The
  Bend i x
  Corporat ion

  Research
  Laboratories

  Southfield, Michigan
   Control  of NOX
   Emissions from
   Mob i1e Sources

   Final  Report

   April  1972

   Contract No. EHS 70-122


   Prepared for:

   Envi ronmental
   Protection Agency
   Office of Air Programs

   Characterization and
   Control  Development
   Branch

   Ann Arbor, Michigan
  Report  No. 6213
  Copy No.  37
Bendi^
Research
Laboratories

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The
Bendix
Co rpo rat ion

Research
Laboratories
South field, Michigan
Control of NOx
Emissions from
Mobile Sources

Fin a 1 Re po r t
April 1972
Contract No. EHS 70-122
Prepa red for:

Environmental
Protecti~n "Agency

Office of Air Programs
Characterization and
Control Development
Branch

Ann Arbor, Michigan
Report No. 6213
Copy No. 37

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FOREWORD
This is the final report on an investigation
Bendix Research Laboratories for the Environmental
under Contract No. EHS 70-122 (BRL Project 2872).

The program was performed by the Vehicle Controls Department under
the direction of J. R. Kremidas, Department Manager. The project super-
visor was D. D. Barnard. The report was prepared by V. B. Gala who was
also the responsible engineer. Significant contributions were made by
R. J. Brown of the Simulation and Computation Department, who was re-
sponsible for computer programming and data reduction and R. S. Henrich
and F. B. Lux of the Control and Data-Handling Systems Department, who
designed and built the special ignition and sequential injection con-
trol units. Special mention is in order for the valuable technical
assistance provided by L. H. Kareus, I. Scott, and C. Adams of the
Automotive Test Laboratory.
conducted at the
Protection Agency
Acknowledgement is made
J. Raney, J. Bascunana and W.
Agency.
for the valuable suggestions provided by
Houtman of the Environmental Protection

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
SECTION 1 - INTRODUCTION
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
Air Management
Timed Sequential Injection
Spark Plug Gap, Spark Duration
Intake Air Heating
Intake Valve Throttling (IVT)
Bendix EFI System
Special Ignition System
and Energy
SECTION 2 - SUMMARY OF TEST RESULTS
SECTION 3 - TECHNICAL DISCUSSION
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
Baseline Tests
Air Management
Sequential Injection Timing
Spark Energy/Duration and Gap Size
Inlet Air Heating
Intake Valve Throttling (IVT)
SECTION 4 - CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
4.1
4.2
Conclusions
Recommendations
REFERENCES
NOMENCLATURE
APPENDIX A - TEST DESCRIPTION
A.l
A.2
A.3
Test Set-Up
Data Reduction
Test Procedure
APPENDIX B - AIR-MANAGEMENT EVALUATION OF A 1970 FORD C.I.D.
ENGINE WITH AN EFI INTAKE MANIFOLD AND
THROTTLE BODY
APPENDIX C - BASELINE EVALUATIONS OF THE 429 C.I.D. FORD
ENGINE WITH BENDIX EFI SYSTEM CALIBRATED FOR
ULTRA-LEAN OPERATION
APPENDIX D - AUTOMOTIVE IGNITION SPARK ENERGY, VOLTAGE AND
CURRENT WAVEFORMS STUDY, PHASE I
APPENDIX E - INLET VALVE THROTTLING CAMSHAFT LOBE ANALYSIS
Page
1-1
1-2
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-5
2-1
3-1

3-1
3-2
3-3
3-7
3-11
3-12
4-1
4-1
4-2
A-I

A-I
A-3
A-16
B-1
C-l
D-l
E-1
i

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APPENDIX F - DATA TABULATION
Page
F.l
F.2
F.3
F.4
F.5
F.6
ii
Baseline Carburetor Tests
Sequential Injection - I
Sequential Injection - II
Ignition Effects
Inlet Air Heating
Intake Valve Throttling
F-l

F-l
F-4
F-IO
F-14
F-24
F-33

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Figure No.

1-1
1-2
1-3
1-4
1-5
3-1
3-2
3-3
3-4
3-5
3-6
3-7
3-8
3-9
3-10
3-11
3-12
3-13
3-14
3-15
3-16
3-17
3-18
3-19
3-20
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Title

Effect of Air-Fuel Ratio on Exhaust Emissions
Fuel Injection Timing Diagram
Bendix Electronic Fuel Injection System
Manual Sequential Injection Control Unit
Ignition Variables Control Units
Effect of Injection Timing on BSFC, 640 rpm -
35 b-ft-1bs, (Idle), A/F = 13.6:1
Effect of Injection Timing on BSNOx, 640 rpm -
35 b-ft-1bs, (Idle), A/F = 13.6:1
Effects of Injection Timing on BSHC, 640 rpm -
35 b-ft-1bs, (Idle), A/F = 13.6:1
Effect of Injection Timing on BSCO, 640 rpm -
35 b-ft-1bs, (Idle), A/F = 13.6:1
Effect of Injection Timing on BSFC, 1200 rpm -
45 b-ft-1bs, A/F = 21:1
Effect of Injection Timing on BSNOx' 1200 rpm -
45 b-ft-1bs, A/F = 21:1
Effect of Injection Timing on BSHC, 1200 rpm -
45 b-ft-1bs, A/F = 21:1
Effect of Injection Timing on BSCO, 1200 rpm -
45 b-ft-1bs, A/F = 21:1
Effect of Injection Timing on BSFC, 1200 rpm -
100 b-ft-1bs, A/F = 21.4:1
Effect of Injection Timing on BSNOx, 1200 rpm -
100 b-ft-1bs, A/F = 21.4:1
Effect of Injection Timing on BSHC, 1200 rpm -
100 b-ft-1bs, A/F = 21.4:1
Effect of Injection Timing on BSCO, 1200 rpm -
100 b-ft-1bs, A/F = 21.4:1
Effect of Injection Timing on BSFC, 2000 rpm -
70 b-ft-1bs, A/F = 21.8:1
Effect of Injection Timing on BSNOx, 2000 rpm -
70 b-ft-1bs, A/F = 21.8:1
Effect of Injection Timing on BSCO, 2000 rpm -
70 b-ft-1bs, A/F = 21.8:1
Effect of Injection Timing on BSHC, 2000 rpm -
70 b-ft-1bs, A/F = 21.8:1
Effect of Injection Timing on BSFC, 2000 rpm -
180 b-ft-1bs, A/F = 21.5:1
Effect of Injection Timing on BSNOx' 2000 rpm -
180 b-ft-1bs, A/F = 21.5:1
Effect of Injection Timing on BSHC, 2000 rpm -
180 b-ft-1bs, A/F = 21.5:1
Effect of Injection Timing on BSCO, 2000 rpm -
180 b-ft-1bs, A/F = 21.5:1
Page
1-2
1-4
1-4
1-6
1-6
3-17
3-17
3-18
3-18
3-19
3-19
3-20
3-20
3-21
3-21
3-22
3-22
3-23
3-23
3-24
3-24
3-25
3-25
3-26
3-26
iii

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Figure No.
3-21
3-22
3-23
3-24
3-25
3-26
3-27
3-28
3-29
3-30
3-31
3-32
3-33
3-34
3-35
3-36
iv
Ti tIe

Current and Voltage Waveforms for 2.8 Millisecond
Duration and 80 Millijoules Energy Spark
Current and Voltage Waveforms for 5.3 Millisecond
Duration and 140 Millijoules Energy Spark
Modified Rotor
Effect of Spark Plug Gap and Spark Duration/
Energy on NOx Emissions, Engine Speed -
1200 rpm, Torque - 45 b-ft-lbs, A/F = 20:1,
Ignition Timing - 400 BTDC
Effect of Spark Gap and Duration/Energy on HC
Emissions, Engine Speed - 1200 rpm, Torque -
100 b-ft-lbs, A/F = 20:1, Ignition Timing -
400 BTDC
Effect of Spark Plug Gap and Spark Duration on
NOx Emissions, Engine Speed - 1200 rpm,
Torque - 100 b-ft-lbs, A/F = 20.1:1, Ignition
Timing 400 BTDC
Effect of Spark Plug Gap and Spark Duration on
HC Emissions, Engine Speed - 1200 rpm, Torque -
100 b-ft-1bs, A/F = 20:1, Ignition Timing
400 BTDC
Effect of Spark Plug Gap and Spark Duration on
NOx Emissions, Engine Speed - 640 rpm, Torque -
35 b-ft~lbs (Idle), A/F = 12:1, Ignition
Timing - 100 BTDC
Effect of Spark Plug Gap and Spark Duration on
HC Emissions, Engine Speed - 640 rpm, Torque -
35 b-ft-1bs (Idle), A/F = 12:1, Ignition
Timing - 100 BTDC
Inlet Air Heating Test Set Up
Effect of Inlet Air Temperature on BSNOx,
1200 rpm, 45 b-ft-lbs, A/F = 20:1, Ignition
Timing - 400 BTDC
Effect of Inlet Air Temperature on BSHC,
1200 rpm, 45 b-ft-lbs, A/F = 20:1, Ignition
Timing - 400 BTDC
Effect of Inlet Air Temperature on BSNDx
640 rpm, 35 b-ft-lbs (Idle), A/F = 13.9:1,
Ignition Timing - 100 BTDC
Effect of Inlet Air Temperature on BSHC,
640 rpm, 35 b-ft-lbs (Idle), A/F = 13.9:1,
Ignition Timing - 100 BTDC
Effect of Inlet Air Temperature on BSNOx,
1200 rpm, 100 b-ft-lbs, A/F = 20:1,
Ignition Timing - 400 BTDC
Effect of Inlet Air Temperature on BSHC,
1200 rpm, 100 b-ft-lbs, A/F = 20:1,
Ignition Timing - 400 BTDC
Page
3-27
3-27
3-28
3-29
3-29
3-30
3-30
3-31
3-31
3-32
3-33
3-33
3-34
3-34
3-35
3-35

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Figure No.
3-37
3-38
3-39
3-40
3-41
Title

Effect of Inlet Air Temperature on BSNOx'
2000 rpm, 180 b-ft-lbs, A/F = 20:1,
Ignition Timing - 40 BTDC
Effect of Inlet Air Temperature on BSHC
2000 rpm, 180 b-ft-lbs, A/F = 20:1,
Ignition Timing - 40 BTDC
Effect of Inlet Air Temperature on BSNOx,
2000 rpm, 70 b-ft-lbs, A/F = 20:1,
Ignition Timing - 40 BTDC
Effect of Inlet Air Temperature on BSHC,
2000 rpm, 70 b-ft-lbs, A/F = 20:1,
Ignition Timing - 40 BTDC
Test Results Correlation
Page
3-36
3-36
3-37
3-37
3-38
v

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Table No.
3-1
3-2
3-3
3-4
vi
LIST OF TABLES
Title

Summary of the Baseline Carburetor and EFI
Results
Summary of Ignition Parameters
Summary of the Baseline and Best Parameter
Results
Summary of the Best Parameter Results with the
Intake Valve Throttling
Page
3-3
3-9
3-14
3-16

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SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION
The work for this project was undertaken under EPA Contract No.
EHS 70-122. The objective of this program was to reduce NOx mass emis-
sions from a 4000-pound GVW vehicle by extending the operation of the
engine in the ultra-lean air/fuel regime. A 1970 Ford Thunderbird with
a 429 CID engine (compression ratio of 10.5:1) was obtained for this
purpose.
The Phase I effort of the program consisted of a baseline vehicle
evaluation with a carburetor, installation of Electronic Fuel Injection
(EFI) and the baseline evaluation with EFI and demonstration of present
(1970) capability regarding NOx mass emissions.

The Phase II effort consisted of removing the engine from the
vehicle and installing it on an engine dynamometer, performing steady-
state tests at selected power test points, and, finally, exploring the
possible ultra-lean operation using various parameters.

The selection of the steady-state power set points was based on
power set points encountered during the 1970 FTP* driving cycle.
. The following five power set points were selected:
(1) 640 rpm, 35 b-ft-1bs 
(2) 1200 rpm, 45 b-ft-lbs 
(3) 2000 rpm, 70 b-ft-lbs 
(4) 1200 rpm, 100 b-ft-lbs 
(5) 2000 rpm, 180 b-ft-1bs 
The first three power set points represent steady-state conditions
of idle in drive, 30 mph cruise and 50 mph cruise conditions. The power
set points 4 and 5 rep~esent conditions encountered during smooth accel-
eration from 0 to 30 mph and 15 to 50 mph speeds, respectively.

Figure 1-1 shows the typical effect of A/F on HC, CO and NOx emis-
sions. The investigations performed during this effort were concentrated
at air-fuel ratios of 18:1 and higher. The potential of reducing the NOx
emissions with ultra-lean mixtures is seen clearly. However, ultra-lean
mixtures are very prone to misfire resulting in increased HC emissions
and rough engine operation giving poor drivability. ..On the other hand,
the oxygen-rich exhaust, resulting from lean operation, appears to offer
*
A list of nomenclature is given at the end of the report.
1-1

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14 16 18
AIR-FUEL RATIO
20
22
Figure 1-1 - Effect of Air-Fuel Ratio on Exhaust Emissions
th~possibi1ity of a thermal reactor or a catalyst for oxidizing HC with-
out 'secondary air. The goal of this program was to extend the lean-limit
operation by exploring the effect of the following parameters.
(1)
(2)
(3)
, (4)
(5)
,Air management
.Timedsequentia1 injection
Spark plug gap, spark duration and energy
Intake air heating
Intake valve throttling
In addition to the above parameters, air/fuel and ignition timing
were varied.
"Lean-limit" is generally defined as extremes of air/fuel where a
minimum of misfire occurs. To simplify the determination of "lean-limit"
and to ensure extremes of the lean air/fuel, the "lean-limit" was defined
as the air/fuel where the HC concentrations in the exhaust are about
12,000 ppm, expressed as carbon equivalent. Previous experience at Bendix
has shown that enleanment of more than an additional 0.5 A/F beyond this
point will result in misfire.
1-2

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1.1
AIR MANAGEMENT
Lean-limit operation of an engine becomes limited if only one of
the cylinder misfires because it is running lean compared to other
cylinders. Therefore, even distribution of air and fuel to each cylinder
would contribute significantly in extension of the lean limit. Since fuel
distribution can be controlled very precisely with EFI, the air distribu-
tion becomes of significant importance. The intake and the exhaust mani-
folds contribute to mass air flow distribution. Therefore, the objective
of this task was to evaluate the intake and the exhaust manifolds for
their role in distribution of mass air to individual cylinders and cor-
rect non-uniformities if possible. Motored-engine tests were performed
to evaluate the intake manifold while operating engine tests with EFI
were performed to evaluate the exhaust manifolds.
1.2
TIMED SEQUENTIAL INJECTION
The standard Bendix EFI system is described as a timed, intermittent,
two-group, port injection system. This means that fuel is injected into
the intake manifold (just upstream of the intake valve) once per engine
cycle but that only two injection signals are furnished per cycle. That
is, the eight injectors are divided into two groups of four. The injectors
in a given group are selected to correspond to four cylinders that fire
in sequence. Two-group injection is one of several alternatives to fully
timed sequential injection.

In group injection, the four injectors in a group fire simultaneously.
This means that only one of the corresponding cylinders for that group
can receive fuel at the optimum time in the engine cycle. The leading
cylinder is normally selected for establishing the timing signal so the
fuel for the remaining three cylinders is injected earlier than optimum
by 90 degrees, 180 degrees and 270 degrees of crank angle, respectively.
In sequential injection a timing signal is established for optimum
injection and furnished to each injector sequentially allowing every
injector to fire separately. Therefore, each cylinder can receive fuel
at an optimum time in the engine cycle.

During this part of the investigation, a sequential injection con-
trol was used and injection timing was varied within the range shown in
Figure 1-2 to evaluate the effect of injection timing on emissions and
extension of the lean limit of operation. The selected injection timing
points are described in the figure as A, B, and C.
1.3
SPARK PLUG GAP, SPARK DURATION AND INTENSITY
Spark plug gap, spark duration and intensity have been shown pre-
viously to affect engine performance and exhaust emissions at light
loads (1, 2).* This is thought to be due to an increase in the proba-
bility of reaching an ignitable mixture at very lean air-fuel ratios.

*
Numbers in parentheses designate References at the end of the report.
1-3

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INJECTION
TIMING A
1-4
TOC

I
RANGE (RELATIVE TO I
C"'l\O~ NT41(f
\~)~ 8r-~
01r~J
INJECTION TIMING C
I
BOC
Figure 1-2 - Fuel Injection Timing Diagram
INJECTION TIMING B
(900
ATOC)
'"
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M
..
,;,
ex>
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The objective of this investigation was to combine the effects of timed
sequential injection with a study of variations of ignition parameters
to extend the lean limit of operation for the selected power set points.
1.4
INTAKE AIR HEATING
The objective here was to evaluate the effect of heating the intake
air on the extension of the lean limit, emissions and engine performance
when combined with the best timed sequential injection, best spark plug
gap and spark duration obtained previously. It was also intended to ob-
tain a "best" parameter combination from these data for comparison with
the baseline tests.
1.5
INTAKE VALVE THROTTLING (IVT)
By limiting the lift of the intake valve, air can be throttled at
the intake valve instead of at the throttle plates. By throttling the
air at the intake valve, turbulence is created in the combustion chamber
and increased turbulence is known to extend the lean limit operation (3).
To limit the lift, three specially ground camshafts were used. The IVT
tests were performed using the "best" spark plug gap and the "best" spark
duration/energy along with the "best" sequential injection timing.
1.6
BENDIX EFI SYSTEM
Figure 1-3 shows the components and typical installation of the
standard two-group injection system on an automobile.

Fuel from the tank is pumped (5) through the filter (6) to the
common fuel rail (9) which supplies all injectors (1). The fuel-pressure
control valve (4) maintains a constant pressure drop of 39 psid between
the rail and the intake manifold and returns excess fuel and purged
vapors to the fuel tank. The-fuel is injected upstream of the intake
valves.
Information from the sen~ors (3 and 8) is fed into the electronic
control unit (7) which regulates the injectors. The trigger unit (7)
provides the electronic control unit with timed signals which initiate
injection and a pulse rate with which engine speed is computed.

The Bendix Electronic Fuel Injection System (EFI) meters fuel in
proportion to the mass of air taken in during each engine cycle. Mea-
suring the mass flow of air is achieved by using "speed-density" sensing.
The mass of air taken in by a cylinder per cycle in a given engine is a
function of the pressure and temperature of -the air in the intake mani-
fold, the amount of residual exhaust gas in the cylinder and the intake
valve pressure drop during induction. At any manifold pressure, residual
exhaust gas and intake valve pressure drop are a function of RPM. Thus,
measurement of manifold pressure, temperature and engine RPM, known as
speed-density sensing, tells the electronic control unit (ECU) how much
fresh air will be taken in per engine cycle.
1-5

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1-6
3. TEMP. SENSOR
(COOLANT)
7. ELECTRONIC
CONTROL UNIT
AND TRIGGER
o
2. THROTTLE BODY Contains:
. Fast Idle Air Valve
. Throttle Transient Enrichment
Switch
. Cold Starting Injector
1. INJECTOR
9. COMMON FUEL RAIL 1




6. FILTER ~ - !
5. ELECTRIC FUEL PUMP
4. FUEL
PRESSURE
CONTROL
VALVE
HIGH PRESSURE FUEL
LOW PRESSURE FUEL

------- VACUUM CONNECTION
TO INTAKE MANIFOLD
E1
Figure 1- 3 - Bendix Electronic Fuel Injection System
('
. !
L/"\
L/"\
l"-
I
L/"\
co
I
0...

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The ECU electronically computes the duration of open time neces-
sary for the solenoid-operated injector valves to provide the precise
amount of fuel required for each cycle.

To conduct steady-state tests on the engine dynamometer, a special
ECU was built which allowed variable-timing sequential injection and
manual control of the injector pulse width. Figure 1-4 shows the control
unit. A special electronic trigger was employed in conjunction with the
ECU to allow sequential injection. The trigger unit was housed in an ex-
ternally mounted distributor driven by the engine at the engine camshaft
speed. The trigger provided signals in sequence of the engine firing
order to the ECU to initiate injection. It also provided means for chang-
ing the injection timing.
1.7
SPECIAL IGNITION SYSTEM
A special ignition control system was designed and constructed to
vary spark duration and energy. The system is basically a capacitor-
discharge (CD) type. It differs from the standard CD system in that the
system discharges the capacitor a controlled number of times for one ig-
nition period. Controls are provided to vary the spark intensity, the
ignition duration and the period between sparks. The period between the
sparks can be made small enough so that a continuous spark will occur.
Figure 1-5 shows the control units.
1-7

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1-8
Figure 1-4 - Manual Sequential Injection Control Unit
Figure 1-5 - Ignition Variables Control Units

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SECTION 2
SUMMARY
A standard carbureted vehicle (Ford Thunderbird with a 10.5:1
C.R. 429 C.I.D. engine) was baseline emission tested before and after
4000 miles of operation. It was then equipped with a Bendix Electronic
Fuel Injection System having a basically ultra lean A/F calibration
(nominally 20:1). Emissions were measured again after the EFI installa-
tion with the following results: NOx mass emissions were reduced from
4.4 gm/mile to 1.5 gms/mile, CO emissions increased from 21.2 gms/mile
to 22.0 gm/mile and HC emissions increased from 2.1 gms/mile to 2.3 gms/
mile. All the tests were performed according to the 1970 FTP. Thus
with a lean calibrated EFI, a reduction of 66 percent in NOx emissions
was achieved compared to a standard carbureted vehicle without markedly
affecting the CO and HC emissions. However, the vehicle did suffer
a substantial loss of satisfactory drivability attributed to a non-
optimized EFI calibration and acceleration fuel enrichment circuit.

The engine with EFI was then installed on a dynamometer for a
series of parametric investigations for extending the lean limit of
operation to reduce NOx' The vehicle EFI electronic control unit was
replaced with a manual control unit. Tests were run at idle, 1200 rpm
for two values of brake torque and at 2000 rpm for two values of brake
torque.
The production intake and exhaust manifolds were evaluated to
determine their influence on uniform inlet air flow between cylinders
and it was determined that they do not adversely affect mass air flow
distribution among the cylinders for the engine speeds and loads con-
sidered in this project. Therefore, the remainder of the parametric
tests were performed using the standard intake and exhaust manifolds.

A control was fabricated to provide variable timed fully sequential
injection and three different injection timing points were evaluated
to determine what effect, if any, timing had on extending the lean limit.

Of the three injection timings considered, 45 BTDC (intake) was
found to be the best for extending the lean limit of operation and in
reducing NOx mass emissions at idle and 1,200 rpm. With this injection
timing, the fuel was injected on a closed intake valve where it normally
vaporizes before being drawn into the cylinder. The results obtained
with this injection timing were not significantly different from the
results obtained with the standard two group injection timing. With
a sequenti~l injection timing of 900 ATDC (intake), the injection
occurred when the intake valve was wide open. This was found to have
a tendency to wet the spark plugs and increased the tendency to misfire.
2-1

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I
I
As a result, HC mass emissions were higher and the lean limit air-fuel
ratios were relatively richer than with the other two timings. Thus
NDx mass emissions were higher. With a timing of 180 ATDC (intake),
the fuel was injected just before the intake valve closed. This allowed
the maximum residence time for the fuel prior to being inducted into
the cylinder. The long residence time allowed more complete vaporization
of the fuel and improved combustion. Because of the improved combustion,
for a given air/fuel and ignition timing, HC mass emissions were lower
than for the other two injection timings and the lean limit was extended;
however, NOx mass emissions were higher due to improved thermal effi-
ciency. Thus, the injection timing of 45 BTDC (intake) was judged
to be the "best" overall sequential injection timing.

Similar general trends were observed for the 2,000 rpm test points.
However, the difference in emissions for different injection timings
was small for the 2,000 rpm test points compared to the results at idle
and 1,200 rpm. At 2,000 rpm higher turbulence exists and a high energy
and long duration spark was used. Both of these factors helped to
provide more efficient combustion. Thus, the effect of injection timing
on combustion was minimal for most of the tests performed at 2000 rpm.
A special ignition control was fabricated that provided a variable
spark duration and energy. The purpose was to evaluate the effect of
spark characteristics and spark plug gap on extension of the lean limit
because it had veen reported that improvements were possible when the
air-fuel ratios were very lean.

The tests were performed at idle and at the 1,200 rpm set points
to determine "best" spark plug gap and the "best" spark energy/duration
for minimum NOx mass emissions. Increasing the spark plug gap from
0.035 inches (standard) to 0.045 inches and then to 0.060 inches had a
similar effect on exhaust mass emissions as increasing the spark dura-
tion from 1.35 milliseconds (standard) to 2.8 milliseconds and then to
5.3 milliseconds.
For example, at 1,200 rpm, 45 b-ft-lbs torque, increasing the
spark plug gap to 0.045 inches from 0.035 inches, resulted in BSNOx and
BSHC reductions of about 33 percent and 47 percent, respectively,' for
an A/F of 20:1 and ignition timing of 40 BTDC (MBT).

At the same test condition, when the spark duration was increased
to 2.8 milliseconds from 1.35 milliseconds, the reduction in BSNOx and
BSHC was about 28 percent and 22 percent, respectively. With the gap
further increased to 0.060 inches, BSNOx emissions increased almost
59 percent and BSHC emissions decreased 58 percent as compared to
results for a 0.035 inch gap. Similarly, increasing the spark duration
to 5.3 milliseconds increased BSNOx 27 percent and decreased BSHC 57
percent from values for a standard gap and spark duration. Similar
trends were observed for other air/fuel and ignition timings and also
for the 1,200 rpm, 100 b-ft-lbs torque set point. For both set points,
the effect on BSNOx and BSHC due to changes in gap and spark duration was
reduced at higher air/fuel (22:1) and retarded timing (25 BTDC, 15 BTDC).
2-2

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At idle an increased spark plug gap had an effect similar to that
for extended spark duration. However, increasing the gap and spark
duration increased BSHC emissions and decreased BSNOx emissions. For
example, at an A/F of 21:1 and ignition timing of 10 BTDC, increasing
the gap from 0.035 inches to 0.045 inches and then to 0.060 inches
increased BSHC emissions to 32 percent and 51 percent respectively.
Similarly, increasing the spark duration to 2.8 milliseconds and then
to 5.3 milliseconds from 1.35 milliseconds increased BSHC 39 percent
and 60 percent, respectively. When the gap was changed to 0.045 inches
and then to 0.060 inches from 0.035 inches, BSNOx decreased 42 percent
and 52 percent, respectively. When spark duration was changed to 2.8
milliseconds and then to 5.3 milliseconds from 1.35 milliseconds, BSNOx
decreased about 38 percent in both cases.

Increased spark duration/energy increased the tendency of detona-
tion at 1,200 rpm, 100 b-ft-lbs and 2,000 rpm, 180 b-ft-lbs.

An inlet air heater was installed to enable an evaluation of the
effect of air temperature on extension of the lean limit. Temperatures
to 150F were investigated. In general, increased inlet air temperature
extended the lean-limit of operation. Depending on the engine operating
condition, the lean-limit was extended as far as an A/F of 26:1. Again,
depending on the engine operating condition, increasing the inlet air.
temperature decreased BSHC emissions by as much as 55 percent while at
the same time BSNOx emissions increased by as much as 100 percent. For
inlet air temperatures greater than or equal to 150F, the tendency for
detonation increased for the set points of 1,200 rpm, 100 b-ft-lbs and
2,000 rpm, 180 b-ft-lbs.
Three specially ground camshafts
throttling by the intake valves rather
butterfly valve. This was expected to
better combustion (Reference 3).

Intake valve throttling (IVT) caused the MBT spark timing to
occur as much as 15 nearer to TDC. Depending on the operating condition,
IVT caused an increase in BSNOx of as much as four times the value
obtained without it. The expected lean-limit extension was not realized
for all the power set points because of an increase in BSHC. The
tendency toward detonation was increased. With manifold fuel injection
and IVT, even distribution of the air/fuel mixture among the cylinders
may pose a problem.
were installed to provide air
than the usual manifold inlet
increase turbulence and promote
As a result of the above series of parametric tests, it was con-
cluded that the original objective of lowering NOx mass emissions to
less than 1.3 gms/mile would be easily achieved. The excess CO and
HC would have to be converted with exhaust treatment devices. For
this, the excess and hot 02 in the exhuast could be helpful. Sequential
injection was not shown to be effective and heated inlet air does not
appear to be practical since it increases the NDx mass emissions. It does
appear that a higher energy spark would be desirable where lean operation
2-3

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is used. IVT demonstrated no significant improvements and it seems
to be an inherently expensive control method.

It was recommended that intake manifold design be optimized for
installations with fuel injection to assure air delivery uniformity
over a greater range of operation. The effects of some of the parameters
should be studied for engine transient conditions and optimum combina-
tions of EGR and lean A/F should be explored to effect further control
of NO .
x
2-4

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SECTION 3
TECHNICAL DISCUSSION
3.1
BASELINE TESTS
Two sets of baseline tests were run. One set consisted of emissions
tests on a vehicle, run according to the 1970 Federal Test Procedure,
with the standard carburetor as well as with the lean-calibrated Bendix
EFI system installed. Two tests were run with the carbureted vehicle
at the EPA facilities in Ypsilanti, Michigan. The first test was per-
formed on a new vehicle and the second test was performed after driving
the vehicle for 4,000 miles over a previously established driving cycle.
The results for the carbureted vehicle are summarized below:
New Vehicle
After 4,000 miles
NOx (gm/mile)
5.4

4.4
CO (gm/mile)
15.8

21.2
HC (gm/mile)
2.0

2.1
After installing the EFI, 1970 FTP tests were performed at Bendix
with the following results:
Test III
Test 112
NOx (gm/mile)
1. 38 (1.18)
1. 22 (1. 21)
CO (gm/mile)
22.1

19.7
HC (gm/mile)
3.1

3.1
The NOx emissions were converted from concentrations to a mass basis
using the "then proposed" federal standards for 1972. At the time of
the tests no adopted standards for NOx existed. Because of this the NOx
mass emissions values listed above and below for the tests of the EFI
equipped vehicle are shown with and without a humidity correction. The
humidity corrected values are given in parentheses and were computed
from recorded conditions at the time of the test using the correction
factor described in Federal Register No. 228 dated November 25, 1971.

Afte~ the vehicle was tested by Bendix, it was delivered to EPA
where another set of 1970 FTP tests were performed with the following
results:
Test III
Test 112
NOx(gm/mile)
1.6 (1.45)
1. 5 (1. 37)
CO (gm/mile)
21.0
22.0
HC (gm/mile)
2.3

2.3
3-1

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It can be seen that, although the tests at Bendix produced the
expected values of NOx mass emissions (less than 1.3 gm/mi1e), the EPA
tests did not. In addition, the driveabi1ity evaluations made by EPA
personnel were unfavorable {Reference 5). The poor driveability resulted
from the fact that the EFI control and calibrations had not been optimized.
With the basically lean A/F calibration, the vehicle is very sensitive
to the warm-up characteristics and to the acceleration enrichmen.t. The
performance of these subsystems at the time was less than adequa'te.
. Additional time spent in calibration .would have resulted in improved
driveability.

The'differences in the results between the two facilities ~a~
probably be attributed to variations between ,drivers, equipment and
. .
instrumentation.
. ,
The second set of baseline tests consisted of steady-state tests
on an engine dynamometer at the five selected set points. Appenaix C'"
describes the baseline tests along with sample calculations and the results
obtained with EFI. At the end of the program, after re-insta11ing the
carbureted manifold, the baseline tests were run again. The results are
tabulated in Appendix F under "Baseline Carburetor Tests." The results
are summarized in Table 3-1 for convenience.
3.2
.AIR MANAGEMENT
Ultra-lean operation of a spark ignition engine can reduce NOx
emissions. However, ultra-lean operation, without.a misfire, requires,
among other things, that all cylinders be supplied with the same quantity
of air-fuel mixture and that the mixture be maintained at a constant
air/fuel ratio.

The Bendix Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) system can be calibrated
to give uniform fuel distribution to the individual cylinders to within
one. percent. of one another. Therefore, in the EFI-equipped engine, . the
uniform distribution of the mass air flow to the individual cylinders
is an important factor in maintaining a constant air/fuel ratio among 'the
cylinders. .'
. As a -part of this program, the standard intake and exhaust man.ifo1ds
were evaluated for their.ro1e in distribution of the mass air flow. ~ To
evaluate the intake manifold, motored-engine tests Were conducted and
certain parameters wer'emeasured for use with an analytical technique.
. .

Once the intake manifold was evaluated and found to provide satis-
factory air distribution, tests were performed on the operating engine
to evaluate the exhaust manifolds. Individual cylinder exhaust was
sampled to determine the air/fuel at each cylinder. To determine the
effect of the standard exhaust manifolds on air/fuel at each cylinder,
cy1inder-to-cy1inder air/fuel was first determined using a set of-. tuned
exhaust headers as a baseline. It was assumed that these headers would
have a minimum effect on air/fuel from cylinder-to-cy1inder. The results
3-2 :

-------
,-
Table 3-1 - Summary of the Baseline Carburetor and EFI Results
 Speed Torque BSFC BSNO BSCO BSHC
  x  
 rpm b-ft-lbs lb/b-hp-hr  gm/b-hp-hr 
EFI 640 35 1. 45 1.3 131. 20 8.20
Carburetor 640 35 1.25 1. 94 14.97 0.84
EFI 1200 45 1.41 0.89 25.20 4.70
Carburetor 1200 45 0.89 4.25 12.04 1.95
EFI 1200 100 0.77 0.59 70.55 2.85
Carburetor 1200 100 0.53 5.25 6.70 2.50
EFI 2000 70 0.8 1.49 7.99 3.61
Carburetor 2000 70 0.65 11. 93 7.63 1. 74
EFI 2000 180 0.48 2.4 9~65 0.69
Carburetor 2000 180 0.43 12.35 5.18 4.13
N
cb
M
.,.
.n
co
ci..
were then compared with the air/fuel measurements from each cylinder
using the standard manifolds. Appendix B discusses the air management
task in detail.
It was concluded from these studies that~ for the engine operating
range to be used for this project~ the standard intake and exhaust mani-
folds were satisfactory for uniform mass air flow distribution to
individual cylinders. Also it was observed that sequential injection
did not provide a more uniform air/fuel cylinder-to-cylinder, than the
standard group injection EFI. Therefore, merely converting an EFI sys-
tem to sequential injection will not enable any leaner operation than
standard group injection and thus there will not be any reduction in
NOx emissions. It will be shown later, however~ that if not timed pro-
perly, sequential injection could have an adverse effect on emissions
and performance of the engine.
3.3
SEQUENTIAL INJECTION TIMING
The.purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of timed
sequential injection (when set to inject at different crank angles with
respect to the opening of the intake valve) on emissions and on lean-
3-3

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limit extension without misfire. Also, it was intended to compare the
timed sequential injection with group injection for performance and',
emissions.
A special electronic control unit was designed and constructed to
. allow sequential injection. Also, a special trigger was fabricated and
housed in'a distributor to allow easy changing of the injection timing.
The control unit was a manual type which allowed variation of the injector.
pulse width to vary the air/fuel as desired. The control unit did not
have the capability to perform during transient conditions.

, T.hree injection timings were selected to evaluate effects of sequen-
tialinjection on emissions and extension of the lean-limit operation.
The inj~ction timings used were 450 BTDC, 90~ ATDC and 1800 ATDC. The,
TDC referred to is relative to the start of the intake stroke as shown
previously in Figure 1-2. The selection 'of these injection timings was
ba~ed on previous experience at Bendix. The injection timing of 450
, BTDC (intake) initiated injection when the intake valve was closed, but
the exhau~t valve was still open. Timing at 900 ATDC (intake) initiated.
the injection when the intake valve was wide open and the exhaust valve
was closed, and 1800 ATDC (intake) timing initiated injection when ~he
intake valve was still open, the exhaust valve closed and the piston
at BDC.
For a given speed and torque, the injection timing was set and the
air/fuel and the ignition timings varied. The air/fuel was varied
. from 18:1 to the lean limit in increments of two air/fuel ratios.
The lean limit was defined as the occurrence of a hydrocarbon concen-
tration in the exhaust of about 12000 PPM, expressed as carbon equiva-
lent. Such a high number for hydrocarbon concentration was selected
to erisure extremes of lean operations. For each injection timing, MBT
spark timing was found. Data were also taken for spark timings of
MBT-15 degrees and MBT-25 degrees. Since the MBT was different for
ea~h injectio~ ,timing, this approach of varying ignition timing gave a
mpre realistic comparison.

The sequential injection task was coordinated with the special
igni~ion task to make sure that the effects' of one on the other could
be realized. First, using the standard ignition system, tests were
run to determine best injection timings for 1200'rpm, 45 b-ft-1bs;
1200 rpm" 100 b....ft-lbs and 640 rpm, 35 b-ft-lbs (idle) power set tings.
The best injection timing thus obtained was then fixed and tests were'
performed, to specIfy best spark plug gap ,and spark energy/duration.'
The sequential injection tests were repeated with these best ignition
parameters to see if the ignition parameters had any bearing on the
best injection timing determined earlier. The special ignition task is
discussed in the next section. .
Results were somewhat scattered at idle. Difficulty insetting
up the low torque and air/fuel at idle could account for this. The'
air/fuel is difficult to set at idle because very small air flow and
fuel flow are involved.
3-4

-------
For the purpose of discussion, the injection timings will be identi-
fied as follows:
45 BTDC
90 ATDC
(intake) - A
(intake) - B
(intake) - C
180 ATDC
When the tabulated data is considered, certain trends are seen.
The emissions results for timings "A" and "c" have the same trends, but
timing "B" has definitely different trends. For a given air/fuel and
ignition timing, "c" offers least NOx mass emissions. However, it is
timing "A" which allows leanest operation (up to 20:1 air/fuel at 0
BTDC ignition timing). Timing "B" does not allow operation beyond
16:1 air/fuel at 0 BTDC ignition timing without an unacceptable increase
in HC mass emissions.

When compared with the standard group injection and standard igni-
tion timing of 6 BTDC, none of the injection timings or the ignition
timings had as low NOx emissions as did the group injection. However,
lower fuel consumption and lower CO emissions were realized with timings
"A" and "c" for all ignition timings and with "B" for 10 BTDC and 20
BTDC ignition timings. Figures 3-1 through 3-4 show these comparisons.

Reviewing the tabulated data on page F-5,tests 1 through 9, it can
be seen that for the same HC levels as obtained with group injection,
with injection timing A, the engine could idle at 0 BTDC ignition
timing and an air/fuel of nearly 20:1 (test No.7). This would reduce
NOx mass emissions to 0.78 gm/b-hp-hr compared to 1.3 gm/b-hp-hr with
the group injection. BSFC would go up to only 1.55 lb/b-hp-hr compared
with 1.45 lb/b-hp-hr with group injection and CO emissions would be
only about 20 gm/b-hp-hr compared with 131 gm/b-hp-hr with group injec-
tion. Similar results could be obtained with 10 BTDC ignition timing
with somewhat higher HC mass emissions. Thus, injection timing "A" was
selected for idle operation for the unknown. It should be kept in
mind, however, that selection of such a high air/fuel would probably
give a very poor idle quality
The effect of injection timing can be seen more clearly by review-
ing the 1200 rpm and 45 b-ft-lbs torque set point.

Generally speaking, injection timing "Alf gives least NOx mass
emissions.' Injection timing "B" has relatively low NOx emissions; how-
ever, HC and CO emissions and BSFC are higher. Injection timing "c"
has much higher NOx emissions but HC emissions are lower. The lean
limit of operation with each injection timing is about the same.

With injection timing "B", fuel is injected when the intake valve
is wide qpen. This apparently wets the spark plugs with the fuel spray.
As a result, tendency to misfire increases and HC and CO emissions are
higher. On the other hand, with timing "c" the fuel is sprayed on the
intake valve as it is about to be closed, and remains on the intake
3-5

-------
valve for almost 500 degrees of crankshaft rotation. This residence
time allows the fuel to vaporize and thus a well-mixed charge of air
and fuel is inducted resulting in better combustion. The improved
combustion reduces HC but increases NOx emissions. Despite the better
combustion there is no ~ignificant extension of the lean limit?f operation.

, From Figures 3-5 through 3-8 in comparison with group'injection,
it can be seen that the results obtained with sequential injection timing
"A" and an ignition timing of MBT-25 ,(15 BTDC) would be very much the
same, if the ignition timing was further retarded t() be thes,ame as
standard timing with group injection; namely, ,12 BTDC.'

From Figure 3-6 the effect of injection timing is,seen'to be.rpore
prominent at the'MET ignition timing; however, with 'retarded igniti?n,
the injection timing does not have much effect on NOxemissions. Thus,
"'of ,the, three injection timings selected, "A" gives best results'. The'
results, however, are not much different than obtained with group injection.

, For the test condition at 1200 rpm and 100 b-ft-lbs torque, injec-
t-ion" timing "c" seems to produce less NOx. The reason' fo,r this is not
knoWn. Ihjection timing "B"- still performs poorly., Figures 3-9, through,
,3~12 show results of sequential inject~on in ~omparison with group in~
, jection.., The difference in performance and emissions is significant
at air/fuel of .18:1' and 20:1. For higher air/fuel however; injection
timings ""A" and' "c" have similar results. Injection timing "B" ha's "
higher 'HCemissions and a iower lean limit. Since injection timing
"A" allowed the leanest operation and since it was anticipated that the
best parameter combination would have ultra-lean air/fuel,injection
timing. ,"A" was selected for the' rest of the tests. ,
Using injection timing "A"-, a study was made to determine best
ignition parameters. The spark plug gap, the spark duration and energy
were the selected ignition parameters. To observe the effect of igni-
tion parameters 0'11 best injection timing, tests were run to re-evaluat,e
sequential inj e,ction timings 'using best ignition parameters. Set points
of 2000 rpm, 70 b-ft-lbs torque and 2000 rpm, 180 b-ft-lbs torque were
selected for this'task. -

The data are tabulated in Appendix F under "Sequential Injection
II. For nei,ther set point did injection timing "-B" stand out as giving
bad performance or emissions results. Two reasons could be given fo~
this. At 2000 rpm, the induction air velocities are much higher causing
the fuel to atomize which would lessen the wetting of the spark plugs.
The second reason is that with these tests very high ignition energy
and spark duration were used. The higher energy and duration would
tend to fire even a wet plug.
oJ.
Also, the injection timing does not seem to influence MBT ignition
timings. In all of 'the 'cases, MBT was found to be 40 'BTDC.This in-
directly shows that, in the case of the 2000 rpm test points and high
3-6

-------
energy/duration spark, injection timing does not have much effect on
the combustion process. This can be seen from the tabulated data and
Figures 3-13 through 3-20 where sequential injection results are compared
with group injection results.

For 2000 rpm, 70 b-ft-lbs torque, some difference in NOx emissions
were observed at air-fuel ratios of 18:1 and 20:1 for MBT ignition
timing. However, for leaner air-fuel ratios and retarded ignition tim-
ing the differences are small. Figures 3-13 through 3-16 show these
comparisons, including results for group injection at an air-fuel of
21.8:1 and various ignition timings.

For 2000 rpm - 180 b-ft-lbs torque, similar observations can be
made.
Injection timing "c" was observed to allow somewhat leaner oper-
ation. Figures 3-17 through 3-20 compare sequential injection results
with the group injection results at an air/fuel of 21.5:1 for various
ignition timings. It can be seen that NOx emissions are higher with
sequential injection than with group injection when group injection
results are compared with MBT results. MBT in this case was 40 degrees
BTDC which is 3 degrees further advanced than the standard timing with
group injection. This would result in somewhat higher NOx with sequen-
tion injection; however, it is suspected that most of the increase is
caused by the high energy, long duration spark. The increase in HC emis-
sions could be the result of detonation caused by the high energy spark.
The detonation problem is discussed in the next section.

From the sequential injection study, the following general conclu-
sions and remarks can be made:
(1)
At steady-state conditions and with the spray characteristics
obtained from the Bendix fuel injectors, it is best to inject
while the intake valve is closed. However, injecting into an
open valve may not have a serious effect on emissions and per-
formance at high engine rpm if a high energy spark is used.

The changes in emissions and performance caused by different"
injection timings are more noticeable at relatively rich air/
fuel (18:1 and 20:1) and ignition timing near MBT.
(2)
(3)
Since all the tests were run at steady-state on a warmed-up
engine, the effect of injection timings is not known for
transient conditions such as acceleration, warm-up and cold
start.
(4)
Standard group injection timing essentially gives results as
good as the best sequential injection timing "A".

Although sequential injection timing"A" was selected initially
" as the best inj ection timing, "c" may give the least amount
of CO and HC emissions at a cost of somewhat higher NOx emis-
sions and may extend the lean limit the farthest.
(5)
3-7

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3.4
SPARK ENERGY/DURATION AND GAP SIZE
. With ultra-lean mixtures in a combustion chamber, it is extremely
difficult to sustain the combustion flame to obtain complete combustion.
It was expected that increasing the spark plug gap, spark energy and the
spark duration from the standard values would help achieve the combus-
tion of the leaner air-fuel mixtures that are necessary to reduce NOx
emissions.
In general, the air-fuel mixture in a combustion chamber is non-
homogeneous in that the mixture will be composed of very lean pockets,
relatively rich pockets and even some inert pockets composed of residual
exhaust.
The probability of igniting a relatively rich mixture to start the
combustion would increase with increased spark gap size and a longer
duration spark. Also the higher energy spark would reduce quenching
by the electrodes and would even start combustion of those-lean mixture
pockets which would otherwise be difficult to ignite. (1)

A special ignition system was developed and fabricated to enable
variation of spark energy and duration. Conventional ignition system
components were used thereby providing easy installation. The basic
principle of this ignition system was capacitor discharge with the added
capability of multiple discharges for each ignition period.

Before evaluating ignition effects, since it is rather difficult
to measure ignition energy on the engine, the various energy and dura-
tion levels were measured on the bench. Control settings for various
energy levels and waveforms were noted and used later to perform tests
on the engine.
Appendix D describes the test equipment and method used to measure
spark energy and duration. It was recognized that spark duration and
energy cannot be varied independently since once the gap was ionized,
only so much energy could flow. Therefore, to vary energy, essentially,
the duration was varied.

First, the control settings were obtained to simulate standard
ignition energy level and duration. Figure D-16 in Appendix D shows
standard spark energy and duration simulated by the special ignition
system. Tests were run at these settings to make certain that using
the special ignition system did not affect the engine performance or
the emissions.
Two additional spark duration/energy settings were selected for
the tests and are identified as No.2 and No.3 energy/duration.

Control settings described in Figure D-18 (Appendix D) were used
for the No.2 energy/duration, except that four pulses were used which
gave a spark energy of 80 millijoules and a duration of 2.8 milliseconds.
Figure 3-21 shows current and voltage waveforms as seen on the operating
engine. .
3-8

-------
Control settings described in Figure D-23 in Appendix D were used
for energy/duration No.3 except that 100 volts primary voltage and
seven pulses were used. This resulted in 5.3 millisecond duration and
140 millijoules spark energy. Figure 3-22 shows current and voltage
waveforms as observed on the operating engine.

Control settings described in Figure D-17 (Appendix D) were used
for 0.045-inch and 0.060-inch spark plug gaps.

Table 3-2 summarizes the various ignition parameters used for
this test.

To perform the tests, the injection timing was set at 45 degrees
BTDC (intake) and tests were run for 1200 rpm, 45 b-ft-lbs; 1200 rpm,
100 b-ft-lbs and 640 rpm - 35 b-ft-bls (idle) set points. At each test
point, ignition variables listed in Table 3-2 were varied, one at a
time. For every ignition variab~e, ignition timing and air/fuel were
Table 3-2 - Summary of Ignition Parameters
 Ignition  Energy Duration Gap
  (millij oules) (milliseconds) (inches)
Standard   26.9 1. 35 0.035
No. 2 Energy/Duration 80.0 2.8 0.035
No. 3 Energy/Duration 140.0 5.3 0.035
0.045-inch spark plug gap 28.8 1.48 0.045
0.060-inch spark plug gap 28.8 1.48 0.060
varied. Air/fuel ratio was varied from 18:1 to the lean limit in incre-
ments of two air/fuel ratios. For idle ignition timings of 0 degree;
10 degrees and 20 degrees BTDC were used, and, for other test points ig-
nition timings of MET, 40 degrees, 25 degrees and 15 degrees BTDC were
used.
A problem was recognized when 5.3-millisecond duration spark was
used at 1200 rpm. At this speed, and with retarded ignition timing, the
contact time between the distributor rotor tip and the distributor cap
is not sufficient to allow the 5.3-millisecond duration spark. The rotor
was modified to have a much wider tip to increase the contact time with
the distributor cap. It was anticipated that when performing tests at
2000 rpm, the contact time obtained with the standard rotor would not be
sufficient for 2.8-millisecond spark duration and the use of the special
rotor would be necessary. The modified rotor is shown in Figure 3-23.
3-9

-------
. '. 'Figtires3-24 and 3-25 show the effect of spark plug gap and spark
duration on BSNOx and BSHC emissions for 1200 rpmt 45 b-ft-lbs tes.t pq;int.
The air/~uel ratio was 20:1 and ignition timing 40 degrees BTDC. The.
complete .set of data for this set point are listed in Appendix Ft Sec~ion
F.4 under "Ignition Effects". . .
- 'From Figure 3-24
tion is increased from
secon~st BSHC decrease
30 percent.
and 3-25t it can be seen
a standard value of 1~35
more than 22 percent and
that when the spark dura-
milliseconds to 2.8 milli-
BSNOx decrease almost
,cIt was mentioned earlier that the increased spark duration results
in an - :!-nc'rease in spark energYt, prompting the anticipation of a decrease
in HC em,issions and. an increase in NOx emissions. The occurrence of .
exactly the opposite ~ffect on NOx emissions required some t~eorizin~
A-red,uction of NOx g~nerally can be correlated with a lower concentration
of 02 and/or a lower peak cycle temperature. The air/fuel was maintained
in this case so the reason for an apparent reduction in peak cycle
temperature was sought. The purpose of an extended spark duration is
to improve the probability of igniting the charge when it is so lean
that ignitable pockets of fuel and air are relatively scarce. Thust
over a number of engine cycles, if the longer duration' spark is success-
ful in igniting the charge, it is probable that some charges ignite when
the spark is first struck, others ignite just before the spark extin-
guishes and the rest ignite somewhere between the two extremes;

~Pro~ability theory would then suggest that the mean time ,of igni-
tion of the charges is near the mid-point of the spark duration. At
2000 rpm with a 2.8 ms spark the crank angle rotation to the mid-point
of spark duration (1.4 ms) is 8.4 degrees. This delay then is essen-
tially the same as an equivalent spark retard of 8.4 degrees. for which
one normally expects lower peak temperatures and less NO .
x
. Increasing the spark duration to 5.3 milliseconds decreased HC
emissions furthert but NOx emissions increased. It seems that suffi-
cient increase in spark energy has a significant effect on NOx formation.
Trends were somewhat the same at different air/fuel and d~fferent
ignition timings. Howevert small changes inNOx emissions occurred
with changes in spark duration for air/fuel leaner than 22:1 and for,
retarded ignition timings. On the other handt large changes in HC
emissions occurred with leaner air/fuel and retarded ignition timings.
Increasing the spark plug gap from the standard (0.035 inch) had
a similar effect on HC and NOx emissions as did increasing the duration.
'HC emissions decreased with increasing spark plug gap size. .The wider
gap allows more volume of the charge to be exposed to .the spark between
. the electrodes t and thus it is believed that the comhus,tion begins with
,a relativ,ely large kern~l of flame having more energy. This t, in effect t
could act like a higher energy spark. The results shown in Figures 3-24
and 3-25 reflect this argument.
3-10
,

-------
Similar trends are observed at the 1200 rpm and 100 b-ft-lbs test
point. Figures 3-26 and 3-27 show the effect of spark duration and spark
plug gap at air/fuel of 20:1 and 40 degrees BTDC ignition timing. The
slight increase in NOx and HC emissions, when spark duration was changed
from 1.35 milliseconds to 2.8 milliseconds, could be caused by experi-
mental error in setting air/fuel and ignition timing. The decrease
in HC emissions with increased spark plug gap and increased spark dura-
tion is small compared with that for the 45 b-ft-Ibs torque set point.
At 100 b-ft-lbs torque, the charge density is higher thus, during the
compression stroke, the mixture is at higher temperature and pressure
than at 45 b-ft-lbs torque and, even with the standard ignition system,
better combustion is obtained. Therefore, relatively small gains are
realized by increasing spark duration or spark plug gap at this test
point.

Figures 3-28 and 3-29 show the effect of spark plug gap and spark
duration on NOx and HC emissions, respectively, at idle. The air/fuel
is 12:1 and the ignition timing is 10 degrees BTDC. The NOx emissions
are reduced considerably by increasing either the spark plug gap or
the spar~ duration and at the same time the HC emissions are increased.
Apparently, increasing spark plug gap size and spark duration increases
the tendency of misfire at idle.

From the test results obtained at the power set points discussed
above, 0.045~inch spark plug gap and 2.8-millisecond spark duration with
80 millijoules of spark energy were selected to continue further tests
with heated air to obtain "best parameter" combination results. Also,
the above spark plug gap size and spark duration were used to evaluate
effects of intake valve throttling.
As mentioned in Section 3.3, the above selected ignition parameters
were used with 2000 rpm, 70 b-ft-lbs and 2000 rpm~ 180 b-ft-lbs torque
test points to re-evaluate sequential injection timings. A peculiar
problem was experienced during these tests. Indolene clear (non-leaded)
fuel was used to this point in the tests. However, with the higher
energy and longer duration spark, a severe detonation problem was ex-
perienced with the 180 b-ft-lbs torque set point. It was postulated
that with the high energy and long duration spark, flame fronts would
start at several points around the spark plug electrodes, and these
flame fronts would'cause detonation. It was decided to use a higher
octane fuel for these test points so Indolene 30 was selected. Indolene
clear has a research octane of 98 (motor octane of 92) and Indolene 30
has a research octane of 105 and a motor octane of 100. Use of the
higher octane fuel alleviated the detonation.
Reviewing Figures 3-24 through 3-29, one important conclusion could
be made that the increase in either the spark gap or the spark duration
and energy have similar effects on both the NOx and HC emissions. Thus
b~ merely widening the spark plug gap and making certain that the igni-'
t10n system would provide enough ~nergy to strike the spark across the
3-11

-------
gap, results similar to that obtained with longer duration and. higher
energyspar~ could .be obtained.
3.5
INLET AIR HEATING
/
Inc'reasing the temperature of the intake air could heJ:p vaporize
the ,fuel which would" provide a more homogeneous mixture of the air and,
the fuel.. As a result, chances of complete combustion would increase.
Bet"ter combustion would,' allow leaner operation, resulting in ,reduction'
of N0x'; however, at a given air/fuel ratio i'ncreased inlet air tempera:"
ture "may in'crease NOx emissions. Also, the decrease in the density, of
the inlet air would decrease the voJ:umetric efficiency of the' engine.
The inlet air temperature for these tests was limited to a maximum of
200F'tb ensure sufficient power at the maximum air flow conditions.

T? heat the inlet air, a duct-type finned air heater was procured
'with-a heating capacity of 12 kilowatts. A temperature controller was
employed' to set and maintain the inlet air temperature at a desired ,.
value; The controller maintained the temperature within ":!:.5F 'of. the
set P?int.. The inlet air heating installation is shown i~ Figure: 3-~0.

," The in.1et air. heating tests were conducted for all five ,sele.cte,ci
test points. The best ignition parameters, and the best sequent~al, ih~'
jection timing selected earlier were used and three "inlet air tempera~
tures, namely~ 100, 1500 and 200F,' were used. It also was intended
t~ find the "best" parameter combination'from these tests. The "best"
parameters would consist of the best inlet air temperature, the best"
irijec,'tion timing, and the best ignition parameters that would allow
~ltta-lean 'oper~tion, resulting in a decr~ase of NOx emissions. .
. . - .
To perform the tests, the sequential injection timing was '45 'de-
'grees BTDC (intake) , the spark plug gap was 0.045 inch and spaTk dura-
tion'was 2.8 milliseconds with :80 millijoules spaik energy.c For each'
. ,engine speed and torque, the inlet air temperature was set and air/fuel
tatio and ignition tirnin~ were varied. The MBT ignition timing was
fou~d for. each temperature. '
Figures 3-31' through 3-40 show the effect of inlet air temperature
on BSNOx and BSHC emissions for all. the selected power set points at '
cert'ain air/fuel and ignition timings as indicated on the respective
figures. The complete set of data obtained are listed in Appendix F
under "In1'et Air Heating". The trends shown in Figures 3-31 through '
3~40 are typical of all the air/fuel and ignition timings. However,.
the change inNOx emissions is not significant when inlet air temperature
is changed at very lean air/fuel and with retarded timings. .

, ,As expected, increasing tqe inlet air temperature increases NOx
. and decreases HC ,emissions. At 2000 rpm, increase in the inlet'air tem-
perature do~s not significantly reduc'e HC emissions. . Again, at such
engine speed, the increased turbulence in the combustion chamber affects
the combustion more than anything else. .,The problem of severe detonation
was observed'for air temperatures of 150F and 200F at the 200 rpm imd
3...12

-------
180 b-ft-lbs power set point. Besides the use Indolene-30 fuel, it
became necessary to use standard spark energy, duration and spark plug
gap to solve the detonation problem. The problem was not solved, how-
ever, at all the air/fuel and ignition timings and this resulted in
limited data for this test point.

Since these tests were performed with the "best" injection timing
and the "best" ignition parameters, it was intended to find a "best"
parameter combination for each power set point which resulted in minimum
NOx emissions. The best parameter combination, obviously, depends on
the kinds of trade-offs that are acceptable. Since the goal of this
project was to reduce NOx, very little consideration was given to either
the fuel economy or the HC and CO emissions. The "best" parameter com-
bination consisted of selecting, for a given speed and torque, the air/
fuel the ignition timing, and the inlet air temperature from the tabulated
data in Appendix F for the minimum NOx emission. Table 3-3 summarizes
the results. Also, the baseline results are shown for comparison. As
noted previously, the "best" parameter combination used injection timing
of 45 degrees BTDC (intake) along with spark plug gap of 0.045 inch and
spark duration of 2.8 milliseconds with 80 millijoules spark energy.
With the "best" parameter combination, a minimum of 59 percent to
a maximum of 84 percent reduction in the BSNOx was realized, referenced
to the baseline EFI tests. Except for the 2000 rpm test points, a
decrease in the BSFC and a decrease in the BSCO emission were realized
and except for idle, the BSHC emission increased substantially.
3.6
INTAKE VALVE THROTTLING (IVT)
In the conventional EFI fuel management system, the air is throttled
at the throttle body in a manner similar to a carburetor. Thus, a major
pressure drop occurs at the throttle plates and there is very little pres-
sure drop across the intake valve. If the pressure drop could occur
across the intake valve instead, considerable turbulence would be created
inside the combustion chamber.
It has been shown that with such turbulence, satisfactory spark
ignition engine operation could be obtained with extremely lean mixture
ratios at very light ioads. (3) It was envisioned that better combustion
and faster travel of the flame front resulting from IVT would, for a
given air/fuel decrease HC emissions, but would increase the NOx emis-
sions. However, it was hoped that the resulting lean-limit extension
would allow engine operation at ultra-lean mixtures and the resulting NOx
trade-off would be favorable.
To limit the
shafts were used.
were not altered.
correspond to the
lift of the intake valve, three specially ground cam-
The valve timing and the opening and closing ramps
The intake valve lobes were ground to lower lifts to
following mass air flows:
3-13

-------
Table 3-3'- Summary 6 the Baseline and the Best Parameter Results'
.~ ~ ,
-  ~ ..  r,  Ignition   Inlet  BSNO  . BSCO ,.~SHC
     - ,   
 Torque          BSFC  x 
rpm   " Test  Timing  A/F 'Air Temp.     
b-'ft-1bs ..    Ib s /b-hp-"h r    
     BTDC    of  - gm/b-hp-hr 
640 .35   Baseline ' 6  13.6  80 1. 45 1.3  131. 2 8.2
  . Best Parameter  0  18:1  150 1.33 0.22 14.7 10.0
                ,
1200  '  Baseline'  12~,  2.1:1  77 1. 41 0.89 25.2 4.7
45    .,       
  Best Parameter  15  22:1  150 0.96 0.36 15.4 10.1
1200 100   Baseline  13 '21. 4:1  76 0.77 0.59 70.55 2.85
  Best Parameter  25  24.:1 ,200 0.63 0.23 7.5 28.2
         "       
2000 70   Baseline'  37  21. 8: 1  79 0.8 1. 49 7.99. 3.61
   ,Bes't Parameter  '.' 25  24:1  200 0.86 0.32 16.6 47.2
.. :               
    Baseline  37 ' 21. 5: 1  82 0.48 2.4  9.65 0.69
2000 180      
   Best Parameter  25  22.6:1  100 0.54 0.81 9.96 ,,12.5
N
"'
M
"
J,
ex)
ci.
A -
100 -lbs at
-, . hr
640 rpm
B -
400 lbs at 1200 rpm
hr
C -
800 lbs at 2000 rpm
, hr
It was assumed that camshafts A, Band C would provide the maximum
air flows required at idle;, 1200 rpm, 100 b-ft-lbs. and 2000 rpm,
180 b-ft-lbs set points, Tespectively. It was decided that to run tests
at 1200 rpm~ 45 b-t~lbs and ,2000 rpm, 70 b-ft-lbs, the throttle would
'be us-ed along with camshafts Band C, respectively.

After installing camshaft A, it was discovered that maximum air
f'low obtained at idle was not sufficient to allow engine operation at
-'an','air/fuelleaner than 14.6:1. It was decided to use camshaft Bat
idle",to ohtain air/fuel up to 22:1. - Ca~shaft B was also used for the
2000 rpm,7Q, b-ft-lbs set poi,nt to minimize the pressure drop at the'
throttle to' achieve the desired air flows. Thus, camshaft C was used
for "the 2000 rpm, :L80 b-ft~lbs set point; and for all the other set
points, c~mshaft B was used.
To perform the tests, a sequential injection timing of 45 degrees
BTDC' (,intake),. a spark plug ,gap of 0.945 inch, and a spark dU1;'ation of
2;8mil~iseconds w~th 80millijoules spark energy were used. With each
,camshaft installed, for the give~ engine speed and torque, A/F and igni-
tion timing were varied. The MBT spark timing was found. for each t~~t
point. The obtained data are tabulated in Appendix F under "Intake'
Valve Throttling", p. F-33.
;. ',)-14

-------
One very important observation was made. Except for the 1200 rpm,
100 b-ft-1bs torque set point, the MET ignition timings for the other
three set points were retarded considerably more than normal. Increas-
ing the mixture turbulence in a combustion chamber is known to increase
the speed of the flame propagation. (4) The increased flame propagation
increases the rate of the cylinder pressure rise and~ possibly, also the
peak cylinder temperature. Evidently, the faster rate of the cylinder
pressure rise results in MET timing close to TDC. Detonation at certain
test conditions with the high load and relatively high A/F was found to
be a problem. Again, the fast rise in the cylinder pressure, along with
the high energy spark, could be the cause of this. Data were not taken
at such test conditions.
When compared with the results obtained earlier, except for the
2000 rpm, 180 b-ft-lbs power point, for a given air/fuel and the igni-
tion timing, the BSNDx emissions were higher, the BSFC and BSCO were
lower, and the BSHC emissions were higher with intake valve throttling.
For the 2000 rpm, 180 b-ft-lbs power set point, the BSHC emissions were
lower too when compared with the results obtained previously with the
other parameters.

From the obtained data, by selecting A/F and ignition timing for
the least NOx emissions, a best-parameter combination can be obtained
with the IVT. Table 3-4 summarizes the results. Comparing the results
with the best parameter combination in Table 3-3, it can be seen that IVT
produces much higher BSNOx even with the leaner mixtures in some cases.
Marked improvement in BSFC is realized for both 2000 rpm set points. Re-
duction in BSCO is significant in all cases, however, except for the
2000 rpm, 180 b-ft-lbs set point, BSHC emissions increase. The increase
in BSHC emissions was contradictory to what was expected. It is believed
that this might have occurred because of the uneven distribution of the
air/fuel among the cylinders: -Since,-with IVT, the metering of the
intake air is accomplished at the intake valve, the individual lift of
the intake valve determines the air flow. The variation in lift from
valve to valve could affect the air flow distribution and hence the air/
fuel. Thus, at a given average A/F some cylinders may be running leaner
than the others and causing misfire. Although this might have limited
the extension of the iean limit, it is felt from the trends in the BS~Ox
emissions that with IVT, even with leaner A/F, the BSNOx emissions would
not be as low as that obtained with heated intake air.
3-15

-------
--
.". .
'.'q Tab;Le 3-4 - Su~ary of, the .Bes,t Parameter. Results with the
, Intake Valve Throttling
.,
Lgn'ition
'- Timing'
BTDC,
1b/b-hp-hr
BSFC'
BSNO
x
gm/b-hp~hr:.
En~d.~~ Sp~e.d
."." rpm
Torque
b~ft-ib~
.,
A/F, '
#,;
640
..
. ~5
45
o
20: 1 -
1.5
0:'9
0.5.~
.6:45
.'
..
! 12()b"
f 1"
20 (MBT)
i
22:1
" ,
"
'. ~.
23.4:1
0.6
1200
40 (MBT)
100
'0,41
:.).60,
"
2000
70
..
."
15
i,
22:1
0.7
......
.
..
d2000'
"
30 (MET) .' 24:1
iso,
0.44
1. 2.6
..
;
. r.' ..
"
BSCO' 'BSHC'
.'
. .
H.O.,

. ",'.
9.7
1}..()
43:2
4.6
. .\ t
34'.0
j ;
9.S
18.7
5 :'S
N
r 1290 rpm ~t. 45 bra~e ft-:-.l?s torqu~~'
The specific curves help to show how'well the two sets of data cOrrelate
even though the compression ratios were different.

The "best" parameter emissions data at an A/F of 22:1 for 1200
rpm at 45 brake ft-lbs torque are also shown.
3-:-16
"

-------
~
J:
ti.
J:
'"
en
...J
u
...
'"
'"
IGN. TIMING

m STD. TIMING
m 6 BTDC
o 0 BTDC
1.7
t:;1J 10 BTDC
1.6
m 20 BTDC
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
N
~
~
Q.
1.0
..
..
..
GR. 45 BTDC
INJ.
TC
180 ATDC
90 A TDC
INJECTION TIMING
Figure 3-1 - Effect of Injection Timing on BSFC, 640 rpm - 35 b-ft-1bs,
(Idle), A/F = 13.6
 2.8
 2.6
 2.4
 2.2
~ 
J: 
ti. 
J: 2.0
en
~ 
<:! 
o. 1.8
2 
'" 
'" 
 1.6
 1.4
 1.2
 1.0
IGN. TIMING

m STD. TIMING
~ 6 BTDC
    o 0 BTD
    m 10 BT
    o 20 BT
 ,..     
~~~:      
~~~~      
~~~~      
t      
t      
:1:[   ..   
m~      
~~~~  ~I!I    
~~~~     
{  '.',   
C
DC
DC
N
~
,;,
~
GR. 45 BTDC
INJ.
90 ATDC
INJECTION TIMING
180 ATDC
TC
Figure 3-2 - Effect of Injection Timing on BSNOx' 640 rpm - 35 b-ft-1bs,
(Idle), A/F = 13.6
3-17

-------
16.0
14.0
12.0
a:
:J:
Ii
:J:
a,
~
~
U
:J:
'"
'"
10.0
8.0
6.0
,','



',',

,','



',',
4.0
2.0
0-
GR.
INJ.
::::
90 AT DC
INJECTION TIMING
180 ATDC
45 BTDC
TC
IGN. TIMING

m STD. TIMING
~ 6 BTDC
o 0 BTDC
m 10 BTDC
rn 20 BTDC
r-
"'0


',',
',',
',',


','.
','.
','.
N
~
,j,
:f
Figure 3-3 - Effect of Injection Timing on BSHC, 640 rpm - 35 b-ft-lbs,
(Idle), A/F = 13.6
 140
 120
 100
~ 
:J: 
Ii 
:J: 80
a, 
~ 
~ 
0 60
u 
'" 
'" 
 40
 20
:"

\'
c...;
::::
m~
;~;;
d
11

180 ATDC
~~~~
;~~~
II\'
0--
GR. 45 BTDC
INJ.
TC
90 A TDC
INJECTION TIMING
IGN. TIMING

m STD. TIMING
W 6 BTDC
[J 0 BTDC
m 10 BTDC
m 20 BTDC
N
~
J,
'"
0.
Figure 3-4 - Effect. of Injection Timing on BSCO, 640 rpm - 35 b-ft-lbs,
(Idle), A/F = 13.6
3-18

-------
IGN. TIMING

m STD. TIMING
W 12" BTDC
1.5
o MBT
1.4
m MBT.15
1.3
rn MBT.25
cr 1.2
:I:
"-
:I:
a,
a; 1.1
..J
u
...
~ 1.0
0.9
',',





,','
::~:
::::
:~:~
~:~:
I
',',

,','
',',
',',


~~~~

1
N
~
.r,
"
~
0.8
l'
GR. 45 BTDC
INJ. MBT = 40 BTDC
TC
90 A TDC
MBT . 35 BTDC

INJECTION TIMING
180 ATDC
MBT = 30 BTDC
Figure 3-5 - Effect of Injection Timing on BSFC, 1200 rpm - 45 b-ft-1bs,
A/F = 21:1
IGN. TIMING

rm STD. TIMING
~ 12 BTDC
16.0
o MBT
14.0
~ MBT.15
12.0
[] MBT.25
cr
:I:
ci.
J:
a,
~
~
~
o
z
f/)
CD
10.0
8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
o
.','
N
~
.r,
'"
~
.-
GR. 45 BTDC
INJ. MBT = 40 BTDC
TC
90 AT DC
MBT = 35 BTDC
180 ATDC
MBT = 30 BTDC
INJECTION TIMING
Figure 3-6 - Effect of Injection Timing on BSNOx' 1200 rpm - 45 b-ft-1bs,
A/F = 21:1
3-19

-------
50
IGN. TIMING

~ STD. TIMING
t:a 12" BTDC
o MBT
40
m MBT.15
D MBT.25
a;
:t
0..
:t
en
~
~
U
:t
en
en
30
20
10
o
..
..
N
~
M
"
c2
0.
GR. 45 BTDC
INJ. MBT = 40 BTDC
TC
90 AT DC
MBT = 35 BTDC

INJECTION TIMING
180 ATDC
MBT = 30 BTDC
Figure 3-7 - Effect of Injection Timing on BSHC, 1200 rpm - 45 b-ft-1bs,
A/F = 21:1
IGN. TIMING

~ STD. TIMING
~ 12 BTDC
o MBT
~ MBT.15
35
B MBT.25
30
25
'"
:t
~ 20
en
~
~
;; 15
u
en
'"
10
",',
',',
0- ..
GR. 45 BTDC
INJ. MBT = 40 BTDC
90 ATDC
MBT = 35 BTDC

INJECTION TIMING
g
J,
<0
0.
TC
180 A TDC
MBT = 30 BTDC
Figure 3-8 - Effect of Injection Timing on BSCO, 1200 rpm - 45 b-ft-1bs,
A/F = 21:1
3-20

-------
IGN. TIMING

~ STD. TIMING
m 130 BTDC
o MBT
m MBT.15
0.8
ill MBT.25
0.7
a:
:r
Ii.
:r
cD
;;;
-'
u 0.6
...
'"
CD
,','
',',
,','
0.5
TC
900 A TDC
MBT = 350 BTDC

INJECTION TIMING
1800 ATDC
MBT = 300 BTDC
N
~
"'
'"
0.
- -
GR. 450 BTDC
I NJ. MBT = 400 BTDC
Figure 3-9 - Effect of Injection Timing on BSFC, 1200 rpm - 100 b-ft-1bs,
A/F = 21. 4
IGN. TIMING

~ STD. TIMING
~ 130 BTDC
o MBT
6
m MBT.15
5
lID MBT.25
a:
:r
Ii.
:r
cD
~
!:!
.
o
z
'"
CD
4
3
2
o
N
~
.0
'"
0.
GR. 450 BTDC
INJ. MBT = 400 BTDC
TC
900 A TDC
MBT = 350 BTDC

INJECTION TIMING
1BOO ATDC
MBT = 300 BTDC
Figure 3-10 - Effect of Injection Timing on BSNOx, 1200 rpm -
100 b-ft-1bs, A/F = 21.4
3-21

-------
 16.0
 14.0
 12.0
a: 10.0
r 
0. 
r 
a, 8.0
~ 
S2 
u 6.0
r
"'
CD 
 4.0
 2.0
~~~~


I
GR. 45 BTDC
INJ. MBT '" 40 BTDC
90 A TOC
MBT = 35 BTDC

INJECTION TIMING
180 ATDe
MBT = 30 BTDC
TC
Figure 3-11 - Effect of Injection Timing on BSHC,
100 b-ft-1bs, A/F = 21.4
18
16
14
[t 12
r
0.
r
a,
~ 10
S2
o
u
'"
CD
..
:jl'
TC
GR. 45 BTDC
INJ. MBT = 40 BTDC
90 A TOC
MBT :: 35 BTDC

INJECTION TIMING
180 AT DC
MBT .. 30 BTDC
Figure 3-12 - Effect of Injection Timing on BSCO,
100 b-ft-1bs, A/F = 21.4
3-22
IGN. TIMING
m STD. TIMING
~ 13 BTDC
o MBT
m MBT-15
(] MBT.25
',',
N
~
Ii
0.
1200 rpm -
IGN. TIMING
~ STD. TIMING
~ 13 BTDC

o MBT


m MBT.15
rn MBT-25
..
~
Ii
0.
1200 rpm -

-------
IGN. TIMING

rn STD. TIMING
~ 37" BTDC
OMBT
m MBT-15
0.9
m MBT.25
MBT = 40 BTDC
0.8
'"
:I:
Ii.
:I:
cD
a;
...J
u 0.7
IL
en
'"
0.6

Z--
GR. 450 BTDC
tNJ.
'"
~
:iJ
0:.
TC.
90 A TDC
INJECTION TIMING
180 AT DC
Figure 3-13 - Effect of Injection Timing on BSFC, 2000 rpm -
70 b-ft-1bs, A/F = 21.8
IGN. TIMING
m STD. TIMING
~ 37 BTDC


o MBT
3.0
 ~ MB
 m MB
  MB
 .. 
'---  
T-15
T-25
a: 2.0
:I:
Ii.
:I:
cD
~
!:!
x
~ 1.0
en
'"
T = 40 BTDC
STD.
GR.
INJ.
TC
N
~
"
J.
'"
0:.
o
45 BTC
90 ATC
180 ATC
INJECTION TIMING
Figure 3-14 - Effect of Injection Timing on BSNOx' 2000 rpm -
70 b-ft-1bs, A/F = 21.8
3-23

-------
3-24
16.0
IGN. TIMING
O STD. TIMING
3T' BTDC

[I MBT


o MBT.15


m MBT.25
MBT = 40 BTDC
14.0
12.0
a:
~ 10.0
J:
a,
~
>< 8.0
o
~
CD 6.0
4.0
2.0
~
~
Q.
o
..
,','
..
GR.
INJ.
TC
90 ATC
INJECTION TIMING
1800 ATC
45 BTC
Figure 3-15 - Effect of Injection Timing on BSCO, 2000 rpm -
70 b-ft-1bs, A!F = 21.8
 ~1  
 40.0  I
 ;...  
 9.0  
 8.0  
 7.0  
0:   
J:   
Q.   
J: 6.0  
a,   
~   
>< 5.0  
u  
~   
OJ   
 4.0  
 3.0  
 2.0  
 1.0  
  GR. 450 BTC
  INJ..
IGN. TIMING
m STD. TIMING
~ 370 STDC
o MBT


m MBT.15


EI MBT.25
MBT = 400 BTDC
N
~
~
Q.
..
TC
90 ATC
1800 A TC
INJECTION TIMING
Figure 3-16 - Effect of Injection Timing on BSHC, 2000 rpm -
70 b-ft-1bs, A!F = 21.8

-------
IGN. TIMING
~ STD. TIMING
~ 37 BTDC
o MBT
0.48
II MBT.1S
MBT : 40 BTDC
- 0.4
cr
:I:

-------
5.0
IGN. TIMING

O STD. TIMING
37 STOC
4.0
I MBT
3.0
o MBT-15

MBT : 40 BTDC
cr:
:I:
"-
:I:
ciJ
~
s:!
u 2.0
:I:
'"
OJ
1.0
GR.
INJ.
45 BTC
TC
90 ATC
1800 ATC
N
~
ill
~
INJECTION TIMING
Figure 3-19 - Effect of Injection Timing on BSHC, 2000 rpm -
180 b-ft-lbs, A/F = 21.5:1
9.0
IGN. TIMING

O STD. TIMING
37 BTDC


I MBT



D MBT-15
10.0
 8.0
cr: 
:I: 
"- 
:I: 
ciJ 
~ 
s:! 
0 7.0
u 
'" 
OJ 
MBT . 40 BTDC
6.0
5.0
.'.'
',',
'.
N
~
ill
~
STD.
GR.
INJ.
45 BTC
TDC
90 ATC
1800 ATC
INJECTION TIMING
Figure 3-20 - Effect of Injection Timing on BSCO, 2000 rpm -
180 b-ft-lbs, A/F = 21.5:1
3-26

-------
Figure 3-21 - Current and Voltage Waveforms for 2.8 Millisecond Duration
and 80 Millijoules Energy Spark (Voltage = 1000 V/cm;
Current = 0.05 A/em; Time = 0.5 msee/em)
Figure 3-22 - Current and Voltage Waveforms for 5.3 Millisecond Duration
and 140 Millijoules Energy Spark (Voltage = 1000 V/em;
Current = 0.05 A/em; Time = 0.5 msee/em)
3-27

-------
UJ
I
N
00
~.,... "";".> ...
\;~'\I-... . .~~ .
~ oI"t . ... ... .,.
"~"r .
Q~&
Figure 3-23 - Modified Rotor
I 374.72

-------
4.0
3.0
a:
J:
ci..
J:
cD
~ 2.0
s:!
"
o
Z
en
CD
1.0
Figure 3-24 -
a:
~ 12.0
J:
cD
~
s:! 10.0
u
J:
en
CD 8.0
Figure 3-25 -
0.035
0.045 0.060
IN. SPARK PLUG GAP (1)
N

ci.
1'.0
,
2.0
3~0 4~0
MILLISECOND SPARK DURATION (2)
5'.0
6~0
Effect of Spark Plug Gap and Spark Duration/Energy on NO
Emissions, Engine Speed - 1200 rpm, Torque - 45 b-ft-1bs:
A/F = 20:1, Ignition Timing - 400 BTDC
18.0
16.0
N

ci.
14.0
6.0
l'
.
0.035
I I
0.045 0.060
IN. SPARK PLUG GAP (1)
I
1.0
I
5.0
I
6.0
I I I
2.0 3.0 4.0
MILLISECONDS SPARK DURATION (2)
Effect of Spark Gap and Duration/Energy on HC Emissions,
Engine Speed - 1200 rpm, Torque - 45 b-ft-1bs, A/F = 20:1,
Ignition Timing - 400 BTDC
3-29

-------
 7.0
 6.0
cc 5.0
J: 
ci. 
J: 
cD 4.0
~
~ 
x 
0 3.0
z
CI) 
tD 
 2.0
 1.0
Figure 3-26 -
5.0
4.0
a:
J:
ci.
J:
cD
~
~ 3.0
u
J:
CI)
tD
2.0
~
Figure 3-27 -
3-30
0.035
0.045 0.060
IN. SPARK PLUG GAP (1)
"
cD
M
...
.;,
co
ci.
,
1.0
,
5.0
,
6.0
I . I
2.0 3.0 4.0
MilLISECONDS SPARK DURATION (2)

Effect of Spark Plug Gap and Spark Duration on NOx Emissions.
Engine Speed - 1200 rpm. Torque - 100b-ft-1bs. A/F = 20:1.
Ignition Timing - 40 BTDC
I
0.035
I I
0.045 0.060
IN. SPARK PLUG GAP (1)
"
cD
M
...
.;,
co
ci.
I
1.0
I I
3.0 4.0
MilLISECONDS SPARK DURATION (2)
Effect of Spark Plug Gap and Spark Duration on HC Emissions.
Engine Speed - 1200 rpm. Torque - 100 b-ft-1bs. A/F = 20:1,
Ignition Timing - 40 BTDC
I
2.0
I
5.0
,
6.0

-------
1.8
1.6
(2)
a::
:I:
c:. 1.4
:I:
ciJ
~
2 1.2
x
o
:2
IJ)
!XI 1.0
0.8
l'
I I
3.0 4.0
MilLISECONDS SPARK DURATION (2)

Figure 3-28 - Effect of Spark Plug Gap and Spark Duration on NOx Emissions,
Engine Speed - 640 rpm, Torque - 35 b-ft-1bs (Idle),
AIF = 12:1, Ignition Timing - 10 BTDC
I
1.0
I
2.0
I
5.0
I
6.0
N
cb
M

-------
i-
Figure 3-30 - Inlet Air Heating Test Set Up
3-32
i'
251-72

-------
4.0
 3.0
~ 
J: 
a:. 
J: 
cD 
~ 2.0
S! 
" 
0 
2 
'" 
aI 
 1.0
I
150

INLET AIR TEMPERATURE (oF)
N
cD
M
"
.;,
'"

-------
 1.6   
 1.4   
 1.2   
a: 1.0   
J:   
Q..    
J:    
ciJ    
~ 0.8   
SE    
x    
0    
z 0.6   
(I)   
aJ    
 0.4   
 0.2   
 0 I / I
    1000
I
1500
INLET AIR TEMPERATURE (oF)
N
tb
M
"T
t!)

-------
8.0
- 6.0
a::
J:
ci.
J:
cO
~
~
OX 4.0
z
en
co
2.0
o
I
I
.,
100
1~00
N
tb
M
.,.
.;,
co
I ~
200
INLET AIR TEMPERATURE (oF)
Figure 3-35 - Effect of Inlet Air Temperature on BSNOx' 1200 rpm, 100
b-ft-1bs, A/F = 20:1, Ignition Timing - 40 BIDC
4.6
4.5
-=
4.4
---4
a::
J:
ci.
~ 4.3
co
~
~
u 4.2
J:
en
co
4.1
4.0
I
150

INLET AIR TEMPERATURE (oF)
N
tb
M
.,.
.;,
co
a.
4 ~
L---f,
I
100
,
200
Figure 3-36 - Effect of Inlet Air Temperature on BSHC, 1200 rpm, 100
b-ft-1bs, A/F = 20:1, Ignition Timing - 40 BTDC
3-35

-------
8.0
a:: 7.0
J:
Q. 
J: 
cD 
-- 
2: 
~ 
x 
0 
2 6.0
en
en 
5.0
q-- I
L-..i
I
100
I
150
I
200
INLET AIR TEMPERATURE (oF)
Figure 3-37 - Effect of Inlet Air Temperature on BSNOx' 2000 rpm, 180
b-ft-1bs, A/F = 20:1, Ignition Timing - 400 BTDC
3.0
a:: 2.0
J:
Q.
J:
cD
~
"
u
~ 1.0
en
o
t)
(I
'::>
J
/
I
100
I
150
INLET AIR TEMPERATURE (oF)
I
200
Figure 3-38 - Effect of Inlet Air Temperature on BSHC, 2000 rpm, 180
b-ft-1bs, A/F = 20:1, Ignition Timing - 400 BTDC
3-36
N

-------
5.0
~
'>-
a.--
- 4.0
a:
:z:
Q.
:z:
m
~
<.:1

Ox: 3.0
z
(I)
a:I
2.0
1 I
L-,j
I
1000
I
1500
INLET AIR TEMPERATURE (oF)
I
200
N
rh
M
"T
In
(I)
Q..
Figure 3-39 - Effect of Inlet Air Temperature on BSNOx, 2000 rpm, 70
b-ft-lbs, A/F = 20:1, Ignition Timing - 400 BTDC
3.0
~ 2.0
Q.
:z:
m
ID
::!:
<.:1
(.)
:z:
~ 1.0
o
/
I
I
100
I
150
INLET AIR TEMPERATURE (oF)
I
200
N
rh
M
'"
,j,
(I)
Q..
Figure 3-40 - Effect of Inlet Air Temperature on BSHC, 2000 rpm, 70
b-ft-lbs, A/F = 20:1, Ignition Timing - 400 BTDC
3-37

-------
co
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
o
Cl)1~
~ ci.
" :r::
!XJ
3-38
NOx
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
o
HC
BENDIX DATA-
ALL DATA FOR 9:1
C.R. ENGINE WITH
STANDARD PLUG
GAP AND SPARK
90
80
70
NOx
60
20
10
o
o
14
16
REGIME OF EPA
INVESTIGATION -
ALL DATA AT 100F
INLET AIR, 0.045 IN.
PLUG GAP, 2.8 ms SPARK
DURATION, SEQUENTIAL
INJECTION AT 45 BTDC
(INTAKE) AND 10.5:1 C.R.
8-1200 RPM
45 FT-LB
BRAKE
TORQUE
18
A/F
20
Figure 3-41 - Test Results Correlation
HC
ALL DATA FOR MBT
TIMING - 40 BTDC
..........
'"

-------
SECTION 4
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
4.1
CONCLUSIONS
It is very difficult to judge from the steady-state results what
kind of emissions results could be obtained if the vehicle was driven
over an 1970 FTP or 1972 FTP (CVS) driving cycle. However, some judge-
ment can be made by comparing the baseline carburetor, baseline EFI
and "best" parameter results. As discussed earlier, the "best" parameter
combination with heated air could reduce BSNOx anywhere from 59 percent
to 84 percent of the EFI baseline values.

An average of about 1.4 gm/mile of NOx was obtained from the four
EFI baseline 1970 FTP tests performed at Bendix and EPA. It can be
seen that the original goal of this project, which was to lower NOx
emissions to a level of 1.3 gm/mile when a 4000-pound GVW vehicle is
operated according to 1970 FTP, can be achieved very easily with the
"best" parameter combination. The 1970 FTP tests are, generally, known
to produce smaller emissions values compared to the 1972 FTP tests.
Considering all these factors, it seems very unlikely that the best
parameter combination could meet EPA standards on NOx emissions for
1976. However, the best parametric combination did, in general, reduce
CO mass emissions to an average of 25 percent of the baseline values
while HC mass emissions increased over the baseline values by a factor
of 1.2 to more than 10.
Inherent presence of 02 in the exhaust makes the use of catalytic
and thermal reactors attractive to oxidize CO and HC.

The exhaust temperatures for the best parameter combination are
somewhat lower than the EFI baseline exhaust temperatures; however,
they are higher when compared with the carburetor baseline temperatures.
About 5 to 10 percent of oxygen is present in the exhaust. With a
proper thermal reactor, CO and HC emissions can be reduced considerably.
Similarly, a catalytic converter also can be used.
The following conclusions can be made from the parametric tests
performed: .
(1)
With lean-c.a1ibrated EFI, compared with a standard carbureted
vehicle, NOx emissions were reduced significantly with
little or no changes in HC and CO emissions.

Standard intake and exhaust manifolds on the Ford 429 CID
.. engine did not adversely affect the mass air flow distri-
bution to individual cylinders in the range of engine
operation considered for this project.
(2 )
4-1

-------
4.2
4-2
(3)
At steady-state conditions, timed sequential injection
did not offer much advantage over the standard group
injection.

Increasing the spark plug gap and spark duration/energy
from the standard values first decreased NOx emissions
and then, if further increased, increased NOx emissions.
For example, at 1200 rpm and 45 ft-lbs brake torque, the
BSNOx decreased from about 2 gms/b-hp-hr to 1.25 and then
increased to 3 for the same set point, the BSHC decreased
linearly from 17 to 8 gpm/b-hp-hr.
" "
(4)
(5)
Heating the inlet air extended the lean-limit operation.
NOx emissions increased and HC emissions decreased. Ten-
dency of detonation increased with heated air.

IVT increased NOx emissions, MBT spark timing occurred
closer to TDC than normal occurrence. IVT increased ten-
dency of the engine to detonate.
(6)
RECOMMENDATIONS
(1)
Although intake and exhaust manifolds for the 429 CID
engine with EFI were considered satisfactory for this project,
in some instances cylinder-to-cylinder A/F variation was
more than 1.0. With manifold injection, the design of
the intake manifold could be simplified and, perhaps, more
uniform distribution of the mass air flow among the cylin-
ders could be obtained. It is recommended that this area
be investigated further.

Effect of all or some of the pa~ameters considered should
be measured during transient engine operating conditions
such as cold start, acceleration, etc.
(2)
(3)
With the "best" parameters selected actual
should be run using injection and ignition
that would function in transient operating
vehicle tests
control units
modes.
(4) "Investigations should be made to determine optimum combina-
tions of exhaust gas recirculation and air/fuel in the lean
operating region to determine if further NOx control can
be achieved.

-------
REFERENCES
1.
"Measuring the Effect of Spark Plug and Ignition System Design
on Engine Performance," R. R. Burgett, J. M. Leptich, and K. V.
S. Sangwan, SAE Paper No. 720007.
2.
"Ignition Combustion and Exhaust Emissions of Lean Mixtures in
Automotive Spark Ignition Engines," T. Tanuma, K. Sasaki, T. Kaneko,
and H. Kawasaki, SAE Paper No. 710159.
3.
"Intake Valve Throttling (IVT) - A Sonic Throttling Intake Valve
Engine," D. L. Stivender, SAE Paper No. 680399.
4.
"The Effect of Mixture Motion upon the Lean Limit and Combustion
of Spark Ignited Mixtures," J. A. Bolt, D. 1. Harrington, SAE
Paper No. 670467.
5.
"Exhaust Emissions from a Passenger Automobile Equipped with
Electronic Fuel Injection," J. C. Thompson, EPA Report No. 71-12,
Division of Motor Vehicle Research and Development, NAPCA,
Environmental Protection Agency.

-------
A/F
NOMENCLATURE
= air/fuel ratio
ATDC = after top dead center, degrees crankshaft
BSCO = brake specific carbon monoxide, gm/b-hp-hr
BSFC = brake specific fuel consumption, lb/b-hp-hr
BSHC = brake specific total hydrocarbons, gm/b-hp-hr
BSNO = brake specific oxides of nitrogen, gm/b-hp-hr
x
BTDC = before top dead center, degrees crankshaft
CD
CO
CID
CVS
ECU
EFI
FTP
HC
IVT
MBT
NO
x
= capacitive discharge
= carbon monoxide
b. . h d. 1 . 3
= cu 1C-1nc 1Sp acement, 1n
= constant volume sampling
= electronic control unit
= electronic fuel injection
= federal test procedure
= hydrocarbons
= intake valve throttling
= minimum advance for best torque, degrees crankshaft
= oxides of nitrogen

-------
APPENDIX A
TEST DESCRIPTION
A.1
TEST SET-UP
A schematic of the test set-up used for the program is shown in
Figure A-1. The electric heater was added to the test set-up when in-
take air heating tests were performed. The heater was installed between
the laminar air flow meter and the engine intake manifold.

The test set-up used a magnetic pickup and four steel slugs mounted
on the crankshaft damper as a pulse counter for monitoring engine speed.
The signal also referenced the crankshaft position of 0 degree BTDC for
number one cylinder and when used in conjunction with the spark pulse
for number one cylinder, provided the information for monitoring ignition
timing. The pulse was also used in conjunction with the fuel injection
pulse to monitor the injection timing.

A list of the parameters measured during the testing, the parameter
units and the instrumentation used to monitor the parameters is given
below:
(1)
Air Flow - 1b/hr:
Flow Meter
Pressure Transducer
Meriam laminar flow meter
Model 5MC2-4S range of 0 to
400 cfm at 8 inches of H20 8P.

Foxboro Model 613DL 0 to 25 inch
H20 differential
(2)
Fuel Flow - 1b/hr:
Flow Meter
Pressure Transducer
F1oTron LMF meter Model 10,000
Type II range of 0 to 225 lb/hr
at 15 to 20 psig supply

Foxboro Model 61306, 0 to 25-
inch H20 differential
(3) Barometric Pressure - psia    
 Pressure Transducer Taber Model 254, 0 to 25 psia
(4) Torque ft-1b   Pressure Transducer 
(5) Flywheel Pulse - pulses/see Direct recorded  
(6) Spark Pulse   Direct recorded  
A-1

-------
IGNITION
SYSTEM
MANUAL
ADJ.
MANUAL ADJUST
SEQUENTIAL
ECU UNIT
EXHAUST
TEMP. &
PRESSURE
A-2
SPARK
PULSE
AIR
CLEANER
FLOW
METER
=8
RETURN
FUEL FLOW
PUMP
MAGNETIC
PICKUP
FLOAT
CONTR.
ORIFICE
DYNAMOMETER
~
I
I
FLOW
METER
PUMP
FUEL
SUPPLY
,r - - 'V TORQUE
PRESS.
I TRANS.

I
I
L
-~
I
I
--~
Figure A-I - Gas Analyzers (See Figure A-2)
A~~
\::/
FUEL
EFI
SYSTEM
ENGINE
EXHAUST
N
~
"t
It>
co
0.

-------
(7)
Injector Pulse Width - msec
Direct recorded
(8)
Manifold Absolute Pressure
,
(MAP) - psia:
Pressure transducer - Taber
Model "254, 0 to 25 psia
(9)
NO = ppm:*
Beckman Model 3l5A NDIR ranges
of 0 to 1000, 4000 ppm
(10)
CO - %:*
Beckman Model 3l5A NDIR ranges
o to 0.3, 1.2, 3, 12%
(11)
C02 - %:*
Beckman Model 3l5A NDIR ranges
of 0 to 3, 16%
(12)
HC - PPMC*
Beckman Model 400 FID ranges
o to 5, 50, 500 and 5000 ppmC
(13)
02 - %:*
Beckman Model 715 ranges 0 to
5 to 25 percent
(14)
Inlet Air Temperature - of
Thermocouple Chromel Alumel,
0.57 mv at 100F
All of the above fourteen items were recorded on a CEC Model VRM-3300
l4-channel magnetic FM tape recorder. In addition to the above parame-
ters, the engine oil temperature, water outlet temperature, exhaust gas
temperature, exhaust back pressure, and dry and wet bulb temperatures
were recorded by hand. The schematic of the Scott Emission Analyzer Con-
sole and test setup is shown in Figure A-2.
- _.- . ~..
A.2
DATA REDUCTION
,
The recorded data on the magnetic tape, along with the hand re-
corded data, were reduced using the BRL hybrid computer. The tape
recorded data was read directly into the computer and the manually
recorded data was introduced into the data reduction program on key
punched cards.

The output from this data reduction was a digital print-out of
all the pertinent parameters as shown in Figure A-2. The data was
also contained in key punch cards for permanent storage and further
data reduction. The key punch cards later were used for computer data
plots. Figure A-3 shows one such plot.
*
Exhaust analyzers mounted in Scott integrated exhaust analyzer system
Model 108-X.
A-3

-------
"
..
~.~
'01:--
'.
SYMBOLS
BFY'; BYPASS flOW VALVE NC
BF:M' . "BYPASS flOWMETER NO
B'A. . ,BYPASS REGULATOR p.
ev.- .~' ~~CHECK VALVE 52
o ~: ,DESSICANT ICaSO.1 53
DR DRAIN S~M'
F :MICRON FILTEA '. SfM
FL ''SINTERED METAL FILTER 1-", sF.V
V
NORMALL y. CLOSED
NORMALLY OPENED
SAMPLE PUMP
2.WAY SOLENOID VALVE
J.WAY SOl.ENGID VALVE
J.WAY_MA~UAL VALV~ .
SAMPLE FlOWMETERS
SAMP(e flOW II Al ve ~
VENT
~.
"
J'~-,
,.
"
429 C.I.O.
ENGINE
..
...,,',
'}:-
~'. ,
,,~. ".
.:",
; MUFFLER
RESONATOR
..~
...1
, ,
SAMPLE
, ,
, ,
j--- --- - ------,-------- - - - - - ~ - - - ~ - - - - - - - -;~,---- ---- ~-- ------- - -~- -.--- - ---- --- - ---------------.- -:---:--i

I
I
I
I
,
I
,
I
I
,
,
,
I
I
I
I
: NZ ZERO
I GAS PURGE
42 FEET IMPERIAL EASTMAN
~YLO'S.EAL 3/8" 0.0.
"
1'0'
... PYROMETER, STIRRER
:,
" .
SFV
-'
.,
,co C02
CALIB. GAS
F.',D. CALIB. GAS
FL
BUILDING
EXHAU5T
NO
SFV
..
NO CALIB. GAS
, NC
53 '
"
-'
AIR FILTER
52
I
,
I
I
I
I
,
,
I
I
,
,

-- ':---::""- - - - - - ------ --.-. --- - - - - --- - - - -- ---- ----- - ----_J
DR "
FUEL
AIR
REGULATOR
----------'
,
PRESSURJZED AIR
,
"----------------
'..
"i
Figure A-2 -
Scott Research Laboratories Model
l08-x Emissions Analyzer

-------
.....
EPA PARAMET~IC TEST .....
DATE
3/4172
TEST
SPEED (RPM I '"
BRAKE TORQUE IFT-LBI '"
35.00C
640.0
IGNITION TIMING IDEGREES aTDCI '"
c.o
INJECTOR TIMING IDEGRFES BTDCI '"
AIR FLOW ILB/HRI '"
FUEL FLOW ILBfHPI '"
5.090
62.395
POWER (BRAKE HPI '"
INJECTOR PULSE WlnTH (M-SECI '"
BRAKE SPECIFIC FUEL r.ONSUMPTION ILBfBHP-HPI '"
687.000
4.265
M~ASUREO AIRfFUEL RATIO '"
12.258
INLET AIR TEMPERATURE IDEGREES-FI '"
7').0
EXHAUST GAS TEMPEPATURE IDEGR~ES-FI =
OIL TEMPERATURE (DEGREES-FI =
WATER-OUT TEMPATURE IUEGRFrS-FI .
190.000
MANIFOLD ABSOLUTE PRESSURE IPSIAI '"
BAROMFTRIC PRESSURE IPSIAI '"
13. eo('
EXHAUST BACk PRESSURE (IN-wATERI '"
RELATIVE HUMIDITY IGRAINS) =
1.5~O
EMISSION DILUTION FACTOR '"
.:).949
EMISSION ANALySIS
NO I PPM I.  2TO.0000 
NO CORRECTED (PPMI '" 217.3344
CO I" =  5.2179  
C02 I'll '"  11.3845 
HC I PPM C I = 5066.0781 
02 III '"  1 . 1000  
0.10011E 02
NO IGMfBHO-HP) '"
NO IGMfHRI '"
CO (GMfHR I '"
O.14758E 04
CO (GMf8HP-HRI '"
HC fGM/HR I =
0.70971E 02
HC IGM/BHP-HRI .
CALCULATED AIR/FUEL RATIO '"
12.670
;I>
I
U1
Figure A-3 - Computer Printout of the Test Results
45.0
2.A7C
1.193
190.C00
14.200
31.0CC
(I. Z 348 7E ,)(
0.34603f 03
O.16640F 02

-------
~PA ~A~AM~T~ll T~~rS
AI~/~U~L. tiATl1j
>
I
0"1
IGNITIIjN TIMINu ~U (MOT) 8TDC
NlT~eu~N IjxID~ (GM/8H~-H~)
0.00 2.UO ~'UO 6.UU 8'00 10'0U 12.00 1~.00 16.00 18.00 20'00
1*********1...**.***1*...*....1........*1**.*...**1*.*...*..1*......**1........*1*..**..*.1***......1
~~~lD 1200 ~PM-TeRQUE 10U FT-L8
11.lJU -    
 .    .
 .    .
 .    .
 .    .
 .  A .
 *    .
 .    .
 .    .
 .    .
19.00 -    
 *    .
 .    .
 .    .
 *    .
 .    .
 *    .
 *    .
 .    .
   /
 *  , .
21.00 -    
 *    .
 *    .
 *    .
 *    .
 *  A C *
   ;//  *
 *   .
 *   .
    .
23.00 -   
 *   *
 .   *
 *   .
 * //  .
 .  *
 *  .
 *  .
 .  .
 . / /   *
2~.UO -   
 * 8/   .
 .   *
 .   .
 * ,   .
 . C   .
 *    .
     .
 *    .
 *    .
27000 -    
1*.*.....*1*.***.-**1*...*....1*....****1*.......*1***.....*1.****....1.....****1*..*.....'**.......'
0.00 2.00 ~'OO 6.00 8'00 10.0U 12.00 1~.00 16.00 18.00 20'00
NITR8u~N eXlDE (GM/8HP-HR)
Figure A-4 - Computer Printout of A/F Versus BSNOx for
Various Inlet Air Temperatures
17.00
19.00
21' 00
23.00
25.00
27.00

-------
The equations used to program the hybrid computer for data reduction
are given below:
(1) Air Flow
W
a
=
(V -
" VF~ -
VOl) (PI )
VOl 14.7 {I + 0.0033 (70 -
Tf)} SF 1
where
W = air flow (lb/hr)
a
VI = chann~l 1 output (V)
VOl = zero scale calibration (V)
VFl = full scale calibration (V)
PI = barometric pressure (psia)
Tf = inlet air temperature (OF)
I
SFI = scale factor No.1 (lb/hr)
The factor {I + 0.0033 (70 - Tf)} is the temperature correction factor
in the above expression and is obtained from the temperature correction
table supplied with Meriam laminar flow meter. The correction corrects
the air flow reading not only for density change but also corrects for
viscosity change due to change in temperature.
(2) Fuel Flow    
    (V - V02) 
   W = VF~ SF2
   f V02
where      
 Wf"= fuel flow (lb/hr)   
 V2 = channel 2 output (V)  
 V02 = zero scale calibration "(V) 
A-7

-------
. '::',,' ..' "!)
where
,~.~),
"', ' .~',;"
where
,:-,A;-B
V:Fi" =.-j:ul-l.-scaJe., calibFatJon :'(Y)':'
SF2 = scale factor No.2 (lb/hr)
, ~! ',~' .
"
(3)
Barometric Pressure
, ~
.f;
r .';.
,,_. '( ,,'
., 'V 3
VF3
- V 03)
V03
. . < .' ' ,."..,

(P'F 3 - Po 3) + Po 3 ' -
.. ". -,,, ~
PI
PI = barometric pressure (psia)
V3 = channel 3 output (V)
V03 = minimum scale calibration (V) 
      .. 
VF3 = maximum scale calibration (V) 
       .."
P03 = minimum calibration pressure (psia)
PF3 = maximum calibration pressure (psia)
Brake Torque
:j C'," ':'
"
. .
...
, ,', ( V-:.. :v -) . '.
''i''.?:>~,.. VF:- V~:' 1 SF4 .
Q = brake torque (~~-lb)' .
V 4 = channel 4 output '(V)
..
V04 = zero scale calibration (V)
VF4 = full scale calibration (V)
-.'.:.~i\, ',~."
SF4 = scale factor No.4 (ft-Ib)
, . '
'~ .' r "'::" :: .
I,' ~.-' ~~
, t'{ j { .:.. ':~
~ -, ~,;.::. ',;:: q: .'.
- .
, I
- - h
>
"1
',' . .~;:: ..: l
.""
,... ..:: .

-------
where
where
(5)
(6)
Engine Speed
N = engine speed (rpm)
N = ( ~) 60
f = pulse frequency of flywheel teeth (cps)
n = number of teeth on flywheel = 4
Ignition Timing
b
CI. = 90 - - CI.
a 0
CI. = ignition timing (obtdc)
b = period b (msec)
a = period a (msec)
CI. = initial offset constant (0)
o
n
~
\ \
W
'"
\
\
\
\
SPARK PULSE
FLYWHEEL PULSE
A-9

-------
where
where.
A-lO
(7)
Injector Pulse Width and Injection Timing
J = pulse width (msec)
c
S = 90 - - S
a 0
s = injection timing (Obtdc)
c = period c (msec)
a = period a (msec)
S = initial offset constant (0)
o
11
\
INJECTOR PULSE
\
\
\
LJ
\
FLYWHEEL PULSE
(S)
Manifold Absolute Pressure (M.A.P.)
P
m
( Va - V OS)
= V - V (PFS - POS)
FS OS
+ POS
P = manifold absolute pressure (psia)
m
POS = minimum calibration pressure (psia)
,

-------
PF8 = maximum calibration pressure (psia)
V8 = channel 8 output (V)
V08 = minimum scale calibration (V)
VF8 = maximum scale calibration (V)
(9)
NO
x
NO = V9 x SF9
where
NO = nitric oxide by volume (ppm)
V9 = channel 9 output (V)
SF9 = Scale factor No.9 corresponding to voltage V9 from
NO analyzer calibration tables ~
V
NOC = NO x ~ x D.F.
where
NO = nitric oxide by volume with humidity and dilution correction
c
factors
1
~ = humidity correction factor = 1 - 0.0047 (H-75)' H being
grains of moisture per pound of dry air
D.F.* = dilution factor =
14.5
% CO + (0 5) % CO + HC(ppm C)
o 2' 10,000
*
Dilution factor is used to correct concentration emissions data to
stoichiometric mixture, so that a fair comparison of concentration
data can be made at different A/F.
a
A-II

-------
NOX
m
NO
=-x
106
VEx ~O 2 x CF' w x ~
where
NOX = oxides of nitrogen in gm/hr
m
CF' * = water correction factor selected from Table A-I.
w
3 Wa + Wf
VE = exhaust flow (ft /hr) = 0.075**

M - density of N02 (gm/ft3) = 54.16
-~02 -
Table A-I - Values of CF~ and CFw for Different A/F
A/F 18:1 19:1 20:1 21:1 22:1 23:1
CF' 0.897 0.902 0.907 0.913 0.919 0.923
w 
CF 0.904 0.910 0.914 0.920 0.926 0.931
w      
*
The water correction factors are applied to mass emissions because when
measuring concentrations, water is removed from the exhaust sample.
In case of CO, C02 and HC, water is removed by cooling exhaust to
32F which does not remove all the water. In the case of NO, the sample
is further passed through "dri-rite" which removes all the water. .
The values of CF~ and CFw were calculated by knowing water content
from chemical reactions taking place at various A/F.
**The density of exhaust was found to be 0.075 ft3/hr at stoichiometric
A/F. For mixtures leaner than stoichiometric, negligible change in
the density of exhaust was found. Therefore, 0.075 ft3/hr was used
as density of exhaust for all A/F considered in this project.
(10) CO
CO = VIO x SFIO
A-12

-------
where
co = carbon monoxide by volume (%)
VIO = channel 10 output (V)

SFIO = scale factor NO. 10 corresponding to voltage VIO from
CO analyzers calibration Tables (%/V)
CO
c
=
CO x D.F.
where
CO = carbon monoxide concentration by volume (%)
c
CO
COm =100 xVE x MCO x CFw
where
COm = carbon monoxide in gm/hr
VE = exhaust flow (ft3/hr)
MCO = density of CO = 32.97 ~
ft
CFw = water correction factor = 0.884
(11) C02
C02 = VII x SFll
where
C02 = carbon dioxide by volume (%)
VII = channel 11 output (V)
SFll = scale factor No. 11 corresponding to voltage VII
from C02 analyzer calibration tables (%/V)
A-13

-------
(C02) = C02 x D.F. ,

c,.. "', ".'
, .
.' .
where
,'.. : '"

(co2)"'c"~ carbon dioxide ,concentration.by ,Volu,me',,(%)
(12) HC
.'
HC
c
=
(V12- V012 )
VFl2 - V 012
SF12 x D. F.
where
HC = total hydrocarbon concentration by volume (ppm C)
c
SF12 = Scale factor No. 12 (ppm C)
V12 = channel 12 output (V)
V012 = zero scale calibration (V)
VF12 = full scale calibration (V)
HC
HCm = 106 x VE x MHc x CFw
where
HC = total hydrocarbon in'gm/hr
m
CF = water correction factor
w
3 :
VE = exhaust flow (ft /hr)

MHc = de~sity.. of HC =.:.1~/3'f7~ (Indo1ene)
- .."
"
".',' .......
A;-14

-------
(13)
where
(14)
where
(15)
2
 =
2
( Vl3 -

VF13
V013)
V013
(SF 13)
02 = oxygen by volume (%)
V13 = channel 13 output (V) 
V013 = zero scale calibration (V)
VF13 = full scale calibration (V)
SF13 = scale factor No. 13 (%) 
Inlet Air Temperature
( V 14 -
TF = VF14-
V014)
V (TF14 - T014)
014
T = inlet air temperature (OF)
F
V14 = channel 14 output (V)  
V014 = minimum scale calibration (V) 
VF14 = maximl1;m scale calibration (V) 
T014 = minimum calibration temperature (oF)
TF14 = maximum calibration temperature (OF)
Additional Calculations
A/F
W
a
A/F = -
Wf
+ T014
A-IS

-------
where
A/F = air fuel ratio
W
a
= air
flow (lb/hr)
Wf = fuel flow (lb/hr)
A/F Ratio From Exhaust Analysis
. *
( (1 + E/2 + D) 120 (1 - FC)}
(A/F) e = Fb 'Lll. 492 F c ,1 + E ' + 3.5 + E .
where
(A/F) = A/F from exhaust analysis
e
%CO + %C02
F - .
b - " " HC (ppm C)
. %C9 + %C02 + 10,000
F = fraction of carbon in fuel = 0.867 (Indolene)
c
E = %CO
%C02

%2

D = %C02
Brake Horsepower
'-~
BHP - 5252
where
." ".
BHP = brake horsepower
*
"Air-Fuel Ratios from Exhaust Gas' Analysis," R. S. Spindt, SAE Paper 650507.
(
, A"'-16

-------
where
where
Q = brake torque O(lb-ft)
N = engine speed (rpm)
Brake Specific Fuel Consumption
.
Wf
BSFC = BHP
BSFC = brake specific fuel consumption (lb/bhp-hr)
Wf = fuel flow (lb/hr)
BHP = brake horsepower
HC, CO and NO Emissions on gm/bhp-hr Basis
x
HC
m
HCmh = BHP
CO
CO =~
mh BHP
NOX
m
NOXmh = BHP
HCmho = HC emissions gm
bhp-hr
HC
m
HC emissions ~
=
COm~ = CO emissions b~-hr
COm = CO emissions ~
NOXmh = NOx emissions gm
bhp-hr
NOXm = NOx emissions ~
A-I?

-------
A.3
TEST PROCEDURE
The test procedure varied somewhat fpr differ~nt phases.. of the
program because several different parameters were varied and in some
cases it was easier to vary certain parameters first than. others. How-
ever, generally, the same test procedure as described in Apperidix C for
the baseline tests was followed.
A-18

-------
APPENDIX B

AIR-MANAGEMENT EVALUATION OF A 1970 FORD C. LD.
ENGINE WITH AN EFI INTAKE MANIFOLD AND THROTTLE BODY
B.1
INTRODUCTION
One of the ways to reduce NOx emissions from a spark-ignition
engine is to let it run as lean as possible. To run an engine as
lean as possible without a misfiret even distribution of air/fuel
ratio among the engine cylinders is of prime importance. .

The Bendix EFI (Electronic Fuel Injection) system can be cali-
brated to give even fuel distribution to the individual cylinders
to ~.;rithin one percent of each other. Thereforet it is the air dis-
tribution among the cylinders that becomes of significant importance.

The present Ford 429 C.I.D. engine intake manifold is shown
schematically in Figure B-1. The firing order is 15426378.
Some effort is made in designing the man~fold to keep physical
size and shape of each runner and the branches identical. Howevert
when a close look is taken at the firing ordert the runners see
different dynamic pulsation that probably affect air flow distribu-
tion. In the runners a and bt feeding cylinders 1-6 and 4-7t respec-
tive1Yt the period between the pulses is uniform. In runners c and dt
CYLINDER
NUMBERS
FORWARD'
END OF
ENGINE
THROTTLE BORES
/
\
,
,
,
,

o
.. 5
8
<;
'1'
&?
Q.
INTAKE MANIFOLD RUNNER IDENTIFICATION
Figure B-1 - Ford 429 C.I.D~ Engine Cylinder Identification
B-1

-------
, "
two pulses occur at one-half the period of runners a and band
then there is a delay equal toLSthe 'period ,of runners a and b.
Of course, the manifold has been ,designed to q;lstril)Ute a car-
bureted air/fuel mixture and it is possible that branch and runner
passages are sized to correct for air/fuel ratio non-uniformities.
These design techniques can affect the mass air f19w ~a~es for> t,h.e'
special case where no fuel is required to be carried with the air
\,ln~il just before introduction into the cylinder (manifold fuel
inJection) .

, "Although the manifold is suspected by contrl~~nng to most of
the air flow non-uniformity, the engine itself' cannot be ignored,
The ,engine is the air pump and its pumping characteristics can be
"subj ect to variations between cylinders 'related to ring and valve
, leakages and dimensional variations. ' "

"r ,: '{Another phenomenon that may affect the air dist~ibution orian
ope.ra.ting.engine would be different heat transfer rates to indi-
vidual~:rritake manifold branches. This might cause the air entering
in various cylinders to be of different density. The exh.aust mani-
f~'ldE;" also contribute to the uneven ai~ :di'stribution",due to possible
"uneven, ,back pressure resulting from 'the, dynamic, Uow condition$ 'that
," ~xi~'t in the exhaus t "manifolds . B~fQre undertaking an investigation
, ii:t to' operating improv~m!=nts related fa variations of air/fuel ratio
and other parameters' to' define an extended lean ope]'ating r~gime,
this evaluation of air flow uniformity was done to disclose' any'
unusual anomalies that could limit the value of the remainder of
the tes ts.
B.2
SUMHARY
The air manageMent study was undertaken to evaluate the influence
of standard intake and the exhaust manifolds on the distribution of
mass air flow to individual cylinders for a 1970 Ford 429 C.I.D.
engine. "

The motored engine tests were conducted at various throttle
settings, which simulated the various driving modes to evalu?~e.mass
distribution of air to individual cylinders by the intake manifold.
Except for the idle condi'tion, the maximum percent variation in mass
air flow from cylinder to cylinder due to the intake manifold was
found to be about 4, percent~ 'The maximum percent variation at idle
was found to be 10.5. It was concluded that the intake manifold was
satisfactory for the purpose of this project.
Tests ,were conducted on the operatinp. engine to evaluate exhaust
manifolds uS1ng injectors matched to deliver fuel flow within one per-
cent. Individual cylinder-to-cylinder exhaust was ,sampled to determine
. -, . .' ~,
. ;:. t' .
~, , : '. .;
B-2

-------
individual air/fuel ratio from each cylinder. Tuned exhaust headers
were used as a baseline. It was recognized that these manifolds
would interfere least with the exhaust flow from each cylinder and
would provide the least back pressure variation. Hence, minimum
effect on air/fuel ratio distribution will be felt using these
headers. Similar air/fuel ratio measurements were made using the
standard exhaust manifolds and the exhaust system. It was found,
as shown later, that the air/fuel ratio variations were not greatly
different than those with the tuned headers. It '~as concluded,
therefore, that the standard exhaust system, under operating con-
ditions, did not affect the air distribution significantly in the
en8ine.
Thus, it was finally concluded that the standard intake and
the exhaust manifolds have only a nominal effect on the distribution
of mass air flo,v in the operating range of the tests planned for this
project.
B.3
CONCLUSIONS &~D RECOMMENDATIONS
The following conclusions were made from the results of the
investigation:
(1)
In the operating range of the parametric testing (600 to
2000 rpm),except for idle, the maximum error due to the
intake manifold in air mass distribution to individual
cylinders is about 4 percent or f2 percent from the average.
The error is believed to be primarily due to the different
dynamic phenomena taking place in different manifold
branches. A plenum-type manifold with individual runners
for each cylinder branching from the plenum might remove
this deficiency. However, to design, fabricate and test
such a manifold to reduce a 4 percent variation would be
beyond the scope of this project. Therefore, there will
be no attempt to alter the intake manifold design.

From the compression tests on the engine, it was concluded
that the engine is in sound physical shape.

From the tests run on the two different exhaust manifolds,
it can be concluded that an exhaust system with inherent
low back pressure and of construction in which the dynamic
effects from each cylinder are kept isolated for a longer
period of time (tuned header) has no apparent advantage
over a standard exhaust system within the engine operatinf
range of this project. It is recommended, therefore, that
the standard exhaust system be used for the rest of the
parametric tests;
(2)
(3)
B-3

-------
B.4
TEST ~U::T!I()D NW DATA t\.'JALYSIS
B.4.1 Test ~ethod
To evaluate the exist!n? intRke manifold, en~ine motorin?
tests ,,,ere performed. Since Bendix dvnamometer facilities Here not
readv, the Ford enf,ine was coupled to another engine and motored.
The test set-up is shmvn in Figure B-2. Because of the pulsatinp. flOH
into and out of a cvlinder, measurement of actual mass air flow into
each cylinder was verv difficult to achieve. Instead, a scheme was
devised to measure the peak compression pressure.

The Ford enrine Has instrumented to measure inlet al.
temperature and peak compression pressure. The engine block tempera-
ture and the coolant out temperatures were monitored and maintained
~
Figure B-2 - Motoring Test of Ford 429 C.r.D. Engine
B-4

-------
at simulated operating temperatures. Also, the barometric pressure
was recorded. A fast responding strain gage type transducer was
used to measure the peak compression pressure. The pressure was
recorded on a fast responding light beam type recorder. The inlet
air temperature was continuously recorded on a Sanborn recorder.
The engine speed was accurately measured with a magnetic pick-up
in conjunction with four steel slugs on the crankshaft pu11ev and
an electronic counter.
The tests first were run without the intake or the exhaust
manifolds and then with only the intake manifold and the EFI throttle
body (no venturis). The tests were run for four different throttle
positions. Closed throttle (idle), wide open throttle and two part-
throttle positions were chosen. The two part-throttle positions
were representative of a smooth acceleration from 30 mph and 50 mph
cruise conditions.
To record data, the engine speed was set and the throttle
positioned, such as for 50 mph cruise, to give the desired manifold
absolute pressure (M.A.P.). Then, with these conditions, steady
state data were recorded for stabilized conditions of M.A.P., water
coolant outlet temperature and engine speed at speeds of 600, 1000,
1500, 2000, and 3000 rpm. The evaluation of the flow distribution
uniformity characteristics of the manifolds is hampered somewhat
by the basic pumping variations between cylinders that were observed
durinE the motored-engine tests of the bare engine (no manifolds).
Figure B-3 shows the variation in cylinder peak compression pressures
observed for the bare engine.

In order to more clearly define the influences of the mani-
folds and the throttle body, an analytical procedure was devised that
normalizes the data to effectively eliminate the bare engine varia-
tions. This is discussed below.
B.4.2 Data Evaluation Theory

The analysis that fo11m,s was suggested
of EPA to analyze and evaluate the intake manifold
distribution from cylinder to cylinder.
by Dr. Jose Bascunana
for mass air flow
For a given cylinder at the start of the compression stroke,
from the equation of state for an ideal gas:
p. V. = M T R
1 1 i
(1)
B-5

-------
 360 
 350 
 340 
<-' 330 
ii)  
...  
I  
w 320 
ex: 
::::>  
'"  
'"  
w  
ex: 310 
... 
:.:  
  
w  
... 300 
 290 'iJ
 280 
1.
21!!----

3.- ---
50-----
60
7~
4~
8 V-~---
o
1000
2000
3000 ;;
co
ui
co
Ii
ENGINE SPEED - RPM
Figure B-3 - Cylinder Peak Pressure 1970 429 C.r.D. Ford Engine - No Manifolds
,,,here Pi is the absolute pressure at the start of the compressiont
Vi is the volume at the start of the compressiont M is the mass of the
charge inductedt R is the gas constantt and Ti is the absolute temper-
ature of the air mass at the start of the compression stroke.

SimilarlYt at the end of the compression stroket we have:
p
c
v
c
= ~'1 T
c
R
(2)
where subscript c corresponds to the values of absolute pressuret
absolute temperature and the volume at the end of the compression
stroke.
B-6

-------
Assuming that the compression is an isentropic process,
we can write,
T
c
T. -
1.
(::r
=
(r)k-l
(3)
where k is the polytropic exponent, and r is the compression ratio
of that cylinder.
T
c
= T. (r)k-l
1.
(4 )
Substituting equation (4) into equation (2), we have
p
c
v
c
= M T R (r)k-l
i
(5)
or
p V
c c
M = T. R
1.
(~r-l
(6)
From equation (6) we can write two equations for any given cylinder
for two different conditions, subscripts land 2. For example, let
subscript 1 refer to the condition where only the intake manifold is
installed and subscript .2 the condition where both the intake and the
exhaust manifolds are installed.
M1 = ::~ :C1 (~1) k-1
(7)
B-7

-------
and
,- .
PcZ VcZ' 1
M =
Z TiZ R rl
k-l
(8)
Of courset since equations (7) and (8) are for the same cylindert Vcl =
VcZ and rl = rz. Simplifying and dividing equation (7) by equation
(8) t we have
Ml
-=
MZ
P cl TiZ
-x-
P cZ Tn
(9)
Thust we have a ratio of mass of air inducted under two different
external conditions for the same cylinder. In this caset the external
condition effectively gives the influence of the intake manifold on
the charge inducted into that particular cylinder. MI/MZ ratios can
be found similarly for all remaining cylinders. The comparison of
these ratios from one cylinder to another shows the influence of the
intake manifold on the mass, air distribution to each cylinder.

The data obtained using the Sanborn recorder and the light
beam recorder were reduced by hand. Using this and other hand recorded
datat the ratio HI/HZ ~vas computed for each cylinder at every engine
rpm fora given throttle ,condi tion~ The time' share computer was used
to perform the, calculations. :For every speed at the given'throttle
'conditiont maximum percent deviation in HI/HZ between the cylinders
was computed. "
Thus, from the motored engine data and the above method of
analysis, the intake manifold was evaluated for its role in distribu-
ting the inducted air mass to the individual cylinders at the given
operating conditions. Following the test and evaluation of the intake
manifold, the influence of ,the exhaust manifold and other engine
parameterst such as individual cylinder compression, were evalu-
ated on the operating engine. For these evaluations a set of fuel
B-8

-------
injectors (manifold injection), matched to flow within a one per-
cent spread, were installed and, using exhaust gas analysis, air/
fuel ratio was determined from each cylinder. Variations in air/
fuel ratio more than the estimated combined error due to the intake
manifold and the injectors was attributed to additional variations
in the air flow from one cylinder to another caused by the exhaust
manifolds or variations in the engine geometry, or both.
B.5
ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS
Figure B-4 shows the plot of maximum percent deviation of Ml/M2
as a function of engine rpm for all four throttle positions. The
percent deviation represents the influence of the intake manifold
on the mass air flow to individual cylinders. In the operating range
of the parametric tests, except for idle, the M1/M2 deviation is
about 4 percent. At idle, the deviation is about 10.5 percent and
then as the speed increases, for the same throttle position, it
levels off to about 7 percent.

To see the effect of engine rpm on the air distribution of the
intake manifolds, Figures B-5, B-6, B-7, and B-8 were plotted for: idle;
for a throttle position providing 10.5 psia M.A.P., at 1200 rpm
(smooth acceleration from 30 mph); for a throttle position providing
9.7 psia M.A.P. at 2000 rpm (50 mph cruise), and for wide open
throttle (W.O.T.), respectively. On the Y-axis, a normalized
parameter [(Ml/M2) .;. (Avg. Hl/M2)] is plotted and on the X-axis the
engine rpm is plotted. The variable parameter is the cylinder number.
Cylinders 2, 3, 5, and 8 are plotted with broken lines and cylinders 1,
4, 6, and 7 with solid lines. These two sets of cylinders represent
runners c-d and a-b, respectively in Figure B-1.
As previously discussed the two sets of runners see different
dynamic phenomena. An attempt is made from these plots to recognize
any effect of this. Except for the idle and the wide open throttle
conditions, a trend is obvious. Figures B-6 and B-7 clearly show, for
speeds greater than 2000 rpm, that the intake manifold runners a and
b tend to allow relatively more mass air flow into cylinders 2, 3, .
5, and 8. For speeds of 2000 rpm and 2500 rpm, the deviation is
about +2 percent about the nominal and at 3000 rpm the deviation is
about +3 percent. Although these dynamic effects do occur in this
manifold, for the purpose of this project the engine will not be
operated at speeds greater than 2000 rpm, and the total percent
deviation in mass air flow due to the intake manifold would only be
about 4 percent at all conditions except at idle. To attempt to re-
fine the intake manifold design to correct this deficiency is believed
to be beyond the scope of this project.
B-9

-------
N
~ 7.0
~
~
o
z
o
~ 6.0
a::

I-
Z
w
~ 5.0
w
~
~
::I
~
~ 4.0
~
11.0
10.0
9.0
8.0
3.0
RANGE OF RPM AND M.A.P.
FOR PARAMETRIC TESTS
2.0
1.0
1200
600
1000
IDLE THROTTLE. 6.3 PSIA
M.A.P. AT 600 RPM
WIDE OPEN
THROTTLE
1970 FORD 429 C.I.D. ENGINE
WITH E.F.J. INTAKE MANIFOLD
o
'"
'"
'"
a.
1500 2000
ENGINE SPEED - RPM
2500
3000
Figure B-4 - Effect of Intake Manifold on Maximum Plus to Minus Variation
Between Cylinders for the Ratio Ml/MZ at Various Operating Conditions
B-IO

-------
;;; 1.0200
~
~
- 1.0000
<:J
>

-------
bj
I
f-'
N
N 1.0200
~
~
<.:i 1.0100
>
~
:.::. 1.0000-
N
~
~
- 0.9900
Figure B-7 -
CYLINDER #
----05
1.
06
28---
~7
3.----
----\1 8
4.
1.0400
EFIINTAKE MANIFOLD
THROTTLE SETTING M.A.P. = 9.7 PSIA@20oo ENGINE RPM
~
.,
1.0300
\1_-
--
--
0.9800
0.9700
500
2500
3000 ~
'"
Q.
1000
1500 2000

ENGINE RPM
Effect of
1970 Ford
E. F. 1.
Speed on Cylinder
429 C.I.D. Engine
Intake Manifold
Mass Air Flow
N
~ 1.0100
~
<.:i
~ 1.0000
.,.
N
~ 0.9900
~
.,
1.0300
1.0200
0.9800
0.9700
500
Figure B-8 -
----05
----\18
CYLINDER #
1.
06
2.----
~7
3.----
THROTTLE SETTING - W.O.T.
4.
" ..........
,-' ........
o

/).
---
.,""
.
1000
Effect of
1970 Ford
E. F. 1.
---..
,
.
,
"
1500
2000
2500
ENGINE RPM
Speed on Cylinder
429 C.I.D. Engine
Intake Manifold
.,.
3000
~
~
Q.
Mass Air Flow

-------
To further see if the intake manifold favored one cylinder
over the others, at all the operating conditionst Figure B-9 was
plotted. The normalized ratio [(Ml/M2 f (Avg. Ml/M2)] was plotted
at three speeds for each cylinder. Of course, the deviation is
still 4 percent, but it seems as if cylinders 1, 2, and 7 receive'
less air mass compared to other cylinders due to the intake manifold.

Rather than pursue further evaluations of air flow as it is
influenced by the intake manifold, it was decided to evaluate air/
fuel ratio from each cylinder using exhaust gas analysis. To per-
form this task, the intake manifold was equipped with a set of
matched fuel injectors (all flow within about a 1 percent range)
and the exhaust manifolds were provided with eight exhaust sampling
probes running into the cylinder heads, extending about one inch
from the plane of the manifold and head interface into the exhaust
channels. Care was taken to locate each probe in the same relation-
ship to the exhaust valves. To measure CO and C02, Beckman NDIR
analyzers were used. To measure the total hydrocarbons in the ex-
haust, a Beckman FID Model 400 was used. Oxygen in the exhaust
was measured using a Beckman oxygen sensor, Model 715. The Spindt
method* was used to compute the air/fuel ratios and the results are
shmvn in Figures B-10 through B-12.

For idle conditions (Figure B-lO) two average air/fuel ratios
were evaluated. At an average air/fuel ratio of 15.7:1, the total
variation between the cylinders was about 6 percent. For an air/
fuel ratio of 14.6:1 the total variation was only 2.7 percent.
Figure B-ll shows data at 1200 rpm for two values of brake torque.
At 45 ft-lbt the average air/fuel ratio was 17.84:1 and the spread
between cylinders was 0.8 ratio or 4.5 percent of the average. For
a torque of 100 ft-lb, the average air/fuel ratio was 19.6:1 and the
spread between cylinders was 1.0 ratio or about 5.1 percent of the
average.

Figure B-12 shows data at 2000 rpm for two values of brake torque.
At 70 ft-lb the average air/fuel ratio was 18.82:1 and the spread
between cylinders was 1.28 ratios or 6.8 percent of the average.
At 180 ft-lb of torque the average air/fuel ratio was 19.29:1 and
the spread between cylinders was 1.64 ratios or 8.5 percent of the
average.
*
SAE Paper 650507 "Air/Fuel Ratios from Exhaust Gas Analysis,"
R. S. Spindt.
B-13

-------
 1.0200
N 
~ 
! 
ci 
> 1.0000

-I- 
N 
~ 
! 
 0.9800
0.9600
1
U)
en
>
...J

Z

U)
;3 16.0
....
U)
::)

:I:
X
w
::!:
~ 15.0
IL
o
;::

a:
IL
<
14.0
B-14
1.0400
17.0
1970 FORD 429 C.I.D. ENGINE
EFIINTAKE MANIFOLD
6. 6 2000 RPM (- 50 MPH CRUISE)
0-- - -.0 1500 RPM (-30 MPH ACCEL.I
o----~ W.O.T.3OO0 RPM
2
7
3
5
6
4
CYLINDER #
Figure B-9
Intake Hanifo1d Air Dis tribution Variation
1970 Ford 429 C.I.D. Engine
E.F.I. Intake Manifold
........ AVG. AlF = 15.7:1
0--0 AVG. A/F = 14.6:1
-
-
"
...
-
2
5
CYLINDER #
7
3
4
6
Figure B-10 - Air/Fuel Ratio Variation at Idle
1970 Ford 429 C.I.D. Engine
E.F.I. Manifold with Matched Injectors - Group Injection
Standard Exhaust System
(;
"I'
"'
"I'
<>.
8
~
"'
ex>
Q.
8

-------
20.0
CI)
CI)
>
~ 19.
2
 1200 RPM - 100 FT.LBS B-TORQUE
o
co
.;,
co
0..
14.0
1
2
3
4
5
CYLINDER #
6
7
8
Figure B-11 - Air/Fuel Ratio Variation at 30 MPH
1970 Ford 429 C.r.D. Engine
6.0
   ~-- --- 
 -- --- --~   ~ - -.....
)---  ~ ~   """I
   0-0 2000 RPM - 180 FT-LBS B-TORQUE
   ....... 2000 RPM - 70 FT-LBS B-TORQUE
o
co
.;,
co
0:.
22.0
18.0
CI)
Ii)
>
..J

-------
Although the results seem inconsistent as regards lean or
rich cylinders at all conditions, certain trends are apparent.
From Figure B-ll (1200 rpm) cylinders 1, 2, 3, and 4 (right bank)
were at relatively rich A/F ratios as compared to the other four
cylinders. Similarly, the data for 2000 rpm (Figure B-12) show
that cylinders 1, 2, 4, and 8 operated at relatively richer con-
ditions than did cylinders 3, 5, 6, and 7.

To summarize and correlate all of the results, Table B-1 was
prepared. This tabulates the key parameters versus conditions
for the three types of tests performed; namely, cylinder peak pres-
sure, the ratio Ml/M2 for intake manifold evaluation, and air/fuel
ratio. .
Except for idle conditions, the intake manifold appears to
contribute a 4 percent non-uniformity between cylinders to the mass
air flow. At idle the non-uniformity is more than 10 percent. No
special data were taken to help determine why the variation was so
great at idle; therefore, its cause c~n only be theorized. Two
unusual conditions may be responsible. First, the flow across the
throttle plates is sonic because the manifold absolute pressure
is less than half of an atmosphere. This can create shock waves
that might influence flow streams. Second, the projected flow
areas with the throttle closed are shaped like very narrow cres-
cents that could cause peculiar flow eddies below the plates that
would influence the flow streams.

One might also consider that the wide variation is due to the
low charge density that results from a M.A.P. of 6.3 psia. How-
ever, note that Figure B-5 indicates reduced variation with speed at
a fixed throttle setting. M.A.P. data at the higher speeds are not
available but the pressure would be considerably lm~er. Similarly,
the 1200 and 2000 rpm data show no trends indicative of charge
density effects.

The air/fuel ratio percentage variations (+ and - about the
average) are the result of contributions from the engine pumping
variations, the intake and exhaust manifolds and the fuel injection
system. The combined effect of the intake manifold and the engine
is represented by the peak cylinder pressure variations shown in
Figures B-13, B-14, and B-l5 for idle (600 rpm), 1200 rpm, and 2000 rpm,
respectively. The calculated total percentage variations are tabu-
lated in Table B-1 for the data shown on these figures. The fuel
injection system was matched (for grouped injection) to provide
about a 1 percent total variation was 6.3 percent; therefore, as
much as a 7.3 percent variation could be expected in air/fuel ratio.
Actually, it was much less for richer average air/fuel ratio, but
B-l6

-------
Table B-1
- Summary of Results
ENGINE BRAKE FIGURE     CONDITIONS        TOTAL (+ AND -)% VARIATION
SPEED TORQUE NUMBER MOTORED OPERATING MAN I FOLDS "VEHICLE"   OTHER    A/F M]/M2 PEAK CYL.
RPM LB-FT   INTAKE EXHAUST CONIJITION       RATIO AVG. MI/M2 PRESSURE
600 n- 3 .     Idle   ---    n-  -- 5.4
+ --- 13 .  .   1   6.3 psia !-I.A.P.  _n   6.3
--- 5 .  .    6.3 psia ~I.A. P. at 600 rpm --- 10.5% --
640 35 10  . . S'td.   Avg. A/F Ratio = 14.6:1 2.7  _n n
640 35 10  . . .5'tc1.   Avg. A/F Ratio IS 15.7:1 6.0  n- n
1200 _n 3 .    30 mph   ---    u-  _n 5.4
 --- 14 .  .   t   10.5 psia M.A.P.  n-  --- 4.6
 --- 6 .  .     10.5 psia :1.A.P.  _n  4 --
 45 11  . . S'td. 30 mph Cruise Grouped Injection  4.5  --- n
 100 11  . . S'td. 1  Accel. Grouped Injection  5.1  --- --
 45 16  . . Tuned  Cruise SCl']uentinl Injection  1~.05  --- --
 100 16  . . Tuned  Accel.   ~    8.4  --- --
 45 18  . . S'td.  Cruise      12.0  _n n
 100 18  . . S'td.  Acce1.      7.4  --- ---
2000 --- 3 .    50 "'ph   u-    n-  n- 4.25
 --- 15 .  .      9.7 psi" ~I.A.P.  ---  --- 4.65
 n- 7 .  .      9.7 psia M.A.P.  ---  4 u
 70 12  . . S'td. 50 mph Cruise GroupeJ Injection  . "  n- --
   u.v 
 180 12  . . S'td. 1  Accel. Grouped Injection  D.5  _n --
 70 17  . . Tuned  Cruise Sequential Injection  13.6  _n --
 180 17  . . Tuned  Accel.   ~    7.0  --- n
 70 19  . . S'td.  Cruise      16.5  --- --
 180 19  . . S' tel.  Accel.      5.5  _n --
300 --- -- .  . S'td.  n-  Compression Test  ---  --- 7.8
;;
'"
,;,
a:
..
t:d
I
I-'
--.J

-------
t:I
(ij
Q.
I
w
a::
:::>
~ 100
w
a::
Q.
z
2
~
w
a::
Q.
~
o
u
~

w
Q.
150
  ~ ....
 ....  
  1970 FORD 429 C.I.D. ENGINE
  EFIINTAKE MANIFOLD W/THROTTLE BODY
  NO EXHAUST MANIFOLD
  6.3 PSIA M.A.P. @ 600 RPM (IDLE)
..~   
-~   
50
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
   CYLINDER #   
 Figure B-13  - Air/Flow Variation at 600 RPM  
was 6 percent at an air/fuel ratio of 15.7:1. At 1200 rpm, the sum
of the pressure and fuel flow variation was about 5.6 percent as com-
pared to an air/fuel ratio variation of 4.5 to 5.1 percent. At
2000 rpm, the sum of the pressure and fuel flow variation was about
5.7 percent and the air/fuel ratio variation was between 7 and 8.5
percent.

Although the correlation is not exact, it is reasonable. Other
effects can account for the differences. These would include effects
from the exhaust manifolds, the higher gas temperatures and random
. B-18
o
co
,;.,
C9
~

-------
300
~ ]".- ---" 
  ""
  429 C.I.D. ENGINE 
  E.F.I. INTAKE MANIFOLD W/THROTTLE BODY
  NO EXHAUST MANIFOLD 
  10.50 PSIA M.A.P. @ 1200 RPM 
"
c;;
Q.
I
w
a:
::>
II)
~ 250
a:
Q.
Z
o
~
w
a:
Q.
::;:
o
u
'"

w
Q.
200
2
3
7
4
5
6
CYLINDER ;;
Figure B-14 - Air/Flow Variation at 1200 RPM
300
/ ~ 
  429 C.I.D. ENGINE
  E.F.I. INTAKE MANIFOLO W/THROTTLE BODY
  NO EXHAUST MANIFOLD
  9.70 PSIA M.A.P. @ 2000 RPM
~  
"
c;;
Q.
I
w
a:
::>
~ 250
a:
Q.
z
o
~
w
a:
Q.
::;:
o
u
'"

w
Q.
200
3
4
5
7
6
CYLINDER #
Figure B-1S
- Air/Flow Variation at 2000 RPM
(;
..
~
Q.
8
(;
..
.;,
..
Q.
8
B-19

-------
cancellations or reinforcements between low or high peak pressures
for a given cylinder and high or low fuel delivery rates of the
corresponding fuel injectors. .

In the tests discussed abovet group injection was used when
air/fuel ratio measurements were made and this may have had some
influence on the variation in the air/fuel mixture from one cylinder
to another. In group injectiont cylinders It 4t 5t and 8 are in-
jected simultaneously followed by one crank revolution later by
simultaneous injection of cylinders 2t 3t 6t and 7. Thereforet when
the first cylinder in a group draws the charget fuel is still wait-
ing to be drawn into the other three cylinders. This may create a
problem of "robbing" some of the fuel injected into the other ports
by cylinders that induct the charge first. To verify this possi-
bilitYt the EFI system was revised to provide individually timed
(sequential) injection. Results of this are discussed below.

To recheck the engine conditiont cylinder compression checks
were made using standard automotive diagnostic equipment. The com-
pression checking gauge was adapted to thread into the spark plug
port. To measure the cylinder compressiont all the spark plugs were
removed and the engine was motored at 300 rpm with the throttle wide
open (all manifolds installed). The results are summarized below:
Cylinder 
Number Compression
1 190
2 195
3 185
4 190
5 195
6 200
7 195
8 195
The cylinder compression varied from a low of 185 psig to a high
of 200 psig. The average pressure was 193 psig and the total varia-
tion was 7.8 percent. These variations in the compression values are
considered normalt and the engine was judged to be in good condition.

Two additional test series were run to evaluate any improvements
resulting from using sequential fuel injection and the pressure pulse
isolation provided by a tuned exhaust manifold.
B-20

-------
To evaluate the effect of sequential injection, tests were run
both with the tuned exhaust headers (Figures B-16 and B-17) and with
the standard exhaust manifolds (Figures B-18 and B-19). To keep the
back pressure to a minimum, the headers were used without any
mufflers or resonators, whereas the standard manifolds were used
with a complete exhaust system. The injection timing was adjusted
to commence injection 50 degrees before the intake valve opens.
With the 429 C.r.D. engine valve timing, this allowed the fuel
injection to take place when both the intake and the exhaust valves
were closed. For both exhaust systems, the tests were run at the
same speed, torque and ignition timing. An attempt was made to set
the same air/fuel ratio also. Exhaust emissions were measured from
each cylinder to compute the air/fuel ratios. The results are sum-
marized in Table B-2.

The results indicate that the exhaust system exerts very little
influence upon the variation of air/fuel ratio between cylinders.
It is of interest to note that the spread is a little greater at
the high torque points when the tuned headers are installed.
These tests, using sequential injection, resulted in higher
percentage variations in air/fuel ratios - particularly at the
low torque set points. This was believed to be due to the method
used to adjust the control unit.

As a standard procedure, pulse durations from the experimental
sequential injection control box to the individual injectors were
matched at a 3 millisecond pulse width to within 5 microseconds
(0.17 percent). At 1200 rpm, 100 ft-lb torque and 2000 rpm 180 ft-lb
torque set points, the injection pulse period was in the vicinity
of 3 milliseconds; ho~~ever, for the test points of 1200 rpm, 45 ft-lb
torque and 2000 rpm, 70 ft-lb torque the injection pulse period was
only half as much. Also, the experimental control unit did not main-
tain the 5 microsecond tolerance on injector pulse widths for the
lower power set points. This is probably the reason for higher
air/fuel ratio variations at these test points. Since the object
of these tests was to evaluate the exhaust manifolds, there was no
attempt made to match pulse durations at the lower power set points.

To minimize the air/fuel variations with the sequential injection
for the parametric tests, the plus durations for all eight cylinders
were adjusted such that the maximum cylinder to cylinder air/fuel ratio
variation was no greater than that with group injection. The adjust-
ments were made at all the power settings.
B~21

-------
II)
Iii
>
-I

z

II)
 18.0
C1
l-
II)
:I

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w
~
~ 16.0
L0-
a
~

cc
LO-
~
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Iii
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-I

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~ 18.0
l-
e.?
:I

J:
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w
~
~ 16.0
LO-
Q
I-

cc
LO-
~
B-22
20.0
-
-
. . 1200 RPM. 45 FT-LBS B-TORQUE
0---01200 RPM. 100 FT.LBS B-TORQUE
14.0
2
6
7
3
4
5
CYLINDER #
Figure B-16 - Air/Fuel Ratio Variation at 1200 RPM
1970 Ford 429 C.I.D. Engine
E.F.I. Manifold with Matched Injectors - Sequential Injection
Tuned Exhaust Manifolds - No Mufflers
20.0
-
,
~
....
. . 2000 RPM. 70 FT.LBS B.TORQUE
0---02000 RPM. 180 FT.LBS B-TORQUE
14.()
2
3
5
CYLINDER #
6
7
4
Figure B-17 - Air/Fuel Ratio Variation at 2000 RPH
1970 Ford 429 C.I.D. Engine
E.F.I. Manifold with Hatched Injectors - Sequential Injection
Tuned Exhaust Manifolds - No Mufflers
q
.;,
'"
ci..
8
o
'"
.;,
'"
ci..
8

-------
 21.0                  
(/)                   
(/)                   
>- 20.0                  
...J                  
-                   
...J                -   
c:(                  
2: 19.0       -           
c:(                  
CI)                   
c:(                   
<.:J                   
~ 18.0                  
CI)                  
:;)                   
c:(                   
:I:      1970 FORD 429 C_I.D. ENGINE        
x             
w 17.0     EFI MANIFOLD WITH MATCHED       
:::;E      . INJECTORS - SEQUENTIAL INJECTION        
0            
a:       STANDARD EXHAUST SYSTEM        
u..             
0 16.0      ~ 2000 RPM, 70 FT-lBS B-TORQUE     
~                   
c:(       o--~ 2000 RPM, 180 FT-lBS B-TORQUE     
a:             
u.. 15.0                  
~                  -
                  o
                  co
                   .;,
                   co
                   Ii.
 14.0                  
 1 2   3   4 5  6 7 8  
          CYLINDER #       
  Figure B-19 - Air/Fuel Ratio Variation at 2000 RPN    
     1970 Ford 420 C. 1. D. Engine       
B-23

-------
Table B-2 - Exhaust System Effects on A/F Ratio
TUNED EXHAUST HEADERS
Test Condition
RPM
1200
1200
Brake-Torque (ft-1bs)
45
100
Total Variation of A/F Ratio - %
12.05
8.4
13.6
7.0
2000
2000
70
180
STANDARD EXHAUST SYSTEM
 Test Condition 
RPM Brake-Torque (ft-1bs)
1200 45 
1200 100 
2000 70 
2000 180 
Total Variation of A/F Ratio - %
12.0
7.4
16.5
5.5
B-24
o
co
,},
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cl.

-------
APPENDIX C

BASELINE EVALUATIONS OF THE 429 C.I.D.
FORD ENGINE WITH BENDIX EFI SYSTEM
CALIBRATED FOR ULTRA-LEAN OPERATION
C.1
INTRODUCTION
The Ford 429 C.I.D. engine, which was dismounted from the leased
automobile, was installed and instrumented to perform baseline
tests on the engine dynamometer. The baseline data were recorded
for the following steady-state operating conditions.
Brake Torque
(ft-1bs)
RPM
1200
1200
2000
2000
640
45
100
70
180
35 (Idle)
C.2
SUMMARY
The engine was operated at each of the above set points, and the
following parameters were recorded. Indo1ene clear (non-leaded)
was used throughout the test.
air flow
fuel-air ratio
fuel flow
brake torque
inlet air temperature
barometric pressure
M.A.P. (Manifold Absolute Pressure)
exhaust gas temperature
water out temperature
oil temperature
injector pulse width
dry and wet bulb temperatures
C-1

-------
The exhaust emissions data were recorded on the Texas Instrument
recorder.
The standard EFI (Electronic Fuel Injection) spark advance and
the standard spark plug gap of 0.035 in. were used for the baseline
tests. The ignition timingt spark duration and the intensity of
spark are summarized in the following table:
 Brake Ignition Spark Spark
Engine Torque Timing Duration Intensity
RPM (ft-lbs) (OBTDC) (msec) (KV)
1200 45 12 1.39 13
1200 100 13 1.39 13
2000 70 37 1.0 8
2000 180 37 0.833 9
640 35 6 3.03 11
When the standard EFI system group injection is usedt cylinder
numbers 2t 6t 3 and 7 belong to Group 2 and cylinder numbers 8t
1t 5 and 4 belong to Group 1. Groups 1 and 2 inject 1200 BTDC
on cylinders 8 and 2t respectively. Group 2 is synchronized to
inject when spark plug No.8 firest and Group 1 is synchronized to
inject when spark plug No.2 fires (with ignition timing set at
TDC).
The recorded data were reduced using the computer. The air/fuel
ratio was measured as well as computed from the exhaust emissions.
The exhaust emissions were computed on a concentration as well as
on a mass (gms/bhp-hr) basis. The emissions data on a concentration
basis include the dilution factor.
C-2

-------
SUM}~RY OF THE EMISSIONS RESULTS
   Brake  HC   NO
Test Engine Torque   CO  x
No. RPH  (ft-lbs) PPM C* gms/bhp-hr Percent gms/bhp-hr PPH gms/bhp-hr
1 640 (Idle) 35 2142.85 8.16 1. 70 131.21 101.19 1. 30
2 1200  45 1089.48 4.72 0.28 25.20 40.35 0.89
3 1200  100 1139.70 2.85 0.28 14.13 70.55 0.59
4 2000  70 1434.93 3.61 0.15 7.99 176.78 1.49
5 2000  180 445.28 0.69 0.30 9.65 456.64 2.40
*parts per million as carbon      
 C.3 TEST PROCEDURE     
The instrumentation consisted of a F10-Tron linear mass flow meter
in conjunction with a Foxboro transmitter to measure actual mass
flow rate of the fuel. A Meriam laminar flow meter in conjunction
with another Foxboro transmitter was used to measure the air flow.
The Flo-Tron electronic circuitry computed the air/fuel ratio from
these two signals.
To measure the CO, C02' and NO emissions, Beckman NDIR type analyzers
were used. To measure the total hydrocarbons in the exhaust, a
Beckman FID Model 400 was used. All the emissions were recorded on
Texas Instrument recorders. A Beckman oxygen sensor, Model 715,
was used to measure the percentage of oxygen present in the exhaust.
A magnetic pick-up along with a sixty-tooth sprocket was used to
count pulses to read the engine speed in rpm.
After calibration of all the instruments, the engine was started
and kept running until the oil and the water temperatures were
stabilized. The water temperature was maintained at about 170F.
After the warm-up, using the dynamometer speed control, the engine
rpm was set at the desired value. After setting the speed, using
the throttle control on the engine, the desired load was set. The
speed was corrected, if necessary. The engine was maintained at
this condition and sampling of the exhaust was started. When every-
thing seemed stable, all the data were recorded.
c-3

-------
The above procedure was repeated to set other test points and to
record the data.
C.4
DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS
The calibration of the electronic control unit (ECU) for the
baseline EFI was set for ultra-lean operation to reduce NOx
emissions. However, because of such a lean operation, engine
misfires at certain operating conditions caused hydrocarbon and
carbon monoxide emissions to read high.
The attached computer print-outs (Attachment I) show all the paramet~~s
recorded at each operating condition along with the emission analysis.
The emissions are computed in the units of concentration, gm/hr and
gm/bhp-hr. All emissions results in terms of concentration are
corrected by the dilution factor.
The air/fuel ratio is computed from the recorded information on
the air flow and the fuel flow. The air/fuel ratio is also computed
using the emissions data. In most cases the air/fuel ratios computed
using the emissions data and measured air and fuel flows agree within
one air/fuel ratio. Measured fuel flow might be off as it was
difficult to read on the Flo-Tron. This has since been corrected.
Tests 6, 7 and 8 are re-runs of tests 2, 3, and 4 with slightly
richer mixtures to eliminate the misfire. These tests were run
to obtain additional information on emissions if the mixture is
made richer so that there is no misfire.
The computer print-out shows injector timing to be zero. These tests
were run with group injection, and the data were hand recorded. In
order to use the digital part of the computer, some value for the
injection timing had to be used and for simplicity the value given
was zero. Similarly, standard EFI ignition calibration was used,
setting the ignition timing to 4 btdc at 640 rpm; and, again, to
use the program, a value of zero degree was given for all the tests.
C.5
SA}lPLE CALCULATIONS
Recorded Data
RPM
Brake
Torque
(ft-lbs)
Baro. Pressure
(psia)
Humidity
(grains/lb-dry air)
1200
45
14.5
30
C-4

-------
Air Flow
(CFM)
Fuel Flow
(lb/hr)
Inlet Air
Temp. COF)
%CO
%C02
%02
69.75
14.5
77
0.206
10.2
6.4
NO (PPM)
FID(HC)(PPM/propane equivalent)
35
260
W
a
= air
flow (lb/hr)
Baro.Press. Ibs
CFM{l + 0.0033 (70 - T)} 14.7 x 4.52 hr-CFM
where
T = inlet air temperature in. of
{l + 0.0033(70 - T)} is the temperature correction factor for the
laminar flow meter.
W
a
= 69.75 {l + 0.0033 (70 - 77)} i~:~ x 4.52
= 303.79 ~~s
measured air/fuel ratio = 3~~:~9 = 20.95
NO
c
= NO x ~ x D.F.
where
NO
= nitric oxide concentrations in ppm

observed nitric oxide concentration in ppm
1
= humidity correction factor =
1 - 0.0047 (H-75)
NO
c
~
H being grains of moisture per lb. of dry air
D.F. = dilution factor =
14.5
1 3 x HC
%C02 + 2 %CO + 10,000
C-5

-------
C-6
NO
c
= 35 x .8254 x 1.3967 = 40.35 ppm
NO
NOXm = 106 x VE x ~02 x CFw' x ~
where
NOX = oxides of nitrogen in gms/hr
m
VE
3 WA + WF
= exhaust flow (ft /hr) =
PE
WA = air flow (lbs/hr)

WF = fuel flow (lbs/hr)

PE = density of exhaust = 0.075 1b;
ft
~02 = density of N02 (gms/ft3) = 54.16
CF ' = water correction factor = 0.913
w
NOXm = ~~6 (303.7:0;514.5) 54.16 x 0.913 x 0.8254
NOXm = 6.06 ~~s
CO
c
= CO x D.F.
where
CO = carbon monoxide concentration in percent
c
CO
= observed carbon monoxide concentration in percent
D.F. = dilution factor

-------
co
c
= .206 x 1.3967 = 0.2877%
CO
COm = 100 x VE x MCO x CFw
where
CO = carbon monoxide in gms/hr
m
VE
= exhaust volume (ft3/hr)
MCO = density of CO = 32.97 gm;
ft
CF
w
= water correction factor = 0.8991
CO
m
= (.206) (318.29) 32.97 x 0.8991 = 259.0 hgmrs
100 .075
HC
c
= HC x 3 x D.F.
where
HC = total hydrocarbon concentration in ppm - carbon equivalent
c
HC
= observed hydrocarbon propane equivalent in ppm
HC
c
= 260 x 1.3967 x 3 = 1089.42 ppm C
HC
HCm = 3 x 106 x VE x MHC x CFw
where
HC = total hydrocarbons in gms/hr
m
~C = density of HC = 16.33 gm;
ft
HC
m
3 x 260 x 4243.86 x 16.33 x .8991 = 48.6 hgmrS
106
C-7

-------
Brake Torque x rpm
Brake Horsepower = 5252
45 x 1200 = 10.28
5252
WF 14.5
BSFC = B.H.P.= 10.28 = 1.41
=
Emissions in gms/bhp-hr:
48.6 - gms
HCmh = 10.28 - 4.72 bhp-hr
259 - gms
COmh = 10.28 - 25.2 bhp-hr
6.06 gms
NOXmh= 10.28 = 0.588 bhp-hr
Air/Fuel Ratio from the Exhaust Components
(A/F) = Fb {11.492 Fc (1 + E/2 + D) + 120 (1 - Fc)}*
e 1 + E 3.5 + E
where
(A/F) = A/F from exhaust analysis
e
Fb
=
%CO + :tC02

%CO + %C02 + ~O:O~;
F
e
= fraction of carbon in fuel = 0.867
E
= %CO

%CO
2
%2

= %COZ
D
*"Air/Fuel Ratios from Exhaust Gas Analysis," R. S. Spindt, SAE Paper 650507
C-8

-------
(A/F) = .9925 {9.9635 (1 + .01 + .6274)
e 1.0201 +
15.96 }
3.5201
(A/F) = 20.37
e
C-9

-------
ATTACHMENT I
COMPUTER PRINT-OUTS OF BASELINE EMISSION DATA
C-IO

-------
..... lPA PARAMETRIC TlST .....
DATE::
'+/30171
TEST
SPElD (RPM) .
6'+0.0
8RAKE T6RUUE (FT-LB) .
35.000
IGNITI~N TIMING (DEGRElS ~TDC) .
6'0
I~JECTBR TIMING (DEGREES ~TDC) .
0.0
AIR FLtlW (L8/HR) .
PBWE.R (~RAKE HP) .
8'+.287
FUlL fL~W (LB/HR) .
6.200
'+.~65
I~JECTeR PULSl WIDTH (M-SEC) .
3.230
MEASURED AIR/F~EL RATltl .
13.595
BRAKE SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTIBN (LB/BH~-HR) .
1.45
INLET AIR TEMPERATURE (DEGREES-F) .
80.0
EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURE (DEGREES-F) .
WATER-BUT TEMPATU~E (DEGREES-F) .
0.000
BIL TEMPERATURE (DEGREES-F) .
0.000
0.000
MANIFOLD A~SBLuTE PRlSSURE (PSIA) .
EXHAUST BACK P"ESSURl (IN-WATWR) .
5.500
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE (PSIA) .
RELATIVE HUMIDITY (GRAINS) .
14.500
0.'000
30.000
~MISSIBN DILUTION FACTeR .
1.066
Ntj (PP/'I) . 115.0000 
Ntl CORRECTED (PPM) . 101.19tSO
ctJ (~) .  1.7058  
C"2 (X) . 13.'+328 
HC (PPM C). 21'+2.8569 
6e (X) .  2.2000  
 EMISSION ANALYSIS    
NB (GI'1/HR) . 0.55657E+01 NB (GM/BHP-HIoi) . 0.130'+9E+Ol
CO (GI'1/HR) . 0.55963E+03 C6 (GM/BHP-HR) . 0.13121E+03
HC (GM/HR) . 0.3\821E+02 HC (GI'1/BHP-HR) . 0.tS16lt3E+Ol
CALCULATED AIR/FUEL RATIB .
15.13~
(')
I
I-'
I-'

-------
(')
I
I-'
N
**..* EPA PARAMETRIC TEST **.*.
DATE.
4/30/71
TEST
"
SPlED (RPM) . 1200.0
IGNITltlN TIMING (DlGREES BTOC) .
BRAKE TBRQUE (FT-LB) .
45.000
12.0
INJECTeR TIMING (DEGREES BTDC) .
0.0
AIR FLtlW (LB/HR) .
303.796
FUEL FLeW (LB/HR) .
11+.500
P6WER (~RAKE HP) .
10.282
INJECTBR PULSE. WIDTH (M-SEC) .
1+.030
MEASURED AIR/FuEL RATIe .
2Q.~51
BRAKE SPECIFIC FUEL CHNSUMPTI~N (LB/BHP-HR) .
1.1+
INL~T AIR TEMPERATURE (DEGREES-F) .
77.0
EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURE (DEGREES-F) .
WATER-BUT TE.MPATURE (DEGREES-F) .
0.000
BIL TEMPERATURE (DlGREES-F) .
0.000
0.000
MANIF8LD A~SBLUTE PRESSURE (PSIA) .
EXHAUST BACK PRESSURE (IN-WATWR) .
8.550
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE (PSIA) .
14 . 500
0.000
RELATIVE HUMIDITY (GRAINS) .
30.000
EMISSI8N DILUTIBN FACT8R .
1.3::17
EMISSIBN ANALYSIS
NIJ (PPM) .  35.0000 
Nt! CI1RRECTED (PPM) . 1+0.3528
Ctl (%) .   O.2~77  
(;62 (X) .  14.2472 
HL (PPM C) . 1089.4893 
1j2 (~) .   6.4000  
~B (GM/HR) .
Oob0627E+01
N8 (GM/BHP-HR) .
0.513965E+00
CB (GM/HR) .
0.25916E+03
(13 (GM/BHP-HR) .
0.~!:>205E.+02
HC (GM/HR) .
0.1+8602t.+02
HC (GM/BHP-HR) .
00'+7270E+01
CALCULATED AIR/FUEL HATItl .
20037'+

-------
("'}
I
I-'
W
DAn.
SP~ED (RPM) . 1200.0
IGNITIbN TiMING (DEGREES BTDC) .
AIR fl~W (LB/Hk) .
,,78.898
P6wER (BRAKE HP) .
22.848
MEASURED AIR/FUEL RATIe .
...*. lPA PARAMErRIC T~ST .....
'+/30171
TEST
3
BRAKE T~RUUE (FT-LB) .
100.000
13.0
I~JECTOH TIMI~G (DEGREES HTDC) .
O.U
FUEL FL~W (LB/HH) .
17.700
INJECT6R PULSE WIDTH (M-SEC) .
".'J30
21.~:)7
BRAKE SPECIFIC FULL CRNSUMPTIUN (LB/BH~-HR) .
0.7
INLET Alk TEMPERATURE (DEGREES-F) .
0.000
"
6IL TE~PERATURE (DEGREES-F) .
MANIF8LD AHSBluTE PRESSURE (PSIA) .
0.000
RELATIVl HUMIDITY (GRAINS) .
30.000
76.0
EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURE (DEGREES-F) .
0.000
0.000
WATER-BUT TE~PATURE (DEGREES-F) .
10.'+50
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE (PSIA) .
14.500
~XHAUST BACK PRESSURl (IN-WATWR) .
Nt! (PPM) .  63.0000 
Ii" CtH~REC TED (PPI",j . 70.5553
Cti (X) .   0.2795  
Ctl2 (%) .  H.2'+63 
HC (PPr-: (.) . 1139.7019 
Uc (X) .   6.3000  
EMISSIeN DILUTION FACTeR .
1.357
 [MIsSIBN ANALYSIS    
N6 (GM/HR) . 0.13597[+02 NO (GM/BHP-HR) . 0.!:)~511E+00
C6 (GM/HR) . 0.32291E+03 (.e (GH/8HP-HR) . 0.1'+133E+02
HC (GM/HH) . 0.6521 n+02 He (GM/BHP-Hk) . 0.21.$5"3E+01
CALCuLATED AIR/FUEL RATIO.
20.108

-------
(")
I
f-'
.j::-.
DATI::
SPEED (RPM) . 2000.0
IGNITI~N TIMING (DEGREES BTDC) .
AIR FL~W (Lij/HR) .
464.621
P6w[R (~RAKE HP) .
26.6':)7
MEASURED AIR/FUEL RATIt .
..... [fA PARAMETRIC TEST .....
4/30171
TEST
4
BRAKE T6R1UE (FT-LB) .
70.000
37.0
INJECT6R TIMING (DEGREES HTDC) .
FUEL FL~~ (LB/HR) .
21 0300
INJECTBR PULSI:: ~IOTH (M-S~C) .
0.0
3.710
BRAKE SPECIFIC FUEL (HNSUMPTI6N (LB/BHP-HH) .
0.000
c1.813
INLET AIR TEMPERATURE (DEGREES-V) .
0.000
WATER-BUT TEMPATURE (DEGREES-F) .
~[L TE~PERATURl (DEG~EES-F) .
79.0
EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURE (DEGREES-F) .
MANIFOLD AHS6LvTE PRSSURE (PSIA) .
EXHAUST ~ACK PRESSURE (IN-WATWR) 8
Nt! (PPI'I) .  150.0000 
Nt! CtlRRECTED (PPM) . 176.n06
CU (I) .   0.1571  
Ctlc: (\) .  h.2780 
He (PPM C) . H31t.9360 
!Jc (X) .   6.4000  
7.750
BAR6METRIC PRI::SSURE (PSIA) .
0.000
RELATIVE HUMIDITY (GRAINS) .
EMISSION DILUTI6N FACT6R .
1.428
[MISSION ANALYSIS
NB (GM/HR) .
O.39n7E+02
~6 (GM/BHP-HR) .
ce (GM/HR) .
0.21305E.+03
CB (GM/BHP-HR) .
HC (jl'l/HR) .
0.96'+09E+Oc
HC (G~/BHP-Hk) .
CALCULATED AIR/FuEL RATIB .
20.558
0.7'
0.000
14.500
30.000
0.1'+9781::+01
O.79924t~+01
0.3b1671+01

-------
..... [PA PARAMETRIC TLST .....
DATE
'+/30171
TEST
'J
SPlED (RPM) . 2000.0
HKAKE l5RQUE (FT-LB) .
180.000
IGNITI~N TIMINu (DtG~EES BTDC) .
37.0
INJECTe~ TIMING (DEGREES ~TDC) .
0.0
AIR fLtlw (LB/Hk) .
702.239
fUlL FLBW (L~/HR) .
3c.600
P8WER (BRAKE HP) .
68.545
INJECT8R PULS~ wIDTH (M-SEC) .
5.~"O
MEASURED AIR/FuEL RATle .
21.5"1
BRAKE SPECIFIC fUEL CUNSUMPTI6N (LB/BH~-HR) .
0.4 .
INLlT AIR TEMPERATURE (DEGREES-F) .
82.0
EXHAUST GAS T[MPERATURE (DEGREES-F) .
0.000
6lL TE~PERATURl (DEuHEES-f) .
0.000
WATER-OUT TMPATURE (DEGREES-F) .
0.000
MANIF6LD AMS6LUTE PRESSURE (PSIA) .
EXHAUST BACK P~ESSURE (IN-WATWR) .
11.250
BAR8METRIC PRESSURE (PSIA) .
14.500
0.000
RELATIVE HUMIUITY (GRAINS) .
30.000
lMISSl6N DILUTION FACTeR .
\.349
Nt! (PPM) .  HO'OOOO 
N6 CtlRRECTED tPPM) . ~,;)6.6~82
Ctl (X) .   U.3050  
Ctl2 (,,) .  11+.3030 
HC (PPM C) . 4'+5.2820 
tl2 (X) .   6.0000  
 EMISSl8N ANALYSIS    
NO (GM/HR) . 0.1650I+E+03 NO (GM/BHP-HR) . 0.2'+071E..+01
C6 (GM/HR) . 0.66194+03 Cli (GI'1/BHP-HIoi) . 0.'J6570f.+Ol
HC (GM/HR) . 0.47873E+02 HC (GM/BHP-Hf.<) . 0.b':l8"2E+00
CALCULATED AIR/FuEL RAllS.
19.853
(')
I
t-'
V1

-------
(')
I
I-'
0'\
UAT[
SPEED IRPM) . 1200.0
IGNITI~N TIMING (DGREE5 BTDC) .
AIR FLbW (LB/HR) .
250.M77
PBw~R 16RAK~ HP) .
10.282
MEASURlD AIR/FuEL RATI6 .
..... lPA PARAMETRIC T~ST .....
'+/l0/71
TEST
b
BRAKE T6RUUE IFT-LS) .
'+5.000
12.0
I~JECTeN TIMING (DEGREES BTUC) .
FUlL FLBW (LB/HR) .
12.800
INJECT6R PULSl wIDTH (M-SEC) .
o.u
3.570
BRAKE SPECIFIC FUEL C~N5UMPTIeN (LB/BHP-HN) .
0.000
19.600
77.0
EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURE (DEGREES-F) .
INLET AIR TEMPERATURE (DEGREES-F) .
0.000
WATER-BUT TEMPATURE (DEGREES-Fl.
6I~ TEMPERATURE {DGREES-FI .
7.350
BAR6METRIC PRESSURE (PSIA) .
MANIFBLD ABS6LuTE PRESSURE (PSIA) .
EXHAUST bACK PRESSURE (IN-WATWR) .
Nt:! (PF-'H) .  62.0000 
Nfl C6RRECTED (PPM) . 65.7463
Ctl 00 .   0.1610  
(62 (I) .  1'+.3887 
HC (PPM C) . 308.3286 
t:lc (:0 .   !).3000  
0.000
RELATIVE HUMIUITY (GRAINS) .
lMISSI6N DILUTION FACTBR .
1.285
[MISSI6N ANA~YSIS
NO (GH/HR) .
0.88402E+01
NO (GH/BHP-Hk) .
CO (GM/HR) .
0.1295'++03
C6 (GM/BHP-HR) .
HC (GM/HR) .
0.12289E+02
HC (GM/BHP-Hk) .
CALCULATED AIR/FUE~ RATIB .
19.076
1. ;
0.000
14.500
30.000
0.~5979l+00
0.12599t+02
O.11952l+01

-------
("')
I
t-'
........
OATt:.
SPEED IRPM) . 1200.0
IGNITI~N TIMING ID~GREES BTDC) .
AIH FLbW (LB/HR) .
3'+5.392
P6w~~ IBRAKE HP) .
22.~,+8
MEA5UR~0 AIR/FUEL RATIO.
..... EPA PARAMETRIC T~ST .....
'+/30/71
H.ST
7
BRAKE 16RQUt:. IFT-LS) .
100.000
30.0
I~JECT~~ TIMING (UEGREES HTUC) .
0.0
FUEL FlHW ILB/HR) .
17.000
INJECTOR PULSE WIDTH (M-S~e) .
~.790
20.317
BRAKE SPEeIFI~ FUEL CBNSUMPTI6N (lB/BHP-HH) .
0.7
BIL TEMPERATURE (DEGREES-F) .
INLlT AIR TEMPERATuRE (OEG~EES-F) .
0.000
~ATER-6UT TEMPATURE (DEGREES-F) .
0.000
77.0
EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURE (DEGREES-F) .
0.000
MANIFBLD A~S6LuTE PR~SSURE (PSIA) .
9.650
BAR6METRIC PRt:.SSURE (PSIA) .
14.50U
EXHAUST BACK PHESSU~l (IN-~ATWR) .
NI:1 (PPM) .  87.0000 
Nt1 el:1lo1REC H.D (PPM) . 93.7829
CO Oil .   0.19'+6  
Cl:12 (X).   14.3655 
HC (PPM C) . 372.1965 
de (X) .   5.3000  
0.000
RELATIVE HUMIDITY (GRAINS) .
30.000
EMISSI6N OILUrI6N FACT6R .
1.306
 (MISSIBN ANALYSIS    
NB (GM/HR) . 0.170'+9E+02 N6 (GM/BHP-HR) . 0.7't617E+00
C6 (GM/HR) . 0.?1171E.+03 ce (OM/BHP-HR) . 0.92658+01
He (GM/HR) . 0.20057E+02 HC (GM/BHP-Hf<) . 0.877821::+00
CALCULATED AIR/FUEL RATI6 .
19.1?7

-------
(")
I
I-'
00
-I;; X IT-
DATE
SPE~D (RPM) . 2000.0
IGNITI6N TIMING (OEGkEE~ BTDC) .
AI~ FL6W (LB/HR) .
~05.!j70
P8WER (BRAKE HP) .
26.657
MEASUR~D AIR/FUEL RATle .
..-.* ~PA PARAMETRIC TlST *.*..
"/30171
TEST
8
BRAKE T6RQUE (FT-LB) .
70.000
30.0
INJECT8R TIMING (DEGREES BTDC) .
FUEL FLBW (LB/H~) .
20.300
INJECTOR PULSE wIDTH (M-SEC) .
0.0
3.560
BRAKE SPECIFIC FUEL CBNSUMPTleN (LB/8HP-HR) .
0.000
19.979
79.0
EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURE (DEGREES-F) .
INLlT AIR TEMPERATURE (DEGREES-F) .
0.000
WATER-OUT TEMPATURE (DEGREES-F) .
tilL TEMPERATUR~ (DEGREES-F) .
6.900
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE (PSIA) .
RELATIVE HUMIDITY (GRAINS) .
MANIFOLD A~S8LUTE PRESSURE (PSIA) .
0.000
EXHAUST BACK PRESSURE (IN-~ATWR) .
NO (PPM). 265.0000
N6 C8RRECTED (PPM) .
C6 ( X) .
e62 (~) .
He (PPM C) .
(;2 (X) .
280.5090
0.2257
1...3629
24+2.371+0
5.1000
EMISSION DILUTION FACT8R .
1.282
EMISSION ANALYSIS
f\4t1 (GI"I/HR) .
N8 (GM/BHP-Hk) .
0.61027E+02
ce (GM/HR) .
0.29388+03
Cft (GM/BHP-H~) .
HC (jM/HR) .
0.15631[+02
HC (GM/BHP-Hk) .
CALCULATED AIR/FUEL RATI6 .
18.862
0.000
14 . 500
30.000
0.2~89"E+01
0.11025+02
O.~Mb38E.+OO

-------
APPENDIX D

AUTOMOTIVE IGNITION SPARK ENERGYt VOLTAGE AND
CURRENT WAVEFORMS STUDY, PHASE I
D.l
BACKGROUND
A special ignition system was developed several months ago for
laboratory use. The system could vary spark duration and energy. It
utilized conventional ignition system components which provided easy
installation on any conventional IC engine. The basic principal of
this ignition system was capacitor discharge method with the added
capability of multiple discharges for each ignition period. At the
time of its development, one of the most important features desired
was a long ignition period, 8 to 10 milliseconds.

Phase I of this study was to determine the spark energy for various
control settings of the ignition system as part of an internal research
and development study. Control settings were selected to produce wave-
forms nearest to a continuous spark as possible for one ignition period.
Definition of a standard spark gap fixture and testing method was also
necessary.
D.2
SUMMARY
The standard spark gap geometry shown in Figure D-l and oscilloscope
voltage and current test method provided an adequate lab testing combina-
tion. This setup has been used for years by our Electrical Components
Division in Sidney, N. Y. Not all of the engine operating effects on
ignition are simulated, namely, arc striking voltage and arc impedance
under various air/fuel ratios and engine loads. However, the standard
spark fixture provides a uniform and consistent spark gap condition
which is vitally needed to discern effects of ignition parameter changes.

The special ignition when operating in the "single SCR mode" will
provide an almost continuous current flow during an ignition period
thus simulating to high degree the spark produced by the conventional
ignition system. Virtually all testing was directed toward this type
of operation which severely limited the flexibility of the special
system.

The spark "intensity" was defined as the average power dissipated
in the arc during the ignition period. In the standard ignition systemt
this value was 20 watts which remained nearly constant for various
battery voltages. However, the spark duration was directly affected,
the higher the voltage the longer the spark. Lab tests indicated that
a conventional Ford ignition system at a battery voltage of 13 volts
had the following characteristics: (1) spark energy of 26.5 millijoules,
(2) duration of 1.35 milliseconds, and (3) intensity of 19.6 watts.
D-l

-------
The special ignition system can vary duration and energy but not
completely independently of each other. For a given duration setting
an increase of energy (either by increasing voltage or capacitor value)
increases duration simply because the arc impedance decreases with
increased current; ,. The sp'ecial'ignition system cannot shut off the
current flow during a discharge cycle. The arc behaves as a negative
resistance which tends to keep the power dissipated in the arc almost
constant.' An arc duration within one or two tenths of a millisecond
of the desired duration can be set.

The maximum intensity the special ignition system could produce (in
the'spark gap) was 37 watts with. metallic high voltage wire (not normally
used)~This is almost twice-the intensity of the standard ignition
system (this intensity includes' all other losses such as distributor
gap). The energy can be increased almost five-fold by increasing the
time duration.' '(It should be noted that high intensity and long duration
will ~erbdeelectrodes quite quickly since the energy ~t 6 milliseconds
duration could be over 200 millijoules.) The special ignition system
,has more ,flexibility at lower intensities; however, the current flow
in the spark ,.would b'e' a series of pulses where the time between pulses
G~n beyaried. .'
.The spark energies were computed from voltage and current waveform
pictures taken from an oscilloscope. The current waveform was presented
out of phase for clarity on all pictures taken. The instantaneous
product of current and voltage was plotted as a function of time. The
area under this curve represented the energy. The major source'of error
,was in tra~slating a voltage from the photo to a number. Some error
may exis,t as a 'result of rapid changes of voltages where some phase
lag would occur between the waveforms representing current and voltage.
Some other errors are waveform jitter and oscilloscope amplifier drift.
A diode, clamping. network was ,needed across the 10 ohm cur~ent resistor
to. keep .the high .current spike from upsetting the os.cilloscope amplifier.
This spike was less than 10 mic~oseconds in length. The first 10 to
15 microseconds.. of each ignition may not .be present on the picture due
to triggering of the oscilloscope. All of these errors could amount
to 10 percent. A'more realistic figure would be about 7 percent.
D.3
CONCLUSION
"
The special .ignition system can very closely simulate the' standard
ignition system in duration, intensity, and energy; however, not in
waveform. Sufficient flexibility exists to vary the spark parameters
above and below the nominal values. It is possible with metallic high
voltage wire to increase intensity to almost twice the conventional
system while keeping the duration virtually the same. If energies
several times larger than this are desired, the duration must .be increased
proportionately. . One aspect of increasing the energy, in the spark was
not studied, namely, increasing the spark gap spacing. The arc striking
capability of the special ignition system is, above ,30 K.volts which
D-2

-------
shouldn't restrict increasing the spark plug gap to twice the nominal
value. Since the current flow in the arc is governed mostly by the
capacitor value and the DC voltage supplied, the increased voltage
developed across the larger arc gap would significantly increase the
intensity. Further investigation of this area is needed.
D.4
DISCUSSION
One of the most important tools in determining spark gap energy
is a gap which will provide a consistent arc at normal atmospheric
conditions. Figure D-l illustrates the three point gap used for producing
the arc in this study. The spacing of the two major electrodes was 0.260
inches which produced an arc striking potential of about 11 KV. The
static probe induces consistent arc formation but doesn't shunt any
energy. Since the points are slightly rounded and become more so after
some use, the voltage breakdown value is slightly larger than that shown
in the chart of Figure D-l.

Figures D-2 and D-3 illustrate the test setup used to measure spark
energy. The high voltage resistance wire and distributor gap simulation
used in the test was determined by measuring a Ford ignition system on
a typical engine installation. The simulated distributor gap length
represents one sample of a new distributor. It would increase with
use. The gap used in the test setup was a new spark plug with an
electrode spacing of 0.020 inches.

The major losses in a standard ignition system are caused by:
(1) induction coil output resistance, (2) high voltage resistance wire,
(3) distributor gap. The resistance wire is commonly used to reduce
radio frequency interference caused by high surge currents in the voltage
distribution wires. The distributor gap losses will vary mostly with
spark duration since it appears as a value not related directly to
current. The energy difference between Figures D-5 and D-6 is 6.2
millijoules which is caused by the simulated distributor gap. Figure
D-4 is a table taken from the "Champion Ignition and Engine Performance
Conference, 1970" which indicates a distributor gap loss can be equivale"nt
to the plug gap. It should be noted that values would be differe~t from
the setup described here simply because the data in the chart was taken
with a plug gap of 0.023 inches. Conventional automotive plug gaps
are 0.035 inches. The table also points out that a distributor gap can
be a significant loss. Tests have shown that resistance change of 8 K
in the high voltage wire produced an energy loss of about 3 millijoules.
Resistance losses could account for 10 millijoules in a conventional
ignition system. The table in Figure D-4 indicates greater resistance
losses but the test setup is not known. The chart is shown here as an
example of ignition parameters and associated losses. The peak voltage
of the special ignition system was measured with no load and found to
be 30 KV. At this voltage the induction coil started to arc through
bakelite high voltage tower. During the design of the special ignition
system, a limit of 30 KV was set since most automotive coils couldn't
handle higher voltages.
D-3

-------
-1-
1
SET TO
SPECIFIED
DIMENSION
j
0.002-0.008
GROUND
1 039 + 0.020
o. - 0.000
STATIC POINT
NO CONNECTION
HIGH TENSION LEAD
3 POINT NEEDLE GAP
"-. --- - -
"-.- -.- ----
 40 .-- -- --
Cf.)   
I- 20  
.....  
0   
>   
0   
..... 10  
~  
~ 8  
< 6  
w  
Q.   
 4  
 2  
SPARKGAPBREAKDOWN
VOLTAGES
100
80
60
----_-"0 -- ...--
1
0.01
0.4 0.6
1 1.5 2
2.46" DIAM.
1.5" DIAM.
1" DIAM.
0.75" DIAM.

NEEDLE GAP
N
cD
M

-------
POWER
SUPPLY
+
STANDARD
FORD COIL
HV RESISTANCE
WIRE
-
(6)0 ~
DISTRIBUTOR GAP
SIMULATION
(0.020 GAP)
SECONDARY
RESISTANCE
8.5K
FORD DISTRIBUTOR POINTS
MOTOR DRIVEN
TYPICAL CURRENT &
VOLTAGE WAVE FORMS
t::
I
VI
Figure D-2 - Standard Ignition Test Set-Up
V
Ie:
-
-
ST ANDARD
SPARK
FIXTURE
GAP = 0.260
-
N
tb
M
o:t
,;,
to
d..

-------
?
0'
rsJ[IJ
do 00-
D> ~
o
o
OOO!
t 0 "t&
o
o
o
SPECIAL IGNITION
SYSTEM
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
IGNITION POINTS
SIMULATION
-
STANDARD FORD
COIL
o
o
8K
HV RESISTANCE
WIRE
DISTRIBUTOR
GAP
SIMULATION
(0.020 GAP)
-
SECONDARY
RESIST ANCE
8.5K
. TYPICAL CURRENT &
VOLTAGE WAVE FORMS
Figure D-3 - Special Ignition System Test Set-Up
STANDARD
SPARK
FIXTURE
GAP = 0.260
V
-
-
N

-------
TABLE TAKEN FROM "CHAMPION IGNITION
AND ENGINE PERFORMANCE CONFERENCE, 1970."
     Conventional Capacitor
     System Discharge
     System
Total Suppressor Resistance Kilohms 25 25
Transformer Resistance Kilohms 13 1
Input Energy  Mi11ijou1es 90 95
Energy in Spark Tail Mi11ijou1es 19 0.9
Tail Duration  Milliseconds 2.1 0.04
Mean Tail Power  Watts 9 22
Peak Tail Power  Watts 27 43
Loss in Suppressors  Millijoules 26 86
Loss in Transformer Resistance Millijoules 14 3.5
Loss in Distributor Gap, Assumed   
Equal to Plug Gap Dissipation Millijoules 19 0.9
Dissipations Calculated From Current And Voltage Waveforms
Spark Plug Gap = 0.6 mm (0.0235 inches)
Figure D-4 - Ignition Parameters and Associated Losses
D-7

-------
ATTACHMENT I
The waveforms of arc voltages versus time and arc current versus
time contained in Figures D-5 through D-28 were taken with the test
setup shown in Figures D-2 and D~3.. Values of current and voltage at
the same time interval were taken from the photographs. The three graphs
. 
-------
Table D-1 - Test Conditions and Test Results for Conventional Ignition
 Test Conditions  Spark Test Results 
 Battery, Distributor HV Wire Duration Energy Intensity,
Figure Resistance,
 Volts Gap, Inch K Ohms msec m joules Watts
D-5 13 0  8 1.93 35.5 18.0
D-6 13 0.020 8 1.50 29'.3 19.5
D-7 13 0.020 16 1. 35 26.5 19.6
D-8 15 0.020 16 1.50 31.5 21.0
D-9 11 0.020 16 1.05 21.1 20.0
D-10 9 0.020 16 0.86 16.5 19.2
S ... V 1000 V/cm,' I = 0.2V /cm', T = 0.2 msec/cm
ens1t1v1ty - = 10 ohms
t::J
I
\0

-------
Table D-2 - Test Conditions and Test Results for Single SCR Mode
t:;I
I
t-'
o
  Test Conditions     Spark Test Results        
    Distributor IIV Wire Duration, Energy Intensity I, Intens'ity II,
Figure Capacitance, Primary, Resistance
 Microfarads Volts Gapl Ineh K Ohms msec Millijou1es \'--'atts   Watts 
0-11 0.5  110 0.020  1.6 1.80 23.8 13.2  @   1.5.0 @ 
          J .8 msec 937.  energy
0-12 0.5  110 0.020  1.6 1..42 1.9.2 13.5  @   15.~ 0 
          l.4  mscc 91.%  energy
0-13 0.7:)  110 0.020  1.6 1.60 23.9 15.0  I]   ]9.9 (' 
          ] .60 msee 94%  energy
0-14 0.75  110 0.020  16 1. 16 16.5 14.2  @   18.0 @ 
          1.1.6 mser 947. energy
11-15 1.0  no 0.020  16 1.. 30 22.] 17.0 @   21..4 @ 
          1.30 msee 95;( energy
D-16 1. 25  110 0.020  1.6 1. 36 26.9 1.9.8  @   24.4 Q 
          1..36 msee 967.  energy
0-1.7 1.5  no 0.020  1.6 1.48 28.8 19.5  @   24.2 @ 
          1. 48 msee 96% energy
0-1.8 1. 75  125 0.020  1.6 1. 56 39.5 25.3  @   31.4 @ 
          ].56 msee 9 77. energy
0-]9 1. 75  125 0.020  0 1. 62 43.0 26.5  @   34.2 (I 
          1..62 msee 95% energy
U-20 2.75  1.30 0.020  a 1. 32 30.2 23.0  @   29.7 0 
          1.32 msec R9%  energy
0-21 2.75  1.30 0.020  0 1. 86 55.0 29.6  @   37.0 @ 
          1.. 86 msee 96;~  energy
0-22 2.75  1.30 0   0 1. 30 31.9 24.5  @   32.0 (, 
          1..30 msee 95): energy
D-23 2.75  ] 30 0.020  16 1. 26 22.8 J 8.]  @   23.8 @ 
          1..26 msee 95); energy
0-27 1.0  US 0.020  1.6 4.60 99.5  -  -   - - 
0-28 0.5  120 0.020  16 4.80 68.0  -  -   - - 
- 0.2V
oensitivity - I' = 1000 V/em; I - 1.0 ohms /em (Figures 0-]] through 0-] 9)
0.5V /
] = 10 ohms em (Figures D-20 through 0-23, D-27 and 0-28); T = 0.2 msee/em

-------
Table D-3 - Test Conditions and Test Results for Double SCR Mode
  Test Conditions    Spark Test Results
 Capacitance, Primary, Distributor HV Wire Duration, Energy Intensity,
Figure Microfarads Volts Gap, Inch Resistance, msec Millijou1es Watts
 K Ohms 
0-24 2.75 130 0 0 1.18 46.6 39.5 @
        1.18 msec
0-25 2.75 130 0.020 0 1.31 42.3 32.3 @
        1. 31 msec
0-26 2.75 130 0.020 16 1.50 40.4 26.9 @
        1.50 msec
        31. 6 @
        98% energy
I O. 5V /
Sensitivity - V = 1000 V/cm; = 10 ohms cm; T = 0.2 msec/cm
FIGURES D-32 THROUGH D-35

STA~~ARD IGNITION, FORD COIL, 1.25 OR BALLAST R, 26 INCHES OF
AUTOLITE HV WIRE (8.2KQ), ELECTRIC DRILL DRIVEN DISTRIBUTOR,
VOLTAGE SHO~~ OUT OF PHASE WITH CURRENT FOR CLARITY
I = 0.2 V/CM (lOQ)
V = 1000V/CM
TIME = 0.5 M SEC/CM
D-32 BATTERY V = 9V
D-33 BATTERY V = llV
D-34 BATTERY V = 13V
D-35 BATTERY V = 15V
D-ll

-------
 ALL WAVEFORHS, FIGURES D-36 THROUGH D-47, ARE WITH SPECIAL
 IGNITION SYSTDI DOUBLE SCR HODE    
 I = 0.2V/CM (1011)       
 V = 1000V/CH        
D-36 0.25 ufd CAP: PRIMARY V = 120V: TIME = 0.2 M SEC/CM
D-37 0.25 ufd CAP: PRIMARY V = 120V: TIHE = 0.1 M SEC/CM
D-38 0.5 ufd CAP: PRIMARY V = 114V: TIME = 0.2 M SEC/CM
D-39 0.5 ufd CAP: PRIMARY V = 114V: TIME = 0.1 H SEC/CM
D-40 1.0 ufd CAP: PRIMARY V = 105V: TIME = 0.2 M SEC/CM
D-41 1.0 ufd CAP: PRIMARY V = 105V: TIME = 0.1 M SEC/CM
D-42 1. 25 ufd CAP: PRIMARY V = 102V: TIME = 0.2 M SEC/CM
D-43 1. 25 ufd CAP: PRIMARY V = 102V: TIME = 0.1 M SEC/CM
D-44 0.5 ufd CAP: PRIMARY V = 105V: TIME = 0.2 M SEC/CM
D-45 1.5 ufd CAP: PRIMARY V = 105V: TIME = 0.1 M SEC/CM
D-46 1. 75 u f d CAP: PRIMARY V = 104V: TIME = 0.2 M SEC/CM
D-47 1. 75 ufd CAP: PRIMARY V = 104V: TIME = 0.1 M SEC/CM
 ALL WAVEFORMS FIGURES D-48 THROUGH D-58 SINGLE MODE
 SCR; I = 0.2V/CM (1011); V = 1000V/CM  
D-48 0.5 ufd CAP: PRIMARY V = 100V: TIME = 0.2 M SEC/CM
D-49 0.5 ufd CAP: PRIMARY V = 100V: TIME = 0.1 M SEC/CM
D-50 1.0 ufd CAP: PRIMARY V = 100V: TIME = 0.2 M SEC/CM
D-51 1.0 ufd CAP: PRIMARY V = 100V: TIME = 0.1 M SEC/CM
D-52 1.5 ufd CAP: PRIMARY V = 100V: TIME = 0.2 M SEC/CM
D-53 1.5 ufd CAP: PRIMARY V = 100V: TIME = 0.1 M SEC/CM
D-54 0.25 ufd CAP: PRIMARY V = 120V: TIME = 0.2 M SEC/CM
D-55 0.25 ufd CAP: PRIMARY V = 120V: TIME = 0.1 M SEC/CM
D-56 0.25 ufd CAP PRIMARY V = 120V: TIME = 0.05 M SEC/CM
D-12

-------
t:::!
I
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W

-------
t::::1
1
i-'
~

-------
.
I
t::J
I
f-'
V1

-------
t::I
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0"1

-------
t:J
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--t

-------
?
t-'
co

-------
t::I
I
I-'
\0
en
l-
I-
<{
:5:
80
60
40
20
o
o
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
MSEC
DURATION: 1.30 MSEC

ENERGY: 22.1 M/JOULES

CAP: 1.0 MFD

INTENSITY = 17.0 WATTS
@ 1.3 MSEC

INTENSITY = 21.4 WATTS
@ 0.98 MSEC
95% ENERGY
1.0
1.2
Figure D-29 - Single SCR Mode Distributor Gap and l6K HV
Resistance Wire
N
.b
M
.:
Lh
OJ
"-
1.4

-------
t:1
I
N
o
en
l-
I-

s:
100
80
60
40
20
o
DURATION: 1.36 MSEC

ENERGY: 26.9 M/JOULES

CAP = 1.25 MFD

INTENSITY = 19.8 WATTS
@ 1.36 MSEC

INTENSITY = 24.4 WATTS
@ 1.06 MSEC
96% ENERGY
0.2 0.4   0.6 0.8  1.0 1.2
    MSEC    
 Figure D-30 - Single SCR Hade Distributor Gap and l6K HV
   Res is tance ~fi re    
o
N
cD
C')

-------
t:;j
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80
60
CI)
l-
I-

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t::1
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IV

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ttm~
. : i
.' I~ . ! . ! , ;.1 I. ~.
.1\~:'''''~tN4+ !~ ~t..
~ ~ Jv~~;twl ,f~ 'N
C:J
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Figure D-38

-------
t:J
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, ,< . , , '1,1 iT,'iif_w-,- '1
: ' t r t t"'. t. -t.., .... j
.". Ii. I
I :' ,
., " - - t t--., . .,-..1-..-.+, - l , '
,II,. ~' i;

",',' ...... ..+.~++- +++,+++ I +-t++j.+>. t.
" "" t' ',. I I' .
; ! ' ! ! ' ;
" , ,...
... . -".-.. ~.,... . -~ . J' .
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t ~
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Figure D-43

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I
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r , ; .11'
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. . . t ... "'. . .
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'\~"""'''~~~
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Figure D-49

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I ?

I 1'.,)
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1~!!'II"Im'j~'Jf....
1111~li,I~~li"~. "
Cililfjilf'IJJ--'.IJ.,
1I..lIlt.,.~.

-------
D-28

-------
APPENDIX E
INLET VALVE THROTTLING CAMSHAFT LOBE ANALYSIS
The inlet valve throttling task of this project required that three
standard Ford 429 engine camshafts have the inlet valve lobes reground to
lower lifts to correspond to approximately 100, 400, and 800 lb/hr equiva-
lent throttle position air flow. It was assumed that the inlet valve tim-
ing and the opening and closing ramps would not be altered. The following
analysis, to predict the inlet valve lobe lift, was based on data gathered
from the idle run No. 12, November 30, 1970, of the Bendix engine matrix
study and selected power points. The appropriate data and schematic of
a standard induction system are shown in Figure E-l. It was further
assumed that the low engine speed reduces the dynamic or inertial effects
of the gas flow in the induction system.

The orifice coefficient for the intake valve was assumed to be
0.80 where normal throttling takes place and valve lift is relatively
large. For intake valve throttling, since the lift was expected to be
considerably less than normal, a coefficient of 0.65 was used. It was
further assumed that the low engine speed reduces the dynamic or inertial
effects of the gas flow in the induction system.
Referring to Figure E-l, the average total mass flow rate into
the engine (WI) is 0.0297 lbs/sec. Thus, the average cylinder mass flow
rate (W3) is 0.00371 lbs/sec. The total mass of air inducted into a
cylinder per cycle can be determined from a multiplication of the aver-
age flow rate (W3) by the elapsed time per cycle (t). However, the
intake valve is only open a portion of the cycle time from a crank
position of 16 BTC to 60 ABC. Integrating the lift lobe profile over
one revolution of the camshaft (one engine cycle) indicated that the
intake valve is effectively fully opened (lift X = 0.441 inches) for a
time (to) equivalent to 21.2 percent of the cycle time. Taking this
into consideration, the instantaneous flow rate (Wv) through the fully
opened valve can be found from:
W
v
W3
0.212
0.00371
0.212
(1)
= 0.0175 lbs/sec
E-l

-------
1-
.
P 4 = 14.4 PSIA

T = 90F
1
W1 = 0.0297 LB/SEC
16 20
\ TDC /
EXHAUST
VALVE
BDC
429 BOR E = 4.36
STROKE = 3.59
COMPo RATIO = 10.5 TO 1

HEAD VOL. = 5.65 IN3
nl
~
P2 = 3.43 PSIA
T = 140F
2
W2 = W1
IDLE

RUN NO. 12 - 30 NOV. 70
SPEED = 642 RPM
AIRFLOW = 106.99 LB/HR
FUEL FLOW = 7.62 LB/HR
AIR FUEL RATIO = 14.04
MANIFOLD PRESSURE = 6.958 IN-Hg
Cd = 0.80
1
ROCKER ARM RATIO 1.75 TO 1
X = 1.75L
L = CAM LOBE LI FT
P3 = 3.43 PSIA
T = 140F
3
W3 = 0.00371 LB/SEC (AVG.)


I
2.037
Cd = 0.80
v
w~
~
X = 0.441 FOR STANDARD ENGINE
P-85-436-2
Wv
P4 = (VARIABLE)
Figure E-l - Induction System and Data
E-2

-------
The pressure downstream from the intake valve (P4) is less than
the intake manifold pressure (P3) and can be found from the following
thermodynamic equation for mass flow rate for gases:
w
v
P
=CA -E.C
d oF. 2
u
fl (Pd/P)
(2)
where
Cd = orifice discharge coefficient
'f' ,2
A = physical area of or1 1cet 1n
o
P = upstream stagnation pressure, psia
u
IDLE CONDITION
P1 = 14.4 PSIA

T - 90 F
1 -
W1 = 0.0297 LB/S
-L
P = 14.4 PSIA
u
T = 140F
u
W = 0.00371 LB/S (AVG.)
.U
nl
I
2.037
Cd = 0.65
P-85-436-2
Wi = 0.0175 LB/SEC
Pd=P4
T - 300F
d-
Figure E-2 - Inlet Valve Throttling Schematic
E-3

-------
,-
Pd = downstream stagnation pressure, psia
T = upstream stagnation absolute temperature, oR
u
C2 = gas property thermodynamic constant; for air
0.532 (degrees R)1/2/sec.
fl (Pd/Pu) = obtained from tabulated values for various gases
(P IP )l/kVl -
d u
(P Ip )l/k
d u C .. 1
r1t1ca
(P Ip )k-1!k
d u
\/1 - (P Ip )k~l/k
d u C . . 1
r1t1ca
k = ratio of the gas specific heat values'
( 2 ) k/k-1
(Pd/Pu) Critical = k + 1
The area (A ) is determined from:
o
A = 7T D
o v
x
where
D
v
intake valve metering diameter, in.
x = valve total lift, in.
Substitution of the known quantities into equation (2) where P3 = Pu
and P4 = Pd gives:
0.0175 = 0.80 (2.037) 7T (0.441) 3.43 (0.532) f [~)
~ 1 3.43
0.10402 = f1 (3~~3)
E-4
(3)

-------
From a table of values for the fl function = 0.10402,
P/P3 = 0.9977
and
P4 = 0.9977 (3.43)
=
3.42 psia
Referring now to Figure E-2 for an intake valve throttled engine,
it can be seen that the upstream pressure is 14.4 psia instead of 3.43
psia as was the case for the normally throttled engine. Therefore,
the new valve lift (X) can be found using the form of equation (2):
0.0175 = 0.65 (2.037) ~ (x) 14.4 (0.532) (1)
Y760
x = 0.01513 inch
Note that the value for fl(Pd/Pu) in this case is (1) because the pressure
ratio is higher than the critical value and flow through the intake
valve is sonic.
The rocker arm ratio (6) for this engine is 1.75 to 1; therefore,
the camshaft lobe lift () is found from:
X
 = -
6
 = 0.0151
1. 75
(4 )
= 0.008645 inch
E-5

-------
In order to design the new lobe shape it was necessary to know the exist-
ing shape of the lobe. In addition, the opening ramp, closing ramp and
maximum geometric acceleration of the standard intake lobe should be
maintained. The new reground lobe geometric acceleration should not ex-
ceed that of the standard camshaft if the same valve train mechanism is
retained. Data on the intake lobe lift versus position was obtained
from the Ford Motor Company.

The idle grind profile was generated by fairing smooth curves into
the opening and closing ramp profiles and made tangent to the desired
0.00865 lift. The ordinates of the curve were then recorded and the re-
sulting velocities and accelerations computed. The resulting accelera-
tions are less than the standard Ford cam profile and the idle grind
lift profile generated is considered acceptable.
The power points selected for the off-idle condition and WOT cor-
respond to air flows of 400 lbs/hr and 800 lbs/hr and manifold pressures
of 10.5 and 11.25 psia, respectively.

Using the same analytical technique as for the idle grind, the aver-
age flow rate across the intake valve for the 400 lbs/hr power point was
found to be:
400
W4 = 3600 (0.212) 8
= 0.06551 lbs/sec
The average cylinder pressure during the intake stroke was found
from:
0.06551 =
0.80 (2.037) 7T (0.441) 10.5 (0.532) f (P4'
... r-: 1 IO:5/
V600
0.12619 = fl (1:~5)
Therefore, the flow is not critical across the standard inlet port and
the average cylinder pressure is:
P4 = 10.46 psia
E-6

-------
Assuming the same cylinder pressure exists for the inlet valve
throttling case, the valve lift was found to be:
x =
0.0655N760
0.65 (2.037) 1T (14.4) (0.532) f1
10.46)
14.4
= 0.06235 inch
and the camshaft lift is:
R. = 0.0624
1. 75
= 0.0357 inch
By similar analysis, the average valve flow rate at 800 1bs/hr is:
W8 = 0.1308 1bs/sec
P 4 = 11.1 psia
x = 0.1455 inch
and
R. = 0.0832 inch
If the cylinder pressure is such that critical conditions exist across
the inlet port for the 400 and 800 1bs/hr camshafts, the flow into the
cylinders will be increased. The 400 and 800 1bs/hr camshafts will then
result in maximum flow rates of 440 and 930 1bs/hr. The actual flow
rates will lie somewhere between 400 and 440 1bs/hr in the one case and
800 and 930 1bs/hr for the other case. Since throttling, in the conven-
tional sense, was suggested as a method for final adjustment of the air
flow rates, it appeared that the earn profiles computed would be
satisfactory. .
E-7

-------
The a'ctual lift, values' versus' camshaft position' f'Or",all three pro-
files are shown in Tables 'E~i', E-2, and -3. This format" is typical and
was sufficient for a cam grinding vendor to generate the desired camshafts.
'E~-8

-------
*
Table E-l - Lift lobe Data for Regrind of Ford Camshaft
Degrees Opening Closing
From
 '570 
(..(., .002..41 .0::> S~ 0 
,? .002..00 .J::>::: 8 
68 .OS)I030 .0042..0 
.1 .OOOQ5 .003':;;:) 
71. .QOO~O .00300 
-n .0000S .00330 
  ~
;4 0 .0:::>305 
75  ,002.80 
7'  .002. S 5
7?  . 002.'3 0 
18  .002..05 
79  .00180 
80  .00 150 
8/  .00''30 
82..  .00105 
83  . ',)0'?30 I
84-  . OOOSS 
BS  .00030 
8'  .0001'2... 
67  .0000'- 
S8  0 
E-9

-------
*
Table E-2 - Lift Lobe Data for Regrind of Ford Camshaft
Degrees Opening Closing
From

'0 .00771 .010$0
" .DOC:.'Z..7 ,00'3 14-
c;.z. .005'10 .0::>303
"3 .00417 .00714-
'4 . 00~,4-~ .00645-
'5 .002...37 .OOS9C)
~Go .00'2...<+\ .00547
'1 .OOZ-OO .00512-
~8 .001GO .oo~30
(,.'9 .00 \ LO .00430
'0 .00080 .0042..0
" .00.:>45 .003~0
  ..-
.,1. .00,::)2.0 .00""2>6.:>
"')? .00005 . 003~ 0
74 0 .00305-
IS  . OO~80
7'  .002.55
.,1  . DOL -~o
78  .00205
79  .00150
80  ,00155
61  .00130
82..  .00105
83  .0::)030
84-  .00':::>55
60;,  .00.)33
8"-  .00012-
67  .00:>::>'-
88  0

-------
*
Table E-3 - Lift Lobe Data for Regrind of Ford Camshaft
Degrees Opening Closing
From
It. Lift Lift
o 083'2.0 0832.0
1 ! ~
~ I  I
3 I  I
4. I  I
s I  I
~ I  I
7   
a   I
5 j  I
'0 I  I
II I  I
1'1.  I 
1'1 I I 
14- I l
iS  I 
u.   
.7  l
iS I I 
'... I I 
t.o I I 
1.'   
L'L.   
2.3   
t.~  I 
t.s .033'2..0  
z, .05310 .0332::.0
Z-7 .09729 .::)3"3 I a
Z,8 ,032.27 . Oe> '2:.79
~ - FORD P/"-I
Degrees Opening Closing
From
It. Lift   Lift
Z'3 .03/54- .08Ze. 7
'30 .03'::>0 I .081'55
31 .07 9L1B .08001
3~ .07813 .07948
33 .07b58 .07813
34- .0743z:. .07658
35 .07c.8S .O-(L',.S Z.
3~ . 070 So 3 .072...8b
~7 .O~3"3.~ .070S9
'J8 .OSS8'2... .00a-=:.\
~9 .OS3\9 .OGSI3
40 .8"'::>~1 .OS::'OO
(1..\ .05:77"C, .OGOL:::'
4'L. :J -= ~ C"\ ~ .05750
- . - ~
4-3 .2::'2.."'2-1 .OSd."lS
44- .o~94S .0<;'2:.0\
4S .O4-';~'3 .O'iS'C S
..." .a~SS:4- .0~.::;>S \
47 .O~[ I S .04-377
4e .03343 .04-! O'L
49 . ::)~ 5 ;; 7 . 038c. 7
~o . ..?::.,?-S I . 03553
0;\ .a"30iS ,03276
sz. .O?:.74-0 .03003
S3 . 0~A bS .02'-72.8
S4 .02 I 39 .02.454-
~~ .O'=I~ .02. I 79
$," .O'';~:: .019: 2-
5' .:>1336 .01033
caSE - 6250 -A
800 lb/hr Grind
Degrees Opening Closing
From
It. Lift  Lift
S8 . :J I ! S 2... .014\\
S9 .OO:.:,c...:; .OI'Llb
,"0 .,~::>{7' .01050
'-I .':)':),0(7 .00914-
(,2.. .aoslo .00303
'-3 .004-17 .00 (\4
,~ .00344- .0004-5
'5 Q0e...B7 .00590
'"'" . 00~q. I .0:)5 ~ 7
" .002..60 .00SI2...
68 ..:)0\;0 ,O::>~30
,,~ . ~o ie... 0 .00 -l S 0
10 .0e>cS50 .:)':).:;' '-.0
II ::>:> :>~S .0';:):;:')0
71.. .O':>':::>"l...o . o:::>~<; 0
I! .00:;).:>5 .oo3~ 0
;4 0 . 0 0 -:.: as
75  .O~Z.,30
7,"  .oo-~ss
77  .OO2.~O
78  . .:> :) ~ 'J S
..,~  .00130
80  .001S5
8.  ,00\:;0
82-  .o;:>;oS
83  .:)Jo8~
84-  .oooSS-
8':>  .00::>30
8'-  .~:) ~ 17...
67  .0000'2..
BB   0
E-ll

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APPENDIX F
DATA TABULATION
**********************************.*.*..**********
* *
* *
* *
* *
. F.l *
*
*
*
*
*

*
*
*
BAS~LIN~ CA~8UR~T~R TESTS
*
*
* *
**

***.*****.*********.****.***.********.****.*******
*

*

*

*
*
*

*
*
*
*
F-l

-------
I'%j
I
N
 SPI:.I:.U TIjRLJUI:. IGr--ITIIjj\j I NJECTBI-< AIR/FUEL MAP EXHAUST EXHAUST BSFC BSNIj BSCB BSHC
   TIMING TIMING RA r IB  Pfo!ESSUfo!E T!::MP.    
 (RPM) (t:JFT-U!) (I:!TOC) (bTIJC)  (PS IA) (!N-H2B) IDI:.G. -F) (LB/BHP-Hfo!)  (GI'IIBHP-HR) 
 12U(,;.U '+5.UOO 22.e C.O 1801 5.,+UO 1.0 767.0 0.893 ,+.251 12.039 1.95
<= 1200.0 100.000 29.e 0.0 18.8 7.2UO 2.8 786.0 0.:>35 5.2!:12 6'996 2.50
3 20UU.0 70.UOO ,+0.C) U.O 17.9 !:I.8UO 7.0 970.0 0.6'+9 110 931 7.633 1.7'+
'+ 2UUU.0 180.000 2o.e 0.0 17.9 9.2UO 25.0 105,+.0 0.'+32 12d52 5'182 '+.13
:; 6'+0.0 35.0UO 4.C 0.0 IS.!:> 5.8UO 0.0 663.0 1.250 1.9'+5 1/1.969 0.8'+

-------
    BASELINE EFI TESTS    
Speed Torque Ignition Air/Fuel Map Exhaust BSFC BSNOx BSCO BSHC
(rpm) (bft-1b) Timing Ratio (psia) Temp (lb/bhp-hr)   
(OBTDC) (OF)  gm/bhp-hr 
1200 45 12 20.9 8.5 1205 1. 41 0.89 25.2 4.7
1200 100 13 21. 4 10.4 1200 0.77 0.59 70.55 2.85
2000 70 37 21. 8 7.7 1225 0.8 1. 49 7.99 3.61
2000 180 37 21. 5 11. 2 1280 0.48 2.4 9.65 0.69
640 35 6 13.6 5.5 780 1. 45 1.3 131. 2 8.2
t'%j
I
LV

-------
F-4
**************************************************
* *
F'.2
*
*
*

*
*
S~~UENTIAL INJ~CTI~N . I
*

*
*
*

*
~~ DEUREES BTDC
*
*
INJE.CTt1R TIMINli
INJECTt1R TIMINli
9U DEuREES ATDC
*
*
*
*
*
*
INJECTt1R TIMING 18U DEuREES ATDC
*
*
*
*
*
*

*
*
*
*
* *
* *
**************************************************

-------
  ::;...t:.t:.u TtiRlJUt:. IGI\ 11 Iti/>, IN.;t:.CTttl-< AIR/FUE.L MAP E~HAUST t:.XHAUST BSFC BSNti tlSCB BSHC
    TIMING TIMING RATlti  PRESSURE TEMP.    
  (I-~1 '+02.990 26.8::i
 2 604.::; 35.970 10.0 45.0 12.1 5.4'>4 0'0 71~.0 l.c88 l.c99 292.4126 15.89
 3 6iJ4.5 35.286 18.3 4~.3 12.0 5.1'>6 3.0 1000.0 1.170 10407 224.276 17.418
 4 61)3.0 34.700 10.0 45.9 1~'0 5.6'+1 0.0 778.0 101141 20165 13.113 6.09
 5 606.0 360141 2().C '+5.7 H.9 5.3/3 0.0 709.0 1.025 3.1)39 15'87'1 9.21
 6 6iJ9.0 35.704 0'0 '+6.0 14.9 6.3~1 0.0 867.0 1.295 2...63 1".756 3.76
 7 6iJO.0 341.628 O.C 46.0 20.0 8.9c5 0.0 lUU5.0 1.::>46 0.177 19.567 7.26
 8 606.0 3';;.820 9.7 '+~o1 19.9 7.4/4 0.0 85100 1.1941 0.741 12'041 10.311
 9 613.5 34.095 19.3 4~.4 20.0 7.0j2 0.0 778.0 10178 0.680 12...77 21.53
 10 6"0.0 31.949 0.0 90.0 12.0 5.6~3 0.0 11::>0.0 1.6!!1 10 351 156.038 8.0::>
 11 640'0 31.745 O.C 90.0 14.0 6.3::>9 0.0 1172.0 1.616 2.123 33.090 16.811
 12 64lJ.0 36.561 O.C 90.0 16.0 7.565 0.0 928.0 1.::>26 1.525 15.600 1.71
 13 640.0 37.604 0.0 90.0 16.0 7.5c8 0.0 928.0 1.49';; 1.688 141.660 11.57
 1'+ 640.0 33.208 O.C ~li.O 18.8 10.215 1.6 985.0 20105 0.647 37.099 62.4';;
 1~ 6"0.0 33.963 10'( :3U.O 12.0 ~.0~2 0.0 CS06.0 1.2::>6 1.203 88.751 10.26
 16 6'+U.0 39.639 IlJ.O 9U.0 1...0 5.7"'1 0.0 1112.0 1.1"5 1.::>66 29.063 7.9"
 17 6'+U.U 38.11::>1 10.( 90.0 16.0 6.7j5 0.0 828.0 1.255 1.890 13.2418 141.64
 18 6'+0.0 29.6!!1 lU.C ':10.0 21.0 9.562 1.0 78!hO 1.':187 00358 35.588 125.83
 19 6"0.0 36.540 20.0 90.0 12.0 ...7118 0.0 706.0 I.U91 1.'+09 7'+.157 9.23
 2U 6'+0.U 35.863 2l).C 90.0 1,..0 5.2c6 0.0 708.0 1.098 2'''77 17.222 12.70
 21 6'+0.0 3...767 20.e :30.0 16.0 5.9c6 0.0 70...0 1.168 30133 12.07'+ 26.25
 22 6'+0.0 38.3SU 20.0 90.0 20.5 8.5U8 0.0 68~.0 0.':138 00187 11'607 56.91
 23 6iJ3.0 35.UlJU u.e I:1U.O 12.3 5.818' 0.0 823.0 1'''00 10"53 252.333 11.01
 2.. 6U6.0 3:5.UlJU 9.3 1<10.0 11.6 ~. 1'+0 0.0 730.0 1.272 1.668 28"'900 141. '+0
 2::> 6U7.~ 3:;;.OUO 19.C 1<10.0 12.5 ".9'+1 0'0 680.0 1.080 Id13 119.561 13.91
>-:J:j 
I             
VI             

-------
"%j             
I             
'"        EXHAUST I::XHAUST ~5rC BSNB B5CB BSHC
  S~I::I::LJ TtlRUUI:: IGNITltJN I ",.;t.CTtlR AIR/FUEL MAP
    TIMING TIMING RATlti  ~RESSURE TEI"P.    
  (R~M) (~FT-L~) (tiTUC) (tiTUC)  \ PS IA) (IN-H2t1) !DUi.-F) (LB/BHP-HR)  (GM/BHP-HR) 
 26 6U9.0 :;5.000 u.e 10U.0 1:,.8 6.~6~ 0.0 877.0 1.296 10 1>8 7 20'~18 7.~8
 27 6U7.5 :;5.000 9.3 100.0 15.3 5.6<:8 O.U 80~.0 10116 1.~~2 8.807 8.3~
 28 6U9.U 35.UUU 19.7 100.0 15.5 5.2/10 0'0 7~:,.0 10017 1.1:\13 11'020 9.62
 29 6\)9.0 35.0UO O.C 100.0 16.8 9.2/10 1.5 968.0 1.:'17 0.1>17 17.918 6.~1:\
 30 6U9.0 35.UOO 19.~ 180.0 18.7 7.5';2 101 768.0 10157 0./12 13.608 19.~0
 31 6U7.:, :;5.UOO 901 180.0 18.7 8.0':0 1.2 83:'.0 1.250 0.570 13.506 12.06
 32 1>00.0 31.:'80 0.( 180.0 17.5 7.7U8 0.5 908.0 1.679 2.1>30 '+9''+20 57.82
 33 6UO.0 3~.729 10.e 130.0 21.9 9.367 1.0 858.0 1.:,72 0.601 36.695 100.32
 3'+ 1>00.0 29.:'07 10.0 130.0 19.9 8.2/7 0.5 900.0 1,''+3 0.1>01 38'175 71.99
 35 6UU'0 32,01:\6 20'0 100.0 20.6 701u7 0.2 760.0 1.299 1.021 28'35'+ 65.72
 36 12l
 3& 1222.:' ~6.~33 15.( ~5.0 17.9 5.6~9 3.0 11~0.0 0.972 3.008 10.322 1.60
 39 12Gb:' ~8.U96 15'0 ~5.C 18..J 6.362 3.6 116:'.0 0.997 2.228 10.858 1.52
 ~U 1221.0 ~9.5:,6 25.( ~5.0 19.2 5.7/1~ 3.0 lUb5.0 0.829 30172 11.0bO 3.53
 '+1 120U.U ~7.035 ~O'C ~5.C 19.0 5.~/l5 2.5 9b5.0 0.1:126 5.bb7 10'~16 6.95
 ~2 1212.0 ~7.:,b7 '+O.~ ~b.:, 2:;'1 7.b/l 5.0 92:'.0 0.9:'9 1.089 15.357 55.2~
 ~3 121b.5 ~3'ob9 ~C'b ~b.3 21.5 b.8<:2 6'0 98:'.0 0.9~7 2.291:\ 15.9~3 3~.3~
 ~~ 121:;':' ~7.U:,3 2:,.6 ~5.7 21.7 7.3~b 5.5 1 U7l. 0 0.972 1.00:; 23'~09 18.52
 '+::> 121:;':' ~5.7:,7 26.2 ..5.<; 22'8 7.911 5.5 101>9.0 I.UI>~ 0.1:\1:\7 25.110 38.61:\
 ~6 1211>.:' :'1.7'+0 1:',. 'I ..5.0 21.7 8.36b 5.:, 120:'.0 1.0:'3 0./~3 2~'~Ob 9.2~
 '+1 121:'.1.1 :'0.:;96 16.~ ~6.3 22.6 9.068 7.5 1156.0 10162 0./57 38'951 29.2:'
 ~8 12U'+.5 ~5.0UO 36.9 ';j0.0 H!'O 5.8Ul 2.3 824.0 U.l:lbO 100123 1~'b61 Ib.75
 '+9 1213.5 ~5.U(j0 cu.e 90.0 17.7 6.0';0 2.1> 9~6.C 0.940 4.479 11:\'~85 9.53
 50 1191:1,:' ~:,.OOO 10.L 90,,~ 17.9 b.8U8 3.8 101>0.0 I.U93 2.437 19.939 '+.30

-------
  ~PE.W TtHW U l I(;~lTltlN II\.JE.CT~R AIR/FUEL MAP EXHAUST EXHAU~T B:>FC BSNtI B~CB BSHC
    T Ir11 NG TIMING RA T I tI  PRESSURE TlMP.    
  (Rt-'M) (bFT-LtI) (tlTUC) (tHUC)  (t-'SIA) (IN-H2B) IOlG. -F) (LB/bHt-'-HR)  (GM/I!HP-HR) 
 ~1 12U~.5 ~5.UUO 3~.9 9U.0 19.8 6.3';0 3.U !!1~.0 U.~U~ 5.685 15.~86 2!/o02
 ~2 1212.U ~5.(JUO 20.(; 9a.0 20.0 7.2UO ".0 952.0 1.066 20116 23.310 27.96
 53 1213.~ ~5.000 10.C 90.0 19.7 8.0/2 6.0 1108.0 1.250 1.219 29'697 12.57
 ~" 12t:h5 ~5.0UO 3':>.(; 90.0 2201 7.6"2 ".5 7!!3.0 1.030 2.!!2~ 16'12" 6B.26
 ~5 1210.5 ~5.000 20.(; 90.0 21.8 8.5e~ 5.8 !!7U.0 1.20" 0.9~9 2~.073 79.15
 ~6 1212.0 "5.UUO 10.0 90.0 21.5 9.329 8.0 1109.0 1.3"7 I.U98 37'385 3".5~
 ~7 12U9.0 ~3dU9 30.~ 180.0 19.0 5.5U~ 2.0 988.0 U.83~ 17.125 9'676 8.70
 51! 1207.~ "6.1'+8 1~.8 180.0 1801 5.8::>2 2.3 1U56.0 0.!!93 ].971 10'111+ 5.37
 ::>9 12U9.U ~6.~32 '+.9 180.0 17.7 6.6';9 3." 1180.0 1.0"9 6./12 9'019 2.02
 60 1210.~ "~.~!!7 29.6 180.0 20.,+ 5.9';6 2.5 9~8.0 a'!!"1 10.386 10.702 8.0U
 b1 lc!U3.U '+~ .17~ 1~.9 180.0 19.9 603bO 2.8 1 O~ 1.0 0.~31 5.~1!:i 11.223 3.52
 62 12U9.U ~5.708 ~.9 1!!0.0 19.6 7.2~1 ".2 1183.0 I.U97 ".372 9'929 2.0U
 6~ 1221.0 ~5.0UO I~.C 11:10.0 22." 8.5::>1 6.~ 1209.0 1.193 10117 31.859 11.3"
 6" 12Ul.5 '+5.0UO 30.1: 180.0 22.7 7011~ ~.O lUU1.0 U.9~0 1.295 18'669 2".5~
 6~ 1C!12.U '+5.UUU ~'l 18U.0 21.2 8.9UO 8.0 1290.0 1.311 0.7!!9 23.021 11.0"
 66 l"U'+.~ ~7.291 31.S. 180.C 22.8 /.7'+1 5.0 1037.0 I.U~" 1.009 86'21~ 62.52
 67 1216.~ "9.6b5 I~.l 180.0 22.6 8.913 7.5 128~.0 1.2U2 1.1~0 "5.229 38.77
 6,; 12U'+.~ '+!!.,;79 ~.c 18~.C 21.7 10.5"8 13.8 1'+86.0 1.~68 0.668 5!!'''~8 30.3U
 69 1212'0 :;9d!!~ I~.C 180.0 21'~ 9'''~5 13'8 1~1!!.0 1.10~ 1.010 53'9~6 28.62
 70 121~.a ~2.i!18 13.:; 180.0 21'~ 7.61~ 6.0 121:17.0 1.235 1.113 "0.770 16.82
 11 12U6.U ~3.203 30.2 100.0 21.9 6.7';0 ".0 lU90.0 I.U~5 1.6~5 29.259 26.81
 12 1222.~ lu5.2~,+ ~1.~ '+7.2 1!!.7 7.1b3 ".5 9!!0.0 0.538 160123 5'9~9 50lU
 n 1219.5 10~.2':>6 c6., '+t-.2 18.~ 7.3<::3 5.0 10~!!.0 U.555 7.706 6.279 3.~2
 7'+ 1213.':> 1~7.~77 1 i . t; '+b.e 18.0 7.91!3 6.U 1195.0 U.620 ~.b61 8'071 1.37
 15 1221.0 IU'+.oo~ 16.'-1 "6.3 17.8 7.3~0 5'0 1133.0 0.::>91 6.212 7'7"7 1.99
'Tj             
I             
~             

-------
",+ 5.0 977.0 . 0.::>38 10.623 5.692 5.57
 77 1216.5 107.66,+ 26.3 '+5.7 19.1 7.7j9 5.5 1055.0 0.::>70 5.'+16 6.728 3.'+8
 78 1218'0 10,.567 16.6 ,+6.3 19.8 8.3:11 7.0 11'+,+.0 0.605 2.176 8.705 1075
 79 1209.0 10'+.561 '+1.6 ,+6.9 22.0 8.5e2 6.5 988.0 0.572 3d8'+ 6.6'+5 10.19
 80 1207.5 103.,+:Jl 25.0 '+601 21.5 9.1b5 8.0 1089.0 0.638 1.602 8.720 7.97
 81 1209.0 10,+.908 15.0 '+601 20.3 9.6UO 9.0 1198.0 0.695 1.'+80 10.'+70 3.6'+
 82 121Q.5 99.217 '+0'0 '+6.6 23.9 10.2j9 9.0 98'+.0 0.679 0.958 9'19" 32.07
 8:J 1213.5 108.616 25.G ,+6.2 23.5 11.353 16.6 1088.0 0.708 0./8,+ 11'3'+1 25...2
 8'+ 1209.0 10,+.602 l:i.~ '+b.6 23.3 13.'+"'+ 2'+.0 11'+0.0 0.872 1.091 22.'+00 51.91
 85 1210.5 101.'+59 :J5.7 90.0 1801 7.3::>6 '+.5 1070.0 0.51,+ 18.66'+ 5.193 10.68
 86 1218.0 102.'+68 20.0 90.0 1801 7.6j,+ 5.0 1155.0 0.5'+8 9.662 10.787 3016
 87 1206.0 101.268 lu.e 90.0 17.9 8.'+17 6.5 12'+0.0 0.629 '+.177 8.0'+1 10 31
 88 12U7.5 101.'+59 :J5.0 90.0 19.8 7.887 5,,5 1020.0 0.526 10.5'+1 6'59'+ 5.50
 89 12D.:, 102.506 20.0 90.0 19.,+ 8.,+55 6.5 1150.0 0.581 ...593 37'2'+0 2.60
 90 12U9.0 103.2:J5 9.2 ':10.0 19.3 9.8u5 9.0 12'+0.0 0.681 2.873 1'+'657 15.86
 91 1210.5 102.tUB 35.0 90.0 2:J.'+ 10.660 9.0 985.0 0.62,+ 1.750 7.89'+ 28.63
 92 12120iJ 105.01'+ 20.0 90.0 22.8 12.3e7 16.6 1155.0 C.7'+8 1.153 10'8'+1 "1.'+6
 93 1215'0 103.850 10'0 90.0 20.0 11.717 16.6 12'+0.0 0.805 2.652 2,+.833 ",+.31
 9'+ 12U'+.5 luO.OOO 30.t 180.0 10.1 7.2j5 ,+.0 1017.0 0.531 12.982 5.171 3.89
 9:> 1201.5 100.0VO 1501 180.0 17.11 7.6115 '+.5 1125.0 0.578 '+'73'+ 6.8'+0 1.95
 96 12U9.0 100.UOO 5... 180.0 17.7 8.6b5 7.0 1260.0 0.671 3.'+'+5 5.7'+2 0.52
 97 12U6.0 100.0VO 3C.7 1110.0 19.9 7.815 5.0 1017.0 0.537 ,+.596 5.718 3.80
 98 1213.5 100.QOO 15.3 1110.0 19.5 1I.6b3 6,.8 11'+6.0 0.621 2.002 8'206 1.99
 99 12U6.0 lUO.'JOO 601 18().0 18.8 9.511'+ 9.0 1291.0 0./11 1.987 7.08'+ 0.61
 IOU 12U7.5 98.10,+ 211.= 1110.0 c,+.'t 11.182 16.6 107'+.0 0./25 Od70 16.578 ,+,+.7!!

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 S~I:.I:.l) rtHW U I:. IGI\,ITlbN II\,.JI:.CTB~ AII
-------
F-IO
*****-********************************************
* *
* F.3 *

* SEUUENTIAL INJ~CTI~N . II *
* *
*     *
*     *
* INJEC1!j~ TIMING 4+!:> DEuREES 8TOC *
*     *
* INJECT!j~ TIMING 90 DEuREES ATOC *
*     *
* INJECT!j~ TIMING 18U DEuREES ATDC *
*     *
*     *
*     *
*     *
* *
* *

**************************************************

-------
  ~:;r> I:. t:.D TBRQUl IGNITII:JN INJlCTBR AIR/FUE.l MAP EXHAUST lXHAUST BSFC BSNB BSCB BSHC
    TIMING TIMING RATIB  PRESSURE TEMP.    
  (HPM) (~FT-lt:!) (t:! WC) ( t:! WC)  I PS I A) (IN-H2B) .O 17.9 6.3uO 8.3 1102.0 0.61" 8.295 7.339 1.86
 2 20UO.U 68.213 "U.O ":.0 20.0 6.9~1 11.0 1107.0 0.6"3 3.393 9.625 2.35
 3 2UOO.U 69.9"9 "U.C "!:>.O 2".1 10.112 22.1 99'1.0 0.8!:>1 O.bO'I 12.296 53."3
 " 2UUO.U 7".1"!:> "o.(; ,,!:>.O 22.0 7.966 13.8 1120.0 0.661 l.b83 11.882 5.88
 5 20UU.U 72.556 'IO.C "5.0 22.0 7.9c9 13.8 1112.0 0.669 1.567 11'9"3 6.01
 6 20UU.0 72.710 25.() "5.0 17.8 6.7:>5 11.0 117'1.0 0.652 ".798 6'697 0.68
 7 20UU.0 70.::J5U 25.C "5.0 20.0 7.7157 16.6 1215.0 0.727 1.767 10.065 1.1"
 8 20UO.U 68.96'1 25.C "5.0 22." 10.7'19 30." 1082.0 1.U02 3.687 17''133 59.50
 9 2000.0 68.7'tl 15.C '15.0 18.0 7.668 16.6 1323.0 0.820 3.181 5'156 3.00
 10 20UO.0 7'+ 01 79 15.e "5.0 20.0 8.3:>1 22.1 13"5.0 0.773 1.998 6.018 1.26
 11 20uO.0 70.000 'Io.e 90.0 18'" 5.6UO 8.3 1038.0 0.b88 16.981 7.800 ".80
 12 20UU.0 67.383 "o.c 90.0 20.0 6.2UO 11.0 1076.0 U.6"7 5./6'1 11'106 ".13
 13 2000.0 70.512 'O.C 90.0 2".6 8.9UO 22.1 9"6.0 0.798 0.210 12'06" 5...09
 1'+ 20UU.0 70.7UO 'IU.C 90.0 22.0 7.0uO 16.6 1061.0 0.656 2.!:i87 13.535 9.76
 15 20UO.0 70. 715 25.0 9U.0 18.0 6.2UO 13.8 1158.U 0.67'1 ".7"8 8.525 1.66
 16 2UUU.0 69.688 25.C 90.0 20.5 7 dUO 16.6 1220.0 0.729 1.8111 13.696 2.0'1
 17 2UUU,U 70.8b9 25.C 90.0 2".5 9.2UO 27.6 lU82.0 0.833 0.'112 15.367 5".52
 111 2000.u 70.000 25.(; 90.0 22." 7.6UO 22.1 116".0 0./28 0.963 1'1'''28 9.1'1
 19 2000.u 68.52!:i 15.( 90.0 18.0 6.5uO 16.6 1000.0 0./55 20103 :'833 0.7"
 20 20UU'0 68.5"0 Ib.C 90.() 19.8 7.2UO 20.7 1332.0 0./92 1.96b 6.30.. 0.38
 21 20UO.0 72.UU2 15.C 90.0 22.8 9.1UU 30." 1"18.0 0.886 0.606 1".678 1...::J
 22 20UO.0 75.975 15.C 90.U 2".0 11.7:>2 '11.5 990.0 0.953 0.899 81' 868 51...2
 23 2UUU.U 75.Ul" Ib.C 90.0 22.0 8.6:>0 19.3 122U.O 0.722 0.712 15.117 5.77
 2" 20UO.0 67.899 "C.C 18U.O 18.0 5.6:>" 8.3 1118.0 0.626 10.511 8."63 1.78
J-,j 25 2UOO.U 69.173 "0.(; 180.0 20.0 6.2155 11.  1120.0 0.6'+1 5.6'10 10.506 1.98
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N  SPEW TtlRQUE IGNITIBN INJECr6" AI"/FUEL MAP EXHAUST EXHAUST BSFC BSNtl tISCtl BSHC
    TIMING TIMING "ATIB  P"ESSU"E TEMP.    
  ("PM) (6FT-LB) "HOC) (tHlJC)  IPS I"')  (1"I-H2B) Wt.G.-F) (L6/BHP-H")  (GM/BHP-HR) 
 26 2000.0 67./36 '+0.0 11:10.0 2S.2 9.8"'+ 2,+.9 91:1~.0 0.1S97 0.527 13.292 63.3'+
 27 2000.0 73.'+'+5 '+O.C 18C.0 c'+.O 80112 19.3 1101.0 0./15 0.926 13.759 18.69
 28 2000.0 70.968 ,+c.e 180.0 22.0 7.0:09 16.6 1123.0 0.6~8 1.'+83 11'976 5.03
 29 2000.0 69.370 25.0 180.0 18.0 ~.8'+8 11.0 lc12.0 0.685 7.'+56 6.682 0.63
 30 2000.0 6,+.057 2s.e 180.0 20.0 6.7U,+ 13.8 1223.0 0.171 2.981 9.57'+ 0.86
 31 20UO.0 69011S0 25.0 180.0 2'+.2 1001 '+0 27.6 1152.0 0.962 0./63 21'1'+3 56.91
 32 20UO.O 71.558 25.0 180.0 22.0 7.,+a8 16'.6 12'+2.0 0.750 1'''32 12.'+79 2.26
 33 20UO.U 69.928 lS.0 180.0 18.0 6.,+63 13:.8 1292.0 0./66 3.9'+6 3.895 0.32
 3'+ 2000.0 73.100 15.0 180.0 20.0 7.5:06 19'.3 1332.0 0.790 1.91S9 '+.911 0.27
 35 2000.0 73.120 lS.C 180.0 23.5 10.9a3 '1'+.2 1'+12.0 1.U,+0 0.~19 27.118 28.99
 36 20UO.0 69.16';) 15.(, 180.0 22.0 8.9"5 27.6 1'+03.0 0.'H2 0.1169 10'983 1.'+9
 37 20UO.0 178.892 '+0.0 '+S.O 18.0 9.7~'+ 2,+,.9 119~.0 0.'+26 18.137 ...'+59 2.75
 38 cOUo.O 180.092 '+0.0 '+5.0 20.0 10.6'+2 33.2 1162.0 0.'+12 10.609 5'000 2.20
 39 2000.0 178.651 '+0.0 '+5.0 23.5 13.8"9 60.9 11/3.0 0.501 10'+00 5.860 1'+.22
 '+U 20UU.U 198.31c '+0.0 4+5.0 2'+01 15.115 69.2 113'+.0 0.'+70 1.392 5.229 16.0'+
 '+1 2000.U 11S7.S31 '+O.C '+5.0 22.0 12.'+"7 ,+9.8 1198.0 0.'+33 3.151 5'''12 '+ .10
 '+2 20UO.0 179.21S(I 25.0 '+~.O 18.0 10.2~8 33.2 1CS3.0 0.'+'+1 8.1S30 5.578 1.32
 "3 20UO.U 11S0.0'+7 25.0 ,+5.0 20.0 11.5UO ,+,+.3 1280.0 0.'+53 3.76,+ 6''+'+3 1006
 '+'+ 20UU.0 176.1S1S? 25.0 ~'J.O 2203 1'+.218 69.2 13'+<'00 0.S32 1.11S5 9.208 5...3
 '+5 2uUU'() 11S6.937 15.C 1+5.0 20.0 12'b~8 '+9.8 1'+20.0 0.'+87 ,+.012 6.7'12 -0.70
 '+6 2UUU.U 181.1032 lS.C '+5.0 11:1.0 12.b~0 '+9.8 1360.0 0.:012 3.35~ ~.3'+8 0.88
 '+7 20UU.o 17'+.959 '+O.C 90.0 17.9 9.618 27.7 1193.0 0.'+30 180116 '+'620 2.'+1
 '+8 2000.0 1810106 '+0.0 9C.0 20.0 10.61>8 36.0 118~.0 0.'+3'+ 10.613 5.632 2013
 '+9 2000.0 183.2'+2 '+0.0 90.0 c'+.2 1,+.9111 71.9 1130.0 0.5110 10'+13 6'653 210'+ 1
 5Ci 2000.U 179.'+29 25.0 90.0 17.9 9.9~3 33.2 128U.O 0.'+35 10.060 6'100 10 77

-------
 SPE.W TtH~LlUI:. IGt\ITIBi'< IN..JECTBI-I AIK/~UEL MAP EXHAUST !:.IIHAUST BSf'C I!SN6 I!SCB BSHC
   TIMING TIMING ..IATltI  PRESSUI-IE TEMP.    
 (I-IPM) (t:!FT-Lb) (,!fUC) (tHUC)  (PSIA) (IN-H2!!) tDI:.G. -F) (LB/BHP-HR)  (GM/BHP-HR) 
51 2000.0 183.268 2~.C 90.0 20.0 11.91'+ '+9.8 1:>03.0 0.'+66 3.~0!) 7'673 1.'+7
!J2 2000.0 18'+.1~1 2~.C 90.0 22.3 1,+.9!!3 77.5 13,+!).0 0.~'+3 10313 10'7'+2 7.81
53 2000.0 18'+.263 15.C 90.0 18.0 11ol.;j7 '+'+.3 1'+03.0 0.'+83 6.091 6'072 0.31
5'+ 2000.0 181.273 35.e 180.0 18.0 9.1':16 2,+.9 1220.0 0.'+18 17.868 '+.503 2.01
~5 2000.0 182.3106 3~.e 180.0 20.0 9.7'+7 27.6 1196.0 0.'113 1'1.339 5''+1'+ 1.76
56 2000.0 17'+.'+56 3~.e 180.0 25.5 1'+.lb5 66.,+ 1208.0 0.~32 0.917 6'888 19.65
57 2000.0 188.!)C1 3~.C 1100.0 2,+.0 13.3:>3 60.8 12'+3.0 0.'167 0.931 5'998 7.39
51! 2000.0 183.~'+' 35.e 180.0 22.0 11.3/2 '+'+'2 1226.0 0.'+33 3.26,+ 6''+25 2.26
!J9 2000.0 1100.1093 25.0 180.0 1701 9.'+':13 27.6 1258.0 0.'+30 1201'+6 5'099 1.16
6v 2000.0 1810110 25.C 180.0 20.0 10.2c1 35.9 1256.0 0.'+32 7.1012 6.'1'+2 0.81
61 2000.0 175.1!83 25.C 180.0 2'+.5 1501 b9 71+.7 1310.0 0.557 0.721 11'2'+1 12011
62 2000.0 179.~25 2~.C 180.0 22.0 11.712 '+'+.2 1271.0 0...75 20363 7'628 1.'+3
63 2000.0 179.201 20.C 180.0 18.0 9.823 27.6 1252.0 0'''59 9.027 5.666 10 16
6'+ 200U.U 181.9~2 2U.e 180.0 20.0 10.7':15 38.7 1307.0 0.'+60 5.175 6.723 0.59
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F-14
**************************************************

* F.4 *
* *
* IGNITIBN EFFECrS *
* *
* *
* *
* A STD. GA~ (.035) . STD. ~NERGY/OURATI6N *
* *
* 6 STD. GAP . -2 ~NERGY/DURATI6N *
* *
* C STD. GA~ . -3 ~NERGY/DURATIBN *
* *
* 0 GAt-' (.OJ+5) *
* *
* E GAP (.060) *
* *
* *
**************************************************

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  SPt:.ED TBHc.lUt:. IGNITIB'" I "'JECTfH, AIH/FUEL IC>NITltlN MAP EXHAUST ~XHAUST BSFC BSNB BSCB BSHC
    TIMING TIMING RATIB EFFECT  PHESSURE nMP.    
  (HPM) (6FT-I.t!) (t!TOC) (bTDC)  (SPAHK) (PSIA) (IN-H2e) (Q~G.-F) (I.B/BHP-HR)  (GM/BHP-HR) 
  0'+0':' 37.:'1)0 0.0 ,+,+.7 11.9 A 0.OU2 0.0 1)15.0 1.230 10'+18 06.058 6.59
 2 0'+0.5 38.335 10.0 ,+,+.9 12.0 A 5.5'+0 0.0 7'+7.0 1.199 1.7'+'+ 20'70'+ 6.37
 3 oc7.0 35.9'+0 20.0 '+3.7 12.2 A 5.2UO 0.0 091.0 1.039 10577 1'+.282 8.71
 '+ 0'+3.5 36.005 0.0 '+5.0 15.1 A 7.2/9 0.5 892.0 1.388 1.000 8.676 3.89
 5 6'+3.5 3,+.976 10.0 '+501 1501 A 6.3u5 0.2 780.0 1.200 0.'15'+ 8.058 6.91
 o &'+:'.0 35.121 20.0 45.0 1501 A 5.9/0 0.3 721).0 1.082 0.520 8.378 8.77
 7 6'15.0 370033 o.e '+'+.8 15.5 A 7.5'13 0.6 88&.0 1.'+14 0.732 11.520 3.77
 8 6'+:'.0 36.7'18 10.0 '+5.3 17'0 A 7.4=>3 0.7 82'+.0 10 251 0.355 13.36'+ 12.30
 9 6'+6.5 35.3,+,+ 20.(J '+5.3 19.1 A 7.5'+6 0.8 752.0 1.227 0.'+00 15.703 '+1.23
 10 0,+6.5 32.762 0.0 4501 12.0 B 6.0U8 001 79,+.0 1.'173 1.398 212.8&9 10.29
 11 6'+5.0 35.8'+5 10.0 '15.0 11.8 B 5.3b9 3.0 0.0 10147 1.155 82.962 8.8'1
 12 6'+::h5 36.079 2u,0 '+'+.3 12.0 B 5.0/6 0.0 015.0 1.003 1.2'+0 02.506 10.'+9
 13 &'+3.5 33.096 o.e '+".8 15.0 B 6.91:18 0.5 815.0 1.'+33 1.379 16''+02 12.50
 1'1 6'+9.5 3,+.331 10.<.: ,+4.5 15.0 B 5.91:13 0.3 718.0 1.130 0.'177 10.99'+ 110 1'+
 15 &'+0.5 34.903 20.e '+4.'+ 15.0 B 5.51:17 0.0 051.0 1.003 1.135 10.335 11.32
 16 0'+2.0 33.03'+ o.e '+5.0 18.0 B 8.6U5 1.1 895.0 1.026 0.577 21'18'+ 23.36
 17 6'+3.5 31.92,+ 10.0 '15.2 18.2 B 7.314 0.9 772.0 1.339 0.'+1'+ 15.275 21030
 18 0'13.5 3,+.815 20.e '+'1.7 18.6 8 6.801 0.5 720.0 1.099 00327 12.300 18.71
 19 6'+0.0 36.J09 o.e 30.& 12.0 C 8.0cS 0.0 711).0 1.279 1.159 242'35'+ 9.28
 20 &'10.0 :.>2.128 10.e 33.1 12.0 C 8.0U8 0.0 080.0 1.26'+ 10113 176.925 10018
 21 o'+(J.o 31.399 zo.e 32.4 11.9 C /I.Ocz 0.0 620.0 1.153 1.1'+'+ 122.920 13.05
 22 64u.O 36.214 o.e 27.2 15.0 C 8.019 0.0 700.0 1.232 1.323 8'021 ,+.92
 23 0'10.0 33.309 10.<.: 31.0 1,+.9 C 8.011 0.0 713.0 10121 10118 8.118 6.'+2
 2'+ 6'+0.0 36.'+!!9 20.e 20.0 15.0 C 8.0U7 0.0 655.0 0.~29 1.'160 8'223 6.85
"'1 25 0'+0.0 37.867 0.0 '+:'.0 22.4 C 7.9.:J4 3.2 970.0 1.015 0./'+5 '+0'453 6'+.72
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'"  SI'I:.I:.D TtJRLiUI:. IGNIT !e" 1 "~ECTeR A!R/FUEL IGNlTltlN MAP I:.XHAUST I:.XHAUST BSFC BSN6 BSC6 BSHC
    TIMING TIMING RATI6 EFFECT  PRESSURE TEMP.    
  (RI'M) (BfT.LB) (dTUC) (bTOC)  (SPARK) (PS!A) (!N.H26) (Ot.G..F) (LB/BHP.HR)  (GM/BHP.HR) 
 26 639.U 37.1115 0.0 '+'+.'+ 20.0 C 7.9'+0 2.0 925.0 10378 0.7'+3 190151 29.79
 C7 6J705 32.617 10.0 '+'+.5 22.9 C 7.9.:15 2.2 !!OU.O 1.539 0.732 28.720 100.'+6
 28 6'+6.5 3,+.51,+ 1U'(; '+5.3 20.0 C 7.9.:19 1.0 810.0 1.2'+'+ 0.059 13.960 28. 7't
 29 6'+5.0 '+0.509 20.(; '+'+.6 22.5 C 7.9'+0 I! 5 700.0 1.108 0.318 16.106 7 10 1'+
 30 6'+3.5 3'+.625 20.(; '+'+.5 20.0 C 7.9~1 0.8 727.0 1.069 0.13,+ 12'872 2'+,"0
 31 6'+3.5 36.508 o.c ,+,+.6 11.9 0 8.011 0.2 7'+5.0 1.255 1.129 180.90.. 8.57
 32 6'+9.5 36.990 10.0 ,+,+.8 12'1 0 7.91>8 0.0 706.0 1.077 0.996 119.362 8.'+2
 33 6'+3.5 J5.516 20.(; '+401 12.0 0 7.9/1 0.0 626.0 0.965 10067 75.385 11.29
 34 6'+!!oO 36.916 0.0 '+,+.7 15.0 0 7.9/6 0.5 810.0 1.173 Id77 7''+51 ...87
 35 6'+6.5 36.2UI 10.(; '+4.4 15.0 0 7.96'+ 0.3 712.0 0.990 10149 6.899 7.46
 36 6'+6.5 35.916 20.C ,+4.6 15.0 0 7.9:>5 0.0 660.0 0.891 1'''22 7087.. 7.05
 37 6'+5.0 32.'+2'+ U.C '+5.0 22.3 0 7.9:>1 2.5 972.0 1.767 0...80 '+5.768 50.21
 38 6'+U.0 35.000 10.C '+5.0 22.2 0 8.3/S0 1.8 !115.0 1'''07 1.087 '+2.301 '+0.'+7
 39 6,+9.5 36.'+56 1::;.0 '+4.,+ 20.0 0 7.9:>3 1''+ 810.0 1.261 0.209 1...699 39.68
 '+0 650.5 34.';53 2U'0 '+'+.6 21.7 0 7.9:>0 1.3 670.0 10187 0.227 1'+.829 78.3'+
 '+1 66U.0 32.021 2().0 ,+5.8 20.0 0 7.9'+0 100 68U.O 1.217 0.20'+ 13.687 53.16
 "2 651.U 34.1191 u.O '+1.4 12.2 E 5.8/0 0.0 715.0 1.3211 0.9711 259.835 !h68
 "3 6'+~.5 38.158 U.C '+ 1 01 15.0 E 6.422 0.0 770.0 1.1'+7 1.295 8.590 32.05
 '+'+ 6'+~.5 38.. 73 0.(; '+0.1 1901 E 8.'+:>1 1.0 1172.0 1.301 0.331 1'+'818 5.30
 '+5 6'+5.0 35.576 U.C ..0.'+ 21.9 E 10.719 203 9'+5.0 1.696 0."'+5 3"'8'+0 35.81
 '+6 6'+2.u 3701U2 10.C '+1.2 12.0 E 5.32'+ 0.0 682.0 1.058 0.839 147.'+35 9.63
 "7 6"11'0 311.~73 10.C '+0.1i 15.0 E 5.8u8 0..0 730.0 0.':i38 1.033 6.659 4.65
 "8 652.5 '+3.n5 1<';.C '+U.O 23.9 E 10.911 2.2 750.0 1...306 0.676 22.297 99.23
 49 6'+3.5 37.698 10.<.; 39.8 22.0 E 9.IU2 I' 3 1107.0 1.273 0.52" 21'269 59.16
 50 6":'.5 36."'+8 2().C '+0.5 12.0 E 5.015 0.0 621.0 I.UO 1 0.862 12.767 12.3"

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  ~"'E.E.U TBRQUE. IGNllleN I N.JEc;reR AIR/FUEL IGNITIt1N MAP EXHAUST DHAUST B~FC 8~Ne B~CB BSHC
    TIMING TIMING RATIB E.rFECI  "'RES~URE lE.MP.    
  (RPM) (8FT-L8J (tHUe J (tHUe)  (SPARK) (PS IA) (IN-H2B) (Ot:.u..F) (LI3/8HP-HR)  (GI'I/BHP-HR) 
 51 b'+3.:, 37.001 20.C '+0.5 1~'0 E 5.'+/\7 0.0 662.0 0.~26 1.\)85 9.078 7.9:'
 52 6'1'0 :3].990 20.C 40.3 23.2 E 9.0::'1 1.2 627.0 1.eel 0.~~5 18.319 88.84
 53 6'+2'0 37.'+'+7 20.(; '+0.2 22.0 E 8.018 0.7 666.0 1.096 0.'+58 15.05'+ 65.63
 5'+ 12U9.0 '+6.71 7 35.0 '15.2 18.0 A 5.569 2.!:> 9H.0 0.171 3.958 10.007 5.9'+
 5!:> 1216.:, '+9.155 '10.0 '1:'.2 18.2 A 5.6.:15 2.'1 902.0 0.767 5./9!:> 10.075 9.43
 56 121U.5 '170336 25.0 'I!:i.2 18.0 A 5.7/6 2.6 978.0 0.826 2.2'10 10.538 3.29
 !:i7 1209.0 '15.'109 15.C '15.3 18.0 A 6.2U1 2.6 1036.0 0.~16 1.l20 10.775 2.08
 58 1212'0 '16.63 35.0 ..S.S 20.0 A 6.3U9 3.5 951.0 0.823 2.910 11.8'10 8.08
 ~9 1210.5 '+3.687 ..0.(; '17.'1 20.U A b.316 3'!) 937.0 0.875 1.~75 12.067 16.67
 6U 1212.0 '18.266 C!:>.C '+3.6 20.0 A 6.611 3.7 99S.0 0.886 1.395 13.776 5.63
 61 1213.:, '1'/.'190 15.C '+501 20.0 A 7.3~'I 5.0 956.0 1.009 1.197 16''151 '10.02
 6e 1213.:, 'I3.0'+S 3:"0 '+'1.8 22.8 A 8.117 5.5 1000.0 1.087 0.!)01 21.161 62.'+2
 63 1210'~ 'Is.ln5 '+O'C '+5.3 22.7 A 8.2ul 5.7 1000.0 1.023 0.697 17.379 68.'+8
 6'1 1209'0 '+7.'189 2:,.C '+501 22.6 A 8.2b'l 6.0 1000.0 1.002 0.l53 23.'+58 '+0.70
 6:0 121)9.0 'I8.~91 l:O'C l.~OO 21.2 A 8.2.:1'1 6.3 1000.0 1.022 0.876 22.335 7.98
 61> 1209'0 '+70178 3!:>.lJ '+S. 1 18.0 8 :'.SeS 2.5 917.0 0.7'16 30168 9.,+,+9 5.71
 67 1210.5 '1:'.8'+7 '+0'(; '+'+.8 17.9 B 5.'I~7 2.5 912.0 0.752 30189 9.301 5.5'+
 68 leU9'0 '16.582 25.0 '+,+.8 1!!'C B 5.8u,+ 3.0 ~81.0 0.813 1.6'18 10.102 '+.12
 69 12U6'0 :'1.676 1:0.(; '+5.0 1801 B 6.0U8 3.3 103e.0 0.761 1.:095 9.373 2.69
 70 1218'0 'I!! 0935  3~.(; '+4.4 19.7 l! 6.'1"2 3.6 ~62.0 0.8'+8 1.26,+ 13.19'1 8.09
 71 le13.5 '+5.162 e:"O "'1.9 19." B 6.7~2 '1.2 10'10.0 0.~29 0.725 1,+.630 6.20
 /2 lcl!:>'O "8.811 l:O.C "5.0 20.0 B 7.0::'0 '1.9 1092.0 0'~"6 1.020 13.239 2.92
 73 1209'0 '+'+.022 ..O.C t+j+ -9 20.2 8 6.3U7 3.6 93'+.0 0.8'+5 1.365 13.372 13.1I!
 7'1 12el'0 'I~./20 3:0.0 ":0.1 23.U 8 7.6':n 5.:0 910.0 0.~'+1 0./22 17 '10'+ '+8.91
'"7j 7!:> 1212'0 "...889 "0.0 't04.04 23'1 B 7.6/.. 5.3 875.0 0.9'+8 00395 16.810 ~'I.26
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ex>  SPI:.I:.D TtjRQUI:. IGI\;ITI(jil; IN..JI:.CTBK AIK/FUEL IGNITI6N MAP EXHAUST I:.XHAUST BSFC BSNB I!SC6 BSHC
    TIM IlliG  TIMING RATIB EFFECT  PRESSURE TI:.MP.    
  (KPM) (t:W T .LI:!) (I:! We;) (I:!TlJC)  (SPARK) (PSIA) (IN.H26) (OI:.G..F) (LB/BHP.HR)  (GM/BHp.HR) 
 76 12U9.0 '+'+.123 '+0'0 '1,+.7 21.9 B 6.9.:j7 11.0 ~OO.O 0.1180 0.751 111.925 26.71
 17 1215.0 57.382 25.0 ,+5.5 22.9 8 8.8.:j9 7.0 960.0 0.1190 0.160 17.838 ,+5.32
 711 12U9.0 '+5.013 15.0 '+501 22.7 8 9.0'+6 7.5 107'+.0 1.151 0.031 311.290 '+7.53
 79 121U.5 '+'+.0~6 35.0 '1'+.7 18.0 C 5'2~7 2.5 870.0 0.72'+ 5.'+80 9.339 11.8"
 110 1215.0 ,+11.110 '+0.(; '15.3 18.0 C 5.2~5 2.5 865.0 0.713 5.'+22 11.981 ,+.72
 111 1215.0 ,+3.979 25.(; '15.0 18.0 C 5.4~9 2.8 936.0 0.179 2.j83 ''''769 3.60
 82 1209'0 ,+2.923 15.e '+'1.7 18.0 C 5.8.:j6 3.0 1009.0 0.11'+9 1.679 8.893. 2.29
 83 1215.0 '+4.77'+ 35.e '+5.0 20.0 C 5.8bO 2.7 903.0 0.750 1.855 10'095 6.25
 8'+ 1210.5 430133 ,+o.e ,+4.8 20.0 C 5.81>0 2.6 1190.0 0.776 2.492 10'536 7.36
 115 12Ui.5 '+3.950 25'(; 44.6 19.9 C 6.0.:jl 3.0 965.0 0.1104 1.115 11.472 4.59
 116 :210.5 45.405 15.0 '+4.,+ 19.8 C 6.8b7 4.2 1055.0 0.921 0.615 13.038 3...'+
 117 1212.0 '+201114 35.e '+'+.9 23.6 C 7.8a,+ 5.0 869.0 0.99,+ 0.552 17' 96 7 6'+.2'+
 1111 1215'0 '+2.'+'+2 35.0 ,+4.8 22.0 C 6.9.:j,+ 3.8 930.0 0.1198 0.3'+8 16.668 2'+.10
 89 1212'0 '+2.696 40'(; '1'+.7 23.7 C 7.9Ul 5.0 IIbO.O 0.973 0.200 16'06'+ 68.1'+
 90 1213.5 ,+,+.42'+ '10.0 45.0 22.0 C 6.7ao 3.9 910.0 0.1132 0."90 111'''88 18.77
 91 1213.5 '+7.711'+ 25'0 '+5.0 2301 C 8.329 6.0 9110.0 0.952 1.378 21.514 49.73
 92 1215.0 '+5'U91 25'0 '+501 22.0 C 7.2~6 4.5 990.0 0.1197 0.58'+ 18.429 16.60
 93 121U.5 '+30156 15.e '15.2 22.1 C 8.2.:j5 6.2 1082.0 1.0116 0.522 26'052 12.79
 9'+ 12U9.0 '+3.'::>09 15.<; '+'+.9 23.5 C 9.5b9 8.0 1028.0 1.213 0.873 3,+.595 73.06
 95 12U9.0 '+4.7111 'Io.e '+5.0 18.0 D 5.31>6 2.2 8tSO.0 0.767 3.,+,+" 9.781 5.01
 96 1212'0 46.95,+ '+o.e '+5.0 20'0 D 6.0.:j1 3.0 912.0 0.762 1.31" 10.2011 8.80
 97 1215.v '+'+.5'11 40.0 '+5.0 22.9 D 7.610 ,+.8 !!72.0 0.941 0.3'1" 15'26'+ 62.'+2
 911 12U9.0 4'+.36., '10.0 ..5.0 22.0 D 7.0a9 4.1 tS95.0 0.1196 0.511 15.788 36.'+11
 99 121tS.O '+2.0112 25.e '+5.0 18.0 D 5.4all 2.j 926.0 0.1141 1.21111 10'093 ,+.82
 100 120'+.5 '+'I...u:. 25.e ..5.0 20.0 D 6.'+b'+ 3.'+ 980.0 0.1176 0.689 13'891 7.811

-------
  ~t'U:.LJ TtJRUU\:. IGI'9 5.7 9"5.0 1.051 0.::10::1 23.319 61.07
 10e! 1212.0 "6."8" e!5.0 ,,:'.0 22.0 0 6.9:>9 ".5 973.0 0.861 0.685 17.626 16.03
 103 1e!10.5 "6'''15 15.C "5.0 18.0 D 5.911 3.0 lU22.0 0.866 1.181 10.003 2.'+9
 10'+ 121e!.0 "60116 15.C "5.0 20.0 0 6.71:15 '+.1 1070.0 0.937 0.16,+ 15'0'+6 3.5'+
 105 1209.0 '+2.170 15.0 "5.0 23.2 0 9."U9 8.0 1061.0 1.e!85 U.60" '+'+'373 72.23
 106 12U9.0 ""0335 15.C "5.0 22.0 0 8.0~1 6.0 1113.0 1.092 0.622 28'999 16.16
 107 121>9.0 "7.530 35.0 "2.2 18.0 E 5.3~3 2.0 Cl65.0 0.7"0 3.766 8'8"8 ".60
 108 1203.0 "".862 35.C "2.6 20.0 E 5.9.:J3 2.6 Cl85.0 0.807 1./52 11'183 7.5'+
 109 1215.0 52.598 35.C "1.7 2".'+ E 8.525 5.7 8"0.0 0.899 00359 1,+.530 61.33
 110 1201.5 "5.815 .::!5.() "1.9 22.0 E 6.8/1 3.6 90".0 0.818 0.892 13.7'+2 20.51
 111 1206.0 "6.2"5 "O.C "201 18.0 E 5.3U5 2'1 8"2.0 0.107 5.798 9.0'+5 '+.69
 11e! 12U9.0 '+6.630 "u.e "2.1 20.0 E 5.815 2.6 861.0 0.131 3.106 9.692 7.06
 1U 1207.5 50.305 "0.0 "1." 2".6 E 8.2u3 5.'+ 821.0 0.865 0.'+19 12.925 59.01
 11'+ 120'+.5 '+5.e!25 "u.o "1." 22.0 E 6.5:>5 3.5 Cl79.0 0.80" 1.119 12'86" 17.7'::1
 115 12U".5 "6.123 25.e ~ 1.5 18.0 E 5.5b9 2.2 912.0 0.776 2.350 8.979 3...7
 116 1207.5 "5.356 , 25.C "1.1 20.0 E 6.212 2.8 952.0 0.819 1'13" 11'19.. 5.36
 117 1212.0 "6.:183 25.(; "1.0 2"'1 E 8.7~1 6.0 896.0 1.0U9 00396 19'181 67.16
 118 1e!15.U "6.850 25.C "1." 22.0 E 7.2~7 3.0 ".5 0.876 0.567 16'085 18.78
 119 1212.0 "6.659 15.C "1.5 18.0 E 5.9:>6 2.5 992.0 0.833 10388 9'003 2.3"
 120 1210.5 ..5./e!6 l:>.C "1." 20.0 E 6.8b7 3.8 1037.0 0.922 0.839 12.718 3.5/
 121 1212.0 "".U62 15.C "1.6 23.5 E 9.5~0 7.9 10"5.0 1.269 0'038 ""'517 73.16
 122 12U3.U "0.589 15.C "1.3 22'U E 7.9.:J2 5.6 lU85.0 I.U11 0.566 23'136 8.9"
 123 121U.5 101.557 35.<; "6.2 1803 A 7...11 5'0 1005.0 0'''96 11.202 5'139 3.87
 le!" 121U.5 103.151 "u.e "5.9 18.3 A 7...25 5.0 996.0 0'''86 1".8"3 "'897 ...08
'Tj 125 121>9.0 101.U7" 25.C "5.5 18.0 A 7.:'1:18 5." lU5/.U 0.:>20 5.529 6.617 2.81
I              
f-'              
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I"1j              
I              
N              
0  SPI:.I:.LJ 1t1H\,;1J1:. IGt\ITltJN 1""I:.C1e~ "'IH/FUEL IGNITltlN r,-.p XI-\-'US1 I:.XH"'US1 BSFC BSNe BSCe BSHC
    11MING TIMING HAT Ie  EFFECT  PRESSURE TI:.MP.    
  (~PM) (tiFT-lob I (HTUC) (I:!T DC)  (SPARK) (PS I A) ( P-4.1-\26 I (DI:.G..FI (loB/BHP-I-\R)  (GI'1/BI-\P.I-\R) 
 12& 1212.0 103.:'00 15.0 "5.& 18.0 A 8.0~3 6.0 1132.0 0.:':'0 3.387 7'320 1.7'5
 127 12111.0 10".1115 3:"0 '15.5 19.7 A 8.11>3 6.2 1018.0 0.510 ...!)92 5.762 ...02
 128 1209.0 101.'139 '10.0 '1'5.8 20.1 A 8.1U'I 6.2 1000.0 0.'197 ...350 5''+17 ,+.68
 129 1209.0 10,+.&96 2'5.0 '15.2 20.2 A 8.6/S3 7.0 1070.0 0.'526 1.779 6''+63 3.52
 130 1213.'5 102.11'52 15.(; "5.4 19.8 A 901/S7 8'0 1142.0 0.582 1.125 8.386 2.'+9
 131 1210.5 97.98& 3'5.C '15.1 24.0 A 11.01>9 10.0 960.0 0.634 0.'+82 9.323 35.8'1
 132 1209.0 103.5112 40.C "5.2 22.1 A 9.415 9.0 992.0 0.537 1.0!)0 6.746 11.7':;)
 133 1209.0 99.!!1I4 40.0 '15.7 2'+'1 A 11.598 16.6 915.0 0.&54 0.201 9.556 '+3.52
 13'+ 121:,.0 110.//;5 c!:>.c '+5'1 23.4 A 11.7c3 19.3 1047.0 0.020 0.:'41 10'017 25.'+0
 135 1207.5 102.0'+5 25.C '+5.6 21.6 A 9.3/S2 8.0 105'+.0 0.:'&3 1.100 7.975 7.74
 13& 1209.0 109.4'16 15.C ,+4.8 22.6 A 11. 2~9 22.1 11'+9.0 0.642 0.670 13.921 8.6':;)
 137 1209.0 102'0'57 35.C 4'5.1 22.0 A 9.592 8.2 993.0 0.5:'8 0.98,+ 7.721 10.96
 138 12u9.0 101.172 35.C 45.5 17.8 B 7.313 '+.5 943.0 0.484 10.921 '+'295 ,+.29
 139 1212.0 10003&8 40.0 45.,+ 18.0 B 7.2/S1 ,+.,+ 920.0 0.4116 13.625 '+'234 '+.'+1
 140 1209.0 101.6&2 2'5.C 45.3 17.9 B 7.5U9 '+.7 995.0 0.'500 ':;).592 ':;)'061 2.97
 1'+1 1207.'5 101./97 15.C ,+5.7 17.9 B 7.9/1 5.6 1080.0 0.'5'+7 3.556 6.593 1.91
 1'+2 1210.5 102.089 35.(; ,+5.7 20.0 B 7.9'17 5.'5 950.0 0.'193 '1.211 '1'960 ,+.39
 143 1210.5 100.1139 'I[J.e ,+5.5 20.0 B 7.9'+6 5.'5 934.0 0.489 4./91 4.7119 ,+.88
 1'+'+ 12U9.0 101.935 25.C '+5.? 20.0 B 8.315 6.0 1005.0 0.511 1.1157 5.75'+ 3.71
 145 1209.0 101.&04 15.(; '15.5 20.0 B 8.8-'0 7.0 1071.0 0.:'6'+ 10206 7.328 26.19
 14& 1213.5 102.066 35.C '1'1.'1 2'1.3 B 1101/2 13.8 920.0 0.&15 0015'+ 8.5110 3501'5
 147 1210.5 102.105 35.C 45.6 22.2 B 90118 7.0 960.0 0.526 10167 6'197 9.'+1
 141:1 1215.0 1Cl.&94 4(J.e '1'5.5 24.6 8 11.2/8' 13.8 1181.0 0.613 0.44'5 8.'+51 '+2.55
 1'+9 1212.0 100.'161 'Io.e 45.5 22.(, B 8.811'1 6.8 944.0 0.517 1.525 6'079 9.'12
 150 1210.5 103.531 25.e '15.7 24.3 B 12.,+U4 16.6 978.0 0.679 0.:'80 11'595 44.51

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  ~i"EI:.[) TtlRQUI:. IGNITltlN I NJI:.(TB~ AIR/~UEL IGNITltlN MAP EXHAUST I:.XHAU~T B~FC BSNtI B~CtJ aSHe
    TIMING TIMING HATltI EFFECT  PRESSURE TI::MP.    
  IHPM) (tiFT-un (I:!TUC) (I:!TCC)  (~PARK) (PS I A) IIN-H2B) WI:.G. -F) ILB/BHP-HR)  IGM/BHP-HR) 
 151 12U7.!:> 55.5~~ 25.C ~!:>.3 22.0 8 5.3.:11' 7.5 1016.0 O.!o67 1.003 8.133 8.32
 152 1218.U 10~.581 15.C ~!:>.9 23.5 B 12.7'=>2 22.1 1109.0 0.721 0.~98 15.308 3..018
 153 1210.5 10b.5ul 1".C "~.b 22.0 B 10'6~1 15.2 1102.0 0.613 0.68~ 10.803 8.83
 15~ 1216.5 luO.295 35.C ~~.8 18.0 C 8.02~ ...5 53~.0 0.~7" 1~.u09 ...7b.. '1.16
 155 12U9.0 101.238 39.8 ~~.3 18.0 C 8.021 ...6 927.0 0.~77 17.288 '1'2'12 '1.20
 156 12ul." 101.210 25.C ~".3 18.U C 8.021 '1.8 98C.0 0.~96 7.U91 5'160 2.95
 157 1210.!:> 59.190 l!:>'C ~...~ 17.6 C 8.027 5.8 106~.U 0.561 3.578 6.'1'11 1.57
 1!:>8 12U7." lUl.7U9 3".[. '+~.3 20.0 C 8.026 5.'+ 9'1".0 0.~73 6.u60 '1.897 3.99
 159 12u9.0 lu2.55!:i 'Iu.e ....... 2U'0 C 8.0.:1'1 5.5 925.0 0.~75 6.590 '1.739 '1.11
 160 1209.i) 101.737 25.e '+~.6 20.0 C 8.0~0 6.0 950.0 0.522 2.~18 5.890 3019
 161 121u." 100.0'16 1".(; ~...'I 20.0 C 8.023 8.0 1102.0 0.:'93 1.331 8.01b 1.78
 162 1212.0 100.~u9 35.{; ~~.o 2~.7 C 8.016 13.8 8'1".0 0.6'17 0.259 9.373 '11.91
 163 1215.u 102 d72 35.C '1...3 22.0 C 8.02'1 6.3 952.0 0.:'12 1.801 5.7!:il 6.9'1
 16'+ 122!!t5 101d'+3 ~o.r. ~5.5 2"'1 C 8.021 16.2 867.0 0.6'+2 Od21 9.'19'1 ~5'61
 165 12u9.0 Iv3.0~8 'Io.e ~.. 01 2'101 C 8.0.:12 13.5 905.0 0.586 0.531 7.9u9 26.9'+
 166 12U It 5 102.,,27 'Io.e ~...o 21.9 C 8.017 6.2 931.0 0.!o17 2.07.. 5.876 7.97
 167 121:"0 10".8"2 2!O.C "~.3 2401 e 8.017 16.2 98'1.0 0.698 0.~10 11.506 38.28
 1611 12U9.0 99.876 2:"{; 43.8 22.0 C 8.025 8.0 1032.0 u.581 l.ul8 8.557 7.21
 165 12U7.!:> 10U.,+U8 '10.( ~!:i.0 1!!.0 D 7.007 '1.0 923.0 0.~82 11.1'18 '1.087 3.85
 170 leU"" 100.!!!:>3 '+o.e ..".0 20.0 D 7.7';1 '1.8 930.0 0.~51 3.820 '1'627 ".7"
 171 121U.:. lul.~u2 2:..e 'I!:i.O 1!!.0 D 7.3/5 ".'1 965.0 0.506 '+0182 ~'872 3.05
 172 121U.5 101 d~3 2!:>.e "5.0 20.U D 801bO 5.7 10C4.0 C.!o24 1.568 5.890 3.65
 173 1212.0 lUO.b2.. 1!:>.(; "!:i.o 18.0 D 7.785 5... lU77.0 0.:,55 2.'139 6''119 1.55
 17'+ 1212.i) 101.690 l!o.e "5.0 20.0 D 8.9~2 7.5 1117.0 0.!o85 0.820 7.589 2.10
"%j 175 1215.!:> 103.5..2 ..!:>.!; 4-".8 25.2 D 7.9/2 16.6 89U.O 0.620 00181 8''1,,6 '+0.24
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'x:I              
I              
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N  ~PlW TtI~(JUl IG/l.1 Tlor, INJECTtlt< AIR/FUE.L IGNITItiN MAP EXHAUST lXHAUST BSFC B~N6 BSC6 BSHC
    TIMING TIMING RATIti EfFECT  Pt0.0 0.!:>13 1.1'+1 5'0'+0 7.79
 171S 1209.i) 95.1S"3 ..O.C '+...9 2,+.8 D 7.8:Ob 13,.8 1S37.0 0.&55 0.Ub9 8'0'+1 '+7.97
 179 1210.5 95.'+20 '+U.O .....0 22.0 D 7.8:00 b.5 92'+.0 U.:023 1.255 ,+.77b 9.70
 180 1219.5 97.1S12 25.(; '+'+.7 2,+.5 D 7.9.;j8 23.5 9"0.0 0.130 0.239 10.7'+9 !:>1.12
 181 1211S.0 100.227 2!:>.0 ,+b.1 22.0 D 7.9.;j8 8.0 1015.0 0.!:>83 0.858 7.5b2 10.75
 182 121!:>.0 9,+.11S3 15.C '+'+.2 23.7 D 7.8!:>b 2,+.9 1080.0 0.812 0.283 15.75b '+b.71S
 183 121!:>.0 91.5b7 15.0 '+'+.3 22.0 0 7.8!:>" 13.8 10bO.0 0.720 0.'+b9 11.9'+7 19.35
 18'+ 121&.5 100.675 3!:>.Q '+1.8 18.0 E 7'1"9 ...0 920.0 0,"81 9.362 '+'32" 3.60
 185 1212'0 101.'+81 35.C '+1.7 20.0 E 7.b':Jb ...5 918.0 0...95 50389 '+'89'+ ,+.20
 18& 1213.5 99.!!b7 35.C '+0.0 25.,+ E 12.01& 13.8 822.0 0.6&9 0.398 11'183 50.07
 187 1215.0 102.270 3b.C "0.& 2".0 E 10.2"8 8.5 917.0 0.!:>78 0.118 8'11'+ 25.2'+
 18b 1212'0 1000395 35.(; '+1.'+ 22.0 E 8.5'+7 b.2 93'+.0 0.519 1.6'+b 5.88'+ 7.01
 189 1215.0 101.!:>(;2 '+O.C '+1.7 18.0 E 7.0':J0 ,+.0 895.0 0'''85 1&0319 '+'280 '+.01
 190 1213.!:> 100."'+7 ..O.C "201 20.0 E 7.56b ,+.5 900.0 0.'+85 b.891 ,+.7b5 '+.'+0
 191 1209.0 90.69,+ '+o.e '+10" 25.5 E 11.710 10.0 793.0 0.72.. 0.!:>78 11.751 5b.16
 192 1210.5 102.5!:>0 ..o.e '+10'+ 2,+.9 E 10.0:08 8.0 1S89.0 o.!:>!:>.. 0.625 7'b33 2'+.'+8
 193 1213.5 1 U2 0309 '+0." '+1.7 22.2 E b.l':J7 5.8 908.0 0.'+91 3.092 5''+13 b.b1
 19'+ 121U.!:> 102.195 25.e '+2.0 18.0 E 7.251 '+.2 9"!:>.0 0.511 7.U23 5.21'+ 3.30
 195 12U.!:> 10'+.01S9 2b.C "2.2 20.0 E 7'8~'+ 5.0 958.0 0.!)02 3.736 5.7b8 3.37
 19& 12 1::h!:> 99.915 2b.C '+1.3 25.0 E 11.8"5 1b.b 938.0 0.68b 1.27,+ 11.90& '+3.&7
 197 121&.5 101.255 2b.C '+101 2,+.0 E 10.5u9 9.8 980.0 0.608 0.61S'+ 9'02'+ 19.12
 7''''0 100.10.. 2!:>.() "0.8 22.0 E 9'1':J9 7.5 100...0 0.5b9 0.';191 7.5"& 7.&9
 9 1215.0 102.133 1b.C "0.& 11!'0 E 7.5u1 5.0 1030.0 0.533 ...6..0 6'120 1.8&
/ 20U 121&.5 102.'+Ul 1!:>'(; "0.1 2001 E !!,"':J& b.,+ 10!:>1S.0 0.5b8 2.U8.. 7'''35 1.9&

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 51'1::1::0 TtJRI.JUE IGNITltI'" IN...I::CT6R AIR/FUEL IGNITltJN MAP EXHAUST lXHAUST tjSFC BSN6 BSC6 aSHC
   TIMING TIMING RATltI EFFECT  PRESSURE TI::MP.    
 (Rt>M) (tjFT.Ltj) (IHDC) ItHDC)  (SPARK) CPSIA) (IN.H26) COI::G..F) (LB/BHP.HIO  CGM/tlHP.HR) 
201 12U3.0 97.680 15.C '+0.6 23.9 E 12.'+b2 19.3 lU92.0 U.162 U.~3'+ 15.597 32.5':>
202 1207.:' 102.126 15.C 39.8 22.2 E 10.016 9.3 1105.0 U.618 0.179 10.2.14. 5.23
t'%j
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W

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F-24
**************************************************
* *
*    *
*    *
*    *
*  F.5  *
*    *
* INL~T AIR H~ATING *
*    *
*    *
*    *
*    *
*    *
*    *
*    *
*    *
*    *
* *
**************************************************

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  SPlE.D TtiRLlUI:. IGNITlflN IN.JlCT61o< AIR/FUlL INLET AI~ MAP EXHAUST E.XHAUST B~FC B5Nti B5CB BSHe.
    TIMING TIMING RATIIj HI:.ATlNG  PIo'+8 20.(; ,+0.2 12.0 100  ,+.813 0.0 69U.U U.'::I62 Id67 60.183 8.76
 2 6'+3.5 32.612 2u.e 39.6 1,+.0 100  5.008 0.0 69'+.0 0.'::118 1.U3!:> 8''+09 6.50
 3 663.U 3'+'291 20.0 '+2.2 16.0 100  !)0317 0.0 696.0 0.920 U.666 tS'92'+ 7.66
 '+ 619.5 37.072 20'0 '+2.1 18.0 100  6.1 ~2 0.0 710.0 0.1:190 U. 15'+ 8.78'+ 12.31
 5 6'1U.U '+1.'+88 2U.0 ~0.3 22.11 100  8.9::>!:> 0.0 b70.0 1.107 O.jUb 1'+'838 73.'+1
  ,             
 6 6'+0.0 39.'+U3 lU.O '+5.'+ 12.0 100  !J'1!!9 0.0 735.0 0.936 1.125 30'819 6.79
 7 6'+9.!) 36.617 10'0 39.8 1,+.0 100  !)'3~1 0'0 7'+7.0 0.939 0.tltS8 7'267 5.59
 8 6'+!:>.0 35.'+'+1 10'0 39.8 16.0 100  5.9'+6 0.0 7'+8.0 0.'::1118 0.215 8.290 7.69
 9 6bl.!:> 3,+.7i:!6 10.0 '+0.7 18.0 100  6.319 0.0 163.0 0.972 0.1'+'+ 9'083 9.85
 10 612.0 370159 10.0 '+2.3 22.6 100  9.3cl 0.0 755.0 1.2'+6 0.281 18.565 77.29
 11 6;)!J.5 37.967 0.0 ,+0.7 12.0 100  !J.5!!6 0.0 81!:>.0 1.173 1.1'+7 128.119 8.21
 11! "'I9.!:> 3l!'''Ol 0.0 'IO.} 1".0 100  5.8c6 0.0 1:1311.0 l.cl0 1.317 9'859 ,+.13
 13 6:)1.0 330197 0.0 '+0.9 16.0 100  6.5~'+ 0.0 86U.0 1.295 0.':>2'+ 9.885 '+.22
 1'+ 6'+9.5 33.67'+ 0.0 ,,1.1 18.0 100  7.'1':>7 0.0 900.0 1. 36.. 0.2':1" 13'63'+ 6.30
 1!J 6'+3.!:> 31.!:>6'+ U.C '+1.3 22.1 100  10.919 0.0 9!J0.0 1.':160 0.':>'+3 '+0.172 78.00
 10 6!:>1.Q 35.029 0.(; '+2.6 12.0 150  !).6U'+ 0.0 t!'+1'0 1.283 1 03 36 78'239 7.1t!
 17 6,:>1,0 32.560 0'0 '+2..3 1'+'0 150  601!!6 0.0 11'+0.0 1.298 1.011 9'062 3.91
 1/:1 6':>"'U 36.8!)5 0.0 '+301 16'0 150  6.8111 0.0 !!6!:>.0 1.253 0.1+62 9.868 ,+.113
 19 6!:>'+.U 37.!)72 u.O '+2.5 18.0 150  8.211 0.0 930.0 1.327 0.217 1'+'662 10.1'+
 20 6;)1.0 3'+.29'+ 0.0 '+2.tI 22.'+ 150  12.016 0.0 890.0 1.!!91 0./05 38.831 lU9.1!J
 21 6'+9.!:> 35.262 lU.O '+2.5 12.0 150  5.1::>8 0.0 765.0 1.U32 1.232 13'679 5.82
 i:!i:! 6;)'+.U 37.172 lU.O ~2.g 1,+.0 150  5.5::>.. 0.0 l!:>b.O 0.'::I7!:> 1.02'+ 6.720 '+.5':1
 23 6;)1.0 ,5.9"1 lU.(; '+2.'+ 16.0 150  6.3c2 0.0 780.0 1.036 0.263 8.768 9018
 2'1 6'1!!.U 35.232 10.0 ,+2.7 18.0 150  6.7!!2 0.0 1131+.0 1.1'+8 001113 11.399 12.8':1
"=j 2!:> 6'+9.5 38.'101 10.0 '13.0 22.!! 150  10.5!!5 0.0 732.0 1.'117 0'''t!5 2"'612 97.06
I 
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"%j               
I               
N          EXHAUST     
'"  SPEEi:> TtJRLiUE IG"ITItJN IN"ECHH< AIR/FUEL INLET AIR MAP EXHAUST BSFC BSNtJ BSCtJ BSHC
    TIMING TIMI"G RATItJ Ht.ATlNG  PRESSU~E TEMP.    
  (RPM) (BFT-Un (tJTi:>C) (bTi:>C)  (OEG.) (PSIA) (IN-H26) 5 0.0 700.0 1.009 1.30" 33.591 9.1"
 27 0"8'0 3".728 20.e "2." 1".0 150  5.2~7 0.0 09b.0 0.927 0.78b 8.699 7.30
 28 0"~.5 34.1"2 20.(J "3.2 16.0 150  5.717 0.0 706.0 1.023 0.360 ~.~32 11.41
 29 6"9.5 34.b69 20.0 43.3 18.0 150  6.376 0.0 705.0 1.041 0.23b 10'810 1~.41
 30 648.0 42.097 20.0 42.5 2301 150  9.4U5 0.0 060.0 1.149 0.2/1!j 15.971 80.09
 31 6"2'0 34.133 20.e "!j.6 12.0 200  4.5"8 0.0 060.0 1.011 2.947 63.257 9.99
 32 6"/1.0 33.5b6 20.0 "5.7 1".0 200  5.0"5 0-0 668.0 0.961 3.091 8-918 7.27
 3j 6"0.0 460104 20.C 96.7 2.3.9 200  9.4~3 0.0 606.0 1.023 0.976 15.922 62.14
 3" 6"9.5 37.048 20-0 45.3 16.0 200  5.3.:12 0.0 688.0 0.92,+ 1.138 8'6'+2 9.0"
 3b 6"9.b 32.93,+ ,,0.0 "5.7 18.0 200  6.103 0-0 712.0 1.060 0.310 10.566 17.20
 30 6..9.5 38.273 10.0 "5.6 12.0 200  ".7b8 0.0 720.0 1.004 1.120 73'155 7.06
 37 6b".0 38.298 10.0 45.9 14.0 200  5.1,,6 0.0 744.0 0.936 1.490 7'011 4.44
 38 604'0 300357 10.0 45.1 23.2 200  9.6~9 0.0 730.0 1.637 0.b50 25.702 99.32
 39 654.0 34.907 10-0 "5.4 16.0 200  5.3::>3 0.0 774.0 0.998 0.942 8-133 5.89
 4(J 051.0 31.900 10.e "5.2 18.0 200  6.414 0.0 790.0 1.159 0.3/18 11'496 11.43
 41 6..9.5 38.992 o-e 46.3 12.0 200  b.3~0 0.0 794.0 1.207 1.199 142.747 7.03
 42 613-0 360399 O.C 47.7 1".0 200  5.6"1 0.0 /134.0 10116 6.620 54.548 3.42
 43 6b7.b 38.026 0.0 46.9 16.0 200  b.lb9 0.0 858.0 1.062 3.806 7'969 3.93
 "" o"b.O 310332 o.e 45.8 18.0 200  7.0~2 0.0 !!88.0 1.425 1.027 13.742 5.4b
 4!j 681.0 250332 0.0 47.2 24.0 200  12.5111 0.0 !!3b.O 2.b06 3.b07 57.125 172.30
 "6 120b.0 46.b"3 :>o.c 40.2 18.0 100  5.3112 2.8 !!00.0 0.161 7.88b 9'187 6.23
 "7 1209.0 "4.1:109 :;o.e 46.6 20.0 100  6.0112 2-8 865.0 0.806 2.296 9.992 15.45
 4!! 12U6.(J 45.521 oO.C 40.3 22.2 100  6.8"1 4.1 /158.0 0.>!61 0.150 11'643 28.71
 49 12UO.U 45.000 50.e "b.D 2'+.1 100  !!.QUO 5.5 770.0 I.U23 00318 14.455 70.~1
 50 12';3.U 43.435 4G.e 46.2 17.9 100  5.2bO 2.5 !!9b.0 0.19,+ 4.234 9'695 8.42

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  SPEt.U TtjHGlUt. IGNJT IbN Ir...JI:.LTBH AIH/FUEL INLET AIR MAP EXHAUST EXHAUST B~FC BSN6 B~C6 BSHC
    TIMING TIMING RAT It! HI:.ATlNG  PHESSURE II:.MP.    
  (HI'M) (BFT-Lt:I) (I:!TDC) (t:lTDC)  IDE(j.) (PSI") (IN.H26) 1Dt:(j. -F) (LB/BHI'-HRI  (GM/BHP-HH) 
 :'1 leUb.U "!I.eb8 "u.o ..~.2 19.9 100  b.OUO 2.8 1179.0 0.lb9 1.908 9...80 10.1:'
 !:I 2  leU~.O "b.be7 ..u.(; "b." 22.0 100  b.71" ...1 1190.0 0.1150 0.!:>92 11.913 22.83
 5~ 12Ub.U 311'''~2 "o.c ..b.5 2"'1 100  8.2::1b 5.5 79i!.0 1.1113 003b8 Ib'Ob8 8b.b!:l
 5.. 12U3.0 "b.b99 2!:1.C "b.2 18.0 100  5,"08 2.8 9..5.0 0./87 2.30b 9.037 5.89
 55 120b.0 ..3.515 2!:1.0 ..b.3 20.0 100  bo1::10 2.8 9bll.0 0.1192 0.727 11 .855 9.13
 5b 120b.0 ",+.9~" 25.() "7.3 22.0 100  7.1Ub 5.3 985.0 0.93.. 0.'+30 15'125 18.72
 !:I 7  1203.0 ..b.710 2!:1.C ..b.5 23.7 100  9.0119 b... 11110.0 10115 0...09 16'''09 73.7b
 :.S 12Ub.0 "3.2118 1!:1.C "5.9 17.9 100  5.7cb 2.8 1020.0 0.903 1.3!:>8 11' Ob2 5.b7
 59 1209.0 "8.9b2 15.C "b.8 20.0 100  b.50b ...1 10..2.0 0.1178 O.!:I85 12'015 5...b
 bO 1209.0 "2.()!:I0 1!)'(; ..7.0 22.0 100  7.71b 5.5 10!:lO.0 1.107 0.3110 20.bb8 18.0!:>
 bl 1209.0 "2.5bO 1!:1.C ..b.9 23.b 100  9.b!:>3 8.3 970.0 1.3~" 0.'+511 2...959 87.80
 b2 12U7.5 "5.017 !:IO.C "7.8 111.0 150  5.3'+8 2.8 IIb5.0 0.7b3 8.11:' 8. 8111 b.31
 b3 1209.0 ,+...5.... :'0.0 "7.2 20.0 150  5.8::1" 2.11 !!52.0 0./93 2.527 8.852 12.13
 b.. leU9.0 "8.b7!:1 !:>O.C '+7.9 22.0 150  b.5!!:. ...1 !!!)o.o 0./5b 1.2!:13 8.586 18.02
 b~ le09'0 "70117 !:IO.C '+b... 25.2 150  8.91b 5.5 7"9.0 0.9118 00371 11'''111 77.00
 bb 1212.v "7.1173 ..O.C ..b.5 18.0 150  ~,"1I2 2.11 1190.0 O.I"b ...930 7.970 7.20
 b7 1213.5 "".010 ..o.c "b.2 20.1 150  b.lu5 2.8 !!87.0 O.II~b 1.205 9.500 13.5b
 bl:l 121!:1.0 ..5.!!1I8 ..U.C '+0.3 22.0 150  b.8u9 2':' 1192.0 0.1137 0.1.." 10.382 20.95
 b9 1212.0 "8.!:I18 "O.C "b.:' 2...b 150  8.9,j9 3.0 5.!:> 0.9!!3 0.3b" 11.79.. 75.31
 10 121!!.O "2.b97 2:'.(; "b.9 18.0 150  5.701 2.8 9~b.0 0.lIb9 1.e!:l1l 9'2/8 7.65
 11 121~.:. "3.0i!9 25.C "/).2 20.0 150  b.2113 2.8 9115.0 O.~:IlO 0.lb7 11'10" 9.211
 12 li!II1.0 ~lId3b 2!:1.C "b.2 22.0 150  7.310 ...1 9!!0.0 1.10.. 0.:'12 17'800 27...11
 13 1212.0 "7.b93 e!:>.{, "b.8 23.9 150  9.2::10 6... IIbO.O I.U81 0'''09 l!:1.03b 7...71
 H 1213.!:I "6.1"3 1!:1.(; 'to.6 111.0 150  5.9b8 3.3 10311.0 0.1I!:>7 0.9'+2 11.890 5.00
t'%j 1'5 1212.J "8'''72 1!:>.{' "0'" 20.0 150  6.8c3 5.3 lU!:>5.0 0.900 0'!:>"9 10.893 5...3
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(X)  SPEW HjR~Ut:. IGI';JT IbN IN"t:.CTBioi AIR/FUEL INLET AIR MAP EXHAUST EXHAUST BSFC BSNB BSCB BSHC
    TIMINu TIMING RA TIe Ht.ATlNG  PioiESSUioiE TEMP.    
  (ioiPM) (IjFT-L.Ij) (t:! TlJC) (bTUC)  WEG.) (PS IA) (!N-H2B) Wt.G. -F) (L.B/BHP-HR)  (GM/BHP-HR) 
 76 1213.5 ~0'098 l~.C '+6.'+ 22.0 150  7.geO 5.5 107(J.(J 0.~6'+ (J.3~6 15'395 10.06
 n 121~.0 '+2.768 15.C '+601 23.3 150  9.'+113 8.3 1010.0 1.269 00357 2'+'061 61.39
 18 1237.5 '+3.'+76 50.U '+5.u 18.0 200  S.7/5 3.0 833.0 0.7'+8 11.061 10.559 5.03
 79 12'+2.0 '+2.0'+3 50.0 '+5.0 20.0 200  601Ul 3.,+ 860.0 0.799 5.631 12.'+7'+ 8.20
 81) 1219.!;; '+'+.167 50'1.: '+~.o 26.6 200  9.7'+'+ 7.3 7'+5.0 1.000 0.'+77 1'+'833 7,+.6'+
 81 121~.0 '+7.~~6 :'0.(, '+~.o 22.0 200  6.7el '+'0 1153.0 0.719 5'1'+6 10''+17 13.13
 82 1218.0 ,+8.iW3 '+o.e '+5.0 18.0 200  5.7118 3.0 82~.0 0.68,+ 11.2'+5 8.565 '+.92
 83 1218.0 '+6.'+07 ,+o.e '+5.0 20.0 200  6.3UO 3.5 875.0 0.7'+0 3.69,+ 10.29,+ 7.1'+
 8'+ 1213.5 ~1.7116 '+o.e '+~.o 26.7 200  9.973 7.5 770.0 0.1172 0.3119 13.288 6'+.18
 85 12111'0 ,+7.216 '+o.e '+5.0 22.0 200  7.172 ".5 1165.0 0.7'+8 1.100 10.901 18.53
 116 1219.5 '+'+.7~7 2!;;.(. '+5.0 18.0 200  5.8~1 3.0 920.0 0.755 ,+.025 9'130 '+.35
 87 12111." 39.'+20 25.(; '+5.0 20.0 200  6'1 ':12 3.5 935.0 0.960 2.075 1'+''+86 6.79
 81! 1215.0 '+2.~9'+ 2~.e '+5.0 25.5 200  10'0~2 7.11 8'+0.0 1.1'+5 003711 19.286 79.79
 119 1230.(J '+3.233 2~.C '+5.0 22.0 200  7.3~1 ".9 937.0 0.1163 O.'+II~ 13.99'+ 18.02
 90 12111.0 '+6.060 l~.C '+5.0 17.8 200  6.2':11 3.6 1020.0 0.111" 2.0'+7 9.'+39 2.96
 91 1219.5 '+O.~II'+ l~.C ,+5.0 20'0 200  6.7'+8 ".0 1035.0 0.~25 1.2111 13.868 '+.02
 92 1219.5 '+2.'+60 1~.(, '+5.0 25.3 200  10.8:'1 9.5 9'+5.0 1.256 0.650 26.307 115.'+~
 93 12111'0 ,+3.1185 15.\; '+5.0 22.0 200  7.9~2 6.0 1050.0 0.97" 0.552 111.530 12.99
 9" 1212'0 101.918 '+o.c ,+7.3 18.0 100  6.8~1 ".6 9'+6.0 0.'+99 10.022 '+.'+55 3.80
 95 1212.0 103.'+11 '+0.(, '+7.6 20.0 100  7.3<::8 5.5 9'+0.0 0.~02 ,+.1158 '+'711 '+.53
 9b 1212.0 58.300 '+o.e ,+7.4 22.0 100  8.0':16 6.7 9311.0 0.536 1.0'+7 5.839 8.99
 97 1212.0 ~9.1c4 4C.C ,+,.9 2".7 100  11.311 11.0 110700 0.6115 0.3~1 9.79'+ "3.66
 911 1219.5 97.1123 2~.C '+101 18.0 100  6.9117 5.5 1020.0 0.527 303'+9 5'650 3.'+7
 99 1209.0 58.:'17 2~.C ,+7.2 20.0 100  7.!!e2 8.3 1033.0 0.:.56 1.290 6.219 '+010
 100 1209.0 55.6'+0 2~.C '+7.11 22.0 100  5.2'+7 11.0 1037.0 0.6'+5 0.'+20 8'602 110 80

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  S t>t:: 1:.0  Tt!~l,;UI:. IGNITioN IN"t::LTe~ Alt~ESSURE TEMP.    
  (tS I A) (IN-H2!!) (Dt:.(j.-F) (LB/BHP-HR)  (GM/BHP-H~) 
 101 121;9.0 96.~65 2~.e '+7.8 23.8 100  12.2:>6 13.1:1 91~.0 0.1:10,+ U.2:H 13.282 50.81
 102 1206.0 980198 l~.C '+7.8 18.0 100  7.2!S'+ 5.5 1098.0 0.:>68 2.U63 6'397 2.68
 lU3 12U9.0 98.;)2,+ 15.0 '+7.2 20.0 100  8.6'+3 8.3 1127.U 0.6"0 U.',+l 8.122 3.3'+
 10'+ 1212'0 98.907 l~.C 1+7.1+ 22.0 100  10.3ul 11.0 116'+.0 0.106 0'''28 11.792 9.31:1
 105 1211:1.0 96."58 15.0 <07.5 22.7 100  12.3.:19 16.6 1050.0 0.1:12'+ 0.192 14.863 37.37
 106 1219.5 95.~'+0 "0.0 '+8'2 18.0 150  6.7~5 5.5 ~51.0 0.~21 13.932 ".561 4.30
 107 121~.5 95.~26 1+0.0 <07.7 19.9 150  7.3/1 5.5 9"0.0 0.506 60197 5.0"1 4.45
 10!! 1221.0 102.,+68 "0'(; 21 6.882 5.088 3.62
 111 121:;.5 101."92 2~.C "7.5 20.0 150  7.7b2 5.5 99~.0 U.:>15 2.577 5.377 3.51:1
 lIe 121~.0 99.390 e5.0 '+6.8 22.0 150  ~h1l3 8.3 1013.0 0.:>7b 0.:>2" 6.599 7.90
 113 1211!.0 100.71+0 e5.0 "b.7 2".7 150  11.6bb 13.8 9"~.0 0.b~9 0.092 9.119 37.19
 1141 1215.0 99.8~2 15.0 "6.7 19.6 150  7.1+<::9 5.5 1070.0 0'''97 3.098 5.9b3 2.76
 115 1215.0 99 ':;06 15.e "b.8 20.0 150  8.2.;J8 8.3 1078.0 0.569 0.9"9 6.828 2.96
 116 1213.5 101./:169 15.(; ,+b." 22.0 150  9.8b9 11.0 1110.0 0.60" 0'''30 8.308 5.71
 117 le13.5 87.063 15.c ~O.O 2".2 150  12.5~5 16.6 1000.0 0.1:151 0.227 141.1+97 "7."0
 111:1 1203'0 98.170 '+O'C '+6.8 18.0 200  7.2/3 5.5 920.0 0.~52 1".997 4.797 4.0~
 119 1201.~ 91:1.1:11:18 "o.e I+b.9 20.0 200  7.bbO 5.5 ~2~.0 0'''91+ 60130 1+.536 4.42
 12u 1203.0 1020172 '+(;.e '+b.5 22.1 200  8'1/0 8.3 927.0 0.<075 ".2~3 1+'61+2 5.3"
 121 120b.U 93.218 ,+0.0 '+b." 2b 01 200  11.5.;J7 11.0 1:157.0 0.6"9 0.2b9 1:1.619 39.69
 122 1201.5 101.631:1 2~.C <06.5 18.0 200  7.2<::3 1+.1 99~.U 0.:>19 7.'1+2 5.291 3.93
 123 12U3.U 91:1.723 e~'C '06.5 22..0 20e  9.2<::'+ 6.1 ~9U.0 0.:>'+9 0.9'+5 ~'1+38 6.97
 12'+ 1201.5 98.022 25.C ,+b.3 20.0 200  801 U9 5.5 lUUU.O 0.:>31 1./31 4'8b3 4019
"j 12:> 1203.U 98011+'+ 25'C "6.2 2501 200  12.715 13.8 1:192.0 0.695 0.117 9.072 "1.76
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 0  SPI:.I:.O TtHW U I:. IGNIT ItlN INJ~CT6~ AIR/FUEL INLE.T AIR MAP ~X'HAUST E.XHAUST BSFC BSN6 BSC6 aSHC
     TIMING TIMING RA r Ie HI:.ATING  P~ESSURE TEMP.    
   (~I-'M) (BFT-LB) (,HOC) (t;TDC)  (DEG.) IPSIA) (IN-H26) IDI:.G.-F) (LB/BHP-HR)  (GM/BHP-HR) 
  121> 12U3.0 S9.289 1~.C ~1>.4 18.0 200  7.1>~1> 5.5 1070.0 0.:>1>0 3.045 6.275 2.9S
  127 12UU.0 1000371 1~.C ~5.5 20.0 200  8.7113 601 1083.0 0.:>80 1.194 5.845 3.37
I  128 12U 1 .5 94.293 1~.C 41>.2 22.0 200  10.862 11.0 1115.0 0.1>98 0.389 9.655 11071
 129 12Ul.5 97.718 1:>.C ~1>.1 2401 200  13.563 16.6 1022.0 0.793 0.224 13.623 40.02
I           
  130 2019.0 70.224 ~O.C ~5.0 18.0 100  1>.2/0 8.3 111~.0 0.1>21 110818 8.339 2.26
  131 2011>.0 70.234 4U.0 45.0 20.0 100  1>.865 11.0 110lhO 0.592 4.331 9.322 2.41
  132 1992.0 1>8.210 ~o.(j 45.0 22.0 100  7.1>111 14.0 1091>.0 0.1>55 1.997 10.91>1> 8.11
  133 201>5.~ 1>5.517 ~O'C ~5.0 24.9 100  9.510 25.0 lU25.0 0.838 0.1>92 13'951> 49.61
  134 20~U,0 71.111> 25.c ~5.0 18.0 100  1>.,+~9 11.0 1202.0 0.1032 5.010'+ 8'009 0.8:>
  135 2031.0 71.5~0 25.0 ~5.0 20.0 100  7.013 14.0 120U.0 0.61>2 3.109 9.835 10011
  1310 2029.5 1>7.9~8 25'0 '+~.o 22.0 100  7.964 19.0 1220.0 0.741 1.21>5 13.553 3.79
  137 2011>.0 71.833 25.C ~5.0 24.7 100  10.5:>5 33.0 1170.0 0.895 0.724 19'271> 44.75
  1311 201S.0 71 0381> 15.0 ~5.0 18.0 100  6.925 11.0 1317.0 0.722 4.356 5.667 0.1>1
  139 20110.0 107.2101 1~.C ~:J'O 20.0 100  8.060 19.0 1350.0 0.1110 1.586 7'649 0.36
  140 2017.5 66.622 15.0 "'5.0 22.0 100  9.1:>8 25.0 1:.~jQ. 0 0.11112 1.1"2 10.970 0.75
  I'll 2022.U 79.137 15.0 ..~.o 23.2 100  110 3:>6 47.0 1450.0 0.908 0.1152 12.1111 4.45
  142 20"1.5 73.9~0 ~O'C "105 18.0 150  6.3117 8.3 lII1U.O 0.~81 10.U2" 8.511 109U
  143 2029.5 71.~"0 ~o.() 39.7 20.0 150  7.2~b 11.0 1176.0 0.1015 4.157 11'101 2.0"
  1"" 2022.0 109.966 "0.0 4003 22.0 150  8.965 13.8 117~.0 0.1>75 1.211 14.403 7.27
  145 1999'5 71 . 1102 ~O'C "0.8 24.3 150  10.023 22.1 1070.0 0.158 00395 12'657 42.19
  I'll> 20U100 1>7.936 25.C ~0.5 1801 150  7.011> 1100 12~(J.(J 0.10104 3.131 7.737 10 19
  1'+7 19119.U 74.2/8 25.C ~1.2 20'0 150  7.1>!!0 13.8 121>(J.o 0.1057 2.117 9.750 1.12
  1..11 191110.0 107.1>41 2~.C "2.2 22.0 150  1I.1I~8 19.3 12115.0 0.784 0.1910 1:>''''+3 4.0':i
  149 2013.0 71.741 2~.C 41.4 23.11 150  10.6110 27.1> 1215.0 0.851> (J.!:i25 19'5~3 34.71
  15U 20 I/o 5 1:1>.2115 15.0 ~2.6 17.8 150  7.711> 13.8 131>0.0 0.143 2.U71> 5'2"" 0.1>1

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  Sf't:.I:'.O TtHWU t:. IGNIT (fiN IN,;t:.eTflR AIR/FUEL INLE.T AIR MAP t:.XHAUST t:.XHAUST B:;FC B5NtI e:;ctI aSHe
    TI"'ING TIMING RA T It! Ht:.ATING  PfojESSURE TEMP.    
  (foj!>M) (tlFT-LtI) (tlTU(;) (tlrOC)  (OE(;') IPSIA) (IN-H26) tDU;.-F) (LB/BHP-HR)  IGM/BHP-Hfoj) 
 151 2023.5 66'2~9 1b.O '+1.'+ 20.0 150 8.3c4 19.3 1'+00.0 0.825 lo117 7.337 0.'+2
 152 2022.0 69.1197 l~.e '+1.9 22.0 150 9.6:>7 27.6 1'+70.0 0.882 0.0'+ 10.862 0.68
 153 2029.5 69.266 40.0 '+1.5 18.0 200 6'2'+3 8.3 1175.0 0.~95 11.197 8'175 1.83
 15'+ 2022.0 65.:':'6 40.e,; '+1.2 20.0 i:!00 6.8:>3 11.0 1169.0 0.626 ...'+96 10.198 2.66
 155 2023.5 66.712 '+o.e '+1.5 22.0 200 7.7c9 13.8 1170.0 0.656 1.7&9 11' 036 6.76
 156 203'+.0 68.988 '+o.e '+2.0 23.7 200 9.0/9 19.3 1115.0 0.719 0.1170 11'161 26.'+'+
 157 2029.~ 58.928 '+o.e '+1.'+ 2'+.7 200 10.lU,+ 22.1 1025.0 0.11119 0.~89 13.566 67.16
 158 2023.5 68.623 25.0 '+1.3 18.1 200 6.510 11.0 1290.0 0.6'+4 5.&02 8.383 lo23
 159 2029.5 70.9~1 2~.0 '+1.'+ 20.0 200 7.2c2 13.8 1250.0 0.&'+5 2.79,+ 9.73'+ 1.29
 160 2031.0 &3.&05 2b.e '+0.'+ 22.2 200 8.4c3 19.3 1225.0 0.771 0.1167 1'+.531 8.'+7
 161 2034.0 69.439 25.0 40.5 24.1 200 10.710 27.6 1115.0 0.1160 0.322 16.586 '+7.18
 162 203'+.0 65.948 15.e 41.0 18.0 200 7.211 13.8 1362.0 0.7'+0 20355 6.392 0.73
 163 2022.0 67.149 l!:i.e '+2.1 19.9 cOO 8.0UO 16.6 1385.0 0.768 1.425 8.091 0.59
 164 2022.0 10.177 15.0 41.6 22.0 200 9.318 22.1 1380.0 0.816 1.02& 10.975 10 12
 165 2022.0 72.8e3 l!:i.C '+2.6 22.4 cOO 11,1'+4 36.0 1450.0 0.907 0.18,+ 19.290 9.2'+
 166 2013.0 178.281 40.0 'Ii." 18.0 100 9.31:1'+ 24.9 1227.0 0.'+05 130103 4.942 2.02
 167 2016.0 179.510 '+0.0 41.2 19.9 100 10.01:17 30.4 le18.0 0.'+05 &.33& 5'608 2.03
 16" 2016.0 176.112 ,+O.C 41.4 21.9 100 11.693 '+'+.2 1230.0 0.'+49 1.594 6'298 ,+.51
 169 2019.0 179.914 ..0.0 41.5 23.4 100 13.6U7 60.9 1040.0 0.489 0.757 6''+20 17.97
 170 2017.5 1110.435 25.0 39.6 17.9 100 9.7u3 30.4 1220.0 0.421 &.915 6.211 100&
 171 2019.0 177.935 2~.0 41.2 20.0 100 10.692 38.7 1225.0 0.442 3.062 7.217 0.96
 172 2016.0 113./115 2~.0 'Ii 01 22.0 100 12.7'+3 60.9 1133.0 0.~10 1.061 9'125 3.28
 173 2016.0 176.657 2:.'C 40.7 22.6 100 14.31>8 72.0 995.0 0.536 0.812 9.95& 12.52
 174 2019.0 181.41!:i l~.C '+0.9 18.0 100 10.3c2 "1.5 1c45.0 0.'+63 701911 5'087 0.27
I-Ij 17S 201 tn 0 177.453 15.C '+1.'+ 20.0 100 12.7:>6 63.5 1270.0 0.~37 1./30 6.955 0.50
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 SI"lt.D 1tJfi(;Ul 1(;"'11 ItJl\ I "'.llCTtJf< AIfi/FUEL. INL.ET AIR MAP lXHAUST lXHAUST BSFC BSNtJ BSCtJ BSHC
   T [;1IN(; TIMING f3.:' 118013,+ '+0.(, '+2.7 20.9 150  11.911 36.0 1110.0 0.'+09 ,+.118 :,.70'+ 2.01
110 2U61.0 1~6./:,5 '+0.(; '+001 23.8 150  1'+.260 71.9 10nJ.0 0.'+53 1.068 :"3/2 12.51
119 c016.0 178.181 C:',C '+0.7 19.0 150  11.705 36.0 1U80.0 0.'+30 6.272 6'6:'8 1.01
18U 2016.0 1780306 2!::>.C '+1." 2101 1:'0  12.802 '+9.8 1010.0 0.'+6!::>. 1.122 7'580 1.6'+
181 2016.0 182./)57 It.J.C '+101 18.0 150  12.037 '+1'!::> 110".0 0.'+!::>8 5. /99 !::>'556 0.23
182 2013.0 178.692 1!::>.e '+101 20.0 1!::>0  12.9::'2 52.6 11 1!::>. 0  0.'+97 20137 6'780 0.30
183 cOli.!::> 116.ICO 1!::>.e ,+0.7 20.7 150  13.563 58.1 10,,0.0 0.513 2.676 8.53,+ 1.0,+
18'+ 201J.0 102. '+!::> 1  1:"( '+1.9 18.0 cOO  12.5~1 ,+...0 1063.0 0.'+80 :,.036 6'0'+6 0.23
18:' c01J.0 181./02 l!::>.C '+1.4 19.9 cOO  1301::13 50.0 10!::>0.0 0.'+68 2.677 6.760 0.30
186 C013.0 1770167 2!::>.(; '+0.3 18.0 200  11.611 33.0 95!::>.0 0.'+29 "019 6.385 0.73
187 201J.0 17,+.966 2!::>.(' '+0.0 20.1 200  12.2::16 39.0 970.0 0.'+'+0 3.530 1. 0'99 0.91
18d 2u16.0 Id'+.132 c:"(; '+0.0 21.3 200  13.,+U2 50.0 9'+0.0 0.'+!::>2 1.882 1.015 1.7'+
1119 cu16'0 176.,+79 ,+(j.( 3901 18.0 200  110139 28.0 895.0 0.'+11 17.::.0'+ '+'516 1.9/
19U 2u17.:, 115.:;1:'2 ~O.C '+0.9 20.0 200  120165 36.0 815.0 0.'+25 ,+.360 5.239 2.13
191 ;:01/.5 176.171 '+lJo C '+0.0 22.0 cOO  12.865 '+'+.0 897.0 0.'+33 2.509 5'5'+'+ 3.22
192 2016.0 16!::>.'+3::. '+O.C 38.9 23.3 200  1'+.235 53.0 859.0 0.'+87 0.996 5.602 1'+.27

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**************************************************
*
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F.G
INTAKE VALVE THROTTLING
*
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*
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*
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*
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F-33

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>Tj              
I              
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.p..  51"1:.1:.0 rtj~QUI:. IGNITltN IN""I:.CTtj~ AIt~.OOO o.e '+5.0 12d A 13.1IUO 1.5 6111.0 1.19:> 203'+9 :>..6.029 16.6,+
 2 6'+0'0 :>:,.()OO 10.0 '+5.0 12.7 A 13.5UO 1'" 619.0 1.060 3.638 208.162 18.47
 3 6'+0'0 J5.000 20.0 '+5.0 12.6 A 13.6UO 1''+ 562.0 1.050 3.665 188.111 20.7:'
 '+ 6'+0'0 35.000 20.e "5.0 1,+.5 A 14.0uO 1'" 56~.0 1.025 3.'+82 66'11" 18.71
 5 6'+U.0 :>5.000 10.(; 45.0 1...5 A 13.9UO 1.3 625.0 1.029 2037'+ 56.269 1,+.6,+
 6 6"0'0 35.0UO 0.0 "5.u 1,+.3 A 1"'2UO 1.6 693.0 1.135 1.9112 93''+117 11.31
 7 6"0'0 :>7.212 u.e '+5.0 16.0 B 6.8:::>1 0.0 770.0 1.190 1.'+19 '+'0'+7 5.81
 11 6"U.0 :>6.196 o.e 4~.0 18.0 8 7.7~1 0.0 1100.0 1. c7 '+ 0.10'+ 5.989 8.31
 9 6'+U.0 33.:'38 o.e 45.0 20.0 B 8.9/0 0.0 8'+5.0 1.'+98 0.:'6'+ 10.930 16.9c
 lu 6"0'0 32.925 O.\,; '+:'.0 22.0 8 10.8';6 O',U 838.0 1.778 0./32 18.270 18.09
 11 6"0.(') 31:1.0:>3 10.C 45.0 16.0 B 5.9/8 0.0 690.0 0.1:189 0'~82 5.866. 10.27
 12 6"U.0 3'+ 01 7 3 10.(; 45.0 18.0 8 7.0';1 0.0 695.0 1.1'+8 0.'+'+9 1:1.723 2,+.33
 U 6'+0.U c5.c9'+ 10.0 "5.0 20.0 e 10.2U3 0.0 605.0 2.05,+ 0.785 19'105 125.70
 1'+ 12UO.O '+6.198 20.0 45.0 18.0 8 7.162 2.8 866.0 0./66 5.605 6.45'+ 8.53
 15 1200'0 "3.993 20.C 45.0 20.0 B 7.8~8 3.2 868.0 0.823 1.'+12 7.722 17.55
 16 1200'0 ,+4.6::J7 20.C '+5.0 22.0 B 9.3"7 5.6 825.0 0.909 0'''55 9.681 '+3.2:>
 1/ 12lJO.0 39.995 20.e '+5.0 23.0 B 10.011'+ 5"!! 760.0 1.075 0.'+80 12.658 71.32
 1 I:!  12UO.O '+7.907 C:,.C '+5.0 18.0 B 7.2/5 2.8 852.0 0.756 7.960 6''+29 10.17
 19 12UU.u "7.;)66 2:,.0 '+5.0 20.0 8 7.917 3.2 11'+0.0 0./1:12 2.505 7'060 17.'+0
 20 12UO'0 '+3.127 2:'.(; '+5.9 22.0 8 8.9Ul 5.6 790.0 0.1:19,+ 0.535 9'150 '+3.6!!
 21 1200.U '+3.251 2;,.C '+5.0 23.0 B 9.8119 5.8 7'+0.0 0.973 Od3b 10.51:13 bl.l1:1
 22 120U'U '+8.9!S7 l=.C '+5.9 18.0 B 1.6';0 3.'+ 906.0 0./98 2d'+0 6.973 9.71
 23 12;)0'0 '+30151 l!J.C '+5.0 20.0 8 !!.4/8 5.6 1195.0 0.928 0.687 9'092 23.20
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 2:' 12uO.0 100.669 15.( '+5.0 20.0 B 10.7117 6.2 970.0 0.534 3.:::'21 3'201 b.5..

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  SPI::I:.U ltHWUI:. IGNllltJN IN')I:.Clt!~ AI'5 5.6 900.0 0'''98 2.21~ 3.218 6.27
 3U 1200.U 102./00 2~.(; 45.0 22.0 B 11,1'10 6.3 880.0 O.~O" 0.996 J.415 9.60
 Jl 12UO.U 96.843 2~.C 45.0 24.7 B 13.811 11.2 7311.0 0.621 0.648 5'020 39.68
 32 1200.u 102.400 "O.C 45.0 22.0 B 11.4::i5 7.0 838.0 0.~05 3.214 3'404 8.8J
 33 1200.0 100.635 40.C 4!S.0 2...0 B 12.101 7.0 792.0 0.~18 0.9b2 3.979 17.63
 34 12UO.0 98.897 40.C 45.0 26.0 8 13.41:17 10.6 710.0 0.~72 0.~86 4.799 36.31
 35 2000.0 72.2:;6 30.C 4!S.0 18.0 B 11.506 8.3 960.0 0.607 21.967 6'035 4.24
 J6 20UO.0 71.810 30.C 4!S.Q 20.0 B 12.3'14 11.1 945.0 0.~95 13./4.. 6.472 5.89
 37 2000.0 66.846 JO.C 4~.0 22.0 9 13.419 13.9 91!S.0 0.651 3.649 6.551 17...1
 38 2iJOO.0 67.8!s1 JO.C "5.0 23.9 B 14.6::il 16.6 8"0.0 0.682 2.452 7.412 34.76
 39 20;J0.iJ b9.9"3 2~.C 45.0 18.0 B 11.41:10 8.3 970.0 0.613 11.043 7.059 4.22
 40 2000'0 72.!S84 2~.C 45.0 20.0 B 12.51:10 13.9 98".0 0.601 7.~32 6.709 6.04
 41 eiJUO.O 67.997 25.(; 45.0 22.0 B 13.51:11 16.b 923.0 0.6~3 2.4~b 6.925 16.31
 "2 2000.0 72.7~7 25.C "5.0 23." B 1...6/1 16.6 900.0 Q.6~2 2dll 6'797 J2.03
 43 evUO'O 12.848 15.C "~.O 18'0 B 12.0:>1 1101 lU70.0 0.627 8.J86 1:\'319 20.09
 4" 2000.0 09.080 15.C 45.0 20.0 B 13.51:11 16.6 1050.0 0.676 2db2 10'051 6.57
 45 20UO.0 71.996 15.( "5.0 21.9 B 14.6::i0 19." 1005.0 0.69" 1.597 9'851 18.73
 "6 20iJO.0 178./19 JO.L 45.0 19.0 C 10.3c3 27.' 1156.0 0,"20 1/.149 3.586 2017
 ,,7 cOvo.O 177./09 JO.C "5.U 21.0 C 11.219 33.2 1110.0 0'''21 9.0"8 3.781 2...0
 ..8 2vvO.J 182.048 30.C ..:;.0 23.0 C 12.519 "1.5 1050.0 0,"22 2dJI 3.5H, 3.98
 "9 cOUO.U 177.838 3G.L "5.0 24.0 C 12.9u7 "7.0 1050.0 0'''37 1.2b3 3.555 5.8"
"1j :'0 ciJOO.U 183.9~7 25.( "5.0 18.0 C 10.1~6 26.3 1202.0 0,"13 15.~J7 3.753 1.79
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 S fl:. 1:.1)  TBRLJUI:. IGt\ITleN I NJI:.CTBt< AIR/FUI:.L INTAKI:. MAP I:.XI-tAUST I:.XHAUST BSFC i:!SNtI I:!SCB aSHC
   TIMING TIMING RATle THRtlTTLING  PRESSURE TI:.MP.    
 (RPM) (8FT-Le) (oWC) (bTDC)  (L.AM) \ PS I A) (IN-Hctl) (I)I:.G.-F) (LB/BHP-HR)  (GM/i:!HP-HR) 
51 2000.0 182.~03 2~.C '+~.o 20.0 C 10.8.:1'+ 30.~ 1194.0 0.'+15 11.bbl ,+.50b 1.6~
52 2000.0 182.376 c'o'C '+:;.0 22.0 C 12.0b5 '+1.6 I1b5.0 0.428 3.263 '+'26'+ 2.29
~3 2000.0 182.'+87 25.c 45.0 23.0 C 12.61:1,+ ,+,+.3 1125.0 0''+'+1 3.~78 3.616 3.79
5'+ 2000.0 186.778 1~'C '+5.0 17.0 C 10.5u,+ 30.5 lc50.0 0.'+31 15.172 ,+.725 0.96
55 2000.0 18".375 15.(; ,+5.0 20.0 C 11.2<'3 38.8 lc19.0 0.'+37 b,''+1 b'Olb 2.80
56 2000.0 175.039 15.C lt~.o 22.0 C 12.5'+1 "7.0 1195.0 0.'+6'+ 1.1162 5'26" 6.87

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