Bibliography of Selected  Documents


                               Volcanic  Ash
               Note* Indicates Chemical Abstracts Copyright
                                June  1980
     Compiled by:  Sami  Klein
                   Headquarters' Library
                   Information Resources and  Service Branch
                   U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency
                   Washington, D.C. 20460
                 U s  isnviron-^ntai Protection Agency
                 Mb^Y. Room 2*04 FM-211-A
                 401 M Street, S.W.
                 Washington, DC  20460        .-—*


Amino AcidSj Hydrocarbons, and Other Organic Conpounds in Juvenile
Markhipin, Y.K. Podkletov, P.Y. and Zbruyeva, A.I.
Nov.  75,  8p. NASA-TT-F-16635
Tran-Transl. Into English from Dok.l Akad. Nauk
Sssr(USSR), V. 222, No. 6, 1975 p. 1438-1440

An Atlas  of Volcanic Ash
HeaJcen, G        N74-25882
Smithsonian Contrib. Eartii Sci., No. 12:1-106, 1974
anithsonian Cbntrib. Earth Sci. 1974
Volcanic  ash samples collected from a variety of recent eruptions were char-
acterized using petrography, chemical analyses, and scanning electron microscopy.
Ash Morphology was  related.to magma compolition and eruption type..  Ashes were
either magma-tic or  hydrovolcanic .(phreatcmagmatic) .  .The morphology of ash
particles fron magmatic eruptions of high-viscosity magma was governed primar-
ily by vesicle density and shape.  Ash particles fron.eruptions of low-viscosity
magmas were mostly  droplets.  Droplet shape was in part controlled by surface
tension,  acceleration of the droplets leaving the vent, and air friction.
Shapes ranged from  perfect spheres, to a variety of twisted, elongate droplets,
with  smooth, fluidal surfaces.  The morphology of ash particles from hydrovol-
canic eruptions was controlled by stresses within the chilled magma  which
result in fragmentation of the glass to form small blocky or pyramidal ash
particles,  (author abstract modified)

Ballpen Measurements of Stratospheric Aerosol Size Distribution Follcwing a
Volcanic Dust Incursion.  ADAQ18372
Miranda, HJV. and Dulchinos, J.
Aug. 1975 57p. AFCSL-TR-75-0518
Epsilon Labs Inc., Bedford, Mass.
Stratospheric aerosol size distribution measurements of the volcanic dust
layer over Southeastern New Mexico, obtained on a balloon flight on January
21/22, 1975 several months following the Puego volcanic eruption, are presented
and discussed in preliminary fashion.  Altitude profiles of all particles
broken down into a set of contiguous size ranges indicate the presence of
a pronounced concentration peak in the 16-21 Wn region.  Above this layer a
distinct plateau is seen to exist between 22 and 26 Km which appears to be
absent at night.  Ihis suggests•• the possibility of sunlight nucleation effects
occurring in this altitude regime.  A sunrise nucleation experiment conducted
above this plateau region at 28 Kn shows no evidence of nucleation during the
first 1/2 hour following local sunrise.  A distinct altitude-dependent size
distribution slope in the 23-27 Kn region which had been observed on a series
of previous flight in May of 1973, appears to have been shifted to higher
altitudes (26-28 Rn)and is somewhat less pronounced.

Burden of Volcanic Dust and Nuclear Debris After Injection Into The Stratosphere
At 40-58 Degrees N. X
Volz, F.E.
J. Geophys. Res., 80(18):2649-2652, June 20, 1975.

Volcanic dust and nuclear debris burdens in the stratosphere are analysed.
Meridional profiles of turbidi-ty after the explosion of the Katmal volcano
in June 1912 at 58 deg north are compared with debris burdens from Chinese
nuclear tests.  Turbidity and burden generally peak strongly, in artic
latitudes.  Only two tests show indications of a bulge at 30-45 deg north
which probably existed from Katinal dust in the spring of 1913. . The residence
time of Katmal dust appears to have been about 1 year, whereas fallout of
nuclear debris does not appear to have started before the winter following the
tests.  Ihe results presented on turbidity and debris burden are compared with
estimates of pollutants produced by supersonic transport aircraft since the
latitude range of the heaviest traffic is 40-55 deg north.  Models indicate
increased pollutant concentrations of 70% in the heaviest traffic zone and
50% in the polar region.  However, the results of the turbidity and debris
analyses relate to generally lower altitudes than those of SST flights.

Calcium-Magnesium-Potassium Balance in Volcanic Ash Soil to Mazimize Vegatable
Production. *
Kamata Haruni  (Agric. Res. Inst. Kanagawa Prefect., Japan)
JARQ 1979 13(1), 32-36 (Eng)
An experiment was conducted with soil derived from aeolian volcanic ash
sediment amended with various amounts of (MgCQ3)4Mg(CH2)5H2O, K2SO4 and
CaC03 to give 9 Ca:Mg:K ratios combined with 3 levels of total, base saturation.
(100, 80, and 60% of cation-exchange capacity).  Maximvm growth yeild, and
nutrient uptake by spinach, lettuce, cabbage, sweet pepper, egg plant, carrot
and  turnip were obtained with a total base saturation of 80-100%.  Antagonistic
and pzomotive effects in nutrient uptake were recognized.  In all treatments,
base uptake by plants followed the order K Mg Ca.  Based on the results,
the optimum ration of Ca:Mg:K in volcanic ash soils was determined to be
60:25:15 and the optimum Ca-, Mg-, K- saturation was placed at 48,20 and 12%
of cation-exchange capacity, resp.

Changes in the Global Energy Balance.  A Beport to the US Environmental
Protection Agency (Final Report)PB 238 075
ffclellan, A, IV
Wisconsin Univ.,  Madison, Center for Climatic Research, Environmental
Protection Agency Contract 68-02-1308   EPA 650/2/74-116  Oct. 1974
"Bie effect of aerosols on the earth's climate and the global energy balance
was studied.  Ihere is much evidence that the earth's climate has undergone
a wide variety of fluctuations.  Over the past hundred millenia, as the earths
surface temperature has decreased, volcanic dust in the atmosphere has
increased (and vice versa) .  At least 40% of today's atmospheric particulate
loading is due to man-made or man-accentuated sources.  For the past 30
years, although the earth's annual mean temperatuer has been decreasing
volcanic activity has not been increasing.  Carbon dioxide and waste heat
production have been increasing, but these processes tend to increase the
global tsnperature rather than to reduce it.  Man's production of particulates
in the past 30 years has been increasing at a rapid rate.  It is estimated
that the loading rate of particulates from cortmerioal jet aircraft into the
stratosphere, where the residence time is much longer than in the troposphere,
is almost half of that due to volcanic activity.  Studies should be carried
out to obtain better data from omoe meaningful estimates for the sources
and sinks of atmospheric particulates.

 Characteri^ationjof^a soil  DevelopedI. on volcanic  ashes
 of the Ecuatorian mountain.  *
 De Olmedo, Juan L., Mejia,  Luis {Cent.  Edafol.  Biol.  Apl.  Cuarto,
 Sevilla, Spain)
 An. Edafol. Agrobiol. 1979,  38(1-2),  67-81  (Spain)
 A soil from Pichlncha provience,  Ecuador is described by its  morphol., chem.,
 and mineralogy.  At the surface,  the soil  is alk., then neutral, and
 becomes alk. again at depth.   Chem.  fertility is  low.  There  is an
 abundance of well crystd. feldspar,  hornbelende,  hypersthene, and
 epidote.  Volcanic glass decreases with depth.  Allophane  predominates
 with the clay minerals.

 Clay Minerals of the Volcanic  Ash Eropted From  the Volcano UJ50 In August, 1977
 Kondo, Y., Kondo, R.
 Tokyo, Nippon Dojohiryo Gakka
 Nippon Dojo Hiryogaku Zassh. Journal  of the Science of Soil and Manure,
 Japan, V. 49 (2), April  1978.  P.  167-169

 Distribution of Turbidity after the  1912 Katmal Eruption in Alaska.
 AD-A012 786/OGA
 Volz, F.E. 10 May 74, 7p Rept  no. AFCRL-TR 75-0385
 Availability: Pub. in Jnl.  of  Geophysical  Research, v80 n!8 p2643-2648, 20 Jun 75.

 Air Force Cambridge Research Labs Hanscom AFB Mass

 The spread and abatement of the aerosol  injected  into the  stratosphere by the
 explosion of Katmai volcano  in Alaska on June 6,  1912, have been investigated.
 The spread of the dust veil  and twilight  observations are  discussed.  Turbidity
 was determined from solar radiation  data obrained mainly in central and
 northern Europe and the  United States.   In  Europe, volcanic turbidity was quite
 large but high!ey variable during the summer of 1912  and became rather low in
 February 1913,  when it was still'high over  the  United States.  Temporary
 presence of Katmal  dust  over Mexico City is very  questionable, so that
 increased turbidity over Peru  during 1913  may have had other causes.
 The turbidity disappeared rather  suddenly in late 1914.  Average residence
 time of the dust was  nearly  1  year.  (Author)

 Effect of volcanic ash deposits on sockeye  salmon lakes.#
 Mathisen, 01e A.,  Poe, Patrick  H. (Coll.  Fish., University Washington, Seattle,
 WA 98195 USA)  ^
.Verh.  - Int.  Ver.  Theor. Angew. Limnol.  1977 (Pub. 1978).  20(1), 165-72 (Eng)
 The Effects on  sockeye salmon  (Oncorhynchus  nerka) of a volcanic ash deposit in
 1976 from Mt.  St.  Augustine volcano were studied.  The mineral content of the ash
 and their distribution into the various  lakes were detd.   Phytopkankton/L
 was higher in 1976 as was the  chlorophyll  a content.  The  production of juvenile
 sockeye salmon  did not differ  from other postpeak years in the salmon cycle.

The enrichment of yolatile elements  In  the  atmosphere  by  volcanic activity;
Augustine volcano 1976.*
Lepel, E. A. Stefansson,  K. M.;  Zoller, W.  H.  (Chem. Dep., University Maryland.
College Park, Md
JGR, J. Geophys. Res.  1978 83(C12),  6213-20 (Eng)
Samples of atm. particulate material  were collected  In the plume of Augustine
volcano in Feb., 1976  by  using the high-vol.  filtration system aboard the
National Center for Atm.  Research Lockheed  Electra.  The  samples were analyzed
for 38 elements by a combination of  instrumental  neutron  activation anal.
and at. absorption spectrometery.  The  results  indicated  that the volatile
elements Zn, Cu, Au Pb, As, Cd,  Cl,  Br, Se, Sb, Hg,  and S are enriched  in
the atm. samples in relation to  bulk  ash by factors  ranging  from 10 to  several
thousand.  The enrichments compare closely  with those  obsd.  for other volcanic
emanations and for background aerosols  in remote  areas of the earth.  Samples
collected early in the eruption  cycle had a much  higher quantity of volatile
elements in relation to ash than the  later  samples,  indicating a substantial
change in the emission of volatiles  with time and eruptive cycle.

Environmental Pollution by an Active  Volcano, Mt.  ASO. Volcanic Ash and
Its Outflow to the River  *
Koyama, Keiko, Tsorota, Yoji, Sogimora, Keiji,  Kawakami,  Masahiro,
Ueno, Kenich, Imamura, Osamo, Oeki,  Homare, Miyamoto,  Tomeki
PP. 33 1976
Trans in: (ASO Kazan Hoshutsubotso Ni Yoro  Kankyo Osen Ni
Tsuite—Kobairryo to Sono Kasen  Eno  Ryushutsuryo—)
Note: (Presented at the Environmental Proteciton  and Pollution Prevention
Lecture Meeting, 2nd,  Tokyo, Japan,  March 4,  1976.)
Languages: Japanese
CAS Registry No: 7782-50-5-77823-41-4 12033-49-7  1408-79-8
During the period of active volcanic  eruption of  Mt. ASO, the total volcanic ash
fall and the insoluable and soluble  components  (chlorine, nitrogen
trioxide, fluorine, S04,  with PH) were measured by the deposit gauage method
at six locations 0.5-14.  KM, from, the crater from Sept.  to  Dec. 1974.   The amount
of ash fall decreased  proportionally  with distance from the  crater.  The total
ash fall in the entire area from Sept.  to Dec.  1974  was estimated to be
1,200,000 * OR - 500,000  ton. Total  ash fall  in  the entire  period of volcanic
activity is thus the Shirakawa River with rain, turning the  river water muddy.
Flourescence x-ray analysis of river water  reflected the  composition analysis
of the volcanic ash.  The amount of  ash falling into the  river up to June 1975
was estimated to be 300,000 T. (2 Refs)

Estimates of Climatic Changes Foil owing-Volcanic C Eruuptions from
Tree Growth Record. AO-A026 166/9GA
Wilburn, John Bart, Jr. 1976, 15p

Army Electronic Proving.Ground, Fort Huachuca, Ariz

The purpose of this project was to detect and estimate anomalous, annual
precipitation during a period of 10 years following volcanic eruptions.   In order
to accomplish this, a record of precipitation was required whlich would span
the time period covered by the volcanic record and yet would provide a resolution
of 1 year.  Since the record of volcanic eruptions extends as far back as 1500
AD, the meteorological records available were clearly too short.   For this
reason, the records of tree growth were sought as a proxy record of climatic
data.  The requirement for linking this proxy record of tree ring data to
climatic data is to build a regression model of precipitation based on tree
ring data coincident with the available precipitation data.   This regression
model would then be used to estimate the precipitation during the years
following volcanic eruptions.   There has been a considerable amount of past
work published showing that tree growth data can be a good record of past

Geochemical Study of Arsenic in Rainwater *fc
Kurihara, Hideya; Shoda, Hiroko,-Matsoda, Shunji
Gunmaken Kogyo Koyo Senmon Gakko Kenkyo Hokou (res.  Rep.  Gunma Tech.  Coll.)
(9):  15-27 1976
Trans In: (Kosoichi No Hiso No Chikyokagaku Teki. Kenkyo).
Languages: Japanese
CAS Registry No:  7440-38-2 14808-79-8
Rainwater collected monthly during the period of January 1972 to December 1974
using 150 L capacity tanks in Maebaski, Kiryo, Akagi  and Annaka,  cities  in
Gunma prefecture, was analyzed for arsenic (AS), PH and Sulfate (S04) ion. .
Three cities are on a plain land,  while Akagi is in amountain district.   Values
of AS content in rainwater were in range of 0.2-0.6 PPB, close to those  in river
water in Gunma.   Amounts of as deposition had positive correlations with
rainfall and S04 ion deposition, and a negative one with PH, through these
correlations were not so appreciable in Kiryo.  Amounts of as deposition  were  larger
in the summer when rainfall was greater, and smaller in the winter when  the
rainfall was less.   Differences due to the location were slight,  and only the
amounts of as deposition in Annaka and Kiryo and as content in rainwater in
Annaka showed slightly greater differences.   Volcanic ash thrown  by the
eruption of Mt.  Asama in February 1973 greatly increased the amount of as
deposition in dust  in Annaka.  (6 Refs).

Global Turbidity Studies. I.Volcanic Dust
Effects - A Critical Survey, AD-736 686
D. Deirmendjian, Oct 71;. 74p Rept no. R-886-ARPA
Rand Corp, Santa Monica, California
Critical evaluation is given of the role of the volcanic dust introduced by three
major eruptions - Krakatoa (1883), Katmai (1912), and Agung (1963) - in increasing
atmoshpheric particulate turvidity.  Typical turbidity anomalies, expressed as
absolute increments in optical thickness in the middle of the visual spectrum,
are found to be 0.55 for Krakatoa, o.35 for Katmai, and 0.25 for Agung.  The
last represents a fivefold increase of normal turbidity away from cities over
a period of 2 to 3 years.  No evidence of climatic effects directly related
to the volcanic dust incursions is found.  The possible contribution by the
operation of 500 commerical supersonic transport vehicles to particulate
turbidity is estimated to be small climatologically not significant.  An
initial "black cloud" experiment, consisting of a simple reduction by 10 to 20
percent of the incoming shortwave radiation, is suggested for use with
numerical models of the general circulatin of the atmosphere to simulate volcanic
dust effects. (Author)

The Influence of Volcanic Fluoride Emissions on Surrounding Vegetation. #
Garrec7 J. P., Lounowski, A; Plebin, R..  (Dep. Rech. Fondam., CEN,
Grenoble, Fr.)
Fluoride 1977, 10(4), 152-6 (Eng).
The continuous emission of gasesous fluorides from active volcanoes in the
vicinity of Mt. Etna, subjects the surrounding vegetation to uninterrupted fluoride
pollution.  INtermittent emission of F-rich ash, as from Soufriere, exposes the
vegetation only temporarily, and the fluoride accumulated on the leaves is
washed by rain

Shoao. Bulletin of Hokkaido Prefecture! Agricultural Experiment Stations
Hokkaido. Chod Nogyo Shikenjo. Mar 1978. (39) P. 54-65.

New Data on Volcanoes as Natural Sources of Carcinogenic Substances. >£
Ilnitskii, A. P., Mishchenko, V. S., Shabad, L. M. [Cancer Res. Cent., Moscow,
Cancer Lett 1977, 3 (5-6), 277-30 (Eng) Ashes and laval from several
volcanoes contained from 0.3-0.4 to 5.4-6.1 ng benzoCa] pyrene (I)  [50-32-8]/kg.
I concns, in soil samples from 1.5, 2 nd 10 m depths collected near the Volchja River
(a permafrost area) ere 1.47, 1.17-3.15 and 1.02-1.51ng/kg, resp.   The concns.  of I
in volcanic ash and soil from permafrost regions apprently support  the hypothesis
of abiogenic I formation during a period of 12,000 vr or more.

A Reassessment of Atmospheric Pollution as a Cause of Long-Term Changes
of GlQbal Temperature. 
 S02 Concentration and Volcanic Ashes Around Active Mt. ASO. 36.
 Koide,  Keiko, Yoji Tsorota, Keiji Sogimora, Kazonori Oeno, Mashahiro
 Kawakami, and Osamu  Imamura
 (Katsudoki N1 Qkeru  Asokazan Shuhen No S02 Nodo to Kobairyo Ni Tsuite). Text
 In Japanese. Kumamota-Ken Eisel Kogai Kenkyusho-Ho (Annu. Rep. Kumamoto Prefect.
 Inst. Public Health  Pol Tut.), Vol. 1974:38-42, 1974.
'Kumamoto Ken Else! Kogai Kenkyosho Ho Annu Rep Kumamoto Prefect 1974
 The sulfure dioxide  concentration and the quantity of dustfall in the area
 surrounding Mt. Aso  Volcano during its active period were measured.  In the
 extensive caldera of the multiple-mouthed active volcano there are several
 towns engaged in farming, touring, sericulture and stock raising.  These towns have
 been victimized each time the volcano became active.  The investigation was
 conducted during September through December of 1974 at six selected points
 using automatic analyzers to measure S02 by the lead dioxide method and
 dustfall by the deposit gage method according to the 1974 Environmental
 Air Investiagation and Measuring Guidelines of te Environmental Agency.  The
 S02 at  the tip of the mountain was 1.81 to 3.12 MG/LL SQ CM/Oay, the same as
 at Yashiro City, which had one of the highest rates of the six selected
 locations. --At the other five locations the S02 concentration was the same as in
 unpolluted areas, due to the difference of 160-840 M height above sea level
 between the crater and the measuring points.  Dust fall at the nearest point from
 the crater eas 64000 ton/SQ KM/Month; at the other five points there are
 maxima  of 382, 144,  128 and 114 ton/SQ KM/Month, 15 to 900 times the values
 at the  arao industrial areas of Kumamota Prefecture.

 Stratospheric Aerosol Parameters for the Fuegp Volcanic Incursion. j£
 Elterman, Louis
 Appl. Opt., 14(6}:1262-1263, June 1975. 5 Refs.
 Appl Opt 1975
 Searchlight probing  results of volcanic dust over New Mexico resulting from the
 eruption of the Fuego volcano located in the Guatemala highlands are reported.
 A profile for the aerosol attentuation coefficient versus altitude is presented.
 Data reduction methods rule out any smoothing of field data at stratospheric
 altitudes between 11.7 and 26.3 KM.  A turbidity chart for the same profile
 is also illustrated.  During one night week over several hours of measurement,
 the major layer retained its altitude of maximum turbidity (about 16 KM)
 remarkably well.  The other layers were less stable.  On the following night,
 the major layer was  found at a somewhat lower altitude (approximately 15 KM)
 but remained similar in appearance.  A stratospheric dust increase of about 50%
 was observed compared with recent searchlight probing

Stratospheric Aerosol Particles and Their Optical Properties.  *R
Cadle, R. D. and G.W. Grams!
Rev. Geophys. Space Physics, 13(4):474-501, Aug. 1975.  149 Refs.
Rev Geophys Space Physics 1975
The Tropospheric sources and effects of stratosopheric  aerosol particles are
reviewed.  The particles consist largely of volcanic ash afor  periods of
possible a few months following major explosive volcanic eruptions,  but
at other times they consist largely of impure sulfuric  acid which may be in  the
form of droplets or crystals.  The sulfuric acid is formed largely
by the oxidation and hydrations of sulfur dioxide, much of which  in  introduced
into the stratosphere by volcanic eruptions.   The mixing ratio of the particles,
least of the larger one in the 0.1 to 1 micro radium interval, is almost always
greatest a few kilometers above the tropopause.  Stratospheric particles
by absorbing and scattering ragiation from the sun and  earth can  affect
the atmosphere's rafiation balance thereby affecting the climate.
Another major effect of the stratospheric aerosols is the denial  of  radiation
to the region below the stratosphere. (Author abstract  modified)
Studieson the Properties of Organic Matter in BuriedHumic Horizon
Derived form Volcanic Ash. 111. Sugars in Hydroloysates of Buried
Humic Horizon (Soil Polysaccharides)."lit
Yushi da, M; Kumada, K.
Tokyo, Society of the Science of Soil and Manure, Japan.
Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. V. 25 (2), June 1979, P. 209-216.
To investigate the relation between age and the sugar compn.  in hydrolysates of
the surface horizon and buried humic horizons with age _< 28,000 yr. B.P.,  the
neutral sugars and ami no sugars in soil hydrolysates were detd.  The ratios
of total sugar C content to tatal C content of soil  ranged from 2.68 to 4.13%.
These values showed no distinct relation with age. Rhamnose
[3615-41-6], fucose [2438-80-4], arabinose [147-81-9], xylose [58-86-6], mannose
[3458-28-4], galactose [59-23-4], glucose [50-99-7], glucosamine [3416-24-8],
[7535-00-4] were present in teh hydrolysates of all  soil samples.   The
polysaccharides of soil samples which have been buried for shorter periods
were dominated by glucose, whereas those of soil  samples buried for longer
periods were dominated by mannose.  The proportion of hexoses showed a  tendency
to increase with age, whereas that of pentoses showed a tendency to decrease
with age.

Studies on the Propertiesof Organic Matter In BuriedHumic HorizonDerived
from Volcanic Ash. IV. Characteristices of Polysaccharides in Hydrolysates  of
FulvicAcid and in Ethanol Precipitates from Fulvic Acid in juried Humic
Horizon, jfc
Hexose and neutral sugars in hydrolyzates of fulvic acid fraction from buried
hunric horizons, extd. successively with 0.1N NaOH and 0.1M Na4P207, were
detd.  Hexose and uronic acid in in 75% EtOH ppts. from the fulvic acid
were also detd.  The proportion of mannose [3458-28-4] in hydrolyzates of
fulvic acid extd. with NaOH showed a tendency to increase with age, but
the proportion of galactose [59-23-4] decreased.  The proportion of arabinose
[147-81-9] and xylose [58-86-6] in hydrolyzates of the fulvic acid extd.
with Na4P207 decreased with increasing age.  Most of the constituent
neutral monosaccharides of the polyysaccharide in fulvic acids of the 2
exts. wer hexoses.  The uronic acid to hexose ratios of the 75% EtOH ppts.
of the fulvic acid extd. with NaOH did not show large variation from 28,000
yr B.P. to the present.   However, the values of 75% EtOH ppts. of fulvic
acid extd. with Na4P207 increased with increasing age.
Sudden Increase ofStratospheric Aerosol  Content After the Eruption
of Fuego Volcano: Lidar Observations in Fukuoka.
Fojiwara, Motowo, Tosahikazo Itabe, and Motokazu Hirono
Rep. lonos. Space Res. Jap., 29(1/2):74-78, 1975.  10 Refs.
Rep lonos Space Res Jap 1975
The results of 5 MO of Lidar observations from Oct.  1974 to Feb.  1975 in
Fuktipka are reported.   An extrordinary intense scatterng was 1975 observed
from a thin layer in the lower stratosphere over Fukuoka, from middle Nov.
1974, about a month after th eruption of Fuego volcano in Guatemala.   Based
on the volcanic dust hypothesis, the speed of meridional transport is estimated
at 50 CM/Sec.  Local rawinsonde data show an increase of 5 C in temperature
around the layer at the same time.   The maximum of the peak values of the
non-rayleigh backscattering coefficient beta M occured in Dec., reaching
some 10 times those of the pre-volcanic layer.  The layer began to spread
out toward the lower altitudes a month after its appearance, and  to vary
in structure significantly in association with the variation of temperature,
persisting from the day of the first detection throughout late Feb.  1975.
(Author abstract modified)

Volcanic Ash; Examples of Devitrification •and Early Oiagenesis. Hfc
Wise, S.W. Jr; Weaver, F. M. (Dep Geol., Florida State University, Tallahassee,
FL 3206 USA
Sacnning Electron Microsc. 1979, (1) 511-18 (Eng)
The ultrarnorphol. of 2 bentonites (digenetically altered volcanic ashes or
tuffs) was examd. by SEM in order to det. features which may be indicative
of their volcanic origins.^ Both bentonites exhibit fabrics inherited from
their parent rocks.  One sample displays a fine pattern of parallel columnules
composed of authigenic opal-C and smectite.  The columnules composed of
authigenic opal-C and smectite.  The columnules represent highly deformed
glass shards of a welded tuff which has been strongly altered by disgenesis.
THe other sample is replete with angular molds of fine pyroclastic fragment
and represents an original accumulation of relatively undeformed volanic
ash particles.

VoTam'c Ash Precipitation in the Kamachatka and Xylophagoos Insects
Khomentovskii, P.A.;
Moskva, NauKa.
Priroda, Aug 1979. (8) P. 115-116.

Volcanic Dust. Sunspots. and Temperature Trends. *

Schneider, Stephen H.  and Clifford Mass
Science, 190 (4216):741-746, Nov.  1, 1975.  32 Refs.
Science 1975
The effect of volcanic dust and sunspot activity on the general patter of global
surface temperature since 1600 ad was calculated using a simple climatic model.
Volcanic dust veils are an external  cause of climatic change primarily because
they can screen out several  percent  of the  direct solar beam, thereby preventing
some of the solar energy from reaching the  lower atmosphere.  A relationship
between increases in volcanic dust concentrations and effective decreases in
the solar parameter is defined which is scaled proportional to the dust increase.
The dust veil index complied from a  combination of historical accounts and direct
measurement of volcanic contributions to the stratospheric aerosol is used
along with observations from Muna  Loa Observatory in Hawaii.
Volcanoes and Carcinogens. <(fc
Il'nitskii, A. P. ; Belmskii, G. A. Shabad, L.  M. (Moscow, USSR).
Priroda (Moacour) 1976, (9) 124-6 (Russ).
The current levels of volcanic activity do not  contribute significant amts.  of
polynuclear aromatic hyrocarbons, particularly  benz(a) pyrene (I)  [50-32-8]
to the environment.  The concn. of I in volcanic ash is 0.3-0.4 and the total
discharge is estimated at 120kg/yr.

Volcanoes. Considered by A palaeoclimatoloqist. It
Schwarzbach, Martin
(Culkane, Vom Palaeuklimatologen Betrachtet).   Text in German.  Bonner
Meteorol. Abhandl., Mo. 17:575-596, 1973.  93 Refs.
Bonner Meterorol Abhandl 1973
The relationship between volcanoes and climate are described.   Climate
influences the foramtion and activity of volcanoies.   Volcanoes influence
essentially the whole climate of the earth by emitting carbon  dioxide and ash dust
into the atmosphere.  The influence of volcanic  dust  on the Albedo of ice is
smal 1.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Library, Rnora 2'04  FM-211-A
401 M Street, S.W.
Washington, DC   20460