FINAL REPORT
ESTIMATES OF POPULATION EXPOSURE
  TO AMBIENT CHROMIUM EMISSIONS

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DeN No. 8J-20J-ol~-o2-01
Radian No. 203-012-02
EPA,Contract No. 68-02-3818
~~JJ~A8'18nment No.2

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FINAL REPORT
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'ESTl~\TES OF POPUtA:IO~ EXPOSeRF.
TO A~!1IENT CHr.OHlnl r.-11SSIO~:)
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October 1.8;;

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Preparl.!d for:
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Karon L. Blanch\rd
F.PA Project Officer
Pollutant AS~a8gment Branch
Strategies and Air Stand~rds D1v~a~~r.
C. S. Environmental Protoction A5:p;-,Cv
Research fr1angle Park. ~orth Caro11~3 :~711
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P:-e;>ared by:
Cd:-ry Brooks
RAdian Corporation
302' Pickett Road
Durham, North Carolina
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DISCLAiMER
'rhis report has been reviewed by the Strategies and Air St3ndards
Division (SASD), U. S. Environments~. Protect ion Agency (EPA) to approve' t,;
contents for publication. Approval for publication does not signify foal
the contents necessarily reflect the views and policies of the U. S.
Environmental Protection A8en~y, nor does mention of trade names or
comm.rc1a~ products constitute endorFement or recomQer.dati~n for 1:8..

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This report sumrcarizes the results cf a study that elst1maced the
potential levels of human exposure to average annual atmolePh~ri~
concentrations of chromium in the United States. Chromi or chromium
compounds are emitted from a wide var1~ty of 80J~C. cat.Qor1... Th...
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source categories of ~hromium emissions generaliy fall into one of two
groups. The two groups are labeled direct and 1nadverte t emiss10n sources.
Direct sources are chose which use chromium or chromiu~ ~ompou~d. as ~rocess
inputs and gen~ra:~ chromium products. Examples of di~e t sources are
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~hrom~um chemicJl plants. chromium refractor1.(plants, and stainl.SI and
allov steel mills. Inadvertent s\)urces are ~'~ose which Jnintent1o~allY
rele~se cj1romiu~ du~ to its being d component of fuels~ ~astes. or
naturally-occur:~i~ minerals. Coal and oil combustion sdurces,
incinerators, a:1C ~e:r.~:1t plants are exat:1ples of inadvertelnt chr:>m1um
rl
The source categories of potential chromium emissions that were
assessed in thi~ study are steel manufacturing, ferrochrJmium manufacturing,
, I
refractory manufacturing, chromium chemicals~manufa~tu.in:g, coal and 011
combusti ~, se~~~~ sludge and municipal refuse incinerat~on, cement
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manufacturing, leath~r tanning, asbestos production, chromi~c ora ref1ning,
aod coollog 'owers.' 10 ,he 101,101 analysis of ,he.e .,uroo oo,..or1..,
atmospheric chromium emissions from asbe~tos production and leather tanning
~erc found to be ~egligible or nonexistent. The extent Jo which the..
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source categories could contribute to atmospheri~ chromium exposure
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concentrations was determined to be very minimal; thvrefdre,' they were
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sources.
dropped from further consideration.
For the source categories studied
leather tanning), the valence state(s)
in detail (all except asbestos an~
of their chrom1umemissions was
investigated because of the variable toxicities exhibited by different
I

*SuhseqIJent to the finalization of this report in October 1983, add1t10tU:l
information ',Jas gachered and analyses performed for the Icoolit1g tower
source category and a previously untreated source categ9ry. chromium
electrcplating. The information developed for these source categories is
presf;!r'\ted in the July 1984 addendum to this report.
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chromium v41encu. Trivalent (Cr ) and hexBralent (crl ) forms. of ChroQiu::
predominate in the varioul .ource category emi.siuns vi h the available
health evidence suggestlna that hexavalent chromium 1s are toxic than the
trivalent form. The major trivalent emitting .ource ca egor!es are .teel,
.,.~\Irochromium, refractory. and cement manufa.:tuung. ore refining.
and coal and oil combustion. He~val.nt chromium 18 to be emitted
from chromium chtm1cal plantl. sevage sludae and =uniei al refuse
1neinerators, and cool1n. tovers. although cool~ng towejs and chemical
plants can a180 be trivalent chromium sources.
lhe potent18!. f'ational ?opul.1t1on exposure to chroQiue was assessed
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using the U. S. [PA Human Expo~ure Medel (HEX). TL~ HDf is d gennal eerie:

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capable of producing quantitative e~pressions of public lexposure to aeb1en:
.!~.r:'concetltra:1on!> of pollutants emitted fror:! sC8t!onar\' sources. A
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detailed description of hov the H~ wo:ks is ?rovided 1n Appendix A.
I
Chromium emissions estimates and other source category ~nfo~ation (stack
aeomutries. gt.-'b":;phlc coorcHoote locations;' needed for !the HEM analyses
vere obtained fro~ State air quality permlt~. State and iU. S. [PA .m1slioo
sourte test repol ~s, the Natlonal Emissions Data System I(~EDS), and other
published liter~ture.
Indlvidual facilities
For some of the larger source categories data on a~l
within the category were unavailabie.
I
model plants were developed that were representative c! the
I
a~tu41 1acil~tles in the source category. A sUmm4ry of the
In these cases
distributicr. c~
exposuro resu~ts
il ~resenced 1n Tabla 5-1.
Atlhou~n 3tudied in dept~,
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the cD~~lng tower and co~1/011
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source categor1es were nor included 1n the population exposure
cOQbustiC\n
analysh
performed with the HEM. The reasonr. these source categories were not

included .re twofold. First anJ prj~ary, the charncter1&ation ot individual
I
aources in both ~ategorlel coul~ ~ot bA done to the level of detail requ1red

by the H~ to produce meanbrful "~I3\.:.lts bC'"l\use of a ll1ck of information.
I
Particularly for :t\v. coo11og t(t~,.t Rource category, chara~terization dat.1 O~.
i
the n'.lmbur, sh.. 'iistr1bution. l~cAtion, anrt chromiuQ us~ pstt'i!rns of
I
coolin~ tower- were not available. Second. by assessinglthe emissions anr.

re8ultan~ a~1ent coo~eDtr6~i~nG of'e~ample or model cas cooling tower. a~c
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TABLE S-I.
SlIMHAI\Y OF TilE CIiROHItIM I'OI'ULAT!ON E:ctobcr 1983. addlt tun.d Inforaarlon was
gathered and analyses perfor8ecl for thc cooling tower unurce cata~gury dnal d prevlou81y untre.ted
source cdtcgory, chroalull elcctrupl.Hll1t;. Tile I II for mall un developcd for these 80'Jrce categories
1:0 prcdclltctl III thc July IC)li4 ...,ltlclI,1111D to tlllt; repurt.
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combustion sources. ambient downwind concentrations of chromium from lour:us
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1n these categories were e.timbted to be relatively minor compared to the
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concentrations rC5u~ting from other chromium source categories (i.8.,
I
chromium chemi(8l planrs. refractory plants. ferrochr4mium plants). It
should be noted. ho",..v8r, that th~ emission. of these It"'o source catel.!\0:- ~e~
may contain forms of chromium th~t are particularly t xic such that expos~:-e
to Iven .m811 quantiti.. may produce a significant he For th~5
reason, detailed exposure studies of the coo11ng towe and coal/oil
~
.,
combustion 50urce cate~or1e8 may be conducted at ~ later date ",hen a
complete source ch8r~cterization data base can be developed.
~-::-e
Near the end of this study two other sourc~ c8te~cries of potent~a:
I
chtom1um air e~is5ions were identified. These catego~ies are large scale
, I
spray painting operations (e.g., ships and plants) ...'he:re zinc chroaate
I
Glass plants pcte~~~ally emit chrc=:~~

because chromiutL cc,~pounds can be used in glass batche;s as colorar.ts .1::-:

because chromium refractory used to line slass fur~ace~ can degrade a::~

break do\olt\ to th~ point that chromium-containing pa:t1.cles are able to be

entrained io furnace flue gases. These sou ice categories wcr~ ~ot incl~~e~
pa1nts are used a~d glas& plants.
in the present study because ~he project was essent1ally co~pleta at t~e
time of iden=1!1cation and there ~as no
clear de!~:..r.~:'lC:'i
of each source
category (i.e., number of plants, plant sizes, etc.)
readily available characterization d4t& base.
Saud
and consequently no

o~ the results of
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be includod in future
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continuing examinations by [PA, these categories mdY
exposure studies of chromium air emi5910n sourcus.
v

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List of Tab l.es
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
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.. .. .. .. .. .. ..
List of Figures
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
................
CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEV OF CHROMIUM PROPERT ES,

PRODUCTION. AND USE.... '. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
l.0
1.1
1.~
Int roduct ion...... ...... .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .... ........ .... .... . ........ .. .... ................ ..........
Physical and Chemical Properties of Chromium .............

Overvie. of Production ........................ ..........
1.2.1 ~etallurgical Chromite and Chromium ...............
i .2.2 Chemical Chromite a~d Chromium Co~pou~ds ... .......
1.2.3 Refractory Chromit: ....................\...........

Chrorniu:I:. t:ses [[[

1.3.1 Metallurgical Uses .....................l.....

1.3.2 Cheoical Uses ...........................i...........

1.3.3 Ref::.:lc::ory Uses """""""""""""""""'"

References
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1.!.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ . . . . . . . . . .


SOt.;RCE CATEGORIES A.\rn ~ISS~OXS ,;.............
I
CHAPTER 2 - CHROXIL~
2.0
2. 1
2.2
Genera 1 [[[

Chromium Cre Refining .... .....................~..........
Chromium Chemicals Manuf~r~ure ......... '. ... ..~... .... ...

Refractory Mar.ufacture ................"..... .l.....

r\sbes.vs Production ...... ............................
I
Leathe r Tar.ning ............................. . . . . . . . . .

Cer:!ent :'Ia:-,ufacturing ..................... ~..........
~unicipal Refuse and Sewage Sludge Incinerationl ....... ...
Steel ~Ianufactu. ring """"""""""""'..r"""""
Ferrochrom1um Manufacturing ..............................
Cooli:\g To.ers ............................... .l..........
I
Coal and Oil Combustion ..................................
2.11.1 3ackground. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ . . . . . . . . . .
2.11.2 Estimation of National Impacts........ ~..........

Re fer e nee s .................. ................. 1 . . . . . , . . . .
2. ]
~.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2. 11
2. 12
CHAPTER 3 - CHROMll~ DISPERSION MODELLING AND POPUl.A7IO~
EXPOSl:RE A."ALYSIS .............................
I
I
I
].0
3. 1
3.2
Introduction............................... .
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chromium Ore Refining ....................................

Chromium Chemicals Manufacture .................... .......
vi
Page
viii
xi
1-1
1-1
1-3
.1-7
1-9
1-11.
1-16
f 1-17

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I
Refractory Manufacture ...................................
Municipal Refuse and Sewage Sludge Incinerators ..........
Ferrochromium Production ....................,............
S tee 1 Ha nu f. c t u r ins. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cement Kanufactur1ns ........................!.,..........
Measured Ambient Chromium Concentrations ....1............

aeferenc.. ..................................1............


APPENDIX A - DESCRIPTION OF THE HUMAN fxPOSURE MODEL (H~) .........

APPENDIX B - QUALITATIVE EVALUATION OF THE SOURCE CATEclRY
DATA FOR THE HEM ANALYSIS ................ ............
.'f'
APPENDIX C - TOTAL CHROMIUM CONCENTRATIONS MEASURED IN HE ~\ffiIENT
AIR OF THE UNITED STATES DURING 1977 - 196' ...........
 3.3
.' 3.4
;. 3.5
f'
~ 3.6
l' 3.7
..;
"
~ 3.8
r 3.9
~
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Page
3-)
3-10
3-25
3-2~
3-38
3-53
3-51.
A-I
B-1
(-1
*
Subsequent to the finalization of this report in Octob r 1983, add1tlona:
1r.formation was gathered and analyses perf~rmed for th~ cooling tower
source category and a previously untreated source catesory, chromium
electroplating. The information developed for. these source categories ~s
\'~resented in the July 1984 addendu~ t~ this re?ort.'o

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Table
1-1
1-2
1-3
1-4
1-5
>1
2-2
2-3
2-4
2-;
2-0
2-i
2-8
2-9
2-10
2-11
LIST OF TABLES
Physical Properties of Chromium ..........'....1...........

,i, j
Chromium Compound. of Various Oxidat10a Stat..
and their Major Physical Properties ..~....... ...........

Composition of Typical rerrochromium Alloys j

and Chromium .Metal ........................... ...........
List of Commercially Produced Chromium Chemica s
and their General Uses........... .'.,;),r ,,"""'" ...........
, :'1
~ajor Chrooium Uses and Key Chromium'Checicals
~
:

I nvo 1 ved ..................................... ...........


Locatior.s of Plants in the United States prOdujing
Sodiuc ~hromate and Sodium Dichromate ....................

Facilities Identified to be Producing Chromium
Containing Refractory Materials ......~.....~~............
Chromium Levels Found in the Particulate E~i9S ons
of Cement Plant Operations ............... ................
Locations of Cement Plants in the United St~~e
. . . . . . . . . .
Pago
1-4
1-S
1-11
1-15
1-:3
2-:
2-10
2-16
2 I ~
-. .
~-2,)
2-30
:-3~
2-47
2-49
1-50
~-5~
, ~
-.". "
-,'-, ~:. -' ""..".'" ,,~.,' ~,-,'''. -':' ,'",.~:_'~' ',',.~",~'"',""J,,--,,',, '''::;'''''''''''~'"'''''>''''~~-' "~. .."-,,' ~"'" "'-'..,,! .' ~ .. ""','~,,',',"-' ".'r,.~,~"~'-" '.',:,','~,',J~, ..~',:~..,~,~,-.:.,~:.'..t,,;.'/'~.-~"., .", "',"- ',:' ','.'="~:=-,~'~"., "~..~~.'",:',',',-,,,,"..,..',:'/_>, ',,jo ;-
Chromiuc E=ission Factors for ~unicipal Refuse
ann Se~age Sludge Incinerators ...... ....... ..............
Locations of Municipal Refuse Incinerators...............
Locat~cns of Sewage Sludge Incinerators .... ..............
Stack Geometry Data Used for Electric Arc Furn cas
and Argon-oxygen Decarburizat10n Vessels .................
Stack Geometry Data Used for Basic Oxygen Process
Fu rn ace s .................................................
Number and Locations of Electric Arc Furn.1ces I .
Identified to ~e Emitting Chromium .......................
I
i
Locations of Argon-Oxygen Decarburizatlon Vessels

in the United States ..........................:...........
viii

-------
--
~~
Table
2-12
2-13
2-14
2-15
2-16
2-17
3-1
3-2
3-3
3-4
3-5
3-(,
3-.7
3-8
.tl .
3-9
'-''''''Qoa.~~--'''''''~' ...!>...~~ T
~---""~~~,,,'~~$I~.'
.-
p~~
J'
LIST or TABLE,CContinUed)
Locatlons and Number of Basic vxygen Proce.. turnaces
in tlae United Status........................ J......... '..
'\ , I

Chromium Content of Domestic Coals by Type ..1............
I
Ch=omium Content of Domestic Coals by Source ...........,.
I
Chromium Collection Efficiencies fer Electrostatic

Precipitators"...", . , " , , ....,....... . " .. J.. . . . , . . , , . ,
I
Chromiut:l Collection Ef:iciencies for Fat:-~c rilte,s '.....

Chromium Collection Effic:p.:1cies for I.'et sc:-u4bers .......
Public Exposure to Chromiu~ from Ch:-oc~u= Ore Refl~in~
Plants as Produced by the iiuawn Exposure :{otie ..." ......
Total Chromium Exposure anJ Number of People
from Chromium Chemicals Manufacture .........
xposed
............
, - ~ "
.. .-
~-6..
2-6~
~ -~ ~
.. .
.. -.. .
:-...
j -..
)-5
)-~
)-:;
3 - i ~
)-:~
)-10:
- "
J-. .,
~
Public Exposure to Chromium from Three Major 'h3Prmium
Chemical Manufacturlnb Plants as Produced by th~tHuman

Exposure Model...,.,."..",..,.." ,', . , . . . , , ! . "e. . , , . . , , ,
, I
I .
Total Ct-.romium Exposure and ~umber of People txpoud
from Chromium Refractorv Manufacture........ I............
. !
Public Expo.ure to Chromlu= froo Chrom~~~ ~e!.actory
Plants as Produced by the Huoan Exposure Xodal ,.",..,...
Total Chromium Exposure an~ Sumber of Peop~Q tx?osed
(rom Munic~8l Refuse Incinerators,..,.".L;,.,....",..

Public Exp~~uTe to Chromium frum Municipal Re~use
Incinerator. as PToduced by the Human Exposur. Model
I
Total Chromium Exposure and Number of People Exposed
from Sevagt!\Sludge Incinerators.......,..................

Public Exposure to Chromium from Sewage sludgl
'''dneratoi as Produced by the Hu..,a Exposu.. Mod,l .....
ix
__.~_.l_~~~_,-- ~-. ;

-------
~ 
I 
" 
0 
i, 
q 
~ 
" 
~ 
~ 
>, 
. 
" Tab!!
~
[ 3-10
., 
'i 
I 3-11
 3-12
 3;13
 3-14
 B-1
II,,'
,,'
(~LIST OF TABLES ~'ont1nUed)
I'"
f ,
i i
I ,
Pa~e
Pub11c Expqaure to Chrom1um fr' Ferrochrom1um ~lantl
,418 Produce4.\by the Human Expos'" '. Hodel..................

Total Chromium Expolure and Number of People Ex osed
from Steel Manufacturing Plants........... ". . .1...... . .. ..
, I
Public Exposure to Chromium from Steel Manufacturing
Plants as Produced by the HUlMn Exposure Xodel i.......,...

Total Chromium Exposure and Number of People x~oseJ
froe Cement Manufacturing Plants....... .......t..........

Public Exposure to Chromium from Cement ~~nufac uring
Plants as Produced by the Human Exposure Model..... .....
)-2f)
3-27
)-;~
3 -} ':
3-5~
Qual1tat1~e E~aluation of che Source Category D ta
t;sed in the HE:-! Analyses ...................... ..........
3 -
-~
x

-------
Figure
1-1
1-2
1-3
1-4
1-5
2-1
2-2
2-3
2-4
2-5
2-6
2-7
2-8
2-9
2-10
2 -11
..-.._~ --~-_. ..-
... ------..--=-- ..d.
f-~
-~
~
LIST OF FIGURES
Stmpl1~t.d. tlovohart for the pnduetion of thrlium

compounds and metallic c~lromiulD from chromic. :1...........


Industrtal r.oycltnl/ra~. flow of chromium .t~r.P """"


Primary and secondary use distribution of chromium
I
in the United States....................... 1,1 . .1. . . . . . . . ...
. /~. I

Final consumer use distribucion of C:~On:iU= in :the

united Stated in 19i8 ..............~.....................
I
End use cree for sodium dic~romate in 1982
...............
Flow d,art of the chromite, ore refining plant
in New Castle t Delaware..................................
Flc... chart
of a sodium d.romace pt'oducc~on j)roc,_ss .......

ot a sodium dichromate producl~on prlbcess .....

illustrating chromium refractory bri k
Flow chart
Flow charc
produccion
.... .............. ........... ..... ..... .........
Basic proc~ss f~o~ diagram for wet ana dry ceme t
p roduc t ion p 13n t s .........................,...............
Basic configuration of a municipal ref~se incin rator ....
Schematic diagram of a typical multiple-hearth
sludge incinerator ............................
ewagQ
."..".,,
Schematic diagram of a typical fluidized-bod'.
sewage sludge incinerator .....................
..........
Typical electric arc steel furn~c~ .......................
I
Schemacic cross section of a cop blown basic oxygen
process furnace steel shop.................... r'''' .......


Argon-oxygen decarburization vessal ......................
I
I
.l
xi
L"~.(, .
.. -....... ---- .~
}
'118
1-8
1-13
1-18
1-l0
1-22
:-2
2-4
2-5
2-9
2-15
2-24
2-26
2-27
2-41
2-4)
2-45
~...~...
~--,;~" - .. ,,-.:-; ~----.....~.~~., /' --;...--\...,-,

-------
..
~
~
2-12
2-13
2-14
"
, .- --,_.~..----.~-~ '
- ----1""""""- ._-~
.'"\
Pag!
2-~i
] -6!
:-~:
LIST or FIGURES (Continued)
J\
:,1
Genarali.ad flow d1aaram for the production If
farrochrom1wa al101' ...... .:. - . . . ...... . . . . ..:
~ '\...
1.- . .
Canaral .achaDi.. of chromium ..1.11onl from cooling

t owe r cI r 1. ft. . . . .. . . . . . .'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
tll......
Concentration of chro~\um
distance from the cooling
ih air as a function of

t ove r ............ '1' . . . . . . . . . . . .
xii.

-------
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION A.'ID OVERVI~ OF CHROMIUM
~PROprRTIES. PROOUCTttr~,~~ USE
1.0
INTRODUCTION
"
The primary purpose of this report is to summarize he, results of a

, '
stud~' that estimated the potential levels of human expos re to atmospheric
r:~oncentrations d chromium in the United States. The, pu~p~~e of the,
exposure analysis is ,r;o provide an approximate and 'relatlve ,idea of the
severity of at~ospheric chromiuo levels thJt are attr1~ubable to var1~us
emission source categories. The results of the exposurelanalYSiS will
function as one of .everal'-inputs to a U.~. invironQ~nt 1 'rotect1on Agency
(EPA) decision proc;ss to determine which 1 any chrOQ1u~ emission .ource
categories require further, more in-depth study towards ~he potent1~ point
of developing regulations for chromium air emission sour es.
Twelve potentia! S011rce categories of chromium emis ~ons wert ...1rnod
.'1
for investigation 1n this study including:
steel mAnufacturing,
',(
','
, c.
ferrochromium manufacturing,
refractory manufacturing,
chromium chemicals production,
coal and 011 combu~tion,
sewage sludge incineration,
municipal refuse incineration,
cement manufacturing,
chrome ore r~fining,
cooling towers,
leather tanning, and
. asbestos production.
!
I
~
1-1
.~' .
~'.' ~ ~~,,',', -'.,.~,-'~.' ..'._,/','-'.~:'".- ::~-""""'-"-~''''-' -. -~ --.-." -'.,._,-~..~--'_.'-~-.~-~-~'- -.~ ,..,"-',,--_u. .: -"'~ .','-' '.--'",.'-.,'.'~--. -"'.',~,'., : ---"".",:'-:'-~:._' '#.~," .-'<~,""~'".-_.."",-:-j-~,~',:.',.' ""..~. '".'c'-",::'..'.:'!",~:','-'-~,' -' , "",-':~-"~~,.'-".:'

-------
I'
~
--,.._-~~...~...........~., "..,"-~t~~=""'~_.~
~
~~~~
~
Aabaatoa production and leather tanning were ewentuali,;teleted fro.
consideration after a preliminary assessment Indicated ~~at their potent(J!
for atmospheric chroMium emilsionl are very Illg~t. I
I
The ambient chromium exposure con~entrations potentially encounterq~ ~~
the general population from the p-m1ssions of the source categor,ls were
...elled in th18 .tudy u81na the U.S. EPA Human, Exposure Moder (HEM) . The
It
HEM i8 a general model capable of producing quantitative expressions of
public exposure to ambient air concentrations of pollutant. emitted from
stationary sou~~e5. The re8ultg of the exposure analysJs and the methods ~y
vhich they w~re obtained are presented in Chapter 3 and ~pper.dix A.
Although studied in depth, the cooli~g tower and ~oal/o~l ccmbustlon SC~~:e
I
I
categories werp not included in the population expo~ure janalysis perfor=-e~
with the H~""'!. The reasons these source categories ....~re Inot incluc!ed a~e
twofold. First, th~ characteriz3tion of individual ~ou~ces in both
:categories could not be done to the level of detail req~ired by the H~ t:
produce meaningful results. Particularly for the ccoling to....er source
category, .iata on the number, size distribution, locati1n, and chrom1u= U5~
patter~s of coolir.g towers were not available. Secon~. by nsses91ng the
emi! s ions ar.c resultant atr.bient concentrations of eX&I:\p e or 'mode 1 case
cooling ~o....ers an~ coc~ust10n sources, ambient do~~w1nd concentrations of
chromium f:~.~:n socrces in these categor~es were est1.cated to ~:t! relatively
ij
m1nor cOD'.pared to. the concentrations resulting frem oth r chromillm source
categ~C'1es (1.e., chromium chemical plant.s, refrilctory ~lants, forrochro:it:r.-,
p 18.1 t s) .
tn Chapter 2. background inf01'1Xldtion and emission haucteristlcs c:
each identified chromium emission source ~ategory are p esonted. For eac:',
source category a description is given of the origin of the sources'
chromium emissions (e.g., raw material or fuel) and factlors affecting
chromium emissions. For source categories vh~r. it has Ibeen dete~+nec. th~
valence state and so~ubi11ty of the sources' chromiu~ -11s8ions is liven.
The methodologies, assumptions, and sources used to estimate chromium
I
emissions from each of the source categories (for tbe p~rpose of the
exposure analysis) are also explained in Chapter 2. "
1-2
,- > .--- ~~.~ -'r"-'~' ..-,-----'-- ."n- '_.'---.'---'
. ..' ,
_.~ ~..'-,~. ---...,-' :. ~."""." ',"-'..""',.,',,:.,'.--.....": '--..',,- '.~' .~ --.---'-'.." "-'..---'-"".'~.,;.'.'".._" '...,'.'......'="r',"~_"'_, '.'.

-------
In the remaining sections of Chapter 1. brief baCkgrbund descriptions
are prese"ted on the physical and chemical properties of bhromium. the
sources of. chromium and chromium-containing material prodLction. and the end
product '18e5 for chromium al'd chromium mater~als.
loL
PHYSICAL A~~ CHE~ICAL PROPERTIES OF CHROMIUM
I
Pure chromium i5 a steel-gray. lustrous. hard crystalline metal. It
occupies the 24th position in the Perio~1c Table and belohss to tran.ttion
group VIB along with molybdenum and tungsten. It compr1s 9 about 0.037
percent of the earth's crust and therefore ranks 21 st in elative natural 
abundance. It is =n0re abundant than cchalt, copper, lead  nick!! 1. cadmium.
molybdenum.  z ir.c. 1 ,2,3 Ele,Mnta1    chro:niu~ Itet 1 is not found ~n
or   or pure
nature.
Insteae,
it cc~urs primarily in nature a~ chro~i e ore or chrome
he Cr/Fe ratio ~r.
iron ore which is a ~embe:- of the spinel mineral group.
chro~ite varies considerably: therefore, the ~ineraL is b st repres.nted ~y
the general fo~u13 (Fe, ~g)O (Cr, Fe, AI)203. T~~ lceallChromite' ore has
the composition FeO CrZ03 which contains about 46 percent chromium. The
majority of th~ world'~ cnrom1te supply comes from South frica. Finland,
the Philippines, and the U.S.S.R. Although chrom1te depotits are found in
the United Stdtes, concentrations ar~ so low that chrooir. mining i. not
economically fea3ib~e. ;!nd as such ~s r.ot performed i:\"t:hls country.3
The mAjor physical properties of elemental chroolu: ire presented in
i '
i
i
Table 1- t.
Chromium exhibits several oxidation states ranging ftom -2 to +6 ~hlch
dictate ltg'che~!ca1 reactivity, and therefore, its e~vir~nment31 and
biological significance. The range of oxidation scates CI~romium chemic41s
can take is well illustrated by the list of cypical chromium chomical. and
their physical properties given in Table 1-2.4 The most 1ommon oxidation
states of chromium are +3 and +6. or trivalent and hexavalant chromium.,,4
Trivalent chro-nium is chemically basic and the molt stablJ 'form of the
I . .
element because of its strong tendency to form kineticall~ inert hex.co-
ordina~e complexes with water. ammonia. organic acids. suifate. halide., and
4 I
urea. This characteristic has great relevancQ to the behavior of trivalent
I
1-3
" " -'. , . :.. '~"~',"",.,'.~. I~-""~"'L". '~"'''J1'''-'~-'.',,-,'''''''''~. ,',,','_.,'-" '1_', .~' "",-'"..'._~'_:.~' .'".....,-',-.--.. " .~~,-.,,_._,.I..;_~' ~..",..~'.~"'c".~"~;""~' ~''-, "",.,....:.~,.-:-,-.".;-",.,...~.._:.:~'.1,~,':~~;/'~-~,i\:,,-,':',i,~:- " ";~' '-',' ".v"','~<~'-.','.:~. ..~:'.:",!,..r.,"~-,.',',','#oo',-,'~.-,'.~~-"".:_._.-,',',","',- -.~

-------
"
i',
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF,~KROMI
1
TABLE 1-1.
. ,I,
;,' '. .
~ ~ . . .
Property
:.i.
'1r;
(\
atolZl.ic ",eight
lIotopes, %
'0
52
53
54
cry.tal structure
density at 20C, a/em3
melting point, c
boiling point, .C
vapor pressure, 130 Pa;,oC
heat of fusion, kJ/~ol ~
latent heat of vapor~zation at bp~
specific heat at 25.C, kJ/(mol-K)
linear coefficient of thermal expansion at 20C
thermal conductivity a: 20.C, W/(m-K)
electrical resistivity at 20.C, uG-m
specific magnetic susceptibility at 20C
tntal emissivity at 100C nonoxidi%ing atm
reUectiv1,tv, R
A, nm
% ,
refractive index
a
A
standard electrode potential, valence 0 to 3+, V
ionization potential, V
lat,:
2nd
half-life oiS1Cr isotope, ~ays
t~ermal neutron scat~er1ng cross gect1on, m2
elastic modulus! ~Pa
compressibility' at 10-60 TPa
.
"
~ ;.'
('
\,-J,
)~
l'
.~\,
" ,
, ~J),,',i'7
... "JilL!

, b
kJ/t:lol
~o convert Pa to mm Hg, multiply by 0.007S.
bTo convert J to cal, ~1v1de by 4.184.
cTo r~nvert CPa to psi, mulLtply by 145,000.
dg9% Cr; to convert TPa to megabars, multiply
1-4
I
I
Value
51.996
D
4.31
83.76
9.55
2.38
body cente~ed cube
7.19
1875
2680
1610'
13.4-14.6
320.6
23.9 (0.46 kJ/kg-K)
6.2 x 1 -~,
91
0.129
3.6 i 1 -1:1
0.08
300
,ff 67

, : 1.64-3. 8
2,570-6.080
O.i1.-

6.74 (\,
16.6 ,
2i.8 I

~S~ ~ lr29
70 x 101.1
1000
63
4000
88
by-,!lO.
< '
';4:
~
" '" '",' ,', ' :, ..:.,'f,'_'_, "~." ,.-~....'. ,',',',,1q;, .,~, ""',~',',j',' "';-..,','.:.,..:,',, .~',,' ~.. " --~ "" ,,/,~~;,:,. ., '.~', " ,', " ,'",' ',,',,' '",'-,~",....",'_.,. . ,,/,...,' " ./,y" ,', ...,\"',,.'....'..' ,"'~-,~' , ',' ~~ ~~.'~~:,~,.~':',',","..-"~,'J*',','",'.'.-~:....t.>",' -' -_: t"

-------
I~_' ~.-~~, ~'''''-illi'''--~'''''-':;008-'''''II;-''----.-
----
TABLI': 1-.'.
ClIIW~ IlIH . (:lJ"~I'Oll~I~; O~'-~!>US ox 1111\'1' ION STATES AND TII~ I It
H,\.lOk rm s I (.:\1. 11,,1P~
~<"
H.:ltl"K ('oint
( 'I;j
------.-.--
for..ul"
"1'f'4'ilr.nce
~------_._---------~.-.- - --.- ----
- ----.-
Cr (cn) II
Colorl",,"
,'I ,,,r "I..
Co.vounJ
1I.IJ,1t 1011 "I",,, 0
.:.. rue j uea .:d rl,ol\ 't 1
1'1 IK:nLrllu-
cI.rual...(O)
(C6U6) {.r
8c"\l1\
co ,~r"l"
0. Io.I..t I~~ etat. . 'r'-;;:::> ,..

Dla(blphcu,I)- (C6"~C6H~)2C!1
chr...l- (I)
1001140
-
I
VI
O.ldaaloa etate + I
I:h'.--..II eClStato
I:h..-.... cllior Ide
Chro-e _I-
"..U "to:
".Id..tl- .catc . )
Chruale chlor'de
O,r_lc acet,l-
,"caru..,,'e
O,r_lc poteeel...
"..I18to (cbr08Cl
_,d.!!81
a.r.-Ie chlor Ide
.."...hydrete
Chra..le chlurld..
h......,dr8'c,
1:Io...lc ...Ide
U.ld.clua 8C8a. . 4
Cbr...I~(IV) o.lde
"1'''''&''
platee
(c. Z(C2")O 1) 4 .2"/1
810.1 cry""""
CICIZ
crSU4
Whit"
cr,,,'''S..
(1UI4)ZS4.I,,-t.1I20 Blue aYbl..ld
Oendlty
(s/ce)
-----------
. -- --.--
1.1118
.1,(1 (11"'.(II"t,I0:1'::')
(h."tilc.. :'uh~)
I. ~ I')
1114-111'.
.~,~-~.....~~_.
I.bl1lh
1111
I . 1'J
2.9)
III~
C,CI)
{~ S=~'Jn,=~~
L.,~- 81'1&bt'purrle . 2.812~
pl"'e,,
5uLllo..,e
Cr(CU}COCUCOCU))) .~d-wlolrl
, o;"dl..l.
"Cr (Sit.) Z .1211'l0 ~'.L~I I' ...,,110
cr,"t..le
(,:.(1120)4CI211:1-2I1Z0 8. 1&".L:.....r~ee"
cryere"
ICd"ZO)6ICI)
"Iul..,
cly",,,I,,
(;r20)
&;c cca ..."w.J~ (
or cr,..a.le
CrG,
"...iI-br...... ...
bla.." 1"-.1...
s: ~...-' ':..L~...
,-
. ..' ... ~
r' .r ._-~-. ..r-....~p",_/,-
I. )4 lUll
1.126as 89
(IDcUl'Krue,,' ,
1.8)~2S 9)
 !lO
~.Un lion
4.91
(relr.aece.)
. ~ - .-,~ , -..
lIolllog I'olll~
('C)
-- _._-- -_.-
I ., I (,I t:~ 1l1A,'Ufll!!")
S..t.' iGl~H I ')U
( VcH:UUtM)
lJt:":UWi'USt::f,
I Ill!
1111)
'~.;..... '~'~'''''>",
';, " .
~, '.....;~ -'- . -.
34) .
---~--
CII. 100U
".'-.'.,'.Jad.
... I: 11" )
S..lul.tllty
Sllghtl, eolubl. lu
In...luble '0 MzO.
~CZ"~)20, e2")""'
C"R,
Insoluble In 11]0;
.uluble IC~.,C.H6
eCI,;
Solubl. I..
C21t~0II. CSH)"
SII&"cl, 80Iuble ...
H2". 80 luble 10 ec Id.
Sol "hi. 10 "20 to hlue
80lutlaa. e"8Orb. 02
Solable .. 120.
e..-rtra 02
,"
'-~"
I 08OIu..l. I:t I1Z0., '"" , .- --
"5..' ....8 III .r.~.. . '~,. '."
e.-~" ,-r-.' ,"\
-'In.o . .'..8201" " .' ~
110''''. I. C,8, . . .-
Sulu'l. I. Hl~ '
50Iu"l. I. 1110'
Ire... ...1.. IOQ t",Ol"&
&.e,,-,,'olet
5ulubl. I. h2o, ..Ioler
.olutloa 1'0.01...
&r--Iolcc
III_I.~I.
Iol.~'e I. 8i8 10
(', .... Cr

-------
!!'",.o,:'-", \--,-"II~~I!ll1J" ~~ ..~!!! I." 'liIiili ~illil klll..1
.I.MI~IIII ,
.; ".
...
.. . - .. ,'.'t.............-- ~.;... --- '.~ - ~. .,...-_.,,",,,~~)
..
:,.'1.<"...:-. ~._'. ~_.~fl"",.....'";;:~~)
...'

~.,<;:..~:1:
TABLE 1-2 (CONTI NUEO) .
CIIROHruH COHPOUNOS 0... VARIOUS OXWATION STATES
AN/) TUEIR HA.J()f( PIIYSTCAL PROPERTII-:S4 .
CU8pUOIali
Clu-t-(tV
d.I...ld..
lIald.,I.... .tato. ~
larlU8 chr_at.(V)
O.ld.,lun ot.to . 6
a.r...h.(Y I)
oald..
ca....., 1 cldolld.
-
I
~
~AI-
dlebr_te
rot...I..
dlel".....t e
Sodl- dlehu.at.
Por...I... ebr08.t.
50011- ebroaua
,o....1.
CrCI4
'8)(Cr04)Z
crO)
CI UICI Z
(1CII4)IC"ZO,
!tlCr Z) 1
"ZCrlO,o!ltZO
Izcr04
"8,Cr04
Put ... Co.. d.1 ur u-
t",rf~.e
------sti",1IC '~I.r_ote' - . Ailcr04
!Sari... ...-I.'OC.Cd
St rua' IU8 d.r....re
'~."d chi ....", eo
Il:tO)1:1
lIaCrn4
S.C'04
PbC.04
Appeal..nce
al.ck-Ir",o"
cr,.ta'e
I..b,-red
cr,st.le
a.orry-re.1
liquid
lod-or."8.
cr,o,.I.
Or."...-."d
r..,.'al..~
Ora"lIc-.od
:-~crJ.'a"
-y.tl-
cry.' .1.
'.11....
cr,.'."
O"."le
cr,ot.lo
Me...o"
cr,o'ole
P.le ,oil,...
.011.1
. '.11.... ...1101
'.1:.... 001104
Ur...a- .nll.'
P"n.1t ,
. (il/cal.
2"H
1.9I1o~1~
2. nsZS
1.616n
I. 148ZS
1.13118
2.1211)
Z.4'11)'
)."2~H
4.4"'1<;
).89'\1\
t.I1I'>
Hcltlng PoInt
(0e:)
19'
-96.)
lIee_po.e.
180
)98
81,.6
(Incoa.ruc"t)
911
192
II.COO8"O..,.
lIo(".....o.c.
IIec-....oo.
11'4
lIolllnl Point
(OC)
t10
~
PeCU8pt.tee.
11'1.8
Decoapo.e.'
Dec_po.".
~t.Ult'
,.r-{'!....,
~'r'-", ,/
5 It &he I, "coepo...
I. 120; .ol.b.. I.
.11,r. ecl.C.t.
Cr ... C..
-.,, eol.bl. I. .ZO.
.ol.bl. I. a:b
COIW. (OJ)CJj)'I.0
1......1. I. . O.
,,.roIJt..; ~I.'..
I. CSJo cel,
101.... 18 IZO ,
. ~. ~~~ ~~
101"'. t. ~.
9.r, 801.". 18 110
Sol.'.. t. .20
S.I.'.. t. 120
101.811. I. IZO.
.,,"'o"r..
V.r, ..I~el, 801.bl.
In 1,0. ..I~'I. I.
aI I..r. ec 101.
V.r, .II,'tl, 801.bl.
,. .10. 801..1. la
. trOllI ec lel.
SI''''II, 801..1. In
.,0; _1..1. a.
.. lilt. 8C: ''''
....
'r.rtlc811, loeolabl.
In Iln; .olabl. In
.,,-. .cl"o
-----_. .._.__._----- - ..-
..~"....",.

-------
chromium in bioloSicl1l systems. Hex.1valent chromium 18 acidic
ar~ is the most commerci311" biologically. and environmentally important
state of chromium. Hexavalent fo~. of chromium are almf~e always linked to
oxygen and are, therefore, strong oxidizing agene.. Cba'taccerilC1call1
2-. 2-
aCidi~ hexavalent chromium forms chromate (CrO,)' and d chromate (Cr207)
ions. "
At normal temperatures chromium metal resists corro tVI attack by a
, I
wide variety of chemicals. It will. however, dissolve in several common
acids including hyc~ofluoric~ hydrochloric. hYdrObrOmic,1 and sulfuric vit~
th~ evolution of hydrogen. Chromium is not attacked by phosphortc acid or
I
organic acids such as formic. citric, and tartaric; howeyer, it is slovly
attacked by acetic acid. The corrosion r~sistance propekties o! chromium
can be incre.lsec by depositing a thin oxide film on the ~etal surface, and
theeeby inteoducing a condition to the cheomiu= knovo aslpa..iVity,
Chromium can be ~ade passive and rendered re1~tive11 non eactive by the
action of nitric acid (i~ which it is insoluble), chrom1 acid, or other
oxidi~ing agents. It can alse be passivated

oxidation of the ~etal in air, although this
3
as oxidation by nit~ic or chromic acid.
~y superf1c a1 exposure and
techniq~e i not as effective
1.2
OVERViEW OF ?ROD~CT!ON
All chromium ~etal and chromium compounds that are
roduced in the
oro as illustrated
United States are derived from various grades of chromit
in Figure 1-1. Th:ee basic grades of chromit. ~re are u ed to produce chor-

mium compouncs (i"c:uci.,g chromium metal) and these are ummarized.88
1
follows.
1\
(;';'
high chromium chromite ore, contains ~~percen or more of chromic'
oxide (Cr20)) i~
high iron chromite ore, contains 40-46 percent of Cr~03
high aluminum or low chromium chromite ore, co~tain9 more than
20 ~ercent a:uminum oxide (Al20)) and more
AIZO) . Cr2f))
I
than 60 percent

I
, 'I
)~, 1-7
'~'. c' ,'.'~......-,~'~.~',---'~'.":.,,:'..I~..,,.,._,,~"-,-",,<"',,,,"'-"~"-'" '.,...~','.;. -, .~: )..~,- c'.,...,'.'.". '.-.v-:--,'",,'..., ,,~.. ...;_.~",~.'v~:,-,..".,,'...-' ,",,',,:_,"';,-' ,:,'.',~'...'. ....,-,',"".'.' ~,.,',' -~',.:t.,'.'''-4cc''''''..'':'.'':~.''''''''~'.~"''';'';'.''''''':'","'~~""",-.,~;~,,,,"",.,:,~,.'~"''-'~:~.' .'. ,
"
~.'"'' .,(J'
'P~,<).."... '-
~,,: .. ..: ".. ~""~ ..

-------
. '
Chr-OIlU U
(r., Mi)O (Cr-, r., Al) 0
'~
{I,
.,~.
r-olliac.
i
"~I

,j
FerTochr=lura
~ ,
Tr.at with
(~':'>2S0" +
I
': ar:.ou~
tuch and
H2S0" ~~,'~
i'~
~ '
<
i
...,
H,SC:,
I I
rC1:lat 8
a~so.
.. ..
at 200C
" l' ,
. ." ~ {
FUIe II1c!1 ~;
.ul!'.Il" ID',',', :;, ~
luc:b . t
,

C1l"OQ1C:'~:'~.
Ot~er
C:-'roQl~
!':'oceIJ..
,
t
Ammoalum CU':lte
,uum

~'H . Cr (so. ) " ::R -.)
~ ~ -
~raclc: ;.c:.d
Cro)
Cr:o)
C=.t)\;!\dl
Elec:crolYl1s
thC::TolY811
,
Cll"OIll1uCl
~.td
Uee:tr-olytie:
Chrccll.1.C1
PUl"1!1~c1oa Proc.....
H
Vacuum '''1 th
c:ar~oa
.
..
~
0uc:t1~8 Chrolll1~
Figure 1-1.
Simplified flowchart for the product1of of chr~m1um
compou~d.'. and 118~~~11C,. ~hro~~um from cinromite.l

1-8

-------
-1~
/ I ~:
Chromite ores are generally described according to the tYt. of production
use the c~romite ore eventually has. Hetallurg1cal chrom te refers to tbe
high chromium conten~ chromite ore, chemical chromite to he high iron
content chromite ore, and refractory chromite to high a1 inum/lo~ chromium
content chromite ore.
Currently, chromite ore is not commercially mined ~ the ,~nited StateR"
It has no"t been mined domestically since 1961" wen the" f.' era{ government' f>
Defense Production Act ~as phased out. The pha'ing out ot this program
"\
eliminated government sponsorship and subsidization 0# ch omite mining
. " 5
activities, thereby making them economically in~.asible. The United States
has chromite deposits located in Xaryland,'Montana. Nnrth Carolina,
Californ~a, Wyoming, Washington, Oregon, Texas. and ~ennS11vanirl; h9vever.
the lov chromium content of these ~epos1ts makes m~n1ns eicessivelv expM~-
sive in the present market. All cf ~he United'States' chromite in 1981 .as
I
imported f rom Albania (1.5 percen r.). Finland (8.5 percent), Madagascar
(2 percent), the Phillipp1nes (16. ~ percent), South Afric1 (54 percent),
" 6 I
Turkey (5.5 percent), and the U.S.S.R. (12.4 percent). 1n 1981 a total of
808 Gg (898,000 tons) of chromir.~ ~as imported by the Untied States. This
total represents the Lo~est chro~ice importation level Sitce 1946.6
The types of ch:omite availab1~ and the types of chr miuo compounds
they are used to produce are discussed in the folloving s ctions. .
1. 2. 1
Metallureical Chromite and Chromium
Metallurgical grade chromite refers to chrom1te that i9 usod to produce
several grades or ty?es of ferrochromium, chromium metal, and chromium
additives. Very little chromite is processed all ~t. way to chromium =etal
or ductile chromium because the majority can be us., effertively and at a
lower cost as the intermediate ferrochromium fO~9. AlthJugh there are
several composition specific subgroups. the primary formslof ferrochromium
~re classified as high-carbon ferrochromium, lov-ca~bon f rrochromium, anJ
ferrochromium-silicon. High-catbon ferrochromium'seneral y contains 5 to
6.S percent carbon and 65 to 70 percent chromium. tov-ca bon ferrochrom1um
contains 67 to is percent chromium but ~nly 0.025 to 0.05 percent carbon.
..,
Ferrochromium-silicon has a chromium content ranginl:from ;5 to 41 p.r~ent
)'\
1-9

-------
and a maximum carbon content of 0.05 percent. Table 1-3 summarizes the
compositions of the more prominent types of ferrochromiu and chromium
~..tal. 1
Hi~h-carbon ferrochromium i5 produced in a submer~e electric arc
furnace by reducing chromite with coke. Low-carbon ferr~chrcmium i3
i
produced by reducing chromite with silicon in an electrit arc furnace. 1~~
intermediate product of this reaction is ferrochromium-stlicon. To cbta1~
low-carbon ferrochrom{um. this i~tencediate product is ftrther treated in a~
open. arc-type fur~ace with additional chromite or a chr mic oxide-
containing slag. With all the ferrochromium production rocesses. molten

product ferrochromiuc i5 tapped from the furn~ce. harden d by rapid cool~~~.

broken into chunks. and graded into compositional subgroups.1,7

The principal produ~tion techniques for '~romiuQ me~al are a
. I
pyro-metallurgical reduction process usi~g alu~inum (alumir.othe~ic prO~~F~

or a chrome-alue electrolysis process (electrolvtic proc~ss). In the
. . . I
aluminothermic process chromic oxide is mixed with po~deted alu~i~u~. p:a:~c
I
in a refractory vessel, and ignited. The reaction is exothermic anrl sel!-
. I
sustaining with chromium metal and aluminum oxide being len~rated. Chroc~.c~

metal produced by this method i5 97 to 99 percent pure. Additional therea:

methods of chromium cetal production involve the reducti!n of chromic ox1ce

:~::m:~l::::.i:i:: :~::::i:n.:Cr:;:::::r;n:.:::l~~~8Pr.'lur. reduction 0'

In the most prevalent electrolytic ~ethod of chromi~m met31 productio~.
high-carbon ferrochromium, in solution with other compoutd9, is u~ed to
generate a chromium ammonium sulphate solution or a~cni~m chrome-alu:
electrolyte. This chrome-alum electrolyte solution unde goes electrolysis
to produce chromium metal. The deposition cycle for thi process lasts 72
hours with chromium metal eventually being deposited on tainless steel
cathodes. The final product chromium metal fro~ this OPjration i5 about
99.3 percent pure. Th~ second type of electrolytic ChrOjium metal.
production involves the electrolysis.o! a chromic acid/i nic catalyst
solution with the r~sultant deposition of chromium metal The deposition

I
1-10

-------
-~----fQ..-.Joo:-..",---,,,,.~""-.~.4. 4 .
TAIiI.E
----...~
~~-..........-
1- ].
1
Cllt-II'IISITION tiF rYI'ICr\1. FEI11-11\ ~-I. 4-6  
\0-\1> )- /, /,-"  
1....- /11 It. (,-1>.\  
bJ-/~ I" 11.11:\1> 
",. 1,\ I" 0.0\"  
,,I - 11 1.U" 0.1). o( 0.01)
1 \- 11 \'1- 4 I 11.11""  
1'1-101 41-4\ 0.11')"  
''1 ~ b o.cn"  
., . /"-~ _..~Ol.-  
 -----..... ~ -" , 11 ~.r ..;v   
~'I. )c - - It -OJ OS "  
O.n  
.-- - - -- - _. - --- ------ - - ---
(I.d/.
11,111
11.111
11.11 )
II."~
0.04
11.01\
11.112\
0.01
0.01 S .
a- 01 ,.r.:_.,,,. ttb.- .nd 1110 ..,,'.cul I. clll."'y Ir"l1 e'hICa"Co
/~
,...;;'
,- >
* ,
~-3>
-----..
--.---------
-'
l.thl~'I'''urU6 b
l)tl,c( .
11.0)
4-& .."C...4f.C
0.11 )
11.0)
0.11)
11.11)
11.111
O. '\ oa'ien b
b
0.0') oarrofi8a
0.1 ...,.... "
0.) .1_'-
'-~

-------
!

.
!
cycle for this proce!s lasts 80 to 90 hour. and produce a flnn1 chrorn1~~
metal that is of slightly higher purity than that obtai ed (rom ch:-o~~-A~I:~
6
electrolysh.
The only other source of chromium metal production comes frry~ recycli~~
chromium scrap metal. The ma:n source of scrap chromlu 18 scrap 8talnle9~
.teels an~ ch~omlum alloys. It Is estimated that on' bout 15 percent of
tHe aV~1lable scrap chromium is being recovered an.d. . .e~Cled as nev chrnmi~=
metal. The flov of chromium scrap through indust. shown in
9 .
Figure 1-2. Ge~erally recycling is performed by: if rms producing th~
stainless steels and alloys and by specialty firms' . a~ed in gecondary
metals recovery. Althou~h there is a considerable a . b~t of chrcmiu~
contained in varioes industria: vaste products such. ~aghouse d~sts,
slags, pickling liq~ors, plating and etching \Jastes!~'~sed refractories. ~;-.:
processing sludges. collection a~d processing costs h1ncer ~cv~c=ica:
9
racovery on a large scal~.
..
The current structure of the t.:nited States{ferrochromium an.! chrct:'.i\.:-=.
, ~i}{-!)
metal industry contains 11 plp~ts operated by eisht diff.erent companies. In
1981 ~hese plants produced a combined total of approx~tdly 148 ~i
(165,000 ~ons) of high- and lov-carben ferrochro~ium andl ~6 Gg (6~,OOO tens)
, 6
of ferrochromiu~-s11icon, chromium metal. and chro~ium a~~1t1v~~. Dara A~e
I
not available 1~ the I1terat~re to separate the product!cn Lotals o!
individual ferrochromium grades. . Uovever, in the first ~uarter of 1991, :~r
:~ I
Ferroalloy Assnc1atinn reported that only one plant fin the country V~~
actively produclr.g ferroc,hromium. All other plant' ha~ 'suspender:! pr.:..:uct:.-;'
of ferrochromium due to lov demand vhlch vas brought on ~ a derrc95e~ s:c~:
industry and the ability of the steel industry to obtain their ferrochrc~i~~
requirements cheaper from foreign sources.
the Ferroall y Association
estim4ted that in the latter pArt of 1982 and in eaTly 1 e3, 9S percent c!
h f h 1 d i h U i d S i ted.IO Th
t e erroc rom um consume n ten te tates vus ~po e
increase in ferrochromlum importation and the resulting ecline in do~estic
ferrochromium production 18 attributable to a worldvi~e tr.nd in chromite-
producing cou~tries to vertically integrate their chromi m industry. ~ov.
instead of exportin1 all of their chromit.. chromit. pro'ucert ar4 only
1\
1-12
.~
. '. ,
. . -. ',,' . '. ",. '. . - ~
.', ,:~., -', ..- . ...... . :~.--''::'._' .-. ':.... ~.. ,'",-'~'

-------
-1
..
~..._~---. ..
.,-~..
'"
,--------------------------
,
,
,
I
:::~-----------i
I i
t
I
I
I


,
,
,
,
,
I
I
,
,
I
,
I
I
I
I
I
,
,
,
,
,
,
,

I
i
,
,
,
i
r

,
,
,
,
,
,
I
,
I
I
,
I
t
,
,
,
I
,
,
,

I
I
i
,
,
I
,
I
,
--------~
;------.
I ,
I
,
Ptocluceu ot
C::UC1n11
(fcIaDdrUI)
P-:-oduclr. .,(
Xill i'-:-oduc:s
(Steel XillJ)
And
{1
~
t~.
I
I
I
~ur.around ~C~~: !
(Roce Sc:,:a::)
:tunarour.4 Scra~
(Ho=. Set' p)
lit
C.:::su::ers ,,= :~:'l: Pr:duc:s and C&.tir.I7'
(~nu!ac:url:'1 of End Produ~cs)
,
~ev"P:-OOi)t .nduI-1
- :~~ ~) 'Sc:' ~
I
Z::d ?':":<:;;::1
,
,
,
,
I
,
,
I
I
I
I
,
,
,
, ,

..---..... .'
OlJ S-.:~a-;
I
,
,
I______----------------~-_._-----
, J
t.._------

/
Purc!la..d Scrao
k"
,'S-. \
( (
9
:~custrial recycllng/reu~e!low of chr clu~ scrap.
Fi~ure 1-2.
1-13". .
'..-.. ...-.:".---...

-------
..............._~.- ............1 .~...
~
"
G
~
I
axporting a portion, The major part of the chrom1te sup
proeesled by the producing country dir~ct11 .~nto fQrroch
chI 1nduatrial users such.. the United St,',.' or Japan. Lover l1&bor.
aDarlY, and tran.portation COAt. allow thl chromi:a-prod
.a11 their farrochromium at lovar pricar -han dom..c1c f
6 10
compan1e..' Change. or upturn. in the dome.t1c~'tael
.1gn1f1cantly alter the demand for ferrochromium could h
10
the dom~.t1c ferrochromium plants back on line.
1.2.2 Chemical Chromi te and Chromium CC'~pound9 .' , I
Chemical grade chromite refers to chtomite that 1. Jsed to produce
I
lodlum chromate (~a2Cr04 . 10 H20) and sodium dichro::a:~" (1~,'~Cr20-; , :H:C:.
thebas1c che:icals f~o~ ~hich all other chro~ium chemicals origi-
11 . 1: ,13 1 .. ,. d S h h ; I d.
nate. n t..e ~n1te tat!:!s t ere are tree c01DJ nies pro uc ~r'.~
sodium chromate and dichromate chemicals at three rlant locati0ns. Sod~~=
1':'
chromate is only produced as an en~ product c~emical at '0 of the sites,
Because of concerns of ~isclosing proprietary data. p~ infor=atior.
on .odium chromate is unavailab:c. Hovever.the natioftal sodium d1chroma~e
. ~
production capacity as of January 1983 was 205 Gg (228.000 tons) per jeDr."
Sodium chromate is produced by roasting finel!, grounr chroc:1 te ore ....: ::-.
soda ash or with soda ash an~ l~~e in a kiln. ~~en sodluc chromDt~ ~5 :~~
desired endproduct, reco\..ery 15 3ccclt;:-11shed by lC!achi:-:g ~:'\~ c;-::g:.\~:::;.:~-7'
.top.. Hovo.o.. 80.0.011, ..d.u. .h.o...o .. .ot ..CO'..~d. but ...to.' ,.
converted directly to sodium dichromate by t .~~t1ng i~ V1~th sulfuric
1 16 .
acid.' Followi:'\g sulfuric acid treatment. the final s. dium d1chro=~~~
I
product is obtaine~ after a leries of evaporation, crygtatli:ati~n. and
drying steps. A sodium sulfate by-product 1. also produc d during the
dichromate process and il generally sold to tht kraft pap r 1ndustry,
As many as 40 other chromium chemicals ar4 produced rom sodium d1chrc-
mate raw 'ute rials, A list of the chromium chemicals c erc1ally proJuce-:
in the United States 18 given in Table 1-4 C.xcludins .od um chromate al".~
dichromate). The more significant :Jecondary chromium che 1cals l.ncludc
potassium ~hro~te and dichromate. ammonium dichrolMte. c romic acid, basic
chromic sulfate, and chrome pigments (chro~a oxide g~.en. chroo8 YQllo~.
bdng
ar:d sold to
c1ftl countr1e. to
rrochromlum
1ndultry that
Ip bring severAl of
\-14

-------
-
.
-
\II
TA 1\1.1-:
1-4.
I.IST 'IF CmIHI':KCIi\I.I....
1'", IIIUCI':" ClikOM 10M CIiEr-1I ( :\ I.~; t\rJII
"" . .1.14.17
l'iI J: II{ (, HI 1',1-\:\ I. US ES
.-- ------ -
---- ---
---- -_.------
--------._----------- ---- "--.- -----'-------b- ---

.:1..-...1 UG1 l:I...... t C~ 101 Nu~r ...t r't.lu-.:tlutl S I t~.
---- ------ ---
. ---------- ---- --- --
,:h....lc "c:10I (U.....I- tel...loI.)
1:1,'081--. .,01:'\.' II
.:1.. ,..I... d'" \It., I.... oC u".. c
(.1......... ...""I'''IIJo
f.......I... ...r',','.
.:t.,..-.... I'.' I,......,.
1.8...-1... thlu,IJ~. "....te
';",...1- ch,...loI..
C:h.._I- .111M" 101.
Cb.~I- dl'l"u.ldc
C)"r.-I- dl...IJ..
c:a.r...l- 1-.''',le'''''''.'8 (':l.u....- uc ,...,..)
0.....1- , I...., '01.
t:.......... ",.1,..,8,1"
,........~ ",dl".' 4'.,'.1...
0.,,-1- ",01,..., .".:bl",.d.
Clar-I- ..I,",I.......to
...........- ..ltr.,..
CIoc-l- ..I..,..
0.._1- ....4. (o.r- ...... S'-)
",.-1- ,a.-plt.cc
0..-1- po...a'- _".,a (Cbr- .1_)
o.r_l- ~If.lo
0..-1- ....1&.1., ""'Ic
c.._I- 1.16C8'.'.
0.,"'1- 1111 I........
0..- ..........II.la
,.....1.. cb.~..
,.......'--41.1.,--1.
I....... 
1
I
'1
I
I
I
I
I
')
,
'1
1
1
I
I
I
.
1
---- -
- ----.-..--
--.'----.--
81.18' ........ Qu' I A( I..d.. ..,.U- .... -. 8 .... ...., 1- d.. "..-.0' Q .
bS"'..'.1 ollao p'~Uf'1 ~I'lple ''''081- .lodel..I..
- _. --. --------
- -. ~----------
------
4;.;..."".1& "tu:
. -- --- .
- - -. _._- ~ - - -
-.,- ----
1.1 ",eI '''1'1... I ilK
r,.u' IhK. .".1 cly~tnlC t.:.c I ,~.
Ca.." 1"1.... ....1 IIIIUh" ..:"..puuuJ.
II" C ..11 ,If !It. V
c..f ..1 tit' H
Uclal tICdl..~tlf
HI.,...I (r~.HD..:n{
.:.".1 ,ail tt
tt.Iguct Ie t ""4:
.",...1.....111.
l'ltta-..u....
(,....1 ,..c..
,......I,e..
Te.' lie I""..cr..". I....
1:.....1,,,1,,, c.,ulua'un C:.""I,,,I
'1A8M'III8
'1_"lIla. c..r.I,...
'1..,."...pIt..: .....1.1.....
l:aI81)..::!. ..,.Inl' '8n"I,.'

T.~~.
.--. -~.~
~
,.1811"1, ~'ftlnl, '.1."8..
...11' I", -....
",,1.1 1..aC_..C
1-_1.." ..,.h'II, pi,........
'1,,_..le
(",r..aIOM cftnlrol
1"1"'.8.. "rul"c"'''C''
r,. ..1...It..I< 8
':01' ...lnN ~....( I u I
tl..C:It.." I...
~ "~.4'.~,I..
1......lu." ...1.1,.(8
(.., ....1- . ...."..I , ',-..I
...1'8.I..r,
,--~:'-.t.'1".-:;"':'-~> .

-------
1
,h.-ome orange, molybd;1t~ chrome orange, H!1d chrOVle green) To 1l1ubtrc1t~
the importance of sodium dichromate 1n the manufacture of the.e chemica13,
the folloYing examples are given. To produce potassI11111 a d atr.monium
dichromau" lodiu: dIchromate 18 reacted vith pota'o"1ulD c :'oride and
ammonium lulfate. respectively. Potaslium chromate Can b generated by
,\
additional reactions of the produced potaalium dichromdte \lith potassium
hydroxide. Chromic acid 18 produced by heat1ng lodium d1 hromate \lith
lulfuric acid, Several formulations of basic chromic suI nte (most of whic~
are proprietary) are prepared \11th sodium dichromate as tIe main Ingrerlie~t 0
Varying amou:-ots.of sulfuric acid. sodium s\\.lfate, orgao\lc acids. ~nd other
undisclosed additives are reacted \lith sodium dichromate 0 produce.
different basic chrcmic sulfates depending on their eventlal end use.1 :he
majority of the chrome pigments are produced in a 51m11ar manner. Sodi~~
dichromate is generally reacted with an oxide fo~ of the basi~ inorg~nic
constituent elecent (lead, zinc. colybdenum. etc.) of the chromate.
:he~e
are appr~ximately 30 cocpanies engaged in manufactur1n~ C!rCmi~m co~poundf
that have as their base ingredient sodium dichrooa:~. 15.1
1.2.3 Refractorv Chro~ita 0 I
Refractory chrocite refers te, the grade of chromite ;ha: is used 1~ t~p
production of reir~ctor: brick and 5hape~~ Principally. tQ!r~ctQr: chr0~~tc
18 used to manufdc~ure basic (as opposed~o acidic) non-clay refractorLes.
Pure chrom1t4 ore, mixtures of chrocice and magnesite. ~nJ mi~turcn of
chromite and alumina are used to canufac~re the rt!raccoJy brick. ThQ
proportion of chromite used is related t];the spec if ic teJperature and
corrosion resistance requir~ments lmpose~ by the refractOt~'S end use.18
The productlon of chromlte-contain1".g refractory con ists of four
general steps. rav IDAterla~ processing, materials forming flring, and fl~al
processi~g, In the ra\l material processi~g step chromiteJ magnesite.
dolom1te. and other raw materials are cru.hed, calc1ne~, ground. and st:ec.
. I
In the forming step. the prepared ray materia:, are homogen~ou91v m1xe~ a~~
. I.
formed into brick and shapes. In the flrtDa step. th~ fo~ed brick 3nG
shapes are either dried and fired in a kiln or they are fJsion meltod and
"
cut into molds. The find pr~C".1n81--1I can c"n.lot 0 simple product

-------
packaging or it can involve more detailed operations'auc . (a3 fin~l Irind~
19 "
and milling, tar impregnation, and temper1ne,~ EaCh of he more detailed
finishing operation. is performed to imp,!rt certain cbara ter~lt1cI to the
:~ ',",'.
refractory ~o improve its end usa perfo~nce. tven~cv compan101
operating a total of 35 plantl have be.4Iidentified to be producing
", 20 '~
refractory using chromite ore raw materill. , ' ,
1. 3 CHROMIUM USES i ( 'r . '
In 1981, 791 Gg (879~000 tons) of ~fomi~. ore were
United States and converted into chromiu~conta1ning prod
':',J.
onsumed 1n the
6
ctl. The
domestic ~onsum?tion of chromite raw materials can elsent ally be attributed
to three primary user groups or industries, metatlurgical chemical, and
refractory. Of the total chromite consumed in L~81, 57 p rcent or 451 Cg
(501,000 tons) ~as for metall~rgical uses, 27 percent or
(237,000 tons) '...a8 for ch~mica1 uses, and 16 percent or 1
, 6
(141,000 tons) was for refractory uses. Within these., pr Mary consumrtion
groups several seconcary chromium materials are. produced hat function
either u a final procuct (e.g., refractory) or' 8S an iat rmediate in the
manufacture of other consumer goods (e.g., stainless Figure 1-3
illustrates the qualitative distribution of chromium use n both. the pri~ary
and $econdary consu~i~g sectors.22 A broader and more qu ntitativQ
perr~c~.ive of chrooiuQ consumpcion in che United States, as def!ned by the
~tandard Industrial Classification (SIC) category in whic f1n41 USQ of the
9 "
chromium occurs, is presented .in Figura 1-4. 'Domestic ~
distribution patterros of chromium within the metallurgica
refractory use groups are summarized in the'following see
1.3.1 Metallurgical Uses
Chromium's use in the metallurgical industry 11 to ehauce such
properties as hardenabi11ty, creep and i~pact strengths, nd resistanco to
9
corrosion, oxidation, wear, and galling. tn the metallu gical use group in
1981, 70 percent of t~e chromium consumed (as ferrochromi~) was used in the
production ot stainless steels. Eighteen p~rcent of the ~hromiuc was used
to produce full-alloy steels, 3 percent was used for low-fllOY and
, 1-17,: .'
"
14 Cg
6 Gg
~
.;
~
~
.
"
!'
f,
'.
nlumption and
. chemicd, anel
<,
ions.
.'
..
-
"
.,
~
I


I
~
, ,
,~~,---""----,,,c'. ~.-:"-'--,'''', '_.~-~""O:"'--'_c-"-"~-'~"--' ..-"!'II'~':-'-" , 'v':'-' ./ ,,_.~:.........' _'_"~J"'-'.~<>-"""~"'-'+~:!'~~~:~-'_:""':_';~'~=--~::--',-::',:,.:=,:~-"~:':_'_..~,-:-...,.",-:-. ,_:,

-------
0'_.,
, I':"'.
-
~..
.
. ..
- . :"...' , ~
--... 0.-...
..~.~
. ,
"Igure 1-3.
.'
. .
............ .
. ,. ........ ...
- , '.4.:~:. .'.; " .
.~:~~,..:...~\:.:1.,~.'--,-,-,,: :', .' .
- ,~": :": '.::~.. ~""'-;'."
..,..........
...-., -
:::"" .-.,
. ~ '~l:;)
-
......
.::,'
.'
<-~.:.';:>.
-- "-.
T~ .._..~
I
:..1';;; ;,;,.-. :~.~: :'~ I
... ~&.--"
. """',\'.".- '. -.
.' .
... ..~'. ..
. ...
',: .
. :.'., .&~
..-:
;........ -
U88IP .. ..- " 4
_.a_.-
. '
-I
.
~'Ck'.
!(::;>
~I
c....... .
.'
~ --- :
~ 1-: -="~I
--i "~~.,. I
........ '... ,,"
,:)
:~:~
. )..>.,;;; \.
- >
. .
, '.7,
- .
,......-..... . ....
'.''''''
".t=:.-
--1--- I
-..-
c.c.e,..
" ,
....
:-t
-- -...
r
.., -..............
..I '-11- 1 ....
J
I
~I-"-~
----I -- J
.,(---'
.. r::...-
22
Prlaaryand tit"l;ondnry use dl!it"'outi~f\ I.'; c~-rualU18 in ~~ I.':-.ic.'.'d State...
. .
-.. ..
-, '. ~ .--
"

-------
--~....~ ~:Mt.4.
---
"~"r,,.
.;;. ,~3r~>'~:',.,


"
.,
...', -
~" '~,'
.. i
.T~.nsporta~1 ~ Equipment
SIC 3 i ' ' .
,10',000 Kg ( 20,000 toni}
,
'/,
;' ,"}
. I'r
, ,.,:'f
,', ,'f
:.i
~ ,

r~' ,'," .,' tt-''w" '", " ,t', " ?'. - , < ~ 'I":"'~"~\"A,.
iV,:J f1.)"\~"" ."1\. rY" "/,';\ ..,.'i :~',"\' -' ,. '~. "

W~:< <:;';' ,~, ""~
?J}
IC 35,36
,000 tons),
. .
" ,
,"
, 4 "
"
, '
-'
F~' ;~eated M tal
SI ,363
"40'OOOM
/~., ~{~.' '.
._".~,~~~ '
. '.J {,~
",,,....-
Products
"
,',
, ; ':iio ", :" ','

(4 '.000 tons)
, J) ~'c'
tals
;,
~
;.-;.:
J';
" .
~::i
,."
. ,'f
United Stateg
Chromium Demand
531,000 Mg
(590,000 tons)
{:~\
.,;.
'<,\
,000 tons)
, .. ~
. "
. ,
,( '\
tons)-
~~~I.. '~)"~1'
i .o..
"
,
,." )
" (
}-
r
".
~
,
.',
,Chem1c8i. ~ SIC 281 .
'.66;QQO~1f8 '(73,000 tons),",
.~', ;~,'.~, r~/ ~ ,., '
,I,. .:'
't' J' ,
,t "
, '
,-y\~.
,
, 1'}
lan.ous 'Product~
0;000 ~ons)
00\.' ,.:
",
. '
"j ...
"
,,to
.'
Figure 1-4.
, Final consumer use disiribution oJ
~~ited States in ;1~,..78.. '~', )I"":,,,~'

, 'i." ", ~ ',"

" 119 ,""" . :',
chromium' in the
~ ,j ,
(. . ".;
~ ,~. ,,,#'~ '.:,~~t~~~;.;~~~:.~;~~~~

-------
~--
~'"~'''''''';JJN;:J<;f.''(C\ d':'j"",'" ,'J. <:."11''1,:",, " '~"'.""",>I,": ',:..",
. ",,,/:, ~r"~'\')"S.'"r''''~::''''''''' \" "t ',' ..,. . ".
~~J~?~~~),~~~'~~~,!?~;/~~.~':~1~~::-~\ :'. :/".' ",',' ,";i( '~. . "'.,'.~ ",.' ",,)
'f'/-,\ \"1.'1/1.' "," :.h "~~". '" ' I"". " ,~

q~~~::!KrU~;i?~~;\"~. ::-':',>~ ' , , . ; J~', ", "

"'!_~'~''''''''''''\fl.'"." ",' " " ",t
:_~~. - '-~'~:/~':);'~V~-~-':~~<".~~' .,; : .:. ::: ...'~ :. '~..}. '. ., <'\~."'?f - - - ",
~t,..'':,rt(~l~~~~l~~jl/.~t;;.i;\~ ~nd 2 perce~~ vas prcce~~~i d c:arb
(;:../:::::i;':;,:"-::~~1n~1 :7:;'p~rcent vas usee! 1~ '. variety otfoth81" mecal

...~-;?:.-.{w~''"'''.,~' 't ~ .;'".. ..:'..~~ t,' ~. . 'I.- - 't/' ." ..

~~,: ,', .:,'., ~~~,~~~~t\I':ca.t irons and nonferrous alloy.. ' th~~unctio
g;~. !.~~.:t,lIrodu~t8 is to enhance their mochanic~!j ~opertie.
~~~. .pectal properties of electrical or abrasive .iltance.
~f: .".' , ': ,.t,~~'l..allOY" and cast ironl produced by 't~ ..fall\!ors
~h'i. :~. :_..4 'Ilrimarl1y in the' manufacture of transpo" tio'n. _1.

(,;~";- .;' .A",;: .,'.~' ", ,-'
~~'.:,. .. ~'~C)nlt'L"uct10n equipment, heavy machinery, an4: bricaud
~"-r .' .~!f(~,:.i.~:'".' .
~:. , . CbroiUum is used to prod"". a vide varie,ty 0 .
~.::" ;, ' , .
,.,.",
~,~ including automobiles. motorcycles. bicycles.
;}~".. ..
i:~;: snoVU\obiles. Both commercial and military.
l~ '
it\~: vith chromium. Chromium is a150 used in "0 me
~~('~.' to haul milk, acids. and chemicals., and in ~Ulk hopper t ailers to ha~l
~::" ,fertilizers and hygroscopic materials. In the construct on industry
P~E:' chromium,~etallurgical products an used fO.~, 011 and gas
}~J. ~ "
~~~;c . production, petroleum refinery fabrication, 'pcv~r plant
,.:~~ 9 '
~;i" . .~~~:~b8rs. and bridge construction. .::,f;
~~~ In the machinery industry chromium metals are used 0 manufacture foed
~~:'
~ processing equipment. high speed machine tools. cutting, nd forming
~: equ1pmen t. and ?"ch1ne tool ecee .,or1e,. 1ncl~d 1n8 d 1.. nd m.., u r 1n g
~~~ devices. Chrom~um use in the fabricated metal products nd,.stry covers such
..~~~~
'~)'.J . products as cutlery. hand tools. general har~~are.hospi a1 equ1 p;nent. an~
ff. home appliances. 9 Sased on 1978 figures. the'i'combinatio of t rar.sporta t 100.
t ~.;lti
~~:,,' construction. machinery. and fabricated meta~,. products c nSume- uses o!
~~f:.' chromium constituted about 60 percent of th.:,ftotal chrom um used in the
~~;' l'
Ji.'{::.;:., United States (s~e Figure 1-4). '
't'~f'~:~> "" ,1!3.2, Chem1,cal Uses
!f,j~\' 'J ' In the chemical use group, chromiull1 chemicals, pr1.~ rlly sod 1um
. ~;:'::"...' :',chto~te and sodium d1~~romate. are used t,~"manufac:tun vide slate of

~~\5.'r:~~e;0~:::::r::::::ted Chrom1~Chem1Cele.'~d prOd;CU thet have uses 1"

~r~><' "paints and pigments ,(
~5-;:'" . leather tanning liquors
~i(, metal plat in; and finishing
-f~'ri: .
i~~:.... ,

I:..':J~;... . '. :


ri"~iZ"j~i~;~}',', :;;;:';".:' " ...: .'.~ <. .
1",
j....L6 Th.

urgical products
of chromium in
or to impart
Thp chromium
cal::'ndustry, are
tricAl, and
eta1 products.
ion vehicles
es are produce~
ess steel tankers
exploration an-:
ulfur dioxide ~e:
1-20
,
solutions
,-1

\I~;j. -


;.*


";; .
~)':.
, '

-------
,
; \
<.
f'
~ ~
corrosion inhibitors
catalysts
) ,
\ ~
,I ,
drilling r.mds
wood preservatives
textile mord~nts and dyes

A percentage breakdown of the amount of chromium (as so
t
in each of the areas given above is shown in F1gu~e 1-5.
J
,\
V
Tsec
Approximately 70
uses is accoUnted
(r .
for in the preparation of pigment. metal plating,'and tanning )1\
15 5-
~ompounds. Chromium pigments are used primarily tn pai ts. inks.'andii\
roofing granules. ~etal plating sohtions. primarily d. mic acid, are!~sec
,'"
in producing deco:".:!t:,':e al.1tor.:obile trim and appliance e'xt rioLs. Chromibr.
'!.eathertanning liquers are the most '..;idely used tanning JrCducts, exce~~t
for th~~anning 0~ hea~y catt~e ~ides in which vegetable Janning oils are
predominant. 1 A. l:.sc of the ':i
. .
'./
'i/
'>~
f,

-------
,~ro c Ac1 /Metal Plating-25 .
i~- ,}
37.9 Mg ( 2,137 tor.s)
\ 1
"
P1~ment. Paints - 2~ %
32,S06 HI C 6,118 tons)
, ,
't..therJta . ng Liquors - 17 :

23,O~.5 Xg ': 05,583 tons) f:";
.1 q ! ~ ''I
,1\

,;r'
Chroc1um Consumed as
Sodium Dichromate ~~
1982 - 135,441 ~g
( 150,490 tons)
Dril11~g ~u 11 Tex:i~es
10.835 ~g (~j039 to~s)
- a ::
,
li\
'" )
,
"
) ,
Corrosion Ibhi~1t~rs -
9,481 Mg (lb,.534 tons)
.. ..
I '"
J. .,
, :
:\ .
,\ I
l f
\r.J
E:xpor:s - 8[=
10,83.5 ~ ( 2,039
I
I
cons)
1.:
Wood Prese at1ves,Ca:d~Y5~S.
Other - 8 %
10 83.5 Mq ( 2.039 tons)
Figure 1-5.
End use tree for sodium
~>, J, '; fi
.\,'!

dichromate in 1982.15
.;.
1-22 ';'
, '.
.
.' " . k. . ", /.'. .,' :','-"
- '," ""'-...-.,./" ..--~ ---

-------
~'
i\
,
. .
I . . .
\~ . ..' ".
.,-"
TABLE 1-5.
~OR CHRO:iIUM USES
I ;'

AND KEY C', '~MILTM C IEMICALS
\
~ \
;. j
,
INVOLVED 1
Chromium Chemical
Use Area
\ Ke~ Chromium
Chemicals Involved
Paints and Pi~&nts
\
Basic Chr mium Sulfate
Chromic A id

Zinc'Chro ate

St=o~t~u~ Chromate
Lithium C romate

Cadmium C romate
I
Copper ChJomate
Magnesium Dichroma~e
Nickel Ch ,o:nate
Copper Ch ~omite

Chromium J~gn.oGUlfonate
I
Chrome Cop,per Arsenate
Chrome zidc Chloride

Chromic ~romate
AChromic lorida (hydra:e~)
~Chromic F uor1de
~':Chromic L ctata
',\ It
Leather Tanning Liquer
:ietal Finishi~g a~d ?lat1ng
Corrosion Inhibi:crs
r.atalysts
~
Drilling :1uds
Wood Preserva:ives
Textile Mordants a~d Dyes
,\
aContains lead chromate.
! '>
"
1
(.
. ,-
r
6
~
'.0
,
) ~
. I
1-23

-------
_/u':
~~~o/""'~ ~-'-----~T
. -.,
''"',........~~

j-, .~. .
. ~".. ov\,,'J.\ti::
'e,~,~T- r~----




,
"i~'.}4"t, '::.', ; ..'..
': /~""~": ",' . ',",'
1.4
I \

rl\
11
/,[1' ,f,
REFERENCES I';:

Ki~k-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical TeChnO~8Y' Third Edltio~.
Volume 6. John ~jley & Sons, Inc. New York 1980.pp. 54-120.
I
Sittag. Marshall. (Noyes Data corp.). Toxic Metals it PolJutlon Contro;
and Worker Protection. Noyes DataiCorpo~ation. Pa k Rld~e.
New Je~8ey. 1976. pp. 97-131.
('~
National Academv of Sciences. Cocm1tC.. on Biologi Effects of Atmos-
phe~ic Pollutants. Chromium. ISBN 0-309-02217-7. !Washington, D.C.
1974. pp. 2-6. .
1.
2.
3.
~('.
4.
Towill, L. E.. et al. Reviews of the Environmental Effects
tants: III. Chromium. EPA-600/1-78-023 and O~~LI IS-80.
pp. 12-17. \'
"
of Pol: '; -
~,3Y 19;=.
5.
National Emissio~s I~ventory of Sources an~ Emissio~s of Chro~iu~.
(GCA Corporation). EPA-45013-74-012.)tay 1973. pl 5.
, I
Papp, J. F. (Bureau of Mines). Chromium.. Prej.::-::.r.t hc:;: the :9~~
Bureau of Hbes Minerals Year'Jook. 1981. I
6.
7.
Reference 5, Pt'. ~1-12.

{~ "..
Ste':.'l, R. M. C!1romium Compounds - P1duction anc Occupa t iona 1 Expc-
sure. The Oa!1ish \.'elding Institute.Clostrup. Denmark. 198:. pp.
4-6.

Morning. J. L., et 81. (Bureau.of J1j.nes). Chr,,::iu:r., A Ch,1pter :::,,:-.
Mineral Fact!'; andpr;blems. Pl'~pri.1t from Bulletin h7!. 191'0.
~ .
9.
10.
Telecon. BL"ooks, G. '01., Rddian Corporation with \.'atson, G.. Ft-r:"".)::".
Association'. February 23, 1983. Ferrochromium pla6t em1SH lor,s.
I
11.
Reference 5, p. 15.

Sullivan, R. J. Preliminary Air Pollution Survey OJ' Chromium and Its
Compounds. APTD No. 69-34. U.S. Department of Hea th, Education. an~
Welfare. October 1969. pp. J9-20.
12.
13.
Proceedings of a Workshop/Conte~ence on the Role of Metals 10 Carcino-
genesis. Atlanta. Georgia. March 24-28, 1980. NIOSH-210-79-0039.
Published by the Ne"" York Universh.y Institut,t of Environmental ~ed:'.-
cine. 1980.
14.
SRI International. 1982 Directory of Chemical Producers-United SC.J:cs.
Menlo Park, California. 1982. pp. 893-895.
1-24
. -\

-------
15.
Chemical M8t'k~t~f)~ Reroner. Volume 221, No. 22. r,:\v 31. !Qs~.
I .
p. SO.

Foley. E. F. Chrr)mium Chemicals Manufacture. (pa:~r presented lit t1H>
Symposium on He~lth Aspects of Chromium Containing ~Aterla19.
Baltimore. Mat'yland. September 15. 1977.) Publ1sh~d by the Ind\lGtr~.\:
Health Foundp,rlon. 1978.
16.
17.
Reference i4, pp. 36 and 522-523.
18.
RefrActorIes. The Refr3ctories Institute.
Pittsbu~c~' Pennsylvania. 1979.
TRI Pub ICH1C'n 7Q(\I.
19.
Source Cate2cr'.' Survev: Ref rac torv tndustt'v. \.~?A-t. SOl )_;';('-111'11,
Emission St;r.J~rcs and En~lnee'ring'Divislon'. l'.S. Ehviron~"'n::d ?:-c-
tection Agency, Rese~rch Triar.gle Park, ~c:th Car0lina. '~Jrch :?~~.
pp. 4-16 to ~-2S"
20.
Product Directory or the Refr~ctories Industry in t.e Cr.itec St,l:~~.
The Refractcries Insritute. Pittsburgh. ?ennsy:var.'a. 1982.
pp. 7-1~9.
Zl.
Reference 5, ?P, ~ .'.Ir.d 1!..
22.
Snyder. A. D.. et al. Environ~ental
Sites: Cht'omiu~ ~PA-560/6-7;-016.
Monite. ,"1r.g ~ea lng
J ' ' -7 I 5
une ~. . p. .
i
i
Indus.trial
1-2S
"
, _." ',~' .'.,'~ '.' .~..: " .,', , .'~"'..,"--",'.,.',', . ,',. '.,,,,, ,~~' ',~ -~ .',..:..,;..r /.,.... . .+'.,f':. ",' ~ ' , ...". -',",.,,'.- ..,',',..-.: ":.. ,~;",'",,:: ".'" "........'. ,',',<,:,1, ~ ,'J' ,'.' ~. ''', -2.'r~,"<:-4', :,".,.},,:,',c' ,-~. . ,'" '--',

-------
~,....".......
~~~~:."- .........~- .
CHAPTU,2..
. .. . . ~\

CHROMIUM SOURCE CATFCOllIES AhO~'USStONS
2.0
GENERAL
The list of chromium source l
':i88 that vere &oa1 zed tn this study
for their ambient exposure impacts i5 consistent v1th the hromium
production and use i~dustries outlined in Sections 1.2 and 1.3 of the
previous chapter. The only source categories analyzed tha vere not r.:atod
to the general chroQiu~ production and us. stru~ture .re t e combustion
categories (1.e.. coal and 011 combustion and incit...racor:\ and the
ca:egories where c~ro~:um is a natural component of proces ed materials
(1.e.. cement and asbestos tI'.4nufacture). 4 .
. A
tn the folloving sections the chr~mium emiI11n1r, pot.
the 12 source categorit!s studied is sUlllm4r1zed. 'E:~f sour
summary expla;'~8 the source ~r sources of the cates~ry's c
factors affecttng ecissions. the valence state(s) of t~~ .
chromium ~missions e!ti~ates were obtained for individual
category.
tia1 from each of
II category
romium emissions.
i5110n8. and how
IJlnts in tho
:! . 1
CHROMIUM ORE REFINING
This 90'1rce category pertains :0 plant. that process r rQf1ne ct\t'omi\..
ore (chrom1~e) for use by other industries ,uch al cbrom1 refractory
manufacturing. The only dome.tic fa~~~icy of this type 1d ntified to 'e in
operation is American Minp.~~~8, tnc. in Nev Ca.tle, nelav re.
The c:bromitecef1ning process con.lIu,..1caUy of.'ore crushing
step. ~ screening or sizing step, an ore dryinl .tep, and aft ore grinding
step. The flow chart in Figure 2-1 illustrate. the chrom
process.2.3,4 The operations 98rformed to refine the chr its ara
relatively lov temp.rature .uch thec only p.r'1~.'. ..1
, -'
2-1
. T - ....-
~~.....
. - '"C:t~~~-;;:~~~.:?;~~'~:~~'~~~:~~~
"
..... - ~," -, ..........-. ...-",....-..
''r.O'''-'' .,;;.-r-':'", ~-'.'''''r....

-------
~
~
~
~
t.$

i
,,'
even118.s
On
";
,
,\
"
~
""e rI 11 ed
0...
"-hiM,., Cht'oa1\18 bUu10ft Po 1C
f
"
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'J
Ckctic.
On ~\
\'i
hiM..,.
~h.r
't''. .'~,' -' ",." ..' .:,'",' ",' .,', ,.,'~ ,\ . ,'. . ,'. '.,. ",,'-- ~- J; ,','",',," "_""""':;;""'~" ,\._'-~,'.-"-"",.',.,,_.:',., ",.~.,.rt;;:.".;..'.'-, ""'" ~'~' ,-

-------
!
"
"
"
"
r
::::':::::~U.T::.::::~C:~'::<::~::i~4:<~C:::~t8~~~t~:~: :: ::iCb

inloluble chr~,ium compound (see tabl. 1-!) Vb1!' conea, chromium in it.
'~
trivalent Itate. :~
Chromium emissions and stack aeometry daC~. tbe D lavaro facility
that are needed for the modelling/expolure anal, 18 vere 0 Cained trom
2 3 4 ",'" '
Delaware Itate air quality permit.. .. Puci.,~Of1,lt latitude
coordinates for thechromite refining pl,nt. Vhieh are a Ine.ded for the
modelling/exposure andysis. were unaval1able~ ?Coord1Aa~. fo", the planc
;J'
were estimated usi~g an atlas containing a lon"tudaflat tude coordinate
syst.em and a k~owle~ge of the approximace locaelon of th plant in Nav
'\'
Castle. uela~are. Even though exact coordinate. are not available. tbe
impact on the ~ccellingfexpo8ure analysi.is not expect. to be significant
beca~~e the s~::~~~cing area of the ~ew Castle plant has a con~istently
, '
urban' populdt~on structure out to the 20 km limit exam1n d by the dispers~on
!rodel.
, '
,
2.2
CHROMIUM CH~ICALS ~~rFACTURE
Over 30 chrom~uo-cont3ining chemicals are p"oduced in the United
States. but only:. ~odium chrol'l~tt (Na2Cr04) and .od1u diC::lromate
(Na~Cr207)' ~ere sp~c~fically addressed in the mode11in lexposure analy.i..
The analysi5 ~as ~im1ted to th... two chemical"becau.e they are the ~o.t
c:ommet'c~ally i:nponant chromium ch81lliC:Ala and their pro uction .xh,ib1t1 the
greatest potential for atmospbe"ic chromium rll...e (in th~ chomical
inaustry). Scc.ium chromate and dichromate are the ~It commerciAlly
Ii
important chromiuQ chemicals bac:au.. of thlt~ volum. of
J'
.
I
I
I
j
II

I
!
I
I
i
I

',I
"
"
It

; I
~mportantly bec3use they are th~ basic chemical. from
domestically, produced chromium ch.:ical. are..de.5.6.7
Generalized flow charts shoviug hov .odiua chromat and dichromate ~rQ
, 5 8-15
pr~duced are given in Figures ~-2 and 2-3.' . tn th producticn of
sodium chromate (Figure 2-2). ch'com1um eminioD' te ..iith th'. ch:ccito
ore raw material that 1s brought into the plaDC~ Ch t. ore generally
undergoes some type of preparation luch .. drytDl.or &rlnding before 1c 1.
production and =dJt
J"
'I'
/,
1ch all otho:
2-3

-------
-~ ,.~. ..... ,";:'. '" ~~._~.
~'_........,..'" "-. ~,
C'1M' CI88 01'.
-
.... .
11.11
A
A
..-.... -,
o. ....,......,"
A
," ......, -~'-
I~Ut88
FI KUr('
~_.
......-
o.I~;;
--,-,---;. '>
-..,
II'.
. """~-
PTS-rr 0'1'_1- bUul- PoIDe
,}-2.
rIp,", d..HC
or It H(~ 1,,-- (' I. r "",,,,.. \, r II.!' to' It""
......
....
A
ow ,.r
A
. ~ 'f,"~'
',.".. ~.
"r
'-.cI~ ......-.
-- L'-
A"""'"
C.- ..-,..
........... ,.........1011
...,..
A
J
....."
.....
'-"'"
" ~~iL~2~
.1-1..
A
nt.J8lU1. -
_,. ~
WI C8GMn
.....1- '''1IIIId
,:;> ~0~~"::?.:'~".. ~;"~" "J


It"
f. ,.. -'8d .' ,
_1- .....-. ~ ',.,". ',"
'i,K-IS
l'rllr"!1~ .
" i{'
. ....<:, .,Jo.i~\
i
.
i
i

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..---......:.,.. .--......-- -...
...,. ._......_--.--~
k".' Ie
"'1~1.,Io&>.1
............ '.'.4''''''.
LI.,..... '''.. 1-1.1
N
, .
.'"
..,.... . '~.
k'd t,...,8IPP
t-
"'.
~~. ,~'~ ~-.. rl."
- r -
Cr"'.
... .
~LI-
c.oc . II...
"'lgurc 2-).
-
.I~ ~I'!':'t"..,::,\~-v-- ""T:-..o;;::::~-
~
("ttf"".t~
s....,..
r.., If ....
"'ch,"" . c"..."t.fL'"
t.~
A
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.....
...,..
'-"'"
.,
A
-------~ ........
e~"('II"a" --
..('be.....e
. ....
.1-
n.y ... r~'I'C'''' c- ....
..-.- ,rK'r'.."-
.,.. o' I"'" t:"'~'.
,.-... Ifl.. I-I.'
Dry."
.. rrt_ry C8uoat- Eab.t- htoe
-... IIIU'&"
PI'.....:I
- ..~.'I= ,t:~'-.i~.
,"
.; ':ft"
,_-..I..
.
.I'-'~'~
..
, ii' \. ~ ,~::~:
,,'
:{J.
'.J'
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srv.. OUlIIaMA1.
nnTAU.11I4[ ,.1IIdCT
A
~ - ....
- Dll--1I
,"ou" '1.
I
V
. S 8-IS
tluw c:hart or a sudlum Jldlr"mllt.. pr".luctlon rrocess. .
.
{" , '.>... .~ ~
~\~ ~ ,~
..- '--.. ."
':',-, ,..
C"~".
,,~{, .'" "" --;'
-."f"'" -, ""',""-J<~ .,....~'.'~-

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. :,:'~'r'. '.
; \.'~':: '. .
:i~~
~i:i~;{,:
;:,.:~~:;:~~ !
. ~'::'::':.i=..:~:::~::~~ rrft~,~~.1.?'-:\~~-~'~~"'~'~:'~~~~ ~~~~~~-o--
~ ~ .
- "" :"'. ~:..~f
I~"!,
.y ~
Sulfuric:
'dJ(ltlSO~1


M.llo.~ <;1...-.... . ~
1.\'1"'" (t'II!, 1-2.)
11"r1' led
Oh:hrOtd t= Cryst.. (II u:r
L~
c..~ri"K.
. j'
ne,er. :,-;,
.
. ~,...--.'. ~~~:'t~-~'~~~:""'_.>..~';;.~~....;.. ."~ :-'.
,,, .:. ~::.iMr 500IUH DIOIII<._TI""?""": ,>{:;.
''''.-<-' .~ I'MYSTAIJ..IN rlUluuci'>--~'.>::;~r
... ',' '/;J/
A~td 1'rt=~tcae" .~I'ude...a t=
tauk A I.'quor
t:vMporalur
Set I. Icr
A
A
, 0,11-
-"Hate
uct,r..-ute
ath~r
.(qUdf
I

r
C~lItr I"use
Pack.,1DI
1>91 50111 UII
ilICHR<.
'i~~.~~~;:r;~,-~.~:~" .
:~ ~;':

).~:.

'~~"., ," ",; .'_:1:,';:'
':.~f.~$~I,?"
. J'v..-<'. ...,. ~t.-,
:- '-~:';:'~;f_~:~ p:' ,~)
!iOt'IUH SUI.FAT.
. . <.' If /"IIUIAJ(.T
.;Jj;;:~ ':
....
. ~... .
:~j. .
. ..:,',I.r":'
-M.
'" :.';",'
,.;: ~~" ,
~.. .,,~~~,.:~,-,-- . ~.'. .
:'-1':.()r'~..i'-;;;;:ci .;:.:f: .::
::;~j",_U fll~';:(''';;''';; :
.~/~.~~~-~;;-: .-~r ,~;::'~~!2~~f--'
.."
. . ,.,;~;\~
.;.i.'.'
." . '.~~~. '. ,,~j'~~
,';-~."!ii-)---ci'" '.:ki: ..~~,....t
'";iJI
':;,:,,:~{~p
. .
:.?'
. :-.' .
. -~~.-
. .'. "" .' .~~" .
. .... .
~ . - ... "
;' 1{-:~~'2~ .. ~~
. . .'~~?1tf:;'~ -.'.
Figure 2-).
.', .' . 5 8- 15
Flow chart of L1 sodIum dichromate pnHlliction process. .
. ~ ".

-------
...-..--
,"'"
:"""r"-'~'" .
....,~ ~ 1- ..
,- ., . .~
)' ,
.'
., ~

,
!
,;
!
.
ready to be entered).intithe chromate process. Chro;'ium lemissions sre
released during the5e preparatory steps as insoluble chromite particles
(C~203) contain:'.ng trivalent chromium. The ,~~,~~~~te o~~ is then mixed with
other process reactat : ~p,rior to being he:at."I~~~a kiln: ,T,h~s mixing
operation also, b'~nerates, chromite particulate: ".emis s ions . ",'
. . . . . ..' " ., . '.":';-.~ - . '.:.', ' "l. '. .

" After mixing, the chromite ore-containi%is mas,s;,~is feCi 'into a rotary
"1i1lnfor roasting. It is in'~h~ kiln ~ha~::,~h~"; 6o'di~; Chr~~~e compound' is
:'~~o,duced~:' ch;~~ium part'icula~e::~m~Ssio~~:;:t;:;:;,t~~~;;~il~ ~y then be in the
t'orm of:'~hr~act'ed Chroiite or s~~~u~ chr~~~'*~!.:.: 's'~~~~~:. ~hFomate emissions
contain chromium in a hexavalent state, w.~er~~s'chromite jmiSSiOns generally
contain a tr,i'lalent form of chromium. The 'chromium particulate emissions of
, I
all processing steps aft~r the rotary kilncon~~~n essentially only
"'.~ .
hexavalent chromium. ' ,
'j
. /.::. . .
, 'In the production'of sodium dichromat~ (Fi~re 2~3), ch~omium

particulat~ emissions contain only hexavalen~i~h~~~~m becaus~ only chromate

" ~~r +6) materials, 'are input to the process and~~no:~r
-------
..-, ...--~...._-~..............~............~_............_.._,..."_.._._~ _.
._'...,~-
--. ,._.,-~_. -~..._.
TABLE 2-1.
LOCATIONS OF PLANTS
SODIUM CHROMATE At-m
IN THE' 'UNITED STAI
SODIUM,D~CHROMATE ,
".;',: ~ii
S PRODUCING
Plant Name
Location
, {t
(' ;J~ i. ',' . .' I
,'C' ro~ium Chemicals
Pr ~~ed in Addition
t ~ ~dium Chromates
t
American Chrome
& Chemicals, Inc.a
\',: ..' ~ ~.~!/
Baltimore, MD">: ' 'cnium dichrcmate

",:t~~>:( ,::.'; ;~~~:;~u:c~~chromate
"~".. t~~...' . '. P9'l'~sium ohromate

Castle Hayne;'NC''''' ChrmiO add



Corpus Christi, TX 'None '
a
Allied Chemical Corp.
b
Diamond Shamrock Corp.
~roduce sodium chromate as an end product.

bljas all' sodium chromate production captively to produce sodium
dichromate.
. ,- .
2-7
!:...-"';:-~" .,. ,-.' . ~ . .~\ ,,' ,'" ,', ~~,,' :'.' ~ ' .",* ~_......_......-...:- .' .' ... ,'." .~' '...."'.' -": ..:~~:~'~~~'~~.: :-:~~:;~'~~:;"~;"<~~'-~-.;io',~,~,','.1_'..'~.',' '._~;:,:'-"~'i;,oi-,; ....

," ' " -:. ",', ' " ,','~ ".,.','. ....' "._.' ',. ",,'.' "' - ,', . "," " .. ,- '. -' . : . " ,; - :-,.~', ,'- -, ~ :,-'. .:, '. -:,"" ~- .-.' :. -,'~,..;~','_:,;."~,(~!J'." ':':,':':,',",,'.', '.~, . '" ~, . '",

-------
L . '-. .' ',~~...,.-"~. ~-"".~~--~_..,-_-L~~, ~~
~~l.1f,;~L,."...:~,..,.... "'~ . ",',
~-' .,. '
I
(ii;
w
~
~
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~
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ifl
f!}~
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~,
fJ
~~
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6
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, '.
"-
$:
. ..' I
acid.80dium chromate, and potassium chromate ,~~" used as refractory process
~~,,'mate'ri~is.7.21.22.23 Chromite ~re and Ch~~~ oxide re used to

,pr~ducenfr~c~ory brick and shapes an~ cast~bl~~efracto~ 'es such a~
" .',:"., "', .,"',:4,
,~ortar. .nd~runn1ng and ramml~i mixes.' Generti~y'chromiumiS input to a

;~'f,r~ctorY' proc~ss as pure chromite 'ore. as '~hro~UJD o~ide i~as a mixture of

chrom~te and magnesite. or as a mixture of chr~~~e and a1~na. The
, " , ,'~\ ~''f' I
proporti9n of chromite or chromium oxide used in various refractory
" , " I
processes 1s related to the specific temperature and corrosion resistance
, . 24 I
requirements imposed by the refractory's end use. JFigure 2-4 illuscrates

a 'typical flo\lc.hart for the production of chromium rl<~~!actbrY brick.2S

Castab1erefrac;ory materials are produced ~y :S1~~1~ ~~xin~;~nd bagging

together dried and ground raw materials such as chro ite, Jagnesite. and

fl'uxes ~~d b~nding agents~ ;'~' .,'.. "q~." l-'"},,

, 'Ch;om1um 'e!lrLsSions from refr~c~ory man~~'acture ?:g~ur ~im~rilY during
.' ",', ',1'.1'
ra\l materials handling and preparation operat'ions sucn!,'as ry1ng, crushing,

screening, storage and conveyance. grinding. 'and mixing. articulate

emissions from these operations contain trivalent chrom.1um as chromite or
" '
chromium oxide and/or hexavalent chro~ium as ~~rom1c acid, sodium chromate.
r-..
t(
,--

t
~
/
rC
~
~.
~
~
~
r.f:
~.
f

~j:
t.
"
"
"
~:
or potassium chromate. Particulate e~issions streams mav also contain other
, t
refractory mater~als such as magnesite,' dolomite;)and alumina. 1'he exact
composition dep~~ds on cheparticular type o~'refractory mtterial bei~g
produced. Trivalent chromium particula,te emission,s predomtnate over
hexavalent emissions in the refractory industry because the usage of
trivalent chromium compounds greatly outweighs hexavalenthromium compo~nd
usage by tvo to three orders of magnitude.23
There are approximately 298 ref~actory plants in the 'nited States,
however. only 35 *re kncwn to be producing chromium-conta! ing refractory
m8te~ials.JO Table 2-2 contains a list of the 3S plant 10 ations. Chromium
emissions estimates and stack geometry data for these faci ities \lere
.obtained from state air quality permits and the U. S. EPA stional Emissions
D S (~I~S) 18,22.26-29.31
ata ystem 1~ . NEDS informat~~n \las USld only in the
cases of a few plants for which no state permit Jata \lere vailable. For
~;
j;
~:.
~~
\.;
.:
".
~.:
~
(
,.
f;
~;
[!
~,
".
~
~
t
~.
~.'
~
~
[j
~
~~
~
~
2-8
.' '. '.",
-,,,.~..../.....,;.;~.. "''-~~'i;
"
.
"
~ .
,
, I
(,

-------
'.-...,..M:."-""'"
:-.."..:.;,'
.;' .~
;,:~'
~.,~
~.: '::
- ~ "..-
'::'.":,:..
..':-!;-
::-':!".,
24
il1llsrrating chromium refractory brjck production.
. .. ~'.
.: . - '. ' .,.'..", ~ . '., "-i'

.. '.::;1~;~i~.~~:<::"~~; ~N'~~ ~ ;~:'-' '~;,,';,);t::~;:':,;}:l':;,;:;t~}~':.;~_:,
~. '..",,: ,,;..,
PIIS! c....sT
8ASIC 8iUX
TAlI IIO'UCIIAnD
IAS IC nux
..
ru.I!D BASIC'
lara.
. c.. r;,
..
~,(~
''''',',
;.~~.,
,.~:;.:;..
1
:-'F~.f
'.-"f.

:~t~,
, .~:. ~ ~
-',..-~'-
: !!-.t:-
, '~..';: -.- ,

, ',;~>5~~>
.
I
\
J
':::~?;~
. .-';'':''.'
. "
. ",~ '
. ".

:,:~<~~:~ \
IIOII-TIHPIUD
TAII--NUI
IASIC IlLICIt
1'DI\'UC) TAI-.:.,
801111[) 14511: ,"
IIICIt
-'. . . .
.;:~:,:\:~~.::': ~;.' .~~...~<~.:,,~::~ :....~.~-'i~~.~-'dl:,~~~~:~:.~': :" . '-:> .' ~_. :. ::. ~~~~" ~. '.
"

-------
~~,....~""'"..~~
,.J
'.r..'
,....-'4~: .~
.. ...;
> "
. TABLE, 2 "2<,./,rACILl~IES, ID!NTIFI~o~OI['~p"~m",,;'~f~,,,,~.,~ CR' OMIUM-CONn.1NING
, , " ',' ,UFRACTORY,KATEIlIALS, " ,~,)~,)~,~" :4';-:'"
:', ""'" ',' ,;.>::\,' ' \~C,:~~J~:' ,.,', .
Maple"', rove. OH '
Crown oint. IN
South ebster. OH
SOU',th ockwood. HI
" S~I(~n t, PA
.'urora 1L
Chic~gt P.:~ghts. IL
Falconer, NY
New Ca l1sle. It
N ew l~, .ria. LA
WellS, .i,' lle. HO
Chica' . IL
Cinc1rL at 1, OH
,', ~uckha non. 'WV
,'~;.':,': ,,:" ;Pg,scag ula. MS
Cot"1'oration ,,~.'&t'~<\IS" '..: 'S'obeh" hare KY
, ".Jt,.. ,: ,", " .
, ,,!'f;; ';,;',<"'<',Cinc1 at1, OH
""i",' ''''''~';''''Leh1 &r
"~(t::: ::;'r~:;;}:~\{eXi~o I MO
' . " -'".' .<'(,o', .
, ,':: Tarentdm. PA
" Pueblo ~ CO
Bal t,imqre. MD
,..;11:'. , Hammond. IN

:~ft ~~;:n~i:~~~g ~\A
.' I
P~ymou~h Meeting. PA
Zeliendple. PA
':,~~:;, Negley J OH
Manest~e. MI
wo, mels ,or. , PA
Ol~,Br dge, NJ
";;:~\;, ,Nonis own, PA
,...,' Pell C ty. AL
Chicag . IL
Duver. OH
.'",,-'
>/ >. ,..:.~-;::...:: ";
, ..Cc=pany,
,"~i1c' aefractories
~.~I ,Ine: .:.~,);
" ,,:,J,.,
/~
:JI""

, '.
, .

.'~
, '
Bognar andCoapany. Inc.
C-E,;. iefractories
Carborundum Company'
Chicago/Wellsville F~re Brick Companies

Coaatal..fractorias
.co":'hutidfractories Co.
. ,.'" ",,: :;.\~'r "}": . " .
: , ;', ''-':!'''' .",." . .
~~~i~rT.i16r R.f~actori.s
,~\.J' ',,' - - "" " '.' ,'": '... '
. . ~ " . ' .
'Cenaral Retractories' Co.'
A. P. Gieei Refractories C~.
. .' .
Harbison-Walker Refractories
Kaiser'Refractories
Lava Crucible Refractories Company
Magneco/Mecnel. Inc.
Martin Ma~1etta '
North, American. Refractories
the Qu1g1ai Company
"iCO,r7:odu'c:t8~,Inc. '
~1v.ra1de lefractor1es. Inc.
Sala~ar' Sons, Inc.
Zedmark. Inc.
Plant
ocation
l-
i
"
: ~'"
;'
,
2-10~'
, _:~'~?:
'. " : :".~._..'.,',::_:,"'; .~,~.. .,'-".';,.c.: "'.' ,,-,"~:"'.:.'.'~- ;~. ........',- ,', . . ,~..~ . _..-.'.~.~-' '. - '. .:'._' " :' L : ,," . .,-' '~.-. . ." ,.,' '-'.-;' ','~~',',"'-' ~t. ,: ;';",-.~i__.'..~,_. '"",,-:. _:;;."",~~"",','Ij",,~",., """..,,c""""-~.':~":'-,.['vo"', ,', ~~-,.~,.,";,',t',"~,':.,', ';,~. -' :.0100:..'- .
. - .. ~ ~~~- ~

-------
~'
"
":,,,:,,~~~~~~~,:~,....\k::~:;,(!:/?:::, " '"
.' ,: '\~':".:
."
,. .,'
-~-------;t:-'
." , ,,,~~J.. :Y/~i'u".~'~ ;;-~f~"~' ..:.~~.>:" .
',:}":"~''':f;.o'J!", "1~A'.!~,;J~rj~;;:W1~~~2i' ,~,.~\.'~, e' :.:', , ':;'

~ .:c. ')("""1 '~f \4.~r.~\: '..' ..
i.
, "
...,'
,",';
- _.......~--~~.........._..._--~-
."
~,
, '
;:
"","'
I
~ " , ' '1c:,!'",,~,~
I " ..(~.~, '~'L ''''~Q9
the fe".l small plants with no available sta'::permit data","'::;',' ':.,,;:(fg~~~~~
".. '!r-" .~.. ',' ~-"{i~(.~';4
information, chromium emissions were assumed to' be couiP~1;b;Le, to, 'other, . ,', ':~~JW

uf r ac to ry plan t ~ 0 f S i!!1 11ar si z ~ prod uc :~~'!~ imilar ref~~, to~y ma t e rials. , ,""""':'::f,;=j\,~.,.,.t.~,': .:t,::'.,'",,',:,-,':','

2.4 ASBESTOS PRODlTCTIONY':/\' .. ,:~.,','~'~.i:""\' . :.C

Chromium is, potentially emitted fro~ 'aSb~II't':mini~~; ~~ milling' ,: :'::f~~i

operations because it i9 a constituent of chryrJo~i'~~r;t~,~:primary' , , ,,~'t~i~
asbestos-containi~g mineral. Chromium l~~els :~~~c~(t7i~~'t?i. ~ 'have 'been found. :;~~~

::n::a:b:: :g~: ~oo p ::~~::l:::t:tA:::i:~~l~,~~~~:f:~:i:.,~?{:~:::n:ii~i::ta1 . ....:~j{~

oper~tions have~~;e~: es~imated to contairi';~hrom~~ at\~~" sam~ i~t~1r--?2, " ,~:::~;~~
During the c'hrysotile mining and part~cular~i.',the::mi ling p~~cesses. ' ,:':';0~1~
particulate emissions are released becaus'~"\~e ~'~ifj!~'f, ob~e tive bi'ii:he>:'.:':: ,":)~
processes is to break down the chyrsotile mineral and 'ext act the asbest6s \<:,:~~~
f::'::'ers. To extract the asbestos fibers the 'I!1&ste rock co ponents of the ""'$'~"'"
chrysotile (including chromium) are eliminat~d ina serie of cleaning !;~2~~~:
circuits in which crushii1.p;, screening. arid various separa ion operations are "~"!;.l!

" . ..1~ I

::::::::: These cleaning circuits generate,,~~romium~con ~~ning parti~~~~te >:.:~~~~~
. .:~' ':. '. "~''''' '. '''.:~~'f.tJ1-':\~:
The magnitude of chromium emissions:~fr0in'"as~~st'o~>"P7 ,,duct ion , oper.:!.tions ',:~~.{i!fJ&~
is estimate'd to be l"w because of the stringe~t"::'l.~~~Jfr('f:; "~;tr"ol't-equired on '>,"~~~l1;-
these facilities, for asbestos emission~,: by Fed~'~,~~,i:~~nd St 'te 'autho'rities~,,33 ,'j:'~~~~i

:ec::::::~ ::::~:::s ~PP~:d ~:: ::::::O:t:~::f:Z:'~:::l: ::~~:::deffecc~~e':11
. j' /.J~~
controlled chromium emissions from asbestos, production'to be essentially , ','''''1:;i
; 32 . ''''iV
zero tons per year or not significant enough~o be rep,orted. This' ,i; ",'.;,'y",*
estimate is based on data from the, early' 1970' s a~~.~' it is probable that ...~:;" . ':',':A,~~~~~
control measures since that time have improvd~-:'U-"", .>1 ' ..,:;'.\]
The chromium air pollution potential,from'asbestos p oduction appears

::, b:n:::~:i:~C::: . m~::l:::;::::s:::d:::~;:i:O::C:hi,:t:f::; ,vas therefo ,e'81
. .:/ ,'L,:::F:;~:1ii
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~
h
Ii
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, ,

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LEATH!.' TANNING
Chromium can potentially be emitted from leal:her tan ing facilities
b~,~.~~,.~~ ood1... dichromate-baaad ch~cals ato .&0.1 i.., .,tan ~n~5liqUOt'S fot'
the: majority of animal hides t&nned}'in tbe United S~ ,es.' Chromium
. :... . t>\' , +6
tuning liquors are prepared by m~g sodium dichr' te (r ) vith other
. chlm1c:.18 8uch as sulfuric acid. ~rcmium tanning ~~'iutio s containing
"J'T!:domin.ntly basic chromium sulfate are prepared on-site), t' the tannery or
.. . ;,). . 'r

'-."they can be purchasp.d already formulated from 8pe,C l' a lty chremical prOdu.cers-

When preparad at the tannery the' potential exiats~.for emis ions of highly
Jr.}
.Ioluble sodium dichromate containing hexavalent cbromium a a result of
,.~;j.
handling and mixing procedures. ~en purchased {rem off-s te formul~tors no
i'OI.,-. '

chromium emissions potential exists because th'lc,tiromium t nning con:pounds
'.il
are in solution. ~~ny tanneries purchase preuformulated c romium tanning
'5 " . .
liquors as opposed to formulating their ovn.~ In tanneri s that da
. I
formulate their ovn liquors. the process is uenerally Shorf. in durat iOI1 3:",G

very int~rmittent, thereby lessening potential chromiuQ emisSion5. I~


:::~~~::~.b:::::;to:St::d:a~:em::i:::es:~:~:o::::r~~;::s~avl material, every

Another minor tnethod by which chromium emissions can e relt!ssed at
leather t:mning facilities involves 'a process ,~riovn as 1e,4 her buffing.
. BU,fUng is a techni.Gue in which tanned. 1eathe~;; is::: brushed'" epeatedly to
'''p~~duce . type or f:Ot"lll of leather' known as s~ed~,~r The bru hing or buffing
'. . . "." ."
procedure c~n dislodge small lea.thef.particles containing hromium from the
tanning process. Chromium in these particles i8 in tho fo of trtvalent
chr~ium (Cr.3) because the basic chromium sulfate tanning I liquors that are
used. contain trivalent chromium.34.35 Trivalent:c:hromlum las the function
in tanning of fix'lng or stabilizing collag
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.;'i';{~'WCi~;:;,~~:,i~;d;':;...
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,. -':,\ ',~' } :i[".c~"t~~Y:: ';I*~,;g"";'~;';\~~*,":'" ,,:.:.:.{~:; ":''''''%.~'t" '
"~V:''i}.'''::,tf:'~~'''i';- .'"(,-:- .~...{\~~~-:j,..t:. J~:.3j~:t.. """'-''',':' ,.~. ~.. ,.\.t... .

t~'\ ~:~':J~:'K~r!j~~':' ''''':''i'''>;> ': ".


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-
"N,...>"',~j},r/
':'I;,~,,,,,~q.,i";r ;

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".t, "'~~
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"
As illustrated in Figure 2-5, cement 18 p~oduced by ne of two methods
, 39 I A
knovn simply &8 the wet and d~y processe8.The only di tinction betwee~

~i~. tvo:t~ that in the vet process vater i8t~~ded to th~~.' ,;me~t raw

iute~ials mixture prior to its ente~ing thei:~'11n. The mf."ot' sources of

cht'omium and generkl particulate emissions 1u:~,both proces es are the kiln,
'::' 38.39>' (1
clinker coole~. and, clinker g-rinder operations... ~,C1\f mium levels i:1 the
" ,pM
,J,a!Fticuiate emissions of these operations have ~~en ~e~s~'ed an~ the

':~~Va1lable results are given in the Table 2-3.Aa s1\ovn i the table
: J
J
J
I I
chromium levels may vary greatly. even by tvo orders of
'0 . '
same process operation. The chromium leve~~in particu ate emissions that
iran occur during raw materials preparation operations sue as drying,
~crushing. grinding. and mixing and blending have not been reported in the
available literature. ~
.'/
gnitude for the
H
1.1
"
.
i
f
t,
Fo~' the purposes of the chromium modelling/e::-.:posure ,.a} ys:.s, .:hror:.:...::::
em1&sions from the kiln, clinker cooler, and clinker grin er operations ~ere
,,8.Y.'C:imsted for the existing portland cement plAAts in the 'nited States. .}
". \'. ,...

,.:~~~t pla~ts have ""llt iple kilns, clinker c:ool~rs, and .cii ker grinders. The
kiln, clinker cooler, and clinker grinder sources vere"an l,yzed because they
represent r.he greatest particulace and chromium emissions sources in the
, cement process and they are the only cement process sourc s for which
chromium component information has been determined. Chro~ium emissions fr0~
each individual plant were esc~nated using the chromium dfta in 7able 2-J
and general particulate emissicltls and emission factor datt from NEDS and t::t?

::;:::.~:::.:::~::,.::::;.~~rf:::'::: ::~:d::~J~~;:~rb:t::~::U::lJrces an

"averas- chromium content of 900 '01'1:. ppm vas ass~~cftor c lculation
p~~oie8~ ' Stack ie'ometry aud se')graphi~ ,c90rdi~t:~
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_":~:-"'~d.~~~~:::~" .~ ~
1"""rI'rll\~ lIa.. '
II". "r 1,,1..
N
I
....
In
/Ie)' tHalas
and
~l~u~l,~. .

- ~._..:...~/~.
I-.
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;J,'~~: :..

. J ,
"~'~,:": "
..1
saucc)' "..it~
; and
'.;.ao:ndh,S
, '
Figure 2-5.
--~- .
rrl..IIY nluJ
Sc'~nfhlat y
C.."f4h.u~
".,.,. ]
:~~>
. ~ '
_.;.~.~~?,
Sturag"
,.>
Basic
II rot.: (~~;:;
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.~~ ..........~. ..-...... "",....,....---
f
J
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:~;::. ~ ~ .~~~.
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" . ~ ,:;'
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';::';~~~1; '~~:~:~:':";;;,;t:~{~:=":,:::~',~~'~;l~~~Mt~~~~t~'ii~;:~tj:;:::,';;'J{bA:~~~::~;;i~~i~.i,;',~.,:;i.{<;/S s~~~~itb.j~'~i~~ ~ ;:;;~i:~~~;;~~';Y
R,...
Hl"et Inl:i
Slur"ge
IIry
l'IUC,.8,.
----:J-cJ i I
II;'., Ihlud.,1 (:dl\d'l\~ Ate,
I""I"'''~I''I\'''I 11111__., Separator
'i,".;;, '[----.--
. Un\J Halci I:\l
....... ",.oIH''- t t (11.".1
11"1
Pro,:,'s& --------'---
r:.. .."It "II
Hili
---f-
\Jar.-..
t.u,~ I



~~
I:YI'SuM
~,!~>fmary Cheo~tum Em1881o~'Po1nt
-1 Stneoge
CII.."..r ] -,~
l:..olee A
SlurIIl\e ~


~.',,~b.
.. .~~:~~~~.
.
, "
"""".'
flow tlll1J;rl1m fOl' wet nnd dry C(:llIelll
39
production plants.
f-- '>.'.
comrr
, ..~~
-,<;,"':'" ~<7",
,,<;~S
. ~~: ~
.,~ ~'.~..t

-------
i:"
"
,',
'1;"~,,,~~;,,2.:;,,3, ~""",CHR, OMIUM LEVELS::rOUND,' ~nt'!!I~~,' ::\,/1,' ~tt"'" ," TE EMISSIONS
>:"::.-',', ":'-i1~J)l CEMENT PLANTo.P,tRAT~9NS_:, .~
',',,} '<,: ; ?I( , ,.", );,~,:::,'~F:,:~f':;:, ',",
:::,:..',
::,' .!f' .'~ ;
. '.- ..
~
.': ~. . '.. .' . (.1 '
PrOCI\SI . Operation
~~,::" ': ' . . ;. .-.
'~()::;.~\~~:.', . :' ' :' .
~~tToQl':'Chroil1iuin Concent rat 10n
"~~I" (~t1,~late E,1SS10ns (wt ppm)
~;
?J
'}'~I'
'J{'?(~, C,'
'~ (\
~ L
)"~ r~ . 'j \
)~. \.~

J; .~,. i:
v.J; + . '
-O'{_: ."'~,'('

number o~:' which wa
Kilns'
,
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. " '. ,\'~" ~t~:.r'1!::..(, '.,~- ,\"I~,':" '.; . y' ..-'. ,r.:;'..:.;~",),",...J ".... '."~if?:_::"'~'" '7~:\1>~}~ t'S,t;~'~'nJ;"1-~'''~:;';:'<~f\::,~~~. -'>'-~:-;";
~~?'~"i'j:.~ ,;,,; ,"<~~i~~~<';'~;!':'~;,~i(~\~~{,,::,W'~~(:' ',,('F: ::;.;\:~! ,:,,' ~?.:'. ::(,:(",\::,%~'''''t:::~ '",,:.;r;,~,.,,.,.t.~ ' ,>' 9"il ;;'..,'<"",;;.'.,










~~, ",,'~?ji:'~~ TAB~E.,; 2~4., LOC~~:~'.:~i~'~;, C0,:"~i:,~~..~" _t,:;,~.~,I,:, ~~1_:,',.,~~,~,,~,~;'~~~1~ '.,
I~ . ._..-

~fi.:;,:' .
. ' '
. ;"~' ...t,.., .' '~:"",,,,.,:. ~.f' ~. .' ..,~~t1~':"
St:ate, City:(number of P~.~ts
per city'if 'more, 'than 1),
'...,..
..'" .....~.
'" ,/~>:y,

r~ . "'" '
". ,
.1' ')~\4
,)':. ::A( :\>.t'\~~;~~;':~~?~~iY4':;j ~'>"']"~{"":, ':~}':J~':~:;'~"':'"
..~~ " ',}i~""j;..':~,J.,,~al;N,_,:u~~, er"of. .::-;' :;:::', '"
'),\, ..;;;.-;. '.~lant p r State', ' ' ,
, .:~~:~~\..~~,;~~r/"~~;~t~:'~-)' ' .,~:,: ~~';.,' .~~'~'~',I.~j.":~~,-
Alabama
Birmingham (3)
Calcera
Demopol!s
Leeds
Mobile
Ragland
,'~~::t~".
."', .

, 'l~;{j~~,i~ :
'. :
'::jJ, '
, ,~ I, ,
::~'''.'-?'
.~ 1-, \
'.-,.
;,
,-
;<~~{.
: }" -~ '
Alaska
:~;!~t .
i
f
I-
I'
I

I
i
Arizona
Clarkdale
Pi:na County
-'f'" ,
'):.~~~
'"
"
"''>I?~t'I' ,',: 2,

.' ~ - /.,:, ... '. ~ "

-'. '\.';i~~:':\\{
., .. .-:' 19..'


';t,~{; ~,s;:::



'''J \"ft
'. ,.".1
" " ? ':'f;~,\ ~~~;
Arkansas
Foreman
Okay
f'
~j
~'~!!\'.
California
Colton
Davenport
Lebec
Lucerne Valley
Mojave
Monolith
Redd1pg
San Andreas
San Juan Bautista"
Victorville ~}j
. .' .'~ ~~"-,

.~h::~~~01l :,:~' 4
, ';'::('"

'..t>-j ":);'~:/I".'~..< ~,.\.

)"::'k}iti/~~f J~';' '.
:;:\jj,'
.-::.'
t?;
, .!~:
!1-:~ ,
,:~\ .
. )~~..
:')-<;~
~ .}' ~-~:;~:'
- ~..;1..~ >t"';: '; -
, '>1;',"
C~.\,"~:
',~i,
,'r.
.If.'
\~
'.' I~~'~-

" .
': :}/'
, .. .~'\,
.'".','::\." ,.
1...(,;;:.:
',-,.
Colorado
Boulder County
Florence'
LaPorte
Portland
", .,',
'.:::
, _.
!
",", \"
"t'.
','. '~"
::t:;.O'.
Connecticut
.,'
Delaware
. ,
:', '
District of Columbia
I
.. .-: 4 ':
..
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, ."J'"
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.. '.
': -..~'.~;~.
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.-.:.:_/!\:~H

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.~,,'" .
State, City (number of plants
per city i more than 1)
-- --.--.

I.~. -'-~':-~" '",: "',:;,~ ." "\,,..,' ;.,' ,- ,,', ;.," ", ,~\..I,; . v:t';'\;U:;:+~'~:tt-:Z'::i;tj;.f.v::~}",\",-,,<)){~'f:""
~~Jj;:~~\';~~l,.:!t'~,.)~)'r~~~~'~/"!.':f.,,~~~!\\~,;.::,...:,-,:, ,"', :.,." -"" 1\t,;-{"':~ ;~'}':' ,!~::.t , '~:.' ", ,,', "'~;,!~~~\'?V~:~:';~-';?t" "':'~:'f'.






''', TABLE 2-4 (CONTINUED). LOCATIotO'P."C'EMENi.., :L~tS ::"~~>',i

, , ."". .~'. .
.:t. .







, ; ~\:,_:,/)Y>:;,:':/7;;'<~:,.,;, ,{<:~~:\;y,:,;::;,:~;.;".:;:,
, , " ':.. ,'" 'I' f;" ".'.:w : ""':")"\' ,. ',', ,,2',~~'" ,"r' :''''.::,....


.. '-.., .'-'..~;~;"~~..2~~~i;~:\i'1~l'-\,4'''"'}''~;!:'. -- _:~~~~
-,e ""f.~~


1 " ',r\"4'"

, ~, ':<:~.~~

. i.."....~1



,t~~,~.)
':"f~;'i""~?
: . ;I::~~~;~t~tj~:~.
'. "'':I~..........Ji;,~

:'~~f~ '
r,
"
,"
I:""',

t' ~,
~:>~
:,J.:
t "
Kentucky' ",':-, ,:'....
Louisiana
New Orleans
, ,
(3)
Maine
Thomas ton
Maryland
Hagersto~
Lime Kiln
Union Bridge
)3
, ~.::~*..
\.;~4~'~
Massachusetts
'; ~t..
~\~~\
.' . ~, .

'f:;~:
"
r'
~
~,
I
Michigan
Alpena
Charlevoix
Dej;oit (3)
Esl~Xville (2)
Monroe County
Petroskey
Port Huron
Wyandotte
.:~.:
."'" "
~:
:Q
"
"'(" :
,-,n, ,
,:~~L

'.~~';~:
;,11'
" ::::~.~t~.
'/~~":
'"
'i'i'>:
~~" .
" :;I~"
;,t>:i\ '
(~\( 0'
J ,',""',',
- "'''''r
, '"'?iWI;'
"',:.: .
, ,
.. '
Minnesota
F
.,)
,-<,
. ", '~ .
.' ::..~
" '
ii'r.'
(.,.,,;
;.'.:,~,:' ~. '.
;~f~~};'"
1;:.
: ~:~','~"
~it..~,~.~: '. .'
. :~~.;::~:/ .'
o
!o',ii
Mississippi
, Artesia
s1.
';,1
>.:.~...
Missouri, , '
Cape Girardeau
Clarksville
St. Louis (2)
Sugar Creek
:q:.t ;y:~ i
t-', , :.'
-'\-'
Montana
Jefferson
Trident,
ii,
/:i
'\'
~;:;.L,'
.!i.;?
.~.~..:
.. .,~ /'~7
,':',/;, t,:.~.
',' . ;".'
.,~ . ~. ~ ;~.,',',; ~~ ',:'~' .
.. ,". .
. '
,...,' .~
" .
'.2
County
"
, :~:
, , .
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. "'." ~'".,;.. '.."
.. ~:. . '. .
."'-.
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:';'''-
'.
i~. .
:' .~~~7~.
. .
. .
, "

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r I" .
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>: .;;;l /:

i- ,.' ,..
.>:':,~ ':{1'~f),- '. ".'~j~i'~"'.

2";4 ..(~ONTmy~'~(';~I.' ',,~1,.~.9NS Pr,,~~ .,PLANTS
" . 'f~'. .'. " "I, ..t. ';::'."b "" " \" ,,~\ ! ' .' , .., ,.,~'~:",~, . ,. , '.
g<.:,~..:' '. 'ii;1t~~r{" f!':~:':..: . : '.:i:~.\ .:,: ":. >
".
.,". '" . 't" ,..., ,.
. .i:..,. ,"i,.' "",,~,....,.t":"?""'.'
:':,-?::. A ' ~". "'\. :~: .}
: ';'J f :', ,?'.
\~;t:. " .'
1;'. "'.. Or'>".. Or.:,~;,'Sta~e~C~ty '.(number of: plants
. '."'. per ,city Hmore than 1)
,;'f,'
-.
::;;/'.

:r. ~'. "..'
..~ ,;;
}t\
:{
, '.
~:
t, ;~':
Tota Number of
Plan s per Stated
,.:"..
Nebr'uka
L~uisville
Superior
:~~){~;~.:
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ff.
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Nevada
. Fernley
New Hampshire
o
.r
New Jersey
o
.'
New Mexico
Tijeras
.!Ji~!"
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New
.1
York
Cementon (2)
Glen Falls
Rowes Cave
Ravena
5
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.~~ .
North Carolina
Castle Hayne
North Dakota
f
o
~
Ohio
~
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:'~"/: -
7
Fairborn. .',.
Greene County
Paulding
Superior
Toledo
Zanesville
( 2)
Oklahoma
Ada
Pryor
Tulsa
3
, . Oregon.
'.- . . J '. Huntington. ~;.
: ':Lake, Os~ego
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TABLE 2-4
(CONTINUED) .
State, City (number of plants
,~~per city if more than 1)
Pennsylvania
Bessemer
Cementon
Evansville
Lehigh County
Nazareth (2)
Neville Islam:
Northampton (3)
Northampton Cour.ty
Pittsburgh
',.'ampum
i-iest Winfield
York
16
<; J,
o
'.
.r
.11
" (
( 2)
J
'(
2
'i ,';;I';
;,:,(.
o
Rhode Island
, r
3
South Carolina
Harleyville
Holly Hill
( 2)
"
South Dakuta
Rapid City
( 2)
\ '\
,"!',
. ~
\"(,'
,:~t.j ::
Tennessee
Chat~anooga
COTJan
~ashville
Richard City
".
hi
,,1f
"
')
'.
Texas
Amarillo
Buda
Corpus Christi
Dallas
El Paso
Ft. Worth
Galena Park
Houston,
Midlothian (2)
Odessa
Orange
San Antonio (3)
STJeetTJater
Waco (2)
I
~ . ,. .
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TABLE 2-4
(CONTIWJED) .
LOCATIONS OF. CEMENT
LANTS
. ~I'
~ ~.; . '::'~, . ,"
"
.",',
.,' ".-,.:
p. ","" ,.~~r: ~ '. ..... - . 7 -'" .. '. "'.. :.... ) '.' -.. .. ','- . .
. '. , :.r-:I'li,f.:,..,'.; 'i, ~):',k; "':idil;;,'. ,A~ "
,::::'~t'~te~: '!C1tyi':'.(ii~~.er' of 'plants
".-:..::.':per:,C:'1~;'/1f;;~~e ;than 1)
... '~Yr ".;-:':"'" ..: .; \~. ,....." . ',' ~."" .
..
'I:' '.:~: '. .;o~. tal
~.,. ,.- -' ...
;.~t{.;;;f': pi'.nt
Number of
per State
Utah
2
MOrgan
Salt Lake City
Vet'Ulont
}.
o
Virginia
. Botetourt
Chesapeake
2
Washington
Bellingham
Metal1ne Falls
Seattle. (2)
4
West Virginia
Martinsburg
1
W1scons in ,
Manitovoc
Milwaukee
Superior
*
4
(2)
Wyoming
Laramie
.~',
o
(,
, .~t~:r:::~; . '

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multiple-hear~h and fluidized-bed units. Multiple-hearth inci~~rators are .~~

relativ;iy simple pieces of equipment, conSis;!i~~~f a st e], sheH lined " "~~~~'


:::: k r ::::::0:: ~ 0 :::.:::: r~::p: :r::: t ~n::n::::. ~. :~:~ :: t: Y h:: :~::n ::~ <:,{,',.,-",.,',:,',:,',',''".,',;.','.:~.':""

designed "irh.~p'ning. to allo" solid material "~, droponlo,th, e hear,th ~ ':'
below. At tne~center of the unit. a shaft rotates rabble ~s that are
located on each hearth. To enable ,the inCine-rald mat.'t'i l>i,~, move in"ard ,',"Jj~,~.:!
and then o~tward on alternate hearths. t~eth':~~".'.~e ra~~l ',ih,. are plaoed",;
at an angle. As sludge is fed through the roof\, ~ the in in'erator. the ",~.(~;~
" ,\.'
. ;);~~i
drop holes "here it falls to the next hear',is prooeJs oontinues until;:H.~

',.":.~",~,.",,,',O:' ,"," , ' ,
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+..~. "j': . :t - :.,'., :f.-!f:.""r" ," - -i'r'.;~ r. ,". .. . , '. ., ,! ,..,f.~'

')'." .j,:,''<'.:.'~j:,:~:::.:;\;::" ,.'c"'(~':/,L'~'~ ;':;:~;.:..:-".;; . ,~, :'..:':,'>;1.";
, - ,.~-m~~~~~x.~;,'~~~~J
. ~~'~>.~,~"~~~~~':?~:~i(-'~.\
"-<0-- 0'
-~.~~~*~~:_A ~
~';-"""'" .--.-,
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t-:,;
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amounts of chromium. The chromium content of municipal refuse consisting of
paper and plastics ranges from 10 - 175 wt ppm w~th an ave age content being
45
30 wt ppm. Dry sewage treatment sludges have chromium c ntents ranging
from 22 - 30,000' wt ppm. with a mean content of l,r.80Q we p m and a median of
600 wt ppm.46 The chromium' content of se-W:~g~" si~d)(:is hi hiy,depc't1dent on
the types of facilities discharging into th~('local~:;e\ier'.'~~,Tr~atment plants
" .: S " , ~"t '
receiving wastewaters from' electroplating shops and leathef tanneries are
likely to have sludges containing relatively 'high amount~ f chromium that
can be released upon incineration of the sludges.
The majority of municipal refuse incinerators are simple in design and
hav~ either refractory-lined or water-wal~~~~?:combustion chrmbers that are
aquipped with a grate upon which refuse is burned. The grate can be
stationary. travelling, or vibrating depending on the design of the
incinerator. In most cases, natural draft or slight induced draft is used
to pull air up through the grate and carry out the primar~ refuse combustion
process. The combustion gases from the primary chamber a1e then passed
through a flame port where they are rehe~ted and reix~d wi~h air to achieve
more complete oxidation. Exhausts from the secondary com~ustion chamber are
either sent to atmosphere or to a control device. The basliC configuration
of a repre~entative municipal refuse incinerator is.:'given in Figure 2-6.47
.~ .
The most prevalent types of sewage sludge incinerato
~
~
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:;r~~':;(

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'~'P-:''';''{1
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won
Chromium-Containing
Exhausts
..
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. ...?"
Comhustion Chamber
ARh
,'::?N;"
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incinerator.
Has f C COli f f gtl !':It i "II ,"
"10111 Ie i p;ll
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t

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----. ---- .-..----.-.........., --_.-----".._L_'.._-.-.u..-_~--
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the ox1da~ion steis is dischar ed from the
Figure 2-7 presenJs a sche~~ti diagram of a
'!!' 48
typical multiple-hearth sewage sludge incinerator.
Figure 2-8 represents the basic operations found in a fluidized-bed
unit. 50 In this operation. dew ate red sludge is introduced into the freeboard
area of the incinerator Just above the fluidized bed "acartel (,-nith is
usually sand)'. Hot combustion gases rising f,.r. om the bed etap"rate remaining
water in the sludge and sludge solids then en5er the fluid, zed bed. The
organic constituents of the sludge are oxidiz&d to carbon ioxide and water
vapor which exit the system as exhaust ..ga.ses~;:i;:,'DUri~g thislrea~tiOU the bi~d..
is vigorously mixed and the bed temperature is mai~~ained .t 704-8169 ~.
~; ..... ..' . . ' 't .
(l, 300-1, 500F). Remaining inorganic sludge ~'ir1ateri'al eith r deposits' 'on the
bed sand particles and is removed from the bottom of the rlactor. or it ~an
te mace to exit ~ith the exhaust gases. Air velocity thro~gh the bed 15
used to control the ~echod of inorganic sludge material rekoval. Ch~cmi~~
emissions from this type of system are dependent on ai~ fl~w velocity
50 I
through the bed end the ~hromium content of the sl~1ge. 1
The potential for the volatilization of chromium durihg the
I
incineration of refuse and wastewater treatment sludge is ressened because
of the low vapor pressures exhibited by chromium at the terperatures
encountered in these combustion systems. At 760C (1,400 ) the vapor
pressure of chromium is 6.1 x 10-8 mID Hg and at 0 F) the vapor
pressure is 4.4 x 10-5 mID Hg.46 Test data from one sludge incinerator
indicate chat uncontrolled chromium emissions can be as 10 as 8 pe~cent or
. 46 51)
the potent~al amoun~ present in the waste sludge.' Si ilar test data
from another sludge incinerator contro~~ed by a wet scrubb r indicated that
~nly about 0.01 percent of the potential chromium emission from the
controlled system were being released rnto the atmosphere. 6,51 It appears
that the majority of the chromium components of incinerato, wastes remain in
the ash produced by the combustion.46
Information was not available in the literature on the chemical. forms
in which chromium is found in municipal refuse and sewage ~lricge. The
. . ~
chemical forms and resultant valence states that occur.are probably varied
the sterile ash produced by
bottom of the incinerator.
2-25
...'.
3:!:;~i'
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~~?!
.'
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..' .
,:." J.
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,'\:;.;
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......~,,~..,.~~~r~~~~~~"'~~~
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~~~:~.::.. : '~':'.
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.,
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~.
d,
Chromium-
C.:>ntaining
~ Exhau ts
f
~r}'
~'
,>
Dryicg Zone
~Comb'.J5: ie-:-:
t II A:.r ?.i?-':~:::-:
p!:'
f'
~
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I
. .
~
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r.
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c
f
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V
Ash Discharge
.;
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.'
.,
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~
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W
!
SchemAtic diagram of a typica~
seIJage sludge incinerator.lo8 /
- Itiple-hearth
Figure 2-7.
2-26
1,\

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~u.~
'-:"_1.""'''''''''-'- ~..
. "-'~""Oo' -.~-.....,.~-_....._..~......~'_. ~,.,~...-....u.~""'.a-....~.".,,~~...,...~
Chromium-
Containing
Exhausts
Sand
Feed
fluid ized
Sand
?ressur~
Ta~
Accces-
UQors
Figure
\:",,"J: """~'"
....'='; ~ -.o'T' ,.....;;;.c.'~t" -a..~ :
- .....-,.... -
~
lj
~... :.
~
,i
t
S i.;,:1:: Glass
Prehear.
::I~=::e:
T;,er::Jocoupie
"'lua;e
Ir.le c
Air
Inlp.t
II
2-8.
Sche::Jatic diagr.am or a typical
sewage sludge incinerator. 50
flui
J
~
"
ized-bed
!:
2-27
."'t.
" ,,.
:;'::;::S: :W:~ ':/
. ,
~...-~ .
~-~:~~~-=:~f~~~Q~i~-: -
~ .. ...''; ~.,",,-.....::--;:~-'
..~.(.
...~.~ r", r. ._. - '.' ;~ -
"
.~:
. ::::.,
. .

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~

'~~'-i:



7 provit:,: ~::,'

city/state l~cations of the refuse and sludg incin~r3t~rs.
31 47-49 57-64
respectively.' .
2.8
STEEL MANUFACTURING
Chromium is emitted during ehe production of steel because various
forms of chro~ium are used in the steel processes as batch raw materials.
Chromium is added directly to the' furnace melt as fe':-robhroC:iurn or it ca:1 be
a componene of sc=ap steel that is fed to the melting frr~ace. The major:::
of r.hromium CO:1sumed by the steel industry is used eo manufac:ure stainiess
I
!
,
I....
f:
'." ,~
. ',",;;' . ,', ..:.~;. ..-r,. .
2-2

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;'~~iJ. .':'.;,.''0: ',-,:,:,.',,(i-\...~;;~~t~~J~,,'''H,t:1,:~.:,., . "", .~. ..:.:..).,'t\...~-
~~~.'j~\'i:~1~\~\' ~'i~;'; J:''';\:""b)~-s,..}'';"~''''!'':''':~;/;f}
~,.,,~,~~,';f'~M'>'~;f}~W~";" .',," .,'." ";'e.:


P' ~ . ,""''>'
~....,....,
-'.."", .---
i;;';~;'i; 'Iii {;'~;4
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and depen~ on the nature of the primary waste sources., Becaut.e 'of the
, ,~~i I it!
highly oxidizing conditions present in refuse and sludge ~nci~erators.
trivalent chromium compounds in the sludge would tend to be oX~dized to
he~avalent chromium compounds. This condition would be itportant in the
case of wastewater treatment plants that receive large wastewater loads froGJ
trivalent chromium sources such as leather t~nneries. I'
All chromium emissions data that are available in the literature are in
~\':
r;'
!f:',
~;,:'
11>,'
[;iJ',
f::
" ,
~~
terms of total elemental chromium. "Table 2-5 summarizes
he chromi'Hu
t: '
I
emissions data used to determine in, cine rat or chromium emi sions for the ii,
modelling/exposure study. The average values for both re use and SlUrlg~;~
incinerators shown in Table 2-5 were applied to controlle ,overall ,,1
~particulate emissions data to determine chromium ~miSSion estimates f~r the
"'mode lliog/ exposure analys is. Particulate emiss ions':- es t 1mr tes for !:\un~:~ipa1
refuse incinerators were obtained fro!:\ the results of a p~cvious U, S. EPA
57 I
investigation of the~e sources. For the sewag~sludge ~ncineratcr so~r~~5
particulate emissions estimates were obtained from NEDs.3~
I
Stack geometry data ~or municipal refuse:,incincrators used in the
modelling/exposure analysis were obtained fro~"RefereI!s:e
. . '. ~

information for refuse incinerators was obtaiped from re:rences 57 and 58.

. .t- ~ 1 \
Both stack. geometry and location data for sewage sludge ;~ ~',nerate rs I.'ere
',', 31 ' ,~

obtai;::mf::: :~::l~:::~;:::~ure 129 j, icipal refuse '~(cinerators and

141 sewage sludge incinerators were idenfied to be exis ence and were
:~ 1 . . ~

included i~ the modelling/exposure analy~is. Tabi~s 2-6 nd 2-7 provide t~c
~',' I '
R1ty/state l~cations of the refuse and sludgeinc1~erators.
<, 31,47-49..57-64 ,; 1,' '
respectively. fl J~~', ,J
'.. ~'. ..~~.; 't' : .
"
~:
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~\ .
~.'
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~,',
~..
Location
d,
~': "
"
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~
,
;:?:.
;".''S
t-:
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,:6~
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::..
i,:
" .' ), i'i,
Chromium is emitted during the producj ,~on ot'~teel because various

forms of chromium are used in the steel pr, r~sses as batch raw materials.

Chromium is added directly to the furnace I ' t as fe~roch~omium or it can be
" I
:melting furnace. The majority
,used to manhfacture stainless
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2.8
STEEL MANUFACTURING
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a component of scrap steel that is fed to

of r.hromium consumed by the steel industryJ
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TABLE 2..5.
CHROMIUM &~ISSIONS DATA FOR M~256 L REFUSE
AND SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATORS
Incin,erator Type
D 3,b
Chromium E issions dta
Sewage Sludge
7. 00
9. 00
2. 00
3. 00
t. 00
00
~g/g
ug/g
ug/g
ug/g
c
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\Jg/g
Average
3. 14 ~g/g
~tunicipal R~.L.lse
t
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ug/g
Av~rage
aAll values are coctrolled chrom~u~ emissions.

Ecissions daca are if'. terns of '.;g of chromium:~~per g c: parciculace
matter emitted. ,J}

cTwo sepiate cests had emission factor ."alues of 1,000 :Jg g.
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Manchester (2)
Merrimack (2)
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Jersey
Atlantic City
Gloucester County
Mercer City (2)
Ocean 'City (2)
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Amherst (2)
Hamburg (2)
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LOCATIONS OF SEWAGESL~GE INCI~RA ,oiS3.1.46 .47,~:~~~.~~'\' .. '~f,~j,},i: .
. ',:$ff?}" ,.':ff},i,':~'Y,'-" "'~'''''')6:~
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TABLE 2-7' (CON~:~~.
,': ,~.,..', .
':
State,' City (no.' ofinc1nerators
,if 'more than ,1)
1-
Ui '
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,r ~:~r.
V::sinia
. -
. ,3
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Washington
Longview (2)
Vancouver
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West Virginia
Charleston
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Wisconsin '
,'" ',:Green:Bay
.'i: Menasha
Milwaukee
(2)
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Wyoming
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. '~~~~i~G.r>.i.yt0~f;;.

',~~.Ij;Jt,(At:.~,'t,."" :',.,,2:' f t ...' . ' .
, ''{/,t'... T ,"\ ( '\' ',' ,..'..' ~ '~~1-:.1:, ,
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,,,, ,I, ,.., , "~.
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~i~t"",>. ,..,.,~~.~~~~;:~~llOY ~:~~.,~".In 1981 approximately"93 per~;:ent })t 8t!el ~~dustry
"~,;;:,:"':',,: ' , .:,~,~!.C)1I1~Um"~~~~~~~on ,was used for stainless an~it~l~I ste ls.
.,;Xi.:,,',: '. '-:.i:':':~~'\:B.cau8e:' of.'the large percentage of chr,f)mium 'coQ:iump~ on associated vith
'y.!"""'. " . ...... ',,' ': - ". .. ' ,{:-:.:,:..
., ~ ';, '" ",',: ';itaiDl...:, aud,.lloy steel production and the chromium' emi sions potential

)~~~',~..:' ' ,,:';,!~~r~~'~t~d:\;, '~~~s co~sumption. the IDOd.l~{expo~u~e a alysis

,,,':~J.:::, ,./cr~c.ntrated ,on facilities producing stainles'.' and alloy teels. The types
. ;~;"" ."~:f_":,, "'. ,:"., .
~t;, ~f' steel produ~tion facilities that produce chromium stai less and alloy

~;.;,: ,~ieels and that win:e addressed in this st~y are electric arc furnaces

:~t: ""(EAFs) and basic oxygen'~rocess furnaces (B,OPFs). 66.1n .a dition to these
l)/'" " ..' . '." ;';.
~'~', ;: two types of steel furnaces, there is another type knovn':. s an argon-oxygen
rt~ " , ~., . ~ . :
~~~:';:;" decarbudution (AOD) vessel that v~s ad~reS8~d in the ch omium
"':::;'" .' L\ "'
~i:':" modelling/exposun analysis for the stee'~ industry becaus of their
, ,,:;~;} . ~/.: '66 67 68 !1,
J~1;;, ' demonstrated potential to emit chromium.:.." Arlon-o gen
,;\? ,..' , ',""

~-c, ::::r::;::.::::v:::':~: :~~ ::;i::::lf:~::'h:::t~~~r:: ~i:: :::~::~~ion

~~{:,~;'''': " H1$h quality all~ steel produced by anEAF, 1~ Oft.~unter refined b"Y
j'~;':'1 remelting 1~ an, A~D. , If' ~, ,
~~i~ '" , " A typical 'w used to produce stain1eJJ,',..: ;nd alloy,. st el is sho'-'t\/in
ti~ 69 ,i; fi "-" / I
rfth, Figure 2-9. C~Iomium is emitted from an EAr as particutaces during
t;;f:, ' melting,ref1nin~ charging, and tapping oper~tions. Melting rere:-s ~o the
"" ,initial melting of, steel scrap and ocher raw materia.ls in I the high
i.e,/' temperature en,~~"onment of the furnace. Ref~ning inVOlve~ bloving oxygen
::~<:,. into the molteir'ste.el bath for the purposes ,:of speeding u the melting
,if.':/;.' ' ,pr~cess.ad~u:~~tg the chemistry of the ste~~\' and ~:~;;~h ating the steel
:~~:': ':_',' ,b,ath. OXygen:~Oving results in increased.~.th and gas t m~eratures, gas
.,~f,?~j~i/',' \,;,:"L~~,~l, ';tiO,:""\~.,'~,~, "ineration of part1eu1~t, I,' :":,:,ti,~~,~r~, ng refe sto the, operation
~;~~~':~(;,;.::::,: . "ge~era~1n~ ~perations vhile charging and' ~~PPing are fugit~iYe emission
,:,.. .:' senarat'f.ns oparation.. Both proeess atid f\iS1tiva amis,io . a
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Ret-:-actable'
Elec:rodes


~ t
~g~ing

I I
, I
. f'
:(,
...,'
j-,~
:.~
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:!."..tJ~(t
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,':1

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Figure 2-9.
Typical
.' .1
electric arc~el
69
furn ceo
.
i
t
.
.
t
2-41
- .

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.": .';-)':~' " ..")

. '. :.,;)I.r!f{

. .' I C "I
. ( . ~ ~.,:
"~.' :~.,':<,;~
: !;..
-_._~~
L-. ~~,-----..,..~~~,.,..,.~
..~ .-'-'-'-~ ~ ~":I~~
{~~r<::'< .
'.\
. j:',
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. .,
(.t.'
,.'ffi
. ~,: ~ ~.
. .,". .;~j~:::~",' '."'.
.,;:P. ','. ,'. ,t, '"," .' ," , , ....
.~ ..''1n.oluble Chro~~ oxide. . Hexavaient ~r~~' "
'occurr1nl as a res~t ot the oxidizing .nviro~t
'.\' .'
I ~
information i8 ava:s..abli to determine the relative leve of trivalent a::c

hexavalent chrom1~pre.ent in total EAF chromium emiss on5.

The balic eqJfjment configuration iu". BOPF ,u~~7I'aC1l1tY i5

illu~trated in Fi~'~e 2~10. 71 ' for a typical stee~.. cycle that tot,lis

between 40 and 80 minutes the BOPF i8 first tilted tOYa ds the charging
. :.
aille and cold scrap metal is added. Hot metal from th blasr. furnace shep

i. then poured ont~p'of the scrap chars"~ Following t ese activities t~e
. ~;.( "
vo.sal is returned. to the upright position and th~,~~g n lance 1s lo~erec

into place in the BOPF. After blow1ng oxygen for~~ut 10 to 15 minutes

inte. the metal the steelmaking vessel is tilted ~~f'rds the charging ai~~e

for sampling (turndown). If the metal meets prl)d~c~sp cific:1ti.ons, ca;:,;:,':':-.;;

of the BOPF begins~ If sampling shovs that the m~t~l 1 yet to
,~ .~ ~
specification the vessel is returned to an ~pt{gh~:posi ion a~d more ox:be~
. ./'i.' ,( .. J ). '",

'1ia blown (reblow1ng). The metal is sampled "~fter',:ft'ach eblolol unt.i~ prccuc:
spec1fica~ion metal is produced. For tapping or remov1
the BOPF, the vessel it tilted avay from the ~harg1ng a
)" .
teeming 81sle locateci on the opposite side of the BOPF. . 'The colten hot
product metal is poured into teeming ladles which empty into molds locatec
in the teeming a1sle. Following tapping, the vessel is tilted back tOlola,ds
the char~ing aisle and slag 15 emptied into ~~agg1n~'po s. At this pnint
,.,' 72
the BOFF is ready for another steel~k1n8 'cycle.
In non-chrotUum steels chromium that is present in the hot ceta 1 ar,.:
scrap charges 15 only there 8S a contaminant. C~nseque tly, for
non-chromium steelmaking operations potential source~ 0 chrocium emissions
1ncl~de oxygen blowing (process emissions) a~~7UgitiV:~ emissions from all
th. other process 'operations previously descr'~ed. I;Ji S universal practice
toc:apture emissions from oxygen blowin.. followed by, ,re' oval in a wet

. . ./ . J'. . .~
, . ., :,. 8crubber or ESP. Som!;. steelmaking shopS"alio 'capture s me of the fugitive

. ,~." I i, .'. t-,.'.. .' .
. ,"'emisdons gen~rated by cha:rging, turnd~. taP'p'~ng. and
them to fabric'filters, wet scrubbers, or ESPs. All of
emissions is
Sv
.'
~::'"~.
I':..
: '~.
.~) .
..
., ~.
g product metal fro~
n
s1e and to~ard the
..'
.."
...
. .
.~\
.};'
f:~
'; ~ i:
c

~~.
q",
:.~:
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s1agging and route
these general
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~
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~ ".~:~t'::::
ift~f#".:;Q'${'i';:i",\;;Ji/j1., ,'..
2-42
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if(.
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. - < '.'-

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DOTTED I.IN~~ ~~HO~ POSI IONS
ij \ O'...T1L.HO 'UIilNACe: ''''0 t;II.,.
\ I'I~OOO )'OjWI<4EH C:~UGI~G SC~. ,.

V / "", ,
'U";;Y , -' :. " ,,' ;

~ ~ ,...

U'"),.- ~';.:'
A
\
J
~x
r,
I,
LoAOl.E
AOOI rivE
'I""''''5FE''
CAR
, .
II ..~~.
1\
CI'IU~E- ~
SI.ACi POT ON
'l'RANS'[II C""
i :
j
'l'EEMING
I.AOLE ON
'I''''N$'[''
CA"
..cr-"ETAI.
r"ANS'EA
\,.AOl.E ON
rlUNS'E" CA~
IN PIT
, ,
.,
\
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Figure 2-10.
.~.
Schematic cross1t~e~
oxygen process turUI
,
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2-43
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~t\~.~:,?~.'{',':,:"~, j.!",;~~",t 1",..C,' U.'l".t~.O,:~, t.. ro,~', ,',:.,fh, niques are .ff.,iC:~ ~,.'."~.,;'~,J~.' r,~t.,'~,,'~," chr6'mium emissic:-.5
'~if:~iJfW+' :(':;,I.~frqll,tt'8lma\dng ":":'1:(1'; , '~&{",';~':', /:'
'~f,;i, i1;~;;!;,:N,:.,..", '. ~,<',',:}',.:'~'~,;.'~~Ci.:,Y;.i,'~" '''',.1,,'. " :~~.~.J.. ." ~.'.I.~~d.:'l~~,:,',.' ',: '~. ~, :',',',,4 \,'~,,')" u a~,d' & ~ 1'O,Y ,;, ~tJI, .ti'~~,">, ,;;\,'~h '.',,~, .~" , ',~~', . a~d e del the r
1!-.',,;-,::' "'1:":1,;;:",or:;~,i1'~''fI!Ii!:'"'' ,.i..f:"v',"'" ';',',' " .' :""\'~""I'R' ""~,' \',',.,,: " , ,

':~<,'!' ,'" ' CJ}f};~~~~~$.r.~:~~~~~y{!~~~~::.,~p:P1~8 01' di~~:~t}y>~t:', e.:; :,Im! a.:,ladle. "
;,,:,:;::,' ,;J.:;i;:~';P"O~"~'D~~t,~/~~1'om1u.t1t~lIi"ion. an ~'~':}~~:~1~ iOC };during tapp lng and
.~Jt~}i(~;~i;':\::::;\~::~~';~:~.i;tt~~\;::ift~~:Yi.'dd~~i,Ch~Om1um) op.t~tt~~.~~::::" 't:, 'ta!, !4d1t1un to the
~'f"11~;{.\t':,:,;"-::::')(i'~~~8,' h'dl~~~ffd d~rins teeming (pourina hog~;~j': ";io" ~"'~~ld8). The

.. . " ,'" :i, It.
~1:", ':" ,majo1'1tyof c1\1'omium eunions from 8tdnles. 'aud.
;~i'~::; . th~1'.fora.'fug1tive i~,:.,~~,~ture. Capture and cont,rOt;

I"" " ", ,", , '
:.;1,~,~;.::'> ' :. V.~:",','- 101, .~tent~ a~,r~'~,l, _r,'~. induetry to controt t~~
i~~~::, , ,,' ~~.~~,~~~~ :A1:~ith nO~1!f0ll11um ateel production o'p
~~~,:>;~ , ,.,~:.'.mus\1t'es. underta~en to ":reduce overall particulat,e
~<.,...,., , , ," '''''''. '
~~~~:~~':," , ": ,.!.f~~t~v. .~~ ,reducing ch'romium emi.ssions.
'.~~:.',-,,-~ ',.0;:',>,...,..", ':.~'.'..
~;j~:.:,::', , :<' :'.'<' Chro,m,iulI.: ,.,,..19&1ons from BOPFs do not appear t~'

~(:f-t,:.':., " , ' ,,1!,~n as ~ell ch..acteriud as EAF chromium '3m15810,' '. 11 chromium e~1sslon

~~,;~:,>:.; ':';,:;,'.~~t~,':~t~r... ritPorte~ in the literature for B~,PFs "~, re ~.: Je..~ed as element{al
~,.~."..., ' . ,,' '. , " 73 74 ' ' ' rr: ,..~. ,,) "!\
~i.:;:;{, .".:(,.~~tOmium.,' ,~'No inj,0rmation 1sproIT1d8d on' th.~:_. !eu~ ence of triv~lent1'or

:f!:!?;',:::;" :, " ':h~xaval.nt ch~01D1um ,c&mpounds. It is ant1c1pated.~ '.~w~~ er. that because {I

'- ~;{,,'~;j:.:. ",,81111141' chr9~1u~:raw materials are used brEAF. an,. B,0P s and both have high
01" . . '. '.. . '"..' 't. r
"\:.'~ temp~r.atur,e oxiditing environments. chr,om1um .m1ss ftS from SCPFs should
contain trivalent (chromium oxide) and h.xav~l.nt~ m compounds ~1~ila~
''--',-r,l
,',,'i to W"c~~omium emissions. ,,",'(i
,;~:?:~:" A~5g~~oXylen d,ecarburiution vessels such as:t ,';\t S \own in F1g~~e 2-1 i
;K'?~'~" 'areu..~r't:'o refine steel that has previously bee\'\ t:lel!:!tu in an EAF.
t~~~-:'.. . . '.", . "t .
gf.J;;",'.;. ,,',Cbri;)m1ufDemi8.s1ons from 1000 vessels occur because of c:hr mium cOl1taint!d in
J1t;(.;~.: ,'." :-'- :'i/\.::.' '. " ";.':' .' .~. . ~j,..

If>..'. ..':':':s~~m:~::l ;::.~:::.:~::~:::::~.:::~.;::~:: l~::~:::::::' a::'

tt~j).~:<':j,l~~~\'" '~"lre~'t:.~l!'a1;~lnl: th~ argon-o~len blowing ~~~'f11Uni per ods. Emissions
~r,r:'. >~' '.<.~f*, ..', , . '.. ,;', .', '''.".. '. . . '.?:' '. ~:/. .~:
~f.\'j>" " "\'::::,froll charging., tapping. and turndown op'1'aUous 81'11 un ,,1 for a variety of
';~:i~:' "':'''~.~,son~th~~, ,~tII specifically related ~~/"~~,5'8S1an of "::AOD vessel.74
t~~\t":, ::,', ."AVa1~labli,1ntomation indicates that eli'f uiiJ~.miuion. rom AOD vessels are
~i~:i~hL:":: ':'?~~idOll~Jt-l1':{i~: ~he tOrql of tdval.ui".' """'tm ~~1d''!f!,,~ No hexavalent
... .'/
,',















""'0 '~''j,J!.. ,b, .;1<".' ""p,,~,\,"D ..,., ,',\' "". '." r'" ,," ,'r .,. "'- jJ,jQ~rd,
~.:~~;.:..~ ,/4f'';j'i'.'' J ,:~":.~{..o,.t~...'~)~:, :~:,\-', L~ ';'.-i.-:.'.+- ::.:~ >A, '-~~~:.,-: """:'d"'':'~ ..,~:L~~ <.J,.;~/.<"-,....
, ," ~~I
'':r~
, "
I \
',1
are generally
" .

-------
;-'"
,'J',
.-,
~~, ..... ~ tl'.,oj,I""
" . I,; '. ~'. r;.. " .'
N41.~<;, ':-~i~'-,,: --
..' ..:, ;",., .' ~ . , "; ".~
iM!,.'.-
.("U~;
;t' ,
't".
~..
VESSE:L TOP
*
t
)
-,
-,
t . ...~.
Figure 2-11.
Argon-oxygen decarburizatio.
, 1 75
e .
"-
;J'
.f
:-t<:. '
!
.\.
I!"

-------
.--........
~~?",,,,'~' '


~"""
~;'-
~'
F,
f
~
~'
r,
"
~r
1~'
~
-r'
.
~_...........~.,;_..-...i..~
~"-_.,-~ ............-.-.~.~~ 1>'"
- .-
"~.I~"'}' ',' ',". '..W;
.'" ',-~;~
,JY, ,.{~""q,
',,',':~~r
.[t~

'~.'.c.
,
I.
"
. . "
. "
, ,
"
...,
'~\
" ,
. . ,"
chromium emlss10ns have been lden~lfied '1zi AOD vessel em, ssians. ho....eve r. it
:}
18 expected that they are present because ch~,,:9.mium in the trivale:1t fo~ :5
I 7 ':>
known to be oxidized,at certain phases of the decarburiz tion process.
"~' ,
Attempts are made to ccintrol the amount, 0 chromlumq~cl tion taking plact?

by carefully controlling AOD vessel gUj ,'ows. ga.'~~~ es. and

temperature. 'fi h,:",~<,,\.\, 'J, ,

, , ,Chrom1um ,emissious estimates for"" ~p~~'~s oi .' ~{mOdelling/ exposure
:. .:. - " .-<, . <':\., ~'.. / ',' '.~i . .
:,:,:~~~t:~,~~ w,~~:{p~epared for each EAP. B~~~;,,:,'ld AOD "','i,'kn,own to be making

'nainleas and aHoy steel. Uncontrolle'd:i'II'iltticuli\te. ,:chromium emission

factors, expressed:'in terms of producti~;n. for~s t ,;OD v~~sels were
~'1 ." -~:
availabl~ in Reference 65 for melting, refining, ~harg ug, and tapping

operations. Usinb these data chromium eission f~~tors ~ere calcuiated for

,~, EArs and AOD vessels. These factors, 0.80 kg/Mg (1.59 lb/ton) for EAFs and
I
0.43 kg/Mg (0.87 lb/tcn) for AOD vessels, were applied tb estimated

stainless and alloy steel prot:'.l::tion capacities at the dbmestic EAF and AOD

vessel sites to determine potential uncontrolled chromiu~ emis5~ons, Based

on estimated control e~uipment and control eff;l1encies ~or EAF and AOD

ve~~~~~~miSSions given'inReference 76, an aver~e co~tr[l percentage of

97 percent was applied to the uncontrolled 'chromium elf Sf ions totals. Stack

geometry data for EA.Fs and AOD vessels were taken fro,~, tro U. S. EPA report s

involving these sources in which dispersion modelling~,~an(l exposure
77 78
assessments were made.' The stack data used for EAFs and AOD vessels i~

~iS study are presented in Table 2-8. Geographic coordinate locations for

all EAFs and AOD vesels identified were obtained from NEDS information.

Chromium e~,issions estimates for BOPFs weri~ prepare, in a ~ imUar

manner to that nsed for UFs and ADD vessels. Theone i,controll.d ehromCuc

::~::~::nf:::::i::: ::~; ~::e::::sf::dt::e:u:::::i~;dt(:: charging

, me ,dell1ng/eXPt)sure~I'" alys1a the factor vas tssumedf,C; be~apPlicable to the
chromium emissions l all BOPF operations. ,.~ The unc:ont oHed emission
~~'. ?
factor was multiP11~d by the amount of BOPF production CI~pacity
manufacturing stain~ss and alloy steels t.,~.' de~;r.;;ne ttIle rate or
uncontrolled ChrOmi~IU;S"iSs1ons at each ~rt;' Fror Ref"ene. 76, ""

4J
, .
\~
,"
2-:4~"

-------
';11 ..,..,

,/~tr '
~'\'J'!'
~\~~ ,.
.W';
.r
1
.~
TABl.E 2-U.
STACK CIWNETRY DATA lISED !'Ol{ El.ECTRIC A\{~7}o'~6NACES
ANO ARCON-O}''1'GEN DECARUIIRTZATION VESSELS'
.~~~?
 Productloa Capacity Stack Height Stack Oiameter Gas Temperature G~s Flow Rate 
Source Mg (tons)/hr m (ft) III (ft) K (OF) m Imin (acfm) 
EAF < 90.7 (I 00) 30.5 (I 00) 2.4 (8) 394 (250) 3.538 (125,000) 
EAF > 90.7 (100) )0.5 (100) 3.7 (I~) 394 (250) 10,896 (385.000) 
 .- ',',_r--,           
AOD VCB~el < 90.7 (100) 30.5 (100) 2.fj (R) 394 (250) 3,679 (130,000) ~ _.......~~-_:--
AOD Vessel > 90.7 (J 00) 30.5 (100) 3.7 t U) 394 (250) 14,858 (525,000) 
    --~.._~_..        
. - .
.#.~.~.
~.
.,.:;.-~..,.i~
~:::;~,

. ':"~
'1~?
.~
,~..c....
".f'ri".
"-1,.,.
~~:~~:.
: ~~~.~:~~~ .
<..J/~IL--->~.~~~..
:~
i:~
.,:~
~>.
f
,";.~;;~~--::,,~~
.' '-.1.--"
~;.:. ::'~ - ~h.i ~
,'~~-
- :.
,-,-I':
:;-
. :-~)..
''''''.
;.
.:'
;; ,:..
',,;'.r.,"
!
\
\
j
.,
.., ..::',

-------
'~;f/~.fj\~ '.'

N
'''.' I

;~::~~,,::::~'< ~ ..' -'-~
."" ,.,'

.~~~.~.::~ ;~.:",

"\,~.( -',


:~~
,,~~ -
~I~ ..,.-" """'..' - ~--
: ?-
"
'!'
";
:~';>
TABU: 2-9.
STACK G\~OHETRY nATA USED FOR HASH; OXYGEN PROCE~S FURNACES80
I'~~
BOPF Type
Primary Hood
Type
Control Device
. 272 Hg (300 ton) top blown Open Wet Scruhber
        *:~'~~7""'~ 
27'l. Mg (JOO ton) top b10wn Open  ESP
272 Hg (300 ton) top b 10\0/11 CloHed \~e t Scrubber
272 Hg (300 ton) bottom blown Closed Wet Scruhl>,' r
272 Hg (300 ton) bottom blown Open  ESP
       ~JU : . J.~)U~.ij: , 
l36 Hg (150 ton) :op blown CloHed Wet Scrubber
CiS Flow Rate
m /:11111 {acfm)
Gas Temperature
K (OF)
.~
~
355 (180)
. i
'.' _.~.,;:,.t

t
\6,860
(596,000)
27,61'>0
(977 ,000)
477 (400)
'4,896
""7tr73:000V~ -' '~-"355""tl80)"o:'
5,4%
(194,000)
355 (180)
3\ ,020 (1,096,000)
477 (400)
"f'
I
t
~
. r

~...<-t..
. ~~~,,!,:,.,.,::J"""~;'v..'
;~~~,,Q..:T' Y':>; .~,. ".. .. . " '.,~ .. "f.e:,./' .'.


'-1~ !
"
"-"".,-- .' ,...,:,..;..
j
{'o ,. .
355 (180)
2,436
(86,000)
:.-~~~~~.-!.~-.......~.-.
,,~ ~>;-"...........-......
?"'~
.,...,,,..,,,~>
.-;,
':"", ..
,.~.
,~.
;...~
.~~~'
'/~'~"
t..,,;~.:;...'.."'~'
'."': ~:'.' " ,'"
"~:,j~l,fn':-i:~:'~ "
.;:~,~~I~,:i:~'>
"~ ....;.'"'>T>'''''''''''.r:-'1._T::J
:;--'~- <;1'
~",J,.J:.
.:-.;'::-.{."
.~ -. ~~~-:;:;
- .:~. {,~ .,::.-. .
.~:." ""'.<:~i\~~.~:~-.'~:::"~
..
. ~~.:l:J :UJfir )~~'f""",
, . "
.:~~,,' "~.j
" ~.>---
.:~.
4.
;;~":> r
-. I
::i:~;.:.E~;L;',:-
.:o~;,:. }~~E{P',L - ..::~;",~;i:~',',:! '; ~/ .. . . ~.,!.~,;:;
, ," "......" ,'i:.""""''''- -' '.-"" '"..~'"'' ~...'. ...';.J..\(~,.~-,7":=;~~-4. . ". -. b: .,,;.:1::
::.. ~t'~:"'-:-:~:":;M" -:~..;~'::":',,~:,"':'~'-l.'"...~.~~t-....; ...-c' -~~~'~',}""'P9~
,
,
.
-'-'-.",,- ':.'.,:,,~' ".> '
... - .-. .. .-" -_.'~

-------
~""J,"''';;':''".~i,: ';;'V~.,,-';;';';,J'''.',,:J,':t"'.:'!~'c~.};''/..~~--<'";\fi\:;~''i,\ '.'~ 'I' ';'?""r
~...v,<-Pt"""""":]l"" ~ ,.,.~-.r. 1""~'Y-r~,.)<;J:t .._~: t~.J.< ,'\...;C;.,....... I .),,~'.

~,i',~!'tr;''{;j~~~{f~:}{JN'l''t~.,.::.". ,,', f,"~'




. '.\"
t.t~;\(
~':';~~:~
~\~~
~'. .


~r' "
~"';',c"r}{~'";..
~",.,
~'"''''
~f'~:':'
&,
~:;-.: "
~r:: ,
i5.,;:' ,
~}~
~~'.,~"": .
~t,'
~'J1".' ,

-------
-~-~-, --,
..-.' -..-..-. .
/;~~~~~"'t.~~:.....~.; ..,~:' /!<:"'.(. . ".' '." .
. (-tijlfii~~~q'i.,~f~~..~.~~~;~..: Vir:ff~':'i';} W~";115~~~ " ~ '/: :,!,:,'~;~~~::}.; ,', :';.~ ,1!i" .
';:;::~~;r'~:.~,;'!\:':';,~;"" .'; "':C":'

.f'i:'
~,'.
',' ";':~~~':,'Wi:<'"
't, '.~:. ~):: '~:~~,~{;yi,':' ~"J.:. ."i,~;},!~~.:;,~,,~, ',~ :i;:~,~;.; ; .

, . . ".:
~f';"":
~., I'
. ,''''
I..
I
';/:<{~:"
, . ;:'~,~: /~~. ~
f~:':'.
, "
,.
..../'t:.
J~ If. . ~~,::
NUMBER AND LOCATIONS ELECTRIC ~~
IDENTInED TO BE EMIT'NG CHROMIUM
",r-
',";:.'
(CONTINUED)
TABLE 2-10
FUlUiACES
I'
i~'
/'$:'
~,<...
'I
6,
,,'
..
,;-',,".'.
Plant Location
(State/City)
\'Numbe
of Furnaces
\,
Indiana
Kokomo
New Castle
East Chicago
Fort Way.\e
  "
 4 }:
 4 ,';....
 ~ r'"
 2 
 3 
 2 
 2 :11,
. 
v. 3 
" 
" .
,
::~~
:-I~:. . ,
Kentucky
Owen s bt.1 j':;
Asnian.:
"~
~"
",
~e'~p~)r"':.
t
I}~
t
Maryland
Baltimore
k::
I:
3
2
5
2
2
1
2
2
6
. ':,'''''
5
2
1
2
3
3
3
",;.
,(!j:,
:f}H(",
',":,
'1{
;\
"
'J.:~'1.i~t;,'
, '.
,'1'1t;,
',:?-,-
Michigan
Dearborn
Warren
Trenton
Ecorse
Monroe
Jackson
ti,
'!
('
,~ \,
f~,
~<,
\'\"~",'.,
:t, "
\,
\1 Ai
~;..(
...',:'
Minnesota
St. Paul
,i
"
Missouri
Kansas City
l
1
I
4
.i
1
j
!
'?r
,,'- "",:.::,
",:~~;\ .
, '~':Y,

/>" "~:'.1/'t. .:..;~,
'~', . 4l'
'>'~':;,.
7 ~~:' - .'.
."" .
" '
,,'
Nebraska
Norfolk
~.':-
New
Jersey
Sayerville
Penh Ambcit

York
Watervliet
Syt'acuse
Lockport
Dunkirk
':1:) ~,
.)- ~}.'
{~-{;,:!'
New
~,
...I!.
;;t'
. .
,.j
i
i
I
'J
!
-t~. -..
'.
2-51
. "
, ,

-------
~';;~ :

~~~,~..

~~t'Io""" :'.f."
~':::'~.'. . .
J'ft\':'.'. .
~H\
~~(;.."
rJ/.
,.,

~:.' .
C..!!~,;,

~g.:

..'.~:' .

~r~:
~'<,'.

, :
r.;: '
~":: .
~'.:
',~.. "
t..
. .~.
. ",'. .~;
.-:.,:"..
. , .
.~~. ~. .
NUMBER AND LOCATIONS OF nEC IC ~5 FURNACES
IDENTIFIED TO BEEIIlTTING CRRtiUM




NumberlOf Furnace,
, .
. ,
TABLE 2;;{jO
"
(CONTINUED) .
': ,'.,
, .
no""
f'
, Plant"t!o~at1on
".': ~ (St,ate/City)
Ohio
Warrer.t'
Mansfield
Cleveland
Canton
.~
-,
, ,~ .
'~-!'
'p
5
2
2
15
2
5
3
9
6
2
5
3
6
7
3
1
1
3
2
2
3
4
2
5
1
4
2
4
2
5
3
:~
l?
Oregon
. Port land
Iif!' '
Ji "
ii

~":".,.'
~:'
,:
~:~~~
~r.~

~'....
~,;::,
.~';i~;
',:.-,
..~. .
;~.;(..;_:
';~'.'<: .
.(k.
,~~..
.
'(
Pennsy~vania
Brackenridge
Butler
Beaver Falls
Reading
Lower Burrell
Johnstown
Steelton .
Bet~lehem
Mid iand
Bridgeville
Oakm.:>nt
" ,011 City
. ""Washington
Pittsburgh
Irvine
Erh
C02..tsville
Houston
Duquesne
.. Bu;get,tst~~
, ,,', ';','. Latt:ob,e. ',,:: .':'
:
i:~
.~ of' .
"

~'
r}
~1'

-------
",
-- ..~...4. :i!I I!' ;1--- .
~~, "Ii""'~ ' , ,..: , ,,(,'~' .
..r:"1l'./ {~/~,:'.'.~'. . '(&~':';:'~~~1~1:~~',#~~~~.. .. :~'\:,;.~;, "~.,,,~;:,...,~\\'J~;"~' !:~.;'it':~f~.: '."~
'.jif0b~g, .' :,:.5C:1., ~:~,\;f.;\).d6..'; ~L:;~.():.1:.':,;? ". :::~;':'~~~',~;~:
"j"f "":," ",~,. .,," ,,,.'.,, )t"",,.

. ,~it ~~~~~{,,:,~ :!;,~~;:.~?t:::

. .;i~'~-'. ~~(! .,q,~~ ".\ '. '. .
\~\~~~. ~ . . . '"V\~I"

NUMBEiiAND LOCt-TIONt'OF ELECTR C ~~ FU&'ACES
ID!NJrrED TO B!jITTING CHROfUM
--~~~~,..~~._~......------tI.
-~
f.':'
~':
It-',
~k'.
Po':"
;.~. :-y, ,
I;
TABLE 2-10
(CONTINUED) .
Plant Location
(State/City)
,
:f:;:
I

Lurnaces
Number
'.".,...
Texas
Houston
El Paso
Midloth1an
Longview
Pampa
Jevett
Fort Worth
Bay town
.;.
.~;t.
..?"
~"..<:,
1: -:
"2 .~' (
2.:' f'
F',,>
~.
5J' ,o'.
:c,..',-~
4 i~.,i
4
'.
Utah
,'',.' ;
:,',
Plymouth
~;'~
'.
Virginia
Roanoke
..::.,;,
.,
.,
. f
3
Washington
Seattle
Kent
4
2,
".
.'1,
'"
,','
West Virginia
Huntington
2
":/\,',

~'..
.,~::.' "
"
fro.
"i."
If-:
J.(
, ~.':;~'~~

"'.":<;~1kt :'
~; "'4 ~
" ."'~'
~\
~.,
f~.'
!~~,
.... ~
~~~ .
~~
>',
..~.

0~{
~,~
A
, .~:t
/;,' .}';.'
). (,
'f'
.,~, .
. ',"'.
~
,"j'
..
....'-
. 'r
I ~.
, :.\','
. '-',
1i<
l'
""'.'t..
....:
~. ",... ~ ::. . ,-
!.
'1~~:;:.\
. ~:?{f~~,
.J':r,:(',,~,
: : ~':~;:.
-------
.. I~ :",;J ',:.
i'<4, '
.\\y<,
i, ' '" " ~
t,.:,'
):', !
,', ;.,'
, t
, ~
,~~,\
~, '
~"'.
'~}:.)
),
'~c'
"
[."
\,
: ,;'
""
,~ ;
. ,~;f.'c,!~,\_i,%{:~':"1;:T~L E, ~:lh 'LpCATIONS:P'A1tGONt'X"(,! l.DECARB ~RlrATION VESSELS

~;"~h.'\'. ." ,'",..."<' ".,':' !.,'.',' , -, .'\ " ',' " .' ~\ 60-
<'p' '", ";."', ,'.:1,',""'''.' '",: ,'". ", 'IN THE UNITED STAT,.: '981 . '
~<{:>': ",','" ':"', :', '" ~:~.' " t:,"; ," ,'~:"
~ l/.~r~t~'.. ~ ",,::~'. ,: . ' . ~: ',.
..;\ ":~7fr~~it~~ation ' ~, f~:: I
(State/City) Number of Vessals
     '  
     "  
 Connecticut   1  
   ,<  
   "  
 Bridgport I  "'~~  
 Illinois  i  
 Chicago   
 Indiana   ~  
 Kokomo   "; ~\ 2 
", Nev Castle  j /~~  
 Fort t."
~t; ~":.
~~" t


f'~f:,.:

(~'p'1':'F:," ';~ .
W-:,91.':/", ,j
,~$.",;::c'!,.'::'.
~'I'''.!'J, .;;;, ,:
~'~''':'' . '; ': j;(." ,1';;:, " ,~,: ,~{

~;;::' 2-54 "~ r
~~~itli.~~~~~&@~t~~~~j~}}~\kW~'_~iJJL~~~t ')~;"'!- 'c~.,
Michigan
, Warren
,
~
I
7.
, '
New
York
Syracuse'
Watet'Vliet
Ohio
,.>
MansfielG
Ca~:t.on., ,
.:~~
1
I
, '
Pennsylvania
, Brackenrid~e
Butler
Beaver Fall s
Read ing ,
Midland
Bric1geville
Houston
Burnham
Washington
Oil City
,~;
1
1
'2
1
1
1
1
1
2
t.'
j-
,:
.t,;
},'..
~', .
...
.'j
,,:f,
J
',3
p{
.',
, ,Wasnington
, , . ,-', "":',S~~S.attle
, """':" ' . Y, '.
.~<
"
(,
j'
,
,
1
',)
. ~ (.
\\
~
"
-I
I
..'(
" "I~-'V~

.. :.....;.--:;:..~~, {
. .. ...,.. ., , '

'",- 2 ,'-: ',,', ,'. "',.,~ '., "'-'-"~"=:' . '~ ":--:.'--"~...."..,:~.,"~,:.,:,.iJ:"'~'~":"."\:'.;'",~,'",",:",',:"",~.""'~~~,:~,Y":<:~,)._,~.,,,~.". ,-".'

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,.
,.
0.,
I,
I.
I'
t
!
I
t..
r
r.
I~'

. -

L{ :- - . :<~
,f:'J,:
<~\:..: '~"
:1,r.:/';' ":
)t)
~; ,~~: ~

: . ~:'~7
.l-'~ . .
.'~;' .
TABLE 2-12.
LOCATIONS AND NUMBER OF")
IN THE UNITED. STATES IN:
"
Plant Location
(State/City)
.~
. ~.:.
;:.~ "'~;:/
\'~'~..'~n~


:. :,,' ~ '"
,~.;. 'j~~~
", .~
>:.~?\
~~!...'
~~('
, .
"
CESS, 'FURiIACES
, ,
.'>
:;::. ,
. to:
~~ .'
.\~.:

/', "
Number of Furnaces
""',"
Alabama
Gadsden
Fairfield
Calif ornia
Fontana
'i
j .


I
J
~~. .
Colorado
Pueblo
Illino is
South Ch::.cago
Chicago
Granite City
Indiana
Gary
East Chicago
Burns Harbor
t
Kentucky
Ashland
Maryland
Sparro'.o/'s Point
Michigan
Dearborn
Trenton
Ecorse
New York
Lackawanna
Buffalo
Ohio
Middletown
Cleveland
Warren
Lonin
Steubenville
, ,
j ~.'
, -
'J: r
j. -~.
2':'35
1'--;
2
3
2
2
5
:!
2
, "
. '.."
~ .'
q,
..
6
6
3
2
:!
2
5
4
',i
,,~
.,
fj.
~~:.;,
,}{,..'
~~1i(
3
2
2
4
. ~~J(
.;~::
'.:. ~~"
,',;
:.f1
-"
2
2
2
.~:
~.
.'
, "
.' . ~
.
I j
:b):: .

-------
~~}ffJ:)iJ'\"'" ,'c,'.
#l~::~?::"-', ' "
~: "
~h
!'r~'
. . ',t..
':ci'''~: 'r;::' ~,~';~ f'.:' :. ~t~W(:V~i.;;~;: "
'1f~ "
,I,""'."i

"
.. \
- J:~:{; '-".r~ .
.l/"'" "'jt"I. ,'< '" "
.~:1 '1~/ ..~, ): t.; .'. ~:~~~.

'-?;"'.. .
,~
\',
"
.....,~~... -~.- ~-' ~- -,-
..._~_O-. --
, .,',
i
1
It., .~
LOCATIONS AND NUMB, ER OF B4\S,..,.1 C OXYGEN i,~OCESS
ruRNACES IN TIlE UNI~ED ST AS I IN 1981 ,

: ~: ': ;~. I , .
t. '. 'i. . ~,." ~
"
~
~~;"-: .-
".:{t ~ . :. J
I'
i L
, j,
',,", .
TABLE 2-12 (CONTINUED).
~,
~...:-.

~~',,:,
iii/ '
f~~:',
~h:...,
~~.:~"
h~~:'5\ .
~~~'::';l';:'
.~: .
~'. ":-::~:~.rf .:',~t'~~v.:,~.-,: .
Pia~t'~~Ld~ation
, :,:(5 tat~/C~,ty?
,','~~ { i~
, '(r' f.' '.,;}
, .,,~:t):~j~ ~
i':.."..",
pO:','
"
; ,
'.J-"
..'
, "
bet ;:~~I~~'FU~ ,'ces

; .'.',
f'; :
~~:.'
~.
N
"
~ :
tr"
Pennerlvania
Natt'o'18
BethleheL'
Aliquippa
F art'e 11
Duquesne
Bt'addock
Monessen
i"1
, I
"
~}~;.'"
7.
2
3
3
2
2
f:<"i'
,',

~:,:,
2
',II:
(ii,
:':\:
~~:: -.
~!;.:
West Virginia
Weirton
2
~:
~~;,: '
T.:.
~..
~.~>
t;~ "
~;"'.'
~'"
fi!'
~~'.".",!':.:.-'
','';I,;
~~\.... ,
..

1,'1;:
,~.
,
...;. ~
,~~:
f\i';;

>;:':'.
~"~; ~ .
"." ,"
,j""-'\
,~
. . . ~
i\.j I:'
'J:" ,. ",

-------
'~.~,~
, :,.
'~;-7~ .~~~'~'.
'" ~
.~~'
~
~ ~
"q.!
Chromlte Ore
(and Other Rs", Hat<>rial Orc~)
,     ,~ ,
Ore Unloading  Ore   Ore
and  Drying   Crushing
Storage A I A  A
   "
Smelting
!"urnace
A
.~~>'-
,'.!":-!:-
Fcrrochrome
Screening
A
Ferrochromc
Crushing
A
"'crrochrome
Casting
,.,.
.' ,- 'i~
~ .,.."- \ "-
'.""::l~~
, "j.;-~:;
. -~.. _1~
.......:: r......;';
,i~i i;~';
:J..~~~;~...'t~''I'
Packagiitg~:
','-"".' :-~,;,


;2#.~~':~;h:4~r~;"r-';~j~;tl~&t?, ,
,':. ,.~,~-JttNAL~ FERROCUROHIUH
, ' "-'PRODUC'r't~:~:.
'.' ,'. '.: ~': ."
:-j,""",
.:M~!;'~
,A~:~~~~ '
""~'
',!"-;
FCl'rochrom~'
Storage
:.-t.:t
'!~
<~
. 4
.-',' . .
"
"" ~:-.... -{,'.:
-J_..~}f~ .
!,', ',f
:;'::.~:
:~:.>
..~;;.
.::' \~,~." ::~,':,~~~'
,'j"7
. :'~
..
.;t""-~.....'!;
,~~
.,
,',f~~~~
;:(~;;'~i~ ~~ ';;.',~~,;',:
?%;:~:/t:.:...:,~ '. . " ~ .~::<" '1.~~-.

1ti:i,'" F,g"r~ 2"12,'

10 "",",: .'7'-:". . ,. ,
.~ .; ~~ ~~;..:.: .
~! /;/t .-t.
. ~,
.; ,
'.;<,p.
<.


'ft~
r.cncralized
flClw diagram for the production of
ferrochromium
,:....-.

,83 ,."" ,~~.- . -~:.;,-)*<,
a lloys .,.>;"~::L"'",..:;<~..,.~~~'t'~~~,,~
. ~ . ' . . . ' .~'>~,;;v-.'~S'~:~~
. '~?'{i
, ~
.~~~'~,~.:~~~
.'.. .,-:
\;:..~:~.:'~~j:~:~?:~it.~~~~~(;/; .:f;.'
."
"~-'~ '.':?i;',;~&~:"::~~}~'~;,i;t!..I~G(~~~~;
. ',"'~", '.=.


~i~'h~,~;;;z,,'~ii. ;~i\;:&'iit':;i:;;':~l~~{~;~~~,:~:~>W,
- '":5",
, . .
..

-------
;, ,
~-~
,~
~
~
~
~~
~
I.~..
~
~
?J!
~
~...,
fi}
~i-t.~
?::i
;;~ ~
.::-r;
=,f.'~
;~(
!!.~
t~~
'J'
~;-..
~
i
.f>!'.'
:r~~
k~
~
~h
Jl
'i\\?
t'~
~i~
it;!
~
~?! I."
\fi.l~~

t~;: ..
r}~:': .

r';'
f~J/ .
~,~.( .
1~<:.". "
~r
i~i;'
~f:,:
~fi\..
.',~~' .
~t~t~..

';'f-1h';')"
",-.~' ..~
:Itt,..i~w;
Citf':y,
Jf.'!?";,
-~~""r.~
1~?i1iJ,
.~,;t:n~~).,
y~&;,: ." .
,j')pii{;P..:o::,<. '" ". :..'
:;" ..q~J(i~:f.'?:;'"~:',~:;,'",, ';. .
. .~;t:~'!ktM'J.:d j...~.,:,~/."'~' '. ' .
:ferrochromium procels.83 Secondary sources of chromium emissions.that are
'iQ~lud8d in the operation of the smelting furnace are tapping operations in
':'~'h1C~:mOlt~n ferrochromium or dag 18 removed' from the furnace and ladle
.reaction operations in whicb metals or alloys are 'added to the tapped molten
ferrocbromium to obtain a specific final product composition.
Following the smelting process, the molten ferrochromium is cast into
.molds and allowed to cool. Fumes and du~ts generated during tbe casting
process can contain chromium. The operations performed in the ferrochromium
process after casting are dependent on the required size of the final
ferrochromium product. Ferrocbromium products are marketed in sizes ranging
from large cbunks weigbing 33.8 kg (75 lb) to fine powders. To produce the
required size tbe cast ferrocbromium is crusbed and then ~cr~enp,. Bo:h
crushing and screening operations generate chromium em~5sion~ i~ the form of
ferrochromium P~,:tic~lates.83,84 Crushed and screened ferrochro~ium is
~hipped to'consumers in bulk form or is packaged in containers.
Ferrochromium dusts are generated during the bulk loading and p,ckaging of
84
crushed and scr~ened ferrochromium. .
All available chromium emissions data and emission factors for chromium
from ferrochromiun facilities express emissions in terms of total chromtuT"

or chromium oxide. Chromium emissions from all po~e~tial point sources in

the ferrochromium process (shown in Figure 2-12) appear to contain only
85 86 87
trivalent chromium in the form of insoluble chromium oxide. " No
indication of the presence of hexavalent chromium in ferrochromium process
e~lssions was found or tbeorized in the available literature.
'In .1980 there were eight facilities in the Unitp.d States producing
ferrochromium.88 In 1983 the Ferroalloy Association indicated that only one
facility, Interlake, Inc. in Beverly, Ohio, was still in operation producing
89
ferrochromium. . The reasons behind the demise of the domestic ferro-
chro.nium industry are eJq)lained in Section 1.2 of Chapter 1. As a res\',.l.;' ,,'
the information provided by tbe Ferroalloy Association, only the Int,i:rl;:.;",-
Inc. facility wu included in the chromium modelling/ exposure analy:!..ti>,
All chromium emitted from ferrocbromium manufacturing is in a
particulate form. Chromium emissions estioates for the Interlake plunt were
2-58
. :"'."...'
., .
", '.'
-

-------
, .....;:
o \.-0r
.i:,

<~.
,;,..
" -;'J~:
?;;
.,,:,,':':~J~:
:".-,~
;' ;:' i t1~A.

..;;.;; :.:~;..,\:.;'r;;~#~~
~~'-'

I,'"'' .,
I'" '~: ,
I
I
;
,.-... ;
prepared using available chromium emission factors given in Reference 85 and
point source particulate emissions data provid~~ by the NEDS. Stack
geometry and geographic coordinate location data for th~ modelling/exposure
analysis were taken directly from che NEDS.
2.10
COOLING TOWERS.
Cooling towers can be sources of atmospheric chromium emissions because
chromium-containing compounds are sometimes added to cooling tower water as
90 91 92
a corrosion inhibiting agent. .. Chromium corrosion inhibitors are
primarily added to protect the heat exchanger and piping in the tower.93
Although chromium corrosion inhibitors are used in towers of all size
applications including el2ctric utilities, industrial plants, and
commercial/institutional sites, use is greatest in the industrial sector.
particularly in petroleum refineries and petrochc~mical plants.93-96
Utilities generally locate near sources of once-through cooling water so
towers are not needed or they construct the necessary towers with corrosion
resistant materials. The majority or commercial/institutional towers rely

Oil ncn-chroml:..m '..ater treatments such as maintenance of high pH or alterua-
h' i . h. 1 93-96
tive p ospnate or z nc treatment c em~ca s.

Chromium corrosion inhibitors that are added to cooling tower water
- +6
contain chromium in the form or chromates (Cr ). Chromiua concentraticn~
in cooling tower water are generally oaintained at 15 to 20 wt ppm for
i i h" i 90.91.92
corros on n ~Dit ng purposes. Cooling tower chromium emissions

occur as a dissolved component of cocling cower drift. Drift is e,ssentially

entrained water droplets that have been mechanically formed in the tower and
are carried out of the tower by the system air flow.
Chromium concencra-
tions in cooling tower drift are approximately equal to the concentrations
t 90 .91 , 92
of 15 to 20 wt ppm found in the recirculating tower cooling wa er.

Cooling tower drift and consequently tower atmospheric chromium emissions

are a function of primarily the quantity of heat rejected in a tower, tower
, 90 91 92,97
air ~low. ,tower design. and ambient metE:!orological conditions. . .
.
Subsequent to the finalization of this report in October 1983. additional
information was gathered and chromium emission estimates prepared for the
cooling tower source category. The aew information for cooling towers is
presented tn the July 1984 addendum to this report.
2-59
',.
'I ," ,~./ '


:~:

. ,'-c. ~
. L,'~iJ
,;~
:"~

,/j~

.:.;"':'
:1.:,,:

 ..0'
. ':f:
. :-~'"
. ?
.": 1
.~ ~..

-------
,v,

"'~'~'
"
~ ~~
~~~
&:~',
~\'!.
:;ii
i

;!p~
~~I~J
~i;
;f~
j~~
'j}~: .
):>:.::
'"
!~~ :
Tower de.ign can be important because moat tover. are specifically
con.tructed to have a certain percentage of the recirculating water be
emitted a. drift. Baffle. and other mechanical 'obstructions are used to
attain a specified drift rate. For cooling towers at electric utilities
that vere built pre-1970 drift 10s.e. of from 0.1 to 0.2 percent are common.
Nev utility cooling tover. have designed drift 10lses on the order of 0.002
to 0.005 percent.97
The .eneral mechanilm of chromium emi..iOD' from cooling tover drift is
shown in Figure 2-13. Di'Rolved chromium il carried out of the tower as a
constituent of drift. Because the drift i8 cooler and denser than the
ambient air'it vill beain to fall to the ground due to the influence of
gravity. As the drift fall. to the ground evaporation of the vater droplets
begins to occur. Because of the gravity influence the situation becomes a
trajectory or ballistics proble~ complexed by evaporation. At some varying
height, vhich 19 d~pendent on site-specific meteorological conditions, the
moisture is evaporated leaving a chromium-containing dust. Once these
particles reach a certain s1ze they will come under the influence of
atmospheric currents ar.d thereby set dispersed. The form of chromium in the
dust 15 predominantly hexavalent; however. trivalent chromium could be
f;
."

.\:i~: )
.t.~~ .
",1:'
. ~.~
:,...
.. ~:.
"r.
,
~~..':. . .
~::.:::~; "
~{:/:"

,,~. c' ,
)',.." .
:: :'. ~.:.
"
. :,
"
;''':''
".."
'"..
-,:,.
"""'....',
...." ~.
."" .
......,
'...; '.:'
'.':" .
."
'~<.
"~'''~
:;;"~
;;i/,
~pr:

.':.... .
L\ ~."
'.~~t,.. '
},::);'
'~~" ,~~t
J:. .
, .
/ ~1 '
emitted it hexavalent chromates are reduced in the tower as a result of
performing their corrosion inhibiting function.
'The deposition of chromium around cooling towers has b~en demonstrated
to senerally be a localized effect becau.e of the physical processes just
described.90.~1.92 Te.t work on several utility. cooling tovers has
conf1rmed the localized chromium 8m15s10ns phenomenon. the results ~f one
91
such test are illustrated in Figure 2-14. As shown in t~e figure.
chromium concentration in air decreases exponentially vith distance from the
cooling tover. The concentrations 1n Figure 2-14 represent ,the average of
4 day. of testing.
Several efforts have been made to model the behavior of cooling tower
.f":,; ,
rot , "
J::.'
~;: :
S,::,"
:r.'"
j'
",:-

';;\:"
"'.'.
~.~
.',,'. '
'-
,"
drift taking into consideration results of the type shown in Figure 2-14.
The conclusions of these efforts bave shown that it 18 possible to model
coo11n; tower drift; however. a complex droplet trajectory model.
. ,
::'./:,
,t,:': '
,..".,
i,~~
'~11 .
J~Nf\;/ " '... '

1:."i?;..,-".,,~ 'J' ", ,
~h'1'?;;~~ ~?:~ ;~~..,~:,:~.~~'~, ';,~ . . ,..'",
~~;:Z~~ ,~~~~.., "1..1"., ',,-,-.)'.,"
",.J:,[i~~...-p-,~ ~~~~~:~r.{:-:..~ ' .. ,". ",. ;:'t:
2-60
'",\ .
."':r;~" :
.oro' .
, ,

-------
.
.. .
Critical Size/Height

~ Chromium Dust
~ Dispersion by
:'\1



~-:-J~'
.:-~~)~t
':/!t.o

\1

~~'~:~~':
'.-t-~
.;>A
".' .:.~1.~
.,~f
. .'f"~-
. . :~;"(.'_.
.~<:
-:~"

".-".~!'i
. '.' ~i'i(~r:~;
-:;:~WA
. ~:~~~/<:~":
,(~j~
~.' ~-
.::t::'
~i
N
,-
a.
...
Drift
(Saturated
Air)
. .. .
. . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Droplets
(Influenced by Gravity)
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Evaporation Taking Place
.
.
.
.
.
.
. . ..
.
. . .
. . .
Wind
Figure 2-13.
General mecltanfl>ln of chromium emissions frolP cooling tower drtft.

-------
.::j~/
';''''''r''' ,<, ..;
r.~,,"~';~':",~: ' : '
~~;j.~:',!~:,:':" ,', ""',~,,'.,~, > '0.020
31;~r~"'~1,t~..~ "..' P!'-


I~J;{::


?:.,.'{.~", "" ','




f'~tj



~~,~:\'I,;--:, , ':- '<


I~:;>I

~$".,: .c
ilk"!;'''' ,U
flfV{i}' , ~
~~~~r:;> ~ '
i"~~~ :. '.. . ~
~~~lt,:::,: ..:, \w
t4k..,;:- : 0
t~~~~:~/. ".~ . '.. ]
%~<::i , ' ,'"
PZ;::.:"':' , ,~
~,p:'," " ...
"1:;:'''''' . C
Vt~;;" ": ~
~k>:' 8

.I:,.\~ .".'

~<:,:;,
CI;.. ' .


~!.;.:

~J..,,~", " .
~':~': '
1...,,:, ~
i! ;. ,
1!.r~~<. ~
~lt:~.':'
i~.'J;:~",
~"1,":"
~,i";
$,""~':':; ..
~<"
...; ';..c
;\,', '
...oI,.V,,:} ..
~r;'~"i;., :,"i
:ffj&.~~,\::;.::.:" . . 2-62 , ':,"1:

1.,~.,.~.~I.!,.~.t~~,~ijl, ':;'.,'rJ~~:~~~~~':~~.,;'y>.;;".', '7i;i:;.::~.~. ':, ...~...,',"4",~, . " .;'~:'!""':"'~~'~';':",'~~:f';',~,',~ :, \,~'f;~~"':'~i~"~':'" , ,'.,:,- '''''''~~~':''' , . .-"". ",' . "'~~' ':.,.. ',';'" ~ ,:. ,': :",1, Ai.:.~
~\"r-i;jf:~J',~t~~;k~~~~;t~t':'1itjt.:X--;';~: ~'~~~~~~f.::~ .;'~~1t' !:~;,:.p:;:~.t.~:~r.y:,:.i1.:;~r:.':;*;; fi.1;'$':,,')"~fJ:'~*:;;'::<, ';': ~'~~:, ~1';': ,~;:-) ~'7~; ;:-- ,.,:",~,..:{~,,,;:-~'~:i.~;'tt7~
.;' : ~. . '.:; .' ': ~. : .
", '..
, 0.018
, '
.
,.-1
'. ....'.,t
. ~ ~
: .~':""""
;;"':t,)
;"."'-')')'

. ,,~~~~~~.:j
',: : i
, <:~:
.
.
" .0.016
. .;
'()~014
.
.
,~'.:~"'!..~ ",
"~'~'O.012
0.010
0.008
0.006
.
.
- ..
0.004
,0.002
10
.
~. .,'9 ;
, .
.
,
"
20
60 80 100
200
40
400
600
1000
2000
4000
Distance From the Tower, meters
Figure 2-14.
Concentration of chromium in air as . function
of distance from the cooling tower.91

-------
'Ifd,;/'" ~Jir' , ~~J:,.Of '>' "'" '
')' ',',,' . ;;1.' ~\;! :<1""&" ,,~ ,
1:. . #. . :I=:,~,D: ;~};} 4-:-'" .~~- .'; ~.'I " .' ...... '..
-~ , ,,.~.~-~ .;r.. ~~~J:, ( ..,".. f.Ii.'--' '1..:., :r..' :. ...~.~. ').;.,...., -' , '. i . ,.'" ,.,








incorporating. specific to{j."er' chara~terist1Cs and: local" me~eo~olOg~~~1::1:,.' '."< ,:,{~>;;Xi;:;\!
'90 ',: >,',;', """"''',
conditions, would be required for such a' ~a~k~., ~,:T!1~_~~ la~,;o!;,~':,~gg,s_~,tbat"",<,~'J\
; I .. . . ". 1-.,
the use of the HEM to model cooling' tower' cbroiiiiUiD em1S'S1'ons may,;uot'b~; /'" ',,~::: "~~j', '

. . ". 'I " ", ," ,~._' . 4 .'. . . ':,' " ,', ,:"'~~tt.~. '
adequate. ' ",,', ""J',"'," "',~:'J'ir,
. .,.. , .',' '-I'" ", :';~}.f,'!.'~"t
The number of cooling towers using chromi~~orroa1o'Q, inhibS,to,rs., their, " ')'~~':'~~~'rJ'jk

. " ',"~ '':.tr~'.}''-:i:~~\''1
national size d~stribution, and their locations, an unknown factot:~,::~~,.'; :" ,::', '::::'3~;~~'

attempting to conduct a modelling/exposure analysis of this .ource category. "'" ')LiJf.'it.'~'

The only available chromium emissions information for 'thi. sourc.'/J.;ti'8~r; ::::,';; <;':~~;~~~~

applies only to utility cooling towers, which .~~' not the major, .~~~~-~~.~ '~,f '" :~~,:':Yf;~~~li~
. .' . 1.'~""'''''''}~'''1~(i~. ",,'\"",:'ci'~J-.~ ~~
chromium corrosion inhibitors. No emissions or emission' factor,1no~tion ", ,:,.%.';'':>;
. ",'..., '. .' , . .';..;.~:~~},{~~~tt1J ~':

1'". '.. t"".' "..f .'-..~:...,tn..o~~..~,.:i~....;t"~11 j. ,('~.,,,,.r...~~ .?~~-
. . .- ~ ,~~':.~.. ,.'.~~.~~.~~.~~..:';~......::..~~ ;:"',~,,-:....~~o' .r-,~.~~~~ .. .f' ~~. I.'. ,
study.
2.11
2.11.1
COAL ~~D OIL COMBUSTION
Background
Chromium is a trace element component of coal and oil.
Of the many
trace clements in coal and oil chromium is considered to be minor in
abundance.98 Tables 2-13 and 2-14 present data that summarize the chromium
content of domestic coals by coal type and coal .ource.98.99 Tasting of
11 samples of residual fuel oil indicated an average chromium concentration
of 0.90 wt ppm. with the range of chromium amons the .amples be1ngO.09 to
1.9 wt ppm.99 The chromium concentration in crude oil. has been reported to..
98
range from 0.0023 to 0.640 wt ppm. More information on the
characteristics of chromium ' in coal and oil fuel. is provided in
references 98 and 99.
2-63

-------
~Y"> ~-IiiIiIiIIIt'
TABLE 2-13.
CHROMIUM CONTEN'! OF DOMESTIC. COALS BY TYPE99
'. ~ ,,'.  Mean Chromium Standard Number of
.. Coal Type Content, wt ppm Deviation. wt ppm Samples
. .    
 Bituminous 25.9 2.0 130
 North Dakota 7.5 3.7 10
 Lignite   
 Texas Lignite 20.4 1.5 29
 Anthracite 35.6 7.3 53
TABLE 2-14.
CHROMIUM CONT~l OF DOMESTIC COALS BY SOUllCE98
   Hean Chromium Standard ~umber of
Coal Type  Content. ~ ppc Deviation. wt ppm Sa!llples
Eastern U. S.  20  16 23
(Appalachia)     
Midwestern U. S. 18  9.7 113
(Illinois Basin)    
Wutern U. S.  9.0 4.2 29
2-64

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.j' t.-~ -' ~. '."'-' " .' ..', t,',: ,", " ' '"f:,';',...j ".o'\.,w"..", ":,....~ ,~... r, '!'p~ ~. {~, 1~ ~"~"e9::," ' ~,' ,....: ., ~;?~~:'~~, ~:1ttt"",...-:f,' ,~"::
&~~''ftf:~;:.t:li\:,:.1,;J;;'~~4~;,'i~,~;ff?~'i{-:"::':'''$~ ~<,' ~;"~2:~,~?:;~~~:~~.~!.r~f.;"'~r:~i:~t;~'{tt.~l~':;f4}~j~~J.Jl~
".'.
.' \ ~ :;
When coal and oil are combusted in boilers and furnaces, the 'tra;
chromium components they contain are rele..,sed. 'the amount of chroadum'"
, ~
released to the atmosphere is dependent primarily on the following factors:
- ,the chromium content of the fuel,
the type of boile~ used and its tiring configuration,
the partitioning of chromium between fly ash and bottom ash,
the degree of chromium enrichment on fine fly ash, and
the chromium removal efficiency of any controls that may be
present.
The effect of each of these factors is described in the following
paragraphs. '
The concentration of chromium in the feed coal or oil has been
determined to be the major factor affecting uncontrolled chromium emissions
f b' 1 00
rom com ust~on sources. The greater the chromium concentration in the
fuel, the higher the uncontrolled rate of chromium emissions.
For the
combustion of coal, the type of boiler used and its firing configuration
affect chromium e~issions by affecting the amount of coal ash that ends up
as bottom ash. The bottom ash contains some concentration of chromium that
is not emitted to the atmosphere. The combustion of oil produces
essentially no bottom ash. therefore, boiler type and firing configuration
do not affect the level of chromium emissions from oil fuels.
The emission of chromium from coal or oil combustion is generally
explained by the volatilizationJcondensation mechanism (VCM) theory. T~e
theory basically states that in the firebox of a boiler or furnace peak
temperatures of approximately 1.650C (3.000F) volatilize fuel trace
el~ment species such as chromium. The hot flue gases from the combustion
process then undergo cooling through convective heat transfer and other
mechanisms such that the volatilized species condense. A trace elemene such
as chromium may condense or adsorb onto existing pareicles in the stream
according to the available su=far.e area. or it ~y condense. homogeneously
and form fine chromium particles. 101 Through this procedure the chromium
concentration in the bottom agh is depleted. while the concentration in the
fly ash is enriched.
This phenomenon occurs because the fly ash has more
2-65
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1.1'''''' >"'.~Yf.9F. '~~~~q.j);J?~' ~-y;--t-'(~~-1oi--,*"j,.~ ".(e..t.~'-il;'i.....~;;j """ M:.,.,.'~ ,.., .. t... . ". - .
~'it.1=/ .;":G.'~~ .;!.i'~n~)-.:"':~).:' - '~)'~"';'.if'r1~~~"~:~;--"i'1'",..tp'",''' ~~,.~~~ r';':.t.. .'.., ."'.
,,,rit;fr:17'H~/'J?~.;:~~!'~?;~:i',:,,,::,>,,,,.:;:'}t""." 'b," ',',"", ", '
i:,'
f"..
\.~. .
relative .urface area than the bottom ash for condensation and the bottom
ash does not come 10 contact with the volatilized chromium long enough r:or
it to conden.e.10l,102 A8 an example, 10 a recent analysis of three
coal-fired utility boiler. the average ch~omium partitioning was reported to
" be 23 percent in the bottom a.h and 77 percent in the fly a.h.103
The degree of chromium partitioning and small particle enrichment that
g08S on during the VCK ha. been .tudied by .everal reae.rchers, especially
for coal combustion. Theae re..archera heve devised .everal cla.sification
"
, '
.<
.cheme. to describe the partitioning and enrichment behavior of many trace
elements, including chromium. One of the =ore .1mpl1st1c, but effective
101 102
classification systems 1s given belov: '
Class 1. Elements vh1ch are approximately equally distributed
betveen fly. o1sh and botto':D ash, or show little or no :;;mall
particle enrichment.
Class 2. lle:ents vhich are enriched in fly ash relative to
,
t,
"
,
/.
bottom ash, or show increasing enrichment vith decreasing par:icle
size.
"
i
Class 3.
Elements which are intermediate betveen Clases 1 and Z.
.'
Class 4. Elements vhich are emitted entirely in the gas phase,
Chr~miUQ emissions from coal combustion have been shoYn to demonstrate the
behavior of Classes 1, 2, And 3, ~nd are usually categorized under Class 3,
Class 3 elements such as chromium are apparently not totally volat111z~4
during the coal combustion process, and, ther.fore, exhibit a capability for
bottom ash or fly ash deposition. Chromium emissions from oil com~~stion
generally demonstrate ~he behav1~t of Class 2 elements, primarily bp.cause
little bottom ash is present in thv. combustion .ystem.
The majority of chromium emission. from coal and oil combustion shov
102,104
preferential enrichment on fine fly ash particles. Because of this
enrichment factor, the typ~ of control device used plays an important role
in det.rm1ning how much chromium 11 removed from the flue gas exhaust.
Control device. not designed to remove fine particulates do not perform as
well on chromium emissions as devic.s which are 80 designed. A summary of
" <
"
J;:
;'"
'...
"
the collection efficiencies for chromi~ that have been determined for ESPs,
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2-66
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~~Ji 1J;( ~;:;1f~:~,v,;':'f.tJ~~:\'.'~~~,"'P.:\~~.~~~t:~f~~!;;':>~f{~~.~.~~t "%:p;J,Jo~:;,,,::i'J..~~~Jrl';~'~)'f 1;,~,;,t~e~~-t.'~~~t~:..!~(,;f.~~--d~.:-,!'::~{}:..'{..~, r-'t~?J;:...,~ t :1,.~-:~:,:~.;"1,::~~~~',;~ ~ ~t~t~t~~~~~;)~~~r







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fabric filters. and wet scrubbers is given in Tables 2-15 to 2-17. In
addition to control devices. fuel cleaning has alto been shown to be an
effective method of reducing chromium and other trace element emissions from
combuRtion processes. Physical coal cleaning has been shown to remove froG
27 to 6S percent of. the chromium in coal depending on the source of the
coal. Physical cleaning is 50 to 65 percent efficient on eastern and
midwestern coals. but is only 27 percent efficient on western coals. Oi1
fuels have successfully been cleaned of trace metals by hydrotreating
proces5es, but no specific removal data for chromium are available. Removal
efficiencies of greater than 9S percent have been achieved for nic~el which
should be a good indicatnr of potential chromium removal levels because both
nickel and chromiu~ exhibit Class 3 enrichment behavior.1DS
2.11.2
Estication of ~ational I~pacts
~ational chromiuc exposure impacts as estimated by the H~
':tIe:-e no:
dete~ined for coal and oil combustion sources such as electric utility
buiLers. industrial boilers, cocmercial/institutional boilers, a~d
residel.~ial heating units.
The reasons combustion sources were not included
in the analysis are twofold.
The first reason concerns the inability to
adequateLy characterize the hundreds and thousands of individual sources
wi~hin each coal and oil combustion source category.
Characterization of
the sources involves cany factors including emissions quanti'ficat'ion, stack
geometry specification, and source location specification by
longitude/latitude coordinates. For combustion sourc~s representative
emissions quantification is difficult due to the wide variability of the
ractors affecting emissions, primarily chromium content of the fuel and
degree of em1.ssions control. The sheer number of sources prohibits accurate
specification of stack geometry data and longitude/latitude coordinates.
However, precise longitude/latitude coordinates are required in the HEM to
determine population distributions so that source exposure impacts will not
be signifcantly misrepresented.
The second reason combustion sources were not included in the analysis
of national chromiuc impacts is that the ambient chromium concentr4tions
predicted by the HEM to occur from a specifically located. mo4el combustion
t~

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2-67
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TABLE 2-.1S.
CHROMIUM COLLt65I~86EFFIC!ENCIES !OR ELECTROSTATIC
PRECIPITATORS .
Source Identification Fuel Parcent Collection Efficiency
Povar Plant A Coal 99.8
Pover Plant B Coal 9b.t
Pover Plant C Coal 99.8
Pover Plant D Coal 98.i
Pover Plant E Coal 97
Power Plant F Coal 97.6
Power Plant G Coal 99.2
Power Plant H Coal 05.6
Power Plant I Coal 96.1
TABU~ 2-16.
CHROMIUM COLLECTION EFFICIENCIES FOR FABRIC FlrTERS1~5.106
---
Source Identification
Fuel
Perceet Collection Efficiency
---
Pover'Plant A
Coal
99.8
Steel Mill
99.9
~r~~1~,~(\x",:;',3,,:,;.:,,; i\
2-68

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(.i1l'.I)Li~.UN COLLEC":LON EFFICIENCIES FOR ioiE!
. ". I '1'
~(:'~i!'.~~E'R:; - --..'. ..
':,.
. .
1$
- --. - ',-- -- - -- -.------.---
-. ..-- ,- ---'
----.---..-.-.-,. ..--
--..-.
SourCi: :'~'~nt 1 ~ '. ,r .I.~),\,
Fuel
Percent Colle~tion Effi:iency
----
Power Plant A
":f'al
96.1a
88'.9a
9Sb
90b
'"
Power Pl.ant B
c 31
Industrial Boiler A
Coal
Industrial Boiler A
Oil
Power Plant C
Coal
97c
~Sontrollec by a venturi scrubber.
b
Scrubber was ~esigned p,~~arily for 502 control.
cThe sc:uhbur ~. ~:~~eed~d by an ESP.
, '
*..:
2-69
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'. - ~~."''';~~J'
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.__....._,......,..,1~
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.,,"~. . ..' J.~~, " ,,"~j
.)~, ,';A~, ,~ , "".., ,', '" ''', ',',' ." ", '.," " e,.
~\" .."~." '"t\""~"".t"f""".JI"'''' """";'''''''''<''''.~'''':''''.'''/,i<~\,~/; .". """"''''''\'''~,'(j,'''\':C~'-I!'1' ",:...,,~ '~'~""""..'...", """~':";"V ;"",.~;t.}~1:~' ,
. ~":-: . ~,;,; ~ ?~. .tl1]13 14;~':\f~,.;. ...~,,!,,;,~.. \~1 .",).~."f.'d~'l: ~$,.';':.~/J.l:"... - f"1''' ~jft"' .~1fl (1 ~!..:.~~.t:)O ~..1~"l~":~(~ :[~ .: V,... /'.'5t: "1 . ...~..:~. .'::..' ~ ~ ". .-,' .~. '..' .' ':':~../~~.: . ,',
1:)11:'" ~~e ,.".; ,.<,P!.~l' ~;,,';'1'(,{t! ~ ',t. " ~ .<., ,''''' . '.. '," ; " ".Q, '.. J '....'. ",~. ,,;.J' \.',~<1. ,..1.",. ",' ,\ " ,'" ',', " ,', "'\r .<~. '

1Jf;~:~~' "~,f,,(;I!\:':i::' . ',. ",".'. '. ,.: ': ,.,. ",."", ','> . ..' "', ':';f:~~~
.0~" , ,
~ '..-
,,'
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..
..:.
... ~:
80urce are rela'tively very minor co~pared to ,~h" c:olic:e;tra:.:.i~ns estimated to
" ,
be attri.butable to other chromium sour'.es such as a chromium chemi~:al or
ferrochromium plant. The r~lativ. level of ambient chromium concentration
attributable to A combustion source vas assessed by developing and
chara~terizin6 the emissions of a typical coal burning electric utility
plant located at epecif~c longitude/latitude coordinates. For the
combustion'source c:ategory as a whole (utility, industrial,
commerci~l/institut10nal, and residential sourc.s) the selection of a
typical coal-fired utility boiler (600 M\ol she) repre~,ents the upper ~C\d of
the potential.chromium emissions range because coal has a higher chromium
content than 011 and the overall mdS~ emission of particulates is greater
'. '.'
, ,
..
than that from other types of combustion sources.
For the purposes of analysis the model facility was assumed to be
located in'Indianapolis. Indiana. This sit~ was used because Depart~ent of
Energy (DOE) co.l.l ',~5e data shoH that Indiana is a large c(,;al consuming state
for electric power generation and a plant of this type (600 MW coal burner)
is located in the Indianapolis area.
the HEM are given below.
The specific plant parameters used in
Cr emissiQn rat~: 715 kg (1.573 lb)/yr
Stack height: 175 m (574 it)
Stack diameter: 6.1 m (20 ft)
Exit velocity: 20 m/sec (65.6 ft/sec)
Exit temperature: 400 K (261 F)
Bldg. cross sectional area: 500 m2 (5.382 ft2)
Source type:
Coordi;1ates:
urban
39 30 I 00" latitude
87 25' 00" longitude
The HEM analysis for this plant predicted that ambient chromium
-17 3 -5 3
concentrations could range from 10 ug/m to 10 ug/m. The highest

chromium level to which any person was estimated to be exposed to was
3
0.000047 ug/m. In comparision for a ferrochromium plant. ambient chromium
-3 3 3
levels are predicted by the HE.'i to unge from 10 ug/m to almost 3 \.Ig/m .
2-70
, "
.~t~~J"';>" ,j ,

-------
" .
. .
lhe lr.iniml'DI concentrli.tion to whic:t. aUf peI~o~ was '",,~.:1,..~t~d t.., oe e~':po!ei to'
fro'U th'.: ferrochl'OiD,iul:1 pl..nt 1.5 'WI;' .:r~"'rs o[.lt-ag-.11.tud~. bir,bc,,'.~han:the'7.
maximum exposuu level tt'C\;.1 the jl.:Jel power pla.nr:'. 'ti:e. '.3U1e".;ir.apad~~1\,:'.'-\>.
exists for a ("'uomiuQ che1l11cal plant assessed in ~~.,\j." s<:udy. . Thli: predicted
ambienc chromium exposure level ranges from 10-3 ~3.'r."":0 2 ug/fIJ.3' such that
the minimum exposure from a chromium chemical plant 1~ also two orders of
magnitude higher than the u:~ximum exposure from the model power pLant.
view of the inability to adequately characteriz~ th: combustion source
cacegory on a national basis and the relatively minor chr~mium exposure
pocential presenced by che morlcl combustion source. national chromium
In
exposure impacts fro~ coal and 011 combu~t10n sourcas wer~ not dp.termined in
this study.
2-7!
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"
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~~'.:r',"",
f'~:};~:", .
. . .~. .'
:' ;~. -
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",
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:;r"

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,,_".f

~~~
:1}'
;}~:.
'/..:~,
"".40"
.'..~~~~"
~::.;.. ",
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,':',
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2 '''12 REFERENCES
" \ . '" ,.'
1.
Tebeon. Brooks, G. W.. Radian Corporation vith Papp" J. F.. United
States Bureau of Mines. January 27, 1983. National chromium sources.
2. '
,State of Delavare Division of Environmental Control, Wilmington Office.
Permit number APC-81/969-0peration. Permit issued to GE Minerals, Inc.
. for tvo chr~me sand rotary dryers - Pigeon Po1~t Road, Nev Castle,
Delavare. September 1P., 1981. 5 pages.
3.
State of Delavare Division of Environmental Control, Wilmington
Office. Permit number APC-S1/967-0peration. Permit issued to
CE Minerals, Inc. for one Harding mill - Pigeon Point Road. New Castle,
Delaware. September 18. 19S1. S pages.
4.
State of Delaware Division of Environmental
Permit number APC-S2/967-0peratlon. Permit
for bin vent operation - Pigeon Point Road.
October 21. 1981. 4 pages.
Control. Wilmington Office.
issued to CE Min~rals. Inc.
New Castle. Delaware.
~ .
5.
Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. third Edition.
Volume 6. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York 1980. pp. 92-96.
6'.
i ,
, I
Morning. J. t., et ale (Bureau of Mines). Chromium, A Chapter from
Mineral Facts an~Problems. Preprint from Bulletin 671. 1980.
7.
i .
Towill. L. E.. et ale Reviews of the Environmental Eff.e~ts of
Pollutants:III.--Chromium. EPA-600/r-78-023 and O~~L/EIS-80.
1978. p. 204.
~..ay
Foley, Jr.. E. F. (Diamond Shamrock). Chromium Chemicals Manufacture.
September 1'977. (From Proceed1.ngs of the Syttposium on Health Aspects
of Chromium Containing Materials. Baltimore. Maryland. September 15,
1977. Published by the Industrial Health Foundation, 1978.)
9.
tetter and attachments from Diamond Shaorock Corp.. Castle Hayne, ~!cr::h
Carolina to North Carolina Environmental Management Co~ission.
Raleigh. North Carolina. July 24, 1979. Summary cf projects expected
for chrome chemicals plant. p. 1 of attachments.
10.
North Carolina Environmental Management Ccmmission. Raleigh, North
Carolina. Application for a Permit to Construct and Operate Air
Follution Abatement Facilities and/or Emission Sources. Filed by
S. G. tanto Diamond Shamrock Corporation. Castle Hayne, North Carolina.
February 8. 1978. 12 pages.
2-72
I
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. . , "
11.
North Carolina Environmental Kotlagement Commission. Raleigh. North
Carolina. Application for a Permit to Construct ~nd Operate Air
Pollution Abatement Facilities and/or Emission Sources. Filed by
Diamond Shamrock Corporation. Castle Hayne. North Carolina. August 30.
1982. 6 pages.
12.
North Carolina Board of ~at~~ and Air Resources. Raleigh, North.
Carolina. Application for a Permit to Construct and Operate Air
Pollution Abatement Facilities and/or Emis!ion Sources. Filed by
Oiamond Shamrock Corporation, Castle Hayne, North Carolina.
January 1976. 6 pages.
13.
North Carolina Environmental Management Commission. Raleigh, North
Carolina. Application for a Permit to Construct and Operate Air
Pollution Abatement Facilities and/or Emission Sources. Filed by
Diamond Shamrock Cvrporation, Castle Hayne, North Carolina.
January 1976. 17 pages.
14.
North Carolina Environmental Management Commission. Raleigh, ~orth
Carolina. ~ppli=ation fo~ a Permit to Construct and Operate Air
Pollution Abatement Facilities and/or Emission Sources. Filed by
Diamond Shamrock Corporation, Castle Hayne, North Carolina.
January 1976. 20 pages.
15.
North Carolina Environmental Management Commission. Raleigh, North
Carolina. Application for a Permit to Construct and Operate Air
Pollution Abatement Facilities and/or Emission Sources. Filed by
John A. Licata, Diamond Shamrock Corporation, Castle Hayne, North
Carolina. September S, 1979. 27 pages.
l6.
CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 56th Edition, 1975-1976.
Chemical Rubber Publishing Company, Cleveland, Ohio. 1975. p. B-141.
17.
SRI International. 1982 Directory of Chemical Producers - United
States. Menlo Park, California. 1982. pp. 36, 449, 461, 522-523,
695,759, 862, 893-895, 908, and 1006.
18.
L~tter an~ attachments from State of Maryland, Department of Health and
Mental Hygiene, Baltimore, Maryland to Brooks, G. W., Radian
Corporation. April 14, 1983. Chromium emission sources. 12 pages.
19.
Texas Air Control Board Permit System File for American Chrome &
Chemicals, Inc., Corpus Christi, Texas. Permit Numbers 3363, 1469.
7736, 7737, 9212. Received March 21, 1983.
20.
Letter and attachments from Montgomery, L., Texas Air Control Board to
Brooks, G. W., Radi~n Corporation. March 23, 1983. Texas sources
emitting chromium. 25 pa~~~.
2-73

-------
~"jfrifl!?{;;'i;~'!if!ff:f~tt;'frt~P"?fJ~~:";\\~"'!,':~~"iI;?iCjf};S,tii';~'i.~~1~,*~:,.,c, ,,' ,"""


., .
\'- ~':'~'
-.
. 24.
~~;Yi~;.:..~~- ..':
~~~~~{!~~..'l:'?:".t;
1~ .. .v ~1.(1,.;J.~.,~.._-...t,j..,.\.t.
..~. r'. '. ~. - - . .,... "- .
21.
National Emissions Inventory of Sources and Emissions of Chromium.
(GCA Corporation). EPA-450/J-74-012. May 1973. pp. 7 and 14-15.
22.
Letter and attachments from Cherill. J. L.. Corning Glass to
Beard. C. G.. West Virginia Air Pollution Control Commission.
1976. C~rhart Refractories. 16 pages.
June 9,
23.
Joiner, R. L., et ale Evaluation o~ the Potential Health Effects of
trivalent ChromIUm-Compounds in the Refractories Industry. Prepared
for the Refractories Institute by Battelle Columbus Laboratories. .
February 18, 1983.
Refractories. the Refractories Institute.
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 1979.
!RI Publication 7901.
25.
Source Category Survey: Refractory Industry. EPA-450/3-80-006.
Emission Standards and Engineering Division, U. S. Environmental
Protection Agency. Research Triangle Park, North Ca-olina.
March 1980. p. 4-20.
26.
Letter and attachments from R~go, T. G., Ohio EPA to Brooks, G. W.,
Radian Corporation. March 29, 1983. Chromium sources in Ohio.
4 pages.
27.
Letter and attachments from Wylie, D. K., Mississippi Department of
Natural Resources to Brooks, G. W., Radian Corporation. Corhart
Refractories p)~~t in Mississippi. 2 pages.
28.
Letter and attachmel.:s from McPhail, W. E., Indiana State Board of
Health to B~ooks, G. W., Radian Corporation. Chromium sources in
Indiana. 43 pages.
29.
Letter and attachments from McHugh. G. D.. General Refractories Co. to
Behling. M., Utah Division of Environmental Health. August 20, 1982.
Refractory emission sources. 19 pages.
30.
Product Directory of the Refractories IndustTY in the United States.
the Refractories Institute. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 1982.
pp. 7-139.
31.
!be National Emissions Data System (NEDS). Monitoring and Data
Analysis Division. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. Research
triangle Park, North Carolina. 1983.
32.
Reference 21, p. 12.
33.
Code of Federal Regulation~. VolumQ 40, Part 61, Subpart B. National
Emission Standards for Asbp.stos. Office of the Federal Register.
Washington. D. C.
2-74

-------
.",'-.1-
,"'.',
34.
Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Third Edition.
Volume 14. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York. 1980. pp. 208-212.
'~.4';.
: ~.,
35.
Telecon. Brooks, G. W., Radian Corporation with Anderson, N., Maine
Department of Environmental Protection. March 1, 1983. Chromium
emissions from leather tanning. .
36.
Telecon. Brooks, G. W., Radian Corporation with Kinsey, B.,
Massachusetts Division of Air Quality Control. February 23,
Leather Tannery chromium emissions.
1983.
37.
Schroeder, H. A. Chromium. Air Quality Monograph No. 10-15.
Petrole~m Institute, Washington, D. C. 1910. 28 pages.
American
38.
Barrett, K. W. A Review of Standards of Performance for New Stationary
Sources - Portland Cement Industry. EPA-450/3-i9-012. March 1970.
pp. 1-1 and 4-13.
39.
Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors. Third Edition.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North
Carolina. August 1971. pp. 8.6-1 to 8.6-4.
U. S.
40.
Reference 21, p. 18.
41.
Davis. T. A. and D. B. Hooks.
Dust from the Cement Industry.
Disposal and Utilization of Waste Kiln
EPA-670/2-75-043. 1975.
42.
Katari, Vishnv, et al.
of Non-Metallic Ores.
Trace Pollutant Emissions from the Processing
EPA-6S0/2-74-122. ~ovember 1974. p. 2-18.
43.
Reference 38, pp. 4-11, 4-27, and 5-1 to 5-8.
44.
Reference 38, pp. 4-1 to 4-2.
45.
Marr, H. E. et al. Trace Elements in the Combustible Fraction of
Refuse. U. ~ Bureau oi Mines. College Park Metallurgy Research
Center, College Park, Maryland.
Urban
46.
Gerstle, R. W. and D. N. Albrinck. Atmospheric Emissions of Metals
from Sewage Sludge Incineration. Journal of Air Pollution Control
Association. 32(11): 1119-1123.
47.
Hefland, R. M. (Mit=e Corp.). A Review
New Stationary Sources - Incinwrators.
for the U. S. Environmental Protection
N. C.) March 1979. p. 4-10.
of Standards of Performance F.or
EPA-450/3-19-0~0. (Prepared
Agency, Research Triangle Park,
2-15

-------
: "'~i~(~~;'~~4~~~..~~;tt\";,~/-r."":~-#;;.\:;~~1;%11tf'f;{~'t'~~~~:;""ti.~;~~:(I';":";' J;
. 1!Ji!''.,i:k?~"t,~;;~4?1,'c'::'f.?'ff'.1;''~''1'''~;;:,: '~
~\.......~).":;j,'~J~ '\':J-H. 1(-' '.-.,", ..~
~'o':'~'.-I'...~.~ ':,.01.;-. . t 'I, .
48.
Xefland, &. K. (Mitre Corp.). A Review of Standards of Performance for
New Stationary Sources - Sewage Sludge Incinerators. EPA-450/2-79-010.
(Prepared for the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. Research
Triangle Park, N. C.) March 1979. p. 4-11.
49.
GCA Corporation.
September 1981.
Survey of Cadmium Emisgion Sources.
p. 100.
EPA-450/3-81-013.
50.
Mytelka. A. I. and T. Minnich. Some AL~ Pollution Aspects of
Incineration and Pyrolysis of Sewage Sludge. Interstate Sanitation
Commission. Kay 1979.
51.
Creenberg. R. R.. W. H. Zoller. and G. E. Cordon. Atmospheric
Emissions of Elements on Particles from the Parkway Sewage Sludge
Incinerator. Environmental Science and Technology. 15:64. 1981.
52.
Creenberg. R. R. et ale Composition and Size Distribution of Particles
Released in Refuse-Incineration. Environmental Science and Technology.
12(5):566-573.
53.
Greenberg. R. R. et ale Composition of Particles Emitted from the
~icosia Municipal-rncinerator. American Chemical Society.
12(12):1329-1332.
5', .
Cross. J~.. F. L. et ale Metal and Particulate Emissions from
Incinerators Burning Sewage Sludge and Mixed Refuse. Paper presented
at the 1970 National Incinerator Conference of the American Society of
Mechanical Engineers.
55.
Trichcn. M. ~ ale The Fate of Trace Metals in a Fluidized Bed Sewage
Sludge Incinerator. Paper Presented at the 74th Annual Meeting of the
Air Pollution Control Association. 1981.
56.
Bennet. R. L. and K. T. Knapp. Characterization of Particulate
Emissions from Municipal Wastewater Sludge Incinerators. Environoental
Science and T~chnology. 17(12):831-836.
57.
Reference 49, pp. 76-86.
58.
Coleman. R.. et ale Assessment of Human Exposures to Atmospheric
Cadmium. EPA-45075-79-007. June 1979. p. 35.
59.
Letter and attachments from Courcier. J.. U. S. EPA Region I to
Mitsch. B. F., Radian Corporation. February 24. 1983. Sewage sludge
incinerators.
60.
Letter and attachments from Ciaconne, F. W.. U. S. EPA Region II to
Mitsch, B. F., Radian Corporation. Karch 21. 1983. Sewage sludge
incinerators.
I
I
t
i
I
:.,d
. ".'~1;'~~~~;'~~~
2,-76

-------
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. '
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61.
Letter and attachments from Mitchell, J. W.. Georgia Department of
Natural Resources to Wilburn, J. T., U. S. EPA Region IV. Karch 21.
1983. Sewage sludge incinerators.
62.
Letter.and attachments from McCann, R. B., Kentucky Natural Resources
and Environmental Protection Cabinet. to Mitsch, B. F., Radian
Corporation. March 21, 1983. Sewage sludge incinerators.
63.
Letter and attachments from Nuncio. M. G., U. S. EPA Region VII to
Mitsch, B. F., Radian Corporation. March 7. 1983. Sewage sludge
incinerators.
64.
Letter and attachments from Hooper. M. H., U. S. EPA Region X to
Mitsch, B. F., Radian Corporation. April 4, 1983. Sewage sludg~
incinerators.
65.
Papp, J. F.
Yearbook).
Chromium (Preprint from the 1981 Bureau of Mines Minerals
Vnited States 3ureau of ~ines. Washington, D. C. 1981.
66,
Electric Arc Furnaces and Argon-oxygen Decarb~riza~ioQ ,Vessels
Background Information for Proposed Revisions to Si~"-dards.
EPA-450/3-82-020a. E~ission Standards and Engineering Division,
Environoe~tal Protection Ag~ncy. Research Triangle Park, ~. C.
pp. 3-1 to 3-15. :uly 1983.
67.
Emission Test R~port. Ai Tech Specialty Steel Corporation. U. S.
Environmental Protection Agency. Research Triangle Park, N. C.
Emission Measurement Branch (EMS) Report 80-ELC-7. Karch 1981.
68.
Letter and attachments from Andolina, A. V., Al Tech Specialty Steel
Corporation to Iverson, R. E., U. S. EPA. August 20, 1980. Specialty
steel production emissions data.
69.
Reference 65, p. 3-17.
70.
Reference 65. p. 3-23 to 3-39.
it.
Revised Standards for Basic Oxygen Process Furnaces - Background
Information for Proposed Standards. EPA-450/3-82-005a. Emission
Standards and Engineering Division, U. S. Environmental Protection
Agency. Research Triangle Park, N. C. December 1982. p. 3-13.
72. Reference 71, pp. 3-2 to 3-27.
73. Reference 21, p. 12.  
74. Reference 71, pp. 3-35 to 3-39.
75. Reference 71, pp. 3-28 to 3-34.
2-77

-------
;>\!('~~'1!!!tw?:";,!f;.~t!rfi\;'J.. "~:~:'7t~;"'. ",.;, c; "'1:.:','7.:"':' ". '
~~..; .
,",' .
~.,~
 76.
 77.
 78.
 79.
:.~~...' 80.
 81.
,,'
~': ", .
\::i" 85.
.
Reference 49, pp. 105-132.
Reference 66. pp. 6-1 to 6-17.
Reference 58, pp. 23-32.
Reference 71. pp. 9-5 to 9-16.
Reference 71. pp. 6-11 to 6-12.
Iron and Steel Producing and Finishing Works I)f the United States.
Directory of the Iron and Steel Works in the United States and Canada.
American Iron and Steel Institute. Washington, D. C. Se~tember 1980.
82.
Dealy. J. O. and A. M. Killin. Engineering and Cost Study of the
Ferroally Industry. EPA-4S0/2-74-008. May 1974. pp. 111-6 and 1X-19
to IX-20.
83.
Reference 82. pp. V1-1 to VI-8.
84.
Katari. V.. et ale Trace Pollutant Emissions from the Processing of
Metallic Ore~ EPA-6S0/2-74-115. October 1974. pp. 3-1 to 3-14.
Reference 82, pp. V1-6 and V1-49.
86.
Reference 21, pp. 11-13.
87.
Reference 82. pp. A-12 to A-14.
88.
A Reviev of Standards of Performance for Nev Stationary Sources -
Ferroalloy Production Facilities. EPA-450/3-So-041. Emission
Standards and Engineering Division. U. S. Environmental Protection
Agency. Research Triangle Park, N. C. December 1980. pp. 25-31.
89.
Teiecon. Brooks, G. W.. Radian Corporation vith ~atson, G. Ferroalloy
Associatj,on. February 23. J 983. Chromium emiss ions from f erroalloy
plants .
90.
Alkezveeny, A. J., at ale M~asured Chromium Distributions Resulting
from Cooling Tower Drift. Presented at the Cooling Tover Environment -
1974 Symposium. College Park. Maryland, March 4-6, 1974.
91.
Jallouk, P. A., ~ ale Environmental Aapects of Cooling Tower.
Operation. Presented at the Third Environmental Protection Conference
of the U. S. Energy Re.earch and Development Administration. Chicago.
Illinois, Septemoer 23-26. 1975. '
~;~~':',' ,
~~il;~;;{~:~;'~r.;',\ ",", ' ,"
~, c'~>~'"~'~:'-;#. X:'>le:f",.,'" ,': ',:',
'.f('!'''~t:1;;~l.r..~}\.;..j,.''i'''''''''.'''' ~".. ...1
2-78

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:/,:"Dt',
~'.' .

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1{7) .'
~..-
'I,"~',"l
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l~~~,Q;~~J.;.,:",,,..;..,, . ., '. . .
-;("':Jr,>,~~~~"wl:;1.1i1g~';'};1<~""':~;" ...-".""..;;. ..',',:' .:. ;;
Z~1::;.;..!t&."'-~~~~)~~.\"T7"'."ui~?'..~~.'" . ' . ."....- ' ;
, j
~~::
"cf:rf
.4i~
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12'-'.'~
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~,;J
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'~."~
"'.;";
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92.
Taylor, F. G., ~!!. Cooling Tower Drift Studies at the Paducah.
Kentucky Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Presented at the Cooling Tower
Ins'titute Annual Meeting. Houston, Texas, January 22-24, 1979.
. ...',
~,
.. "'.
, .
"."
,',
93.
Ielecon. Brooks, G. W.. Radian Corporation with Pucorius. P.. Pucorius
and Associates. March 2. 1983. Cooling tower emissions.
94.
Ielecon. Brooks. G. W.. Radian Corporation with McCloskey. J., Betz
Laboratories. February 22. 1983. Cooling tower emissions.
95.
Telecon. Brooks, G. W., Radian Corporation with Augsburger, B.,
Pucorius and Associates. February 23. 1983. Cooling tower emissions.
96.
Telecon. Brooks. G. W.. Radian Corporation with Townsend. J.. Cooling
Tower Institute. February 22. 1983. ~ooling tower emissions.
97.
Baig, S.. et ale (TRW, Inc.) and T. Hurley. et ale (Radian).
Conventional Combustion Environmental Assess;en~ (Prepared for
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, ~. C.)
Cont~act No. 68-02-3138. July 1981. pp. 4-9 to ~-l3.
ti. S.
EPA
98.
Edwards, Lo. 0., et a1. (Radiar. Corporation). Trac: ~etals a~d
Stationary Conventional Combustion Sources (SCCPs). (Prepared for the
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. Research Triangle Park, N. C.)
EPA Contract No.
99'.
Reference 97, pp. 3-3 to 3-6.
100. Reference 97. p. 3-~~.
101. Reference 97, pp. 3-7 to 3-15.
102. Lim. M. Y.
Emissions.
tby 1979.
Trace Elements from Coal
lEA Coal Research Report
pp. 17-24.
Combustion - Atcospheric
No. ICTtS/TROS. London, England.
103. Reference 98, p. 4-18.
"
104. Reference 97, p. 3-53.
105. Reference 97, pp. 5-11 to 5-23.
106. Reference 98, pp. 4-34 to 4-S7.
,
2-79
"
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CHAPTER 3
CHROMIUM DISPERSION MODELLING ~~ POPULATION EXPOSURE ANALYSIS
3.0
INTRODUCTION
As discussed 1n Chapter 1. the objective of this study is to estimate
the ambient chromium concentrations actributable to chromium emission source
categories and determine the level of population exposure to these
concentrations using the U. S. EPA's H~. The primary purpose of
1s to present the chromium concentration dispersion modelling and
exposure results generated by che a~. To becter underscand what
Chapter 3
population
tbe
results mean 1c 1s useful to have a knowledge of how tbe H~ 1s structured
. and how its outputs are determined. AppendL~ A ~rovides a general
description of the HEM and of the methodology it contains to estimate the
level of population exposure to any pollutant under consideration.
The su~ry H~ results for che chrome ore refining. chrom!um
chemicals. refractory. cement. steel. municipal and sewage sludge
1nc1neracion, and ferrochromium source categories are presented in the
following sections. Any assumptions or source assessment methodologies used
that might have a significant impact on the modelling/exposure results are
d1scussed for each source category. A qualicative evaluation of the
emissions. stack geometry, and location data (of each source category) used
in the HEM analysis is presented in Appendix B.
3.1
CHROMIUM ORE REFINING
As stated in Chapter 2. only one chromium.ore refining plant vas
identified and modelled in this study. The exposure results of the HEM for'
the single chromium or. refining plant are given in Table 3-1.
Approximately 365.000 people are estimated to be exposed to an atmos~heric
chromium concentration of 0.0000133 uJ/m3 or greater. The maximum
3-1

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TABLE 3-1.
PUBLIC EXPOSURE TO CHROMIUM FROM CHROMIUM ORE REFINING
PLANTS AS PRODUCED BY THE HUMAN EXPOSURE MODEL
Concentrati~n Level
(\Jg/m )
a
Population Exposed
(Persons)
b
Public Exposuse
(Persons-lJg/m )
!..',
0.0118
0.01
0.0050
0.0025
0.001
0.0005
0.00025
0.0001
0.00005
0.000025
0.00001
0.00000951
o
o
o
1
60
708
5.393
32,819
90,509
280,991
364,726
364,726
< 1
0.000169
0.00135
0.00336
0.106
0.540
~;1

f~
~:~.;
~~.
3
7
10
17
19
19
,..:f
;~ :.~
C.::
,I.:'
a
This column displays the COtllPI.:1;....: v.a.lue, rounded to the nearest whole
number, of the cumulative numbu'.: ~ ;,',op1. exposed to the m.a.tching
and higher concentr.a.tion levels found in column 1. For example,
O.S people would be rounded to 0 and 0.51 people would be rounded to 1.
b
Column 3 displays the computed value of the cu~ulat1ve exposure to
the m.a.tch1ng ~nd higher concentration levels found in column 1.
/".'
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3-2 
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'ii,
~j~
~t
~~~1~~~'~:t'~lj~.~:,::,:">",, :'
!,.~... '.,z ~~...t':n,~,:~ l:..~;:;.~ . ~~."'.,h.,~..
!"~~v '''' ~:.~~. ~"~\~ '1::.>..., I- .
4''':;4~~.\~...:.~. ';{'".;. "-"'~'" r.p, .~ ""'" .., * ". - , .'" '\

," " , ' ,'" ",:' "'. ' "': ,..' '::': ", ',,' '"",,: '",', ,', "', ~, ", .' ,.. ,,' ,,' ". ~"'" ','
,';=:~ ,..: . r1. h':' ,.')'~; ,.~. .
-~".." .
"
, ',' ,_I
. ;"".,- '.' -' ...... ....~...',.,
- '. .
,'. I
. ',:C','" ;:u.:,J
, .,A,~....~~:~ -1' ,
. .. ... '~.,r........- .

-------
~.~.....:.. '.'.'~"~ '.'.~,~"-""":~"'" .":' '~"'--,"",: --:~.'7~'. '"
---

..';~'i .' ':. :.' .' . ".' .)' ': :".,.; .~~
.?"C~>,;:;.:. ~ ' .
". . .":~I '.' . '::: ':','" -:
. .
3
concentration to which any person is exposed is 0.0118 ~g/m .
is only a fraction of a person exposed to this concentration.
although there
3.2
CHROMIUM CHEMICALS MANUFACTURE
Three '~T.omium chemical plants were included in the HEM analysis for
chromium ~he~icals manufacture. Table 3-2 presents. for each specific
chromium ch3mical plant. a breakdown of the total chromium exposure level
and the number of people exposed as projected by the HEM. The national
public exposure to chromium emissions from the three facilities studied is
given in Table 3-3. Ap'proximately 1.85 million people are estimated by the
HEM to be exposed to a total chromium concentration in air of 0.000233 us/m3
or greater. The maximum concentration to which anyone is potentially
exposed is 1.89 ~g/m3 of total chromium.
3.3
REFRACTORY ~~UFACTuRE
Sixteen refractory manufacturing plants using chromium were included in
the HEX analysis for this source category. As shown in Table 2-2 of
Chapter 2, how~v~r, a total of 3S plants have been identified to be
manufacturing chromium refractory products and therefore assumed to be
chromium emitters. The reason that o~ly 16 plants were included in the
modelling/exposure analysis was that no chromium emissions or plant
characterization information was available on the other 19 sources.
However, despite the number of uncharacterized plants, the 16 that were
included in the HEX analysis constitute the major chromium consuming and
1 2
chromium emitting plants in the refractory source category.' Although the
~nchara~terized plants ~ould add to the national l~vel of populacion
ex?osure from chromium refractory plants, the additional exposure is
projected to be minor in comparison due to the scaller size of the
facilities and their geographic locations.
Human exposure model re3ults for total chromium ~xposure and number of
people exposed on a ,er plant basis ,re presented for all l6 refractory
plants in Table 3-4. The national population exposure results calculated by
the HEM for chromium ~missions f~om refractory plan~s are given in
I
.
;
\
I
I
i
J
L .'

v~.~J,.,;i~~:;r-~"i~'"'t"'.i-'J:"r-~-
3-3
--. .;.. ::r,. ..t;p.U ~
,,'
. '. ...~
"; .'.' ,.;' :~:t'1;,

:"~~,.


'- j..'.',oC""'(.
~'~.(:.:t~$
. . v .t'AC~' ,
. "-'- ,1:.,)..,\ .
. . <.::.'t;~t~{f i=
':.",~~
";'i;A~
, '/':/~'~:~
,:, ~"JI..l"'l,a~
.~.' "!.', ~1":J!I.~t'
. i;::/t~
"".""ll
."~':'t'::.:~~
'., '.;~:..1if,;~
. :. .,~<:.r1;~

J}Ji~~
. ,;.r.~,~ ~
-.: ',.~~Ij"~~~
", '(~:'hi1:.
...~

.','.'!~ti
. . ..~:::t.~
.::;)t;

..t~t.

: :);:~~
'-;~"~.J~
.. ';'('''j
. ".'t~:,
'. . ..~. ,~t;.
":~t::
, '..::;~
,",i'
" C,';:;'
. , ~.~:..
''-'',....

-------
'..Y. ,..~ ~~. '""",:;' f!i: ..,;,:..........;t;::~# tf;>~}J::(;'~'Jf:f.ifffJ/rtf.~.....;(;~"~,#:""",,,,~ f"~"";" .......t'"""'.f';,~...!" "~ijo,,,;','(';-,)'IfIZf,~~
't.~T~~~'~~\~~.I~""~t~~~~~:;..#i'}~j~"\!<\I.~W:'',{\~.,*~,;..':'-~r:,-".;.., <~: ~>," ,:<",' f, 4r,,;.:-,: ;;'" /, '\'.'?;," ";t:.'~~~{'~



~,I.~,~,;,!.1.',\ .~
".. ,.'" . ". ~~,'!
{".t';~,'

'J,~:~!~.

I;'.



,".,.
~:.:.:.:. .
'IABLE 3-2.
'IOTAL CHROMIUM EXPOSURE AND NUMBER OF PEOPLE
EXPOSED FROM CHROMIUM CHEMICALS MANUFAC'IUREa
Plant
'Iotal Number of
Persons Exposed
'Iotal Exposur~
(Persons-\Jg/m )
J,,'
.",
Diamond Sha~rock.
Castle Hayne, NC
98.792
1.200
,:. .
; ,
:',1' .
"
. .,
:~:~:.
0,' :.-.
American Chrome & Chemical,
Corpus Christi. TX
227,757
2.740
};..~ -:,.:
!'.
~:,i,'.
j~~,'. .

;~.~ ~'.
~~. ~
t.","
Allied Chemical,
Baltimore" MD
1,523,433
41,400
~:
a
A 20 km (12.4 miles)
chemical planes.
radius was used for the analysis of chromium
,..
\: .
1~ ..'
3-4
..

-------
TABLE 3-3.
PUBLIC EXPOSURE' TO CHROMIUM ,~m(THREE MA.J9R
CHROMIUM CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING PLANtS 'AS
PRODUCED BY THE HUMAN EXPOSURE MODEL'
.," .
,"
. . ,',..', " ....:-.
" '
. ,
I
PU'blid'17-osureb . ',,/}~~.i}'~~J".I!~
~t'..J . ;;'\/~";"~:~ '.~ 'f
(P.rsoI1S-IJ~/m,~' ,;',: '):,~;y&i!:ly, '
, ''', ,',' G>',:>;" <;'~J?:\~~~~}
"" " . .t ...;.;.~" .~, I., , . ," ", ""I....fr\,\f.~~)
l.89 l' :', 2'''' ',",":::".{;~(.?~~,~i$\
'.. )f\.f .';IN,J./\\
1.0 6 , 9 .' ",::>.,itl~
0.5 3,865 2 '510 ..~,.:.:1:Z}'i'.~%.
0.25 19,370 . "',"f~~,~
7 , 770 . ,.:-'?,. ~"~~~,
0.1 65 '463 14 600 ' "'';'''i';'7t~~'
, . . "".s-\~
00'.0525 180,502 22,400 ::,~:q;~}~jJ.1:
411,501 30,400 :d:)f,J.!
O.  1 1.062.928 40 .400"',:;',:~#~$::
0.005 1,598,515 44 400 ,'...: :.";A."";.'
0.0025 1,808,106 4455 :)20000 ,:>~S;ft~
0.001 1,838,288 . '~,..{W~:
0.0005 1,839,699 45 300 "".: .,~",~~~;
0.00025 1,849,992 45' 300 ::',i.~,:.~;t~~'
45' 300' ,':i'i!~rj;
0.000233 1,849,992 '." ";~~W~~

a~:;~e~: l~r ,~;S~~:~a~~~e C~:~~~~d O;.~::; l~O::;::e~O t~h~h~e:~~~i::Ole . .....,X,;~~.~,~.~~,.

and higher concentration levels found in column 1. For example. ",!.:,\.q.~,
0.5 people TJould be rounded to 0 and 0.51 ;>eople TJould be rounded to l., :~:;~~.r.~~j
b '", :l~:ti,"~~,
ColU!:ln 3 displays the computed value of the cut:1ulative exposure to ': ~'::'.:}'J.f>';$~
the catching and higher concentration levels found in column 1. :,,:~:~:~,t~:
. ~'.', ::~:J~i.!.*j
'-;:,"~~1,~~
. .,";;'~l~.:::~~~
. ~'''':iJiP~
" ."""'~l~!(;'i!;
. "j<; U:f.'4:'~
'. ":(;'Jl';'

..;f1~!
, "":~.f:
~;>, :. ~;:?~~

, .,,:,'t'1-',-fJj'f


::~'ri{~
'.:.~<::)~1~
. : " :...,.~<~~-:\~~\!f.
, ,., .::~:;I;t~~~li
, ">';';"f.;:.:,"'1,f!f.:
. . I. ..~~~~~~~~~ ,~~;
'. . r,' of -'VJ'L>:-: -' :/.
. . ,:..~<>"t:,.


3-5 .. ;),_':it~i";:~;~';;~i~;/';Li;ji~J~t~f!' .
'; , . ';;::;'f":"":!f;,;:t?i~f?:.;4;::--i~~~~\;-{;~r';:~~;'
, ',' :;':. :,;,;,;!~,:tm~Y~!$f i": 7~:: "5J{ Y.t~0:~'
:':~. .~/ ;,'.~' :1;.n~ ",tS.~fl1.J. ~",l;~~!.,;?' . . - ~. 7'~
. .t,.l ..j,.' ,e" ,. ~~ ,'r" ,.
Concentrat1~n Level
(~g/m )
a
Population Exposed
(Persons)
>"
, ,
f
,
. '
'f I

-------
'--'-.~'- ,;~,:..:~.._:;;..' :~"'''~''~',' ,.".-,"j'f'~,,""".'~:;~'""~. ~: '- ~_J_, ..",~:~....;~ -7"!' -, ,":';J~'" ,"""'-'-~~'r'':,-, -~-", ~-,.,,,,:, ,"~. '-':':':~'., ,,';,"I"'''':'';,,:~''',' ~ :-'"., -,...-, . ~t'~J.""~!f",",::,'':'~''''-;~:~ ,:r-~~~~'-;"',':o:r:~'~:, " .',' -, ,"' --., ,'.~',' .. - -','
~'~ '_"-,--".-
-
""e."...,. :.:,.,~,:.",;.;~i'~!..;~~~~f~?f1rVfWi"!~::' (.:;, !:";'"~;"f >,''.:.'',:;{;;.J.: :';;!"'~' ~':-::)~:':;~://:;~,~:'~ <.::;'r' ,,~.'~. '
.\ ,,";~~~W~,j!.?i'Bt~"';~"'i'::.;:r.'''''~'\'''\'''~;':'''~:f,.f.,:;;,,~~,,"{;..!>Y,-~~4:I:-.~.'~" ; ',J" ,,~.! ,,: ''!;' ::ij;i~~~fi~~~
,-;,0

-------
. ..'.
TABLE 3-4
(CONTINUED) .
TOTAL CHROMIUM EXPOSURE AND . NUMBER OF. PEOPLE'
HXP\~3ED FROM GHROMIUM REFRACTORY MANUFACTU'RE8
1.
t
Plant
Total Number of
Persons Exposed'
," ..
Total ExpOGur~
(Persons-~g/m ),
Gunning Refractories.
Crown Point. IN
386.894
134' '.
i
t'
Harbison-Walker Refractories,
Hammond. IN
1,193.663
26.700
Kaiser Refractories,
Moss Landing. CA
161.321
569
a
A 20 km (12.4 miles)
refractory plants.
radius was us~d for the analysis of chromium
Ii

1:
.
I:
,
\.
,
'i
';
.

-------
. ..-~, .,.'<.. . ,;""'-",,,\'/~:"..:, ,'''':.., .........~_.:_...t,-~/"",:':,'"",,"'''';.':.-:''I,: :";I'~li'~"~/' ..~'. ..-..~':':t~- '{;'*'f':",'~...i....'-..
. . ~{iJi~~~f.i7imflt-:-~:;; ,*p;~Ui~~,:'";-4:t.oo;;'<'-~iI'j:;~;~~~'i\1':'f~;~~~('J;P.~i~{I;i\~~y '\j~ ~.: '.'
.. ..;...::,.sll',<:.:~:t.{r}:: (:!~~r ~~7:?'.:.:.rr:?- ..~:~'!';'W~'; /';'f", ~~,:.:': ; :':-',-::: ,f ~:: "";-.1"'!,:~':.,'::~': > .. '. .' .'
~~j.J.I'"Y:-~,~:~;'f:'~:.~.;.:", :':'. ,: ",;. ';,.."~.'
, '
',~
.~
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~ -, ~ :
. : <. ':~.'''' -, ".:; . .'
" .' ..~~~/j:tit~:
,", ~"':""" ",.:t,.'J.> J,
....... . I~ ... --t.- "T!:/VJ\..:.'-,.t....
. . ~.. . .: .'
"
, ,
','r,__.:""~.,,,,~-.,,'.r",',.".~... .__.'~-'..",i".' ,'.:,"~ "~" :'~~...,:: : ", .", "'~"-'>' '.. ," '--.. . ---~: :-' '" . -- -,;,-".".,.'. ,.",' ,"','-._~~:i.
,- .,'. '
. ~.'

-------
1"-" j~" . '" :,; .' . '.' ... ./..' -.~ "." """"-W$j..~. ".,,-<'''~6i",'~.':''~'' ,;-i:"';;i"~"'ii~~7f'$~'A.a;4
r~lkf~~@'~'!.l~j;.. ,i.~,:t~':f.::';;~.'j~':"':i~t'(~:',';"~~;:-i'r.:!;:;,';1;;! ,::A~;-.;;;:t'.-;,:.~:'J.~ }.~'<::'i:~1'f:~i~:K~~~.;Y(~~1~r. ;~ ~-t ,q~~~.;~1.~~.j0.}t;0'9'~f..~~'.;.1tAy1t{~~~"" '~-'j!~ .
t.~t;:'< 'f"c""" . .' ' '.. ',.,""'. . .' '.'" ""'." . .'. . ';', , . ".' " .. ...,', , ,> 'i'''''i".'/''';'! :~.....:t~~J
"''''!\j'~~'
:..'.;;J~;.
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, ".t(/.,. ~".
~.,;'=":~~;;~:~~
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. :~::,~Y.W
:',!~
" .L (~~:J!.t.\::::
" ";:;:i?t-:!;~'\.
l~ ~.~si..~t't:~t~.:.~.
, " ;; .~..\..~" '>t.
" -' \,:'-:-~~~ -~,\f
" . . ~r:..~'"i:.. ".t!
.~,,~'j
. \;:.~~~
~ ,,: ~l~~'!i!
. / ':.1::: W.r
~. ~ ,'/ ~~~.~~
.........;...~


:;;m
, .~, ,~(~
".~~. t\"'<'~~; ~
:':;':?f~t~J

., ..,)-<'l;,t


;;!i.~i~

. ~ :jf1i;;.~"-~





~.}C''\\ik'\f
,~~;~.:~:,;~~~
. "'-:':.-' -lr ':\
:~;~~~;rt":
'>-:..tl,:,., -~~~.i
:~<}:"~?:<--~'6
!. ~, .;, .",:,.,.' ;'.. ':.. '~'."j' .: ",;~)~;, ...~:;>/,,":'..:';;[ii~~{i~j~
. -," : ::;"'-dtf"-/" ~,~I"!;~:,lg..,:--: t'~-: ':,",{-!,;,'..:~.::,..""" '.rJ..1;'\~..~~ -'r.~)(.,. -r.'..j:, "':-.-1 ~~~. .hJ' ~ ,~~-:~r::..,r."~'
'. ~" I....,i ..;,>".... ." , .'~ ~~, -".. '~". - . . ,". ,,~.. ",.. .
'c'~~~;';~..J"';" .
TABLE 3-5.
P.UBLIC EXPOSURE TO CHROMIUM FROM CHROMIUM REFRACTORY
PLANTS AS PRODUCED BY THE HUMAN EXPOSURE MODEL
Concentrati~n Level
(ug/m )
a
Population Exposed
(Persons)
b
Public Exposu38
(Persons-ug/m )
13.5.
10
5
2.5
1
0.5
0.25
O. 1
0.05
0.025
0.01
0.005
0.0025
0.001
0.0005
0.00025
0.0001
0.00005
0.0000368
o
o
1
24
509
4.976
15.205
59.921
129.876
272.685
777.461
1.442.270
2.072.713
4.048.332
5.971.919
6.481,292
7.997,769
8,229.068
8.242.165
1
4
11
73
719
3.820
7.600
14,300
18,900
23.700
31,500
36.500
38.700
41,800
43,200
43.400
43,700
43.700
43.700
a
This colucn displays the computed value. rounded to the nearest whole
number. of the cumulative number of people exposed to the matching
and higher concentration levels found in column 1. :or example.
0.5 people would be rounded to 0 and 0.51 people would be rounded to 1.
b
Column 3
matching
displ~ys the computed value of the cumulative exposure to the
and higher concentration'levels found in column 1.
f
}

~
3-9

-------
. ,.' "~~~i~Jli~;'~A4~~~~~~;f:wti~4~;~~1#~~lr.~~#i:~;:~~:\~t~i.ff~~~Yi:~~;-:!";:'~ '
, .."" ",,-,'. :,1: .);~~:..';jnj~jr'~~~;i'f;:tj~:,~,,::~/:~::::..~~{{ ;~>':":':'~':,'~\:'{""::" ',:.. '!'. ~ .',': ::';.:~. ':~ "',,;, . ,:',
.."""'. .
. '. ."",- :",
. ..,' .':." ,..:
'., ',' :;:,.: /:.' ,(,;,,~~,"
"", '::'~::'!!~;:'~lliftl
./. ~ ~;'~1


.. J
. ';'?!
":"'1

, ~: I
.1
, i
:;';'iJ.
:)]
~
.;r-r
~..
~~
~
J&-J
:~~
:'iJ.-i
.%1
::~;
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.IJJo:~'-'"
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. ~~.."
',F"':

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:. ,.f' ~.
r.
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3.4
MUNICIPAL REFUSE AND SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION
'".'
Aa stated in Section 2~7' of Chapter 2, 129 municipal refuse
incinerators w.re identified in this study and included in the HEM analysis.
nowever. because several site. have multiple incinerators ducted to one
control 8yste~. the number ot distinct site entries given in the summary
tables below does not equal 129. This same principle also hold~ true for
the 141 ,sewage sludge incinerators. Table 3-6 presents the su~ry HEM
results for the total number of people exposed and the total chromium
exposure at each municipal refuse incinerator site examined. The national
public ex~08ure to chromium from municipal refuse incinerators, as
determined by the HEM, is given in Table 3-7. Approximately 45 million
people are esti~ted to be exposed to chroQium concentrations of
3
0.00000012 \.Ig/m or greater as a result of municipal refuse incinerator
operations. The highest ambient chromium concentration predicted by the HLV,
to be encountered in the vicinity of municipal refuse incinerators is
3
0.0245 \.Ig/m. Table 3-7 indicates that only a fraction of a person is
actual:) exposed tc tha highest predicted concentration.
Table 3-8 presents the summary HEM re~ults for the total number of
people exposed and the total chromium exposure at each sewage sludge
incinerator studied. The national public exposure to chromium from sewage
sludge incinerators is presented in Table 3-9. Approximately 45 million
people are projected to be exposed to chromium concentrations of
0.0000005 \.Ig/m3 or greater as a result of sewage sludge incinerator
operations. The highest ambient chromium concentration esti:ated by the H~!
3
to be encountered in the area of sewage sludge incinerators is 0.0838 ug{~
However, the HEM also predict' that only a fraction of a person is exposed
"i'- ,
:j.
jj;'-:',

. ..'.
:~~,::'
if'
'~f,:'
"I'"
..~;:
,,'..
..-
.~: ).
'.
,:~':
..'
r! '
''''
'..,"
I'....:. .
i. ~~
,',
.;'<' . ,
'-;...'
" '
, .'
. "
'I;" .

:''';:':''." :

'f'" .
:.~~..;
..~t~ :,
'-1,--
r,.."
':~~i,'
:.~ ~
. \'i.~:'
I::
. I"~',
.':!<
to this maximum concentration.
To appropriately .valuate the exposure results given in Tables 3-6 to
3-9, certain factors in the municipal refuse and sewage sludge incinerator
data bases should be noted. The first factor involves the great variability
of the chromium levels found in municipal refuse and sewage sludge, which 1n
turn affects the levels of chromium emitted. As discussed in Section 2.7 of
'0:".
';"
-{
;.t-
L('~';'
~J~,
r!;
'1$'.:
:~/~'

;.1W
~1t~fl:$.i'tf}:~);?~:::;~;J/S).;:::>... "
3-10
.. ..~ <. ~.' . . _v';., . -",,,. . . '. , . . "..' <

;. . " """"",, ".: u:~,.;.: ..,"~: '",'.'.' i,', .,\"". ",,"<'..'.~-'-.,.:".,:, . "',,,'
. -'. I
.' ',.: ~..;~~
. ::: -~~;~~';::;:~t~!

-------
-'.......~
i ,
i "
I':
f,
I"
,". "'"
:",:',:-::: '>'::'~1:ft ,; ,""J~~~
~'.~~4J~~;:~ . :t!.~:
'.: ~... ",:..v,i.-'''';'''~~'
, ' "":""'~~"';Y;:f
. . '.' ~". ~~..;~t}~:..~
, , " ,. ",;,,;~r.;;J
"" '\:':~!i'f,~l.\
-: '\.:,(~~W'
.!;"~;I

. : '; ".~1i1'~
. ".;' :r.<~~~JtI
", ""'\~~
. ,,::~';;ti.~'.
. '. -;ll':'t~i.:'J.~,
t. ~.' t,.f;( l:~


.;;~



" .I;'..l-'

" :'::~:f
:::,~::
{"
TABLE 3-6.
TOTAL CHROMIUM EXPOSURE AND NUMBER OP PEOPLE
EXPOSED FROM ~ICIPAL REFUSE INCINERATORS8
 Incinerator,   Total Number of
 Location    Persons Exposed
 Augusta, AF.     9,032
 Ben tonville, AR   ,59,276
 ~lytheville, AR   42,318
 Hope, AR      17,689
 Hot Springs, AR   66,960
 Kensett, AR     31,271
 Atkin~. :\.~     37,281
 ~ot'th Lit t;.e Rock, AR 305,901
 Osceola, AR     24,994
 Silvam Springs, AR  24, g 5 1
 Stuttgart, AR   15,24i
 Orlando, FL     474,557
 Pahokee. FL     47,926
 Port Orange. FL   146,855
 Donaldsonville. LA  37,459
 Plaquem1ne. LA   85,476
 Rayne. LA     81 .604
 Harpswell. ~E   53,494
 K1ttery. ME     137,793
j Auburn, SH     184,597
:,        
"        
Total Exposur,
(Parsons-ug/m )
0.04
0..5
.~,'
0.8
. .~.''';~:
0.09
. , '
: : ~'~~~;~
... ~,
.. : ,'/"
':' .'~?'
:.~; .
4
0.06
~. "..";1
.'
0.07
."
. '
13
, .r,:
"t...'.t..-'
,'.
".':'''i'
0.3
" ..#
'. ":'. .r~~
, ;'.,'" >~.~
0.3
"."'.'
'.
. :.
0.2
. ..., ~
, ,
18
".. ,'.

,4 F~:
0.4
'-.' .:~': ::
<"f~ ','
~ ~:...
. ':
2
.
0.2
. .
. "",..o
" '
.:. .
0.7
0.5
0.02
'.
1
, .
0.03
~ :. "~t"".
.f,'.~...,
. '..,.'

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~~
~
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~
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. + ":
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If
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{4t
~'i-'
f'~~
~1:V"t.
'i~~
:1'1'1
r~~'
~t~t:::,
~~~f{ .
~{~;',
:rfJ;:.'. '
(:ii'., ' ,
ff.:....V"":
t~l~ ,'~' .
~,~(,';.;
j;k:/,
j;j.' '. '
f.0i. .'.
f,~(",


l.j~,.". .'
J' ~ "
" .',
~{r;, .

p:; ,
r:;. .
~ r. ~ . i
;,l"
.,,'..
'.:~ .
~:;' . ,
~/~.
~.<~-~.
~I(f. .
~j.~~
ro'$:.;.
i:1~'~J
~~.:::~
~~
ri--..ff
'15'<::
~
f~.~~
~W '
~~~~,'l:'!~, ~:,~~~~~;,'if~:t.~:.:~~~~.~~~.:.;r.,.,~~,. >~:'f~:'~'.,,:~. .;'~',.; ~_.~..~',:~'1\', ,"""J~": '. .~ ~'.' ," ,',
~~'f~.~Sli.':'~~';'-~U~f,;'''',''I'<7!>''' ,1-,., '.7.,":''''~Y, .r...1-. ,',",,".. ,...:"'," ", , . . "
,~;:.-r:'r~;'r""''''''' ~"'~''':'''/T' t:::~.. ,"'.', . .'" . ~ ""...' - 'r., '. '. "..' .
TABLE ~6 (COIfttNUED).
,TOTAL cnOMIUH EXPOSU1lE Ah'D NUMBER OF PEOPLE
EXPOSED ROtC Hl'NICIPAI:- UroSE INCINERATORS.
".i
~';,
Incinerator
Location
Total Number of
Penon. Exposed
Total Expo8ur5
(Penons-ug/m )
-..
.:;i
.,',
)i
::'.1
': .
"
,',
.',
" I
I," ';
. !
!
!ddi.~,;;Ater, NH
19.159
0.04
Candia, NK
166.425
0.2
C~t&rbury. NH
69.276
0.1
L1tcH1eld. NH
262.891
0.8
Meredith. NH
39.505
0.1
Nottingham. to.'H
46.587
0.07
Pittsfield. NH
"""~jJ'
'''!'A ;
'''....ton. NH
42.863
0,09
53.995
0,2
Wolf.boro. NH
40.044
0.07
Skaneat.l... NY
73.188
0.3
Wriahtlville Beach. SC
100.~54
0,9
Cleveland. OK
15.530
0.06
Tahlequah. Ot{
2>.573
0.6
COOl County. OR
41.160
0.2
Cro'lvllle. TN
24.255
0.2
llefug10. TX
5.250
0.005
Terrell. TX
13.812
0.03
Salem. VA
201. 407
4
hllingham. WA
67.926
0.6
Anlonia, CT
690.812
133
.'
I.'"
-,
, ; ":.?
.::;<~

<~:\):~~d~[i];~
3-12

-------
~t>: t
}.u~ 'J
,~,,,;,,
~I'~I'~
~~r.,;,
:<,:; 1~' -!.~~~
~".~~:..~.j-;.'f
?41~':7~,iO'~
"...,itP' ,
tJ~~.~r.:,. ~
'~'''~ .~
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;...'.r.:o:'111'\](
."t4.?~~~:'~\
f.i~:~;'~~'~'
'~'~13~
;il:11-"~j'
. ~(~~t~~~.~.
~;:I{r;i1~
.",'V ~v:,\,:>
~."A l.....
~'~~/~~~J
.\~'c,:j,;.;..,.
t~"~d~' .t-:
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. #:--~~.,;~~~}.~J.~
. ..~. ~. .&.~':9.:~JriI4.
, ,,-':':f.~fc';>~":
, "":~.~'~~:l':';~~
..!:t,,;,.~<~~
..:,~~j;;~~
,. ":J'ti,,~fJ.~~~
~ :(..:..~'::~\01.'~~'"rr".-b
., ~jt~',f~)d.
,:;;:;"~~'z~
. .; ~ ~.. ~~"':,' 'j;:-j
", .!h,\;~ ~tN'
~~tJ.:, Ii ');' ~1-\
. ~/':r...."'# ";'" \
, "':~~/~:'-?~~"X:'-;J:
. ~'j"."~"J...;.tl",
::;1'}-,1$,~~
, :;'f/l>J.:.'~:r2
: '~. J{\~;t~~
'\)~4i~t~i
. :';<- Ji:.~~'/ir.,
" ""-+, :..r-..V.f),\
. ,>'\IJ., *:).{,
. ~. '. :;~t--jtf~ 4Jet';
~~"tj,tr4;'-'=:
'." ""~~~~{;ir- ;,~',
, .' .t"",111\;:i'~; ,?
':~~~4::~t~~J
!<"i,.,...~.'~~:)
"; ,-.1- J" .,.~,-'~ 1;).I.."~1.

Wff]


, "~:f~(~'~~'-'
. .:.~l#,\\~,:r~.~~'.,-' I
';: ..~.r'v.'~ ,.::1
\ ': {.~.,J ~. ""'~j
, ", '~:t:j '\~ (/ jf$li.?~~
. . :'~~:::~/~l~;);:~)
'. . .. . ""'1V'b'i:lJ~...;j
. ,'. . - ',., ::.<:':' .".,~:,~.):~:i~'ry:~~',;,~\~
3-13 . "'" "", ,.' .<.. ..:,'" ;,t1";~'j<.-;;.'~ ,.1.
, "': ~ "t':.:. '<' ," ~ ",# .;... 1~'.:1.'~' . ./:~~~';.o;i";,' 4,,"'-~:'~,;""'~1<1" '~~1~ ~~!y:t;;'''~lf. ~ --~
. . ,.r .:"'I''''':'.~it:''''I..~l''''~,,''':.('\, ',f't:)'.:, ...J~.~~~':~:,~;1 \;~_.;(t~'~~'~",c.1--jf' _I, ' ~~',
, . ,',' .'. ,'. ~ ,4,' 1'~/JJf.~'-'i:~J." ''t,::.,."~'VJ(.~,:,~.",,,. ~'.~~"r'~&?!~. ~.(:..'~"'- ~.j,~~,,;;;;'~ -'~r
", ~ ~ ,~. " ,;..... .;~-:,' .f."~:':v~(-tF::~:~ if?~
f ~~~'~~:~-!~,:~{~~~~~_i."!.,~~'~~, ;..~.~.~: ~~. .~: '., ::-: ~ j ',;' ~., ' :' :,. ": :,~'.~ "~ :'; \?' : :::, ~':', i';;;~,:. ':{- ?:;:. ..:!:t{~ ~~. .:\'::.~,~ ':i,~. './' '\""'"''I!,..t~'')'i\",,(',,'....J;7'~V.''-:~'':I.~..'''
~~~i:,;n":;, .... ... .. ... '. ,,'.'.' "",~, ,. "0> ..

',.
'J",.'
!;' '
't.
(,
."
", ~..~,,~ .":~,'.-'~.'..'.:C',,'~':~,~ ,
'IOTAL CHROMIUM EXPOSURE AND NuMBER 01 PEOPLE '.
EXPOSED FROM MUNICIPAL REFUSE INCINERA'IOasa "
"
'IABLE 3-6 (CON'IINUED).
~<
"
. ...,.........,.. ~ -. .. ...:,
...'- ..'JI-:: :...., '...,.. t!t...X .1-...".....""
i
!-
, .'
Incinerator
Location
',' '.;:,' "...~':1.:.;.4:.~,r",'t/' ..~.
'Iotal Expo8urf,:,.' ':'
,(Peraon'~IJ.s-'~,J '
'Iotal Number' of'
Person.' Exposed
...
East Hartford. C'I
652.Z53
140
~ew Canaan, C'I
407,498
41
Stamford, C'I
438.057
47
Washington, DC
1,985.386
1.950
Chicago,
It
2,240,530
673
East Chicago.
I~
1,440.154
122
Louisville.
ICY
781.871
2,620
Shreveport, LA
14.120
2
Baltioore, MD
1.411 .705
21
Baltimore. MD
1,517.384
604
Braintree. MA
1,419,658
953
Bridgewater. MA
86.350
27
Fall River, MA
327.388
23
Fraolngham.
~.A
606.935
331
Saugus. MA
1.398.135
248
St. Louis. MO
1.484,720
141
St. LCluis, MO
1,338,049
206
Red Bank, NJ
448.355
. 116
1
Harrisburg.
PA
312.305
155
Huntington, NY
1,023,122
557
,.

-------
-". ,',. . ,.)   
.,   
Incinerator Total Number of Total Expo8ur5
" Location  Persona Exposed (Persons-pg/m )
'.<'::";'~ . -   
o.I;ackawanna. NY  885.000 259
Oyster Bay. NY  1.056,654 1,190
Tonawanda, NY  876,195 151
Lakewood, OH  1,258,571 419
Philadelphia, PA 2,696,321 778
Philadelphia, PA 2,908,879 895
   , .'
Shippensburg, PA 2,153,465 411
:~ville, TN  450,589 158
Nevport News, VA 12,523 1
Norfolk, VA  788,288 81
Portsmouth, ',TA  674,382 199
Sheboygan, WI  83,589 149
Waukesha, \o1I  491,324 37
Honolulu, HA  627,857, 159
Dade County, FL 1,385,689 169
Orlando, FL  318,726 7
South Brooklyn, NY 5,056,145 1,200
I
~
~
*
f:il
r~
~,
'(}:
if.J
?
~
~I~
~(:1
}',::'~> "'~,::" "~!' ;.',' ' ';'... .',
",
"
I.
tj:
",;'
',.
~t
{.\
"
"','1
~:.: ~
'. '
"
,;
~. ,f
~ .:
.. ,
.~. :
, '
:2:
'"
;~: '
.ir
~', .~-
..r~
.~ .'
. ,
;,oj;
~-'~,
'''!
7~'
,'f
.~ ~ ~,1.1
..' :::,;

::,7~


" ".

);:,1
" ~
'. ~- -';0,::
, '~:.J
or ' ;>~:"f,!
'~..." .', ' 3-14 ' " .:,',
~;:';:";3.i'~~;,fit0;'h'~( ),." iiJ '2 :,:,: ,'wi.;", > : .:, ",' ~>,;; i. !;.' ,;, ' ,.;, < "', ". . .' , }~;i~~
~~~,~~:;~f~..~~~Pi~t.~J};~,i~~rtf1~~~1f~~.:~.~,~~~{~'f!1~~;#~~~!~:~f~:f~ ~1i~:Br?~~;Ni~~~;~:i;~~;~Jl'~~~i'~~,,~~~~~!,tS4~~,;~~:ii~
, t~t/itMi;;Jt.:I..\""7.. ...",r;-.".~.TO ~~~--".'-;tI......-T",.. ,'\o.."!..f:~ ..,' ,..('". ,." .. -- " ' ..~_...;.i\"';!,. ,'.,' - . '". ",~""'-~==--~ ,""
aA 20 km (12.4 miles) radius vas used for the analysis of municipal
vaste incinerators.

-------
""I., ,.,.'..,.:.:.~:...t,.,'~.t. ,,").',';".:; """ . . . - '. ..",.,", ~"'I.""':"'~'':'.''01... -'....:". :":H-.~.r'r.;{.b:,.:.....,...::..-.. ""-,,,,'0'""" '''';'.''~..' ':">~f:'.~""r ,'J. :~'..' :..."':~:':".::.."
~.~t;~;~::~.~~~/ :i.!......<~:tt~~~~'j :,")':':'f:~'~';'r ~;:...!;,,:.~;~_.. ~ :':rl,t...n.\,'; ,',':('7:-S.~4!:!'~-,r? .t;~~~~~;t!t..tt~~~~~~~~~~J~~t~~,~'-:,~"~:"'~'t~~~~("~\O~\1f,r~~ ';, ~i' ' .,~

tlt:'?\7"'> "'. . ",', ......>.,.~ '" < -:'!C':'8:;:,?~;,'''':?'';:}':)'?i':1~~?'~!~~~~tf~~,:
!~;~ . .....' '. .; ,}"':;C,'X~;~;1rZrt
:;~... TABLE 3-7. PUBLIC EXPOSURE TO CRROHItn(noKMUNICIPAt,IlEFUS! ''';, ~.:<::"\:Y\,"~';;}(:
:<~. INCINERATORS AS PRODUCED )y"THE HUMAN'EXPPSt1Q KODEI.'i':r:':~t?~.
:~:,:, :." . .. ' , :~" :.~.:~~~{<. ~>~:2;~~~,~:~:f)([

I ~'.P~': . ....;,.~~~.'r
:~J\: . a '. .:. .'."..';.;':_'~~i~~j~'~':1"t!-:J'::b~":j:~:~~~f.;
i.':- Concentrati~n Level Population Exposed, . PubUc":~qs~3.,:':'~h"::.y,,%
; . (\.Ig/m ) (Persona) (Penon.;"pa/~ ->. ,';.'" ':r.:',:,~;(:>:

. ...,.:..,...,~' ";~;':~~f;~
. . \, ~~~;.;~(
<' 1 J> ~.. ';:~~f~lv~~- (;'.
. 604" . . . '~'}~~!~~~~:~~~:"
I 0' ;.:~t\~~:}J'r~A
2.080 ': <:' ~";(/.~fk~
3,930 ' .",.,,:I'
7 ,370 ,:'(~:k?~~~.~~:
' 9,810 ,': "(..lir<~
12.400' ,,;F;~~iir}'l:'r
1m~ ',)I~ ,
1~ ::gg?i~f
H ::gg'J~t~~~.~
,.~ ' "~?;~.<,;,~~
,..",t-f,.\,:,~~
, ',: '(I".-;"f:<.'t.::-ct-':',
. ':1~~;:\~1:~~.~)
t, .:~~r:.'.;:;~Jtt;
.'! ''''~z''J.~:t~~'7'.
. . \:'. ."'~f. ~Il~~~
. '. ~1.:\tl~'1~'AW
::,' !.;,;)~~~~~
','. !.' ",~'J ;
'.,' ',.'...~I:;~"",..;.;\:f\
", ; ~f~~V~'rl"I~:
" <.~~,~!'?
!. :.,:: ~ (~. ~:~g~?:f:.
", I.' ,,1~~i:i-.~
.~. ..,;,:#ttv~~"j.?
, 'I.~.~".;~f~~~;!'
l "'.~; 1.na."!""P':
, "'~:,,""'~'
.,~~~~~~;~,~
,"!<:.;J...-,,':I
,I, "'<,~\~V."I
. J Ih."<.".'\1-;
. ;~)t~t)2f.~
"'''\PiW~
:. ~/: ~.!~,\(>',:i 1.".)1
" .-~,~;~:J~~J,m:
. . :).\~'4t~",/,~.t,~
.' '~: i'~):4-.~~:lJ~~~-~
, ,.t ',.p ~i\";")~~" ~~;
.,' ;'~'1"'~': ~~i~~:t-41
. '~';""')~~~ft~
',' "d;:l~~~..,.". -..~,
... /' ~~~t, '(i.,~~f.'''N4
" ,~~:.(..-?'J~i~~~i
, . ,\,,~;;" n"$';.-~"'1
. '" / '':':~''''':it':~>
, '-~1'7{t-1l,.~!.1
, ,. ,. ':"':';~.' '" :.- .~.' .~' . ~I'f,"". .::....:t..',~:.~,',::~,:;.:,:,'.:,:~,"}/~,~,::,~,",.i~~~,'~.~,~~r~J

'. "'-.""" -.,\' ." <.:...," '''')P'';~'''':-~.:-o.:(!,::..~r.,...,;:t.101>~'~1~~.''1! ~
3 18: ,', .~'.': {/., .., ,"'..i-:~:' ',:<-,,~~<. Y>~{hi<1 '~"'" . >,j
. . ....~,:,~,~, ."I., '~(i'~r.~'''' ~}';,iJ",:~";")?""i";:~ ;r~,,~d...4,J~1>~' ~r- ~ - - ".0\
, . ". :," ~","""J''''';'J,~.s:,;,.<,\v.:.'- .r.~\:~i>'d"'-);;'>~\"'!';~-""" .. ,
, , ',,, '''-..... v,~_I.... ...~..'~....t/~..1:.... ... '.. ),,~,.,\.~... 1-: ~Xh!"j'('~:~I. t',.
. ,s. ;'., ~l..... 1 ~ ,'7j~rl "1'~d ~\;'"'';'<> '.~L~j"M.;' ::~.I' t,.. ..,,"'}.. "" ...-'
. '. ,', ~:1 . . .: . ~':~~,:';j~l.p~N~J~~~~~~~ "\;~~;;; ~;~il~.~~:tJ;~~ 1r~~{~-
. . .'.;. ,: 4".,'_:f:..7~ '.~':J~.' ~(~.....(\..."iJ..,;,'':Jfi~'';;J:q'j-{:,.,~~ J :,Sj1;.~ ''''~~,~
. . .' - ' ,-.' """",' .t.(...~ ,:: ~ ,,'~..... /r~-t~';',,",,:':4f'~~_H""\."',l Y[!~V.~!!' ~"')-
."~- ':.'-. -'.j:':""":::';' '/"."'.~;.~,~~~ 'l:;"~~~~..:~?-Ib:~.~~"f.~rr/}T:'J. . 1. ','''~>,",~~}.~~L .~'q '.,~ . ~~~r< :".;'-'-" , ~~..
,;
...,;},-; .
,f'
,
0.0245
0.01
0.005
0.0025
0.001
0.0005
0.00025
0.0001
0.00005
0.000025
0.00001
0.000005
0.0000025
0.000001
0.0000005
0.0:000025
o .00000012
o
42,551
267.058
817.966
3.081.821
6.614.389
13.815.227
28.113.506
35.814.533
39.267.454
41.998.744
43.171.894
43.854.513
44,614.448
44.881.518
44.896.673
44.944.086
~ ,
-
",
-,
~.
-"
-
-
~
a
2
...
~his column displays the com~uted value. rounded to the nearest whole
nu~ber. of the cumulative number of people exposed to the matching"
and higher concentration levels found in column 1. For example,
0.5 people would be rounded to 0 and 0.51 people would ,be rounded to 1.

bColumn 3 displays the computed value of the cumulative ex~osure to the
matching and higher concentration levels found in column 1.
J'
]
.JI
~
~
~
;r,
'"
"'I
~.
~,
"

-------
",' "
.'fjf}
ffi.;t;
~~
~~
l?r~
~$
~@
;::;.;,
?:~
rie~
:~~
~~Z~
.:~
'.."..
1--;;::'
..'9I'.i
:~~
'rft'
\~If;
~:-lI~f
.~i';
-'2K~;'
;' r;;~
{pI..
';{p:,:'
I~'.-';,
1~}
~, i~~~
~)l.';'
"~to "
:~;~
it:."p
!ft4Jf,!'
':{;;:":
i.~\':
Jr;',J,
,..~.~I'

:r
,r:,~!~
{{~:.:
:~c;,
:,~:',{
Tx.'"
If...'
'~~.;
:J.,.
.,',
("'.'
f~~;.
~J~~::'

. ""t'..
:.'''' .,
,':ti'. I
Q.
U
. TABLE 3-~.
TOTAL CHI.OMIUM EX1'OSt1RE AND NUMBER OF PEOPLE
. EXPOS ED ,nOM $E1lAGE SLUDGI.' INCINERATORS a
Inc,1nar ator,
, 'Location
"
Total Numb,ar. of Total Exposur~
Person. Exposed (Penons-\Ag/m )
21 0.00006 '
893 0.0002
454.483 3
503.569 5
666.991 115
159.61.3 0.1
504.326 43
382.993 18
-.. 
513.758 77
214.215 3
691,793 2
~
~
j
,Alaska Village Electric Co-op,
Anc~orage, A:K
Wrang81l, AK
City of River.i~e Incinerator.
Riverside, CA
Kattabas.ett District Incinerator,
CromveU, C1:
Hartfo~d Sewage Treat~ent Plant.
Hartford, CT
Lake Arrowhead. CA Incinerator
City of New Haven Incinerator,
New b'~'. an. CT
Waterbury Sludge Incinerator,
Waterbury. CT
.,.."
Pensacola Incinerator.
Pensacola. t'1.
I
}
I.
I
r

I
,;~: '
Buckman Sewage Treatment Plant.
Duval County, FL
,.,t'
~~ ..
,;,(.::.
.~~~~.. .'
e.Kalb County Snapfinger
,Water Pollution Control.
eecatur, CA
j~' ;.
...-.J. -
';', ,
Joneaboro. GA Incinerator
257.423 4
497.857 10
184,373 11
1,292,493 12
Kar1~tta. GA Incinerator
<
Savannah. CA Incin.rator
.
:~;
',.
Granite City, IL Incinerator
',:
,J:
<~
:~~
.:.~
,'.-\,.'1
"t"I.,~
if.!
f.'J, 3-16

it~f~li1~~~:~~l~::1~:,';;;;',': ,: ':.', , ." <.. <.: ,~, ;,J..,:. :.'.; .:;;,;.:..;,: \-t.: '~~i;~'.1~2,';;':'~;i."o;"~j~:' .' I):~'~ "~~"'~:~':~ -. - ~~\:'.J--~":,t(' -:.- < 4 ;'":::t).':fl,:1~'~:'f~-\'~. ...-_..~;.',{.~~ /:;';'~,~~;~
~~""~-~h '~'\;(~';"":t~;... ';'7""'~j.., .\. :;~;,",'~-iY~f.::.:- '1.;';' 0.;"; ~':'.{,'k;;-4>\~;...t~~..;:jI:\'j:/t'>/1."':<'\'t\,. -,'i61:W!i';";;.~~'J;i5,;t.~,~!~,...; ':;'\"'~' :::,~t"J'~' ):;-~':.~;,.o''''f.
~'~2{~f(~:iA~~':~~:ift;..~j.~.~ ::;:~~';l~~~~~~~~;')f:i\~t;}!i'~1:,~~~~t;:'1:~~
-------
. ...,,", . j ~ .~.;. ~ ..." i~'" 'ft{.~"~'" " r..':'- ,
~, ":',~:," .,,:...J;'.. ,.~( .:i;r.(k\1ft~,;'!~r~"'~~Wt$ .


. . . '. ,'" ;~i::,'r:~0:"~~fi,~~~j\;A' .
. . ~ :,..-e,ty,~~
""A,j:.':>'~~1~
.%;t~~
" '(:7;it,~~&
': ;:.,~.;:j...~t"i
'. ;' ..::';:~;.'~;~~t~
.' . r',""~~i!i'
. ,.,:;:,,\~,.'~,.1{.
-. . . .'. '~ . .:;~\\..it<;;~
-------
~
~
~
.~?
!~,
.~~
'~"
..r.r.
.'I.!,\
Jt~
.1.~,
- .);-.,
./(1
;,\;
ji..:
.'
F~l
.,,:
":J
TABLE 3-8 (CONTINUED).
TOTAL CHROMIUM' EXPOSURE AND NUf(BER OF PEO'PLE
EXPOSED FROM SE\lAGE SLUDGE INCINERATORS a
"I
, ,'!
. j
J
" I
,
"
,,' ~
!~ .;f
'Incinerator.
Location
Total Number of
Persons Exposed
Total Exposu:,;
(Persons-~g!r1 )
~
~~.;~
.>
':r
/.;1
,:1;
.'~
..;~~
'~o'1
:.~}
.:~;:j
'if~
....~
'~~
.'i;o
~~ ;.:
;~~
.'
~:~
';:~:
~1j
~;'?
,~~
.
..
l."'Fitchburg Wastewater
Treatment Plant.
Fitchburg. HA
--
176.631
3
New Bedford Sewa~e Treatment Plant.
New Bedford, HA
182.8.)2
Upper Blackstone Trea:ment Plant,
Worcester. HA
356.541
11
Ann Arbor Wastewater Treatment Plant,
Ann Arbor. HI
250.452
7
Bay City Wastewater Treatment Plant.
Bay City. HI
241,264
4
"
.~..~ .
Sewerage Treatment Plant.
Detroit. HI
1.992.075
1,480
1~:/.
~;i}t.\~:'" ,
.~:?,::,
East La~~ing Wastewater
Treatment Plant.
East Lansing, MI
318.129
14
".'.",: . ..
Flintwater Pollution Control.
Flint. HI
410.359
48
",'-',
~',', - '"
. ..,
?~'~..:"
.;,V;:: ~.

'~f,~

, , ,"
"
Grand Rapids Wastewater
'Treatment Plant.
Grand Rapids. HI
421.,64~
18
'.'
:".: ...
:'\;::'
Kalamazoo Wastewater
T'ceatment Plant.
Kalamazoo. !iI
192.934
4
. "
:,,":..,
Saginaw Wastewater Treatment,
Saginaw. MI
223.825
31
:.."
Trenton Wastewater Plant.
Trenton, MI,
431.750
5
.;. ,,'t-'
,,';.' .
~... ..

"~) .;
.u.' . ,'.' , . ,;' .
'~'1t~-1di.;"",",~~q~~'JF';~:", !~';''''')'~~<''~' 'A,r.,' ,", " .~ ~. . -.
3-18
.: ':':-::>".>' .', '.. ":".-. ',"
. .J... ':'
.~;) ~.:.-.:\~:: ;. ,'....: .
. ':':;' :~.:.:,/ :,"~'::.;--' .>:...... .~. .. ~
"'4,


,';, ",,' ,", . ,.,;,\,,"~:i*~~J
:_".....~ --'".-"--"-.,',- --~~"".'-'~'-_...~~-~~-".~ _I,~,~_~:.-., -'-:'." """,,~_.._._-'."- ," ,~, \;..:--',..'- ~_.'-,'- "~)', ~"-".~~J,

-------
TOTAL CHROMIUM EXPOSURE AND NUMBER OP. PEOPLE, ,:.:.: ;"'" \~~
EXPOSED FRO~ SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATOasa; .' " '., ': '~:'!/:l~'



~~~~o:i::/~;,':}]'~,
28ViJ,t~

10 '. ..:.......,1i'oi.t"t., ~'"
", . "";;'~. ,1":4. ;.~
. . """I\"'~"'}~,#.iII
, .,:(I:tr:;':"C ),.~<~~
. -\,..~..'~,t..'\"::-"~ ~~i':-:
:: ;':..\<~'''::~~I'
:. .~~~:t1~:~~~~l .~t;
~'. ~:;~';\f.;\#j i.~
'. ,,\~'.~(.~f}~; Jtl
. ";:.~:'>~~}~~:~r-~~
; "'j"" '~I

:4~1~ .~

:,"'}\~if.-:p'#' 'f'. :,:~
~~: ~~. ~~~.~'~j.t~~:~~~~
.. ;. <~":'f>'f!i.'" .1\


'"';rf~~:
. :...~...t:'I":tt;,~
,: ,,;.':~~t!;;
" . "'i'tjJ(1'
" ':....,:{~~g
'( ......,., r)-lr:r:T.~"',
.: I'''''''_~(:~~~
;: .\' {;r;~f~
,,1--:..-;~;~?'itZf.l
. : {~~~,,,~.~,...;~~tPii
. ., '.. - ~~... ,:;",);.'i..r.
.~, ~i!,:bti!(;iJi
. : "):l:~
.. ", "~.iJ.<<,~",
:::....::~~~ti
: - .: i r~ilA;~. "v;.\1
. .' '::;~~i~?0it,~
" -.....t:.~~!o,~,';}:
" . "" ","to .~.~ ~1
::: .~~\~~~'Jlf:~::r
--, ..~~.~.v .11

'.", .~':,' :~,i1~\.fc;~1
.' ,\ (...~~,- 'j
" . ,.', ~b >';}i1~,'~
'. ;~; ~~I)'" '~f
. .. . . (?;';.~'~~~~f'J
t.,".~' .~!.~~ ~f ~
,:'.~~','~.~~.~~J..;~'~;'
,'" ""'r~tir.J.~~"~'
. ~"~.":"," ':~".~~~~:{~J.~;(~ ~
3-19 .; .';,;: ,,<':';.."?i~~:'~~'>: ,
"~~;:L~~4;,.~~i~>1%.~~.~gzi't11
'~'". '.~"",", ":.. 1'_''''.~":~:.....,~~ ".;.::"'.'7~~"'<""...;O-~:,,,,,, .,.~~":'"~'"' - "~. .. -.-;fP'!..~~~.~.
,.
":(
,.
..~.' .
TABLE 3-8
(CONTINUED) .
Incin.erator,
Location
Wyandotte Wastewater Plant,
Wyandotte, MI
Wyoming Wastewater Treatment Plant,
Wyoming. HI
Metropolitan Wa$tewa~er Plant.
St. Paul, ~
Metropolitan Waste Control,
St. Paul, ~
Independence.
MO
Incinerator
?aplo Wastewater Treatment
Bellevue. NE
Plant.
Carson City Sewerage
Treatment Plant.
Carson City, NV
Douglas City Se~er
District,
Douglas City. NV
Impoundment
Manchester. NH Incinerator
j

, :
Merrimack. NH Incinerator
Atlantic City Sewer Authority,
Atlantic City, NJ
Gloucester County Sewerage
Authority.
Gloucester County, NJ
~:
Stony Brook Regional
Authority,
Mercer City, NJ
Sewerage
,
t ~I
. .,",.
.:. '
. .
"
:: #~~~.:; .:;"
. .
Total Number of
Persons Exposed
838.272
317,771
936.022
90
1,OOO.3f6
9
868.541
20
472,366
10
58.425
0.5
57,983
0.6
192,449
8
172.913
7
164,940
11
1,995,527
12
381 ,292
4

-------
)~.

w
~
,~
f,~
tfu
~1:;.~
;~1
~~;
~~~t.
if
'"
?
: ~j
"j
r"
t~

'1
i.~
TABLE 3-8(CON~IdUED).
, -
., J
. "'f'
,., .
TOTAL CHAOKIUM EXP.OSURE AND NUMBER OF PEOPLE
EXPOSED FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE IP.~INERATORSa
.: -: c;.i. ;"i"";"") ;;., ii"":;;' . ...;
.'
.;~I.'i.- :1,
. . ./~~~~
.~. 'X..."#t~....~

. .::" ,:~;.;~>~;':;;$~i~~;~

-------
15,399
4
~"""'~~""""=''''''''\.. i..'.,., " '


;,;~j!?T)i~ir.~iffi,f,l;":<::;;'?if:"t: :Y+;;~~':~;i~~~t~~~~~1~~;~~~~~~;~~~1~'!f.~;''.i\I.''.:,","',:,.,f.'",.,,";'::', ' ,
~i(i' ,.
~ ~
iff . ....
, . " , ,;,:,,','.:,":..::'.,~,:.},'~,. :"I~'~
:.j/., ..
IV~ TABLE 3-8 (CONTINUED). TOTAL CHROMIUM'EXPOSUREAND NUMBER,OF"PEOPLE"',:;::',.n:i.
EXPOSED nOM SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERA'I0~~': ~~:::,;~:,;, ',"',,:-:, : ';~F;.
. . . , . ." ':"'~;~ ~::;;-'::,;:),011"

Total Number of Total'Exposur~:'.::" :.<:'~/l'::-,
Persons Exposed (Persons-ug/m ) , , ':.'/~~;;.
. '.::. ~:.~f!

.'::~:: ~~~~'~1 /
, , ". ;~./::.~;
:";~~
'~l; ,
;:~p;~
':J~.:~~;"~~
'~ ..;i',-.!;
~~~j
\1~J
1.i"i~
~;(;, i~j
~~tiiJ
4P,:::1
',.'a.~f
,.~"AI
~~~Iof ~.~
'Ih...*" \~,
:?,:~1
t..'''''''f1tT.,.
"1,;.1"',:
?~~ 11
J~f~
~~.".~~
44;.~,~
. f~;
~(l'
,"
Incinerator.
Location
Morrisville, PA Incinerator
855,671
Tyrone Boroug~ Se~er Authority.
Tyrone, PA
0.03
Kiski Valley Water Pollution
Control Authority,
Westmoreland County, PA
182.053
0.9
Upper Moreland Inci~erator.
Willo~ Grove. PA
1 , 602 . 913
160
Cranston, RI Incinerator
727,978
25
Providence. RI Incinerator
,760.968
17
Maryville, TN Incinerator
147.593
0.6
Central Wastevater Plant.
Nashville-Davidson, TN
471.788
20
Newport Utilities Board
Waste~ater Plant.
Ne~port, TN
- ..
35,604
-.', ' , .
0.9
Cars~ell Air Force Base.
Ft. Worth. TX
,549.046
0.3
Plano, TX Incinerator
217.578
0.5
Richardson, TX Incinerator
357.831
2
Arlington County Incinerator.
Arlington. VA
2.057,854
18
Blacksburg-VPI Sanitation Authority.
Blacksburg, VA
85.923
1
Lo~er Potomac Pollution Control.
Fairfax. VA
659.260
3S
3-21
! :;~fA~ti.~{~;\.:,::,;..

-------
,;
" '~j: .~:~~:>-~:~:
. ,',
. ;",
TOTAL CHllOKtUHEXPOSURE' AND ,NUMBER OF PEOPLE
,EXPOSED :FRPKSEWAGE SLUDGE'INCINERATORSa
I
~
~i~
.;::~;
.;~~~~
~~~~
t~,.!..
'1



I".':;.' "'j

:-:l~::
:~i;"
Sf~::
;{t;:

'.,:.
'~!j':

?i;::,;
.I'~~:~
,G't"/'

il.\

'~.' . -
'i~~:.J;'
.t:~;
'~;j~?
. ~.\~:~:;
f.~t;."
:\;,'.
~'
,,::'TABLE 3-8 (~ONTINUED,>.
'~~
Hopewell,
VA Inc:inerator
157,739
6
" ,~,;.\,,~,
" ..' ~:,;I;
, :"':'/fJ

~" 'f
" :0';1
~: ::,;1

, ,'oj
,"'.'\

',:',i,
',';':':j

.
",
... "
',: r..
'-.'"
'"
, .
'Incinerator,
Location
Total Number of
Persons Exposed
Total Exposur~
(Persons-\Jg/m )
"
Longview, WA Inc:inerator 73,521 0.6
Cowlitz County Sewage Authority. 75.576 2
Longview, 'WA   
Vanc:ouver. WA Inc:ine-rator 691,171 4
Charleston. "..v Inc:inerato-r 247.045 27
Green Bay Met-ro Se~erage District. 171.229 29
Green Bay. WI   
Neenah-Menasha Sevage Authority. 54.658 0.3
Menasha, W1   
Milwaukee Sevag.e Authority. 1.110,952 16
Milwaukee. WI,   
. Ii
, ;
. ,','
. .'(
",1
" ,
-='
,.!
."
, ,
"
, ,
, "
.:.

"';:f~.
.:~'J'
aA 20 km (12.4 miles)
incinerators.
radius vas used for the analysis of sewage slucge
:.",".
f :
';,
. .,.
:,~~;, .
.' /. (
,'f),.
,'1.5:
'.~;,>
"
~,tf'i
~;. '
:1,:,' .
~,. .
" ,00
0," '0- ,
. J/{~;'.,
~3~.' ~I';
'J.X;~'

:~11?""
': fJ'j?"
1"'1/"
."~;~'I
~'p.I"
::'1f.r.~,'
..;;';.;:~
"~'~" .
;zlhi~'~ 3-22
"I,/ti;~"1.,-;';.1"'"";.,~'-';' , .


R:4!f1]~t~0f;'~;;f\\~ ":if;Kl"~N.'~>";O.';;;':~ ':.' ;>;~" ,.,':';;, .; :<.; {;;~';{:;;.'i":; .
,"
')
.~. ,
'. ,~

-------
, ' > ~'"~'~;;;;~;.'t2:d:J~I''''';i$iH~{t&,~f,.~i''' "," '''''''!~
';'1-~:~~~~(;{tf':;4":$'%~!f , ~:"
{~'\'r~ ,'~~...r" 'i~:}~d;~'/~t~",(,,~~ }~~ :..~. . - I ~C


;'~ TABLE 3-9. PUBLIC EXPOSURE TO CHROMIUM FROH,' SEWAGE SLUJ!~E;:~,,':.'.,.'}i~;~t:}'
:~; , INCINERATORS :AS" PRODUCEI)~~BY'tT1iE'IHUMAN~'EXPOS1..'Rt\KoD~~.:",,:~~,.,
~" ' " ,:\:~,;' ;~;;;~,>;.:i "e,; :~":::!:~~~~~1t~~ I

!>'~: Concentrat1~n Level Populati~~ Exp~';~d~" "'.' l'tibiic 't1l~b:s~'Seb\.:': /~~'~~~~~p; ,':~
(tJg/m ) (Persons),' " , : , ,:(Persons-tJslaa <):,' , :'~:':~hi~~~)
, ,,' .' "~:-:::~~~;ii~~
. . ...: .~:.f~~~:/~~~J;~'~
, "", < :,1, , "." .. -:'1<1 ~-'1f"" f~
..' "'1 ~ . ': :: "~~;'::::~f.,:~ffj~
. ., '.. ~ .,", '.'''''It.~\,r:r,ll.;~!
". "" 22 ' ", " "",; '\\!;G~~I;~
" ,," 163', ','" ' ,;"\"::"'~'! {'J;~
" :,.,':::V:;'~<
3,98 " ::':,',!~!.'W~'i-+,
.. ,,'"~", ': :669i,..:..i:,v~t..cl ~~H
. - . -' ,- ",' .'. ':~:.~(:/(\~l"~'f1, ."":0
" ",.1" 230"",;,,~,/!;:, '!:,'':f:'if',' .~
'.,l,96Q~:.,~:<"',:;\:}~:,~:., ,;':;
, '. 2 720" ,.. >.::, ':\::"}':!1i\"$i'~~?i
, " , " -,..,..,~'$'':.;p.f
3',260, "," ",-,,;';~':S,'~~Yf.&..~
3 530 ".,. ~.. ~t1i';,~t."3:
, ','" "" \ {.i'~,>.~j(':k
3 7 30 ,~' ;:.: ' ,'; ': ;.;':i~':)).}~,~~:
. -"I '.,' ';"\;.~~~~1'
,3 870., ' ..', :;.,: :r~~,?~:f}
,. . ..' ... 1-". ',,1 t.::r::''''' "!'
3 930' ;,.::.;\\~N~~j~~
, 3 : 950 "", , ,',,'~~':;:,>/h)w@jJ
'3 960 ' ',: ./;, :i,...t~~"'I.\
, ,,' ,. . '." '".-.:;;-;": ,
. .<":1..1;~:~_,\
~ ? 96~ :'<''':':?~~1
";":"h~~
:..~\~~t%:~
p ,~ .;"1--"
...;~':'~' :
~~~~i~~~
l~oo:?1'
,~,~~~'t
*~~
~t~?~--1~f1
",.}~.':l;r
r:f.t~t'~
';g~j
;:~1~~{r~~'
:~*~(.:,
:.~'~_l ~"t
?~::'~

< .. '.'"

gl;r:
~r~

,J~\~~ ~~
'~~._~)...:.,~
/.).; "...),
~~\"'(1

,c-:,,,-,
.~t
:J.
1(
, "
, '
0.0838
0.05
0.025
0.01
0.005
0.0025
0.001
0.0005
0.00025
0.0001
0.00005
0.000025
0.00001
0.000005
0.0000025
0.000001
0.0000005
o
17
688
10,876
45,149
125,366
,501,197
t,565,732
3,743,096
7,087,313
11,026,504
1'6,552,800
25,142,816
33,399,161
40,222,586
44,001,675
44,827,827
-
..
! :
i
, i
'!
aThis column displays the cOClputed value,' rounded to the nearest whole' '
number, of the cumulative number of people exposed to the matc:hinc' " ' . :' '"
and higher concentration levels found in column 1. For example. ' ", :,.
0.5 people would be rounded to 0 and 0.51 people would be' rourided"t~ 1~'" <

bColu'mn 3 displays the computed value of the c:~lativ8 'exposur*t~' the" :,'
matching and higher c:oncentration levels found in c:olumn 1.
"
"
'"
- ~.
"
3-23,

-------
:7,\\", ..~I':'~;''',;~ I.:.~.~.,.'..''''# ',' ,.'. ~ "", .;. f'''''-':' .~-'. -',' .'~ . ..".." - \
iI.,..". ~if~. ~.'~~~~~~~~~~~?J$~i !C}~~J.j~~~;:;":'~":~:~;~""'~o.(ji;'~'..r..~'~"-7~"I..... ..,':'" .", :t. :).l('tP':"\';"",:;:\.~-);~~i~~_~;'I~' . .' .
:"~.~_wl~r.~tKjl!f.ij:'..~~....tf"~~~:l~.;:=:.../..t,,, .'/';'-;', -~.~~ :".I.''}':-!r:~if~~''',.. .::..,....'..I~.~:'~' ," '.~--~.~!,:_I.;~:I_~". ~~:<:!j,. .'~':- ,
, ',',;:?)~;~:.:
, ':. )~:,',;~
", ,',I'f'
0" '#".. .(~l~t
..,:}t
~
~
~~t'[~. :
>:!!
~.
;~
f..f:r
?$t~.
~t:
.tJ~.~;
f~(;
t-~'./'I
~i
11'lt
:~?i~
"~"'I-:~
1t.:~<;~
f~;~~
.~Jf)
~~!~

;;',' ;

f~

,":/",.
:~~: .
-
, Chapter" ~. chromiWlS: c~ntent8 ~, vadous refuse and dudg. streams can vary
, f~~,:~n~' to three 9rden of 1Ugnitude, thereby potentially exerUng a
S~~ificant impact on chromium air emissions. The variability in the
c~;omium content of p$rticulate emissions from both types of incinerators
nas been illustrated in Table 2-5. The average chromium values in Table 2-5
vere used to calculate chromium emissions from tbe purposes of the HEM
,analysis. Holding all other factors constant, it is easy to see that if, the
upper or lover values in the chromium data given in Table 2-5 had been used
for the HEM analysis, a different exposure picture than that shovn in
Tables 3-6 to 3-9 potentially would have resulted.
The se:ond factor to be considered in evaluating the HEM results
involves only municipal refuse incinerators. Precise longitude/latitude
location coordinates for all municipal refuse incinerators vere not
available, particularly for several of the small package incinerators
located in relatively small tovns. Location coordinates for these sit~s
vere estim~ted from atlases such that the coordinates used in the H~ vere
for the geographic center of the town and not the incinerator site. By
doing this the density of the population distribution may have been
overstated or understated, thereby directly affecting the size of the
exposed population. The effect this factor had on the total public exposure
to chromium given in Table 3-7 is anticipated to be minor because the
unlocated incinerators are small size/lov chromium emission units located in
., ,
,.... "
"(:
~'::>.'
--','~r
.::,.
\:';'
" '.'
"J.~.
):;..,
."';"
, .
..'.t.:
':"i'#:
.f'~
...:
.'...
.;, .~: '
,.
relatively lov density population areas.
The third factor to be considered in evaluating the HEM results
involves only the sewage sludge incinerator source category. The facet of
the sewage sludge category that has a bearing on the exposure analysis
concerns differences in published estimates of the number of sevage sludge
incinerators currently operating in the United States. The list of the
141 sevage sludge incinerators included in the HEM analysis vas generated
from the NEDS and from contacts with U.5. EPA regional offices. A recent
study estimated the number of sevage sludge incinerators operating in the
United States to be more than twice the 141 analyzed in this report;
3
however, an individualized listing of these incinerators was not provided.
(
.',,~.
',.','
, .
"
~.:-

\~
"
;':," ~
::r,
,~.;'i
. .~..
<,l,,:'
,"
).
<~~:
~~~

";1).
r:<~
~'~.. .,


~~illf::2:';;"!L':': c" :".' .;.i
3-24
).,'-",::". .'.. '..'" '.. " , . . , . .,

'.' ,; .. '. '..' .,'. <.',:"., -_-C,'. ..'. ". :,:. . .'., "", :,.., '....';
.. ~'.a n,
. '. .
- . '. ......--" .
. -."....
. .. -.. -
,- . ..'

- ,'.~_.:.,-' .....:.:;~i~2i

-------
~~ff~~1';!;<'i~~~~6:~;:i~~"~~~':".":~' ,;,~'.\ ,; :: '(.~, i"';;;;"~\' ,"; ;:~;:'~ '~"'::f,~;:.:,i~f;, ~,.:,,;;,~,;~;;/,~~:::;~'~<~~i;$I~~~~,~\~'i~~&~1-i;';W,~tf,'f!~~';'~~i~~1~~*1-*,~*~-: .' ., ." .







:j. '~'.'.': . :, '1,;.;1, ~~,... ":I
~~. .
'. ,'. -::/:~~~:~~~~i
It is highly probable that there may be more ,t1,1an' 141.:J8wage'sludg8,. ' ", .",,,,.t,1~
incinerators in the United States, but to determine the exact number more '~~".">::7~i~~fi1~:
not possible with currently available data. Obviously a larger population . .::\:~~~1.\~1
of sewage sludge incinerators would mean a potentially larger public :'';;~?~l
exposure to chromium than that shown in Table 3-9. ':"':~:~it
:.. .~' : j~
..::,'\
, ',' t
,';:,Jj.
, :'/i
":\n
;~~
';' '.~.1~~i~

; ", ::-).':1

. :i ~j:t~1~
, ,::;.\~

. . ';~j.1


:' l~{

:. . ~.~~ ~::~.\
.: "
:~,~~~~~;
~. !..I~
.. "-..""..1"
.. . '~~,::
I '0, {::~~: :

."' ~
.. -~ .
,>
3.5
FERROCHROMIUM PRODUCTION
As explained in Chapters 1 and 2, only one ferrochromium production
plant is in operation in the United States. The public exposure to chromium
presented by this plant. as estimated by the HEM, is given in Table 3-10.
Approximately 22,132 people are projected to be exposed to a total
atmospheric chromium concentration of 0.00142 ug/m3 or greater. The maximum
concentration to which a person could potentially be exposed is 2.87 ug/m3;
however, there is only a fraction of a person actually exposed to this
level. The maxi~um concentration to which any people are actually exposed
3 3
is 0.0195 ~g/m. r~ere are 914 people exposed at the 0.0195 ug/a
concentration level.
3.6
STEEL MANUFACTURING
In section 2.8 of Chapter 2 various steel producing sou~ces such as
EAFs, BOPFs, and AOD vessels were discussed separately. However. many
plants contain both EAFs and BOPFs or EAFs/AOD vessels and BOPFs. In the
He! analysis EAFs, BOPFs, and AOD vessels were not treated individually, but
rather they were combined into a single steel plant where applicable. In
other words a separate H~ analysis was not conducted for plant A's EAr
chromium emissions and plant A's BOPF chromium emissions. One H~~ analysis
was conducted for plant A's total chromium emissions. Table 3-11 presents
the summary HEM results for the total number of people exposed and the total
chromium exposure at each steel plant studied. The national public exposure
to chromium from steel manufacturing plants i8 presented in Table 3-12.
Approximately 69.3 million people are projected to be exp08~d to chromium .
concentrations of 0.0000025 ug/m3 or greater as a result of steel plant
chromium e~is8ions. The maximum chromium concentration to which any person
is potentially exposed from steel manufacturing i. 0.0877 ~g/m3; however.
only a fraction of a person is actually exposed at this level.
~. '. ..
." ".
. .. ;
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," .
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.',',
. ~~-:
',,,.,'.
,.
.~. .
f.,a."
(~./
. .~:>:
~:.":~.~{.
~\}('\;,.~
t-~~;(-::f:t'
~.:~~~~.:

't '.. ~..
.....~.' .,'
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, .
'=..,.." '..
.~'.. '.
''''''':'1
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~../ '.. .oj


'- ---" - ";~..c ,;:j;':':,::,;~jfjf~::;l~i.:i./j.~::;,.~:-::-~..,.~~~~t:-"'~;o-=~=~ ~;,.J~11~
3-25

-------
:'"
u_' .j;qd~~~~:?P.:\~:'\::n~::\~)":\: :~,.,,'
, ,: .'
"" ..
:.: .
, '
. ,..t..
, "";')'itv~
, :J/:~~t

~~
-
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H'"
,. :';!
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e ~\~
~ ~;
~ ,~,
~~"
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~1
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;;1. "

~t.. ,

!f,i::
;!L
;t.r:,-;
~.I~ .'.
,t.,:"
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fr,:'
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~:,;:
iV:"
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t- '.
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.~
T
'~! .
..~ "


r
'f '
f
t.
),"
r
1:
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" :..:~'/.
'.~ .',j;";.
. :'i':'/;':;
",', ,-:.~.: ':.~
, ,..
.~:~.r; ".
,t..
'i'ABLE 3-10.
PUBLIC EXPOSURE TO CHROMIUM FROM FERROCHROMIUM
pums AS PRODUCED BY THE HUMAN EXPOSURE MODEL
. . .~.
"
, "
"
, ..
...",
. .
',."'
, : i.
Concentrat1sn Level
(~&/m )
a,
Population Exposed
(Persons)
, b
Public Exposuse
(Persons-~g/m )
-.I.. of.
2.87
2.5
1.0
0.5
0.25
0.1
0.05
0.025
0.0195
0.01
0.005
0.0025
0.00142
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
914
1,487
. 6,045
13,473
22,132
< 1
< 1
< 1
< 1
< 1
< 1
< 1
< 1
18
27
62
87
102,
8Th is column displays the computed value, rounded to the nearest whole
number, of the cumulative number of people exp~sed to the matching
and higher concentration levels found in column 1. For example,
0.5 people would be rounded to 0 and 0.51 people would be rounded to 1.
b
Column 3 display! the computed value of the cumulative exposure to the
matching and higher concentrMtion levels found in colu~n 1.
,','';
,'.
'"
"

:1.
"
fS,
:~'
:i
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I '
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ij~
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~. ~'If{~;;''''~~;:~~fj~~~:::~~_::..,.,.:'.:..~...~:.. /:..~::'
3-26
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. . , ',' ...' ::,;,,;,;':; "t:::.~;;'~;~~;.;' ~~.;~';':~~';':"~~};~'21';~::*~.AJ:;~,dh\~~~!~::'~
:~' '.' ~ ." .' J~,'~*!f~>:--'t;\~~ ...,,J~:, 1"'!r~r ::::;J'<.,.:"....-:;.:,.;-~ t <"';/'.~;1? ,"~r...~,~-j~~-~~~~~W,_...:.~
.". .~ '. .''''''''',.J..:..;...:.',:::',: :--11'\.:"",!,:'~j..'._r _v-...:".r:.- '~"'-'-:-"'~~~~'._"""";t''''-'-~ jot
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f'i'i.;~,c,..,:",,:,,:,.,". '::", ::' "':'


. ..
TABLE 3-11.
TOTAL CHROMIUM EXPOSURE AND NL~ER'OF PEOPLE'
EXPOSED FROM S!EEL MANUFACTURING PLANTSa "
Plant
Total Number of
Persons Exposed
'Iotal Expolur!
(Persons-\lg/m )
Bethlehem Steel,
Burns Harbor, IN
246,370
8
Kaiser Steel,
Fontana, CA
431,659
6
Bethlehe~ Steel,
Sparrows Piont, ~
1,044,566
16
U. S. Steel,
Gary, IN
605.300
13
National Steel,
Granite City, It
1,210,516
11
Ar~co,
Midd le t QT..tn. OH
267,881
5
1.:. S. Steel,
Lorain, OH
305,376
..
I
U. S. Steel,
Braddock, PA
1,057,969
16
~
Jones & Laughlin,
Aliquippa, PA
317,888
4 .
Bethlehem Steel,
Lackawanna, NY
885,000
17
,
I
~
i
"!
Republic Steel,
Buffalo, NY
982,397
15
567.363
11
U. S. Steel,
Fairfield, AL
J
1.
J
i
J
!
l'
r
L
Ii

I

it. ,;. ' '. ..'.
- ......,1,,; :':''''] ',.;" ::
..'0'. t. '.'
Whelling-Pittsburgh Steel,
Monessen, PA
215.154
2
3-27

-------
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~
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~
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,~
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~:~
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"@
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:,;\
, ".0
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./
q~
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;11~!
0"'-'1
~~'~
~;r,:
~~~
: ,"J
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~~
:ij1
. ....~
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, .

:\TABU: 3-11 (CONt'INt1ED).'
::';,.\.~'" i'. '" .
. 0.0'
. '1.
',","" \: ., ','
~~,;~,t""r~
'~""".j'ji1.(
.".~'~(~
:t~I~!\1.
':~j
:i[l:)~.
~~'t,;J~("
. ~)!\.,.}.
: \'-":',,~,
~',~
~!Yf~; ~
~ :~~i~
)~
~\V~.:,.
';!.~~,"
'~.r"'~
" 'o:;';?;.
.,,l\""$~
, ,";}';'

:\t:.

.. '. ~.{ .
,,'_1
. TOTAL CHllOMIU'K EXPOSUU: A.'m NUMBED. OF PEOPLE
EXPOSED n.oK STEEL' KANUiACTTJB.ING PLANTS a
. "
P!an t
Toul Number of Total Expoaur~
Penona Expo..d (Persona-ua!m )
860,763 1,340
151,754 193
51,613 128
242.138 90
268.815 546
117.916 174
97,793 131
262.290 339
482.962 495
3'4.245 324
228.890 377
103.272 185
290,560 189
. .
,
.' '",,'v
,,:Cyclopa Corp..
, ,~r1,da8V11h, fA

,':'Cy~10P8 COfil.,
. KauUdd. OH
. .', :\.~
" :'o~
. . \. ~
" .
..';t

'~t:
. . '''~':.
>'.'\p'
o ,;'!/~~
. . T.
"'Electralloy COfil..
,011 City, fA
: ~':~~.
'....1
~ .' ,I
, Crucible. Inc.,
Syracu.e. NY
;i~.~
.{"':::~~::
~.;~1lr
t. I~;,J .
.'~.:.."
,', Crucib~e. Iae:.
Hidland. PA
CF & I Steel,
Pueblo, CO
.',
,....'.'
Cabot Corp:,
Kokomo. IN
Carpenter Technology Corp.,
Reading. fA
Carpenter Tee:hnology Corp..
Bridgeport, CT
.~?;

t..':y'
',""'"
Bethlehe= Steel.
Suelton. fA
;<~.
...''',
Babcock' Wilcox,
B..ver Fall.. PA
~ ~~
.. ,.0'
Ar1IIco. Inc.
Butler, fA
Copperveld Steel,
Wuno. 08
,
?
. ".
',...>
. .~
...V4
~.... 0 \J.- '.
-, .
3-28 3~~}
01. '~~.:.,

"'1!~~1~~~~f~~~~~;:~t~k':.~:Yf';"!:~~~~~~:~;:;~):;':'.. i<~~.'{: :'-;:~; ":..' ,...,..-:;;"",:)':J', If. '. :~.,_. ': .,: '" .' .' .:L < ~'.;.c~~;:." z,,~A:~.$
::.~$~~~~~~ffl~~'\~~~~:I{%l'?i~1~f~;~w~\:~.~~~ti'::~:'i:;,;?,;: ~):~l-;~:;:.y:[~;~\f.~~~'b";,:,; /;~-..:;<, ,:.::.; .~:., ;',"::';::'i"i~i'~~J~~~:Jf~;~~

-------
:'I~..j..'... ",J,:" . ,;".,- ,,'. .",. .' ',,"J',..'..' '''''''''''')'''';':r':-.'i~r,:.''':-!r;'~'~';:(:,,:,'!,:'~'~::;',,,,~,;;:"';~:"'''''1,,:'t~tI'..,~::~~.~~;~~?;t/lM~.i~~f '. '.
r'~'::~?",:,\.'"'''i''''''' ."..,..: ." ,.", ,.,...,..'",."".".,." """""''''~'''''''''C''''",,"''''i~~';>~~'~r~
1(;1/\ 7""" .". . . ':. '. . ".., ."." . .,., .' """: '" r '" ":'''~:.t,;\(::~ :i'!:~*;%t\'%t, .



!: '; . ~:~::i''ti'(f'


'! TABLE 3-11 (CONTINUED), TOTAL CHROMIUM EXPOSURE AND NUllBEII OF FEOPLE )(3l~
\ a . -< "\"" .
! EXPOSED FROM STEEL MANUtACTURING PLANTS ':""':;~~f~1 .
, :", :.:.::~~
"".;?~?{
. \;{~~t'J'
~ :I'~\:.~~
, .'\ . ''''i\
. ~ ~ !":~.1';;'~~
;,...;~
::; ..~'W:i
. . "'Jt~
.' ."'~;' :~~i ~.
",,';~i(
, 'f'/i:i',
,t.'A'(o
'.'Y~~.
\. f\
, 'I:'
\ii
l<,,;









.,:,,:1
. ':r.".':f.
.(.""<:,\:,.~

, '.,:)~~\~;q'
'.: ,'.~/'\"',
. ,~:.,~~'j
. :, :~}.:~:
~ .;i::

:i~~t1

. .:~..' '~~~.~;
. ~~l /{i.
'. .;\~:
Plant
Total Number of
Persons Exposed
Total Expo8ur~
(Persons-ug/m )
Republic Steel.
Warren. OH
331.535
7
Bethlehem Stp.el,
Bethlehem, PA
481.509
181
~ational Steel.
Weirton, r..v
147,265
2
Sharon Steel,
Farrell. PA
297.315
2
Republic Steel,
Cleveland, OH
1,':'05.552
33
Interlake.
Chicago, IL
2,142,814
40
Jones & Laughlin,
East Chicago, I~
l,!o08,S53
17
I
I
I
I
I
I '
i
I
I
i
I
i
I
I
!
!
I
!

f.
Simonds S!:eel,
Lockport, ~y
8
109.095
Roblin Steel,
Dunkirk, SY
49,319
25
Republic Steel,
Gadsden, Ai
91,844
151
Nucor Corp.,
Norfolk. NE
28.024
57
~ucor Corp.,
Jewett. TX
4.684
2
Nucor Corp.,
Darlington. SC
89,814
26
. ''''' ~
. .; ::~:~<~\
'~1~
,<"o. '
;t,~
:-~ \fi
:.-: ~I

~::~~:
~~Yr
~~:/\\
3-29

-------
:".1~L! ~11 .(CONtINUED)... TOTAL CHROMIUM EXPOSUll! AND NUMBER OF PEOPLE
,;: " J,' .. '-, " , . . EXPOSED nOM $T~EL MANUFACtURING PLANtSa
. .-
",t~
';7~
. '.~
,...
}~
','I
.~{~
~/:j
",
't.'
!~
'~.:.~
i~
'0;0;
'7,'
~:
#;.I:f..
~
?<
N
I~J~1~~ilf~i;J~~'i}~:.:r~::~:;~~1~:~;;i~:.~;;~i;,'::d~.:i~/':"'~~~::i::;:.,:-- ':"'<':;~3': :.,';:)!:ti:;/;~~R'h'>' '::",~i: -;.
. ' .
~
"
J
~
. Plant
},
I
i:
i
,':''''~Morthwest Steel Rolling.
!~'"
,..-:, 'Kent. WA
,
"1'
'"".
('i,
,1-'
1~
~t\
:.i~
I-.~
~ If~
:(~
,i
{
~~
rf?:
;;;
~

i'4
Y{i
..,
~'f
~.~
t
~
.:'~
~~
New Jersey Steel & Structure,
Sayerville. NJ
National Forge Co..
Erie. PA
McLouth Steel.
Trenton. MI
Marathon Lo Tourneau.,
, tongview. TX
.Lacle1e St~el Co..
Alton. It
Judson Steel Corp.
Emeryvill~. CA
Jessup Steel Corp..
Washington. PA
y
:~~~
~~:~
.;,
..f
.e"
Jones & Laughlin Sr~el.
Wan'en. MI
.-f'
~;"
,;~
Josyln Stainless Steels,
Ft" Wayne. IN
.r!'"
~, ~
~:
IT! Harper.
Morton Grove. IL
;~.~:
{r:
.~
Ingersol Rand.
Pampa. IX
Ingersoll Johnson Steel.
New Castle. IN
Total Number of
Penons Exposed
Total Exposur~
(Persons-\Jg/m )
:.,'
,~ t
I
'j
I
t
.
I
I
, i
!'
i,
II
I ~
I.
r
I:
, i
r
!
I
I
,I
I
I
!
I
I
.
.f
. . '''''..
. , ,<:';: ::i;':~:11
.'.. r ,-' !.. ",:J:-<..r-1;"...',,'
.;. '",-:"':';r~1:'...,)-'j'(""--:iW'
. ,'-.'.....' '.'.. "-,..",.,.-",.,,:,,~,,~,,,.~.. ~-'~. " .-'~'. -""""."""'__'''''I~'.'', ....:..- --""',~'~,',','":.:...""'~, ,-...;,..".......-; ':....., -,'--- -.,~",.,-..;..:- ~.-":--, " .',',-"''';~ "'0','''';''''''''''',',''' ~'~'~':--~,:-,-"-, ":"','-.~",'.'.,;-;:'/.-."-,~:"'. '.'.-.. ".-.',:'.";":':""".",:""""" - '..',",FV ".-.-",:'" ',~:","',":";
418.364
94
870.047
217
221.786.
363
453,179
391
95.819
28
412.604
374
1.566,989
353
116.599
38
.2.278,195
3.400
278.382
529
2,613.703
495
23.36;
64
59.947
21
3-30,
.' '\. ~

-------
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. "?L~;\~:i~
. .', ~\~t~~~:,
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, .,":;~01 ~:r1;:~
.. :'-#':;J-f~r~;\1
, ~:: ~,' :;~ \~~~(-
: 'f~,f;~~~
,I ; ~"..(,1~;~~~
.' /1.':' .,/~i.v::J/,
'\ ~",....~,,:~ , if!
.: ~ ;~:~tf;'f
, ,'( ',; '':'41? '
. >:(~~'~~~~~~:1.
. ,:: ,\; ~\.t~~;:~~,
7':"'" -',,;~~':'l1~~)
" _.i~:!~.:~~';,~~..\v.
. ":.~.;,.,~,,~,;;~-~~~~
, .' :~::: :-\::\'::t,:q;~7t1!;"
~.:'. . :,.~::i~-lf~~:~;~
.~'- -' .,-:;Id(:~;~ .,~ ;
-. .":CIo,'W.~,>~ ,< -'
,,' ..;:~:::4i~:'t~;~. ',' "
3-31 ""'~;t':;'J'.~)r;i~);' ,'o\\'
. ,',:.~,) i~~:~i*tc '
,':. '~1',l',,~-;,< ':"-Vl~~:~~!JfM"~f;:!,L::-{::'),ur1"';;' ~.~~,~~"
, . ';', '..-..,~.::' ;'~~~1."",gj!,,;Jk~ ';,~':'f,i"'j.J1;'''1'';'?:d~',.!'i~-f~,'I;~,;'P....:;
. . .'~,J1'~"~..~, '~,,"..I',........--;~-,~ .IP.~"".. .,.., .. ,~'.. - '-~ ,<'".,:.;-, . ....' .
Total Number of
Persons Exposed
Total Exp08Ur! '
(PersoU-lJg/m )
Plant
Kentucky Electric Steel,
Ashland. ICY
112.440
21
i.1 l'et:h Specialty Steel.
Watervliet:. NY
524.509
497
Marathon Steel.
Tempe, AZ
678.143
49
Phoenix Steel Corp..
ClaY!r.ont. DE
740.981
483
North Star Steel,
St. Paul. ~
684.776
179
Oregon Steel Mills,
Por':land, OR
628.517
168
Connors Steel Co.
Hunt ington. 'w"V
177 .365
63
Connors Stee~ Co,
Birmingham, AI.
538.505
176
Hawaiian ~estern Steel.
Ewa. HA
162.207
12
Roanoke Electric Steel,
Roanoke. VA
206.676
40
Rariton River Steel,
Perth Amboy, NJ
1,365,555
651
Nucor C"I'p.,
Plymouth. UT
7,692
2
Washington Steel Co..
Houston. PA
268.815
31~
, .,

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~'li1~ "
.".'}i;!';...
t~t;F
~~t:j.~ ~,
~.;,>,.,
~~:r,

~;r\~.
~.:.:' .
~n'i'.'
;k.
~
.~."./. .
'~:'"

~:~i." .
"", .
:.,' .
-'''' .
.. -.'.
, .
c:
{:."
;,:...

1~~ '~-.
I~" .
";;b'o
~~~tll': 1,
'~"'~? .
J~~. "..
J~'~'"
~;J '
.~/ -:
'.~' .

~i~{.'~. :

~...~; .,T...,

~~::..~ . .
., 'J .
:~~.i. '
"";- ('~ :
.h
~~..';.
..;: .
"
. ".. "~~~.iiii#i~~';~~i'ii,~~:Z~*,<~4i~\':.i ~i6~~i~'iM.i.4i>t}~n'''\'''~Ji:''::''~'(''':'~ '~:':!'" t;
".,-~!f?"1%(0Y'T~.,,;~",~~1::~~,lf;f{;1?1~} :~,,~~;:~::r" i, {!";:r:!:(J~~i;,\:':':"".' '.:. '..
,TABLE 3-11 (CONTINUED).
TOtAL CHROMIUM EXPOSURF. AND NUMBER OF PEOPLE
EXPOSED FROM STEEL MANUFACTURING PLANTS a
Plant
Total Number of
Persona Exposed
Total Exposur5
(Persons-\Jg/m )
U. S. Steel,
Bayto~, TX

U. S. 'Steel,
Duquesne, PA
172,077
500
1,168.152
806
U. S. Steel.
Fairless Hills. PA
40.367
29
Texas Steel.
Ft. Worth. TX
J

. .
7,344
3
Tennessee Forging Steel.
Nevport. AR
19,920
5
'{'
~:.~.:'~~
Tennessee Forging Ste~l,
Harriman, TN
50,430
8
Teledyne Vasco,
Latrobe. PA
153.970
13
Finkle & Sons.
Chicago. It
3,583,504
1,230
, I
:\

r
I

I
Republic Steel.
South Chicago. 11
2.143,893
1 ,840
Camulet Steel Co..
Chicago Heights, 11
835,317
100
Columbia Tool Steel.
Chicago Heights, 11
758,850
130
U. S. Steel.
South Chicago. IL
2.193.165
3.410
Ameron Steel and Wire.
Zt1wanda, CA
553.528
346
3-32

-------
,,',".:...- ~.,"":,,'( 7!~'~',,'~-~'-"'~:'7"';;'~"! ';-~:~~":~":"'.' :,..":",,' '~~~~~':.'~~-'A:~~~,!-'~".~~(-,"'r'-""",:,:-~,:;, '.: "','''''''?'.I1Vi~'.'''~'-.~~. ,~~."",'~ . "~~~"''''<~;.'''-y'';--" -. .'~. '~-."",-.
TOTAL CHROMIUM EXPOSURE-.AND 'NIDmER.:OF)PE6~LE' . :':;.:3~~
EXPOSED FROM STEEL MANUP ACTuRING PiAN'Is a :. . '. . - . ' ..<'J;:;,<. ',-
.. '.:);U;~

:.". }:~~~:i~'

.. . ~: . ",/.
.~,'~~:~:~~\
. '. .
'.
. ,
.'. .
. ,
'.
. '.
.'.
TABLE 3-11
(CONTINUED) .
.-'...--"..-.
-'..--......--:
Plat. .;
Total Number of Total Exposu:~
Persons Exposed (PersoU8-\.Ig/m )
2.286.634 297
1.246.493 363
232,986 400
2,197,829 1,860
1,t.9Z,025 3,630
1,401.892 l~:!EO
1, 113,868 1.220
378,397 48
438,614 56
939,739 582
886,161 448
1,333.793 1.200
983.703 413'
Armco. Inc..
Torranc'!, CA
Bethlehem Steel,
Los Angel.es. CA
National St~el,
Ecorse, HI
Ford :-iotor Co.,
Dearborn, 111
Armco, Inc.,
Bal timore, :om
E~stern Stainless Steel,
Baltimore, MD
Armco, Inc,',
Houston, TX
CamerQn Iron ~orks,
H('~ston, TX
Border :te~: Mil13.
El Paso, TX
gethlehe~ Steel.
Seattle, ioi.!..
E. M. Jorge~3en C~..
S~~~,lE:, WA
Jones & ~aughlin Steel,
Pittsburgh, FA
Newport Steel,
Sevport. KY
, ,

-------
~
I
~
H-~
~
~
~
~
~
?t
b"
~
~
""
~
yj
~
f;
<)i
i:i
,~':
','f~
~,
".
r.'
~(i\
i"
it
~~~
~:J. ' . ".. . " .
O:I~> NUMBER OF PEOPLE
. ,EXPOSED nOM STEEL MANUFACTURING PLAN'ISa
,k '. '-'... .
,': "
.', .-
Plant
Total Number of
'Persons Exposed
Total Exposurj
(Persons-\Jg/m )
,Armco, Inc.,
Ashland,' ICY
191,858
2
Edgevater Steel,
Oakmont, PA
1,067,692
162
..
Allegheny Ludlum Steel,
Brackenridge, PA
331,844
1,040
ro-
~Io .1
I.'
~;
".
~1'
la,....
~id
;V2
/~
f
~:
/;;:
..."

;~
Braeburn Alloy Steel Div.,
Braeburn, PA
378,737
40
Quantex Corp.,
Jackson, HI
133,491
58
North Star Steel,
Montoe, HI
89,662
107
',.
'l:~
;'1',
*
~';.
I"'"
~~
A;r
~f
1/';
~
.~J;
<:l
i:',
tij:
;.('.
- .
'~:,
,.'"
/'t
h
~';,
~~
Chaparral Steel Corp.,
Midlothian, TX
230,434
188
Jessup Steel Co..
Owensboro, ICY
84.743
23
The teco Corp.,
Birmingha:n. Al.
494,~59
40
Armco, Inc.,
Kansas'~1ty. ~"

Ce:lf.ornia Steel Co.,
Cb~.ca,o. IL
523.346
582
2.554,174
596
;.
u~ien Electric Steel.
But!l~ttstowu. PA.
125.826
12
.'
"y
"
,1;~
:) t.
p~
Luu;\s Ste131 Co.,
Coat)'lville, PA
164,120
7.48
3-34

-------
aA 20 km (1~.4 miles) radius
manufacturing plants.
vas usp.d for the analysis
'"o/;'Wt
~.,
,,1.,
..:'~,
,.,.."
;:':.';\~r.:
';: ~p,:~?{j
,., . i;{~~
TOTAL CHROMIUM EXPOSURE AND. NUMBElfpP;, PEOPLE.: />:h;.:~~'~.,. .
EXPOSED FROM STEEL' MANuFACTURING' PLANTS a', ":":. .";,::.)'i);f!"t.:l
, .o.", ~:.:' ,\, .. " ", ::\ '.~;;':<~:',:1~~:'~~,;,~.'~i/.~:;T~:?: ';':;..,:d;~~t& . .
'~r\,-;1,' ~-~

' .,' ~'.: '" --,", "','. ,.'.:,\'_,.~;.:i~~'.l(i.r.>..~(. ",'
'. ',. I, ,,,..~~..;..:._..:.._;.. . . '" ~ ~ I',' "~'}"~\::rf'

. Total'!Xp'osu:,!.. > :\;:','~?;~, ~'< 5
(persons-lJg/m ,...~.'" ,'-: '. .'/~'~;;(~ '\1~
: " . '>'''.~;~..:.t'~/'tl
. . . . . P, '.. ~ .t'~~\;l--~.;.}lll,
' ',' ":'\,..,.V,""::11'!1
..;';< ;-;;.} ~.;Y~:;$".,J
.':,~...'., -,,;

"::>t.~:~~
:,' ',:: ~\~~:
. -~"-"'i~,.~--~.:
"';,"'.'~~,'
"',:r'~h~'
),::..~~~~
'.,..'.!f~r
,'0' . : '~4 ~~{J;~'~
. ' :~f.y;t.~~
.,,' '~1I''''''
"::;'~;Jj" ,/t
> ~1:.~~~~~4
-,-~',.,;~,~'i
~'f;~'N"\?,;;
...~ ':.~~~~ \~
}::,~~*~~'
. :"',5~t.:"'-~~::J ,I
:~:::/~.~;~~7.
-;~~":i'~~
~ ~:;. ;~4'I'~~
. .t.Jr.,;ft;..
'.J"'~...Jf~i}~
-.;":'(l~'-~~
':~"r:':'.!*~'
., >~.y;,;:t<{'1l~
,..',%i


,-:. "'...""",.
I ,~~, :~;:;~;.i
, j'.,:')~~-:;~\
,.,:.~,>,
..'~~;.f'~Pl:J\
I .~!t.~~'
";tJ1,~~
I.,'f.::."" ~'_I
:..~~/i;.\
: :i;:~~
t~z-r:~n
,\,.~-"..~1
:~" '(.:;~J~'1
t.~"/'''''"'~ ~i
--)'r.<::'.'~i,
~',.,~'" '~M.,-I:l
;,.'~:.~p,
~~':f~~:~:~'t.~:
:r-~' ';_i(..~
;':~~,f,,4"
t/tif:":~:1
"F~~;'
lB~ )~
~~l\\v{~;

t~"':-J :j

~~pf~0~
S~11~1

-:,. !'~:~- ,~
~};o~1
~i.
~3S ~~~
Gl;;'rW
.. .'. "">:..F(-,:<,"';:~';;~~ii"::~ff~';':~~"{\'i~1:f4~;~~*~~F..~.~~
'~"~~;~:/i#:';:':~:)~W~;?;;~Gf.r~uiY~~?!~~~~~:~~~~~~~~~ . . ..J
Total Number of
Persons Exposed
"
!~;.
"...'
~ '.'
-,
, ,
TABLE 3-11
(CONTINUED) .
Plant
National Forge Co.,
Irvine, PA
38,085
15
Stan~ard Steel Div.
Burnham, ?A
of Timet,
47,337
66
Timken Co.,
Latrobe, PA
135,716
88
U. S. Steel,
Johnstown, PA
156,620
'57
Republic Steel,
Canton, OH
316,582
691
:imken Co.,
Canton, OH
325,629
746
Jones & Laughlin Steel,
Cleveland, OR
1,404,665
1,340
Inland Steel,
East Chicago,
1,297,852
575
IN
of steel
. >
~
t
~::-;:'" .. .
. ";1)" :':--'::.J.:.'.' - '.. .
.. 1......1.'.-:"'" ), ,'... ",'''',:,
,,:::";:!.i..'.:--'::'~::'':.~: ~..- ..~~~~' .:.. :
.'

-------
..J.{
t~l!
tfl
~i}
f~
~?
~... .;.
TABLE 3-12.
PUBLIC EXPOSURE TO CHROMIUM FROM STEEL MANUFACTURING
PLANTS AS PRODUCED BY THE HUMAN EXPOSURE MODEL
'Conc~ntrat1~n Level
(~g/m )
a
Population Exposed
(Persons)
b
Public Exposuse
(Peraons-:,Ig/m )
0.0877
0.05
0.025
0.01
0.005
0.0025
0.001
0.0005
0.00025
0.0001
0.00005
0.000025
O.oeOOl
0.000005
0.0000025
o
455
5.733
105.745
655.234
2,675,640
11,227,637
23,709,980
36,074,774
48,658,204
54,116,157
57,971,330
65,884,712
69,425,323
70,304,856
< 1
28 '
202
1,520
5 , 190
12,000
24,900
33,800
38,300
40,400
40,800
40,900
41,000
41,100
41 ,100
aThis column displays the computed value, rounded to the nea':est whole'
number, of the cumulative number of people exposed to the matching
and higher concentration levels found in column 1. For example.
0.5 people would be rounded to 0 and 0.51 people would be rounded to 1.
b
Column 3 displays the computed value of t~e cumulative exposure to the
matching and higher concentration levels found in column 1.
..-
, '
:(a.
"f;;.
~~t~i\1;:\;~~;~j::~:, 'i<' , ;'. .' ", '.
~#':d.-;;/;I.~?-f.(~;.Y~"~;.; ~. ~,r .;"-:' .
, .~-"_.~"''''' .
3-36

-------
~::~..5'1
~~~.~_.
. ~ 1>4L"
---
. ..~.
~?1'~t1('Jtf;",,,~,,,i;;;?fi':~f:*';i1',,,';/';;i;:;~X.. .'~"":~';'!!"t'~~'%~1Io/~{~;;o~~~~f'}""R; , ;it


. ".' .c.. ::;"':\:"~'~~:.;~:~1

Due to present economic condition. tho domestic .teel iLd~try~'ln a~:';'l~r~~
period of production. cutbacks and total I'lant cl~~ur~8. . ':so~h o~ :~e~.. . ':,\.:';;l~~:>-
cond.itions directly affect potential chromium .emis:8~ons ~r.om .t~e .steel...: . '. ''''~j"(;~~~M';J
industry. It is possible that the nationai public expolure ievels to ". '. '~<'\':~~.)~t.
chrom:l.um from steel production shown in table 3-12 and the indi~id~l" .~'lant .' ..'.'?~:}~~'
levels shown in Table 3-11 are ovustated becau.eot plane cutbacu and' . . .: ;...~:;",7r!
plant closures that are unable to be accounud for. .". :.. :>~.}~t
""";J../;"
Other factors to be considered in evaluating the stul production HEM '. ,"';.~::'~~'~"~
results are that only one chromium emission factor vas available for BOPls,. .:~...\/t~~6~!1
no actual plant stack geocetry data were available, and ecission cont'rol ':''';''-,<:~.,!

::::~;::::::~ ::::::::;::l:'::;:i:~::::: f::::a:::o:::~~:~e ::::p ~~::s in .'~:dl
::::i::::::::. em:: i:~:g~: :;0 ~::g:::~a:~:F -:~r::~e e::::::::~ative of all 'K~3

Stack 6cometry data for all types of facilities (EArs, BOPFs, and AODs) . ..".}


:::::::~~~::~~:O::::::~:~:::::::::::th::ee:H:~:m~;VY:::b:et;V:~::::::~::PTh::.~er:net:f:U8ectin;;(!i~.!.'.I,.

emissions dispersion as esticatec by ~. G im~recise. - _~h:\
of this potential i:::p:-ecision on the overall HEM analysis for steel plants':)~:~ f
, . ,:;.i-<

J1J'


. ',' '.' t"~


,*f;i


.":.,-\.,t.
is esticated to be negligible.
Emissions collection and control efficiencies for every steel pl~t in
the United States are not available, therefore assumptions had to be ~de on
t::o chromium emission recoval efficiency at each plant. The control
efficiencies used to estimate chromium emissions from tbe HEM analysis vore
taken from a recent U. S. EPA report that included an investigation of.Ceel
4
plant particulate cont,~l efficiencies. ~n the HEM .t~lYlis .ffic1.n~1e.
for each type of source, for ~xample EArs, vera assumed to be equal at every
pl&~t. Because all facilities do not have identical control efficiencie.
bias vas introduced into the analysis. It is anticipated that total'
chromium emission control efficiencies may b. slightly overstated in the HEM
analysis because of uncertainties involving the control ot fugitive
3-37

-------
.\
,
"
.~l
i
f
,'. ./
'., " " ;,';;"~'~';,~'bi'/}::~:'\ '1
~ .#.... . --...J.- ,..~~..~",'!.r~~.,.,.: ""',-'::"",' ~
,
!
j
'" ~ I 1'-, ~..", 'y " .. '. "":'. .'., ...',\ .- . . :.~. :~'. ~'.' 1,;.:.......:..,.."..1,. ~....-.-.-..._~c..~.t""!t:.;-~.u;....'"",,,-
l(~fi~s{,\P~l~::'.';i;g:;,#~~W;W~~~:\VV"\'?o}""i;:;';fl~.t;J!';rv:m~~~t!.:;::-1"'2"1';;~ ,~. ' 1:".
.~~ . "':~;-t''',':-''J',:~,;Nj,~'':I:~ ;f~;5~7~~?\;;;1f.~~ti.?:~;'Z~~/: ~~T+ ~..;'.:\ ~~""~:' (:,;:,? ::.l'''<:::;'~?;~~i/, '/'.' ';:":':, '
,-",,-"',.,.... "" .
. 7'" ., { .; ~ . "'. . "
I~;~q
v.o>~
ii'
~~:
rt;:.~,
""!J..
'ir;l~
:ti-""
~):l'
~!;,
~J~::

~. ~;,'i
!~'\
,::/
; ~...,
~';>
emislions.' Contacts with U. S. EPA regional offices have indicated that
, 678
fugitive emissions 1\r8 not highly controlled at all plants. .. The impact
of this situation on the overali 80urce category HEM analysis is difficult
to predict in view of the potential variabilities in the chromium emis~ion
estimate..
3.7 CEMENT MANUFACTURING
A total of 163'portland cement plants were included in the HEM analysis
of the cement manufacturing source category. Table 3-13 presents the
summary HEM results for the tot~l number of people exposed and the total
chromium exposure at each of the 163 plants. The range of cement plant
3
total chromium exposure predicted by the HEM is larg~. 0.005 persons-ug/m
3
to 103 persons-ug/m. This range indicates significant differences in plant
sizes and emissions. degree of emissions control. and population densit~
around the sources.
 "
'. ~> .
..'"
';.,; . ~ .
r:' .
" .
j~. .
"

K:'
f~t~,

..":., . .~
", .
~i:;:',

,\,...~ .~
~ '''..
~':'..
<::', .
","
~,~ .
(;y!.
-t.' .
k'
'..:
The natioual public exposure to chromium from c~ment manufacturing
plant. is presented in !able 3-14. Approximat.ly 50.4 m.Ul:L~n people are
, 3
estimated to be exposed to chromium conc~ntrations 01 0.000000025 ug/m or
greater a. a result of cement plant chromium emissions. Th9 maximum
chromium concentration to which any person 1s potentially exposed from
ce:ent manufacturing is 0.0469 ug/m3; however. only a fraction of a person
is actualfy exposed at this level.
In evaluating the H~ results for cement plants a data base deficiency
involvlng the dete~nation of chromium emissions should be considered. The
majority of plant chromium emissions estimates were prepared using chro~i~~
e~iss10n factors (lb Cr/ton particulate emitted) and particulate emission$
data from the NEDS information base. The use of,NEDS inforcation could
cause chromium emission estimates to be inaccurate because NEDS emission
"
::'.,
;~~~ .
~:'.'..
'1-"
.'".
~.r
:;,'
.~. .
.

'..t..., ,

~:I'.
ii.,
~:.: .
~-:
-1...J
;.'
t '
,
.
numbers are not always reliable or current. Often NEDS numbers are
themselve. estimates based on assumptions. a01 therefore ~~n be inaccurate
to variou8 degrees. Also because of . failure to keep NEDS information
updated. emissions can b. overestimated (if better controls have been
installed slnce the last update). It 1. not possible to judge the quality
1-1'
fi." ,
~}:'

",,;
" -'
J\~ or.::
~~.;
?~ . ,'~.'. ..
.,.~.,-.,:t~" a;:,'''Y . .... '. ' ,
~At~,17~tt,~ti~i:~;~I~? J ". :.. ;'~ ~ ~ .~.. I;; .
l?~::j.Jr,.,".'.',}o,'i.'! ',I(;.:t..,....i"'~" . 1"'- 10'-:"''''',,' < . ,'.
"f~t;';';"'~.N'"~,'''''' (r,"'~ "-ITf"', ", ./ "',"'f ...
3-38
.~~: ~.;':': ':"~."~~;~ft~~.~: 1..,(~:"~':'~'i~!}~.;{/~':';,..: .
; :'\'~~";{~'f:r~~1~~
. " " ,r, 'r }f:,.?
,. ~ . ~>f{;~i~
, ;' ~~ ~~?f
, . i
.";:;
,"
"

il
'}
. .;;,
~i
'1
. t
,
.,

-------
";', ";- - ~-'I-' ,',.r .,~.;.".. t' ," ,'.".'. ,'.,..r. .. "",'",,~\',"'."...'- ,'," "_"l~'''';'''!'\''~'-'::.:'Y~'''':''' ;'\.- ~~'..r,.:;~~";,'p:.I"';;:":~':J"-:;:' -i~;~~~~'':;~'r:',''''i;;t'';:.rL.'':''-.'.'1''
~:r,;~~~ti~~e~:~1:!;;i,,~":t~1j,':~'.!:i,<,.~:,~:.~?J~:'~"''';''::~.~~~';'J~~'~-~1~~~h;:~f~~:~:f.}1i't.~'~~~~.:i..:J:,:;~~',,"~~~~r.;t~~~~:V~~~~~?~~~\~~~~~tf~:~~~- 1
'~;\,': ':1'":,,,;' , , ,.' .. '.' "; i" ',":" ',." . '. ' '0",1'; ':~"")':~~1/~f~"f:"J:lf~;;t''''&<'0f~i'j;;~~'!;:i;;;~i'~:~f~:::


: . -t . r~if,(f.~"''''';'':~
: :::~~~:~f~f1~t~:\
.." ':~'i;'-'ih~l.
'- ;,', ':':'~~~f:f~~'~
. . '.~. .-i.~- I ',. .~~:~ ~
.' .,~':lt,;;jf1j~t~1
. : ~';J:'fr;:'f'(
... .. '~~r)",:i~~~~
. '.. ""j]..
.i;:~;~B".}t
. ~.., ,;~\,""/~a:
,~}-":~~:I
,.;..,V..;;!*

. .}i{W~:
.~~',~~.
,<)~fj
" :~..::(
<':f~


t.-

,'f~,~i'

.~ t,. ~.:
,":. I~~;t
::\~~;:

. ::, f i,!....,;

.. .:;~ :,tf~:'
",;)-
'. "..."',?':

},~~
"<:~~T~
. ,':;;)

. ,"J!,
.: -.)' I~
: ~\";\
. ",,1' .
. ,-;':'
. '.,"1
TABLE 3-13.
TOTAL CHROMIUM EXPOSURE AND NUMBER OF PEOPLE
EXPOSED FROM CEMENT MANUFACTURING PLANTSa
Cement Plant
Total Number of
P e nons Exposed
Total Exposur!
(Persons-ug/m )
Citadgl Cement.
Bimingham. AL
541,808
8
Alpha Portland Co..
Birmingham. AI.
532.613
23
~!artin Marietta.
Birmingham, AI.
568.179
16
~artin Mariettd,
Calera, AI.
46.292
3
Citadel Ce::lp.n'.:,
Demopolis, AI.
16,602
0.5
Universal Atlas.
Leeds. AI.
152.907
5
National Cement,
Ragland. AI..
::1,525
2
?hoeni~ Cement Co.,
Clarkdale, AZ
3,538
0.8
Arizona Portland Cement, 695 0.005
Pima County, A1.    
Arkansas Cement Co::?, 8,094 2
Foreman. A.R     
Ideal Cement,    8.000 0.3
Okay. AR       
California Portland Cement, 647.310 12
Colton. CA      
Lone Star Industrial CSClent, 82.805 5
Davenport, CA     
3-39

-------
. .~~~::~~%~f~~t'~~~f~~~Rff~1~~~ijw~~~l.~;ir',:~-;~-;;:'..: ,;'.'.. .~'.~.'..
':.'. "':\':':'. "'.'."::.'::.
~
~

In,,,,
~ii~
t~"
~!.;;:i
~~;
~~
~i~':
~
-------
TOTAL .CHROMIUM.' EXPOSt11Uf ANI>":.:Nt1MBEli-.OF' 'PEOPLE ,>;.~,> l:?.;:'-f
D:lIOS ED" nOM' CEMENT MANtriiCTUiING PiANtS~': ','" ,:':' ,: ',~':"~";i:,, ,~,~
, , , .. ,": "'. ''''/~',{(?~L
- ;;;:;o~~~;~,~ '~"~:'%t~

,~ " ..\::, ;y:~;r?
., ",': I~\.\~d~ ~
.. \ ~~. .."}j'A~;J.
~,~,,~, ~~~.~
~,:~~;r:~::if
;. i .~~'~!,-}:f)
~,,~~~~\~}~~"
.';-':',,/..fi~,
\~.~~\Yi;.li~\
. .~,'~~~~~~
~ .\;f - 1,i:.JI :\:
" \~\.~!:,..~t:}
~/. \~; ~21/!':1~
. /~~1;g~\.
, :;';;~~i~~'~~..
r..,.J..~
" ; ::~'.~-~~1-J;~
,,':I,.'~'\;'W'"
:.::~~~~;!iJ~
:';'~~:.'l;:),;t'
r~.~~,}?~'
:"/~~~.\J~
J. ~,~;,' :,~:!ffi}
';it?%fi
, ~\f'~~;~.'
',' ~"~::~li.~,{
: . '."i...~~?~~
~:".~~~'~
:,'.'i"i"~';
.,' ~~.. ~. ~~,!t~:
, '.''''''.~~~'
.,:~~ ~:~}~;
, ';t;'ll1'({;
#v.~ -:,Py....c.::.,.
".\;~~I
. .' ','.\:"'! .."~ Y.
"~>,:'~,.~,
'" ,);~~I,"-:';tc
" 't.""~ ...,...:~ {
. ;,-:'::-\.r''''''>~
'.: ~""\,,c&
/,;~~~~t;,'~:
~ ~ .~, Jl>::f;'
..~j1: ~~~:~:;-~}.
t.. '4"" "j
\.: ~ .:.~' ~..)
::~;~,{$1
r .' ""} '-'.\~.
.",'. ,Vf.r
~;i~i; .'ig'
,:~~;~;i


,..'~~ ,~.'"", ~
)~:.~~\~~;~~
;'))'~~r." ..';-'f.
~1~t}.J-~:L:
~~t;~ii;~ i
~-;t,~"1l~~~ i
,'4..:..Fi~;, \
,...\ ;'r-J':.. '
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'.,
, . . ~ . I
, ..
..
, ..
" ,
TABLE 3-13
(CO~INUED) .
Cement Plant
Total Number of
PersoU8 Exposed
Lehigh Po~tland Cement.
Dade County, FL
700.939
Lone Star Florida.
Dade County. FL
1,010,444
General Portland Cement.
Dade County. FL
295.406
Maule Indus:~ies,
Hialeah. FL
1.501.202
General P~rtland Cement.
Tampa. FL
519,463
Martin Marietta,
Atlanta. GA
1.010.an
Hedusa Cement Co..
Clinchfield. GA
26.775
~arquette C~ment Co..
Rockmont. GA
38.142
Cyprus-Ha~aiian Cement.
Honolulu County. HA
148.945
Kaiser Cet::ent
~anakuli. HA
& G??su:n.
o
Idaho Portland Cement.
Inkom. ID
49,297
Medusa Corp..
Dixon. IL
47,680
Missouri Portland Cement.
Joppa. IL
22,117
6
3
5
39
0.3
13
0.8
2
3
o
1
12
0.3
3-41
'';''

~i:~",i~~~'i":f~:':" ,
":~~,rlo~u".o;.?';"ti.:;'\;i ~.
; ."~~~......,t ~~~ .:""-!"-:'I' ..

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~';
I
~
'I
I
,~
~
'i,111;
Jf~
-~~
~~f.
i4j)
fv'J~
/u--
i~r;i
ivft!
'J;r,:
'ffi..~
~'Jr.
,~
f.g@
;?.1)!
~~;
I.f/J
"{,_fi!
h?:
~i~
\~~
\h!}
;.~~
~~'b
$J:
~p~J,
- ~~..}J
~;;-j
ti~t~
F~
.".!c;
.. ..~,
fi;:'
".1'
'.."
~;~i
~~/
, "

;~j

:\~..
:.IJ.
J. ,';
TABLE 3~i3, (CON.'I1N11ED).;., ;"':OTAL CBROMroH EXPOSURE AND NUMBER OF PEOPLE
,..1',#'"-,, ~.......\" ~"J\.~~,.,_,,',r.;..~, .~. ,"\.IA'-'" a
";,<:,:,',;' ;.- ",' :.,': ..,:: ",."r.:.;:....~:,":,,: ',: ,:',,~O,S~' ~0I:l~:CEMENT ~uFACTURING 'PLANTS
. .." ", .
, :.."      '.;.~>
     ,",
'" . ... ;: .~ ;;:"':. ,,: .'.      .' ,
     Total Number of Total Exposurs 
; C,em.n~ Plant  Penon. Exposed (Persons-lJg/m ) 
','      
Illino18 Cement Co.. 60.325 3 
LaSalle. IL     
Marquette Cement, 65,089 2 
Oglesby. IL     
Lehigl1 Portland Cement. 668,911 9 
BufHngton. I~    
,Universal Atlas Cement. 668,911 8 
Buffington, IN    
Louisville Cement, 39.603 12 
Loganaport, IN    
Lehigh Portland C~ment, 45,471 1 
Kitchell, Ili    
Louisville Cement, 307,439 19 
Speed. IN      
Martin Karietta.  260,085 7 
Buffalo. IA    
Marquette Cement. 298.199 13 
De. Koines. IA    
.r ".
'"
:.~ '
.::. I
i '. ~
, ~'~,!~
.- :>'1
:~i~
r "
~(/
~,,'...
~;.,"~
qtv~
',""J"
J\:t-,
:-{

,~.~. j
'(f. ~

'~i:
~>,~
1'.JJ",
H" ,'"'
;f:::'
- -4'(.{
-~~
;I'S'
~
'A"~ 3-42 "
'~f , .~' i
t~~ft~t;fi~:t~#Z~~j;;}ii/},~ :,'.:,'" ,': , '" ,'":.,,,' :,,' ,',: : ' ,,:,':">~'-~':;;: i
~~~'{"k"'~~?~~;4;~::~~~:j.;'::::: ' :;::/-:.:i:"Y..,.:.., , ;~, ", '''''''':'~';''. " ,', , : , . ,'""" ",; ,-=. ;/'..'
~~~~~!,"~~f":.~~..~~.,~ t: ,,<.,,: .,' ..' ..:;".-~ .. ~..!~1~:.-'~4~.;':~J"'t~,>.~"Ji;~t ~-... ~/,~~j--,~"~j~~~~4~_~~~":"'_~'~.". -~--:'~"1;:'G;:~-::;$-~"}~J~~'-'
Penn-Dixie Cement,
W. De. Koines. IA
295.091
18
No~thv..t State Portland Cement.
KAlon City. IA
48,007
2
Leh1&h Portland Cement,
Ka.\1D City. 1.\
48.381
9
Lone Star Indu.t~1...
BODAer Sp~ing.. IS
271.369
12
, ,
",
..' I
I
. !
. . ,", """"" ':~, . " '" :. " " ~ "'n ',: ", ' ' , ' "',' ',: ' ,,>(

-------
,:"', ".,' ." :.', "" ~. "," -. ". :-;. ,-, -.,'.. ":"-';~''''';' ......,.~':.,..-:...;.,..", ,-',"..~~'.I"_:''"f':':.o7':J'''''' :~;~',"';' -:;""'~>~:;.:.'.:'..:..::''':~;:''"':'''.'''.'''_.''''"'r..

~W~~~);H~~~~~IJ:*r;~!m:~.!~~;t~"t~:7:~"-~~rf:::.;;~}-~'!;e~~~~:f::,~:"(~~~;f::~~1iA~~1f~'7 ',~<.,~ . . ~~~ .



, , .'. ,..,,',-,,' ',' "'" ",',:',:_~.~'..:.~~.k?':A~:*1?\"
TOTAL CHROMIUHExPOSuRE' AND' NUMBER '0'''' PEOPLE":;:'\};'..~':;"'\
EXPOSED nOM CEMENT MANUFACTURING PLANTSa,">::;,:,,::,(,;.{;:~;~
-...-. ..'.. <~:~;'~;"'!:~l~t

'Total ExPosurf: ,-:';. >~\';'~'::::~.
(Peraons-~s/m) ",: ,Y~i): :~t

.. '. ,,'.. ')-1" \1'.1
"',1,". J
,: ,..,'", . ~.
. ,I," .'\.:.'.'\'~.~.:t.,/:.'#'t'
. ", ,.~.,' ''If:.-
,c' '''~v1J;. 1 ~..t'J:Jj't-'Jf!j.
, :-; ';/~::~f{.{f4d
" ':::/.,':jt'.!I','~~,1
. ; 1 '~. :.~;~~:S~.(~',
.-,.:t.or'!:..:,,\...,
.,. ,-:...f.~~ :;.;~







,:',:~i??'
, '\ f~~:..,:...
" :' ':~~"'"':
',.., ( ~~.;~~~~

.' "<"'" t
. . '-;.;/;: " j~}1
""'~"'~'~~i
. - ,,'~. ., "'.
. .-,:o'1~,.s"f"(~;~
;, . ".~,,*:I
'.', /MW4'
~ ~"."~~.
, .'~~I~~~'
:":.:. '~.~
',r.t>! !~l!":
,.0/,.:>; .,' j
, ..:(!Jt,~{:::
. ;,~\.., ~1
, :':':'~:MY<'
': "~.:"~~:~-#i~ ~
j(~'i;.~'.t~:
c"'~ ''''''tJ.''u~.

"'{;?i~i~1
~~#~~':,<;
;. / f.!i\~+ .
f.i't~;~ ~ft}~~{\.
~~'\f'~t~J~1\(~
'~~;..(~~~"." ;
.:'-J'~.1-.i..1
::' :~~;;... ~.l
:--:\!~ ~!:;.~ "j.
"<1""~"~
~'~~tI~~ ,~~
~~'., :A."
;.'lM J ,;.' ,
~, " ":~{

".
TABLE 3-13
(CONTINUED) .
'. ,
Cement Plant
Total Number of
Panon. Exposed
Ash Grove Cement.
ChanuteD KS
1
...
18.973
General Portland Cement,
Fredonia, KS
9.952
0.1
Monarch Cement Co.,
Humboldt, KS
" ','-
23.650
0.5
Lehigh Portland Cement,
Independence, KS
22,801
1
Flintkote Co.,
Kosmosdale, KY
157,179
2
Kosmos Cement Co.,
Louisville, KY
219.~80
3
Louisiana Cement,
New Orleans. LA
438,827
27
Lone Star Cement,
New Orleans, LA
1,003.515
28
Lone Star Industries,
New Orleans, LA
1,000,186
6
Dundee Cement Co..
Detroit. HI
52,400
1
Martin Marietta,
Thomaston, ME
33.032
4
Marquette Cement,
Hagerstown, MD
13.5.195
5
Alpha Portland Cement.
Lime Kiln. MD
86.047
2
3-43

-------
- I
!~
~~"
t~
~,;,~
.-'t,
;p)".,
~t~~
!ii'
.~,rii
m\:
}..~:
~~
..",..;.
;;~:.:.~
'.-~,
~"';

tt.:,
r.~:,i,
1~?
j"'"

~~""
'. "
.' "
'",:..
.,1
:'," ~ABLE,3-13 (CONTINUED),- TOTAL CHROMIUM E~~OSU'RE AND NUMBER OF PEOPLE
;':::":... ':'~,~:'":;>,, " , '. 'EXPOSED, FROM C~~ ~FACTURING PLANTSa
C'''~ii~
~lant
Total Number of
Persona Exposed
Total Expo,ur5
(Persons-vb/1ft )
--
Lehigh Portland C.~nt,
Union Bridae, HI>
72,671
s
"',
\", .
Huron Cement Co.,
Alpena, HI
20,000 .
0.5
<'I
'.',
.'
&\ch!..it!> r.e1l1n t C"..
S~!~.:,le~ol;:. HI
11,245
0.4
, ,
Pe~rless Cement Co.,
Detroit, In
',003,053
1.1
Peerless Cement Co.,
Detroit, HI
2,042,9.3:
36
, ,
Aetna Portland Cement,
Esso:'C'Ville, HI
116,828
3
"'
Martin ha!'1ett~,
Essexvlllc, !iI
109,405
3
'.
," ~
\,',
.7 :.
<
Jefferson Marine Termin&l
~~nroe County, HI
335,632
0.3
,,'
Penn-Dixie Industries,
Petroskey, HI
26,014
2
"
.; ~
.. ,
Peerless Cement,
Port Huron, HI
87,403
1
1.."'-
",'
.
Wy~ndotte Cement Co.,
Wyandotte, KI
1,166,409
0.4
. .
United Cement Co.,
Artesia, KS
24,171
0.3
.'
Marquette Cement,
Cape Girardeau, HO
59,759
3
t'::'
:.~.
.",'
3-44

-------
.~~' I.-:'''''~~irlill,~--':~ -, --,' ,. .' ,-~:~'~,:~

~., -' . . .'" ',. ..: -',- -'~,.,.;.." .""". ,:"",-:-~~,~,:",~,,";:-(ir-.- ,,:'.' ""'..:~..j~"!,:"",,);~);:,;,, ',~:,,,'-' , '. "',' ""'~"',""'I:"'::.t~.~t.\j;~
:;... ,~)} .1,.;.,,; '~.~..::' ,",.: ;..\. -"",",' -.,.t".!..;,,' 'J',:..:*\.'- --:'... :.h~'I.'~".~.~. ."., '\' ~,:": ;;~.:,'~",,:.:-'~-.;:~~~; 1..~tJ.4r:-tl;t.~{i~!(J~~~:~~:/.{":1~:)~~t'~'~'~"'~';J.)rp',.~~~f~ r~;f~"~;;!,~

~-__II',~.f,;~~::(?,r: ";-;" ,'c:,,::"..'; , ,:: ", : '" :,', , ':H:.'" ':' , .~": ,- ?~:"/<\(~~?\.;:'}Y,fftt,;~'t.~,:.:~~:;':;:~,',",}'~?'~:,~r::r.;r,;r.~;,ty,;;.~,~,t.".",- ," , .f'':'''.;,}-- ~~,:.J{f,:,~.'-,'
= ," . ' , , "/', -.' . ',' ,-: ,,,"'5bj,.\~,:,.t'\\"""'~t~;k?~I~ft'.,-t:.i~V;''\)'
~ : .' . .' ,". . . . . ,.:.." ;::.:~.t.>~~....:.......-.,~::,~\.. "...."...(!\=t~~17~~Jt....:1"'.~:l1
~ : . . . . , ..~I.~~,.. ..,::' ;:~;;:;.~:t,..~#tor,,~ :.: /'(/,~.,.';)"~~~,~:p.
- . .' . ", ....",' ,..,..~;:...~.......,..~t~~'&t;.":-~
" '- ,'". j~~-::'::"';':::"~":':~;":}~~~~~~

, TABLE 3-13 (CON'IINUED). TOTAL CHROMIUM EXPOSURE' AND NuMBER Or:PEOPLz' ;" ,".1:~'4J;~1J{~, "
EXPOSED FROM CEMENT MANUFACTURING PLANTS~' ",,:::~~:;~;,~'f.:~~:'-
, ' ,'~.~, ::~,~i~t~f
",,', 1;~}~~,~f
,. , '... :,:. 'i.~~:y;" .~,
, ..i\')-;"J"'1~1
, .~..~'.~"}:: 11'
.. " 'Sf'>-." ~
, ""'''-~'f''';,.'J<
":;\;';ij

.' r'!~k~~
;::::::;\~J.

. .r,- .::r"" f
'. ,.: ':\;~~~j~~
. ~,~':~~~~~
.':/~:~
.. '.~>":;i~
.' ".;'f".~l
. . ..', r~>-'....










, : .~:"''1
, .: .i.-'J!
.' . f. ~'~";
~ ",: ::~ii
.., ...'Io.{
. .
'.', .
: :,:;;:.;j
,':'~
- . ..'i-
. '. ;,-;'"
~.' :~\V#
, ..J

" .,';-/(';

. ..- "'''.,i.''i
:;~.: ~:..1;'
, ;, .:._::::{f:":;:J):::;.;::i<~. ;:.':;~' :.I~:~Y~;~;!."" ',';..;i:.:~':::.):jJ:{,~::'~
" f,. ~ . :.',:,~,~r:l:.,~J!f~~,r~;;'''~);.:~'':j; .(~;~t'~'~~~~~~~~~5+~~\::'~~~.(~~;}:',"~r:\;1.'~ 1
... ':~. :. ~~ ~'~".i't1<~'\"T,~~f:ti~~'~'(;''-'~~~~~~~~~~I~%.~'~~,~~\t~0~. ~~~1j,;~~~~.:':.';'\~~'~<'4:V...'~t }::~~~
.., ./." '.'," - 1#.... 'i-,.".,.j,.o........~"...'.. '#~.;;>.,....J\~", .. .' "' "'" ~~" <,:'... - ' ""r".", '. ". .
Cement Plant
Total Number of
Person. Exposed
Total Exp()s~r!
(Persons-US/III )
Dundee Cement Co..
Clarksv1lle, MO
15,622
o.os
Alpha Portland Cement,
St. Louis. MO
1,134.744
37
Missouri Portland Cement,
St. Louis, MO
1,400.165
71
=,
-
Missouri Portland Ceoent,
Sugar Creek, MO
3
638,974
Kaiser C.~:r.2nt,
Jefferson County, MT
35,858
0.04
Ideal Basic Industries,
Trident, MT
4,275
0.08
-
Ash Grove Cement,
Louisville, NE
0.3
16,332
~ .
J,
Ideal Ce~ent Co.,
Superior, NE
0.2
4,372
Nevada Cement Co.,
Fernl:y, NV
2,191
2
Ideal Cement,
T1j eras, NM
202,223
3
Alpha Portland Cement.
Cement on, NY
81,052
12
Lehigh Portland Cement,
Cementon, NY
76.177
19
Fl1ntkote Co.,
Glen Falls, NY
47,914
0.8
3-45
'-):~
:',i,~


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.. (. . ~I.

~~. ::/'i~'~
"..", t
~'~ \.:,
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., ~ ,i,
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~~'~
~}~~
.
# i
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,~
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'.,
;\..
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,1.. ..,J ";"',"'.;~: .,-,;,. '\;.,:.- ~'.. ',' '.." '.' ',:10 '",,,,,,
-------
,~"'. ".,.........:.~.:::~;"~......... ~,.~..'. .'.'''~ " "~)"."'--"''>'''".''':''''''\.''_'.I:'-'l''':.'h.'...:..,,"'.~"..,,~~~,.~...~..~..' ", '" .-' "",.,
""&"-'i~~'$!f1\?iIf.~~<~~.~!1 i;'~f.,.~..;;";"/'; i,~~ f:{;;.<~7;t,':,,~,~<,?;.,~;';~;;...~~':rr-.~')1.~~JI!,~';~~~~1*' I
'{$"':J~t~i~1ff;;~WN';j~'/."" .",: ""..";(\'i:"'"" ';'i":f':V~:",:f;;t';;'~1'~t'~<..;.t&~~)W:'!SY1t~{"'j"';,,:,';"." J

;.:.. :~1:J:. !.\'f.i
~." ;~';':'I" . . . . ''''~i~

. ' . .:J~'~~r~i.I~r.,,~-

TOTAL CHROMIUM EXPOS.URE.AND NUMBER. .Oli:PER~~E:',':J~;~.~.-::./:.'})~;;~r~\~t
EXPOSED FROM CEMENT MAl1UFACTURING .PLANTS'~" ..~::.;'<,~..:,,;;..:!.;:j,".1frCZ1!;












~}~! '






.: ';"~':':~:':1
:,>}r.;~::'
~ ~:' ;.!:{:~::.
.:,~. '~~~~,;:.,~.
. '.: '.'~ .:)5:.~ i
TABLE 3-13
(CONTINUED) .
Cement Plant
Total Number of
Persons Exposed
Total EXP.o8ur~ .
(Persons-\ls!m. ->:
Oregon Portland Ceme.4~,
Huntington, OR
1,576
0.006
Oregon Portland Cement,
Lake Oswego, OR
840,683
9
Bessemer Cement Co.,
Bessemer, PA
280,733
9
Copley Cement,
Cementcn, PA
373,491
7
~ational Gypsum Co.,
Evar.sville, PA
233,673
8
White Hall Cement,
Lehigh County, PA
391,466
9
Lone Star Industries,
~azareth, PA
362,808
15
Penn-Dixie Industries,
~azareth, PA
382,408
4
Harqu2tte Ceoent Mfg.
~eville Island, PA
1,108,7:;8
6
Lehigh Portland Cement,
~orthampton, PA
403,452
s
Hercules Cement,
Northampton, PA
Inc. ,
301,908 1
391,075 10
441,979 7
 . ,
Martin Marietta,
Northampton, PA
Keystone Portland Cement,
Northampton County, PA

-------
'~~.;_fifPf!f~;~1t1r~~~~~f\~~~;):t:~~J' "
-:,': : .r.'
'S~!-

'",.."" f
:,:;~:?X i
, ";;:,::},'11
:?:j
I
:T;ABL!; 3-13 (CONTINtJD."tOTAL CHROMIUM EXPOSURE ~'"'D NUMBER OF PEOPLE
, ' EXPOSED nOM CEMENT MANUFACTURING PLANTS a
.,.
',':
. . '.~ , '
.j. ",.0 '.
" ,
,: ..:; '- ~:,.. '. :
, .,' .
, : C~nt' Pl&nt,
Total' Number of
Peraons Expotled
Total Exposur5
(Persons-~s/m )
>,~
, .,,;
~~
j::;'~~~
f&-;t;:
~~I1>.'H
..;"1j.~;}'
I~w:'~~
~,
, :.p'
;t,"i
h~
~%}
j~
~~J
~t,
~~:t,
t','*'I' ;:~',
..~.~..~
~ij.;'-
:.~tJ.?

i


;1..'.)
t!f;;\:i
fJ.~:::
I

'N~jJ"
f~j:::~:
~'t~::

I
~,:1~';
t.~~,~
.!tc:',
t~~
.';.o!J~.'
t>.,..:;
1'~1~'
.
-------
-
-__n---- __A
.--. -'.~-----'-- -..-.- - ._.
,it<~~:~f.~ti<:.'~::, :
: .:. .:>~ l:':;~~:."~';( ;". ~~: / <;/'~: :
TABLE 3-13
(CONTINUED).
Cement Plant
Total Number of
PersoDs Exposed
Southwestern Portland Cement
Amarillo, TX
.59,916
. '2'
Centex-Austin Cement,
Buda. IX
406,504
10
Cent.rex Cement,
Corpus Christi, IX
233,033
25
General Portland,
Dallas, IX
Inc. ,
1,137,909
29
Southwestern Portland Cement,
El Paso, IX
433,184
23
Trinity Division.
Ft. Worth, TX
611,178
50
Ideal Basic Industries,
Galena Park. IX
1,419,737
33
Gulf Coast Poreland,
Houston, TX
1,783.009
16
IEX Industries.
Midlothian. IX
37,043
4
Gifford-Hill Po~tland Cement,
Midlothia.n. IX
53.169
2
Southwestern Portl.ud Cement,
Odessa, IX
34,935
0.6
Alpha Portland Cement,
Orange, TX
65,904
14
Penn-Dixie Cement Corp.,
Richard City, TS
30,288
1
,"...

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TABLE 3-13 (CONTL'roED). ,TOTAL CHROKl~EXPOSt1U;Am>' NUMBER 'Ol:,.PEOPiZ'','", ' ;"\Z~r;'~1~'~~
EXPOSED nOH ,CEMENt. !'.ANt1lAC'It1UNG lLA!i'rsa,,~.~.' " - ;':'~"/;:':z~.4)
, . ..f, '.',: /~':':~:,.':'~.'.,,:.: ;r,: .. ,,"! <' '>'~:;:,:,:~,::/ . .' .;;,::':;::':~~~!!~,i~~.r,~~
. :< 'I...f.,i::.,~~
. >;:ii~~~,:!ii;


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, "":\ ~fftl(
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.. t--' ,\',

A!~

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, " ,.'. ~:~~:i~~
:';' >~~~J
. ';. ~ ~ -~.j
":.- ;~:;(k:l
0.., : ;<:~ .~~~~
. ",~--~-;~-:';""~1
:. :. ""~}:~:j
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. t,('" '~f..v,"?,':;
. .; ~.-~~'tL~'
, ":;;;~~i~

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~~~:.Z~;'!;1
>. :j'::f~f
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.;': 1.../]
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'. ?~. t:<.jI.;~<:'/&"'_~'{M..~.~~~<,c." ! K, ~:':"'{~f'r...;jJ
Cement Plant
Total Number of'
Penone Exposed
'. '". .;',: ,I. .,'
. Total', EXPo.'U:r~.':>
(lenona-uS/1Ii l'
Ideal Basic Industries,
Seattle, WA
91S,425
11
Martin ,Marietta Cement.
Martinsburg. WV
62.170
3
Medusa Ce=ent Co..
Manitowoc:. wI
66.466
0.4
Gniversal Atlas Cement.
Milwaukee. WI
1, 084.650
24
Marquette Cement Co..
Milwaukee. WI
1.084.650
92
National Gypsum Co..
Superior. '.JI
15,.881
3
~onolith Portland Cement.
Laramie. 'WY
27.654
s
, ..
aA 20 km 02.4
manufacturing
miles) radius vas used
plants.
for the analysis of cement
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tABLE 3-1'4., PUBLIC ExPoSURE tOCHROKIUM FROM CEMENT MANUFACTURING
PLANTS AS PRODUCED BY THE HUMAN EXPOSURE MODEL
Con:entratisn Level
'(\111m) ,
, a
Popu1at1on Expoeed
(Penons)
b
Public Expo.use
(Penon8-\ls/m )
0.0469
0.025
0.01
0.005
0.0025
0.001
0.0005
0.00025
0.0001
0.00005
0.000025
0.00001
0.000005
0.0000025
0.000001
0.0000005
0.00000025
0.0000001
0.00000005 .
0.000000025
o
11
289
1.389
9.189
46.668
193.365
696.089
2.584.447
7.082.615
15.312.102
31.739.998
40.991.487
46.477.640
48.588.177
48.932.801
49.285.477
50.111.798
50.447.547
50.450.530
< 1
0.333
4
11
37
93
194
363
647
953
1.240
1.510
1.580
1.600
1.600
1.600
1.600
1.600
1.600
1.600
~
:',:
aThis column displays the computed value. rounded to the nearest whole
number. of the cumulative number of people exposed to the matching
and higher concentration levels found in column 1. For example.
0.5 people would be rounded to 0 and 0.51 people would be r.ounded to 1.

bColumn 3 displays the computed valu~ of the cumulative exposure to the
matching and higher concen:ration levels found in column 1.
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. . . ' :~v-:. ~ ....:-,:..: .~..:.:;...'...'/ '1; 1"~~"';:'1"':J~.J ~...~. " -'.V:~~ ' .='t..~" .~.t',,~;~'~, '.J' '-'--"~'~ J':~
" ""'~~"i,::",,::';'~i~~;i~:,,::).;:~~"fl!i;~\~"''\:';;;',", ::+;:;
. ._"'-~'f' ""_0.t. 'J,. '''-..-...."i~ lffJ:~.. .~..,:,. ...~!- t'''''",~:~'!:>t'..--~ -.f;,-.,,<-o#-J. '~.!~r-~ ~\. '" '~',' >., -._'~'
-'~"'-"',-7"."'-~~',~-~O':-~":"T~-"'J;-'~~~''',', .-~"'_O""~""-," -."'" , e,''''_:'- -'---'::--- ''''":..~ ~ o ',--c-.- ',--'- -, _.....-.,~t ~""',' ~:T~- -~ : '~-"'-"~"T""';':-~,-_""",,,--,,,~,-~,,,----o -,-~- --, '--,"r.- --"-'-"""
- "
!
of the NEDS information for cement plants. However, during the chromium
emission estimating process NEDS particulate emissions that were sreatly
inconsistent with other similar plants in the source cateRory wer., not used
to estimate chromium emissions. Instead alternative emissions estimatina
procedures were adopted in these cases. Overall, it 18, anticipated that the
NEnS information for cement plants overstates to some degree particulate
(and consequently chromium) ec1ssiona for this source category because of
improvements in the status of emissions control.
~
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3.8
MEASURED ~~IE~7 CHROMIUM CONCENTRATIONS
Actual measured ambient chromium concentrations have been determined
for many areas of the United States through sampling programs conducted by
the U. S. EPA and State air quality agencies. Selected chromium results for'
the period of 1977 to 1980 are presented in Appendix C. The values in
Appe~dix C were selected as reliable because they meet U. S. EPA data
validity requirements concerning number of saQples (representativeness) and
ii
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use of appropriate analytical techniques. All the values given in
Appendix C are in the National Aerometric Data Bank which is maintai~ed by
the Monitoring an~ Data Analysis Division of the G. S. EPA located in
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.
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The ambient chromium concentrations in Appendix C are useful as a
comparison tool to gain some perspective on the ambient chromium levels
pr~dlcted to occur by the HEM. The data in Appendix C are not intended to
represent the concentrations attributable to any specific point source. The
locations of the sampled points are not Known. However, it is possible that
a measured ambient chromium concentration can be indirectly correlated to
chromium sources or source categories examined in this study. As an example
consider the data in Appendix C for Baltimore, Maryland, The 1977 Baltimore
3
chromium concentration maximum of 2.4870 ug/m is the highest in the entlre
data set. As a correlation to why this level may have occurred consider
that in the Balticore area rhere il a major chr.omium chemical producer, a
major. chromi~m refractory producer. five steel manufacturing furnaces, and
two refuse incinerators.
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= ~. ,e".. '..' J . ." . ".' , ... 'r " , \ -.. .', .' '. - . , - ' ','~ ' -', - - - ".

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3.9
IEFEllENCES
.~""",ii,~;~;\"~~~~!V'~";,~~ZA;";t""'i,"~';;(;?t,~\,;; ',' "
:~'
, t';':
.~~~ .
'..
S':~"
~(,~:~
-ir1:
.~".
~~!S ~ ~
<0:: ,,-"~.
'~J.';
::t. \.; .
~~~t:&~7~;;~'~~':, .
(~("'~v');""'~;;t',:" ...' . "
.:I:''Y~''''' >"'<-~", '.' "
~~,:,j~', '::.ji~'~~~',~!'~~~1t~~~~~,.t< ~~.,~.;'.:~. t .. 'I.,
lfi" )'~~ ,. 'I~..{..... ',4: .~, ,f, ...' . "'
., ,
.., :
l'~
"'$4
'~'."
:~
,'\:.
1:\';)
, ';I't
,',
I..
?:~
~'i~~
~S:'i
~jN~
'fJ}~.~
~,~~',
[....
~;J~
rJ~..;'
~~~;;,
~~:~
t".o:

~t'
~I;"
~j~:
lJ,:',~/
~'tJ.>::
:"~'v'
~';\'"
~>:('.:
{~"1
o(.,'f;
fi"~~~
QY,'
LiI:,
~~:
&:;ie.
tW*"iJ
4'..",::,
't),..-'t~,
..;r:-
~~~
~~~!
~~.
~r

t~.: ;'.:.
{'tr.';.
1"'1.1
~;ti

;.;'4(. .
t:.",.;
...,1.

J;:~~
;.';ft;'
l';.'.
~ ,.."
tj'.\,;
1\~1:o..
4t~: ~
{~:
~~~.,
:'f:'~
I:t~,
,',"/'
'~,:'r,.
'.,'.:,:. ~
~,.:..:'

" ~;
.t
,/ ~<.
',' '~:
""":', '
. .
. ,;. '~;:i<.:.~t~t~
,':, ~ t~;~~

. '.j"';~'~::
. ' "
"' .
~ ,\"t.,
, '~ .,::
,',. ;..' ","
1.: .'
Morn1na. J. L., !!,.al.
. Problema. 1980 EdItion.
Bureau of Kine,. . 1980.
ChraDium - A Chapter from Mineral Facts and
Preprint from Bulletin 671. United States
2'." '.pp, J. r. Chromium. Preprint from tbe1981 Bureau of Mines Kinera1s
. Yearbook. United State, Bureau of Kine.. 1981.
3.
Belland, I. K. (Mitre Corp.). A Review of Standards of Performance for
Hew Stationary Source. - Sewale Sludge Incinerators. EPA-450/2-79-010.
Karch 1979.
,
~ !
I
I
I 1
II

it
~ I
I I

; !
!
'I


!
4.
GCA Corporation.
EPA-450/3-81-o13.
Survey of Cadmium Emission Sources.
September 1981.
5.
Telecon. Brooks, C. W., Radian Corporation with PIper,S.,
~CA Corporation. July 11, 1983. Chromium emissions in the CCA report.
6.
Tel.con. Brooks, G. W., Radian Corporation with Creen, L., U. S. EPA
Rei ion IX. July 14, 1983. Control status of steel plants.
7.
Telecon. Brooke, G. W., Radian Corporation with Craig, R., tJ. S. [PA
Rellon II. July 13, 1983. Control .tatus of steel plants.

Telecon. Dykes, R., Radian Corporation with Hiller. B.. U. S. EPA
RQgion IV. Control status of steel plants.
8.
3-54
. . ,.":,.,,.,.,.i';,.~,~,.,' "!AM~"'.','-"i9:!!"-'~"""-"~'~...r-~.. '~.:-.r.o<,~~' "','=."~.'- -"~ ,-'"," ''''''''''-,,,.''''.'-''.':'''-~-- '. .....-.r" -<-<-~~,'.. '""". .=~-~"_..,,,=o:o., ,~. ."'cl
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: ", ,', . ,."" ~.: >";/:f.':,:~~"~~5':,~:/~:;;~~~~h~,~~::'::;';j~~~}~~~J;f#i~~~~tt~l~~ !
.; :: ',\'.'" ; "'"!;",:',,, '::?>i,5~I:,:,,;{~\:t:.;i.$";;;-:t~~t~~,.~,Ji~~.r~!'1J!1>i'i.:o;,$~""$l'~.}~'~,!,,'~' ,':,.'~-',1'
.. ,.. ~ 'i'......-.,ja.:.,...-:':.'.~.;.. .~,~.'~~~r...... ...j~'~.Ji-'-'''''''''1.~,,,,:',~.:;r!f..~ "'01",'" ""'_'~"'-'t.I"I"".p~';;""V.' ~"'7'.~...'~;'\-" t ':~
-. ...,......."...,--""~~'-~'-'- ,-- ..':- ,', "'-"-'---.~/-:~"~'-D-;"',~"~-, .~~.:.: 1;",-,-~:,,-------,_.,,:,"','-o~..-r.'----.-'''-:--'''.'' -"7,"'~--"-"".-r~,-,.-- '"---.
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APPENDIX A
DESCRIPTION OF THE RUMAN EXPOSURE MODEL (HEM)
A.1
CENERAL
The J. S. EPA's Human Exposure Model is a general model capable of
producing quantitative expressions of public exposure to ambient air
concentrations of pollutants emitted from stationary sources. The REM:
contains (1) an atmospheric dispersion model, with included meteorol~lic~':, '
data, and (2)' a population distribution estimate based on Bureau of Ce,n8wi.
data. The only !.nput data needed to operate this "model are sourCe data.;' ~< '
e.g., plant location, height of the emission release point. and ,te~~era~u~.
of the off-gases. Based on the source data. the model estimates th~"."", '
magnitude and distribution of ambien: air concent:ations of the pollutant ,in
. . ".' . ,I

the vicinity of the source. The model ,is programmed to estimate' t~e~e '.' ,:.'
, ,

concentrations within a radial distance of 20 km (12.4 :niln) 'from':.the:."
source. If other radial distances are preferred, an over-ride feature
allows the user to select the distance desir~d. The selection of 20km
..
(12.4 miles) as the programmed distance i8 based on modelling
considerations, not on health effac:t~ criteria or U. S. EPA policy. The
dispersion model contained in HEM i8 felt to be reasonably accurate within
20 km (12.4 miles). I~ the user wishes to use a dispersion model other than
the one contained in HEM to estimate ambient sir concentrations in the
, ' .

can accept the concentrat~~n~ if they &r~ fut,~~o
"
vicinity of a source. HEK
an appropriate format.
Based on the radial distance .pec:ifi~d, HEK combines numeri~ally the
distributions of pollutant concentrations and people to produce quantitat1ye
expressions of public exposure to the pollutant.
"

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A.2
POLLtrrANT CONCENTRATIONS NEAR A SOURCE
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"
The di.per.ion model within the HEM i. a gaussian diffusion mod6l that
use. the lame ba.ic di.per.ion alaorithm a. the U. S. ~PA's Climatological
1
Di.per.ion Model. Th. algorithm haa been .1mplified to improve
2
computational .fficiency. The alaorithm i. evaluated for a representative
.It of input value. a. vell a. Ictual plant data, and the concentrations
input into the expo.ure algorithm are arrived at by interpolatlon.
Stability array (STAR) summarie. are the principal meteorological input to
the HEM di.perion model. The STAR data are standard climatological
frequency-of-occurrence summaries formulated for use in U. S. !?A models and
are available for major U. S. meteorologlcal monitoring sites from the
National Climacic Center, Ashevllle, N. C. A STAR summary is a joint
frequency-of-occurrence of vind speed, atmospheric stability, and wind
directlcn, classified according to Pasquill's categorie$. The STAR
summaries in HEM usually reflect 5 year. of meteorological data for each of
309 .ites nationwide. The model produces polar coordinate receptor grid
points cona1sting of 10 downwind dlatances located along each of 16 radials
whlchrepresent vind directions. Concentrations are est~ated by the
disper.lon model for each ot the 160 recep~ors located on this grid. The
radials are .eparated by 22.S-degree intervals beginning wlth 0.0 degrees
and proceedlng clockwi.e to 337.5 degree.. The 10 downwind distances for
each radial are 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, and
20.0 kilometer.. The center of the receptor grid for each plant is assumed
to be the plant center.
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A.3
THt POPv1LATION LIVING NEAR AN EMISSION SOURCE
To estimate the number and distribution of people residing within 20 km
(12.4 mile.) of eacb plant, the model contain. a slightly modified version
of the Kaster Enumeration Di.trict Lilt--Extended (MID-X) data ~ase. The
data ba.e il broken down into enumeration district/block group (ED/BG)
value.. It contains the population centroid coordinates (latitude and
longitude) and the 1970 population of .acb ED/BG in the Unlted States
(50 State. plu. tbe Diltr1ct of Columbia). For buman exposure estimates,
KED-X ha. been red~ced from it. complete form (including descriptive and

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. ,:' . ," .,' '~~;:\'''.''t...~..:..~....." .' . .
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summary data) to produce a computer file of the data necessary for the
estimation. A separate file of county-level growth factors. based on 1978
estimates of the 1970 to 1980 growth factor at the cuunty level. has'been
used to estimate the 1980 population for each ED/BC. The HEM identifies the
population around each plant by using the geographical coordinates ot the
plant. The HEM identifies. sel.cta. and atores for later use tho.e ED/BCs
with coordinates falling within 20 km (12.4 miles) of plant center.
A.4
POPULATION EXPOSURE DETERMI~ATIONS
The HEM uses,the estimated ground level concentrations of a pollutant
together with population data to calculate public exposure. For each of
160 receptors located around a plant, the concentration of the pollutant and
the number of people ,estimated by the HEM to be exposed to that particular
concentration are identified. The REM multiplies thes~ two numbers to
?roduce exposure esti~ates and sums these products for each plant.
A two-level s~heme has been adopted in order to pair concentrations and
populations prior to the computation of exposure. The two level approach is
used because the concentrations are defined on a radius-azimuth (polar) grid
pattern with non-uniform spacing. At small radii, the grid cells are
usually smaller than ED/BG's; at large radii, the grid cells are usUally
larger than ED/BG's. The area surrounding the source is divided into two
regions, and each ED/BG is classified by the region in which its centroid
lies. Population exposure is calculated differently for the ED/BG's located'

, ,
within each region. For ED/BC centroids located between 0.1 km (0.06 mile.)
and 2.8 km (1.7 miles) from the emission source, populations are divided
between neighboring concentration grid points. There are 96 (6 x 16) polar
grid points within this range. Each ~r1d point has a polar sector defined
by two concentric arcs and two wind direction.radials. Each of these grid
points and respective concentrations are assigned to the nearest ED/SG
centroid identified from MID-X. Each ED/SG can be paired with" one or many
concentration points. Th. populatio~ associated with the ED/SC centroid 1.
then divided among all concentration ,~1d points assigned to it. The land
area within each polar ,ector 1s con.id.red in the apportionment.
A-3
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',~or population centroid. between 2.8 km (1.7 miles) and 20 km
.. .....
(~~'.4,1Id1e8) from t~e lourca, a concentration grid cell" the area
a~p~ox1mating arectaniular Ihape bounded by four receptors, is much larger
,th~~ tha' ~rea, ~f a typical ED/Be. Since there i8 an approximate linear
re~at1onsh1p, between the lOiar1thm of concentration and the logarithm of
distance,for receptor. mora than 2 km from the lource, the entire population
of the ED/BG il as.umad to be exposed to the concentration that is
logar1thmica1lY,in~erpolat.d radially and erithmetica11y interpolated
azimuthally from the four receptors bounding the grid cell.
Concentration estimates for 80 (5 x 16) grid cell receptors at 2.0,
5.0. 10.0, 15.0. and 20.0 km from the source along each of 16 wind
directions are used as reference points for this interpolation.
In summary. two approaches are used to arrive at coincident
concentration/population data points. For the 96 concentration points
within 2.8 ~ (1.7 miles) of the source. the pairing occurs at the polar
grid points using an apportionment of ED/BG population by land area. For
the remaining portions of the grid. pairing occurs at the ED/BG centroids
themselves through the use of log-log and linear interpolation. For a more
detailed discussion of the model used to estimate exposure, see reference 2.
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:"~.j(:v<~ ;-:1":." . , . ,. '>.', ' :.. ,".~' .:.~,'..... : ,~:.-" ..' ;~~-"""'r'.-::".'I\:~;""v:;'.''''}.r-l5i'?j-''''J:''tt~~''-ik'%~\t~~;ft.:,.-.)f'.~3~ ~~,;.~.~;.. ~'"o{.~J':,lil':' ' - !?1'~.A~,~ \.;"~:l'J~~
*ii~{:~~41r;;:.~:;.;. .!, \";\":~" " ~."'I,,:;' ;, ;' (.~7-~.',;'i:f.{:','# ; ~~~fA~f?J.~t.3iA:.fj~t'~~:i'1?~)~f;i,~~1~li!;~~':0:~;'i~.;,:~;}'fj~'i:~>it'4::Wt:N'; .k~~;,:h,F~~.' ~;}~~~:~.:.
:;:,'. ,.,
. .,'
A.S
REFERE.~CES
1.
User's Guide for the Climatological
December 1973.
Busse, A. D. and J. R. Zimmerman.
Dispersion Model. EPA-R4-73-024.
2.
Systems Applications. Inc.
Concentrations of Selected
and EPA-l/2S0-2.
Human Exposure to Atmospheric
Chemicals. Volumes I and II. EPA-2/2So-1

-------
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APPENDIX B
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QUALITATIVE EVALUATION OF THE SOURCE CAT ECO!tY
DATA USED IN THE REM ANALYSIS
The purpose of this
relative quality of the
analysis. Table B-1 should
results given in Chapter 3.
categories in Table B-1 were
used in the R~ analysis and
appendix, principally TableB~l, is to
input chromium sourcu catego~y data ,us~d in the ~
be viewed as an clid to avaluating the expo"ur~,'
The ratin;;s assigned to various, sO-..:'ce

.'
dev..loped specifically tt1 dClcdbe the c!:a~A',' :;}: '
are not a pan of any es::abL Ir '0 or publish~cf'
.
rati~gs or guidelines 3ystem.
. \~,. ,
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"', .,\~..."- )"'i?1""~,tJ.,..:r."=-"::~v"

lJ~{~;i{~~~i~;"~:~'<~_::~:;;~::I~~~':::::~:~~:~ 0'. THE SOU'CE~A~ECORY DAYA USm:IH .TH~..HEH


.'t\~l';~;:<,: " >!.-
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II:!:'. .

~' ~:i..:

;~~~:.<'
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'.,Jl ~ :
~\
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~~:~t'.' :

~~~~." -' ~,.~,,':",'~"';~'~""~". '.~,-~.','.~,'- "-,,....,...' ...,~'-,-,:"._';:"'..:-......;;.;.;.:.~-'-~:.~::.::- ,~;.~,.,:....,--i;:=-~~~~~~..=>J,~.i,

~ ~-~,~, ,~ ,~ .. <""'" ~-'.~.~';no.,:::_.,..,..""~~",,,,-....,,=, . ..'''' ")!"""'~~""c'~"<~",-,,._..~ ~ ~
Cbr08lua ~e81cals
Mtmufecturlng
Chr08iaaEatsslons
Data8
Stack CeCMllett'y
Data
location Data
C,B
Known
Est1aated
2
C,B,A
KIIOVO
Known
1.
a.tractory Manuf.cturlng
C,D
Knewn and
Estillated
ICnovn and
Estlll8ted
3
~~~tp&l aefuse
, Incineration
D
Estillate.:!
Knovn
3
6"'.1~ !bdse
Inclreratlon
D
Known
Known
3
r.",~hroal...
, .,
Manufacturing
D,A
Known
Known
2
Steel Manufacturing
O,A
Estimated
Knovn
J
Ceaent H..nufactllrln~
()
Known'and
Est~mated
Known and
Estimated
4
. ,
a A - .lssfon8 estl~tes determined froll
B - ..lsslons estlll8tes determined from
C - ~Issfons estimates determined froll
o . Eatsblons estlmntes determined Crom
chr08lfu8 levels In parttculatee.
The 80St prevalently used technique 16
" ,
fiOUrCe tests.
lIaterlal balances.
company engineering estimates.
gr~ss rarticulute emissions levels
and measured
listed first followed by other succeedlnR techniques used.

-------
:-~:~~~~.t':'J"'~~4 'r-y-""...v '''. ~ > ...."'f,~"'r'
'f""lj..,'~-'-'" "-,: . \, ,-,,,,,~,,"~,l'''' I
~t.~~~L~::' " ;.;'~Yt~~\

I' ,-,\::",..:,. "N'i~'




If b I . :~~.~~::~ ::u::.~~~:::~~ ~~:c:~~.~~~~~~~:: &.1..10ns, stack geo...try. and location -,ata ace "{~I'

2 . Cood 80urce c6tegory characterization. Generally stack geometry and location data are kn~~m.
E8i8atona data are based on material balances and sound estimating methods.
3 . Fair 80urce category characterization. Emiss!."'ns, stack geolllctry. and location data ;Ire
known for a portion of th~ source category. Chromium emissions estimates are less reliable
due to a lack of particulate and/or chromium data.
4 . Poor or variable source category characterization. F.missions, atack geometry. and location
data were estimated frolll available information. Chromium elotssions data were missing or highly
':'k'"'' variable for several plants or several proceases withtn the sourc.e category. ,;'~""'I',














li~~~'s,~f_~;~



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~~~1f~\:~ t~~';J';'2', :~~~:~;..:, ~"f



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I~~.

#%~, TOTAL' Cn6Ktmf'coNciNTMTioNfkEA$ffiD~:i~~~nii~'~'''''-f' > "-~l
~,~::~. ',:,,;, OF' '..-v1."":T~TtC'1\ 'STJ.T",ci:':D'''ftIN'a;!'l' 9' .,.7.'~~~~!'~'ft8~S~~,',;;.'>t~~,;:~,
".~.' . ..~ _wn~ ~ -- ...~ "...,. '. - .f.~'~~,.~.,~~ ~~~~~:1'~' Jlr_~t;"Ji"!'\
~!>if . . '.. . ", ~:.:<.. :""{:J..~.~~;' "..~j"',,:y\r!~:~"':' ..J.{i~':\'/i~~:'~."!.?-~'i:1;:t.~,1h~~{~'!~)~\~:tj.;~'~~~:~:~. r : ~ .

~~ .'. ,'... .<:<,';;:;~Yi%~~~Ji~m\~~~{g~f,"'~~'"

~",". ,,', ,', '. -" ". ,',:.; .i>",;..~.I""",:;.",.,.":.-:,),,,:,;{..,~~,.,...'':t~~ii:~ft~.~/ct~Ji*
1:~L; ,'" , ' ',,' :"""""~':':"':':""'~;:"";'::":':'::\'.,.,!;...'_..f<'>o'~,~.'h:';'''A',~',' "i2:0"f'~'~f;;(.'~"
,;': "" ...' ',,' " ," ", " -, ~", ,'0..'. ,- .",!.. 'fo ul "CII,  ~\111,"~''', t,nt,1cn1..,."./D ~ ,-' '!'~ :;'~~,:if.,:~,;!,~,j5",
:,.... nee ' t..~ ,':.." " .u1cbuc1C1~"G, ': :, : Kax~, ?b881'vad V ,':I,..'",~'?,:::(:(, 7~)~::~~ 1::
;:,:p 1I.-4.-haa AI. L'77 ' '0 00..'" 'r,~,..', :' :'" '''~'o 0',.6 ":':~""l.',,~~~: '~-:"~';(~"~~'i~'
.--. . .... ',' ',.'- :"',' v....:. . \:,...:,,' ,,~!'''~'<\;:''~~'..., .;.t~:~':;~~'.~if: .~1t~"
~.' c:.acl.ct... jJ. 1'77 0.0052. ,', O~0052';:,::.;~.~. ~:r>.~i~:. '.:, . :.;". ,:~}'l~' :;
t<: lIwu"Ule. AI. L'77 0.0070,,' ' 0.04L9;,I';:', ;\;':J:"f: :'>f~%., ,', ,~
,'. 1110 0.0070" 0.041."-' ,,,,;,:';~;;,ii',""'."':'::'~~~~f~~:f'
,. - . "" .' '. ':" :'vf(f}~J.'~~~~(
DO\&llal. U 1918 0,0070 0.0\3) ,'.:'\, ~ ,'~r::'"" ,~/,"':~e,:{~, '
. . .', .' ~. '~~':, .{!~,~itf:.1s1:J~
1979 0.0067 ,0.0187 .. ' ""'",.. f;'.:'-' ":,,,;'), ',' ",,', "';~'~',$t~~';i,,,::'
: . , ,',r , ' '. ~ ,'''~.r!':1,~ih~~
191~ " 012" - 0 01"4'" '-,,:~""~;~"~' ,','- :";~~~?'~f,>t-,'{'
. - ..- '~'.': '. . , ;- ~,- ~>~?~\"~::'-~~~1
1911 O.OUS 0.0410 " ,:'" :: :-;':~~~.~~----..\"i:
L'I17 0.IH18 0.0666" ' ,,:~~":-i ~".. ,!.:~:",\!--. .
. . :, > ,'. ..' ,",',:,::;,:t~ ,::.'~'~~f~J::~_"'f ,..:
1977 0.0330 , O. L033.,-',,: " " " ':', ":'"' ;:,;,;jtl";tik1~'
1917 0.0109 O.O~6' ::"', '.:':1, ';:...:!' ';"~"':~';~:<;?*1-!'~'
, , "'~,' '.-;.,,' ,;.~t&i~~~kt,~~,;;,
1917 0.0063 0.01~'I"";':';' - i', ,~,.':~":'~::~~;;
. " ":'" t'~~I,~,t-:~'4
1977 00138 0 0291..' .:'.., ',',.' ':~,>;it"i<,.,:,~~c'~
. ." , ;: "/.::;I~,~t~"'W~<,,.a;;;:~:
1971 0.0100 0.020'," " "";":"-:;'~~~~,ji~4!
. ..:"t~'t1tJj{("i. of..
1977 1.0306 0.JU3::-"",i.~/,},:",~, ,,:'.,;-;',~::,:;~x~~~~i::
1911 'O.034Z': 0.%111 ,!",..",;,. ","'," ;'" \''':;~,-'r,'"~~-~~fl
, ',. " '-', ':'.)I:~~.~f~~t~~I~,?
1919 O.OJZ6 0.1396 ,', '" :\;,,:,...,~),":...;t
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1917 0.00'8 0.Cll7 ,,' " ':,:,';,,'"~:i';~p/;
, "', 'r"' ~ 't.1.\ . If.,....:-
1977 0.0110 0.OS43'-'" ,,. ", :- ':;1i'ol,;,~~~,..;:
, ',:_" '.'>:t:.f;."O:,(' r
L971 0.0167 0.057%' :,""'. ,: ',.:::::;;:,~;;'ts.~',
1180 0 con 0 oon ' , ,~;'... ' ::.:t Ji':~.i::~
. . " .~" ,\:;~~"'~:}t'
1971 0.0071 0.0212 .~:- .. ',- "", ,'),>:~P~-\:1
1110 o,"On  oon ''',;'' " ",",.: :,::~,";':~".:.1,' ~'Il" ':"t:~\(~ '';'~,~-;,' ~ ,~
LtlO 0.0061 ' :' . ,'/:~ o.OLt\"~~:~~'D"~~,:?,' '. ;/'.~";~2P;7:~;:;i:{,;
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: ',';,:. '.':-f 'I"",~;" 't'~1I,-~~~;.\t;.,':~t::~..-:";1j\.~."S;
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..~ TOTAL CHROMIUM CONCENTRATIONS' MiAstnu:D':iN';THE':'A...mIm:"AI'i~!' ':\ :.':'\;' '_::::;iX;;~I~~~,,~\ r~:
.~, . OF THE uNITED STATES DURING 1977'- ~,1980~", " '. ",::' "',:-, :!':r'~,{~~;~~'i~""~~

, . ,:, :);::::::tf~~'
. '):';!i.}~,~.i ;~>;". ~:

coac.acnc1~~;'::ii~/~S:>~,~:;". ',' ,:': "',;~,,~,:$.cti~.~~'
Max1llwa Ob..Z'Vu'V&1ia." '",',;,:.~>~;j:-f~",:,
,,~'~J:'i{~~i
1978 0.0133 O.OZ'31' '/~, ;,' .; ~ '-,>. ,,:~'J~:.f~"'~
1980 0.00.9 0'013" .. .':,:f/~i~~.~:
~ . .'. .:.';:.r.~i..:...~~
.~. ,:~ ~~;~::f;fl.~~
1980 0.0019 0.0%15" "":~'!."'l:t.~.
. ';: .~,.. t~:t~~f;f~'~
1977 0.00'4 ,0.0113,,', P.-Jl....,..,
, , '~-"", ""'i5,
1977 0.OC61 0.0181 ' '., ';:,:;;,i~ti
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1977 0.00" 0.013% . ';""i:~~:t-'I~~V
. . "..~'~~ir~'~ " ~
1977 0.IHZ6 0.0610 ,:,:':;<,..f~':".
1978 0.0188 0 0'''' ',,::,~J,~;~;. ,,~:
. -, "".:'1:":'Y~!.i:<;
,,' :'~~1\\~~1.('~!'~'
1979 0.OLL6 ' 0.0389 ;",".:';"f!-~~"
1980 0.0204 0 0710 ,',"J(.>;&%'I1':,
. , .' ':~,:,:(~~t'w:W
1979 0.0~8" 0 1999 .'.".!,";,:;-~ ,~~
~ . . . " . 'S\'o:.. x...." ):c.~""
. : ~ '~:'~'~~Ac?:'
1977 0.0083 .0.0371' ; ',:"",":"~.,,.,(~
1978 0.0116 0.0194' .. ,,:.)}~~tl~
1979 0.0451 0.4316 """,',~~~R&l
1980 O.OUO 0.0718 I'., :":,::::~~i&/,~~~
1978 0.0198 .: '. k~;';?i~&
0.0'69 ", .f' ',-,'.~"""'''''.J
, ',.....,,':7:-'.{.1..':-:t;;.
1980 0.011.4 0.043t' "'Ji::"r.;'i;,'4-w'
,...\ ,'.: '."~~~~)'''' t~~~
1977 0.0114 0.0"4 ',', '~~'1i;?:~,~'t~,
1980 Q ,; ".. ,.." ,f:,:::~;t/i~jt~:A
.0141 0,,1080. :-/'0,:~\,~:~{/
O .. '.i-'-c:.:" ,Jr,
1977 0.010Z 0.033 ,:~';}J;0~:::';':~j
1918 0.0108 0.0"" . ',. ,,~,.z.~,;;;'~\'
1980 0.0116 0.0%64 '; ::,:;,'~'~'/;ii,/~c\.:'
. '/.J.~t,~., 1.'
1977 o.oon 0 0316 ,,':, ',; ,,':, ..:t;;,.~'~~'~;.
1978 0.0517. O:l60Z ,: ", ;-:; .~,,' ,: <.: ~:.'~}~,;~~~~;i~
1979 0.111% ' 0 15139 ,,:"';'~d~ ~;'~.' i: ;{. ,5?':""~~'~:i~:':-'
'. .. . :"::..t .'~.':~':" ;..~':'~~":i');:{r~~ ~:~~.
1979 0.0081 . 0.019', ':' ;:i:',., , ':~:,,:~;~~l":'~~~~~~~~~,t~
1971 0.0168., ,', ,O.O'~. ;" ,)~,<'-'~"i':. ";')'1":.,"'~'::,j.'.;;:;'.j'
. '. '. . - :,.. . "/.C1"." \:.r""~\J:"1'.t,",r)'.:"A4I)~~;i~'.
1978 'O.O%U '. ',". 0 Q9L"" .'..':t~.:o,:.}::''''('2t ~::'",''.'. ''r 5"
. . : ,,',~: ',.,: . .' . . :'?~~~;~~;U~?~:;~?;1~tW~~~.~,t;
.. 1979 0.0%70 " ':', "'."., .O.U9~ ,+....~t"".''''''''~;,}~~.r:1'j/-''"
'\:', . , .:'; '-. .., ", .~,~,;:~/;~~;-;'~~',.;~::~'.~.::;~~~:.;:~;;.~:;:;~,~~~;~:~E.\~~~;.~t~;~1
rJ:--l~ '." . " """,'~'.:'" ~/,~. .)~:'r:...t.?~..i~,:~~Aif/B.t:~~\~;:r,(:~11&~~~,~41:~A~~' .t':~'~~f~h::#":l~~.~ii~~:'~'\;)'
!.i"l. . . '. ~,. 3 (J.. .~. of ""r" ,,~~J"~ "".~ ........h1fJ~tr -~~::. -1' ~ """"'....  ...., ',-~' ~ ~f...,(t:~ .t"",-r ~~\ . ".,~
~~~r~.:..~~:~;,~' ",. ' . ," '. . . . . .'11: ....,-~)~~t~'t~,~:i:.:i?~~'i~~.~f~1~~~1~..~~~~i~;:ik4.~"f1/:'\' '. . - . "~::.!i':~~~"" F~.yf('~6:":I!
"'~-'~-:.)"';J-O - -. " '. '.' .' '; ",'~.~~.S\t.A..{.h '-''''''r~'#,}4)~~~f!.:':'~~\'b;.J~~~'''\)\'~''1 f !...~~.ri: '1o#~'f3-".'J'-1
;~~'&'?- \';'~'?'.' ...' ". .' . . .:'. '.., ~ '..; ~' f",. '-.~'Q~.~l:!1:i\ .'.. ,:t. ;-- '-1,' ""u~~/:r: J::f~-H !~I.', :}it.. ~- f-' .~. -. , ;"t;,].,.",,~,-,~
t1~:r:~~'~'~~i~fl:'~\~:.~';~,;:~,.~~;~' ',~'.~ :~'::'.": ,- ..: ".:. ' ... .-' ,<~':;:,~.~:~:,~,,'~;;.;~;{!~.,:~'~~::~"1~~i~,:-:rr~}~~r'f:.~~:--~:,~);r'r~-' ' ~~-?:~~.:~!;;~ '. r{tJ.'4J t. . -.;~ ,;~/i\~~~~1
~~;..:t~,~: ."H..;.; ",' r':,:,~,,!,~;"; !;r;"I'".~, ',/:."'!";,;~'~""r 'J":"~. w...\~~'.,:.~~.,\":\O:1C.:',.';".,..t,;.~",...,ty;',.,~ . l(;' 'flt:~~ ~~~~ f .["'-,.,.~.],;.:,1'.':~I;
1f~~ ~~~,~{-;',~:,:~~:~~~.1i):~~;'f'~i~l.(st;~:~j, -~,~t.~~~~~.~:;~!j;~'4~:i.~~\)~,'~~i.i/~::.~~(1."ih..~ / -,,( ':10" I ~ ,.~ ,,:~, ~-.,~~. . - ~ ~ . ~. ~ ~ .', .~. ~ ':" ".~;-:-<;:l.:~~;:~.(":
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Cuuboro, !lJ
I_ark, IIJ
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!:8UtoU, NJ
Alb.rquerqu.. ~
'1&lara Fall., YT
lochut8r. n
Tou~.n. YT
Ch&r~ot:., ~c
DII rlwII. ~ C
~1n.tOli-Sal-=. ~c
Ak:~I1. Oil
Cantoa, 011
Cinc1.na.at1. OP.
C:'..,el&UQ. Oil
Coll111i1l18. 08
D.ytou. 08
PorcftlGuch, 01
SUubellV1.lle. Oil
toleu, 01
t_pc","" 011

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~",{i~!~~'~'~liftf-J::~:.:'~11i7i:~~~~1~~Y,'.7,;~5-,~j\,t~f' ,-,"""' f;~ .
, TOTAL', CH1l6KIUM, CONcmRArt~NS: KEASUREI)',:,.iit=m, :'~!;'EN.T;':~I~
, O~ :'m,,'UNITEJ)- STAT!$:'DUlU~G':'.u77r~~f1.~~o;:.~)N:~';'5~<~fj::~~
" ,', ',::" " ",' ' ":;~' ';:, ::" ':,',: ' , " ' . '<:::';~':\:::::':::i.;'~~i~::\.':~~:"~:tf?~;~f(6.!!.~;$,:r~~}i~,~j,,~t. :

" ' ..: :,,' ,;,: "':"'\"'.;':':'~"'!~"(.p.:"~""'1~~>'t'i.';~~~~

. " " ':';"',",.,";::',:i,~;/;i~\~t1~{~~i{~' ,,}~~~~':
, ' , ,',,'..,' ,'",:,' ',;,' :,,~,' ",:,",;-~~::~;::~':,~~"~:':":',~.{~~t.~tJ,::!~~

, tocal Chramwa eOCC8DCuC"1'o~ : VI'I.S2.,.~:..:::,I""'(.!;~'/~;rJff.;;ft,:;'FIrila" ~
--~ . . ,"."'~'.':" "",'--"::'.,~;~":'}\~~'~~\.~~;'~J'\
tau u1cb88U.c 'KaaA , Kax1== Obauvecl VaJu".,: ''',''';:::~';r.:~.'\'~\~'~~'1',1t
, .. , " .,;~ \.';~;~'.0-" ~4J,,",~\ \"~,,~. ,
1 77 0 007&' "0 01"." ", ' . ...,..,.,:(-&;j)').,.A,,,,,,,,:{,
'. . '.', ':;...."'~~,:.,. ""'~':':"i,,'\I;~I.~""'.:)/~')~!.
1977 0.0073, ' '0 0%41- ;':"""'" '. """""'~.'l''''',\J:t,,,,;:.
. . .' . . " '. . "":' ,il ..."', '. ",."....\..1~, ..;o;!~.t,~
1911 0.0056 ", 0.0130 " ::.c,..~" ,,:' ," ,r::";~7:: i,~\',j))';~'W;~'ii
1971 0'0060 "..' . ' ":O"Ol~'o'.'>'!h~';:~~'::,\':;J:'r,:"r:\';:~~'f/!i~.~1:~'
. , . . .. 'j'. '.'~" "',' ". ,.t""';'\~r'i'I:iP--
.' , -\';";'" .," ~'.., ,'<1'" ~..4(j\I.......~ .')~~.~~
1911 ' 0 0097' ", " . 0 0 ,:'...r,'~.t~. ,o'~if":~''-;~/'~''''\'''ll..t\~;.,,~,:;!.~
. .' . ".. ;, ..V;.r ,..:{ ~"(,,,;,,:"-:';}:;':';f,!~~'Y;W1~!l,tA~~L~
'. ,. ''''.:',~, '. )."\"..J"\'" I"~' ..f'\':''',;.h~~g-r ~\;,;~1.-t'1
197' '0.0135""", O.0190'~p:f:V,~~:'i';.r>,f1,;;.,~'~t~,);\~:!t:-ZZ".'
. ,".' ;. '. .: "". ''';:~i".''f~i!;'')~''~'.=:.:~~ f::;~u,.;t... ~t?A~~,~1~,., ~
1980 ,0.0190' ," ,O.OSJ,O (~:>~,;:,,/ ;;'P~':";':-,',"",i./~'f:~> 7
. . .' . 'J" ,..L..l':;;:-'~' "'f -,:.~.~,..,~ ~~~~."...,).~:~1.'
1977 ' 0.0099":' , ,'~ ,'O.03JO'~\i/i'l(i:~:;-:7':;f{t{tii\",!t." '
. . . . '.'.' ~'-"'~ ':' .;'2)~::-.""''''': '._:',":'~~.I.~;1~'::-~~;::'~~'"'"
197' ' 0' 0149 . ' ' , ,,0 1.4%5' ',",f", ',I, "'~''''.",.>."l';-'.'J,'jU,~"

1980' " Q:0104' ",~ 'o:02a~:i\;~~Y~\~~/?~~!t.i1~]~tf~}, >h

1977 0.0087 O.0170.~~'.:i">">-'''~''I: .?>;-:"i;:~"~t.~~~,
1917 . , ' :""' '" ,;'J;':\~ ;": ~:;.,,;. ~..I":':;:;"'!~;.f!.'~,
O.OOSZ ' 0 034',:\,';;' i:",'.:" "'ffi'''.;<,'''':~'<;'''''',,!<
~ .,' .;~;.:'\1~~!..~.....'./. ;.\37~:.\~...~t~1~
197' 0 0074 ' '0 OU6' ",,~', ,". ":.,. ,., , ;";:;"';~'C&>:t":'!:'
. . . -:,~":-'~::'Li~::t~::: ',\,,~,~"'.t:~~i1)'~oi.~~~;~
1919 0.0064 0.0199" " ::, . ':~: <',~; i'yr.~..~,~~f
.' J:.caah&. ~"1 1978 0.0095,' 0.0%45:" )i::,<;?t.:5:5::{;:J~~~,~ ,
; 1979 0.0061 , 0.0147 ; :,' ""'" '>'>{l;.'''f,~t~ ''ii '
~4bOl1. ~ 1977 O.OO'Z ' 0.005% ,':,:-:<;','~' '::':i~. '-1':
~'7.: !Ac1Aa. .it 1977 0 0060 0 0137 ' .. , ,', '."" "I" r,"h:j~1t~
::'. . . . ,"",.~;.,:.:.':..~'.';.~,,:.::\~'~.~::).r~~ft.~~!.
~ '" Sup.nor. 'oft 1917 0.0060 ' , 0.017%, ., ",,', ,,''': "t:;'~'!~}1./\~!:>i':if~t~
~ '!,~,..;" . .,' ~. -:.....~ \,: ..~.'t~]~~,'i~"~~'\
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:"/ --value"I'8i'na_c %4, hour averl'''. : , ' ' " ' " ,;:, '<~;.:;,,,,;,~: ,:::i~~~~"~"\i!i~'i,;'~,'%,""
-- v,. . . '.' . " .',,". ", ,,' .'\...''',-,~, '{"/1'~r~~:~~~';
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3 Csourcai ~lipublb!lad uca 1:s che trat,:1oul Aeroaacrtc DIU la~ ~~c&1u'd\,c~~ ~c1co~~r ..",:'>':~,:':>~V~:{1~~~1"i
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