WILLAMETTE VALLEY METROPOLITAN AREA
  AIR  POLLUTANT EMISSION INVENTORY
        U. S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE
                  Public Health Service

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The APTD (Air Pollution Technical Data) series of reports is issued by
the Office of Air Programs. Environmental Protection Agency, to report
Technical data of interest to a limited number of readers. Copies of
APTD reports are available free of charge to Federal employees, current
contractors and grantees, and nonprofit organizations - as supplies
permit - from the Office of Technical Information and Publications.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina
27711 or from the National Technical Information Service. 5285 Port
Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22151.

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WILLAMETTE VALLEY AIR
POLLUTANT EMISSION INVENTORY
,',
Prepared by
Alan J. Hoffman
Division of Air Quality and Emission Data
?
~
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE
Public Health Service
Environmental Health Service
National Air Pollution Control Administration
Durham, North Carolina

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Sincere gratitude is extended by the National Air Pollution Control
Administration to the many individuals and companies who contributed to
this air pollution emission inventory. In particular, we are grateful
for the use of data and personnel assistance furnished by the following
agencies:
1. Oregon State Sanitary Authority State Board of Health, Air
Qua li ty Con tro 1 .

2. Columbia-Willamette Air Pollution Authority

3. Mid-Willamette Valley Air Pollution Authority

4. Lane Regional Air pollution Authority

5. Washington County Health Department

6. -Washington State Air Pollution Control Board

7. Southwest Air Pollution Control Authority

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~
PREFACE
~
,
This report, which presents the emission inventory for the Wi11amette
Valley Metropolitan Area, is another in a series of surveys outlining the
sources and emissions of air pollutants for major metropolitan areas in
the country.
These surveys, conducted by the National Inventory of Air
pollutant Emissions and Control Branch of the National Air Pollution
Control Administration, provide estimates of the present levels of air
pollutant emissions and status of their control. The pollutants, which
include sulfur oxides, particulates, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and
nitrogen oxides, are delineated with respect to source type, season of
the year and geographical distribution within the area. The general
procedure for the surveys is based upon the rapid survey technique for
1
estimating air pollutant emissions. These reports are intended to
serve as aids in the proposing of boundaries of Air Quality Control

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction.......
.......".. ..................."",,.
..............
.. ...""............"...."...... ....""" II....."."
<.
Summary of Results.
Study Area.........
Grid Coordinate System.
.." ....." ...... ...."...".........."".""....
. " . " " . " . . . . . " . . . " " " " "
" . " " " " . . . "
. . " . . . " . " . " .
Emissions by Category.....................


Transportation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Road Vehicles.
. . . . . " . . . " "
" . . . . . . . " " . " "
" . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . " " " " . . . " .
".."......"".".."........."""."".....". .....""..
Aircraft. .
..." .......... ....... ..... .....
....... ....... .... ...
Railroads.
.... .... ............ ..... ......
. . " . . . . . " . " . . . . " " . " . "
Vessels. . . " . . . " . . . . . . " . " . . . . " " .
............ ..............
Fuel Combustion in Stationary Sources...............""""""


Solid Waste." . . . " . " . . " . . " . . " . . " . . . . " . . " . . " . . . " " . . " " . " . " . . . . . " . . "
Industrial Processes.
. . . . . "
. . . " " .
" . . . " " "
. " . . " .. "
" " " " " " " "
Evaporative Losses.......
Miscellaneous Combustion.
. .. .. .. .. ..
.. .. .. .. .. ..
.. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.... .................
............ ..
... ... ............ ....
.. .. .. .. .. ..
.......... ..
by Jurisdiction... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .

by Grid............................................ . . . . .

Emission Densities.
Emissions
Emissions
... ...... ...... .... ...... ..............
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
References.
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
Appendices....
.... ...... ..... ....... ..... ....
... ..... ... ..... ........
Page
1

3

6

11

14

14

14

16

16
16
21
25
28
31
32
34
50
63
69

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Table

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 Table
I 25
1<:.:.., 
 26
 27
 28
 29
 30
 31
~
!"-
.,,-
LIST OF TABLES (cont.)
Page
summary of Air pollutant Emissions in Linn County... . . . . . . . .. 45
Summary of Air pollutant Emissions in Polk County............ 46
Summary of Air pollutant Emissions in Yamhill County.. ....... 47
 of Air pollutant Emissions in Lane County............ 48
 of Air   in Washington County...... 49
Summary
Summary pollutant Emissions
Summary of Air pollutant Emissions from Point Sources

in the Study Area............................................ 53

Summary of Air pollutant Emissions from All Sources


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, ....
Figure
'-
\..
LIST OF FIGURES
I
2
3
4
Map of willa:uette Study Area................................
Detailed Map of the Willamette Valley.......................
population Density of the Wil1amette Valley Study Area......
Grid Coordinate System for the Wi1lamette Valley

Study Area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Point Source Locations......................................
5
6
7
8
9
10
Sulfur Oxides Emission Density Map...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Particulate Emission Density Map. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Carbon Monoxide Emission Density Map........................
Hydrocarbon Emission Density Map............... . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nitrogen Oxides Emission Density Map........................
Page
7
8
10
12

51
64

65
66

67

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INTRODUCTION
This report is a summary of the Willamette Valley area air pollutant
emission inventory conducted in September 1969. Since all inventories
are based upon a calendar year, the data and emission estimates presented
are representative of 1968 and should be considered as indicating the
conditions as existed during that year.
The Study Area, which was chosen on the basis of the distribution of
population and air pollution sources, consists of 10 counties in the State
of Oregon which included the cities of Portland, Salem and Eugene and 5
counties in the State of Washington. This area covers approximately
19,950 square miles and had a 1968 population of 1,675,000.
A grid coordinate system was used to show the geographical distribution
of emissions within counties. The Study Area was subdivided into 71 grids
zones ranging in size from 25 square kilometers in treheavily populated
and industrialized areas to 400 square kilometers in the rural areas.
All sources of emissions were classified into six categories--
transportation, stationary fuel combustion, industrial processes, refuse and evap-
orative losses and miscellaneous combustion. Each of these source
categories was divided into two subgroups--point sources and area sources.
Facilities, which emit large quantities of air pollutants, were considered
individually as point sources, while the many remaining contributors
such as motor vehicles, residential fuel users, small commercial and
industrial facilities and on-site refuse burning equipment, were considered
collectively as area sources. For this report, 186 individual sources,
which had emissions greater than 0.5 tons per average annual day for any
pollutant, were classified as point sources.
Emissions were estimated by using various indicators such as fuel
~
consumption, refuse burning rates, vehicle~iles, production data, and
~

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control efficiencies and emission factors relating these indicators to
2
emission rates.
These factors represent average emission rates for a
particular source category. Since individual sources have inherent
differences that cannot always be taken into consideration, discrepancies
between the actual and estimated emissions are more likely in individual
sources than in the total emissions for a source category.
"
As in all emission surveys, the data presented are estimates and
should not be interpreted as absolute values. The estimates are, in some
cases, partial totals due to the lack of emission factors and production
or consumption data.
Despite these limitations, the estimates are of
sufficient accuracy and validity in defining the extent and distribution
of air pollutant emissions within the Study Area.

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SUMMARY OF RESULTS
The estimated annual emissions of the five surveyed pollutants in
the Wil1amette Valley Study Area are presented in Table 1. The following
is a brief summary of pollutant emissions and sources.
Sulfur Oxides
The predominant sources of the 49,600 tons of sulfur
oxides emitted annually are the combustion of fuels
(38 percent) and industrial process losses (48 percent).
Particulate Matter
The annual emissions of 118,200 tons are distributed
between the various source types.
The largest source
is industrial processes with field and slash burning
the second largest.
Carbon Monoxide
Motor vehicles contribute 68 percent of 1,018,000 tons
of carbon monoxide emitted within the Study Area in
1968. Other important sources include solid waste
disposal, industrial processes and field and slash
burning.
Hydrocarbons
The two largest sources of the yearly 187,000 tons
of hydrocarbons are motor vehicles and evaporative
losses. They contribute 31 and 29 percent, respectively.
Oxides of Nitrogen
Motor vehicles and stationary fuel combustion are
the important sources of the 70,600 tons of oxides
of nitrogen.
~
~

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TABLE 1
SUMMARY OF AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FOR THE WILLAMETTE
VALLEY STUDY ARFA, 1968 (Tons/Year)
         ill
    Sulfur Partic - Carbon Hydro- Nitrogen 
Source Category Oxides u1ates Monoxide carbons Oxides 
Transportation      
Motor Vehicles 3,560 6,380 687,800 55,360 40,590 
Other   1,690 1,600 11,750 3,310 2,930 
Subtotal   5,250 7 , 980 699,550 58,670 43,520 
Stationary Fuel      
Combus tion        
Industrial  11 , 100 1,460 100 90 8,510 
Connnercial and      
Institutional 4,860 530 60 60 2,600 
Residential 3,240 930 210 310 1,960 
Subtota 1   19,200 2,920 370 460 13 ,070 
Solid Waste Disposa 1      
Incineration 500 2,290 10,930 200 750 
Open Burning 650 10,400 55,260 19,550 7,160 
Subtotal   1,150 12,690 66,190 19,750 7,910 
Industrial Processes 24,000 77,200 140,000 44 , 100 3,460 
Evaporative Losses      
Motor Vehicles    33,830  
Other      19,740  
Subtotal      53,570  
Misce 11aneous      
Slash Burning 0 6,780 43,400 2,170 1,340 
Field Burning 0 10,750 68,000 8,300 1,330. 
Subtotal   0 17,530 111,400 10,470 2,670 
         "
TOTAL *   49,600 118,300 1,017,500 187,100 70,600 
* Rounded to nearest hundred     

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TABLE 1A
SUMMARY OF AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FOR THE WILLAMETTE
VALLEY STUDY AREA, 1968 (103 Kg/Year)
:.         
     Sulfur Partic- Carbon Hydro- Nitrogen
 Source Category Oxides u1ates Monoxide carbons Oxides
 Transportation     
 Motor Vehicles 3,230 5,790 623,830 50,210 36,820
 Other    1,530 1,450 10,660 3,000 2,660
 Subtotal   4,760 7,240 634,490 53,210 39,480
 Stationary Fuel     
 Combustion       
 Industrial  10,070 1,320 90 80 7,720
 Commercial and     
 Institutional 4,410 480 60 60 2,360
 Residential 2,940 840 190 280 1,780
 Subtotal   17,420 2,640 340 420 11 ,860
 Solid Waste Disposal     
 Incineration 450 2,080 9,910 180 680
 Open Burning 590 9,430 50,120 17,730 6,490
 Subtotal   1,040 11,510 60,030 17,910 7,170
 Industrial Processes 21,770 70,000 127,000 40,000 3,140
 Evaporative Losses     
 Motor Vehicles    30,680 
 Other       17,900 
 Subtotal      48,580 
 Miscellaneous     
 Slash Burning 0 6,150 39,360 1,970 1,220
'-         
 Field Burning a 9,750 61,680 7,530 1,210
 Subtotal   0 15,900 101,040 9,500 2,430
'-         
 TOTALi(    45,000 107,300 922,900 169,600 64,100
 * Rounded to nearest hundred    

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STUDY ARFA
The Study Area for the Wi11amette Valley Air Pollutant Emission
Inventory consists of 10 counties in northwest Oregon and five counties in
southern Washington. The Oregon portion of the Study Area contains 67
percent of the State's population. Figure 1 presents the Study Area in
relation to other large metropolitan areas.
The ten counties in Oregon consist of Clackamas, Columbus, MU1tnomah,
Benton, Marion, Linn, Polk, Yamhi11, Lane and Washington. The five in
Washington are Clark, Cowlitz, Lewis, Skamania and Wahkiakum (Figure 2).
Seven of the counties are in designated Standard Metropolitan Statistical
Areas as defined by the Bureau of the Budget. The SMSA's are Portland
(Mu1tnomah, Clackamas, Washington and Clark counties), Eugene (Lane County)
and Salem (Marion and Polk counties). The other counties were added to
the study to insure that all counties which may have a high rate of growth
in future years or counties that had potentially large point sources were
included.
The approximate population for the Study Area was 1,675,000, which
covered 19,950 square miles. Table 2, which gives population by county and
Figure 3, which shows population density, indicate that most of the popu-
lation is in the urbanized portions of MU1tnomah, Clark, Lane and Marion
counties. The population in this area has increased at a quicker pace than
the nation as a whole. Between 1960 and 1968, the nation's population
increased around 11 percent while the Study Area increased 20.2 percent.
The climate is typically mild with rainy winters. About 88 percent
of the total rainfall occurs in the months between October through May.
Extended periods of extreme temperatures are rare. The prevailing winds
are from the northwest April through September averaging about 7 MFR.
During the rest of the year, the east-southeast predominates with an average
speed of 9 MPR.

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TABLE 2 .
POPULATION AND AREA CHARACTERISTICS FOR THE

WILLAM!TTE VALLEY STUDY AREA, 1968
 Population  Population
County 1960 1968 Area Mi.2 Density 1968
Clark 93,810 116,800 627 186.3
Cowlitz 57,800 69,150 1,144 60.4
Lewis 41,860 47,700 2,449 19.5
Skamania 5,210 5,980 1,672 3.6
Wahkiakum 3,430 3,770 261 14.4
Clackamas 113,000 159,000 1,884 84.4
Columbia 22,380 29,470 640 41.4
Mu1 tnomah 522,800 555,700 423 1,314.0
Benton 39,170 48,150 668 72.1
Marion 120,890 153,260 1,166 131.4
Linn 58,870 67,250 2,291 29.4
Polk 26,520 33,700 736 45.8
Yamhill 32,480 41,000 711 57.7
Lane 162,890 206,300 4 , 562 45.2
Washington 92,240 137,100 716 191. 5
TOTAL 1,393,350 1,674,330 19,950 83.9
"

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Figure 3. Population density for Willamette Valley study area, 1968.

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GRID COORDINATE SYSTEM
A grid coordinate system, based on the Universal Transverse Mercator
Projection (UTM), was used in the Willamette Valley Study Area to indicate
the geographical distribution of emissions. A map showing the grid
coordinate system is presented in Figure 4.
An evaluation of all the available coordinate systems was completed
before the UTM system was chosen to present emissions. The most convenient
systems evaluated were the State Plane, Longitude-Latitude, and UTM.
Although each of the systems had valuable qualities, the use of the UTM
coordinate system was felt to be necessary to meet the requirements of
these emission inventories.
The two primary requisites of the grid coordinate system were used
to evaluate each system. The first requirement was that the grid
coordinate system had to have square grid zones, since the data were
to be used in meteorological dispersion models. The grid zones, which
the UTM system and most of the State Plane systems project, are always
square, but the longitude-latitude system projects grid zones that
become skewed as the zones become further from the equator. The other
quality the grid coordinate system had to possess was consistency.
Each emission inventory should be conducted on a grid coordinate system
which uses the same reference point throughout the Study Area. Since
some air pollutant inventories would include areas in two or more states,
the State Plane systems could not be used.
However, since the UTM
system, as well as the longitude-latitude system, is not referenced to
points in individual states, it is not influenced by jurisdiction
boundaries. The UTM system was chosen since it was the only prevalent
coordinate system which can project square grid zones over any Study
Area using a common reference point.
The Universe Transverse Mercator Projection is based upon the
~
metric system. Each north-south and east-west grid lines, as illustrated
in Figure 4, is identified by a coordinate number expressed in meters.

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Each point source and grid, using its geographical center, is identified
by a horizontal and vertical coordinate to the nearest 100 meters.
Grid zones of different sizes are used in the grid coordinate
system to allow a satisfactory definition of the geographical gradation
of emissions and to limit the number of grid zones. The majority of
the emissions is usually concentrated in the populated and industrialized
portions of a Study Area. Smaller grids are placed over these areas
to allow the grid coordinate system to reflect the changes of emissions
over short distances. Grid zones smaller than the 100 kilometer grid
zones used in this report are not usually warranted because of the
inherent inaccuracies in the data. Larger grid zones are used in the
rural portions, because a smaller percentage of the total emissions
usually occurs in lightly populated areas.
13

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EMISSIONS BY CATEGORY
TRANSPORTATION
Transportation is the source category concerned with mobile
source of air pollutants. The sources in this category include: road
vehicles (both gasoline and diesel powered), aircraft, vessels, and
railroads. With the exception of aircraft, all the sources are presented
as area sources. Since most of the aircraft emissions are attributable
to the immediate vicinity of the airports, aircraft are presented as
point sources.
Road Vehicles

METHODOLOGY: Total vehicle miles of travel for 1968 were obtained from

Highway Statistics using an average factor of fuel consumed per vehicle
.1 3
m1 e.
The vehicle miles of travel which included both gasoline and diesel
vehicles were apportionned onto the grid system by traffic flow maps
where available for the major urban areas. For the balance of the Study
Area emissions were apportionned by population.
Approximately 1.5 to 2.0 percent of gasoline is lost through
evaporation from the gasoline tanks and carburetor losses. (This is
exclusive of hydrocarbon losses from exhaust.) It was assumed that
no diesel fuel was lost by evaporation. Since 1963 most new automobiles
were equipped with positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) valves that
reduce hydrocarbon emissions from the crankcase by about 90 percent.
Due to a lag time in the automobile replacement rate, it was assumed
that only 20 percent of the automobiles were not equipped with PCV valves.
RESULTS: More than 8.4 billion miles were traveled by motor vehicles
in 1968. In the process, 720 million gallons of gasoline and 55 million
gallons of diesel fuel were consumed for highway purposes.
Table 3 indicates that almost 60 percent of all motor vehicle travel
occurs in the Portland SMSA.

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TABLE 3
VEHICLE MILES OF TRAVEL AND MOTOR FUEL CONSUMPTION
FOR THE STUDY AREA, 1968
 Total  
 Vehicle-miles ~asoline Diesel
County l03/Day 10 Gal/Year 103 Gal/Year
State of Washington   
CIa rk 1,450 36,000 4,270
Cowlitz 1,000 30,300 2,960
Lewis 820 27,900 2,410
Skanamia 80 2,520 200
Wahkiakum 50 1,540 140
State of Oregon   
C1ackamus 384 7,100 1,100
Columbia 2,220 46,800 3,370
Multnomah 5,800 261,000 8,550
Benton 570 17 , 500 2,200
Marion 2,330 57,700 6,550
Linn 1,420 48,000 7 ,710
Polk 670 11,200 1,380
Yamhi11 780 18,700 1,530
Lane 2,590 95,900 9,990
Washington 1,900 56,500 3,240
TOTAL 22,064 718,660 55,600
v

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The resulting emissions from motor vehicles are shown in Table 4.
Motor vehicles are by far the most significant transportation source,
accounting for 98 percent of the carbon monoxide and 94 percent of the
hydrocarbons.
Aircraft
METHOOOLOGY: The total number of flights by type was obtained from
the Federal Aviation Administration. A flight is defined as the combination
of a take-off and landing. Estimates were obtained from the control tower
at each airport as to the kind and number of engines in each type category.
Table 5 presents the results of these estimates for the three major air-
ports in the Study Area.
Emissions were obtained by applying the appropriate emission factors
to the total number of flights in each engine and type category.
RESULTS: Table 6 presents the resulting air pollutant emissions
from the three airports in the Study Area. As can be seen, the piston
engines are the largest source of emissions among aircraft, accounting
for 9 percent of the carbon monoxide and 92 percent of the hydrocarbons.
Trains
METHOOOLOGY: The total fuel consumed by railroads in any State is
4
given by the Bureau of Mines' Mineral Industry Surveys. The proportion
consumed in the Study Area was found by taking the ratio of population
of the Study Area to that of the State (in both Oregon and Washington),
times the total state fuel consumption. This fuel usage was apportionned
to the individual grids by locating train routes and railroad yards.
RESULTS: The summary of air pollutant emission from transportation
sources (Table 4) shows that trains are a significant source of partic-
ulates(20 percent) and nitrogen oxides (3 percent) from this source
category.
Vessels
METHOOOLOGY: The number of1trips made by vessels on the Willamette

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TABLE 4
AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM TRANSPORTATION SOURCES
FOR THE STUDY AREA, 1968 (Tons/Year)
.;.
 Sulfur Partie - Carbon Hydro - Nitrogen
Source Category Oxides u1ates Monoxide carbons Oxides
Motor Vehfc1es 3,560 6,380 687,800 55,360 40,590
Gasoline     
Exhaust 2,420 3,220 686,080 51,470 34,240
Evaporation*    33,830 
Diesel 1,140 3,150 1,720 3,890 6,350
Aircraft N 650 11,270 2,240 880
Jet N 600 460 190 380
Turboprop N N N N N
Piston N 50 10,810 2,050 500
Railroads 230 630 340 780 1,280
Vessels 1,460 370 140 290 770
TOTAL 5,250 7,980 699,550 58,670 43,520
* Included in the evaporative losses total
N = Negligible
17

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TABLE 5
AIRCRAFT FLIGHTS FOR THE STUDY AREA, 1968
  Number of Fligh t s 
Airport and Engine Type c 1 Engine  2 Eng me 3 Engine 4 Engine
Portland International    
Conventional 0 12,500 35,000 2,500
Fan Jet 0 500 0 0
Piston 25,000 10,500 0 0
Hi11sboro Airport    
Piston 24,500 24,500 0 0
Eugene Airport    
Conventional 0 100 0 0
Fan Jet 0 5,100 0 0
Turboprop 0 900 0 0
Piston 27,000 24,000 0 0

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TABLE 6
AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM AIRCRAFT (Tons/Year), 1968
 Sulfur partic- Carbon Hydro - Nitrogen
Airport Oxides ulates Monoxide carbons Oxides
Portland N 600 2,790 600 470
Hillsboro N 20 4,210 800 200
Eugene N 30 4,270 840 210
TOTAL N 650 11 ,270 2,240 880
N .;, Negligible     

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River was obtained from the Portland Commission of Public Docks.
An
average quantity of fuel per vessel trip was applied to the total and
an average consumption of fuel while in port was used to determine the
quantity of fuel consumed by this source category.
RESULTS: Air pollutant emissions from vessels are shown in Table 4.
It is apparent from this table that the percent contribution from this
source category to total transportation emissions is significant only
for sulfur
oxides (28 percent).

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FUEL COMBUSTION IN STATIONARY SOURCES
Only two of the three major fuels ( oil and natural gas) are consumed
within the Study Area, with natural gas being the most important. In
addition, wood finds usage for industrial and home heating. In 1968
12
natural gas accounted for 70 x 10 BTU's of energy or about 58 percent
of the total. As shown in Tables 7 and 8, 70 billion cubic feet of
natural gas, 265 million gallons of distillate fuel oil and 87.2 million
gallons of residual fuel oil were consumed in tre Study Area.
Natural gas is consumed to a large extent by all three consumer
categories. Industry consumes the largest amount with residential and
commercial users about 27 percent of the total. Distillate fuel oil is
consumed predominantly for residential home heating and commercial-
institutional buildings. Residual fuel oil is used mainly by industrial
consumers.
There are no steam-electric power plants in the Study Area.
power is hydroelectric.
All
METHODOLOGY: Natural gas consumption was obtained from the Northwest
Natural Gas !Company by county and consumer category and is considered
accurate. Fuel oil figures were obtained from the Air Quality Control
Section of the State Board of Health and adjusted using the state totals
4 5
published by the Bureau of Mines, and thus they are approximations. '
The emissions from fuel combustion in area sources were apportionned
to the individual grids by population.
RESULTS: The resulting emissions are presented in Table 9. The
combustion of oil, although providing 42 percent of the energy input,
produces the majority of emissions from combustion of stationary fuels.
Only in the case of nitrogen oxides does natural gas (58 percent of energy)
account for any significant emission rate.
Fuel combustion in stationary sources is a significant source of
sulfur oxides (11 percent) and nitrogen o3ides (62 percent) to the total
pollution of the area.

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TABLE 7
NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION BY USER CATEGORY, 1968 (106 Ft3/Yr)
 I. 
County Residential Commercial Industrial
State of Washington   
Clark 400 300 12,100
Cowlitz 200 200 100
Lewis 100 100 N
Skanamia N N N
Wahkiakum N N N
State of Oregon   
Clackamus 900 400 9,200
Columbia 100 100 5,700
Multnomah 6,100 3,200 9,200
Benton 500 100 100
Marion 1,400 400 1,400
Linn 800 300 5,600
Polk 100 100 100
Yamhill 100 100 1,700
Lane 900 600 4,500
Washington 1,200 600 600
TOTAL 12,800 6,500 40,300

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TABLE 8 FUEL OIL CONSUMPTION BY CONSUMER CATEGORY FOR THE
WILLAMETTE VALLEY STUDY AREA, 1968 (103 Gallons)
 Distillate Fue 1 Oil Residual Fuel Oil
County Residential Commercial Industrial
State of Washington   
Clark 9,800 2,700 6,200
Cowlitz 5,700 2,300 4,600
Lewis 4,900 2,100 4,500
Skanamia 610 140 400
Wahkiakwn 460 80 300
State of Oregon   
C1ackamus 8,730 1,260 1,140
Columbia 3,340 890 5,710
Mu1tnomah 92 ,400 37,690 53,700
Benton 3,010 2,220 780
Marion 11,700 2,850 2,520
Linn 3,650 2,560 810
Polk 5,680 30 0
Yamhill 4,540 940 970
Lane 16,370 3,830 3,670
Washington 9,180 2,070 1,900
TOTAL 209,070 61,660 87,200

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TABLE 9
AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM STATIONARY FUEL
COMBUSTION, 1968 (Tons/Year)
  Sulfur Partie - Carbon Hydro - Nitrogen
Fuel User Category Oxides u1ates Monoxide carbons Oxides
Residual      
Fuel OU Industrial 11 ,090 1,000 90 90 3,140
Distillate     
Fuel OU Residential 3,240 810 210 310 1,220
 Commercia1-     
 Institutional 4,860 470 60 60 2,220
 Total 8,100 1,280 270 370 3,440
Natural      
Gas Residential N 120 N N 740
 Commercia1-     
 Institutional N 60 N N 380
 Industrial 10 460 10 N 5,370
 Total 10 640 10 N 6,490
TOTAL  19,200 2,920 370 460 13,070
N = Negligible

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SOLID WASTE
METHODOLOGY: The total solid waste generated within the Study Area
was found by applying the national average per capita generation rate
6
of 10 pounds of refuse per day to the total Study Area resident population.
This generation rate includes both collected and uncollected waste. On
the average 5.5 lb!day of waste is collected by municipalities for disposal.
This figure includes household, commercial and industrial refuse. The
remaining 4.5 lb!day includes industrial (3.0 lb!day), and commercial and
other household (1.5 lb!day).
The disposal methods for the different regions were determined by
personal contacts with the regional air pollution authorities. Thus,
national averages of disposal method quantities were applied to the
known disposal methods of the jurisdiction involved.
The emissions from large municipal and private disposal facilities.
were calculated individually and located within the Study Area. The
remaining waste (on-site incineration, on-site open burning, and small
open burning dumps) were treated as area sources and were apportionned
onto the grid system by population.
RESULTS: Table.10, which is a solid waste balance for the Study
Area, shows the results of the above methodology. The predominant
disposal practices within the Study Area are sanitary landfills (33 percent)
and open burning dumps (26 percent). There are no municipal incinerators.
The majority of emissions in this category (Table 11) comes from open
burning.

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TABLE 10
SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL PRACTICES FOR THE STUDY ARFA
3
1968 (10 Tons/Year)
 Total Sanitary On-Site Open Burning
County Generated Landfills Incineration Dwnps On-Site
State of Washington     
Clark 210 0 50 100 60
Cowlitz 67 20 5 32 10
Lewis 46 12 10 19 5
Skanamia 6 0 1 3 2
Wahkiakum 4 0 1 1 2
State of Oregon     
C1ackamus 290 80 50 100 60
Columbia 34 10 5 10 9
Multnomah 1,000 600 200 40 160
Benton 46 0 10 20 16
Marion 280 150 70 10 50
Linn 65 30 12 6 17
Polk 32 0 7 10 15
Yamhill 39 0 8 19 12
Lane 380 0 30 250 100
Washington 200 0 38 87 75
TOTAL 2,699 902 497 707 593

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TABLE 11
AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL,
1968 (Tons/Year)
 Sulfur Partic- Carbon Hydro- Nitrogen
Category Oxides ulates Monoxide carbon Oxides
Incineration     
On-Site 500 2,290 10,930 200 750
Open Burning     
On-Site 300 4 , 740 25,200 8,890 3,260
Dump 350 5,660 30,060 10,660 3,900
Total 650- 10,400 55,260 19,550 7,160
TOTAL 1,150 12,690 66,190 19,750 7,910

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INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES
The major industries in the Study Area are in lumber and wood
(sic 24) and fabricated metals (Sic 34). These two industrial categories
account for 62 percent of the industrial establishments shown in Table 12.
In addition, many of the plants in the lumber and wood industry
have conical metal burners (wigwams) for disposal of wood waste and other
refuse. In Lane County alone there were 56 active wigwam burners in 1968.
Another 56 have been inactivated since 1961.
The process emission totals include emissions from these wigwam
burners. The Appendix C lists the emission factors used to transform
the basic data into air pollutant emissions for both the wigwams and
the wood boilers.
Wood boilers are used for production of power and
heat, whereas wigwam burners are mainly used for disposal of woodwaste.
In addition to the vast lumber, veneer and plywood operations in
the Study Area, there are several large kraft and sulfite pulp and
paper mills which are a source of particulates, sulfur oxides and carbon
monoxide as well as noxious odors.
Since the area has a large supply of cheap electricity (hydro-
electric power) there are several primary aluminum ore processing plants
which require vast quantities of electricity in the refining process.
Emissions from these plants consist mainly of particulates, most of
which are fluoride~and sulfur oxides.
Besides the aforementioned industries there are a multitude of
asphalt and concrete batching plants, grain storage and handling facilities,
tank forms as well as several small metal foundries. Table 13 summarizes
these emissions by industry type.

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TABLE It.... DISTRIBUTION OF INDUSTRY BY SELECTED CLASSIFICATIONS
FOR THE WILLAMETTE VALLEY STUDY AREA, 1963
    SIC CLASSIFICATION  
County  Total 20 24 27 32 34 35
State of WashinRton       
Clark  144 15 49 11 9 6 9
Cowlitz  141 6 96 7 3 2 3
Lewi s  209 17 168 7 5 3 2
Skamania  17  15 1   
Wahkiakum  16  15 1   
State of OreRon       
Columbia  90 3 62 7 2 1 3
Clackamas  249 17 120 12 19 11 18
Mu 1 tnomah  1,263 134 118 170 43 151 154
Benton  112 5. 74 9 6 6 6
Marion  239 52 75 23 13 21 14
Linn  220 14 157 12 12 3 7
Polk  81 7 52 3 4 2 8
Yamhill  125 21 73 5 8 2 4
Lane  511 36 356 19 12 17 27
Washington 206 33 67 11 11 12 12
20 = Food and Kindred
24 = Limber and Wood
27 = Printing and Publishing
32 = Stone, Clay, Glass
34 = Fabricated Metals
35 = Machinery

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TABLE 13
SUMMARY OF EMISSIONS FROM INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES
1968 (Tons/Year)
  Sulfur Partic- Carbon Hydro- Nitrogen
Source category Oxides u1ates Monoxides carbons Oxides
Pulp and Paper 16,400 22,600   
Aluminum  4,400 7,000   
Lumber and Wood     
Products  2,030 13,600 1,700 10,000 560
Cement and Concrete  8,350   
Asphalt Batching  5,500   
Chemica 18  540 3,030   
Foundries  530 3,800   
Grain   5,290   
Wigwam Burners 100 3,830 137,800 12,400 700
Wood Boilers  4,200 500 21,700 2,200
TOTAL  24,000 77,200 140,000 44,100 3,460

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EVAPORATIVE LOSSES
The sources of solvent evaporation considered in this survey were
industry, dry cleaning and motor vehicles.
METHODOLOGY: Industrial solvent evaporation was found from individual
source information. Dry cleaning emissions were calculated using a per
capita rate of 4.0 lb/year.7 This was apportionned to the grid system
by population. Motor vehicle emissions were determined from the vehicle
miles, age of vehicle and extent of control equipment (see transportation-
motor vehicles). This was broken down on a grid basis in a manner similar
to that used for exhaust emissions from motor vehicles.
RESULTS: There was over 53,570 tons of hydrocarbons emitted, of
which 15,550 was industrial; 4,190 was from dry cleaning operations and
33,830 was from automobiles.

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MISCELLANEOUS COMBUSTION
There'were over 1,350,000 tons of slash burned in the Willamette
8
Valley in 1968; Slash is mainly the refuse product of logging operations.
It is burned primarily to lower forest fire hazards and also for sanitation
purposes. Emissions for the Study Area are shown in Table 1. Emissions
by jurisdiction are presented in the next section of the report.
S
Nearly 1,360,000 tons (2 x lOacres) of field burning occurred during
1968. Field burning is practiced to accomplish residue disposal, field
sanitation, seedbed preparation and to some extent disease and weed control.
However, it does create serious air pollution and visibility problems.
Emissions for the Study Area are shown in Table 1, and tons of field and
slash burning are presented in Table 14.

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. TABLE 14
FIELD AND SLASH BURNI~G IN THE WILLAMETTE VALLEY
STUDY AREA, 1968 (Tons/Year)
! "
County
Field Burning
Slash Burning
C1ackamus 30,000 215,000
Columbia  3,000
Mu1tnomah  27,000
Benton 163,000 24,000
Marion 210,000 72 ,000
Linn 640,000 286,000
Polk 127,000 1~,000
Yamhi11 59,000 48,000
Lane 119 , 000 661.000
Washington 11 ,000 6,000
TOTAL 1,359,000 1,357,000

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EMISSIONS BY JURISDICTION
Tables 15 through 29 present the air pollutant emissions by jurisdiction.
The previous sections of this report presented emissions primarily by
source category. Note that the numbers may not add to the total because
of rounding.

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TABLE 15 SUMI\lARY OF AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS  
   IN CLARK COUNTY   
   TONS/YEAR    
SOURCE CATEGORY  SOX PART CO HC NOX
TRANSPORTATION       
ROAD VEHICLES  247. 4S6. 47208. 3798. 2741.
OTHER    30. 82. 45. 101. 166.
SUR-TOTAL    277. 538. 47253. 3900. 2907.
COMAUSTION OF FUELS      
IN DU S TRY    791. 180. 8. 6. 1517.
S TE Ar>1-ELEC   o. o. o. o. o.
RESIDENTIAL   149. 41. 9. 14. 83.
COMM AND INST.  212. 23. 2. 2. 114.
SUA-TOTAL    1152. 245. 20. 22. 1715.
REFUSE DISPOSAL      
INCINERATION  50. 249. 1100. 19. 75.
OPEN BURNING  80. 1280. 6799. 2399. 879.
SUA-TOTAL    130. 1529. 7899. 2419. 954.
PROCESS    10475. 71 U4. 482. 321. 31.
EVAP LOSSES       2514. 

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TABLE 16 S Uf.11-1AR Y OF A I R POLLUTANT EMISSIONS  
   IN COwLI TZ COUNTY   
   TONS/YEAR    
SOURCE CATfGORY  SOX PART CO HC NOX
TRANSPORTATION       
ROAD VEHICLES  170. 314. 30581. 2505. 1891.
OTHER   O. O. o. o. O.
SUB-TOTAL    170. 314. 30581. 2505. 1891.
COMBUSTION OF FUELS      
INDUSTRY    585. 53. 4. 4. 176.
STEAM-ELEC  O. O. O. O. O.
RES I DENT I AL   91. 25. 5. 8. 46.
COMM AND INST.  181. 19. 2. 2. 94.
SUB-TOTAL    858. 98. 12. 15. 317.
REFUSE DISPOSAL      
INCINERATION 5. 25. 110. 1. 7.
OPEN BURNING  20. 335. 1784. 629. 230.
SUB-TOTAL    25. 360. 1894. 631. 238.
PROCESS    8 604. 12132. 11387. 963. 56.
EVAP LOSSES       1706. 

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TABLE 17 SUiv1f"iARY OF AIR POLLUTANT Er.H SS IONS  
   IN LEWIS COUNTY   
   TONS/YEAR    
SOURCE CATEGORY  SOX PART CO HC NOX
TRANSPORTATION       
ROAD VEHICLES  139. 257. 25069. 2053. 1550.
OTHER   O. O. o. o. o.
SUR-TOTAL    139. 257. 25069. 2053. 1550.
COMBUSTION OF FUELS      
INDUSTRY    572. 51. 4. 4. 162.
STEAM-ELEC  O. o. o. o. o.
RES I DENT I AL   78. 20. 4. 7. 35.
COMM AND IN ST.   165. 16. 2. 2. 81.
SUB-TOTAL    816. 89. 11. 14. 279.
REFUSE DISPOSAL      
INCINERATION  10. 50. 220. 3. 15.
OPEN BURNING  11. 191. 1019. 359. 131.
SUB-TOTAL    21. 241. 1239. 363. 146.
PROCESS   7. 437. 9489. 803. 47.
EVPP LOSSES       1377. 

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. to f . t 1
--~------ .---- - -- -._---- ----- ---------- ---------.- --- -- --
TABLE 18 SUMMARY OF AIR POLLUTANT EiVi I SS IONS  
  IN SKAMANIA COUNTY   
  TONS/YEAR    
SOURCE CATEGORY  SOX PART co HC NOX
TRANSPORTATION      
ROAD VEHICLES  13. 25. 2433. 199. 150.
OTHER  o. o. o. o. O.
SUB-TOTAL   13. 25. 2433. 199. 150.
COMRUSTION OF FUELS      
INDUSTRY   50. 4. o. o. 14.
STEAr"l-ELEC o. o. o. o. O.
RESIDENTIAL 9. 2. o. o. 3.
COtV1M AND INST.  11. 1. o. o. 5..
SUR-TOTAL   71. 7. 1. 1. 22.
REFUSE DISPOSAL      
INCINERATION o. 5. 21. o. 1.
OPEN BURNING '2. 40. 212. 74. 27.
SUB-TOTAL  3. 44. 234. 75. 28.
PROCESS  7. 255. 9489. 803. 47.
EVAP LOSSES      136. 

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TABLE 19 SUi\1j'.1ARY OF AIi~ POLLlITANT EMISSIONS  
   IN WAHKIAKUM COUNTY   
   TONS/YEAR    
SOURCE CATFGORY  SOX PART CO HC NOX
TRANSPORTATION       
ROAD VEHICLES 8. 15. 1524. 124. 94.
OTHER   o. o. o. o. o.
SUB-TOTAL   8. 15. 1524. 124. 94.
COMBUSTION OF FUELS      
INDUSTRY    38. 3. o. o. 10.
STEAM-ELEC  o. o. o. o. o.
RESIDENTIAL  7. 1. o. O. 2.
COMto-, AND INST. 6. o. o. o. 2.
SUB-TOTAL    52. 6. o. 1. 16.
REFUSE DISPOSAL      
INCINERATION o. 5. 21. O. 1.
OPEN BURNING o. 16. 134. 92. 25.
SUB-TOTAL   1. 21. 156. 92. 27.
PROCESS   1. ~1. 1897. 160. 9.
EVAP LOSSES       at>. 

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TABLE 20 SU;VlMAf
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TABLE 21 SUr-1HAR Y OF AIR POLLUT AiH E M.I S S I UN S  
    IN CLACKAMAS COUNTY   
    TONS/YEAR     
SOURCE CATEGORY  SOX  PART CO HC NOX
TRANSPORTATION        
ROAD VEHICLES  314.  520. 68110. 5360. 3838.
OTHER    10.  27. 15. 34. 55.
SUB-TOTAL    324.  548. 68125. 5394. 3894.
CO~'RUST ION OF FUELS       
INDUSTRY    146.  95. 2. 1. 1025.
STEAM-ElEC   o.  o. o. o. o.
RESIDENTIAL   239.  68. 15. 22.. 142.
COMM AND INST.  99.  13. 1. 1. 68.
SUB-TOTAL    485.  177. 19. 25. 1236.
REFUSE DISPOSAL       
INCINERATION  50.  249. 1100. 19. 75.
OPEN BURNING  80.  1280. 6799. 2399. 879.
SUB-TOTAL    130.  1529. 7899. 2419. 954.
PROCESS    299.  12891. 13376. 955. 269.
EVAP lOSSES        3799. 

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TABLE 22 SUMi-1ARY OF AIR POLLUTANT Er.HSSIONS  
   IN MULTNOMAH COUNTY   
   TONS/YEAR    
SOURCE CATEGORY  SOX PART CO HC NOX
TRANSPORTATION       
ROAD VEHICLES  812. 1337. 177054. 13926. 9984.
OTHER    1578. 1 249. 3101. 1301. 1913.
SUA-TOTAL    2390. 2586. 180156. 15228. 11897.
COM RUST ION OF FUELS      
INDUSTRY    6832. 700. 55. 53. 2917.
STEAM-ELEC   O. o. O. O. O.
RESIDENTIAL   1484. if 30. 94. 139. 912.
COMM AND INST.  2967. 313. 38. 37. 1542.
SUB-TOTAL    11284. 1444. 188. 231. 5372.
REFUSE DISPOSAL      
INCINERATION  200. 791.J. 4400. 79. 300.
OPEN BURNING  99. 1599. 8500. 2999. 1100.
SUB-TOTAL    300. 2399. 12A99. 3079. 1399.
PROCESS    2065. 15? 30. 1416. 22789. 2232.
EVAP LOSSES       25830. 

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TABLE 23 SUM,\1ARY OF AIR POllUTANT E~H SS IONS  
   IN BENTON COUNTY   
   TONS/YEAR    
SOURCE CATEGORY  SOX PART CO HC NOX
TRANSPORTATION       
ROAD VEHICLES  107. 209. 17446. 1464. 1137.
OTHER   O. O. o. o. O.
SUA-TOTAL    107. 209. 17446. 1464. 1137.
COMBUSTION OF FUELS      
INDUSTRY    99. 9. O. O. 38.
STEAr4-ELEC  O. O. O. O. O.
RESIDENTIAL   6A. 21. 4. 6. 54.
COMM AND INST.  174. 17. 2. 2. as.
SUA-TOTAL    342. 49. 7. 9. 179.
REFUSE DISPOSAL      
INCINERATION  10. 50. 220. 3. 15.
OPEN BURNING  17. 287. 1529. 539. 197.
SUB-TOTAL    27. 337. 1749. 543. 212.
PROCESS    14. 5073. 30999. 5044. 346.
EVAP LOSSES       993. 

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TABLE 24 SUi'1lv1ARY OF AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS  
  IN MARION COUNTY   
  TONS/YEAR    
SOURCE CATEGORY  SOX PART CO HC NOX
TRANSPORTATION      
ROAD VEHICLES  389. 713. 72145. 5865. 4365.
OTHER   10. 27. 14. 34. 55.
SU~-TOTAL   399. 740. 72160. 5899. 442 1.
COMBUSTION OF FUELS      
INDUSTRY   320. 41. 2. 2. 240.
STEAM-ELEC  O. O. O. O. O.
RESIDENTIAL  289. R5. lR. 27. 190.
Cm-1M AND INST.  224. 25. 2. 2. 125.
SUR-TOTAL   834. 152. 24. 32. 556.
REFUSE DISPOSAL      
INCINERATION  70. 350. 1539. 27. 105.
OPEN BURNING  29. 479. 2549. 899. 329.
SUR-TOTAL   99. 829. 4089. 927. 434.
PROCFSS   803. 2641. 14070. 1515. 290.
EVAP LOSSES      3955. 

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   TABLE 25 SUiv1iv1ARY OF A I R POLLUTANT E i>4 I S S ION S  
    IN lINN COUNTY   
    TONS/YEAR    
SOURCE CATEGORY  SOX PART eo HC NOX
TRANSPORTATION       
ROAD VEHICLES   314. 648. '.3531. 3805. 3090.
OTHER    o. o. o. o. o.
SUB-TOTAL     314. 64ti. 43531. 3805. 3090.
em
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TABLE 26 SUtvlMARY OF AIR POLLUTANT Er"l SS IONS  
   IN POLK COUNTY   
   TONS/YEAR    
SOURCE CATFGORY  SOX PART co He NOX
TR/NSPORTATION       
ROAD VEHICLES  101. 176. 20466. 1636. 1198.
OTHER   O. O. o. o. O.
SUR-TOTAL    101. 176. 20466. 1636. 1198.
cm,1HUSTION OF FUELS      
INDUSTRY   O. O. o. O. 10.
STEA"'1-ELEC  O. O. o. o. O.
RESIDfNTIAL   AQ. 23. 5. 8. l.O.
eOMM AND INST. 2. 1. O. O. 6.
SUA-TOTAL    91. 25. 5. 8. 57.
REFUSE DISPOSAL      
INCINERATION 1. 35. 154. 2. 10.
OPEN BURNING  12. 199. 1062. 374. 137.
SUB-TOTAL    19. 234. 1216. 377. 147.
PROCESS   7. 2882. 18182. ~519. 247.
EVAP LOSSES       1112. 

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TABLE 27 SU~j;"iAI~Y OF AIR POLLUTM..T ltvi I SS IONS  
    IN YAMHILL COUNTY   
    TONS/YEAR    
SOURCE CATEGORY  SOX PART CO HC NOX
TRANSPORTATION       
ROAD VEHICLES  117. 202. 23810. 1899. 1387.
OTHER   O. o. o. o. O.
SUA-TOTAL    117. 2. 02. 23810. 1899. 1387.
COMBUSTION OF FUELS      
INDUSTRY    123. 26. 1. o. 216.
STEAM-EL.EC  o. O. o. o. o.
RESIQENTIAl   75. 20. 4. 7. 34.
COMM AND INST.  74. 7. O. O. 39.
SUB-TOTAL    273. 54. 7. 9. 291.
REFUSE DISPOSAL      
INCINERATION 7. 40. 175. 3. 12.
OPEN BURNING  15. 247. 1317. 464. 170.
SUA-TOTAL    23. 287. 1493. 468. 182.
PROCESS    804. 2826. 6889. 872. 141.
r:.VAP LOSSES       1297. 

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TABLE 28 SUMMARY OF AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS  
  IN LANE COUNTY   
  TONS/YEAR    
SOURCE CATEGORY  SOX PART CO He NOX
TRANSPORTATION       
ROAD VEHICLES  479. 919. 88654. 7165. 5118.
OTHER   59. 195. 4360. 1044. 544.
SUA-TOTAL   539. 1115. 93014. 8209. 5663.
COr-'AUSTION OF FUELS      
INDUSTRY   467. 82. 4. 3. 613.
STEAM-ELEC   o. o. o. o. O.
RESIDENTIAL   29'3. 82. 18. 27. 162.
eOMM AND INST.  301. 34. 3. 3. 172.
SUA-TOTAL   1062. 199. 27. 35. 948.
REFUSE DISPOSAl.      
INCINERATION  30. 150. 660. 12. 45.
OPEN BURNING  174. 2799. 14874. 5249. 1924.
SUB-TOTAL.   204. 2949. 15534. 5261. 1969.
PROCESS   431. 13994. 55340. 4847. 978.
EVAP LOSSES      4491. 

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   TABLE 29 SU;.;,.~A;~Y OF A I 1-: PuLLUTANT E;"II 55 I UI'~S  
     IN WASHINGTON COUNTY   
     TONS/YEAR     
            ,
SOURCE CATEGORY  SOX   PART CO HC NOX
TRANSPORTATION         
ROAD VEHICLES  274.   461. 58025. 4592. 3318.
OTHER   o.   19. 4214. 796. 197.
SUA-TOTAL   274.   481. 62239. 5388. 3515.
COMBUSTION OF FUELS        
INDUSTRY    241.   27. 2. 1. 132.
STEAM-ELEC  o.   o. o. o. o.
RESIDENTIAL   187.   58. 11. 17. 139.
COiv~r':1 A ['oj [) INST.  163.   21. 2. 2. 109.
SUA-TOTAL   591.   106. 16. 21. 381.
REFUSE DISPOSAL        
INCINERATION  3R.   190. 835. 15. 57.
OPEN BURNING  81.   1296. 6884. 2429. 890.
SUR-TOTAL   118.   1485. 7720. 2445. 947.
PROCESS   o.   140. 2359. 214. 24.
EVAP LOSSES         3255. 

-------
EMISSIONS BY GRID
For the purpose of defining the geographical variation of air
pollutant emissions in the Study Area, the resulting emissions were
apportionned on the grid coordinate system. The emissions were divided
into two source groups--point and area sources.
The 186 point sources
are identified individually with respect to location and emissions.
Each of these point sources emit more than 0.5 tons per day of any pollutant.
Figure 5 shows the location of most of the point sources in the
Collectively, the 186 point sources account for 48 percent of
area.
the sulfur oxides, 73 percent of particulates, 16 percent of carbon
monoxide, 53 percen~ of hydrocarbons and 9 percent of nitrogen oxides.
The percent contribution to carbon monoxide emissions is low because
motor vehicles, which are area sources account for 68 percent of the
total carbon monoxide emissions.
Similarly, the contribution to total
nitrogen oxide emissions is low since two groups of area sources, motor
vehicles and stationary fuel
30 presents the emissions of
seasonal variations in point
combustion are major contributors. Table
point sources. It has been assumed that
sources are negligible.
Area sources are sources of emissions that are insignificant by
themselves, but as a group emit a significant amount. Examples are
motor vehicles, residential houses, light commercial and industrial
establishments and backyard burning.
The emissions from area sources
have been added to that for point sources to obtain total emissions by
grid as given in Table 31.
The emissions are presented for an annual average day, and average
winter day (December, January, February) and an average summer day
(June, July, August). The annual average daily emission rates were
obtained by dividing yearly totals by 365. Seasonal averages were cal-
culated by the use of space heating variations in fuel consumption

-------
''-A
-- . . 4950000
-
-  (  
   - '  
:i.  \  
-   
     4910000 0 AIRPORT
' --.    . INDUSTRY
      - WIGWAM
   .   0 DUMP
    ,  
    /  
     4870000 
'-, .,

J- 4830000
........-.
470000 510000 550000 590000

Figure 5. Point source locations for study area, 1968.
51
r-''L .

.

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-------
and variations in motor vehicle traffic activity.
This method is
described in detail in the appendix.
constant throughout the year.
Other sources were assumed to be
~,~

-------
     TABLE 30 SUMMARY OF AIR POLLUTANT E:-lI S5 I 0.\15 FI~O~" PU It, T SOUr.7'1 v.79 0.06 V.06 0.1.16  O.JU (i.OO G.VO
2 5 4640 487110 0.0 CI.O 0.0 -;.U2 o. i..-2 O. .,7 u.79 ;). 19 0079 0.{'(:o 0.06 u. 06  a.ou 0.00 c.uo
2 5 4320 48750 0.0 0.1) ~.u li.03 ].'-1;' v..... 3 1. ';. ,~, 1. .~e Ide 0.11 0011 0.11  0.')0 0.00 0.00
7. 6 4890 487P.5 0.0 0.0 u.o G.Ol u. \]1 v. 'J1 \i.6 7 0.61 0.67 0.05 0.05 0.\J5  0.00 C.OO 0.00
2 6 4896 48779 0.0 0.0 :J.u P.O? u. .J2 (,.1.1;> d.~~9 t).iJ9 1.1.89 O. (J"( 0.:)7 0. u7  0.00 0.00 0.00
2 6 4870 4813 () 0.0 0.0 u.o v.tJ4 0.u4 0.,,4 1.4H 1.4r. 1.48 0.12 0.12 0.12  O.OJ u.oo 0.UO
2 6 4870 48785 0.0 ().o :j .(1 C,.OI' O.ul O.ul (1.';0 0.50 U.5:) ().fJ4 0.J4 0.v4  o.uo n.00 0.00
2 6 4865 48765 0.0 0.\) ~.u (;.02 (). v2 0.\.12. 0.'1'1 0.':.1'1 0.9'1 a.OiJ U.Ub O.vU  J.Uu 0.00 u.uu
2 6 4875 48840 u.o 'J. J J.v ".02 0.:"'2 0 .i.J2 D.q9 :). '19 0.YQ ~). U 8 :J .I.JB O. 'JH  ).Od 0.00 :J. Ot)
7. 6 "RHO t.q 785 U. -. I j .~) 0.0 0.03 (} . '.13 ~). v 3 1. 1 <; 1019 1019 0010 (J010 o. .1']  O.t)O O.GO 0.00
7. 6 4890 4RP12 0.1': o.n 0.0 i: .14 0.14 (J .1 I", ~ .'. 7 5.'.7 ;.41 0.46 0.46 U. '+6  U.02 0.02 0.02
7. 6 4880 48794 0.0 0.0 o.v O.U3 J. J3 0....3 1.29 1.29 1.2.; 0.11 0011 0.11  0.00 O.uO 0.00
7 6 4860 48770 0.0 C ..J (J . (, n.o~ o.G!; t~. ~R 1 1.6 c,. 11. t 'i 11.6':1 7..3'1 2.30 2.30  U.5~ 0.58 0.58
2 7 4990 481 0 u. C) 0.0 u.u (1.03 'J. ~3 0.03 1.19 1.19 1019 D.ID ;;.10 u.l0  0.0.) D.uo o.uO
2 7 4915 48784 0.0 0.0 v.a (J.?,() 0.20 u. 20 7. I+t.. 7.4b 7.'-+0 0.63 G.b3 0.63  (). () 3 0.03 ().03

-------
--.-----...----~ -...----.- - ----.- ----- --.---...---- -------- -- - ----- --- - --- -- ----- - - - ----
2 7 4935 48780 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.70 0.10 0.70 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
3 7 4975 48775 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.03 0.03 0.03 1.09 1.09 1.09 0.11 0.11 0.11
:3 7 49bO 48775 0.0 0.0 0.0 Oolb 0.16 0.16 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.82 0.82 0.82 0.08 0.08 0.08
5 7 4948 48775 0.2 0.2 0.2 3.28 3.28 3.28 17.46 17.46 17.46 b.lb 6.1b b.lb 2.21> 2.21> 2.26
2 8 5015 48785 0.0 0.0 v.u 0.02 0.,)2 U.v2 CJ.99 0.99 U.99 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.00 0.00 0.1.10
2 8 5050 48845 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.99 0.99 .0.99 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.00 0.00 0.00
2 8 5015 48770 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.10 0.10 0.10 3.98 3.98 3.98 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.02 0.02 0.02
2 8 5010 48760 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.54 0.54 0.54 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.00
2 8 5040 48779 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.10 0.10 0.10 3.78 3.78 3.78 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.01 0.01 0.01
2 8 5040 48779 0.0 0.0 o.u 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.79 0.79 0079 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00
2 8 5039 48790 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.28 0.28 0.28 10.69 10.69 10.69 0.91 0.91 0.91 0.05 0.05 0.05
2 8 5015 48769 0.0 0.0 0.0 9.99 9.99 9.99 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
2 8 5040 48778 1.1 1.1 1.1 12.89 12.89 12.89 0.00 0.00 \.1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
5 11 4770 48910 0.1 0.1 0.1 2.19 2.19 2.19 11.64 11.6'+ 11.64 4.10 4.10 4.10 1.50 1.~0 1.50
2 14 5520 489 0 0.0 0.0 1.1.0 0.08 0.08 0.;..08 3.1A 3.18 3.18 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.01 0.01 0.01
6 15 4660 49345 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.04 0.04 0.04 1.70 10 70 1.70 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.00 0.00 0.00
6 15 4685 491 0 0.0 0.0 u.o 0.27 0.27 0.27 10.19 10019 1v.19 0.86 0.86 0.8b 0.D5 0.05 0.05
6 15 4685 491 5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.11 0.11 0.11 4.2b 4.26 4.26 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.02 0.02 0.02
6 15 4685 49345 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.11 0.11 1.1.11 4.12 4.12 4.12 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.02 0.02 0.02
6 15 4655 49375 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1.04 0.;)4 0.014 1.59 1.59 1.59 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.00 0.00 0.00
2 16 4780 49325 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.00 O.Ou 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
2 16 4945 49445 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.94 4.94 4.94 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.93 1.93 1.93 0.08 0.08 0.08
2 16 4945 49445 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.41 1.41 1.41 0.00 0.00 0.1.10 0.55 0.55 0.55 u.02 0.02 0.02
2 16 5090 49330 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.06 0.06 0.06 2.47 2.47 2.47 0.24 0.24 0.24
2 )6 5090 493 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.49 3.4'.1 3.4'.1 0.05- 0.05 0.05 4.79 4.79 4.19 0.21 0.27 0.27
2 16 4902 494 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.96 0.96 0.96 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.47 1.4., 1.47 0.00 0.00 0.00
2 16 4902 494 0 0.0 D.V :;.0 5.54 5.54 5.~4 0.00 O.Uv V.OO U.90 0.9U 0.90 0.02 0.02 0.02
'} 16 4765 49275 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1'1 0019 u019 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.42 1.42 1.42 O.Ob 0.06 0.06
2 11> 491>" 49465 v.l 0.1 u.l 3.1>9 3.09 3.09 iJ. f)i.J o.vv v.UlJ v.uu v.JU \oJ. v\)  U.0u 0.00 0.00
6 16 4990 49]48 0.0 0..) 0.0 O.OR 0.08 0.0'1 3.12 3.12 3012 0.26 0.2b 0.26 0.01 0.01 0.01
6 16 4945 49445 0.0 0.0 0.0 u.O? O.u7 .J. "7 2.7., 2."/7 t..77 0.23 0.23 0.23 o.u 1 0.01 0.01
6 16 4945 49465 0.0 0.0 0.0 i).Vi) CI.U6 O.J6 2.44 2.44 2.44 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.01 0.01 0.01
-- _-E_~ 4765 _49275 _.2.!2- _Y~_-2...~-~~_..Q.~_~l...2.. _2'I!__~.l..J.__3_..!.)- 0031 U.31 0.31 CI.Ol _C?
-------
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491 75
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-------
------- -- --~----------------------------_._---------------------
:> 22 4750 49720 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.')3 0.03 0.03 1.19 1.19 1.19 0012 0.12 0.12
5 22 4930 49745 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.5~ 0.55 0.55 0.19 0019 0.19 0.07 0.07 0.07
2 23 4985 49739 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.55 0.55 0.~5 0.00 0.00 u.oo 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
2 23 4965 49767 201 2.1 2.1 0.00 0.00 o.JO 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
2 24 5009 49728 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.00 0.00. 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
2 25 4984 498 5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 O.UU 0.00 O.uu 0.00 0.00 0.00
2 27 5420 49570 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.04 0.04 0.04 1.64 1.64 1.64 0016 O.lb 0.16
5 27 5200 49630 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.07 0.07 0.07
6 27 5350 49585 0.0 0.0 0.0 0012 0012 0.12 4.4& 4.48 4.48 0.37 0.37 0.37 0.02 0.02 0.02
6 27 5350 49585 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.02 0.02 0.02 1.06 1.06 1.06 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.00 0.00 0.00
6 27 5425 49565 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.08 0.08 0.U8 3.20 3.20 :30 20 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.01 0.01 0.01
6 ;:7 5425 49565 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.16 0016 0016 6.22 6.22 6.22 0.52 0.52 0.52 0.03 0.03 0.03
6 27 5450 49585 0.0 0.0 G.O 0.07 0.u7 u.07 2.66 2.66 <:.66 0.22 U.22 0.22 0.01 0.01 U.Ol
6 'l7 5290 49610 0.0 0.0 U.O 0.04 0.04 0.U4 1.59 1.59 1.59 0.13 0.13 0.13 U.OO 0.00 0.00
6 27 5410 49570 0.0 0.0 U.O 0.06 0.U6 0.U6 2.53 2.53 ;l.53 0.21 0.21 0.<11 U.Ol 0.01 0.01
6 27 5405 49555 0.0 0.0 O.U 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.93 0.93 0.93 0.02 0.02 0.02
6 27 5420 49590 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.03 0.03 0.03 1.20 1.20 1.20 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00
6 28 5710 49515 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.011 0.08 0.v8 3020 3.20 3.20 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.01 0.01 0.01
2 29 4612 49924 0.0 0.0 O.U 0013 0.13 0.13 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.65 0.65 0.65 0.06 0.06 0.06
6 29 4550 49910 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.07 0.:)7 .;.U7 2.77 2.77 l.77 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.01 0.01 0.01
6 29 4671 49944 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.05 0.05 0.U5 2.04 2.04 2.04 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.01 0.01 0.01
6 29 4671 49944 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.06 0.U6 0.U6 2.50 2.5U 2.50 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.01 0.01 0.01
" 29 4504 499 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.15 0.15 0.15 5.69 5.69 5.69 0.48 0.48 0.411 0.02 U.02 0.02
6 29 4615 49920 0.0 0.0 U.O 0.01 O.ul 0.u1 0.56 0.56 0.58 0.04 U.04 0.U4 O.OU U.OU (JoOO
, ~n 4735 49')70 0.(' n.'1 0.0 n.n, 0.02 0.;)2 n.90 a.90 0.90 IJ.07 0.07 O. \..'7 0.00 0.00 0.00
2 30 5020 5014U 2.1 2.1 2.1 5.49 5.4>1 5.49 o.uo 0.0\1 v.uu u.oo U.JO O.VU U.UO 0.00 0.00
5 30 5009 50140 O.C 0.0 0.0 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.09 0.09 0.09
5 30 4800 50095 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.07 0.07 0.07
2 32 5335 49990 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.08 0.U8 U.UA 3.06 3.0b 3.Ub 0.26 0.26 0.26 (J.Ol 0.01 0.01
2 32 5360 500 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.03 0.03 0.d3 1.20 1.20 1.20 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.00 0.00 O.uo
2 32 5H5 50049 0.0 0.0 a.v 0.02 0.02 0.\.12 0.92 0.92 0."2 0.07 0.07 U.07 O.Ou 0.00 0.00
2 36 5265 50170 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.03 0.03 0.03 1.20 1.20 1.20 0.10 0.10 0010 0.00 0.00 0.00

-------
. ----.-------------------------------------------------------
2 37 5320 50220 0.8 0.8 0.8 9.29 9.29 9.29 0.00 0.00 0.00 () .!JO 0.00 J.UO 0.00 0.00 0.00
2 37 5490 50755 0.0 O.J 0.0 0.03 0.03 0..;3 1.16 1.16 1016 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.00 0.00 0.00
Z 38 5589 50270 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.04 0.04 0.04 1.56 1.56 1.56 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.00 0.00 0.00
2 !l8 5515 50' 4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.03 0.03 0.03 1.20 1.20 1.20 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00
2 38 5514 50240 U.o 0.0 u.u 0.02 0.02 0,.02 0.92 0.9'2 0.92 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.00 0.00 0.00
2 38 5525 50160 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.92 0.92 0.92 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.00 0.00 0.00
2 40 4840 50360 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.03 0.03 0.03 1.27 1.27 1.27 0.10 0.10 0010 0.00 0.00 0.00
2 41 4970 50490 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.03 0.03 0.03 1.31 1.31 1.31 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.00 0.00 0.00
2 41 4925 50385 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.04 0.04 0.04 1.77 1.77 1.77 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.00 0.00 0.00
7 41 5050 50430 0.0 0.0 o.u 0.05 0.05 0.05 11.54 11 . 54 11.54 2.18 2018 2.18 0.54 0.54 0.54
2 43 5283 50330 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.58 0.58 0.58 0.02 0.02 0.02
2 43 5257 50367 0.0 0.0 0.0 11.49 11.49 11.49 1.43 1.43 1.43 57.49 57.49 57.49 5.74 5.74 5.74
2 43 5267 50382 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
2 44 5345 50345 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.17 3.17 3017 0.03 0.03 0.03 2.83 2.83 2.83 0014 0.14 0.14
2 45 5490 50310 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.03 0.03 0.03 1.45 1.45 1.45 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.00 0.00 0.00
2 47 5188 50477 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.02 0.02 0.02 1.07 1.07 1.07 0010 0.10 0.10
2 47 5174 50485 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.00 O. ao 0.00 a.OD 0.00 0.00 42.60 42.60 42.60 0.00 0.00. 0.00
2 t R 5236 50428 0.0 O.u .;.0 1.49 1.49 1.49 0.00 0.0\.1 0.00 0.00 0.00 I).UU O.OU 0.00 0.00
2 48 5234 50427 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.49 1.49 1.49 0.00 O.OU (J.OO 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.::10 0.00 0.00
2 48 5230 50426 0.0 O.U 0.0 1.49 1.49 1.49 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.::10 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
2 48 5236 50476 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.89 1.89 1.tl9 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
2 4e 5220 50440 0.0 0.0 O.V 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
2 411 5200 50460 1.4 1.4 1.4 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
2 48 5230 50426 1.3 1.3 1.3 0.00 0.00 O.UO 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 O. (;0 0.00 0.00 0.00
2 48 5253 50426 0.0 0.0 0.0 14.49 14.49 14.49 o.no 0.':10 0.00 0.00 o.no 0.01 0.00 r:.OO 0.00
2 48 5226 50485 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.36 1 d6 1d6 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.1)0 0.00 0.00 0.00
7 49 5322 50480 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.65 1.65 1.65 7.63 7.63 7.63 1.65 1.65 1.65 1.30 1.30 1.30
2 50 5464 50480 19.4 19.4 19.4 4.79 4. '19 4.79 0.00 0.00 V.OO 0.00 0.00 0.00 O.uO ().OO 0.00
2 50 54g') 5:1440 2.7 2.7 2.7 1.36 1.36 1.36 O..)t) 0.00 u. ~)(J 0.00 0.UO o. (1) () ./)0 0.00 0.00
2 53 5210 50549 3.6 3.6 3.6 6.89 6.89 6.89 0.00 O.Ou U.:';v O.Ov o.nu O.UU O.UU V.OO 0.00
2 53 5235 50535 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.59 6.59 6.59 0.00 0.00 v.oo U.UU 0.00 Q.UD O.ou 0.00 0.00
2 56 5899 506 1 0.0 0.0 O.V 0.14 0014 0.14 5.19 5.19 5019 ::1.44 0.44 0.44 0.02 0.02 0.02

-------
----- '-~-. - --.. -- ----.-- - -- ---- - ---- -- -- ---- --- --- ---- ---.- -------'--- -- ---
 2 57 6000 50635 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.14 0.14 0.14 5.19 5.19 5.19 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.02 0.02 0.02
 2 57 6086 50693 0.0 0.0 0.0 '.).14 D.14 0.14 5.19 5.19 5.19 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.02 0.02 0.02
 2 57 6150 50637 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.14 0.14 0.14 5.19 5.19 5.19 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.02 0.02 0.02
 2 58 5190 50760 5.4 5.4 5.4 0..13 0013 0.13 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.77 0.77 0.7/ 0.07 0.07 0.07
n 2 58 5150 50780 0.1 0.1 0.1 3.82 3.82 3.82 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 o.oa 0.0.0 0.00 0.00
 2 58 5275 50615 0.0 0.0 U.O 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
 2 58 5155 507115 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.00 0.00 0.00
 2 59 5367 50675 0.0 0.0 o.u 0.03 0.03 0.03 1.29 1.29 1.29 0.11 0.11 0011 0.00 0.00 0.00
 2 60 5020 51075 7.9 7.9 7.9 6.99 6.99 6.99 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
 2 fO 5030 51080 9.9 9.9 9.9 13.59 1 3 . ~9 13.59 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
8 2 60 5010 51085 5.5 5.5 5.5 10.79 10.79 10.19 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
 2 60 5050 51050 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.56 0.56 0.56 20.79 20.79 20.79 1.75 1.75 1.75 0.10 0.10 0.10
 Z 60 5055 51070 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.14 0.14 0.14 '5019 5.19 5.19 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.02 0.02 0.02
 2 60 4775 50952 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.02 0.02 0.U2 0.78 0.78 0.78 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00
 2 60 5060 5!095 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.00 O.OU 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
 5 60 5040 51075 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.24 0.24 0.24 1.28 1.28 1.28 0.45 U.45 0.45 0016 0.16 0.16
] 2 61 5150 50830 0.9 0.9 0.9 4.64 4.64 4.64 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
 2 64 5150 51210 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.14 0.14 0.14 5.19 5.19 5.19 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.02 0.02 0.02
 2 64 4710 51180 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.14 0.14 0.14 5.19 5.19 5.19 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.02 0.02 0.02
 5 64 5080 51240 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.24 0.24 0.24 1.28 1.28 1.28 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.16 0.16 0.16
 5 64 4990 511 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.21 0.21 0.21 1.1b 1016 1.16 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.15 0.15 0.15
 2 68 5040 51490 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.14 0.14 0.14 5.19 5.19 5.19 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.02 0.02 0.02
 7 I'.P o;O~5 5J7J 0 (;. '1 '. ' ;.,' .1/, ~). J I, !J.J.:' " : 019 ~o!'J 0.!.4 U .44 0.44 U.02 0.02 0.02
  . .
 2 if! 4788 51570 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.14 () .14 U.14 5.19 5.19 5.19 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.02 0.02 0.02
 2 68 5045 51755 0.0 0.0 u.w 0.50 0.5U U.50 U.OU u.UO U . \.hJ 0.00 u.oo O.uU O.OU 0.00 0.00
 2 69 5395 51535 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.14 0.14 0.14 ').19 ').19 5.19 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.02 0.02 0.02

-------
  TABLE 31 SUMMARY OF AIR POLLUTANT Ey,ISSIONS        
      TONS~ OR-y        
  SOX   PAKT   eo   He   IWX 
GRID AREA S .., A S W A S ~I A S II A S W A
1 617.7 0.2 0.3 O.l 1.9 1.9 1.9 37.3 33.\1 ;'5.6 3.9 3.4 3.b 1.3 1.2 1.2
2 617.7 0.1 0.2 U.2 1.5 1.5 1.5 22.8 2003 21.6 2.4 2.1 2.3 1.0 0.9 0.9
3 617.7 0.0 0.0 o.~ 1.2 1.2 1.2 8.6 11.3 H.5 0.7 0.6 0.6 u.3 0.3 0.3
4 617.7 0.1 0.3 0.2 1.5 1.5 1.5 20.7 17.7 19.3 2.3 1.9 2.1 1.0 1.0 1.0
          .      
! 617.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.4 1.4 1.4 14.6 14.6 14.6 1.1 1.1 1.1 0.2 0.2 0.2
6 154.4 0.5 l.l1 0.6 7.4 2.4 2.4 76.2 . 64.6 7l.. 7 10.4 8.9 9.1 4.1 3.8 4.0
7 '8.6 1.5 2.9 2.2 8.1 R.U 8.1 167.6 131.2 149.9 27.8 23.5 25.7 11.3 10.4 10.9
8 38.6 1.5 2.0 1.8 24.3 24.3 24. 64.2 53.3 58.9 7.6 6.3 ".0 ".9 2.6 2.7
9 38.6 0.1 0.2 0.2 J.3 0.3 0.3 9.5 1.1 8.4 1.5 1.2 1.3 0.8 0.8 0.8
10 36.6 0.1 0.2 O.l ~.3 u.3 0.3 9.5 1.1 b.4 1.5 1.2 1.3 "'.8 U.8 0.8
11 154.4 0.3 0.4 0.3 3.1 3.7 3.7 29.4 26.9 28.2 6.2 5.9 6.1 2.6 2.5 2.5
12 154.4 0.0 0.1 0.1 1.3 1.3 1.3 11.2 10.2 1(1.7 1.1 J.9 1.0 U.6 0.5 U.6
13 611.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.2 1.2 102 i!.7 A.4 8.5 0.7 ;).7 0.1 U.4 ;).4 0.4
14 617.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.3 1.3 1.3 11.8 11.5 11.7 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.3 0.3 0.3
15 617.7 0.1 0.2 0.2 2.1 2.7 2.1 41.2 39.5 40.4 4.3 4.v 4.2 0.8 0.8 0.8
16 617.7 1.4 3.3 2.4 41.2 41.1 41.1 241.2 207.4 224.8 46.5 42.0 44.3 12.2 11.4 11.9
17 617.7 0.3 0.5 0.4 7.3 7.2 7.3 81.6 74.5 7".2 10.2 ".2 9.7 3.2 3.0 301
18 617.7 0.1 0.2 0.1 6.8 6.8 6.8 70.P. 68.8 69.8 7.2 7.(1 7.1 1.6 1.5 1.5
19 617.7 0.1 0.1 0.1 7.1 2.0 2.1 21.2 19.4 2u.3 2.7 2.4 2.6 U.8 u.7 0.7
20 154.4 o.~ 0.4 0.3 5.4 5.4 5.4 61.3 52.9 51.2 8.6 7.5 8.1 2.5 2.2 2.4
21 154.4 0.1 0.3 ;).2 U.'~ 0.3 U.'~ 13.2 9.8 11.6 1.9 1.4 1.7 0.9 0.8 U.9
22 154.4 0.1 0.2 O.l 2.0 l.O 2.0 28.2 22.2 2:>.3 5.1 '..l+ 4.8 J.. 1 1.4 1.6
23 38.6 2.3 2.4 2.4 0.8 0.8 0.8 10.1 1.5 8.6 1.4 1.1 1.3 iJ. 'I 0.6 0.7
24 3R.6 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.7 0.1 0.7 10.1 7.5 IJo 6 1.4 1.1 103 0.7 J.6 0.7

-------
      'T"APT,E 31 '~nt.)        
2f 38.6 0.1 0."1 0.2 0.3 u.3 0.3 18.0 1303 1!J. 7 2.3 1.7 2.0 1.0 0.9 1.0
27 617.7 0.4 O.A 0.6 5.1 ).1 5.1 83.0 72.3 77.8 12.6 11.2 11.9 3.7 3.4 3.6
'8 617.7 1.1 'JO 3 ""'.2 I. j >.j ,.:1 ".\8.., j4.u 36.2 4.7 4.1 4.4 1.6 1.5 1.6
29 617.7 0.2 0.4 0.3 1.7 1.7 1.7 19.8 34.!J 37.2 5.2 4.6 4.9 106 1.5 1.5
30 617.7 2.8 3.5 3.2 7.R 7.8 7.9 74.1 !l1.2 6!1.9 10.2 11.1.1 9.1 ...6 4.1 4.4
31 154.4 0.3 0.7 0.5 ..J.t} ;).9 0.9 17.9 28.!J 33.4 ~.6 4.4 5.0 2.7 2.4 2.5
32 154.4 0.3 0.5 0.4 1.A 1.8 1.8 4~.1 36.5 41.0 11.1.1 4.9 !J.!J 2.7 2.6 2.7
33 154.4 0.1 0.1 0.1 u.2 ".2 0.2 9.0; 7.2 8.4 104 1.1 1.3 0.7 0.6 11.7
34 154.4 O.U 0.1 0.0 0.8 0.8 1.1.9 8.4 7.~ 7.9 0.8 0.7 0.7 1.1.4 0.4 0.4
,"> 154.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.(\ 1.5 1.1 1.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1
36 154.4 0.4 0.9 0.7 2304 23.4 23.4 53.8 41.0 ,+7.6 8.0 6.4 7.3 3.7 3.4 3.6
17 154.4 1.2 1.5 1.3 1103 11.3 11.3 52.6 41.2 47.1 7.4 5.9 6.7 3.6 3.3 3.5
38 154.4 0.2 0.4 u.3 1.3 1.3 1.:1 38.2 30.5 3".~ 5.4 4.4 4..) 71.0 68.1! 69.9 U.3 16.2 14.9
44 18.6 3.5 9.5 6.'/ ).4 (,.2 :.o.--t 1>5.;> 49.9 51.8 12.9 11.1 12.1 ~.7 '1.0 6.'}
45 38.6 0.7 1.7 1.~ 0.-' I.U .,.9 "11.1 il.7 i).101 4.2 3.4 3.1! ~.2 l... l.3
46 154.4 ').2 0.4 ',...3 -J. -, ~t.,. ...... 1.).7 R.l ~.'+ 1.7 1.4 1.!J O.7.#' 7~.7 ""'.;> 100.7 76.7 89.1 1&.3 11.1 14.6 ~.4 1/.6 11.1
49 j8.6 2.3 6.1 ..." 3.2 ,.7 ,.4 46.1 ".1 41.H 7.11 b.b 7.3 4.'11 6.,+ 5.7
50 31106 11.0 1'1.8 :'3.4 '.4 7.5 7.4 ;>'1.4 ..2.11 26.1 ...\1 4.1.1 4.4 ...9 '<01 3.0
0;1 154.4 :104 0.7 D., .;." ~,." ",... 11.7 R.8 lu.3 1.7 ..4 1.b 1.1 1.1 1.1
">2 311.6 !1.6 (1.7 v. I I. '; ;.,.....; ".'1 '~7. 7 1l.!J 115.U 17..9 4.6 ).3
0;3 38.6 6.4 '.1 h.H 1 (~.' 1.,.6 1b.7 175. \1 17",.::. 15J.l ;"14.\. 18.j 21.2 1:t. 1 I.. ~ 11.3

-------
       TABLE 31 (Cant.,)        
55 36.6 r..l 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 '.1.2 4.6 3.5 4.1 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.5
56 617.7 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.4 1301 11.2 12.2 1.7 1.4 1.6 0.7 0.7 0.7
57 617.7 0.1 0.1 O.J. 0.6 0.6 U.6 22.7 22.1i 2~.5 2.0 2.0 2.0 0.2 O.1i lI.2
56 154.4 7.2 8.1 7.7 7.3 -'.3 7.3 39.2 29.8 34.6 7.4 6.2 6.6 4.2 4.4 4.3
59 154.4 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.6 \.).6 0.6 14.3 11.2 12.6' 2.2 1.8 2.0 1.3 1.3 1.3
60 617.7 24.3 24.6 24.6 33.8 33.9 33.'J 43.3 39.6 41.5 5.0 4.5 4.7 2.0 l.2 2.1
61 154.4 1.3 1.6 1.5 4.9 4.9 4.9 13.5 10.0 11.6 1.9 1.5 1.7 1.0 1.0 1.0
62 154.4 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.2 v.2 U.2 11.0 8.1 'J.6 1.6 1.~ 1... 0.11 0.1 0.8
         ~      
63 (,17.7 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 U.v 0.0 2.1 1.6 1.8 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.1 u.l 0.1
        .       
64 617.7 1.5 l.9 2.3 1.9 1.9 1.9 QtI.2 611.3 18.6 12.4 9.8 11.2 ~.4 4.'J 5.2
65 617.7 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 v.l 0.1 5.5 4.0 ".6 0.8 O.b 0.7 U.4 lI.3 0.3
66 617.7 0.1 0.3 u.2 u.l U.l 0.1 1.4 5.5 6.5 1.1 0.8 0.9 U.5 \J.4 0.5
67 617.7 0.0 0.1 n.l 0.0 \J.lI 0.0 1.9 1.4 1.7 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.1 '0.1 0.1
68 617.7 1.0 1.9 1.5 1.8 1.8 1.tI 60.4 48.t) 54.6 1.7 6.2 7.0 3.2 2.8 3.0
b9 617.7 0.4 0.0 0.6 1.5 0.5 0.5 24.3 19.3 21.9 3.2 .2.5 2.9 1.3 1.2 1.3
     .           
70 611.7 0.2 0.3 U.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 12.1\ 10.8 11.8 1.5 1.3 1.4 lI.5 0.5 0.5

-------
EMISSION DENSITIES
"
In order to provide a visual representation of the emissions of
pollutants by grid, emissiOQ density map~ have been provided. Figures 6
through 10 show variation in emission densities for the respective
grids throughout the Study Area. As expected the emissions generally
follow the pattern and degree of ~rbanization. Emission densities
are higher in grids with high populations and correspondingly high
vehicular and industrial activity.
~
~

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Scale 1:250.000
r-"L .

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\
4910000 SULFUR OXIDE EMISSION.
tons/day-mi2 .
.

/
o 0 - 0.01
IJ 0.01 - 0.05
~ 0.05 - 0.20
1m 0.20 - 0.80
,.J
)

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590000
Figure 6. Sulfur oxide emission density for Willamette Valley study area, 1968.
6q :.
.

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~.
!i!i!i!i!i!iWii!iii!i!i!i!i!i!i!i!i!i!
i!!iiiiii!ii1ii!!iiiiiiiii!iii!iii!ii!!ii
..1
',-.
--. - 4950000
(

,

\
,

.

-l
(\..
L.
. Scole 1:250,000 .
49100
-.
/
4870000
-',

,

~
)
c"
'-.
48300
.-.
470000 510000 550000 590000
Particulate emission density for Will~mette Valley study area, 1968.

~5
Figure 7.
5010000
4990000
PARTICULATE EMISSION,
tons/doy.m;2
o 0 - 0.01
- 0.01 - 0.05
/ill] 0.05 - 0.25
[I 0.25 - 0.50

-------
-.
I

.

-l
(\..
.

L..
390000
 r-'Lo 0- 0 . ...--......., .--'~ 5170000
 .     ( 
 I.     
     I 
 I     
     , 
:---. 0'---' 8_.. .-. _-.J 5130000
I    I 
.   ,  
_0    
   ' 0  
   I  
   '  
   ~ "  
  . "-" I    5090000
   .  
   . .~l  
   ,  
       5050000
501 0000
~o
I

.

l.

~o
r.l
CARBON MONOXIDE EMISSION,
4910000 /d .2 .
ton s ay-m,
. .,-.-. -"t .
/
o
111
II]

4870000 . fin

II
3.00 - 5.00
o
- 0.10
0.10 - 0.50
0.50 - 1.50
43000
1.50 - 3.00
.

-.,
~
.)
".
Seal e 1 :250,000
'-.
Figure 8.
4830000
.-.
47000 510000 550000 590000 .

Carbon monoxide emission density for WiH~mette VaHey study area, 1968.

-------
.--'~

(
I

,

'-, _-.J

f

,

I
1'-'1-.

.

I
I
'- ,
, -.........
;-.
~
'.-'
,-.
. ,
-'
,

,

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)
.~ ,--


.

I
I

,

I
.14-
  l ..
  . 
" .-.~ 
 \.--- . .'  
 I  
 .  
 l.  
 '--- .  
.

"
"
'-'
'----.
',--,--.
r.l
-.
c;-- .
,

.

-l
(\.
.

L.
.
--.
. ---- 8-"t.

~.
39000
4300
-.,

.

~
)
~'
'-.
Scale 1 :250,000
51700
51300
r'
509000
.


.~~
50500
50100
4990000
495000
I
\
0000 HYDROCARBON EMISSION,
491 /d -2
tons ay-m.
.

/
o 0 - 0.05
- 0.05 - 0.10
[[J] 0.10 - 0.50
fii 0.50 - 1.00
111.00 - 2.00
4870000
483000Cl
.-.
4700 510000 550000 590000

Hydrocarbon emission density for Willamette Valley study area, 1968.
67

-------
390000
.'--'~

(
I

.

. -'--->

,

.

,

"
r-',- .

.

I.
I
'- .
. ~,
j-'
'-r--'
'-.
.
-'
""
I

.
. - . --...

I
'T-- .
I

.

l.

'--- .
.----..
.


.~.~
"
5010000
4990000
. ""-- . -- .
49500
-.
r.l

.
1;":'" .
I

.

\
5170000
513000
50900
50500
"-.
NITROGEN OXIDE EMISSION.
4910000 tons/day.mi2
I

.

-l
(\.
.

L.
/
I,,..
. ,

-.,

.

l..
)
('.
'-.
Scale 1 :250,000
48300
5900
470000
.-.
5100
550000
Do
Id 0.01- 0.05
EJ 0.05 - 0.20
II 0.20 - 0.50
4870000
Figure 10. Nitrogen oxide emission density for Willamette Valley study area, 1968.
63 "

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~
u
REFERENCES
1.
Ozolins, G. and Smith, R., Rapid Survey Technique for Estimating
Community Air Pollution, USDHEW, PHS, October, 1966.
2.
Duprey, R. L., Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors,
USDHEW, PHS, 1968.
3.
Highway Statistics/1965, United States Department of Transportation,
Bureau of Public Roads, 1966.
4.
Fuel Oil Shipments Annual, United States Department of Interior,
Bureau of Mines, September 17, 1969.
5.
Shipments of Fuel Oil and Kerosine, USDI, Bureau of Mines.
6.
1968 National Survey of Community Solid Waste Practices, on
Interim Report, United States Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare, Public Health Service.
7.
Duprey, ,E,. cit.
8.
Data from Oregon State Sanitary Authority, Air Quality Control
Section.

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APPENDIX
METHOD FOR CALCULATING SUMMER, WINTER AND ANNUAL
AVERAGE EMISSIONS FOR FUEL CONSUMPTION IN STATIONARY SOURCES
YEARLY AVERAGE (A)
to
A = Fuel Consumed x Emission Factor (E. F. )
Days of Operation
e.g. A plant consumed 100,000 tons of coal in 1967 while operating
365 days. The total degree days for the area was 4,800 and
2,800 for the three winter months. The plant was estimated
to use 15 percent of the fuel for space heating and 85 percent
for process heating. From this information, the annual
average emission for carbon monoxide would be the following:
A = 100,000 Tons/year x 3 lbs. CO/Ton coal
365 Days/year x 2,000 1b./Ton
A = 0.41 Ton/Day
"
WINTER AVERAGE (W)
Q
~
W = Fuel Consumed x E.F.
Days of Winter Operation
x
Winter Degree Days
Total Degree Days
x
% Fue 1 Used
for space heating
+ Fuel Consumed x E.F.  % Fuel used for   heating
365  x process
W = 00,000 x 2,800  0.15  100,000  O.8~ 3
 90 x 4,800 x ..... 365 x 2,000
W = 0.49 Ton/Day
SUMMER AVERAGE (8)
s = Fuel Consumed x E.F.
Days of Summer Operation
x
Summer Degree Days
Total Degree Days
x
% Fue:' Used
for space heating
+
Fuel Consumed x E.F.
365

S = nOO,OOO
L: 90
x
% Fuel used for process heating 
0.15  100,000 x O.8~ 3
+ 365 2,000
,.
x
o
4,800
x
"

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  APPENDIX B 
  METRIC CONVERSION FACTORS 
-   
u   
 Multiply J!Y.. To Obtain
::.   
 Feet 0.3048 Meters
 Miles 1609 Meters
 Square Feet 0.0929 Square meters
 Square Miles 2.59 Square kilometers
 Pounds 453.6 Grams
 Pounds 453.6/104 Tons (metric)
 Tons (metric) 1.103 Tons (short)
  " 
 Tons (short) 907.2 Kilograms
 Tons (short) .9072 Tons (metric)
 To Obtain ]l Divide
~

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APPENDIXC
EMISSION FACTORS
"   
"   
  Wigman Wood Boiler
  Ib/unit (dry) Ib/unit (dry)
 SU lfur Oxides 0.2 N
 Particulate 7 4
 Carbon Monoxide 260 0.5
 Hydrocarbons 22 20
 Nitrogen Oxides 1.3 2
 One unit (dry) is app"roximately one ton.
.'
!...
Slash Burning
Ib/ton
N
10
64
3.2
2
Field Burning
Ib/ton
N
16
101

12.3

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