MCCEM
Multi-Chamber Concentration and Exposure Model
USER'S GUIDE
Version 2.3
June 1991
Developed for:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Research and Development
Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory
Las Vegas, NV 89193-3478
GEOMET Technologies, Inc.
20251 Century Boulevard, Germantown, Maryland 20874

GEOMET Report No. IE-2130

-------
MULTI-CHAMBER CONCENTRATION
AND EXPOSURE MODEL (MCCEM)
Summary Sheet
The Multi-Chamber Concentration and Exposure Model (MCCEM),
developed by GEOMET Technologies, Inc., for the U.S. EPA Office of
Toxic Substances and updated for the U.S. EPA Office of Research
and Development, is a user-friendly computer program that estima-
tes indoor concentrations for, and inhalation exposure to, chemi-
cals released from products or materials in residences.
Concentrations can be modeled in as many as four zones (chambers)
of a residence.
The user can input time-varying emission rates for a con-
taminant in each zone of the residence, outdoor concentrations,
and the zone where an individual is located in a spreadsheet
environment. Detailed time-varying exposure profiles can be devel-
oped for periods ranging from 1 hour to 168 hours (i.e., 1 week)
by utilizing the short-term model. Seasonal or annual exposure
profiles can be developed by using the long-term model, which
allows the user to run the model for a duration as long as one
year. The user can select from data sets containing infiltration
and interzonal air flow. rat.~::;. for different types of residences in
various geographic areas!, 'or.:;' the: user can input zone descriptions,
volumes, and flow rate~L,:):;:~:<;~<,;: /~
.;,',-
.. '. ,''::.r.,.;'
Prior to model execu.~iQn:>:~the user is presented with a summary
screen showing the va1:ues.of:fnput parameters.; a feature of this
summary screen is an option allowing the user to go directly to
other screens for changing input parameters. The program is also
capable of performing Monte Carlo simulation on several input
parameters for developing a range of estimates for zone-specific
concentrations or consumer exposure. In addition, the program
provides the user with an option to conduct sensitivity analysis.

Following a model run, summary statistics are displayed on the
CRT screen for the concentrations in each zone of the residence
and for consumer exposure. These statistics include the mean,
standard deviation, maximum, the percent of cases at or above
a user-specified level of concern, percent of time in the resi-
dence, and lifetime average daily dose (LADD). Time-varying
indoor concentrations and inhalation exposure can be written to an
ASCII file for later access. For a model run with the Monte Carlo
option, the summary statistics for zone-specific concentrations
and inhalation exposure pertaining to each trial are written to
output files.

-------
INTRODUCTION
1. OVERVIEW OF MODEL
2. GETTING STARTED
3. RUNNING THE MODEL
4. MODEL OUTPUTS
5. EXAMPLE APPLICATIONS
CONTENTS
Page
i
1-1
2-1
3-1
4-1
5-1

-------
FIGURES
\
General structure of MCCEM
Flow-diagram of screens for the MCCEM program
Introductory/title screen
Source of input screen
Type of residence screen
Geographic area screen for 1-, 2-, and 3-story structure
Residence and season screen for 2-story structure
Screen displaying zone volume and flow information
for the house selected
Residence and season screen for generic houses
Type of residence screen following selection of a
hypothetical house
Display of zone volume information entered for a
hypothetical house
Display of zone airflow information entered for a
hypothetical house
Residence and season screen after a hypothetical
house has been defined
Zone volume and flow screen after information for a
hypothetical house has been edited
Multi- or single-chamber screen
Short- or long-term model screen
Selection of length of run and time step for
short-term model
Selection of length of run and step time for
long-term model ,
Introductory screen for emission rate and zone of
exposure
Input table for emission rates and exposure zone
Decay rate screen
Introductory screen for outdoors concentrations of the
chemical released indoors
Input table for outdoor concentrations
Monte Carlo option screen
Selection of parameters and probability density
functions for Monte Carlo simulation
Sensitivity analysis option screen
Level of concern screen
Lifetime average daily dose screen
Screen for review of inputs for model run
Model execution screen
Program in process screen
Summary statistics and output files for model run
without Monte Carlo option
MCCEM prompts for file saving after model execution
Exit screen
File-naming convention and example of names for model
input and output files.
Page

1-2
1-4
3-3
3-5
3-7
3-9
3-10
3-11
3-13
3-15
3-16
3-17
3-18
3-19
3-21
3-23
3-24
3-25
3-27
3-29
3-31
3-33
3-35
3-38
3-39
3-41
3-43
3-45
3-47
3-49
3-50
3-51
3-53
3-55
4-2

-------
FIGURES (Continued)
Input table for emission rates and exposure zone for
example short-term model
Level of concern value for example short-term model
Summary of inputs for example short-term model
Summary statistics and output file names for example
short-term model run
Contaminant concentration and inhalation exposure profiles
for example short-term model run
Input table for emission rates and exposure zone
for example long~term model
Summary of inputs for example long-term model
Summary statistics and output file names for example
long-term model run
Contaminant concentration and inhalation exposure
profiles for example long-term-model
Use of previous run file for short-term model with
Monte Carlo option
Choice of Monte Carlo option with 100 trials
Choice of Monte Carlo parameters
Summary of inputs for example run with Monte Carlo
option
Listing of output files generated by example run
with Monte Carlo option
Average concentrations by trial for each zone and
frequency distribution of zone 1 average vQlues
for example run with Monte Carlo option
zone-specific information for example run with
hypothetical house
Selected portions of emission-rate table for example
run with hypothetical house
Summary of inputs for example run with hypothetical
house
Summary statistics and output file names for example
run with hypothetical house
Contaminant concentration and inhalation exposure
profiles for example run with hypothetical house
File directory after completion of example model runs
Page
5-2
5-3
5-4
5,-5
5-7
5-9
5-10
5-1],
5-13
5-15
5-16
5-17
5-18
5-19
5-21
5-23
5-24
5-25
5-26
5-28
5-30

-------
TABLES
Printout of the first 4 hours of the output file
(i.e., MDF2S001.PRN) for example short-term model

Printout of the first 15 days of the output file
(i.e., MDF2L0012.PRN) for example long-term model
Printout of the first 50 trials in the output file
for zone 1 (MDF2S002.MC1) from example run with
Monte Carlo option

Printout of the first 12 hours of the output file
(HYA4S001.PRN) for example run with hypothetical house
Page
5-6
5-12
5-20
5-27

-------
INTRODUCTION
The MCCEM program was originally developed by GEOMET
Technologies, Inc., for the U.s. Environmental Protection Agency,
Office of Toxic Substances, Exposure Evaluation Division, under
EPA Contract No. 68-02-4254 (Task 123) with Versar, Inc. Under
Task 224 of the same contract, the program was updated for the
U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development, Environmental
Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Exposure Assessment Research
Division. MCCEM is a tool for assessing exposure to chemical con-
taminants released from products or materials in residences.
Information assembled by Brookhaven National Laboratory concerning
measured infiltration and interzonal air flows for different types
of structures in various geographic areas has been incorporated in
the software for access by users.
Although the software is essentially self-documented through
provision of help screens, new users should read Section 1.2 and
"all of Sections 2, 3, and 4 before proceeding to run the program.
i

-------
1 .
OVERVIEW OF MODEL
MCCEM is an interactive computer program developed for
assessing inhalation exposure to airborne concentrations of chemi-
cal contaminants released from products or materials in residen-
ces. The program uses air infiltration and interzonal airflow
rates for user-selectable or user-defined residences, together
with user inputs for emission rates, decay rates and outdoor con-
centrations, to calculate time-varying indoor concentrations due
to product or material emissions in various zones (chambers)
within a residence. User-specified, time-varying zone locations
for an individual enable estimation of consumer exposure.
structure of MCCEM
1.1.
MCCEM is a modular program written in Microsoft@ Quickbasic
for use on IBM or IBM-compatible microcomputers. Figure 1
illustrates the overall structure of the MCCEM program. As
described below, each of the modules in MCCEM performs specific
tasks and. communicates internally-with the main program. This
communication between main program and modules is done automati-
cally under program control and is "transparent" to the user.
The main program provides a user-interactive environment and
control logic to execute the different modules at appropriate
times. User inputs on the CRT screen pertaining to selections
such as the type of residence, geographic area, and emission
rates are stored for execution of the contaminant exposure model.
By applying a multi-chamber mass-balance model, the time-varying
indoor concentrations and exposure estimates are calculated. The
concentration and exposure profiles can be stored in an output
file (ASCII format) for access by programs external to MCCEM.
Module 1:
User Input Screens
This module (1) contains the user-input screens that provide
help to the user regarding program inputs, (2) lists specific
residences from which air infiltration and interzonal airflow
rates are available as model inputs, and (3) facilitates the input
operation by providing default values.
Module 2:
Emission Rate and Outdoor Concentration Tables
This module provides a spreadsheet environment to the user for
entering time-series data for emission rates in one or more zones,
the zone of exposure, and concentration values of the contaminant
outdoors. Various mathematical operators and numeric functions
can be used in entering the desired values for emissions rates and
outdoor concentrations.
1-1

-------
DOS
I
Main Module:
Main program and control logic
Module 1: User
input screens
Module 2: Emissions rate
and outdoor concentration
input tables
Module 4:
Execution
Model
. .
Module 3: Parser and
calculator for input
tables
Figure 1.
General Structure of MCCEM
1-2

-------
Module 3:
Parser and Calculator for Input Tables
This module parses the mathematical operators and numeric
functions entered in the emission rate and outdoor concentration
tables and calculates the resultant value for display on the CRT
screen.
Module 4:
Model Execution
This module computes the time-varying indoor concentration and
inhalation exposure values for a given set of input variables and
stores them in ASCII files for later access. During model execu-
tion the progress of the operation is shown on the CRT screen to
the user. After normal termination of the model the run-time and
the names of the files generated by the run are displayed to the
user.
The structure of the MCCEM program from the user's standpoint
is shown in Figure 2. This figure illustrates the flow of input
screens that appear during execution of MCCEM; most of these
screens have an associated help screen. Each of these screens is
explained in detail in Section 3.
1. 2.
Features and Capabilities of MCCEM
MCCEM is a user-friendly computer program designed for estima-
tion of indoor concentrations for, and individual exposure to,
chemical contaminants released from products or materials in resi-
dential settings. The main features and capabilities of this
model are as follows:
.
Appropriate default values are provided for most input
parameters.
.
A model run can be made by using air infiltration rates
and corresponding interzonal airflows for a user-selected
residence or a user-defined residence (hypothetical
house); at the user's option, interzonal airflow infor-
mation can be suppressed to define the entire residence
as a single chamber.
.
The model allows the user to input time-varying emission
rates for a contaminant in each zone of the house and to
specify the zone of an individual's exposure; a
spreadsheet-like environment is provided to the user for
input of these values; a similar environment is provided
for user entry of time-varying outdoor concentrations.
1-3

-------
 Introductory  
 Screen  
H Source of 1-,2-, or 3-Story Geographic
 Input Structure Area & Season
  Generic House Season
  Hypothetical User
  House Inputs
 Mult1- or S1ngle-  
 Chamber Model  
  Short-Term 
  Model 
H Short- or Long-Term  
 Model  
Information for
Emission Rates
Information for
Outdoor Concentrations
H
Monte Carlo
Option
H
Sensitivity Analysis
H
L1fet1me Average
Dal1y Dose
(3
Review of Inputs
for Model Run
Summary Statistics.
and Output Files
for Model Run
. Provided only for non-Monte Carlo run.
H Help screen provided.
Input Table for
Emission Rates
Input Table
for Outdoor
Concentrations
Input for
Monte Carlo-.
Simulation Parameters
Figure 2.
Flow diagram of screens for the MCCEM program.
1-4

-------
.
The model is designed to accept varying user inputs for
location and duration of product/material emissions; it
can be run for durations varying from 1 hour to 1 year in
time steps varying from 1 minute to 24 hours.

A rate constant for chemical decay can be specified by
the user for reactive species.
.
.
Monte Carlo simulation can be used to develop a range of
estimates for zone-specific concentrations or inhalation
exposure. Monte Carlo simulation can be applied to any
or all of the following parameters--infiltration rate,
emission rate, decay rate, and outdoor concentration.
The probability density functions available for such
simulations are uniform, normal, and triangular.
.
Sensitivity analysis can be used to explore the sen-
sitivity of the model results to a change in one or more
of the input parameters.

The percentage of cases for which modeled contaminant
concentrations are at or above a user-specified level of
possible concern or interest is determined.
.
.
Summary statistics (average, standard deviation, maximum,
and percent of values above level of concern) for the
contaminant concentrations in each zone of the residence
and for inhalation exposure are provided together with
the percent of time the individual is in the residence
and the estimated lifetime average d~ily dose for the
individual.
.
At the user's option, files containing time-varying
concentrations and inhalation exposures can be saved for
later analysis and files containing user inputs can be
saved for access during subsequent modeling sessions.
1-5

-------
2.
GETTING STARTED
2.1.
Hardware and Software Requirements
The MCCEM program has been developed specifically for the IBM
PC/XT/AT and strictly compatible computers. Because of the
structure and complexity of the program, it is doubtful that MCCEM
will execute on other hardware systems without extensive
modifications.
Minimum Hardware Requirements:

The minimum hardware configuration shown below will allow the
user to execute MCCEM.
. IBM@ PC, XT or AT  
. 512 KB of random-access memory (RAM)
. IaM monochrome or color diSPlay
. High-density floppy-disk drive 
Minimum Software Requirements:  
.
MS-DOS 2.1 or later version
Although the above-mentioned hardware and software con-
figuration will allow the user to run MCCEM, it is strongly recom-
mended that an IBM AT (or compatible with 8028~/80386 processor)
with 10 Mb (or larger capacity) hard disk and color monitor be .
used. Due to the creation of potentially large input and output
files during the execution of MCCEM, a substantial amount of disk
space can be required. Therefore, absence of a hard disk-drive
(or high capacity flexible disk-drive systems such as Bernoulli
Box) will prevent the user from realizing the full capabilities of
the model. Moreover, since the model performs several disk I/O
operations during execution and such operations are faster for a
hard disk drive due to the shorter access times, the model will
run faster when a hard disk is used. Similarly, a math copro-
cessor will speed the overall operation. The instructions
outlined in this guide are written with the assumption that the
microcomputer used to run this model has a hard disk.
2-1

-------
2.2.
Installation of MCCEM
The MCCEM program utilizes several input files during execu-
tion; all these files must reside in the same directory or sub-
directory of the hard disk. Therefore, to ensure proper operation
of MCCEM the user should create a separate subdirectory (e.g.,
C:\MCC) for this program. All files present on the MCCEM system
disk (these files are contained on a single high-density disk or
two low-density disks) should then be copied to this subdirectory.
The user should verify that the subdirectory contains the
following four files:
. MCCEM.EXE
. MCCEM.HLP
. MCCEM.TBL
. MCCEM.IRR
The user is then ready to load and run the MCCEM program from the
subdirectory C:\MCC (see Section 3.).
2-2

-------
3 .
RUNNING THE MODEL
After completing the installation procedure outlined in
Section 2.2, the user should set C:\MCC as the default directory.
After loading MCCEM at the DOS prompt, that is,

C:\MCC>MCCEM
the sequence of screens
of this section will be
sequence of screens was
Figure 2, page 1-4).
described and explained in the remainder
provided to the user. The overall
previously illustrated in Section 1.0 (see
3-1

-------
3.1.
Introductory Screen
The first screen displayed by MCCEMis the introductory/title
screen shown in Figure 3. The screen briefly describes the model
capabilities and prompts the user to press the return key to con-
tinue or the FI0 key to exit. Upon pressing the return key, the
screen titled "Source of Input" is displayed on the CRT screen.
3-2

-------
Multi-Chamber Concentration and Exposure Model
(MCCEM) - Version 2.3 - 05/91
Developed for
EPA Office of Research and Development
Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory
Las Vegas, Nevada 89193-3478
by
GEOMET Technologies, Inc.

This model uses air infiltration and interzonal airflow rates
stored in data files, together with user inputs for emission
rates, decay rates and outdoor concentrations, to calculate
time-varying indoor concentrations (in milligrams per cubic
meter) and associated indoor inhalation exposure due to product
or material emissions in several zones, or chambers, within
a residence. User inputs are also stored so that they can be
accessed for modification in subsequent runs of the model.
Press the RETURN key to view the next screen
Press the FIO key to exit this program
Figure 3.
Introductory/title screen.
3-3

-------
3.2.
Source of Input
This screen (Figure 4) provides the user with the option to
use inputs from a previous run, so that he or she can retain some
of the input specifications from that run (e.g., type of house
structure, length of model run) while changing others (e.g.,
emission rate or decay rate). If the user chooses to use inputs
from a previous run, he/she will be asked to enter the file name
containing these inputs. The file name (a-letter alphanumeric
code) should be entered without any extension. The program will
then search for that file on the subdirectory C:\MCC and, if pre-
sent, will load it in the memory. The default values shown in the
subsequent screens will then be the values used in the previous
run. The user can change the values that he/she wishes on any or
all input screens. Should the user require help, pressing the Fl
key will result in further explanation. Following completion of
input on this screen, the user must press the return key to go to
the next input screen.
3-4

-------
SOURCE OF INPUT
You can work with inputs from a previous model run or specify
entirely new inputs.
1.
2.
Use inputs from previous run
Specify new inputs
3.
continue with current inputs
Enter choice: [2]
F1 - further explanation
Escape - previous screen
F10 - exit program
Return - next screen
Figure 4.
Source of input screen.
3-5

-------
3 . 3 .
Type of Residence
This screen (Figure 5) enables the user to input the type of
residence in which he/she intends to calculate the contaminant con-
centrations and exposure estimates. By default, a 2-story resi-
dence will be chosen. The sequence of screens that will follow
depends on whether the user selects (1) a 1-, 2- or 3-story house,
(2) a generic house, or (3) a hypothetical house. Each of these
choices is discussed in the subsections that follow.
3-6

-------
TYPE OF RESIDENCE
You can choose from 4 types of residences with information
stored in MCCEM data files or select a hypothetical house
with user-specified volumes and airflow rates.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
One-story structure (e.g., apartment, slab-on~grade
Two-story structure (e.g., rancher with basement)
Three-story structure (e.g., townhouse)
Generic house
Hypothetical house

Enter choice: [2]
home)
Fl - furt~er explan~tion -
Escape - prev10us screen
FIO - exit program
Return - next screen
Figure 5.
Type of residence screen.
3-7

-------
3.3.1.
One/Two/Three-Story House
MCCEM data files containing information on infiltration/
exfiltration airflows, interzonal airflows, and the volume and
description of each zone are currently available for a variety of
residences in different states. If the user enters a 1, 2, or 3,
the next screen will indicate the states for which information is
available for the type of residence selected. For example, if the
user entered a 2 (the default value), the next screen (Figure 6)
would indicate 12 states for which information is available for
2-story structures.

Selected residences are well characterized as a result of
multiple measurements during each of several seasons; these
include a 2-story residence in California (CA), two 2-story resi-
dences in Maryland (MD), a 2-story residence in New York (NY), and
two 3-story residences in NY.
Certain information is provided by MCCEM for all cases
matching the type of residence and-geographic area that have been
selected. For example, if the user selected the default state
(MD) indicated in Figure 6 for a 2-story structure, then the
information shown in Figure 7 would be displayed. If more than
one residence matches the selection criteria, then the first one
listed is selected by MCCEM by default; however, the user can
override this default by entering the code for the residence of
choice. Up to seven choices will be presented on the first
screen; if more than seven choices are available, then the user
can view additional choices by pressing the PgUp/PgDn keys.

Once a residence has been chosen and the return key has been
pressed, the user will be prompted for choice of season, as. also
illustrated in Figure 7. In most cases, information is available
for only one season. In cases where information is available for
multiple seasons, one is selected by MCCEM by default, but the
user can override this default by entering the letter of another
season for which information is available. In the example in
Figure 7, summer (S) was chosen by MCCEM, but the user overrode
this default by specifying fall (F).
Once a house and season have been selected, information on
zone volumes and airflows is provided on the "next screen
(Figure 8). These measurements are provided for information pur-
poses only and cannot be edited. If the user is not satisfied
with the choice after viewing this information, then he/she can
press the escape key to make a different selection.
3-8

-------
GEOGRAPHIC AREA
Choose a geographic area (state) from those listed below
as a basis for selection of a residence having measurements
of air infiltration and interzonal airflow rates. Specify
a 2-digit code for the geographic area.
Enter code for geographic area: [MD]
~ 2-story available for:
CA, ID, IL, MD, MN, MT, NJ, NY, OH, OR, TX, WA
Fl - further explanation
Escape - previous screen
FlO - exit program
Return - next screen
Figure 6.
Geographic area screen for 1-, 2-, or 3-story structure.
3-9

-------
RESIDENCE AND SEASON <2-STORY, MD>
The following is a list of residences in the selected geographic area.
Summary information about each residence is also provided. Specify a
5-digit code for the residence you wish to select and the first letter
of the season of year (Summer, Fall/Spring, winter or Annual average).
HOUSE
CODE
VOL
mA3
----------
ZONE DESCRIPTION
ZONE 2 ZONE 3
------------
ZONE 1
ZONE 4
INFILTRATION RATE
SUM. FAL. WIN. AVG.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
1121A
1121B
1074A
1074B
1074C
1243C
108D
330
330
535
535
535
572
494
1ST STORY
1ST STORY
LIVAREA
LIVAREA
LIVAREA
BASEMENT
lSTFLR
BASEMENT
BASEMENT
BASEMENT
BASEMENT
BASEMENT
FIRSTFLR
BSMNT
0.16 0.50 0.75 0.48
0.11 0.33 0.54 0.33

....0.16.... ....
. . .. .... o. 15 ....
....0.23 .... ....
.... ....0.32 ....

.... ....0.20 ....
Enter 5-digit house code: [l121A]
Enter First letter of season (S,F,W,A): [F]
<13 house(s

F1 - further explanation
Escape - previous screen
F10 - exit program
Return - next screen
PgUp/Dn - more residences
Figure 7.
Residence and season screen for .2-story structure.
3-10
.'

-------
SELECTED HOUSE <1121A, 2-STORY, MD>
SEASON 
ZONE DESCRIPT.  VOLUME  TOTAL-FLOW-IN TOTAL-FLOW-OUT
    (m A 3)  (mA3/hr) (mA3/hr)
1 [1ST STORY] [215 ] 155.30 155.30
2 [BASEMENT] [115 ] 155.20 155.20
3 [ ] [  ]  
4 [ ] [  ]  
AIRFLOW RATES
(mA3/hr)
FROM: ZONE 0
ZONE 1
ZONE 2
.ZONE 3
ZONE 4
TO:
ZONE 0 ZONE 1 ZONE 2
[......] [49.1 ] [116.2 ]
[116.3] [......] [39 ]
[49 ] [106.2] [......]
ZONE 3
ZONE 4
F1 - further explanation
Escape - previous screen
F10 - exit program
F7 - next screen
Figure 8.
Screen displaying zone volume and flow information
for the house selected.
3-ll

-------
3.3.2.
Generic House
If a generic house is selected by entering a 4 on the type of
residence screen (see Figure 5), then the screen shown in Figure 9
will be displayed. Following selection of a residence, infor-
mation on zone volumes and airflows will be provided.
The generic houses represent average volume and flow infor-
mation that has been compiled from a large number of residences.
One generic house has a bedroom as the first zone and the
remainder of the house as the second zone. The other has a
kitchen as the first zone and the remainder of the house as the
second zone. Thus, the generic houses are good choices if the
user wishes to model product or material emissions in either of
these two rooms. .
3-12

-------
. RESIDENCE AND. SEASON
The following is a list of residences in the selected geographic area.
Summary information about each residence is also provided. Specify a
5-digit code for the residence you wish to select and the first letter
of the season of year (Summer, Fall/Spring, Winter or Annual average).
HOUSE
CODE
VOL
m-3
----------
ZONE DESCRIPTION
ZONE 2 ZONE 3
------------
ZONE 1
ZONE 4
INFILTRATION RATE
SUM. FAL. WIN. AVG.
GN001
GN002
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
292
292
BEDROOM
KITCHEN
REMAINDER .
REMAINDER
0.35 0.49 0.66 0.50
0.35 0.49 0.66 0.50
Enter 5-digit house code: [GN001]
Enter First letter of season (S,F,W,A): [S]
< 2 house(s

F1 - further explanation
Escape - previous screen
F10 - exit program
Return - next screen
PgUp/Dn - more residences
Figure 9.
Residence and season screen for generic houses.
3-13

-------
3.3.3
Hypothetical House
A hypothetical house should be chosen if the user wishes to
provide his/her own inputs for zone descriptions and volumes as
well as for infiltration/ex filtration and interzonal airflows.
When this option is chosen by entering a 5 on the type of resi-
dence screen (Figure 10), MCCEM asks whether the user wishes to
create (C) a new entry or select (5) an existing entry. Creation
of a new entry is the only option when a hypothetical house is
chosen for the first time.
After choosing to create a new entry, the user is presented
with a screen for entering zone descriptions and volumes. A
description (up to nine characters) and volume (in cubic meters)
must be entered for at least one zone; Figure 11 shows illustra-
tive inputs for two zones. After the F7 key has been pressed to
indicate that entry of zone descriptions/volumes is complete,
MCCEM provides a matrix in the lower part of the screen for
entering airflow information (in cubic meters per hour). Each
time an entry is completed by pressing an arrow key or the return
key, MCCEM will update the total flow information in the upper
portion of the screen. Illustrative matrix inputs are shown in
Figure 12 (zone 0 is outdoors). Completion of matrix entries is
signaled by pressing the F7 key. MCCEM will not allow the user to
advance past this screen until a total flow balance has been
obtained (i.e., TOTAL-FLOW-IN = TOTAL-FLOW-OUT for each of the
user-defined zones).
Once a hypothetical house has been defined, the user has the
option of selecting that house in subsequent mpdeling sessions
(see Figure 10). If this option is selected, then the user will
be presented with a screen like the one shown in Figure 13.. The
user then has the option of editing (E) the zone descriptions,
volumes, and airflows or using (U) the information "as is." If
the editing option is chosen, the user then has a further option
(Figure 14) of overwriting the edited hypothetical house with the
new information (in effect deleting the old entry) or saving the
new information as an additional entry (thereby preserving the old
entry that was edited).
3-14

-------
TYPE OF RESIDENCE
You can choose from 4 types of residences with information
stored in MCCEM data files or select a hypothetical house
with user-specified volumes and airflow rates.
l.
2.
3.
4.
5.
One-story structure (e.g., apartment, slab-on-grade
Two-story structure (e.g., rancher with basement)
Three-story structure (e.g., townhouse)
Generic house
Hypothetical house

Enter choice: [5]
home)
Create a new entry or Select an existing entry? (C,S): [C)
Fl - further explanation -
Escape - previous screen
F10 - exit program
Return - next screen
Figure 10. Type of residence screen following
selection of a hypothetical house.
3-15

-------
HYPOTHETICAL HOUSE < HY001 >
ZONE

1
2
3
4
DESCRIPT.
VOLUME
(m A 3)
[50
[150
[
[
]
]
]
]
[LIVING RM]
[REMAINDER]
[ ]
[ ]
F1 - further explanation
Escape - previous screen
F10 - exit program
F7 - next screen
Figure 11. Display of zone volume "information
entered for a hypothetical house.
3-16

-------
HYPOTHETICAL HOUSE < HYOOI >
ZONE DESCRIPT.  VOLUME  TOTAL-FLOW-IN TOTAL-FLOW-OUT
    (m A 3)  (mA3/hr) (mA3/hr)
1 [LIVING RM] [50 ] 65.00 65.00
2 [REMAINDER] [150 ] 115.00 115.00
3 [ ] [  ]  
4 [ ] [  ]  
AIRFLOW RATES
(mA3/hr)
FROM: ZONE 0
ZONE 1
ZONE 2
ZONE 3
ZONE 4
TO:
ZONE 0 ZONE 1 ZONE 2
[......] [25 ] [75 ]
[25 ] [......] [40 ]
[75 ] [40 -] [......]
ZONE 3
ZONE 4
Fl - further explanation
Escape - previous screen
FI0 - exit program
F7 - next screen
Figure 12. Display of zone airflow information
entered for a hypothetical house.
3-17

-------
HYPOTHETICAL HOUSES
The following is a list of hypothetical houses available for selection.
Summary information about each residence is also provided. Specify a
5-digit code for the residence you wish to select.
HOUSE
CODE
VOL
mA3
----------
ZONE DESCRIPTION
ZONE 2 ZONE 3
------------
ZONE 1
ZONE 4
INFILTRATION RATE
AVG.
HY001
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
200
LIVING RM
REMAINDER
0.50
Enter 5-digit house code: [HY001]
Edit or Use as is? (E,U): [U]
< 1 house(s

F1 - further explanation
Escape - previous screen
F10 - exit program
Return - next screen
PgUp/Dn - more residences
Figure 13. Residence and season screen after
a hypothetical house has been defined.
3-18

-------
HYPOTHETICAL HOUSE < HY001 >
ZONE DESCRIPT.  VOLUME  TOTAL-FLOW-IN TOTAL-FLOW-OUT
    (m A 3)  (mA3jhr) (mA3jhr)
1 [LIVING RM] [50 ] 30.00 30.00
2 [REMAINDER] [150 ] 70.00 70.00
3 [ ] [  ]  
4 [ ] [  ]  
AIRFLOW RATES
(mA3jhr)'
FROM: ZONE 0
ZONE 1
ZONE 2
ZONE 3
ZONE 4
TO:
ZONE 0 ZONE 1
[......] [10 ]
[10 ] [......]
[50 ] [20 -]
ZONE 2
[50 ]
[20 ]

[......]
ZONE 3
ZONE 4
Overwrite HY001 or Create a new entry HY002? (O,C): [C]
F1 - further explanation
Escape - previous screen
F10 - exit program
F7 - next screen
Figure 14.
Zone volume and flow screen after information for
a hypothetical house has been edited.
3-19

-------
3 .4.
Multi- or Single-Chamber
MCCEM, by default, utilizes measured air infiltration and
interzonal air flow rates for calculation of indoor con-
centrations by mass-balance relationships. However, if the user
overrides this default by selecting a single-chamber model, then a
single infiltration/ex filtration airflow (sum of zone-specific
airflows) will be used by MCCEM for the entire residence and the
interzonal airflows will be ignored (Figure 15). Thus, the
single-chamber option results in calculation by MCCEM of a single
concentration for each time step; this concentration is assumed to
be uniform throughout the residence.
3-20

-------
MULTI- OR SINGLE-CHAMBER
You can use the interzonal airflow rates provided for the
house selected or ignore these rates by choosing a single-
chamber model.
1.
Use interzonal airflow rates provided
Run single-chamber model
2.
Enter choice: [1)
F1 - further explanation
Escape - previous screen
F10 - exit program
Return - next screen
Figure 15.
Multi- or single-chamber screen.
3-21

-------
3 .5.
Short- or Long-Term Model
MCCEM can be used to develop detailed exposure profiles over
periods ranging from one to 168 hours (i.e., one week), by using
1- to 60-minute time steps available through the short-term model
option. Seasonal or annual exposure profiles can be developed by
using the long-term model, which allows the user to run the model
for a duration as long as one year with a time step of 1 to
24 hours. Figure 16 illustrates the input screen for selection of
a short- or long-term model.
3.5.1
Short-Term Model
The short-term model enables the user to run MCCEM for a time
duration ranging from one hour to one week. The model calcula-
tions are performed on a minute-by-minute basis, but the results
can be written to output files for an averaging period as long as
one hour (Figure 17). The time step chosen for output of model
results should be an exact divisor of 60; this time step is sub-
sequently used by MCCEM in gathering time-related inputs--emission
rate, location of an individual for exposure estimates, and out-
door concentration--from the user. If the user selects the
longest possible duration (168 hours) and shortest possible time
step (1 minute), then the output file will contain 10,080 records;
this length exceeds the capacity of some spreadsheet software.
3.5.2
Long-Term Model
With this option, the user can run MCCEM for time durations
ranging from one day to one year (Figure 18). For the long-term
model, calculations are performed on an.hourly~basis, but the user
can choose to have the output files written for an averaging
period as long as one day. The time step (in hours) chosen for
output of model results should be exact divisor of 24. This time
step will also be used by MCCEM in gathering time-related inputs--
emission rate, location of an individual, and outdoor
concentration--from the user. If the user selects the longest
possible duration (365 days) and the shortest possible time step
(1 hour), then the output file will contain 8,760 records; this
length exceeds the capacity of some spreadsheet software.
3-22

-------
SHORT- OR LONG-TERM MODEL
You can choose a short-term model (up to 1 week) or a long-
term model (up to 1 year). The shortest available time step
is different for each choice.
1.
Short-term model
2.
Long-term model
Enter choice: [1]
F1 - further explanation
Escape - previous screen
F10 - exit program
Return - next screen
Figure 16.
Short- or long-term model screen.
3-23

-------
SHORT-TERM MODEL
This model can be run for up to one week (168 hours) in
time steps of 1,2,3,4,5,6,10,12,15,20,30, or 60 minutes.
Enter length of run: [8
] hours (up to 168 hours)
Enter time step: [1 ] minutes (exact divisor of 60)
F1 - further explanation
Escape - previous screen
F10 - exit program
Return - next screen
Figure 17. Selection of length'of run and
time step for short-term model.
3-24

-------
LONG-TERM MODEL
This model can be run for up to one year (365 days) in
time steps of 1,2,3,4,6,8,12, or 24 hours.
Enter length of run: [30 ] days (up to 365 days)
Enter time step: [1 ] hours (exact divisor of 24)
F1 - further explanation
Escape - previous screen
F10 - exit program
Return - next screen
Figure 18. Selection of length of run and
time step for long-term model.
3-25

-------
3 . 6 .
Emission Rates and Zone of Exposure
The emission rate (in grams/hour) from products or materials
within each zone of the residence can be specified by the user for
each time step (Figure 19). To calculate an exposure profile, the
location of an individual in one of the zones in the residence (or
indication that the individual is not in the residence) also needs
to be specified. After pressing the return key, the user will be
placed at the beginning of the emission rate input table shown in
Section 3.7.
3-26

-------
TABLE FOR EMISSION RATES AND EXPOSURE ZONE
You can specify an emission rate (in GRAMS PER HOUR) within
each zone during each time step for a product or material being
used. You can also indicate the zone where an individual is
located (exposure zone) for each time step. By default, the
emission rate and exposure zone are zero. Fill in the table.
that begins on the next screen with a~propriate values for each
time step. Various arithmetic operat10ns and numeric functions
are available to facilitate the data entry process.
Fl - further explanation
Escape - previous screen
F10 - exit program
Return - next screen
Figure 19.
Introductory screen for emission rates
and zone of exposure.
3-27

-------
3.7.
Input Table for Emission Rates and Exposure Zone
Figure 20 illustrates the input table used by MCCEM to gather
information regarding emission rates and exposure zone. This
table provides a "spreadsheet-like" environment.

Data entry is allowed for emission rates for each applicable
zone (columns D, E, F or G) and for the zone of exposure
(column H). The only allowable entries for exposure zone are 0, 1,
2, 3, or 4, with 0 indicating that the individual is not in the
residence. For columns D-G, either a value or a formula can be
entered; to enter a formula, the user must be in the edit mode (by
pressing the F2 key). Formulas for a specific zone can depend on
cells in columns A, B, C or the current zone, but not on cells for
other zones. Allowable operators include addition (+), subtrac-
tion (-), division (/), multiplication (*), and exponentiation
(Aor **). Allowable functions include ABS, TAN, SIN, COS, EXP,
INT, TRUNC, ROUND, LOG, LN, SQR, ATAN, ASIN, ACOS, RND, and MOD.
For example, to assign the square root of the value in cell Dl to
cell D2, the user should move the cursor to cell D2, press the F2
key, and enter SQR(Dl) or DIA(I/2).
More complicated calculations ~an be made by (1) using a
spreadsheet such as Lotus 1-2-3, (2) exporting the calculated
values from the spreadsheet to an ASCII file, and (3) importing
these values from the ASCII file to the MCCEM table. The F3 key
is used to import values; the user is prompted for the name of the
file to import, the column location in the import file where the
first applicable value (e.g., emission rate for zone 1) begins,
and the cell location in the table to which the first imported
value should be assigned.
Cells are displayed in blocks of 16 .time s~eps.
remote cell more quickly, the FS key can be used to
cell of choice, or the Ctrl-pgUp combination can be
the first time step or the Ctrl-PgDn combination to
time step.
To move to a
move to. any
used to. go to
go to the last
Formulas or values can be copied within a column (but not
across columns) by pressing the F6 key. The user will be prompted
for the cell, or range of cells, to be copied from and the cell or
range to be copied to. Note that cells related by formulas are
not automatically recalculated when one of the cells is edited; to
implement recalculation, the affected range of cells must be
copied to themselves. For example, if formulas are entered such
that the values in cells 2 to 10 ultimately depend on the value in
cellI, and cellI is later edited, then the user must copy from
cells 2..10 to cells 2..10 to implement recalculation.
MCCEM keeps track of the maximum value entered within each
column for use in a subsequent review screen that summarizes user
inputs. However, if the current maximum is later overwritten or
edited, then the indicated maximum may be incorrect. As a safety
measure, the user should ask MCCEM to check maximum values when
exiting the table. The F7 key must be pressed to indicate that
data entry has been completed; the next screen will then be
displayed (after checking maximum values if requested).
Alternatively, the FI0 key can be pressed to exit MCCEM directly
from the table (all inputs will be saved automatically).

3-28

-------
...........
 File:MDF2S001 * Total of 480 Time steps *    
   Zones 1) 1ST STORY 2) BASEMENT 3)   4) 
step Hour Min   Emission Rate [g/hr]    Exposure
(A) (B) (C) Zone1 (D) Zone2(E)  Zone3 (F)  Zone4(G) Zone(H)
1 1 1 [0 ] [0  ] [  ] [ ] [0]
2 1 2 [0 ] [0  ] [  ] [ ] [0]
3 1 3 [0 ] [0  ] [  ] [ ] [0]
4 1 4 [0 ] [0  ] [  ] [ ] [0]
5 1 5 [0 ] [0  ] [  ] [ ] [0]
6 1 6 [0 ] [0  ] [  ] [ ] [0]
7 1 7 [0 ] [0  ] [  ] [ ] [0]
8 1 8 [0 ] [0  ] [  ] [ ] [0]
9 1 9 [0 ] [0  ] [  ] [ ] [0]
10 1 10 [0 ] [0  ] [  ] [ ] [0]
11 1 11 [0 ] [0  ] [  ] [ ] [0]
12 1 12 [0 ] [0  ] [  ] [ ] [0]
13 1 13 [0 ] [0  ] [  ] [ ] [0]
14 1 14 [0 ] [0  ] [  ] [ ] [0]
15 1 15 [0 ] [0 - ] [  ] [ ] [0]
16 1 16 [0 ] [0  ] [  ] [ ] [0]
F1-Help F2-Edit/Formula  F3-Import .F5-Goto F6-Copy F7-Done F10-Exit
  [(Ctrl+) Arrows, Home/End, PgUp/PgDn]-Move Cursor Ese-Cancel
Figure 20.
Input table for emission rates and exposure zone.
3-29

-------
l1li"/
3 .8.
Decay Rate
The decay rate is a measure of the reactivity of chemicals
released from products or materials with other indoor materials
and surfaces. Based on the information available to the user, a
value of the decay rate between 0 and 9.99 should be entered on
the screen (Figure 21).
3-30

-------
DECAY RATE
You can enter a decay rate between 0 and 9.99. The decay rate is
a measure of the reactivity of chemicals released indoors from
products or materials. Some generally applicable decay rates
are given below.
o = nonreactive
0.5 = mildly reactive
1.0 = moderately reactive
1.5 = highly reactive

(Many chemicals are nonreactive; unless you have evidence to
the" contrary, you should us~ a value of zero.)
Enter Value (between 0 and 9.99): [0.0 ]
Fl - further explanation
Escape - previous screen
FIO - exit program
Return - next screen
Figure 21.
Decay rate screen.
3-31

-------
3 .9.
Outdoor Concentrations
Figure 22 illustrates the screen informing the user that out-
door concentrations (in milligrams/cubic meter) can be input for
the contaminant released from products or materials used indoors.
After pressing the return key, the user will be placed at the
beginning of the outdoor concentration table shown in
Section 3.10.
3-32

-------
TABLE FOR OUTDOOR CONCENTRATIONS
You can specify prevailing outdoor concentrations of the
chemical released indoors during each time step. The values
must be specified in MILLIGRAMS PER CUBIC METER. (Many
chemicals released indoors from products or materials are
near minimum detection limits outdoors; unless you have
evidence to the contrary, you should use a constant value of
zero.) Fill in the table that begins on the next screen
with appropriate values for each time step.
Fl - further explanation
Escape - previous screen
FIO - exit program
Return - next screen
Figure 22. Introductory screen for outdoor
concentrations of the chemical released indoors.
3-33

-------
Table for Outdoor Concentrations
3.10.
Figure 23 illustrates the input table used by MCCEM to gather
information regarding outdoor concentrations of the chemical
released from products or materials used indoors.
Either a value or a formula can be entered; to enter a for-
mula, the user must be in the edit mode (by pressing the F2 key).
Allowable operators include addition (+), subtraction (-), divi-
sion (/), multiplication (*), and exponentiation (A or **).
Allowable functions include ABS, TAN, SIN, cas, EXP, INT, TRUNC,
ROUND, LOG, LN, SQR, ATAN ASIN, ACOS, RND,and MOD. For example,
to assign the square root of the value in cell D1 to cell D2, the
user should move the cursor to cell D2, press the F2 key, and
enter SQR(D1) or D1A(1/2).
More complicated calculations can be made by (1) using a
spreadsheet such as Lotus 1-2-3, (2) exporting the calculated
values from the spreadsheet to an ASCII file, and (3) importing
these values from the ASCII file to the MCCEM table. The F3
key is used to import values; the user is prompted for the name of
the file to import, the column location in the import file where
the first applicable value (e.g., emission rate for zone 1)
begins, and the cell location in the table to which the first
imported value should be assigned.
Cells are displayed in blocks of 16 time steps.
remote cell more quickly, the FS key can be used to
cell of choice, or the Ctrl-PgUp combination can be
the first time step or the Ctrl-PgDn cQmbinat~on to
time step.

Formulas or values can be copied within a column (but not
across columns) by pressing the F6 key. The user will be prompted
for the cell, or range of cells, to be copied from and the cell or
range to be copied to. Note that cells related by formulas are
not automatically recalculated when one of the cells must be
copied to themselves. For example, if formulas are entered such
that the values in cells 2 to 10 ultimately depend on the value in
cell 1, and cell 1 is later edited, then the user must copy from
cells 2..10 to cells 2..10 to implement recalculation.
To move to a
move to any
used to go to
go to the last
MCCEM keeps track of the maximum value entered for use in a
subsequent review screen that summarizes user inputs. However, if
the current maximum is later overwritten or edited, then the indi-
cated maximum may be incorrect. As a safety measure, the user
should ask MCCEM to check maximum values when exiting the table.
The F7 key must be pressed to indicate that data entry has been
completed; the next screen will then be displayed (after checking
maximum values if requested). Alternatively, the F10 key can be
pressed to exit MCCEM directly from the table (all inputs will be
saved automatically).
3-34

-------
step
(A)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
File:MDF2S001
Hour Min
(B) (C)
1 1
1 2
1 3
1 4
1 5
1 6
1 7
1 8
1 9
1 10
1 11
1 12
1 13
1 14
1 15
1 16
* Total of
480 Time steps *
outdoor Cone.
(D)
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
[mg/m"3 ]
[0
[0
[0
[0
[0
[0
[0
[0
[0
[0
[0
[0
[0
[0
[0
[0
FI-Help
F2-Edit/Formula F3-ImportF5-Goto F6-Copy F7-Done FI0-Exit
[(Ctrl+) Arrows, Home/End, PgUp/PgDn]-Move Cursor Ese-Cancel
Figure 23.
Input table for outdoor concentrations.
3-35

-------
3.11.
Monte Carlo Option
3.11.1
Purpose and General Description
To develop a range of estimates for zone~specific con-
centrations and/or inhalation exposure, MCCEM allows the user to
perform Monte Carlo simulation with 10 to 1000 trials (Figure 24).
For each trial, summary statistics (mean, standard deviation,
maximum, percent of values above the user-specified level of con-
cern, and lifetime average daily dose) are written to an out-
put file. These summary statistics can be used, for example, to
determine the highest or lowest average exposure or to develop a
confidence-interval estimate for average inhalation exposure.

Use of this option can result in a relatively long model exe-
cution time. It is recommended that the number of trials be kept
relatively small (e.g., less than 100) until the user has obtained
a feel for the length of time required for a model run with this
option.
Random numbers generated by MCCEM are saved for access (at the
user's option) in subsequent runs with the same number of trials.
However, if the number of trials is changed, then a new set of
random numbers is automatically generated.
3.11.2
Choice of Simulation Parameters and Probability Density
Functions
Monte Carlo simulation can be applied to any or all of the
following parameters -- infiltration rate, so~rce rate, decay
rate, and outdoor level (Figure 25). Three shapes of probability
density functions are available -- (1) uniform, (2) normal" or (3)
triangular.
User inputs for simulation parameters are taken as the mean
(or mode, in the case of the triangular distribution) of a distri-
bution of values when the Monte Carlo option is chosen. The
values indicating the upper and lower bounds for the distribution
(R1 and R2) must be specified in relative terms because user
inputs for certain parameters (emission rate and outdoor con-
centration) can vary over time.
For symmetrical distributions, R2 is determined from R1 by the
relationship R1 + R2 = 2. Thus, for example, if R1 is 0.1, then
R2 will be 1.9; if user specified 0.5 as the decay rate, then the
lower bound for the decay rate distribution would be 0.05 (0.5 *
0.1) and the upper bound would be 0.95 (0.5 * 1.9).

The triangular distribution can be used to develop asym-
metrical (skewed) distributions by controlling R1 and R2 indepen-
dently. For the decay rate example, using R1 = 0.1 and R2 = 1.5
would result in a lower bound of 0.05 and an upper bound of 0.75,
with more than half the trials having values below 0.5.
3-36

-------
Similarly, using R1 = 0.5 and R2 = 1.9 would result in a lower
bound of 0.25 and an upper bound of 0.95, with more than half the
cases above 0.5. With the triangular distribution, the mode can
be assigned as the lower bound of the distribution (by setting
R1 = 1) or as the upper bound (by setting R2 = 1).
3-37

-------
MONTE CARLO OPTION
You can run the model once for the chosen situation or you can
run a Monte Carlo simulation (from 10 up to 1,000 trials).
1.
2.
Apply model once (provides time-varying detail)

Use Monte Carlo option (provides average and maximum
concentrations for each trial)
Enter choice: [2]
Enter number of trials (10-1000): [100 ]
F1 - further explanation
Escape - previous screen
FIO - exit program
Return - next screen
Figure 24.
Monte Carlo option screen.
3-38

-------
MONTE CARLO PARAMETERS
Monte Carlo simulation can be applied to an or all of the four ~ara-
meters listed below. Three probability dens1ty functions are ava1lable:
(1) uniform, (2) normal, or (3) triangular. Enter the corresponding
code for the distribution of choice, or leave the default value (0)
for each parameter that is not to be varied. R1 (01) is automatically determined from R1 for the un1form
and normal distributions because they are symmetrical, but must be
specified for the triangular distribution.
PARAMETER DISTRIBUTION R1 R2
Infiltration Rate [0] [1 ] [1 ]
Source Rate  [0] [1 ] [1 ]
Decay Rate  [0] [1 ] [1 ]
Outdoor Concentration [0] [1 ] [1 ]
F1 - further explanation
Escape - previous screen
F10 - exit program
F7 - next screen
Figure 25. Selection of parameters and probability density
functions for Monte Carlo simulation.
3-39

-------
3.12.
Sensitivity Analysis
MCCEM allows the user to apply sensitivity analysis to explore
the sensitivity of the model results to a change in one or more
of the input parameters. This option can be exercised on the
following parameters -- indoor volume, infiltration rate, emission
rate, decay rate, and outdoor concentration--by using a multipli-
cation factor between 0.001 and 1000 (Figure 26).

This option is not normally used the first time that the model
is run for a particular situation. Rather, it would be used on a
subsequent run (keeping all inputs the same as before) to determine
the effect of doubling the emission rate, for example. If the
indoor volume is changed by the user with this option, then
infiltration/exfiltration and interzonal airflows for the resi-
dence are automatically changed in the same proportion so that the
overall infiltration/exfiltration rate and the mass flow balance
are preserved. Similarly, if the infiltration rate is changed by
the user, interzonal airflows are automatically changed in the
same proportion to preserve the mass flow balance.
3-40

-------
SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OPTION
Sensitivity analysis can be used to explore the sensitivity of
the model results to a change in one or more of the input
parameters. This option should be exercised only after the
model has been executed with the default value (1) for each
parameter and is not normally used in combination with the
Monte Carlo option. To exercise this option, replace the default
value with a mUltiplicative factor between 0.001 and 1000 for the
parameter(s) to be explored for sensitivity.
PARAMETER
Indoor Volume.
Infiltration Rate
. . Emission Rate
Decay Rate
Outdoor Concentration
MULTIPLICATIVE
[1.000]
[1.000]
[1.000]
[1.000]
[1.000]
FACTOR
F1 - further explanation
Escape - previous screen
F10 - exit program
F7 - next screen
Figure 26.
Sensitivity analysis option screen.
3-41

-------
3.13.
Level of Concern
Figure 27 illustrates the input screen that allows the user to
specify a level of possible concern or interest for the con-
taminant released by products or materials. Following completion
of a model run, the summary statistics provided to the user will
include the percent of cases at or above this level of concern.
3-42

-------
LEVEL OF CONCERN
When the model run is completed, summary statistics will be
provided for the concentrations in each zone (in milligrams per
cubic meter) of the residence and for indoor inhalation exposure.
These statistics include the average, standard deviation, maximum,
and the percent of cases at or above a user-specified level of
possible concern or interest. This level must be specified in
units of MILLIGRAMS PER CUBIC METER (mg/mA3).
Calculate percent of case~ greater than or equal to
[0 ] milligrams per cubic meter.
Fl - further explanation
Escape - previous screen
FIO - exit program
Return - next screen
/
Figure 27.
Level of concern screen.
3-43

-------
3.14.
Lifetime Average Daily Dose
In this model, Lifetime Average Daily Dose (LADD) is a poten-
tial dose. Potential dose is an exposure multiplied by a contact
rate (e.g., rate of inhalation) and assumes total absorption of
the contaminant. The LADD is calculated by MCCEM as follows.

LADD = (CE x BR x LE x PCT/100 x NE x LX) / (BW x LL x 365)
where
LADD is in units of mg/kg-day
CE
=
average inhalation exposure (mg/m3), as reported in
the summary statistics

Individual breathing rate (m3/day)
BR
=
LE
=
Length of event (days)

Percent of time in the residence, as reported in the
summary statistics
PCT
=
NE
=
Number of events per year
LX
=
Length of exposure (years)
Individual body weight (kg)
BW
=
LL
=
Average length of an individual:s lifetime (years).
The length of the event is assumed to equal the length of the
model run. Thus, only one event should be included in the model
run if the option to calculate LADD is chosen. The length of
exposure parameter (LX) can be used to account for events that
occur infrequently, such as painting. For example, if exposure is
assumed to begin at age 20 and end at age 70, with one event
occurring every five years, then one event per year should be
entered and the length of exposure specified as 10 years.
The screen for entry of input parameters is displayed in
Figure '28. The parameters for which default values are not pro-
vided are number of events per year and length of exposure; if
calculated LADD values are likely to be misleading, then this
calculation can be suppressed by not entering values for these
parameters.
3-44

-------
LIFETIME AVERAGE DAILY DOSE PARAMETERS
The following input parameters are used to~ether with calculated
inhala.tion exposure to calculate the LifetJ.me Average Daily Dose
(LADD, mgjkg-day) for an individual. If the entry for number of
events per year or number of years of exposure is left blank or
zero, the LADD will not be calculated. In this model, LADD is
a potential dose (see help screen).
PARAMETER
Breathing Rate (mA3 per day)
Body Weight (kg)
Number of Events per Year
Number of Years of Exposure
Individual's Average Lifetime
(years)
VALUE
[20 ]
[70 ]
[ ]
[ ]
[70 ]
Fl - further explanation
Escape - previous screen
F10 - exit program
F7 next screen
F'igure 28.
Lifetime average daily dose screen.
3-45

-------
3.15.
Review of Inputs for Model Run
Before execution of the model, the MCCEM program summarizes
the inputs for user review, as shown in Figure 29. At this stage
there are two ways to change the inputs: (1) "climbing up" the
previous sequence of screens by using the escape key or (2) going
directly to a screen to be changed by entering the appropriate
choice on the summary screen. In the second case, the user will
be returned to the "SUMMARY OF INPUTS" screen after leaving the
screen to be changed. The user can also go from the review screen
to the first screen following the introductory screen by pressing
the F5 key. In this case, the user will need to pass through all
subsequent screens in sequence to reach the "SUMMARY OF INPUTS"
screen.
The user should be careful at this point in changing selec-
tions for single- versus multi-chamber, short-term versus long-
term, length of run, or time step. Changing any of these values
will require that the user reenter values for the tables of
emission rates and outdoor concentrations. After execution of the
model, the review screen and summary statistics for outputs are
saved in a file for later use by the user; the file name will have
an extension of .REV.
3-46

-------
SUMMARY OF INPUTS FOR MODEL RUN

1. TYPE OF STRUCTURE: Two-story
2. GEOGRAPHIC AREA: MD
3. HOUSE CODE: 1121A
4. NUMBER OF ZONES: 2
5. SHORT/LONG TERM: Short-term
LENGTH OF RUN: 8 hour(s) TIME STEP: 1 mines)
6. MAXIMUM INDOOR EMISSION RATE (g/hr): 0
Zl= 0 Z2= 0
7. DECAY RATE: 0.0
8. MAXIMUM OUTDOOR CONCENTRATION (mg/mA3): 0
9. MONTE CARLO OPTION: No
10. SENSITIVITY OPTION: No
11. CALCULATE % CASES >= 0 mg/mA3
12. LIFETIME AVG. DAILY DOSE OPTION: No
SEASON: Summer
Specify screen to be updated (1-12): [0 ]
F1 - further explanation F10 - exit program
Escape - previous screen Return - next screen
F5 - go to first screen (Source of Input)
Figure 29.
Screen for review of inputs for model run.
3-47

-------
Execution of the Model
3.16.
After the user has made all the changes necessary following
review of the model inputs and the return key is pressed, the
screen illustrated in Figure 30 is displayed. At this stage the
user can go back to the review screen or execute the model. If
the user elects to execute the model, the program update screen as
shown in Figure 31 is displayed. This screen informs the user
about the progress of the model. Upon normal termination of the
model without the Monte Carlo option, summary statistics for time-
varying concentrations and exposure are displayed on the screen
along with the output file names and brief descriptions of the
contents of these files (Figure 32*). The user can then exit
MCCEM and view the output files or go to the review screen, change
some input parameters, and run the model again. If the model is
executed with the Monte Carlo simulation option, summary sta-
tistics by trial for each zone (1-4) and inhalation exposure are
written to different output files; the user is informed about the
names of these files after the model run.
The output file generated by MCCEM when the Monte Carlo option
is not selected contains time-varying concentrations for each zone
and corresponding inhalation exposure. After model execution, the
user is asked whether or not this output file should be written
(see Figure 32). If the user elects to keep the output file, it
can still be deleted through DOS after exiting MCCEM. If the user
initially decides not to keep the output file but changes his/her
mind before exiting MCCEM, it is still possible to return to the
review screen and re-execute the model, this time choosing to keep
the output file.
*Figure 32 shows results of a model run with all defaults; in
this case, emission rates are zero by default, and thus, calcu-
lated concentrations are uniformly zero. Since the default value
for level of concern is zero, applicable zones have 100 percent of
values ~ O. Inhalation exposure does not apply because, by
default, the individual was out of the house at all times. The
LADD value was not calculated because the input field for length
of exposure was left blank.
3-48

-------
You are now ready to execute the model.
1.
Return to Review Screen
2.
Execute Model
Enter choice: [1]
Fl - further explanation
Escape - previous screen
FI0 - exit program
Return - next screen
Figure 30.
Model execution screen.
3-49

-------
PROGRAM IN PROCESS
Model now executing Case # 116
Press F5 key to abort run
PROCESS
COMPLETED
Model now executing Case # 480
>
Model Calculation Time:
0.21 minutes
<
Press any key to continue
Figure 31.
Program in process screen.
3-50

-------
SINGLE RUN SUMMARY STATISTICS
TWA, mg/mA3
STD. DEVIATION
MAXIMUM, mg/m A 3
PERCENT OF CASES
>= 0 mg/mA3
PERCENT OF TIME IN RESIDENCE
LIFETIME AVG. DAILY DOSE, mg/kg-day
ZONE 1
1ST STORY
O.OOE+OO
.O.OOE+OO
O.OOE+OO
100.0
ZONE 2
BASEMENT
O.OOE+OO
O.OOE+OO
O.OOE+OO
100.0
ZONE 3
ZONE 4
EXPOSURE
O.OOE+OO
O.OOE+OO
O.OOE+OO
0.0

0.0
eN/A)
Output files generated for this model run are:
1. MDS2S001.REV
2. MDS2S0010 PRN
Summary o~ model inputs and
summary statistics for model outputs
Time-varying concentrations by zone and
inhalation exposure
Figure 32.
Summary statistics and output files for model run
without Monte Carlo option.
3-51

-------
3.17.
Options for Saving Input Files
If the user elects to save the output (.PRN) file (see
Figure 32 in the previous subsection), then MCCEM automatically
saves a .REV file containing a summary of inputs for the model run
as well as summary statistics for the model outputs. If the user
elects not to save the output file, then MCCEM will ask whether
the .REV file should be saved (Figure 33).

MCCEM will also ask whether the run files (.VAL, .FML, and
.RUN) should be saved. These files contain all information used by
MCCEM to execute the model, including the choice of residence,
infiltration/exfiltration and interzonal airflow rates, and
values/formulas entered in the tables for emission rates and out-
door concentrations. Thus, these files should be saved if the
user plans to use this information (or modify it) in a subsequent
modeling session; otherwise, all information will need to be
re-entered. The user can, however, delete these files and still
have access to all information within the current modeling session
by electing to return to the review (SUMMARY OF INPUTS) screen
after indicating that the files are not to be kept.
3-52

-------
SINGLE RUN SUMMARY STATISTICS
TWA, mg/mA3
STD. DEVIATION
MAXIMUM, mg/m A 3
PERCENT OF CASES
>= 0 mg/mA3
PERCENT OF TIME IN RESIDENCE
LIFETIME AVG. DAILY DOSE, mg/kg-day
ZONE 1
1ST STORY
O.OOE+OO
O.OOE+OO
O.OOE+OO
100.0
ZONE 2
BASEMENT
O.OOE+OO
O.OOE+OO
O.OOE+OO
100.0
ZONE 3
ZONE 4
EXPOSURE
O.OOE+OO
O.OOE+OO
O.OOE+OO
0.0

0.0
(N/A)
Output files generated for this model run are:
1. MDS2S001.REV
Summary of , model inputs and
summary statistics for model outputs
Time-varying concentrations by zone and
inhalation exposure
2. MDS2S001. PRN
00 you wish to keep the output files? (Y/N) N
00 you wish to keep the file MOS2S001.REV? (Y/N) N
Do you wish to keep the input/run files (VAL,FML,RUN)? (Y/N) Y
Figure 33.
MCCEM prompts for file saving after model execution.
3-53

-------
3.18.
Exiting MCCEM
The user can exit MCCEM from any screen by pressing the F10
key; the screen shown in Figure 34 will then be displayed. The
user can make a temporary exit to DOS (e.g., to review the file
directory) by entering a 2 and then return to MCCEM by typing
"EXIT" and pressing the return key at the DOS prompt. A permanent
exit can be made by entering a 3. If this exit is made prior to
model execution, then all inputs entered to that point will be
saved automatically, and MCCEM will resume the next session at the
screen from which the user exited. After model execution, user
choices for saving input/output files will already have been made.
A useful role for the temporary exit to DOS is viewing of output
files to aid in determining whether further model runs are
necessary before making a permanent exit.
3-54

-------
l.
2.
Do not exit the program
Exit temporarily to DOS
3.
Exit the program
Enter choice: [1]
Figure 34.
Exit screen.
3-55

-------
4.
.MODEL OUTPUTS
File names are assigned by MCCEM to indicate the geographic
area (or GN for generic house or HY for hypothetical house),
season, number of zones, and type of model (short- or long-term)
chosen by the user; the first five characters of the names of all
input and output files reflect these choices. The last three
characters are reserved for a file counter that begins with 001.
For example, the first time that rates from a Maryland residence
during winter with 2 zones are used to make a short-term model
run, all associated files will have the following name:
MDW2S001.*
Since the user subsequently may opt to run the model with
minor changes in the input parameters, the 3-digit file counter is
included in the file name to distinguish the different model runs.
The file-name extensions for inputs and output associated with the
example model run described above will be assigned as listed in
Figure 35.
The user has no control over file names used by MCCEM during a
model run. Further, the user should not attempt to change file.
names after a run has been completed; this could cause a conflict
if the user attempts to use the renamed file as input for a sub-
sequent MCCEM session.
Following normal termination of a model run, the file *.REV is
created; this file contains a summary of inputs and summary sta-
tistics for outputs. For a non-Monte Carlo model run the time-
varying indoor concentrations and exposure values are written to
the file *.PRN. The first two fields (i.e., columns) of this file
contain the time descriptors (i.e., hour and minute for short-term
model or day and hour for long-term model); the next three fields
represent contaminant concentrations in Zones 1, 2, 3 and 4,
respectively, and the last field represents inhalation exposure
values. If a model run is made for less than 4 zones, the expo-
sure values are shifted left to the first field available after
concentration values.
For a Monte Carlo model run, the summary statistics--mean,
standard deviation, maximum percent of values above level of con-
cern, and LADD--for the contaminant concentrations in each zone of
the residence and for inhalation exposure are written to separate
output files (Figure 35). In each of these output files, the
field contents from left to right are trial number, number of time
steps, mean, standard deviation, maximum, and percent of values
above level of concern. For the inhalation exposure (.MCE) file,
the LADD value is added as the final fi~ld (in cases where LADD
values are c~lculated). A file (.RND) containing the random num-
bers generated by MCCEM is also retained for subsequent access if
the user elects to save the input files.
4-1

-------
FILE NAME:
counter
Season
Short-term or
long-term model
Number
of Zones
FILES ASSOCIATED WITH A MODEL RUN:
Input Files*
Contents
MDW2S001.VAL
Time-series data for emission rates, exposure
zone, and outdoor concentration
Record of formulas used in input table for
emission rates and outdoor concentrations
Record of input parameters (for use by model
execution module)
MDW2S001.FML
MDW2S001.RUN
Output Files
MDW2S001.PRN**
Time-series data for indoor concentrations
and exposure
Summary of inputs
Summary statistics for outputs
Summary statistics from each Monte Carlo
trial for zone 1
MDW2S001.REV
MDW2S001.MCl***
MDW2S001.MC4***
Summary statistics
trial for zone 4
Summary statistics
trial for consumer
from each Monte Carlo
MDW2S001.MCE***
from each Monte Carlo
exposure
*Created for use by MCCEM; not accessible to the user
**For non-Monte Carlo option only
***For Monte-Carlo option
Figure 35. File-naming convention and
example of names for model input and output files.
4-2

-------
5.
EXAMPLE APPLICATIONS
The section describes four example applications of the MCCEM
program:
.
a short-term model to estimate inhalation exposure due to
a short-term release of a contaminant (e.g., from a spray
paint)
.
a long-term model for estimating exposure due to a long-
term release of contaminant (e.g., from a room
freshener)

a short-term model like the first example, but with use of
the Monte Carlo option
.
.
a short-term model run with user-defined information for
four zones and contaminant release in two of the zones.
With the exception of emission rates, zone of
level of concern for the contaminant, the default
by the MCCEM program are used for the first three
applications of the model.
exposure and
values provided
example
Short-term Model
5.1
Default values in MCCEM provide a 2-zone residence in
Maryland. Interzonal airflow rates for the fall season were
selected for this example. Let us consider a case where a con-
taminant is released for 7.5 minutes in the upstairs (Zone 1) of
the residence at a rate of 250 g/h and we intend to estimate the
indoor concentrations for an 8-hour period using a 5-minute time
step. For exposure estimates let us assume that an individual is
present in Zone 1 for the first 15 minutes, in Zone 2 for the next
three hours and outdoors for the rest of the time. Figure 36
illustrates the input table with user's entries for emission rates
and zone of exposure. The emission rate for a release time of 7.5
minutes in this case can be accommodated by entering a value of
250 g/h for the first 5 minutes (cell D1) and 125 g/h for the
second 5 minutes (cell D2). The outdoor concentrations of the
contaminant are assumed to be zero and a value of 25 mg/m3 is
selected as the level of concern (Figure 37). The summary screen
for model inputs is shown in Figure 38~ Following execution of
the model with these. inputs the summary statistics and output file
names are displayed on the CRT screen, as shown in Figure 39. The
LADD calculation was suppressed because the model was run for only
8 hours. Table 1 lists the first four hours of the output file
(i.e., MDF2S001.PRN) obtained from this model run. (The field
descriptors at the top. of the table are not part of the output
file). The contaminant concentrations and exposure profile can be
plotted using software such as Lotus 1-2-3, as shown in Figure 40.
5-1

-------
 File:MDF2S001 * Total of 96 Time steps *   Day: 1
   Zones 1) 1ST STORY 2) BASEMENT 3)   4) 
step Hour Min   Emission Rate [g/hr]   Exposure
(A) (B) (C) Zone1 (D) Zone2(E) Zone3(F)  Zone4(G) Zone(H)
1 1 5 [250 ] [0 ] [  ] [ ] [1]
2 1 10 [125 ] [0 ] [  ] [ ] [1]
3 1 15 [0 ] [0 ] [  ] [ ] [1]
4 1 20 [0 ] [0 ] [  ] [ ] [2]
5 1 25 [0 ] [0 ] [  ] [ ] [2]
6 1 30 [0 ] [0 ] [  ] [ ] [2]
7 1 35 [0 ] [0 ] [  ] [ ] [2]
8 1 40 [0 ] [0 ] [  ] [ ] [2]
9 1 45 [0 ] [0 ] [  ] [ ] [2]
10 1 50 [0 ] [0 ] [  ] [ ] [2]
11 1 55 [0 ] [0 ] [  ] [ ] [2]
12 1 60 [0 ] [0 ] [  ] [ ] [2]
13 2 5 [0 ] [0 ] [  ] [ ] [2]
14 2 10 [0 ] [0 ] [  ] [ ] [2]
15 2 15 [0 ] [0 ] [  ] [ ] [2]
16 2 20 [0 ] [0 ] [  ] [ ] [2]
F'l-Help F2-Edit/Formula  F3-Import F5-Goto F6-Copy F7-Done F10-Exit
  [(Ctrl+) Arrows, Home/End, PgUp/PgDn]-Move Cursor Ese-Cancel
Figure 36.
Input table for emission rates and exposure zone
for example short-term model.
5-2

-------
LEVEL OF CONCERN
When the model run is completed, summary statistics will be
provided for the concentrations in each zone (in milligrams per
cubic meter) of the residence and for indoor inhalation exposure.
These statistics include the average, standard deviation, maximum,
and the percent of cases at or above a user-specified level of
possible concern or interest. This level must be specified in
units of MILLIGRAMS PER CUBIC METER (mgjmA3).
Calculate percent of cases greater than or equal to
[25 ] milligrams per cubic meter.
Fl - further explanation
Escape - previous screen
FlO - exit program
Return - next screen
Figure 37.
Level of concern value for example short-term model
5-3

-------
SUMMARY OF INPUTS FOR MODEL RUN

1. TYPE OF STRUCTURE: Two-story
2. GEOGRAPHIC AREA: MD
3. HOUSE CODE: 1121A
4. NUMBER OF ZONES: 2
5. SHORT/LONG TERM: Short-term
LENGTH OF RUN: 8 hour(s) TIME STEP: 5 mines)
6. MAXIMUM INDOOR EMISSION RATE (g/hr): 250
Zl= 250 Z2= 0
7. DECAY RATE: 0.0
8. MAXIMUM OUTDOOR CONCENTRATION (mg/mA3): 0
9. MONTE CARLO OPTION: No
10. SENSITIVITY OPTION: No
11. CALCULATE % CASES >= 25 mg/mA3
12. LIFETIME AVG. DAILY DOSE OPTION: No
SEASON: Fall/Spring
Specify screen to be updated (1-12): [0 ]
F1 - further explanation F10 - exit program
Escape - previous screen Return - next screen
F5 - go to first screen (Source of Input)
Figure 38.
Summary of inputs for example short-term model
5-4

-------
SINGLE RUN SUMMARY STATISTICS
TWA, mg/mA3
STD. DEVIATION
MAXIMUM, mg/m A 3
PERCENT OF CASES
>= 25 mg/mA3
PERCENT OF TIME IN RESIDENCE
LIFETIME AVG. DAILY DOSE, mg/kg-day
ZONE 1
1ST STORY
2.99E+01
3.34E+01
1. 31E+02
38.5
ZONE 2
BASEMENT
7.45E+00
5.95E+00
1.83E+01
0.0
ZONE 3
ZONE 4
EXPOSURE

2.11E+01
2.56E+01
1.31E+02
7.7
40.6
eN/A)
Output files generated for this model run are:
1. MDF2S001. REV
2. MDF2S001. PRN
Summary of model inputs and
summary statistics for model outputs
Time-varying concentrations by zone and
inhalation exposure
Escape - Go to Review Screen
Return - Exit MCCEM
Figure 39. Summary statistics and output file names
for example short-term. model run
5-5

-------
Table 1. Printout of the first 4 hours of the output file
(i.e., MDF2S001.PRN) for example short-term model

CONCENTRATION
ZONE 1 ZONE 2 EXPOSURE
HOUR MINUTES
o
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
60 O.OOE+OO
5 5.69E+01
10 1.19E+02
15 1. 31E+02
20 1.24E+02
25 1.17E+02
30 1.10E+02
35 1. 05E+02
40 9.90E+01
45 9.39E+01
50 8.90E+01
55 8.45E+01
60 8.03E+01
5 7.63E+Ct1
10 7.26E+01
15 6.91E+01
20 6.58E+01
25 6.27E+01
30 5.97E+01
35 5.69E+01
40 5.43E+01
45 5.18E+01
50 4.94E+01
55 4.72E+01
60 4.50E+01
5 4.30E+01
10 4.11E+01
15 3.93E+01
20 3.75E+01
25 3.59E+01
30 3.43E+01
35 3.28E+01
40 3.13E+01
45 3.00E+01
50 2.87E+01
55 2.74E+01
60 2.62E+01
5 2.51E+01
10 2.40E+01
15 2.30E+01
20 2.20E+01
25 2.10E+01
30 2.01E+01
35 1.93E+01
40 1.84E+01
45 1.77E+01
50 1. 69E+01
55 1. 62E+Ol
60 1. 55E+01
5-6
O.OOE+OO
4.20E-01
2.69E+00
5.82E+00
8.62E+00
1.09E+01
1. 28E+01
1. 43E+01
1.56E+01
1. 65E+01
1.72E+Ol
1.77E+01
1.80E+01
1.82E+01
1.83E+01
1. 82E+01
1. 81E+01
1. 79E+01
1.76E+01
1.73E+01
1.70E+01
1. 66E+01
1.62E+01
1. 58E+01
1. 53E+01
1. 49E+Ol
1.44E+01
1.40E+01
1. 35E+01
1. 31E+01
1.26E+01
1. 22E+01
1. 17E+01
1.13E+01
1.09E+Ol
1. 05E+01
1. 01E+01
9.70E+00
9.33E+00
8.97E+00
8.62E+00
8.28E+00
7.95E+00
7.63E+00
7.33E+00
7.03E+00
6.75E+00
6.47E+00
6.21E+00
5.69E+01
1.19E+02
1.31E+02
8.62E+00
1.09E+01
1.28E+01
1.43E+01
1.56E+01
1.65E+01
1.72E+01
1.77E+01
1.80E+01
1.82E+01
1.83E+01
1.82E+01
1.81E+01
1.79E+01
1.76E+01
1.73E+01
1.70E+01
1.66E+01
1.62E+01
1.58E+01
1.53E+01
1.49E+01
1. 44E+01
1. 40E+01
1.35E+01
1.31E+01
1. 26E+01
1.22E+01
1.17E+01
1.13E+01
1.09E+01
1.05E+01
1.01E+01
9.70E+00
9.33E+00
8.97E+00

-------
4

HOUR
40. Contaminant concentration and inhalation
profiles for example short-term model run
Figure
 150
 140
 130
 120
M 
, 110
E
" 100
OJ
E 90
Z
o 80
t=
ct 70
a:: 
t- 60
Z
w 50
o
Z 
0 40
o 
 30
 20
 10
 o
 o
M
,
E
"
OJ
E
Z
o
t=
ct
a::
t-
Z
W
o
Z
o
o
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
o
o
CONTAMINANT CONCENTRATION PROFILES
Zone 2 ~
1
2
-3
4
HOUR
5
6
7
8
EXPOSURE PROFILE
1
2
3
5
6
7
8
exposure
5-7

-------
5.2.
Long-Term Model
For the long-term model
of 30 days in time steps of
for the contaminant defined
sumed : .
let us estimate exposure over a period
8 hours. An exponential decay profile
by the following relationship is as-
S = 652.1452*e (-0.0208344*t) for 4 < t ~ '90, 0 otherwise.
where
S = emission rate (g/hr) and
t = time step.
The contaminant is assumed to be released in Zone 1. The
spreadsheet environment of the input table for emission rates
allows the user to easily implement this formula for calculation
of emission rates. The formula 652.1452*EXP(-0.0208344*A4) is
entered in cell D4 (using the F2 key) and then copied from this
cell to cells 5..90 using the F6 key. For exposure estimates let
us assume that an individual is in Zone 1 during the first 8 hours
and in Zone 2 during the last 8 hours of each day (Figure 41).
The outdoor concentrations of the contaminant are assumed to be
zero and a value of 500 mg/m3 is selected as the level of concern.
Three events per year and a length of exposure of 50 years are
entered in the LADD table.
The summary screen for model inputs is shown
The summary statistics and output file names for
are illustrated in Figure 43. A printout of the
the output file (i.e., MDF2L001.PRN) is shown in
contaminant concentrations and exposure profiles
Figure 44.
in Figure 42.
this model run
first 15 days of
Table 2 and the
are shown in
5-8

-------
 File:MDF2L001 * Total of 90 Time steps *   Day: 1
   Zones 1) 1ST STORY 2) BASEMENT 3)   4) 
Step Day Hour   Emission Rate [g/hr]    Exposure
(A) (B) (C) Zone1(D) Zone2(E) Zone3(F)  Zone4(G) Zone(H)
1 1 8 [0 ] [0 ] [  ] [ ] [0]
2 1 16 [0 ] [0 ] [  ] [ ] [0]
3 1 24 [0 ] [0 ] [  ] [ ] [0]
4 2 8 .[600 ] [0 ] [  ] [ ] [1]
5 2 16 .[587.6287] [0 ] [  ] [ ] [0]
6 2 24 .[575.5125] [0 ] [  ] [ ] [2]
7 3 8 .[563.6461] [0 ] [  ] [ ] [1]
8 3 16 .[552.0243] [0 ] [  ] [ ] [0]
9 3 24 .[540.6422] [0 ] [  ] [ ] [2]
10 4 8. .[529.4948] [0 ] [  ] [ ] [1]
11 4 16 .[518.5771] [0 - ] [  ] [ ] [0]
12 4 24 .[507.8847] [0 ] [  ] [ ] [2]
13 5 8 .[497.4127] [0 ] [  ] [ ] [ll
14 5 16 .[487.1566] [0 ] [  ] [ ] [0]
.15 5 24 .[477.112] [0 ] [  ] [ ] [2]
16 6 8 .[467.2745] [0 ] [  ] [ ] [1]
FI-Help F2-Edit/Formu1a  F3-Import F5-Goto F6-Copy F7-Done FI0-Exit
  [(Ctr1+) Arrows, Home/End, PgUp/PgDn]-Move Cursor Ese-Cancel
Figure 41.
Input table for emission rates and exposure zone
for example long-term model.
5-9

-------
SUMMARY OF INPUTS FOR MODEL RUN

1. TYPE OF STRUCTURE: Two-story
2. GEOGRAPHIC AREA: MD
3. HOUSE CODE: 1121A
4. NUMBER OF ZONES: 2
5. SHORT/LONG TERM: Long-term
LENGTH OF RUN: 30 day(s) TIME STEP: 8 hour(s)
6. MAXIMUM INDOOR EMISSION RATE (g/hr): 600
Z1= 600 Z2= 0
7. DECAY RATE: 0.0
8. MAXIMUM OUTDOOR CONCENTRATION (mg/mA3): 0
9. MONTE CARLO OPTION: No
10. SENSITIVITY OPTION: No
11. CALCULATE % CASES >= 500 mg/mA3
12. LIFETIME AVG. DAILY DOSE OPTION: Yes (20,70,3,50,70)
SEASON: Fall/Spring
Specify screen to be updated (1-12): [0 ]
F1 - further explanation F10 - exit program
Escape - previous screen Return - next screen
F5 - go to first screen (Source of Input)
Figure 42.
Summary of inputs for example long-term model.
5-10

-------
SINGLE RUN SUMMARY STATISTICS
TWA, mg/m"3
STD. DEVIATION
MAXIMUM, mg/m" 3
PERCENT OF CASES
>= 500 mg/m"3
PERCENT OF TIME IN RESIDENCE
LIFETIME AVG. DAILY DOSE, mg/kg-day
ZONE 1
1ST STORY
2.10E+03
1.15E+03
4.56E+03
96.7
ZONE 2
BASEMENT
5.28E+02
2.87E+02
1.14E+03
46.7
ZONE 3
ZONE 4
EXPOSURE

1.37E+03
1.15E+03
4.40E+03
74.1
64.4
4.44E+01
Output files generated for this model run are:
1. MDF2L001.REV
2. MDF2LOOl. PRN
Summary of model inputs and .
summary statistics for model outputs
Time-varying concentrations by zone and
inhalation exposure
Escape - Go to Review Screen
Return - Exit MCCEM
Figure 43. Summary statistics and output file names
for example long-term model run.
5-11

-------
Table 2. Printout of the first 15 days of the output file
(i.e., MDF2L001.PRN) for example long-term model
  CONCENTRATION 
DAY HOUR ZONE 1 ZONE 2 EXPOSURE
o 24 O.OOE+OO O.OOE+OO 
1 8 O.OOE+OO O.OOE+OO 
1 16 O.OOE+OO O.OOE+OO 
1 24 O.OOE+OO O.OOE+OO 
2 8 3.75E+03 7.51E+02 3.75E+03
2 16 4.56E+03 1.14E+03 
2 24 4.49E+03 1.13E+03 1.13E+03
3 8 4.40E+03 1.11E+03 4.40E+03
3 16 4.31E+03 1.09E+03 
3 24 4.22E+03 1.07E+03 1.07E+03
4 8 4.14E+03 1.04E+03 4.14E+03
4 16 4.05E+03 1.02E+03 
4 24 3. 97E+03 -1. 00E+03 1.00E+03
5 8 3.88E+03 9.80E+02 3.88E+03
5 16 3.80E+03 9.59E+02 
5 24 3.73E+03 9.40E+02 9.40E+02.
6 8 3.65E+03 9.20E+02 3.65E+03
6 16 3.57E+03 9.01E+02 
6 24 3.50E+03 8.83E+02 8.83E+02
7 8 3.43E+03 8.64E+02 3.43E+03
7 16 3.36E+03 8.47E+02 
7 24 3.29E+03 8.29E+02 8.29E+02
8 8 3.22E+03 8.12E+02 3.~2E+03
8 16 3.15E+03 7.95E+02 
8 24 3.09E+03 7.79E+02 7.79E+02
9 8 3.03E+03 7.63E+02 3.03E+03
9 16 2.96E+03 7.47E+02 
9 24 2.90E+03 7.32E+02 7.32E+02
10 8 2.84E+03 7.17E+02 2.84E+03
10 16 2.78E+03 7.02E+02 
10 24 2.73E+03 6.87E+02 6.87E+02
11 8 2.67E+03 6.73E+02 2.67E+03
11 16 2.61E+03 6.59E+02 
11 24 2.56E+03 6.46E+02 6.46E+02
12 8 2.51E+03 6.32E+02 2.51E+03
12 16 2.46E+03 6.19E+02 
12 24 2.41E+03 6.07E+02 6.07E+02
13 8 2.36E+03 5.94E+02 2.36E+03
13 16 2.31E+03 5.82E+02 
13 24 2.26E+03 5.70E+02 5.70E+02
14 8 2.21E+03 5.58E+02 2.21E+03
14 16 2.17E+03 5.47E+02 
14 24 2.12E+03 5.35E+02 5.35E+02
15 8 2.08E+03 5.24E+02 2.08E+03
15 16 2.04E+03 5.14E+02 
15 24 1.99E+03 5.03E+02 5.03E+02
5-12

-------
5000
4000
CO)
c
E
"-
tn
~ 3000
Z
o
i=
<
a:
!z 2000
w
o
z
o
o
1000
5000
4000
CO)
c
E
"-
C)
~ 3000
Z
o
i=
<
a:
!z 2000
w
o
z
o
o
1000
o
Figure 44.
o
o
o
CONTAMINANT CONCENTRATION PROFILES
3
6
Zone 2
9
12 15
DAY
18
21
24
27
30
.
3
6
EXPOSURE PROFILE
[111111111
9
12 15
DAY
18
21
24
27
30
Contaminant concentration and inhalation exposure
profiles for example long-term model
5-13

-------
5.3.
Short-term Model With Monte Carlo Option
This example uses the same inputs as the first example, except
that the Monte Carlo option is exercised. Consequently, at the
source of input screen (Figure 45), a 1 is entered and the run
file from the first example (MDF2S001) is indicated as the source
of input. The Monte Carlo option screen (Figure 46) is then
accessed, a 2 is entered, and 100 is indicated as the number of
trials to be run. On the Monte Carlo parameter screen
(Figure 47), a normal probablity density function is chosen for
the source rate and a value of 0.5 is selected for Rl. The review
screen is shown in Figure 48 and the summary screen presented
after model execution is shown in Figure 49. Table 3 lists the
first 50 trials of the output .file for zone 1 (MDF2S002.MCl).
Average concentrations from each trial for zones 1 and 2 are
plotted in the upper portion of Figure 50 and a frequency distri-
bution for the zone 1 average values is shown in the lower
portion.
5-14

-------
SOURCE OF INPUT
You can work with inputs from a previous model run or specify
entirely new inputs.
1.
Use inputs from previous run
Specify new inputs
2.
3.
Continue with current inputs
Enter choice: [1]
Enter name of previous RUN file: [MDF2S001].RUN
F1 - further explanation
Escape - previous screen
F10 - exit program
Return - next screen
Figure 45.
Use of previous run file for short-term model with
Monte Carlo option.
5-15

-------
MONTE CARLO OPTION
You can run the model once for the chosen situation or you can
run a Monte Carlo simulation (from 10 up to 1,000 trials).
1.
Apply model once (provides time-varying detail)

Use Monte Carlo option (provides average and maximum
concentrations for each trial)
2.
Enter choice: [2J
Enter number of trials (10-1000): [100 J
F1 - further explanation
Escape - previous screen
F10 - exit program
Return - next screen
Figure 46.
Choice of Monte Carlo option with 100 trials.
5-16
/

-------
MONTE CARLO PARAMETERS
Monte Carlo simulation can be applied to an or all of the four ~ara-
meters listed below. Three probability dens1ty functions are ava1lable:
(1) uniform, (2) normal, or (3) triangular. Enter the corresponding
code for the distribution of choice, or leave the default value (0)
for each parameter that is not to be varied. R1 (01) is automatically determined from R1 for the un1form
and normal distributions because they are symmetrical, but must be
specified for the triangular distribution.
PARAMETER DISTRIBUTION - R1  R2 
Infiltration Rate [0] [1  ] [1 ]
Source Rate  [2] [0.5 ] [1.5 ]
Decay Rate  [0] [1  ] [1 ]
Outdoor Concentration [0] [1  ] [1 ]
F1 - further explanation
Escape - previous screen
F10 - exit program
F7 - next screen
Figure 47.
Choice of Monte Carlo parameters.
5-17

-------
SUMMARY OF INPUTS FOR MODEL RUN

1. TYPE OF STRUCTURE: Two-story
2. GEOGRAPHIC AREA: MD
3. HOUSE CODE: 1121A.
4. NUMBER OF ZONES: 2
5. SHORT/LONG TERM: Short-term
LENGTH OF RUN: 8 hour(s) TIME STEP: 5 mines)
6. MAXIMUM INDOOR EMISSION RATE (g/hr): 250
Zl= 250 Z2= 0
7. DECAY RATE: 0.0
8. MAXIMUM OUTDOOR CONCENTRATION (mg/mA3): 0
9. MONTE CARLO OPTION: Yes
10. SENSITIVITY OPTION: No
11. CALCULATE % CASES >= 25 mg/mA3
12. LIFETIME AVG. DAILY DOSE OPTION: No
SEASON: Fall/Spring
Specify screen to be updated (1-12): [0 ]
F1 - further explanation F10 - exit program
Escape - previous screen Return - next screen
F5 - go to first screen (Source of Input)
Figure 48.
Summary of inputs for example run with
Monte Carlo option.
5-18

-------
MONTE CARLO SIMULATION
Output files generated for this model run are:
1. MDF2S002.REV

2. MDF2S002.MC1
MDF2S002.MC2
.MC3
.MC4
MDF2S002.MCE
Summary of model inputs

Summary Statistics (arithmetic mean,
standard deviation, maximum, and percent
of cases at or above level of concern)
by trial for each zone (1-4) and
inhalation exposure (E)
Escape - Go to Review Screen
Return - Exit MCCEM
Figure 49.
Listing of output files generated by example run
with Monte Carlo option.
5-19

-------
Table 3.
Printout of the first 50 trials in the output file
fpr zone 1 (MDF2S002.MCl) from example run
with Monte Carlo option
TRIAL
NUMBER

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
'27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
TIME
STEPS
CONCENTRATION PERCENTAGE
, STD. > = LEVEL
DEV. ' MAXIMUM, OF CONGERN
MEAN
96 2.70E+01 3.02E+OL 1.18E+02 3.54E+01
96 2.87E+01 3.21E+01 'l.26E+02 3.75E+01
96 2.32E+01 2.59E+01 1.02E+02 3.23E+01
96 2.49E+01 ~.78E+011.09E+023.33E+01
96 1.90E+01 2.12E+01 8.32E+01 2.7~E+01
96 3.35E+01 3.74E+01 1.47E+02 4.06E+01
96 3.21E+01 3.58E+01 1.40E+02 3.96E+01
96 2.36E+01 2.63E+01 1.03E+02 3.23E+01
962.70E+01 3.02E+01 1.18E+02 3.54E+01
96 2.64E+01 2.94E+01 1.16E+02 3.54E+01'
96 1. 95E+01 2 .18E+018. 54E+01 2. 81E+01
96 2.86E+01 ,3.20E+01 1.25E+02 3.75E+01
96 3.13E+013.4-9E+01 1.37E+02 3.96E+01
96 2.96E+01 3.30E+01 1.29E+02 3.75E+01
96 3.33E+01 3.72E+01 1.46E+02 4.06E+01
96 3.79E+01 4.23E+01 1.66E+02 4.38E+01
963.10E+01 3.46E+01 1.36E+02 3.85E+01
96 2.81E+01 3.13E+01 1.23E+023.65E+01
96 2.76E+01 3.08E+01 1.21E+02 3.65E+01
96 2.45E+01 2.74E+01 1.07E+02 3.33E+01
96 2.96E+01 3.30E+01 1.29E+02 3.75E+01'
96 2.69E+01 3.01E+01 1.18E+02 3.54E+01 '
96 2.91E+01 3.25E+01 1.27E+023.75E+01
96 2.95E+01 3.30E+01 1.29E+02 3~75E+01
96 2.90E+01 3.23E+01-1.27Efd2 3.75E+01
96 2.13E+01 2.38E+01 9.32E+01 3.02E+01
96 3.92E+01 4.38E+01 1.72E+Q2 4.48E+01'
96 2.14E+01 2. 39E+019. 39E+01. 3. 02E+01
96 3.11E+01 3.47E+01 1.36E+02 3.85E+01
96 3.41E+01 3.81E+01 1.49E+02 4.17E+01
96 3.83E+01 4.28E+01 1.68E+02 4.38E+01
96 2.87E+01 3.21E+01 1.26E+02 3.75E+01
96 2.85E+01 3.18E+01 1.25E+02 3.65E+01
96 2.02E+01 2.26E+01 8.87E+01 2.92E+01
96 3.22E+01 3.60E+01 1.41E+02 3.96E+01
96 3.08E+01 3.43E+01 1.35E+02 3.85E+01
96 2.78E+01 3.10E+01 1.22E+02 3.65E+01
96 3.68E+01 4.10E+01 1.61E+02 4.27E+01
96 3.51E+01 3.92E+01 1.54E+02 4.17E+01
96 3.10E+01 3.46E+01 1.36E+02 3.85E+01
96 2.35E+01 2.62E+01 1.03E+02 3.23E+Ol
96 2.69E+01 3.01E+01 1.18E+02 3.54E+01
96 2.82E+01 3.15E+01 1.24E+02 3.65E+01
96 2.74E+01 3.06E+01 1~20E+02 3.65E+01
96 4.00E+01 4.47E+01 1.75E+02 4.48E+01
96 2. 83E+01 3. 16E+01 1. 24E+02 3. 65E+01
96 2.62E+01 2.92E+01 1.15E+02 3.54E+01
96 3.09E+01 3.45E+01 1.35E+02 3.85E+01
96 2.48E+01 2.77E+01 1.09E+02 3.33E+01
96 3.36E+01 3.75E+01 1.47E+02 4.06E+01
5-20

-------
(W)
c
E
"'-
0)
E
Z
o
i=

-------
5.4.
Short-term Model With Hypothetical House
In this example, a four-zone hypothetical house is defined.
Zone descriptions, volumes, and airflow rates are shown in
Figure 51. A short-term model is run for 24 hours in 15-minute
time steps. The contaminant is released in zone 1 for 30 minutes
during the first hour and in zone 4 for 30 minutes during the
thirteenth hour. The individual is placed in zone 1 for 6 hours
followed by six hours each in zones 3, 4, and 2. Illustrative
portions of the emission rate table (time steps 1 to 16 and 49 to
64) are shown in Figure 52. The review screen is shown in
Figure 53; 25 mg/m3 is selected as the level of concern, 12 is
chosen as the number of events per year, and 50 years is chosen
for length of exposure. Summary statistics and output files are
displayed in Figure 54. Table 4 lists the first 12 hours of the
output file (HYA4S001.PRN). Resultant contaminant concentration
and exposure profiles are illustrated in Figure 55.
5-22

-------
HYPOTHETICAL HOUSE < HY001 >
ZONE DESCRIPT. VOLUME  TOTAL-FLOW-IN TOTAL-FLOW-OUT
  (m A 3)  (m A 3/hr) (mA3/hr)
1 [LIVING-RM] [101 ] 20.30 20.30
2 [MASTER-BR] [38 ] 16.70 16.70
3 [OTHER-BR] [41 ] 17.20 17.20
4 [BASEMENT] [115 ] 80.60 80.60
AIRFLOW RATES TO:         
(m A 3/hr) ZONE 0  ZONE 1 ZONE 2  ZONE 3 ZONE 4 
FROM: ZONE 0 [ . . . . . .] [3.5 ] [4.2 ] [1.5 ] [74.5 ]
 ZONE 1 [7.9 ] [......] [5.4 ] [3.2 ] [3.8 ]
 ZONE 2 [0 ] [5.9 -] [......] [9.2 ] [1. 6 ]
 ZONE 3 [9.4 ] [2.3 ] [4.8 ] [......] [0.7 ]
 ZONE 4 [66.4 ] [8.6 ] [2.3 ] [3.3 ] [......]
F1 - further explanation
Escape - previous screen
FlO - exit program
F7 - next screen
Figure 51.
zone-specific information for example run with
hypothetical hous~.
5-23

-------
  File:HYA4S001 * Total of 96 Time steps *   Day: 1
     Zones 1) LIVING-RM 2) MASTER-BR 3) OTHER-BR 4) BASEMENT
Step Hour Min     Emission Rate [g/hr]      Exposure
(A) (B) (C) Zone1(D)  Zone2(E)  Zone3 (F)  Zone4(G)  Zone(H)
 1  1 15 [100  ] [0  ] [0    ] [0  ] [1]
 2  1 30 [100  ] [0  ] [0    ] [0  ] [1]
 3  1 45 [0  ] [0  ] [0    ] [0  ] [1]
 4  1 60 [0  ] [0  ] [0    ] [0  ] [1]
 5  2 15 [0  ] [0  ] [0    ] [0  l [1]
 6  2 30 [0  ] [0  ] [0    ] [0  ] [1]
 7  2 45 [0  ] [0  ] [0    ] [0  ] [1]
 8  2 60 [0  ] [0  ] [0    ] [0  ] [1]
 9  3 15 [0  ] [0  ] [0    ] [0  ] [1]
10  3 30 [0  ] [0  ] [0    ] [0  ] [1]
11  3 45 [0  ] [0  ] [0    ] [0  ] [1]
12  3 60 [0  ] [0  ] [0    ] [0  ] [1]
13  4 15 [0  ] [0  ] [0    ] [0  ] [1]
14  4 30 [0  ] [0  ] [0    ] [0  ] [1]
15  4 45 [0  ] [0  ] [0    ] [0  ] [1]
16  4 60 [0  ] [0  ] [0    ] [0  ] [1]
F1-Help  F2-Edit/Formula   F3-Import FS-Goto F6-Copy F7-Done F10-Exit
    [(Ctrl+) Arrows, Home/End, PgUp/PgDn]-Move Cursor Ese-Cancel
 File:HYA4S001 * Total of 96 Time Steps *    Day: 1
    Zones 1) LIVING-RM 2) MASTER-BR 3)  OTHER-BR 4) BASEMENT
Step Hour Min     Emission Rate [g/hr]      Exposure
(A)  (B)  (C) Zone1 (D)   Zone2(E)  Zone3(F)   Zone4 (G)  Zone(H)
49  13  15 [0 ]  [0 ]  [0   ]  [100 ]  [4]
50  13  30 [0 ]  [0 ]  [0   ]  [100 ]  [4]
51  13  45 [0 ]  [0 , ]  [0   1  [0 ]  [4]
52  13  60 [0 ]  [0 ]  [0 ]  [0 ]  [4]
53  14  15 [0 ]  [0 ]  [0   ]  [0 ]  [4]
54  14  30 [0 ]  [0 ]  [0   ]  [0 ]' [4]
55  14  45 [0 ]  [0 ]  [0   ]  [0 ]  [4]
56  14  60 [0 ]  [0 ]  [0   ]  [0 ]  [4]
57  15  15 [0 ]  [0 ]  [0   ]  [0 ]  [4]
58  15  30 [0 ]  [0 ]  [0   ]  [0 ]  [4]
59  15  45 [0 ]  [0 ]  [0   ]  [0 ]  [4]
60  15  60 [0 ]  [0 ]  [0   ]  [0 ]  [4]
61  16  15 [0 ]  [0 ]  [0   ]  [0 ]  [4]
62  16  30 [0 ]  [0 ]  [0   ]  [0 ]  [4]
63  16  45 [0 ]  [0 ]  [0   ]  [0 ]  [4]
64  16  60 [0 ]  [0 ]  [0   ]  [0 ]  [4]
F1-Help  F2-Edit/Formula  F3-Import F5-Goto F6-Copy F7-Done F10-Exit
    [(ctrl+) Arrows, Home/End, PgUp/PgDn]-Move Cursor Ese-Cancel
Figure 52.
Selected portions of emission-rate table for example
run with hypothetical house.
5-24

-------
SUMMARY OF INPUTS FOR MODEL RUN

1. TYPE OF STRUCTURE: Hypothetical House
2. GEOGRAPHIC AREA: (N/A)
3. HOUSE CODE: HY001
4. NUMBER OF ZONES: 4
5. SHORT/LONG TERM: Short-term
LENGTH OF RUN: 24 hour(s) TIME STEP: 15 mines)
6. MAXIMUM INDOOR EMISSION RATE (g/hr): 100
Zl= 100 Z2= 0 Z3= 0
7. DECAY RATE: 0.0
8. MAXIMUM OUTDOOR CONCENTRATION (mg/mA3): 0
9. MONTE CARLO OPTION: No
10. SENSITIVITY OPTION: No
11. CALCULATE % CASES >= 25 mg/mA3
12. LIFETIME AVG. DAILY DOSE OPTION: Yes (20,70,12,50,70)
SEASON: Annual Average
Z4= 100
Specify screen to be updated (1-12): [0 ]
F1 - further explanation F10 - exit program
Escape - previous screen Return - next screen
F5 - go to first screen (Source of Input)
Figure 53.
Summary of inputs for example run with
hypothetical house.
5-25

-------
TWA, mg/mA3
STD. DEVIATION
MAXIMUM, mg/m A 3
PERCENT OF CASES
>= 25 mg/mA3
PERCENT OF TIME IN RESIDENCE
LIFETIME AVG. DAILY DOSE, mg/kg-day
SINGLE RUN SUMMARY STATISTICS
ZONE 1 ZONE 2 ZONE 3
LIVING-RM MASTER-BR OTHER-BR
1.36E+02 6.46E+01 6.36E+01
1.06E+02 2.37E+01 2.12E+01
4.59E+02 1.02E+02 9.09E+01
100.0 96.9 95.8
ZONE 4
BASEMENT
3.39E+01
6.51E+01
3.41E+02
19.8
EXPOSURE
1.30E+02
1.18E+02
4.59E+02
94.8
100.0
8.69E-01
Output files generated for this model run are:
1. HYA4S001.REV
2. HYA4S001.PRN
Summary of model inputs and
summary statistics for model outputs
Time-varying concentrations by zone and
inhalation exposure
Escape - Go to Review Screen
Return - Exit MCCEM
Figure 54.
Summary statistics and output file names for example
run with hypothetical house.
5-26

-------
Table 4. Printout of the first 12 hours of the output file
(HYA4S001.PRN) for example run with hypothetical house
   CONCENTRATION  
HOUR MINUTES ZONE 1 ZONE 2 ZONE 3 ZONE 4 EXPOSURE
o 60 O.OOE+OO O.OOE+OO O.OOE+OO O.OOE+OO 
1 15 1. 30E+02 1.41E+00 7.89E-01 3.22E-01 1.30E+02
1 30 3.65E+02 9.52E+00 5.47E+00 2.14E+00 3.65E+02
1 45 4.59E+02 2.34E+01 1. 38E+01 5.13E+00 4.59E+02
1 60 4.37E+02 3.66E+01 2.25E+01 7.82E+00 4.37E+02
2 15 4.17E+02 4.81E+01 3.06E+01 9.97E+00 4.17E+02
2 30 3.97E+02 5.80E+01 3.81E+01 1.17E+01 3.97E+02
2 45 3.79E+02 6.65E+01 4.50E+01 1. 30E+01 3.79E+02
2 60 3.62E+02 7.37E+01 5.14E+01 1. 40E+01 3.62E+02
3 15 3.46E+02 7.98E+01 5. 72E+01 1. 48E+01 3.46E+02
3 30 3.31E+02 8.49E+01 6.25E+01 1.53E+01 3.31E+02
3 45 3.17E+02 8.91E+01 6.72E+01 1. 57E+01 3.17E+02
3 60 3.03E+02 9.26E+01 7..14E+01 1. 59E+01 3.03E+02
4 15 2.91E+02 9.54E+01 7.51E+01 1. 60E+01 2.91E+02
4 30 2.78E+02 9.75E+01 7.83E+01 1. 60E+01 2.78E+02
4 45 2.67E+02 9.92E+01 8.11E+01 1. 59E+01 2.67E+02
4 60 2.56E+02 1.00E+02 8.35E+01 1.58E+01 2.56E+02
5 15 2.46E+02 1. 01E+02 8.55E+01 1.56E+01 2.46E+02
5 30 2.36E+02 1.02E+02 8.72E+01 1. 53E+01 2.36E+02
5 45 2.27E+02 1.02E+02 8.85E+01 1. 51E+01 2.27E+02
5 60 2.18E+02 1. 01E+02 8.95E+01 1. 48E+01 2.18E+02
6 15 2.09E+02 1.01E+02 9.02E+01 1. 45E+01 2.09E+02
6 30 2.01E+02 1.00E+02 9.06E+01 1. 42E+01 2.01E+02
6 45 1. 94E+02 9.94E+01 9.09E+01 1. 38E+01 1. 94E+02
6 60 1.86E+02 9.83E+01 9.09E+01 1.35E+01 1.86E+02
7 15 1.79E+02 9. 72E+01 9.07E+01 1. 3lE+01 9.07E+01
7 30 1. 73E+02 9.59E+01 9.03E+01 1. 28E+01 9.03E+01
7 45 1.66E+02 9.45E+01 8.98E+01 1. 25E+01 8.98E+01
7 60 1.60E+02 9.30E+01 8.91E+01 1. 21E+01 8.91E+01
8 15 1.55E+02 9.15E+01 8.83E+01 1.18E+01 8.83E+01
8 30 1. 49E+02 8.98E+01 8.74E+01 1.15E+01 8.74E+01
8 45 1. 44E+02 8.82E+01 8.63E+01 1.11E+01 8.63E+01
8 60 1.39E+02 8.65E+01 8.52E+01 1. 08~+01 8.52E+01
9 15 1.34E+02 8.48E+01 8.40E+01 1. 05E+01 8.40E+01
9 30 1. 29E+02 8.30E+01 8.28E+01 1. 02E+01 8.28E+01
9 45 1. 25E+02 8.12E+01 8.14E+01 9.89E+00 8.14E+01
9 60 1.20E+02 7.95E+01 8.01E+01 9.59E+00 8.01E+01
10 15 1.16E+02 7. 77E+01 7.86E+01 9.31E+00 7.86E+01
10 30 1.12E+02 7.59E+01 7. 72E+01 9.03E+00 7.72E+01
10 45 1.08E+02 7.41E+01 7.57E+01 8.76E+00 7.57E+01
10 60 1.05E+02 7.24E+01 7.42E+01 8.50E+00 7.42E+01
11 15 1.01E+02 7.06E+01 7.27E+01 8.24E+00 7.27E+01
11 30 9.77E+01 6.89E+01 7.12E+01 8.00E+00 7.12E+01
11 45 9.45E+01 6.72E+01 6.97E+01 7.76E+00 6.97E+01
11 60 9.13E+01 6.55E+01 6.81E+01 7.52E+00 6.81E+01
12 15 8.83E+01 6.38E+01 6.66E+01 7.29E+00 6.66E+01
12 30 8.54E+01 6.22E+01 6.51E+01 7.07E+00 6.51E+01
12 45 8.26E+01 6.06E+01 6.35E+01 6.86E+00 6.35E+01
12 60 7.99E+01 5.90E+01 6.20E+01 6.65E+00 6.20E+01
5-27

-------
500
CONTAMINANT CONCENTRATION PROFILES
 400 
(W)  
c  
E  
'-  
0)  
E 300 Zone 4
Z ~
o 
i=  

-------
5.5.
output Files from Example Runs
An example of the file directory after completion of the
example runs is given in Figure 56. The first eight files (each
beginning with MCCEM) should not be altered or deleted. The next
23 files could be deleted at the user's option. As demonstrated
by these examples, the number of input/output files can grow
rapidly. Thus, care should be taken by the user to avoid clutter
while not deleting files that may be useful for further analyses
or subsequent modeling sessions.
5-29

-------
Volume in drive D has no label
Directory of D:\MCC2-3

 5-15-91
 5-15-91
MCCEM EXE 209734 5-15-91
MCCEM HLP 25125 5-15-91
MCCEM IRR 140790 8-15-89
MCCEM TBL 2400 9-09-88
MCCEM IDI 2888 5-15-91
MCCEM ID2 8 5-15-91
MCCEM IRH 138 5-15-91
MCCEM ID3 107 5-15-91
MDF2LOOI VAL 3330 5-15-91
MDF2LOOI FML 6960 5-15-91
MDF2LOOI RUN 450 5-15-91
MDF2LOOI PRN 3368 5-15-91
MDF2LOOI REV 1630 5-15-91
MDF2S001 VAL 3552 5-15-91
MDF2S001 RUN 442 5-15-91
MCCEM SET 481- 5-15-91
MDF2S001 PRN 3339 5-15-91
MDF2S001 REV 1612 5-15-91
MDF2S002 VAL 3552 5-15-91
MDF2S002 RUN 441 5-15-91
MDF2S002 MCI 4700 5-15-91
MDF2S002 MC2 4700 5-15-91
MDF2S002 MCE 4700 5-15-91
MDF2S002 RND 1600 5-15-91
MDF2S002 REV 1241 5-15-91
HYA4S001 VAL 3552 5-15-91
HYA4S001 RUN 481 5-15-91
HYA4S001 PRN 6100 5-15-91
HYA4S001 REV 1672 5-15-91
31 File(s) 5513216 bytes
Figure 56.
1:56p
1:56p
9:58a
9:58a
5:22p
11:05a
1:57p
2:52p
2:46p
1:57p
2:24p
2:24p
2:25p
2:25p
2:26p
2:30p
2:30p
2:52p
2:30p
2:30p
2:30p
2:33p
2:36p
2:36p
2:36p
2:36p
2:39p
2:50p
-2: 51p
. 2:51p
2:52p
free
. .
File directory after completion of example
model runs.
5-30

-------