COMPUTER MAPPING OF COAL RESERVES
                          BY SULFUR  LEVEL:
                       STUDY AREA  REPORT
                LABORATORY FOR COMPUTER  GRAPHICS
                      AND  SPATIAL ANALYSIS
Contract No.  CPA 70-16                     Harvard Graduate School  of Desig
Air Pollution Control Office                  Cambridge, Massachusetts

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     COMPUTER  MAPPING OF  COAL RESERVES

               BY SULFUR LEVEL



 ' Principal Investigators

        John C. Goodrich
        Howard T. Fisher*


  Study Area Investigators


        David Sheehan  -  Phases I and II (Appalachian Coal Region)
        Timothy Murray  -  Phase III (Allegany and Garrett Counties)


  Technical Guidance on  Geology


        Michael Woldenberg


  Research Assistants
        Whitmore John
        Gail Howrigan
 ' Computer Programming


        Nancy Peyton


  Se cretarial and Administration


        Lois Kramer
        Tina McGeary


  Report Preparation
         Albert Davis
         Laurence Yont

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                 PREFACE

        The Air  Pollution Control Office (APCO)  of the
Environmental Protection Agency is interested in ways
of displaying   the  quantity of coal available at various
sulfur levels.   It was felt that computer mapping of the
coal data might provide a relatively quick  and inexpensive
tool.

       Data was provided  by the Bureau of Mines for
study areas in  the  Appalachian Coal Region and,  in
particular,  in a two county area in Maryland.   Values
for sulfur content,  bed thickness,  and  quantity of coal
were manipulated and  mapped using several  computer
mapping programs  available at the Laboratory for Computer
Graphics and Spatial Analysis at the  Harvard Graduate
School  of Design.   Although the work was  carried out for
these study areas,  the main  emphasis  of the  project was
on providing  a  tool with general  applicability to  coal data
anywhere in the United States.

        The problems of obtaining  sufficient reliable data
for mapping cannot be  emphasized  strongly enough.   At
first  glance it would appear that there is  a great deal  of
coal data available.   However, when the data are broken
down by type, coal  seam, and location, there  is actually
very  little useable  information available at the present
time  for  all the types  of data needed for a study such  as
this.

       It is felt, and has  been stressed throughout,  that
more meaningful results  could have been attained if  there
had been a more equal distribution of  data points and  a

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more equal  number  of  analyses taken at these points.
All of us were aware that  this might  be a problem at
the outset of the project and our fears  have  been
substantiated.   We hope  that pointing this out is the kind
of constructive criticism that may  prove most helpful  in
overcoming  deficiencies in  data acquisition so  that more
meaningful  results may be  attained  in future work.

        Of significant importance, however;  is  the  potential
applicability of each  of the types of maps produced and
their usefulness to APCO as adequate data are made  available.

        The Study Area Report  is divided into three main
sections, entitled:
             I      BACKGROUND
             II     STUDY AREA FINDINGS
             III     APPENDICES
The  first section covers  the  problem  definition,  computer
program  used,  study area  selection and data acquisition,
and  the  graphic  techniques  used.  The second  section
discusses the  study  areas and  data  used,  and the computer
maps produced in some detail.   The final  section  contains
the step by  step  description  of the mapping procedures used
for the study areas,  the references,  and the technical
aspects of  program development.

       The Study  Area  Report does  not  contain any
speculative  information as to possible future uses  of the
techniques nor does  it  include  all the  computer program
manuals and specifications  necessary  for application of

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the techniques to other coal data and  study  areas.   These
manuals and  related information are  contained in a companion
report on  General Documentation.

       As  stated in  the problem definition,  the project was
designed to demonstrate the capabilities of the SYMAP Computer
Mapping Program to display the sulfur levels of coal and
the quantities  of  coal available at  various sulfur levels.   The
types of maps desired and the criteria for selecting study
areas for  demonstration are discussed.

       The requirements  and  specifications  for each of the
three computer mapping programs  are explained in the next part
as well as the necessary  output devices  i and the significant
aspects of program  development which took place during the
project.    This technical section serves  as an introduction  to
the use of the program found  in Section III  (Appendices)  and
Volume Two.

       Study  area selections and data acquisition are  presented
in terms  of the  preliminary examination of  areas and  a  discussion
of the actual  study areas  chosen: the  four-state Appalachian
Coal  Region,   and Allegany and Garrett  Counties  in  Maryland.

       The final  part of the first section  is  concerned with
graphic techniques,  particularly the contour  intervals and
symbolism used  for mapping.   The problems of  map  size,
particularly for  final reproduction  and display,  are briefly
discus sed.

       The second  section  is  concerned with the actual study
area  procedures  and findings.    The data used for  the  two study
areas is discussed in  the  first part:  (i) the  sulfur  content data

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aggregated by counties for the Appalachian Coal Region, (ii)
sulfur data aggregated by towns for this area, (iii)  sulfur and
bed thickness data by mine location for Allegany and Garrett
counties in Maryland,  and (iv) washability data for  Maryland
by mine location.           _  __.
                                       j
        The  computer maps produced for  each study area and
 set of  data  are discussed in some detail, followed by the
 conclusions  and recommendations  resulting from the case  study
 areas.  The material provides the background for the  more
 detailed mapping  technique discussions of Section III (Appendices)
 and Volume Two:  General Documentation.

        Section  III  (Appendices)  contains  the  step  by step
 computer mapping procedures for each study area.   It  also
 contains the  references  used in the project and  a discussion
 of the  significant programming developments, including the
 use of statistical  routines,  special  data  handling procedures,
 and the changes made to the mapping programs  for this project.

        We  would  like to acknowledge the invaluable support and
 advice of Russell  Flegal,  Project Officer,  Office of Program
 Development,  Air Pollution Control Office,  Environmental
 Protection  Agency,   and S.  J.  Aresco,   Coordinator,  Energy
 Data  Bank,  Bureau of Mines, U. S.  Department  of the  Interior.

        We  would  also like  to thank  Jerrold G. Thompson,  Branch
 of Computer Sciences and Engineering,  Bureau of Mines,
 U. S.   Department of  the Interior,  Harry  Buckley, Director,
 Maryland Geological  Survey, and  William E.  Edmunds,  Head
 Coal  Geologist,  Pennsylvania Bureau of  Topographic and
 Geologic Survey  for  their  assistance.

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       All unpublished data used in  the  project were supplied

by the Air Pollution Control  Office  and  the  Bureau  of Mines.
Cambridge,  Massachusetts         John  C.  Goodrich
April 1971                         Project  Director and Editor

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       STUDY AREA REPORT

         Table of Contents


PREFACE

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF  ILLUSTRATIONS

I.      BACKGROUND

       1.        Problem  Definition

       2.        SYMAP and Related Programs
                 2.1.   The  SYMAP Program
                 2. 2    The GRID Program
                 2.3.   The SYMVU  Program
                 2.4.   Output  Devices
                 2. 5.   Development of Programs

       3.        Study Area Selection and Data Acquisition

                 3.1.   Preliminary Examination of Areas
                 3.2.   Appalachian Coal Region
                 3.3.   Allegany  and Garrett Counties

       4.        Graphic  Techniques

                 4.1.   General Symbolism Considerations
                 4. 2.   Symbolism Used  in the Project
                 4. 3.   Reproduction Considerations

H.     STUDY AREA FINDINGS

       1.        Discussion  of  Study Areas and  Data Used

                 1.1.   Appalachian Coal Region  -  Phase I
                 1.2.   Appalachian Coal Region  -  Phase II
                 1.3.   Allegany  and Garrett Counties  -  Phase  III
                        Stage One
                 1.4.   Allegany  and Garrett Counties  -  Phase
                        III,  Stage Two

       2.        Discussion  of  Graphics

                 2. 1.   Summary  of Phases I and II
                 2. 2.   Map Series  A
                 2. 3.   Map Series  B
                 2.4.   Map Series  C
                 2. 5.   Map Series  D
                 2.6.   Summary  of Phase III
                 2. 7.   Map Series  E
                 2. 8.   Map Series  F
                 2. 9.   Map Series  G
                 2. 10.  Map Series  H

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       3.     Conclusions and Recommendations

              3.1.     Study Area and Data  Considerations
              3.2.     Mapping Considerations
              3.3.     Applications
III.    APPENDICES

       1.     Phases I and II:  Appalachian Coal  Region

              1.1.     Input  to  SYMAP
              1.2.     Base  Map Preparation
              1.3.     Phase I  Data Bank
              1.4.     Phase I  Data Point Placement
              1.5.     Phase II  Data Bank
              1.6.     Phase II  Data Point Placement
              1.7.     Subroutine FLEXIN
              1.8.     Map Execution


       2.     Phase III:  Allegany  and Garrett Counties

              2. 1.     Input  to  GRID
              2. 2.     Base  Map Preparation
              2.3.     Phase III Data  Banks
              2.4.     Phase III Data  Point Placement
              2. 5.     Subroutine FLEXIN
              2.6.     Map Execution
              2. 7.     Input  to  SYMVU


       3.     General References

              3.1.     Appalachian  Coal Region References
              3. 2.     Allegany  and Garrett County  References
              3. 3.     Other  References


       4.     Program Development

              4.1.     SYMAP Printout Statements
              4.2.     SYMAP Subroutine MANIP
              4.3.     Legends   with GRID
              4. 4.     Use of Statistical  Routines
              4. 5.     Data Handling Procedures
              4. 6.     Displaying Number of  Analyses  on
                        Base Maps

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                        List of  Illustrations
Figure  1: Map of Study Areas
Tables:
 1-1
 1-2
 1-3
Study Areas and Data
Levels  Used for Each Map Series
Symbolism  Used for Mapping
Figure  2: Sample Plot of Sulfur Content Versus Yield
Tables:
 II-1
 n-z
 II-3
 II-4
Data  Banks Used
Summary of Data Available for Phase III
Phase I and II Maps
Phase III Maps
Figures:
A-l  thru A-8      Phase
B-l  thru B-21     Phase
C-l  thru C-7      Phase
D-l  thru D-7      Phase
E-l  thru E-ll     Phase
F-l  thru F-V      Phase
G-l  thru G-10     Phase
H-l  thru H-7      Phase
                I  -  Pittsburgh  Bed
                II - Pittsburgh Bed
                II - Middle  Kittanning Bed
                II - Detail Areas and Difference Maps
                III (Stage  One)  - Sulfur  Content
                III (.Stage  One)  - Thickness and Quantity
                III (Stage  Two)  - Sulfur Content
                III (Stage  Two)  - Quantity
Tables:
 III-l     Phase I Pittsburgh Bed  -  Raw Data Points
 IH-2     Phase I Pittsburgh Bed  -  Raw Values
 III-3     Phase I Pittsburgh Bed  -  Washed Data Points
 III-4     Phase I Pittsburgh Bed  -  Washed Values
 III-5     Phase II Pittsburgh Bed - Raw   Data Points
 III-6     Phase II Pittsburgh Bed - Raw Values
 III-7     Phase II Pittsburgh Bed - Washed  Data Points
 III-8     Phase II Pittsburgh Bed - Washed  Values
 III-9     Phase II Middle Kittanning Bed  - Raw Data Points
 III-10    Phase II Middle Kittanning Bed  - Raw Values
 III-11    Subroutine FLEXIN  - Phases  I & II
 in-12    F-MAP package
 III-13    FLEXIN for Subroutine MANIP
 111-14    Upper. Freeport Bed - Sulfur  Content
 111-15    Upper Freeport Bed - Thickness
 III-16    Upper Bakerstown Bed  - Sulfur Content
 III-l7    Upper Bakerstown Bed  - Thickness
 111-18    Upper Freeport Bed - Washability

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Tables:
 III-19    Superimposed Data  Points
 III-ZO    Subroutine FLEXIN - SYMAP
 111-21    Subroutine FLEXIN - GRID
 111-22    Control Cards for SYMVU

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L   BACKGROUND
    1.   Problem Definition
    2.   SYMAP and Related  Programs
    3.   Study Area  Selection  and Data Acquisition
    4.   Graphic  Techniques

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1.                   PROBLEM DEFINITION

              The Air Pollution Control Office (APCO) of the Environ-
       mental Protection Agency (EPA)  is  interested in ways of dis-
       playing the  quantity of coal available at various sulfur levels.
       This  is in conjunction with efforts  to find ways for supplying
       low-polluting fuels to areas of the  country adopting emission
       control regulations.   It was felt  that a  relatively  quick and
       inexpensive  tool such as  computer  mapping  could  prove to be
       useful in the process.

              The SYMAP Computer  Mapping  program of the Laboratory
       for Computer  Graphics and Spatial Analysis enables  one to express
       clearly and  visually information that has generally been available
       only in extremely long  and cumbersome lists  of tabular data.
       The Laboratory has  demonstrated the unique and  valuable  appli
       cations  of the SYMAP and  related programs in numerous  projects
       including  a demonstration grant running from  1968 to 1970
       from APCO (68A-2405D)  undertaken to show the application  of
       computer graphics to air pollution  analysis  and control.    It  was
       demonstrated that as more and more air  quality data becomes
       available  in computer usable  form,  a tool such as computer map-
       ping can  be  very useful as an aid in air pollution studies, par-
       ticularly  for displaying changes  in  air  quality over time
              The scope of work for investigating the computer mapping
       of coal reserves  by sulfur  level  emphasized  several major points.
       It was hoped  that the proposed work would demonstrate the capa-
       bilities of SYMAP to display the  sulfur  levels  of  coal and  the
       quantities  of  coal available at various sulfur levels.   As   a result
       of the work a new and  valuable tool would be provided  for  the

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decision-making process  which is concerned  with locating low
sulfur coal for the potential control of air pollution.

       Recognizing the need for a tool with general applicability,
the program developed was to be  demonstrated  for  a  specific
area  of the country with  applicability  to coal data anywhere  in
the United States.   The necessary data  was to be provided  by
APCO in cooperation with other Federal agencies,  including the
US Bureau of  Mines,  and state and  local  agencies,  including
state mining and geological survey departments.   Whenever
possible this  data was  to be provided  in a computer form
compatible with the needs of the SYMAP  program.

       The study area  was to  be selected by reviewing available
analytical,  washability, and  geological data for  at least three
possible areas.   The  criteria  for selecting a study area included
       (i)      a reasonable and manageable number  of
       seams,  and,
       (ii)     adaquate availability of  data for each  seam
       for sulfur content, seam thickness and extent,  and
       washability.
       The area  selected was to be as  extensive as possible,
subject to the  above criteria.   It  was suggested  that the output
maps be approximately three feet by four feet.

       Computer maps were to be prepared for  the selected
study area showing  the following:
--Isolines of sulfur level in percent sulfur by seam,  in class
intervals  suggested  to be 0.0 to  0.5 percent; 0. 5 to 1.0,  1.0
to 1.5, 1.5 to  2.0, 2.0 to 2.5,  2.5 to  3.0,   3.0 to 5.0,  and
greater than 5%;

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--Quantities  in tons  per acre of mineable  reserves of raw
coal by seam with sulfur contents less than 1%, assuming
current mining practice.   APCO  was to provide the data in
a form that  would explain the  assumed current mining practice
to be used.   When more than  one seam existed in  an area,
maps were to be made for each  seam or  several selected  seams
and a  composite summing all of the selected seams 20" or  more
in thickness  was  to  be  made;
--Isolines,  as the coal lies  in the ground,  showing the sulfur
level the  coal could  be washed to at 65% yield  by seam.   The
class intervals of sulfur  level were  suggested to be 0 to 1%,
1.0 to 1.5,  1.5 to 2.0, 2.0 to 3.0, 3.5 to  5.0 and greater
than 5%;
--Quantities  in the ground in tons per acre  of  washed marketable
coal of less  than 1% sulfur content,  assuming,  first, the
economics of present coal preparation and washing  techniques in
mining practice,  and,  second, that the market  will take incre-
mental price increases.  APCO was to provide  the data in a
form that would explain the  various  preparation,  washing,  and
mining techniques  to be considered for both the current practice and
the incremental price  increase cases.

       The project was to involve any necessary adapting  of the
SYMAP techniques and  development of the necessary computer
programs and analysis  to  produce these low  sulfur  coal availability
maps.   In addition,  the feasibility and  applicability to APCO's
needs  of' utilizing various  three-dimensional graphical techniques in
conjunction with the  two-dimensional SYMAP portrayal  was  to
be  investigated.   Finally,  the  technical report  was to include a
general discussion of the program, permitting  persons to apply
the general  program to  other  coal areas,  and a discussion  of the
limitations on the use of the  program.

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       This  emphasis  on documentation was thought to be very
important, particularly because  of the lack of data for adequately
demonstrating the  techniques  for the  study areas to be examined.
Even if no definitive conclusions can be drawn for the study
areas, the general applicability  of the program  to  any areas of
the country where reasonable data can be made available is  a
significant contribution in itself.

       Data  on sulfur  content and seam thickness are available
for many coal beds in the country.   From the  data  one can
determine the quantity of coal presently available at  various
sulfur levels.   Wherever information on washability  is  obtained,
a series  of maps  can  be made  which show the  quantities of  coal
that may be  obtained  at  various  yields.   Decisions can  then  be
made as  to what  cost  should  be  incurred to supply low  sulfur
coal to areas  needing  this type  of fuel.

       Such  a computer  mapping approach is important  for  several
reasons:
(i)     it can be automatically tied  to large  scale computer-based
data banks,  such as exist for coal  and related data;
(ii)    alternative  situations can be postulated and  mapped,  with
comparisons made quickly and inexpensively between the alter-
natives;  and,
(iii)   as more and more data  on coal reserves,  mining  practices,
and demand  requirements are made  available, the  tool can be
immediately  refined  to  give more meaningful and accurate
results.

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       Not  all of the objectives of the project could be fully
met.   We were  able to  display the  sulfur levels of coal for
a number of  seams  at different scales depending upon the
study area  size.   We were  also able  to  display the quantity
of coal available for less  than 1% sulfur content,  but the lack
of data prevented us from calculating quantity for  the  study
area with the  accuracy hoped for.

       The program was demonstrated for specific areas with
applicability to coal data anywhere in the United States. How-
ever,  it is likely that many  of  the problems  of map accuracy
and data  availability encountered with the study area will be
found with  other parts of the  country  in  the  near  future.

       The study area selection  criteria were somewhat
academic in that adequate data  were not available  for  any
study area--for  all  variables  concurrently  and more than
one coal  seam.   The four-state  study area chosen was quite
extensive but the scale of the mapping--26"  wide  maps--
resulted in a reduction to 25% of original  size for printing
in this  report and a great deal of lost detail.

       The isolines  for  sulfur  content used were almost the
same as  those initially suggested.   However,  only  a  few of
these isolines were  actually  relevant,  in many cases.

       The washability and market price information  had to
be re-stated  in terms of sulfur content versus the  expected
yield  of  coal.   This  did not  significantly affect the results,
although the relationship  of  quantity to cost  was  thereby
eliminated  from  the analysis.

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       In general,  the computer mapping techniques  were
demonstrated for the  study  area,  these study areas  are
representative of data and problems encountered elsewhere,
and the techniques  can now be applied to other areas of the
U.S.  where  coal data are  available, subject to the  constraints
and accuracy of the required data discussed at length in this
report.

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2.             SYMAP AND RELATEt) PROGRAMS

               Three  computer mapping programs were used  in this
       project.   The SYMAP program was used for the majority of
       the maps  produced, particularly for maps of sulfur content and
       bed  thickness.   The GRID  program--which was adapted from
       SYMAP to specifically handle data input in terms of a regular
       grid--was used  in  all cases  where maps or data sets were compared,
       as  in  determining the quantity of  coal at various levels of sulfur
       content.   Finally,  in a few cases the SYMVU program was used
       to display the three-dimensional  representation of the same surface
       shown  in two-dimensions with the SYMAP or GRID  programs.
       All three  programs were developed principally at the Laboratory
       for Computer Graphics and Spatial Analysis.

2- *•   THE SYMAP PROGRAM

               SYMAP generates map displays showing the  values of
       spatially distributed data,  according,to their  actual  geographic
       location on a  base  map.   Combinations  of standard  computer
       printout symbols are used  to print a scale of tone from black
       to white which can correspond to  a data value  range from large
       to small.   Mathematical computations can be performed on the
       data if necessary before  mapping.   Options  are provided  for the
       rescaiing  of raw data and  for variations in  symbolism.

               For this project values for sulfur content, bed  thickness,
       and  quantity of coals in tons per  acre were displayed  for each
       of several coal  seams.   Uniform  scales of  symbolism were used
       so that maps  in a  series could easily be compared.  In many cases
       mathematical  computations  were performed  prior  to mapping,
       particularly to determine the  quantity oi coal available for  a
       given  sulfur content,  given various yields from washing.

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       The SYMAP program is written in Fortran IV.   It can
be used  on a computer system equivalent  to the IBM 360-40, or
CDC3600.   Computer storage  requirements are at least 32, 000
words,  or 128,000 bytes.   Such systems are available  in most
commercial, government,  and university computation centers.

       All work on this  project was done  using Fortran IV on
an IBM  360-65  at  the  Harvard Computing  Center.   Version  5. 15  of
the SYMAP program was used which requires 15OK  bytes of
storage.   Certain  operations--comparing surfaces  using a newly-
written subroutine  for  SYMAP--required 200K bytes.

       The program can produce  conformant,  contour,  proximal,
and dot  maps.   In  conformant maps, predefined  areas  or zones
are filled  with  the  symbol tone assigned to their data values.
Contour  or isoline  maps show the variation of the data over the
whole  study area;  the  display  is analogous to the contour bands
used to  show changes  of elevation on topographic maps.  Proximal
maps use  the nearest-neighbor principle,  with any non-data  position
being given the value of its  nearest data point.  They are similar
in appearance to conformant maps.   The program will  also  produce
dot maps,  using a  variety of symbols.   The  maps produced in this
study were ail  of   the isoiine  or  contour type.   This was because
it was felt that the data being mapped--sulfur content,  thickness,
and quantity--all tend  to vary  continttausly over a  coal  bed rather
than to exhibit  fixed values for data zones.

       To  produce  computer maps,  a deck of punched cards
must  be prepared  as  input to  the computer.   This deck consists
of a number of "packages,"  each covering a  specific category
of information.   The most basic  of  these  packages,  with a
brief  explanation of their general purpose,  are listed below.

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The  MAP package is always  required;  use of the  other pack-
ages  is determined by the type  of map desired.

       The  MAP package specifies,  below the  map,  an appropriate
title for the identification of  each separate map that is to be
run.   It then instructs  the  computer to make each map by using
certain electives that may be useful.   It  is not necessary to
specify any of these electives since each  has a standard  default.
The  availability  of these  electives is a major feature of the
SYMAP program  and adds greatly  to  its  flexibility.   Some  of
the electives  are:
(i)     Size: used to specify  the overall dimensions of the
rectangular border surrounding  the  study  area on the output
map;
(ii)    Content:  used to  specify  the  portion or  extent  of the
study  area  (as  shown on the  source map)  to  be mapped by
the computer; the scale of the map  to  be  produced  can be
changed,  or a   portion of the study area  may  be  shown,  at
any  scale.
(iii)    Number of Levels: used  to specify the number  of  levels,
or class  intervals,  (up to twelve) into  which the total range  of
the data is  to be subdivided  for mapping  purposes;  another
elective  can be  used to  specify  the  value  range intervals  for
these  levels;
(iv)    Symbolism: used to  specify the  black-to-white tone
symbolism  for the levels as  well as symbolism for the   data
point locations,  contour lines,  and areas  outside   the  study  area;
and,
(v)      Text: used to provide  supplementary textual information
below  the map.

       The  OUTLINE package is used  to  describe the outline  of
the study area by specifying  the x-y coordinate locations  of
the outline  vertices.    For this  project  the  outline

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was generally the seam outcrop line or the line  of 28"  bed
thickness.

        The DATA POINTS package is used to give the positions
of the data points to which data are  to be  related, by specifying
their coordinate locations.   Data, points may be either points  for
which data are available or  centers of areas ("data zones") for
which data are available.  When warranted by  the  nature  of the
study,  other  "centers" may  be used.   For this project  the data
points were the centers of counties or towns for which  data on
sulfur content were known or the  actual or assumed  location of
mines, mine openings,  or core samples.

        The LEGENDS or OTOLEGENDS package  causes supple-
mentary  information to  appear on the face of the map by  specifying
coordinate locations and  content.   Legends include such things as
political  boundaries, location  nameSja scale  and north arrow  and
the title  block.   The principal legends used  in this project were
state and county  boundaries,  relevant place names, and the scale.
        These three packages--OUTLINE, DATA POINTS  ,  and
 OTOLEGENDS are  used (together  with  a MAP package which is
 always required) to produce a  'base map1 for testing  purposes.
 The base map and  consequently these  packages  generally remain
 the  same for a  whole series of maps.   Once the  base map has
 been determined and  tested  it is necessary  to relate the appropriate
Values  to the data points--by use  of the VALUES  package--and
 select any  options desired together with the  title with the MAP
 package.

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       The  VALUES package  is used  to  assign the  appropriate
vaiues to the data points.   In this project this might be the
assigning of values for sulfur content averaged for all  samples
in a county for the seam in question  to  the centroid of the
counties which would  be the data  point locations.   Very often a
series of maps is to  be run from a large data bank of variables.
In this  case an extremely flexible user-subroutine is employed  in
conjunction   with the  VALUES package to select  the values for
the  particular  variable to be mapped.   Raw  data  given to the
computer may be related,  manipulated,  weighted,  and aggregated
in nearly any manner  desired with this  subroutine to produce the
values for mapping.   The  subroutine  may also be used in con-
junction with the  other packages,  often to transform coordinate
locations.

       Immediately ahead  of the packages of data  cards described
above,  certain introductory cards  (as required by the  particular
computing center being used) will  need to be  provided--together
with a copy of the  SYMAP program on cards,  tape, or disk.

       Producing isopleth   maps with a  computer  program such
as SYMAP has numerous  advantages over producing maps  by hand.
First, if one is  producing a  considerable number  of maps computer
mapping is  a much faster,  less expensive,  and more accurate
means of displaying spatially variable data.   For  this project and
the general application of  the techniques used,  a  considerable
number of maps would be  produced in a  series.   The very nature
of computer mapping  eliminates the drudgery  of making a great
number of maps by hand.

       Second, a wide variety  of options are  available to the
computer map maker that  are not possible  with maps  made  by

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         hand.  The user of SYMAP  can experiment with  different
         symbolism and  shading to  achieve the desired tones; he can use
         various contour level intervals  to portray different meanings about
         the data,  and he can add or delete political boundaries,  rivers
         and legends by  changing only a few cards from map to map.
         When mapping by hand  one cannot afford  to make several maps
         and select only one of them.   Because of  the time and  financial
         constraints  involved,  one must  often  settle for a  finished  product
         that  is less than satisfactory and may not show the information
         desired.

                Third, the human error often  encountered in the associating
         of values with the  appropriate data points is  virtually eliminated
         once the DATA POINTS and  VALUES packages have been  estab-
         lished  and verified to have a 1:1 correspondence.  There is no
         chance of transfer ing data from a table to the wrong data point
         on the map as  is often the case with mapping by hand.   In
         addition  if a data bank  is  used  which contains the data points  and
         all their associated values,  errors for the whole series  of maps
         can be eliminated at the outset quickly and efficiently.

                Finally,  the  contouring algorithm  in SYMAP  avoids the
         subjective  interpolation error so  inherent  in the  decisions of
         individual hand  mappers or cartographers.   SYMAP not only
         standardizes this  contouring  process  but  also  greatly reduces  the
         painstaking  time and energy normally involved.

2- 2-     THE GRID PROGRAM

                The  GRID program is a modified  version  of  SYMAP
         specifically designed for displaying data collected on the  basis
         of geographic grid cells.   Each grid  cell  may be shown  on  the
         computer-produced map as a single character or group of


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characters.   Whereas SYMAP accepted information at irregularly
spaced data points such as mine  locations, and  then  interpolated
values at all  points on an assumed surface, the GRID program
requires that a value be  read in  for  every grid cell.   These values
are then displayed directly without interpolation.  The  GRID
program was used in this project to  determine  quantity of  coal
at each grid  cell mapped (where  the  sulfur content was  less  than
1%) based  on the previously mapped values for  bed thickness
interpolated from data  points with the SYMAP program.  The
program was also used to produce composite maps of quantity
of coal for more than one bed; here  the quantity for  each of the
beds was summed at each of  the grid cell locations.

       The program displays its  data using a  line printer but
operates more  efficiently and economically because of its special
purpose  design,  which  eliminates  the need for the relatively
expensive  interpolation algorithm.  For a  user  who  does not need
the added  flexibility of the SYMAP program,  the GRID  program
can provide  substantial savings.   The GRID program presently
operates on an IBM 360/40.

       Version 3 of the program was  used for this project.  It
was  run on an  IBM 360-65 at the Harvard Computing Center
and required  150K bytes  of  storage.

       To  obtain a  map,  the user must  provide three sets of
instructions and has the option of providing a  fourth  set.   The
instructions are prepared  in the following  packages:  Data  Package
(usually  a  separate  tape),  Map Package,  Irregular  Outlines
Package  (Optional),  and Subroutine Flexin.

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       The DATA  package contains the data which  generate  the
graphic display.   It is  similar to  the  VALUES package  in
SYMAP.   The program is written for a maximum  of  10,000 grid
ceils,  but the Multiple  Data Set Option permits  the user to handle
unlimited numbers  of data cells.   For this project approximately
12, 000 grid cells  were used.   These were displayed  as single
character  cells allowing for direct comparability between  the
SYMAP produced maps and the GRID produced maps  derived from
them.

       The MAP package permits  the  user to specify the  precise
form of the map output in terms of various eiectives.   It  is
similar to  the MAP package  in SYMAP; many of the  eiectives  are
specified with exactly the  same format.

       The IRREGULAR OUTLINE  package allows the user to
specify the boundaries  of the  study area when he is not dealing
with a grid which  is  rectangularly  bounded.  For this project
the same outline was specified as was used with the  SYMAP
program.
       No additional package  having to do  with legends was
necessary for this  project.  A special  edited version  of  the  SYMAP
program was used  to create  a data file containing  the legends,  and
an  edited  version  of the  GRID program was  then used  to  read the
data file.   Therefore, the same legends were used with both
GRID and SYMAP.

       SUBROUTINE  FLEXIN is the Fortran subroutine which
allows the  user to specify the format of the data.     It is identical
in use to the user subroutine  of SYMAP; however, with the GRID
program  the  subroutine must  always be used to specify the format
for reading in the  values.  For this project  values created by
the SYMAP program  were read in,  compared or manipulated,  and
resultant values mapped on a cell by  cell basis.

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2. 3.   THE SYMVU PROGRAM

              The SYMVU  program provides the user  with  oblique  views
       of a  given surface.

              SYMVU is especially well suited to be run in conjunction
       with  SYMAP  or GRID which will generate the necessary matrix
       values.

              Version  1. U  of SYMVU was used for  this project.  It was
       run on an IBM  360-65  at the Harvard  Computing  Center and
       required 200K bytes of storage.   Only  a few SYMVUs were  run
       of surfaces mapped with SYMAP and GRID as a demonstration
       of the applicability  of the program.

              The user of  SYMVU needs to supply  a matrix of surface
       values,  and a set of parameters specifying the  type  of oblique
       view desired.   The basic options  available to the user are:
       (i)      the oblique view may be orthographic or in perspective;
       (ii)     the viewing angle  may be varied in both the vertical  (z)
       direction and  horizontal  (x, y) plane;
       (iii)    the lines  that SYMVU  generates  to define the  surface of the
       three-dimensional view may follow down the columns,  across the
       rows, or  through the diagonals of the  input  matrix;
       (iv)     the size  is specified by width and  height;
       (v)     treatment of the non-study area  may  consist  of  deleting
       it,  darkening  it, or  setting it  to a value of  zero.

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2.4.      OUTPUT DEVICES
                   The maps produced  by either  the SYMAP or  GRID
          program are generated  by a standard chain line  printer.
          The printer used  for  this project was  an IBM  1403  at the
          Harvard Computing Center.  The printer is capable of pro-
          ducing 132 characters on a line;  at 10  characters per inch,
          this means  a map 13  inches wide, with  two characters for
          the vertical borders.   The printer produces  eight lines per
          inch with these mapping programs.

                   If a map is too large  to fit  on one sheet of paper,
          the SYMAP program will subdivide a map into 13 inch sections.
          Since this  is frequently the case, a  simple  splicing job is
          required.  The GRID  program has a similar option for pro-
          ducing as many map sheets  as  are required; generally each
          map sheet is associated with a separate data set.   With these
          programs a special carriage control tape is  used to assure
          the proper line spacing for each page; in this  way the normal
          spacing at the  top of  a  page does not occur in the middle  of
          a map.   The programs allow one to print up to  four  over-
          printed  characters to  achieve the desired gray scale  for
          mapping.

                   The three-dimensional  views produced by the SYMVU
          program are generated  by a pen plotter.   The plotter used
          for this  project was an 11 inch  CALCOMP plotter  at  the
          Harvard Computing Center.  The vertical size of the plot  is
          governed by the height  of the paper  which is  11  inches; there
          is  no constraint on the  length of the plot because the paper is
          on a continuous spool.

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2.5.      DEVELOPMENT OF PROGRAMS

                   The concept, overall design, and  mathematical
          model for  the  SYMAP program were  developed in the  autumn
          of 1963 by Howard  T. Fisher,  working at Northwestern
          Technological  Institute.   Programming was carried out by
          Mrs.  O. G.  Benson of the Northwestern University Computing
          Center.  Since that time many others have contributed  ideas
          and cooperated in bringing the program to its present state.
          Major improvements  in the program were made by two
          Harvard students,  Robert A.  Russell and Donald  S.  Shepard,
          who was responsible  for the algorithms on spatial interpolation.

                   The GRID program was written at the Laboratory  for
          Computer Graphics  and Spatial Analysis in 1968 by David
          Sinton and Carl Steinitz.   The SYMVU program was written
          at the Laboratory in  1967  and 1968 by Frank J.  Rens under
          the direction of Howard  T.  Fisher.   Since then it has under-
          gone  major changes and improvements.

                  Significant  programming developments resulting  from
          this project  included:
                  (i)      capability to compare surfaces directly using
                  the SYMAP program;
                  (ii)     incorporation of SYMAP-type legend options into
                  the current version of the GRID program; and,
                  (iii)   development of data handling procedures  to
                  quickly and inexpensively interface these  three programs

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       Program development  is discussed in  detail in Section
III (Appendices).  In the SYMAP program  changes were made
in the printout  of the textual  information  below the map.
In addition,  a new subroutine was written for comparing  surfaces
having the same  study area outline.   Since the GRID program
can generally be  used more  efficiently  for  comparison of
surfaces, this  SYMAP subroutine is only useful for the user
who wishes to  perform the comparison with one program  and
one submission.

       The  major changes to the  GRID program involved the
rewriting of the legends routine  that had  been included in
previous versions of  the program.   This  enables the same
kind of legends used  with  the SYMAP program to  be displayed
on a  map produced by GRID.   With  the inclusion of these
changes,  the two programs are now completely  compatible in
terms of graphic output.

       A number of  other  important changes  in  the  mapping
procedure were  undertaken as part of the program development.
These include:
       (i)     The use of  statistical  routines  to  aid in  the
       choosing  of the levels or  contour  intervals for mapping;
       (ii)     data handling procedures used  to  facilitate the
       mapping,  particularly  when a large  series  of maps  is
       involved; and,
       (iii)    the use of a simple program to create  legends
       showing  the number of analyses associated with each
       data point.

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3.      STUDY AREA SELECTION AND DATA ACQUISITION

             The  study area for which  the  computer mapping techniques
       were to be demonstrated was  to be  selected  after  reviewing
       the available analytical, washability and  geological data for at
       least three possible areas.   The criteria for selecting an area
       for detailed  study included:  (1) a reasonable  and manageable
       number  of seams,  and (2)  adequate  availability  of  data for
       each  seam for  sulfur  content, seam thickness and  extent,  and
       washability.   Subject to these criteria  we wished to pick  as
       extensive an  area as practicable so as to be able  to develop
       and test large-scale mapping techniques  useful to APCO.

             The  review of possible study areas began  with a literature
       search and was followed by trips to the  data bank  and computer
       facilities of  the Bureau of  Mines,  since  nearly  all of the  useful
       available data is contained  in  their  computerized data banks.
       The  initial review pointed to areas  in  Clearfield County,
       Pennsylvania,  and Garrett  and Allegany Counties in Maryland
       as providing  the best  data.

             To avoid  the  use of  detailed geological maps  at the  outset,
       the computer mapping techniques were first tested  for an 84
       county four-state area  in the Appalachian Coal Region.  At this
       scale readily available data aggregated by  towns and counties
       and uncomplicated estimations of bed  outcrop lines can  be used
       to give an overview of the  sulfur content of coals  in a  region.
       Figure  1  shows this Appalachian Coal  Region study area.
       Phase I of the  project  involved  mapping  the sulfur  content of
       reserves  by  counties;  Phase II involved mapping reserves by
       towns.

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       The maps produced  show that Garrett and Allegany
Counties in Maryland have  large deposits  of low  sulfur coal
and are worthy of closer examination.   This area appeared to
have the best data and  was chosen as the principal  study area
for Phase  III.  Stage One of Phase III involved the mapping of
reserves by mines,  while Stage Two was  concerned with the
mapping of the  washability  data.

       The Phase  III study area is shown by a square  box in
Figure  1.   A summary  of the study areas,  coal  beds,  and
data for all these  phases of the project is  shown in Table  I—I.

       As  expected,  the greatest difficulty encountered in the
project was the  obtaining of adequate data to work  with.  Sufficient
data to produce  meaningful results never were  available for  the
detailed  study  area of Phase  III,  although this did not  significantly
detract from the demonstrations of the applicable techniques.  The
table  below shows  the relative  amounts  of time spent  on  data
acquisition, the  data handling necessary prior to  mapping,  the
actual testing and  perfecting of the mapping techniques, and  the
analysis of the  maps.

       The table also  shows the percent of time  we would  expect
to spend on each phase  if the  data were  readily  available.
              acquisition    handling    mapping     analysis
actual             30           25          30           15
expected           15           15          40           30

In addition the  computer  base  map development and testing
takes place at the  same time as data acquisition  and handling;
in this way,  the base maps and procedures  are all  prepared in •
time for the actual mapping phase.

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APPALACHIAN COAL REGION
DATA AND BEDS MAPPED
PROJECT NAME
Reserves mapped by
counties.
Sulfur Content    Quantity

Pittsburgh
Phase I
Reserves mapped by
towns
Pittsburgh
Middle Kittanning
Phase II
ALLEGANY AND GARRETT COUNTIES
Reserves mapped by
nines
Upper Freeport    Upper Preeport
Upper Bakerstown  Upper Bakerstown
Phase III
Stage One
Washability data mapped
by mines
Upper Freeport    Upper Freeport
Phase III
Stage Two
                                        Table 1-1

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      The apparent delays in data acquisition were a result of
(1)  data  aggregation procedures and technical  computer difficulties
with the necessary data banks  for  Phase II and (2)  data
aggregation procedures and  unavailability of data expected  from
private sources  for  Phase III.   The delays  in the data   handling
aspects in Phase I were  due to expected trial and  error attempts
to mate  the data banks with the mapping programs,  and in
Phase  II to the  need to determine  all data  point locations by  eye
from detailed maps  of the region.

      In  conclusion,  much of the time that  was  devoted to  data
acquisition, data handling,  and the actual mapping  for  the  study
areas  chosen can be accounted for by the demonstration aspects
of the  project; however,  some  of the  time  spent is  related to
the nature and availability of data  and,  thus,  will  be a factor
in applying  the  techniques to other study areas  in the near future.
This is particularly true  of (1)  the washability data, which are
available  in sufficient quantity for  only  a few  locations  and were
not yet incorporated  into  the Bureau of  Mines data  banks,  at  the
time,  (2) data point locations which had to  be taken from maps by
eye, and  (3) geological maps showing bed outcrops  which must be
pieced together  for large areas and are often incomplete for  parts
of a region.

      To successfully use  computer mapping as  a reliable  tool,
the problems  of data availability and form  need to be overcome.
The mapping  programs will  require:
      (1)   information to  easily and inexpensively  develop base
      maps,  including bed outcrop  maps;
      (2)   computerized  data locations,  in  addition  to the  coal
      data values themselves; and,

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       (3)     sufficient data, by  seam,  with adequate spacing  of
       data point locations; this is particularly true for the
       washability data.

       The following  sections discuss  briefly the preliminary
examination  of areas,  the Phase  I and II Appalachian  Coal
Region study area,  and the Phase III Allegany  and Garrett
Counties study area.   The  actual  references for  the literature
search and data  sources, will be  found under General References
in the Appendices  (Section III).

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3. 1.   PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION  OF AREAS

             At the beginning of the project  our literature search
       concentrated on  Clearfield County,  Pennsylvania,  at the suggestion
       of APCO.   This is a low  sulfur coal region worthy of detailed
       study.  ₯ery thorough geological maps and descriptions of the
       area  had  been prepared  (Edmunds;   Crentz et al;  Blaylock  et  al.« )>
       however,  our  investigation revealed that there were not sufficient
       coal analyses  or washability data available for mapping.

             The following quotations from a letter from  William E.
       Edmunds,  Head  Coal Geologist  for the Pennsylvania  Bureau
       of Topographic and Geologic  Survey,  summarize aptly the problems
       encountered  with the  Clearfield County data and  with data for
       most areas one  might wish  to study:

             ".  . .all of   the  readily  available coal analyses for the
       northern  Houtzdale area are  included in (the)  report.   There  are,
       doubtless, many more analyses from that area  (as well as
       almost any other area),  but they are widely scattered among
       private  and public  sources.   At any rate, assembling, verifying
       and identifying them as to coal seam and  geographic location
       3
      t is a very time consuming  operation.

            "My  experience in this  sort of study has  been that the
       greatest problem is the  acquisition and  verification  of data.   The
       ratio  of time spent to amount of raw data acquired  is very high.

            "I have no doubt that  coal reserves  and  sulfur  content  can
       be mapped  out by  computer  methods,  but the  stratigraphic relations
       of the various coals must  be well understood  and  considerable
       data on thickness  and  sulfur  content available.   The  stratigraphic

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relations of the  various coals in the northern Houtzdale  quadrangle
are well in hand,  but they happen to display complex splitting of
some coal  seams  into  separate  coals  as well as extensive structural
faulting.   In  addition,  I doubt that  a sufficient number of sulfur
analyses are  available.

    "We have finished, but not published,  the coal geology
from  a  number  of adjacent quadrangles  to  northern Houtzdale,
but the  same problems of complex geology and  little sulfur data
exist   there as  well.   In  the  southeastern  quarter  of the  Houtzdale
quadrangle, we  have had a number  of recent  coal  analyses  made,
but we  have not completed the geologic  map  and the stratigraphic
and structural complexities are extensive.

      In Washington  County (south of Pittsburgh) we have  had a
number  of  cooperative  studies made by  the U. S.  Geological Survey,
which provide good  maps  and stratigraphic control in that area.
Here  again I don't think there are  enough  sulfur analyses available
publicly.  However,   in this area there  are a relatively few
large coal-producing companies who,  I'm sure have copious records,
if they  were  willing  to cooperate.

    "....  Your  greatest difficulty is  going  to be finding an area
where the geology is relatively  uncomplicated and  sufficient
analyses available. "

      The  other  area examined in detail through a  literature  search
was Garrett and Allegany  Counties in Maryland  (Boyd;   Crentz
and Graser;  Snyder  and Aresco; Toenges  et al).   This was also
a low sulfur  coal  region worthy of study.  Our investigation
revealed the  following  characteristics  that  made this region superior
to Clearfield  County for the purposes  of this  study:

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      (1)   adequate  source maps for geological conditions  and
      base  map  development;
      (2)   uncomplicated stratigraphic  relationships and  a
      reasonable number of seams for mapping; and,
      (3)   satisfactory  availability of data for  sulfur content,
      bed thickness,  and washability,  with the prospects  of
      additional  washability data  from private sources.
Accordingly,  this two county area  in  Maryland  was  selected  for
the detailed study of Phase III.

      Instead of examining a third  region before selecting the
study area,  the large-scale four state coal region was  selected
for preliminary investigation in Phases I and II.   This was done
because: (1) our initial  investigations  did not reveal a third area
with the possibility  of providing  adequate data at this time,
although washability data are presently being gathered  and made
available for numerous  areas,  and  (2) we  wanted to begin testing
the techniques for a  study area without waiting for the availability
of detailed geological  information for base maps and  coal data
for mapping.  The four state Appalachian  Coal Region afforded
us  such an opportunity.

      We investigated  the  form and  extent  of the data  as well
as  its general availability.  Since  it was apparent at the outset
that nearly all  of the  relevant  data were  available through the
Bureau of Mines, our initial review included  discussions with
people  in the Bureau in College  Park, Maryland, and  Denver,
Colorado,  involved directly with  the coal data banks.   We found
that for whatever region we  selected  we could obtain data on
sulfur content for raw  or clean (washed) samples  by  county,
town,  or mine for each coal seam.   We could  also obtain

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data for the number of analyses taken at a mine,  or for a town
or county as  a whole.  This  form determined the data banks
for sulfur  content  used in the project:
      Phase  I:   low,  mode,  high  values by counties;
      Phase  II:  low,  mode,  high  values by towns;
      Phase  III;  low,  mode,  high  values by mines.

      The Bureau of Mines data banks also contained  information
on reserves and bed  thickness  by  counties  and in  some cases
by mine; however, these data were  incomplete, particularly
on the sub-county  level.   The data banks did  not  contain any
information on location according to a coordinate  system nor
on washability data,  although both are presently being  incor-
porated into the  data banks.  It was, therefore, apparent that
locations would have  to be  taken directly from maps by eye and
that  we would be dependent upon published  and unpublished reports
for the washability data.

      We  had  originally hoped   that all data could  be  provided
in a computer-us eable form.   Therefore,  it was necessary to
(1) directly acquire and assemble  as  much information as
possible on data locations  and washability,  and (2) translate
this  information into  a computer-useable form.  In  some  cases
this  was extremely time consuming; in other cases,  sufficient
data could never be  acquired.   In all  cases the relevant information
is being incorporated  into the data banks in computer-useable  form.

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3.2.   APPALACHIAN COAL REGION

             The Phase I and II study area was  defined by  the boundaries
       of counties  in the  Bureau of Mines data banks which (1) had
       data on the sulfur content of  coal  and (2) were in  the area
       referred to as the Appalachian Region.   This  study  area  includes
       parts of Ohio, Pennsylvania,  Maryland,  and West  Virginia  and
       is shown  in Figure 1.   Two coal  seams were chosen for mapping,
       based on  their extent, number  of  analyses, and  variation in
       sulfur content: the Pittsburgh and  the  Middle  Kittanning.

             A base  map  was developed showing the  seam outcrop lines
       and legends such as state and county boundaries.  The Report
       of Investigation Series published by the Bureau of  Mines  shows
       seam outcrop lines and mined out  areas for each  coal bed  by
       county.   We had anticipated using  this  series  to develop  the
       base maps for the Pittsburgh and  Middle Kittanning  beds.   Un-
       fortunately, the  reports  had been  published for only some of
       the counties  (13  out  of 33 for  the  Pittsburgh Bed)  and,  therefore,
       this  approach could not be  used to obtain a complete base  map.

             A map of  the Pittsburgh Bed  outcrop as of  1938 was
       available  from the Bureau of Mines.   This map was used in
       conjunction with  the  Report of Investigations series to develop
       the base map for the Pittsburgh Bed; this same base map was
       used for both Phase I (mapping by counties) and Phase II (mapping
       by towns).

             Similar  source maps  are  not available for the  Middle
       Kittanning bed or for most  other coal seams;  this  1938 Pittsburgh
       map had been produced for a specific application.    To  map a
       large scale area such as the  four  state  region,  one  presently
       has recourse  to  two approaches:

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         (1)     Determining  the  outcrop  lines from a series
         of  smaller scale U. S.  or state  geological survey maps;
         this is very time consuming,  a good knowledge of the
         geology is  necessary, and the maps  are not always
         available for every  portion  of the region.   This  method
         was not used.
         (2)     Defining  the  study area by the location  of  data
         points  rather than by the outcrop lines; for some of
         the mapping in Phase II,  the  study area was defined
         by those locations within  five miles (or ten miles)  of
         each data point  or  town.  Unfortunately, it  is  not
         possible  with such  an approach  to know the true  extent
         of  a coal seam,  and, therefore, of a low sulfur  coal
         deposit.   The base  map preparation  is  easier  and
         large  scale mapping is  possible  Without the tedious
         coding of an outline  from the geological maps.   In
         Phase  II both the Pittsburgh and Middle Kittanning
         Beds were mapped by this method.

         The Phase I data was obtained  for the Pittsburgh  Bed
from The Bureau of Mines  in a form  compatible with our
computer programs.  This  included a computer card deck of
the values  for the number of analyses,  low,  mode,  and high
values of sulfur content  for  each county for both raw  and
washed samples.   It did  not  include the data point locations
which  were determined by a  manual procedure  described
in Section III (Appendices).

         For both the Pittsburgh  and the Middle Kittanning
Beds data similar to that of  Phase I--the number of analyses,
low, mode,  and,  high values of sulfur content  for raw and
washed samples--were available  by  mine for Phase  II.  The

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data could not be mapped mine by mine as originally received
for one reason: no  data was readily available  as to the location
of the mines  in terms  of a geographic coordinate system.
For  the  actual mapping, it was necessary to  determine  the
location  of  each  town on a  map by eye.   The data point
locations  are presently being made a part of  the  computer
data banks.

         These data  can be aggregated from  mines to towns
by a  Bureau  of Mines computer program.  Due to technical
difficulties  that would have resulted in  delays,  the data were
aggregated  by hand;  for other study areas, however,  it is
important to  note that the  data can be automatically aggregated
using a relatively  simple computer program.

         Portions  of the four state  region were selected for
mapping at a more detailed scale.   These included the Phase
III study area of Allegany  and Garrett Counties,  and the
northern and  northeastern  portions of the Appalachian  Coal
Region,  abundant in both data point locations and low  sulfur
coal.   The accuracy obtained by  using  town data versus county
data was  also compared.  No additional  data were necessary
for these sub-area  studies; they were conducted  to demonstrate
the flexibility of the mapping program to  select  and map
areas  of particular interest at any scale.

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3. 3.   ALLEGANY AND GARRETT COUNTIES
             Allegany and Garrett  Counties  were  selected  as  the  Phase
       III study area,  based on the availability of data.   Stage One of
       this  work was similar to Phases I and II:  mapping of sulfur
       content for  low, mode, and high values  by mines.   The Upper
       Freeport  and Upper  Bakerstown Coal beds  were chosen for
       mapping based  on  the  availability  of data and source maps
       showing the  seam  outcrop  lines.

             The data  values  were provided in the same form as the
       Phase I and II  data.   The data points  had to be located on  the
       source  maps  and extracted from field  reports;  this  was done in
       conjunction  with Bureau  of  Mines  personnel and would have been
       very time consuming if more data points had been  involved.
       We had expected the washability data to be limited,  but the
       sulfur data  was  also sparse.   This is due  to the number  of
       seams  in the area: when the data  is assigned to the appropriate
       seams, individual  seams often do  not have enough data points
       for useful mapping.

             Information published by the State  of  Maryland (1967 annual
       report) was used to  determine the bed thickness for these two
       coal beds; the Bureau  of Mines  provided  the location for each
       of the points  where thickness had  been measured.    The availability
       of similar data and its extent for  other  areas  would significantly
       affect the use of the mapping programs  to  determine the quantity
       of coal (reserves)  for  a  region.

             The base  maps  showing outcrop lines and areas  over 28"
       thick were developed using two sources  (Boyd;  1953 Garrett
       County  map;  1965  Allegany County map) as described  in Section
       III (Appendices).   Together, these sources contained sufficient

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information to adequately  determine outlines,  but similar reports
may be  available for only a few regions.

      Stage Two of this  work was concerned with the washability
data and the  quantities of coal that  might be made available
under  various mining  and economic  assumptions.   Our  greatest
difficulties with  the data were  encountered here,  as  had been
expected.  Data were incomplete with  regard to float and sink
analysis for coals  of various top sizes.   Of some 15 possible
seams with data only the  Upper Freeport Bed  had sufficient
washability data and  adequate  sulfur content, thickness,  and
base map information for mapping.   The  results  are,  therefore,
purely demonstrable  and cannot be^taken literally in  terms  of
quantities  of  coal  available under  differing assumptions.

      The  data from  government sources was to have been
supplemented with  information  from private sources,  but this
was not  possible within  the  time-frame of the  project.   Private
sources  will  need  to provide much  of the necessary  data in
the futur e.

      The  washability data was provided  in  a form such that a
minimal amount of data handling was  necessary prior to mapping.
This data  included  the associated  x  and y coordinates which
greatly facilitated  the coding procedure.   The  location  of the data
points  for the washability data (and  the Stage One data  points)
determined the study area for  Stage Two.   This  study  area is  the
central portion of  Allegany and Garrett Counties  as  shown  in
Figure G-l.

     Data handling prior  to mapping generated values for both
total sulfur content and  pyritic sulfur content,  given different

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yields from washing with  several screen sizes.   The sulfur
content that could be attained through washing is  the  total
sulfur content,  less all or part of  the pyritic  sulfur,  since
the pyritic  sulfur  is easier to  remove  than  organic.  We do not know
what  percent of the pyritic sulfur can  be  removed;  therefore,
both the total  sulfur content  and  the  total less all pyritic sulfur
were  mapped to represent the  two extreme  assumptions.   The
quantities of coal  that  could  be made available  at different  yields
were  determined accordingly.

      It is  difficult to  draw any statistically sound conclusions or
inferences  on  account  of the  insufficient washability data.   However-
this lack  of data did not prevent the demonstration  of  the  relevant
computer mapping  techniques.   Likewise, the particular study areas
may not be  representative of the  country as a whole   but they
can adequately demonstrate the scales of  analysis useful to
APCO.

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4.                    GRAPHIC TECHNIQUES

                   With the exception of class levels,  or value range
          intervals,  the map symbolism is the only and, therefore the
          most important graphic  way to portray the meaning of the
          data.   The value of a map may be  easily lost or destroyed
          by a  poor choice of symbolism.

                   In SYMAP this  choice  of  symbolism is usually made
          by the  program; there is a prestored set of symbolism for
          up to  12 levels.   For this  project it was felt that this  set of
          symbolism was inadequate because (1) there was  not enough
          differentiation between some  of  the  levels, and (2) the darkness
          of adjacent levels  seemed to  be reversed in some cases.
          Therefore, a unique  set of symbolism was devised.

                   It  is fairly easy to create distinctive symbolism for
          up to  5  levels.  Numerous studies into human tone perception
          conclude that the eye can discern no more than 7  different
          shades of  gray.   Above  7 shades  differentiation may be
          difficult.   Since SYMAP's symbolism is  derived  from over-
          printed characters,  each tone is unique  in make-up; therefore,
          if it is difficult  to  discern  the  relative darkness  of two
          adjacent tones, the makeup of the symbolism can show  which
          was  intended to be the darker.   This is  not possible in a
          hand-rendered map which uses standard  dot  screen patterns.

                   The  final  choice of symbolism was arrived at by
          considering what had been used  before  and by  experimenting
          with a  number of test maps.

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4. 1.      GENERAL SYMBOLISM CONSIDERATIONS

                   Given any symbol,  its  appearance would  seem  to
          be a function of several factors: the amount or percent of
          the ceil  area darkened  or blackened,  the amount  of white
          space between characters (external white space),  the  amount
          of white  space within the Characters (internal white space),
          the intensity or blackness of a  character,  and the texture
          and grain of the symbol.

                   In most cases,  the symbols used  on a map should
          be non-directional; highly directional  symbols  like I and/should
          be avoided except when emphasis is desired.  There  are also
          some symbols which are ambiguous; they may be intensely
          black,  yet have a high  percentage  of  external white space.
          As a  consequence they are  both dark and  light and do not
          occupy any position on  the grey scale.   Examples are symbols
          like: { = +01.  The circle  or "U" is also troublesome since
          the external white  space is  minimal,  but there is a great  deal
          of internal white space.   For  this reason,  it may be wise  to
          use "0"  only when overprinted with some symbol which reduces
          the internal  white space.

                   The approach  to symbolism which seems most
          successful is to begin  with a  basic symbol  and vary it.  As
          a  consequence there  is  a logical progression created  from
          symbol  to symbol.   The symbol not  only becomes  darker,
          but more complex as well.   For example,
                      +  X X 8 B ,  or,
                      o  e a 8 B.

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         There  is often a temptation to dismiss symbols for
adjacent levels  which are  not  readily  distinguishable,  but it
should be  remembered  that  in a  10 level map,  level 7  is
similar to level 6,  and  some  similarity between the symbols
is desirable.    For most maps the levels represent quantitative
variations  of  a  single variable--and this  should be apparent
visually through the symbolism.  A different approach to
symbolism is required  when, for example,  level  1  represents
dairy farming and level 2 represents  vegetable  raising.   In
this  case,  the symbols  should be descriptive rather than
evaluative.  This is often the  case with conformant or
proximal maps.

         It would  seem  that  one  of  the most important  consider-
ations should be that the units  on the  visual scale correspond
to the quantitative units on the data distribution.  For example,
if the value range is divided into five equal levels,  the  symbols
should be  chosen so  that the  grey scale is divided by  5 equal
intervals.   Carrying this to its  logical conclusion means that
when the data is  skewed  and it is  necessary to manipulate  the
levels so  that all the observations  will not fall in one  level,  the
symbolism should  be adjusted appropriately.   Eliminating the
skewed distribution by  assigning  an equal number of observations
to each level is often unwise,  since the skew of the distribution
is a fact which should  be represented.   The  unevenness of the
distribution may be  the  most important thing about  the  map.

         There  are  limits  to how precisely this can be  done,
but there  is no doubt that it can and  should be done in some
cases,  where use  of equal interval symbolism would  be grossly
misleading.   There  are enough easily distinguishable  symbols
and textures to maintain  distinctions  between levels and still skew
the symbolism.

-------
                 It may also be desirable  to manipulate the symbolism
        in other ways.   For  instance,  suppose one  is  concerned with
        distinguishing between 3 of 10 levels.   It might be  desirable
        to use highly distinctive symbolism for these three areas in
        order  to  emphasize their locations.  The manipulation o± the
        symbolism  must be left to  the  judgement of  the individual,
        but a fair amount  of  effort should  be expended to relate the
        data to the symbolism.  Because  of the  limited number  of
        levels, it is often necessary to assign a wide  value range to
        one value interval which may reduce the precision  of the map.
        To avoid  this,  great care should  be exercised when dealing
        with variables which  can be  controlled.   The map will not
        be effective if it does not represent visually  what  the histo-
        gram bar and  the  data say it represents .

4.2.    SYMBOLISM USED IN THE  PROJECT

                 Many varieties  of  symbolism are available  to the
        user;  the principal  objective  in  selecting symbolism is  the
        readability and graphic tone.  Experiments  and tests were
        made  on the mapping  for all phases and  a consistent symbolism
        developed for  use  throughout the whole project.

                 As discussed in the  Appendices  (Section III) under use  of
        Statistical Routines,  an equal interval  value range  was used
        for most of the  maps produced.   it had  nine graphic levels  as
        well as  a low  and a high value  symbolism for data exceeding
        the specified minimum and maximum values.  Therefore,  the
        task became one of determining the appropriate level break-
        down for each of the types of computer  maps  and applying  the
        standard  symbolism to this  breakdown.

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         The range  and distribution oi values from the
experimental  runs for Phases  I and  II were reviewed and  the
decision made to map the  sulfur content to the nearest 1/2%,
with a maximum  of 5% and a minimum of U. 5%.   Symbolism
was  also assigned to  the few values that might exceed the
maximum and  likewise  to those areas that were below the
minimum.   The same level  breakdown was used for the sulfur
content data in Phase  III.   The symbolism used as coded  in
the F-MAP package is  shown in Table 111-12 of the Appendices
(Section III).

         For Phase II 'critical level1 breakdowns were  also
used to  emphasize the  isolines  of  0. 5% and  1% sulfur  content.
Special symbolism was used for Base Maps in ail three phases
and for  the surface comparison in Phase II.   Table 1-2
summarizes the use  of symbolism for the  different map  series
and  Table 1-3  shows  the various symbolism used.

         In  Phase III  maps were produced  for  bed  thickness
and quantity of coal in addition to  sulfur  content.   The level
breakdown for bed thickness was  4" per level.  After reviewing
the minimum,  maximum, and  distribution o± thickness  values
it was apparent  that areas greater than  or less than  28"  thick
were of particular interest.   Therefore,  level adjustments
were made  that  reflected this  28"  value;  the minimum  value
set was  16" and the maximum 52".

         Preliminary  review  of the values  for  quantity of coal
indicated that  a  value  range  of 500 tons  per acre  seemed
appropriate to use as  the level breakdown.  The minimum
was  set  at  5000 tons  per acre and the maximum at 9500
tons per acre,  with special  symbolism assigned for values
exceeding the  maximum or minimum values.

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MAP SERIES                         Standard      Critical     Base
                                   Levels        Levels        Maps
Appalachian Coal Region
A. Phase I - Pittsburgh              X                         X
B. Phase II - Pittsburgh             X              XX
C. Phase II - Middle Kittanning      X                         X
D. Phase II - Detail                 X

Allegany and Garrett Counties
E. Stage One - Reserves              X                         X
F. Stage One - Thickness/Quantity    X
G. Stage Two - Washability           X                         X
H. Stage Two - Quantity              X
NOTE:  The Special Symbolism was used for the  surface  comparison of
       maps D-l and D-2.
                              Table 1-2
                   Leveld Usied for Each Map Series


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PERCENTAGE  CF TOTAL ABSOLUTE  VALUE RANGE APPLYING TO EACH LeVEL


               11.11      11.11     11.11      11.11     11.11      11.11
                                                                            11.11
                                                       11.11
11.11
FREQUENCY  DISTRIBUTION OF  DATA POINT VALUES  IN  EACH LEVEL
  LEVEL         12345
           s as Es:es3BS3S33 a as 3s sssessssss 3333 333 ssescsa S3 33 333 s 333 33=3333:33 333:333333333 333 s ass-sse*rs«33S3sss
SYMBOLS
  A.
            ....
                !.... --- 2 ----
            ......... — ————
            ......... ———-•—
           S333S3SSS333SS33:
SS3S33B3  +++++++++ ********* ********* *********  MMMMI MMMAM
33333333  +++++++++ ********* ********* *********  •MMMM MMMAM
                    ****5**** ****6**** ****?****  eiitenii MM9B8M
                    •& "&. •& &•& & &: + & fc****-g*^wwwwv •MM MMMMMM4f  • AflAABBfldfl AJfeJ
                    ^.^^^^^^^ ^ 9C7f7%n7in7w%n Wftw«w**flfWI  ••••(••••IV OV1
                    ********* ********* *********  eiiieeeai ~
         Standard Symbolism:  nine levels, plus  high and low levels.
         (the low is the same  as  level 1;  the high is shown below)
PERCENTAGE  OF TOTAL ABSOLUTE  VALUE RANGE APPLYING TO EACH LEVEL


              100.00
FREQUENCY  DISTRIBUTION OF  DATA POINT VALUES  IN  EACH LEVEL
  LEVEL         1         H
           3S38333S33S3SB*SSS*«S
            XXXXXXXXX IMMMM
            XXXXXXXXX MftMMM
  SYMBOLS   XXXX1XXXX •IIIHIIII
            XXXXXXXXX •••••Mil
            XXXXXXXXX MBMMH
  B.
          Critical  Levels Symbolism:   one  level,  plus high and low levels.
          (low shows less than U. 5% sulfur coal;  high shows 1%  or higher)
                                                        Table 1-3

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PERCENTAGE  OF TOTAL  ABSOLUTE VALUfc  PANGF APPLYING  TO  EACH LEVcL


              ICC.CO
FKfcCUENCY  DISTRIBUTION  OF DATA POINT  VALUES IK iEACH  LfcVEL
  LgViEL         i
  SYMBOLS
           !S = = = =
  C.       Base  Map Symbolism:   one level.
           (two of the three symbols  used on base maps; the third substitutes
           'pluses' for the 'dots'. )


PERCENTAGE CF TCTAL A8SCLITE VALUE RAKGE  APPLYING  TO EACH LEVEL


                          25-OC      2C.CC      1C. 00      20.00      25.00



FREQUENCY  CISTfilBUTICN  CF CATA PCINT  VALUES I* EACH LEVEL
  LEVEL         L          1          2          3          4          5          H
            Iflllllll
                                            ... .....
  5YP3CL5   IflBHlIII KXNX3KMMX -»i-»-»2-»-»-»-» ....1....  +++-»2++-»* *#**3#*#* IfiflHECM
            •fiffitaaa
            • Illllill
                                          S = ZS3SS3SS33SSSS.CSBSaS 33=
  D.       Special Symbolism  used  for Surface Comparison: five  levels,  phis  low  and  high levels.
           (the greater  the difference in the  two  surfaces, the darker the  symbolism)
                                                       Table  1-3

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                  Significantly different  level breakdowns were used
          for  Stage  Two--washability data--of  Phase  III for,  sulfur

          content, quantity, and  surface  comparison.   In all  cases,
          however,  the  standarcj nine  level  symbolism was used.
          All  of  the  level breakdowns  used for the  project are sum-
          marized below:
 Map
Series

  B
  A
  B
  C
  D
  D
  E
  F
  F

  G
  G
  G

  H

  H
No. of
Levels
1
9
5
9
9
9

9
9
9
9
9
Value
Range
0.5%
0.5%
varies
0.5%
4"
500 tons/
acre
0. 10%
0. 05%
(eq-ual)
(equal)
(equal)

Minimum
0.5%
0.5%
-1.0%
0.5%
16"
5000

0. 60%
0. 45%
0. 00%
900
(966.43)

Maximum
1.0%
5.0%
+ 1.0%
5. 0%
52"
9500

1.50%
0. 90%
0. 20%
3300
(1340. 80)
Data

Sulfur content


Sulfur content

Surface comparison
Sulfur content
Thickness
Quantity of reserves

Total sulfur content
Total less pyritic
Comparison of mesh
size
Quantity of washed
coal
Difference in quantity

         The  sulfur content maps in Stage Two used different
level breakdowns for  total sulfur content, total less pyritic
sulfur,  and the comparison of sulfur content for  different screen
sizes; all  of  these used equal interval value  ranges.   The quantity
of washed coal was mapped with a value range of approximately
266. 67  tons  per acre in each  level.  For the comparison of
quantity at 60% and 100% yield the actual extremes of the
data were used as the  minimum and maximum.

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4. 3.      REPRODUCTION CONSIDERATIONS

                   All  but  two of the final maps produced in Phases
          I and II were  26" wide, and  these  two plus all of   the maps
          in Phase III were 13"  wide.   The  maps  were  photographically
          reduced for  publication in this  report.   The  26" maps were
          reduced to 25%  of their original  size  and printed  one to  a
          page; the 13"  maps  were  reduced to 30%  of their original
          size and printed  two to a  page.  Previous studies  had
          demonstrated that such size  reductions gave  visually good
          results.

                   However, photographic reduction of the maps has
          certain difficulties .   In particular  the  legends  may become
          illegible and the  textual and  statistical material printed below
          the map may lose much of its  usefulness.  Moreover, the
          tone dis cernability of the  symbolism is somewhat  reduced in
          almost  direct  proportion to the amount the maps were photo-
          graphically  reduced.   But, it is  still  felt that  a relatively
          good quality can be  attributed to  the symbolism.

                   Some  of the problems  can be overcome by photographing
          the legends  and  explanatory information at another  scale.   In fact,
          this was done  with the titles  shown at the bottom of each page;
          these were   separately photographed and stripped into the
          negatives before  printing.

                   The best solution is  to experiment  at the  beginning
          of a project  to determine  the optimum combination of study area
          size, reduction  scale,  and legend and explanatory  information
          detail to use in  the  final presentation or  publication of the
          maps.

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II.      STUDY AREA FINDINGS




        1.     Discussion  of Study Areas and Data  Used




        2.     Discussion  of Graphics





        3.     Conclusions and Recommendations

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1.      DISCUSSION OF STUDY AREAS AND DATA  USED

             The Appendices (Section III) describe step by step the
       mapping procedures  for  both the four state Appalachian Coal
       Region  and  Allegany and Garrett Counties  in Maryland.  This
       section  summarizes  the  information  on  study areas, data,  and
       procedures,  provides an  introduction to  the discussion of
       the graphics, and  sets  forth conclusions and recommendations.

             The studies were  made  at two  scales:  the  Pittsburgh  coal
       was  mapped for a  large four-state region  and,  the  Freeport
       and Bakerstown coal were more intensively mapped  for a small
       region in Maryland.   Both the regions  studied lie within the
       Appalachian  Mountains where Paleozoic  beds have been folded
       into  regular parallel anticlines  and  synclines,  tending northeast-
       southwest.   The width of the  folds is from four to  five miles.

             The coal  seams are concentrated  in  rocks of  Pennsylvanian
       age;  the Pennsylvanian  in Garrett County is  about 1,700 feet
       thick (Amsden,  1953).   The  coals  are concentrated in the
       synclines in Garrett and Allegany Counties  since the  Pennsylvanian
       rocks overlying the anticlines have been stripped off  by erosion.

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1.1.    APPALACHIAN COAL REGION - PHASE  I

             A four-state area in the heart of the Appalachian  coal
       region was  delineated  on  the  basis  of  available county data.
       This area is worthy of study because  of:
             1.    the size and extent of the coal seams,
             2.    the existence of maps showing the extent  of  some  of
             the seams,
             3.    the amount of data already collected and in computer -
             useable  form,
             4.    and the  high potential this  coal region might have  in
             solving some  of  the problems of air  pollution.

             This  area is abundant  in low  sulfur  bituminous  coal.   The
       total area of the  region comprises  293,439 square miles, of which
       33,369 square  miles is laden with Pittsburgh coal (11.4% of
       the total study area).  Almost 82% of the coal (27,279 square
       miles) lies  in a  single pie-wedge shaped  seam which is centered
       near the S.W.  corner  of  Pennsylvania.   The remainder of the
       coal is located in 65  outlying seams over the four state  area.

             Only maps  for the  Pittsburgh seam were created,  since
       insufficient  information was  available to produce  a study area
       outline for the Middle  Kittanning  seam  outcrop.   The  outcrop
       used for the Pittsburgh seam was the  1938 strippable reserves,
       and not the  deep  reserves.   The Phase  I base map,  including
       the seam outcrop, was made with a great deal of detail  so that
       particular sections  could  be  'blown up' for closer examination
       in Phase II.   It was felt  that this feature of  the  technique  would
       have special usefulness to APGO and the Bureau of Mines.   Each
       seam mapped requires a  detailed outline  of 500-1000 points to
       achieve this accuracy  at the enlarged  scale.

-------
      The data points representing counties had  to be  located
on the source  maps by eye.   The rationale behind  the placement
of the county data points  was  as  follows: (1)  If a map from the
Report of Investigation  series  was available,  the data point was
located in the  center of a coal deposit 28" or greater; (2)  If
no map was found,  the  data point was located in the "center
of gravity"  of  the  seam for that  county, based on the 1938
Pittsburgh seam map.

      The data bank of  values  was provided in a  computer-useable
form by the Bureau of  Mines.  Each  card of  the data bank
represented  a  county's  information;  on this card  were the following
variables:  state,  county,  and bed codes,  the  mode,  low,  and high
values  and the number of analyses  for the sulfur content of raw
samples,  and,  finally,  on 19 of the  33 Pittsburgh Bed cards,
the mode,  low, and high  values and the number of analyses for
the sulfur  content  of cleaned (or  washed) samples.

      The original data  bank was manipulated so  as  to (1)  separate
the Pittsburgh and  Middle Kittanning data, (2) create  separate
decks for the  raw and washed values,  and (3) store the variables
in the order useful for  analysis and mapping, as  shown in Tables
III-2 and  III-4  of Section  III (Appendices).  This  order was:
the number of analyses,  low,  mode, and high values, bed  code,
state and county code,  and state  and county name.   This  exemplifies
the type  of straight-forward data manipulation that  can be performed -
either by hand or  computer,  depending upon the amount of data--
to set up the data banks  in a  convenient form for mapping.

-------
1.2.    APPALACHIAN COAL REGION  - PHASE  II

             Phase II dealt with  the  same four-state coal region, but
       on a more detailed level  of analysis.  Whereas  Phase  I
       measured the variation in sulfur  levels from one county to
       another.  Phase II  dealt primarily with variations between
       towns within these counties.

             Much  of  the  base map  and data handling work  for Phase II
       was done in conjunction with  Phase I;  the main additional  base
       map work of Phase II involved  determining the x and y coordinates
       for the towns for both the Pittsburgh and Middle  Kittanning Beds,
       as described in Section III (Appendices).   The Bureau of Mines
       data by mines  were aggregated to towns in Phase  II because:  (1)
       many of  the  mine  locations were not yet  referenced  to  the grid  co-
       ordinates, and  (2)  such small-scale mapping would create  a great
       number of superimposed data points  that   would cancel out the
       accuracy obtained  at the mine level.   At the town level there
       were  8 superimposed  points  at  4 locations for the Pittsburgh Bed
       and 2 at  1 location for the  Middle Kittanning Bed for  the  raw
       samples; the effective  number of data  points  (considering
       superimposition) is shown in  Table H-l.

             It  was also necessary  to  aggregate the data from mines
       to towns  according to  the procedures discussed in section III
       (Appendices).   Three  data banks of values and associated  data
       point  locations were  created? (1) Pittsburgh number  of  analyses,
       low, mode,  and  high  sulfur content for raw samples,  (2)  Pittsburgh
       data for  washed  samples, and (3) Middle Kittanning  data  for  raw
       samples; with  only 15  data points the  washed Middle Kittanning
       data was not mapped.

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APPALACHIAN COAL REGION
Phase I - Counties
Pittsburgh Bed
    Raw Sulfur Content
(points mapped)(effective
                 locations)
      33
 33
             Washed Sulfur Content
             (points mapped)(effective
                               locations)
19
19
Phase II - Towns
Pittsburgh Bed
Middle Kittanning Bed
     203
      90
199
 89
56
56
ALLEGANY AND GARRETT COUNTIES
Phase III - Mines
Upper Freeport Bed
Upper Bakerstown Bed
    Raw Sulfur Content
    (points)(effective)
      20         19
       7          6
         Bed Thickness
         (points)(effective!"
            7          7
           16         16
            Washability
            (points) (effective)
               5          5
                                          Table II-1

-------
      The Pittsburgh data was mapped using the same equal
value range  intervals as Phase I;  maps  were also produced
using the critical isolines  and symbolism  discussed  in the
section on Graphic  Techniques.  A set of  maps  for  the Pittsburgh
raw  data was produced using five  mile  and  ten  mile search  radii
(or circles  of symbolism)  about each data point to define the
study area,  rather  than the  outcrop lines.   This same technique
was  then used with the Middle  Kittanning data since no outcrop
line  was  readily available  for this  bed.   Although no  reliable
information  as to extent of the coal seam can be  obtained from
such maps,  the  accuracy around  each data point is  relatively
equal.

      The final set  of  maps  run in Phase  II utilized previously
mentioned data.   This  included surface  comparisons between
the mode values of sulfur  content mapped by towns  versus that
mapped  by  counties.   The mode values  for  raw samples  were
mapped  at several  scales for different portions  of the study  area,
including the Allegany and Garrett Counties  region of  Phase in.

-------
1.3.    ALLEGANY AND  GARRETT COUNTIES  - PHASE HI,  STAGE  ONE

             The general purpose of Phase  III was  to develop and test
       techniques for determining  the quantity of coal in the  ground
       (depending upon sulfur content) and the quantity  of  coal that
       could be made available through washing,  assuming various mining
       practices and market economics.   The Stage One work was
       concerned  only with  calculating the reserves; Stage Two involved
       the  data on washability.

             The study area for  Stage One was approximately 1000
       square  miles  and included all of Garrett County  and the Western
       one-fourth of  Allegany County.   Preliminary investigation of
       available data pertaining to the three categories  of sulfur content,
       thickness,  and washability for each of the coal seams that exists
       within the  two county study region led us to the  conclusion that
       the  Upper Freeport and Upper Bakerstown seams were the most
       feasible  for our  studies.   The other  seams  in the  study area
       presented difficulties due to either an insufficient number of
       data points,   super imposition* of data points, or  a  lack of data
       in one or more of the three above catagories.   Table II-l shows
       the  data banks actually used, while Table II-2 summarizes the
       available information for  15 seams in the study  region.

             In the case  of  the  sulfur content data  mapped in Stage  One,
       superimposition of data points reduced  the  effective number of
       locations for  4 beds, particularly for the Pittsburgh and Sewickley
       Beds.   Superimposition also affected  the number of data  points
       for  the washability information of Stage  Two,  but it did not
       affect the seam thickness data for the Upper Bakerstown and
       Upper Freeport Beds.

-------
I

U)

Bed Name

Waynesburg
Bewick ley (Tyson)
Pittsburgh
Little Pittsburgh
Barton (Elk Lick)
UppeerBakerstown
Lower Bakerstown
Upper Freeport
Lower Freeport
Upper Kit tanning
Lower Kit tanning
Clarion
Harlem
Franklin
Redstone

Code

023
029
036
038
055
062
063
071
074
076
084
087



Counties
Alle- Garrett
Sany
X
X
x x
X
X
X X
X
X
X X
X
X
X



Base Map
Hary- Boyd
land
X
X
X
X
X X
X
X
} x x
J x
1 X
)x x

X


Sulfur
Origin
nal
2
15
16
2
4
7
2
18
2
1
3
2



Content
Effective C

2
9
10
2
4
6
2
17
2
1
3
2



Wash a
)riginal

2
2
1
1
2
-
2
6
1
1
3
—
1
6
2
bility
Effective

2
2
1
1
2
-
1
5
1
1
2
—
1
3
2
    NOTE:   Bed Thickness Data  consisted of 16 data points  (original  and effective)£€or
            the Upper Bakerstown  Bed and 7 for the Upper Freeport.
                                                 Table II-2

-------
      The base  maps  for  Stage One and  Two  were the same
with the exception of  data point  locations.   Geological maps for
Allegany and  Garrett  Counties were  used,  as well as  a  less
detailed set of  maps  from a consultant's report (Boyd, 1964). The
map for Allegany county  showed few  outcrops.   The geological
map for Garrett County was used  as  a base  since it had out-
crop  lines for the Brush  Creek, Barton, Harlem and  Freeport
beds.   The maps were developed with a great  deal of detail  so as to
extract small areas for closer analysis.  Unfortunately,  the data
contained almost  no points for the Brush Creek, Barton, or
Harlem beds  for  either the sulfur  or washability data.   Consequently,
the Upper  Freeport base  map was the only one which used this
source  map.

      The maps from the  Boyd report had to be enlarged to
determine  the seam outcrop for  the Allegany  County portion
of the study area, and  for all of the  Bakerstown base map.  The
Freeport,  Bakerstown,  Sewickly (Tyson), and Pittsburgh seams
were the  only ones with sufficient  data  points for mapping of the
sulfur level data.  Sufficient  data  points for washability and
thickness were  available  for only the Freeport bed.   The  Pittsburgh
and Sewickley base maps  were not developed because  it was  felt
that no additional information would  be obtained from  mapping
these two beds; all of the procedures and  techniques  could  be
tested with the  Upper Freeport and Upper Bakerstown coal seams.
Base maps  for  areas over 28" thick  were also  developed from
the Boyd reports.

      The sulfur content data for Phase  III were made  available  in
two parts':' (1) data bank of values, and  (Z)  data point  locations.
The  values,  as usual, were  available  in a computer useable
form,  similar to  Phases  I and II.  Due  to the timing,  the data

-------
point locations were derived from field notations in Bureau
of Mines' reports-- "One mile west of-town X"--or by assigning
the mine  location to the nearest town  when more precise  locations
were unavailable.   Twelve beds had data for raw samples;  8  of
these had 4  or  less data point locations each.   The greatest
number of locations for washed samples was 6  for the Upper
Freeport  Bed, and  all  othe rs  had 1 to 2 locations;  consequently,
the washed  samples were not  used.

      The bed thickness data were also made available in two
parts: (1) data bank of  values  from  the  state of Maryland  1967
annual report, and  (2)  the data point locations from the Bureau
of Mines. These data were obtained  specifically for  the Upper
Bakerstown and Upper  Freeport beds after it had been determined
that only  these  two would be mapped;  consequently,  the  relative
availability of data  for  other .seams  is  not known.

      In addition to sulfur content and  bed thickness,  the
quantity of less than 1% sulfur coal  was determined and mapped
for the Upper Bakerstown and Upper Freeport Coal Beds.
Quantity was  determined as follows: if the  sulfur content was less than
1% for any character location  on the map,  then the quantity would
be  calculated and mapped as a function of the bed thickness at  that
location.   The algorithm for determining  quantity from  thickness
was obtained  from  the  Bureau of Mines  and is  discussed in
Section III (Appendices); it  assumes  that there are  1676 tons of
coal per acre-foot.

      Composite  sulfur  content and  quantity maps were also made
for the Upper Freeport and Upper Bakerstown Beds.

-------
1.4.    ALLEGANY AND  GARRETT  COUNTIES - PHASE III, STAGE  TWO

             The central portion of  the  two-county area was selected
       for  further mapping and analysis because of the availability of
       washability data for the  Upper Freeport Bed.   The area  is
       approximately 500 square miles.   The  maps for both Stage  One
       and Stage Two were  made at a smaller size then those in Phase
       I  and Phase  II.   After  reviewing several test  maps  showing the
       Upper  Freeport total  outcrop at  the  Phase I size,  it was determined
       that  the  information could better  be  provided at a  much reduced
       map size.   This decision was based on the following:
             (1)   The  number of data points  was relatively small for
             sulfur content,  thickness, and  washability information; it
             became  quite apparent  that, because of the  small number of
             data points, the larger  maps did  not show any more infor-
             mation than did  maps  made at the reduced scale.

             (2)   Because of the large amount of testing and  experimental
             work that  had to be done,  it is easier to quickly evaluate the
             results from the smaller maps; this avoids the extra time
             and effort to splice together the  several panels or  sections
             that  would  result  if the larger maps  were made.

             (3)   The  larger maps  in general incur higher computing and
             printing costs,  nearly proportional to  the area of the map.
             The final Stage  One maps were printed at a  scale of
             approximately one  inch  = three miles,  and the Stage Two maps
             at  a scale of approximately one inch = two miles.

            All of the data used in  Stage Two were contained in one
       small data bank for the  Upper Freeport Bed.    This included
       the  x and y locations  for the  5 washability  sampling points used

-------
(1  of the  original  6  was in the top, rather than the bottom,
bench  of the bed  and was  therefore removed).  The washability
data were  composed of values for  total sulfur  content and  pyritic
sulfur content  for  different yields and top sizes (3/8",  1  1/2", etc)
      The first task was  to  determine the yields to be mapped,
in light of current  mining practices and  incremental price
increases at the market.  The criteria  were  translated into
50%,  60%,  70%, and 80% yields as being representative  of  the
problem,  with the  60% yield being the one of primary interest.

      The second task was  to determine  the appropriate  sulfur
content for  these yields,  given the sampled and derived  relation-
ships from  the Bureau of Mines.   Figure 2 shows the sample
plot for the  fifth mine  listed in Table III-18,  (Appendices)
for the 3/8" mesh  data shown  at  the top  of the table.   The values
for 50%,  60%,  and  70% yield had  been statistically derived  by
the Bureau  of Mines,  but the values  for 80%  were interpolated
from the  plot.   Similar plots were done for  the other 4 mines
for the 3/8" top size,  and  for all 5 mines for  the  1  1/2" top
size.

      From this set of washability data  and the sulfur content and
thickness  data of Stage One, four types   of maps were run  in Stage
Two:
      (1)    sulfur content of washed data, by  yield and  top  size;
      (2)    comparison of sulfur  content  from  3/8" versus  1  1/2"
      top  size;
      / 0\
            quantity of less than 1%  sulfur coal assuming washing,
      by yield  and top size;  and,

-------
(O
                                   Figure 2
                Sample Plot of Sulfur  Content Versus Yield


-------
      (4)   comparison  of the quantity of mineable reserves and
      washed marketable coal at 60% yield.
In most  cases,  both total sulfur and  total less pyritic sulfur
were  mapped,  for the total outcrop  and  for  the  areas over 28"
thick  for the Upper Freeport Bed.

-------
2.                 DISCUSSION OF GRAPHICS

                     The following  sections  contain  a  detailed discussion
              of all  the  graphics produced; the maps  themselves are at
              the end of each section and Tables II-3 and II-4 summarize
              all of  the  maps produced  in each  phase or stage of the
              project.

                     We  strongly caution  the reader  about the  lack
              of  reliable  data and the commensurate unreliability of many
              of the  maps.    Perhaps the best safeguard  against  making
              any false inferences is to look at a map in one hand  and at
              the base map which shows the  data points  and the  number
              of analyses in  the  other   hand.   In this way,  one  is made
              aware  of  the  number of analyses attributed to  a data  point
              and the validity one can infer about any given  area of
              the map.

                     It  is felt, and has  been stressed throughout, that
              more meaningful results  could  have been attained  if there
              had been  a more equal distribution of data points  and a  more
              equal number of analyses  taken at  these points.  All  of  us
              were aware that this might be  a  problem at the outset of
              the project and  our fears  have been substantiated.   We
              hope that pointing  this  out is the kind of constructive
              criticism that  may prove  most helpful in overcoming  de-
              ficiencies  in data acquisition so  that  more meaningful
              results may be attained in future work.

                     Of  significant importance, however, is  the  potential
              applicability of each of the types of maps produced and
              their usefulness as adequate data are made  available.

-------
2.1.           SUMMARY  OF  PHASES  I AND  II

                     Examination of the graphics produced in Phases  I
              and II has  shown that there  is  a  definite need for: (1)
              a more equal number of analyses at  each sampling
              location and (2) a  more  evenly distributed pattern of
              sampling  locations.   The latter problem is  especially
              acute in Phase  II while  the former problem pertains to
              both  phases.

                     In Phase I,  values were assigned to  data points
              which occur in  the center of gravity  of  seams  of  28"
              thickness  within a county.  These points represent an
              area,  and,  therefore, the data points themselves  have no
              real locational  meaning.  As a result, any  contour  maps
              made from such data point locations  can at  best give only
              an impression  of the sulfur  concentrations.   They cannot
              be interpreted  literally,  even at  the  data points themselves.
              This  is in  contrast to the maps made in Phase  III where
              the data points  are positioned  as  accurately as possible
              at the actual  sampling locations on the map. Contour maps
              made in Phase  III are at least accurate at the data  points
              themselves.

                     The maps with county data points (Phase I) had  a
              fairly even spread of data,  while the  town data  point maps
              (Phase II) had  a very uneven  spread  of data.   The  county
              maps could have used quite  a  few more data points; the
              town  maps  could have used  many more data points,
              especially in  the center  of the  main  seam.   Therefore,
              of the two  sets  of maps, Phase I is  of  reasonable accuracy
              throughout, while Phase II is of  fairly good accuracy along
              the northern and eastern    edges of  the Pittsburgh Bed  out
              crop  line  but  of very poor accuracy  in the center.


-------
       The  use of a limiting search radius  around the
data points  for both the Pittsburgh  and  Middle Kittanning
Beds  increased the accuracy of the areas mapped; however,
comprehension of the extent  of the  coal seams for varying
sulfur levels was lost.   This can be overcome  by using
outlines  and legends in combination--one to show  the  out-
crop  line,  or extent, and the other to  show the areas of
nearly equal accuracy,  as defined  by the  search radius.

-------
FOUR STATE APPALACHIAN COAL REGION
^,— 	 Bed Outcrop 	
Washed
County [Levels] [Critical]
«
£
§
CO
EH
EH
H
04




O
1 S5
QN LJ
00 g;
' pi] JZ
1-5 <5
Q EH
Q EH
H H
S «

# analyses
low
mode
high

Towns
f analyses
low
mode
high

Towns
# analyses
low
mode
high
Difference
A-l
A- 2
A- 3
A- 4


B-l
B-2 B-5
B-3 B-6
B-4 B-7








Raw
[Levels] [Critical]
A- 5
A- 6
A- 7
A- 8


B-8
B-9 B-12
B-10 B-13
B-ll B-14







+ 	 S(
5 mi.
[Level






B-15
B-16
B-17
B-18


C-l
C-2
C-3
C-4

ffi
     moe
               D- 1
§  Detail  of Towns (mode)
co   Allegany and Garrett
^   Northern
^   Northeastern Blow up
D-2
D-3-
D-4
D-5
                                              -D-3
                                                             Search Radius	+

                                                        5 mi. radius-Raw-10 mi. radius

                                                                          [Levels]       T
                                                                                         CO
                                                          D-6
                                                          D-7
                                                                            B-19
                                                                            B*20
                                                                            B-21
                                                                            C-5
                                                                            C-6
                                                                            C-7
                                                                                         CO
                                           Table II-3

-------
2. 2.    MAP SERIES A

              Map series A contains all of the  maps produced in Phase  I.
       Figures A-l and A-5  show the base maps  for the Pittsburgh Bed,
       including the data point locations  (washed and raw  respectively)
       and the number of analyses assigned to each county.   The spread
       of  data  points is quite  even throughout for both sets of data,  but
       there  are significant disparities  in  the number of analyses used
       for calculating the values at  each data point.   This is particularly
       relevant when examining the  maps for  the  low,  mode,  and high
       values  for  each county (Figures A-2 thru A-4 for washed and
       A-6 thru A-8 for raw  samples).   All six surfaces show a definite
       trend  from  high  sulfur coal in the southwest (up to  5. 0%) to low
       sulfur  coal  (less than 1%) in the northeast and in Allegany and
       Garrett Counties in Maryland.

2. 3.    MAP SERIES B

              Map series B contains the maps produced  in Phase II
       for the  Pittsburgh bed.   Figures  B-l and B-8  show the base  maps,
       including the data point locations  (washed and raw  respectively)
       and the number of analyses assigned to each town.   The  data
       points  are  not  evenly  spread out for either set of data.  There
       is  a large  central area in south-western Pennsylvania  that has
       few data points; this reduces the  accuracy in this area.   When the
       base maps are run  at this scale, some of the  data  points and
       legends showing the number  of analyses  are lost under the  state
       boundary legends or under other data points.   Eight data points  are
       actually superimposed and are  shown by a "/" rather  than a black
       square.  Figure  B-8 contains a box showing the study area for
       the Phase III analysis of  coal in Allegany and Garrett  Counties.

-------
               irz;; iz^nmnmz i~
                                          ;j$8;jf*!r•«-™- ,——"  •••&







—— ——-—	— i	— f-~-— - 0 C 0 001—

                       WOR  S:S

                      FUCtNUCI Of TOTAL M}O.VTt VALUE *MM MPIV|M Tp (»U L|VIL
                Figure A-l
           Pittsburgh Coal Bed
  Sulfur Content Mapped by Counties
Number of Analyses for Washed Samples

-------
APPALACHIAN
COAL  REGION
                          SKISS !:!!  1:!!
                          "ffllp"
                             KIIUTIOH Of MTi POlin VU.UE1 IN C*tM 16«L
                      Figure A-2
                  Pittsburgh Coal Bed
           Sulfur Content Mapped by Counties
             Low Values for Washed Samples

-------
APPALACHIAN
COAL  REGION
                  MOMC03
                         ,"T5
                        «.  3
                         I  S

            -
      —  J
          I
        .,-•£
                           SUflSS  8:»
                                      !:!8  i:i! !:SS  !:SI  t:S
                              ::»!"" -—2	 ™~™ £?*!*£• IUMH
                                —— :::":" Tn^nTT :^s?
                       Figure A-3
                  Pittsburgh Coal Bed
           Sulfur  Content Mapped by Counties
                Mode for Washed Samples

-------
APPALACHIAN
COAL  REGION
                                                , i:ii ,.i«r>
                                         tl.ll 11.11 11.11 11.11
                      Figure A-4
                  Pittsburgh Coal Bed
           Sulfur Content Mapped  by Counties
            High Values for Washed Samples

-------











                  sins!  u
             Figure  A-5
         Pittsburgh Coal Bed
 Sulfur  Content  Mapped  by Counties
Number of Analyses for  Raw Samples

-------
APPALACHIAN
COAL  REGION
                          J D OOOOOOu 0 0 C C 00 C 0000 DO
J-J
           »og «»
                                                       4
                                       8   {N
                                       ;  •«*
                                             sFA.

                                                     I
                                             A. .!
                                             r »
                           MSIBS 8:1!  i:S* !:!«  i:« i:ii  !:S* !:i(  S:St 9:1!
                       Figure A-6
                   Pittsburgh Coal Bed
           Sulfur  Content Mapped by Counties
              Low Values for Raw Samples

-------
APPALACHIAN
COAL REGION
•-. t™  \
 '₯  J
                    Figure A-7
                Pittsburgh Coal Bed
          Sulfur Content Mapped  by Counties
            Mode Values for Raw Samples

-------
APPALACHIAN
COAL REGION
                              at ta

                    Figure A-8
                Pittsburgh Coal Bed
          Sulfur Content Mapped by Counties
             High Values for Raw Samples

-------
       Figures  B-2 thru B-4 show  the  low,  mode,  and high
values for each town;  they have the same  slope  from low  sulfur
in the northeast to  high sulfur  in the southwest, as  in the county
maps but the surfaces are not  as smooth, due  in part to the greater
number of data points  and the uneven spread of  points.  Figures
B-5  thru  B-7 are identical to B-2  thru B-4  except  for  the value
range  intervals selected;  the  critical isolines of 0.5%  and  1%
sulfur content  are shown.   These maps  clearly  show at a  glance
that  there are no areas with  0. 5%  or less sulfur coal and very
few  areas with 1. 0% or less  sulfur  coal.

       Figures  B-9 thru B-ll show the  low,  mode,  and high values
for the raw  samples and  Figures B-12  thru  B-14 the same  surfaces
for the critical value range intervals.   We would assume that
fewer  areas  would be  shown  as low sulfur (less  than 1%) than with
the washed samples; however,  the  opposite is true  (compare
Figures B-6 and B-13) due to the larger number of data points
for raw samples  and particularly the much larger number in the
low  sulfur northeastern part  of the  study area (compare Figures
B-l  and B-8).  It is very important to refer to the  base maps
when comparing surfaces  with different data bases.

       Another  set  of maps was run in Phase II using a limiting
search radius  of five or ten miles  around each  data point  as a
study area outline.   This  serves  several purposes:
       1)      it is  not necessary to take the  time to code the
       bed outcrop  as  an outline, and
       2)      equal accuracy  is maintained for  all areas mapped;
no symbolism- ajapears  for areas without data points  such as the
southwestern part of Pennsylvania.   Figure B-15 shows  the  base
map  for this set of maps; the data  point locations are exactly

-------









              Figure B-l
          Pittsburgh Coal Bed
   Sulfur  Content Mapped by  Towns
Number of Analyses for Washed Samples

-------
 APPALACHIAN
 COAL  REGION
        3:.
    ••if:
         IS,
         **««!•!•
r~
\
~t
                                 ..™..™
                                 - "     "
                      Figure B-2
                  Pittsburgh Coal Bed
             Sulfur Content Mapped by Towns
             Low Values for Washed Samples

-------
APPALACHIAN
COAL  REGION
,tu;i
                fr<

                       *>"MH« R  I "*!!••
                          "
                          S181S! i:!S  l:ii hii  i:ii
                                 ..™..
                     Figure B-3
                  Pittsburgh Coal Bed
            Sulfur  Content Mapped by Towns
            Mode Values for Washed Samples

-------
APPALACHIAN
COAL REGION
          ouuy  c  ji
     •as-

                     Figure B-4
                Pittsburgh Coal Bed
           Sulfur Content Mapped by Towns
            High Value for Washed Sample

-------
APPALACHIAN
COAL REGION
                    Figure B-5
                Pittsburgh Coal Bed
           Sulfur Content Mapped by Towns
           Low Values for Washed Samples

-------
APPALACHIAN
COAL REGION
                        ims
                    Figure B-6
                Pittsburgh Coal Bed
          Sulfur Content Mapped by Towns
          Mode Values for Washed Samples

-------
APPALACHIAN
COAL REGION
                         titltti  r.K ..si!'
                    Figure B-7
                 Pittsburgh Coal Bed
           Sulfur Content Mapped by Towns
           High  Values for Washed Samples

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              Figure B-8
          Pittsburgh Coal Bed
   Sulfur  Content  Mapped  by Towns
Number of Analyses for  Raw Samples

-------
 APPALACHIAN
 COAL  REGION
_YO(.Oa!
i  t^Hti ••
i* .w?^
          1     i
                           aSISS 3:f,  t:»,  i:ii 1:1,  i:Si i:s<  !:i< MB

                       Figure B-9
                   Pittsburgh Coal Bed
             Sulfur Content Mapped by Towns
               Low Values  for Raw Samples

-------
APPALACHIAN
COAL REGION
                         "MISS  ;:!<
                                                u!
-------
APPALACHIAN
COAL REGION
                    Figure B-ll
                Pittsburgh Coal Bed
           Sulfur Content Mapped by Towns
            High Values for Raw Samples

-------
APPALACHIAN
COAL REGION
                         K1KK M'. ..!«'
                     Figure B-12
                 Pittsburgh Coal Bed
           Sulfur Content Mapped by Towns
             Low Values for Raw Samples

-------
  APPALACHIAN
  COAL  REGION
         ™"j
_,:
'~t
                          KSIBS
                      Figure B-13
                  Pittsburgh Coal Bed
             Sulfur Content Mapped by Towns
              Mode Values for Raw Samples

-------
APPALACHIAN
COAL REGION
              "•'sf
                           iiiiB
                    Figure B-14
                 Pittsburgh Coal Bed
           Sulfur Content Mapped by Towns
            High Values for Raw Samples

-------
I      APPALACHIAN
!      COAl  REGION
    "!
     !'•
                 i«fl • ««*"

                        Figure B-15
                     Pittsburgh Coal Bed
               Sulfur Content Mapped by Towns
              Number of Analyses for Raw Samples

-------
APPALACHIAN
COAL  REGION
      r J
                     '<"«!«„!
                       ...I...
                       liiin;
                         «™_.-:::::

                                         a
                          ISISI lit  hi*
                                    !:S1
                                          !
                   Figure B-16
               Pittsburgh Coal Bed
         Sulfur Content Mapped by Towns
            Low Values for Raw Samples

-------
 APPALACHIAN
 COAL  REGION
                                                      I,,,

            «
      "fc.  "
     .<..„.
                  ii:iiiiiu!uijiil:i:fi
                  •••"iiiiluliliiiii! ji;;i
                        ifiT

                                                        i
F
"r
  T,, «•
                               •r
                               !•!
                                                     -Mi-
                                  —i—. ---^™ JHHHH HHHH; :K!SM» yS&I
                     Figure B-17
                 Pittsburgh Coal Bed
           Sulfur Conten Mapped by Towns
           Mode Values for Raw Samples

-------
APPALACHIAN
COAL  REGION
             MlCOGCC'-oct   \
                  IIMIIl'tl* • •l!tt>MI|£*i"
                 liiiiii:


                         •••iiilifeiiiir
                           lf"!iii
                           ill	iiiiij
                            iiilll"


                   Figure B-18
               Pittsburgh Coal Bed
         Sulfur Content Mapped by Towns
           High Values for Raw Samples

-------
APPALACHIAN
COAL  REGION
      •••Hii...
     I:;::::::;::::::::
            !
           "-I

                       :ltllllllll
                         ill
                                  1:4*
                                         -WS i-5*  4:-S( 1:4!

                   Figure B-19
               Pittsburgh Coal Bed
         Sulfur Content Mapped by Towns
           Low Values for Raw Samples

-------
  APPALACHIAN
  COAL REGION
'"'  ™,f
 I'^S"'
 Z ""
                           UiPi
                                       »».*••• IHHHM HliilM*
                                       • •i*]l**« EMIMAMIH! KH«i7»M
                     Figure B-20
                 Pittsburgh Coal Bed
           Sulfur Content Mapped by Towns
            Mode Values for Raw Samples

-------
APPALACHIAN
COAL  REGION
                           UJKS!
                                        «*  4;!'
                           "sjjit" |;;;;r;;;
                                ~^E= K::H::: SSHH::::]:::: {BOESE is::;::::
                    Figure B-21
                Pittsburgh Coal Bed
         Sulfur  Content Mapped by Towns
          High Values for Raw Samples

-------
       the  same  as those shown  in Figure B-8.   The portions of the
       study area enlarged in map series D  are shown by rectangular
       borders.    Figures B-16  thru B-18  show the low,  mode,  and high
       values for the  raw samples with a five mile search radius.
       Figures B-19 thru B-21  depict the identical  information  with a
       ten  mile  search radius.   In both  cases the  same values  are
       mapped as were  shown in Figures B-9  thru  B-ll; in fact, the
       only differences  are in the  effective study area  outlines.

2.4.    MAP SERIES C

              For the Middle  Kittanning  Coal Bed sufficient  information
       was not available  to  use the  bed  outcrop as a  study  area outline.
       Accordingly,  the data for the  raw  samples were mapped  using a
       five and ten mile  search radius as was employed in one  set of
       map series B.   Figure C-l shows the base  map for  the  Middle
       Kittanning Bed; the data  points are very poorly spread out over
       the  study  area  and are clustered.   Figures C-2 thru C-4 show
       the  low,  mode,  and high values for the raw  samples  with a  five
       mile search radius; Figures  C-5 thru  C-l depict the  same  infor-
       mation with a ten mile search radius.

              These sets of maps do not  give us very much information
       about  the  extent  of the coal seam, or  the  extent at various  sulfur
       levels.  However,  they give us  as much and as accurate infor-
       mation in the  vicinity of  the towns (or mines) as if we had known
       the  outcrop area and mapped  it.   We  can choose a search radius based
       on the reliability we  attach  to the data  and the  number and spacing
       of data point  locations.   Five miles may be  conservative in  that
       the  information conveyed  graphically is scanty;  on the other  hand
       ten  miles  may  be misleading  as to the  extent of the coal seam in
       some  areas.   Finally,  it is important  to keep in mind that we are

-------
dealing with samples aggregated by towns and that the data
point locations only  represent the  nearest town and not the
actual mine  or  sample  location.

       In examining  Figures  C-3 and C-6 (the  mode values for
five  and ten mile search radius,  respectively)  we find that  9
out of 90 or 10% of  the towns have mode values  of less than  1%
sulfur content.   This is in contrast to  the 26 out of 203 or
13%  of the towns with mode values for raw samples less than
1% sulfur content for the Pittsburgh Bed (see Figure  B-10).
However; the low  sulfur data points are  more  spread  out (less
clustered)  in the Middle Kittanning Bed  and therefore give  the
illusion of greater areas of low sulfur  coal.

       It is  of particular interest  to compare the surfaces for the
low  (Figure  C-5);,  mode (Figure C-6),  and high (Figure  C-7)  values.
The  surface of  mode values is what we would be  most  apt to
find;  the surface of  low values is  hypothetical and shows the  lowest
sample found for each  town,  and,   likewise, the surface  of high
values shows the highest values found.    Out  of the  90  data points
13 are under 1% sulfur  content for the low values,  9 for the  mode
values and only  3 for the high values.   In all three  cases low
sulfur data  points are spread throughout  the  eastern half of the
coal region and three points  occur in the western half for the
low  values.  The mode  values delineate  the  areas of interest for
possible small scale analysis  and  mapping.   The  high values  tell us
that  3 of the 9  areas shown on the surface will have  'all1 low
sulfur coal,  as  determined  by the  samples taken.  (Unfortunately,
when we refer to the base  map—Figure  C-l--we  find that these
three points  have only  1, 1,  and 7 samples each  and, therefore,
do not represent a very good  statistical sample;  however,  the use
of the map  of high values with the one of mode values  is still
informative).   On the other hand the map of low values  tells  us


-------
 APPALACHIAN
 COAL  REGION
                         «iDcf c;i 655 coectU o

      / "V »•
 I,
r8
!"*
                       Figure C-l
               Middle Kittanning Coal Bed
             Sulfur Content Mapped by Towns
            Number of Analyses for Raw Samples

-------
 APPALACHIAN
 COAL REGION

          •*•«»: "
  •»!««• MB



 *•;•;*;::;••!:::


***n;^^r;!ffl
                           3 ....
                                               m  "
                                                A
1
 !'«

i
                            {JIMS MS  fcJ!  fci*  i« 4:4«  4:«
                                 ........
                     Figure C-2
             Middle Kittanning Coal Bed
           Sulfur Content Mapped by Towns
             Low Values for Raw Samples

-------
 APPALACHIAN
 COAL  REGION
              ..'"1 „""*'
                            .:::::::
                            ::::
                         111
                                                           .
L m*Te«
! •"•
                                      C.M

                                      i  "l
                            U!W 8rf!  ISI 4:4! IS!
                                                 SrfS  ):K ..!;('
                     Figure C-3
              Middle Kittanning Coal Bed
          Sulfur Content  Mapped by Towns
            Mode Values  for Raw Samples

-------
APPALACHIAN
COAL REGION
                                    I !1*S!!K ijjSEEUjjij E»»iES*
                 Figure C-4
          Middle Kittanning Coal Bed
       Sulfur Content Mapped by Towns
         High Values for Raw Samples

-------
 APPALACHIAN
 COAL  REGION


                                —,—"*tSK!
                                          f V
«
                   Figure C-5
            Middle Kittanning Coal Bed
          Sulfur Content Mapped by Towns
           Low Values for Raw Samples

-------
APPALACHIAN
COAL  REGION

                          WSISS  -i;4S 4:!S  4;«-
                                         -4*
                                                i:is
                                               iiil-iiiiiiii-iiii
                  Figure C-6
           Middle  Kittanning Coal Bed
         Sulfur  Content Mapped by Towns
         Mode  Values for Raw Samples

-------
APPALACHIAN
COAL  REGION
                         (!!!«« Ml  1:8!
                                      S:4S
                                          4:4S
                  Figure C-7
           Middle Kittanning Coal Bed
        Sulfur Content Mapped by Towns
          High Values for Raw Samples

-------
       that all  but  13  locations have  virtually no low sulfur coal as
       determined by the samples taken.

2.5.    MAP SERIES D

             Map  series D includes:  (1) surfaces  comparing the mode
       values for the washed and raw samples for  the  Pittsburgh  Bed
       as  mapped by towns and mapped  by counties (Figures D-l  and
       D-2),  and,  (2)  enlargements of different parts of the study area
       for the  surface of the mode values for  raw  samples  shown in
       Figures  B-10,  B-13, and  B-17.  (Figures D-3 thru D-7).

             The values for the  interpolated  sample surfaces  generated
       from town data points were  subtracted from the interpolated
       surfaces generated from county data  points.  These surfaces  were
       subtracted at a regular grid interval of about 9/10" or  9 miles
       on  the source map.   The new  surfaces  generated (Figures  D-l
       and D-2) are subject to considerable error.   When we subtract the
       two surfaces we  get a good deal of detail which cannot be trusted
       except along  the  eastern,  western,  and  northern edges of the  maps
       where there are  more data points on the  original surfaces.

             In. the ideal case,  the detail  shown on the surface  should
       not be greater  than  that of the lesser detailed surface from which
       the map was generated.   In this  case the detail on  the  difference
       surfaces should not  be  greater than the detail on the map generated
       from county data points.   The  town map should  be used as  a
       reference  surface since  it has  the best  accuracy in the  outlying  areas
       and better accuracy than any place on the county map.

             Figures  D-l  and D-2 show absolute  differences  in sulfur
       content from -1:35 to +1:02%  for the washed samples and  -1.67
       to +1.39%-for the raw samples.  It would have  been more

-------
informative,  in retrospect,  to have shown the relative differences
by positive and negative ratios.   In other  words, if at  a particular
location the town map shows  2% sulfur and the county map shows
1%  sulfur, then the value to be mapped on the  difference surface
would be  +0.5,  using the town   map as the reference surface:

                       Vd  =   (Vt  - Vc)
                                  Vt
              where^:   Vd  =   value on difference surface
                       Vt  =  value on town surface
                       Vc  =   value on county surface.
The actual values mapped were derived from the equation:
                       Vd  =  Vt - Vc
which would  give a  value of  +1. 0% sulfur  in this  case.

       Since we  are really concerned  with determining  what areas
have less than 1% sulfur coal and which level of  detail we  need
to adequately show  this, an alternative approach could be used:
       1)      use the town map as the control  or reference
       surface, and,
       2)      map only those areas of less than 1% sulfur  coal
       shown on the town surface and  not  on the  county surface.
As  a refinement the portions  of the study  area that  lack accuracy can
be blanked out and  only  the 'horseshoe1 of data points on the town
map used as a boundary.  This could  be  accomplished  by using
the  five mile  or ten mile search  radius areas of Figures B-17
or B-20 as  the study area outline for  the  difference surfaces.
There  is  no  easy way to create  this new outline with the SYMAP
program;  a  new  base map  outline package  would have to be coded
or else the  difference maps would have to be generated  with the
GRID program, as  in Phase  III.

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       The changing accuracy of  the maps  can best be shown
by examining the series of maps  for  the  raw  Pittsburgh  samples
by towns  in the  following order:

       1)     the base  map with  data points (Figure B-8)
       2)     the map with a 5 mile  search radius (B-17)
       3)     the map with a 10  mile  search  radius (B-20)
       4)     the map with an unlimited search radius where
       the entire outcrop area is filled with symbolism
       (Figure B-10).
As we go through this series of maps we are  adding areas with
decreasing accuracy.   The  same  approach would be applied to
the difference surfaces  using  the  search radius  areas  from the
town data points.

       Figure D-3 shows a portion of the  surface of mode  values
for raw  samples mapped by towns (Figures B-10 and  B-13) en-
larged to the scale of the Phase  III maps.   The same areas  of
Allegany  and Garrett  Counties as mapped in Phase III are  shown.
Figure D-3 can  be  compared with Figure E-l,  one of the base
maps for Phase  III.   In Figure D-3 the line legends  for  the  state
and county borders were blown up from the Phase  I and  II base
map while in Figure  E-l these legends were  taken directly from
the Phase TIT source  map; the accuracy lost by enlarging from the
small  scale to the large  scale is not significant.

       When a map is blown  up from a small  scale to a larger
scale, the data  points used for all  of the smaller scale maps
should be  shown.  Then, the true area used for the  interpolation
of the larger scale map will  be evident and the reliability  of the
map better understood.   Note in Figure D-3  that the  bar chart
below the  map  shows the frequency distribution for all data points

-------
in the  study area, not just those in the  portion mapped.  The
frequency distribution of the ones  within the map boundary
must be determined  by eye and  by refer ing  to;the base map,
Figure  B-8:
                       level  1  =  6 points
                       level  2  =  2 points
                       Total   =  8 points
       It is  immediately evident from both maps (the  one showing
1/2% isolines of sulfur content,  and the one showing the  critical
isolines  of  0.5% and 1.0% sulfur)  that this is  a low sulfur coal
area.   By specifying a detailed  base map originally,  it was
possible to  blow up this portion  of the  study area and demonstrate
that it was  worthy of closer examination,  based on  the sulfur
content of the Pittsburgh bed.

       Perhaps  the most meaningful maps produced  in Phases
I and II are Figures D-4 thru D-7.   These  maps  show detailed
portions of  the  study area outlined on the base map, B-15.   The
"cut-out" region of maps D-4  and D-6 displays the  greatest
extremes in the value  range and in  the  spacing of data points of
the entire study area.   Both of  these maps  appear at the original
base map scale  of 1:250, 000 and thereby  show the  amount  of
detail that went  into the preparation of the bed outline.   One map
was created using the  regular SYMAP interpolation  with  an  un-
limited search  radius (D-4)  while  the other  was restricted to a
5 mile  search radius (D-6); at this  scale  the  search radius option
produces circular  shapes,  rather than the 'squares' depicted
previously.

       The  upper-right quadrant of each of these maps was blown -
up to twice  the  original  size (or,  to a  1:|25,000 scale) to produce
maps D-5 and D-7; this is the only case where maps were  produced

-------
at a larger scale than the source  maps.   This particular quadrant
was  enlarged because (1) it  is a large  area with the lowest sulfur
coal of the entire  region and,  (2)  there is  a significant number
of data points  that are fairly equally spaced.   For these reasons
the maps are probably the best series  of either Phase I or II and
convey the most accurate and  detailed  information,  particularly
where the five mile  search  radius was used.   Note that  in
Figures D-6 and D-7 where  the  search radius  has been used  as
a  study area  outline, the bed outline has been  shown as  a  line
legend  for reference.  We can now  visually compare the extent
of the coal bed--based on the  bed outline--and  the relatively
accurate  values  for sulfur content--based  on the  search radius
from each data point.   When our bed  outline and  data  points
can  be accurately  located, we can use  the  bed  outline  as a study
area boundary but limit  interpolation (and symbolism) with a five
mile search radius to areas inside the bed outline.  For this
study  area the information on  locations did  not warrant such a
detailed set  of criteria.

        Even the  results  attained in this series  are somewhat
questionable,  considering the extreme  range in the number of
analyses  attributed to the data points.   Furthermore,  this
problem is not as severe in this  series as  it is  in the rest of
Phases I and II.   In  maps D-5 and D-7 there is a range of from
1  to  126  analyses  per data point with most  of the  values being
near these extremes.  The  greatest range  is found for the complete
set of data points  in Phase  I where  the number varies from 1 to
2448.   SYMAP does not weight the  1 analysis any differently  from
the 2448  in the interpolation process; their  associated  values
are  treated equally.   With such  an  extreme range in the number
of analyses,  the  resultant maps  are somewhat  questionable and
should  be treated with an even greater degree  of  caution.

-------
  APPALACHIAN
  COAL REGION

I

                    Figure D-l
                Pittsburgh Coal Bed
        Sulfur Content - Surface Comparison
          Mode Values for Washed Samples

-------
  APPALACHIAN
  COAL  REGION
               «,•"''! «"


i     ::

                          .«
                                                         ,:
                           *"s":™ ">!!!» KS»S"!»"H!"l ;SJI
                           :;;;;:;:::-; ••::
                                               :iF«?l   ,/'

                      Figure D-2
                 Pittsburgh Coal Bed
         Sulfur Content - Surface Comparison
            Mode Values for Raw Samples

-------

| -=,;-
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SYMAP
GARRETT AMD ALLECAMY COUNTIES, ftARVLANO
PITTSBURGH BED - RAH SULFUR CGMTEhT IHCDEI
EXPRESSED AS A PERCENT BY TOM
DATA VALUE EXTREMES ARE O.dO 5.30
MMlMm 0.50 l.OO 1.50 2.00 Z.SO 3.00 3. 50 4.00 4.50 5.00
HAX1NJH 0.99 1.49 1.99 2.49 2.99 3.49 3.99 4.49 5.00 ABOVE
PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL ABSOLUTE VALUE RANGE APPLYING TO EACH LEVEL
11.11 11.11 11.11 11.11 11.11 11.11 11.11 11.11 11.11
11
! I
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SYKiP
PITTSBURGH 8EL - HAti SULFUR CGhTEMT IMDCE)

MNIKUM 0.50 1.00
PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL ABSOLUTE VALUE RAhGE APPLYING TO EACH LEV
100.00
FflEOU|NCt OlSTRjeUHON OF;CATA OCIKT VALUES IN EACH LEVEL 6 7 e , H "CKX" —"i" 	 «" ' 	 ' "LU" '" "" "'"

j,..a.s ::::i:::: —2— ;.„»—. IXXiiii BiSJS Sffl|^ ::"KU Uj;^!: UIK^ •«•**£!
"— nurt
                                                       sass
                                                    '
                                                                  I
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COUhTY OUTLINE
STATE OUTLINE
                 Figure D-3
             Pittsburgh Coal Bed
      Sulfur Content Mapped by  Towns
       Mode Values for Raw Samples

-------

      M«I«lIS*iI * 1 • Ul lUHuil* MHMU^IWJUM*

»»*..».»»
          m!K«!m»»u"*H!u'''" i»
                                    SiSlffi!  l:a  !:!!  1:18  i:8
                                                         I'M  M*
                                               lhi v"-u" 'K "CH lfv!L
                           Figure  D-4
                       Pittsburgh  Coal  Bed
              Sulfur  Content Mapped  by  Towns
               Mode Values  for  Raw Samples

-------
                        tiiiffi
                            !:J8  !:S!  1:1!
                Figure D -5
            Pittsburgh Coal Bed
    Sulfur Content  Mapped by Towns
      Mode Values  for Raw  Samples

-------
           HaSsssHSHS-Ec-H™

                                  	      GOOD-
                                  IE A. "   i<^=-
                                  ^5.4r_-=-«:-E-^^-S'



             Figure D-6
         Pittsburgh  Coal Bed
Sulfur Content Mapped by  Towns
 Mode  Values  for Raw Samples
   Detail of Northern Sector

-------
   ,:. :.:,.:•:...is  -.::.„

                        MSS
                 Figure D -7
             Pittsburgh Coal Bed
    Sulfur Content  Mapped  by Towns
     Mode Values for Raw Samples
(Blow up of  upper right quadrant of D-4)

-------
2.6.    SUMMARY OF PHASE III

              The data  point locations in Phase III represent actual
       sampling locations, or best  estimates of these locations.   For the
       most part they are no more accurate  than the  known location of
       a mine  but this  is sufficient at the scale of the output  maps;  if we
       were to map a smaller scale area--such as one  mine property,
       then we would  need to know  the core  sampling locations  and the
       general origin  location for run-of-mine  or  tipple  samples.

              Because the data  points  are actual sample locations  unlike
       Phases  I and  II,   if we assume  no error  in the data collection or
       in the positioning of the  data points,  the contouring can then be
       interpreted as  being more or less accurate,  depending on  how
       many data  points there  are and how far apart they are  spread.
       It  is imperative,  therefore,  to  display the  data point locations
       so that  the level  of accuracy can be  clearly ascertained.   In  no
       case in Phase  III was the  number or  spacing  of  data points
       sufficient to ensure reasonable  accuracy,  except  in the  immediate
       vicinity of  data points.   In many cases  the data  points were very
       clustered  or  were poorly spaced  in relation to the outline  of the
       study area being  mapped.

              Furthermore,  sufficient  information was not known  about  such
       parameters as the vertical location of samples in a bed  to ensure
       representative  data for mapping--variations in sulfur content may
       be due more to vertical  sample location than  the horizontal location
       differences implied by the maps (Gluskoter and Simon,  1968,  p. 15).
       Until sufficient data is available to standardize the samples and
       remove the effects of parameters other than spatial location,  sub-
       stantive results  cannot be  obtained.

-------
                                  ALLEGANY AND GARRETT COUNTIES
    STAGE ONE

      Reserves-Mines
      Traw-levelsJ
               Base
               Low
               Mode
               High
      [thickness]
      [quantity]
               Mode
      Three Dimensional
      Reserves (Mode)
      Thickness
  Upper
 Freeport

Outcrop  >28"
E-l
E-2
E-3
E-4
F-l
F-3
E-l
E-2
E-3
E-4
F-l
F-3
  F-6
  F-8
F-7
F-9
           Upper
         Bakerstown

         Outcrop >28"
                     E-5
                     E-6"
                     E-7"
                     E-8"
                     F-2"
                     F-4"
                  E-5
                  ~E-6
                  "E-7
                  "E-8
                  "F-2
                  "F-4
 Composite

Outcrop  >28"
  E-9
  E-1(T
  E-ll"
  F-5
                                                E-9
                                               "E-10
                                                F-5
                                         UPPER FREEPORT
-si
I
    STAGE TWO

      [Yield-Levels]

               Base
               60%
               50%
               70%
               80%
      [Quantity]
               60%
               50%
               70%
               80%
              100%
           100-60%
[3/8" Mesh]
Outcrop
Tot. Tot.-
     Pyritic
G-l	
G-2   G=l
H-l 	 H-l



H-6
H-7
H-2
H-3
H-4
H-5
H-6
H-7
              >28"
              ~fot. Tot-
                    Pyritic

               G-l
               G-3   G-3
               G-8   G-8
               G-S   G-9
               G-10G-10
                    _H-2

                    "H-4
                    ~H-5
                     [X&1/2" Mesh]
                   Outcrop    >28"
                   Tot. Tot-  Tot. TotT
                        Pyr.       Pyr,
                [Comparison]
              Outcrop    >28"
              Tot. Tot-  Tot. Tot-
                   Pyr.       Pyr.
                   G-4  G-4   G-5  G-5   G-6  G-6    G-7  G-7
                                                  Table  II-4

-------
2. 7.           MAP SERIES E
                     Map series E contains the maps produced  in
              Phase  III,  Stage  One, showing sulfur  content for the
              Upper  Freeport and Upper Bakerstown Beds.   Maps  were
              produced for both the total outcrop and for  the areas over
              28" in  thickness,  using  precisely the  same  data point
              locations and values  in  each  case.   Base  maps are
              shown  in Figure  E-l for the  Upper Freeport Bed  and
              Figure  E-5 for the Upper Bakerstown Bed.   In Figure
              E-l there  are  20 data point locations;  only  14  show  as
              black squares on the base map.   Of  the remainder  2
              are superimposed at one location (in the cluster in the
              upper  center) and four occur  under the state and  county
              boundary legends.  The  full set of data points  and
              accompanying information can be shown by running an
              additional base  map with (1)  no legends, (2) distinctive
              symbolism for  the  superimposed data points, and  (3)
              the number of  analyses  shown as  legends  above each point
              as  in Phase I and II.   The number of  analyses was  not
              shown  since out of 20 data points only 7 had more than
              one analysis and  only 4  of these more than  3  analyses.
              Since the number  of data points is also very small we
              are clearly working with a poor  statistical sample.

                     Of the 20  data points  7 (including the two that are
              superimposed) are  clustered  together  in one small area;
              the remaining ones are  not well  spread out  over the study
              area.   The problem  is particularly acute  when the areas
              over 28" thick  are shown.  Of the 16 points not hidden
              by  legends, only  5 fall within the study area boundaries
              and the major portions of the eastern syncline  contain
              no  data points.

-------
       For the  Upper Freeport bed the original base map
contained several other outcrop islands, mainly in  the
northwestern part of Garrett County.   These were
eliminated because  there  were no  data  points associated
with them.   This problem did not exist with  the Upper
Bakerstown base  map.   The question arose as  to the
validity of interpolating across the area between the smaller
western  syncline  and larger eastern syncline  (see Figure
E-l).  It is possible with SYMAP to place  a  barrier to
prohibit  or inhibit the interpolation when appropriate.
Since this area does not  have  complex  geology,  we can
assume that geologic conditions when the  coal beds were
laid  down were the same for both synclines and that the
history since then has been  relatively the  same.  Without
any  information to the contrary we assumed that there  was
a single  formation which  was eroded in the middle  to
create the gap between the synclines.   Therefore,  we
treated them  as  one formation and interpolated between
synclines without the use of a barrier.

       Figure E-5 shows the base maps for the Upper
Bakerstown Beds.   Of the 7 data points four  are shown
as black  squares  (2  of these are  clustered  in the western
syncline),  2 are superimposed (in the upper right  corner
of the  eastern syncline)  and 1 is under the state boundary
legend in the center of the study  area.   Only the super-
imposed  points  are inside the  outline of the area over  28"
thick;  this reduces  the accuracy for this  series of  maps.

       Figures E-2 thru  E-4 and E-6 thru  E-8  show the
low,  mode, and  high values for  sulfur  content mapped  by
mines  for the Upper Freeport and Upper  Bakerstown Beds,

-------
respectively.   The  data points  were located for these
particular maps  on the basis of geologist's  reports  at
the Bureau of Mines.   Locations of a mine  are generally
no more  detailed than the number of miles  from a  town
in a certain compass direction.  The  location of a  sample
in the area of the mine is  almost never known.  A further
shortcoming of the  data is  the  lack of  information  as to
where the samples  were  taken  in the bed.   Very often  the
concentration of sulfur  is quite high at the top and  bottom
of the bed but not in the middle.   If the samples  are
taken near  the top or  the bottom they may give a high
sulfur reading when the average value  of the coal may
be low.   Ideally, the data  should tell  us sample  location
with a great deal of detail  in the x, y,  and z directions,
where x and y are  the  spatial location of the  sample and  z
is the sectional  location  in the  bed.

       With these  shortcomings of  the  data  in mind we
can examine the maps  of sulfur content.   These  maps
show,  in general,  that the  higher  sulfur  content coals
(by percent) are located near the center  of  the study area.
in the Upper  Freeport  Bed; however;  in the Upper  Bakers -
town  Bed  the  higher concentration tends to  be in the
southwest section of the  study area  and the  sulfur  content
decreases towards the  center and  the  northeast section
of the bed.

       As an example  we can examine  Figure E-3,  the
map of mode values for the Upper  Freeport Bed.    As
shown on the base map the  eastern syncline has  one data
point  in  the very north and  several  in  the middle  portion.
The interpolation between these displays  a gradation from
a low  concentration  of  sulfur in the north to a moderate

-------
amount in the  middle portion of the syncline.   The
interpolation is affected by the data points  in  the western
syncline.   One cannot be certain at all  about  where the
isolines  of  sulfur content should be.   The best one  can
say is  that there seems to be a trend  from low con-
centrations  at  the  study area boundaries to  intermediate
concentrations  toward  the middle of the  syncline.

       In general, one  should be very cautious of the
extrapolation beyond the data points at the  extremes  of
the region,  and of the  interpolation between data points
which  are fairly far apart.    The misleading extrapolation
is shown in the bottom left hand  corner of Figure E-6;
the potentially misleading interpolation is evident in the
center of the  same illustration.

       The  final set of maps in Series E were composite
maps of the sulfur  content  values for  both  the Upper
Freeport and  Upper  Bakerstown Beds.   These maps
combined the  A-OUTLINE,  B-DATA POINTS nad E-VALUES
packages  for both  the  Upper  Freeport outcrop and Upper
Bakerstown outcrop.   Maps  were then made which  assumed
that  both beds  were  part of the  same  formation.   Similar
maps were  made  for the areas over 28" thick,  for  the low,
mode,  and  high values,  (see Figures E-9 thru E-ll).

       This is really only a  mapping exercise: because of
the difference  in elevation separating the two  seams,  the
composite maps produced are of  very little  value.   They
assume that the two beds are fairly close together  for
mining purposes,  which,  in  fact they are not.   They  also
assume that the two beds are similar enough  in geologic

-------
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-------


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-------
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-------
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-------
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       Allegany and Garrett  Counties
        Upper  Bakersiown Coal Bed
     Sulfur Content Mapped  by Mines
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-------
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                                        Low  Values for  Raw Samples

-------

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                                    Allegany  and  Garrett  Covinties
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                                  Sulfur  Content  Mapped by Mines
                                   Mode Values for  Raw  Samples

-------





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       Allegany and Garrett  Counties
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     Sulfur  Content Mapped by Mines
       High Values for Raw  Samples

-------

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                         Figure  E-9
               Allegany and Garrett Counties
Composite of Upper Freeport and Upper  Bakerstown Coal Beds
            Sulfur Content Mapped by Mines
              Low Values for Raw Samples

-------

  UTC'H*!(l«uB5hIHC*WED1IN HIGHEST LEvR OHIYI
                  11.11  11.11  11.11  11.11  11.11

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                                                Figure E-10
                                   Allegany and Garrett  Counties
                  Composite  of Upper  Freeport and  Upper Bakerstown Coal Beds
                               Sulfur Content Mapped by Mines
                                 Mode Values for Raw  Samples

-------

                                         _-§i=::::i-:-

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                                                              :::: ;::; i_;_^ ....;,= £££. ....J..., !!S!s!S! KSSiKS i:;:
                                                 Figure  E-ll
                                    Allegany  and  Garrett Counties
                  Composite of  Upper Freeport and Upper  Bakerstown  Coal Beds
                                Sulfur  Content  Mapped  by  Mines
                                  High Values for Raw Samples

-------
             formation and sulfur content  that all points  can be used
             together for interpolation; comparing Figures  E-3 and  E-7
             tends  to show that this assumption is also probably in
             error.

                     If we  confine  our  interpretation solely  to  the areas
             surrounding data points,  then the  composite map can  give
             us  a quick and useful overview  of any  and all  low  sulfur
             coal areas for the beds we are  interested  in.   The
             limiting search  radius  in  conjunction with the  outline would
             be  very useful here, particularly  for the areas over 28" thick.
2.8.           MAP SERIES F
                     Map  series  F contains the maps produced  in Phase III,
             Stage  One, showing bed thickness and quantity of  less than
             1% sulfur coal in tons  per acre for the Upper Freeport and
             Upper Bakerstown  Beds.   Figures  F-l and  F-2 show  the
             bed  thickness  in inches for  the Upper Freeport and Upper
             Bakerstown Beds,   respectively;  these figures  also serve
             as the  base  maps  for the  thickness data.   No base map
             changes are made  other than in the location of  data points.
             For  the Upper Freeport Bed there are 7 data points,  only
             4 of which are inside the  bed outline.  Since  the  low  value
             of 30"  is  in the upper  center and the high  value is in the
             lower  left hand corner, we  get a  gradual  slope from
             northeast  to southwest.  This is  based on too few data  points
             and  too little  change in absolute values to be  very conclusive.

                     Major discrepancies are evident when we examine
             the map of areas over 28" thick in Figure F-l.  Although all
             of our  thickness values were over  28",  the  source maps
             used  indicate  only  a  small portion of the outcrop  is actually

-------
over  28" thick.   It would  appear that the thickness data
are not representative or complete enough  to be meaning-
ful.   It  may well be  that thickness varies  considerably
on a  small scale,  particularly in relation to the  absolute
value ranges  found  in this  set of data.   The interpretation
of the map in the  southwestern portion of the eastern
syncline is very much  suspect because the data has been
extrapolated 15 miles.   Likewise in  the northern  part  of
this syncline  there  are no  data points; it  is the data point
in the northern portion of the syncline to the  west which
greatly determines  the values shown  in  this portion of
the eastern syncline.

       In  summary,  only the central portion of the eastern
syncline where 3 data points are located can be considered
representative and  meaningful.    This should be kept in
mind in  examining  all of  the quantity maps for the Upper
Freeport Bed  in both Stages  One and Two; the quantity in
tons per acre is  directly proportional to the bed thickness
shown in Figure F-l.

       The data point locations and their  relationship to
the Upper Bakerstown outcrop are more reasonable   (see
Figure F-2)  There are considerably more  data points
describing the thickness of  the Upper Bakerstown bed
than there were for the Upper  Freeport bed; therefore  this
surface  is more representative and meaningful.   Only one
data  point has  a  value less than 28"  thick and this is  out-
side both the outcrop and  area over  28"  thick  outline.   Of
the 14 locations (16 data points  with  3 superimposed at the
same location)  all but 4 are within the outcrop outline but
only 1 is in the area over  28" thick.

-------
       This  results in a very  serious  discrepancy between
the area defined by the source  maps as over 28" thick and
the portions  of  the outcrop found  to be over 28" thick
according to the data points and values used.   This can
be explained by one  or more of three  assumptions:
       1)    the  data  base or criteria  for  "thickness"  are
       different for the Bureau of Mines thickness  data and
       the Boyd  report isolines of bed  thickness.
       2)    there are significant errors in one  or  both  of
       the data bases.
       3)    thickness varies a great deal  locally; therefore,
       we  cannot interpolate a  surface  from so few  points,
       nor can  definitive  isolines  be drawn as in the Boyd
       report.
The  "coal  seam  thickness  lines"  from the  Boyd  report and
accompanying maps and the  bed thickness  data from the
Bureau of  Mines  do  not appear to differ in their  criteria;
likewise, there is no reason to assume significant  errors
in either set of data.  However,  according to   the  Bureau of
Mines the  manner in which thickness  is measured may vary
significantly  from location to location and  thus  introduce
errors as  well  as bias between the two data bases.   The
third assumption  may well  explain some of these discrepancies.
but there is  no   way  to standardize for the other two.

       Figures  F-3 and F-4 show the  quantity of coal in the
ground (in  tons  per  acre)  for those parts  of the  Upper Free-
port and Upper Bakerstown Beds,  respectively,  with less
than 1%  sulfur coal—based on the mode values  for  the raw
samples.   The  'accuracy'  of these maps is a function of
(1) the maps of sulfur content (Figures E-3 and E-7)  and

-------
(2)  the  maps  of bed thickness  (Figures F-l  and F-2).
As  discussed we  know that the accuracy of these surfaces
from which the quantity is derived  is  very poor.   However,
the areas  shown  in Figures  F-3 and  F-4 are ones  where
data point location--and  therefore  reliability--were much
better than average  in each  of the four original maps
(Figures E-3, E-7,  F-l and F-2).   These are the first
of the maps produced with the GRID  program;  a  separate
value is mapped  for each  cell  or  computer print position
based  on the  original maps.   No interpolation takes place.

        Figure F-5  shows the total quantity in  tons  per acre
for the Upper Freeport  and  Upper Bakerstown  Beds combined.
It is  not a summation of Figures  F-3 and F-4;  it is derived
from  the composite  sulfur  content map (Figure E-10) and  the
combined thickness (the  summation of Figures  F-l and
F-2).   The significant reservations  about  all the original
surfaces in this  case make  these  maps quantifiably  mean-
ingless; however,  the approach is very useful if  accurate
data are available  from the original maps  and the seams
being combined are fairly close together  in  elevation. Such
a map  can help locate areas of significant low  sulfur  coal
that would yield  a greater total quantity of coal when all
mineable seams  are considered.   Ideally,  we  would include
another variable:  overburden,  so  that the economics  of
mining  could  be  included.

        Figures F-6 thru F-8 are  three-dimensional views
of surfaces produced with SYMVU for sulfur  content and
bed  thickness  for the Upper Freeport Bed.  Figures 6a
and  6b  show  two  views  of the  total outcrop for the mode
values  of  sulfur;  Figures 7a and  71-, show  the same  values

-------
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                                               Allegany  and  Garrett  Counties
                                                   Upper  Freeport  Coal  Bed
                                                           Thickness   of  Bed

-------
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                                        Allegany  and  Garrett Counties
                                         Upper Bakerstown Coal Bed
                                                  Thickness  of Bed

-------
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                            Allegany and  Garrett Counties
                              Upper Freeport Coal Bed
             Quantity (in the ground) of Coal with less  than  1% Sulfur
                       Based on  Mode  Values for Raw Samples

-------
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                              Figure F-4
                 Allegany and  Garrett  Counties
                  Upper Bakerstown Coal  Bed
Quantity  (in  the ground) of Coal  with  less  than 1% Sulfur
            Based  on  Mode  Values for Raw Samples

-------
                                      H

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                                 Figure  F-5

                     Allegany  and Garrett Counties

   Composite of Upper  Freeport and Upper Bakerstown Coal Beds

     Quantity (in  the ground) of Coal with  less than 1% Sulfur

                Based on Mode Values  for Raw  Samples


-------
    tNJ
                                                                                  1.50
                                                                                  1.00
                                                                                  0.50
                                                                                  0.00
                       ,  3.67
                         2.UE
                          1.22
                         0.00
                    Figure F-6a

          Allegany and Garrett Counties
Upper  Freeport Coal  Bed Three  Dimensional View

         Sulfur Content Mapped by  Mines

         Mode  Values  for Raw Samples
         for total outcrop; azimuth 0
flZIMUTH = 0
WIDTH  = 6.00

014/19/71
flLTITUDE = 60

-------
                                                            i.oo
                                                            o.so
                                                            o.oo
                                                                    3.87
                                             2.80
                                             1.30
                                          1  0.00
                                                Figure F-6b
                                       Allegany and  Garrett Counties
                              Upper Freeport Coal Bed Three Dimensional  View
                                     Sulfur  Content  Mapped by Mines
                                      Mode Values for Raw Samples
                                     for total outcrop;  azimuth  309
U. FREEPORT BED  (TOTflL  OUTCROP).  X  SULFUR CONTENT (MODE).G4fl CO.MflRYLflND
flZIMUTH  =  309
WIDTH  =  6.00
 flLTITUDE  = 45

-------
                                                                                 1.50
                                                                                 1.00
                       , 2.87
                       1  1.91
                                                                                 0.50  4-  0.96
                                                                                 0.00  1  0.00
                   Figure F-7a
         Allegany and Garrett Counties
Upper  Freeport Coal Bed Three Dimensional View
        Sulfur Content Mapped by  Mines
         Mode  Values for Raw  Samples   Q
        for area over 28"thick;  azimuth 0
RZIMUTH  = 0
WIDTH  =  6.00
04/16/71
RLTITUDE = 60

-------
                                                                  ,  2.87
                                                             1.00   1  2.03
                                                            O.SO   1  1.01
                                                            0.00   1  0.00
                                               Figure F-7b
                                      Allegany and Garrett  Counties
                             Upper  Freeport Coal Bed Three  Dimensional View
                                     Sulfur Content Mapped  by Mines
                                      Mode  Values  for Raw  Samples
                                   for area over 28" thick; azimuth 309
U. FREEPORT BED  (RREfl  >28"THICK) .7.  SULFUR CONTENT  (MODE).G4fl  CO.MflRYLRND
flZIMUTH  =  309
WIDTH =  6.00
 flLTITUDE  = US

-------
                 1.50  _  48.00
                 1.00
                 0.50
                 0.00
  32. S.O
  16. CM)
  0.00
                   Figure F-8a
          Allegany and Garrett Counties
Upper  Freeport Coal Bed Three  Dimensional View
                Thickness of  Bed
          for total outcrop; azimuth 0
flZIMUTH = 0
WIDTH  = 6.00
01/16/71
flLTITUDE = 60

-------

                                                             1.00
                                                             O.SO
                                                             0.00
                                                                  ,  18.00
                                              •J2.11
                                              35.07
                                              23.00
                                                Figure F-8b
                                      Allegany and Garrett Counties
                             Upper  Freeport Coal Bed Three  Dimensional View
                                             Thickness of Bed     Q
                                     for total outcrop; azimuth 309
U. FREEPORT BED.THICKNESS OF TOTfll  OUTCROP. GRRRETUflLLEGflNY  CO.MRRYLflND
flZIWJTH  =  309
WIDTH =  6.00
04/16/71
 flLTITUDE  = 45

-------
00
                                                                                     i.so  ,  te.oo
                                                                                     1.00  ..  32.00
                                                                                     O.SO  ..  16.00
                                                                                     0.00  1  0.00
                     Figure  F-9a
            Allegany and Garrett Counties
  Upper  Freeport Coal Bed Three  Dimensional View
                  Thickness  of Bed           o
            for area over  28" thick; azimuth  0
flZIMUTH  = 0
WIDTH  =  6.00
04/16/71
ALTITUDE = 60

-------
                                                            1.41   -  48.00


                                                            1.00   ..  42.14


                                                            O.SO   ..  3S.07


                                                            0.00   1  28.00
                                               Figure F-9b
                                     Allegany and Garrett Counties
                            Upper  Freeport Coal Bed  Three Dimensional View
                                             Thickness of Bed
                                     for area over  28" thick; azimuth  309
U. FREEPORT  BED.THICKNESS OF flRERS  >28",GRRRETTAflLLEGflNY COUNTY.MRRYLflND
flZIMUTH  =  309
WIDTH =  6.00
 flLTITUDE  = 45
HEIGHT  =  2.00

-------
              for the area over 28" thick.   Figures  8a and 8b show
              the bed  thickness for  the  total outcrop and Figures  9a and 9b
              for the area over 28" thick.   These views were produced
              to demonstrate this  particular   graphical portrayal.   A
              set of views of  a surface from  several different angles
              and  altitudes can give a  great deal  more  information  about
              the whole surface than the arbitrary isolines of a SYMAP
              or  GRID  two-dimensional  representation.  With special
              versions  of the  program legends and contours  between
              levels--such as the  isoline of 1%  sulfur  content--can  be
              shown on the  surface.

                     The  views chosen here are (1)  "head-on",  or from
              the  south,  and (2) from the southwest.
2.9.           MAP SERIES G
                     Map  series  G and map  series H comprise Stage
              Two  of the mapping.   This  stage  involves the mapping of
              washability data for the Upper  Freeport Bed for  the  center
              portion of Allegany and  Garrett Counties;  this portion is
              shown in Figure F-l.   Insufficient washability data was
              available for the  Upper  Bakerstown Bed.

                     Map  series  G is concerned  only  with  the  sulfur
              content resulting  from the washed  samples.   For the
              Upper Freeport Bed there were useable samples  at  5
              locations.   These  had been washed to various yields
              through  screen sizes  of 3/8" mesh arid  1  1/2"  mesh
              among others.  The mapping involved the  sulfur  content
              that coal could be washed to at various  yields using these
              two  screen sizes.   Figure G-l  shows the  base map for

-------
this  series.   Four of the  five data points fall within
the center portion to be mapped  and  the fifth is  to the
northeast; the spacing of the points  is  quite  good,  although
extrapolation occurs  in the southwest portion, of the total
outcrop.   The spacing is  also good for the  area over
28" thick, with the exception of the southwest corner.

        The total  sulfur content and the  sulfur content
resulting if  all pyritic sulfur were to be removed were
mapped  for  purposes of  comparison.    Figures  G-2 and  G-3
show  the total sulfur and  total  less pyritic  sulfur for the
3/8"  mesh screen at 60%  yield for the  total outcrop and
the areas  over 28" thick.   Figures G-4  and G-5 show
the same type of information for the 1  1/2" mesh  screen.
Not surprisingly,  the greatest variability occurs in the
center  area  where  3  of the 5 data points are located.
For  the total less pyritic  sulfur  all areas are  less  than
1% sulfur  for  either  the 3/8" or  1 1/2"  mesh; the north-
eastern and  central  areas  are less than  1%  in  both cases
for total sulfur.

        Figures G-6  and  G-7 show the  differences in sulfur
content between washing with a 3/8"  and a  1 1/2"  mesh
screen for the same  yield of 60%.   The difference in the
total  sulfur  between the  3/8" and  1  1/2" mesh screens  is
small except in the far northeastern corner  of  the  study
area.   In  all  cases  the sulfur content  is greater with  the 11/2"
mesh screen.   The  patterns reflect the location  and  number
of data points  and are particularly evident in  the very sharp
contour  intervals.  For  the  total less  the pyritic  sulfur,
the difference  is  larger  than for  the  total sulfur data alone.

-------
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                    Figure G-l
Center Portion  of Allegany and Garrett Counties
              Upper  Freeport  Coal Bed
           Sulfur Content of  Washed Coal
                Base Map of Samples

-------

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                                                     Figure G-2
                          Center Portion  of Allegany  and Garrett  Coimties
                                           Upper  Freeport Coal Bed
                                        Sulfur  Content  of Washed  Coal
                                                   At 60%  yield
                                        3/8"  mesh;  for  total outcrop

-------
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                                                     Figure G-3
                            Center  Portion of  Allegany and  Garrett   Counties
                                             Upper Freeport Coal  Bed
                                         Sulfur  Content of  Washed  Coal
                                                    At  60%  yield
                                     3/8"  mesh; for area  over 28"  thick

-------

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                                              Figure  G-4

                   Center  Portion  of Allegany and  Garrett  Counties

                                      Upper Freeport  Coal  Bed

                                  Suliur Content  of Washed Coal

                                             At  60%  yield

                                 1  1/2" mesh;  for  total outcrop


-------

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                     Figure  G-5
Center Portion of Allegany  and Garrett Counties
              Upper Freeport Coal  Bed
            Sulfur Content of Washed Coal
                    At 60% yield
       1 1/2" mesh; for  area over  28" thick

-------
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                                                  Figure  G-6
                          Center  Portion  of  Allegany and  Garrett Counties
                                         Upper  Freeport Coal  Bed
                                     Sulfur  Content  of Washed  Coal
                                               At 60% yield
                        Comparison of  3/8"  and 1  1/2" mesh; for total  outcrop

-------
          = 1   1lM\!«v
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                                                                     ..

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I      J.L^  0.0. "  X*07  0*0T  °"C?  "*11  °"T3
                                        Figure G-7
                   Center Portion  of Allegany and Garrett  Counties
                                 Upper  Freeport Coal Bed
                             Sulfur  Content of Washed Coal
                                      At  60%  yield
             Comparison oi 3/8" and 1  1/2" mesh; for area over  2b" thick

-------
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                                            Figure G-8
                       Center Portion of Allegany and  Garrett  Counties
                                     Upper Freeport  Coal  Bed
                                  Sulfur Content of Washed Coal
                                          At 50% yield
                                3/8" mesh;  for area  over  Z8" thick

-------
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                                      Figure  G-9
                 Center Portion of Allegheny and Garrett Counties
                               Upper Freeport Coal  Bed
                           Sulfur Content of Washed Coal
                                    At  70% yield
                          3/8" mesh; for area over  28" thick

-------
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                                                  Figure  G-10
                         Center  Portion  of Allegheny and  Garrett  Counties
                                          Upper  Freeport Coal  Bed
                                     Sulfur  Content  of Washed  Coal
                                               At 80% yield
                                   3/8"  mesh;  for  area over  28" thick

-------
              This area  of  greatest  difference is in the center and  is
              undoubtedly related to the location of the washability data
              points.   We cannot make any  conclusions  as to  the  reduction
              in sulfur content  due to  using  a 3/8" versus a 1 1/2"
              mesh screen  since  the data  are too scanty for  this case;
              the graphic technique  should,  however; prove useful.

                     The final set of maps in Series G  (Figures  G-8  thru
              G-10) show the same type of sulfur information as Figure
              G-3  for the area  over 28" thick but with different yields
              using a 3/8"  mesh  screen.   For these particular washability
              analyses mapped  for the Upper Freeport Bed, yields  of
              50%,  60%,   70%,  or  80% do  not significantly affect the
              sulfur  content.   This would  be intuitively  apparent  from the
              sample  plot of sulfur content versus  yield shown in Figure
              2.  For the total less the pyritic  sulfur all values are  less
              than 1. 0%  sulfur  regardless  of yield; non  are less  than
              0. 5% sulfur.   For total  sulfur  in all cases  2  of  the 5
              values were less  than 1. 0%  and none were less  than 0. 5%.
2. 10.          MAP  SERIES H
                     The  final map series shows the quantity of  coal that
              would be  expected to be available  assuming the washability
              mapped in Series G  and the bed thickness  mapped  in Series
              F.  All of the maps  in this series were produced  with
              the  GRID  program.  As previously discussed,  the  reliability
              of the thickness data  is very suspect and the spatial
              interpretation of the  washability data limited due to the
              number of data points;  consequently,  it  is  not  possible to
              draw any  conclusions as to the actual quantity  of coal that
              might be  available for this particular  study area.   In fact,

-------
it  would be  grossly misleading to attempt  to draw any
such  conclusions.   All of our mapping and analysis  efforts
do, however,  reinforce  the  initial hypothesis  that the
techniques are a powerful tool for  this application as long
as we can provide  sufficient data.

       Figure H-l  shows the  quantity of coal washed to
less than 1% sulfur (at 50% recovery,  assuming deep
mining so as to give conservative estimates)  in tons per
acre  for  a  60%  yield with a 3/8" mesh screen.   This  data
was  mapped for the total outcrop for both  total  sulfur  and total
less pyritic  sulfur.   The map of total less pyritic sulfur is
directly proportional to  the  thickness map  shown in  Figure
F-l  since:  (1) all of the outcrop  is  less  than  1% sulfur for
total  less pyritic,  and,  (2) quantity is directly  proportional
to thickness for those areas  where  sulfur  content is less
than 1%.

       Figures H-2 thru H-5  show the same information
as Figure H-l for  the areas over 28" thick for 60%,
50%,  70%,  and 80% yield,  respectively.   These four pairs
of maps differ slightly in terms  of  (1) the quantity  at  any
character location  mapped  in  direct  proportion  to the percent
yield,  and (2) the cells  mapped,  depending upon the small
variations in. sulfur content  found in Figures G-3,  G-8,  G-9,
and G-10 respectively.   If sufficient reliable  data had  been
available  these subtle  differences and distinctions might
have  proven significant and  could easily  have been quantified,
as in Figure H-7.

       The  final maps in this series attempted  to show the
differences  in quantity of coal obtained by  washing to a
specified  yield of 60%.   First of all the  quantity that could
be recovered with  100%  yield  was determined and mapped
in Figure H-6.  Figure  H-6  is merely a map of the central
portion of Figure F-3 at a larger scale; the quantities


-------
at each location are multiplied by 50% to estimate the
quantity  of  the  reserves that would be recovered.   It
is interesting to note that the scale change  from Figure
F-3 to Figure H-6 reveals a  small pocket of coal  not
shown in Figure F-3 for the areas over 28" thick.   Figure
H-7 shows  the  additional quantities of coal  that would be
recoverable by washing  to a  60% yield.
       When we examine the    difference maps for the
100% yield  surface (the  quantities determined from  the
raw sulfur  data points)  a1"* the 60% yield  surface (determined
from the washability data)  we can only make  a  comparison
for a small center portion of the  study area.  This is the
only area where the  spread of data  points  from the two
sets of data is in any way compatible.  For all  other
portions of these maps there  are  data points  for  only one
of the  two sets of data.   In  addition the  thickness  data
are best for this portion of the study  area.

       Mapping quantity of coal in tons  per acre  by grid
cell may not  be the best procedure:  quantity is a variable
that is better  aggregated for areas  than displayed spatially
as a  surface.   On the other  hand sulfur  content  and bed
thickness are  variables  that lend themselves well to spatial
presentation as surfaces.   To  show useful information for
both sulfur  content and quantity at the same time the following
procedure might be  appropriate:
       1)    map sulfur  content as done in  this study.
       2)    map bed thickness  as done in this  study.
       3)    critical  isolines such as  0.5%  or  1.0% could
       be determined as  in this study and  a map made
       showing  these  for  each of the yields.

-------
4)    for  each area between isolines,  such as the
area  greater  than  0.5% but less than  1.0%,  the
quantity of  coal  could be  calculated based on the
varying bed thickness for those  areas.
5)    these  quantities could be printed out below
the map or as legends  on the map in  the  appropriate
shaded  level.
6)    the  reader can then chose  the sulfur content of
interest to  him and visually see the extent of the
area  involved and  the quantities  of coal  in all those
areas of lesser  sulfur content.
7)    comparisons  can be made between  various  yieids,
and screen  sizes,  with quantities  calculated  and dis-
played  in a similar manner.

-------

                                              SCALE I  IN H1LCS

                                                                                            :!;:::::".„..«*• ~"Vi"t *•""   ALH.GAN*   19
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                                                                    4
                                                                 OUANITT OF IQAL AT SOS t.ECO»tftT / bO* TItLD 11/6
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4 «•*<


STATE OUTLINE
                                                                                                              SCU.EI IN HILtS
                                                                     EEPOHI BED  ALLEGAhT *WJ S4RRETT COUNTIES
                  ' 'ppiI!SI0 ^SU"'1
F.ioUSNC. »IST«jgjTj» JF OAIA FOINI ,.LUSS ,» EAIK unL
 L=VcLS     0    1     i     3     ,    5     f,
                                        10.00 iTt.6.67 3033.33
                                        S.6.67 3033.33 3300.03
 LbSS.CO  £011.20 l-V«,-t.Si E 17*1.54  2501.90   0.0   O.O






P.UE.T.OE OF TOTAL A.SOLOT.^.LOE^.fG. APPL.lfG TO EAf^LEVEL ll-U   ^  ^  u_u   UJ1
                                                        Figure H-l
                            Center  Portion  of Allegheny  and  Garrett  Counties
                                               Upper  Freeport Coal  Bed
                Quantity  (at  50%  recovery)  of  Coal Washed  to  less  than  i%  Sulfur
                                                      At  60%  yield
                                           3/8"  mesh; for  total outcrop

-------
.=§1=™:"-:!"" .-'
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.»«:«;«£ OF TOT.L ..SCJJTT^.^^.Jt .WJJ.Jj ,0 EACJje.EL ^
                                                            ^!,rii,.u,«i..jG6 .PPLJJJO ,0 i{c»Ae,tL
                      t *n*s*»«
                      *
                                              Figure H-2
                       Center Portion  of  Allegheny and  Garrett Counties
                                      Upper  Freeport  Coal Bed
              Quantity (at  50%  recovery) of  Coal Washed to  less than  1% Sulfur
                                            At 60% yield
                                  3/8" mesh; for area over 28"  thick

-------
TOTAL SULFUR (AREA OVcH 29 INCHEi THICK)


OPPtH FHtcPURT BCD  ALLcGANV AM) GARRtTT COUNTIES




QAT« NAPPcO IN 9 L£tfcLS BET«tN cXTrte"£ «?WiS OF  900.00 AND 330O.QO
  319.00  1476.00 1204.55  1*06.71  1598.98   0.0   0.0


4BSCCUTE VALUe RAH&E APPLTIW TO EACH LEVEL
                                                 --
                                        0
                          :S! SISI:S
                                      888:8? iSII:
                                                                  •  *
                                                                        r SO* K.-tOVi.HY / SOI YIELD (3/6 INCH HESH1
UPPER FHEEPORT BLO  ALLEGANY AND GAHRbTT COUNTIES


"TS,;:5!'° i!,.?.b'VEH1.8!8EE".8E5!lE "SfeSS'  '8V

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                                                                                                                          j  r
       >a,i!
        0    0   192    127    0
                                                     . VJLUi

                                                         Figure  H-3
                             Center  Portion of  Allegheny and  Garrett Counties
                                               Upper  Freeport  Coal Bed
                 Quantity (at 50%  recovery)  of  Coal  Washed to  less  than  1%  Sulfur
                                                      At 50% yield
                                          3/8"  mesh; for area  over  28"  thick

-------

UPPi-R FRS-POKT
                                              .LCCANV   S
                                              »„„   ^.'

                                              >    %
                                               ". f
                                           E S T  V I R G I ft
                                             IALEI IN MILcS
            TMtcN ElHUHE VALULS OF  900.00 AW 3300.OO
            5S 19*4.93 276S.T7   0.0   o.fi






            i VALUE RAhG£ APPLV1M, TJ EACH LEVEL
            i-  ii.li  11.11   11.11   li.ll  11.11  11.11   11.11  11.li
                                   s; ssaas BBSS!
ftL LtSi PYRIT1C SULFUS IARLA OVdR 28 INCHES THICK)

P-K FRE^PORT BL-C ALLEGANV AM> liARRLTT COUNTIES






!5lK""" """" "IS'sf ™{«S:Sf VEt53S:33  1388:SS SSI:SI  IB8:S !5!J:8S  i@i:!I !S38:il
                                                        Figure  H-4
                             Center  Portion  of Allegheny and  Garrett  Counties
                                               Upper  Freeport Coal  Bed
                 Quantity (at  50%  recovery)  of  Coal  Washed  to less  than  1%  Sulfur
                                                     At 70% yield
                                         3/8"  mesh; for area over  28"  thick

-------
1 . jUt*
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                                                     Doloo TLJL166^07CVCU33.33 1700.00 194.6.67  2233.33  2SOO.OQ 276o.fi7 3033.33
                                                     06.o7  143i.3J 1700.00 4966.67 2233.33  2500.00  2766.67 3033.33 3300.00


                                                     iiIi.v"LU'."uL A"ii!u ™ "KuEV£L 11.11  11.11   11.11  ii.il  11.11
                                                     F DATA PJIIIT VALUES IN ^.CH LEVt
                                    Figure  H-5
            Center Portion  of Allegheny  and Garrett  Counties
                            Upper Freeport  Coal  Bed
Quantity (at  50% recovery)  of  Coal  Washed  to less than  1%  Sulfur
                                  At  80% yield
                      3/8" mesh;  for area over  28"  thick

-------


                                                                            S
                                                                            %

                                                                                              ."".'
                                                                                            •
                                                                                         -
                                                                                       SCALEl ltt H1L£S
      IHiUTT COUNTIES
N OF DATA POINT VALOES IN E
                       .11  1L.11  11.11  11.11
                                                            °ii!l"!rs!,..:.3  1?2S:SS  ill!:!!  1S:II  !5S!:SS  I5!S:!I 1111:1.

                                                        .SOLU j.V.U..^.^ .PPJJ1NC T, E.C^LE.EL ll-u   u-u   ^^

                                                                                             K.ALOi
                                          Figure  H-b
                  Center Portion of Allegheny and Garrett  Counties
                                  Upper  Freeport Coal Bed
           Quantity (at 50%  recovery) of  Coal with  less than  1% Sulfur
                            (100% yield,  based  on  Figure F-3)

-------
                                       •
                                                                                       „. s

                                                                                  -. I
                                                          efle
                                                      •IS!
                                                                               SCALEi IN MILES
                                       -i rt^PPLO IN 5 Li.Vi.Lj Bf.TKL-U cXTScME VALUES OF  966.43 flNQ 13^0.80
                                       iti.CiO i J,O.QO  '-i.o.-i-- i: jT.jt  1616.20   0.0   O.O

                                       iiffl! "L!!tS:S' "SI-s '"ilS-sr'iKs-Jf  tiS:Si ffiKSt i&
-------
3.        CONCLUSIONS  AND RECOMMENDATIONS

3.1.     STUDY AREA AND  DATA  CONSIDERATIONS

               As expected,  the  greatest difficulty  encountered in the
        project was the obtaining of adequate data to work with.
        Sufficient data to produce meaningful results never were
        available for the detailed study area  of Phase III,  although
        this did not significantly detract from the demonstrations of
        the applicable techniques.

               Examination  of  the  graphics produced in  Phases  I
        and II has  shown that there  is a definite need for:  (1)  a more
        equal number of analyses at each  sampling  location and  (2)
        a  more  evenly distributed  pattern  of  sampling locations.   The
        latter  problem is  especially acute in Phase II while the  former
        problem pertains to  both phases.

               In Phase III  it was  difficult to draw  any  statistically
        sound  conclusions.    The reliability of the thickness data is
        very suspect and the spatial interpretation  of the washability
        data limited  due to  the  number of data points;  consequently,  it  is
        not possible  to  determine with any accuracy the  actual quantity
        of  coal that might be available  for this particular  study  area.

               Furthermore, not enough information was known  about
        such parameters as  the  vertical location of samples  in a bed
        to  ensure representative data for  mapping.   Until  sufficient
        data are  available to standardize the samples and  remove the
        effects  of parameters other  than  spatial location,  substantive
        results cannot  be  obtained,  except on a larger-scale basis
        such as  Phases I and II.

-------
       The study areas for which the computer mapping
techniques were demonstrated were  selected  after reviewing
the available  analytical,  washability and geological data for
several possible areas.   The  criteria for selecting  an area
for detailed study  included: (1) a "reasonable" and "manageable"
number of seams,   and (2) "adequate" availability  of  data  for
each  seam for  sulfur  content, seam  thickness  and extent,  and
washability.   Subject to  these criteria we wished  to  pick  as
extensive  an  area as  practicable so  as  to be able to develop
and test large-scale mapping techniques useful to APCO.

       The criterion of a  "reasonable" and  "manageable"  number
of seams was merely operational: no additional techniques could
be demonstrated by working with 10  or  100  seams than with
2 to 5.  We  were interested  in  summing quantity of coal  for
 2 or  more   seams and were able to demonstrate the technique
with 2 seams for Allegany and Garrett Counties in Phase III,
Stage One.

       In practice any number of seams  could be analyzed,
mapped, and  summed to form a  composite.    The constraints
are:  (i)  preparing base maps  and data banks  for  each seam,
(ii) having data points 'adequately'  spaced for each  seam,
(iii) having a separate computer  storage  file for each  seam,
and (iv)  having the  additional computer budget to  prepare  maps
for each seam.  None of  these constraints are  significant.

       The criterion of  "adequate" availability of  data for each
seam for sulfur content,  seam thickness and  extent,  and  wash-
ability is harder to define.   There is no one magic  number--
or even  range of numbers --that  can  define the adequacy  of
data points.

-------
               The number  of  datk  points necessary for accurate
       mapping is a function of:
               (i)      the scale of the map
               (ii)     the level of detail desired at that scale
               (iii)    the spacing and clustering of data points,  and
               (iv)    the variability in the  surface for the particular
               variable  or phenomenon.

               As a minimum,  it is  difficult  to  imagine a  surface  that
       would be well represented at any scale with fewer than  10 data
       points-!' and  these 10 should  be
               a)      fairly uniformly spaced
               b)      non-clustered
               c)      near the periphery as  well as the center  of the
               study area.
       If data points are clustered  or missing for portions of the
       study area,  additional  points  should  be incorporated to determine
       a  minimum.

               The two  criteria that are the most changeable  are the
       relationship  of the level  of  detail desired to the scale of the
       map^ and  the  variability in the surface.  If we  have a map
       10"  by 10" and  we desire resolution to the nearest inch,  then
       a  data point  spacing  of about 2" should be  adequate.   The scale
       of the map is immaterial as long as this  ratio of 1"   to 10"
       (or  1:3.0)  is  maintained.  (Compare  Figures  B-13  and D-3.)
for a procedure to determine  the  adequacy of data points, see the section
on Map Accuracy  and  Sampling Procedures  in  Volume Two:  General
Documentation.


-------
       The  more variable  the  surface is  for  a phenomenon,
the greater the  number  of  data points that will  be  necessary
to explain that surface,  all else being constant.   This  can
only be determined by statistical  measures and  sampling for
each phenomenon,  as discussed in Volume  Two: General
Documentation.

       If  we examine our base maps again, the following  general
conclusions can  be  made about number of data points  and  spacing:
       1.      Phase I (Figures A-l and A-5) -we cannot  infer
       accuracy  below the  county level and have large  areas of
       the study area without  data points for  sulfur content.
       2.      Phase II  (Figures B-l,  B-8, B-15,  and  C-l)--
       we cannot infer  accuracy below the  town level,  and--
       relative to  the scale and detail--have  even larger portions
       of the study area without data  points;  Map series  C,
       however,  has equal  accuracy for all areas mapped
       because of  the use  of a maximum search radius about
       each  data point.
       3.      Phase III  -  sulfur content (Figures E-l  and E-5)--
       the data points  are  not evenly  spaced and are clustered;
       there are virtually no portions of the  study  areas with
       adequate  data points.
       4.      Phase III  - bed thickness (Figures F-l  and F-2)--the
       same is true as  with the  sulfur  content  data points.   Note
       also that  the inadequacy of data points--both the number and
       the spacing--is compounded  when  sulfur  content  and  thickness
       are  compared to  determine quantity.
       5.      Phase III  - washability  (Figure G-l)--there are
       only five  data points; it is not possible to develop  a
       meaningful  surface  from so  few points.

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       Although the particular study areas  may not  be re-
presentative of the country as a whole,  they can adequately
demonstrate the scales of analysis useful to  APCO.   The larger
the scale — given the same ratio of detail to  scale — the less
constraining are the data  point requirements, as shown by the
Phase I and Phase II  maps.   But at the scale of one or more
counties (Phase III)  it is necessary to  have good data point
coverage by mine location.

        As with any  contour  map,  values are  exact  only at
control points.  As  one moves farther  from control points values
become less  trustworthy.   A  region with many control points is
more  likely to have accurate  contours  than is a region with
few control points,  all other things being equal.  Values  at  the
margin of the map,  which are outside  the  control  points  are
of  dubious  accuracy.  The SYMAP program  places  all control
points on the  map so  that the reader can have  some  idea of
the likelihood of  accuracy.

        A final note  of caution should be raised concerning the
variation in the number of analyses averaged at each data point.
Perhaps the best  safeguard  against making any false  inferences
is  to look at a map in one hand  and at the base map which  shows
the data points and the number of analyses in the  other hand.
In  this way,  one is  made aware  of the  number of  analyses
attributed to  a data  point  and  the  validity one can  infer about
any given area of the  map.

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3.2.     MAPPING CONSIDERATIONS

                There  are several important  mapping  considerations
        that have  come  out  of  this study,  separate from  the  study  area
        and data considerations.   These include:
                (i)     photographic reproduction,
                (ii)     graphic  symbolism,
                (iii)    legends  for number  of  analyses,  and
                (iv)    use of composite maps.

                Photographic  reduction  of the  maps has  certain
        difficulties.   In particular the  legends may become illegible
        and the textual  and  statistical  material printed  below  the map
        may lose  much  of its  usefulness.  Moreover; the tone dis-
        cernability of the symbolism is somewhat reduced in  almost
        direct  proportion to  the amount the maps  were photographically
        reduced.  But,  it is still felt  that a  relatively  good quality
        can be attributed to  the symbolism.

                Some of  the  problems  can be  overcome  by photographing
        the  legends  and  explanatory information  at another scale.
        In fact, this was done with the titles shown at  the bottom  of
        each page; these were separately photographed  and stripped into
        the  negatives  before printing.   Overlays  for  certain of the
        legends can also be  used.

                The  best solution is to  experiment at  the  beginning  of
        a project  to determine the optimum  combination  of study area
        size,  reduction  scale,  and legend  and explanatory information
        detail to use in the  final presentation or  publication of the

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3.2.     MAPPING  CONSIDERATIONS

                There  are several important mapping  considerations
        that have  come out of this  study,  separate from  the  study area
        and data considerations.  These include:
                (i)     photographic  reproduction,
                (ii)     graphic  symbolism,
                (iii)    legends  for number  of analyses,  and
                (iv)    use  of  composite maps.

                Photographic  reduction of the maps  has  certain
        difficulties.  In particular the legends may become illegible
        and the textual  and statistical material printed  below  the  map
        may  lose  much of its  usefulness.   Moreover, the tone dis-
        cernability of the symbolism  is somewhat reduced in  almost
        direct  proportion to  the amount the  maps  were photographically
        reduced.   But,  it  is  still felt that  a relatively  good quality
        can be attributed to  the symbolism.

                Some of the problems  can be overcome  by photographing
        the legends and explanatory information  at another  scale.
        In fact, this was  done with the titles shown at  the  bottom of
        each  page; these were  separately photographed  and stripped into
        the negatives  before  printing.   Overlays for  certain of the
        legends can also be  used.

                The best  solution is to experiment at  the  beginning of
        a  project  to determine  the  optimum combination  of study  area
        size,  reduction scale, and  legend  and explanatory information
        detail to use in the final presentation or  publication of the

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maps.  For this project the  decisions  to map Phase I  and
Phase II  at the  scale  chosen and to show  all legends at the
same scale (without overlays) were  ultimately responsible for
the difficulties  in  reading some of the  maps.

       With the exception of  class levels,  or value  range
intervals, the map symbolism  is the only and,  therefore the
most important graphic way  to portray the meaning of the
data.  The value of a map may be  easily lost  or destroyed
by a  poor choice of symbolism.

       In SYMAP  this choice of symbolism is usually made
by the program; there  is  a prestored set  of symbolism for
up to 12  levels.   For this project it was  felt  that this  set of
symbolism  was  inadequate because  (1)  there was not enough
differentiation between  some  of the  levels,  and (2)  the  darkness
of adjacent levels  seemed to be reversed  in some cases.
Therefore,  a unique set  of symbolism  was devised.   Whenever
possible this  set of symbolism and  value range  intervals was
used.

       The numbers of analyses associated with  the data points
were shown on the base  maps  as legends  to aid  the reader.
The  program which produced these  legends can  easily  be
generalized to produce other legends such as mine codes,  town
names, year  samples  taken,  etc.  to be printed  on  the  base
maps at or adjacent to the data points.  If large scale maps
are used  or there  are  few data points,  these legends can be
used  on all maps  in a  series; because they  often obscure the
symbolism  they are generally used  only with base maps.

       In Phase III a  composite map was  made  showing the
quantity of  coal from  two different  coal seams.   This  is really


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only a mapping exercise: because of the  difference in elevation
separating the two  seams,  the  composite maps produced are
of very little value.  They assume  that the two beds  are
fairly  close  together  for  mining purposes,  which, in fact  they
are not.   They also  assume  that the two beds  are similar
enough in  geologic  attributes  to be shown together.   In  producing
such composite maps caution must be taken to use surfaces  that
can meaningfully  be combined.

        The mapping characteristics  of  the  SYMAP and GRID
programs  do seem well suited  to the displays  shown.   Overlays
of certain legends would  probably improve the  readability, as
would  a different scale of photographic reduction.  The SYMVU
program  is  useful in conjunction with SYMAP and mainly  to
visualize the variability in the  surfaces.

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3.3.    APPLICATIONS

              The most important application is  the  mapping  of sulfur
       content and quantity on the same  map.   Mapping  quantity of
       coal in tons per  acre by grid cell may not be the best procedure:
       quantity  is  a  variable that  is  better aggregated for areas than
       displayed spatially  as a surface.   On the other hand sulfur.
       content and bed  thickness are variables that lend themselves
       well to spatial presentation as surfaces.   To show useful infor-
       mation for  both  sulfur  content and quantity  at the  same time
       the following  procedure might be  appropriate:
              1)     map  sulfur  content  as done in this  study
              2)     map  bed thickness  as  done  in this  study.
              3)     critical isolines such as 0.5% or 1.0% could
              be  determined as in this study and a map made showing
              these  for  each of the  yields.
              4)     for each area  between  isolines,  such as the area
              greater  than 0.5% but less than 1.0%, the  quantity of
              coal could be calculated based on  the  varying bed thickness
              for those  areas.
              5)     these quantities could be printed  out below the
              map or  as legends  on the  map in  the  appropriate  shaded
              level.
              6)     the reader can then choose the sulfur content  of
              interest to him and visually see the extent of the  area
              involved  and the quantities  of  coal in all those  areas of
              lesser sulfur content.
              7)      comparisons can  be made between  various  yields,
              and screen  sizes,  with quantities calculated and dis-
              played in a similar manner.

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       In  general for analytical  or working purposes,  a series
of maps  could be made with sulfur content or quantity  varying
for each map and the other  variable  varying  through the series
of maps.   The  recommended procedure would be to produce
maps in  the  series,  varying by  seam thickness  or  overburden
in intervals.   For each interval of seam thickness  or  over-
burden sulfur content would  be mapped and a number or bar
would be  printed within each isoline  of sulfur level  showing
the quantity  of  coal  contained  therein.

       Once  the base map is  created maps of any number  of
possibilities  and variables may be made inexpensively.   The
most suggestive may be used.   In addition,  historical  maps of
production and  reserves may  be made,  as data  over time are
accumulated.  Some possible  maps are:
       1)     Isopach maps  (thickness) by bed and  for  the
              total  amount of  coal underground;
       2)     Depth of  overburden to top of bed(structure  contour
              map)'} among other things, this  will tell us whether
              strip mining is  feasible;
       3)     Total  volume  of coal in the ground per acre;
       4)     Amount of  coal  recoverable by present methods
              before treatment per acre;
       5)     Yield  of  recoverable coal remaining  after treatment
              per  acre for each top  size and each  bed;
       6)     Percent sulfur in  coal  after treatment, (by top
               size)j
       7)     Net  worth of coal in ground by bed after mining and
              treatment,  before shipping--for each  size grade and
               for all size grades;

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       8)      Map of coal sheds  about major  regions,  dependent on
              transportation costs, and price  for  each  coal  grade;
              and,
       9)      Dynamic  nature of  coal sheds as we feed in
              changes in technology of coal beneficiation,  changes
              in standards  of pollution control at  the stack,
              subsidized changes  in freight  rates,  changes in
              subsidy for expensive technology, and changes
              in demand if oil or gas is  substituted for coal.

       Many of the variables  mapped  can be compared to sulfur
content to  determine  quantity  of coal less than a certain percent
under  varying  assumptions.   For  instance,  depth  of overburden
can be checked at each  character cell to be mapped to  see if
mining is  feasible.    This can be done using the same procedures
as were used to determine quantity for mapping.

       I± would  appear  that the best applications can be made
at the county and town  level  as in Phases  I and II.   It  is
doubtful that sufficient  data can be made available  at the mine
level  in the  near future to satisfy  the study area  and data
accuracy  criteria.

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HI.      APPENDICES
        1.     Phases I and II: Appalachian Coai Region
        2.     Phase III:  Allegany and Garrett  Counties
        3.     General References
        4.     Program Development

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1.    PHASES I AND II:  APPALACHIAN COAL REGION

                  Phases I and II of the project dealt with  a  four  state
          area herein called the Appalachian Coal Region.   It covered
          an area approximated by counties containing coal  in the
          Pittsburgh Bed, according  to  the Bureau of Mines data bank.
          Phase  I was concerned  with data on  sulfur  content for raw and
          washed samples--aggregated by counties--for the  Pittsburgh Bed.
          Phase  II was  concerned with data on sulfur content  for
          raw and washed samples--aggregated by  towns--for  the
          Pittsburgh Bed and raw  samples for the  Middle Kittanning Bed.

                  The following sections describe the  work that  was
          done to prepare the data for mapping,  including base  map
          preparation,  data  bank set up and use, and decisions  as  to the
          actual  running of  the  maps.

1.1.      INPUT TO SYMAP

                  SYMAP,  like any other computer program,  is simply
          a framework  in which a user  can work.   The program provides
          a variety  of options and  the programmer merely  chooses  which
          ones he wishes  to employ in order to create the  map.

                  To produce computer maps, input to the  computer  in
          the  form  of a deck of punched cards must be prepared.   This
          deck will  consist  of certain introductory  cards (job  control
          language and a subroutine) and a number of "packages" each
          composed  of additional cards  covering  a  specific  category of
          information about  the  map(s) to be produced.

                  The  number of packages used  depends,  exclusively, on
          the  programmer.   In  this project a total of 6 packages were
          set  up for SYMAP input:

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 1.      A-OUTLINE--describes the outline of the
 entire Pittsburgh  Coal Bed by specifying  the x-y
 coordinate  locations of each  significant  directional
 change along that  polygon curve.   The  shape of the
 bed  is  thus defined  in the program by connecting  each
 vertex to the next to form a  series of  straight line
 segments.

 2.      B-DATA  POINTS--describes the point locations
 to. which your data is to be related,  by specifying
 their x-y coordinate  locations.   These  data points may
 be either the points for which data is available (towns
 in Phase II), or the  centers  of areas (counties and/or
 bed  outcrops in counties in Phase  I),  for which data
 is available.  A printed listing of  the data points is
 found  in Table  III-l and III-3 for Phase I and  Tables
 III-5 and HI-7  for  Phase II.

 3.      C -LEGENDS - -causes  certain supplementary  in-
 formation,  namely legends,  to appear on the face  of
 an output map  (e.  g. ,  for Phases I  and II this  meant  the
 graphic  scale,  legend box,  and all the  state  names) by
 specifying their coordinate  locations  and content.

 4.      C-OTOLEGENDS--describes line legends such as
 rivers,  bridges,  roads, and  county or  state  lines which
 must be adjusted  if the  size  (scale) of  the map is altered.
Appropriate deletions  or additions  to these line seg-
ments are  made in accordance with change  in scale.
 This  package adjusts with scale  identically to  the
A-OUTLINE package  and with  only minor alterations
 in card  order (and not in card format)  one  package  can

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         easily  be converted to the other.  In both Phases I
         and II, the C-OTOLEGENDS package contained the
         significant state  and outside county boundaries  of
         the  four-state  region.

         5.      E-VALUES --contains the values or quantitative
         information applicable to each data point;  one value for
         each data point.   It is wisest to label each  card for
         future  reference.   The order  of the cards is not im-
         portant--any convenient way of arranging them is
         possible  as long as these  two packages are  in  the  same
         order.    In Phase I the counties were  ordered alpha-
         betically by  state and  in Phase  II alphabetically by
         state,  county,  and town.   This  is the same  order  in
         which the data was received.   A printed  listing  of
         tke  values  is found  in Table III-2  and  III-4 for Phase
         I and Tables III-6 and III-8 for  Phase II.

         6.      F-MAP--is the map instruction and execution
         package.   The user specifies  an appropriate title  to
         appear below the map as well as  electives concerning
         the  size  or scale, number of  levels, level breaks, map
         symbolism, minimum  and  maximum values to be regarded;
         search radius, etc.   A sample  F-MAP package is  in-
         cluded  in Table  111-12.

         The above brief  package descriptions were only intended
to present a general  discussion of  the workings of SYMAP.  For
a more  detailed explanation of the  program and its operations,
see  Volume  Two:  General Documentation.

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1.2.       BASE MAP PREPARATION

                   The first  step in producing  a computer map is for
          the  user to obtain a source  map of  the  area under  study.
          The  map must be  prepared  in such  a form  that it  is digestable
          to the  computer.   It therefore becomes necessary  to code  a
          base map that has all the information on  it  that you wish to
          show.

                 For  this beginning stage  in the  project  a base map  at a. scale
          of 1:250,000 was  prepared from  the  Army Map Service series of the
          same scale.  This particular  series was  chosen because of the scale
          clarity and  its availability--the  Laboratory has the  complete set for
          the  United States.   By using this scale,  the detail is  preserved in
          reduction  and it  becomes possible  to select portions of  the  map to
          blow up  for  close  scrutiny (see  maps D-3 thru D-7).   These maps
          also have Universal Transverse Mercator grids  (UTM s) marked on
          the  map.  This becomes  an important  factor for Phases   II and III
          since all of the data is  located by UTM coordinates.

                   The entire study area  conveniently  (and  deliberately)
          rests within one UTM grid zone--zone 17.  It was  decided
          that work would  be greatly facilitated if the study were to
          restrict  itself to  only  one UTM  zone.   This was done  because
          of problems inherent in the  projection  which make it somewhat
          difficult  to  align adjacent UTM zones.   Some  of  the  counties were
          not  in zone  17 and were  deleted  and others were not in the
          chosen study area.  The  area was chosen so  as to be within
          the   Appalachian  Coal  Region and  contain all of the  Pittsburgh
          bed.

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         The base  map was prepared by tracing 84 conterminous
county outlines,  in sections,  onto the working base map  of
69. 7" by 77. 7" (x-y).   Points  representing  raw and washed
data for the Pittsburgh Bed were  placed  in  their respective
counties.  The coordinates for the outer edge (or outline of
the 4 state and county area),  the  data  points, and  state  lines
were all punched in inches and  generated  by the use of an
electronic  digitizer.

         The use  of this machine  is imperative  in facilitating
the work of locating coordinates  and eliminates  the  chance
for human error.   The digitizer was  employed  in this project
because  of its ability  to quickly and  accurately  produce a great
number  of coordinates in  card form.   The procedure  involved
in using this  machine  is  quite  simple.   The  user tapes the
base map  to the table in such  a  way that  the x and y axes on
the map are true  to the horizontal and vertical, respectively.
The  origin is  then set by the  user to 0, 0 in the top  left hand
corner  of  the  map.   The  machine  is instructed  to  measure  the
coordinates in inches  by  an interchangable circuit board  within
the machine.   The coordinates  are then taken from the  map by
lining up the  cross-hairs  on an adjustable arm  over  the  point
that  one wishes to  digitize.   By  then pressing a button on the
arm, the coordinate is taken and  transferred to a  keypunch which
is interfaced  to the machine.   The keypunch then punches the
point in  card  form giving its x-y coordinates in inches  to two
decimal  places,  left-justified to columns 11  and 21 and also
punches  a  unique reference number in  columns  73  and 80.
The  numbers  were assigned to these column fields by the use
of a drum card in the key punch machine.   The resultant card
output is in a format  compatible to SYMAP input with  only
minor alterations  in terms of the regrouping  of cards.

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         For smaller areas with fewer  vertices, this pro-
cedure  is done by hand with a  ruler.   The SYMAP program
will not accept any outline  that has an  excess of a hundred
vertices in the A-OUTLINE package.   Since  more  than 500
cards were punched in the  outline of the  conterminous study
area, it was necessary to break  up the cards into  "islands"
or  sections of 100 vertices or  less.   In  so doing,  the appear-
ance of the map is not affected whatsoever.  After this  pro-
cedure  was followed, a number of maps were run of the  low
sulfur  Pittsburgh data using different level breaks  and symbol-
ism shadings  at a scale  of 1:633,600  or  1 inch =  10 miles.
These  maps were  run with the  study area county outlines as
an  A-OUTLINE; the remaining work in Phases  I and II was
done with the  bed  outcrop as the  A-OUT LINE at the same
scale.

         A  1938 base map at a scale of 1:506,880  or 1 inch = 8
miles,  of  the  Pittsburgh  Coal Bed  was sent to  us  by the Bureau
of  Mines.   It  was almost exactly half the scale of the base
map with which we had been working.   However, because of
incompatibility of the  map  projections between  our base  map at
a  scale of  1:250, 000 and the 1:506, 880 map it did not seem feasible at the
time to enlarge the  map  by a factor  of two.   Therefore the
map of the Pittsburgh Coal Bed  was  enlarged  by eye by the
similar grid method to fit  the  1:250,000 base map.   In  retro-
spect,   it would have  been a lot less  time consuming  to have
photo-enlarged the map anyway,  since  the  error factor would
have been so  slight  in the  photo-enlargement and less than
enlarging the  map by eye.   After the outline   of the Pittsburgh
Bed had been  delineated on the base  map,  it was  then digitized
and made  into  71  different  "islands".   Each  island represents
one outcrop or part of an outcrop in the  case of the major

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          seams  of  the  Pittsburgh  Bed.  The time involved in digitizing
          the base map was three  hours.   Because of the  sensitive and
          delicate nature of the digitizer, it tends  to  be  prone to errors.
          These  errors, however,  are very easily discovered upon
          running the  first base map.  From the  nearly  2000 cards
          created,  about 200 (or 10%)  had  validity checks because  of
          a defunct  transistor  in the machine.   This kind of error pro-
          duces a multiple punch on the  card which is unreadable  to
          the computer  and therefore unacceptable  for processing.   This
          mistake was easily  corrected in  a matter of a few hours.

                  The old  outline of the  study area (the  county outline)
          was then  easily converted  into  the C-OTOLEGENDS package.
          The state boundaries were also coded as  C-OTOLEGENDS  in
          a similar manner.   Legends were also  made for  state names,
          the graphic  scale, and legend box  which  were input by row
          and column  coordinates  taken from the output map.   These  were
          all included in the C-LEGENDS package.  The C-OTOLEGENDS
          package was used for all maps in Phase I and II because these
          legends can adjust in scale.   The C-LEGENDS package was
          changed for the D-series  maps.

1.3.       PHASE  I DATA BANK

                  A small data bank was sent to  us by the Bureau of
          Mines.   The  deck consisted  of 66 cards  for 59 counties  in
          the four state region and is broken down as follows,  for the
          Pittsburgh Bed counties mapped:

                  # Counties          Raw  Data      Washed Data
                  Maryland               2              0
                  Ohio                    8              3
                  Pennsylvania           7              5
                  West Virginia          16
                                         33              19


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                  From  the  original data bank,  the  values for  the
         Middle Kittanning Bed  were deleted.   From the  remaining
         values--for the Pittsburgh Bed--six counties  were found to
         be  outside  the  study area and were deleted: Columbiana,
         Mahoning,  and Stark,  Ohio,  and Center, Clinton,  and Tioga,
         Pennsylvania.   This left the above  33  counties used for
         mapping.   The  card format was slightly altered  from the
         original to facilitate the identification  of the fields containing
         values:

         Number of Analyses                 Columns 1-5
         Low  Sulfur  Value                    Columns 6-10
         Mode Value                          Columns 11-15
         High Value                           Columns 16-20
         Bed  Code                            Columns 50-52
         Raw  or Washed                      Column     53
         Point Sequence  Number              Columns 55-56
         Three-Digit State   Code             Columns 61-63
         Three-Digit County Code             Columns 64-66
         Two-Digit State Name                Columns 69-70
         County Name                         Columns 73-80
                  As was  noted  in  an earlier section,  the values and
         the data  points  are in  a one to one correspondence to each
         other.   Hence,  the first value will be associated  with the
         first data point. After all of.the  values  are  read  into the com-
         puter,  they are associated with their  respective  data points
         and contouring takes place, based on  the SYMAP  contouring
         algorithm.

1.4.      PHASE I DATA POINT PLACEMENT

                  There are  33  raw and  19 washed  data points  in the
         study area.   One data  point is  assigned to represent an entire

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46.41
39.39
29.95
33.66
30.49
35.46
33. 13
36.45
32.36
13.73
53.00
38.08
33.27
43.04
1 6.36
39.67
38.49
fj I T K
t- I T «
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OA
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09
1 0
1 1
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
i ** < > < i ,- •<
-s ^ (MM**
3 'I O 1 ) \ 1
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34 OOM 1
3401 OS
34 0 1 IS
372003
37205 1
37205V
372063
372 1 1 1
372125
372129
47000 1
470O07
470009
470021
470033
47004 1
470049
470051
470053
470057
470061
470069
470077
470079
470091
470097
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Oil
nn
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nn
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OH
OH
HA
HA
HA
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O A 1-: ^ 1^£ "T T
A THH; IMS
RF?l_ MDN T
GALL I A
GUEKNSFY
HARR I SON
JEFFERSO
MF I CiS
MORGAN
ALLFGHEN
FAYETTE
GREENE
INDIANA
SOMERSET
WASHINGT
WESTMORE
RARROUR
RRAXTON
RROOKE
GILMER
HARRISON
LEWIS
MAR ION
MARSHALL
MASON
MINERAL
MONGAL I A
OHIO
HRESTON
HUTNAM
TAYLOR
UHSHUR
    Key:
y  and   x  locations
                                                  Table  III-l

-------
I CSO .
1 .
1 1 .
322.
7.
7.
318.
368.
1 1 .
2.
431 .
551 .
61 .
109.
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552.
361 .
13.
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106.
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89.
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1659.
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2.4
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1 .7
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5.0
3.5
5.9
3.2
5.5
3.4
5.3
4.3
4.0
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0.7
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4.4
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1— I T K
H I TK
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PITR
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09
10
1 1
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
1 ^* O O O 1
1 ^-> O O ^ .-(
1,4 OOOv»
3 1\ O O 1 3
1 1\. 0 O S 3
34 (105 V
340 Of> 7
34 OOH 1
3401 05
3401 15
372003
372051
372059
372063
372 1 1 1
372125
372129
47000 1
470007
470009
470021
470033
470041
470049
470051
470053
470057
470061
470069
470077
470079
47009 1
470097
M 1 >
M 1 1
Mil
(in
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
PA
PA
PA
PA
PA
PA
PA
WV
wv
WV
wv
wv
wv
wv
wv
wv
wv
wv
wv
wv
wv
wv
wv
Al_l_c- Ci /\ IVJY
UAKRE T T
ATHENS
H (^ I . MO N' T
GALL I A
GUEKNSFY
HARk I SON
JEFFEWSO
ME I G S
MORGAN
ALLEGHEN
F AYETTE
GREENE
IND I ANA
SOMERSET
W ASHI NGT
W-E-STMORE
BARROUR
RRAXTON
BROOKE
GI LMER
HARR I SON
LEW I S
MARION
MARSHALL
MASON
MINERAL
MONGAL I A
OHIO
PRESTON
PUTNAM
TAYLOR
UPSHUR
Key:
number . low  .  mode .  high
                                              Table III-2

-------
Ul
I
              31 .0-5
27. O
-------
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1 1 7.
65 .
353.
4.
3.
100.
71 .
245.
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619.
1 .
563.
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29.
709.
26.
2.4
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2.7
1 .8
1 .4
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4.5
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2.6
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3.5
4.7
3.4
3.6
4.5
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13
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1 ^ o n t> 7
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372111
3/2125
372 129
4 ^0001
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47002 1
470033
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470053
470061
470069
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OH
OH
PA
HA
HA
HA
HA
WV
WV
WV
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WV
^f= l_MO IN1T
HARRIS (DM
JEF^ERSO
ALLRGHEN
F AYFTTE
SOMFRSET
W ASH I NGT
W F S T MO H E
RARHQUK
RRAXTON
BROOKE
GILMEH
HARRI SON
LFW IS
MAR ION
MARSHALL
MASON
MONGAL I A
OHIO
Key:
number .   low - mode . high
                                                   Table  III-4

-------
          county.   As  in  the  case of the  outline of the Pittsburgh Bed,
          the  coordinates  for  the data points  were digitized  in  inches.
          The rationale for the placement was two-fold:

                   1.      If a map from the Report of  Investigation
                   series  was available,  the point was  placed at the
                   center  of gravity  of the reserves  in seams  of  28"
                   or more in thickness;

                   2.      If no map  existed,  then the  point was deter-
                   mined by using the  center  of  gravity of the existing
                   Pittsburgh  seam for that county based  on the 1938
                   map of  1:506,880  scale.

                   All vertical coordinates were  punched as  a  decimal
          number in Columns  11-15  and all horizontal  coordinates were
          punched  as a decimal  number  in  Columns  21-25.   Columns
          50-80 are in the same format as the E-VALUES  package-
          A listing of the  data points appears in Table III-l (raw) and
          III-3 (washed) and  of the values in  Table  III-2(raw) and  III-4
          (washed).

1.5.       PHASE  II DATA BANK

                   In every respect,  except for the  number of data points
          and value's,  many of the maps  created in this phase  have  the
          identical SYMAP input format  as  in the first phase.  Some  of
          the  maps are blow-ups of  certain areas  of  the  region which
          may merit further study (maps D-3 thru D-7).

                  An  additional  coal bed  was mapped  in Phase II-the
          Middle Kittanning.   There  were no  base maps available for
          this bed  so  contouring was only done within a 5 and  10  mile

-------
radius of each town (see maps C-2  thru  C-7).   It was felt
that contouring  beyond these  limits was perhaps unjustified
and therefore misleading.   Maps of the Pittsburgh  Bed were
created in the same way for  the purpose of:  (1) comparison
with the Middle  Kittanning Bed and (2)  obtaining uniform  accuracy
over the areas  mapped.   These maps are in series B-16 thru
B-21.

       The data as received  from the Bureau of Mines were
arranged  by bed (Pittsburgh followed by Middle  Kittanning),
alphabetized by  state,  county, and town,  and sequenced by mine
number within the towns.   This same order  was preserved
and used  in  the  data bank that was created.

       A  number of steps were  necessary in order  to arrive
at the appropriate set of values for the Phase II data bank.

       The first step concerned removing those  towns from
the data listing which were not  in the 84 county study area.
Only towns in the  following counties  of the Middle Kittanning
Bed were  deleted: Columbiana,  Mahoning, and Stark,  Ohio;
and Center,  Clarion, Clinton, and  Tioga,  Pennsylvania.    In
a number  of  cases,  the  same town appeared  more  than once
for the same bed.  When this occured,  the  'town1 which  had
the fewer  mines was transfered to the  'town1 which had the
greater number.   These towns for the  Pittsburgh Bed were:
Hopedale,  Ohio, Clarksville,  Pennsylvania, Point Marion,
Pennsylvania,  Burnsville,  West Virginia,  Worthington, West
Virginia;  and for the Middle  Kittanning  bed were: Crooksville,
Ohio,  New Straitsville,  Ohio, Osceola  Mills, Pennsylvania,
and Philipsburg, Pennsylvania.   This procedure was necessary
because SYMAP can only associate one  value per data point
location.

-------
         The majority of  the towns on the data listing had
more than one mine  (value) associated with them.  As the
second  step,  it was therefore  necessary  to arrive at one
value per town by some  sort of a mathematical process.   The
following procedure  was  used after advisement by the Bureau
of Mines:

Value                        Procedure Adopted
Number of Analyses         Mathematically totalled by town
Low Sulfur  Value            The lowest sample taken was
                             used for the  low value.
Mode Sulfur Value           The most frequent or the mode
                             value  was used
High Sulfur Value            The highest of the high  values
                             was used.
All addition for  the  Number of Analyses  was checked  and  re-
checked on an adding machine.   The low, mode, and  high
values  were verified by eye three separate times for  accuracy.

         After the  non-pertinent towns were  deleted and the
mine  values were  totalled by town,  the third  step involved
data analysis.  The data was run  thru a small statistical
computer program  called SPSS  (Statistical Package for the
Social Sciences).   This package program, amongst other
things,  computes the mean, median,  mode,  variance,  standard
deviation,  skewness, range, minimum and  maximum of the  data.
This kind of information  is a most helpful tool to  anyone who
is making a map because it leads  to a better visualization of
the data and wiser  decisions  can be made on  how to best  display
this information.

         The SPSS program was used to analyze all  the data
for Phases I and II.   However after meetings with APCO and

-------
          the  Bureau  of Mines it was decided  to use  equal value
          range intervals  for all  maps.

                  As  in Phase I, the cards were punched in a set
          format for easy identification of the  fields as  follows:
          Number of Analyses                 Columns  1-5
          Low Sulfur  Value                    Columns  6-10
          Mode Value                          Columns  11-15
          High Value                           Columns  16-20
          Bed  Code                            Columns 50-52
          Raw or Washed                      Column     53
          Point Sequence  Number              Columns 54-56
          Three-Digit State Code              Columns 60-62
          Three-Digit County Code             Columns 63-65
          Five-Digit Town Code                Columns 66-70
          Town Name                          Columns 73-80
          A card  listing for  the  values  of the  raw and washed data may
          be found in Tables  III-6 and III-8, respectively, for the
          Pittsburgh Bed  and Table III-10 (raw values) for the  Middle
          Kittanning Bed.   The  corresponding  tables for data point
          locations are  Tables III-5 and III-7 for the  Pittsburgh Bed
          and III-9 for the Middle Kittanning Bed.

1.6.       PHASE  II DATA POINT PLACEMENT

                  It was  decided to aggregate  the mine  data to the
          nearest town.    This was done because: (i) many of the mine
          locations were not yet referenced to the UTM grid,  and (ii)
          such small-scale mapping would create a great number  of
          superimposed  data  points  that would  negate  the effort expended
          in doing a map  of  such detail at the  scale selected.   Even at
          the  town level,  there were  8  superimposed  towns occuring  at

-------
377-
391 .
391 .
381 .
384.
389.
395.
361 .
367.
422.
426.
439.
430.
435.
440.
441 .
444.
4.15 .
^45.
440 .
438.
441 .
430.
412.
436.
424.
427.
311 .
295.
424.
458.
450.
472.
463.
468.
458.
448.
450 .
457.
452.
465.
454 .
457.
450.
484.
482.
462.
461 .
456.
457.
468.
446.
478.
469.
316.
322.
374.
471 .
463.
455.
670.
680 .
677.
673.
675.
675.
658.
417.
394.
480.
485.
513.
521.
515.
51 1 .
505.
494.
521 .
48H.
498.
523.
510.
515.
516.
508.
521 .
490.
403.
396.
474.
500.
477.
504.
508.
498.
505.
483.
506.
506.
510.
515.
519.
531 .
519.
529.
527.
533.
51 1 .
513.
518.
532.
525.
533.
525.
408.
402.
410.
588.
582.
601 .
                  026K001
                  026R002
                  026R003
                  026R004
                  026R005
                  026R006
                  026R007
                  026R008
                  026R009
                  026R010
                  026R011
                  026R012
                  026R013
                  026R014
                  026KO15
                  026RO16
                  026R017
                  026R018
                  026R019
                  026R020
                  026R021
                  026R022
                  026R023
                  026R024
                  026R025
                  026R026
                  026R027
                  026R028
                  026R029
                  026R030
                  026R031
                  026R032
                  026R033
                  026R034
                  026R035
                  026R036
                  026R037
                  026R038
                  026R039
                  026R040
                  026R041
                  02bR042
                  026R043
                  026R044
                  026R045
                  026R046
                  026R047
                  026R048
                  026R049
                  026R050
                  026R051
                  026R052
                  026R053
                  026R054
                  026R055
                  026R056
                  026R057
                  026R058
                  026R059
19000100800
19000104900
19000106000
19000109500
19000110100
19000110120
19002307000
34 000901600
34000955200
34001304180
34001304700
34001304850
34001305800
34001307970
34001319480
34001325400
34001326400
34001329950
34001335700
34001339750
34001347800
34001348730
34001355000
34001367500
34001372000
34001374100
34001377650
34005315350
34005328100
34 005967900
34006712100
34006727500
34006729050
34 006736000
34006738300
34006738920
34006765230
34006775350
34006782450
34008100600
34008108410
34 008109350
340081 10100
34008122200
34008124900
34008139630
34008152000
34008163550
34008165370
34008175900
34008178300
34008180800
34008181400
34008190800
34010550000
34010571700
34011507940
37200304080
37200306520
37200307580
                  026R060
          Table III-5
II  Pittsburgh Bed  - Raw Data  Points
BARTON
E C K H A R T
FROSTRUR
LGNACONI
MIDLAMD
MIDLOTHI
GRANTSVI
AMESV I LL
NELSONVI
R A I L E Y M
BARNESVI
BARTON
BELLA I RE
RLAINE
CRESCENT
F A IRPOIN
FLUSHING
GLEN ROR
HOLLOW AY
LAFFER TY
MARTINS
M A Y N A R D
NEFCS
POWHA TAN
ST.  CLAI
SHADYSID
SPEIDEL
CHESHIRE
GALLIPOL
QUAKER C
CADI Z
FREEPORT
GERMANO
HOPEDALE
J F W E T T
KENWOOD
PIEDMONT
SHORT CR
UNIONVAL
A DEN A
RLOOMING
BRADLEY
BR I I_LI AN
DILLONVA
EMPIRE
KNOXVILL
MINGO JC
PARLETT
PINEY FO
SMITHF I E
STEUBENV
TILTONSV
TORONTO
W INTERSV
MIDDLEPO
RUTLAND
RISHOPVI
RAL DWIN
BETHEL P

-------
467-
472.
478.
477.
460.
449.
475.
477.
467.
491 .
471 .
483.
472.
453.
470.
429.
438.
439.
398.
415.
406.
411 .
404.
420.
428.
410.
419.
398.
406.
436.
417.
401 .
^24.
400.
420.
401 .
487.
487.
495.
420.
414.
408.
401 .
459.
441 .
459.
470.
435.
456.
466.
428.
461 .
456.
470.
469.
451 .
468.
461 .
441 .
463.
575,
577
563,
577
582,
592
602,
574
572,
604
567,
6O2
569,
601
566,
594
620,
599
597,
596
593
594
593
598
632
608
609,
594
60 1
605
608
587
581 ,
592
580,
590
629
637
639
674
666
669
664,
545
584,
557
551 ,
594
568,
544
585,
559
566,
554
565,
565
559,
567
594,
565
           026R061
           026R062
           026R063
           026R064
           026R065
           026R066
           026R067
           026R068
           026R069
           026R070
           026R071
           026R072
           026R073
           026R074
           026R075
           026R076
           026R077
           026R078
           026R079
           026R080
           026R081
           026R082
           026R083
           026R084
           026R085
           026R086
           026R087
           026R088
           026R089
           026R090
           026R091
           026R092
           026R093
           026R094
           026R095
           026R096
           026R097
           026R098
           026R099
           026R100
           026R101
           026R102
           026R103
           026R104
           026R105
           026R106
           026R107
           026R108
           026R109
           026R110
           026R111
           026R112
           026R113
           026R114
           026R115
           026R116
           026R117
           026R118
           026R119
           026R120
37200308800
37200335800
37200338600
37200338800
3 7200344700
37200354000
37200354150
37200354700
37200354850
37200358800
37200359900
37200360350
37200361600
37200377770
37200382150
37205109700
37205126900
37205128200
37205141740
37205146730
37205149170
37205149400
37205158540
37205159300
37205159950
37205162390
37205162400
37205166800
37205177800
37205180900
37205186900
37205907600
37205914000
37205919950
37205949600
37205966850
37206303800
37206313770
37206391200
3721 1 106200
3721 1 13 1400
3721 1 150900
3721 1 1 73300
37212503400
372 12506000
37212509980
37212510000
37212510400
3/212510700
37212525030
372 12530300
37212536290
37212537500
37212539970
37212546900
37212549900
37212551600
37212556500
37212580100
37212587580
RRIDGFVI
HF I DF.LBU
I MPERI AL
INGRAM
LIRRARY
MONDNGAH
MONROFVI
MOON  RUN
MORGAN
NFW  KENS
NORLFSTO
NORTH  RF
OAKDALF
SMITHDAL
STURGEON
BROWNSVI
FVERSON
FAYETTE
LAKE L Y N
MCCLELLA
MARTIN
MASONTOW
MEW  GENE
NFW  SALE
NORMALVI
OLIPHANT
OLIVER
POINT  fv'A
SMI THE I E
STAR  JCT
UN IONTOW
ROB TOWN
CLARKSVI
DILLINER
MATHER
POLAND  M
AVONMORE
CLARKSRU
WEST LER
BERLIN
GARRETT
MEYERSDA
SAL ISBUR
AVELLA
BENTLEYV
BULGER
BURGFTTS
C A L I F O R N
CANMONSR
FLDFRSVI
FRFDF.R I C
H I CKORY
HOUSTON
JOFFRE
MCDONALD
MEADOWLA
MIDWAY
MUSE
SPEERS
VENICE
Table III-5

-------
447.
431 .
463.
463.
469.
457.
465.
474.
457.
464.
463.
456.
451 .
465.
472.
467.
455.
442.
460.
439.
479.
445.
452.
448.
460.
450 .
452.
338.
341 .
325.
342.
333.
325.
300.
290.
468.
464.
460 .
472.
458.
303.
348.
347.
358.
363.
358.
353.
334.
358.
355.
340.
345.
360.
354.
349.
347.
329.
32.1 .
370.
373.
St>4.
595,
614,
627
616,
612
644,
616
636,
609
637,
650
630,
612
633,
642
631 ,
597
607,
620
625,
607
627,
598
653,
610
612
579
573
576
575
583
574
529
522
538
534
540
534
533
524
564
556
550
562
556
557
556
555,
558
556
558
560,
558
551 ,
545
551 ,
546
573,
564
          026R121
          026R122
          026R123
          026R124
          026R125
          026R126
          026R127
          026R128
          026R129
          026R130
          026R131
          026R132
          026R133
          026R134
          026R135
          026R136
          026R137
          026R138
          026R139
          026R140
          026R141
          026R142
          026R143
          026R144
          026R145
          026R146
          026R147
          026R148
          026R149
          026R150
          026R151
          026R152
          026R153
          026R154
          026R155
          026R156
          026R157
          026R158
          026R159
          026R160
          026R161
          026R162
          026R163
          026R164
          026R165
          026R166
          026R167
          026R168
          026R169
          026R170
          026R171
          026R172
          026R173
          026R174
          026R175
          026R176
          026R177
          026R178
          026R179
          026R180
37212588800
37212590000
37212900250
37212907830
37212913600
37212919070
37212919800
37212927200
37212937470
37212939000
37212942900
37212944800
37212947830
37212948100
37212957500
37212958150
37212966350
37212968000
37212970350
37212974500
37212977300
37212978000
372 12986940
372129894 1 0
37212994060
37212995110
37212996600
47000102080
47000103250
47000104550
47000109660
47000121100
47000126840
47000703600
47000708370
47000905850
47000909300
47000926760
47000927300
47000927500
47002110080
47003303 POO
47003305400
47003306950
47003308280
47003311680
47003312030
47003315200
47003315300
47003317330
47003318600
47003319600
47003324300
47003325000
47003328850
47003328980
47004113100
47004127900
4 7004908400
47004908800
WASHINGT
WFST HRO
ADAMSRUR
BOVARD
CLARIDGE
DARRAGH
DFRRY
EXPORT
HOSTETTE
I RW IN
LATRDRE
LIGONIER
MAMMOTH
MANOR
NEW ALEX
NEW DERR
PLEASENT
PRICEDAL
RILL TON
SCOTTDAL
SLICKVIL
SMITHTON
UNI TED
WEBSTER
W I L P E N
W Y A N O
YUKON
RERRYRUR
RROWNTON
CENTURY
GALLOWAY
PHILIPPI
VOLGA
RURNSVIL
EXCHANGE
COLL IERS
POLLAMSB
VIRGINVI
WE IRTON
WELLSRUR
GILMER
RRIDGFPO
CLARKSRU
DOLA
EMTERPRI
H A Y W O O D
HFPZIRAH
LOST CRE
LUMRERPO
MEADOWRR
MOUNT  CL
NUTTER  F
SHINNSTO
SPFLTER
W I LSOMRU
WOLF  SUM
JANE LEW
WFSTON
FA IRMONT
FARMING!
Table III-5

-------
3 7 H .
36b.
367.
374.
376.
366.
429.
41S.
314.
364.
393.
386.
389.
441 .
435.
360.
262.
346.
35*.
3^6.
346.
3^9.
315.
670.
570.
567.
560.
575.
563.
522.
522.
408.
661 .
587.
589.
584.
525.
526,
598.
426.
575.
583.
572.
578.
577.
567.
                              026R181
                              026R182
                              026R183
                              026R184
                              026R185
                              026R186
                              026R187
                              026R188
                              026R189
                              026R190
                              026R191
                              026R192
                              026R193
                              026R194
                              026R195
                              026R19b
                              026R197
                              026R198
                              026R199
                              026R200
                              026R201
                              026R202
                              026R203
4 7004910800
47004913940
47004918000
47004922050
47004923200
47004929100
47005102000
47005118500
47005327550
47005724110
47006115960
47006118400
47006120050
47006927130
47006928300
47007718900
47007901290
47009109200
47009110600
47009123460
47009124380
47009125720
47009703400
GRANT  TO
K INGMONT
MONONGAH
RACHFL
R I V F S V I L
WORTHI NIG
RENWOOD
MOUNDSVI
WEST  COL
SHAW
MA IDSVIL
MORGAMTO
nSAGE
w ARWOOO
WHEELING
NEWPURG
RANCROF T
FLE MI N,GT
GR A= TON
ROSEMONT
S I MPSON
WEN DEL
R U C K H A N N
and  x   locations
                      Table III-5
                       (Cont'd)

-------
29.
3.
2.
48.
1.
3.
1.
6.
2.
1.
18.
2.
9.
1.
2.
24.
1.
1.
"* «
?.
7.
1.
1.
13.
1.
1.
1.
1.
3.
3.
ft7.
2.
6.
P.
S.
2.
1.
1.
3.
?..
19.
1.
2.
3.
1.
1.
1.
3.
1ft.
7.
2.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
1.
1.
O.B
0.9
1.4
O.R
0.9
1.0
O.R
3.6
4.0
5.2
3.6
4.6
3.7
4.4
3.6
3.3
4.9
3.9
2.0
4.2
3.6
3.0
4.Q
3.8
5.3
4.3
4.4
4.4
3.6
4.R
1.9
3.R
3.6
1 .1
2.R
3.5
3. 1
3.6
4.0
4.0
1.5
3.0
4.0
3.6
2.6
4.2
3.2
1.1
2.4
1 .0
3.4
4.9
2.7
2.4
3.0
3.5
4.5
1 .3
1.3
1 .2
0.9
0.9
1 .4
0.9
0.9
1 .0
0.8
3.6
4.0
5.2
3.6
4.6
3.7
4.4
3.6
3.6
4.9
3.9
4.3
4.2
3.8
3.0
4.9
3.8
5.3
4.3
4.4
4.4
3.6
4.8
2.4
3.8
3.9
3.3
3.0
3.5
3. 1
3.6
4.0
4.0
3.3
3.0
4.0
3.7
2.6
4.2
3.2
1 . 1
3.0
2.4
3.4
4.9
2.7
2.4
3.0
3.5
4.5
1 .3
1 .3
1 .2
1 .2
1 .2
1 .6
1 .0
0.9
1 .0
0.8
3.8
5.0
5.2
5.7
5.6
4.5
4.4
4.5
3.9
4.9
3.9
5.3
5.2
4.7
3.0
4.9
4.9
5.3
4.3
4.4
4.4
4.8
5.7
4. 1
3.8
4.3
3.5
4.0
5.5
3. 1
3.6
*.6
4.1
3.9
3.0
4.0
4.5
2.6
4.2
3.2
3.6
3.0
3.8
4.0
4.9
4.1
3.3
3.3
5.3
4.5
1 .4
1 .3
1.2
                Table III-6
Phase  II Pittsburgh Bed
        026R001
        026R002
        026R003
        026R004
        026R005
        026R006
        026R007
        026R008
        026R009
        026RQ10
        026R011
        026R012
        026R013
        026R014
        026R015
        026R016
        026R017
        O26RO18
        026R019
        026R020
        026R021
        026R022
        026R023
        026R024
        026R025
        026R026
        026R027
        026R028
        026R029
        026R030
        026R031
        026R032
        026R033
        026R034
        026R035
        026R036
        026R037
        026R038
        026R039
        026R040
        026R041
        026R042
        026R043
        026R044
        026R045
        026R046
        026R047
        026R048
        026R049
        026R050
        026R051
        026n!052
        026R053
        02&R054
        026R055
        026R056
        026R057
        026R058
        026R059
        026R060

- Raw  Values
                                                 19000100800
                                                 19000104900
                                                 19000106000
                                                 1 9000109500
                                                 19000110100
                                                 19000110120
                                                 19002307000
                                                 34000901600
                                                 34000955200
                                                 34 001304180
                                                 340013 04700
                                                 34001304850
                                                 3400 1 305800
                                                 34 001307970
                                                 34001319480
                                                 34001325400
                                                 34001326400
                                                 34001329950
                                                 34001335700
                                                 34 001339750
                                                 34001347800
                                                 34001348730
                                                 34001355000
                                                 34001367500
                                                 34001372000
                                                 34 001374100
                                                 34001377650
                                                 34005315350
                                                 34005328100
                                                 34005967900
                                                 34006712100
                                                 34006727500
                                                 34006729050
                                                 34 006736000
                                                 34006738300
                                                 34006738920
                                                 34006765230
                                                 34 006775350
                                                 34006782450
                                                 34 008 1 0-0600
                                                 3400810841n
                                                 34008109350
                                                 34008110100
                                                 34 008122200
                                                 34008124900
                                                 34008139630
                                                 34008152000
                                                 34008163550
                                                 34008165370
                                                 34 008 1 75900
                                                 34008178300
                                                 34 008 1 80800
                                                 34008181^00
                                                 34008190800
                                                 3401 0550000
                                                 34010571700
                                                 3401 1507940
                                                 37200304080
                                                 37200306520
                                                 37200307580
RARTDN
FCKHART
FRDSTRUR
L n N A C n N I
M I Dl_ AMD
M I DLO THI
GRANTS V I
A "F SV I LL
NF|_Sn'-:V I
P A I L - Y  v
RARNESV I
RARTOM
RELLA I RF
RLA INE
CRFSC.FNT
F A I RJ-TI I M
FLUSH i \'G
GLEN- -O-
LAFFFfv T Y
MART I >••!<=>
M A Y M A R i )
N p F •- S
P O W H A T A M
ST. CLA I
SHADY^ I D
SPF I HFL
CHF SH I R F
GALL It-OL
QIJAKFk  C
CADI Z
JFWFTT
K F N v.; n n -. '•
PIEDMONT
SHORT  CRJ
UN i n N v AI_
A DEN A
RLHO M i NG
RRAHLFY •
RR ILL I Af-/
D I L L n N V A
FMP I RE   '
KNOXV I LL
MINGD  JC-i
P A R L P T T I
P I M F r  r T
SVI T-- 1 =[
~TE „- E 'i v.
TILTH' S V
THRO IVTQ
WINTERSV
MI DDLEMO)
RUTLAND ^
RI SHDPVI
R A L DV" I N
RFTHEL  P

-------
1.
1.
IB.
1.
2.
12.
7.
1.
1.
2.
3.
1.
2.
2.
1.
9.
l.
5.
31.
2.
1.
3.
4.
1.
7.
1.
4.
14.
106.
1.
126.
3.
4.
4.
1.
2Q.
1.
7.
100.
33.
2.
31.
1.
o.
3.
2,
7.
1«.
1.
1.
3.
1.
4.
2.
1,
3.
1.
I.
•5.
2.
3.1
0.9
0.7
2.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
2.4
2.1
2.7
1.2
1.5
1.6
0.9
1.6
1 .3
0.7
0.9
2.1
1.9
2.7
0.9
0.9
1.0
1.7
1.3
1.0
2.1
0.5
1.2
0.8
2.5
0.9
2.4
1 .3
1.5
2.4
1 .1
1.1
1 .0
1.5
0.9
0.7
1 .8
1.2
1 .6
2.0
0.8
2.2
3.S
1.0
2.4
1.4
2.6
3.2
1.5
1.8
2.0
1. 1
2.9
3.1
0.9
2.0
2.2
1.1
1 .0
0.9
2.4
2.1
2.7
1.2
1 .5
1 .6
0.9
1 .6
1 .4
0.7
0.9
3.2
1 .9
2.7
0.9
0.9
1 .0
1.7
1 .3
1.0
2.1
1.2
1 .2
0.9
2.5
1 .3
2.5
1 .3
3.0
2.4
1 . 1
1 .2
1 .8
1.5
1 .9
0.7
2.8
1 .2
1 .6
2.0
0.8
2.2
3.5
1.0
2.4
1 .4
2.6
3.2
1 .5
1 .8
2.0
1 . 1
2.9
3.1
0.9
3.0
2.2
1 .5
1 .1
1 .0
2.4
2. 1
3.2
1 .4
1 .5
2.1
0.9
1 .6
1 .4
0.7
1 .2
3.6
2.0
2.7
1 .9
2.2
1 .0
1 .7
1.3
1.1
3.5
1 .9
1 .2
1 .1
3.5
1 .7
3.2
1 .3
3.3
2.4
2.0
1 .6
2.3
1 .8
2.3
0.7
4.4
1 .4
1 .6
4.5
1 .3
2.2
3.5
1 . 1
2.4
1 .9
4.5
3.2
1 .9
1 .8
2.0
1 .1
3.2
                     026R061
                     026R062
                     026R063
                     026R064
                     026R065
                     026R066
                     026R067
                     026R068
                     026R069
                     026R070
                     026R071
                     026R072
                     026R073
                     026R074
                     026R075
                     026R076
                     026R077
                     026R078
                     026R079
                     026R080
                     026R081
                     026R082
                     026R083
                     026R084
                     026R085
                     026R086
                     026ROH7
                     02t>R08b
                     026R089
                     026R090
                     026R091
                     026R092
                     026R093
                     026R094
                     026R095
                     026R096
                     026R097
                     026R098
                     026R099
                     026R100
                     026R101
                     026R102
                     026R103
                     026R104
                     026R105
                     026R106
                     026R107
                     026R108
                     026R109
                     026R110
                     026R111
                     026R112
                     026R113
                     026R114
                     026R115
                     026R116
                     026R117
                     026R118
                     026R119
                     026R120
37200308800
37200335800
37200338600
37200338800
37200344700
37200354000
37200354 1 50
37200354700
37200354850
37200358800
37200359900
37200360350
37200361600
37200377770
37200382150
37205109700
37205126900
37205128200
37205 14 1 740
37205146730
37205149170
37205149400
3720515854 0
37205159300
37205159950
37205162390
37205162400
37205166800
37205177800
37205180900
37205186900
37205907600
37205914000
37205919950
37205949600
37205966850
37206303800
37206313770
37206391200
3721 1 106200
37211131400
3721 1 150900
37211173300
37212503400
37212506000
37212509980
37212510000
37212510400
37212510700
37212525030
37212530300
37212536290
37212537500
37212539970
37212546900
37212549900
37212551600
37212556500
37212580100
37212587580
RRIDGEVI
HE I DFLBU
I MPFR I AL
INGRAM
L I RR ARY
MONOr K, A H
M ON I-")- / t
Mf")^ r- A ' ,
MEW  KE'.S
NHBLF c TO
NORTH  -, E '
n AKD ALE
S M I T h 0 A L
STURGEON
R R O W N S V I •

F fiYETTE
LAKE  L Y r-.'
M C C L P L L A
MARTI \'
MASON TOW l
NFW  GENE
NEW  SALE '
NORM A|_V I
H L I P H A f^ T
OLlVFk
POINT  MA'
SMI THE I E
STAR  JCT
UN IONTOW
RORTO'JV1 N
CL ARKSVI
D ILL I NER
MATHER
POLAND M
AVONMORF
C L A R K S H U
WEST  L F B
PFRL I M
G A R P F T T
MEYERS DA
SAL I SPUR
AVELL A
REN TLFY v
BULGER
RURGFTTS
C A L I F O 4 N
C ANNO MS H
ELDERS V I
FRFDEH I C
HICKORY
HOUSTON
JOE FRF
MCDONALD
MEADOWLAi
M I DW A Y
MUSF
SPFERS
VEN I CF-
Table III-6

-------
ft.
4.
1.
3.
3.
1.
2.
2.
2.
4.
3.
3.
-1.
1!.
4.
1 .
63.
1.
3.
6.
19.
3.
1.
1.
3.
3C.
3.
4.
?P.
4.
1.
14.
7.
3.
; t
1.
10.
1.
H.
S.
29.
3?.
44.
30.
1.
2.
r>.
°.
1A.
35.
!i.
S.
71.
2?.
7.
9.
9.
7fi.
1.
A.
1.9
0.9
2.0
1.2
0.7
1.4
2.4
1 .5
0.9
1 .8
0.9
1.0
0.9
0.7
0. -
1 .2
0.9
1 .0
0.9
1.2
0.7
1 .0
1 .0
1 .0
1.4
1 .0
0.6
3.2
1 .7
4. .0
3.0
2.1
3. 1
1 .7
2.7
3.5
1 .2
1 .9
2.3
1 .6
2. 1
2.1
2.5
3.2
3.6
3.7
3.2
3.1
2.2
1 .4
3.0
3.2
1.4
2.9
3. 1
3.1
3.2
2.7
1.5
1 .0
2.3
0.9
2.0
1 .2
1 .7
1 .4
2.4
1 .5
0.9
2.0
0.9
1 .0
0.9
0.9
0.?
1 .2
1 .0
1 .0
0.9
1 .2
1 .2
1 .0
1.0
1 .0
1 .5
1 .0
0.6
3.2
1 .8
4.3
3.0
2.2
3.5
2.5
2.7
3.5
1 .7
1 .9
2.3
1 .6
2.3
3.3
2.9
4.0
3.6
3.7
3.3
3.8
4.0
2.4
3.8
3.2
2.5
3. 1
3.8
3.7
3.2
3.3
1 .5
1 .4
2.5
1 .2
2.0
1 .3
1 .8
1 .4
2.5
1 .7
1 .3
2.2
0.9
1 .3
1 .5
1 .6
0.9
1 .2
1 .2
1 .0
1 .0
1 .4
2.0
1 .2
1 .0
1 .0
1 .6
1 .3
1 .3
3.5
4.5
4.5
3.0
5.2
5.4
3.0
2.7
3.5
3. 1
1 .9
2.7
4.6
3.4
4.4
4.5
4.9
3.6
3.9
3.4
4.5
4.6
3. 1
4. 1
4.8
4.2
3.7
4.6
4.0
4.3
4.0
1 .5
2.8
                     026R121
                     026R1??
                     026R123
                     026R124
                     026R125
                     026R126
                     026R127
                     02t>H 1 28
                     026R129
                     026R130
                     026R131
                     026R132
                     026R133
                     026R134
                     026R135
                     026R136
                     026R137
                     026R138
                     0 2 6 R 1 3 9
                     026R140
                     026R141
                     026R142
                     026R143
                     026R144
                     026R145
                     026R146
                     026R147
                     026R148
                     026R149
                     026R150
                     026R151
                     026R152
                     0 2 6 R 1 5 3
                     026R154
                     026R155
                     026R156
                     0 2 6 R 1 5 7
                     026R158
                     026R159
                     026R160
                     026R161
                     026R162
                     026R163
                     026R1b4
                     026R165
                     026R166
                     026R167
                     026R168
                     026R169
                     026R170
                     026R171
                     026R172
                     026R173
                     026R174
                     026R175
                     026R176
                     0 2 6 R 1 7 7
                     026R178
                     026R179
                     026R180
37212588800
37212590 0 0 0
372 12900250
37212907830
37212913600
37212919070
372 12919800
37212927200
37212937470
37212939000
37212942900
37212944800
37212947830
37212948100
37212957500
37212958150
37212966350
37212968000
372 12970350
3 7212974500
37212977300
37212978000
37212986940
37212989410
37212994060
37212995110
37212996600
47000102080
47000103250
47000104550
47000109660
47000121100
47000126840
47000703600
47000708370
47000905850
4 7000909300
47000926760
47000927300
47000927500
47002 1 10080
47003303200
470033054 00
47003306950
47003308280
47003311680
47003312030
47003315200
47003315300
47003317330
47003318600
47003319600
47003324300
47003325000
47003328850
47003328980
47004113100
47004127900
47004 908400
47004908800
W A SH ING T
W F S T  H R f)
AOAMSHUR
RfJV A HO
CLAR I }•)(-> f-.
D A R R A G H
QFR^Y
P X P n ~> T
HO STF TTF
IRW I \
LAT3O-£
LIGD^IFR
MAMMO TI-I
f/ AMOR
N P W  ALEX
M F W  D F R R
PLEASANT
PR I OF DAL
R I LLTOri
SOOTTOAL
SL I CK" VI L
SMITHTON
UNITFO
W F. P S T F w
W I LHF>
W Y A M O
YUKON
RFRRYRUR
RROW NTON
CFNTURY
CALLOW AY
P h I L I P H I
VOLGA
R'JRMSV I l_
FX CH AMG^
COLL I FR
-------
\\?> l-fi
/1 , 0 . 9
7, °«R
I1"!. I'4
H. 0.0
A. 1.1
1. 4.5
S, 4.5
4. 2.4
1 . 0.7
l?fl. 1.5
SO. l.«
}.• 2.5
A. 2.8
1. 4.4
3. 0.9
11. 2.5
1^. 1 .-
•i. 1.5
r . 1.3
3 . 4-
1". 1 .4
^. 3. 1
1 .6
1 .2
O.R
1 .4
1 .R
2.0
4.5
4.6
2.4
0.7
2.8
2.5
2.5
2.8
4.4
0.9
2.5
1 .6
1 .5
2.3
3.4
2.5
3. 1
2.4
3.2
2.8
3.7
2.7
2.9
4.5
5.3
3.6
0.7
4.4
3.4
3,1
4.3
4.4
1 .8
2.6
^.4
3.7
3.6
3.6
2.5
4.2
                                                           02GR181
                                                           0 2 6 R 1 8 2
                                                           02t>h!l 83
                                                           026hil«4
                                                           026R185
                                                           026R186
                                                           0 2 6 R 1 8 7
                                                           026K1H8
                                                           026W189
                                                           026R190
                                                           026H191
                                                           026R192
                                                           026R193
                                                           026R194
                                                           026R195
                                                           026R196
                                                           026R197
                                                           026R198
                                                           026R199
                                                           026R200
                                                           026R201
                                                           026R202
                                                           026R203
                                        47004910800
                                        4700491394 0
                                        47004918000
                                        47004 922050
                                        47004923200
                                        47004929100
                                        47005102000
                                        4 70051 18500
                                        4700532 7550
                                        4 7005724 1 1 0
                                        47006115960
                                        47006118400
                                        47006120050
                                        47006927130
                                        47006928300
                                        47007716900
                                        47007901290
                                        47009109200
                                        47009110600
                                        4 7009123460
                                        47009124380
                                        47009125720
                                        47009703400
GRANT  TO
K ING MO NT
MONO MG AH
RACHFL
R I V E S V I L
WORTH I MG
RPMWOH O
MDl JM ,r I I
MAIDS V I L
MQRGA '-.'TO
OSAGF
W ARWOOD
WHEEL I NG
   A-
SI V
'j .1 P N D F L
RUCK HA • :M
iber . low  .  mode  .  high
Key:
                                      Table  III--6
                                       (Cont'd)

-------
430.
435.
445.
423.
430.
412.
436.
458.
449.
456.
471 .
466 .
478.
40? .
398.
401 .
420.
459.
441 .
470 .
466.
463 .
447.
477.
464.
467.
342.
333.
300.
472.
303.
347.
358.
3o3 .
334.
353.
359.
349.
321 .
373.
370.
378 .
367.
374 .
376.
3b6.
418.
314.
380.
37Q.
393.
386.
391 .
432.
433.
346.
521 .
515.
521.
507.
515.
516..
508.
500.
51 6.
513.
588.
571 .
563.
606.
597.
590.
674.
545.
584.
551 .
544.
565.
564.
647.
640.
627.
575.
583.
529.
534.
524.
556.
550.
562.
556.
555.
563.
551 .
546.
564 .
559.
570.
567.
560.
575.
563.
522.
408.
581 .
580.
587.
589.
584.
529.
531 .
575.
                          026W 01
                          026W 02
                          026W 03
                          026W 04
                          026W 05
                          02bW 06
                          026W 07
                          026W 08
                          026W 09
                          026W 10
                          026W 11
                          026W 12
                          026W 13
                          026W 14
                          026W 15
                          026W 16
                          026W 17
                          026W 18
                          026W 19
                          026W 20
                          026W 21
                          026W 22
                          026W 23
                          026W 24
                          026W 25
                          026W 26
                          026W 27
                          026W 28
                          026W 29
                          026W 30
                          026W 31
                          026W 32
                          026W 33
                          026W 34
                          026W 35
                          026W 36
                          0 2 6 W 37
                          026W 38
                          026W 39
                          026W 40
                          026W 41
                          026W 42
                          026W 43
                          026W 44
                          026W 45
                          026W 46
                          026W 47
                          026W 48
                          026W 49
                          026W 50
                          0 2 6 W 51
                          02bW 52
                          026W 53
                          026W 54
                          026W 55
                          026W 56
34001305800
34001307970
34001329950
34001337560
34001355000
34001367500
34001372000
34006712100
34008122770
34008165370
37200304080
37200318120
37200338600
37205127500
37205141740
37205966850
37211106200
37212503400
37212506000
37212510000
37212525030
37212587580
37212588800
37212907000
372 12908350
37212934680
47000109660
47000121100
47000703600
47000927300
47002110080
470033054 00
47003306950
47003308280
47003315200
47003315300
47003320120
47003328850
47004127900
47004908800
47004909450
47004910800
47004918000
47004922050
47004 923200
47004929100
47005118500
4 7005327550
47006 107650
47006108350
4700M 15960
47006118400
47006121920
47006908160
47006926300
47009109200
BELLA I WE
RLA IMF
GLEN  ROR
JACnRSBU
NEFF S
POWHA TAN
ST. CLAI
CADIZ
DUNGLEN
p i N E Y F n
RALOWiN
CUDDY
IMPERIAL
F A i RCHAN
LAKE  LYN
POLAND M
RFRLIN
A V F L L A
RENTLFYV
RURGETTS
F L D E R S V I
VFNICE
WASH IMGT
RLAIRSVI
RRADENVI
HANMASTO
GALLOWAY
PHILIPPI
RURNSVIL
W F I R T O N
GILMER
C L A R K S H U
on LA
ENTFRPRI
LOST  CKE
LUMRFRPO
OW INGS
W I L S O N RIJ
WFSTON
F ARMIMGT
FOUR  STA
GRANT TO
MONO MGAH
RACHEL
R I V F S V I L
WORTH ING
MOUNDSVI
WEST  COL
FDNA
EVFRETTV
MA IDSV IL
MORGAMTO
PURSGLOV
ELM GROV
TRIADELP
FLE f>"I NGT
                 Table  III-7
Phase II Pittsburgh Bed - Washed Data Points

-------
3.
2.
2.
T,
?,
11.
2.
2.
1.
4.
1.
1.
1.
2.
2.
1.
T.
3.
1.
7.
1.
2.
1.
2.
1.
56.
11.
1.
a.
1.
1.
20.
12.
1.
2.
1.
i.
1.
1.
i.
11.
1.
2.
A.
2.
1.
1.
1.
'<"••
2.
4.
U.
?•
2.
3.
1.
3.7
4. 1
3.6
4.9
A. 2
3.8
4.2
2.0
3.2
2.0
1 .2
2.0
1 .7
1. 1
2.5
3.0
1 .5
1.2
1 .0
2.9
3.7
2.6
l.Q
2.6
2.1
1.0
2.8
3.2
1.2
2.7
1 .3
2.4
3.1
2.8
3.P
3.S
1 .9
3.4
3.0
0.9
1 .5
2.7
0.7
1.6
1 .2
2.1
4 .S
3.3
2.7
3.3
1 .8
2.3
2.1
3.3
3.2
2.6
3.7
4. 1
3.6
4.9
4.2
4.3
4.2
2.0
3.2
2.3
1 .2
2.0
1 .7
1 . 1
2.5
3.0
1 .5
1 .2
1 .0
3.1
3.7
2.6
1 .9
2.6
2. 1
1.0
2.8
3.2
1 .6
2.7
1 .3
2.5
3.6
2.8
3.8
3.5
2.2
3.4
3.0
1 .8
2.7
2.7
0.7
1.7
1 .2
2. 1
4.5
3.3
2.7
3.3
2.5
2.5
2. 1
3.3
3.2
2.6
3.9
4.1
4.2
5.0
4.4
4.8
4.3
2.8
3.2
3.3
1 .2
2.0
1 .7
1 .4
2.6
3.0
1 .7
4.2
1 .0
3.3
3.7
3. 1
1 .9
2.7
2.1
1 .2
3.2
3.2
2.8
2.7
1 .3
3. 1
3.8
2.8
4.8
3.5
2.6
3.4
3.0
2.6
3.2
2.7
1 .4
2.3
2.4
2.1
4.5
3 . 3
2.7
3.6
2.7
3.3
2.8
4.2
4. 1
2.6
                                026W  01
                                026W  02
                                026W
                                026W
                                026W
                                026W
                                026W
                                026W
                                026W
                                026W
                                026W
                                026W
                                026W
                                026W
                                026W
                                026W
                                026W
                                026W
                                026W
                                026W
                                02 6W
                                026W
                                026W
                                026W
                                026W
                                026W
                                026W
                                026W
                                026W
                                026W
                                026W
                                026W
                                026W
                                026W
                                02fc>W
                                026W
                                026W
                                026W
                                026W
                                0 2 6 W  40
                                026W  41
                                0 2 6 W
                                026W
                                0 2 6 W
                                02bW
                                026W
                                026W
                                026W
                                026W
                                026W
                                026W
                                026W
                                026W
                                026W
                                026W
                                026W
03
04
05
06
07
oa
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
1 6
1 7
1 8
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
2H
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
3 a
39
42
43
44
45
46
47
4H
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
34001305800
34001307970
34 001329950
34001337560
34001355000
34001367500
34001372000
34006712100
34008122770
34008165370
37200304 080
372003181?0
372O0338600
37205127500
37205141740
37205966850
37211106200
37212503400
37212506000
37212510000
37212525030
37212587580
37212588800
37212907000
37212908350
372 1 2934680
47000109660
47000121100
47000703000
4 7000927300
47002110080
470033054 00
47003306950
470033 08280
47003315200
47003315300
47003320120
47003328850
47004127900
47004908800
47004909450
47004910800
47004918000
47004922050
47004923200
47004 929100
47005118500
4 7005327550
47006107D50
4 700^1 08.3 50
47.0061 15960'.
470061 184 00
4700612 1920.
47006908160
47006926300
47009109200
RELLAIRE
RL A I NE
GLEN ROR
J A CO R S R U
NFFFS
POWHATAN
ST.  CLAI
CADIZ
DUNGLFN
P I NFY F n
R A LOW I N
CUDDY
IMPFRIAL
F A I R C <-i A \
L A K F L \ K'
POLAND ^
PER LI \
AVE LL A
»ENTLEY V
BURGFTT?
F L D E 3 ? V I
VFNJ I CF
WASHI vGT
RL A I RSVI
RHADENV I
HANNASTO
G A L L O 'A A Y
P H I L I >-• '-'• I
R L i R N' S V I L
WF I RTP\
GIL ^ «
C L A R K S -1 1 '
DHL A
E N T E R •-" K I
LO?T
O W IMG?
W I LSn\>^!J
FARMING!
FOUR  c T A
GRANT TO
M n N O N G A ^
RACHEL
R I V E ^ V I L
W O R T H I ,v (5
MOUNDS V I
WEST  Cni_
P DN A
EVFRF T r v
MAI DSV IL
MORGAN TO
PURSGLOV
ELM  GROV
TR I ADF-'LP
FLEM i MG T
               Table III-8
Phase II Pittsburgh Bed  -  Washed Values

-------
Phase
404.
390.
402.
406.
406.
405.
394.
399.
469.
41 8.
423.
427.
437.
436.
374.
399.
382.
440.
509.
532 .
405.
410.
419.
416.
434.
408.
415.
405.
415.
394 .
403.
406.
400.
393.
403.
402.
396.
393.
406.
401 .
395.
388.
459.
468.
474.
461 .
44 7.
465.
368.
548.
545.
550.
720.
592.
593.
589.
607.
572.
579.
592.
Table III -9
II Mitldls Kittanning Bed
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
07QR
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R

- Raw
01
0?
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
1 0
1 1
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60

Da
                                            34000903600
                                            34000913230
                                            34000915100
                                            34 000930200
                                            34000937500
                                            34000951350
                                            34000955200
                                            340009621?0
                                            34001951700
                                            34003108150
                                            34003118300
                                            34003119200
                                            34003127620
                                            34003187600
                                            34007353890
                                            34007354500
                                            34007378250
                                            340075044 00
                                            34008107200
                                            34008178300
                                            3401 1519800
                                            3401 152 1020
                                            34011900250
                                            34011929380
                                            34011962550
                                            3401 1970900
                                            340 1 1978540
                                            34 01 1989360
                                            34011992600
                                            34012710140
                                            34012718350
                                            34012718900
                                            34012734500
                                            34012745330
                                            340127455PO
                                            34012754330
                                            34012757000
                                            34012758100
                                            34012768700
                                            34 012772850
                                            34012774600
                                            34012776200
                                            34015722400
                                            34015750300
                                            34015756450
                                            34015757700
                                            34015779100
                                            34015782000
                                            34016332400
                                            37200719050
                                            37200726260
                                            37200758500
                                            37201301300
                                            37201907990
                                            37201910200
                                            37201926650
                                            37201928350
                                            37201967350
                                            37201977500
                                            37201992290
ATHENS
CARRONDA
CHAUNCEY
GLOU5TER
JACKSONV
MILLFIFL
NELSONVI
ORRISTON
M I M E R A L
PL ISSF I E
CONESVIL
COSHOCTO
FRESNO
WFST  LAF
MOUNT  PL
MURRAY  C
STARR
BALTIC
RFRGHOLZ
STEURENV
CROOKSVI
OFAVER TO
ADAMS  MI
GILRFRT
OTSEGO
ROSEVILL
STOVERTO
WHITE  CO
ZANFSVIL
RR I STOL
CONGO
CORN IMG
HE MLOCK
MCCUNEVI
MCL1 JNFY
MQXAHAL A
NEW  LEX I
NEW  STRA
RENDVILL
SALTILLO
SHAWNEE
SOMERSET
DOVER
MIDVALE
NEW  C U M R
NEW  PHIL
SUGAR  CR
TUSCARAW
HAMDEN
DARLIMGT
ENON  VAL
NEW  G A LI
ALTOOMA
ROYFRS
RUTLFR
FUCLID
FENELTON
PORTERSV
SLIPPERY

-------
503.
538.
523.
553.
522.
555.
541 .
546.
522.
536.
525.
531 .
560.
549.
549.
541 .
576.
572.
551 .
540.
564.
443.
442.
441 .
333.
248.
369.
297.
310.
292.
687.
735.
723.
733.
723.
742.
738.
691 .
716.
733.
730.
734.
746.
697.
721.
722.
693.
709.
677.
547.
540.
685.
686.
674.
583.
490.
613.
583.
590.
567.
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070k
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
070R
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
                                                37202 104300
                                                37203301P50
                                                37203309000
                                                37203330920
                                                37203337600
                                                37203340440
                                                37203341640
                                                37203346170
                                                37203347530
                                                37203354880
                                                37203362920
                                                37203365500
                                                37203366940
                                                37203371150
                                                37203375880
                                                37203394630
                                                37204708570
                                                37204789430
                                                37206569700
                                                37207324710
                                                37208575500
                                                37211110300
                                                37211111800
                                                37211181700
                                                47000121100
                                                47001502420
                                                47007714100
                                                4 7008304410
                                                47008319550
                                                47009700450
RARNSHDR
ALLPORT
RR i SRIN
FRENCHVI
HOUTZDAL
KARTHAUS
KYLERTOW
LUTHERSR
MADERA
MORRISDA
C1SCEOLA
PHILIPSR
POTTERSD
ROCKTON
SHAW SVIL
WOO PL AND
BRANDY  C
WFEDV ILL
RFYNOLP5
E PINRURG
SHARON)
cAiUNRRO
CENTRAL
STOYSTOW
PHILIPPI
P ICKMORE
KINGWOOD
CASSITY
NORTON
ALEXANOPE
y  and   x locations
                           Table III-9
                            (Cont'd)

-------
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3.8
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4.7
4.0
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2.6
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2.9
2.7
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34000903600
34000913230
34000915100
3400093 0200
34000937500
3400095 1350
34000955200
340009621 20
3400195 1 700
34003108150
34003 1 18300
34003 1 19200
34003127620
34003 1 87600
34007353890
34007354500
34 007378250
34007504^00
340081 07200
340081 78300
3401 1 5 1 9800
3401 1521020
3401 1900250
340 1 1 929380
3401 1962550
3401 1 970900
34 01 1 97854 0
340 1 1989360
34 0 1 1 992600
3401271 0140
340127 18350
34012718900
34012734500
340 12745330
34 01 2745520
340 1 2754330
3 40 12 75 7000
340 1 2 758 1 00
34012768700
340 12 77? 850
34 0 1 2774600
34012776?00
34 0 1 57224 00
34015750300
3401 5756450
340 1 5757700
34 0 1 5779 1 00
340 15782000
34 0 1 6332400
3720071 9050
37200726260
37200758500
37201301300
3 72 01 907990
37201910200
37201926650
37201928350
3720 1 967350
37201 977500
3720 1 992290
A THENS
CARRONDA
CHAUNCEY
GLOUSTFR
JACKSONV
MI LI_F I EL
NFLSONVI
ORRI STOM
MINERAL
RL ISSFI E
CONESVIL
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MCL UK'~ Y
MO X A H A L 
-------
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63
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77
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37202104300
37^03301250
37203309000
3 7203330920
37203337600
37203340440
37203341640
37203346170
37203347530
37203354880
37203362920
37203365500
37203366940
37203371150
37203375880
37203394630
37204 708570
37204 789430
37206569700
37207324710
37208575500
37211110300
37211111800
372 1 1 181 700
47000121100
470015024 20
47007714100
47008304410
47008319550
47009700450
BARNFSBO
ALLPORT
R R I 5 R I N
FkENCHVI
HOUTZDAL
KARTHAUS
KYLER TOW
LUTHERSR
MADERA
MOkk I SOA
OSCFOLA
P H I l_ I P S R
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R R A M D Y  C
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R I CK vrj^F
K i N G w n n n
CASSITY
NORTON
A L E X A M I") F
»ber .  low  .  mode  .  high     Key:
                                   Table III-10
                                     (Cont'd)

-------
4 locations for the Pittsburgh Bed  and 2 at 1 location for
the Middle  Kittanning Bed.   In the  case where two data
points are  so  close  that they are superimposed then the program
associates  the mean of the values with that location.   The
character  symbol  slash  (/) was  used to represent this
phenomenon on the map.

         There are 203 raw and 56 washed data points  in  the
Pittsburgh  Bed and 90 raw and  15  washed  data points in the
Middle  Kittanning  Bed.   Since there was so little washed
data available  in the  latter bed, this information was not
mapped.

         For mapping it  is  necessary  to locate each  town  by
some kind  of an x-y coordinate  system.   SYMAP will accept
any unit of measurement as long as one  specifies to  the pro-
gram what  measurement  system is being used.   The program
expects  coordinates  to increase  in  magnitude in both  the
horizontal and vertical directions,  unlike UTM s  which increase
in magnitude in the  horizontal but decrease  in the vertical
direction.   This incompatibility  can be overcome  in  SUBROUTINE
FLEXIN.   In READ  statement 90 (see  Table  III-ll),  the vertical
(T(l)) and horizontal  (T(2)) UTM coordinates  are read in from
the cards in the  B-DATA POINTS  package.  The difference
between these  coordinates and the recorded UTM s at the
0,0 origin  (626,322) is then divided by the number of UTM  s
per linear  base  map  inch.   These  transformed coordinates
are in inches  and  are now  compatible as SYMAP  input.   The
resultant town placement is accurate to within  one and  a half
miles.   If  the coordinates  were  read  into the program  unchanged,
then the resultant  map would have appeared  true in  the
horizontal but  upside down  in the vertical direction.

-------
       It  was decided  to  use UTM  measurements  since  all the coal data
at the Bureau of  Mines is located by these  units for the United States.
Thus  the  four-state  region could also serve as a test area to see how
SYMAP could be  used for coal data anywhere in the United States.

       The procedure  for locating the 200 plus  towns involved using
three  different map scales.   Before any towns  could be located,  it
was   necessary to devise a  standardized  system for the easy removal
of coordinates.    To this  end,  a 10x10 kilometer acetate grid overlay
was  created.

       As many towns as possible  were located by this  method on th,e
Army Map Service 1:250,000 series.  All towns are situated within
zone  17 of this series.   Approximately one  tenth  of the towns could
not be found because of their  small size.    It was therefore necessary
to use  USGS maps  of a  larger scale—namely the  1:62,500 and
1:24, 000  map series.   The  towns  were generally  located within a county
by using  the  1968 Rand McNally Commercial Atlas and  Marketing Guide
and specifically located by examining large  scale  quadrant  maps  of the
two aforementioned  scales.  Points  representing the towns were  located
on the 1:250,000  maps  by a combination  of  two methods: (1) accurate
latitude and longitude and (2) visual comparison by identifiable physio-
graphic features  for further locationai accuracy.  The  UTM coordinates
were  then easily  removed from the  map by  using the acetate  grid.

       All UTM  coordinates were  read to the nearest one  kilometer  cell.
Decisions  had  to  be made concerning two different types of locationai
situations: (1)  if  a town was  larger than one UTM  cell, then the cell
nearest to the central business  district was  used  and  (2) if a small
town (shown by a dot on  the map) fell on either the horizontal or
vertical line or both then the  cell nearest to a  mine symbol was used.

-------
                  Since all the  towns were  within one  UTM zone  it was
         only necessary to record  the last three UTM numbers  onto
         cards.   All vertical coordinates were punched as a decimal
         number in Columns 17-20, and all horizontal coordinates  were
         punched as a decimal number in Columns 27-30.   Columns
         50-80 are in the same format as  the  E-VALUES package.

                  All of  the data points were sorted by machine in
         ascending order by their x and y  coordinates as  a verification
         in key  punching,  and  in the locational accuracy of  the towns.
         It is  a much simpler  task to recheck the  town locations  on  the
         map quadrangles if they are  grouped by UTM s.   By sorting
         on both the  x and y column field, one sorted Listing  provides
         a cross-check for  the  other.   Since each  card has a uniquely
         associated point  sequence  number, they may be sorted back
         into the proper  order if dropped  or out of sequence.   It
         thus becomes important to have the cards numbered  arid to
         have  a card  sorter at  your disposal.   There  are computer
         utility  programs  which give a sorted card listing and do not
         disturb the card  order.

1.7.      SUBROUTINE FLEXIN

                  As  previously mentioned  in the  section INPUT  to  SYMAP,
         the input deck consists  of a few introductory  cards which
         preceed the various packages.   Three  of these cards are the
         skeletal framework of  an  optional sub-program known as SUB-
         ROUTINE FLEXIN.   Within this framework  of instructions
         (written in FORTRAN IV computer Language)  the  user,  commen-
         surate  to  his programming ability, has  considerable  latitude
         and flexibility in the  amount  and  kind  of data he  can  exact
         from the computer.  Even if no data  or program manipulation
         is desired, SUBROUTINE  FLEXIN must be provided  in  a

-------
                 SUBROUTINE  FLEX IN  7X,2A4 )
                 RETURN
             20 READ  (5,200)  T
            200 FORMAT  (5X,F5.1,62X,2A4)
                 RETURN
             30 READ  (5,300)  T
            300 FORMAT  ( 1 OX,F5.1 ,57X,2A4 )
                 RETURN
             40 READ  (5,400)  T
            400 FORMAT  ( 15X ,F5.1 , 52X  , 2A4)
                 RETURN
              50 READ  (5,500)  T
            500 FORMAT  (F5.0,67X,2A4)
                 RETURN
              60 READ  (5,600)  T
            600 FORMAT  (5X , F5,1 , 62X , 2A4)
                 RETURN
t!o             70 READ  (5,700)  T
QO"           700 FORMAT  ( 1 0 X , F5 . 1 , 5 7X , 2 A4 )
1                RETURN
              80 READ  (5,800)  T
            800 FORMAT (15X,F5.1,52X,2A4)
                 RETURN
              90 READ  (5,900)  T(1),T(2)
            900 FORMAT (10X,2F10.2)
                 T( 1 ) = (626.-T( 1 ) )/6.37
                 T(2)=(T(2)-322.)/6.37
                 RETURN
                 FND
                                           Table III-11

-------
"dummy" form since  it is an integral  part  of the SYMAP
deck.  Such a "dummy"  FLEXIN consists of the  following three
cards: (1) SUBROUTINE FLEXIN (IFORM, T, FIRST)  (2)
RETURN (3) END.   This  simple format tells the  computer
that there are no  special  manipulations to take  place,  e. g. ,
data bank retrieval, map  axis rotation, card  identification,
number  incrementation,  etc.,  and for  the computer to continue
reading  and executing  the  successive cards.

         In  the case  of this project, the  instructions required
to retrieve  the data from  the  E-VALUES  package were placed
in   this subroutine.   The  values  package is essentially a data
bank since  each card  consists of more data  than  is applicable
for any  given  map,  so the necessary retrieval  instructions to
obtain the data pertinent to a  single map  are contained within
the SUBROUTINE  FLEXIN framework.

         A  single SUBROUTINE  FLEXIN was used in both
Phases I and II, a listing of which  appears in Table  III-ll.
As may 'be  noted in this table there are  nine different READ
statements,  or one READ   statement for each execution.   How-
ever,  in Phase I,  only  six of these executions were performed
by the computer;   READ  statements  20,   30  and 40  produced
maps A-2,  A-3, and A-4  and  READ  statement  60,  70  and  80
produced maps A-6, A-7,   and A-8.  READ  statements 10 and
50 were later  made obsolete  by a separate  subroutine  to produce
the base maps for  the  raw and  washed data  for both phases  of
the project.  READ statement 90  is used  to manipulate the  UTM
coordinates  into map  inches in  Phase  II and was  discussed  in
that section under Data  Point  Placement.

         An example of SUBROUTINE FLEXIN will be  discussed
here as  used in Phase I.   If one  wishes to  produce  a  map of

-------
         raw sulfur content (low value) then it  is necessary to  put the
         number  2  in  column  5  and the number 33 in columns 9 and
         10  of the  second card  in the E-VALUES  package.  This first
         number,  2,  causes the second execution  in  the SUBROUTINE
         FLEXIN to take place.   The FORMAT statement which follows
         tells  the  program which  columns to read  in order  to get the
         pertinent values to be  used  in the map and  to print the name
         of the county in Columns  73 through 80.   The  second number on
         the card  in the  E-VALUES  package,  33,  refers to the  number
         of  subsequent cards to be read,  i. e. , the number  of counties
         on  file.

1.8.      MAP EXECUTION

                  The  F-MAP package  is the instruction and execution
         package of the  SYMAP program.  For most of the maps in
         Phases I and II only changes  in the data banks and subroutine
         instructions arid in certain electives  of the  F-MAP package were
         required from map to  map.   In general,  maps were run in
         series  of  six or more maps at  a   time.   The  maps  run and
         the changes from run to  run are described  below.   A  sample
         F-MAP  package is shown in Table III-12.

                  For  maps  A-2 thru A-4 and A-6 thru  A-8 the same
         electives in the  F-MAP package were used,  with only  the
         titles being changed.    These electives were numbers  1 thru  9
         which were used as follows:

         Elective Number       Description
         Elective  1              Output  size--specified to produce maps
                                 at a  26" width.
         Elective 2              Extreme points--specified in terms  of
                                 map  inches from an origin of  0, 0.  The
                                 vertical dimension  of the source map
                                 is  77. 7 inches  and the horizontal dim-
                                 ension  is 69. 7.

-------
         F-MAP
                  FOUR-STATE  COAL REGION
         PITTSBURGH BED  - RAW SULFUR CONTENT (LOW)
             EXPRESSED AS A PERCENT BY COUNTY
             1                      26.0
                                     0.0      77.7      69.7
tv)
I—"
I
2
3
4
5
6

7
,-=+*XXHN
-=-*-= HZ
= 1-
IN
8
9
99999
0.0
9.
0.5
5.0
0.5
0.5

123456789













LOH
X
A
V



                                     0.5       0.5       0.5        0.5       0.5
                                     0.5       0.5
                                        Table III-12

-------
Elective 3             Number of levels--nine for the purposes
                       of contouring.

Elective 4             Value  Range  Minimum--specified at
                       0.5; values below this level shown in
                       a unique  symbolism.

Elective 5             Value  Range  Maximum--Specified  at 5.0;
                       values  above  this  maximum shown as
                       unique  symbolism.

Elective 6             Value  Range  Intervals--specifies  the
                       ranges of each of the class intervals.

Elective 7             Symbolism--user-specified  symbolism
                       in 9 separate levels.

Elective 8             Contour Lines--suppresses  the appearance
                       of white bands between the  levels  on the
                       map.

Elective 9             Histogram Bars--suppresses  the  appear-
                       ance of a histogram below  the  map.
         For Phase II the same electives  in the F-MAP package
were used for maps B-2 thru B-4 and B-9 thru B-ll.  For

maps B-5 thru B-7 and B-12  thru B-14 elective  3 was  changed

to 1 level to show the  critical isoline of 0.5% and 1.0% sulfur

content;  elective  7 was changed accordingly and elective 5 was

changed  to  1.0.


         For maps B-16  thru B-21 and C-2 thru  C-7  the  same

electives as in Phase  I were used,  with the addition of elective

35 specifying the maximum  search radius  at either  5  miles

(1.340 inches) or 10  miles (2.681  inches).  In addition, the

outline package was  removed and  converted to a  C-OTOLEGENDS

package  for  maps B-14 thru B-21.   No outline existed for the

Middle Kittanning Bed.

         For maps D-4 thru D-7  the same electives as  in Phase

I were used,  with the exception of elective 2--extreme  points

-------
of (17.6,27.0) and (48.4,53.0) for D-4 and D-6  and
(17.6,40.0) and  (33.0,53.0)  for D-5 and D-7.  For
map D-3 elective  1  was 13" and  elective 2 had extreme points
of (35.9, 47..9) and  (45.9,  57.6); otherwise the electives were
similar  to maps B-2 thru B-4 for the left hand map and B-5
thru B-7 for the  right hand map.   The boxes  in maps D-4 and
D-6 showing  the portion of the  study area to  be blown up  were
put in with a C-OTOLEGENDS package.   The  same  legend was
used  in  the blow  ups (maps D-5 and  D-7) but  the  legend was
overriden by the  map border.

         The  base  maps—Figures A-l,  A-5, B-l,  B-8, B-15,  and
C-l--were  produced  in the same manner as maps A-2,  A-6, B-2,
B-l6,  and C-2 with the  following exceptions.   First of all,
different symbolism was employed so that the  area outside the
study area  would be  shaded and  the  data  point locations  would
stand out as  black squares.  Second, the number  of analyses
was shown as a C-OTOLEGEND above each data point.   These
legends  were created by a  special data handling program.

         A newly  created  s ubroutine--Subroutine  MANIP--was
used  in  conjunction with the user Subroutine FLEXIN to  produce
maps D-l and D-2,   The maps for the mode  value of sulfur
content (both raw  and washed) by county and by town (maps
A-3,  A-7,  B-3, and  B-10) were  run and  the values  for  each
character  cell stored on disk.  These values  were read in and
the two  surfaces  compared at locations on a grid  defined by
the user  in Subroutine FLEXIN;  maps A-3 and B-3 were  com-
pared to produce  D-l  and  A-7 and B-10 to produce D-2.   Table
IH-13 shows  the Subroutine FLEXIN used.  Read  statements 31
and 32 refer  to the data points  for  maps  D-l and  D-2 respectively,
and READ statement  40 to  the values to be mapped.  The same

-------
       SUBROUTINE FLEX IN { I FORM , T. F I RST )
       DIMENSION T(2)
       LOGICAL  FIRST
       GO  TO  (31,40,32 ,40),IFORM
   31  CONTINUE
       IF  (FIRST)  CALL MAN IP(5,4,1,12,11t77.7,16.0,0.C,0.0,0)
C ************************************* *^*T(c*lfr**^*-*-**-********************
C*     ARGUMENTS - IGR IDX,IGRIDY,MAPNO,ITP,ITPSKR,XYBASE,XYMAP           *
C*        YOMAP,XOMAP,IBACK.                         "                     *
C*     IGRIDX = ACROSS, IGRIDY =  DOWN  GRID SPACING FOR  CALCULATING FROM *
C*        MAP ON UNIT 8. 1/2 INCH" GRID T5~y~X~~57 JSE~~I K.  I  FOR  GRID     *
C*     MAPNO =  NUMBER OF OUTPUT MAP  USING  SUBROUTINE -  IF  ONLY  MAP, 0   *
C*        IF FIR ST OR OTHETT~M~AlS~T. ^BTTFTAST MAP, 9.        ~          ~*~
C*     ITP = UNIT NUMBER OF OUTPUT MAP,  USUALLY 12.                      *
C*     ITPSKR = UNIT NUMBER OF SUBROUTINE "SCRATCH TAFE, USUALLY 11.     *
C*     XYBASE = X OR Y DIMENSION  OF  BASE  MAP, IN SOURCE UNITS            *
C*     XYMAP =  CORRESPONDING DIMENSION OF  HSP'WUNTT ~B~,~ IN MAP INCHES  *
C*     YOMAP AND XOMAP = X AND Y  DISPLACEMENT OF MAP ON UNIT 8  FROM 0-0 *
C*     IBACK =  0 STANDARD. IF > OT^TUL  WRITF D"UT-&ATKGRDUND CILLS~AS"~  *
C*        INPUT TO GRID PROGRAM.                                          *
       READ(12)  ITEST,T(2) ,T(1)
       IF(ITEST.EO. 99999)  IFORM=99999
       RETURN
    32  CONflNUE
       IF(FIRST) CALL MANI P( 5 ,4,9, 12 , 11 , 77.7, 16. 0,0. 0 ,0 .0,0 )
       READ(12)  TTESTfT(2),T(l)
       IF( ITEST.EQ. 99999)  IFORM=99999
       RETURN                     "
    40  CONTINUE    __       _____ _______
                 REWIND~T2~~
       READC12I ITEST,X,Y,V1,V2
       IF( ITEST.EQ. 99999)  IFORM=99999
       T(l)= V1-V2
       RETURN
       END
                                  Table  III-13

-------
outline and legends packages were used as  in the original
maps; the  data point and  values  packages were  created
internally  by the  program.   The  F-MAP  package employed
different electives for  minimum  and maximum values, number
of levels,  value range intervals,  and symbolism.  The same
comparison procedure  can be made with the GRID program as
discussed  in  the  section on Phase III.   However, for maps
of this  size  where the study area outline remains the same,
the use of the subroutine in SYMAP requires less programming--
only  one to two additional cards  in Subroutine FLEXIN.
 This  subroutine is  described in  section 4,  Program Development.

-------
                PHASE  III: ALLEGANY AND GARRETT COUNTIES

                  Phase III of the project dealt with a two  county area
          in  Maryland,  chosen because  of the relatively good  data
          available for sulfur content,  bed thickness, and washabiiity
          characteristics.  In Stage One of this phase maps were
          produced with the SYMAP program  showing sulfur content
          and bed thickness by seam for the Upper Freeport and Upper
          Baker stown Beds.   Maps  of  quantity of  coal  in the ground  by
          seam were  made using  the GRID program.

                  In Stage Two maps were  produced only for  the Upper
          Freeport Bed.  Maps showing  the  sulfur content to which coal could
          be  washed --using various screen thicknesses  for  washing--
          at  certain yields were  made  with the  SYMAP  program.   The
          GRID program was  used to map the  quantity of  coal that could
          be  obtained at these yields as well  as the  difference in sulfur
          content  depending upon the screen size  used  for washing.

                  The following  sections describe  the work that  was
          done to prepare the data for mapping, including base map
          preparation,  data bank set up and use,  and decisions as  to
          the actual running  of the maps.

-------
         1.      A-OUTLINE--specif led  the  same  as  in Phases
         I and II.

         2.      B-DATA POINTS--the UTM coordinates for
         mine  or sample  location for the data on sulfur  content<
         bed thickness, or  washabiiity; specified  the same as
         in  Phases  I and  II.

         3.      C-LEGENDS--specified the  same  as  in Phases
         I and II.

         4.      C-OTOLEGENDS--specified the same as in
        Phases I and II.

         5.      E -VALUES--specified  the same,  in data banks,
         as  in Phases  I and II.

         6.      F-MAP--specified the same as in Phases  I
         and II.

The user subroutine   FLEXIN,  was used in the  same way to
read  in the appropriate values from  the data  bank (E-VALUES
package)  and  to transform  the  coordinates  (B-DATA POINTS
package)  from the UTM system to source map inches.

         The  corresponding instructions  for Phase III with the
GRID program were as follows:

         1.      Outline--the GRID program reads in a
rectangular matrix of  values  created by SYMAP; Subroutine
FLEXIN of  GRID is used to check  each cell  to see  if it is
outside the  study area.   The user  does not need to  code any
outline package.


-------

-------
                  the symbolism for background; a new outline for
                  the area to  be mapped is therefore created by the
                  test for sulfur content.   No  separate  values  package
                  is needed.

                  b.      Map  package--title cards  and electives are
                  coded in the same way as with the  SYMAP program;
                  many of the  electives are exactly the same.

                  From the preceeding discussion it  should be  evident
          that  once  the  SYMAPs had  been generated and the matrices
          of values  stored in data banks, it was necessary to specify
          only the user  subroutine and  the  MAP package  to  produce
          maps using the GRID program.

2. 2.       BASE MAP PREPARATION

                  Maps  of both Garrett and Aliegany  counties were
          obtained from  the Maryland Geological Service  at  a scale  of
          1 to 6Z500 or  approximately  1" = 1  mile.    The  map  of
          Garrett County showed more detailed information pertaining
          to the  coal beds than that  of  Aliegany County.   The Garrett
          County  map (reprinted 1965 on 1959  base) shows in section
          and in diagram the  relative composition  of  the  various  geologic
          formations.   It also  shows the  outcrop line  of each of the
          coal seams existing  in the  area,  along with symbols  keyed
          to the  names  of the  various beds.  This  detailed information
          is lacking  on  the geological map  of Aliegany County (I95b).
          It was  therefore difficult to define the extent of the outcrop
          lines  for  both the Upper Freeport and Upper Bakerstown
          beds.

-------
         A second series of maps at i" = Z miles was
obtained showing the  various outcrops and mineable  reserves
in the coal seams.   This  is a series o±  maps  that had
been prepared by John T.  Boyd &  Assoc. , Mining Engineers,
March  1964.   These  maps show well-defined outlines  for  the
strip and deep coal reserves,  including the  deep reserve  limit
for the Upper Bakerstown and  the Upper Freeport seams.
They also show  the portion of  each seam greater than Z8"
thick.

         It was decided to use  the Boyd maps as a basis for
determining  the  outlines for the computer maps for  the two
coal  seams under study,  since they were more complete.
However, the  clarity of information at this scale was poor.
Accordingly,  the Boyd  maps were enlarged and the  information
from them transferred to  a composite  map at  a  scale  of
1" =  1  mile.   In this way information  on the Garrett  and
Ailegany County maps (also at I"  =1 mile) could be  used
and  the  scale  of the  base  map would be  such that portions
could be  enlarged without  losing detail on the final computer
maps.

         The  enlarging  was done using  a  double grid technique.
This  process consisted of producing  gridded overlays  for  both
the small map (l" = Zmiies) and the  large map (1" = 1 mile).
These overlays  were directly proportional to the scale
differences  between these  two source maps.  Using  the horizontal
and vertical  lines of  the grids, the  outline was translered  quite
easily from  one  scale to the other.   Likewise,  information was
taken from the larger scale so as  to produce composite overlay
outlines  for the  Upper  Freeport and  Upper Bakerstown Coal
seams.   Periodic adjustments had  to be  made  so that  the
information would conform to  the general outlines of the county
geological maps.

-------
         A separate overlay was produced  lor  each oi  the
ioliowing:
-- 1.   Upper Freeport  total  outcrop;
-- £.  Upper Freeport area over  Z8"  thick;
-- 3.  Upper Bakerstown total outcrop;
--4.  Upper Bakerstown area over Z8" thick.
These four overlays served as the source maps for developing
the computer base map outline packages. (Overlays for four
or five other beds were produced,  but these were discarded
because  sufficient  data  was lacking for  these  beds. )

         Each of the contiguous areas representing  part of a
particular coal  seam  is known as  an  island, which must be
described  in terms of the  x-y coordinates that  define the
boundary.   These  x-y coordinates  can be recorded  by using
a digitizer as in Phases I and II or by hand. The latter  pro-
cedure was used here based on the relatively  small number
of vertices to be  recorded.

         This procedure involved the use  of special graph pape:
with the  x-y coordinates printed along one side and the top.
The  overlay was placed on top of  the graph paper and the
coordinates for  each point were written  on coding forms,
proceeding from point to point in a clockwise manner, and
repeating the starting point to 'close  the  outline'.   This
information is  then punched onto IBM cards--one pair of co-
ordinates per card.   Each island is a separate deck with the
decks for ail islands  forming  the A-OUTLINE  package.  These
packages  were prepared for  each of the  four  computer base
maps.

-------
         Each  of  the base maps was  run and any discrepancies
with the source  maps  were  noted  and corrected.   When  the
Upper Freeport  total outcrop base map was tested together
with the data point locations,  it  was found that  the  20 data
point locations all fell  in the two main islands.   No data
points existed for the  island which was in the upper left hand
corner of  the  study area as well as  for  the small islands  on
the westernmost  side of  the study area.   It was felt  that any
information  interpolated from the data points to these  islands
would  be invalid  and misleading.   Therefore,  these islands
were removed from the outline package and only the  two  areas
shown in Figure  E-l were used  for mapping.   For the Upper
Bakerstown  total outcrop base  map the data point locations
were reasonably  well distributed for all  islands; accordingly
no  islands were  removed  from the outline package. (See
Figure E-5)

         The two base maps for  the areas over  28" thick were
prepared directly from the  Boyd source  maps and are shown
in Figures E-l and E-5.  During the  testing of these  outlines
together with the appropriate data points,  it became apparent
that the location  of  data  points did not correlate very well
with the outline  defining  the areas 28" and greater  in thickness;
many  of the data points fell outside these  outlines.   However,
all of  these  areas were included  if they had been used for the
total outcrop map.

         The size of the  area for mapping in Stage  Two  for the
Upper Freeport  Bed was determined by the location of the
values for washability.    Most of the data points  fell  within
the center portion of the two-county study area used  for Stage
One.   Therefore, it was decided to map  only this center  area.
This area  was defined  for mapping by changing Elective 2  in

-------
SYMAP.   Figure E-l  shows  the  relationship of the  center
area  to that of the total two  county study area.  Figure
G-l  shows the  base map for  the Stage  Two  area.   No changes
in the A-OUTLINE packages  were  necessary to produce
base  maps at this  smaller scale.

         Four separate legend packages  were developed,  two
for each  stage  of  the  mapping.   The C-OTOLEGENDS packages
for each  stage  contained  identical information,  but the
C-LEGENDS packages differed according to the scale  of  the
output map.  The information provided  in each of the
C-OTOLEGENDS packages  consisted of  the  state outline  show-
ing the border  between Maryland and West Virginia and  the
county border  separating Allegany  and  Garrett Counties.   In
the C-LEGENDS packages point legends were used for  the
names: Maryland, West Virginia,  Allegany County,  Garrett
County;  the legend block explaining the  symbolism used  to
delineate  county and state outlines;  and the graphic scale.

         The coordinates  of the various  outlines were located
on the source  map in  the  same manner as for the outline packages.
Slight adjustments were made to  produce a  high quality,  single
character  line  defining the state and  county boundaries.   This
was  necessitated by the reduction in size from the original
scale of the source map  to the size  of the final  computer map;  a
clustering of symbols  occured because  of the reduction in size .
To eliminate this  problem the x-y  coordinates  for the points
to be removed  were recorded from the  output map;  a  blank
symbol was assigned to each of these points,  in effect
removing the  unwanted symbols.   These  blank  symbols were
coded as  a part of each of the C-LEGENDS packages,  but

-------
           their effect was to override instructions  specified in the
           C-OTOLEGENDS package.   This allowed us to develop a
           pleasing and  graphically  consistent legend.

                    With the exception of these blank symbols the uses
           of the C-LEGENDS and  C-OTOLEGENDS packages were the
           same as  in Phases I and  II.

2. 3.        PHASE III DATA BANKS

                    For  Stage  One the data banks  included sulfur content
           for both the Upper Freeport   and Upper  Bakerstown beds
           as  shown in Tables  111-14 and 111-16.   The  values  shown
           are  the  original data provided to us by the  Bureau  of Mines.
           The 20 locations for  the  Upper  Freeport Bed  included  two
           taken from the Lower Freeport  Bed; all  locations for Bakers -
           town coal were  in the Upper Bakerstown Bed.  As  in Phases
           I and II information on number  of analyses, low,  mode,  and
           high values for  sulfur content were  included in the  data bank.
           Although  the  number  of  analyses at  a  location was as high
           as  78,  it was generally 1* accordingly,  only the mode values
           were mapped.

                    The  data banks  and data point locations for bed  thickness
           (Stage One) for  both  beds are shown in Tables 111-15  and 111-17,
           and  for washability (Stage Two)  for  the  Upper Freeport bed in
           Table  IH-18.

2.4.        PHASE in DATA POINT  PLACEMENT

                    All of the data points for both the Upper  Freeport and
           Upper Bakerstown beds and  for  sulfur  content, bed  thickness,
           and washability were  provided in terms of  UTM coordinates.
           The  coordinates  corresponded to mine  or sample  location,
           or to the best estimate when the coordinates were not available.
           Often the estimated location would be  the nearest  town.  A
           procedure was developed to  convert these points from  the


-------
8— DATA
    1
               TS
            20
(Jl
I




















99999





















E-VALUES
2
2.
1.
1.
1.
15.
1.
78.
1 •
1 •
2*
3.
1 .
1.
1.
1.
31.
17.
1.
1 .
1 .
20
2.0
3.7
0.5
1.1
1.2
0.8
0.9
1.1
2.2
i.o
2.7
3.1
2.5
0.7
0.5
0.7
1.8
2.1
1.4
1.8
3769.
3726.
3550.
3537.
3961.
3957.
3953.
3961.
3957.
3953.
3900.
3851.
3623.
3645.
3520.
3407.
3608.
3662.
3969.
3957.

X

2.0 2.3
3.7 3.7
0.5 0.5
1.1 1.1
1.3 1.5
0.8 0.8
1.1 1.7
1.1 !•!
2.2 2«2
1.0 1.3
2.7 5.8
3.1 3.1
2.5 2.5
0.7 0.7
0.5 0.5
1.2 2.2
1.9 2.4
2.1 2.1
1.4 1*4
1.8 1*8
6614.
6604.
6440.
6390.
6558.
6560.
6558.
6566.
6550.
6566.
6558.
6558.
6574.
6531.
6470.
6311.
6548.
6564.
6848.
6581.























   99999
                                                      071R  01
                                                      Q71R  02
                                                      071R  03
                                                      Q71R  04
                                                      071R  05
                                                      071R  06
                                                      071R  07
                                                      071R  08
                                                      071R  09
                                                      071R  10
                                                      071R  11
                                                      071R  12
                                                      071R  13
                                                      Q71R  14
                                                      071R  15
                                                      Q71R  16
                                                      071R  17
                                                      071R  18
                                                      074R  19
                                                      074R  20
                                                  071R 01
                                                  071R 02
                                                  071R 03
                                                  071R 04
                                                  071R 05
                                                  071R 06
                                                  071R 07
                                                  071R 08
                                                  071R 09
                                                  071R 10
                                                  071R 11
                                                  071R 12
                                                  071R 13
                                                  071R 14
                                                  071R 15
                                                  071R 16
                                                  071R 17
                                                  071R 18
                                                  074R 19
                                                  074R 20
                                  Table III-14
                      Upper Freeport Bed - Sulfur Content
                                                            02301550197
                                                            023Q1550248
                                                            02304200454
                                                            023069500^0
                                                            02307000039
                                                            02307000067
                                                            02307000270
                                                            02307000272
                                                            02307000464
                                                            02307000690
                                                            02308330488
                                                            02308330489
                                                            02308700258
                                                            023087Q0491
                                                            02310400769
                                                            0231348Q370
                                                            02314290877
                                                            02315270660
                                                            00100750570
                                                            02307000112
                                                                02301550197
                                                                02301550248
                                                                02304200454
                                                                02306950020
                                                                02307000039
                                                                02307000067
                                                                02307000270
                                                                02307000272
                                                                02307000464
                                                                02307000690
                                                                02308330488
                                                                02308330489
                                                                02308700258
                                                                02308700491
                                                                02310400769
                                                                02313480370
                                                                02314290877
                                                                02315270660
                                                                00100750570

-------
B-DATA  POINTS
     1     7
99999
E-VALUpS
    2
99999
                3707.
                3603.
                3958.
                3649.
                3952.
                3814.
                3620.
                  37.
                  48.
                  30.
                  38.
                  43.
                  40.
                  48.
6383.
6473.
6580.
6571.
6317.
6345.
6538.
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
                              01
                              02
                              03
                              04
                              05
                              06
                              07
                                          Table III-15

-------
B-OATA POINTS







99999








E-VALUES
2
1.0
2.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
99999
7
0.6
1.3
1.8
3.7
0.6
3.3
3.3

Key: Number, low
i
t\>
u>


3961 .
3961.
3819.
3558.
3579.
3880.
3869.

X

0.6 0.6
1.3 1.7
1.8 1*8
3.7 3.7
0.6 0.6
3.3 3.3
3.3 3.3

. mode, high


6817.
6817.
6523.
6467.
6505.
6558.
6558.
                                                   062R 01
                                                   062R 02
                                                   062R 03
                                                   062R 04
                                                   062R 05
                                                   062R 06
                                                   062R 07
                                                         2
                                                         3
                                                         4
                                                         5
                                                         6
                                                         7
00110700423
00110700460
02301450042
02304200454
02304200580
02308330136
02308330333
       423
        460
        042
        454
        580
        136
        333
                                        Table III-16

-------
POINTS X
16
3939.
3960.
3810.
3498.
3633.
3591.
3680.
3591.
3645.
3591.
3742.
3729.
3612.
3794.
3761.
3652.


6856.
6818.
6510.
6368.
6524.
6476.
6567.
6476.
6531.
6476.
6368.
6372.
6566.
6515.
6660.
6570.
 99999
 E-VALUES
      2   16
OJ
00
38.
37.
38.
52.
35.
30.
42.
48.
35.
30.
48.
45.
35.
18.
30.
38.
                                                           01
                                                           02
                                                           03
                                                           04
                                                           05
                                                           06
                                                           07
                                                           08
                                                           09
                                                           10
                                                           11
                                                           12
                                                           13
                                                           14
                                                           15
                                                           16
 1
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
  99999
                                         Table 111-17
                               Upper  Baker slow n Bed

-------
   B-OATA  POINTS
                   3939.     6856.
                   3705.     6652.
                   3603.     6473.
                   3633.     6532.
                   3652.     6570.
   E-VALUES          X
       2     5
     60 43939  6856 1400 1200 2.79  1
     60 43705  6652 1300 1200 3.67
     60 43603  6473 2750 2600 3.83  1
     60 43633  6532 2750 2600 4.25
     60 43652  6570 1970 1938 3.0^  1
   99999





.41
.76
• 18
• 60
.05





1.49
.76
1.24
.60
1.10





1.59
.75
1.29
.61
1.16





1*69
• 78
1.49
• 62
1.30
01
02
03
04
05
.59
• 16
.40
.05
• 16





.70
• 16
• 53
• 07
• 29





• 81
• 16
.69
.08
• 46





• 93
• 20
• 89
• 10
• 68
Key:
               x
  50   60    70   80
(yield) total sulfur
                      50    60   70   80

                     (yield)pyritic sulfur
    B-OATA POINTS
        1    5





99999
E-VALUES
2 5
60 £>3939
60 43705
60 43603
60 43633
60 43652
3939.
3705.
3603.
3633.
3652.

X

6856 1400
6652 1300
6473 2750
6532 2750
6570 1970
6856.
6652.
6473.
6532.
6570.



1200 2.79
1200 3.67
2600 3.83
2600 4.25
1938 3.04
                                                           01
                                                           02
                                                           03
                                                           04
                                                           05
                                    0.00  2*03 2*13 2*19 0.00
                                                        0.08
                          1.30  1.40 1.47
                          0.12  0.00 0.24
0.74 0.74 0.00 0.83
1.15 1.30 0.00 1.72 0.47 0.63  0.00  1.05
0.64 0.66 0.69 0*00 0*12 0.16  0.19  0*00
1.00 1.15 0.00 1.57 0.37 0.53  0.00  0.95
    99999
                                             Table III-18

-------
UTM coordinates to the coordinates of the   Phase  III
output maps.   An algorithm similar to the one used  in Phase
II was used for  both  Stage  One and Stage  Two.

         A  separate B-DATA POINTS package  (and  correspond—^;
E-VALUES package) was prepared  for  each  computer  run.
This  consisted of a separate card for each data point to  be
mapped.    On each  card were punched the  UTM coordinates  of
the point,  a reference  number, and a code related to the mine
or sample  location.

         For both the Upper Freeport  and  Upper Bakerstown
coal  seams there were two  superimposed  data points for
the sulfur content values.   For the thickness and washability
information, there  were no  superimposed  data points; a super-
imposed  data point corresponding to a  top bench value  was
removed  from the washability data  bank.   Table III-1V shows
each  of the data banks,  the  number of data  points, and the
number of  superimposed data points.

         Several of the  seams that  were to have been mapped
could not be meaningfully analyzed  due to  the  high  number oi
superimposed data  points;  the effective number of data points
was  too  few for  mapping.   The SYMAP program handles super-
imposed  data points by summing  and calculating a  mean  for
ail values that are located  at the same point;  thus,  a new value
is calculated for  use  in the  interpolation procedures.   Taking
the mean of two values  that are themselves modal  values based
on different numbers  of analyses  may well skew the  results in
this  case.

-------
   DATA BANK                        ORIGINAL  # DATA POINTS    TOTAL #        EFFECTIVE
                                                              SUPERIMPOSED   FOR MAPPING


   Upper Freeport - Sulfur Content           20                    2             19

   Upper Freeport - Thickness                 7                    07

   Upper Bakerstown - Sulfur Content          7                    26

   Upper Bakerstown - Thickness              16                    0             16

   Upper Freeport - Washability               5                    05
ro
                                          Table  III-19

-------
2.5.      SUBROUTINE  FLEXIN

                   Subroutine FLEXIN is  used as a part of both the
          SYMAP  and  GRID  programs.  FLEXIN was  used in the
          SYMAP  program to:

                   1.      read in the data points and convert them
                   from  UTM coordinates to  source  map  inches.   The
                   algorithms following READ Statement  1  in  Table III-ZU
                   (a  sample SYMAP FLEXIN for  Phase HI)  show the
                   conversion made  for both  Stage One and Stage Two;
                   and,

                   Z.      read in all the  values for  the variables  in the
                   appropriate data bank; these values are  written  out
                   onto a scratch disk  file; for each map  in  a  run,  the
                   file is rewound and  read  and the  appropriate variable
                   is  returned to the main program  for  mapping.
          This  form of FLEXIN was used for maps E-Z  thru E-4, E-6
          thru E-8,  E-9  thru E-ll,  F-l and F-Z, G-Z  thru  G-5,  and
          G-8 thru G-10.

                   FLEXIN was used in the  GRID  program in a slightly
          different way.   When maps  were run with SYMAP   the  matrices
          of map values were written out onto a disk to create two data
          banks--one  containing  all  the SYMAPs for Stage  One and the
          other containing all the SYMAPs  for Stage Two.   These  were
          stored as real  values  and the entire data  bank read  in  by
          Subroutine FLEXIN of GRID.   Table III-Z1 shows the Sub-
          routine for  Stage One.

                   In most cases FLEXIN was used in GRID to read in
          values for sulfur content and thickness;  if the  cell were inside

-------
    SUBROUTINE FLEX IN(I FORM,T,FIRST)
    DIMENSION T(3) , SK)
    LOGICAL  FIRST
    GO TO  (1, 10,20,30),IFORM
  1 READ  (5,900) T( 1),T(2)
900 FORMAT  (10X.2F10.2)
    T(l)=(3986.-T<1))716. 0428
    T(2)=(T(2)-6285.)/16.0428
    RETURN
 10 IF(FIRST) REWIND 11
    READ  (5,100) S,T(2),T(3)
100 FORMAT  (4F5.0,52X,2A4)
    WRITE  (11,101) S,T(2),T(3)
101 FORMAT  (4F5.1.2A4)
    T(l)=S(2)
    RETURN
 23 IF (FIRST) REWIND ll
    READ  ( 11,200) T
200 FORMAT  (1 OX,F5.1,5X,2A4)
    RETURN
 30 IF (FIRST) REWIND 11
    READ  (11,300) T
300 FORMAT  (1 5X, P5. 1, 2A4)
    RETURN
    END
                  Table  III-20
          Subroutine FLEXIN  - SYMAP

-------
   SUBROUTINE FLEX I N( I FCRy , T , F I RST )
   LOGICAL FIRST
   DIMENSION Z(16),IZ(16)
   EQUIVALENCE(Zd) ,IZ(1 ))
   READ (12) Z
   GO TO (1 ,2t3t4,5,6) , IFCPM
   CONTINUE
   IF(Z(2).GE.l .0) GO  TO  10
   IF(IZ(7). EQ.25) GO  TO  10
   T=1676.0*(Z(7)/12.0)
   RETURN
   CONTINUE
   IF(Z(5) .GE.1.0) GO  TO  10
   IF(IZ(8).EQ.25) GO  TO  10
   T=1676.0*(Z<8)/12.0)
   RETURN
   CONTINUE
   IF(Z( 10) .GE.1.0) GO TO 10
   IFUZU5I.EQ.25) GO TO 10
   T=1676.0*(Z( 151/12.0)
   RETURN
   CONTINUE
   IF(Z(13) .GE.1.0) GO TC 10
   IF( IZ(16).EQ.25) GO TO 10
   T=1676.0*(Z(16)/12.0)
   RETURN
   CONTINUE
   IF(Z(2) .GE.1.0. AND. Z( 10). GE.1.0)  GO  TO  10
   IFUZI7) .EQ.25. AND. IZ(15) .EQ.25)  GO  TO  10
   A=1676.0*(Z<7)/12.0)
   6=1676. 0*
-------
 the  study area and  the  sulfur content was less than 1%,
 then a value for quantity would be returned  to  the main program
 for  mapping.   The  value would be proportional to the bed
 thickness and was  calculated  as follows:
         Q = 1676. U x T x M x Y
                      TZTO
 where:  Q = quantity in tons  per acre
         T = thickness  in inches
         M = adjustment for recovery:
                 1. 00 for reserves  and
                 0. 50 for amount mineable.
         Y = yield,  varying from 0.50 thru
              0. 80 for the washability data,  and
              1.00 for reserves.

      Since the scale of the map is known and the area in
 acres  of each grid cei.1  can be determined, only a few  statements
 would  need to be added  to  the Subroutine  to calculate the total
 quantity of coal.   This  would  involve summing the quantity in
 tons per acre for all cells being mapped  and  multiplying  the
 sum times the  acres per grid cell.     An approximate  answer
 can be obtained directly from the printout accompanying the
 maps.    Below the chart showing the symbolism the number of
 cells  is printed for  each level.   For any level,  the  number
 of cells can be multiplied by  the average  quantity in tons per
 acre for that level and  the number  of acres per grid cell.
 The  results  can be summed for all levels to  give  the total
 quantity of coal.   Maps  F-3 thru F-5 and H-l thru H-5 were
produced using  this  type of  FLEXIN.

-------
      Subroutine FLEXIN was  used in GRID  in another way.
For  Maps G-6,  G-7, and  H-7 values were read  in, the check
for background cells  was  made (cells outside  the  study  area),
and  the difference in values calculated.   This  is  similar to
the use of Subroutine MANIP  in Phase II.

-------
Z. 6.      MAP EXECUTION
                   For most oi the maps in Phase  III only changes in
          the data  banks and subroutine instructions  and in certain
          eiectives  of the  F-MAP or MAP package were required from
          map to map.   The  decks were set up so that a series of maps
          could be  produced in one run.

                   Most  maps  employed  the  same eiectives in the
          F-MAP package for SYMAP and the  MAP package  for GRID:

          Elective        SYMAP              GRID
            1.            13"                  100  rows by  12V  columns
                                               for Stage One;
                                               76 rows by 1Z9 columns for
                                               Stage Two.
            Z.            extreme points       IFORM number related to
                          from  source         the execution statements
                          map                 in FLEXIN
            3.            nine levels           nine levels
          4,5,6,7,        same  way as        Same way as Phase  I  & II
                          Phase I & II
            8.            same  way as        (not  used. )
                          Phase I & II
          Maps E-Z thru E-4,  E-6 thru E-8,  E-9 thru E-ll, F-l  and
          F-Z,  G-Z  thru  G-5, and  G-8 thru G-10 were all run with
          SYMAP with changes occurring only in eiectives  4  and 5, and
          in elective  1 from  Stage  One to Stage  Two.   Maps  F-3 thru
          F-b  in Stage One and  maps  G-6, G-7 and H-l thru  H-7  in
          Stage Two were run with GRID.  Changes occured  in  eiectives
          Z, 4, and 5,  and in elective 1  from Stage  One to Stage Two.

-------
Maps E-l,  E-5,  and  G-l were base maps; these were  run
with special symbolism and used  only  a 'dummy' subroutine.

-------
2- 7.          INPUT TO SYMVU
                      Two  three-dimensional views were produced  for
               each of four surfaces using the SYMVU program.    These
               surfaces had been produced by SYMAP and  the matrix
               of values  stored  on  disk files for later use  by the GRID
               program;  they  are  stored and read in by SYMVU  in a
               similar way.   No changes  were necessary in  the  present
               version of the  SYMVU  program to  produce these eight
               plots.

                      The user  of SYMVU must specify a number of
               electives, similar in nature to the  electives of the F-MAP
               or  MAP  packages of  SYMAP and GRID.   These are ail
               contained  on two  control cards which follow the title care].
               Table 111-22  shows  these three cards for the two  views
               of the  surface  of thickness for the  Upper  Freeport Bed
               for areas over 28" thick (the  right hand map  in Figure  F 1)
               For example the  '100'  and  '129' at the beginning of  card
               2 specify the number of  rows and columns,  respectively,
               on  the  matrix of  values and, correspondingly,  on  the
               SYMAP-produced map.    If  we examine Figure  F-l we will
               find that the  numbers on the borders show us that there
               are,  indeed,  100 rows  and 129 columns.   These numbers
               were specified  according to the  instructions  for electives
               2-1  and 2-2, respectively;  the  other numbers  on cards  2
               and  3 were  specified according to similar instructions in
               the computer program  manual.

                      The next 31  cards are used to specify the  north
               arrow which  is composed of  31  small five-pointed stars.
              At the  present  time  all legends  to be  shown on the  plot

-------
must be punched  up separately with a card for each
character  cell.   In Table  111-22 the first and  second
integer (92 and 110,  respectively)  on card 4  are the
row and column locations  as they would be measured on
the SYMAP-produced map; in this case  a  new legend was
created for SYMVU  so these points  were not measured
from the  map in  Figure F-l.  The  integer number,
14,  is a  code for  the  five-pointed star  symbol.

        The last three cards  are  the  title card  and two
control cards  for the  second of the  two  views for this
surface.   The  card  deck for the views of the other three
surfaces  were  exactly the same, except for the two  title
cards,  and the elective specifying the file number  of the
data set.

-------
I
ro
On
U. FREEPORT
100 129
60. C .
92
93
93
93
94
94
94
94
94
95
95
95
95
95
95
95
96
96
96
96
96
96
96
96
96
97
97
97
98
98
98
U. FREEPQRT
100 129
45. 309.
BED, THICKNESS
2 0
6. 3.
lie
109
110
111
108
109
110
111
112
107
108
109
lie
111
112
113
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
109
110
111
109
110
111
BED, THICK. NESS
4 1
6. 2.
JF AREAS >28" ,GARRE TTG A L L EGA NY C OUNTY , MARYLAI
0 81 0 31 4
.04
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
l^
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
OF AREAS >28",GARRETT£ALLEGANY COUNTY ,MARYLAf
2 81 3 31 4
28.0 .04
                                           Table III-Z2


-------
3.
                      GENERAL REFERENCES
3.1.    APPALACHIAN COAL REGION REFERENCES
              U.S.  Bureau of Mines  Report of Investigations  #
       "Estimate  of Known Recoverable Reserves  of Coking  Coal
       in                       County"; for the following counties
                                        Report  #
                                          4970
                                          5003
                                          4807
                                          5143
                                          4757
                                          4998
                                          5109
                                          4803
                                          5160
                                          5267
                                          5207
                                          5233
                                          5171
maps for the
State
MD
PA
PA
PA
PA
PA
PA
PA
WV
wv
WV
wv
wv
Pitt sburgh Bei
County
Allegany
Allegheny
Fayette
Greene
Indiana
Somerset
Washington
Westmoreland
Brooke
Marion
Marshall
Monogalia
Ohio
            Unpublished  current  data frQ>m U.S.  Bureau of Mines
      data banks.

-------
3. 2.      ALLEGANY  AND GARRETT COUNTY REFERENCES

          'Amsden,  T.W.,  1953,  Geologic Map of Garrett County,
          Maryland Geological Survey.  (Reprinted 1965).   Scale 1:62,500.

          'Anon. ,  1962,  Maryland  Coal Reserves,  Maryland Bureau  of
          Mines,  Westernport,  Maryland.   Mimeo.

          'Anon.,  1967,  Calendar  Year 1967 forty-fifth annual report of
          the Maryland Bureau of Mines.   Westernport,  Maryland.

          'Anon. ,  1968,  List of  Publications of the Maryland Geological
          Survey,  Latrobe  Hall,  Johns Hopkins University,  Baltimore,
          Maryland 21218.

          'Berryhill,  H.  L.  Jr.,  G. W.  Colton,  W.  de  Wilt,  Jr.,  J. E.
          Johnston,  1965, Geologic  Map of Allegany County,  U.S.
          Geological Survey and State of Maryland Dept.  of Geology, Mines,
          and Water Resources.  Scale  1:62,500.

          "Boyd,  J.  T.  and Associates,  1964,  Remaining Coal Reserves
          of Allegany  and Garrett Counties, Maryland,  Report issued by
          the company to the State  of Maryland.   27p. plus maps.

          "Crentz,  W.  L. ,  and  T.   Fraser, 1947,  "Preparation Character-
          istics  of Maryland Coals," U.S.  Bureau of  Mines Technical
          Paper 701.

          'Snyder,  N. H. ,  and S-  J.  Aresco,  1953,  "Analyses of Tipple
          and Delivered  Samples  of Coal (collected during the fiscal  years
          1948 to 1950 inclusive),"  U.S.  Bureau of Mines Bulletin 516.

-------
'Toenges,  A.  L. ,   L, A.  Turnbull, L.  Williams, H.  L.
Smith,  H.  J.  O'Donnell,  H. M. Cooper,  R.  F.  Abernethy,
and K.  Waage,  1952, "Investigation of  Lower Coal  Beds  in
Georges Creek and North Part of  Upper Potomac Basins,
Allegany and Garrett Counties, Md. , " U.S.  Bureau of  Mines
Technical  Paper 725.

'Toenges,  A.  L. ,  et al. ,  1952,  "Castleman Basin,  Garrett
County,  Md. , " U.S.  Bureau of Mines Bulletin 507.

-------
3. 3.      OTHER  REFERENCES

          'Beaumont,  Edward C. ,  1963 (August), "A  Procedure  for
          Determining Strippable Coal  Reserves11,  reprinted  from Coal
          Age.

          ' Blaylock,  D.W ,  et al. ,   1955,  "Estimate  of Known Recoverable
          Reserves of Coking  Coal in Clearfield County,  Pennsylvania, "
          U.S.  Bureau of Mines  Report of Investigations  #5166.

          'Crentz, W.  L. ,  A. L.  Bailey,  and  J.  W.  Miller;  1952,
          "Preparation Characteristics of Coal  from Clearfield  County,
          Pa. , " U.S.  Bureau  of  Mines Report of Investigations  #4894

          "DeCarlo, Joseph  A.,  E.   T.  Sheridan,  and Z. E. Murphy,
          1966,  "Sulfur  Content of  United States Coals, "  U.S.  Bureau
          of Mines Information Circular  #8312

          'Deurbrouck,  A. W. , and  E. R.  Palowitch, 1966,  "Survey of
          Sulfur Reduction in  Appalachian Region Coals by Stage Crushing, "
          U.S.  Bureau of Mines  Information Circular 8282.

          'Edmunds,  Wm. E.  ,  1968, "Geology  and Mineral  Resources  of
          the Northern Half  of the  Houtzdale 15-Minute Quadrangle,  Pa.,"
          Pennsylvania Geological Survey Bulletin A85ab

          "Englund,  K.  J. ,  1969, "Availability  of Low-Sulfur Coal  in
          Wyoming County,  West Virginia, "  U.S. Geological Survey
          Administrative  Report.

          'Gluskoter,  Harold  J.  and  J.  A.  Simon,  1968 "Sulfur  in  Illinois
          Coals,"  Illinois  State Geological Survey, Urbana,   Illinois


-------
4-                   PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT

                   The  computer  mapping  programs as used at the
          Laboratory for Computer  Graphics and Spatial Analysis are
          constantly undergoing revision and improvement.  Accordingly,
          it is  important to specify which version  of each program was
          used  for  the  project:

                          SYMAP Version 5. 15
                          GRID Version 3
                          SYMVU Version 1. 0.

                   A number  of significant changes in the SYMAP and
          GRID programs were made  during the  project  to facilitate
          the mapping  of the coal data, particularly  data having  to
          do with quantities of coal.   In the SYMAP program changes
          were made in the printout of the  textual  information below
          the map.   In addition,  a new subroutine  was written to be
          used  in conjunction  with the  normal user  subroutine  for  com-
          paring surfaces having  the same study area outline.   Since
          the GRID program  can generally be used more efficiently for
          comparison of  surfaces,  this SYMAP  subroutine is  only  useful
          for the user  who wishes  to  perform the  comparison with  one
          program  and  one submission.

                   The  major  changes  to  the GRID  program involved the
          rewriting of  the legends routine that had been  included in
          previous  versions of the  program run on the IBM7094.   This
          enables the same kind  of legends  used with the SYMAP program
          to be displayed on  a map  produced by  GRID.   Formally,  it
          was  not  possible  to  include  legends  with  the  GRID  program.
          With  the  inclusion of these changes,  the  two programs are  now
          completely compatible in terms  of graphic  output.

-------
                   The changes made to both the  SYMAP and GRID
          programs were not incorporated into the existing standard
          versions of the programs.   Instead,  the  specific changes  to
          the standard programs  necessary  to duplicate the work  of
          this  project  are documented separately, as requested.

                   A number  of other  important changes in the mapping
          procedure  were undertaken as part of the program development;
          they do  not specifically involve changes to  the  mapping  programs.
          These include:

                   1.      The use of statistical routines  incorporated  in
                   user-oriented programs to aid in the choosing of the
                   levels  or  contour intervals  for mapping.

                   2.      Data handling procedures used to facilitate the
                   mapping particularly when a large series of maps is
                   involved.

                   3.      The use of a simple  FORTRAN  program to
                   create legends  showing  the  number of analyses  associated
                   with each  data point.   These legends can be displayed
                   directly on the  base map.

                   Most  of the material in the following s ections is of
          a technical nature   aimed at the  computer  programmer  interested
          in using the programs.

4. 1.      SYMAP  PRINT OUT  STATEMENTS

                   Two  changes  were  made  in the way that textual infor-
          mation following the maps  is printed out by the SYMAP program.

-------
Since the clock  subroutine  is  presently inoperable for runs on
the IBM 360-65  at the  Harvard Computing Center  all state-
ments specifying TIME=  were  deleted from the  printout.
Secondly,  the  way  in which the ranges of data values assigned
to each  of  the data value levels  has been specified in the  past
has been unclear to many  users of the program.   Therefore,
the lines stating "absolute  value range applying to each level,
(maximum  included in  highest  levels only)",  were deleted  from the
printout.   The explanation  of  the value ranges specified which
follows  this statement  was  changed as follows:

          Value  range  changed from

         level           1.       2.
         Minimum      1. 00    2. 00
         Maximum      2. 00    3. 00 etc.
                      to
         level          1.       2.
         Minimum      1.00    2.00
         Maximum      1.99    2.99  etc.
In the normal version  of the program,  it was not clear which
level the value 2. 00 would be assigned  to; in the new print-
out of the level ranges,  this confusion has been eliminated.

         The  procedure for  specifying the portion of the value
range to be included in each level  in elective  6 remained
unchanged;  therefore,  these minor program modifications  have
no effect on  the way the user inputs his information.   They
only  affect  the clarity  of his output.

-------
         These changes  were made only for the Phase  I
and II Appalachian Coal  Region maps; the  standard version
of SYMAP was  used for the Phase III Allegany and  Garrett
County maps.

-------
4.2.     SYMAP  SUBROUTINE  MANIP

                 As discussed in later  sections of the  report,  data
        for sulfur content for the Pittsburgh Bed was  mapped  in a
        four state area  of the Appalachian Region.   In  one series of
        maps the sulfur content data was aggregated and  mapped by
        counties; in  a second  series of maps,  the data was aggregated
        and mapped  by towns.   The  surfaces  resulting from these
        two data  aggregation procedures were  compared to  determine
        what scale of aggregation would be  most useful,  in  relation
        to the  time involved in obtaining and manipulating the data.

                 To compare the  two surfaces directly  in  one  submission
        with the SYMAP program required  the  writing  of  a  new sub-
        routine  entitled Subroutine MANIP.   MANIP is  called by the
        normal  user  subroutine FLEXIN.  The parameters to be
        specified  are clearly spelled out in comment statements
        contained in  subroutine FLEXIN; these  include the size and
        form of  the  surfaces to be compared, the desired size and
        form of  the output map,  and  the spacing  of the grid on which
        the comparison will  be made.   Subroutine FLEXIN as used
        with Subroutine MANIP is shown in  Table III-13.
                Normally,  comparison  is not made  for  each  character
        cell as  is  done with the GRID  program;  this is an expense-
        saving procedure.   The use  of  subroutine MANIP with SYMAP
        is therefore  advisable  for  comparing large maps where accuracy
        at each character cell is  not necessary.   On the other hand,
        when  small maps are being  compared and accuracy at each cell
        is important--as with the determination of the  quantity of coal
        in later phases  of the  mapping--the use  of the GRID program
        is advisable  for  surface comparison.

-------
4. 3.      LEGENDS WITH GRID

                   Earlier versions of the GRID program--run  on  the
          IBM 7094 at  the Harvard Computing Center--had provided
          for a legend  package on cards  and tape  which would  allow
          the inclusion of legends similar to those used with SYMAP.
          Considerable programming  was necessary to make these
          changes compatible with the current versions of SYMAP and
          GRID run on the IBM 360-65.

                   The  final solution  involved the following changes from
          the current  versions  of the  programs:

                   (i)     changes in  one  subroutine  of SYMAP  so  that
                   all  legends  appearing  on the output  map are  written
                   out by row  and column onto  a file stored on disk; and,
                   (ii)    changes in  one  subroutine  in GRID  so that these
                   legends can  be read in by rows  and columns and  shown
                   on the map output  by  GRID in the same way they were
                   shown by SYMAP.   The  maps must be  for the  same
                   area  and  at  the same  size*
                   For  the  user the only considerations are using the
          versions of SYMAP and GRID edited to perform this task.
          First of all, the special version of SYMAP is used with only
          the legends and map packages.   In the F-MAP package electives
          1 and 2 should be  specified as usual,  elective 3 as one level,
          and elective 7 with some symbol not used in the legends for both
          the level and  background symbolism. The legends package should be

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          specified as usual.  This  separate run of SYMAP will create
          the necessary legends file  on disk.

                   The  edited version of the GRID program is used,
          for mapping.   No  other  changes are necessary from a normal
          run with the  GRID program.
4.4.      USE OF STATISTICAL ROUTINES

                   A user-oriented  statistical program  called SPSS
          (Statistical  Package  for the Social Sciences) was initially used
          to aid in the choosing of contour intervals  for  mapping.   This
          package program can  compute the mean, median, mode, variance
          standard  deviation,   skewness, range,  minimum and maximum of
          the data.   In particular,  the  user can  request  a frequency dis-
          tribution  of  the data values.

                   Too  often the user of SYMAP  does not know the
          frequency distribution  of  the  data to be mapped;  consequent.'.y
          several test maps are made  before the optimum value  range
          intervals  are determined  for  the final maps.    By using a
          statistical program  such  as SPSS to determine  the value range
          intervals,  considerable time  and money can be  saved.

                   SPSS was used to determine  the frequency distribution
          of all the sulfur content data for Phases I  and  II.   Tentative
          value range  intervals were set accordingly.  As a result  of
          review  with  APCO and the Bureau of Mines,  two  level break-
          downs were  selected for  use  with the  Phase  I  and  II maps:

                   1.      nine  equal value  range  intervals from  0.5% to
                  5. 0% sulfur, and


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                   2.      critical value level  breaks at 0. 5% and  1%
                   sulfur; this serves to highlight those areas  of the
                   study area with less than 1%, or less than  0.5%,
                   sulfur  content coal.

                   The  number  of data points  available for mapping in
          Phase III did not warrant the use of SPSS to determine
          frequency distributions.   The same level breakdown  was  used
          for sulfur  content as  in Phases  I and  II;  level breakdowns
          for bed thickness  and quantity were determined by inspection
          of the data, as were the levels for the washability sulfur content
          data.
                   For  any  project where a large volume  of  data  is to
          be mapped  and several value ranges exist,  a program such
          as SPSS used  prior to mapping will prove very useful and
          time  saving.

4.5.      DATA HANDLING PROCEDURES

                   The  data  handling procedures  used for  Phases  I  and
          II were mainly an extension of  prior  procedures. Considerable
          time was spend setting up separate computer decks  for each
          run or  series of  maps.   This was  done  primarily to keep ail
          of the component  packages  needed to  make  specific  runs  in
          their  proper  order.   The mapping  could  have been done by
          using one basic set of A-OUTLINE, C-OTOLEGEND, and
          C-LEGEND packages  for  all runs and  interchanging  the  appro-
          priate B-DATA POINTS,  E-VALUES and  F-MAP packages.
          However, experience  has  shown us  that  it is worth the extra
          effort at the beginning of  a project  to  duplicate outline  and
          legend packages and set up separate decks  for each  series  of
          maps  to be run.   Otherwise, considerable  confusion can  occur
          from  constantly switching and alternating the various packages.

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         When maps for a study area are  to be  run continuously
over  a long period of time it would be advisable to store the
outline and legends on  a  tape or  disk  file, store the data banks
of data points and values on other  files,  and submit card decks
for each  run which contain   only the  map package,  user
subroutine,  and  job  control language.

         In Phase  I one  series  of maps run was the  sulfur
content for washed' samples  for the Pittsburgh Bed.  The deck
set-up to  produce  the three  maps for  low, mode,  and high
values was as follows:

         1.     job control language.

         2.     user  subroutine FLEXIN,   used to read  in the
         appropriate values for  mapping.
         3.     outline  package.
         4.     data points  package, containing  the  x-y locations
         for the  washed  samples.
         5.     legends packages.
         6.     data bank or values packages,  containing  the
         data for the  low,  mode,  and high values for each
         county.
         7.     map execution packages.
         In this  case  all data were on cards; the deck for  the
raw  samples would differ  only  for  the data points,   data bank
values, and the  title  cards of the map packages.   Similar
procedures were used in Phase II.

         In Phase  III  more  sophisticated data handling procedures
had to be  developed.   Considerable thought was given at  the

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outset to the most efficient and logical  means  for  mapping
and  displaying the  information  pertaining to this  phase of
work.   Before  any mapping was  done,  the total  mapping
program  was laid out and  evaluated.  It became apparent that
two  problems had to be solved in order  to produce the
required  maps  efficiently.   Both problems are caused by
the very  inefficient  way in which SYMAP is used to  take
output from one map and  use it as  input to another:

         1.     developing  a  technique to store the output of
         each computer  run;  and,
         2.     developing  a  technique to retrieve and  use
         this output  as  input  to further computer runs.

         For example,  the first run might  map the mode values
for  sulfur content and the  second  run,  the thickness  of the
bed.   A third run  is then  desired to calculate  the quantity  of
coal with  less than  1% sulfur content, using  the  first and
second runs. It  is necessary to have  an efficient technique  for
storing the matrices of values  created by the first two runs
and  then  retrieving  them to produce the  map in  the third run.

         Most of  the  previous work  dealing with  SYMAP has
used tapes as a means  of  storing output maps.   This  procedure
works quite well  when the  number of tapes the user  is handling
is small,  but as  the number of output tapes  increases  so
does the  confusion and difficulty.   Consequently, a disk  storage
device was used  to  store  all of the  output  maps  that were  run
in Phase  III.  The procedures  involved  are almost identical to
those used with tapes.   Minor  modifications  were made  in  the
SYMAP program  to add the necessary job  control language
cards  and to specify the needed parameters for  writing on
disks.

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         The  following  steps  were necessary to set up this
procedure:

         1.     Acquiring  a 2314 disk pack  from the Harvard
         Computing Center to be used for storing the basic
         information.    The SYMAP  source program was  also
         stored on this disk;  although this was not an essential
         step, it  was found to be more  efficient  to have  the
         mapping program on the same  disk,  instead of using  one
         disk for data and a  separate system  disk  which normally
         has  SYMAP  stored  on it.

         2.     Developing the job  control language (JCL)
         needed   for  each run.  This is a  fairly straight-
         forward  procedure; these cards specify  the disk that
         is to be mounted, the block size factor,  the  record
         format factor, and  the  space allocation  parameters.
         As SYMAP  is  currently set up to  write  its output on
         channel  8 for  tape,  this channel was  used to write
         output onto  disk.   The  data file names are specified
         for each of the output files  on  the  job control cards.
         These names were  carefully selected and  organized
         to eliminate  confusion later on in  the  project.

         The  GRID program was selected as a second mapping
program because of its ability to very  efficiently read the
previously-stored output files from  SYMAP and to manipulate
these data to  calculate new variables  such as quantity.  Only
slight  modifications had to be made  in  the program for this
purpose.   It  was necessary to write a  pre-program  that
would  combine various output files from the SYMAP runs
stored on  disk into one data  bank containing 22 variables.

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The standard user subroutine of GRID was  then employed
to read  in  specific values from the data bank and  manipu ate
them according to various  algorithms developed for this
purpose.   The  results  of these calculations  were then
temporarily stored and graphically portrayed by GRID.
For example,  a  series of maps was run in Stage One  of
Phase III which displayed  the quantity of coal with less
than  1%  sulfur  content.  These  maps required the  use of the
GRID program.   The user  subroutine developed performed
the following tasks:

         1.      Read  the matrix of  sulfur content  values that
         were  stored  on a data file  on the disk  by the SYMAP
         program;
         2.      Determine if  the value for a particular  ceil
         was less than  1%;
         3.      For those  areas where sulfur content was less
         than 1%,  read  the  thickness data file; also created by
         the SYMAP program;
         4.      Calculate the quantity of  coal  in tons per acre;
         and,
         5.      Temporarily  store  the values  for quantity prior
         to  mapping.

         Our maps of quantity of coal were  displayed in terms
of tons per acre.  To  determine for the particular outcrop or area
over   28"   thick  just how  much coal in tons would be  available
it  is  necessary to multiply this quantity  mapped times  the  number
of acres; the number of acres  can be determined by counting
up the computer  character  locations  or  cells  within the study
area  outline and  multiplying  by the  scale factor for the

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         acreage per character cell.   It is possible  to
         subroutine  to  do this  task within the mapping program
         Due to the questionable accuracy  of the data used and the
         quantities determined,  as well as the arbitrary study area
         boundaries chosen,  our results were  presented only in terms
         of  tons of  coal  per  acre.

4.6.      DISPLAYING  NUMBER OF ANALYSES ON BASE MAPS

                   The data banks of sulfur content used in this  project
          generally contained  four  variables:  the low,  mode,  and high
          value  for sulfur content, and  the  number of analyses on which
         these values  were based.  On the base  maps  for the  study  area
          in  Phase  I and  II the data points,  outlines,  and  legends are
          displayed,  but no values are  shown.  We wished to display
          the number of analyses adjacent to each data  point to  aid in
          the evaluation of the accuracy of  the  data  for  various  parts  of
          the study area.

                   The  number  of analyses  for  each  data point is displayed
          on the base map as a point C-OTOLEGEND.  A small data
          handling  program was written which performed the following
          tasks:

                   1.      Read  in the data point locations; transform
                   these if the  source map  units used  for  data points  and
                   legends are different;
                   2.     Read  in the corresponding  values  for  the
                   number of  analyses  at each data point;
                   3.     Punch out  cards in the  standard  C-OTOLEGENDS
                   package when base maps are  run.


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         This program can easily be generalized  to produce
other legends such as mine  codes,  town names,  year samples
taken, etc.  to be  printed on the base maps at or adjacent to
the data points.   If large  scale  maps are  used or  there are
few  data points, these legends  can be used on all maps in a
series; because  they often obscure the  symbolism they are
generally used  only with base maps.

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