.           ^
    
        If you have further questions about our policy please contact Roger
    Rihm, Facility Requirements Division (FTS) 755-8056.
    Attachment
                                      8-23
    

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              *t '   <
    '.'*
     (
    / /
                       ?   UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                                            WASHINGTON. D.C. 204QO        , :,
    
                                                         5  r;-i  12-^1
                                             "I?,  0'
                                                                         orncr. or WATER AND
                                                                         HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
                                             SEP
                                                  i970
                  MEMORANDUM
                  Subject:  Annexation as a Prerequisite f)r War. totter  Tr en
    
                  From;    /oJphn T. Rhett, Deputy Assistant Adm-1***
                        .^/'for Water Program Operations (WH 54
                    To:
                         (I Charles H. Sutfln
                         v Water Division Director
                           Region V
                      We  have reviewed your memorandum of June L,.  Concerning  the Issue of
                  annexation as a prerequisite for the provision ("  municipal  wastewater
                  treatment services.
    
                      "Annexation" 1n the context of this mef-ioran., -n, means  the complete
                  absorption Of an area by a municipality and fivuivcs  all municipal
                  services (fire, police, schools, etc.).  This memorandum Is  not meant to
                  deal with "annexation" 1n the limited sense where  an  area  joins 8 sanitary
                  district solely for the purposes of wastewater treatment.
    
                      The Agency's policy on annexation 1s based upon  two considerations:
    
                  1.   Cost-effective solutions to water pollution problems  cannot be
                      discarded because of local annexation disputes.   One  cost-effective
                      project may not be split-up into less cost-effective  segments
                      because parties cannot resolve an annexation  problem.
                  2,    Federal  grant assistance destined for pollution abatement cannot be
                       used  to  cause annexation.  Annexation 1s a local and State question
                     .  that  Involves both  legal and political considerations that should
                       not be resolved  solely by the Construction Grants Program.
                                             8-24
    

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         There are four, basic sources for annexation arguments.   One-Involves
    the Clean Water Act (section 204) while the other three are  based upon
    regulations and procedures on service agreements* sewer use  ordinances
    and user charges.
    
         Section 204(b)(l)(c) of the Clean Water Act requires  a  grantee to
    have adequate "legal. Institutional, managerial  and  financial" capabilities.
    These requirements, however, do not require annexation where a municipal
    grantee 1s acting on behalf of areas outside the grantee's municipal
    boundary.  Intermun1c1pal service agreements make 1t possible for a
    municipal grantee to serve a region that Includes unannexed  territory.
    
         Such service agreements should be voluntary and should  not  be used
    to apply pressure 1n a local dispute over annexation.  Service agreements
    are dealt with in the revision to the construction grants  regulations in
    40 CFR Part 35, which are effective on October 1, 1978. A Step  2 applica-
    tion must include "proposed or executed (as determined appropriate by
    the Regional Administrator) 1ntermunic1pal agr emt.its necessary  for the
    construction and operation of the proposed treatment works." (40 CFR
    35.920-3(b){6)).'  The grant applicant must furnish the final 1ntermunic1pal
    agreements before a Step 3 grant can be made (40 CFR 35,920-3(c)(l)).
    
         Experience has shown that there are inordinate  program  delays
    unless Intermunidpal agreements are obtained prior  to the award of
    grant assistance.  It should be noted thai, Intentunlc-ipal  agreenents
    need not be executed by two Incorporated municipalities.   The definition
    of "municipality" in 40 CFR 35.905 1s very broad and Includes nearly
    every public body having a principal responsibility  for the  disposal of
    sewage.  An agreement between a county, on behalf of a portion of unincor-
    porated territory, and an Incorporated city would be an "Inter-municipal
    agreement" for the purpose of these regulations.  A  grantee  cannot
    simply dispense with Intermunlcipal agreements without risking the
    denial of grant assistance or an action to enforce or terminate  an
    existing grant agreement.
    
         A letter addressed to the Ohio EPA from your office dated September 23,
    1977, and attached to your June 23 memorandum, mentioned that a  sewer
    use ordinance "which contains a policy requiring annexation  prior to
    conclusion of the treatment works would not be approved."  Regulations
    and procedures relating to sewer use ordinances mandate technical require-
    ments for new connections and prohibit new sources of Inflow. EPA
    Region V should allow Itself some discretion when evaluating each individual
    sewer ordinance.  Annexation may be acceptable where all parties agree
    that annexation 1s In their joint Interest and such  action is voluntary,
    or where there Is a valid basis under State law to assume that a proposed
    annexation will occur.
    
         Finally, section 204(b)(i)(A) requires development of a user charge
    systan to cover the costs of operation and maintenance of wastewater
    treatment services.  The provision does not address  the recovery of
                                 8-25
    

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    capital costs.  A city could thus complete str'ice agreements to cover
    operation and maintenance (O&M), and later atf ^pt to levy an additional
    capital cost charge to force a given area to comply wfth the grantee's
    annexation plans.  Such a dispute over capital costs and annexation
    should be resolved under State laws because EPA's regulations do not
    apply to the problem.  It is a local concern -hat should be resolved
    through local negotiations.  We urge that you encourage communities to
    include recovery of capital costs in their initial service agreements to
    avoid disruptive local controversy during construction or after municipal
    treatment works are completed.  Planning entitles should also address
    the question of local capital cost recovery.
    
         A few closing comments are appropriate.  First, annexation battles
    should be anticipated if possible.  This coul:  bo done by State agencies
    responsible for drawing 201 area boundaries.  EPA regions must ensure
    that such disputes do not suddenly arise during construction or at the
    end of Step 3.  Parties must see that approprl/its arrangements {which
    may or may not include annexation) can be acr'sd 'ipon prior to the end
    of the planning process.
                                                                   *     *
         EPA regions must be flexible when face-  with annexation,  the
    regional approach should be based upon the K.*n1se that an annexation
    dispute should not be decided solely because a 201 facility happens to
    be built in the area.  As you aptly point out in your September 1977
    letter, the Construction Grants Program Is supported by American taxpayers
    as a whole and the benefit derived from a 201 facility should not depend
    simply upon the location of a municipal boundary.  Annexation decisions
    should neither be dictated by the 201 program nor mandated by one party
    against the will of another to further the water pollution abatement
       Is of both.
         We hope this discussion has helped to resolve the issue you raised.
    If we can be of any further help, please let us know.
    
                *
                               ' . 8-26
    

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    Also it is noted that in 1980 a Negotiated Investment Strategy (NIS) was entered
    
    into by the federal, state, and city representatives.  One of the NIS sections
    
    specifically deals with annexation and control of urban sprawl, which relates
    
    to questions of the commentors and is included for information.  It should be
    
    noted that the state was not a party to the agreement on items a-g.
    
    
    "The Federal and Local (City) Teams agree that the Local Team will provide
    
    services to outlying areas with water quality or sewage disposal problems
    
    under several types of situations:
    
    
       "(a)  The City will accept into its sewer system, publicly owned and
             operated package wastewater treatment plants existing April 30, 1980,
             where such a plant is accessible to an existing City line.
    
       "(b)  In the case of on-lot treatment systems, the City will permit hook-up
             of a subdivision that is developed prior to April 30, 1980, if a City
             line goes by the overall subdivision and if a collection system is
             constructed within the subdivision by another public entity.
    
       "(c)  Neither of the above collection systems would be permitted to expand
             in keeping with the City's non-sprawl policy.
    
       "(d)  If a subdivision is proposed outside the existing City sewer system
             and annexation to the City is not desired; the City will not accept
             Federal grant dollars to serve this area and will not serve this area
             because this would promote sprawl.  The Federal team will not become
             involved in the annexation decision between the City and the outlying
             area.
    
       "(e)  In general, the City will not annex an area unless other basic
             municipal services such as police, fire, and sanitation can be
             feasibly provided in addition to water and sewer services.
    
       "(f)  The City now encourages suburban municipalities to develop in a non-
             sprawl fashion by executing contracts for a growth area within which
             such suburban municipality can provide Columbus sewer and water
             services upon annexation of same growth area to the suburban
             municipality rather than to Columbus.  The growth area of the
             suburban municipality provides for the reasonable growth of the
             suburban municipality over the life of the contract.  In most cases
             this is twenty years.  The suburban municipality must also provide
             basic municipal services such as fire, police, and sanitation.
                                           8-27
    

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       "(g)  The City has refused to accept private sewer systems into its utility
             systems because the City then becomes a party to the rate-making
             process under the Public Utilities Commission of Ohio.  If the
             private system agrees to transfer ownership to a public entity, the
             City will permit hook-up of such a system provided it is accessible
             to an existing line.
    
       "(h)  The Federal, State, and Local teams agree that additional areas of
             water pollution problems need to be studied and included in the
             area-wide plan."
    
    
    The facilities planning prepared by the city has not confirmed how the city is
    implementing this policy.  As part of the ongoing planning in the Columbus
    area, the appropriate regulatory agency will continue to address the
    coraraentors concerns to seek satisfactory resolutions.
    Comment 2
    
    Comment:      The third paragraph on page 2-78 of the Draft SEIS should be
                  changed to more accurately describe the organizational structure
                  and responsiblities of the Ohio Historical Society (suggested
                  text given).
    
    Commentor/s:  Ohio Historical Society
    
    Response:
    
    Comment noted; suggested text was placed on page 2-78.
    
    Comment 3
    
    Comment:      Average Flow
    
                  The SEIS average flow was based on data which may not represent
                  the highest groundwater conditions and resultant greater
                  infiltration rates are likely to occur.  The Ohio State
                  University has monitored groundwater levels since 1940.  The
                  data indicates that high groundwater levels have been eight to
                  ten feet higher than levels observed from 1983 to 1987.  There
                  is also concern that unmonitored overflows may have skewed the
                  analysis.
    
    Commentor/s:  City of Columbus
                                           8-28
    

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    Response:
    The average flow was established by evaluating dry weather flow data from 1985
    and 1986 and selecting the maximum monthly average flow.  The maximum monthly
    flow occurred in May of 1985, with a combined Jackson Pike and Southerly flow
    of 145 MGD.  Table 8-1 shows the monthly precipitation data and corresponding
    dry weather flow data for 1985 and 1986.  The 1979 EIS states that the long
    term annual mean precipitation is 37 inches.  As shown in the table, 1985 had
    38.5 inches which is higher than the long term mean.  In addition the month of
    November was extremely wet, with 10.67 inches of rain and no dry weather days.
    One would expect high groundwater levels during December and resultant higher
    flow rates due to increased infiltration.  December had an average flow of 143
    MGD.
    
    The city did not present any data to support this decrease in the groundwater
    level.  It is possible that the decrease in high groundwater levels in recent
    years may be a result of increased groundwater pumping and it may be an indication
    of a further decrease in the future.  In light of the precipitation data
    discussed above and the possibility that the groundwater decrease may be
    caused by increased pumping, the SEIS projected 2008 average flow will remain
    at 154 MGD.
    Comment 4
    Comment:
    Peak Flow
    The city is recommending a peak flow of 300 MGD which
    corresponds to a peaking factor (i.e., ratio of peak to average
    flow) of approximately 1.7.  The draft SEIS recommended a peak
    flow of 231 MGD which corresponds to a peaking factor of 1.5.
    The city maintains that a peaking factor of 1.5 will result in a
    significantly higher untreated flow discharged into the Scioto
    River than would a 1.7 or 2.0 peaking factor ratio.  They also
    state that the more stringent the effluent limits, the higher
    the peaking factor should be.  A table of peaking factors for
    some of the WWTPs in EPA Region V is presented in Table 7 of the
    city's comments on the SEIS.
    Comraentor/s:  City, of Columbus
                                          8-29
    

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                                   TABLE 8-1
    
                            TOTAL PRECIPITATION AND
                  COMBINED MONTHLY AVERAGE DRY WEATHER FLOWS
                        FOR JACKSON PIKE AND SOUTHERLY
      1985
    
    January
    February
    March
    April
    May
    June
    July
    Augus t
    September
    October
    November
    December
    
    Total
    Average
    
      1986
    
    January
    February
    March
    April
    May
    June
    July
    August
    September
    October
    November
    December
    
    Total
    Average
    Precipitation
       (inches)
    
        1.26
        1.67
        3.78
        0.56
        4.96
        1.41
        6.88
        2.34
        1.18
        1.98
       10.67
        1.81
    
       38.50
        1.54
        2.96
        2.61
        1.31
        2.47
        5.53
        3.60
        1.61
        3.44
        4.16
        3.00
        2.8t
    
       35.04
    Average Flows
       (MGD)
    
       132.30
       139.94
       142.55
       140.22
       144.76
       134.03
       138.87
       127.03
       124.02
       124.88
         ND
       143.16
                               132.67
       134.76
         ND
       143.23
       140.21
       124.87
       138.67
       137.12
       132.87
       131.05
       131.33
       124.60
       140.04
                               133.85
    ND - No dry weather/no bypass days
                                   8-30
    

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    Response:
    The SEIS peaking factor was determined based on the data which was available.
    The SEIS acknowledges that the peak to average flow ratio may exceed  1.5.
    However, due to a lack of comprehensive flow monitoring at bypasses and over-
    flow locations a higher peaking factor could not be supported.  Furthermore,
    it may be cost effective to remove some of the infiltration/inflow from the
    collection system or provide temporary storage rather than provide additional
    capacity for advanced wastewater treatment.  Therefore, until the combined
    sewer overflow study is complete, the SEIS recommends providing capacity for a
    peak to average flow of 1.5.
    
    It should also be noted that untreated flow would only be discharged  to the
    Scioto River if, in fact, the peak to average flow does exceed 1.5.
    
    More stringent effluent limits do not require higher peaking factors.  The
    peaking factor is based on the ratio of peak to average flow which must be
    treated at the treatment plant, independent of the effluent limits.
    
    The treatment plants listed in Table 7 are all significantly smaller  (majority
    under 3 MGD) than the Jackson Pike and Southerly plants.  Peak to average flow
    is usually a function of the type of collection system (i.e., separate or
    combined) and the size of the service area.  The larger the service area, the
    lower the peaking factor tends to be.  The Chicago Northside WWTP, with an
    average flow of 333 MGD, has a peaking factor of 1.35.
    
    In light of the fact that the SEIS analysis does not account for CSOs, there
    is no basis to increase the peak design flow.
    Comment 5
    Comment:
    Whittier Street Loads
    Discussion at the meeting of February 17, 1988 indicated that
    the SEIS was predicated on the assumption that the Whittier
    Street load is in fact included in the Jackson Pike Monthly
    Operating Reports.
                                           8-31
    

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                  Discussion with city personnel indicates that the normal
                  situation is that wet weather flows usually persist in the
                  system to such a high degree of quantity and duration of flow
                  that the Whittier Street underflow load overflows at Renick Run.
    
    Coramentor/s:  City of Columbus
    
    Response:
    
    The SEIS design flows and loads were based on the actual flows and loads that
    
    currently arrive at the WWTPs adjusted for growth.  Since the SEIS design does
    
    not take into account the capture of combined sewer overflows which are not
    
    currently conveyed to the plant, it does not seem reasonable to adjust the
    
    loadings to reflect their treatment.
    Comment 6
    
    Comment:      Nitrification
    
                  The city's design parameters for the biological process (i.e.
                  aeration basins and final clarifiers) were compared to the
                  design parameters assumed to be used in the SEIS.  They are
                  shown in Tables 5 and 6 of the city's comments.  The design
                  parameters for the SEIS Jackson Pike design are very close to
                  the city's design parameters.  The difference in the basin
                  requirements at Jackson Pike is primarily a result of a
                  difference in pollutant loadings.  The Southerly calculations
                  show a significantly lower design solids retention time (SRT)
                  for the SEIS design.  The information indicates that Southerly
                  would have a solids retention time (SRT) of 7.1 days.  The city
                  recommends a minimum SRT of 9.9 days.
    
    Coramentor/s:  City of Columbus
    
    Response:
    
    The SEIS recommendations for the aeration basins were based on an evaluation
    
    of information provided by the .city of Columbus during the preparation of the
    
    draft SEIS.  This information included requirements for mixed liquor suspended
    solids (MLSS) concentrations, hydraulic retention times, and pilot data on
    
    nitrification rates.
    The SEIS recommendations have undergone extensive review by the EIS
    
    consultant, USEPA - Region V; USEPA - Water Engineering Research Laboratory
    
    (WERL); and Ohio EPA based on the design information provided in the city's
    
                                           8-32
    

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    comments.  The city's recommended MLSS concentrations and design SRTs were
    used along with the SEIS recommended wastewater flows and loads to check the
    adequacy of the SEIS recommendation.  The SEIS flows and loads are presented
    in Table 8-2.  As shown in the table, the flow split between the Jackson Pike
    and Southerly WWTPs has been changed from the recommendation in the draft
    SEIS.  Based on the city's recommended design parameters, it would be more
    efficient to treat an additional 10 MGD of Jackson Pike's average flow at
    Southerly.  This would result in a total of 18 MGD being transferred from
    Jackson Pike'-to Southerly under average conditions.  This would also provide
    Southerly with a more constant pollutant loading under average and peak flow
    conditions.
    
    Table 8-3 provides the actual design data for the new flow split.  The draft
    SEIS recommendation of two additional aeration basins at Southerly and use of
    existing aeration basins at Jackson Pike is adequate for this flow split.  In
    fact, each plant has the added reliability of operating under the design
    conditions specified in Table 8-3 with one aeration basin out of service in
    each train.
    
    The solids handling recommendations in the SEIS for Jackson Pike have also
    been reevaluated based on the decreased loadings which result from the
    additional flow transfer.  The SEIS will adopt the city's recommendation of
    modifying two existing digesters to operate as gravity thickeners rather than
    constructing three new gravity thickeners.  The SEIS also recommends that only
    six digesters be renovated for anaerobic digestion rather than ten as
    previously recommended.  The remaining digesters could be used for sludge
    holding tanks.  The costs in the SEIS (Appendix Page D-5) have been revised to
    reflect this recommendation.
    Comment 7
    Comment:
    Unit Process Efficiency
    Data on unit process efficiency was not provided in the SEIS.
    Based on loading information, a CBOD5 removal of 30 percent was
    calculated for the primary clarifiers.  The design removal of
    BODj in the primary clarifiers used in the GERBOD was 22.7
    percent for Jackson Pike and 24 percent for Southerly.
                             8-33
    

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                                      TABLE 8-2
                             DESIGN SEIS FLOWS AND LOADS
                                       JACKSON PIKE
                                    SOUTHERLY
    Tributary Area
    
           Flow (MGD)
           CBOD5 (Ib/day)
           TSS (Ib/day)
           TKN (Ib/day)
    
    Influent to Plant
    
           Flow 
    -------
                                      TABLE 8-3
                                     DESIGN DATA
                                                         Jackson Pike    Southerly
    Influent
    
         Flow -
         BOD5 -
         TKN  -
           MGD
           Ib/d
           Ib/d
     70/100
    112,600
     lA,740
     84/131
    160,900
     21,060
    Primary Clarification
    
         Number of Units
         Surface Area - ft2
         O'Flow Rate - gal/ft2'd
         BOD5R - %
    
    Ac t ivat ed S1udI ge
    
         Number of Units
         Volume - MG
         MLSS - rag/I (Max)
         Mass (VSS)
           @ 75% - Ib
         MLVSSOX - Ib
         BOD5A ~ Ib/d
         TKNA - Ib/d
               - Lb/d
         TKN
            ox
    F/My - Ib/d
              MLVSS
                        ox
                          .d
         SRTOX - days (Min)
         SRTT - days (Min)
                                                                   8
                                                              96,000
                                                            730/L040
                                                                  30
         10
      26.25
      2,500
    
    410,480
    359,170
     86,700
     15,920
     11,060
    
       0.24
        7.6
        8.7
                                                                           8
                                                                     120,800
                                                                    700/1080
                                                                          30
         12
      31.50
      3,500
    
    689,610
    603,410
    123,900
     22,740
     15,250
    
       0.21
        8.7
        9.9
    Clarification
         Number of Units
         Area - ft2
         O'Flow Rate - gal/ft2'd
         Solids Loading - Ib/ft2d
                                                             14
                                                        125,660
                                                        560/800
                                                          20/28
                       6
                 170,030
                 490/770
                   25/38
                                         8-35
    

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    Comraentor/s:  City of Columbus
    Response:
    The SEIS used the following removal rates for the primary clarifiers:
    
          TSS - 60%
          CBOD5 - 30%
          TKN - 10%
    
    These removals apply to total flow (i.e. influent plus recycle flows).  The
    TSS and CBOD5 removals appear reasonable when compared to published
    information.  The book entitled Wastewater Engineering:  Treatment,
    Disposal, Reuse by Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., states that "Efficiently designed
    and operated primary sedimentation tanks should remove 50 to 70 percent of the
    suspended solids and from 25 to 40 percent of the 8005".  Furthermore,
    preaeration which is also employed at the Columbus WWTPs, increases BOD
    removal in the primary clarifiers.
    
    The TKN removal of 10 percent is consistent with what is used in the solids
    balance presented in the GERBOD.
    
    No change will be made to the SEIS.
    Comment 8
    Comment:
    Pages C-5 and C-18
    While the SEIS properly notes that the MLSS of 3500 mg/1 is
    higher than normally employed, the reason is not the nitrifica-
    tion rates.  At a more conventional 2000 mg/l MLSS, the aeration
    volume would be increased 25 percent at Jackson Pike and 75
    percent at Southerly, or a total of 15 more aeration basins to
    maintain the design SRT.  This level of MLSS does stress the
    final clarifiers.  Further, higher MLSS can restrict the
    nitrification rates when the D.O. is suppressed during peak
    demands.
    Commentor/s:  City of Columbus
                                          8-36
    

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    Response:
    
    Comment noted.  We agree that more aeration capacity would be required at a
    
    lower MLSS.
    Comment 9
    
    Comment:      Page C-20
    
                  There are severe limitations on clarifier floor loadings as a
                  function of MLSS concentration and SVI which appear to be
                  ignored in the last paragraph of Page C-20.  The use of
                  50 Ib/ft2-d floor loading  would cause failure of the clarifiers
                  at design conditions.  Most designers will not exceed 30 Ib/ft^-d
                  loadings for their designs.  However, the 1983 Daigger Roper curve
                  was used in the Columbus design and is widely used elsewhere.  It
                  is now in a 1987 EPA publication on bulking sludge control.  This
                  curve shows the maximum loading at SVI=170 mg/1 to be about 36
                  Ib/ft2-d.  Therefore, both SEIS and GERBOD design at 38 Ib/ft2-d
                  is at the maximum point and the difference in number and size of
                  units is 131 MGD vs 150 MGD peak flow.
    
    Comtnentor/s:  City of Columbus
    
    Response:
    
    Comment noted.  The SEIS evaluation was checked against the Daigger Roper
    
    curve and we agree that 38 Ib/ft^d is the maximum allowable solids loading
    
    rate for this particular design.
    Comment 10
    Comment:
    Page C-35
    
    If the ammonia concentration exceeds 2 mg/1 in Bay 6, the
    aeration in Bay 2 will be activated as well as a general D.O.
    increase which will enhance nitrification rates.  If this is not
    adequate to reduce NfyN to 1.0 mg/1, then the internal recycle
    pump will be shut down to increase real detention time.  The
    internal recycle pump will reduce nitrification capacity due to
    the volume used for denitrification.  It must be noted that it
    may be necessary to run the recycle pumps during normal
    operations to inhibit denitrification in the finals at
    Southerly.
    Coramentor/s:  City of Columbus
                                          8-37
    

    -------
    Response:
    
    Comment noted.  We concur.
    Comment 11
    Comment:
    Coramentor/s:
    
    Response:
     Page C-38
    
     There will not be nitrification in Bay 1 or 2, and very little
     in Bay 3 since CBOD5 must be processed before nitrification can
     occur.  The OUR/DO of at least 250:1 is the objective of the
     operation to control bulking and is not involved in nitrifica-
     tion or denitrification.  This is explained in the April 1983
     JWPCF paper provided for the SEIS review.
    
     City of Columbus
    It is agreed that nitrification will not occur in Bays 1 and 2 if no air is
    
    supplied and very little will occur in Bay 3.  However, if adequate air is
    supplied, nitrification can proceed prior to complete conversion of the
    CBOD5.
    Comment 12
    Comment:
     Page C-40
    
     The biological phosphorus process and nitrification are not
     interrelated.  Bio P removal occurs with and without nitrifica-
     tion.  This is well documented in many papers.  However, the
     sludge yield of the Bio P process can decrease nitrification
     rates (mg gm VSS'hr) about 15 percent since the percentage of
     nitrifiers in the sludge decreases proportionately.
    Commentor/s:  City of Columbus
    
    Response:
    
    Comment noted.  We concur.
    Comment 13
    Comment:
     Page 6-10
    
    The SEIS and GERBOD differ in their recommendations for gravity
    thickening at Southerly.  The GERBOD recommended four thickeners at
    a diameter of 45 feet plus one thickener at a diameter of 85 feet.
    The SEIS recommended four thickeners at a diameter of 45 feet.
    
                             8-38
    

    -------
    Commentor/s:  City of Columbus
    Response:
    The sizing of the Southerly gravity thickeners for the SEIS was based on the
    following design criteria:
    
                 Solids Loading Rate:  20 - 30 Ibs/day/sf
                 Hydraulic Loading Rate:  400 - 900 gpd/sf
    
    The design loadings to the gravity thickeners utilizing the new flow split are
    as follows:
    
                 Solids Loading at Average Flow:  120,500 Ibs/day
                 Solids Loading at Peak Flow:  124,500 Ibs/day
    
    The gravity thickeners were sized to settle primary sludge (PS).  Waste
    activiated sludge (WAS) loading rates were not used in sizing since the amount
    of the WAS recycle flow that would settle out in the primary clarifiers would
    be small compared to the total amount of solids settling out.  Therefore, the
    SEIS recommendation of four gravity thickeners provides adequate thickening
    capacity.
    Comment 14
    Comment:
    Dewatering
    The SEIS recommends the addition of 9 new centrifuges @ 1000
    Ib/hr for the Southerly WWTP.  The city is installing membrane
    filter presses because they believe these units will produce a
    drier sludge cake than centrifuges.
    Commentor/s:  City of Columbus
    Response:
    Comment noted.
                                          8-39
    

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    Comment 15
    
    Comment:      Page C-41
    
                  It should be noted that the reason for the semi-aerobic process
                  is bulking sludge control, not phosphorus removal.  The
                  Southerly plant would be in a failure mode at an SVI of 160-170
                  ral/gm, not 200 ral/gm as stated.
    
    Commentor/s:  City of Columbus
    
    Response:
    
    Comment noted.  Based on a review of the Daigger Roper curve we concur.
    
    Comment 16
    
    Comment:      The piping plover has been sighted at the Jackson Pike WWTP and
                  was added to the Federal Endangered Species List on December 11,
                  1985.  This species should be included in the SEIS discussion of
                  endangered species.
    
    Commentor/s:  U.S. Department of Interior
    
    Response:
    
    This sighting was confirmed by the local Audubon Society and Tom Thompson,
    
    author of Birding In Ohio.  Mr. Thompson, indicated that the piping plover
    
    (charadrus melodus) was last sited in the area in the 1940's.  Comment noted;
    
    corrections placed on pages 2-25, 2-52 and Appendix H, Table H-l.
    
    
    Comment 17
    
    Comment:      In characterizing treatment plant effluent discharges, the SEIS
                  should discuss the mixing zone, discharge plume characteristics,
                  or zone of passage to provide a better understanding of the
                  impacts to aquatic life.
    
    Commentor/s:  U.S. Department of Interior
    
    Response:
    
    Available modeling data are not sufficiently detailed to support a discussion
    
    of  the characteristics of mixing zone, effluent plume and  "zone of passage".
                                           8-40
    

    -------
    Comment 18
    Comment:      Section 5.4.2.8, page 5-38 of the SEIS discusses the land
                  application of sewage sludge.  More attention should be paid in
                  this section to the problem of metal accumulation in top soils
                  from land application of sewage sludge.  The statement should
                  indicate if the wastewater treatment plant management keeps
                  records of the lands to which the sludge is applied or makes an
                  effort to inform the fanner or other user of the restrictions
                  associated with its use.  In addition, the statement should also
                  indicate if subsequent owners of a parcel of land are made aware
                  of the land applications and who is responsible for monitoring
                  crop and soil metal residues.
    Comraentor/s:  U.S. Department of Interior
    Response:
    The city of Columbus program for land application of Bio-Rich (sludge) is
    implemented by a private contractor.  The selection of the land application
    sites is done by the contractor.  The Ohio EPA Land Application of Sludge
    Design Manual is used as a guide for site selection.  All the sites selected
    are subject to inspection and approval by the city of Columbus and Ohio EPA.
    Prior to approving a site, the city and the contractor will make an
    informational visit to residents within close proximity of the site to
    provide them with educational material about land application.  Following site
    approval, the contractor completes a contract and provides it to the city.
    The intent of the contract is to define the specific responsibilities and
    agreements made between the landowner and the contractor.
    
    All soil, water, and sludge sampling, analysis, and reporting is conducted by
    the city.  The city generates and maintains the following records and reports:
    
           Bio-Rich Fertilizer Summary
           Metal Accumulation Summary
           Site Status Report
           Bio-Rich Application Report
           Land Application of Sewage Sludge Report
    
    These reports are briefly described in the following paragraphs.
                                          8-41
    

    -------
    The Bio-Rich Fertilizer Summary is completed following the sludge spreading on
    a site.  It documents the quality of primary nutrients and heavy metals
    applied in pounds per acre so the farmer can determine if additional
    fertilizer is necessary.
    
    The Metal Accumulation Summary is a record filed on the computer by farm
    number.  Each application of sludge on a farm is listed chronologically by
    date of completion.  In addition nutrients, heavy metals, and dry tons applied
    are reported.
    
    A Site Status Report is generated from the Metal Accumulation Summary.  The
    Site Status Report is sent to Ohio EPA within 90 days after sludge application
    is completed.  It documents chronologically all sludge applications at a
    specific site and total dry tons and heavy metals applied.
    
    The Bio-Rich Application Request which documents the agreement between the
    city and the farmer accomplishes several other objectives.  It is used to
    communicate information from the city to the farmer on the value of sludge as
    a fertilizer.  The farmer uses it to communicate to the city the location of
    the field and the dates it is available.  The city also uses it to instruct
    the contractor regarding application rates and site locations.  A field map of
    the site is printed on the back side of the form.  Finally the form is also
    used as an invoice record.
    
    The Land Application of Sewage Sludge Report is a monthly report which
    documents the quantity and acreage applied as each site is completed.  This
    report is sent to Ohio EPA.
    
    The city does not have a policy for notifying subsequent owners of the sites
    regarding the Bio-Rich application.  However, the sludge is applied at
    agronomic rates and the soil is monitored to determine cumulative metal
    concentrations so that maximum allowable levels are never exceeded.  This
    results in no future land use restrictions with regard to crops.
    
    Section 6.2.5, page 6-69 provides a summary of this information.
                                          8-42
    

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    Comment 19
    
    Comment:      Section 6.4.3, page 6-87 states that "Adequate disinfection of
                  the effluent from sewage treatment facilities is critical for
                  protection of public health."  A report to Congress was cited
                  which concluded that disinfection of treated wastes is not
                  needed under every situation.  Also, the Centers for Disease
                  Control, in the same report, have taken the official position
                  that disinfection of sewage provides little public health
                  benefit.
    
    Comraentor/s:  U.S. Department of Interior
    
    Repsonse:
    
    USEPA agrees that disinfection is not needed in all cases.  For the Columbus
    
    Ohio WWTPs, disinfection is required on a seasonal basis.  Chlorination is the
    
    chosen method of disinfection for the facilities with dechlorination required
    
    so that the residual chlorine level meets the NPDES permit limit of less than
    
    0.019 mg/1 for Jackson Pike and 0.026 mg/1 for Southerly.  The Ohio Disinfec-
    
    tion Policy correlates directly with your comment and requires limited use of
    
    Chlorination for disinfection.  The text has been revised accordingly on page
    
    6-89.
    Comment 20
    
    Comment:      Disinfection
    
                  Because disinfection standards for wastewater are established,
                  we would lik:e to suggest that alternatives to Chlorination, such
                  as ultraviolet light, be addressed in the SEIS.
    
    Comraentor/s:  U.S. Department of Interior
    
    Response:
    
    The NPDES permits for the Columbus WWTPs include an effluent fecal coliform
    
    limit of 1000 counts/ml during the summer months.  Therefore, they will only
    be performing disinfection during the summer months.
    The Columbus WWTPs have been disinfecting since the late 1970's with chlorine.
    
    Some of the existing equipment will be utilized in the new
    chlorination/dechlorination facilities.
    
                                          8-43
    

    -------
    Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection requires an effluent quality of less than 20
    
    tng/1 TSS for consistent, reliable disinfection.  At the time the Facility Plan
    
    was being prepared (1985), as well as during preparation of the SEIS (1987),
    
    UV disinfection had not been proven cost effective on facilities the size of
    
    the Columbus WWTPs.
    
    
    Ozonation, another method of disinfection, is quite expensive and relatively
    
    complex to operate and maintain compared to chlorination.  Contact basins must
    
    be covered to control off-gas discharges and ozone generation equipment is
    very expensive.
    Comment 21
    
    Comment:      The potential primary impacts from constructing four seventy-
                  eight inch pipes at the proposed loction are significant.  The
                  impacts would include destruction of mature forest along the
                  west bank of the Scioto, extensive construction within the
                  floodplain, potential habitat reduction for an endangered
                  species of bat, and potential adverse impacts on endangered
                  species of fish at this site.
    
    Commentor/s:  Ohio EPA
    
    Response:
    
    This comment lists a number of impacts that should be included in Table 6-13.
    
    This table was originally written to reflect mitigative measures proposed by
    
    the City of Columbus.  This table has been reformatted to include mitigative
    
    measures recommended by Ohio EPA, USEPA and the consultants.  In addition, the
    text on page 6-41 was strengthened to stress the significant impacts that
    
    could occur as a result of placing four 78-inch pipes across the Scioto River.
    Comment 22
    Comment:
    Table 6-13 of the SEIS contains only generalized mitigative
    measures.  Additional specific mitigative measures and a mandate
    requiring these measures are necessary to support the impact
    conclusions concerning any expansion of the interconnector
    crossing.
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    Commentor/s:  Ohio EPA
    Response:
    These comments include specific recommendations for the containment of site
    runoff and erosion during and after construction.  These recommendations would
    minimize construction related impacts and are incorporated by reference as
    mitigating measures in USEPA's recommended alternative.  Table 6-13 has been
    adjusted to incorporate these comments.
    Comment 23
    Comment:
    The downstream impacts from construction related sedimentation
    should be developed, from available hydraulic data and used to
    assess potential impacts on endangered species.
    Commentor/s:  Ohio EPA
    Response:
    The hydraulic component of the model is not considered reliable at low flow
    and the possible error margin in any quantitative projections of downstream
    sedimentation impacts would be too great to be of use in endangered species
    impacts discussions related to interceptor construction.  However, experience
    with similar construction projects clearly demonstrates that some level of
    sedimentation would inevitably occur under virtually any mitigation approach.
    For this reason, avoidance of a river-crossing through implementation of the
    two-plant alternative is preferred.
    Comment 24
    Comment:      The SETS identifies the South End Interconnector Pump Station as
                  having a pumping capacity of 70 MGD on pages 5-10 and 60 MGD
                  throughout the rest of the document.  Please clarify and
                  identify the maximum diversion capability of the existing pump
                  station force mains.
    Commentor/s:  Ohio EPA
    Response:
    The pumping capacity is 70 MGD.  Pages 6-4 and 6-6 of the SKIS have been
    corrected.
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    Comment 25
    Comment:
    Please clarify if the SEIS hearings fulfill the public
    participation requirements necessary for approval of the
    facilities plan.
    Commentbr/s:  Ohio EPA
    
    Response:
    
    As part of the NEPA process a 45-day public comment period and a public
    
    hearing were held on the draft SEIS.  This NEPA public participation
    
    requirement is similar to facilities planning (FP) requirements.  Since FP
    
    approval has been delegated, we believe it is OEPA's responsibility to
    
    determine if the SEIS public hearing meets FP requirements.
    Comment 26
    Comment:
    Address the potential impacts of filling the lagoons at the
    Jackson Pike plant.
    Comraentor/s:  Ohio EPA
    
    Response:
    
    The city's consultant has proposed relocating the new clarifiers to another
    section of the plant site.  QSEPA agrees that it is possible to relocate the
    clarifiers. Page 7-16 has been changed to reflect this new proposal.  Sitework
    
    costs have also been revised on page D-5 of the SEIS appendix.  Malcolm Pirnie
    has been retained to monitor the groundwater in the area where this lagoon
    
    and an abandoned landfill are located.  The city has no plans to build on or
    disturb these areas.
    Comment 27
    
    Comment:      Ohio EPA stated that the New Albany contract has been cancelled
                  and should be deleted from Table 4-5, page 4-11 of the SEIS.
                  They also requested, along with two other coramentors, additional
                  clarification on the service area for the recommended treatment
                  facilities.  The two local governments that commented further
                  mentioned that the Blacklick Interceptor passes near and
                  presents a cost-effective opportunity for them and requested
                  USEPA review of the situation.
    
    Commentor/s:  Ohio EPA, Fairfield County, and Village of Pickerington
    
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    Response:
    The first part of OEPA's comment addressed the sewer contract between the city
    of Columbus and Franklin County for the Village of New Albany.  This contract
    was cancelled last summer during an administrative review of all County
    contracts.  The Village of New Albany was not a signatory to this contract and
    was not consulted prior to its cancellation.  Page 4-11 and Table 4-5 on pages
    4-12 and 4-13 have been revised to reflect these changes.
    
    Comments by OEPA and two local governments seek clarification on the service
    area for the recommended treatment facilities.  It should be noted that a
    detailed determination on the service area was not in the scope of the SEIS
    and that the city of Columbus is continuing planning for regional
    interceptors.  The Draft SEIS presented available information regarding a
    projected 20-year service area so that:  (1) the size of the treatment facilities
    could be determined for cost-effective analysis; (2) general environmental
    impacts of sewers could be assessed; and more specifically, (3) whether those
    impacts would be different for the alternatives being considered.  The Draft
    SEIS did not present projected 20-year sewer service area boundaries and
    forecast growth for the purpose of determining which communities will or will
    not eventually be included within the sewer service area.
    
    As of October 1984, as required by the Clean Water Act, the USEPA regulations
    were revised to specify that reserve capacity is no longer an allowable cost
    for grant funding.  While cost-effectiveness continues to be based on a 20-
    year projection and the applicant must provide a plan to meet treatment
    requirements for a 20-year period, unless there is a physical connection at
    the time of project completion, the designated capacity for the potential
    service area is reserve capacity, even if the needs currently exist.  This is
    why OEPA is requiring agreements to implement the facilities plan, so that
    this determination can be made.
    The general service area, shown in Figure 4-1, identifies the areas for which
    studies have concluded that service by the city of Columbus is cost-effective.
    As additional studies are completed for non-contractual areas, the boundaries
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    may be modified.   Table 4-5 on page 4-12 has been updated to include the
    current sewer service contracts.  Table 4-5 includes footnotes which outline
    constraints to sewer expansion decribed in the city's sewer service contracts
    with each jurisdiction.  Most sewer service expansion is expected to be
    linked to cities or villages annexing new development into their corporate
    limits.  Figure 4-2 of the draft SEIS has also been replaced with a more
    current service area map showing existing sewer service areas.
    
    As noted in comment 1, USEPA requires that these decisions regarding sewer
    extension be based on cost-effectiveness, if federal funding is utilized, and
    promotes the same concept in other cases.
    
    It is further noted that USEPA's analysis of the treatment facilitites is
    based on flows from the entire area, and the projections for the metropolitan
    area provide the necessary base.  An exact distribution of population and
    definition of the service area were not essential to determining the cost-
    effective alternative for treatment.
    
    Please refer to Comment 1 on questions specifically relating to the Blacklick
    Interceptor.
    Comment 28
    Comment:
                  Due to the proximity of archaeologic sites to the Southerly
                  WWTP, the Final SEIS should state that Phase III Archaeological
                  Survey work must be performed to determine the boundaries of
                  these sites prior to any future construction near these areas,
                  and to determine their status for inclusion on the National
                  Register of Historic Places.
    Commentor/s:  Ohio EPA
    Response:
    This was noted; adjustments to page 6-91 were made.
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    Comment 29
    Comment
                  Our question relates to the application of the formula:
                                   PPF=1.95(QA)-95
                  It appears that if design flow values for Jackson Pike and
                  Southerly are separately put into the equation, one would
                  compute a PPF closer to 1.6.  Please comment.
    Comraentor/s:  Ohio EPA
    Response:
    The Columbus WWTPs serve the same metropolitan area and are connected by a
    major interceptor which allows diversion of flows from one plant to another.
    Therefore, it seems reasonable that the peaking factor would be determined in
    this equation utilizing the combined average flow.
    
    In addition to utilizing this formula from the 1979 EIS, the following
    approaches were evaluated to determine an appropriate peaking factor.
    
           Value engineering
         *  Peaking factor of existing facilities
           Peaking factor vs. number of exceedances
    
    The value engineering approach showed that above a peaking factor of 1.6 less
    benefit was provided for each dollar invested.
    
    The peaking factor of existing facilities based on current effluent limits
    (30/30) is approximately 1.4.
    
    The final method utilized 1986 available flow data.  Peak flows were developed
    for peaking factors ranging from 1.0 to 2.0 based on an average flow of 145
    MGD.  These peak flows were then compared to the 1986 flow data to determine
    the number of days each peak flow was exceeded.  This analysis showed that on
    only 9 days of the year the flow exceeded a peaking factor of 1.5.  In light
    of these  few exceedences, the 1.5 process peaking factor established using the
    formula from the 1979 EIS seems reasonable.
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    Comment 30
    Comment:      Does the PPF have significance to a real world, hydrologic
                  condition such as past-storm rain-derived infiltration, or is
                  the PPF related to the determination of process capacity apart
                  from hydrologic concerns.
    Commentor/s:  Ohio EPA
    Response:
    The PPF is developed based on actual flow data, which includes past-storm
    rain-derived infiltration, and it is utilized to determine required process
    capacity.
    Comment 31
    Comment:      We are interested in the effect that the extra sludge produced
                  by the semi-aerobic process may have in the sizing of solids
                  train facilities especially the thickening of waste activated
                  sludge.
    Coraraentor/s:  Ohio EPA
    Response:
    Review of Southerly and Jackson Pike WWTP operating data for 1984 and 1985
    show that phosphorus removal was occurring while operating as a conventional
    activated sludge process.  Southerly was achieving approximately 80 percent
    removal while Jackson Pike was achieving approximately 40 percent removal.
    
    Biological phosphorus removal will also occur when operating in the semi-
    aerobic mode.  Biological phosphorus removal produces approximately 10 percent
    more waste activated sludge (WAS).  Sludge production rates which were used to
    determine sizings for solids handling processes were taken from the serai-
    aerobic process pilot data.  Therefore, these rates sould reflect increased
    WAS production due to phosphorus removal.
    Comment 32
    Comment:
    It is our understanding that the waste sludge will release
    phosphorus once it enters an anaerobic condition, such as the
    anaerobic digesters.  What would be the subsequent impact of the
    phosphorus rich recycle on the semi-aerobic process, if any?
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    Comraentor/s:  Ohio EPA
    Response:
    A phosphorus rich recycle would not cause any operational problems for the
    semi-aerobic process.
    Comment 33
    Comment:
    Our review did not locate a discussion of dechlorination/post-
    aeration.
    Comraentor/s:  Ohio EPA
    Response:
    The SEIS agreed with the recommendations in the facility plan to add post
    aeration and dechlorination facilities.  The NPDES permits for the Jackson
    Pike and Southerly WWTPs require that dissolved oxygen in the final effluent
    be maintained at a level of not less than 7.0 rag/1.  The permits also require
    that the chlorine residual in the final effluent not exceed 19 ug/1 at Jackson
    Pike and 26 ug/1 at Southerly.
    
    Table 7-1 and 7-2 in the SEIS provide design criteria for the post aeration
    and dechlorination processes.
    Comment 34
    Comment:      If the source or sources of toxicants were eliminated from the
                  Southerly service area, would new circular clarifiers still be
                  required or would the existing rectangular clarifiers be
                  satisfactory?
    Comraentor/s:  Ohio EPA
    Response:
    New circular clarifiers .would still be recommended for the Southerly WWTP even
    if the source or sources of toxicants were eliminated.  Historically,
    Southerly has had problems with rising sludge in the final clarifiers.  Rising
    sludges are frequently caused by biological activity in the clarifier
    resulting in the release of micro gas bubbles which attach to the sludge
    
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    particles.  Over-pumping of the sludge from the final clarifiers is required
    to prevent the sludge from rising.  Circular clarifiers are more efficient for
    over-pumping because they are equipped with hydraulic sludge removal devices.
    Furthermore, operating at a mixed liquor of 3500 mg/1 rather than 2500 mg/1
    would still be recommended since it decreases the required number of aeration
    basins by approximately 25 percent.
    Comment 35
    Comment:      The water quality benefits from removal of the Jackson Pike
                  effluent discharge would outweigh any aquatic habitat impacts
                  resulting from the loss of the current low flow augmentation
                  provided by this discharge.  Also, the supplemental flow
                  augmentation provided by discharges from American Aggregates was
                  not considered.
    Commentor/s:  Ohio EPA
    Response:
    The SEIS conclusion that removal of Jackson Pike flows would exert a negative
    impact on the Scioto River at low flow was based on two observations:
         (1)  The biological community and morphology of the channel are accli-
              mated to a current minimum low flow of approximately 140 cfs or
              more, and
         (2)  Effluent quality at Jackson Pike will protect water quality stand-
              ards at the minimum low flow.
    If water quality is not seriously impaired (ie: standards are met) under
    conditions in which a continuous WWTP effluent constitutes more than 85% of
    the total flow, the water quality arguments for removing that flow are
    unclear.  Secondly, the 86% reduction in the current, minimum low flow, which
    would result from removal of Jackson Pike, would result in a significant
    reduction in habitat area with little if any apparent compensation from
    improvements in water quality, due to the continued CSO and nonpoint loadings
    from the Columbus area.
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    No mention of the supplemental  flow augmentation resulting  from discharges of
    quarry water from American Aggregates is made either in the draft CWQR  (1985)
    or the recent modeling analysis described  in the July 16, 1987 memo  from S. K.
    Goranson  to Dale Luecht.  Apparently, this supplemental flow was not accounted
    for  in the QUAL2E model and was not, therefore, considered  in the SEIS.
    Comment 36
    Comment:      The SEIS underestimates the beneficial effects which would
                  result from complete removal of the Jackson Pike effluent
                  because these benefits are overshadowed by the negative effects
                  from other factors which could be reduced or eliminated.
    Comraentor/s:  Ohio EPA
    Response:
    This comment contains a continuation of the philosophical discussion initiated
    in the previous comment, and introduces several conditions which would favor
    removal of Jackson Pike effluent.  These conditions are summarized as follows:
    
           "If these other concerns ['loss of CSO dilution, loss of low-flow
            augmentation, etc.1] can be eliminated or reduced then the benefits of
            WWTP removal are magnified", and
           "The above assertion ['...better biological performance could be
            expected with complete WWTP removal'] is valid only if the other
            concerns about extended CSO impacts and low-flows can be reduced or
            dismissed."
    While there is some agreement with these statements, no CSO removal pro-
    jections were available for use in the SEIS.  Consequently, the worst case
    projections in the SEIS were based on present, worst case information, which
    does not include the conditions cited by the commentor which might favor
    removal of the Jackson Pike effluent.
    
    An additional part of this comment suggests that the low flow impacts of
    complete removal of Jackson Pike effluent on stream biota would not be as
    significant as suggested in the SEIS, citing the presence of a balanced fauna
    in Big Darby Creek, which exhibits a critical low flow less than the calcu-
    lated Scioto River low flow, minus Jackson Pike.  The biota indigenous to any
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    stream acclimate to a range of flow conditions typical to that stream.  In the
    Scioto River below Jackson Pike, channel raorphoraetry and stream biota are
    currently acclimated to a critical low flow of equal to or greater than 140
    cfs (the Big Darby Creek channel morphometry and biota are acclimated to a
    critical low flow of approximately 5 cfs).  By reducing the Scioto River
    critical low flow to 20 cfs (through removal of Jackson Pike), the available
    habitat area and physical characteristics of the channel at low flow will be
    critically reduced from the conditions to which the stream biota in this
    stretch of the river have acclimated (this would be comparable to the impacts
    of suddenly reducing Big Darby Creek from 5.3 cfs to 0.7 cfs at critical low
    flow).  Additionally, the continuing presence of upstream pollutants may
    result in water quality deterioration and additional biological stress at low
    flow.
    
    While the commentor is correct in arguing that CSO removal would ameliorate
    this impact, no CSO correction projections were available for use in the SEIS.
    Even with the correction of CSO, the upper Scioto River would continue to be
    subject to periodic stress from non-point runoff during storm events, from
    proximity to the urban area.  Consequently, use of a present-conditions,
    worst-case scenario was necessary.  Under this worst-case scenario, the
    Jackson Pike effluent (which contributes an estimated 86% of the critical low
    flow) will protect water quality in the Scioto River, based on modeling
    results.  However, given the pollutants present in flows upstream from Jackson
    Pike (which constitute the remaining 14% of the critical low flow), it is not
    certain that water quality standards would be maintained at all flow condi-
    tions with removal of Jackson Pike.  Over time, however, the indigenous biota
    would acclimate to the different low flow, water quality,  and channel
    morphometry conditions which would result from removal of Jackson Pike.
    Comment 37
    Comment:
    The SEIS overestimates the water quality impacts of CSO
    discharges, in comparison to the Jackson Pike effluent, through
    failure to adequately consider a variety of factors.
    Commentor/s:  Ohio EPA
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    Response:
    The comraentor has interpreted the SEIS as stating that "...the CSO load is
    equal to the WWTP load", arguing that "It is in fact much less".  However, on
    page 6-36 of the SEIS, the CWQR (OEPA 1986a) was quoted as indicating that,
    "...on an annual basis, the Whittier Street CSO contributed nearly aai much
    8005 loading (32.7% percent) in 1982 as did the Jackson Pike WWTP (38.8
    percent)" [underlining added].  Further, the SEIS concluded, on page 6-39,
    that "...the calculated BOD5 loading from the Whittier Street CSO approximates
    the current loading from Jackson Pike..." [underlining added].  The commentor
    actually supports this conclusion, by correctly citing the CWQR as indicating
    that the BOD5 load from the Whittier Street CSO was 84% of the Jackson Pike
    load in 1982, the most recent year from which comparative data are available.
    However, the commentor may have been confused by a second statement on page 6-
    39 (last paragraph) of the SEIS which stated that "...the other wasteload
    sources entering the Scioto River near Jackson Pike (CSO and urban runoff)
    contribute pollutant loads equal to or greater than Jackson Pike" [underlining
    added].  This statement was comparing the annual, combined loadings from the
    CSO and other urban pollutant sources to the loadings from Jackson Pike.
    
    The coramentor also argues that "The more severe [CSO] impacts would be
    expected in the third quarter [of the year] because of reduced flows, higher
    temperatures, and lower ambient D.O."  This observation is correct, however it
    is also consistent with the SEIS statement that "Although the [CSO] loadings
    are highest during the spring and winter, some discharge does occur during
    periods of low flow and high temperature when the river is most sensitive to
    depressed DO."  In any event, it is important to realize that the pollutants
    loading from the Whittier Street CSO "...has been shown to result in viola-
    tions of in-stream DO standards..." (page 6-36) under current conditions.
    Because no predictions of future CSO corrections were available for use in the
    SEIS, it was necessary to assume a worst-case scenario (which includes a
    continuation of these negative CSO-related impacts).
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    The comraentor also contends that "The SEIS implicitly evaluates the CSO as a
    low-flow, dry weather impact which is actually when CSO loadings are lowest,
    much lower than the sustained low-flow, dry weather load produced by the
    WWTP."  As in the previous paragraph, the seasonal variability of CSO loadings
    was recognized in the SEIS.  However, data are not available to characterize
    the actual CSO loads during low flow conditions; therefore, and as stated in
    several locations, the SEIS assumed a worst-case scenario.  Sensitivity
    analyses would be especially helpful in determining the relative significance
    of CSO on the DO profile.
    
    Another comment is that the impact of the Whittier Street CSO "...is the most
    serious in closer proximity to the CSO outfall and its effect diminishes with
    increased distance downstream."  The SEIS also recognized this effect, as
    reflected in the conclusions on page 6-36 that "...the section of the Scioto
    River exhibiting continued depressed DO levels ... will be essentially
    constricted to an area below Whittier Street", and that "...downstream
    areas...will exhibit the greatest overall improvement in DO conditions...while
    improvements in upstream areas, closer to Whittier Street...will be
    reduced."
    
    Additionally, the commentor argues that "We should operate under the expecta-
    tion that loadings from [the Whittier Street] and other CSOs will be reduced
    in the near future."  As stated above, no projections of the amount or timing
    of CSO corrections were available for use in the SEIS, necessitating the use
    of worst-case scenarios.
    
    Finally, the commentor disagrees with the SEIS conclusion that the two-plant
    alternative provides "... a better 'buffer1 against possible shock load-
    ings...", arguing that "...there is little ecological benefit."  In support of
    this counterargument, the commentor incorrectly assumes that, under a two-
    plant scenario, both plants would be impacted by a shock loading problem and
    that two river reaches would therefore be impacted.  Although flows from
    Jackson Pike may be routed to Southerly, each treatment plant receives flows
    from separate interceptors and collection systems; therefore, a shock load in
    one collection system would have no bearing on the other.
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    Comment 38
    Comment:
    There is little ecological significance whether the effluent is
    discharged at a single location (Southerly) or at two locations
    (Jackson Pike and Southerly).
    Commentor/s:  Ohio EPA
    Response:
    The commentor has invoked an erroneous modeling assumption that "...along with
    increased load [ie;  the loads currently being treated at Jackson Pike] comes
    increased flow which should be of considerable importance...", questioning
    whether "...it really matters from an effluent/stream flow perspective if
    10 MGD of upstream flow dilutes 80 or 150 MGD of effluent".
    
    First, the Scioto River flows, and the flow-dominated component of the river's
    assimilative capacity, will be the same under either the one-plant or two-plant
    alternatives immediately below Southerly, as all upstream river and effluent
    flows become additive at this point.  Therefore, although the one-plant
    alternative will result in increased effluent loads being discharged at
    Southerly, no increase in flows (or assimilative capacity) will be present below
    Southerly to compensate for this increase.
    Second, under the two-plant alternative, the residual wasteload demand from
    the upstream discharge at Jackson Pike will have been at least partially
    assimilated by the river before the flow volume reaches Southerly, and the
    river's capacity to accept another effluent demand (ie; the Southerly
    discharge) will be at least partially regenerated, even though the flow volume
    below Southerly is not changed in comparison with the one-plant scenario.
    While it is recognized that these differences are not extreme (existing
    modeling indicates that the DO sag from Jackson Pike will have only just begun
    to recover before reaching Southerly), it is nevertheless apparent that the
    river would be somewhat more capable of assimilating the residual wasteload
    demand when the effluent is discharged at two locations.  As evident in
    Attachment D to the 7/16/87 memo from Goranson to Luecht, the model reflects a
    slightly more severe DO sag under the one-plant alternative, affecting a
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     slightly longer stretch of the river below Southerly, in comparison with the
     two-plant alternative.  Finally, critical low flow at Southerly, under the
     one-plant alternative, will be approximately 13.5 tngd (the 20 cfs critical low
     flow calculated for Jackson Pike, plus a 1 cfs allowance for base flow
     addition between Jackson Pike and Southerly), not 10 mgd, as stated by the
     commentor.
    Comment 39
    Comment:
    The Ohio EPA comments concerning the water quality modeling
    review in the SEIS are the same as those submitted in the March
    23, 1987 letter from Mr. Turner to Mr. Sutfin.
    Commentor/s:  Ohio EPA
    Response:
    The March 23, 1987 letter was prepared by the Ohio EPA and the City of
    Columbus' modeling consultant as a reaction to a technical critique of the
    model prepared by the USEPA's SEIS contractor.  Because of the non-specific
    nature of this comment, it was noted but no response was prepared.
    Comment 40
    Comment:
    The SEIS cites beneficial effects of Jackson Pike effluent in
    dilution of CSO loads, however the real issue is the correction
    of overflows.
    Commentor/s:  Ohio EPA
    Response:
    Although arguing at length, in previous comment number 18, against the SEIS
    conclusion that the Jackson Pike flow is important for its value in diluting
    upstream CSO loads at low flow, the commentor concludes this comment by
    stating that "Improvements to treatment facilities, in the absence of con-
    comitant corrections of [combined sewer] overflows, may not provide for the
    attainment of Water Quality Standards".  Clearly, the SEIS also recognized the
    impact of CSO and urban nonpoint pollutant loads on the upper Scioto River.
    While it is agreed that the CSO loads should be removed, no projections of
    timing or degree of removal were available for use in the SEIS, necessitating
    the adoption of a worst-case scenario.
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    Comment 41
    Comment:
    Impacts projections in the SEIS regarding effluent-derived
    nitrogen loading, algal stimulation and downstream DO impacts,
    under the one-plant alternative, are erroneous.
    Commentor/a:  Ohio EPA
    Response:
    Overall, this comment focuses on the issue of effluent-derived nutrient
    enrichment and the related problems of algal stimulation and effects on the DO
    regime downstream of Southerly.  The SEIS concluded that, under the one-plant
    alternative, the increase in nutrients released at Southerly "... will further
    stimulate algal bioraass below Southerly which may depress low flow DO below
    in-streara standards due to algal metabolism."  The comraentor argues that
    "Algae generally results {sic] in a net increase in D.O. after respiration and
    decay (except where predominated by blue-green colonies or in nuisance propor-
    tions)."  It should be noted that algal growth is not usually considered to be
    a beneficial condition, and is not usually considered to be part of a stream's
    assimilative capacity when determining a wasteload allocation.  Under optimum
    growing conditions, it is true that algae may generally produce more oxygen
    than is consumed by respiration, on a net, 24-hour basis.  However, this net
    balance results from averaging the oxygen surplus which results from  daylight
    photosynthesis with the oxygen deficit which results from nighttime respiration.
    
    If DO is depressed to levels approaching the minimum in-stream standard from
    other influences (eg; decay of residual effluent demand), the additional DO
    demand resulting from algal respiration in non-daylight hours can result in
    ambient DO levels below the standard (existing algal populations have been
    shown to have a significant impact on in-stream DO levels below Southerly at
    low flow).  This potential is increased by increased algal biomass, which may
    result from increased nutrients released at Southerly under the one-plant
    alternative.  Also, at the conclusion of the annual growing season, decay of
    an enhanced algal community can result in a significant additional DO demand.
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    Further, the commentor states that "...the design of the WWTP specifically
    reduces nutrients."  The basis for this comment is unclear.  Although
    Southerly is operated for ammonia removal, the ammonia is simply converted to
    nitrates and released to the river in the effluent.  In the river, the
    nitrates are bioavailable as plant nutrients (ie; the mass of nitrogen is
    conserved).  Although some denitrification will occur at Southerly (which
    would actually result in nutrient removal, through release of gaseous
    nitrogen), the plant will not be operated in a denitrification mode
    continuously.
    
    In addition, the commentor states that "... algae is [sicl most likely
    phosphorus limited in the Scioto River, and under either option, the loading
    of nutrients to the Scioto River is greatly reduced from existing conditions."
    Information available in preparing the SEIS did not provide a basis to
    determine if algal communities below Southerly are nitrogen or phosphorus
    limited.  Further, because the existing and proposed permit limits for
    Southerly do not include nutrients, it is not apparent how this conclusion was
    reached (complete nitrogen removal will not occur continuously at Southerly
    under the proposed one-plant alternative  [see above]).  The degree of
    phosphorus removal which currently takes place at Southerly is expected to
    continue.  It is possible that the commentor confused CBOD5  and NH3 removal
    with nutrient removal (the permit for Southerly includes TSS, CBOD5 and ^3).
    Based on the design conditions evaluated  in the SEIS and the current/future
    permit limits for Southerly under the one-plant alternative, CBOD5 loading
    from Southerly will be increased by over  100% during winter, increased by less
    than 10% during May (the winter/summer "transition" limits), and reduced by
    approximately one-third during summer.  The corresponding values for NH3 are
    over 100% increase in winter, less than 20% decrease in May, and over 50%
    decrease in summer.  The net annual loadings were not calculated.  As
    indicated previously, ammonia removal cannot be equated with nutrient removal.
    While ammonia can be reduced through conversion to nitrate, this form of
    nitrogen is a plant nutrient.
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    Comment42
    Comment:      The SEIS conclusions regarding increased DO impacts below
                  Southerly, under the one-plant alternative, are inconsistent
                  with the water quality modeling results and do not consider the
                  beneficial effects which will occur with the elimination of CSO
                  and effluent bypasses.
    Commentor/s:  Ohio EPA
    Response:
    This comment generally addresses issues related to water quality modeling.
    The comraentor notes that the DO sag resulting from the Southerly effluent
    discharge occurs at river mile 106 under either the one-plant or two-plant
    alternative, and questions the SEIS conclusion that the one-plant alternative
    may impact Circleville, specifically citing pages 6-46 and 6-85 of the SEIS.
    
    The SEIS conclusions were based on several factors, including (1) "Under
    current conditions ... water quality at Circleville reflects residual BOD5
    from the Southerly effluent discharge" (page 6-41); (2) comparing future
    residual BOD5 loading from Southerly, under the one-plant alternative, with
    current loadings under the present two-plant arrangement, the future 8005
    loadings will be twice the present level in winter, essentially the same in
    the winter/summer transition period, and one-third less in summer; (3)
    nitrogen compounds in the effluent consume far more oxygen, pound-for-pound,
    than BOD, yet "The existing modeling does not provide a reliable basis for
    evaluating the DO impact of ammonia, nitrite/nitrate, organic nitrogen, and
    TKN" (page 6-36); (4) ammonia reduction at Southerly will only convert the
    ammonia to another form of nitrogen (nitrate-N), which will be bioavailable
    (to algae) and may exert an additional oxygen demand; (5) the increased
    effluent discharge at Southerly under the one-plant alternative will include a
    proportionate increase in the release of nitrogen compounds; (6) nitrogen is a
    plant nutrient which may further stimulate algal growth below Southerly (under
    current conditions, algal metabolism has been shown to have a significant
    impact on in-stream DO levels at low flow); and (7) the QUAL2E model predicts
    that the Southerly DO sag may be longer and may more closely approach
    Circleville under the one-plant alternative, but this model does not
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    adequately represent  the  nitrogen  aeries compounds and does not extend far
    enough downstream  to  adequately assess potential impacts at Circleville.
    
    Collectively, these factors are interpreted as  introducing the potential that
    an increased DO sag may occur under certain circumstances, and that "Any
    increase  in the length of the river affected by the expanded DO sag will be in
    a downstream direction" (page 6-40).  Because the existing modeling and other
    environmental data were not sufficient to clarify the potential for this
    impact to occur, the  SEIS expressed the issue in tentative terms.  For
    example, on the specific pages cited by the coramentor (6-46 and 6-85), the
    SEIS stated that "The combination  of these factors results in a possibility
    that the one-plant alternative may impact the Circleville area ...", and that
    "It is possible that  this enlarged sag may extend to Circleville..." [under-
    lining added].
    
    The coramentor further states that  "The increased severity of the D.O, sag
    below Southerly is substantiated in modeling, but the length of the sag is not
    known to be increased."  In fact,  the model reflects both a longer and more
    severe sag below Southerly under the one-plant alternative.  Specifically,
    while the minimum DO under the one-plant alternative appears to occur at
    essentially the same river mile as under the two-plant alternative (approxi-
    mately 12 miles below Southerly),  the minimum DO is approximately 0.5 mg/1
    lower under the one-plant alternative.   In addition, the DO sag appears to be
    translated approximately one to two miles further downstream under the one-
    plant alternative; DO recovery therefore occurs further downstream under the
    one-plant alternative.
    
    The coramentor also challenges the  SEIS statements of increased algal
    metabolism and interferences with  downstream dischargers as conjecture.  The
    basis for the SEIS statements is reviewed above.  The number of technical
    factors suggesting that 'the argued impact could develop were judged to be
    sufficient to introduce the possibility of the  impact; however, because
    existing information was not sufficient to clarify the potential for this
    impact to occur, the  SEIS expressed the issue in tentative terms only, and
    made no attempt to disguise the speculative nature of the issue.
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    In addition, the commentor argues that "The statements regarding modeling on
    page 6-4 are out of context and not well informed".  In  fact, there are no
    comments regarding modeling on page 6-4.  Assuming the coramentor is referring
    to page 6-40,  three modeling-related statements were made, as discussed in
    the following.  The first statement indicated that "Water quality modeling has
    determined that final effluent limits for the Southerly WWTP will protect
    instream DO standards below Southerly, under the one-plant alternative".  As
    this statement has not been contested elsewhere, it is assumed that the
    commentor does not believe this statement to be "not well informed".  The
    second statement indicated that "...the severity of the sag is greater under
    the one-plant alternative ... based on the QUAL2E model results".  The
    veracity of this statement has already been established (see above).
    
    The third statement indicated that, with regard to the potential for down-
    stream impacts from decay of residual wasteload DO demand and increased algal
    metabolism, "The QUAL2E model does not extend far enough downstream to assess
    this potential impact".  In fact, the QUAL2E model (as developed by Ohio EPA
    and URS-Dalton) only extends to approximately river mile 103 (15 miles below
    Southerly).  At this location, the DO sag has only just begun to recover,
    under either scenario, and the characteristics of the DO profile below this
    point cannot be ascertained with the existing modeling.
    
    In the remainder of this comment, the coramentor argues that it is inconsistent
    to accept the model as reliable for certain purposes (ie; evaluating the
    adequacy of proposed permit limits to attain standards), while identifying
    deficiencies in the same model in support of other purposes (ie; selection of
    a preferred alternative).  During preparation of the SEIS, the reliability of
    the model was questioned, on several grounds.  These technical issues were
    summarized in a draft critique, which was included in Appendix L to the SEIS.
    The critique of the model was reviewed by the staff who developed the model,
    who determined that the model was accurate and that no changes were warranted
    on the basis of the critique.  On this basis, "...the USEPA has concluded that
    the error margin in the existing QUAL2E model is acceptable and that the
    permit limits based on this model are reliable and would achieve DO and NH3
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    water quality standards11 (page 6-32).  The SEIS accepted the accuracy of the
    model for those elements which it considered; however the selection of the
    preferred alternative was based more on factors not fully considered in the
    mode1.
    
    This comment concludes with the observation that "Based upon model results,
    either alternative will provide for protection of standards and recovery of
    uses, when implemented in concert with the elimination of bypasses and
    reduction of CSO at Whittier Street".  The SEIS repeatedly called attention to
    the CSO problem and the potential effects of this pollutant source on water
    quality conditions in the Scioto River, particularly in regards to the two-
    plant alternative.  In that the OEPA has repeatedly taken strong exception to
    the SEIS statements on this issue (see previous comments), this comment, which
    appears to condition the success of the proposed project on the removal of
    CSOs, is puzzling.  However, this caution is also apparent at the conclusion
    of Comment No. 40 ("Improvements to treatment facilities, in the absence of
    concomitant corrections of [combined sewer] overflows, may not provide for the
    attainment of Water Quality Standards").  Although these comments seem to be
    inconsistent with the other comments challenging the SEIS's statements on the
    importance of CSOs and nonpoint runoff on water quality, they appear to
    support the SEIS's position and no additional response is warranted.
    Comment 43
    Comment:
    The discussion regarding the hydropower plant at the
    0'Shaughnessey Reservoir is confusing.
    Comraentor/s:  Ohio EPA
    Response:
    Adjustments to the bullet items on page 2-9 and the first paragraph of page
    2-67 and page 6-50 were made.  These adjustments stressed that the hydropower
    plant is an auxiliary facility, can be shut down during low flow periods and
    will not adversely impact the water quality of the Scioto when properly
    operated even under low flow conditions.
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    Comment 44
    Comment:      The assertion that groundwater quantity and quality may be
                  affected by the selection of alternatives, on pages 6-50 through
                  6-54 of the SEIS, is not warranted.  In addition, the assertion
                  that the river bottom is sealed by industrial and municipal
                  sludges is not substantiated by Ohio EPA survey data.
    Coramentor/s:  Ohio EPA
    Response:
    This was noted; the discussion on page 6-50 through 6-54 is misleading.  Page
    6-53 was revised to reflect the speculative nature of these reports.  In
    addition, the reference to municipal and industrial sludges sealing the river
    bed was deleted on pages 6-47 and 7-17.
    Comment 45
    Comment:
    To what extent can we conclude that the city of Columbus has
    committed to controlling odors?
    Commentor/s:  Dr. Maxwell
    Response:
    The commitment of Columbus to containing odors in southern Franklin County can
    best be described by (1) the formation and continued efforts of the Odor
    Control Committee; (2) recently or nearly completed capital projects such as
    Project 88 which have been designed to effect process and operations improve-
    ments, thereby lessening the potential for the formation of odorous compounds;
    and similarly, (3) future capital projects for which a contract to proceed has
    been issued or for which funding has been identified; and (4) current programs
    in the areas of odor identification and evaluation, in particular, the Odor
    Emissions Evaluation Study.  A brief discussion on the city's progress in each
    of these areas is described below.
    
    The Odor Control Committee has been operating since 1986.  Its membership is
    open to interested citizens, local industry, and local and state regulatory
    officials.  The Committee has recently identified the various potential odor
    sources in the affected region, put into place an odor complaint response
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    procedure and acquired meteorological data to be used in conjunction with the
    
    Odor Emissions Evaluation Study.
    
    
    Project 88, managed by the Columbus Division of Sewerage and Drainage,
    
    includes more than 130 million dollars worth of renovations and process
    
    improvements at the WWTPs and the Southwesterly Composting Facility.  Several
    
    of the improvements are directly related to odor control.  In fact, the city
    
    has concentrated its efforts on improving processes and operations with the
    
    goal of decreasing the potential for the formation of odorous compounds,
    
    rather than implementing pollution control strategies to contain odors.  A
    discussion regarding current construction projects which are expected to have
    
    a positive impact on reducing the levels of odors produced at the
    
    Southwesterly Composting and the Southerly Wastewater Treatment Plant follows:
    
    
         "Now under construction at Composting is a mechanized mixing facility
         (contract C-7) scheduled for completion in June, 1988.  This facility
         will provide for complete mixing of the raw sludge and building agent,
         permitting a more efficient, effective, and thorough air flow through
         compost piles, maintaining a complete aerobic condition.  Current mixing
         practices by front-end loaders, provide an incomplete mix, resulting in
         pockets of anaerobic material that emits obnoxious odors when the piles
         are torn down.
    
         As part of Project 88, gravity thickeners are being constructed to
         enhance the concentration of raw primary sludge for further processing.
         Previously, primary sludge was thickened in the primary clarifiers which
         was relatively ineffective for this purpose.  The method required solids
         to be held in the clarifiers and, particularly during warm months,
         decomposition occurred, generating hydrogen sulfide gas that emitted to
         the atmosphere.  With the gravity thickener operation, raw solids will be
         removed continuously at a rapid rate from the clarifiers before
         decomposition has started.  The solids will then be pumped to the
         thickeners where effluent water containing dissolved oxygen will be
         combined with the primary sludge flow, maintaining an aerobic environment
         thus preventing the formation of hydrogen sulfide gas.  Construction of
         the gravity thickeners is substantially complete at Southerly and four of
         the units have been placed in operation.
    
         With the success of the gravity thickeners at Southerly, plans are being
         developed for construction of gravity thickeners at the Jackson Pike
         plant.  In addition, a major digester rehabilitation is planned that will
         improve the solids stabilization process.  Presently the digesters have
         inadequate mixing and poor heat transfer that contribute to incomplete
         digestion of solids.  This condition will produce odors, particularly in
         the winter months when the optLraura digestion temperatures are not
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         obtained.  Start of construction for the gravity thickeners and the
         digester rehabilitation is scheduled for the spring of 1989 (Scott 1987)."
    
    Additionally, Columbus is considering the use of liquid, rather than cake-
    applied sludge to control odors during land application.  Liquid application
    offers the advantage that the sludge is stored in the plant rather than
    stockpiled.  The city would use tank trucks for delivery and then inject the
    liquid sludge into the soil.  Injection controls odor and is less visible
    (Hoff 1988).
    
    The Odor Emissions Evaluation Study is in the data collection phases, during
    which a panel of selected and trained residents are evaluating and reporting
    the intensity of objectionable odors.  "Sixteen residents representing the
    south side of the greater Columbus area were selected and underwent sensory
    profile analysis by the consultant that includes odor detection sensitivity
    and differentiation ability.  The study objective is to identify the source of
    odors and to determine the degree of control needed at various locations to
    reduce air emission concentrations to nonobjectionable odor levels.  The
    majority of work is scheduled for completion by August, 1988".  (Scott 1987).
    
    Dispersion modeling calculations will be performed to confirm the source and
    movement of identified odors, and chroraatographic or mass spectrometric
    analyses will be conducted to chemically characterize odorous constituents.
    Assessment of possible control measures will be tackled during subsequent
    phases of the study.
    
    Beyond the evaluations and capital projects described above, the city has
    expressed its intent to utilize the information gleamed in the Odor Emissions
    Evaluation Study to implement effective odor control measures (Scott, 1988;
    Francis 1986; Burgess & Niple, Ltd. 1987).  "Directly addressing the issue by
    construction of phyical facilities will not be forthcoming until the odor
    study has been completed.  Realistically, odor will not be eliminated, only
    reduced to some level that is below the threshold of the average citizen's
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    sensitivities.  Determination of that level is part of the  current  study under
    way.  Also to be considered is the cost of odor control,  not  only by  the
    public sector, but also the identified private industries.  These are politi-
    cal questions that will have to be answered".   (Scott  1987).
    
    This intent must be regarded at this time as a planning reference,  as the
    particular odor control mechanism has not been identified,  and therefore,
    cannot be expressed as a contractual commitment nor have funds been applied  to
    such programs.
    Comment 46
    Comment:
    To what extent is the city of Columbus incorporating into
    Project 88 state-of-the-art controls and containment?
    Comraentor/s:  Dr. Maxwell
    Response:
    Project 88  is  related  to improving processes and operations which  contribute
    to  the  development  of  odorous  compounds rather  than on  scrubbing or
    containment of emissions  from  the  various processes.   Particular process  and
    operations improvements are described in the discussion  related  to Comment  46.
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                          CHAPTER 9.  REVISED APPENDIX PAGES
    
         During the preparation of the response to comments on the draft SEIS, it
    became necessary to make some modifications to the appendix.  Since these
    changes were minimal, USEPA decided to print only those pages of the Draft
    SEIS that were changed resulting from response to comments.  These changed
    appendix pages make up Chapter 9.  The entire appendix was not reprinted as
    part of the Final SEIS.  The original mailing included the Draft SEIS and the
    Appendix.  Those who did not receive an Appendix may receive one by making a
    request to this agency.
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    of its poor settling characteristics a bulking sludge will cause BOD and total
    suspended solids violations due to the loss of particulates over the weirs of
    the secondary clarifier.  High SVI numbers are indicative of a bulking sludge.
    
    A rising sludge is one in which the sludge blanket of the secondary clarifiers
    floats to the surface, once again causing TSS and BOD violations.  Rising
    sludges are frequently caused by biological activity in the clarifier
    resulting in the release of micro gas bubbles which attach to the sludge
    particles.  One of the most frequent causes of a rising sludge is denitrifica-
    tion in the secondary clarifiers.  The denitrification process releases
    nitrogen gas and carbon dioxide which causes the sludge to float.  No degree
    of increased clarifier sizing or decreasing the clarifier surface overflow
    rate will compensate for a rising sludge.  The cause of the denitrification in
    the secondary clarifiers must be eliminated for the wastewater treatment plant
    to meet standards.
    
    Carbonaceous BOD Removal - This is the biological conversion of carbonaceous
    organic matter in wastewater to cell tissue and various gases and by-products.
    In the conversion it is assumed that nitrogen present in the various compounds
    is converted to ammonia.  High carbonaceous BOD values will result in effluent
    violations.
    
    Denitrification - The biological process by which nitrate is converted into
    nitrogen and other gaseous end products.  When denitrification occurs in the
    secondary clarifiers the result is a rising sludge and effluent violations.
    
    F/M Ratio - The food to mass ratio.  This is a ratio of food substrate (BOD)
    to biological mass (MLSS) which is used as a control parameter for determining
    the organic loading rate to a biological treatment system.  A high F/M ratio
    means that oxygen uptake rates will be high, biological metabolic rates will
    be high, and in the absence of excess oxygen, obligate aerobic bacteria will
    be removed.  A low F/M ratio generally results in high dissolved oxygen
    concentrations and may result in the selection of bulking bacteria in a
    municipal wastewater treatment system.  In the semi-aerobic process high F/M
    ratios are intentionally maintained in the first bay of the aeration tank in
    order to maintain anaerobic or anoxic conditions necessary to select against
    bulking bacteria.
    
    Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids - (MLSS) The mixed liquor suspended solids or
    mixed liquor volatile suspended solids are a measure of the amount of biomass
    present in the aeration system.  For most conventional activated sludge
    systems, this concentration is approximately 1,200 to 3,000 milligrams per
    liter (mg/1).
    
    Nitrification - The two-rstage biological process by which ammonia or total
    kjeldahl (TKN) nitrogen is first converted to nitrite then to nitrate.
    Nitrification is the necessary first step in the nitrification/denitrification
    cycle.  The goal is to convert ammonia into nitrates and ultimately into
    gaseous end products.
                               Appendix C-5
    
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         The selection of an F/M ratio of 5 in the first bay of the semi-aerobic
    system is based on correspondence with Mr. Orris E. Albertson, Process
    Consultant to the city's consultant.  Mr. Albertson also stated in an article
    published in the April 1987 Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation
    that the maintenance of a high F/M ratio in the initial contact basin of a
    semi-aerobic system was required to maintain the anaerobic and anoxic
    conditions necessary to select against bulking bacteria.  This high F/M ratio
    would be realized in both the semi-aerobic and activated sludge options.  It
    is assumed that the trickling filter option would greatly reduce this F/M
    ratio due to the attenuating effect the upstream roughing filter would have on
    carbonaceous BOD loadings.  An overall aeration basin F/M value of 0.13 to
    0.17 would be consistent for a well operated nitrifying activated sludge
    system.
    
         The mixed liquor suspended solids concentrations of 3,500 mg/1 for
    the Southerly plant and 2,500 rag/1 for the Jackson Pike plant were
    derived from SBR studies conducted by the city's consultant.  It is assumed
    that mixed liquor concentrations of the same magnitude would be required for a
    conventional activated sludge system.  The primary reason for the higher mixed
    liquor suspended solids in the Southerly aeration basin is the low nitrifica-
    tion rates observed at that plant.  Increasing the MLSS to 3,500 mg/1 allows
    nitrification to proceed with fewer aeration basins than would be required at
    2,500 mg/1.  The Jackson Pike WWTP experiences nitrification rates well within
    the range of most sewage treatment facilities.
    
         The cause of lower nitrification rates at the Southerly plant is most
    likely due to toxicity of some non-conventional pollutants present in the
    Southerly raw wastewater.  Nitrification rates for the Jackson Pike wastewater
    treatment system are well within the range of nitrification rates realized in
    North American municipal treatment facilities.
                               Appendix C-18
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    condition, act as the initial zone or anaerobic/anoxic zone of the aeration
    basin under the semi-aerobic or activated sludge options.  The roughing
    trickling filters would reduce the volume of aeration basin required and
    effectively assist in control of sludge bulking.
    
    3.1.1.3  Clarifiers
         Given the fact that the three previously selected biological treatment
    processes (semi-aerobic, conventional activated sludge, and trickling filter
    followed by activated sludge) all can act as effective selectors agains.t
    bulking organisms, it was assumed that SVIs would generally be in the range of
    70 to 150.  Given this SVI range, there are two critical design factors which
    must be considered when selecting and sizing final clarifiers.  These are
    surface overflow rates (gallons per day per square foot surface area) and
    solids or floor loading rates (pounds of suspended solids per day per square
    foot).  The city's consultant has selected conservative surface overflow rates
    for their final clarifiers.  These are generally in the range of 470 for
    average flows and 800 for sustained peak flows.  Mr. Richard Brenner, USEPA
    Cincinnati, indicated that conservative design criteria for average flow rates
    would be in the range of 500 to 550 with peak sustained surface overflow
    loading rates set at 900 to 950.  For the purposes of this evaluation, a range
    of 400 for average flow and 1,000 for sustained peak flow will be used.
    
         The city's consultant selected solids or floor loading rates for their
    clarifiers in the range of 18 to 23 pounds per day per square foot  for
    average flows and 29 to 36 pounds per day per square foot for peak  flows.  A
    solids loading criteria of 20 to 50 pounds per day per square foot  is cited in
    the USEPA Innovative and Alternative Technology Manual.  Rectangular
    clarifiers should generally be sized on the lower end of this solids loading
    rate.  Circular clarifiers with hydraulically assisted sludge removal devices
    can easily accommodate  the higher solids loading rates without causing sludge
    channeling or solids entrainraent.  However, as pointed out by the city's
    consultant, SVIs are also a limiting factor in determining an acceptable
    solids loading rate.  Therefore, the Daigger and Roper Clarification Tank
    Design and Operation Diagrams will also be used in this evaluation.
    
                               Appendix C-20
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    criteria.  Removal of one of the six trickling filters would not result in
    violations of the established maximum hydraulic or organic loading rates.
    
         In terras of ciarifier capacity it was assumed that one of the circular
    clarifiers would be removed from the west and center section and one from the
    east section.  Under these conditions, the surface overflow rate as well as
    the solids loading rate under peak hydraulic loadings would approach the
    critical limits of the design criteria; however, they would not violate them.
    Once again, this should not be a problem for circular clarifiers.
    
         In summary, all of the components under each alternative would be capable
    of operating within the specified design criteria in the event that a unit was
    removed from operation.
    
         The second measure of system reliability is its ability to respond to
    system upsets or toxicity problems  The semi-aerobic process provides
    excellent capabilities to adjust to high ammonia loadings.  Ammonia
    concentrations will be monitored in the number 6 bay in each of the aeration
    basins.  Once ammonia concentrations above 2 mg/1 are found, the aeration in
    Bay 2 will be activated as well as a general D.O. increase which will
    enhance the nitrification rate.  If this is not adequate to reduce NH^N to
    1.0 mg/1, then the internal recycle pump will be shut down to increase the
    real detention time.  The internal recycle pump reduces nitrification capacity
    due to the volume used for denitrification.
    
         The roughing trickling filter acts as an anaerobic/anoxic aeration bay in
    the semi-aerobic process.  The filter reduces BOD loadings to the aeration
    basins and effectively aids in the control of sludge bulking.  Effluent
    recycling from the aeration basins back to the trickling filters acts in much
    the same way as the internal recycle of the semi-aerobic process.  Aeration
    basin effluent recycling would also cause denitrification to occur within the
    trickling filters.  Denitrification is vital during the summer months to
    prevent a rising sludge  in the final clarifiers.  One significant limitation
    of the trickling filter  in cold climates is the tendency to ice.  Under these
                               Appendix C-35
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         The data in Table 3-10 summarizes reported pollutant concentrations in
    the Jackson Pike and Southerly influent and presents inhibition levels of
    these pollutants for various biological processes.  Influent concentrations of
    copper and zinc at the Columbus plants may be found at levels which can
    inhibit the nitrification process.  Copper and zinc could act as inhibitory
    pollutants if the influent concentrations shown in Table 3-10 are carried
    through the primary effluent and enter the biological treatment process.  The
    city of Columbus must consider controlling the level of inhibitory industrial
    pollutants to prevent system upsets.  An aggresive and well-monitored
    industrial pretreatraent program would be necessary to ensure the nitrification
    process is protected from inhibitory and/or toxic effects of industrial
    discharges.
    
    3.2.2  Flexibility
         System flexibility is defined as the ability of the system to expand or to
    turn-down (respond to reduced flows or loads) its biological processes.  It
    will be necessary for the city of Columbus to control slug loads of ammonia
    and TKN no matter which biological option or treatment plant option is
    selected.  Impacts can also be manifested in terms of loss of load.  At the
    present time, it is estimated that 35 to 45 percent of the BOD loading to
    the Southerly plant originates with the Anheuser-Busch Brewery.  The impacts
    of losing this BOD loading are most directly felt in the first bay of the
    serai-aerobic system.  Mr. Albertson has indicated that in order to control
    bulking, an OUR/DO ratio of at least 250-1 must be maintained.  Under current
    design conditions, the OUR/DO ratio is approximately 500-1.  Given the loss of
    all brewery waste for a sustained period, it can be assumed that a critical
    OUR/DO ratio can be maintained.  If the brewery wastes are the primary source
    of the historical bulking problems at Southerly, the plant could operate in a
    semi-aerobic or conventional activated sludge mode with little or no problems.
    
         The second advantage of the semi-aerobic process in terras of responding
    to periodic upsets is what Mr. Albertson has described as sludge memory.  Most
    activated sludge systems which have biological phosphorus removal capabilities
    are able to respond in a linear fashion to organic loading upsets based on
    
                               Appendix C-38
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    sludge age.  Assume the sludge age is maintained at 9 days for a 2-day period
    and the primary source of organic loading is removed from the system.  The
    impact on the effluent would be comparable to the ratio of 2-9 or
    approximately 22 percent loss of system efficiency.  Under these conditions,
    the system would recover rapidly once the source of organic loading is placed
    back into the system.  The disadvantage of this type of activated sludge
    (i.e., one which demonstrates biological phosphorus removal), is that the
    sludge yield in terms of pounds of sludge produced per pound of BOD destroyed
    is quite high.  This is due to the fact that the elemental phosphorus
    percipitated from the system contributes to the total sludge volume.  (Sentence deleted)
    
    3.3  ENVIRONMENTAL CRITERIA
         One purpose for evaluating treatment alternatives and options is
    ultimately to ensure that the treatment plants meet their environmental
    limits.  Meeting these limits is predicated on a combination of conservative
    design criteria, projection of hydraulic and pollutant loading rates, and
    pilot testing to demonstrate system strengths and weaknesses under real-world
    conditions.   To date, pilot testing in Columbus has utilized a sequencing
    batch reactor (SBR), and most testing has been at the Southerly plant.  In
    reviewing the work done to date, additional information needs to be gathered
    on the impacts of blending Jackson Pike and Southerly primary effluent to
    determine if nitrification rates can be sustained.
    
         It will also be necessary to limit the mass loading of TKN to the
    Southerly waste treatment plant in order for the nitrification process to be
    effective.  Periodic high loadings of TKN have resulted in the bleedthrough of
    ammonia from the primary effluent during the Project 20 pilot demonstration.
    Unless these loads of TKN are controlled, all three biological processes would
    be subject to ammonia bleedthrough resulting in violation of the permit
    ammonia concentration and mass-loading limits.
    
         Meeting total suspended solids and BOD limits is primarily a function of
    clarifier efficiency.  Soluble BOD is rapidly removed in the aeration basin.
    That portion of the BOD associated with the particulates in the wastewater as
    
                               Appendix C-40
                                        9-7
    

    -------
    well as the suspended solids which escape from the clarifier, would cause BOD
    or suspended solids violations.  Controlling suspended solids violations is
    based on controlling the SVI of both Jackson Pike and Southerly biological
    treatment systems.
    
         All three processes have the ability to select against filamentous
    organisms which cause bulking.  The semi-aerobic and activated sludge systems,
    as demonstrated by Project 20 data, could reduce SVIs and keep ammonia
    concentrations well within permit limits given the absence of slug primary
    effluent ammonia loadings.  Operating data for the Southerly waste treatment
    plant from 1983 through 1986, indicate SVIs in the range of 75 to 181 are
    possible.  (Sentence deleted)
    
         Denitrification is equally important during the summer months.
    Denitrification will prevent the formation of a rising sludge in the final
    clarifiers.  No amount of clarifier upsizing or clarifier configuration
    modification can prevent a violation during episodes of rising sludges.  It
    is, therefore, necessary that the denitrifiers complete the chemical reaction,
    converting the nitrates into nitrogen and carbon dioxide, in the aeration
    basin.  This is accomplished by overpuraping the secondary clarifiers,
    maintaining a minimum sludge blanket in those clarifiers, and holding the
    mixed liquor suspended solids in the aeration basin to 3500 mg/1 (Southerly
    plant).  Denitrification also has the side benefit of eliminating nitrites and
    nitrates from the plant effluent.
    
         At the present time there is no nitrate or nitrite standard in the Ohio
    EPA permit limitations written for the Jackson Pike and Southerly plants.
    However, removing these pollutants from the effluent wastewater would result
    in the removal of pollutants from the receiving waters and subsequently any
    groundwaters which are recharged from the surface waters.  Denitrification is
    considered a benefit, not only in terms of removing unwanted pollutants from
    the surface waters and the groundwaters of the state, but also in terms of
    limiting the occurrence of rising sludges in the secondary clarifiers.
                               Appendix  C-41
                                         9-8
    

    -------
                       TABLE 1-2.  BRIEFING PAPER CAPITAL COSTS
    Cost Component
    
    Site Work
    Miscellaneous Buildings
    Plumbing/HVAC
    Headworks
    Preaeration
    Primary Settling
    Aeration
    Final Settling
    Chlorination
    Effluent Pumping
    Outfall Line
    Gravity Thickening
    Digestion
    Centrifuge Thickening
    Centrifuge Dewatering
    Dewatered Sludge Storage
    Incineration
    Sludge Conveyor System
    Instrumentation & Control
    Electrical Distribution
    Jackson Pike Rehabilitation
    Interconnector South
    Interconnector North
    TOTAL CONSTRUCTION COSTS     $244,429,000
    Contingency (15%)
    Land
    Salvage Value (PW)
    
    CAPITAL PRESENT WORTH
    Southerly
    (One-Plant)
    $ 22,932,000
    5,232,000
    5,875,000
    14,300,000
    5,905,000
    13,590,000
    46,533,000
    35,462,000
    4,000,000
    6,270,000
    3,000,000
    5,070,000
    11,460,000
    5,600,000
    21,040,000
    1,300,000
    1,300,000
    
    10,070,000
    1,896,000
    13,564,000
    4,982,000
    5,048,000
    Southerly
    (Two-Plant)
    $ 11,448,000
    4,857,000
    5,875,000
    
    1,533,000
    4,717,000
    12,284,000
    20,521,000
    . 2,500,000
    
    
    2,520,000
    4,280,000
    2,000,000
    5,120,000
    1,300,000
    
    
    4,799,000
    1,896,000
    
    
     
    Jackson Pike
    (Two-Plant)
    $ 1,550,000
    1,857,000
    4,337,000
    8,271,000
    3,750,000
    7,372,000
    22,502,000
    8,691,000
    2,000,000
    4,340,000
    700,000
    1,967,000
    9,170,000
    4,500,000
    490,000
    
    3,600,000
    5,000,000
    6,995,000
    607,000
    
     
    5,048,000
      36,664,000
         200,000
    - 12.582,000
    
    $268,711,000
    $ 85,650,000
    
      12,848,000
         200,000
    -  4.644.000
    
    $ 94,054,000
    $102,747,000
    
      15,412,000
    
    -  5.137,000
    
    $113,022,000
                                Appendix  D-5
                                          9-9
    

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                                      APPENDIX H
                             TABLES OF ENDANGERED SPECIES
              TABLE H-l.  ENDANGERED FAUNA SPECIES KNOWN TO OCCUR IN THE
                       COLUMBUS FACILITIES PLANNING AREA, OHIO*
            Species
       State     Federally
    Endangered  Endangered
    Remarks
    Indiana bat
    (Myotis sodalis)
    
    Peregrin falcon
    (Falco peregrinus)
    
    Bald eagle (Haliaeetus
    leucocephalus)
    
    Kirtland's warbler
    (Dendroica kirtlandii)
    
    Upland sandpiper
    (Bartramia longicauda)
    Common tern (Sterna
    Hirundo)
    
    Four-toed salamander
    (Hemidactyliumd scutatum)
    Northern brook lamprey
    (Icthyomyzon fossor)
    Paddlefish (Polyodon
    spathula)
    Blacknose shiner
    (Notropis heterolepis)
    River redhorse
    (Hoxostoroa carinatum)
                             Habitat requirements are