21054-6001-RO-OO
COST  AND EMISSION STUDIES OF  A
  HEAT  ENGINE/BATTERY  HYBRID
              FAMILY  CAR
                   G.H. Gelb
                   B. Berman
                 E. Koutsoukos
                  Prepared for

 Division of Advanced Automotive Power Systems Development
              Office of Air Programs
            Environmental Protection Agency
            Contract Number 68-04-0058
                   April 1972
                   TRW
                   SYSTEMS GROUP

              SPACE PARK . aCDONDO Bf/ICH. CALIFORNIA 90278

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                                     21054-6001-RO-OO
COST  AND  EMISSION  STUDIES OF A
  HEAT  ENGINE/BATTERY  HYBRID
              FAMILY  CAR
                  G.H. Gelb
                   B. Berman
                 E. Koutsoukos
                  Prepared for

 Division of Advanced Automotive Power Systems Development
              Office of Air Programs
            Environmental Protection Agency
            Contract Number 68-04-0058
                   April 1972
                  TRW
                  SYSTEMS GROUP

            ONE SPACE PAflX  REOONDO BACH. CALIFORNIA 90?7B

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                                FOREWARD

     This report presents the results of analytical and experimental work
performed during the period from July 1971 through February 1972 under
contract number 68-04-0058 for the Environmental Protection Agency.  The
overall program direction and report preparation was the responsibility
of Dr. George H. Gelb of Power Conversion and Applications, Advanced
Technology Division, TRW Systems Group.  Mr. Baruch Berman of the same
organization led the analytical studies of the electrical systems of the
hybrid power train.  He was assisted by Dr. T.C. Wang in the power train
                                                             ...        r
modeling phases and Mrs. Roselyn Lipkis who performed the computer pro-
gramming and simulations.  Dr. Elias Kputsoukos of the Chemical Engineer-
ing Department of the Applied Technology Division supervised the emission-
related experimental portions of the program.
     The authors would also like to express thanks to Mr. Harry Gehm who
aided in instrument engineering and engine modifications and Messrs Ernie
Hoover and Thomas Hurst for their technical support in the laboratory
activities.
     Dr. Jalal Salihi managed the project for the Division of Advanced
Automotive Power Systems Development, Office of Air Programs, Environmental
Protection Agency.  Dr. Salihi was assisted by Mr. Edward Beyma and Dr.
Joseph Sommers of the Office of Air Programs.

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                             NOMENCLATURE

a,, - vehicle acceleration,  mph/sec
g, - gear ratio at gear 1  (differential)
g^ -.gear-ratio at gear 2
I. - alternator current, amps
In - battery current,  amps
IM - motor current, amps
*PCU " P^ current, amps (series  configuration)
IpnjA - alternator PCU current,  amps  (parallel configuration)
*PCUM " motor PCU current,  amps  (parallel  configuration)
P.. - power into alternator,  watts
P.  - power out of alternator, watts
PB - battery power, watts
P. . - probability of occurrence  of the i    velocity  with  the y   accel-
  J   eration in the LA-4 matric
PJP - power out of engine,  watts
PCU - power control unit
PM- - power into motor, watts
PM  - power out of motor, watts  or hp
PO - power transmitted out  of planetary gear to  propeller shaft, hp
PPCU " P^U Pwer watts (series configuration)
PPCUA " a^ternator P^u power,  watts (parallel  configuration)
PPCUM " motor p^^ Pwer watts (parallel  configuration)
PR - vehicle road power requirement,  hp
r - driving wheel radius, 1  foot
RB - battery resistance, ohms
V. - alternator voltage, volts
                                    n

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VR - battery voltage, volts
VD- - battery open circuit voltage, volts
 D I
VM - motor terminal voltage, volts
VR - vehicle velocity, mph
WM - motor speed, rpm
WR - road velocity, rpm
a - chopper duty cycle, defined as the ratio of time that the power
    silicon controlled rectifier is conducting to the total  period  of
    the chopper
APPCUA ~ a^ternator PCU power loss, watts
n - alternator efficiency
n Q - planetary gear efficiency
n-j - gear 1 efficiency
n o ~ 9ear 2 efficiency
n M - variable gear efficiency
nM - motor efficiency
nPCU ~ P^ efficiency (series configuration)
nPCUA " a^ternator PCU efficiency (parallel  configuration)
nPCUM " motor P^ efficiency (parallel  configuration)
nRr - rectifier efficiency
ns - overall efficiency from engine to  rectifier
nSYS " overa^ efficiency for entire configuration
TM - motor torque, ft-lb
TD - road torque, ft-lb

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                            TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                                     Page
ABSTRACT 	    1
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS	 .    7
1.0  INTRODUCTION	   17
2.0  SELECTION OF CANDIDATE SERIES-CONNECTED HYBRID POWER TRAINS . .   18
     2.1  General Specifications and Assumptions 	   18
     2.2  Candidate Series Systems 	   20
          2.2.1  Full Voltage Series System	20
          2.2.2  Two Alternator Series System  	   22
          2.2.3  Series System with Alternator PCIJ	25
     2.3  Evaluation of Candidate Series Systems 	   25
          2.3.1  Preliminary Selection - Criteria  	   32
3.0  CHARACTERIZATION OF PARALLEL HYBRID SYSTEM  	   34
     3.1  Description of EMT .	34
     3.2  Specification of Parallel System Components  	   37
4.0  CHARACTERIZATION OF HYBRID VEHICLE BATTERIES  	   41
5.0  MODELING AND SIMULATION OF HYBRID VEHICLES  	   42
     5.1  Instantaneous Values of Component Performance of Series
          and Parallel Hybrid Power Trains 	   42
     5.2  LA-4 Performance of Series and Parallel Hybrid Power
          Trains	42
     5.3  Effect of Series and Parallel System Parameters on
          Overall System Efficiency  .	   43
          5.3.1  Effect of System Parameters on Full  Voltage
                 Series System Performance 	   54
          5.3.2  Effect of System Parameters on Parallel  (EMT)
                 System Performance	   61
     5.4  Ratings of the Electrical Portions of the Hybrid
          Power Trains	62
6.0  ESTIMATES OF THE COST AND WEIGHT OF HYBRID FAMILY VEHICLES  . .   67
     6.1  Comparison of Series and Parallel Hybrid Systems	   67
     6.2  Costs of Hybrid Vehicle Ownership  .	 .   70
7.0  HYDROCARBON ACCUMULATOR MATERIALS SCREENING ..........   74
     7.1  Test Equipment and Procedures  . . .  .	 .   74
     7.2  Selection of Candidate Materials	78
          7.2.1  Discussion of Results	 .-	79
                                    1v

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                        TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont'd)
                                                                      Page
8.0  CHARACTERIZATION OF TRW-HARSHAW THREE-COMPONENT CATALYST ....   87
     8.1  Background of Three-Component Catalysts 	   87
     8.2  Catalyst Preparation and Bench Scale Tests  	   89
     8.3  Evaluation of TRW-Harshaw Catalyst on Engine Exhausts ...   91
          8.3.1  Single Cylinder Catalyst Characterization Tests  .  .   91
          8.3.2  TRW-Harshaw Characterization Tests  on Vega
                 Engine	106
9.0  CHARACTERISTICS OF UNIVERSAL OIL PRODUCTS CATALYTIC
     CONVERTER. .	119
     9.1  Converter Description and Test Procedure  	  119
     9.2  Test Results	119
10.0  HYBRID SYSTEM FULL SCALE EMISSION TESTS 	  124
     1C.1  Introduction	.124
     10.2  Experimental Equipment	  124
     10.3  Experimental Procedure for Performing Emission Tests .  .  .  126
     10.4  Full Scale System Emission Results 	  127
APPENDIX A - EPA Vehicle Design Goals 	  130
APPENDIX B - Engine Sizing and Selection  	  138
APPENDIX C - Comparison of Series Systems 	  143
APPENDIX D - Rotating Machinery Characterization  	  149
APPENDIX E - PCU Efficiency Model	  .  166
APPENDIX F - Computer Modeling and Simulation 	  171
APPENDIX 6 - Computer Simulation Results  	  .188
APPENDIX H - Size and Cost Estimate Data Base	229
APPENDIX I - Hydrocarbon Accumulator Materials Screeing Data  ....  233
APPENDIX J - Determination of Stoichiometric Mixture Ratio  	  243
APPENDIX K - Engine Modifications, Instrumentation and Test Fuel  .  .249
REFERENCES	  254

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                             LIST OF FIGURES
                                                                       Page
FIGURE 2.1 - WHEEL POWER DEMANDS FOR A 4000 LB CAR	19
FIGURE 2.2 - FULL VOLTAGE SERIES-CONNECTED HYBRID SYSTEM ........   21
FIGURE 2.3 - TWO ALTERNATOR SERIES CONNECTED HYBRID SYSTEM 	   23
FIGURE 2.4 - SERIES HYBRID SYSTEM WITH ALTERNATOR PCU  	   26
FIGURE 2.5 - PER UNIT TORQUE REQUIREMENTS OF THE TRACTION MOTOR
             FOR SERIES CONNECTED HYBRID SYSTEMS 	   28
FIGURE 3.1 - EMT HYBRID SYSTEM IN URBAN TRAFFIC MODE .  .  .  .	35
FIGURE 3.2 - EMT HYBRID SYSTEM IN HIGHWAY TRAFFIC MODE	36
FIGURE 3.3 - POWER LEVELS OF EMT HYBRID SYSTEMS MOTOR AND ENGINE ...   38
FIGURE 5.1 - FULL VOLTAGE SERIES SYSTEM ON LA-4 MISSION WITH
             VARIABLE GEARING AND REGENERATION (RUN IA)  	   44
FIGURE 5.2 - FULL VOLTAGE SERIES SYSTEM ON LA-4 MISSION WITH
             VARIABLE GEARING AND REGENERATION (RUN GA)  	   45
FIGURE 5.3 - FULL VOLTAGE SERIES SYSTEM ON LA-4 MISSION WITHOUT
             VARIABLE GEARING, WITH REGENERATION (RUN CA)  	   46
FIGURE 5.4 - FULL VOLTAGE SERIES SYSTEM ON LA-4 MISSION WITH
             VARIABLE GEARING, WITHOUT REGENERATION (RUN BBA).	47
FIGURE 5.5 - FULL VOLTAGE SERIES SYSTEM ON LA-4 MISSION WITHOUT
             VARIABLE GEARING OR REGENERATION	48
FIGURE 5.6 - EMT SYSTEM ON LA-4 MISSION WITH VARIABLE GEARING AND
             REGENERATION (RUN TTA),	   49
FIGURE 5.7 - EMT SYSTEM ON LA-4 MISSION WITH VARIABLE GEARING AND
             REGENERATION (RUN XA)	v .  ..   50
FIGURE 5.8 - EMT SYSTEM ON LA-4 MISSION WITHOUT VARIABLE GEARING,
             WITH REGENERATION (RUN RA)	   51
FIGURE 5.9 - EMT SYSTEM ON LA-4 MISSION WITH VARIABLE GEARING,
             WITHOUT REGENERATION (RUNl-LA)... ..........  .  .   52
FIGURE 5.10 - EMT SYSTEM ON LA-4 MISSION WITHOUT VARIABLE GEARING
              OR REGENERATION (RUN JJA).	  ...   53
FIGURE 7.1 - TEST CANISTER USED IN HYDROCARBON ACCUMULATOR
          ,   SCREENING, SINGLE CYLINDER CHARACTERIZATION OF TRW-
             HARSHAW CATALYST AND FULL SCALE HYDROCARBON
             ACCUMULATOR	75
FIGURE 7.2 - HYDROCARBON ACCUMULATOR 	   77
FIGURE 7.3 - TYPICAL TIME VARYING CHARACTERISTICS OF HYDROCARBON
             ACCUMULATOR MATERIAL SCREENING TESTS	80
FIGURE 8.1 - EXPERIMENTAL SET UP FOR SINGLE CYLINDER
             CHARACTERIZATION OF TRW-HARSHAW CATALYST	92
FIGURE 8.2 - TRW-HARSHAW CATALYST CONVERSION EFFICIENCY  	   99
                                    VI

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                          LIST OF FIGURES (Copt'd)
FIGURE 8.3 - TRW-HARSHAW CATALYST CONVERSION EFFICIENCY 32,000 V/V/Hr  100
FIGURE 8.4 - TRW-HARSHAW CATALYST CONVERSION EFFICIENCY 37,000 V/V/Hr  101
FIGURE 8.5 - TRW-HARSHAW CATALYST CONVERSION EFFICIENCY 33,000 V/V/Hr  102
FIGURE 8.6 - TRANSIENT NO CONVERSION BEHAVIOR OF TRWrHARSHAW CATALYST  105
FIGURE 8.7 - FULL SCALE TRW-HARSHAW CATALYTIC CONVERTER 	  107
FIGURE 8.8 - FULL SCALE TRW-HARSHAW CATALYTIC CONVERTER .  .  	  108
FIGURE 8.9 - PERFORMANCE OF FULL SCALE TRW-HARSHAW CATALYTIC
             CONVERTER 23,000 V/V/Hr	109
FIGURE 8.10 - PERFORMANCE OF FULL SCALE TRW-HARSHAW CATALYTIC
              CONVERTER 40,000 V/V/Hr ...  	 	  110
FIGURE 8.11 - HYDROGEN CONCENTRATIONS IN THE EXHAUST STREAM OF
              THE VEGA ENGINE	112
FIGURE 8.12 - AMMONIA PRODUCTION OF THE TRW-HARSHAW THREE-
              COMPONENT CATALYST	115
FIGURE 8.13 - WARM-UP CONVERSION CHARACTERISTICS OF FULL SCALE
              CONVERTER	116
FIGURE 8.14 - FULL SCALE CONVERTER THERMAL WARM-UP CHARACTERISTICS  .  117
FIGURE 9.1 - UOP CATALYTIC CONVERTER MOUNTED ON VEGA EXHAUST
             MANIFOLD	120
FIGURE 9.2 - UOP CATALYTIC CONVERTER PERFORMANCE  38 SCFM	121
FIGURE 9.3 - UOP CATALYTIC CONVERTER PERFORMANCE  20 SCFM	122
FIGURE 9.4 - UOP CATALYTIC CONVERTER PERFORMANCE  27 SCFM	123
FIGURE 10.1 - MAJOR HARDWARE COMPONENTS OF FULL SCALE EMISSION TESTS   125
FIGURE B-l - CHARACTERISTICS OF A TYPICAL MEDIUM DISPLACEMENT
             INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE 	  139
FIGURE B-2 - CHARACTERISTICS OF 1971 CHEVROLET VEGA ENGINE AT
             1800 RPM	141
FIGURE D-l - CHARACTERISTICS OF MOTOR FOR SERIES SYSTEM 	  151
FIGURE D-2 - SERIES SYSTEM MOTOR EFFICIENCY 	  152
FIGURE D-3 - SERIES SYSTEM MOTOR EFFICIENCY 	  153
FIGURE D-4 - TORQUE OF THE PARALLEL SYSTEM MOTOR  	  156
FIGURE D-5 - CHARACTERISTICS OF MOTOR FOR EMT SYSTEM	157
FIGURE D-6 - EFFICIENCY OF MOTOR FOR EMT SYSTEM	158
FIGURE D-7 - EFFICIENCY CURVE FOR FORCE AID COOLED ALTERNATOR OF FULL
             VOLTAGE SERIES SYSTEM  	  160
FIGURE D-8 - EFFICIENCY CURVE FOR 10 KW, 12,000/1200 RPM FORCED
             COOLED, 40 LB ALTERNATOR	165

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                             OF  FIGURES  (Cont'd)

FIGURE E-i  - 'MOTORTCU USED IN  SERIES AND PARALLEL MODELS , ......  167
FIGURE F-l  - FULL VOLTAGE  SERIES  HYBRID POWER TRAIN . . .' ....... .  .173
FIGURk F-2  2 PARALLEL (EMT) "HYBRID  POWER TRAIN.  .'..". , . .. . .  .  ,.. .  .  180
FIGURE j-r- DETERMINATION OF STOICHIOMETRY  USING EXHAUST CO FROM   .,
             #4 CYLINDER OF VW 1600 .  .  ....'. ...  ... .  . .'.  244
FIGURE J-2 - DETERMINATION -OF STOICHIOMETRY  FROM REDUCTANT-OXIDANT
             BALANCE IN VEGA EXHAUST  .........;.... .  .  246
FIGURE K-l  - VEGA CARBURETION MODIFICATIONS  ........ .....  250
FIGURE K-2 - VEGA INSTALLATION  ......  .....  ........  251
                                   viri

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                             LIST OF TABLES
                                                                      Page
TABLE I - COMPARISON OF THREE CANDIDATE SERIES-CONNECTED
          HYBRID POWER TRAINS	..'....	     8
TABLE II - SUMMARY OF HYBRID SYSTEMS EFFICIENCY ON LA-4 DRIVING
           CYCLE	  .. , ,	    12
TABLE 2.1 - PRELIMINARY SPECIFICATIONS OF FULL VOLTAGE SYSTEM
            USING FORCED COOLED ALTERNATOR	    29
TABLE 2.2 - PRELIMINARY SPECIFICATIONS OF FULL VOLTAGE SYSTEM
            USING OIL SPRAY COOLED ALTERNATOR .............    29
TABLE 2.3 - PRELIMINARY SPECIFICATIONS OF TWO GENERATOR SYSTEM         ;
            USING FORCED COOLED ALTERNATOR	    30
TABLE 2.4 - PRELIMINARY SPECIFICATIONS OF TWO GENERATOR SYSTEM
            USING OIL SPRAY COOLED ALTERNATOR ...  .  .'.  ... .  .  .    30
TABLE 2.5 - PRELIMINARY SPECIFICATION OF SERIES SYSTEM WITH
            ALTERNATOR PCU USING FORCED COOLED ALTERNATOR .... .  .; .    31
TABLE 2.6 - PRELIMINARY SPECIFICATION OF SERIES SYSTEM WITH
   :         ALTERNATOR PCU USING OIL SPRAY COOLED ALTERNATOR  ....    31
TABLE 2;7 - COMPARISON OF NON-HYBRID SYSTEM PERFORMANCE WITH
 ;           OIL SPRAY COOLED ALTERNATORS  ........;	    33
TABLE 3.1 - EFFECT OF GEAR SHIFTING ON EMT TRACTION  MOTOR ......    39
TABLE 5.1 - LIST OF INPUT PARAMETER VARIATIONS FOR THE SERIES
            SYSTEM COMPUTATIONS .  ... .  . .  . . ... .  . .'. .  .  .    55
TABLE 5.2 - LIST OF INPUT PARAMETER VARIATIONS FOR THE PARALLEL
            SYSTEM COMPUTATIONS .............	    56.
TABLE 5.3 - PERFORMANCE OF FULL VOLTAGE SERIES SYSTEM COMPONENTS
            ON LA-4 MISSION	    5.7
TABLE 5.4 - PERFORMANCE OF FULL VOLTAGE SERIES SYSTEM COMPONENTS
            ON LA-4 MISSION	    58
TABLE 5.5 - PERFORMANCE OF PARALLEL (EMT)  SYSTEM COMPONENTS ON
            LA-4 MISSION	    59
TABLE 5.6 - PERFORMANCE OF PARALLEL (EMT)  SYSTEM COMPONENTS ON
            LA-4 MISSION	    60
TABLE 5.7 - SUMMARY OF THE EFFECT OF PARAMETRIC CHANGES ON  SERIES
            AND PARALLEL HYBRID SYSTEMS EFFICIENCY	    62
TABLE 5.8 - COMPARISON OF DESIGN RATINGS AND LA-4 SIMULATION RESULTS
            FOR SERIES SYSTEM TRACTION MOTORS 	    64
TABLE 5.9 - COMPARISON OF DESIGN RATINGS AND LA-4 SIMULATION RESULTS
            FOR PARALLEL SYSTEM TRACTION MOTORS 	    64
TABLE 5.10 - COMPARISON OF DESIGN RATINGS AND LA-4 SIMULATION RESULTS
             FOR SERIES SYSTEM MOTOR PCU	    65
TABLE 5.11 - COMPARISON OF DESIGN RATINGS AND LA-4 SIMULATION RESULTS
             FOR PARALLEL SYSTEM MOTOR PCU	    65
                                    ix

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                         LIST OF TABLES (Cont'd)
                                                                     Page
TABLE 5.12 - COMPARISON OF DESIGN RATINGS AND LA-4 SIMULATION
             RESULTS FOR SERIES SYSTEM ALTERNATOR 	  66
TABLE 5.13 - COMPARISON OF DESIGN RATINGS AND LA-4 SIMULATION
             RESULTS FOR PARALLEL SYSTEM ALTERNATOR 	  66
TABLE 5.14 - COMPARISON OF DESIGN RATINGS AND LA-4 SIMULATION
             RESULTS FOR PARALLEL SYSTEM ALTERNATOR PCU 	  66
TABLE 6.1 - SUMMARY OF OEM COSTS AND WEIGHT COMPARISON OF PARALLEL
            AND SERIES POWER TRAINS 	  68
TABLE 6.2 - HYBRID VEHICLE POWER TRAIN WEIGHT , 	  71
TABLE 6.3 - HYBRID VEHICLE FUEL AND BATTERY COSTS	72
TABLE 7.1 - PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF ACCUMULATOR MATERIALS 	  83
TABLE 8.1 - BENCH SCALE TESTS ON TRW-HARSHAW CATALYST	90
TABLE 8.2 - TRW-HARSHAW COPPER CATALYST DATA	95
TABLE 10.1 - FULL SCALE HYBRID SYSTEM EMISSION TEST RESULTS 	 129
TABLE D-l - SERIES HYBRID TRACTION MOTOR	149
TABLE D-2 - PARALLEL HYBRID TRACTION MOTOR. .	154
TABLE D-3 - FULL VOLTAGE SERIES SYSTEM ALTERNATOR-RECTIFIER
            CHARACTERISTICS	161
TABLE D-4 - TYPICAL ALTERNATOR-RECTIFIER OUTPUT POWER SCHEDULE
            VS. SPEED FOR EMT	 163
TABLE D-5 - PARALLEL SYSTEM ALTERNATOR-RECTIFIER CHARACTERISTICS. .  . 164
TABLE E-l - SUMMARY OF PCU LOSSES BY LOSS CATEGORY	169
TABLE 1-1 - HYDROCARBON ACCUMULATOR MATERIALS SCREENING DATA	  233

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                                ABSTRACT

     TRW Systems has conducted a combined analytical  and experimental
study, "Cost and Emission Studies of a Heat Engine/Battery Hybrid Family
Car," for the Division of Advanced Automotive Power Systems Development,
Office of Air Programs, Environmental  Protection Agency under contract
number 68-04-0058.
     The broad objectives of the studies were to:
            Select and analyze the performance of series and parallel
             configured heat engine/battery hybrid family cars.
            Define the relative efficiencies, weight and costs of hybrid
             power trains.
            Generate data characteristics of selected three-component
             catalysts.
          t  Perform preliminary materials screening and development of a
             hydrocarbon emission trap (hydrocarbon accumulator).
          t  Demonstrate that a hybrid car with an internal combustion
             engine could meet the 1975/76 emission goals.
                                                                          \
Analytical Studies of Heat Engine/Battery Hybrid Power Trains
     Selection of a candidate series system for analysis was made on the
basis of; ability to meet the EPA vehicle design goals, total system weight
and volume, overall efficiency at selected speeds and accelerations and pre-
liminary cost appraisals.  From a field of several series systems, one  system,
the full voltage series hybrid was selected.   The parallel system selected
for analysis was that using the Electromechanical Transmission (EMT)
developed by TRW Systems.
     Extensive computer modeling of both systems was performed.  Detailed
mathematical models of alternators, traction motors, power control units
(PCUs), gearing and batteries were developed by a combined approach of
analysis and utilization of equipment manufacturers' data.  Computations
were made to determine the. performance of each of the major subsystems in
terms of power level, current, voltage, speed, torque and efficiency for
a matrix of vehicle velocity-acceleration points.  The matrix was broad
enough to cover the complete velocity range of vehicle operation at all
reasonable acceleration and deceleration rates.

                                    1

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     The matrix performance quantities and their probability of occurrence
in the LA-4 driving mission were combined to establish the average and RMS
values for a realistic driving cycle.  Engine powers, battery impedances,
gear efficiencies and operation without regeneration and transmission gear
ratios were adjusted to develop sensitivity trends of system performance
to these variables.  The effectiveness of regenerative braking was inves-
tigated.
     In the absence of any accessory loads, the efficiency of the parallel
system between the engine output shaft and the driving wheels could be as
high as 77%.  (All overall efficiency values are based on maintaining the
battery's impedance increases and gearing losses increase, system efficiency
may fall to about 68%.  With a steady accessory load of 5 horsepower, the
engine shaft output must increase and the engine-to-wheel efficiency would
fall to 54.3% and 49.8%, respectively.
     The series hybrid system exhibits a somewhat lower efficiency on the
LA-4 cycle.  Without accessory load but with an advanced battery and low
loss gearing its efficiency is near 55%.  As battery and gearing degrade,
system efficiency may fall closer to 48%.  If the 5 horsepower accessory
load is added, these values will decrease to 43.3% and 38.8%, respectively.
Since the series system's generator and traction motor must be rated for
continuous power at top vehicle speed, larger machines are required.  On
the other hand, the series system offers a greater flexibility of opera-
tionfull engine output can be utilized at any road speed.
     Multiple gear ratios between the traction motor and rear wheels was
shown to be important to the overall system efficiency.  Its impact was
slightly greater in the parallel system (about 8 percentage points) since
the traction motor's torque rating is lower than that of the series
system and without step down gearing, the RMS current placed a heavier
burden on the machines.
     Regenerative braking was shown to improve the overall efficiency in
both systems.  In the series system, regenerative braking improved the
system efficiency by approximately 10%.   The parallel system, the EMT,
uses the traction motor as a generator as part of its normal mode of
driving wheel torque control and thus regenerative is inherent in the

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system.  However, computations showed that utilizing the kinetic energy
of the car for battery charge during decelerations could affect the system
efficiency by a larger amount that in the series system.
     Planetary gear efficiency was shown to dominate the overall system
efficiency of the parallel system, with all other parameters held constant.
A change in the planetary system's efficiency from 90 to 80% decreased the
overall efficiency by ll%--almost equal in magnitude to the efficiency gain
resulting from the use of a variable gear ratio.
     It is important to note that these results are dependent on the de-
tailed models which are chosen to represent the characteristics of the
power trains components as well as the specific driving profiles over
which the evaluations are made.  Thus, while the results are arrived at
using valid techniques of modeling and computations, the absolute values
of efficiency, etc. should only be used in terms of trend and comparison.
     The weight of the complete parallel system including engine, gearing
and batteries is approximately 87-89% of the series system.  The OEM cost
of the series power train, excluding batteries and engine is nearly 25%
higher than the parallel system; however, the impact on a comparison of
both systems' total cost would be far less when the added costs of the
engine and battery are factored in.
     Estimates of the new car costs for hybrid vehicles are difficult to
establish without a detailed knowledge of the OEM to consumer makeup
structure.  Rather than project a first cost based on arbitrary costs,
models, cost comparison between hybrids and conventional cars was made
on fuel consumption and battery replacement estimates.  It is estimated
that the fuel economy savings of hybrid operation can pay for battery re-
placement costs.

Experimental Studies of Emission Control of ICE/Battery Hybrid Power Trains
     Steady state data on the conversion efficiency of a three-component
catalyst was taken.  The catalyst, composed of copper oxide on alumina, is
manufactured by Harshaw Chemical Company and activated by TRW Systems.
Initial tests were carried out on the exhaust flow from one cylinder of a
VW 1600 cc engine.  The test catalytic converter was sized for single

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                                                            3   3
cylinder exhaust flow rates ranging from 20,000 to 35,000 ft /ft  hour.
Catalyst bed temperatures ranged from 1200 to near 1600F.
     The data exhibited characteristics which were expected on the bases
of chemistry and selectivity of nitric oxide (NO) reduction.  The NO con-
version efficiency of the catalyst (defined as the ratio of the concentra-
tion of a specie at the converter outlet to the inlet concentration) was
in excess of 90% for air-fuel ratios having a reductant to oxidant ratio
in excess of one; that is, for all rich mixtures.  The hydrocarbon (HC)
and carbon monoxide (CO) efficiencies increased as the air-fuel ratio be-
came leaner.  At stoichiometry where the total reductants and oxidants
were equal, the simultaneous conversion of all three pollutants was over
90%.  Beyond stoichiometry, the NO conversion fell rapidly with the addi-
tion of excess oxygen.  HC and CO conversions remained close to 100% with
increased mixture leaness.  The overall effect of low HC, CO conversion  on
the rich side of stoichiometry and low NO conversion on the lean side
restricts the air-fuel range over which the catalyst can operate effectively.
For example, the air-fuel ratio at 1390F bed temperature must be maintained
within +0.2 of stoichiometry to insure the simultaneous conversion exceed
80%.
     Space velocity appeared to play a smaller role on conversion than
temperatureat least over the ranges investigated in these experiments.
With increasing temperature the bed of effective catalyst performance
broadens.  In addition as the temperature is increased, the relative con-
version efficiencies of HC and CO reverseat low temperature, (^1200F)
CO conversion is favored, at higher temperatures (M500F), CO conversion
is favored.

     Various materials were screened as candidates for use in hydrocarbon,
accumulator.  The materials included activated carbon and charcoal, silica
gel, molecular sieve and alumina.   Tests were conducted by exposing a con-
stant volume of material to the exhaust of a single cylinder of the VW
engine.   The engine and accumulator were started cold; the mixture ratio
and flow rates were controlled to produce as reproducible starting condi-
tions as possible.

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     Tests indicated that activated carbons are the most efficient material
for trapping hydrocarbons in the exhaust stream during cold starts.  They
have the highest mass capacity at any given temperature and are still able
to adsorb hydrocarbons at nearly twice the temperature that its nearest
competitor loses its adsorption capability.
     In order of decreasing effectiveness were molecular sieve, silica gel
and alumina.  While the molecular sieves showed promise as a secondary
choice Pittsburgh Activated Carbon of the BPL series was chosen for use in
a full scale hydrocarbon accumulator.  This material exhibited no chemical
or physical deterioration after several adsorption-desorption cycles in
which it was exposed to temperatures near 600F and space velocities greater
than 80,000 V/V/Hr.
     A 1971 Chevrolet Vega engine was selected for use in full scale system
emission tests.  The engine was modified for hybrid operation; the major
modification was replacement of the carburetor with an intake manifold fuel
injection system adapted from the VW fuel injection equipment.

      A test converter containing approximately 400 cubic inches  of the
 TRW-Harshaw catalyst was constructed to treat the total  exhaust  of the
 Vega.   Tests, were run to characterize the steady state conversion and the
 production of ammonia.   The conversion efficiencies of this converter were
 similar to the single cylinder data; however, better geometry caused the
 bed to operate at higher temperatures than the single cylinder tests at
 equal  space velocities.
      The composition of the exhaust of the engine showed that on the rich
 side of stoichiometry, sizable corrections of the reductant-oxidant ratio
 had to be made to account for hydrogen.  Measurements of ammonia produced
 in the catalyst indicated that the ammonia concentration at rich mixtures
 (about 2 points from stoichiometry) could be almost 50% of the NO concen-
 trations.  However, at stoichiometry, the ammonia was only 1% of the NO
 concentration.  Ammonia production at a given air-fuel ratio increased as
 the catalyst bed temperature decreased--a result predicted by thermodynamics,

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    . Two cajbalytjc .converters supplied by. Universal ,0.11.: Products  (UOP) were
tested on, the. Vega..,  These devices, containing a light  loading of pTatinuni'
on., alumina were o.per.a.ted at similar exhaust velocities-as.'in the> TRW-     :
Harshaw characterization tests.  The converters had good-HC;and1GO^oxida-'
tion properties for lean mixture ratios; however, the peak NO conversions
were much less than that exhibited by the copper oxide  catalyst.
     The hydrocarbon accumulator and full scale TRW-Harshaw catalytic con-
verter were combined with the Vega-EMT power train.  Emission measurements
of the hybrid system were made according to the latest  Federal procedures
i.e., cold start transient bag, stabilized hot bag and  hot start  transient
bag.  Chemiluminescent measurement of NOV was used.  The engine was run on
  :   '    '           '                    /\
a power schedule which simulated operation on the Federal driving cycle.
     The 1975-;76 emission standards were achieved in several tests.  The
hydrocarbon accumulator was shown to have a dramatic impact in total HC
emissions.   The, catalytic converter was able to light off rapidly and con-
trol NO emissions well enough to provide a margin of NO  control under the
                  ' '                                     /\
1976 standards.  CO was found to be the most difficult  specie to control.
CO problems were directly attributable to cold start emissions during the
period when considerable engine choking was required.
     Physical  changes  in  the  catalyst were  small,  if any, over  the  testing
 period which  amounted  to  approximately  100  hours.   The  most noticeable
 change appeared  to be  a decrease  in  the  total bed  volume; however,  this
 may  have been  do to the bed being  shaken  on  the  test stand  and  settling.

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SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
     Candidate Series-Connected Hybrid Power Trains
     Three series-connected hybrid configurations were studied in detail:
a full voltage system in which the alternator voltage is maintained at the
battery bus voltage, a two-generator scheme in which one alternator feeds
the battery while the other machine feeds the traction motor, and an alter-
nator PCU system in which the alternator voltage is boosted by power pro-
cessing to battery bus voltage.  Details of preliminary comparative anal-
yses, block diagrams and description of operation are found in Section 2.0.
     Table I summarizes the results of the analyses.  The alternator PCU
system suffers from the inefficiency of two tandem power processors as well
as additional expense and volume associated with a boost PCU capable of
controlling the full engine output power.
     Of-"the other two systems, the two-generator scheme offers slightly
higher efficiency.   However, it appears to have some potential control
complexity problems, such as the need for specific alternator control
sequencing to insure proper sharing of engine power.  The full voltage
series system was therefore selected for further analyses.
     The parallel hybrid power train selected for study was the Electro-
mechanical Transmission developed by TRW Systems.

     Selection and Characterization of Power Train Components
     The following comprise the major power train components which had to
be selected and characterized for computer simulation:
            traction motors
          t  power control  units,  (PCU)
            rectifiers
          t  alternators
            batteries               J.
            mechanical gearing
            internal combustion engine (heat engine)

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                                                               TABLE I                   '

                                   COMPARISON OF THREE CANDIDATE SERIES-CONNECTED HYBRID POWER TRAINS

System
Full Voltage
Series
Two Generator
System
AT ternator
PCU System
Total
Weight
(lb)
705
691
697
System Efficiency
No Power Transfer from Battery
Efficiency
at 21 mph
(*)
28.0
38.5 
30.0
Efficiency
at 42 mph
(*)
56.4
60.5
49.0
Efficiency
at 60 mph
(X)
66.0
7.1.5
60.0
Efficiency
at 85 mph
(X)
75.5
77.0
71.0
Battery Impact

Power to*
Battery at
22 mph '
Cruise, kw
+1.82
+2.81
+1.1
**
Power from
Battery at
Mean MaxPwr
23 kw
-26.10
-26.80
-26.9

Power
PCUs
one
one
two
Control
Complexity
dual loop
multi loop
dual loop
00
            *Refers to the power available to the battery due to excess of engine power over road cruise power.
             :The larger the number, the more efficient is the path from engine through generator to battery
             terminals (see section 2.3.1).
           **Refers to the peak burden placed on battery during an average urban acceleration.  The lower the
             peak, the more efficient ;the traction system and the higher the utilization of engine power con-
             verted in the generator  (see section 2.3.1).

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     Internal combustion engine requirements are briefly discussed in
Appendix B.  Estimates of power train efficiency suggested a peak horse-
power output of about 85 hp.   An examination of internal combustion engine
fuel economy and emissions suggested a 3:1  speed variation over the full
range of vehicle speeds.
     The characteristics of lead-acid batteries were reviewed.  Based on
data supplied from work conducted, the contract "Development of High Rate
Lead-Acid Batteries for Hybrid Vehicles," EPA contract no. 68-04-0028,
     -3
86x10   n was chosen as a reasonable total  impedance for advanced, high
power density batteries.  Impedances two and three times greater were also
selected to reflect changes in battery charge state and aging.  An open
circuit voltage of 240 VDC was assumed to be required.
     The continuous high speed cruise traction power required of a 4000 pound
family car provides the nominal rating for the series hybrid motor specif-
ication.  The motor for the parallel system was rated on the basis of
average power and torque demands from analysis and previous experience with
EMT dynamometer tests.  Contacts were established with a variety of motor
manufacturers including H.K.  Porter, Westinghouse, GE and Lear Siegler.
These contacts established a preliminary motor configuration and machine
characteristics which are to be found in Appendix D.
     Power control units specifications were developed from analyses of
PCUs which were designed for the EMT and could be used 1n either series or
parallel hybrid power trains.  Two motor PCU units were specified and rated
according to peak current capability.  The ratings reflected the possible
use of variable gear ratios between the motor and wheels to lower the peak
motor torque and current below the levels which would be encountered with
a single gear ratio.  Detailed specifications and efficiency computations
of the PCUs can be found in Appendix E.  :
     Three alternator designs were investigated, one using forced air cool-
ing, another using an integral fan and the third using oil spray cooling
with external heat transfer equipment.  Oil cooling was rejected as it  is
usually associated with machines- designed for extremely high power densities
where efficiency is of secondary concern.  One of the study guidelines was
to use machinery possessing high efficiency and oil .cooled designs  did
not appear to fulfill this requirement.

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the series system alternator suggested the use of an integral fan.  Over
a narrow  speed  range an  integral fan can be designed to provide the cool-
ing air flow without low speed  inefficiency.  In the parallel system, the
alternator operates over a 10:1 speed range at constant armature current.
An external, constant air flow  cooling system is preferred.
     The  gear efficiencies for  the various systems were estimated from data
published in standard engineering handbooks.  Wherever necessary the effi-
ciencies were slightly degraded as functions of increasing mesh speed to
reflect possible higher viscous losses with speed.  The planetary gearing
of the parallel system was more difficult to analyze in that it is not
clear what specific design or means of lubrication would be chosen.  For
these reasons,  planetary gear efficiency was treated as a variable which
could take on values thought to bracket planetary performance.
     Extensive  computer models  and analysis techniques were developed.  The
bounds of possible vehicle operation were defined in terms of peak accel-
eration/deceleration rates from zero to 80% of the vehicle's top speed of
85 mph.  A matrix of velocity-acceleration-road power demand points was
computed within these bounds.   In addition, the probability of each
specific matrix point (a point  represented the midpoint of a small velocity
and acceleration increment about the matrix point) for driving the LA-4
cycle was computed.
     The series and parallel  systems were mathematically modeled and com-
puter programs were developed.  The models and programs are fully explained
in Appendix F.

     Evaluation of Instantaneous and Average LA-4 Performance of the Series
     and Parallel Hybrid Power Trains
     The state of important performance measures of each of the major com-
ponents of the selected parallel and series systems were calculated for each
matrix point.   The above-mentioned component characteristics were used in
the computations.  Engine power levels, gearing and battery characteristics
were selected on the basis of preliminary analyses and experience.
     Complete sets of instantaneous component efficiencies for typical
series and parallel  input parameters can be found in Appendix G.

                                    10

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     System and component average and RMS performances were computed by
using matrix point performance measures and matrix point probabilities
and making appropriate averaging and root-mean-square computations.   A
description of the techniques are found in Appendix F.
     Overall system efficiencies for LA-4 operation are summarized in
Table II.  System efficiencies are indicated as functions of the major
input parameters of battery impedance, gear train efficiency and degree
of gear ratio variation between the traction motors and wheels.   In  each
case, the state of. charge of the battery remained constant over the  driv-
ing cycle.
     Figures 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4 and 5.5 show block diagrams of the full
voltage series system along with average efficiency and input/output
power levels generated from the LA-4 cycle.  Figures 5.6, 5.7, 5.8,  5.9
and 5.10 present similar information for the parallel system.
     A variable gear ratio between the traction motor and the differential
was shown to substantially increase the overall system efficiency of both
configurations.  The improvement was as much as 15% for the series and
13% for the parallel.
     Regeneration was also important in raising the overall system effi-
ciency; by as much as 10% in the series system and 13.5% in the parallel.
Battery impedance variation has little effect on the parallel  system;
doubling the impedance decreases the series system efficiency by about 7%.
     The planetary gear efficiency of the parallel system is important to
the performance of that type of power train.  An 11% change in efficiency
decreases the overall system efficiency by a similar amount.
     The design ratings of all the rotating machines and PCUs were con-
servative for LA-4 operation as long as a variable gear ratio was used
for the parallel system.  The series system motor and motor PCU are
designed  for higher continuous power than those of the parallel and
thus the impact of variable gearing on their rating is lessened.
                                  n

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                                                            TABLE  II
                                SUMMARY OF HYBRID SYSTEMS EFFICIENCY ON LA-4 DRIVING CYCLE
ro
 . Battery
;.; Impedance
n

Full Voltage :
Series System



Parallel (EMT)
System

86 x 10~3
86 x 10~3
86 x 10"3
172 x 10"3 ;
172 x 10"3
86 x 10"3
86 x 10"3
86 x 10"3
172 x 10"3
172 x 10"3
Motor to Wheel
. Gear Ratio
constant
variable
constant
.variable
;. va ri ab'l e
; constant
constant
variable
variable
variable
Planetary Gear
Nominal
Efficiency

. 
. 


80% .
80%
90%
80%
80%
Regenerative
Braking
yes
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no*
yes
yes
no*
Overall
Efficiency
47.9
55.1
42.9
52.0
46.4
61.7
53.6
76.7
66.6
54.0
           *Regenerative braking capability in the EMT is a normal part of its control system.

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     Weight and Cost Estimates of Hybrid Power Trains
     The OEM cost of the series system is estimated to be $768; the
parallel system will cost $600, both exclusive of battery and engine.
Assuming 500 pounds of lead-acid batteries and a 350 pound engine, the
parallel system will weigh between 1451  and 1501 pounds.   The series
system will weigh 1649 to 1699 pounds.  In each case, the heavier value
includes the incorporation of a variable gear ratio transmission.
     While new car customer costs of hybrids cannot be estimated at this
time, it appears that the fuel savings would be able to pay for battery
replacement costs.  Furthermore, the durability and modular packaging of
the electrical equipment may lead to novel power train marketing and re-
cycling such as "portable" PCUs where the control electronics is owned by
the customer and he transfers it from one vehicle to another as he changes
ears.

EXPERIMENTAL ACTIVITIES
     Experimental studies were conducted on the effectiveness of selected
internal combustion engine emission control concepts used within the con-
text of hybrid vehicle operation.  The usefulness of the devices depended
on controlled engine operation during start-up and hot operation and
therefore, could not be applied to a first approximation to conventional
1C powered vehicles where driveability demands would interfere with engine-
control system operation.

     Hydrocarbon Accumulator Materials Screening
     The first device studied was a hydrocarbon accumulator which operates
on an adsorption-desorption cycle.  It is based on well-developed chromato-
graphic principles of organic compound separation.  The accumulator
material adsorbs engine exhaust hydrocarbons from the relatively cool
exhaust stream during engine start-up and retains them as the exhaust
temperature rises and the engine choke is relieved.  When the exhaust or
bed temperature reaches a predetermined point, a large portion (^99%) of
the exhaust is diverted through a jacket around the accumulator; the re-
maining exhaust flows through the accumulator, picking up hydrocarbons
and returning them to the engine intake or catalytic converter for com-
bustion.                           13

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     The selection of the most promising hydrocarbon accumulator material
was carried out by a material screening process.   The materials tested were,
in order of decreasing effectiveness, activated carbons, activated char-
coals, molecular sieves, silica gels and, aluminas.  Test materials were
placed within a canister.downstream of the exhaust port of one single
cylinder of a 160Q cc VW engine.  Cold start tests were carried out to
assess the retention and desorption properties of each of the materials.
The materials were also investigated for chemical and mechanical degrada-
tion.
     Tests indicated that activated carbons are the most efficient class of
materials within the range tested.  They exhibit the highest capacity for
exhaust hydrocarbons at a given temperature and are capable of continued
adsorbing nearly twice the hydrocarbons of the next best material.  Even at
space velocities in excess of 80,000 V/V/Hr and exhaust temperatures as high
as 600F, one material, Pittsburgh Activated Carbon, BPL series, did not
show chemical or mechanical deterioration after several absorption-desorp-
tion cycles as long as care was exercised when the accumulator was being
filled.       ;
     Characterization of TRW-Harshaw Three-Component Catalyst
     A copper oxide-on-alurm'na catalyst was evaluated for use as a three-
component .catalyst, that is one which simultaneously controls hydrocarbons
(HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO).  The catalyst is manufact-
ured by Harshaw Chemical Co.  and is activated by a TRW process.
     Bench scale tests on the catalyst showed that:
            it could convert about 90% CH4 and NO and 100% CO in a synthetic
           ,  exhaust gas mixture  .
          t  the CO oxidation process started around 300F, NO reduction
             around 500-650F and methane oxidation around 1000F.
Catalyst conversion tests were conducted using,a canister containing about
      3    '      '''   ''" 
100 in  of catalyst.  The bed was exposed to the flow from the same cylinder
as in the hydrocarbon accumulator tests.  The tests showed that, in steady
state:
            The catalyst is  generally non-selective in promoting the re-
             action of exhaust components.   At temperatures around 1200F
             CO oxidation is  favored over HC; the opposite is true

                                   14

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             above 1500F.  However, other reactions are presumed to
             cause these effects rather than catalyst selectivity.
            The catalyst can reduce the levels of all three pollutants
             simultaneously by 75% for bed temperatures in excess of
             '1350F and in an air-fuel ratio band of 0.7.
          t  Relative conversion of HC and CO are temperature dependent.
          t  Space velocity effects the conversion efficiencies on an
             individual basis.  At stoichiometry NO conversion decreases
             from 90% to 70% as the space velocity increases from 32,000
             to 37,000 V/V/Hr.  While HC and CO conversions were unaffected
             by space  velocity at  that air-fuel ratio, they become
           ,  space* velocity sensitive for richer mixtures.'          '
          .  Chemical effects and non-selectivity work to limit the
             catalyst effectiveness.  It appears that the air-fuel ,ratio
             point of maximum simultaneous conversion moves to leaner
             mixtures with increasing temperature.
     The catalyst will  tend to suffer reduced NO conversion efficiency
with time when exposed to lean mixtures.   However, the time constant of
the loss is on the order of minutes.  Also the catalyst recovers its
 f   -,'*''.'    '.       "    '  '             "     ' ' '        '      '
initial capability almost immediately when exposed to a slightly rich, ,
mixture.  Thus the catalyst will  provide effective control to short dura-
tion swings in the mixture ratio.                         .
     Steady state tests on the full exhaust stream of a Vega ICE were
conducted using a scaled-up version of the single cylinder converter.
Scaling up the converter by a factor of four slightly increased the band
of effective CO conversion; the other conversions were unaffected.
     Data comparing engine hydrogen generation and catalyst ammonia pro-
duction suggested there was no direct link between them.  There is a
strong dependence of ammonia generation on temperature and air-fuel ratio.
At A/F  levels below 13, NH3 approaches 100% of the total reacted NO,
thus all the NO goes into producing NH-.  However, in the A/F and tempera-
ture band where the catalyst must function for good three-component con-
trol, NH production is always less than 10% of the reduced NO.
     Physical changes in the catalyst were small, if any, oyer the period
of testing.  The cost  and catalyst bed size for a full size converter
are well within practical limits.  The estimated catalyst cost for a full
size passenger vehicle is around $10 to $15; the estimated catalyst volume
is 0.2  cubic feet.
                                    15

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     Two catalytic converters supplied by Universal Oil Products were
tested.  While the converters showed good CO and HC oxidation character-
istics at lean air-fuel ratios, the peak NO conversion did not exceed
40%.  It is possible that the converters were too small for this applica-
tion.

     Full Scale Hybrid Power Train Emissions
     The emissions of a hybrid power train were measured for the system
operating over the 1972 Federal driving cycle and using the cold start,
constant volume sampling "bag" technique.  The engine ran over a power
schedule simulating the load demand which would be required in a real
hybrid vehicle.
      An emission control system using a fast relief choke schedule,
hydrocarbon accumulator and three-component catalyst was able to bring
the system emissions below the 1975-76 standards.  Hydrocarbons ranged
from 34% to 73% of the 1975 standards; NOV was 15% to 80% of the 1976
                                         J\                 - 
levels.  CO proved to be the most troublesome component.  While the 1975
standard for CO was met, it is felt that improved carburetion during cold
start would have increased the margin by which the CO standards would be
satisfied.
     While long term testing has not been performed to demonstrate the
ability of the control approach to meet the standards for 50,000 miles,
short-term evaluation involving about 100 hours of testing has shown good
chemical  and physical stability of the materials used in both control
devices.
                                  16

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1.0  INTRODUCTION
     Heat engine/battery hybrid automotive power systems have been under
investigation by TRW Systems.since 1967.  As part of a company-funded
effort a parallel hybrid configuration termed the Electromechanical
Transmission (EMT) was conceived and a full-scale power dynamometer
proof-of-principle breadboard system was constructed and demonstrated.
                                                                       ts
A description of the EMT as well as experimental data taken on the system
was previously reported in the EPA-sponsored contract, "Analysis and
Advanced Design Study of an Electromechanical Transmission," No. EHSH-71-
002, April  1972 (reference 1).
     Hybrid power systems appear attractive for low emission, high fuel
economy vehicles.  However, several questions 'related to the selection of
the best hybrid system, cost of such systems and the emission levels of
such vehicles remain.
     In order to resolve many of these questions, TRW Systems has been
under contract (No. 68-04-0058)to the Division of Advanced Automotive  Power
Systems Development, Office of Air Programs, Environmental  Protection
Agency to perform "Cost and Emission Studies of a Heat Engine Battery
Hybrid Family Car."  The period of performance was June 30, 1971 to
February 29, 1972.  The latter date was extended approximately one month
to cover additional experimental measurements not originally called for
in the contract.
     Among the objectives of the contract were the development of detailed
models of candidate heat engine-battery hybrid power trains for full size
family cars, analysis of the efficiency of the candidates and an estima-
tion of the size, first cost and cost of ownership of such  vehicles.  A
second phase of the work was a laboratory investigation of the character-
istics and suitability of three-component catalytic devices and hydro-
carbon traps as means for controlling internal combustion engine emissions
within the context of a hybrid environment.  The goal of the experimental
work was to demonstrate that a full-sized hybrid system could meet the
1975-76 emission standards.
                                   17

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     This report is organized into two basically different sections,  re-
flecting the extensive analytic and computer simulation work as well  as
laboratory effort.   It will be necessary to utilize data from one section
in the other in some cases; whenever this occurs, the reader will be
alerted.
     The report contains a large number of appendices in which the back-
ground and supporting calculations which are necessary for a full under-
standing of the report results are to be found.
2.0  SELECTION OF CANDIDATE SERIES-CONNECTED HYBRID POWER TRAINS
     2.1  General Specifications and Assumptions
          The initial phase of vehicle power train selection must start
with a definition of the loads and modes of operation which a power
train will encounter in service.  The Office of Air Programs has prepared
a complete set of vehicle design goals for a passenger car which will
have the performance, safety, convenience and ease of operation which  may
be necessary to satisfy the requirements of the average motorist.  These
design goals also specify that the vehicle be capable of meeting the
Federal emission standards for 1975-76 established by the 1970 Clean Air
Act.  The design goals may be found in Appendix A.
     The interpretation of the performance goals into wheel power loads
depends on the detailed vehicle velocity-time schedule of the specified
maneuver, say the high speed pass maneuver.  Using some assumptions as  to
the nature of the schedule, the wheel power demands for a 4000 pound
family car having the drag characteristics stated in the Design Goals  can
be computed.  Figure 2.1  shows the level-road and peak cruise requirements
as a function of vehicle velocity along with some grade requirements.   To
cruise at 85 mph, approximately 65 road horsepower is needed and the power
train must be capable of providing short duration wheel power bursts in
excess of 100 horsepower.   If it is assumed that the power train elements
between the engine and wheels have an overall efficiency of approximately
75% and with allowance for passenger comfort and convenience features, the
engine must be capable of continuously supplying about 85 shaft horsepower
at 85 mph cruise.
                                   18

-------
ROAD
HORSEPOWER
          25 -
                                           FIGURE 2.1

                                       WHEEL POWER DEMANDS FOR A 4000 LB CAR
20        30
                                                 40        50
                                                VEHICLE SPEED (MPH)
60       70        80        90

-------
     The selection and specifications of an engine for a hybrid system
are reviewed in Appendix B.  Economy and emission characteristics combine
to set the range of engine displacement and its speed range.   The series
system's generator speed range is directly proportional to the engine
speed range; for this study a 3:1 generator (engine) speed range is assumed.
     Several other general criteria for operation must be specified before
starting analyses of the power trains.  These refer to the modes of power
train operation and in particular the demarkation between urban and high-
way operation.  We shall assume that at one-half the vehicle's top speed,
42.5 mph, there is a departure point between urban and highway operation.
In urban traffic below 42.5 mph the'engine will operate at constant power
and speed.  When the vehicle speed increases above 42.5 mph,  it is assumed
that the engine speed will linearly increase up to its maximum value cor-
responding to the vehicle's top speed.  At the same time, the engine's
throttle will be adjusted so that the engine's output times the power train
inefficiency between engine and wheels equals the road cruise power at that
speed.
     Finally,, performance analyses of a hybrid power train must consider
the possibility of battery charge state change.  A power train which causes
a net discharge of the battery does not fulfill all the design criteria;
one that ;tends to overcharge the battery will be inefficient  and might cause
battery damage in the field.  It is difficult to establish the engine power
level a priori which will keep the battery near constant charge and one
must use a trial and error approach in evaluating various parameters and
their effect on performance.

     2.2  Candidate Series Systems
         . Three candidate series-connected hybrid power trains were selected
for study'.  Block diagram representations of the system are shown in Figures
2.2, 2.3:and'.2.4.
          2.2.1  Full Voltage Series System
                 This system (Figure 2.2) contains an alternator directly
coupled through fixed gearing to the engine.  The rectified voltage and
power of the machine is delivered to the battery bus where the power can be
used to either charge the battery or power the traction motor.  The
                                    20

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                                                           FIGURE 2.2
                                         FULL VOLTAGE  SERIES-CONNECTED HYBRID  SYSTEM
            REFERENCE
            HIGHWAY
            ENGINE
            SPEED


           REFERENCE -
           URBAN
           ENGINE
           SPEED
r
PO
                     ENGINE
rINE
D




FIELD
PCU
O O
V->vA-/
ALTERNATOR



BATTERY

R
E
C
T
1
 F
1
E
R



r<
)
 .

MOTOR
PCU



c\
s
r

DC
SERIES
MOTOR

VEHI
WHE
r
^-
                         THROTTLE
                         SERVO
    ^ BATTERY CURRENT INTEGRAL I
u I  O	I


O .  O	URBAN THROTTLE LEVEL

  I	g\4 WHEEL SPEED
                                             MODE CROSSOVER SPEED
                                                                DRIVE
                                                                LOGIC
                                                                                    -'-   t
                                                                             MOTOR CURRENT
                                                                             FEEDBACK
                                                                                             _J
                                                                                          TORQUE
                                                                                          COMPARATOR
                                                                                        TORQUE
                                                                                        COMMAND

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alternator runs at one-third its rated speed in urban traffic reflecting
the 3:1 maximum speed range of the engine.  During highway operation its
speed varies proportionally to road speed.  The output voltage of the
alternator, however, must remain at the battery voltage so that alternator
power can be delivered to the battery bus.  Thus, a field control system
is required to maintain a proper alternator voTtage.  Feedback engine speed
control is accomplished by the field PCU;, as the engine speed rises above
the reference urban or highway value the alternator field and voltage in-
crease, increasing the load on the engine which in turn tends to slow the
engine down.
     Traction motor power is processed by a regenerative chopper motor
PClr '.  Duty cycle control of the chopper is accomplished through a drive
logic which compares the driver's torque command with the motor's developed
torque (armature current) and adjusts the duty cycle appropriately.  The
motor PCU is capable of operating as a regenerative system, taking motor
(generator) power and processing it back to the battery.
     Engine torque output is controlled by moving the engine throttle.  In
the urban mode, the throttle position is pre-set to give some assigned
power output at the reference speed.  At 42.5 mph, the throttle position
reference shifts to a signal proportional to the integral of the battery
current.   When the^battery begins to discharge, the throttle opens very
slowly.  During regeneration or dynamic braking it closes slowly.  All the
systems described in this report have this form of engine power control
incorporated in their design.

     2.2.2  Two Alternator Series System*
            Figure 2.3:shows the block diagram of the two alternator
system.  Alternator #1 is rated at a lower power level than alternator
#2 equal  to the urban engine power output.  Alternator #2 is rated for a
continuous power output equal to the load requirement of the traction motor
at top vehicle speed.            i
                                 *_	       
     When the vehicle is at rest, the total output of the engine is pro-
cessed by alternator #1 and delivered to the battery.  ,As the operator
accelerates the car, the field of alternator #2 increases and the field
*The Two Alternator configuration was suggested for study by Dr.  Jalal
 Sallhi of EPA.
                                   22

-------
                                                       FIGURE 2.3
                                      TWO ALTERNATOR SERIES  CONNECTED HYBRID  SYSTEM
                           BATTERY CURRENT INTEGRAL
ro

BATTERY

V.
)

                           ENGINE
                     THROTTLE' '
                      ERVO
NO. i
     URBAN THROTTLE LEVEL O
     REFERENCE HIGHWAY
     ENGINE SPEED   	

     REFERENCE URBAN-
     ENGINE SPEED
                                               WHEEL
                                               SPEED
                             MODE
                             CROSSOVER
                                                                                                MOTOR
                                                                                                PCU
A
L
E
R
N
A
T
o
R
NO. 2
FIELD NO. 2
* *
1^-
 T








R
C
T
I
F
1
c
R
NO. 2





CHOKE
-"*&-







c
\






D!C
j  v.






^\
j






DC
C FD 1 PC
MOTOR





                                                                                                                    VEHICLE
                                                                                                                    WHEELS
              ft
} CURRENT
LIMITS


-
DRIVE
LOGIC
                                                                                          MOTOR CURRENT
                                                                                          FEEDBACK
                                  TORQUE
                      TORQUE      COMPARATOR
                      COMMAND

-------
of alternator #1 decreases, shifting engine power from the first machine
to the second.  When the output of #2 reaches the engine power,  field #1
is essentially off and field #2 is prohibited by a threshold detector
from further increase.  At very low vehicle speeds, a current detector on
alternator #2 protects that machine against overloading.
     The voltage of alternator #2 is controlled through the drive logic
such that the alternator can deliver power to the traction motor at any
speed.  However, when the alternator's current limit is reached  the logic
turns on the motor PCU and allows battery power to flow to the traction
motor.  The PCU is similar to that of the full voltage systemit is a
regenerative chopper drvice.  Increasing the chopper duty cycle  draws
more power from the battery/alternator #1 power sources.   A choke,  L,
must be included in the circuit for continuity of alternator #2  current.
     The engine throttle control system and motor torque feedback controls
are similar to the full voltage system.  However, the engine speed  control
is somewhat more complex in that the fields must be adjusted in  a manner
that maintains stability and restricts speed excursions of the engine.
     While the single alternator of the full voltage system must be capable
of producing battery voltage at one-third its top speed,  alternator #2 is
uncoupled from the battery bus voltage and therefore need be capable of
only producing one-half battery voltage at one-third rated speed.  (At
42.5 mph the motor terminal voltage"is approximately one-half its voltage
at top speed and alternator #2 need only produce power at half battery
voltage to supply power to the motor.)  Machine #2 therefore can be some-
what smaller than the full voltage alternator as its field is better
utilized and can be run closer to saturation during urban operation.
Alternator #1 still must produce battery voltage at one-third rated speed;
however, it is inherently a smaller machine handling less power  and the
poor field utilization impact is lessened.
                                   24

-------
              2.2.3  Series System with Alternator PCU
              The series system with alternator PCU is an attempt to reduce
alternator size requirements by running the alternator field around satur-
ation independent of the machine's speed.   The alternator is coupled to a
voltage boost type PCU as shown in Figure  2.4.  In almost all  other
respects its operation and control is the  same as the full  voltage system.
     The boost PCU incorporates an inductive energy storage element which
is first charged from the alternator and then discharged in series with
the alternator into the battery bus.  This technique of alternator control
has been successfully employed on the EMT  dynamometer demonstration and is
utilized for regenerative power control on all the three series traction
motor systems.  A further description of the boost PCU technique can be  '
found in reference 1.        :
     Duty cycle input control of the boost PCU is accomplished through an
alternator PCU controller.  It processes engine speed error signals sim-
ilarly as the other systems but instead of changing the alternator's field,
it adjusts the PCU duty cycle.

     2.3  Evaluation of Candidate Series Systems
          Preliminary specifications for the major rotating machines and
power processors were developed in terms of the required vehicle perfor-
mance of Figure 2.1.  Each component is specified in terms of the para-
meters which impact the greatest on the final selection.
     The parameters which were used are:
            equipment rating on a per unit (p.u.) basis
            equipment rating on a kw and/or hp basis
            equipment rating in KVA
            equipment weight in Ib
          t  equipment size in cubic feet
          t  equipment efficiency under selected driving conditions
            equipment projected cost
            equipment control simplicity  and reliability.
                                    25

-------
                                                          FIGURE 2.4
                                         SERIES  HYBRID SYSTEM WITH ALTERNATOR  PCU
ro
cr>
                                        BOOST PCU
                                        LOGIC
                                  FIELD (SATURATED)   ,
                                    ALTERNATOR
                         THROTTLE
                         SERVO
                        MOTOR CURRENT
                        FEEDBACK
                                            URBAN THROTTLE LEVEL
                                               REFERENCE HIGHWAY
                                                     ENGINE SPEED
                                                REFERENCE URBAN
                                                   ENGINE SPEED
                  TORQUE
                  COMPARATOR
                                                                                 NOTE:  ENGINE SPEED RANGE 3 :1
                                                MODE CROSSOVER
TORQUE
COMMAND

-------
     Power rating of equipment on a per unit (p.u.)  basis allows  a first
order qualative comparison between a multitude of systems which would
operate at different rated power levels.
     Unity per unit is defined as the inherent rated physical  capability
designed into the equipment.   For quantitative evaluation, the ratings
are determined in absolute units of kilowatts or horsepower.   For example,
in this study the full load motor rating is 65 hp at 85 mph.
      Thus, 1 p.u. power for the traction motor is 65 hp, 1  p.u.  voltage
is the battery open circuit voltage and motor current at 65 hp and battery
voltage is 1 p.u. machine current.  The power ratings are pivotal for the
efficiency computations.
     The nature of the load transients, out of phase current,  voltages
and rectification are such as to impact the equipment rating  in a manner
analogous to that derived from power factor loads.  The ratings which
reflect the capability of units operating under non-ideal conditions are
given in KVA and are very important for computations of component size,
weight and cost.
     Figure 2.5 repeats the vehicle performance requirements  of Figure 2.1;
however, superimposed are the current requirements for a motor rated at
65 hp, 360 VDC, 194 amperes, at 5000 rpm with an efficiency of about 90%.
This machine,initially chosen for preliminary system comparison,would
represent advanced state-of-the-art machinery and would be of a light-
weight design so that it could produce about 0.2 hp/lb.   The specification
for the alternators depend on the specific system under consideration.
Appendix C treats these specifications along with PCU requirements.
     Tables 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, and 2.6 summarize the specifications
of the major units.  In all three systems, the use of an oil  spray cooled
alternator was investigated as a means for increasing the power density
of that component.
                                   27

-------
ro
CO
                      10
                                                      FIGURE 2.5
                                 PER  UNIT TORQUE REQUIREMENTS OF THE TRACTION MOTOR
                                          FOR SERIES-CONNECTED HYBRID SYSTEMS
20        30
 40         50
VEHICLE SPEED (MPH)
60        70

-------
                                     TABLE  2.1
 PRELIMINARY SPECIFICATIONS  OF FULL  VOLTAGE SYSTEM USING  FORCED COOLED ALTERNATOR
Rating at Base
Speed (p.u.)
Rated Power Level
Efficiency at Top
Vehicle Speed
Approximate KVA at
Top Speed
Weight (Ib)
Size (cu. ft.)
Input
1
64.5 kw
---
.__
30

Alternator
3
58x3 kw
90
61x3=183
230
Rectifier
1
57.5:kw
99.2
57.5
- 
, n(. Included within
'ua Alternator
PCU
1
54 kw
94
272
120
2.0
Motor
1
65 hp
90

325
1.27
Total


Total Series
Efficiency
75.5*
; . _---
705 Ibs.
4.32
                                     TABLE  2.2
PRELIMINARY SPECIFICATIONS OF FULL  VOLTAGE  SYSTEM USING OIL  SPRAY COOLED ALTERNATOR
Rating at Base
Speed (p.u. )
Rated Power Level
Efficiency at Top
Vehicle Speed
Approximate KVA at
Top Speed
Weight (Ib)
Size (cu. ft.)
Input
1 '
71.0 kw


30

Alternator
3
58x3 kw
82
61x3=183
165
.92
Rectifier
1
57.5 kw
99.2
57.5
---
within
aUprnatnr
PCU
1
54 kw
94*
272
120
2.0
Motor
1
65 hp
90%
---
325
1.27
Total


Total Series
Efficiency
68.6%
_._
640 Ibs.
4.19 :
                                       29

-------
                                                        TABLE 2.3
                   PRELIMINARY SPECIFICATIONS OF TWO GENERATOR SYSTEM USING FORCED COOLED ALTERNATOR
Rating at Base
Speed (p.u.)
Rated Power Level
Efficiency at Top
Vehicle Speed
Approximate KVA at
top Speed
Weight (Ib)
Size (cu. ft.)
Input
... 1.
63.0 kw
	 ..
	
30
	
Alternator #1
.3 -
3x10.2 kw
80
'"^-^if
32.3
70.0
0.55
Alternator #2
1 .5
,,1.5x54.8 kw
-J2-
86.0
116
0.75
Choke
---

9? .. ',
29.8
80
.2
Rectifier #1
- -1
10 kw
. ... 99.2 .
10
--
w/alternator
Rectifier #2
1
54 kw
99.2
54

w/alternator
PCD
1
20 kw
94
272
70
1.7
Motor
1
65 hp
90
--
325
1.27
Total


77.0

691 Ib.
4.47
00
o
                                                        TABLE 2.4
                    PRELIMINARY SPECIFICATIONS OF TWO GENERATOR SYSTEM USING OIL SPRAY COOLED ALTERNATOR
Rating at Base
Speed (p.u.)
Rated Power Level
Efficiency at Top
Vehicle Speed
Approximate KVA at
Top Speed
Weight (Ib)
Input
62.5
	
65.6
30
Alternator #1
3
3x10.2 kw
Alternator #2
1.5
1.5x54.8 kw
^73 	 	 83^.
80
32.3
40.0
86.0
83
Choke


99
29.8
80
Rectifier #1
1
10 kw
99.2
10
--
Rectifier #2
1
54 kw
99.2
54
---
PCU
~T~
20 kw
94
272
70
Motor
1
65 hp
90

325
Total


71.0

641 Ib.

-------
                                             TABLE 2.5
   PRELIMINARY SPECIFICATION OF SERIES SYSTEM WITH ALTERNATOR PCU USING FORCED COOLED ALTERNATOR

Rating at Base
Speed (p.u. )
Rated Power Level
Efficiency at Top
Vehicle Speed
Approximate KVA at
Top Speed
Weight (Ib)
Size (cu. ft.)
Input
1
68.5 kw

--
30

Alternator
1
61.6 kw
90
64.6
102
0.7
Rectifier & Boost PCU
with Storage Inductor
1
57.5 kw
99.2x94=93.3
57.5
120
2.0
PCU
1
54 kw
94%
272
120
2.0
Motor
i
65 hp
90%
)
325
1.27
Total


71. OX

697
5.97
                                             TABLE 2.6
PRELIMINARY SPECIFICATION OF SERIES SYSTEM WITH ALTERNATOR PCU USING OIL SPRAY COOLED ALTERNATOR
Rating at Base
Speed (p.u.)
Rated Power Level
Efficiency at Top
Vehicle Speed
Approximate KVA at
Top Speed
Weight (Ib)
Size (cu. ft.)
Input
1
75.5 kw
, 
~
30
" .
Alternator
1
61.6 kw
82
64.6
60
0.55
Rectifier 
Boost PCU
1
57.5
99.2x94=93.3
57.5
120
2.0
PCU
nr
54 kw
94X
272
120
2.0
Motor
65 hp
90%

325
1.27
Total


65. 5X

655
5.82
                                               31

-------
     2.3.1  Preliminary Selection - Criteria
     The assessment of the three candidates is based on computing power
train weights, volumes and efficiencies at selected operating conditions.
     The first set of conditions termed "non-hybrid conditions"  character-
izes power train efficiency at selected speeds assuming there is no battery.
Under these circumstances, the engine power must be computed so  it can
supply the vehicle's cruise power at the wheels taking into account power
train losses.  The road power demand at various vehicle cruise speeds is:
          21 mph - 3.75 hp or 2.8 kw
          42.50 mph - 15.00 hp or 11.2 kw
          60.00 mph - 28.75 hp or 21.4 kw
          85.00 mph - 65.00 hp or 48.5 kw
     The second set of operating conditions which are analyzed involves
using typical urban road power requirements to calculate battery charge
and discharge power.  The engine power is either held at a constant level
in the urban mode or is allowed to throttle up to the road cruise demand
of the highway mode.  During the LA-4 runs (reference 1) a 4000  pound car
required about 23 kw mean maximum road power for acceleration events.  That
is, if one computes the peak power required for each acceleration from
rest, the average of the peaks is 23 kw.  The average speed on LA-4 is about
21 mph and as shown above, the road demand at that speed is 3.75 hp.   The
system which draws minimum power from the battery during acceleration or
is able to deliver largest charge power to the battery during cruise .con-
ditions would be preferred.  For these preliminary calculations, a constant
engine power level of 15 hp is assumed for vehicle speeds below  42.5 mph.
     The computations for non-hybrid and hybrid conditions are found in 
Appendix C and are summarized in Table I of the summary section.  Of the
three systems, the series system with alternator PCU has the lowest over-
all efficiency.  The two generator scheme offers slightly higher efficiency
of the two other systems, however, its control is potentially more difficult.
For example, the need to control both alternator fields in order to control
engine power may cause stability problems in the electrical and  mechanical
loops.
                                   32

-------
                                                     TABLE 2.7

                                   COMPARISON OF NON-HYBRID SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

                                        WITH OIL SPRAY-COOLED ALTERNATORS
CO
GO
System
Full Voltage
Series
Two Generator
Series w/alter-
nator PCU
Efficiency
21 mph (%)
21.0
24.6
23.4
Efficiency
42 mph (%)
51.5
57.0
44.5
Efficiency
60 mph (%)
60.4
65.0
49.5
Efficiency at
top vehicle
speed
68.6
71.0.
65.5
Weight
Ob)
640
641
655
Size
(cu ft)
4.19
4.22
5.82

-------
     Oil spray cooled alternators were also examined as a part of the
system selection process.  Table 2.7 summarizes the non-hybrid cruise
efficiency of power trains using this type of machine.  The alternator
PCU system has the lowest efficiency at higher vehicle speeds and was
rejected.  The efficiency comparison between the other two systems again
favors the two generator system; however, there is a substantial loss
in overall efficiency in both systems due to the use of the higher power
density-lower efficiency alternator.
     The full voltage series system with a forced air cooled alternator
was therefore chosen as the candidate series system.
3.0  CHARACTERIZATION OF PARALLEL HYBRID SYSTEM
     The parallel hybrid system selected for this study is the Electro-
mechanical Transmission (EMT) system developed by TRW Systems.  This
power train has been described in reference 1 and therefore its
modes of operation will be discussed only briefly.
     3.1  Description of EMT
          The EMT system consists of a planetary gear, alternator, alter-
nator PCU, traction motor and motor PCU as shown in Figures 3.1 and 3.2.
The engine input power drives the sun gear of the planetary set; the ring
gear drives the power train propeller shaft  and  the planet carrier drives
the alternator.  The planetary gear algebraically divides the input power
of the engine between the ring gear and planet carrier in direct proportion
to the speeds of the respective elements.  Thus, when the propeller shaft
is stopped (car at rest), the planet carrier and alternator turn at maxi-
mum speed and all engine power goes into the alternator.  As the car ac-
celerates and the propeller shaft speeds up, the planet carrier slows down
and less engine-produced energy is absorbed by the generator.
                                           . i
     In urban operation the engine runs at constant speed and power.  Its
throttle is preset and its speed is controlled by increasing or decreasing
the alternator's load to reflect a balancing torque back on the engine
shaft.
                                   34

-------
                 INTERNAL
                 COMBUSTION
                 ENGINE
en
           URBAN
           REFERENCE
           SPEED
                                             FIGURE 3.1
                                 EMT HYBRID SYSTEM IN URBAN TRAFFIC MODE
PLANETARY
GEAR TRAIN
                                      ALTERNATOR
                                     ,ALTERNATOR
                                      PCU
                                                                          DIFFERENTIAL
                                                       PROPELLER SHAFT
                       MOTOR
                          TRACTION OR
                          REGENERATION
                          POWER
             DRIVING
             WHEELS
                       MOTOR
                       PCU
  OPERATOR
      TORQUE
      COMMAND
                                                             BATTERY

-------
                                             FIGURE 3.2
                                EMT HYBRID SYSTEM IN HIGHWAY TRAFFIC MODE
INTERNAL
COMBUSTION
ENGINE
co
                                   PLANETARY
                                       TRAIN
                                                    PROPELLER SHAFT
                                            BRAKE APPLIED
                                            TO ALTENATOR
                                            SHAFT
                                I  ALTERNATOR   j

                                L___T___J
                                           MOTOR
                                        I
     I
               /\ THROTTLE
               *T-* SERVO
                 I

I  ALTERNATOR   |
I  PCU          |
I	._	J
                                                 DRIVING
                                                        MOTOR
                                                        PCU
                                             J-.T
 DIFFERENTIAL


	OPERATOR
      TORQUE
      COMMAND
                                              BATTERY
                                                   BATTERY
                                                   CURRENT
                                                   INTEGRAL


-------
     The torque on the propeller shaft is directly related to the engine's
torque and planetary gear ratio.  Since they are both constant in urban
operation, the propeller shaft torque is essentially constant in that mode.
The driving wheel torque is therefore must be controlled by a traction motor
which is capable of adding torque to (motor operation) or subtracting
torque from (generator operation) the propeller shaft.
     PCUs are provided between the alternator and battery bus in order
that the alternator's output voltage can be boosted to battery voltage at
constant armature current.  (Alternator field flux is maintained constant
at saturation.) A bi-directional PCU between battery bus and motor receives
operator commands in terms of desired motor torque magnitude and sign.  For
motoring, the PCU acts as a chopper as in the PCU for the full voltage
series system.  For generation, it acts as a boost .PCU as in the series
system with an alternator PCU.
     During highway operation, the planet carrier and the alternator are
locked out and the engine speed increases linearly with road speed.  The
propeller shaft feels an engine torque proportional to the developed
torque of the throttled engine.  The motor/PCU continues to operate the
same as in the urban mode.  Engine throttle levels are slowly changed by
a battery feedback loop as described in the full voltage system.

     3.2  Specification of Parallel System Components
          Previous studies showed that the continuous power rating of the
traction motor for the EMT could be less than one-half required for 85 mph
cruise.  Figure  3.3 shows how the EMT's peak motor power varies with vehicle
 speed.   In  contrast with  the  series  system,  peak  motor  power of the
 parallel  system reaches  a maximum around 42.5  mph and then  falls  rapidly
 to zero at  85 mph.   On the other hand,  since the  motor  must deliver the
 power for vehicle-acceleration,  the  motor will  have to  operate at per-
 haps two  to three times  rated torque at one-fourth its  rated speed.
     -      ^ . .
    : One'method suggested for reducing  the motor  torque and improving
 motor efficiency at lower speeds is  to  use a multi-step gear ratio
 between the motor and the wheels.   Thus,  at any road speed  and power the
                                   37

-------
                                                     FIGURE 3.3   .
                                 POWER LEVELS OF EMT HYBRID SYSTEMS  MOTOR AND ENGINE
CO
00

                                                     40        50
                                                    VEHICLE SPEED (MPH)

-------
motor will be able  to  turn  at  a  higher  rpm and  lower torque and reduce
ohmic losses and PCU current requirements.
     Table 3.1 presents a comparison of efficiencies  of  the motor at
various peak load conditions with and without gearing.   The gear ratio
schedule between the motor  and differential  is  assumed to  be:
          2:1 from 0 to 42.5 mph
          1.5:1 from 42.5 to 55 mph
          1:1 from 55  to 85 mph
The characteristics of the  motor on which  these calculations are based
can be found in Appendix D.

                                TABLE, 3.1                ,  	
              EFFECT OF GEAR SHIFTING ON EMT TRACTION MOTOR
Road
Speed
(mph)
30
42.5*
42.5
50
55.0*,
55.0
70.0
85.0
Road
Power
(hp)
95
114
114
125
120 .
120
103
27
Torque
P..U.
10


7.9


4.8
: 1
Current
[amperes)
900


720


455
130
Motor
Voltage
Motor
RPM
113 12500


166


200
172


4250


5950
7200
Motor
Eff.
70


78


84
89
. With Gear Shift
Torque
P.U.
5
4,2
5.6

4.5
6.75
4.8
1
Current
amperes )
500
435
530

460
625
455
130
Motor
Voltage
174
224
197

223
182
200
172
Motor
RPM
5100
7200
5400

7000
4650
5950
7200
Motor
Eff.
81
87
82

87
79
.84
89
*Values immediately before gear shift
                                   39

-------
     The greatest improvement in motor efficiency takes place at low
vehicle speeds where gearing affects motor torque requirement the most.
While the series system's motor efficiency is also improved by using a
variable ratio gear train, low speed improvement is not as great as in
the EMT system since the series machine is rated at a higher nominal
torque level and thus can operate more efficiently at low speeds.
     A secondary benefit of gearing is that is may allow some relaxation
of battery requirements in terms of power density.  Improved machine effi-
ciency means less power demand on the battery for acceleration and for
similar motor loads a lighter weight or low power density battery could
be used.
     The alternator for the EMT system operates under unique circumstances.
The alternator's speed varies over a 10:1 speed range between vehicle speeds
of 0 to 42.5 mph.  Since its shaft torque is essentially constant over that
range, its input power varies by a factor of ten.  In order to utilize the
machine's field as fully as possible, the machine must be run with a satur-
ated field under all cases.  The resulting 10:1 variation in alternator
voltage is handled by boost power conditioning between the alternator and
battery.  The preliminary rating of the alternator was based on it being
capable of absorbing the full output of the engine for extended periods
(car at rest).  Thus, assuming a nominal 15 hp engine output in urban
operation and a 90% efficiency planetary gear system, the alternator was
rated at 10 kw input/12,000 rpm.
     The planetary gear efficiency is dependent on the detailed design of
the gear system and its lubrication.  The planetary gear box designed for
the EMT dynamometer demonstration combined planetary elements of a conven-
tional automatic transmission with spur gears within a completely oil-
flooded housing.  With the addition of extra gears to adjust the planetary
ratios to the various input/output shafts, the average efficiency of the
gear box computed as the sum of the alternator and propeller shaft outputs
divided by the engine input was around 75%.  Various mechanical design
handbooks indicate gear efficiencies typically >95%.  In order to
                                   40

-------
reflect the variability of design, two planetary gear system efficiencies
were chosen, 80 and 90%, and the effect of gear efficiency on overall
system efficiency was treated parametrically.
     Other gearing efficiencies were estimated from handbook values.
Generally, gear efficiencies were taken as a decreasing function gear or
shaft speeds to account for windage and lubrication losses which would
tend to increase non-linearity with speed.
     The power conditioning units were characterized in terms of their
current and KVA capabilities.  Detailed designs were made to identify:
            appropriate SCR and rectifier elements
            commutation capacitors, inductors and reactors
            fusing
          t  relays
            electronic logic elements
     Two designs for the motor PCU were developed.  One had a current
handling capacity of 900 amperes, the other 600 amperes.  The lower current
design was used where variable gearing was assumed; in these cases, the
gearing would reduce motor and hence PCU current and commutation require-
ments.  Complete descriptions of the PCUs are to be found in Appendix E.
4.0  CHARACTERIZATION OF HYBRID VEHICLE BATTERIES
     The lead-acid batteries were characterized in terms of their internal
impedance.  A review of battery charge/discharge characteristics ' as well as
studies from the hybrid vehicle lead-acid development program ' indicated
battery impedance was a function of battery design and charge state.

     Experience with the EMT and previous computer analyses * ' showed that
the variation of the battery charge state during LA-4 operation was so
small  that charge state effects on impedance could be neglected and
full charge impedance was taken as the battery variable.  Measurements
taken during the lead-acid development program showed that a 240 VDC
battery (120 cells) having a 75-second power density of over 150 watts/
pound would have an impedance of 86x10-3 ohms.  Degraded battery conditions
were modeled by assuming impedances of 170xlO~3 and 240xlO"3 ohms, reflect-
ing 50% and 67% losses in active material area.
                                   41

-------
     A charge model for the battery was not incorporated as part of the
program.  Previous analyses had shown that the energy associated with gas-
ing during charge would be very small relative to the charge or discharge
power-levels.  Experiments on the EMT showed the water losses from standard
SLI batteries operating on the LA-4 driving cycle have typically been very
small, also suggesting a low energy loss due to gasing.
5.0  MODELING AND SIMULATION OF HYBRID VEHICLES
     5.1  Instantaneous Values of Component Performance of Series and
          Parallel Hybrid Power Trains
          Appendix F presents the detailed computer program models and
simulation procedures for analyzing both the instantaneous and LA-4 per-
formance of the full voltage series and parallel hybrid systems.  The
instantaneous values, i.e., the values of power train component operation
at matrix values of vehicle acceleration and speed are to be found in
Appendix G.
     The computer print-out is divided into those quantities which are
velocity and acceleration dependentmotor power levels, battery voltages
and currents, PCU efficiencies, etc., and those quantities which are
vehicle speed dependent only,such as engine power level.
     Those places in the computer listing where the motor PCU chopper
duty cycle, ct, equals 1.0, are points where, for the particular vehicle
parameters of that computation, the battery voltage either sank too low
to provide the motor's terminal voltage requirement or the voltage of the
motor was too low relative to the battery voltage for the motor PCU acting
as a boost PCU to charge the battery.

     5.2  LA-4 Performance of Series and Parallel Hybrid Power Trains
          The performance of series and parallel hybrids was evaluated for
urban operation  as defined by  the LA-4 route.   The  velocity-time profiles
used as inputs were gathered  from fifth  wheel  data  of actual  cars  driving  a
specific route  in  Los  Angeles  traffic during morning  hours.   The route is
such that it combines  congested, freeway &  boulevard  traffic  in  a  manner
representative of  L.A.  driving.   A composite of LA-4  velocity-time data  forms
                                   42

-------
basis for the 1972 Federal driving cycle; however, the LA-4 route is
longer, requiring about 30 minutes and covering about 10 miles.   A total
of 14 hours of vehicle operation, representing about 52,000, one-second
events had been previously reduced for computer input.
     The performance of simulated vehicles operating on the LA-4 driving
profile was computed by multiplying the instantaneous component  operating
values by the probability of occurrence in the LA-4 velocity-acceleration
matrix.  Appendix F describes the procedure more fully and also  indicates
how coiiiponent driving cycle averages and RMS values were computed.
     Figures 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, and 5.5 show block diagrams of  the full
voltage series system along with the average efficiencies and input/out-
put levels which result from operation on the LA-4 cycle.  Figures 5.6,
5.7, 5.8, 5.9, and 5.10 present similar information for the parallel system.
     The numbers associated with each block in the diagrams represent the
average efficiency of the component during LA-4 operation.  The  battery
losses are shown as a separate item; in each of the runs the battery charge
state did not change from run start to finish.  The arrows and power levels
show the power flow direction and average values at selected points of the
system.  Average power levels at other points can be found by multiplica-
tion of the efficiencies within the blocks.  In all the calculations
vehicle accessory loads were neglected.
     5.3  Effect of Series and Parallel System Parameters on Overall
          System Efficiency
          The important operating parameters of the two hybrid systems
were varied to determine their effect on system performance.  The para-
meters which were varied were the engine input power in the urban mode,
battery impedance, the efficiencies of gear 1, gear 2 and the planetary
gearing.  The effects of the introduction of a variable transmission ratio
between the motor output shaft and the differential, and the possible
benefits of vehicle kinetic energy regeneration were also studied.  A
single test run was also made on the series system model operating without
the engine to simulate the performance of an all-electric vehicle.
                                   43

-------
                   FIGURE 5.1

FULL VOLTAGE  SERIES SYSTEM ON  LA-4  MISSION WITH
        VARIABLE  GEARING AND REGENERATION
                     RUN IA

                  Tlryc = 55.2%
ENGINE
18. 3 HP

GEAR 2
97.5%


ALTERNATOR
67.6%


RECTIFIER
99%
8.9KW

10.2 KW
1.74KW
MOTOR
PCU
92 59f>
88.4%


MOTOR
83.5%
82.3%


GEAR 1
95 6%
96%
10.1 HP
3.34 HP
WHEELS
                       BATTERY
                    DISSIPATED POWER
                       288 WATTS

-------
                   FIGURE 5.2
FULL VOLTAGE  SERIES SYSTEM ON LA-4  MISSION WITH
        VARIABLE  GEARING AND REGENERATION
                     RUN GA

                       = 52.0%

ENGINE
19.1 HP

GEAR 2
97.5%


ALTERNATOR
68.2%


RECTIFIER
99%
9.42 KW

10. 1 KW
1.75 KW
.
MOTOR
PCU
92.1%
88.7%"


MOTOR
83.4%
82.4%


GEAR 1
OC "JOT
96%
9.92 HP
3. 34 HP
WHEELS
                         BATTERY
                      DISSIPATED POWER
                        577 WATTS

-------
                    FIGURE 5.3

FULL VOLTAGE SERIES SYSTEM ON LA-4 MISSION WITHOUT
          VARIABLE GEARING, UITH REGENERATION
                      RUN CA
                   nsys = 47.9%
ENGINE

21.3 HP

GEAR 2
98%



ALTERNATOR
69.7%



RECTIFIER
99%



10.75 KW

11.5 KW
'1.48 KW
BATTERY
DISSIPATED POWER
358 WATTS
MOTOR
PCU
90%
82.5%



MOTOR
75. 3%^
74.4%



GEAR 1
97.3%^
97.3%

10.2 HP
3. 34 HP
WHEELS




-------
                                               FIGURE 5.4
                           FULL VOLTAGE  SERIES SYSTEM ON LA-4  MISSION WITH
                                   VARIABLE GEARING,  WITHOUT  REGENERATION
                                                 RUN  BBA
                                               SYS
       21.4HP
ENGINE
GEAR 2
97.5%
ALTERNATOR
  69.7%
RECTIFIER
  99%
                                 10.8KW  10.1 KW
MOTOR
PCU
92.1%
                                                   BATTERY
                                                DISSIPATED POWER
                                                  414 WATTS
                                                                                            9.92 HP
GEAR 1
95.3%
                                                                                                   WHEELS

-------
                                             FIGURE 5.5

                       FULL VOLTAGE  SERIES  SYSTEM ON LA-4 MISSION  WITHOUT
                                   VARIABLE  GEARING OR  REGENERATION
                                               RUN AAA
                                            SYS
       23.8 HP
ENGINE
GEAR 2

97.8%
ALTERNATOR
   71.2%
RECTIFIER
 99%
                                                12.3 KW 11.5KW
MOTOR
PCU
90.2%
MOTOR

75.3%
                                                                             10.2 HP
GEAR 1

96.2%
                                                                                                   WHEELS
                                                   BATTERY
                                                DISSIPATED POWER
                                                   289 WATTS

-------
                                                         FIGURE 5.6
                          EMT  SYSTEM ON LA-4 MISSION  WITH VARIABLE BEARING AND  REGENERATION
                                                           RUN TAA
                                                             =75.7%
VD
                            ENGINE
                                    13.3 HP
PLANETARY
  GEAR
  90%
                                                         6.45 HP
                                                         5.36 HP
                                                  4.58 KW
                                            ALTERNATOR
                                              81%
                       6.11 HP
                 VARIABLE
                  GEAR
                  98%
                                            RECTIFIER PCU
                                            ALTERNATOR
                                              95%
GEAR1
 95%
                                            10.2 HP
                                                                                         3.33 HP
                                                                                                WHEELS
                                                   3.52 KW
                                                             BATTERY
                                                            DISSIPATED
                                                             POWER
                                                            277 WATTS
                                  MOTOR   '
                                86.3% 86.3%
                                 MOTOR PCU '
                                 89%   92%
                             3.02 KW
                                       5.84 KW

-------
                                                          FIGURE 5.7
                           EMT SYSTEM ON LA-4 MISSION WITH  VARIABLE GEARING AND REGENERATION
                                                             RUN XA
                                                         Tlcyc = 66.6%
s
                             ENGINE
                                     15.3 HP
PLANETARY
  GEAR
   80%
                                                          6.54 HP
                                                          5.41 HP
                                                   4.72 KW
                                             ALTERNATOR
                                               81.2%
                                                                    5.84 HP
                                                              VARIABLE
                                                               GEAR
                                             RECTIFIER PCD
                                             ALTERNATOR
                                                95%
                                                    3.64 KW
GEAR 1
 95%
                                                                                           10 HP
                                                                                           3.34 HP
WHEELS
                                                               BATTERY
                                                              DISSIPATED
                                                               POWER
                                                              556 WATTS
                                  MOTOR

                                 86.2% 86.2%
                                 MOTOR PCU
                                 89.6%  91.1%
                                                                           3.07 KW
                                        5.66 KW

-------
                                                        FIGURE 5.8

                       EMT SYSTEM ON  LA-4 MISSION WITHOUT VARIABLE GEARING, WITH REGENERATION
                                                          RUN RA
                                                            ~ 6 I . 7%
en
                                ENGINE
                                        16,5 HP
PLANETARY
  GEAR
   80%
                                                       5,17 KW
                                                ALTERNATOR
                                                 82.2%
                                                RECTIFIER PCU
                                                ALTERNATOR
                                                  95%
                                                       4.03 KW
                                                                 BATTERY
                                                                DISSIPATED
                                                                  POWER
                                                                 298 WATTS
                                  MOTOR

                                82.2% 81.3%
                                 MOTOR PCU
                                85%   88.5%
                                                                              2.85 KW
                                       6.16 KW

-------
                                                       FIGURE 5.9

                      EMT SYSTEM ON LA-4 MISSION  WITH  VARIABLE  GEARING,  WITHOUT REGENERATION
                                                          RUN LLA
                                                      nSYS  = ^'^
tn
ro
                             ENGINE
                                     18.6 HP
PLANETARY
  GEAR
   80%
                                                          7.64 HP
                                                           2.67 HP
                                                    5.98 KW
                                             ALTERNATOR
                                              83.5%
                                                                    5.20 HP
                                                               VARIABLE
                                                                GEAR
                                                                98%
                                             RECITFIER PCU
                                             ALTERNATOR
                                               95%
                                                   4.75 KW
GEAR 1
 95%
                                             10.1 HP
                                  MOTOR    i

                                82.6% 82.6%
                                MOTOR PCU '
                                78.7% 91.8%
                                                                          1.26 KW
                                       5.1 KW
                                                              BATTERY
                                                             DISSIPATED
                                                              POWER
                                                             388 WATTS
                                                                                                  WHEELS

-------
                                                         FIGURE 5.10

                           EMT SYSTEM ON  LA-4 MISSION WITHOUT VARIABLE  GEARING  OR REGENERATION
                                                            RUN JJA
                                                        nSY3  = 53.6%
U)
                          ENGINE
                                  19.0 HP
PLANETARY
  GEAR
   80%
                                                        7.83 HP
                                                       2.75 HP
                                                 6.17 KW
                                          ALTERNATOR
                                            83.7%
                                                                  5.39 HP
                 VARIABLE
                  GEAR
                  98%
                                          RECTIFIER PCU
                                          ALTERNATOR
                                             95%
GEAR 1
  95%
                                                                                       10.? HP
                                  MOTOR

                                81.5% 81.2%
                                 MOTOR PCU '
                                 72.2% 89.0%
                                                 4.9 KW
                              I.48KWJ
WHEELS
                                                                                  5.66 KW
                                                            BATTERY
                                                           DISSIPATED
                                                            POWER
                                                           216 WATTS

-------
     Tables 5.1 and 5.2 present listings of the combinations of parameters
and operating modes of the more meaningful simulation runs.  In the initial
runs it was impossible to assign appropriate parameter values such that
during LA-4 driving the battery charge state would be constant.  Thus, many
of the runs shown here are part of a learning procedure by which we were
able to define the conditions for constant charge state.
     Tables 5.3 through 5.6 present the average and selected RMS values of
the hybrid systems and major components for the LA-4 mission.  Definitions
of the symbols can be found in the nomenclature.

          5.3.1  Effect of System Parameters on Full Voltage Series System
                 Performance           -
               /        '.                          -  '
                 The effect of inserting a variable gear ratio between the
motor output shaft and the differential is to increase the series system's
efficiency by about 15%.  Comparing runs CA and IA shows that system
effi ci ency.i ncreases from 47.9% to 55.0%.
     The effect of doubling battery impedance from 86 to 172 mi Hi ohms in
a fixed gear ratio series system is to decrease system efficiency as1 shown
in runs K and CA.  System efficiency falls from 47.9% to 44.0%.  In a
geared system the effect is similar as indicated in runs IA and GA where
the respective efficiency decrease is from 55% to 52%.
     The effect of degrading the efficiency of the gearing between the
engine and the alternator (^ is in direct proportion to the efficiency
change.  Comparing runs Z, CA and K shows  that a decrease of ng2 from .98-
.95 to .90-.87 reduces the system efficiency from 47.9% to 44.2%, nearly
a 10% reduction in efficiency.  The effect of changing the differential
gear efficiency (g-|) is similar.
     Comparison of runs CA, AAA, GA and BBA shows that regeneration affects
overall efficiency.  Without regeneration, the series hybrid system effi-
ciency loses about 10 percentage points.
                                   54

-------
                 TABLE 5.1
LIST OF INPUT PARAMETER VARIATIONS FOR THE
        SERIES SYSTEM COMPUTATIONS
Battery
Resistance
Run PIC (xl3a'
Designation (hp) B ngl
C
D
F
G
H
I
J
K
Z
CA
GA
AA
AAA
BB
BBA
IA
20.0
17.5
17.5
20.0
20.0
17.5
17.5
20.0
20.0
19.4
17
20
22.2 ,
20
19.5
16
86
86
86
172
240
86
86
172
86
86
172
86
86
172
172
86
98-95
97-94
98-95
97-94
97-94
97-94
90-87
98-95
98-95
98-95
97-94
98-95
98-95
97-94
97-94
97-94
V
98-95
98-95.
98-95
98-95
98-95
98-95
98-95
98-95
90-87
98-95
98-95
98-95
98-95
98-95
98-95
98-95
Variable
Gearing
no
yes
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
no
no .
yes
no
no
yes
yes
yes
Regeneration
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
no
no
no
yes
                    55

-------
                           TABLE  5.2

           LIST OF  INPUT  PARAMETER VARIATIONS FOR

                 PARALLEL  SYSTEM  COMPUTATIONS
THE
Run
Designation
R
RA
X
P
Q
S
T
TA
TAA
U
V
W
Y
CC
CCA
EE
EEA
XA
JJ
JJA
KK
KKA
LLA
Battery
Resistance
PIC (x!03n)
(hp) RB ngo
15
14.9
15
15
13
15
13
11
11.75
15
13
13
13
15
19.7
15
18.6
13.6
15
17.8
15
17
17.25
86
86
172
86
86
172
86
86
86
86
86
172
86
86
86
172
172
172
86
86
172
172
172
80
80
80
90
90
90
90
90
90
80
80
80
90
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
ngl
97-94
97-94
97-94
97-94
97-94
97-94
97-94
97-94
97-94
97-94
97-94
97-94
98-87
97-94
97-94
97-94
97-94
97-94
97-94
97-94
97-94
97-94
97-94
Step
Down
Gearing
no
no
yes
no
no
no
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no
no
yes
yes
yes
no
no
yes
yes
yes
Regeneration
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
no*
no*
no*
no*
yes
engine power only**
engine nower only**
engine power only**
engine power only**
engine power only**
* Traction motor not operated as generator


** Traction motor operated as generator but absorbs
   engine power contribution to propeller shaft only
                              56

-------
                              TABLE 5.3
               PERFORMANCE OF FULL VOLTAGE SERIES SYSTEM
                      COMPONENTS ON LA-4 MISSION
Run
 ^_ u
Urban Engine Power, hp 17.5
Battery Resistance, 103n 86
Motor-Wheel Gear Ratio variable
ngl .97-. 94
ng2 .98-. 95
in drive
in regen
PM<->
TnO .
Mm hp
nu ' . r .
in drive
in regen
MI ' . . .
in drive
in regen
/JM"
PPCU
in drive
in regen
~n
B u
charge
	 discharge
LlC> hp

p.
HI
I
in drive
. in regen
*PCU
in drive
in regen
~TD
B .
charge
discharge
TA
drive probability
regen probability
6
1
-1
2
1
1
-1
1
1
-6
4
1
1
-5
-9
.9123+00
.4537+01
.1324+01
.0192+01
.3097+01
.5166+01
.0894+01
.1515+01
.3531+01
.6917+00
. 6843+01
.2177+01
.486 +01
. 7594+00
.583 -01
-9-. 848 +00
9.9857+00
1
1
9
1
1
1
-1
7
5
6
-2
-1
-4
4
3
0,
0,
. 9634+01
.4325+01
.8379+00
. 5767+02
.3763+02
.394 +02
. 3339+02
.3875+01
.1595+01
.3479+01
.3173+01
. 6845+00
.0103+01-
.5663+01
.8174+01
,70516
,29483
17.5
86
1:1
.98-. 95
.98-. 95
6.
1.
-1.
2.
1.
1.
-1.
1.
1.
-6.
8.
1.
1.
-5.
3.
-8.
1.
1.
1.
9.
2.
2.
2.
-2.
8.
5.
7.
-2.
4.
-3.
5.
3.
0.
0.
9119+00
4536+01
1324+01
0066+01
3829+01
5008+01
1007+01
2277+01
4855+01
1128+00
9723+01
3089+01
6451+01
0481+00
7428-01
6108+00
2832+01
9633+01
4324+01
8373+00
5506+02
0691+02
0676+02
0727+02
1607+01
587 +01
0715+01
0362+01
161 +00
5097+01
8597+01
9615+01
70518
29481
20
240
variable
.97-. 94
.98-. 95
6.
1.
-1.
2.
1.
1.
-1.
1.
1.
9408+00
4622+01
1324+01
0234+01
3964+01
5255+01
0894+01
,1562+01
,3611+01
-6.6917+00
4,
1,
.6939+01
.2181+01
1.48 +01
-5
-2
-1
9
2
1
1
1
1
1
-1
7
.952 +00
.4571+00
,0361+01
.4908+00
.1966+01
.6029+01
.1226+01
. 58 +02
.3819+02
.4021+02
. 3339+02
.5375+01
5.1721+01
6.3983+01
-2
-6
-4
4
4.
0.
0.
.2566+01
.3354+00
.0573+01
.7795+01
4695+01
70394
29605H
20
172
1:1
.98-. 95
.98-. 95
6.
1.
~T.'
1.
1.
-1.
1.
1.
-6.
9.
1.
1.
-5.
-7.
-9.
1.
2.
1.
1.
2.
2.
2.
-2.
8.
9127+00
4538+01
1324+01
01 93+01
39Q7+01
51 67+01
0894+01
2379+01
5024+01
054 +00
009 +01
3343+01
6812+01
0494+00
0269-01
6202+00
2451+01
1877+01
5964+01
118 +01
5592+02
0757+02
0832+02
0576+02
8721+01
5.8591+01
7.4847+01
-1.
1.
-3.
6.
4.
0.
0.
9715+01
,8099+00
8385+01
,1224+01
5109+01
70514
29485
20
86
1:1
.98-. 95
.90-, 87
6
1
-1
2
1
1
-1
1
1
-6
8
1
1
-5
1
-9
1
2
1
1
2
2
2
-2
8
.9119+00
.4536+01
.1324+01
.0066+01
.3829+01
. 5008+01
.1007+01
.2277+01
.4855+01
. 1 1 28+00
.9723+01
. 3089+01
.6451+01
.0481+00
.4607-01
.5777+00
.1655+01
.1875+01
.4657+01
.0067+01
. 5506+02
.0691+02
.0676+02
.0727+02
.167 +OT
5.59 +01
7.0757+01
-2
3
-3
5
3
0 	
.0363+01
.2632+00
.906 +01
.3361+01
.8932+01
. 7flRlfi
0.29481
                                   57

-------
Run
Urban Engine Power
Battery Resistance, 103n
Motor-Wheel Gear Ratio
nal
:> '
102
PR. hp
in drive
in regen
^Mo- "P
pMo- hD
in drive
in regen
TMi. k*
in drive
in regen
~n^, drive
~u, regen
$
PPCU
in drive
in regen
"npcu. drive
~fOJ> re9en
*S
charge
discharge
TIC
lAi
PAD
DA
$
^M
in drive
in regen
Ip. max
-D>CU
'pcy
in drive
in regen
IB
charge
discharoe
fB loss, watts
IA
drive probability
regen probability
charge probability
a set equal to one
in drive
Remarks
C
20
86
1:1
.98-. 95
.98-. 95
6.9034+00
1.4525+01
-1.1324+01
2.0039+01
1.382 +01
1.4997+01
-1.1007+01
1.2271+01
1.4845+01
-6.1127+00
7.5328-01
7.4468-01
8.9713+01
1.3083+01
1.6443+01
-5.047 +00
9.0283-01
8.2566-01
-9.585 -01
-9.0848+00
1.3202+01
2.1872+01
1.596 +01
1.1177+01
7.0032-01
2.5504+02
2.0689+02
2.0673+02
-2.0727+02
1.1475+03
8.1428+01
5.5788+01
7.0611+01
-2.0337+01
-1.2342+00
-3.7035+01
6.1152+01
3.5878+02
4.2329+01
0.70495
0.29476
0.63519
0.10584
0.00007
CA
19.4
86
1:1
.98-. 95
.98-. 95
6.9034+00
1.4525+01
-1.1324+01
2.0039+01
1.382 +01
1.4997+01
rl. 1007+01
1.2271+01
1.4845+01
-6.1127+00
7.5328-01
7.4468-01
8.9713+01
1.3084+01
1.6444+01
-5.0465+00
9.0277-01
8.2556-01
-6.3562-01
-9.5453+00
1.1871+01
2.1335+01
1.5567+01
1.0852+01
6.971 -01
2.5504+02
2.0689+02
2.0673+02
-2.07?7+0?
1.1475+03
8.1385+01
5.5759+01
7.0575+01
-2.0324+01
6.4593-02
-3.8886+01
5.4741+11
3.5846+02
4.3859+01
0.07495
0.29476
0.58381
0.10584
0.00007
G
20
172
variable
.97-. 94
.98-. 95
6.6128+00
1.4156+01
-1.1324+01
1.9493+01
1.362 +01
1.4766+01
-1.0894+01
1.1278+01
1 . 3207+01
-6.6917+00
8.3371-01
8.2369-01
4.6323+01
1.1853+01
1.4342+01
-5.9365+00
9.2086-01
8.8714-01
r2. 7011+00
-1.025 +01
9.6094+00
2.1833+01
1 . 5932+01
1.1151+01
6.9991-01
1 . 5653+02
1 . 3683+02
1.3828+02
-1.3339+02
1.1589+03
7.2861+01
5.0764+01
6.2419+01
-2.3051+01
-7.5855+00
-4.079 +01
4.6561+01
5.7691+02
4.4649+01
0.70090
0.29476
0.61718
0.10177
0.00407
GA
17
172
variable
.97-. 94
.98-. 95
6.6128+00
1.4156+01
-1.1324+01
1 . 9493+01
1.362 +01
1.4766+01
-1.0894+01
1.1278+01
1.3207+01
-6.6917+00
8.3371-01
8.2360-01
4.6323+01
1.1S5 +01
1.4336+01
-5.9397+00
9.2123-01
8.8762-01
-1.1019+00
-9.6383+00
9.8358+00
1.9137+01
1 . 3962+01
9.5311+00
6.8265-01
1 . 5653+02
1 . 3683+02
1 . 3828+02
-1.3339+n?
1.1589+03
7.3217+01
5.1002+01
6.2709+01
-2.3163+01
-1.1245+00
-3.8417+01
4.6657+01
5.774 +02
3.8141+01
0.70090
0.29476
0.55921
0.10177
0.00407
' -
AA
20.
86
1:1
.98-. 95
.98-. 95
6.9034+00
.4525+01
- .1324+01
.7872+01
.0575+01
.4997+01
0. +00
1.0468+01
1.4845+01
0. +00
7.5328-01
0. +00
7.4507+01
1.1595+01
1.6443+01
0. +00
9.0283-01
0. +00
5.2959-01
-6.7427+00
1.3202+01
2.1872+01
1.596 +01
1.1177+01
7.0032-01
2.1255+02
1.4578+02
2.0673+02
n +OQ
1.1475+13
7.9339+01
4.9792+01
7.0611+01
0. +00
4.6824+00
-2.7723+01
6.1152+01
2.8768+02
4.241 +01
0.70495
0.29476
0.63519
0.29484
0.00007
AAA
22.2
86
:1
.98-. 95
.98-. 95
6.9034+00
1.4525+01
-1.1324+01
1 . 7872+01
1.0575+01
1.4997+01
0. +00
1.0468+01
1 . 4845+01
0. +00
7.5328-01
0. +00
7.4507+01
1 . 1 598+01
1.6448+01
0. +00
9.0257-01
0. +00
-6.7492-01
-7.9065+00
1.2053+01
2.3845+01
1 . 7402+01
1.2397+01
7.1242-01
2.1255+02
1.4578+02
2.0673+02
0. +00
1.1475+03
7.9135+01
4.9667+01
7.0435+01
0. +00
-2.1748-01
-3.246 +01
5.6533+01

-------
                                                                     TABLE 5.5        !
                                                        PERFORMANCE OF PARALLEL  (EMT)iSYSTEM
                                                             COMPONENTS ON LA-4  MISSION
  Run
Urban Engine Power, hp
Battery Resistance, 10
Motor-Wheel Gear Ratio
Planetary Gear Efficiency
Differential Gear Efficiency
PR.
_
PIC.
       J  .
    in drive
     in  drive
     in  regen+
     in  regen-	
 PM,  h
     in drive
 _
 pMi
          .
     in drive
     in regen
     .
     in
     in regen
 TpCUM
 !PCUM   .  .
    . in drive
 _   in regen
 _

 IB
      h
     charge  -
     discharge
  PPCUM
      in  drive
 ^   in  regen
  F-Ai
  TA
  IPCUA
  -P-PCUA
  PB
     charge
  drive probability
  .regen+ probability
  regen- probability
  'charge probability
  a set equal to one
     in drive
     in regen
  Battery state  change
P
15
/ 86
-' 1:1
 -'. 90
, 97-94
6.9119+00
2.2747+01
-2.0446+00
1.6217+01
7.5556+00
7.9586+00
8.3436+00
6 145+00
6.0197+00
-1 .0894+01
1.723 +01
1 . 1 384+01
1.5586+01
-9 0082+00
1.165 +01
1.9171+01
-7.3963+00
5.5273+01 '
'?.3501+02
1.8401+02
2.2738+02
-L 5948+02
5.8983+01
3.7049+01
6.9008+01
-1.8972+01
-4.4152+00
-3.8045+01
5.3322+01
' 2.7952+00' "
1.6006+01
-4.677 +00
6.3755+00
5.8536+00
5.3933+00
4.8754+00
4-. 091 2+0 1.
1.921 +01
' 4.628 +00
-1.3551+00
-9.3176+00
1.2315+01
. 0.36119
0.63859
:0. 29476
0.63179
0.32231
0.00000 .
0.32231
charged
q
13
86
1:1
90
97-94
6.9119+00
2.0063+01
-3.5357+00
1.4423+01
6.88 +00
7.228 +00
7.9167+00
5.4345+00
5.3258+00
-1.0894+01
1.7261+01
1.1431+01
1.3535+01
-9.7593+00
"T.'TS35+DT~ 	
1.6641+01
-8.0237+00
5.527 +01
2.347 +02
1.8274+02
2.0143+02
-1.679 +02
6.01 +01
3.8284+01
6.0495+01
-2.064 +01
' 5.4935-01
-3.6725+01
5.0676+01
 3~:375T+ou:
1.4023+01 .
-5.0839+00
5.5255+00
5.0731+00
4.6227+On
4.16?. +00
3.4698^01
 1.6425+01
3.9496+00
-1.6684-01
-8.9915+00'
1.17 +01
0.44261
0.55717
0.29476
0.57340
0.24089
0.00000
0.24089
discharged
S
15
172
1:1
90
97-94
6.8797+00
2.2671+01
-2.0446+00
1.6212+01
7.549 +00
7.9407+00
8.3436+00
6.1425+00
"570T97+TTrr
-1.0894+01
1.716 +01
1.1361+01
1.5524+01
-9.0082+00
Tri624+-0t-'
1.9105+01
-7.3963+00
5.5254+01
2.3493+02
1.8394+02
2.2723+02
-1.5948+02
6.2048+Ul
3.8163+01
7.2622+01
-1.8688+01
-2.9197+00
-3.7496+01
5.6492+01
 Z7812B+DO' 
1.6143+01
-4.7208+00
6.3755+00
5.8536+00
5.3933+00
4.8754+00
4.0912+01
T. 91 75+01 "
4.628 +00
-1.3389+00
-9.3572+00
- 1.2438+01
0.36089
0.63859
0.29476
0.63179
0.32255
0.00023
0.32231
charged
T
13
86
variable
90
97-94 ;
6.8721+00
1.9986+01
-3.5357+00
1.442 +01,
6.8753+00
7.2187+00
7. 91 67+00
5.4345+00
5.3258+00.
1.0894+01
1.7173+01
1.1399+01
1.3465+01
-9.7593+00
1.1597+01
1.5597+01
-8.4226+00
2.8047+01,
1.4444+02
1.1963+02
1.2999+02
-1.1142+02
5.6697+01'
3.6824+01
5.4594+OV
-2.2721+01
-3.224 +00
-3.8346+01
4.6298+01
2.4936+00
1.27 +01'
-5.6067+00'
5.526 +00;
5.0738+00; '
4.6231+00'
4.1626+00
3.47 +0t
1.6401 +01 
3.9502+00: '
-1. 0497+00;
-9.4023+00' -
1.0727+01! 
OY44217 ,'
0.55717 j-
0.29476 !
0.58468 !-'
0.22554 .
0.00044 .
0.22510 '
charged .
U
15
86
variable
80
97-94
6. 8721 +00
1.9986+01
-3.5357+00
1.6559+01
6.988 +00
7.3618+00
7.9703+00
5.4414+00
-1.0894+01
1. '71 65+01
1.1382+01
1.3318+01
-9.8453+00
1.1561+01
1.5424+01
-8.4963+00
2.8045+01
1.4445+02
1.1969+02
1.2919+02
.__-.].....! 2.1 6+.Q2....
5.6546+01
3.6679+01
5.4022+01
-2.2916+01
-4.0053+00
-3.6211+01
. 5.1261+01
2.4083+00
1.2569+01
-5.6556+00
5.6677+00
' 5.2039+00
4.7519+00
4.2817+00
_ 3.5736+01
1.6868+01
4.0636+00-
-1.2367+00
-8.879 +00
...1,1877+jQl _
0.44217
' 0.55717
0.29476
0.63140
..0.22554
0.00044
0.22510
charged
V
13
86
variable
80
97-94
6.8721+00
1.9448+01
-3.8028+00
1.4765+01
6.3874+00
6.5345+00
7.869 +00
4.9231+00
4.8247+00
-1.0894+01
1.722 +01
1.1482+01
1.36 +01
-9.6844+00
1.1756+01"
1.5758+01
-8.3595+00
2.8073+01
1.4443+02
1.1941+02
1.3014+02
_.-.]. LQ3-1.+.Q2...
5.7391+01
3.7516+01
5.5144+01
-2.2552+01
2.2748-01 '
-3.5311+01
.,.-1^9-464+01
2.8782+00
1.282 +01
-5.5617+00
4.912 +00
4.51 +00
4.0651+00
3.6453+00
3.0189+01
1.4373+01
3.4574+00
-2.2308-01
-8.6558+00
._ .1,146 _Q1_..
0.45882
0.54052
0.29476
0.58041
0.20889
0.00044
0.20845
discharged
W
13
172 ; .-
variable
80: , - ;
97-94 /';
' 6.6883+00
1.9121+01
-3.8028+00
1.4747+01
6.3615+00
6.4788+00
7.869 +00
4.9P31+00
4.8247+00
-1.0894+01
1.6931+01
1.1345+01
1.3314+01
-q. 6844+00
--'Trl 604+01
1.5449+01
-8.3595+00
2.7959+01
1.4398+02
1.1905+02
1 . 2939+02
	 -1. 103.1 02.
5.8065+01
3.7726+01
5.6254+01
-2.2092+01
8.5209-01
-3.4703+01
5.0433+01
2.7531+00
1.2632+01
-5.5833+00
4.9151+00
4.514 +00
4.0679+00
- 3-. 649 +00-
3.0199+01
1.4375+01
3.461 +00
-3.5008-01
-8.6742+00
1.1243+.O.L
0.45610
0.54052
0.29476
0.58041
0.21155
0.00310
0.-20845 .--.
discharged
-'"''" Y
13
..." : ; -86
, . , variable-. ,
'-,-i ;i.99 , .,-
.^;'; sofsyjv; ;
'" 6.8675+00 '
1.9438+01 -
-3...8028+00 _
1,..4639+01
	 7:"07T 5+00-,-:"
7.2783+00,J -
&.-5697+00
-^fifvonR+oo
. ...5V3905+.QO
-1.0101+O.lrV
1.771-+01.-cp
1.186Wl>La.'
1.4426*01 or
-'qV6R-?q+00
-- '1^1-73^01 ,,o-
JV^/I^OT'"'-
-a.,,3,5.61,+00
2",'869,4,+Al .,-
1.4688-+02 'X
1. 2 167+02 '!?>
1.3502+02 '^V
	 -1.1033+02 MI
"" 6vO"038+0,r'
3".'8,9.5( +01
5.8'281+01, M|
-2.2542+0'l " t
-1.6418-0y-'H
-3s-75^+Ol':;;;iii
.... 51M83+D1 ,
3.2017+00 a?
1.3:5^18+01
-:5r5-553-+r(DO
r -5^52 6 ;:+:(i)0 a^
5.0738+flO-;
-------
                                                                                                                     TABLE  5.6
                                                                                                         PERFORMANCE OF PARALLEL (EMT) SYSTEM
                                                                                                              COMPONENTS ON LA-4 MISSION
           Run
                                                    TA
TAA
XA
                                             EE
EEA
KK
KKA
LLA
                                                                 RA
                                                                                                                                                                                                        CC
                                                                                                                                                  CCA
                                                                                         JJ
                                                                                                                                         JJA
Urban Engine Power, hp
Battery Resistance, 103n
Motor-Wheel Gear Ratio
Planetary Gear Efficiency
Differential Gear Efficiency
^R hp
' in .drive
in reoen
PIC- hP
PO hp
in drive
in regen+
JoigM(-) 
jRngi(-) '
^Mo"'hP
pMo hp . . . .
in drive
in reoen
PMI, hp
in drive
" in regen
n(vj, drive
JTJ1 regen
2M 
-fM
IM
in drive ' ;
in regen
IM max
IpCUM
PCUMin drive
in regen
IB
charge
discharge
"Pg. loss,, watts
"PRCUM
. in drive
npcuM dr1ve -
npcUM regen
"hi
f
HAn 	 . 	
TA
4A . 
TPCUA
PPCUA
-3PCUA
PB u
. charge
 ri-icrharoe
drive. probability
regen+ probability
regen- probabi 1 i ty
charge probability
a 'set equal to one
in drive
in regen
13
86
variable
90
97-94
6.8721+00
1.9986+01
-3.5357+00
1.442 +01
6.8753+00
7.2178+00
7.9167+00
5.4345+OD
5.3258+00
'- 1.0894+01
 1.7173+01
1.1399+01
1.3465+01
-9.7593+00
 1.1597+01
1.5597+01
-8.4226+00
8.6334-01
8.6302-01
2.8047+01
1.4444+02
1.1963+02
1 . 2999+02
-1.1142+02
8.8842+02
 5.6697+01
3.6824+01
" 5.4594+01
.-2.2721+01
"".-3.224 +00
. -3.8346+01
: 4.6298+01
2.7575+02
2.4936+00
1.27 +01 
-5.6067+00
9.1576-01
8.9267-01
5.526 +00
5.0738+00
4.6231+00
4.1626+00
	 ~87204T-6i
 3.47 +01
" 1.6401+01
3.9502+00
9.4898-01
-1.0497+00
-9.4023+00
1.0727+01
.44217
.55717
.29476
. 58468
.22554
.00044
.22510
11
86
variable
90
97-94
6.8721+00
1.928 +01
-3.8712+00
1.2626+01
6.1997+00
6.2667+00
7.8736+00
4.7265+00
4.6319+00
-1.0894+01
1.7244+01
1.1519+01
1 . 3699+01
-9.6319+00
1.1822+01
1.5873+01
-8.3146+00
8.6304-01
' 8.6323-01
2.8089+01
1.4446+02
1.1936+02
1.3052+02
-1.097 +02
8.8842+02
5.7675+01
3.7785+01
5.553 +01
-2.2422+01
1.5482+00
-3.4038+01
5.0851+01
2.786 +02
3.0264+00
1.2907+01
-5.5286+00
9.1706-01
8.9167-01
4.6758+00
4.2932+00
3.8516+00
3.4495+00
8.0349-01
2.8528+01
1 . 3603+01
3.2705+00
9.4808-01
9.2779-02
-8.3432+00
1.178 +01
.463/3
.53561
.29476
. 58041
.20398
.00044
.20354
11.75
86
variable
90
97-94
6.8721+00
1 . 9448+01
-3.8028+00
1.3299+01
6.4531+00
6.6184+00
7.8968+00
4.992 +00
4.8921+00
-1.0894+01
1.7212+01
1.1469+01
1.3515+01
-9.7335+00
1.1733+01
1.5659+01
-8.4018+00
8.6308-01
8.6318-01
2.8068+01
1.4442+02
1.1943+02
1.2967+02
-1.1075+02
8.8842+02
5.7294+01
3.7427+01
5.4813+01
-2.2669+01
-2.2727-01
-3.5745+01
4.8981+01
2.7705+02
2.8276+00
1.2745+01
-5.5909+00
9.162 -01
8.9236-01
4.9946+00
4.5859+00'
4.1394+00
3.7132+00
8.0968-01
3.0762+01
1.464 +01 .
3.5222+00
9.4856-01
-3.3184-01
-8.7625+00
1 . 1 348+01
.45882
. 54052
.29476
. 58041
.20889
. 00044
.20843
15
172
variable
80
97-94
6.6883+00
1.9651+01
-3.5357+00
1.6543+01
6.9621+00
7.3054+00
7.9703+00
5.5525+00
5.4414+00
-1.0894+01
1.6882+01
1 . 1 246+01
1.3023+01
-9.8453+00
1.141 +01
1.5106+01
-8.4963+00
8.6215-01
8.6298-01
2.7933+01
1.4402+02
1.1933+02
1.2842+02
-1.1216+02
8.8842+02
5.7029+01
3.6794+01
5.5004+01
-2.2432+01
-3.4135+00
-3.5561+01
5.2164+01
5.5086+02
2.283 +00
1.2375+01
. -.5. 676ZaO.._ 	
9.1027-01
8.9599-01
5.6713+00
5.2085+00
 4.7551+00
..1^.859+JJQ. 	
8..2287-01
3.5745+01
1 . 6843+01
4.0677+00
- 9.4909-01
-1.37 +00
-8.8928+00
1.1635+01
0.43945
0.55717
0.29476
0.63140
0.22820
0.00310
0.22510
13.6
172
variable
80
97-94
6.6883+00
1.9121+01
-3.8028+00
1 . 5286+01
6.5417+00
6.7094+00
7.9452+00
5.1119+00
5.0097+00
-1.0894+01
1.6913+01
1.1311+01
1 . 3079+01
-9.8192+00
" 1.1541+01"
1.5175+01
-8.4757+00
8.6186-01
8.6316-01
2.7948+01
1.4397+02
1.191 +02
1.2811+02
-1.115 +02
8.8842+02
5.7744+01
3.7454+01
5.5292+01
-2.2401+01
-4.0928-01
-3.5871+01
4.9042+01
5.5613+02.
2.6141+00
1.2423+01
-5.6636+00
9.1086-01
8.9609-01
5.142 +00
4.7223+00
4.2724+00
3.8359+00
8.1229-01
3.1778+01
1.5103+01
3.6395+00
9.4878-01
-6.5441-01
-8.9656+00
1.0935+01
0.45610
0.54052
0.29476
0.58041
0.21155
0.00310
0.20845
15 18.6
172 172
variable variable
80 80
97.94 97-94
6.6883+00 6.7267+00
1.9651+01 2.2346+01
-3.5357+00 -2.0446+00
1.6543+01
6.9621+00
7.3054+00
7.9703+00
5.5525+00
5.4414+00
-1.0894+01
1.2013+01
5.7427+00
1.3023+01
0. +00
6.6609+00
1.5106+01
. 0. +00
8.6215-01
0. +00
1.993 +01
1 . 01 56+02
5.6628+_Ql
1 . 2842+02
0. +00
8.8842+02
4.9459+01
2.4253+01
5.5004+01
0. +00
9.0248+00
-1.6836+01
4.7715+01
3.6256+02
5.4566+00
1.2375+01
	 .0. 	 J:QQ_.
9.1027-01
0. +00
5.6713+00
5.2085+00
4.7551+00
4.2859+00
8.2287-01
3.5745+01
1.6957+01
4.0677+00
9.4909-01
1 . 8035+00
.-4.1048+00
1.0643+01
0.43945
0.55717
0.29476
0.59735
0.56027
0.00310
0.55717
1.9775+01
8.0443+00
8.4922+00
8.7422+00
6.6854+QJ1
6.5517+00
-1.0894+01
1.1516+01
5.2578+00
1.462 +01
0. +00
6.0948+00
1.6948+01
0. +00
8.6266-01
0. +00
1.9175+01
9.741 +01
5.055 +01
15
172
variable
80 .
97-94
6.6883+00
1.9651+01
-3.5357+00
1.6543+01
6.9621+00
7.3054+00
7.9703+00
5.5525+00
5.4414+00
-1.0894+01
1.287 +01
8.0247+00
1.3023+01
-4.0818+00
8.5449+00
1.5106+01
-3.3698+00
8.6215-01
8.2558-01
2.0657+01
1.1531+02
9.6014+01
1.4056+02 1.2842+02
0. +00 -7.0451+01
8.8842+02 8.8842+02
4.7305+01 5.0511+01
2.2005+01 2.8761+01
6. Ill 91+01 5.5004+01
0. +00 -8.0627+00
2.8011+00
-2.1209+01
4.5724+01
3.3993+02
4.9622+00
T. 3798+01
_fl, 	 +JQO_.
9.159 -01
0. +00
7.0307+00
6.4565+00
5.9939+00
5.4305+00
8.4108-01
4.5698+01
2.1383+01
5.155 +00
9.4928-01
3.3232-01
-5.1888+00
1 . 0202+01
0.35862
0.63859
0.29476
0.63948
0.64111
0.00252
...0.63859. ._.
4.5423+00
-2.3003+01
5.2164+01
3.9255+02
4.3507+00
1.2375+01
-1.9782+00
9.1027-01
7.8723-01
5.6713+00
5.2085+00
4.7551+00
4.2859+00
8.2^87-01
3.5745+01
1.6929+01
4.0677+00
9.4909-01
6.9759-01
-5.6291+00
1.1635+01
0.43945
0.55717
0.29476
0.63140
0.23810
0.00310
0.23500
17
172
variable
80
97-94
6.6883+00
2.2264+01
-2.0446+00
1.8339+01
7.5626+00
7.9215+00
8.3725+00
6.1819+00
6.0582+00
-1.0894+01
1.2678+01
8.002 +00
1.5117+01
-4.0125+00
8.4214+00
1.7526+01
-3.3164+00
8.6255-01
8.2651-01
2.0375+01
1 . 1 503+02
9.686 +01
1.4363+02
-7.0637+01
8.8842+02
4.9205+01
2.7789+01
6.3207+01
-7.9325+00
2.224 -01
-2.7035+01
4.8307+01
3.8144+02
3.8666+00
1.424 +01
-1.9493+00
9.178 -01
7.8823-01
6.4275+00
5.9029+00
5.4403+00
4.9204+00
~B. 33 54-01
4.1264+01
1.9376+01
4.6709+00
9.493 -01
-3.2822-01
-6.6282+00
1 .0785+01
0.35803
0.63859
0.29476
0.63606
0.31952
0.00310
0.31641
17.25
172
variable
80
97-94
6.7267+00
2.2346+01
-2.0446+00
1.8563+01
7.6387+00
8.0127+00
8.4303+00
6.2605+00
6.1353+00
-1.0894+01
1.2753+01
8.0456+00
1.5109+01
-4.0786+00
8.4563+00
1.7511+01
-3.371 +00
8.6284-01
8.265 -01
2.0394+01
1.1519+02
9.7127+01
1.4335+02
-7.1164+01
8.8842+02
4.9531+01
2.788 +01
6.3202+01
-8.0452+00
-9. 674?: 02
-2.7168+01
4.9085+01
3.8789+02
3.8502+00
1.4227+01
-1.9774+00
9.1781-01
7.8665-01
6.5204+00
5.9879+00
5.5251+00
4.9983+00
8.3473-01
4.1952+01
1.9678+01
4.7449+00
9.493 -01
-4.1128-01
-6.6627+00
1.0946+01
0.35862
0.63859
0.29476
0.64318
0.31894
0.00252
0.31641
15
86
1:1
80
97-94
6.9119+00
2.0063+01
-3.5357+00
T. 6562+01
6.9926+00
7.3719+00
7.9703+00
5.5525+00
5.4414+00
-1.0894+01
1.7253+01
1.1414+01
T. 3389+01
-9.8453+00
1 . 1798+01
1.6462+01
-8.093 +00
8.133 -01
8.2202-01
5.5264+01
2.3471+02
1.8285+02
1.9991+02
-1.693 +02
8.9158+02
5.9906+01
3.8117+01
5.9886+01
-2.0824+01
^?.4234-OT
-3.7002+01
5.0633+01
2.9758+02
3.2878+00
1 . 3884+01
-5.13 +00
8.8415-01
8.5004-01
5.6671+00
5.2032+00
4.7514+00
4.28T +00
' 8. 2276- OT
3.5734+01
1 . 6892+01
4.0629+00
' 9.4905-01
-3.5574-01
-9.0597+00
1.169 +01
0.44261
0.55717
0.29476
0.58041
0.24089
0.00000
0.24089
14.9
86
1:1
80
97-94
6.9119+00
2.0063+01
-3.5357+00
15.0
86
1:1
80
97-94
6.9119+00
2.0063+01
-3.5357+00
T. 6473+01 1.6562+01
6,9626+00 6.9926+00
7.3336+00 7.3719+00
7.956 +00 7.9703+00
_ _5.521 +00 5.5525+00
5.4106+00
-1.0894+01
1.7255+01
1.1418+01
1 . 3428+01
-9.8224+00
1.1809+01
1.651 +01
-8.0745+00
8.1331-01
8.2205-01
5.5265+01
2.3471+02
1 . 8282+02
2.0031+02
-1.6892+02
8.9187+02
5.9958+01
3.8162+01
6.0049+01
-2.0775+01
-3.0666-02
-3.7258+01
5.0033+01
2.978 +02
3.3112+00
1.3921+01
-5.1177+OQ
8.8435-01
8.4995-01
5.6294+00
5.1685+00
4.717 +00
4.2492+00
8.2213-01
3.5457+01
1 . 6767+01
4.0327+00
9.4903-01
-3.0526-01
-9.1223+00
1 . 1 552+01
0.44261
0.55717
0.29476
0.57340
0.24089
0.00000
0.24089
5.4414+00
-1.0894+01
1.2548+01
5.9274+00
1.3389+01
0. +00
7.2881+00
1.6462+01
0. +00
8.133 -01
0. +00
3.963 +01
1.6719+02
8.8502+01
1.9991+02
0. +00
8.9158+02
5.3548+01
2.6512+01
5.9886+01
o. +00
1.1315+01
-1.8158+01
4.6831+01
2.1269+02
6.1467+00
1 . 3884+01
0.. 	 ___QQ.
8.8415-01
0. +00
5.6671+00
5.2032+00
4.7514+00
4.281 +00
8.2276-01
3.5734+01
1.6945+01
4.0629+00
9.4905-01
2.5031+00
-4.3928+00
1.0812+01
0.44261
0.55717
0.29476
0.54636
0.55717
0.00000 .
0.55717
19.7
86
1:1
80
97-94
6.9119+00
2.363 +01
-1.4939+00
2.0777+01
8.4038+00
8.6759+00
9.2499+00
.-..7^Q315+Qa.
6.8909+00
-1.0894+01
1.1783+01
5.2771+00
1.5773+01
0. +00
6.4981+00
1.9422+01
0. +00
8.1209-01
0. +00
3.7502+01
1.5811+02
7.7344+01
2.3117+02
0. +00
8.8842+02
5.0222+01
2.3345+01
6.9777+01
0. +00
2.8869+00
-2.2686+01
4.8365+01
1.9193+02
5.423 +00
1.6209+01
0. +00
8.9353-01
0. +00
7.4429+00
6.8336+00
6.3804+00
5.7824+00
8.4617-01
4.8747+01
2.2812+01
5.4886+00
9.4919-01
5.0086-01
-5.501 +00
1.1174+01
"~dY33449~""~
0.66529
0.29476
0.63994
0.66529
0.00000
. 0,66529 . .
17.8
86 86
1:1 1:1
80
97-94 97-94
6.9119+00 - 6.9119+00
2.0063+01 2.2747+01
-3.5357+00 -2.0446+00
""175562+111 1.9073+01
6.9926+00 7.8333+00
7.3719+00 8.2864+00
7.9703+00 8.5573+00
5.5525+00 6.4336+00
5.4414+00 6. 3049+00
-1.0894+01 -1.0894+01
1.3368+01 1.3107+01
8.2022+00 8.2082+00
1.3389+01 1.5252+01
-4.0818+00 -4.2239+00
9.1477+00 8.9812+00
1.6462+01 1.8767+01
-3.3368+00 -3.446 +00
8.133 -01 8.127 -01
8.1748-01 8.1583-01
4.078 +01 3.9995+01
1.8242+02 1.8137+02
1.4059+02 1.4332+02
1.9991+02 2.239 +02
-9.3482+61 -9.7752+01
8.9158+02 8.8842+02
5.4446+01 5.2653+01
3.0621+01 2.931 +01
5.9886+01 6.7618+01
-7.3735+00 -7.644 +00
7.2173+00 1.2483+00
-2.4152+01 -2.7866+01
5.0633+01 5.1234+01
2.2611+02 2.1681+02
5.1496+00 4.4832+00
1.3884+01 1.5692+01
-1.7893+00 -1.8569+00
8. 8415-01 8.918 -01
7.1912-01 7.2261-01
5.6671+00 6.725 +00
5.2032+00 6.1745+00
4.7514+00 5.712 +00
4.281 +00 5.1694+00
8.2276-01 ~-~8.3721-Or
3.5734+01 4.3461+01
1.6933+01 2.0403+01
4.0629+00 4.9072+00
9.4905-01 9.4927-01
1.5059+00 8.2516-02
-5.8528+00 -6.7625+00
1.169 +01 1.1834+01
0.44261 - "OY'36119
0.55717 0.63859
0.29476 0.29476
0.58041 0.63179
0.26506 0.34648 '
0.00000 0.00000
0. 26506 0.34648
Remarks
                                                                                                            (PM = 0  in  regen)
                                                                         = -P^n^M for PD < 0)
                                                                            VgM
                                                                                                                                                        R
                                                                                                   (Pft  =0   in   regen)
                                                                                                                                                                                         60

-------
          5.3.2  Effect of System Parameters on Parallel (EMT) System
                 Performance
                 The planetary gear efficiency, rv, is extremely import-
ant as it affects overall parallel system efficiency.  Comparison of runs
RA, Q, TAA and V shows the effect is almost proportional, i.e., by raising
n   from 80% to 90%, the system efficiency increases by 11%.
     The differential gear efficiency has an effect similar to that of
the series system.  For example, raising n , from 90%-87% to 97%-94%
rasis the overall efficiency from 70% to 77%.
     Comparing runs RA and V, it can be seen that providing a variable
gear ratio between the motor and propeller shaft is an effective means of
raising system efficiency.  In these cases, the efficiency increased by
approximately 13%.
     The effect of doubling battery impedance in a variable gear ratio
parallel system is slight.  In runs V and W the system efficiency changed
by only 1.5%.  Other run comparisons such as TAA vs. W, etc. indicate
even a lesser change of 0.7%.  This is distinctly less than the impact on
the series system and is probably due to the higher drive line efficiency
of the parallel system, which allows a larger component of engine power to
flow directly to the wheels, thus diminishing the interchange of power with
the battery.
     The effect of not implementing regeneration in the parallel system is
a reduction of overall efficiency by 13.5%-18% as seen in runs JAA, RA,
LLA and XA.
     Table 5.7 summarizes the effect of various parameter changes  on the
series and parallel  systems.
                                   61

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                               TABLE 5.7
       SUMMARY OF THE EFFECT OF PARAMETRIC CHANGES ON SERIES AND
                  PARALLEL HYBRID SYSTEMS EFFICIENCY*
System
Series
Parallel
Incorporation
of Variable
Gear Ratio
t +15%
 f +13%
Battery
Impedance
Inc. from
86 to 172
+ -7%
4- -1.5%
Gear 2 Eff.
Degradation
from 98-94
to 90-87
+. -8%
not appli-
Gear 1 Eff.
Degradation
from 97-94
to 90-87
* -7%
4- -9%
Planetary
Gear 90 Eff.
Degradation
from 90-80%
not appli-
cable
4- -11%
Absence of
Regeneration
+ -10%
4- -13.5%
                                cable
*The increase or decrease in the efficiency is defined here as the quotient
 of the change in efficiency divided by level of efficiency prior to the
particular parameter change.  For example, run CA shows an efficiency
level of 47.9% obtained with regeneration.  Run AAA shows an efficiency
level of 42.9% obtained when regeneration was not implemented.  The
change in efficiency is 5.0%; however, the decrease in system efficiency
is

                                 5' 2? 10%
                                47.9
A decrease in efficiency means that the prime mover will have to expend
more energy, require more fuel to drive the car over the same route, and
with all engine operating conditions the same will produce more emissions.
     5.4  Ratings of the Electrical Portions of the Hybrid Power Trains
          The computer simulation results are useful in evaluating the
appropriateness of the ratings and specifications initially assumed in
the component models.  In all cases the original specifications of the
motors, PCUs and alternators were validated.
                                   62

-------
     Motor Ratings
     The values of critical design parameters for the DC series traction
motor generated on simulated runs of LA-4 operation are shown in Tables
5.8 and 5.9.  In the case of the full voltage series hybrid, some of the
design specifications are exceeded slightly when a single gear ratio is
used between the motor and wheels.  When a multi-step variable gear ratio
is inserted none of the design ratings are exceeded.
     While the ratings of the series system were based on high speed cruise
demands, the motor of the parallel system is unloaded during high speed
cruise.  Rather it was rated on estimates of the effective duty cycle the
motor would experience in stop-and-go urban traffic like LA-4.  The simu-
lation results show that with variable gearing the initial specifications
can be met with a machine rated at 30 hp.                ,

     Motor PCU Ratings
     The chopper PCU must be rated for a commutation current equal to the
peak expected current at the lowest battery voltage.  In addition, the PCU
must be able to operate efficiently at the highest anticipated battery volt-
ages.
     The series system motor PCU was designed for 300% motor torque with
a variable gear ratio.  The chopper was rated at 144 KVA and was designed
to put out 54 kw continuously.  Table 5.10 summarizes the average power,
and peak and average currents obtained from the simulations contrasted to
the design ratings.  Operation of the series system without variable gear
ratio penalizes the PCU by increasing the rating requirement.
     The peak motor PCU rating of the parallel system is equal to that of
the full voltage series system; however, the continuous rating need only
be equal to the effective duty cycle rating of normal operation.  For the
LA-4 cycle, the initial estimate of 22.5 kw was too high.  Table 5.11 shows
that the design current ratings are exceeded if a single gear ratio is
used; if a variable gear ratio is used, the design ratings are never ex-
ceeded.  In both the series and parallel systems, the RMS input current
to the PCUs does not exceed 50% of the power SCR ratings.
                                   63

-------
      A1 ternator-Recti fi er                              i   ;

 :'   The continuous power rating of the series system alternator-rectifier
 is'58 kw--this rating is never approaches for LA-4 service as shown in
 Table 5.12;   '

      Tables 5.13 and 5.14 show that the ratings of the parallel  system
 alternator-rectifier and alternator PCU are conservative.   The alternator
 and  PCU both have more than a 50% power rating margin.  The peak current
'ratingi of the PCU is met without gear shifting and is too  conservative
 for  the variable ratio case.
'                        TABLE 5.8
           Comparison of Design Ratings and LA-4 Simulation
               Results for Series System Traction Motors
                                               Simulation Results
                                        Without Variable  With Variable
     .Parameter....       Rating           Gears (run CA)    Gears (run IA)

   RMS power (hp)        65                   20               19.9

 RMS torque (ft-lbs)     74                   89               46.6
 RMS current (amps)     235                  255              157
                                TABLE 5.9
           Comparison of Design Ratings and LA-4 Simulation
              Results for Parallel  System Traction Motors
                                               Simulation Results
                                        Without Variable  With Variable
     Parameter         Rating           Gears (run Q)     Gears (run TAA)

   RMS power (hp)        30.                   17.2             17.2
 RMS torque (ft-lbs)    22.5                  55.3             27
 RMS current (amps)     145                  235              144
Peak Current (% rated)  300                   ___             300
                                   64

-------
                           TABLE 5.10
       Comparison of Design Ratings and LA-4 Simulation
              Results for Series System Motor PCU
 Parameter

 PCU power

 Average PCU
  Current (amps)
 Peak PCU
  Current (amps)
  Rating

  54 kw
 144 KVA
  235


  600
         Simulation Results
Without Variable  With Variable
    Gearing          Gearing
     12.3 kw



      207


      770
11.4 kw



 137


 450
                            TABLE 5.11
       Comparison of Design Ratings and LA-4 Simulation
             Results for Parallel System Motor PCU
 Parameter

 PCU power

Average PCU
 Current (amps)
Peak PCU  .
 Current (amps)
 Rati ng

22.5 kw
144 KVA
 145


 600
         Simulation Results
Without Variable  With Variable
    Geari ng          Gearing
    8.9 kw



     182


     800
8.9 kw



 119


 450
                                  65

-------
                              TABLE 5.12
         Comparison of Design Ratings  and LA-4 Simulation
               Results for Series System Alternator
   Parameter              Rating
  Average Power (kw)        58
Average Current (amps)     235
                                                Simulation Results
                 Without Variable
                     Gearing
                       10.9
                        44
                   With Variable
                      Gearing
                         9
                        36 .
                              TABLE 5.13
         Comparison of Design Ratings and LA-4 Simulation
              Results for Parallel System Alternator
                                               Simulation Results
   Parameter              Rating
  RMS Power (kw)            10
 Average Current (amps)     50
 Peak Current (amps)       100
                Without Variable
                    Gearing	
                      4.6
                     34.7
                    100
                  With Variable
                     Gearing
                       4.1
                       31
                       78
                              TABLE 5.14
         Comparison of Design Ratings and LA-4 Simulation
            Results for Parallel System Alternator PCU
   Parameter
  RMS Power

 Average Current (amps)
 Peak Current (amps)
Rat i ng
 10 kw
24 KVA
  50
 100
                                               Simulation Results
                                                            With Variable
Without Variable
    Gearing
       3.95
        35
       100
Gearing
  3.7

   31
   75
                                  66

-------
6.0  ESTIMATES OF THE COST AND WEIGHT OF HYBRID FAMILY VEHICLES
     6.1  Comparison of Series and Parallel  Hybrid Systems
          The first cost of a hybrid vehicle would be the summation of
the various component costs at the original  equipment manufacturer (OEM)
level plus the costs of overhead, direct labor and profit added at the
OEM level.  To these costs must be added the mark-ups of the wholesaler
and retailer.  The vehicle price level is also affected by such things
as the mix of available options, warranty costs and after-market sales.
     A comparison of the relative costs of series and parallel  systems at
the OEM level can be easily made; those items of major difference between
the two systems only need be compared to judge the relative costs of the
two systems.  Appendix H presents an extensive listing of the specifica-
tion and estimated OEM price of various electrical and electronic com-
ponents for the full voltage series and the parallel (EMT) power trains.
Table 6.1 summarizes those costs along with the specific mechanical com-
ponent costs which might differ between the two systems.  It is assumed
that in both systems, the engine, batteries, cooling systems and other
power train components are similar.  The differential gearing and a portion
of the gearing which couples to the engine in both systems will be similar.
The planetary gearing is treated as a cost increment for the parallel
system.
     The weight of both hybrid power train systems  include
the weights of the batteries, engine, auxiliaries and mechanical elements.
The battery weight can be estimated from the results of TRW's work on lead-
acid battery development.  Power densities of 170 watts/pound have been
achieved repeatedly.  This power level is capable of providing adequate
vehicle acceleration within a package weighing approximately 500 pounds.
     The engine weight of the engine depends on the particular design
which is ultimately adopted.  The starter motor and alternator normally
supplied on the engine can be eliminated; however, engine cooling systems,
carburetion and induction systems will be similar to conventional auto-
mobiles.  There probably will be additional  weight penalties for catalytic
control devices in addition to the muffler and exhaust pipes.  The
                                   67

-------
Ol
00
                                                           TABLE 6.1


                                         SUMMARY OF OEM COSTS  AND WEIGHT COMPARISON

                                             OF PARALLEL AND SERIES POWER TRAINS
Component
Series Motor
Motor PCU
Alternator and
Rectifier
Alternator PCU
Electronic Controls
and Sensors
Planetary Gear
Totals
Parallel
Rating
30 hp (s> 7200
rpm, 240 VDC
144 KVA, 240 VDC
(190 parts)
10 kw (a 12,000
rpm, 240 VDC
24 KVA, 240 VDC
(177 parts)
2.8 kw at 24 and
240 VDC
--
Hybrid
Cost
($)
200
140
90
113
32
25
600
Weight
(pounds)
160
70
40
50
16
40
386
Series Hybrid
Rating
65 hp G> 4650
rpm, 240 VDC
144 KVA, 240 VDC
(190 parts)
56 kw @ 12,000
rpm, 240 VDC
'
2.0 kw at 24
and 240 VDC
--
Cost
($)
406
150
180

32
768"
Weight
(pounds)
325
88
160

16
.
589

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Chevrolet Vega engine which was used in the experimental  portion  of  this
study weighs approximately 350 pounds with  coolant,  lubricant,  radiator,
alternator and starter motor.   Even ignoring these  last two  items, an
engine weight of 350 pounds appears reasonable.
     The other major power train elements of the  hybrid vehicle will be:
     Coupling gears between engine and power trainIn  the series system
a simple 3:1 gear train could  be used having only two elements.   The
planetary gearing of the parallel  system would  be more  complex  and heavier;
however, it would not be vastly different from  the  planetary sets of con-
ventional automatic transmissions.
     DifferentialPower would be supplied  to the rear  driving  wheels
through a conventional automotive type differential.  In the series
system, the motor would replace the propeller shaft  of  conventional
arrangements.  The parallel system would probably combine the traction
motor mounting and connection  with the differential  case.
     Variable gear ratio couplingA manual or  preferably automatic  vari-
able gear ratio could be built into the differential  housing.  An automatic
system could use a single stage planetary arrangement with electrically
actuated operation of the planet clutches for gear shifting.  The ability
to uncouple the engine from the driving wheels  at idle  v/ould eliminate
one need for a fluid coupling; however, smoothness  of shifting  might re-
quire at least a "soft" coupling between the motor shaft and differential.
     A traction motor fan and  a battery compartment  fan would be  needed,
the former for cooling the motor,  the latter to provide positive  ventila-
tion.  Battery cooling does not appear to present a  major problemram
air cooling may provide satisfactory cooling flow for normal  operation.
     Power cablesPower cables will have to be provided between  major
electrical components.  In view of the high current  levels,  heavy gage
copper cable will be needed.  Ease of installation  suggests  flexible,
stranded cable be used throughout.
     Fuel tank and gasolineThe fuel tank  of the hybrid will be  of  about
the size of present-day compact/sub-compact vehicles due to  the high anti-
cipated fuel economy of the hybrid.
                                   69

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     Miscellaneous itemsA variety of mounting brackets,  connectors  and
actuators will be needed in the power train.   Their detailed definition
cannot be made without a near-complete blueprint of the vehicle.
     Table 6.2 outlines the power train weights for the series  and
parallel systems, with and without variable gearing.   Of the
weight contributors, only major weight reductions could be made in the
battery package.  However, sizable reductions in battery weight presume
a major battery technology advance.  In view of the uncertainty involved
of projecting say a 20-25% increase in battery power density without
sacrificing life, a conservative estimate of a 500 pound battery package
must be made.

     6.2  Costs of Hybrid Vehicle Ownership
          Lack of information related to the price mark-up from the OEM
to the customer makes it difficult to estimate user costs  including
depreciation of all major power train components.  It is clear  from the
OEM price of the electrical components of Table 6.1 ,  that depreciation
costs based on those numbers would involve at least $100/year.
     It is possible however, to estimate the direct operating cost of
hybrids associated with battery replacement and fuel  usage.   It is
reasonable to assume a battery lifetime of three years and with advanced
technology, five year replacement periods may be possible.  Furthermore,
since an internal combustion engine in the hybrid can be set to operate
around peak economy by use of three-component catalytic control technique
similar to the one described later in this report, the specific fuel  con-
sumption of the smaller displacement engine can be reasonably low. Data
from the Vega suggests about 0.55 pounds of fuel/horsepower-hour at
part throttle is possible.
     Table 6.3 summarizes the direct operating costs  of hybrid  systems.
Battery replacement costs to the consumer are taken at $1/pound.
     Various emission control systems and devices are postulated for  the
1975-76 automobiles.  To comply with NO  standards, manufacturers are
                                       A
planning on using rich air-fuel ratios, retarded spark timing,  exhaust
gas recirculation and lower compression ratios.  Each of these  approaches

                                   70

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                              TABLE 6.2
                  HYBRID VEHICLE POWER TRAIN WEIGHT
                       :          ' j
       Power Train Component                        Weight
Engine KI50 CID)                                     350
Battery     ,                   .                       500
Engine gear coupling (g^)                             10*       40**
Differential (g^                                     50
Variable gear ratio coupling                          50***
Traction motor fan                                    TO
Battery compartment ventilation fan                    5
Major power cables between alternator,                15
 batteries and motor (50 feet, #0 AWG
 stranded wire)
Fuel tank and gasoline                                80
Miscellaneous electrical and                          40
 mechanical elements such as
 mounting brackets, electrical
 interconnects, cable connectors
Electronic and electrical equipment                   589*      361**
 (see Table   )                              ..

                  Totals             Parallel       Series
                  with variable       1501            1699
                   gearing
                  without variable    1451            1649
                   gearing
*series only
**parallel only
***variable gearing optional
                                  71

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                               TABLE 6.3
                HYBRID VEHICLE FUEL AND BATTERY COSTS

          Fuel	$0.0175/nrile*
          Battery Replacement	$0.0075/niile (five-year battery)**
                                    $0.0125/mile (three-year   "   )**

*Fuel at 7.15 pounds/gal, costing $0.33/gal.   Car travels at 22 mph on
 the average.
**Battery failure assumed related to cycle life under load; hence 50,000
  mile/five-year battery is assumed to be 50% toward replacement after
  25,000 miles, independent of time period to accumulate 25,000 miles.
  Three-year battery assumes 30,000 miles service.
tends to reduce fuel economy in conventional cars; some estimates run as
high as 33% increased fuel consumption.  Assuming this level  of increase,
then while the hybrid will get about 19 mpg, the conventional  car will
consume about 12.7 mph or will cost about $87 more in fuel  than the hybrid
for 10,000 miles of service.* If the five-year battery is assumed, the
battery replacement costs are absorbed by fuel savings.
     Other operating and maintenance procedures and costs required of the
hybrids should be minimal.  With proper electronic design,  the PCUs and
rotating machinery should be maintenance free.  The PCUs would most likely
be modularized.  In the event of failure, diagnostic equipment at the
service garage would identify the failed module which would be replaced
by a simple plug-in arrangement.  It is probable that rather than scrap-
ping the module, defective parts would be recycled through  a repair yard
where they would be fixed and sold as a rebuilt unit (much  the same that
automotive parts such as alternators  carburetors, etc. are handled today).
It is even possible that rebuilt parts could be reassembled within new
vehicles.
     Brush life of the alternators should be extremely highsimilar to
that of present automotive alternators.  DC motor brush life can be con-
trolled by proper choice of brush material, contact pressure and
*Fuel cost changes due to using accessories such as air conditioning,
 power steering, etc. will be the same in hybrid and conventional  cars.
                                   72

-------
conservative design of the machine's commutation.  Brush lives of 50,000
seem possible.   Occasional inspection of the brushes and commutator will
be necessary to detect incipient problems and to blow out accumulated
brush material  dust.
     There are several areas of reduced vehicle operating costs associated
with the hybrids.  Quasi-constant engine operation and the elimination of
acceleration mixture enrichment and deceleration blow-by may reduce lubri-
cating oil wear and extend the period between oil and oil filter changes.
Spark plug failure due to deposit build-up may be reduced.  There is no
doubt that regenerative braking will increase brake life as well as pro-
viding a redundant braking means.                     -
                                   73

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7.0  HYDROCARBON ACCUMULATOR MATERIALS SCREENING
     A hydrocarbon accumulator is a device which is used to control  the
cold start hydrocarbon emissions from an engine.  It operates on an
adsorption-desorption cycle.  The accumulator adsorbs exhaust hydro-
carbons from the hydrocarbon-rich but relatively cool exhaust stream
during start-up and retains them for a sufficient period during which
the engine air-fuel ratio is leaned toward stoichiometry and the catalytic
converter is heated to a point where effective hydrocarbon oxidation is
possible.  The bed is desorbed by one of several means and the trapped
hydrocarbons are returned to the engine or catalyst for oxidation.
     While the principle of hydrocarbon accumulator operation is simple,
the selection of bed materials must be based on an assessment of adsorp-
tion-desorption properties, physical stability and cost.  A screening of
candidate materials was performed using the cold start hydrocarbons  from
a single cylinder of a four cylinder internal combustion engine.

     7.1  Test Equipment and Procedures
          A test canister was constructed to serve as a container for
hydrocarbon accumulator material screening.  A diagram of the canister is
shown in Figure 7.1.  The canister was constructed of stainless steel  in
a double-walled configuration.  The material undergoing test was held
between retainer screens set 1 1/2 inches (25 cubic inches) apart for the
screening tests.  Later the full six inches of bed were filled with
selected adsorbent and used to control the cold start hydrocarbons during
full scale emission tests of the hybrid system.
     The outer jacket was constructed so that the engine exhaust could be
circulated around the inner compartment to heat the accumulator material
for desorption.  The canister was positioned about six feet from the ex-
haust port of the #4 cylinder of a VW 1600 engine*  and was connected so
that the cylinder's exhaust could flow through the bed or jacket.  A
small line led from the outlet of the bed to the intake manifold of  the
engine.  During the later full-scale emission tests a small bleed flow of
exhaust was allowed to pass through the bed to the intake manifold while
the major portion of the flow went through the jacket so that the bed
could be desorbed during cold start testing.  Thermocouples were
*A description of the engine and carburetion modifications can be found
 in Reference 1.
                                   74

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                                                            FIGURE 7.1

                                    TEST CANISTER USED  IN HYDROCARBON  ACCUMULATOR SCREENING,
                                    SINGLE CYLINDER CHARACTERIZATION OF TRW-HARSHAW  CATALYST
                                    AND  FULL SCALE HYDROCARBON  ACCUMULATOR
                                                            EXHAUST OUTLET
                                   JACKET OUTLET
                                   INSULATION
tn
                                    JACKET-
                                    INLET
\SINGLECYLINDER
  CATALYST
  CHARACTERIZATION
\ AND FULL SCALE
 N HYDROCARBON
  ACCUMULATOR
                                                                                           RETAINING SCREENS
 A  Y  Y Y \S  V
Y HC ACCUMULATOR  X
 VMATERIAI-         \
/ASCREENING VOLUME S
L^-fcCA^A  A..X.,
                                      JACKET
                                      INLET
                                                                                         PERFORATED PLATE
                                                              EXHAUST INLET

-------
placed within the bed to monitor its temperature.  Exhaust sample taps
and pressure taps were located upstream and downstream of the canister.
The photograph of Figure 7.2 shows the general arrangement of the test
canister on the EMT dynamometer stand.
     The flow through the bed was vertically upward.  Initial experiments
showed that if the bed was not tightly packed, the bed would tend to lift
and float and the resulting movement would cause the adsorbents to frac-
ture.  After several trial and error attempts a fill procedure was
adopted in which the bed was packed by running a small air hammer against
the canister allowing the bed to subside and pack itself into a minimum
volume.  A layer of fiber glass cloth was laid on top of the bed (outlet
side) and a stainless steel retainer screen was drawn down by screws com-
pressing the bed.
     A fixed test procedure was adopted in an attempt to produce a repro-
ducible set of cold start hydrocarbons-exhaust flow rates-gas stream
temperature conditions.  With the engine and accumulator bed initially at
room temperature the engine was started.  The electronic choke on the VW
fuel injection system was turned on fully for ten seconds.  During that
period the engine would come up to 1800 rpm and the flow through the
canister would come up to approximately 8 scfm (1/4 of the engine air
flow).  At the end of ten seconds, the choke was reduced to half the
starting value where it remained for the next 50 seconds.  After one
minute the choke was completely removed leaving the engine operating
essentially at stoichiometry.  For the remainder of 20 minutes the ex-
haust was allowed to flow through the bed at constant engine rpm and mani-
fold pressure.  The nominal standard space velocity through the bed was
33,000 V/V/Hr.  Actual space velocities ranged from 36,000 to 80,000 V/V/
Hr. depending on the temperature of the exhaust.
     During the test, the inlet and outlet CO, NO, HC and 02 levels were
continuously recorded along with the bed pressure drop and temperatures.
Mass measurement of the accumulator hydrocarbon output was made during
adsorption and desorption phases of the test cycle for many of the runs
using a Beckman Constant Volume Sampling System (bag technique).  In
addition the inlet and outlet HC concentrations were integrated and
averaged for the adsorption and desorption leg of each cycle.  The

                                   76

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     FIGURE 7.2
HYDROCARBON ACCUMULATOR

-------
product of the average concentrations, flow rate and hydrocarbon density
were used to estimate the mass flow of HC into and out of the accumulator.
The difference between these two quantities represents the mass of HC re-
tained during adsorption and desorption.  Comparison of the computed mass
rates with those measured using the constant volume sampler showed reason-
able agreement, generally within +5% and supported the use of the integrated
values as a means of estimating the adsorbed hydrocarbons.

     7.2  Selection of Candidate Materials
               Ten different types of adsorbents were originally selected
as potential hydrocarbon accumulator materials.  One of these, Porasieve,
was eliminated for cost reasons.  Its present price is approximately $50/
gram and even in large production quantities its price would drop only to
$50/pound.  A second class of adsorbents composed of supported chromato-
graphic materials such as sebacates, silicones, apiezones and tars were
rejected because of stability problems above 250F and their high cost.
     The materials finally selected for screening were:
          Barnaby-Chaney Nut Shell Activated Charcoal KE 9448
          Barnaby-Chaney Activated Charcoal  MI 8588
          Nuchar Activated Carbon WVH 6x16 mesh
          Davidson Molecular Sieve 10A - 13X mesh
          Davidson Silica Gel 6x12 mesh
          Linde Molecular Sieve 13X mesh
          Pittsburgh Activated Charcoal BPL 4x6 mesh
          Harshaw Activated Alumina 1/8" diameter pellets

The first material Barnaby-Chaney KE9448 was rejected after experiments. The
material  contained an excessive amount of fines some of which could not
be removed by sieving.   During the first test run over 50% of the bed was
lost;  during the second run the accumulator screen filters plugged caus-
ing excessive back pressure and engine misfire.  Each of the remaining
seven  materials was tested at least twice using the cold start procedure
previously outlined.   Alumina was tested only once as it quickly lost its
adsorption ability at temperatures just above ambient.
                                   78

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     A graphical representation of typical  data from one of the screen-
ing tests can be found in Figure 7.3.   The inlet HC concentrations are
those coming from the engine exhaust;  the initially high values are a
result of heavily choked-cold engine operation.  The bed temperature rises
in time as the exhaust gas sensible heat increases and the bed warms-up.
     Two other quantities are shown in the figure.  The first, termed
holdup is defined as the ratio of bed  outlet hydrocarbon concentrations
minus the inlet concentrations divided by the inlet concentrations.  Hold-
up is a measure of the instantaneous adsorption capability of the material.
When holdup is positive the bed is adsorbing; when it is negative the bed
is desorbing.   The temperature or time at which holdup falls from a posi-
tive value to zero is referred to as the crossover temperature or cross-
over time.
     Retention is defined as the mass  of hydrocarbons residing in the bed
at some time divided by the total mass of hydrocarbons which entered the
bed up to that particular time.  Retention is computed by subtracting the
total outlet HC mass flow from inlet mass flow & dividing by inlet flow.
     The data from the screening of the remaining seven materials is pre-
sented in the table of Appendix I.  The data lists a short description of
each material, its weight for an initial fill volume of approximately 25
cubic inches and temperature at various times after cold start.  Holdup,
crossover temperature and time are shown.  In addition the average inlet
and outlet hydrocarbon concentrations  during adsorption and desorption
phases are indicated.  These latter data are useful in computing the
retention at various times within the  test cycle.

          7.2.1  Discussion of Results
                 The criteria for selection of the two most promising
adsorbents for utilization in the hydrocarbon accumulator device were
the following:
          r  Temperature or time from  engine start at which net hydro-
             carbon adsorption ceases  to take place on the accumulator
             bed.
            Total hydrocarbons adsorbed prior to reaching crossover
             temperature.

                                   79

-------
 CO

E
 CO
U
O
II
H

2
H
Z
w
u

o
u
\*r





U
O
oi
Q


X

H
    8000
    7000
    6000
    5000
    4000
    3000
    2000
    1000
                                           FIGURE 7.3

                     TYPICAL TIME  VARYING CHARACTERISTICS OF HYDROCARBON

                     ACCUMULATOR MATERIAL SCREENING TESTS
PITTSBURG BPL 4 x 6 1ST RUN

25 CUBIC INCHES/ 270 GRAMS
                                                                                 90
                                                                                 80
                                                                                 70
                                                                                 60
                                                                                    o
                                                                                    c
                                                                                    -o

                                                                                 50 '
                                               40




                                               30
                                                                                    -o
                                                                                    m
   Z
   <

   O


   Z
                                                                                 20 >
10  S 
                                               0




                                               -10
                                                                                    n
                                          10    12    14   16


                                          TIME-MINUTES
                                                                                 -20   -
                                                                                 -30    -




                                                                                 -40
100




90

    TO
    m

80  ^

    t

    O
70  Z

    i
                                                                                             n
                                                                                             m
                                                                                             Z
                                                       60
                                                       50
                                                                                         40
                                                                                         30  S
                                                       20  n
                                                        10



                                                        0

-------
            The extent of desorption and the temperature at which
             desorption starts.   Note that crossover does not necessarily
             mean desorption has started, the latter is  indicated when
             the total  hydrocarbons within the bed begins to decrease.
            Mechanical and chemical stability of adsorbent material.
            Pressures  drop across  the device.
     Attrition problems encountered during the tests arise from two
sources:  poor bed packing and the  physical properties of the material.
Many of the tests were  performed during the "learning" period in which
the packaging technique described previously was developed.  It is there-
fore conceivable that some of the observed attrition could have been due
to faulty packing.  However, it is  also probable that some of the attri-
tion would have occurred under even ideal conditions.  For example, silica
gel breaks up into fines when it absorbs condensed water which is present
in the cold exhaust stream.  Fines  were also observed to occur readily in
the first charcoal tested and thus  it was eliminated from further consid-
eration.  A more thorough testing might prove these eliminations unjusti-
fied; however, the objective of demonstrating the usefulness of the hydro-
carbon accumulator was  met with one of the materials tested after the
packaging problem was apparently solved.
     As a result of the screening tests, and allowing for packing varia-
tions, the accumulator  materials can be ranked in order of decreasing
physical stability:
          t  activated  alumina pellets
            13X molecular sieve cylinders
            10A to 13X molecular sieve spheres
          0  activated  carbons of the Pittsburgh BPL type
            nuclear activated carbons WV-H type.
            silica gel
            coconut shell charcoal, Barnaby-Chaney MI 8588
            nut shell  charcoal, Barnaby-Chaney KE 9948
     The test procedure was satisfactory in providing fairly reproducible
starting conditions, simulating actual engine starts.  As would be expected,
the largest HC concentration variation occurred during the first few
seconds of engine operation due to variations in cranking speed, throttle
                                   81

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opening, mixture induction and ambient.conditions.  However, since the
exhaust flow rates were small during this period, the variation in the
total inlet hydrocarbon mass from run to run is probably low.   The data
in Appendix I also shows that the percentage of hydrocarbons held by the
accumulator material during the first 30 seconds depends more on the
nature of the material than the absolute magnitude of HC concentrations.
     Table 7.1 presents a summary of the complete data used to rank the
adsorbents on the basis of all criteria.  The first column describes the
material tested, the second indicates the number of adsorption-desorption
cycles performed on it.  The next two columns show the crossover tempera-
ture and time.  The fourth and fifth columns indicate the time intervals
during the twenty minute test that desorption and adsorption took place,
with the exception of the fifth run of the Pittsburgh BPL Activated
Carbon which, was subjected to special preconditioning which is described
later.  The next three columns present the mass of hydrocarbons retained
during adsorption, the mass desorbed during desorption, and the quantity
that could not be desorbed in the twenty minute cycle.  Finally, the last
column indicates the approximate cost of the tested accumulator candidates.
     Evaluation of the tabulated data leads to the following conclusions:
            The maximum temperature at which adsorption takes place
             depends on the adsorbent used.  It is a decreasing func-
             tion of the order of listing of materials in Table 7.1.
            The quantity of retained hydrocarbons during adsorption
             increases with increasing crossover temperature.
          t  The time interval during which desorption occurs depends
             on the nature of the adsorbent, but not necessarily on the
             amount of adsorbed hydrocarbons.
            The amount of hydrocarbons retained by the adsorbent at the
             end of the adsorption-desorption cycle cannot be directly
             related to the quantity adsorbed prior to desorption.
            The apparent decrease in amount of hydrocarbons adsorbed
             during cycles subsequent to the first cycle Is small when
             corrections in adsorption efficiency are made for material
             attrition.  For example, the second and third runs of the
             charcoal and silica gel show roughly the same retention as
             the first run if the data is corrected for adsorbent weight
             loss.
                                   82

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                                                              TABLE 7.1
                                           PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF ACCUMULATOR MATERIALS
00
CO
Type of
Material
Activated
Carbon
Pitts-
burgh
BPL Type
4x6 mesh
Nuchar
WV-H
6x16 mesh
Coconut .
Shell
Barneby-
Cheney
MI 8588
10x20
mesh
Molecular
Sieve
Linde 13X
1/8x1/16"
cy 1 i nders
Molecular
Sieve
Davidson
10A-13X
1/16"
spheres
Adsorption-
Desorption
Cycle No.
(Cold Start)
"as received"
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
"as received"
2nd
"as received"
2nd
3rd
"as received"
2nd .
"as received"
2nd
Adsorption Desorption
Crossover Time Time
Temp.
(F)
430
465
385
380
195
355
345
470
390
360
235
210-
255
310
195
Time Interval
(min) (min)
6.0
7.0
5.0
5.0
2.5
4.5
5.0
8.0
6.0
5.0
1.5
1.3
3.5
2.0
6.0
7.0
5.0
5.0
2.5
4.5
5.0
8.0
6.0
5.0
1.5
1.0
3.0
2.0
Interval
(min)
14.0
13.5
14.5
15.5
23.5
5.0
8.5
0
6.0
9.0
12.5
13.0
4.5
6.0
HC Retained
During Ad-
sorption
Interval
grams (Ib)
2.1 +0.1
1.5
1.7
2.0
1.6
1.7
2.5
2.8
1.8
0.8
0.6
0.7
1.0
1.0
Hydrocarbons
Desorbed Net
During De- HC Related
sorption During
Interval Cycle
grams (Ib) (grams)
0.6 +0.05
0.6 ~
0.7
0.9
8.5
0.2
0.1
0
0.2
0.3
0.1
0.4 ;
0.1
0.2
1.5
1.0
1.0
1.1
7.5
1.5
2.4
2.8
1.6
0.5
0.5
0.3
0.9
0.8
Approx.
Cost of
Accumulator
Material
($/lb.) Remarks
0.45 no attrition
0.50 15% attrition was
observed
3.0 there was no de-
sorption observed
in this run even
at temp 700F
40^ of bed was
lost by end of
3rd run
1.20 no attrition
2.25 approx. xero
attrition

-------
                                                         TABLE 7.1 (cont'd)
                                           PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF ACCUMULATOR MATERIALS
Adsorption-
Desorption Crossover
Type of
Material
Silica
Gel
Davidson
Grade 40
6x12
mesh
Cycle No. Temp.
(Cold Start) (F)
"as received"
2nd 175
3rd 170
Time
(min)
1.5
1.5
Adsorption
Time
Interval
(min)
1.5
1.0
Desorption
Time
Interval
(min)
12.5
18.5
HC Retained
During Ad-
sorption
Interval
grams (Ib)
1.5
0.6
Hydrocarbons
Desorbed
During De-
sorption
Interval
grams (Ib)
0.6
0.6
Net
HC Related
During
Cycle
(grams )
0.9
0
Approx.
Cost of
Accumulator
Material
($/lb.) Remarks
2.20
very poor start
for meaingful data
12% attrition
   Activated "as received" M20
   Alumina
co  Harshaw
   1/8x1/8"
   cylinders
4.0
1.0
0.2
0.8
no attrition

-------
          t  Under the experimental  test conditions it was impossible
             to desorb an amount of hydrocarbons equal to that retained
             during the adsorption segment of the test cycle.   This holds
             true for all tested adsorbents,  but the quantity of hydro-
             carbons retained at the end of the cycle depend on the nature
             of the adsorbent material  as the next to the last column of
             Table 7.1 indicates.
            Chemical deterioration of the adsorbents was below detect-
             ability limits of the CO,  C02 and 02 monitoring equipment.
          0  Physical deterioration, attrition and erosion, were severe
             with some adsorbents, negligible with others.  While the
             nature of the adsorbent plays an important role it is felt
             that proper packaging should, eliminate this problem for
             most of the adsorbents.  Small modifications in our original
             packing procedure, virtually eliminated physical  degradation
             of the Pittsburgh activated carbon bed.  For example initial
             tests showed about a  10% loss per cycle; after repackaging
             the loss was negligible.  Additionally, pretreatment of the
             adsorbent, e.g., washing off fines, should help the integrity
             of the bed.
     A question arises as to the validity of  using only a few cycles to
draw conclusions as to the constancy of adsorption efficiency and the
ability to desorb the bed as it tends toward  saturation due either to
excessive exhaust HC in the cold period or repeated failure to desorb
the bed.
     To explore this situation we  subjected the Pittsburgh BPL activated
carbon  to a further test.   The engine was cold started and choke was
left fully on for thirty seconds.   The mixture enrichment was so severe
that the engine was barely able to keep running at the end of the thirty
seconds.  The bed and engine were  allowed to  cool to ambient temperature
and then the procedure was repeated for a total of four starts.  The
fifth start of Table 7.1 for the BPL activated carbon was made after
these four fuel rich starts.  An estimated 16 grams of HC were trapped
in the bed, roughly equivalent to  the HC bed  inlet mass flow for 16 runs.
     The crossover time and temperature of the fifth cold start were lower
than those of the previous four test cycles,  but the quantity of adsorbed
hydrocarbons was within the range  obtained during the earlier cycles.  The
material did not appear to become  saturated prematurely, suggesting that
complete bed desorption after each cold start may not be necessary for a
satisfactory accumulator.  The test indicates that the hydrocarbon
                                   85

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accumulator may be suitable for controlling several  cold start hydro-
carbons even though the vehicle is not operated for long enough periods
between cool down to insure full bed desorption.
     The data in Table 7.1 was evaluated against the criteria for select-
ing hydrocarbon accumulator materials and the adsorbents were ranked in
the following order of decreasing preference:
          r activated carbon,-Pittsburgh BPL
            activated carbon, Nuchar WV-H
            molecular sieve, Davidson 10A-13X
            molecular sieve, Linde 13X
            charcoals, nut shell
            activated aluminas
            silica gels
     The first material, Pittsburgh BPL activated carbon, was selected
as the bed material for a full size hydrocarbon accumulator to be used
in conjunction with the full sized catalytic converter during the hybrid
system emission tests.   It exhibited sufficient adsorption capacity to
insure it would trap and retain cold start hydrocarbons long enough to
allow the catalytic converter to come up to a temperature where it could
effectively treat the stored hydrocarbons.  It showed good chemical and
physical stability and it is an inexpensive material.  Molecular sieves
were selected as back-up candidates; however, their crossover temperatures
and adsorption capacity may be marginal for a viable hydrocarbon accumu-
lator.  Further work is required to explore the usefulness of these
materials.
                                   86

-------
8.0  CHARACTERIZATION OF TRW-HARSHAW THREE-COMPONENT CATALYST
     8.1  Background of Three-Component Catalysis
          Under ideal circumstances, the combustion of gasoline in an
internal combustion engine (ICE) follows the equation:
                Cx Hy +          Q2 + x C02 +   H20

A stoichiometric air-fuel mixture is one in which there is the correct
amounts of air and fuel so that it would be possible for the above re-
action to be completed with no fuel or oxygen left over.
     However, even under stoichiometric conditions incomplete combustion,
wall quenching effects and the combining of nitrogen and oxygen leave
various other species in the exhaust stream; carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons,
hydrogen, nitric oxide and oxygen.  The general behavior of the exhaust
of an ICE is such that:
            CO concentrations decrease approximately linearly with in-
             creasing air-fuel ratio up to stoichiometry.   From there on
             they remain flat up to very lean mixtures where they in-
             crease again due to engine misfire and incomplete combustion.
            HC and H concentrations generally follow the CO relationship;
             however, H levels do not increase again at excessively lean
             mixtures.
            02 concentrations are relatively low and constant with in-
             creasing air-fuel ratio up to stoichiometry.   Beyond that
             point they rise with increasing leaness.
            NO concentration levels rise with increasing air-fuel ratio
             reaching a peak around stoichiometry after which they fall approx-
             imately linearly with increasing air- fuel ratio.
Furthermore, the absolute and relative values of the concentrations are
functions of engine design, fuel composition, throttle setting and timing.
     Three-component catalysis in terms of automotive emission control
refers to the process of simultaneously accelerating the oxidation of
exhaust stream hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide and the reduction of
nitric oxide.  In effect, three-component catalytic conversion is a means
by which the combustion equation is forced to completion outside the
engine.  The extent of reaction completeness depends on the chemical make-
up of the exhaust stream and the ability of the catalyst to promote the
following reactions:
                                   87

-------
          CO + NO  -  C02 + 1/2 N2
                  iAY + v 1
          C  H  + *  ,  y  NO  ->
           x  y      2
          H2 + NO  +  H20 + 1/2 N2
          H2 + 1/2 02  +  H20
          CO + 1/2 02  ->  C02
          CxHy-+^t^-02 '-.  XC02+H20

     Inspection of the equations gives an insight Into the nature of
three-component catalysis.   For rich mixtures where the concentration of
02 is small compared with the NO concentrations, the first set of three
equations would tend to dominate.  The reduction of NO should be high and
be relatively independent of air-fuel ratio as long as there are more
total reductants (CO, HC and H2) then there is NO.
     On the other hand, at mixtures leaner than stoichlometry, the second
set of equations becomes more important.  The oxidation of H2, CO and HC
progresses quite rapidly as there is now an excess of oxidants (NO and 02).
However, NO reduction is forced to compete with 02 for reductants, and
depending on the relative dynamics of the chemical reactions may or may not
compete favorably.
     The above considerations lead to the conclusion that the conversion
performance of a three-component catalyst will be Influenced mainly by
the mixture ratio in the engine as it affects the chemical composition
of the exhaust gases.
     There are several characteristics which are important for a practical
catalytic converter besides having high conversion efficiencies over a
reasonable mixture ratio:
            The catalytic reactions should become effective at low
             temperatures so.as to minimize the time after engine start
             during which the emissions are uncontrolled.
            The reactions should approach completion at high space
             velocities so that the converters are "reasonably"1 sized.
          t  The catalyst should not produce any objectionable substances
             such as ammonia in  side reactions over the normal operating
             regime for which it is designed.
                                    88

-------
          t  The catalyst should use low cost materials which should
             exhibit tolerance to fouling from gasoline additives such
             as sulfur and chlorine.
            The catalyst should be able to resist repeated thermal  cycl-
             ing and elevated temperatures.

     8.2  Catalyst Preparation and Bench Scale Tests
          The catalyst material furnished by Harshaw Chemical Company is
composed of copper oxide on alumina pellets 1/8 inch in diameter by  1/8
inch long.  The copper oxide loading is approximately 10% of the pellets'
weight.  The catalyst was activated by exposing the material to a reduc-
ing stream of CO and N~ at elevated temperature for extended time periods.
The catalyst was activated in two-pound batches after which it was tested
for catalytic activity.
     Bench scale evaluation was conducted using a small 1.2 cubic inch
reactor containing the activated catalyst.  The reactor was supplied with
a synthetic mixture of gases simulating auto exhaust near stoichiometry.
The synthetic exhaust used in the bench scale test had the following
composition:
          Carbon Dioxide		12%
          Water Vapor	12%
          Methane--		-	400-600 ppm
          Carbon Monoxide		1000-3000 ppm
          Nitric Oxide	500-800 ppm
          Oxygen	1200 ppm
          Balance	nitrogen
For each batch, the conversion efficiency of the catalyst, defined as
the ratio of outlet concentration of a particular exhaust specie to  the
inlet concentration, was determined at several temperatures.  In addition,
the "light off" temperature, the temperature at which a specific conversion
begins,was measured.
     Steady state conversion results are shown in Table 8.1.  The inlet
reductant-oxidant concentrations are expressed as R/0 ratio; reductants
composed of CH. and CO, oxidants composed of NO and Op.  Note that each
CH. is equivalent to three CO molecules in reducing power and each 0^ is
equivalent to two NO molecules in oxidizing power.
                                    89

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                   /.       ,.'    TABLE 8.1    ..     . .     
                BENCH SCALE TESTS ON TRW-HARSHAW CATALYST

                  Reactor Bed Volume - 1.2 cubic inches
                Space Velocity - 48,000 V/V/Hr at 1400F
Temperature
oF
1390+20
1390 + 10
"
n
11
11
1215 +15
1335 +15
1385 +10
1465 + 5
R/0
1.05 + 20
1.3
1.14
.1.07
0.96
0.93

1.12 +_ 02. ,

CH4
91 +3
 61..
84.5
. 88
96.3
98.7
70.0
79.6
85;.0
87.5
Conversion (%)
CO
100
100.,
98
100
100
100
98
100
100
100
NO
89 + 2
98
98
88
70
65
50
82.5
85.0
96.5
02
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
loo
100
100
Remarks
six samples
one sample
... n
 
"

"
.,
., 
     The data suggested:
            The activation process would produce batches  having similar
             conversion properties.                 .
          t  The conversion of HC,  CO and NO. would be high at 1400F and
             stoichiometric air-fuel ratios.
          t  The tolerance to air-fuel variations would be higher on the
             rich side of stoichiometry.
     Conversion efficiencies measured at  lower temperatures indicated the
"light off" temperatures of the catalyst  are approximately:
          CO	-	-300F
          NO	-		650F (for stoichiometry)
                                 500F (rich mixtures)
          CH4--		1000F
                                   90

-------
     8.3  Evaluation of TRW-Harshaw Catalyst on Engine Exhausts
          The TRW-Harshaw catalyst was characterized using the exhaust gas
from one cylinder of the VW 1600 cc engine.   Single cylinder testing was
chosen to minimize the test bed size and to  isolate effects of multi-
cylinder air-fuel variations.   Later the catalyst bed size was increased
by a factor of four and the second converter was used and evaluated on
the full exhaust flow of a larger displacement Chevrolet Vega engine.

          8.3.1  Single Cylinder Catalyst Characterization Tests
                 8.3.1.1  Test Equipment and Procedures
                          The experimental  set-up for the single cylinder
catalyst tests is represented in the block  diagram of Figure 8.1.
     The engine used was a 1968 Volkswagen  1600 cc engine equipped with
electronically-controlled intake port fuel  injection.  The fuel injection
control circuitry was modified in two ways.   First, the control of the
duration of each injection pulse was adapted so that the mixture ratio of
the engine could be manually adjusted over  a wide range from flooding to
lean misfire.  Secondly, the thermal transducer controlling the choking
signal was added in its place so that the "choke" could be varied indepen-
dently of engine thermal conditions.  The engine throttle position was
controlled by a small servo motor on the throttle linkage; throttle posi-
tion was controlled independently of engine  speed and air-fuel ratio.
Engine timing was set according to manufacturer's specification.  Engine
speed was controlled by the EMT power train.  The engine nominal speed was
maintained at 1800 rpm independent of load  conditions.
     Air flow into the engine was monitored  by using a Meriam Instrument
Company laminar flow element (LFE) flowmeter scaled for 0-100 SCFM.
Pressure drop across the LFE was read on a  0-10 inch H^O, inclined mano-
meter and recorded on a strip chart with a  Statham Instruments 0-1 psid
pressure transducer.  Air temperature for the LFE corrections were read on
a mercury-in-glass thermometer suspended near the air inlet to the engine.
This installation did not guarantee that the true air temperature was read
in the LFE and may have accounted for some  of the variations in air-fuel
ratio measurements discussed in Appendix J.

                                    91

-------
                                                        FIGURE  8.1
                                EXPERIMENTAL  SET UP FOR SINGLE CYLINDER CHARACTERIZATION
                                                  OF TRW-HARSHAW CATALYST
                                                       FROM ATMOSPHERE
                                                   LAMINAR
                                                   FLOW
                                                   ELEMENT
ro
FLYWHEEL
ASSEMBLY
AND POWER
ABSORBER


EMT POWER
TRAIN
ALTERNATOR,
MOTOR,
BATTERIES
AND PCU'S
                                                TC
                          TO ATMOSPHERE


SINGLE
CYLINDER
CATALYST
CHAMBER



          TO ATMOSPHERE

 FLOWTRON FUEL FLOWMETER


             FROM FUEL TANK

          FUEL PUMP
TOGAS
ANALYSIS SYSTEM
                                                                    TO GAS ANALYSIS SYSTEM

-------
     Fuel flow was measured by a Flowtron Inc., Model 10 flowmeter,
scaled for 0-10# fuel/hour.  Fuel from a gasoline storage tank was pumped
through the flowmeter and the fuel injectors by the VW fuel pump originally
supplied with the engine.  The complete fuel measuring system along with
signal and strip chart amplifiers was calibrated in-situ using a catch and
weigh technique.;
     Manifold pressure was monitored by a mercury vacuum manometer and was
recorded on a strip chart by means of an absolute pressure transducer.
Other conditions such as test cell temperature and atmospheric pressure
were recorded daily or during each run.
     Two gas analysis trains were used in the measurement, of catalyst
conversion effectiveness and HC accumulator screening.  One system com-
prised a Scott Research Laboratories Model 108 Analysis System.  That
totally self-contained system included the following instruments:
          Beckman Model 315A NDIR CO Analyzer
          Beckman Model 315A NDIR C02 Analyzer
          Beckman Model 315A NDIR NO Analyzer
          MSA Total Hydrocarbon Analyzer
          Beckman Model 715 Process Oxygen Analyzer
          Sample pumps, traps, flowmeters, filters and strip chart
           recorders necessary for a complete on-line stream analysis.
The other gas analysis train was composed of an assembly of individual
units including:                                           -
          Beckman Model 315A NDIR CO Analyzer
          Beckman Model 315A NDIR NO Analyzer
          Beckman Model 400 FID HC Analyzer
          Beckman Model 715 Process Oxygen Analyzer
     Exhaust gas from the #4 cylinder flowed to the characterization
canister through a short (^2 inch) exhaust pipe fitted to the exhaust
pipe and then to the atmosphere.  The exhaust of the other three cylinders
flowed through the conventional VW muffler to the atmosphere.
                                    93

-------
     The first canister built for catalyst evaluation was constructed of
three major pieces.  A central, removable wire basket 8" long x 7" wide x
2 1/2" deep, holding the catalyst bed was inserted into a thin-walled
stainless steel jacket.  Gas entered through a transition section in the
2 1/2 x 7" end, flowed diagonally across the bed and exited at the rear
2 1/2 x 7" transition section.  This canister design was not satisfactory.
The flat sides of the canister bowed due to thermal distortion.  The
flanges and gasket area of the transition and jacket were difficult to
mate properly and the flange material was oxidized and burned out.  The
orientation of the container (7" width vertical, long dimension horizontal),
coupled with shaking motions induced by the engine and the high flexibility
of the wire basket repeatedly caused the bed to settle, resulting in a poor
flow distribution.  The NO conversion of this canister never exceeded 50%.
     A new canister was constructed to eliminate many of the problems of
the original design.  This canister was also designed so that it could
be used for the hydrocarbon accumulator material screening tests described
in Section 7.  The canister which was shown schematically in Figure 7.1,
consisted of a double walled cylindrical vessel.  The inner diameter of
the canister was about 5 inches.  The catalyst was positioned between re-
tainer screens separated by about 6 1/2 inches.  During the final emission
tests using the Vega engine, the canister was filled with 6 1/2 inches of
the selected accumulator material.  The pressure drop across the 6 1/2
inch deep bed filled with the TRW-Harshaw catalyst was about 3 inches of
water at the highest tested space velocity of 37,000 V/V/Hr.

                 8.3.1.2  Single Cylinder Catalyst Characterization Results
                          Steady State Catalyst Conversion Efficiencies
    Table 8.2 presents the steady state data obtained from the single
cylinder tests.  The data is grouped into four sections with each section
representing data derived from tests made at essentially constant tempera-
ture and space velocity.  The first three columns of the table, following
the "test number" column, indicate engine parameters at 1800 rpm; the next
four list the pollutant and oxygen concentrations of the engine exhaust as
a function of air-to-fuel ratio.
                                   94

-------
             TABLE 8.2
TRW-HARSHAW COPPER CATALYST DATA
ENGINE PARAMETERS AND EXHAUST COMPOSITION
Test
Nos.
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.10
1.11
1.12
1.13
1.14
1.15
1.16
1.17
1.18
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
Manifold
Pressure
"Hg
7.20
7.13
7.45
7.40
7.18
7.10
7.05
7.33
7.10
7.35
6.71
7.20
6.85
7.10
6.85
7.10
7.20
7.29
7.10
7.10
7.20
7.10
Engine
Air
Flow
SCFM
7.5
7.8
7.8
7.8
7.8
7.9
7.8
7.8
7.9
7.8
7.9
7.8
8.1
7.9
7.9
7.9
7.9
8.2
8.1
8.0
7.7
8.0
Air-
Fuel
13.15
14.55
14.69
14.72
14.77
14.78
14.93
15.08
15.15
15.18
15.20
15.30
15.38
15.40
15.45
15.45
16.03
16.18
14.50
14.55
14.60
14.75
HC
as C?
(ppm)
385
425
320
350
350
360
320
280
250
230
200
190
220
150
160
130
180
31
385
400
390
360
CO
W
4.40
2.30
2.10
1.70
1.50
1.75
1.20
1.30
0.90
1.13
0.83
0.80
0.70
0.58
0.55
0.50
0.55
0.22
2.10
1.87
1.60
1.83
NO
(ppm)
1050
1640
1620
2000
1930
1850
1950
1900
2000
2000
2150
2180
2250
2200
2200
2100
2280
1900
1940
1950
2050
2020
2
()
0.15
0.20
0.18
0.19
0.22
0.22
0.23
0.20
0.25
0.22
0.30
0.35
0.31
0.28
0.3T
0.32
0.53
0.43
0.22
0.25
0.21
0.33
Reduc-
tant
Concen
(%)
4.75
2.68
2.39
2.01
1.81
2.07
1.49
1.55
1.12
1.33
1.01
0.97
0.90
0.71
0.69
0.62
0.71
0.25
2.45
2.23
1.95
2.15
Oxi-
dant
Concen
(%)
0.45
0.56
0.52
0.58
0.63
0.62
0.64
0.59
0.70
0.64
0.83
0.92
0.84
0.78
0.84
0.85
1.29
1.05
0.63
0.70
0.62
0.86
R/0
(ppm)
43,000
21,000
18,700
14,300
11,800
14,500
8,400
9,600
4,200
6,900
1,800
500
600
-700
-1500
-2300
-5800
-8000
18,200
15,300
13,300
12,900
R/0
10.55
4.76
4.60
3.47
2.87
3.34
2.33
2.63
1.60
2.08
1.22
1.05
1.07
0.91
0.82
0.73
0.55
0.24
3.89
3.19
3.12
2.50
CATALYTIC DEVICE OUTPUT AND EFFICIENCY

HC as C3
Concen
(ppm)
250
400
280
273
295
225
290
197
145
142
78
80
43
38
37
25
30
2
290
240
205
155
Conver
(%)
35.0
6.0
12.5
21.6
16.0
29.5
19.5
29.6
32.0
38.4
61.0
58.0
80.5
74.7
76.9
80.8
83.4
93.5
24.5
40.0
47.5
57.0
CO
Concen
(ppm)
31 ,000
14,000
10,000
6,400
5,700
3,800
6,100
3,600
1,700
2,200
500
550
250
200
180
130
70
50
10,000
9,000
7,600
3,050
Conver
(%)
29.5
38.3
52.4
62.0
62.3
68.4
65.2
72.3
81.0
82.1
94.1
93.1
96.4
96.5
96.7
97.3
98.7
98.8
52.4
51.9
52.5
83.4
NO
Concen
(ppm)
55
100
110
90
55
170
175
75
165
70
80
45
140
200
310
620
730
1620
260
60
140
175
Conver
(%)
94.8
93.9
93.2
95.5
97.2
91.3
90.5
96.0
91.7
96.5
96.3
97.9
93.8
90.9
85.9
70.5
68.0
14.8
86.6
96.9
93.2
91.3
OXYGEN
Concen
(ppm)
700
100
350
100
200
250
200
100
300
100
200
200
400
200
300
800
700
3,300
300
250
200
500
Conver
(%)
53.3
95.0
80.6
94.7
90.9
88.6
91.1
95.0
88.0
95.5
93.3
94.3
87.0
92.9
90.3
75.0
86.8
20.9
86.4
90.0
90.4
93.4
Ave.
Cat.
Temp
F
1220
1210
1210
1210
1210
1230
1240
1220
1245
1230
1240
1230
1250
1250
1235
1240
1250
1225
1370
1370
1400
1375
Space
Velo-
city
V/V/Hr
28,000















\















i
32,000


1


i

-------
        TABLE 8.2 (cont'd)
TRW-HARSHAW COPPER CATALYST DATA
ENGINE PARAMETERS AND EXHAUST COMPOSITION
Test
Nos.
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12
2.13
2.14
2.15
2.16
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
Manifold
'ressure
11 Hg
7.10
7.00
7.00
7.20
7.10
7.00
7.00
7.00
7.20
7.00
7.00
7.00
7.10
7.10
7.10
7.40
7.10
7.40
7.15
7.40
7.40
7.35
Engine
Air
Flow
SCFM
8.0
8.0
8.0
7.7
7.9
8.0
8.0
8.0
7.8
8.1
8.0
8.1
7.8
7.8
7.8
7.8
7.9
7.9
7.8
7.8
7.8
7.8
Air-
Fuel
14.95
15.05
15.10
15.20
15.23
15.65
15.85
15.95
16.23
16.40
16.45
17.20
14.70
14.90
15.19
15.30
15.37
15.50
15.60
15.70
16.00
16.45
HC
as CT
(ppm;
325
290
230
215
220
180
190
175
155
130
80
70
405
355
260
80
160
60
125
60
50
45
CO
(*)
1.35
1.28
1.10
0.95
0.92
0.90
0.70
0.65
0.62
0.59
0.35
0.17
1.85
1.55
1.02
0.75
0.67
0.60
0.52
0.55
0.65
0.20
NO
(ppm)
2070
2200
2280
2200
2100
2300
2300
2380
2300
2450
2480
2450
1750
1850
2000
2300
2100
2250
2100
2380
2300
2320
2
w
0.30
0.32
0.35
0.23
0.23
0.40
0.48
0.45
0.41
0.60
0.68
1.30
0.19
0.21
0.24
0.28
0.29
0.30
0.29
0.35
0.30
0.63
Reduc-
tant
Concen
(%)
1.64
1.54
1.31
1.14
1.12
1.06
0.87
0.81
0.76
0.71
0.42
0.23
2.21
1.94
1.25
0.82
0.81
0.65
0.63
0.60
0.69
0.60
0x1-
dant
Concen
(%)
0.81
0.86
0.93
0.68
0.67
1.03
1.19
1.14
1.05
1.44
1.61
2.84
0.55
0.60
0.68
0.79
0.79
0.82
0.79
0.94
0.83
1.50
R/0
(ppm)
8,300
6,800
3,800
4,600
4,500
300
-3,200
-3,300
-2,900
-7,300
11,900
26,100
16,600
13,400
5,700
300
300
-1,700
-1 ,600
-3,400
-1 ,400
-9,000
R/0
2.04
1.79
1.41
1.68
1.67
1.03
0.73
0.71
0.72
0.49
0.26
0.08
3.99
3.23
2.31
1.04
1.03
0.79
0.80
0.64
0.84
0.40
CATALYTIC DEVICE OUTPUT AND EFFICIENCY

HC as C3
Concen
(ppm)
150
130
115
120
65
18
12
20
15
13
5
2
135
93
50
20
10
2
5
2
2
2
Conver
(*)
53.8
55.0
50.0
44.0
70.5
90.0
93.7
88.6
90.3
90.0
93.8
97.0
66.6
73.8
80.8
75.0
93.7
100.0
96.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
CO
Concen
(ppm)
4,800
3,900
1,950
2,800
2,100
140
60
125
70
120
20
30
11,400
8,300
3,700
600
150
170
160
75
50
60
Conver
(%)
64.4
69.6
82.2
70.5
77.2
98.4
99.1
98.1
98.8
98.0
99.4
98.2
38.5
46.5
63.7
92.0
97.8
97.2
96.9
98.6
99.2
97.0
NO
Concen
(ppm)
40
30
240
165
35
70
320
85
265
1320
1700
1320
40
25
10
100
40
100
200
400
700
280
Conver
(*)
98.1
98.6
89.5
92.5
98.3
97.0
86.1
96.4
88.5
46.2
31.3
46.2
97.7
98.6
99.5
95.7
98.1
95.5
90.5
83.2
69.6
88.0
OXYGEN
Concen
(ppm)
200
300
350
200
300
250
500
400
300
1400
3000
4500
50
100
100
20
200
100
100
N.A.
300
400
Conver
(*)
93.3
90.3
90.0
90.9
88.0
97.3
89.6
91.1
92.6
76.6
55.8
65.4
97.7
95.2
95.8
99.3
93.1
96.7
96.6
~
90.0
93.7
Ave.
Cat.
Temp
F
1390
1390
1365
1385
1410
1410
1400
1400
1380
1375
1380
1390
1550
1560
1565
1590
1575
1590
1570
1550
1550
1550
Space
Velo-
city
V/V/Hr
32,000










i










1
33,000







\







f

-------
       TABLE 8.2 (cont'd)
TRW-HARSHAW COPPER CATALYST DATA
ENGINE PARAMETERS AND EXHAUST COMPOSITION
Test
Yos.
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12
4.13
Manifold
Pressure
11 Hg
4.43
4.10
4.38
4.10
4.23
4.05
4.30
4.30
4.00
4.25
4.00
4.05
4.05
Engine
Air
Flow
SCFM
8.8
8.8
9.8
9.8
8.9
9.6
8.8
8.9
9.6
8.9
9.7
9.6
9.6
Air-
Fuel
14.30
14.55
14.90
14.90
15.18
15.20
15.35
15.55
15.60
15.85
15.95
16.10
16.50
HC
as Co
(ppm)
445
410
315
370
240
330
130
100
200
73
160
105
95
CO
(X)
2.50
2.10
1.40
1.70
1.00
1.35
0.60
0.53
0.68
0.40
0.48
0.30
0.17
NO
(ppm)
1630
2100
2075
2300
2150
2500
2350
2300
2900
2420
2850
2980
2850
2
(X)
0.14
0.28
0.20
0.33
0.24
0.38
0.27
0.28
0.57
0.35
0.75
1.00
1.35

-------
     Columns 9 through 12 indicate the engine exhaust reductants in CO

equivalents, the total oxidants in NO equivalents and the difference and

ratio of these two quantities.  While hydrogen is also a reductant it

was not measured during these tests s.ince a cursory literature survey

suggested that concentrations of this component of the exhaust would be

small in comparison to the other reductants present at near-stoichiometric

air-fuel ratios.  Later, the hydrogen levels from the Vega engine were

measured as discussed in Section 8.4 and it was shown that the hydrogen

level from that engine could represent a substantial  portion of the

reductant makeup.

     The rest of the columns indicate; the composition of the exhaust

downstream of the catalyst, the catalytic conversion  efficiencies of the

four components of interest, the average catalyst temperature and the

actual  bed space velocity for each test.  Three significantly different

temperatures and space velocities were used.  The air-fuel  ratio extremes

differed by as much as 30% of the apparent stoichiometric point*--the

measured A/F ranged from 13 to 17.

     Figures 8.2, 8.3, 8.4 and 8.5 present plots of the tabulated data.
Examination of these curves and Table 8.2 leads to the following observa-

tions:

            The catalyst is generally non-selective  in promoting the re-
             action of exhaust components.  Comparison of the conversion
             efficiencies of the competing species (hydrocarbons vs. CO,
             and oxygen vs. NO) obtained from the approximately one hundred
             steady state test points do not indicate significant differ-
             ences.  At lower temperatures Kl200F)  the CO oxidation
             appears to be favored over hydrocarbon oxidation while the
             opposite is true at temperatures above 1500F.  This effect
             however may be due more to "chemical thermodynamics" such as
             competition of the water-gas reaction and/or increased C0
             dissociation than catalyst selectivity.   The ratio of NO
             conversion to 02 conversion increases very slightly with
             temperature; however it may be due to the other reasons sug-
             gested for the CO-HC shift.
*Appendix J presents a discussion of the methods used for determining the
 stoichiometric air-fuel ratio in the single cylinder tests and later
 tests on the full flow of the Vega.
                                   98

-------
vo
       100


       90


       80
    #

    > 70
    UJ
    u 60
    Z 50
    O
40


30


20


10


 0
             D - HC

             O - CO

             A - NO
                     13
                                                       FIGURE 8.2
                                        TRW-HARSHAW CATALYST CONVERSION EFFICIENCY
                                                28,000 V/V/Hr; T230+20F
                                     14
                                                                            APPARENT
                                                                            STOIGHIOMETRY
15
16
17
                                                 AIR-FUEL RATIO

-------
o
o
       100


        90


        80
    u.
    g

    ~  40
    KJ  ^W


    8  
        20
        10
                     D -  HC

                     O -  CO

                     A -  NO
                     13
                                                    FIGURE 8.3
                                     TRW-HARSHAW CATALYST CONVERSION EFFICIENCY
                                             32,000 V/V/Hr; 1390+20F
                                                                            APPARENT
                                                                            STOICHIOMETRY
                                                                                   I
14
15
                                                  AIR-FUEL RATIO
16
17

-------
   100


   90


   80
U

I60
O   LU
~"   z
    g
    CO
   50
   40
8  30
   20


   10


    0
                     D -  HC

                     O -  CO

                     A -  NO
                                                 FIGURE '8:4
                                  TRW-HARSHAW CATALYST CONVERSION EFFICIENCY
                                       ... 37,000  V/V/Hr; 1410+50F-      ...
                                            1
                                                                           APPARENT
                                                                           STOICHIOMETRY
                                                                                    I
                 13
                                            14                      15

                                                 AIR-FUEL RATIO
16
17

-------
o
ro
       100



        90



        80

     *
     >-  70
     UJ
     U  60
     Z  50
     O
     2
       40
     Z
     O
     <-  30
        20


        10


         0
D -  HC

O -  CO

A -  NO
                      13
                                                    FIGURE 8.5
                                     TRW-HARSHAW CATALYST CONVERSION EFFICIENCY
                                            33,000 V/V/Hr; 1565+20F
                        14
                                                        APPARENT
                                                        STOICHIOMETRY
                                                              I
15
16
17
                                                 AIR-FUEL RATIO

-------
  The catalyst appears to be highly efficient in simultaneously
   reducing NO and 03 and oxidizing CO for all space velocities
   as long as the air-fuel ratio does not vary by more than one
   A/F point.  Hydrocarbon oxidation is high (>80%) as long as
   the bed temperature is above 1350F.  The maximum range of
   air-fuel ratios for which the simultaneous conversion of all
   three species exceeds 75% lies between 15.3 and 16.05; under
   most test conditions the A/F range is smaller.

  The relative conversion of the pollutants is temperature
   dependent.  Comparison of Figures 8.2, 8.3 and 8.5 demon-
   strates this effect in terms of HC and CO.   It can be seen
   that the temperature effect on conversion of those species
   is not linear with temperature; the conversion in the range
   between 1200 and 1400F increases at a much faster rate with
   temperature than it does in the range from 1400 to 1600F.
   Thus, operation of the catalyst at temperatures above 1400F
   may be unnecessary for HC and CO control.

t  Temperature effects become more pronounced when the three
   pollutants are viewed as a group.  If, for example, it is
   necessary that the hot exhaust conversion of all pollutants
   reach 80% to meet the 1975-76 standards for a particular
   engine, then the allowable air-fuel ratio range is 0.7 air-
   fuel ratio points, or about 5% A/F of stoichiometry at 1390F
   and 1565F, but only 0.3 points at 1230F.   The allowable A/F
   range shrinks to a single-point value if the simultaneous
   conversion requirement is raised to:
      - 86% at 1230F
      - 90% at 1390F
      - 94% at 1565F

   A precise set of conversion requirements  cannot be set a
   priori because they will depend on the engine type, cold
   start properties and the existence of other emission controls
   such as exhaust recirculation, hydrocarbon accumulators, etc.
   In fact, in all probability the required  conversions are not
   the same for each pollutants and a careful  assessment of the
   probable exhaust signatures must be made  before establishing
   an A/F range or temperature requirement.

  Space velocity had an effect on individual  pollutant conver-
   sion.  Increasing space velocity from 32,000 to 37,000 V/V/
   Hr at stoichiometry reduced the NO conversion from about 90%
   to 70% at around 1400F.  CO and HC conversions were only
   slightly affected under these conditions.  On the other hand
   CO and HC conversions become space velocity sensitive at
   richer mixtures.
  The effect of air-fuel ratio variation is large outside of
   the narrow range specified by allowable temperatures, space
   velocities and the required conversions.   On the rich side
   of stoichiometry reductant oxidation is limited by chemistry
   in terms of the lack of oxidizing species.   On the lean side
   of stoichiometry reductant oxidation is complete but NOX

                        103

-------
             reduction is limited by the overwhelming presence of oxygen
             and the possibility of catalyst oxidation, that is, the
             reversible catalyst poisoning by oxidation.   If the apparent
             stoichiometric air-fuel ratio of 15.65 for the VW engine is
             correct, the allowable A/F variation is symetrical about
             stoichiometry at temperatures above 1350F.   At 1230F and
             for pollutant conversion greater than 80% the allowable
             variation in engine A/F is only on the rich side of stoichio-
             metry.  Thus, it appears that the point of maximum simul-
             taneous conversion of the three pollutants moves to leaner
             air-to-fuel ratios with temperature.
     Non-Steady Effects
          The data of Table 8.2 was gathered under steady state condi-
tions defined as operation of the system at constant air-fuel ratio and
mass flow for 15 minutes or more.  The data for some of the slightly lean
mixtures was measured for as long as 30 minutes.  There is no guarantee
that the measured high NO conversion data at mixtures leaner than stoichio-
metry would remain constant indefinitely; however if catalytic activity
deterioration does take place it is extremely slow such that it is hardly
discernible over the measurement period.
     Short time duration excursions on the order of a few minutes to very
lean mixtures can be tolerated by the catalyst in the space velocity range
of these experiments.  Figure 8.6 shows how the NO conversion varies in
time with mixture step changes from rich to lean and back to rich.  In the
particular case shown the catalyst required 10 minutes for the NO conversion
to fall  to about 70% of its original level.  Furthermore, the data reveals
that a return to richer-than-stoichiometric mixtures restores the catalytic
activity toward NO reduction almost immediately.  Additional  data, not shown
here, on both VW and Vega exhausts indicated that the rate of catalytic
activity restoration increases with an increase in temperature and decrease
in A/F.   Restoration is slow if a lean exhaust is changed to stoichiometric
exhaust, but fast if .the change is to a rich exhaust.
     Physical Changes
          Catalyst sintering, erosion and/or attrition was negligible in
the single cylinder tests.  The catalyst bed remained tightly packed dur-
ing the entire test period spanning- one month.  In addition, the catalyst
showed no catalytic activity deterioration even though it was subjected
                                  104

-------
o
VI
                                                     FIGURE 8.6
                               TRANSIENT NO CONVERSION BEHAVIOR OF TRW-HARSHAW CATALYST
               15.02 A/F
          100




           90



           80



           70
       E  60
       O  50

       
       LLJ

       1  
       O
       u

       O  30
       z


           20



           10




            0
28,OOOVAAlR

1220 F
                         10
            20
                                     1
30          40

      TIME, MINUTES
50
60
70
80

-------
repeatedly to both extremely rich and lean exhaust mixtures; to engine
misfire, to condensed moisture and to engine particulates '.(mainly
carbon).                                                  ;

 '         8.3.2  TRW-Harshaw Characterization Tests on Vega Engine
                 8.3.2.1  Full Scale TRW-Harshaw Catalytic Converter
            ,..,.....        A full scale catalytic converter was designed
and tested on the exhaust stream of a 1971 Chevrolet Vega engine.  The
engine was ;modified in several ways as described in Appendix K.
     The catalytic converter used in the tests was sized on the basis
of the previous single cylinder test results.  A schematic diagram of
the converter is to be found in Figure 8.7 and a photograph of the dis-
assembled converter and catalyst is shown in Figure 8.8.  The converter
was constructed of thin walled stainless steel; the bed diameter was 8
inches and it wa's 8 inches deep.  Flow through the bed was from top to
bottom as shown in Figure 8.6.  Perforated plates were used on the inlet
side to present a uniform flow distribution to the bed.  Radial vane bed
supports welded to the outlet wall of the canister provided stiffness and
support of the bed's weight and static pressure drop.  Approximately 3/4
inches of refractory insulation covered the cylindrical portion of the
canister; this in turn was wrapped with a light aluminum jacket to pro-
vide support for the insulating jacket.  Chromel-Alumel thermocouples
were placed within the bed as shown in Figure 8.7  The bed was filled
with approximately 6300 grams of freshly activated TRW-Harshaw catalyst.
The converter was vibrated like the hydrocarbon accumulator during
catalyst fill  to settle the bed as much as possible and then the top re-
taining screen was screwed down to preload the bed in compression.

                 8.3.2.2  Steady State Test Results
                          Figures 8.9 and 8.10 present steady state data
on the efficiency of the full scale TRW-Harshaw catalytic converter for
controlling pollutants emitted from the Vega engine operated at a number
of air-fuel ratios.   The data was obtained at two exhaust flowrates and
two catalyst temperatures.     '
                                  106

-------
                              EXHAUST INLET
INSULATION
           TC
                                                            PERFORATED PLATES
                                                                 RETAINING SCREENS
                                                             BED SUPPORT
                            EXHAUST OUTLET
                                  FIGURE  8.7
                 FULL SCALE  TRW-HARSHAW  CATALYTIC CONVERTER
                                      107

-------
o
CO
                       EXHAUST MANIFOLD FLANGE
                                                                        FIGURE 8.8
                                                        FULL SCALE TRW-HARSHAW CATALYTIC CONVERTER

-------
                      FIGURE 8.9
PERFORMANCE OF FULL SCALE TRW-HARSHAW CATALYTIC CONVERTER
               23,000 V/V/Hr;  1230+30F
                               APPARENT
                               STOICHIOMETRY
                  AIR-FUEL RATIO

-------
                       FIGURE  8.10
PERFORMANCE OF FULL SCALE TRW-HARSHAW CATALYTIC CONVERTER
                40,000  V/V/Hr;  1520+20F
                    AIR-FUEL RATIO

-------
     Scaling up of the VW single cylinder converter by a factor of four
did not alter the effectiveness of the TRW-Harshaw catalyst as a three-
component catalyst; if anything, it proved more efficient.   Comparison
of Figures 8.2 and 8.9 and Figures 8.4, 8.5 and 8.10 reveals that the
catalyst performance is almost identical  even though the reductant and
oxygen concentrations in the Vega exhaust are substantially higher than
in the VW while the NO concentration is substantially lower.  This tends
to confirm the negligible effect of pollutant concentrations on conver-
sions which was found in the bench scale tests.  In comparing these data
the difference in the apparent stoichiometric air-fuel ratios should be
taken into account.
     The only major difference between the sets of data taken from the
two entirely different exhaust compositions is the CO conversion at the
higher temperatures and richer-than stoichiometric mixtures.  The Vega
data indicates at 'least 20% higher CO conversion at equivalent A/F, even
though the data was obtained at higher space velocities.  The increased
CO conversion extends the allowable variation in A/F on the rich side of
stoichiometry by at least a factor of two beyond that of the VW exhaust
data.  Thus, according to the data in Figure 8.9, the allowable variation
in A/F for a simultaneous total pollutant conversion of 80% is 7% (1.5% on
the lean side of stoichiometry and 5.5% on the rich side).   Without addi-
tional data it is impossible to offer a valid reason for the observed
difference in CO conversion.  It is within the realm of possibilities
that the discrepancy is due to experimental error since a slight "off"
point on either set of data can alter the shape of the curve substantially.

     Hydrogen Measurements
          Hydrogen concentrations in the steady state exhaust stream of
the Vega were made using a Hewlett-Packard Laboratory Chromatograph.  The
chromatographic column of the device was calibrated using synthetic mix-
tures of exhaust gases containing Np, C3Hg, Hp, CO, COp and Op.  The
results of these tests are to be found in Figure 8.11.
     The tests covered steady state operation at two manifold pressure
levels at 1800 rpm and various air-fuel ratios.
                                  Ill

-------
ro
               30,000
           Z
           o
               20,000
o
u
 CM
           2  10,000
           o
           Z
           UJ
           <
           o
                                                     FIGURE 8.11
                          HYDROGEN CONCENTRATIONS IN THE EXHAUST STREAM OF THE VEGA ENGINE
                                 13
                                              14
15
16
                                                              AIR-FUEL RATIO

-------
     Ammonia Production
          Under certain conditions ammonia, NH.,, can be formed within a
catalytic converter by the reaction of NO and hydrogen.  The latter's
source can be gaseous or atomic hydrogen or hydrogen in the unoxidized
hydrocarbons of the exhaust stream.  Ammonia produced in the reducing
bed of a dual bed catalyst system typically presents a problem in that
NH3 can be oxidized back to NO in the second, oxidizing bed.  This re-
oxidation process cannot take place within a three-component catalytic
system.  However, while no standards have been set for vehicular ammonia
emissions, it was desirable to make measurements to judge the magnitude
of potential problems.
     Experimental ProceduresThe ammonia measurements were made using a
                                                                       (4)
wet chemical analysis technique modeled after that used by Segal, et alv  .
A small stream of exhaust gas was drawn from the outlet of the TRW-Harshaw
converter mounted on the Vega engine.  The sample stream was bubbled
through two NH., absorption'baths set in series.
     Each bath consisted of a flask containing 300 ml of a 2% by weight
mixture of boric acid in water.  The gas stream was admitted near the
bottom of each flask through a glass frit and bubbled up through the acid
to the flask outlet port.  The flasks were chilled by submerging them in
Dewar flasks filled with dry ice and water.  The gas stream from the out-
let of the second flask was pulled through a sample pump into a wet test
meter which was used to measure the flow rate of the exhaust stream sample.
     Sample gas was allowed to flow through the analysis stream for about
10 minutes at a rate of around 10 liters/minute.  After NhL collection,
Brom Cresol Green indicator was added to a sample from each flask and the
samples were treated with a 0.04N solution of HC1 to a yellow endpoint
color.  The analysis procedure and reference endpoint color were checked
and calibrated using certified gas mixtures of 250 and 1000 ppm NHL in N^.
     The following equation was used to compute the concentration of NH3
in the exhaust stream sample:
n m MU    (cc's of HC1 titrated)(0.04)(22.400)(liters of sample/second)
ppm nn3 ~               (60X minutes of sample collection)
                                  113

-------
     NH~ ResultsThe concentration of ammonia in the exhaust of the
catalytic converter are found in Figure 8.12.   The two converter temp-
eratures correspond to the manifold pressure levels indicated in Figure
8.9; the lower temperature is associated with  the higher manifold vacuum.
The dotted curves indicate the ratio of ammonia to total NO reduction as
a function of airrto-fuel ratio.
     Comparison of Figures 8.11  and 8.12 suggests that there is little
dependence on the -amount of engine-generated hydrogen and ammonia pro-
duction in the catalyst.  The higher rate of H2 production in the engine
at the higher manifold pressure does not correspond to higher NH, levels
originating in the catalyst.  Spot checks were made of the hydrogen con-
version which showed that on the lean side of stoichiometry hydrogen con-
version ranged between 80-100%,  but conversion dropped sharply at mixture
ratios below 15.0.  .These effects suggest that ammonia production depends
on the amount of hydrogen, probably atomic, generated in the catalyst
from the water-gas reaction, hydrocarbon decomposition or both.
     There is a very strong dependence of ammonia generation on tempera-
ture and air-to-fuel ratios.  At air-to-fuel ratios below 13.0 ammonia
production approaches 100% of the total reduced NO; since the latter
represents over 90% conversion of. NO, practically all the NO generated
in the engine is converted to ammonia.  Fortunately, ammonia production
in the catalyst is extremely low in the air-fuel  ratio band and tempera-
ture level needed for successful three-component control.
 Transient Tests   -    Data taken during engine cold starts substantially
confirmed the "light off" measurements observed in the earlier bench scale
tests.  Figures 8.13 and 8.14 show the pollutant conversions and catalyst
temperatures as a function of time after cold  engine start.
     Exact HC "light off" temperature determination could not be made as
the catalyst bed tends to act as a hydrocarbon accumulator during the
first minute of operation.  Three minutes after the cold start the
latter half of the converter is  still below 1000F but all three pollu-
tants are approaching their steady state values.
                                  114

-------
                                        FIGURE 8.12

            AMMONIA PRODUCTION OF THE  TRW-HARSHAW THREE-COMPONENT  CATALYST
600
500,
7  400
z  
g

i

5  300


O
200
100
              13
                                      14
15
16
                                  100




                                  90




                                  80




                                  70




                                  60




                                  50




                                  40




                                  30




                                  20
                                                                                              CJ
                                                                                               O
                                                                                               T\



                                                                                               O

                                                                                               30
                                        AIR-FUEL RATIO

-------
ol
Z oc
*- LLJ


ol'
                                                 FIGURE 8.13

                       WARM-UP CONVERSION CHARACTERISTICS OF  FULL SCALE  CONVERTER
                                                                                          -I 6000
                0.5     1.0     1.5   ;.  2.0     2.5     3.0     3.5



                                          MINUTES AFTER COLD START
4.0,
4.5
5.0

-------
1800i-
1600 -
                                    FIGURE 8.14
              FULL SCALE  CONVERTER THERMAL WARM-UP  CHARACTERISTICS
          0.5      1.0
1.5     2.0     2.5  =    3.0     3.5

      MINUTES AFTER COLD START
4.0
5.0

-------
 Physical  Changes  -   After about 50 hours of operation, the full scale
converter was opened.  A 10% volume reduction was noted and the bed had
lost about 3% of its initial weight.   The exposure time for the catalyst
in the full scale converter was about one-half that of the single cylinder
tests in which there was no apparent  catalyst deterioration.   Since the flow
velocities in the full scale bed was  the same or lower, it was concluded
that much of the weight and volume loss was due to poor packing and
vibration during Vega tests.  While it is possible for the catalyst
pellets to undergo sintering, visual  checks of individual pellets did not
uncover any geometry changes.
     In order to test catalyst durability at relatively high temperatures,
the catalyst bed was operated for more than one hour at the 1750-1850F
range; the temperature was reduced and the catalyst activity was rechecked
and found to be unaffected.
     The catalyst appeared to be unaffected by whatever particulate matter
the engine produced during the test time period.  There was a small in-
crease in the pressure drop across the bed with time, but that probably
was due to the decreased bed volume rather than gross filling of flow
passage with foreign materials.  The  maximum pressure drop across the
bed was just below two inches of mercury at the highest observed space
velocity (50,000 V/V/Hr at 1700F).
                                  118

-------
9.0  CHARACTERISTICS OF UNIVERSAL OIL PRODUCTS CATALYTIC CONVERTER
     9.1  Converter Description and Test Procedure;
          Two catalytic converters were supplied by Universal  Oil  Products
of Des Plaines, Illinois for evaluation as hybrid vehicle emission control.
The devices contained a proprietary catalyst which according to UOP con-
tains less than $5 worth of platinum.  The two devices differed only in
size of the converter bed.   The smaller converter was approximately 5 3/8
inches in diameter overall  and had an apparent bed thickness of 2  1/4
inches.  The larger converter was 6 1/2 inches in.diameter overall and had
an apparent bed thickness of 2 9/16 inches.   Both converters had 2 inch
diameter inlet and outlet tubes and conical  inlet and outlet flow  transi-
tion sections.
     The converter inlet and outlet sections were slightly modified so
they could be fastened to the machined outlet boss on the Vega exhaust
manifold.  The converters were placed as close as possible to  the  outlet;
approximately 6 inches to the center of the converter bed.  A  photograph
of the larger converter on  the Vega engine can be seen in Figure 9.1.
     The transient and steady state performance of:the converters  was
examined on the Vega engine.  The small size of the beds allowed the^con-
verters to come up to temperature quite rapidly.  However, the light off
of HC and CO was restricted due to the inability of the Vega mixture ratio
to become lean rapidly enough.
     9.2  Test Results
 '         The steady state conversion performance of the converters is
shown in Figures 9.2, 9.3 and 9.4.  The devices acted as excellent oxidiz-
ing converters for lean mixture ratios.  However, the NO reduction per-
formance never exceeded more than 50% conversion for any condition of flow
rate, temperature or air-fuel ratio.
     A possible explanation for the low NO reduction is that the space
velocity in the bed was too high.  The estimated space velocity in the
larger converter (nearly twice the bed volume as the smaller unit) was
in excess of 200,000 V/V/Hr. at an engine flow rate of 40 SCFM or  nearly
seven times more than the TRW-Harshaw single cylinder canister or  full
scale catalytic converter.
                                   119

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              FIGURE  9.1
UOP CATALYTIC CONVERTER  MOUNTED ON VEGA
           EXHAUST MANIFOLD
             120

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100

 90

 80

 70
O  50
UJ
>  40
O
   30

   20

   10

    0
                                      FIGURE 9.2
                  UOP CATALYTIC  CONVERTER PERFORMANCE ^38 SCFM, 1530+ 50F
              13
                                                                    APPARENT
                                                                    STOICHIOMETRY
                                       14
                                         AIR FUEL RATIO

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ro
ro
                100

                90

                80

                70
              ^ 60

50

40
^^

30
ou

20

10

 0
                                                         FIGURE 9.3
                                  UOP CATALYTIC CONVERTER PERFORMANCE -^20 SCFM, 1340+ 20F
                                                       I
                              13
                                     14
                                   AIR FUEL RATIO
                                                             O  -  CO
                                                             D  -  HC
                                                             A  - NO
15
16

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PO
u>
              i
  100




   90




   80




   70




   60
y

  50
LU




!
oc
UJ



I30
U

   20




   10




    0
                                                 FIGURE 9.4


                            UOP CATALYTIC CONVERTER PERFORMANCE -x.27 SCFM,  1365+ 30F
                             13
                                      14
15
16
                                                      AIR FUEL RATIO

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10.0  HYBRID SYSTEM FULL SCALE EMISSION TESTS
      10.1  Introduction
            A major goal of this program was to explore and demonstrate
the ability of an ICE-battery hybrid system to meet the 1975-76 emission
level standards.  The advantages of hybrid operation were to be exploited--
uncoupling of engine driveability from road demands during cold engine con-
ditions, absence of rapid throttle changes, constant mixture ratio.   Two
control devices, a hydrocarbon accumulator and a three-component catalytic
converter were to be used.  This section describes the emission tests and
test results.
      10.2  Experimental Equipment
            The full scale emission tests were conducted using the bread-
board EMT equipment comprised of alternator, traction motor, power control
units, batteries, gear box and dynamometer power absorber and flywheel
inertial units.  The engine used was the Chevrolet Vega engine modified as
described in Appendix K; the catalytic converter was described in Section
8.3.2,
     The double walled canister used in the hydrocarbon accumulator screen-
ing tests and the catalyst characterization tests was used as the full
scale hydrocarbon accumulator canister.  The canister was filled with a
6 inch deep layer of Pittsburgh Activated Carbon, BPL series.  The accumu-
lator was fed by a six foot long exhaust line from the outlet of the
catalytic converter.  The outlet of the accumulator fed into the inlet of
a constant volume sampling system.
     The major plumbing and instrumentation lines of the experimental
equipment are indicated in Figure 10.1.  Major elements of the system are:
            Laminar flow element flowmeter for measuring engine inlet
             flow rate.
            Fuel system composed of fuel pump, flowmeter, modified fuel
             injection system with manually controlled injection pulse
             duration.
            Engine with modified intake system and output shaft.
            Engine coupling to EMT power train.
                                   124

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                                                               ENGINE AIR
FROM FUEL TANK
                VW FUEL PUMP
                             ENGINE TORQUE
                             TRANSDUCERS
EMT
POWER TRAIN
                                                                        TC '
                        HC ACCUMULATOR
                        DESORPTION LINE
      CONSTANT VOLUME
      SAMPLING SYSTEM
MANUXOLY_CONJROLLED

luffERFTV VALVT     *"


MANUAL CONTROL
OF ELECTRONIC
FUEL INJECTION
                                                                     TO ON-LINE GAS
                                                                     ANALYSIS SYSTEM
                                                                     CO, C02, NO (NDIR), HC (FID)
                                                                      TO ATMOSPHERIC VENT
                                                                      TO BAG SAMPLE ANALYSIS SYSTEM
                                                                      CO, CO2, HC (FID)

                                                                      NOX (CHEMILUMINESCENCE)
                                        FIGURE  10.1
           MAJOR  HARDWARE COMPONENTS  OF  FULL SCALE EMISSION  TESTS
                                             125

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            TRW-Harshaw catalytic converter instrumented to provide
             temperature and pressure drop information as well  as a con-
             tinuous sample of converter outlet gas composition (CO, C09,
             NO, HC, 02).                                              *

            Hydrocarbon accumulator with bypass lines for continued
    -         heating of the accumulator bed after engine cold start and
             a desorption line in series with a rotameter through which
             the desorbed hydrocarbons flowed back to intake manifold of
             the engine.

            Beckman constant volume sampling (CVS) system composed of
             dilution air conditioning system, mixing section,  positive
             displacement pump, sample pumps and bags.


      10.3  Experimental Procedure for Performing Emission Tests

            The breadboard EMT equipment was shown in the previous con-

tractual work to have serious component inefficiencies which would require

the average engine power level to be raised above those which would be

required in the more advanced and efficient systems studied in  the

analytic portion of this report.   Therefore, it was necessary to perform

emission tests as if the advanced hardware were actually in place-, and run

the internal combustion engine at a power level which the analyses of

Section 5 indicated would be required.             .

     The following operating procedures were adopted  in running the-emis-

sion tests according to the Federal Register of July  1971:

          t  The Vega engine and  EMT systems were cold soaked in the lab-
             oratory for a period in excess of 15 hours.   Test  cell  temp-
             eratures ran from 55F .to 65F during the cold soak time.

          t  Prior to run start--

                 - all  flow transducers were zeroed
                 - all  gas analysis equipment was zeroed and
                   spanned with certified span gases
                 - throttle was opened to give approximately 9" Hg vacuum
                   manifold at 1800 rpm
                 - electronic choke of the fuel injection system was set
                   to maximum, giving a starting mixture air-fuel  ratio
                   estimated around 8:1 to 10:1
                 - the fuel  pump  and recorders were started
                 - the CVS system and sample pump started filling the
                   "transient bag."

            Immediately after the CVS sample pump was turned on the engine
             starter motor was engaged.
                                   126

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            As soon as  the engine started  it accelerated  up in  speed
             until  the EMT system began  loading  it  and  controlled  its
             speed  at 1800 rpm.
            The choke was relieved while the throttle  was slightly
             changed to  give between 9 and  10" Hg vacuum at 1800 rpm.
             The choke was removed as rapid as possible, consistent with
             maintaining engine  speed and electrical  output from the EMT
             system alternator.   Generally, the  choke was  fully  off with-
             in two minutes after cranking.
          t  At approximately 215 seconds after  engine  start,  the  engine
             was throttled up to about 5" Hg vacuum,  corresponding to
             about  26 shaft horsepower at 1800 rpm.   The time  of throttle
             change was  based on the sum of 15 seconds  allowed from engine
             start'to placing the car's  transmission  in gear (according to
             the Federal test procedure), plus 200  seconds to  the  time the
             car would have reached 42 mph  on the Federal  driving  cycle.
             At that time it was assumed that the hybrid would begin
             operating in the highway mode  and the  engine  would  throttle
             up to  a power level equal to road load at  55  mph, or  about
             26 hp  accounting for expected  system inefficiencies.
            At 323 seconds (15+308) the throttle was returned to  9 or 10"
             Hg for the  remainder of the transient  bag  and the full  dura-
             tion of the second  or "stabilized"  bag.
          t  The starting procedure for  the hot  start bag  was  identical
             except that the choke was only slightly  or not used at all.
             Throttling  up at 215 seconds and throttling down  at 323
             seconds was as during the cold start transient bag.
            In all other respects, the  emission tests  followed  the pro-
             cedure outlined in  the July 2, 1971 Federal Register.


      10.4  Full Scale System Emission Results

            The results  for several of the  cold  start tests spanning a
two-week period are shown in Table 10.1. The data  is presented  in chrono-
logical order to indicate a measure of the  learning process we experienced.
The data shows the  actual grams  of HC, CO and NO for the  three  bags of the
                                                A
Federal test procedure.   The fourth column  shows the  emission  results  in

grams per mile after the appropriate test procedure weighting  factors  are
applied to the three bag results.  The final column presents some  remarks
about each test.

     The emission control system was very effective in  terms of  hydrocarbon
and oxides of nitrogen control.   The combined use of  the hydrocarbon accumu-
lator and three-component catalyst resulted in hydrocarbon emissions rang-
ing from a low of 34% to a high  of 73% of the 1975  standards.  The

                                   127

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hydrocarbon accumulator was a vital factor for the meeting of the
standards.  In the test of 1/4/72 the accumulator was bypassed and the
total HC emissions were 2.8 times above the standards, even though the
hot start and stabilized bag hydrocarbons did not differ greatly from the
othe runs.
     The NO  results ranged from a low of 15% to a high of 80% of the 1976
           y\
standards.  The lower values were associated with the earlier tests where
the choke control during the cold start was more erratic and the engine
exhaust NO did not come up as rapidly as it did in later tests.   The most
troublesome pollutant was CO.  The CO standard was met with a 70% margin
on one occasion; the standard was slightly exceeded during another test.
Examination of the bag data shows the cold start CO to be the major factor
in the total CO emissions.
     There is considerable reason to believe that the modification of the
Vega's air-fuel control was partially responsible for the relative poor
CO control.  As previously reported, the modified Vega generally required
two minutes for complete choke removal.  The fuel injectors were situated
such that the spray of the injectors impinged directly on the floor of the
intake manifold.  It is probable that fuel puddling occurred on the cold
manifold walls and thus the engine required an excessively rich mixture
during start-up.  Venturi action and turbulence of a standard carburetor
might have provided sufficient fuel-air mixing to reduce the starting en-
richment requirements.  Previous experience^ ' with the VW 1600 showed
that intake port injection allowed the choke to be removed within 30 seconds
after engine start.  It is probable that a properly designed carburetor
system employing a quick choke, standard carburetor or direct intake port
injection could dramatically reduce cold start CO levels.
                                   128

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                                                       TABLE 10.1



                                     FULL SCALE HYBRID SYSTEM EMISSION TEST RESULTS
ro
10
Test Date
12/22/71

12/27/71
12/28/71
12/30/7.1
1/3/72
1/4/72
1/6/72
Cold Start Bag, grams
HC CO NOX*
1.63 55.3 0.52

1.25 55.3 0.87
1.72 59.5 0.28
1.68 41.9 3.22
2.56 49.6 3.88
17.5 45.2 0.66
2.84 46.8 . 3.48
Hot Start Bag, grams
HC CO NOX*
0,24 1.08 0.16

0.25 2.20 0.54
1.27 22.1 0.54
0.40 6.60 .21
0.40 2.66 0.44
0.21 2.43 2.66
0.84 1.63 0.56
Stabilized Bag, grams
HC CO NOX*
0.77 14.7 0.12

0.38 4.3 0.21
0.41 4.41 0.33
0.38 4.3 0.32
0.90 9.54 0.43
0.95 6.95 0.50
0.50 2.64 0.58
Emissions, gms/mi
HC CO NOX*
0.21 5.22 0.06

0.14 3.92 0.12
0.25 5.65 0.10
0.18 3.47 0.24
0.30 4.33 0.31
1.15 3.69 0.31
0.29 3.20 0.32
Remarks
poor hot
start ex-
cessive
enrichment

too slow choke
relief

very poor hot
start
no hydrocarbon
accumulator
no detectable
NH3
           *NO. as  N0

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                            APPENDIX A

                     AIR POLLUTION CONTROL OFFICE

               ADVANCED AUTOMOTIVE POWER SYSTEMS PROGRAM


           "Vehicle Design Goals - Six Passenger Automobile"
              (Revision B - February 11, 1971  - 11  Pages)


The design goals presented below are intended  to provide:

     A common objective for prospective contractors.
     Criteria for evaluating proposals and selecting
     a contractor.
     Criteria for evaluating competitive power systems
     for entering first generation system hardware.

The derived criteria are based on typical characteristics  of the class
of passenger automobiles with the largest market volume produced in the
U.S. during the model  years 1969 and 1970.  It is noted that emissions,
volume and most weight characteristics presented are  maximum values
while the performance characteristics are intended  as minimum values.
Contractors and prospective contractors who take exceptions  must justify
these exceptions and relate these exceptions to the technical goals pre-
sented herein.

1.  Vehicle weight without propulsion system - WQ.

     W0 is the weight of the vehicle without the propulsion  system and
     includes, but is not limited to:  body, frame, glass  and trim,
     suspension, service brakes, seats, upholstery, sound  absorbing
     materials, insulation, wheels (rims and tires),  accessory ducting,
     dashboard instruments and accessory wiring, passenger compartment
     heating and cooling devices and all other components  not included
     in the propulsion system.  It also includes the  air conditioner
     compressor, the power steering pump and the power  brakes actuating
     device.

     W0 is fixed at 2700 Ibs.

2.  Propulsion system weight - Wp.

     Wp includes the energy storage unit (including fuel and containment),
     power converter (including both functional components and controls)
     and power transmitting components to the  driven  wheels.  It also  in-
     cludes the exhaust system, pumps, motors, fans and fluids necessary
     for operation of the propulsion system and any propulsion system
     heating or cooling devices.

     The maximum allowable propulsion system weight,  Wpm,  is 1600 Ibs.
     However, light weight propulsion systems  are highly desired.
     (Equivalent 1970 propulsion system weight with a spark  Ignition
     engine 1s 1300 Ibs.)
                                       130

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3.   Vehicle curb weight - Wc

     Wc = W0 + Wp

     The maximum allowable vehicle curb weight,  Wcm,  is 4300 Ibs.
     (2700 + 1600 max.  = 4300)

4.   Vehicle test weight - Wt

     Wt = Wc + 300 Ibs.  Wt is the vehicle weight at  which all  accelera-
     tive maneuvers, fuel economy and emissions  are to be calculated.
     (Items 8c, 8d, 8e)

     The maximum allowable test weight, Wtm  is  4600  Ibs.   (2700 +
     1600 max. + 300 =  4600)

5.   Gross vehicle weight - Wg

     Wg = Wc + 1000 Ibs.  Wg is the gross vehicle weight at which sus-
     tained cruise grade velocity capability  is  to be calculated.   (Item
     8f)  The 1000 Ibs. load simulates a full  load of passengers and
     baggage.

     The maximum allowable gross vehicle weight, Wqm, is 5300 Ibs.  (2700 +
     1600 max. + 1000 = 5300)                     y

6.   Propulsion system volume - Vp

     Vp includes all items identified under item 2.  Vp shall be packag-
     able in such a way that the volume encroachment  on either the
     passenger or luggage compartment is not  significantly different
     than today's (1970) standard full size family car.  Necessary
     external appearance (styling) changes will  be minor in nature.
     Vp shall also be packagable in such a way that the handling char-
     acteristics of the vehicle do not depart significantly from a 1970
     full size family car.

     The maximum allowable volume assignable  to  the propulsion system,
     Vpm, is 35 ft3.

7.   Emission Goals

     The vehicle when tested for emissions in accordance with the pro-
     cedure outlined in the November 10, 1970 Federal Register shall
     have a weight of W^.  The emission goals for the vehicle are:

              Hydrocarbons*            - 0.14 grams/mile maximum
              Carbon Monoxide          - 4.7  grams/mile maximum
              Oxides of Nitrogen**     - 0.4  grams/mile maximum
              Particulates             - 0.03 grams/mile maximum
                                      131

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              *Total  hydrocarbons (using 1972 measurement procedures)
              plus total  oxygenates.   Total  oxygenates  including
              aledhydes will  not be more than 10 percent by weight
              of the  hydrocarbons or 0.014 grams/mile,  whichever is
              greater.

              **measured or computed as N02-

8.   Start-up, Acceleration, and Grade Velocity Performance.

     a.   Start-up:

              The vehicle must be capable of being  tested in accordance
              with the  procedure outlined in the November 10, 1970
              Federal  Register without special start-up/warm-up pro-
              cedures.

              The maximum time from key on to reach 65  percent full
              power is  45 sec.  Ambient conditions  are  14.7 psia pres-
              sure, 60F temperature.

              Powerplant starting techniques in low ambient temperatures
              shall be  equivalent to or better than the typical  auto-
              mobile  spark-ignition engine.   Conventional spark-ignition
              engines  are deemed satisfactory if after  a 24-hour soak at
              -20F the engine achieves a self-sustaining idle condition
              without  further driver input within 25 seconds.  No start-
              ing aids  external to the normal vehicle system shall be
              needed  for -20F starts or higher temperatures.

     b.   Idle operation conditions:

              The fuel  consumption rate at idle operating condition will
              not exceed 14 percent of the fuel consumption rate at the
              maximum design  power condition.  Recharging of energy stor-
              age systems is  exempted from this requirement.   Air condi-
              tioning  is  off, the power steering pump and power brake
              actuating device, if directly engine  driven, are being
              driven  but are  unloaded.

              The torque at transmission output during  idle operation
              (idle creep torque) shall not exceed  40 foot-pounds, assum-
              ing conventional rear axle ratios and tire sizes.   This
              idle creep torque should result in level  road operation in
              high gear which does not exceed 18 mph.

     c.   Acceleration from a  standing start:

              The minimum distance to be covered in 10.0 sec. is 440 ft.
              The maximum time to reach a velocity  of 60 mph is  13.5 sec.
              Ambient conditions are 14.7 psia, 85F.   Vehicle weight is
              Wfc.  Acceleration is on a level grade and initiated with
              the engine at the normal  idle condition.
                                        132

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d.  Acceleration in merging traffic:

         The maximum time to accelerate from a constant velocity
         of 25 mph to a velocity of 70 mph is 15.0 sec.   Time
         starts when the throttle is  depressed.   Ambient condi-
         tions are 14.7 psia, 85F.   Vehicle weight is  W^-,  and
         acceleration is on level  grade.

e.  Acceleration, DOT High Speed Pass Maneuver:

         The maximum time and maximum distance to go from an initial
         velocity of 50 mph with the  front of the automobile (18
         foot length assumed) 100 feet behind the back  of a 55 foot
         truck traveling at a constant 50 mph to a position where
         the back of the automobile is 100 feet  in front of the  55
         foot truck is, 15 sec.  and 1400 ft.   The entire maneuver
         takes place in a traffic lane adjacent  to the  lane in which
         the truck is operated.   Vehicle will be accelerated until
         the maneuver is completed or until  a maximum speed of 80
         mph is attained, whichever occurs first.   Vehicle  accelera-
         tion ceases when a speed of  80 mph is attained, the maneuver
         then being completed at a constant 80 mph.  (This  does  not
         imply a design requirement limiting the maximum vehicle speed
         to 80 mph.)  Time starts when the throttle is  depressed.
         Ambient conditions are  14.7  psia, 85F.   Vehicle weight is
         Wt, and acceleration is on level  grade.

f.  Grade velocity:

         The vehicle must be capable  of starting from rest  on a  30
         percent grade and accelerating to 15 mph and sustaining it.
         This is the steepest grade on which the vehicle is required
         to operate in either the forward or reverse direction.

         The minimum cruise velocity  that can be continuously main-
         tained on a 5 percent grade  with an accessory  load of 4 hp
         shall be not less than  60 mph.

         The vehicle must be capable  of achieving a velocity of  65
         mph up a 5 percent grade and maintaining this  velocity  for
         a period of 180 seconds when preceded and followed by con-
         tinuous operation at 60 mph  on the same grade  (as  above).

         The vehicle must be capable  of achieving a velocity of  70
         mph up a 5 percent grade and maintaining this  velocity  for
         .a period of 100 seconds when preceded and followed by con-
         tinuous operation at 60 mph  on the same grade  (as  above).

         The minimum cruise velocity  that can be continuously main-
         tained on a level road  (zero grade)  with an accessory load
         of 4 hp shall be not less than 85 mph with a vehicle weight
         of Wt.
                                   133

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              Ambient conditions for all  grade specifications  are  14.7
              psia 85F.   Vehicle weight  is  Wg for all  grade  specifica-
              tions except the zero grade specification.

         The vehicle must be capable of providing  performance  (Paragraphs
         8c, 8d, 8e, 8f)  within 5 percent of the stated 85F  values,  when
         operated at ambient temperatures from -20F to 105F.

9.   Minimum vehicle range:

     Minimum vehicle range without supplementing the energy storage will
     be 200 miles.  The minimum range shall  be calculated  for,  and  applied
     to each of the two following modes:   1) A city-suburban mode,  and 2)
     a cruise mode.

         Mode 1:  Is the  driving cycle which appears in the November  10,
                  1970 Federal Register.   For vehicles  whose  performance
                  does not depend on the  state of energy storage,  the
                  range may be calculated for one  cycle and ratioed to
                  200 miles.   For vehicles whose performance  does  depend
                  on the  state of energy  storage the Federal  driving  cycle
                  must be repeated until  200 miles have been  completed.

         Mode 2:  Is a constant 70 mph cruise on a level  road  for  200 miles.

     The vehicle weight for both modes shall be, initially, Wt-  The  ambient
     conditions shall be  a pressure of 14.7  psia and temperatures  of  60F,
     85F and 105F.  The vehicle minimum range shall not  decrease  by more
     than 5 percent at an ambient temperature of -20F.

     For hybrid vehicles, the energy level in the  power augmenting  device
     at the completion of operation will  be  equivalent  to  the  energy  level
     at the beginning of  operation.

10.  System thermal efficiency:

     System thermal efficiency will be calculated  by two methods:

         A.   A "fuel economy" figure based on 1) miles  per gallon  (fuel
             type being specified) and 2) the number of Btu per mile  re-
             quired to drive the vehicle  over the  1972  Federal  driving
             cycle which  appears in the November 10, 1970  Federal  Register.
             Fuel  economy is based on the fuel  or  other forms  of energy
             delivered at the vehicle. Vehicle weight  is  W^.

         B.   A "fuel economy" figure based on 1) miles  per gallon  (fuel
             type being specified) and 2) the number of Btu per mile  re-
             quired to drive the vehicle  at  constant speed, in  still  air,
             on level road, at speeds of  20, 30, 40, 50, 60,  70 and 80 mph.
             Fuel  economy is based on the fuel  or  other forms  of energy
             delivered at the vehicle. Vehicle weight  is  W^.
                                       134

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     In both cases,  the system  thermal  efficiency  shall  be calculated with
     sufficient electrical,  power steering  and  power  brake loads  in  service
     to permit safe  operation of the  automobile.   Calculations  shall be
     made with and without air  conditioning operating.   The ambient  condi-
     tions are 14.7  psia and temperatures of 60F, 85F  and 105F.   Calcu-
     lations shall be made with heater  operating at ambient conditions of
     14.7 psia and 30F (18,000 Btu/hr.).

11.  Air drag calculation:

     The product of  the drag coefficient, Cd, and  the frontal area,  Af,  is
     to be used in air drag  calculations.   The  product CjAf has a  value  of
     12 ft2.  The air density used in computations shall  correspond  to the
     applicable ambient air temperature.

12.  Rolling resistance:

     Rolling resistance, R,  is  expressed  in the equation R = W/65  [1 +
     (1.4 x 10"3v) + (1.2 10-5V2)] Ibs.   V  is the  vehicle velocity in ft/
     sec.  W is the  vehicle weight in Ibs.

13.  Accessory power  requirements:

     The accessories are defined as subsystems  for driver assistance and
     passenger convenience,  not essential to sustaining  the engine opera-
     tion and include:  the air conditioning compressor, the power steer-
     ing pump, the alternator  (except where required  to  sustain operation),
     and the power brakes actuating device.   The accessories also  include
     a device for heating the passenger compartment if the heating demand
     is not supplied by waste heat.

     Auxiliaries are defined as those subsystems necessary for  the sus-
     tained operation of the engine and include condenser fan(s),  combustor
     fan(s), fuel pumps, lube pumps,  cooling fluid pumps, working  fluid
     pumps and the alternator when necessary for driving electric  motor
     driven fans or  pumps.

     The maximum intermittent accessory load, Pain^ is 10 hp  (plus the
     heating load, if applicable). The maximum continuous accessory load,
     Pacm 1S 7-5 nP (plus the  heating  load if  applicable).  The  average
     accessory load, Paa, is 4  hp.

     If accessories  are driven  at variable  speeds, the above values  apply.
     If the accessories are driven at constant  speed, Paim and  Pacm  will
     be reduced by 3 hp.

14.  Passenger comfort requirements:

     Heating and air conditioning of  the passenger compartment  shall be  at
     a rate equivalent to that  provided in  the  present (1970)  standard full
     size family car.
                                      135

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     Present practice for maximum passenger compartment heating rate
     is approximately 30,000 Btu/hr.   For an air conditioning system
     at 110F ambient, 80F and 40% relative humidity air to the evap-
     orator, the rate is approximately 13,000 Btu/hr.

15. Propulsion system operating temperature range:

     The propulsion system shall  be operable within  an expected ambient
     temperature range of -40 to 125F.

16. Operational life:

     The mean operational life of the propulsion system should be
     approximately equal to that of the present spark-ignition engine.
     The mean operational life should be based on a  mean vehicle life
     of 105,000 miles or ten years, whichever comes  first.

     The design lifetime of the propulsion system in normal  operation
     will  be 3500 hours.  Normal  maintenance may include replacement
     of accessable minor parts of the propulsion system via  a usual
     maintenance procedure, but the major parts of the system shall
     be designed for a 3500 hour minimum operation life.

     The operational life of an engine shall be determined  by structural
     or functional failure causing repair and replacement costs exceed-
     ing the cost of a new or rebuilt engine.   (Functional  failure is
     defined as power degradation exceeding 25 percent or top vehicle
     speed degradation exceeding 9 percent).

17. Noise standards:  (Air conditioner not operating)

     a.  Maximum noise test:

         The maximum noise generated by the vehicle  shall  not exceed 77
         dbA when measured in accordance with SAE J986a.   Note that  the
         noise level is 77 dbA whereas in the SAE J986a the  level  is 86
         dbA.

     b.  Low speed noise test:

         The maximum noise generated by the vehicle  shall  not exceed 63
         dbA when measured in accordance with SAE J986a except that  a
         constant vehicle velocity of 30 mph is used on the  pass-by, the
         vehicle being in high gear or the highest gear in which it  can
         be operated at that speed.

     c.  Idle noise test:

         The maximum noise generated by the vehicle  shall  not exceed 62
         dbA when measured in accordance with SAE J986a except that  the
         engine is idling (clutch disengaged or in neutral 
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18.  Safety standards:

     The vehicle shall  comply with all  current Dept.  of Transportation
     Federal  Motor Vehicle Safety Standards.   Reference DOT/HS 820-083.

19.  Reliability and maintainability:

     The reliability and maintainability of the vehicle shall  equal  or
     exceed that of the spark-ignition  automobile.   The mean-time-
     between  failure should be maximized to reduce  the number  of un-
     scheduled service  trips.   All failure modes should not represent
     a serious safety  hazard during vehicle operation and  servicing.
     Failure  propagation should be minimized.   The  power plant should
     be designated for  ease of maintenance and repairs to  minimize  costs,
     maintenance personnel education, and downtime.   Parts requiring
     frequent servicing shall  be easily accessable.

20.  Cost of ownership:

     The net  cost of ownership of the vehicle  shall "be minimized for
     ten years and 105,000 miles of operation.  The net cost of owner-
     ship includes initial purchase price (less scrap value),  other
     fixed costs, operating and maintenance costs.   A target goal should
     be to not exceed  110 percent of the average net cost  of ownership
     of the present standard size automobile with spark-ignition engine
     as determined by  the U.S. Dept.  of Commerce 1969-70 statistics on
     such ownership.
                                       137

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                               APPENDIX B

Engine Sizing and Selection
     Power Requirements - The performance requirements of a 4000 pound car
meeting the Office of Air Programs design goals (see Appendix A) can be
translated into road power demands vs. vehicle speed as shown in Figure
2.1.  Certain simplifying assumptions must be made to fully describe the
details by which the various maneuvers are to be accomplished.  For
example, the DOT highway pass can be performed by assuming an infinite
number of acceleration-time schedules.  The shape of the peak power-speed
curve will therefore vary according to the assumptions; however, for
reasonable performance it appears the power train should be capable of
supplying a short term power burst in excess of 115 hp at part vehicle
speed and sustained road load of 65 hp at 85 mph.
     The internal combustion engine must be sized to provide steady 85 mph
level road cruise with full automotive comfort and convenience devices.
Allowing for power train inefficiencies and accessories the engine must be
capable of at least 81-85 mph continuously.
     During urban operation, various engine operating schedules can be
assumed to insure the vehicle can meet all the acceleration and cruise
requirements yet maintain a fully charged battery.  Of all the techniques,
constant engine power operation offers simplicity of control and minimizes
throttle changes which place more severe carburetion demands on the engine.
     Previous analyses^  , supported by the simulation results of this
study suggest that engine power levels of 10-20 hp are required for urban
operation.  The need to swing the engine power over perhaps 4:1 to 8:1
power range places some speed constraints on engine operation.  Figure B-l
shows that the fuel consumption of a typical engine at constant speed
varies rapidly with engine speed.  Low horsepower-high economy 1s best
accomplished by running the engine at Intermediate throttle and modest
rpm.  Higher throttle levels at lower speed tend to Increase the emissions
of oxides of nitrogen (NO ); low throttle levels at high speed Increase
                         n
engine pump work and result 1n poorer fuel economy.
                                   138

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  100
   75
|
O  50
   25
         87% Full Manifold Pressure
                                  74%,Full Manifold Pressure
                                   ^
                              60% Full  Manifold Pressure J^'\
                                         48%_Full Manifold Pressure
                                       Full Manifold Pressure
  -10
                            1
1
          10                 20                 30                 40
                                       ENGINE R.P.M. x 100
                                       FIGURE  B-l
                   CHARACTERISTICS OF A TYPICAL MEDIUM  DISPLACEMENT
                               INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
                                      50
                                            139

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     Peak power on the other hand will be delivered at full throttle, at
higher speeds where the effects of engine frictional horsepower, spark
timing and flame speed limitations and volumetric efficiency have not yet
started to decrease the net output.
     Based on all these factors it appears that an engine of approximately
150 cubic inches displacement, compression ratio of around 8.0-8.5,
operating over a 3:1 speed range is required.

Engine Selection Criteria
     In reviewing the spectrum contemporary internal combustion engines
the following selection guidelines were established:
            120 to 160 cubic inch displacement to provide peak power with-
             out excessively high rpm and poor fuel economy at part load.
            Desirability of four cylinder in-line design rather than six
             cylinder to minimize cylinder-to-cylinder mixture ratio
             variations.
            Ability to run on nonleaded gasoline.
          t  Combustion chamber with low surface area-to-volume ratio.
          t  Absence of major exhaust emission control systems such as
             exhaust manifold thermal reactors, manifold air injection
             systems and EGR.
            Simple carburetion.
          t  Light weight, low volume and compact envelop.
            Water cooled design to minimize sound level.
     Numerous domestic and foreign manufacturers were contacted and data
on engines currently in production was solicited.  Very favorable responses
were received from Toyota, Nissan (Datsun), Ford, Chrysler and General
Motors.
     After reviewing the manufacturers'  data and assessing the availability
of engines in terms of the time framework of the program, it was decided
that the Chevrolet Vega 2300 cc (140 CID) engine would be a reasonable
choice.  The engine reportedly produces  90 hp, slightly less power than may
ultimately be required.   The Vega uses a lightweight, aluminum block con-
struction and has a partial hemispherical combustion chamber design for low
surface-to-volume ratio.  Members of the Chevrolet engineering staff
                                   140

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       240
       220
       200
  2  180

  X


  'oi
  I

  oo  160
  UJ

  I

  U




 JL  140
 n
Oca I U
 < I <
       120
 I (/I
   ,7  100
       80
       60
       40
       20
                                                                       -80-1
                                                                       70--
                                                                       60 --
                                                                            110
                                                                        - - 100
                                                                          -- 90
                                                                          --80
                                                                          -- 70
                                                                       0 --60
                                                                                CO

                                                                                70
                                                                              O
                                                                              O


                                                                              m

                                                                        --50  *>
                                                                          -- 40
                                                                        -- 30
                                                                        --20
                                                                        --10
                            20       40       60      80


                                    %  FULL LOAD
                                                             100
                                    FIGURE B-2



         CHARACTERISTICS OF  1971 CHEVROLET VEGA ENGINE  AT 1800 RPM
                                       141

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stated that the engine should  be capable  of at  least  16,000 miles of wide
open throttle operation without excessive value seat  or  face wear.  Char-
acteristics of the engine around the basic EMT  operating speed of 1800
rpm are to be found in Figure  B-2.
                                   142

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                               APPENDIX C

Characterization and Preliminary Performance Computations of Candidate
Series Systems
     The three series systems chosen as candidates were analyzed to
determine their efficiencies, weight, relative cost and complexity.
     This appendix contains a summary outline of the preliminary designs
and specifications of each system as well as sample computations showing
how each of the candidates were evaluated.   The open circuit battery volt-
age was assumed to be 400 VDC in these preliminary computations as it was
felt that this voltage would press the conventional limits of machine and
semiconductor technology while giving lower ohmic and solid state losses.
Latter considerations of battery reliability, machine cost, etc. suggested
a lower voltage and 240 VDC was subsequently adopted for the computer simu-
lation.  While there was a change in operating voltage it is felt that the
results of these preliminary studies are still valid at the lower voltage.

Computation of Preliminary Machinery and PCU Ratings for the Candidate
Series System Hybrid Power Trains
     The rationale and computations for specifying the alternators, trac-
tion motors and respective PCUs are outlined below for the three candidate
series systems.  The block diagrams of the systems can be found in Figures
2.2, 2.3 and 2.4.

     Full Voltage Series Power Train
     1.  Maximum continuous road load is 65 hp = 48.4 kw at 85 mph cruise.
     2.  Assume the efficiency of the motor at rated power and speed is
approximately 90%.  Nominal motor voltage will be approximately 360 V;
nominal current is 149 A.
                                                             \
     3.  The PCU must be rated for 54 kw.  The battery voltage assumed for
the system is 400 V.
     4.  The PCU must have overload and commutation capability to satisfy
road demand.
                                   143

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          From Figure 2.5 it can be seen that maximum motor torque equal
to 4.14 times rated torque will be required at 30 mph.  Thus, the PCU
must have a maximum equivalent commutation rating of 4.14 x 149 = 616 A.
The KVA rating of the PCU is therefore 272.
     5.  Poorest efficiency of the PCU at 272 KVA is assumed to be 94%.
                                                           54
     6.  The maximum power output of the rectifier must be -gV = 57.5 kw.
                                     007
     7.  The rectifier efficiency is 4^ = 99.2.
                                                   57 5
     8.  The power required from the alternator is Tpsgp- = 58 kw.   The
rating of the alternator at top speed therefore is 3 x 58 = 174 kw.  The
rating is multiplied by 3 to reflect the one-third field utilization in
urban operation.
     9.  The alternator supplies six step current waveforms.   The form
factor impact on the alternator is assumed to be one thus the alternator
is rated at one-third speed at 81 KVA; at top speed it is 183 KVA.
     10. The alternator efficiency at top engine speed and road power is
assumed to be 90%.
     11. The peak input power to the alternator must be 64.5 kw and the
total system efficiency at top speed is 75.5%.  These computations assumed
a forced cooled alternator and are summarized in Table 2.1.  These compu-
tations were done also for an oil sprayed alternator and are summarized in
Table 2.2.

     Two-Generator Series Power Train
     1.  Maximum continuous road power is the same as the full  voltage
system.
     2.  Motor efficiency is 90% at rated power, input power is 54 kw.
     3.  The PCU will have the same commutation capability as the PCU of
the full voltage system, i.e., 272 KVA, but a thermal rating of 20 kw.
The 20 kw value was obtained from experimental test runs of the EMT system
on the LA cycle.  Note that during cruise conditions the PCU in this case
does not handle motor power.
     4.  Rectifier #2 is required to deliver 54.5 kw to the series choke.
The choke's efficiency is 99%.
                                      54 5
     5.  Alternator #2 output will be gk% = 54.8 kw.  The p.u. rating at
top speed of alternator #2 is 1.5.
                                   144

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     6.  Alternator #1 is rated for the power setting of the engine operat-
ing in urban traffic required to maintain the battery charged over;a driving
cycle.  Using data from EMT tests the rating of alternator #1 and rectifier
was chosen to be 10 kw for this computation.
     7.  Alternator efficiency for forced cooled system is assumed to be
90%.  Form factor impact due to rectification is 1.05.
                                                       54 8    
     8.  Input into two alternator system is therefore kj - 63.0 kw (n =
87% is used as the combined operating efficiency over an average LA-4 cycle
alternators).
     9.  Total system efficiency is 77%.
     The above computations assumed a forced cooled machine and are summar-
ized in Table 2.3 and repeated for an oil spray-cooled machine as shown in
Table 2.4.

     Series System with Boost PCU
     1.  Maximum continuous motor load and efficiency is the same as the
full voltage system.
     2.  Motor PCU considerations are the same as those for the full volt-
age system.
     3.  The Boost PCU output is the same as the rectifier output of the
full voltage system, 57.5 kw.                            >
     4.  Boost PCU is 94% efficient; rectifier is 99% efficient.
     5.  The alternator efficiency is assumed to be 90% at full load.
     6.  Alternator.KVA rating due to form factor impact is 1.05 x 6.16 =
64.6 KVA.    '                                           ,-....
     7.  Input into alternator is therefore ^ = 68.5 kw. ,  ..
     Total system efficiency for forced cooled alternator is 71%.  The
above computations are summarized in Table 2.5 for a forced cooled
alternator and in Table 2.6 for an oil spray-cooled alternator.
                                    145

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     Full Voltage System Under Hybrid Conditions
     A.  Computations for mean maximum demand of 22 kw (29.5 hp) at 21  mph
                                                    29 5
         1.  Motor torque demand at 1/4 rated speed  >;  x 4 = 1.82 p-.u.
         2.  Motor average efficiency at 1.82 p.u.  torque and 1250 rpm is
76%.  Current p.u. value is 1.65.
                                       22
         3.  Motor power input is thus =jr = 29.0 kw.
         4.  The PCU's full rating is 54 kw and 272 KVA.  The PCU will
deliver approximately 1.65 x 149 = 246 ADC to the motor at chopper duty
cycle of approximately 33%.
         5.  The efficiency of the PCU at 1 kc will be between 90% to 93%;
assume 90% efficiency.
         6.  Input into the PCU is 32.2 kw.
         7.  The engine input to the alternator is  assumed constant and
equal to 15 hp (11.2 kw).  The force cooled alternator is rated at 58 kw.
At 11.2 kw input its efficiency is 55% and its output  is 6.16 kw.   The
efficiency of the oil spray-cooled alternator is 30% and the output of the
rectifier is 3.33 kw.
         8.  The battery contribution is therefore 32.2 - 6.1 = 26.1  kw
for forced cooled alternator and 28.8 for oil spray-cooled alternator.

     B.  Computations for 21 mph cruise conditions
                                        3 75
         1.  The motor torque demand is :L^~ x 4 =  .23 p.u., and the
current required is 0.4 p.u. (60 A).
         2.  Motor efficiency at 0.4 p.u. current and  1250 rpm is  83%.
         3.  Motor input is 3.36 kw.
         4.  PCU efficiency is 79% to 83%; use 80%.
         5.  Motor power required from the alternator/rectifier is 4.20
kw into the PCU.
         6.  Power flow to battery is therefore 6.1 -  4.20 = 1.9 kw.
                                  146

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     Two Alternator Scheme Under Hybrid Conditions
     A.  Computations for mean maximum demand
         1.  Motor conditions are the same as for the previous case.
         2.  The PCU is rated at 20 kw and 272 KVA.  The PCU has approxi-
mately the same duty cycle and load as before because the contributions
from alternator #2 are small compared to the total PCU input power.
         3.  The PCU efficiency is taken at 90%.
         4.  The engine input to the alternators is 15 hp.  Alternator
#2 is rated 54.8 kw and by trial and error its efficiency is determined
to be 67% for the forced cooled alternator.
         5.  Rectifier #2 output is 7.5 x .970 = 7.26 kw.
         6.  The choke current at 360 x 118 V is approximately 60 A.
                                     7 45
Choke efficiency is approximately y 450+435 = 94.5%.  Choke losses are
548-112 = 436 w.
         7.  Choke output is 7.26 x .94 = 6.86 kw.
         8.  The power required from the PCU is 29.0 - 6.86 = 24.14 kw.
         9.  This power required from the battery is   A   = 26.8 kw.

     B.  Computations for cruise 21 mph conditions
         1.  Motor torque demand is as before.
         2.  Alternator #2 delivers 3.36 kw to the motor terminals through
rectifier #2 and the choke.
         3.  The choke efficiency is:

                              *J Jo   _ 07 c^
                            3.36+436 " B/>M
         4.  The output from rectifier #2:  -^glf- =3.84 kw.
         5.  The output from alternator #2:  3-1|y = 3.87 kw.
         6.  The efficiency of alternator #2, at      = 7.1% load. 1s 57.5%.
         7.  The input into alternator #2 is ^^ = 6.75 kw.
         8.  The input into alternator #1 1s therefore 11.2-6.75 = 4.45 kw.
         9.  The efficiency of alternator #1 is 66%.
                                   147

-------
         10. The output of alternator #1 is 4.45x.66 = 2.94 kw.
         11. The charge available for the battery is 2.94x.992 = 2.81  kw.

     Series System with Alternator PCU Under Hybrid Conditions
     A.  Efficiency calculation for mean maximum demand
         1.  The alternator accepts 11.2 kw.   Trial and error gives 60%
efficiency at this level.
         2.  The alternator output is 11.2x.6 = 6.7 kw.
         3.  The Boost PCU at about 10% of its rated current is  approxi-
mately 79%.  Its current is 60 amperes.
         4.  The Boost PCU output is 6.7x.79 = 5.3 kw.
         5.  The battery drain is 32.2-5.3 = 26.9 kw.

     B.  Computations for 21 mph cruise conditions
         1.  The alternator input is 11.2 kw and its output is 6.7 kw.
         2.  The output of the Boost PCU is 5.3 kw.
         3.  The charge available for the battery is 5.3-4.2 = 1.1 kw.
                                  148

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                              APPENDIX  D

Characterization of Motors and Generators  for Series  and  Parallel  Systems
     Rotating machines for the candidate series  and  parallel.systems  were
selected after preliminary analyses  of  the systems.  .Initial  specifica-
tions were based on estimates  of peak,  average and RMS  levels  of opera-
tion; computer-generated data  has supported many of  the specifications.

     Full  Voltage Series System Machine Specifications
     The traction motor is a DC series  type machine  rated  at  65  hp at top
vehicle speed.  The selected motor is similar in size and  construction to
GE's motor frame, CD 280/250B.   The  machine's top speed is  4650  rpm and
it weighs"approximately 325 pounds.  Although a  higher  speed  motor such
as common in aerospace applications  will  weigh less,  the  top  speed rat-
ing in automotive application  must be more conservative because  of mech-
anical, electrical and cost considerations.   Mechanical limitations
include brush and commutator wear, brush bounce, brush  pressure, centrif-
ugal force, etc.  Electrical limitations include commutation  capability,
efficiency, etc.  The high specific  motor weight of  .2  hp/lb  is  the best
expected within the present state-of-the-art.
     The motor characteristics are shown below in Table D-l.
        i                 

                               TABLE D-l
                      SERIES HYBRID  TRACTION MOTOR

     Motor type	series  DC
     Horsepower (hp)-	-65  at rated  speed
     Rated speed (rpm)-				4650                      '
     Terminal voltage (volts)	---235         ,  '"
     Input current (amps)	235 at  rated  torque
     Rated torque (Ib-ft)	74
     Duty	Continuous
     Frame	Similar  to GE  CD 280/250B
     Diameter (inches)	12  1/2
                                  149

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                          TABLE D-l (Cont'd)

     Length, less shaft (inches)	21
     Approximate weight (Ib)	--325
     Ambient temperature, operating (C)-	30 to +50
     Overspeed (rpm)	'		-150% of rated speed
     Brush life	50,000 car miles between
                                             changes
     Cooling requirement, forced ambient
      air	-	200 CFM at 1.6" H^O, 50C
                                             maximum

     Series Hybrid Motor Performance
     Basic performance characteristics of the series system motor were
supplied by motor manufacturers.  Because the vehicle requirements in-
clude power and torque levels for above and below rated conditions, it
was necessary to calculate performance at off-design demands.  Computa-
tions were made at 14 current values for differing terminal voltage.
Six terminal voltages were selected to represent machine operating con-
ditions.  They were approximately equally spaced from 50 volts to 280
volts.  Figure D-l shows the results of those computations.
     The machine's efficiency, n, was computed  as a function of current
and speed to facilitate the overall system computer model.  The design
specifications of Table D-l were used to compute the efficiency.  Figures
D-2 and D-3 present machine efficiency for various speeds and current
levels; two figures are used for the sake of clarity.
     The performance characteristics of Figures  D-l, D-2 and D-3 are used
in the overall system program as indicated in Appendix F.  Wherever
necessary the computer performs an interpolation fit of the data to
values not shown in the figures.
                                  150

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   10,000
    9000
    8000
    7000
    6000
g   5000
Of
O
O
5   4000
    3000
    2000
    1000

     500
                                                           TORQUE
                                         (50 v) I     I      |      I
                                                             (280 v TERMINAL
                                                             VOLTAGE)
            100   200  300   400  500
                                              700   800   900   1000
                          MOTOR CURRENT   -AMPS
                                     FIGURE  D-l

                     CHARACTERISTICS OF  MOTOR FOR SERIES SYSTEM

                                         151
                                                                                 380

                                                                                 360

                                                                                 340

                                                                                 320

                                                                                 300

                                                                                 280

                                                                                 260

                                                                                 240

                                                                                 220
      O
      O
200  
180  m
      i
     -n
160  r1
      i

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

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                                                      (235A,76.3 FT-LB)
                                                      (515A,198  FT-LB)
                                                  (655A,258.4 FT-LB)
                     65 HP MOTOR EFFICIENCIES AT
                     VARIOUS TORQUES AND SPEEDS
                     (SERIES SYSTEM)
1000
2000
3000        4000
  , MOTOR SPEED
FIGURE D-2
  5000
RPM
         SERIES SYSTEM MOTOR EFFICIENCY
                          152
6000
7000

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                                      '(585^228 FT-LB)

                             (725A,288.2 FT-LB)
1000
2000
 3000       4000
MOTOR SPEED    RPM
5000
                     FIGURE D-3
6000
7000
         SERIES  SYSTEM MOTOR  EFFICIENCY;  
                        153

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     Motor Characterization for the Parallel System
     The traction machine selected for the parallel system is of the DC
series type, rated at 30 hp at 7200 rpm and 180 volts.   It is possible to
operate the motor for the parallel system at a higher speed than the motor
for the series system because of the smaller size and smaller diameter of
the armature and commutator.   There can be some question as to the advis-
ability of using a machine with so low a rated torque in view of the need
for the motor to provide accelerating torques several times in excess of
rated torque.  TRW's experience with the breadboard EMT system, manu-
facturers'  data and the low probability of high torque events suggests
that with proper gearing the parallel system motor need only possess
about a 300% peak torque capability.  This specification is definitely
within bounds of conservative design.  Further analysis of machine rat-
ings based on computer simulations can be found in Section 5.4.
     The motor characteristics for the parallel hybrid system are found
in Table D-2.

                               TABLE D-2
                    PARALLEL HYBRID TRACTION MOTOR

     Motor type--	series DC
     Horsepower (hp)	30 at rated speed
     Rated speed (rpm)		7200
     Terminal voltage (volts)	180 V
     Input current (amps)-	145 at rated torque
     Rated torque (lb-ft)-	22.5
     Duty	Continuous
     Frame		similar to GE BT 2348
     Diameter (inches)	9
     Length, less shaft (inches)	15 1/2
     Approximate weight (Ib)	150
     Ambient temperature, operating (C)	 -30 to +50
     Overspeed (rpm)	150% of rated speed
     Brush life-		50,000 car miles between
                                             changes
     Cooling requirement, forced ambient
      air		-	120 CFM at 1.0" H20, 50C
                                             maximum
                                  154

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     Parallel Hybrid Motor Performance
     Motor performance characteristics were generated in a manner similar
to those of the series hybrid motor.  Calculations were made at eleven
current levels for each of six terminal voltage points to give a wide
range of operating conditions from overload to near-idling.
     Figure D-4 shows the armature current and the relationship between
developed torque and armature current.  Figure D-5 shows the relationship
of motor speed and voltage at various torque values.  Figure D-6 presents
the motor efficiency as a function of speed and armature current.

     Generator Characterization for the Full Voltage Series System
     The alternator's nominal rating of 58 kw is based on providing cruise
power to the traction motor at vehicle top speed.  From EPA guidelines, a
top operating speed of 12,000 rpm was used; however, arguments relative to
heat engine speed, power and economy limitations (see Appendix B), coupled
with the need to provide a quasi-constant alternator output voltage over
the complete vehicle speed range cause a change in rating.  The basic
machine voltage rating must be established at 4000 rpm to supply a
nominal rectifier voltage of 240 VDC.  The output of the alternator must
be rectified and waveform losses caused by the full wave bridge rectifier
will increase the machine's KVA rating to 61 KVA.
     Either Lundel or salient pole type machines could be modeled.  It is
generally assumed that the Lundel machine will be less expensive to con-
struct.  However, recent studies performed by Westinghouse Electric,
suggest that the salient pole machine may have a slightly higher effi-
ciency, lower weight and lower stator fabrication cost.   Further trade-
offs will have to be made to test the validity of this judgment.  Based
on the high probability that the salient pole type will  be a better
choice, the modeling and computations are based on it.
     The efficiency of an alternator is load and speed dependent.  The
impact of speed on efficiency is heavily affected by the mechanical
design of the machine.  It is reasonable to expect that windage losses
will go up with speed.  Similarly the generator load will increase as the
generator speed increases with vehicle speed and thus the ratio of windage
                                   155

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en
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      70
      -o
      cz
      m

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      -a
      3s
      oo
      -<
      oo
      3
      o
           O
            I
                     1800
                     1600
                     1400
1200
                 =-  1000
                 ae

                 O
                      80
                      600
                      400
                      200
                                  40
                                                                       I
                      80
160      200      240      280      320


   ARMATURE TORQUE  |T..|  , FOOT-POUNDS
                       M
360
400
440
                                                                                                                                      480

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                                                                         MOTOR SPEED - RPM
                               70



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                                        to
                                        O

                                        8
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8
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       73
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en
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                                                                     MOTOR TORQUE - FT-LB

-------
    90
   80
5?
U
UJ
Z  70
o
   60
   50
                               400 A, 99 LB-FT
            1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
                               MOTOR SPEED WM - RPM
                                 FIGURE  D-6
                     EFFICIENCY OF MOTOR FOR EMT SYSTEM
                                     158

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losses to output will tend to remain constant.   Magnetic losses will
either decrease or remain fairly constant because the air gap flux is
reduced inversely proportional  to speed.   Copper losses, at any current
level, will increase with speed due to skin effect,  but over the 133  to
400 Hz range  which is expected in service, this effect is second order
and is probably compensated for by the fact that the previously mentioned
magnetic losses will tend to diminish.  Thus, it can be seen that in  the
context of the full voltage series system and its mode of operation,
alternator windage is the only loss component which  varies with speed
and must be accounted for.
     The windage component must of necessity be quite small in a 12,000
rpm machine possessing high efficiency at top speed  and load.  We estimate
windage contributes no more than 3% to the total 7%  loss of the machines
we have studied.  Furthermore,  to a first order of approximation, it  is
practical to assume that the efficiency of the alternator will vary only
slightly with speed.  This latter assumption has been borne out by check-
ing representative design of GE and Westinghouse.  Finally, as previously
stated the hybrid system constricts the alternator to one unique load
level for each road speed, i.e., in urban traffic the alternator operates
at 4000 rpm and in highway traffic its load is proportional to road load
and its speed increases proportionally with the engine speed.  A single
curve of efficiency vs. input power which incorporates adjustments due
to speed, may be used to characterize this alternator.  Such a curve  is
shown in Figure D-7.
     The mechanical design of the machine will be a  composite of designs
which reflect long-life and low maintenance costs.  To provide ready
access, each of the two field supply slip rings would be located on each
end of the rotor.  This also allows commonality for economical end bell
construction.  No frame is provided for the stator stack and the end bells
are thru-bolted together with the stack allowing for a low total weight.
The rolling element bearings will have a life of 30,000 hours and the life
of the slip ring brushes will be good for at least 50,000 car miles,  but
not less than 2500 hours of operation.
                                   159

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    0.9
    0.8
u

LU

U
o
<
    0.7
    0.6
    0.5
                                     I
I
                10        20        30        40        50
                                  INPUT POWER PA|,'Kw


                                 FIGURE D-7


             EFFICIENCY CURVE  FOR FORCE AIR COOLED ALTERNATOR
                      OF FULL  VOLTAGE SERIES SYSTEM
                                    160^
                   60
70

-------
                               TABLE D-3
     FULL VOLTAGE SERIES SYSTEM ALTERNATOR-RECTIFIER CHARACTERISTICS

Alternator type	salient pole with slip rings
Rating (kw) at top speed	58 (x3)*
Base speed (rpm)			4000
Power factor	.95
Rectifier voltage (nominal )-VDC	240
Speed range at nominal  voltage (rpm)	4000 to 12,000
Overspeed (mechanical)	150% of rated speed
Number of phases	three
Frequency at top speed  (Hz)	400
Duty	continuous
Ambient temperature, operating (C)	30 to +50
Weight (Ib)			-	160
Diameter, approximately (inches)	10.0
Length, approximately (inches)	19.0
Brush life, between changes	50,000 car miles
Cooling requirement with specified load
 schedule	integral fan
*58 kw rating is available at base speed,  top speed rating is  available
 but never used.                                         ,        .
                                  161

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     The alternator output is rectified.  Adjustment for waveform effects
caused by the full wave bridge rectifier were made, setting the KVA rat-
ing to 61.  The approximate weight of this machine, air cooled with an
integrally mounted fan, is approximately 160 pounds.  This weight is
somewhat higher than advanced aircraft or aerospace devices because the
stator slot space factor has been reduced to allow for economical high
quantity production winding.

Alternator Characterization for the Parallel System
     The nominal rating of the parallel system alternator was initially
set at 10 kw on the basis of TRW's experience with the breadboard EMT and
previous analyses.  On this initial estimate, specification and design
data was sought from various manufacturers.  As can be seen from the com-
puter simulations of the LA-4 driving mission, the 10 kw rating is probably
too severe.  The results indicate that the RMS alternator load even with a
high loss battery and poor gear efficiency is only 5.5 kw.  Under these
conditions, the 10 kw alternator load occurs only when the vehicle is at
rest.  The 10 kw rating requirement includes a sizable margin over and
above maximum and average operating conditions and in a final design the
weight of the alternator might be reduced.
     Rated top speed of the alternator is 12,000 rpm.  The parallel system
generator is required to operate over a 10 to 1 speed range and to reflect
a quasi-constant load torque.  Therefore its power output is proportional
to its speed.  This unique mode of operation means that the copper and
iron of the alternator are utilized at their full rating at any speed
between 1200 to 12,000 rpm.  The overall shape and type of construction
is similar to the full voltage series system machine.
     The three-phase output of the alternator is rectified by a full wave
bridge silicon rectifier.  The form factor correction required to compen-
sate for the current waveform distortion due to rectification in-
creases the KVA rating of this machine to 10.5.  The rectified output
voltage of the alternator is stepped up and clamped to the battery volt-
age by a voltage boosting power processor of the inductive energy storage
type.  The description and efficiency considerations for the power pro-
cessor (PCU) are given in Appendix E.

                                  162

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             TABLE D-4
TYPICAL ALTERNATOR-RECTIFIER OUTPUT
     POWER SCHEDULE VS. SPEED
              FOR  EMT
Output Power
(lew)
9.9235+00
9.9235+00
9.9235+00
9.9235+00
9.9235+00
9.9235+00
9.9235+00
9.9235+00
1.4667+01
1 . 7855+01
2.1469+01
2.5788+01
3.0844+01
3.6637+01
4.3151+01
5.0396+01
5.8699+01
6.8043+01
Alternator
Velocity
(rpm)
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4000
4940
5881
6822
7763
8705
9646
10,587
11,528
12,469
                763

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                               TABLE D-5
          PARALLEL SYSTEM ALTERNATOR-RECTIFIER CHARACTERISTICS

Alternator type	-salient pole with  slip  rings
Rating at base speed (kw)	10 kw
Base speed (rpm)			12,000
Top speed	equal to base speed
Power factor	.95
Maximum rectified voltage (volts)	200 at base speed  and rated  load
Speed range (rpm)	-	1200 to 12,000
Overspeed (mechanical)	150% of base speed
Number of phases	three
Frequency at base speed (Hz)	-	400
Duty	continuous
Ambient emperature, operating (C)	 -30 to +50
Weight (Ib)			40
Diameter, approximately (inches)	8"
Length, approximately (inches)	4"
Brush life, between changes	50,000 car  miles
Cooling requirement, forced ambient
 air	-	100 CFM at  1.0" H20
Suggested field voltage (VDC)	200
                                  164

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    90
    80
    70
u

LU

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                              APPENDIX E

PCU Efficiency Models
     The power circuitry shown schematically in Figure E-l is assumed to
be used to control the power flow between the battery bus and the trac-
tion motor in either the series or parallel hybrid systems.  The circuit
can operate as a chopper to process motor drive power or as a boost PCU
to process motor regenerative power back to the battery.
     The power losses in the PCU are divided into four categories, each
dependent on one or both of the primary variables; motor input (output)
current, IM, which is the same as the PCU output (input) current and a,
the ratio of the time that current flows through the PCU to the total
period time, T.  In the PCU model the chopper frequency is assumed con-
stant and thus frequency effects are not incorporated into the equations
as variables.

Loss Category 1:  Commutation Oscillation
     The current flows in path C , SCR2, CR3, L  and back to C .  This
loss is a function of the voltage to which C  had charged and circuit Q
which is considered constant for this circuit.  The loss assigned to the
oscillation portion of the cycle is essentially independent of load and
duty cycle.

Loss Category 2:  Recharge of Cc
     Recharge current flows through the battery in path, CR2, C , SR, Lp,
motor armature and back to the battery.  The losses in the PCU are due
to the drop in CR2, C  and SR.  This essentially is a constant current
                     C
recharge of CG from -VCc to +VCc>  From the previous discussion +VCc is
assumed constant, therefore, -V-  1s also constant since the oscillation
which produces -VCc is only dependent on the "Q" of the path described in
Category 1.  The dissipation in C,, and SR during the recharge are func-
                      2
tions of IM and not IM , since the amp-sec to recharge a capacitor over a
fixed AV is constant.  Thus, the losses in the diode CR2 are constant.
                                  166

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     L.


  8T~
   Is
                 u
                 
          A
               efi

               j.r
   A
L_
        u A

          ^

         VNAA
II-
           t=
           Z

           _i
           o
           e

           o|
           wl
           ffi

           II
           QC

           s
               FIGURE E-l

       MOTOR PCU USED IN SERIES AND PARALLEL MODELS


                 167

-------
Loss Category 3:  Main Power Handling Elements (SCR1, CR1)
     During its conduction'time, SCR1 passes the current IM to the load.
During the short interval when category 2 loss occurs,, this .current will
flow through CR2, C  an'd SR bypassing SCR1'.   Following this non-conduction
                   \+
time the main elements in the other path through CR1 will carry the load.
     Essentially then, either SCR1 or CR1 will conduct the load current,
with the exception of the small increment mentioned in category 2.  The
loss in this latter path is approximately proportional to IM and is only
slightly modified by the conduction angle (a) since the forward drop in
SCR1 is greater than CRT.  The conduction angle effect lowers the total
loss as the conduction time in SCR1 is reduced.  Also as IM decreases the
portion of time that CR2 carries the main load increases, making category
3 losses more dependent on IM than on a.

Loss Category 4:  Drive/Regeneration Circuit through CRd, M5NO and the
                  Drive Motor
     This circuit will reverse the current in one of the elements of the
motor, thereby achieving both the drive and regeneration function.  It
consists of a relay and a diode.  It can be assumed that the relay con-
tacts have negligible loss, but the diode will dissipate power at all
times that the output current IM flows.  This will  be dependent only on
diode drop and I...
     The details of the relative contributions for each category are
relatively involved and are probably beyond the scope of this report.
Computations were made assuming two different current rated PCUs.   A 900
ampere PCU was assumed to be required in situations where there was only
a single gear ratio between the motor and driving wheels.  The single
ratio meant design  compromises which increased the motor current during
low speed-high acceleration events.  The incorporation of two or more
gear ratios reduced the motor torque and current demands and a lower
current-rated PCU of 600 amperes could be used.
                                  168

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                               TABLE  E-l
                SUMMARY OF PCU LOSSES BY  LOSS  CATEGORY

              Category 1        Category 2       Category  3    Category  4
600 amp PCU   486 watts   0.32 IM + 145 watts      1.5  IM        1.25  IM
900 amp PCU   680 watts   0.24 IM + 215 watts      1.5  IM        1.25  IM


Motor PCU Efficiency Calculations
     The PCU efficiency in drive is:
                 p  - p
                 KB   KL.PCU
          nPCU "     PB

          (npcu and npCMM can be used interchangeably  since they refer
to essentially similar devices; P.  pc(j is the  power loss  in the PCU)
     The PCU efficiency in regeneration is:

                     PB
          "pcu = PB + "L.PCU

     P.  pcu for the 600 A unit is:
          PL PCU = 486 + (145 + >32 V  + 1>5 TM + 1>25 TM = 631  + 3>07
     P,  pcu for the 900 A unit is:

          PL pcu = 680 + (215 + .24 IM) + 1.5 IM + 1.25 IM = 895 + 2.99 IM

     Thus, during drive

                 *M VRi  - IM RR  - 631 - 3.07 IM
          nDn, =       - !1- - - o - - for the 600 amp system
                        !M VBi  - !M RB a
                                  169

-------
                             M RR a - 895 - 2'99 !M
                                    5 - - for the 900 amp system
                           VBi ' - 
-------
                              APPENDIX  F

Hybrid Vehicle Computer Modeling  and  Simulation

     All computations of component and system performance were made at
elements of a vehicle velocity-acceleration matrix.   The vehicle velocity,
VR, ranged from 0 to 70 mph in 5 mph  steps.  The velocity for each step
was assumed to be the midpoint value; thus the matrix value for the first
step of 0 to 5 mph was taken at 2.5 mph while that for the final step,
65 to 70 mph, was at 67.5 mph.  Vehicle acceleration, aR, ranged from
-8.25 to +8.25 mph/sec.  Steps of 1.0 mph/sec were used from -8.25 mph/
sec to -1.25 and from +1.25 to +8.25  mph/sec.  Because of the large
number of events around cruise (0 mph/sec), the steps from -1.25 to +1.25
mph/sec were taken at 0.5 mph/sec.
     Vehicle road power requirement,  PR,  in hp, is given by:

             P  = P             + P         + P
              R    R               R            R
                    aerodynamic     rolling     acceleration
                    drag           drag

     = 8.6323  10"5 VR3 + 3.6222  10"4 vR2 + (.17641 + .52229 aR)vR

This equation is part of the vehicle  specification set of Appendix A.
In computing road power, PR, the midpoint of each of the matrix intervals
was used.
     In applying the matrix values of each component and system performance
quantity to a driving mission, the following approach was taken.  Over 14.6
hours of actual road velocity-time data on the LA-4 route were analyzed at
one-second intervals.  The values of  VR and aR were computed for each one-
second event and these were grouped within the matrix step bounds for each
midpoint value.  The total probability P.  . of each VD-aD combination
                                        1 J          K  K
occurring within the 14.6 hours (52,000 seconds) was computed and inserted
into the appropriate position of the  probability matrix, to serve as the
multiplying factor in computing LA-4  mission efficiencies, etc.
                                  171

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Series Hybrid Model
     The series system block diagram is shown  in Figure  F-l.
Step 1.  Wheel velocity, WR, and road torque,  TR, for a given VR,  aR
         and computed value of PD
                                K
              V   44
and           PR   1.65   104
         TR       irr WR
Step 2.  Motor velocity, WM, at the output shaft of the traction motor
                    n  - WM maxi'mum - 4650 rpm  . TTT   ,
                    91 " VR maximum "  85 m^    44
                    Q = gearing factor
                      = 1 if there is no additional gearing between
                        motor and differential
                      = numerical values equal to the gear ratios at
                        various road speeds if gear shifting  is  included
Step 3.  Motor torque, TM, and motor shaft power, P
! 9 aiiu MIUUUI  oiiui w puvYti ) r i*
     In DRIVE (TR >_ 0),

                 TR
          M " ngl gl Q
               PR -745.7
         p   = _E?	
         PMo      ngl
     In REGENERATION (TR < 0)

              TRngl
            "
         PMo = PR '  ngl '  745.7
                                   172

-------
CO
       ENGINE
                                                          BATTERY

                                                            0  Q
GEAR 2
ALTERNATOR
RECTIFIER
PCU
TRACTION
MOTOR
                                                                                           GEAR 1
                                                                                   WHEEL
                                                       FIGURE F-l

                                        FULL VOLTAGE  SERIES HYBRID POWER TRAIN

-------
     The efficiency of the gearing between the  motor  and  the  wheels  in-

cludes the differential  and any variable gear step  which  might  be  used.

In all cases:
              gUO) -  '       at 85 mph
              where ngi/0\  is assumed to be 0.98  without  additional
                    gearing and 0.97 with gearing.   Gear  train  effi-
                    ciency  is taken as a decreasing  function  of veloc-
                    ity,  reflecting the possibility  of  lubrication
                    losses  which would increase with speed,  independent
                    of gear tooth loads.


Step 4.   Motor current, I.., is modeled from the characteristic  of Figure D-l
     The plus sign is used for drive conditions  of  step  3;  the  negative
sign is used for regeneration.
Step 5.   Motor efficiency,  nM

     Motor efficiency is determined from the characteristics of Figures D-2 & 3.
in which nM is plotted as a function of Wy and  motor,  IM.  Whenever
necessary, the program performs  a  linear interpolation  of  the  data.

Step 6.   Motor terminal  electrical  power, PM.,  and  terminal voltage, VM

     For conditions of drive (step  3)


         PHI = >T
                                  174

-------
     For conditions of regeneration  (step  3)
         PMi  " PMo nM
     In both cases

               Mi
Step 7.   Motor power level  for battery-generator  combination



     The following sets  of  equations  are  solved for  Vn,  a,  Ippy.  ripru:

and Ip.

    ' In  DRIVE:
         ZPCU   a
         VB = VBi  -  RB
         PMi    nPCU VB ZPCU


         T     PIC nS

          6 "   VB
          PCU                    2
                     aVB1IM-RBIM
     In REGENERATION:



         Ipcu = (l-a)
         VB - VBT^B

               U  T
        p   =  B  PCU
          Mi  "   npcu
                                  175

-------
         T
          G"   VB
          r LU
     The equations for the PCU efficiencies, nnpn, are taken from the
development of the PCU efficiencies in Appendix E.  In keeping with
that work,

         KI = 895, K2 = 2.99 for the 900-amp PCU, which is used in
            cases without additional gearing

         K, = 631, K2 = 3.07 for the 600-amp PCU, which is used in
            cases with gearing

         VR. has the value of 240 volts for this and all  other models.

     In regeneration, if the solution of the equations yields a > 1, then
a is set to 1, Ip^ and npc(, are zero, and the equations  are solved for
Vg.   This corresponds to a situation where the motor acting as  a
generator and PCU are unable to deliver power to the battery bus.
     In drive, elements of the matrix for which the equations yield a > 1
are considered invalid elements.  These correspond to conditions  where the
battery voltage falls below motor terminal voltage and no further power
can be drawn from the battery.
     Several additional computations are required to solve the sets of
equations.
         nc - n
 g2 nA nRE

n o 1S assumed to be a function of vehicle speed only,  as
 "  the series system generator power (and hence speed) is
    scheduled according to vehicle speed.   The variation
    of ng2 with vehicle speed is shown in  Figure F-2.
                                   176

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              V
                    .98
                    95
                         Highway Traffic ,  Highway Traffic
                             Mode I      '     Mode II
                                        .5

                                     WR/WR maximum
                                                1.0
                                     Figure F-2
                                Gear 2 Efficiency


     Alternator efficiency, nA, is a function of the shaft input power
to the alternator, P...
         P..' =
At = V
     nA is computed from the alternator characteristics of Figure D-7.

     Rectifier efficiency, nRE, is assumed constant at 0.99.

     During highway conditions, the engine power is adjusted  so that the

engine puts out just enough power to propel  the car in cruise.   The set

of drive equations is therefore simplified because VD = VD.  and Inrll = !.
                                                    b    bl       rLU    G
For highway conditions,  the engine power,  PJC is determined  as  follows:



         !PCU = aIM
         P...  =
Mi " nPCU VB TPCU
         npcu = ]  -
                    aVB1!M *
     These may be solved  for npcu,  Ipcu  and  a,  when
         P    -   M1   -  P
         PPCU -  n    -  PRE
                                  177

-------
          Ao
          Ai
         IG = Ipcu = npcu vBi



               lr VRi
         n   _  b  bl
Step 8.  PCU power, P
                     pcu
                PM,

                - in drive
                npcu
         PPCU = PMi nPCU in regeneration




Step 9.  Power into alternator,  P..
         PAi =   2 PIC
              where PIC is an input parameter in urban mode and  is


                    evaluated in step 7 for highway mode.
Step 10.   Alternator output power,  P
                                    Ao
         PAo = nA PAi
Step 11.   Alternator power to battery bus,  PRE
         PRE = nRE PAo
                                  178

-------
Step 12.   Battery power,  PB,  and  current,  I.

         P  = P    .  P
         KB   KPCU   *RE
         I  -
          B"VB
Parallel Hybrid Model
     A block diagram of the major  elements of the parallel hybrid model
is shown in Figure F-3.

Step 1.   Wheel  velocity,  WR,  and road  torque, TR given VR, aR and a
         computed value of PR
         W  "
              VR   44
          R "   irr
              PR   1.65   104
            =
Step 2.  Engine power,  PJC

     In urban traffic,  VR < 42.5 mph,  P,p  is  an  input parameter which is
selected (in horsepower)  at the start  of computation.
     In highway traffic,  VR >  42.5 mph,

               PR[aR=0]
         PTP =	
          IC   ngl  ngO

              where . = -.03 (-S	)
                     y            R maximum
                    nai/n\ 1s  an input parameter of  the differential
                     gnu; efficiency  as in the  series system.  It is
                           set at 0.97.
                    n Q is an  input  parameter, 0.8 or 0.9
                                 179

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                                                                     WHEEL
ENGINE
                   PLANETARY
                   GEAR
                   o
     ALTERNATOR
                  RECTIFIER
       ALTERNATOR
             PCU
O  O

O  9
                                                     VARIABLE
                                                     GEAR
                              MOTOR
                                                    MOTOR
                                                    PCU
                                   BATTERY


                               FIGURE F-3

                    PARALLEL (EMT)  HYBRID POWER TRAIN
                                   180

-------
Step 3.   Power out of  planetary gear to wheel,


                                      v

     In  urban mode,  Pn =  n  n PTr  (0.9  .9 ^)
                    u   9           H c. o




     In  highway mode,  PQ  =  n Q PIC






Step 4.   Motor shaft power, PM
     Motor is  in  drive  when  PR > n , PQ, and
             -C-B-
              \ngl
    p   _ i  R
    'MO
           'gl     "/  "gM




Motor is in regeneration whenever  P..  <  n  -,
if PR > 0,  use
                    \


                   OJ
                     ~  PO    ngM
if PR < 0,  use
         PMo
     The motor speed  is  w^  = g-, WR   Q
                    Q  -  gearing factor


                    Q  =  1  if  there  is no additional variable gearing

                        between the motor and differential


                    Q  =  numerical values equal to the gear ratios at

                        various road speeds if gear s.hifting is included.
                                  181

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Step 5.  Motor torque, TM

            . PMo   K65 '
         T  "
          M "     irr
Step 6.  Motor current, IM

     |IM| is determined graphically as a function of TM from the parallel
motor characteristics presented in Figure D-4.   ! is then set positive
in drive, negative in regeneration.

Step 7.  Motor efficiency, n
     n is determined as a function of w  and |IM| from the performance
curves of the parallel hybrid motor in Figure D-6.

Step 8.  Motor terminal electric power, P..., and terminal voltage, v..
                     P...  745.7
     In drive' PMi '
     In regeneration, PMi = nM '  PM() '  745.7
                         p
     In both cases, VM = T^-
Step 9.  Power into the alternator, P..

     In urban mode, P.. = (n 0 Pjr - PQ) '  745.7

     In highway mode, P.. = 0

Step 10.  Alternator system characteristics

         n is determined from Figure D-8 of Appendix D

         PAo = nA PAi
                                  182

-------
                          VR
         VA = 200 (1-0.9 ^5) for urban operation


         VA = 0 in highway mode

         T    PAo

          A = VA


         APPCUA = '2 ^  + 4*13 *A * 44*8 in Urban mode

                = 0 in highway mode


         PPCUA = PAo " APPCUA


               _ PPCUA
         n
Step 11.  Motor power level for battery-generator combination solve
          the following sets of equations for IpcUM, a, VB, npcUM, IpcuA


     In drive,


         !PCUM = aIM
          B


          Mi    PCUM  BPCUM
i -  Hn/tnu *ni
                              2
         nPCUM =      tf  T  _n T 2
                     aVBiV

         T     _ PPCUA
         XPCUA     VT~
     In regeneration,
         !PCUM =
         VB = VB1"RB^IPCUM"IPCUA)
                                  183

-------
         PMi = n     (VBIPCUM)
                 PPCUA
               "  VB

              K, and Kp are PCU constants derived in Appendix E.

         K1 = 895, K2 = 2.99 for the 900-amp PCU which is used if Q=l

         K, = 631, Kp = 3.07 for the 600-amp PCU which is used if Q
              has values different from 1

     In regeneration, if the solution of the equations yields a > 1,
then a is set to 1, IPQJM and nprnM are zero, and the equations are
solved for VB and IpryA-  This corresponds to a situation where the
motor as a generator and the motor PCU are unable to deliver power to
the battery bus.
     In drive, elements of the matrix for which the equations yield
a > 1 are considered invalid elements.  These correspond to conditions
where the battery voltage falls below motor terminal voltage and no
further power can be drawn from the battery.

Step 12.  Motor PCU power, PpCijM
                  P
         PPCUM = ^ in drive
         PPCUM = PMi nPCUM in Degeneration
                                  184

-------
Step 13.  Battery power, Pg/and current, !
         P  = I  -V
         rB   *B   VB
Computational Procedures for Determining Average and Root Mean Square

Performance Values of Power Train Components


     Each velocity-acceleration combination (i,j) in the LA-4 matrix has

associated with it a probability of occurrence, P.  ..   The probabilities
                                                 ' >J
are used in determining averages and root mean squares of the performance

characteristics as follows:


     For any characteristic, X, such as motor current or battery power,

etc., where the value X. .  is known for the i   velocity, j   accelera-
                       i >J
tion,
                   z P.  .
                      i >J
         x
         A
          RMS "    Z P.  .
                       J



     Matrix elements in  drive for which the equations yield a value of

a > 1  are excluded from  the averages and root mean squares since they

are physically unrealizable.


     Matrix elements in  regeneration for which the equations yield a

value of a > 1 have a set  equal  to 1 and are included in the averages.

In these cases there is  excess regenerative energy which cannot be pro

cessed.
                                  185

-------
Series System Averages and Root Mean Squares

     Matrix elements are grouped as follows:


         DRIVE:      PR 1 

         REGEN:      PR < 0

         CHARGE:     Ig < 0

         DISCHARGE:  I0 > 0
                      D 

     The averages for the series system of the quantities PM, P^ ,

IM, and IpCU are averages of the absolute values of those quantities.
This procedure was chosen because the rating of the particular component

is affected to the first order by the magnitude of the quantity rather

than direction of flow.
                                                   p
     The average battery loss is the average of (!   Rn) for all charge

and discharge events.

     The average component and subsystem efficiencies are defined as

follows:
                    ave DRIVE P
         DRIVE nM = -        ; average motor efficiency only during
                n   ave DRIVE pMi   drjve events
                    ave REGEN PM,
         REGEN nM = aua pcrcM D    > average motor efficiency only during
                M   ave REGEN PMo   regeneration events

                      ave DRIVE P...
         DRIVE nnpi, = a..0 npTVr p  ; average PCU efficiency only during
                      ave
                      ave REGEN Ppaj
         REGEN npn, = aup prrF>. p -  ; average PCU efficiency only during
                PLU   ave RtfaLN PMi    regeneration events
                      (DRIVE PR(1J)  P
         SYSTEM n = -     >J/ - LjjL ; average road positive
                               p
                                1C             traction power demand
                                                average engine power
                                  186

-------
Parallel System Averages and Root Mean Squares



     Matrix elements are grouped as follows:




         DRIVE:  PR>ng]P0



         REGEN:  PR < nglPQ



              REGEN+:  0 < PR <. n ^Pg



              REGEN- :  PR < 0



         CHARGE:  Ig < 0



         DISCHARGE:  ID > 0
                      D 




     The averages for the whole system of PMQ, PMi , IM> and IpCiiM are


averages of the absolute values of those quantities as in the series


system.



     The average component and subsystem efficiencies are defined in


a manner similar to the series system as follows:



                    E (DRIVE PR(.  ..P.  )

         SYSTEM n = - a a ^ >J'  >J
                          ave KIC




                    ave DRIVE PM


         DRIVE ^
                    ave DRIVE P




                    ave REGEN PM.

         REGEN nM =
                M   ave REGEN PM
                               MO



                       ave DRIVE PM.

         DRIVE n     -
                PCUM   ave DRIVE PpcUM
                       ave REGEN PDrilM
                     - _ PCUM
               npcUM - ave REGEN PM_





                ave P
                     Ao

         nALT " ave P-
                 ave PPCUA

         nPCUA " ave PA()





                                   187

-------
                               APPENDIX G

     Two sets of computer print out of system and component characteristics
are presented.
     The first set, corresponding to Run IA, treats a full  voltage series
hybrid, with a variable gear transmission.   The engine power is set at 16
hp in the urban mode and the battery resistance is 0.086fi.   The first sheet
presents data which is independent of vehicle acceleration; following
sheets show component operating characteristics at the indicated accelera-
tion and speed.  Values are computed for the midpoint of the range indicated,
Probability refers to the probability of occurrence in the  LA-4 data set.
Other headings are evident or defined in the nomenclature.
     The second set, corresponding to Run TAA presents the  data for an EMT
with variable gearing.  It is using a 0.086n battery and a  90% efficient
planetary set.  The engine power is set at 11.75 hp in the  urban mode.
                                   188

-------
      s Run IA
mljH  LEAR INU
P(iC =  "16 "HP
R(dl  =   .C66 Ct-HS

ANr ACCELEPTICN
VEHICLE PSOtiAblLllT
	 SPIED V
MPH

0.
5.
10.
15.
~ 2"D.
25.
	 30.
35^
40.
45.
50.
55.
60.
	 53V
70.
75.
"80.
85.
00 	
10

0
0
C
0
0
0
0
0
0
C
0
C
0
tf
0
0
0
0
_..

WR
To
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TU
TO
TO
TO
TU
TO
TO
-TQ-
TO
TU
TO
TO
	


5.C
10.6
15. C
20. C
25.0
30.0
35. C
40.6
45.0
50. C
55.0
60.0
65.0
70. "b
75.0
80.0
eT.c
90.0
	

VEHICLE
SPEEO

0.
5.
10.
15.
	 20.
25.
30.
35.
40.
45.
""50.
55.
60.
65.
70.
T5.
80.
85.

0
0
0
0
'0
0
0
0
0
0
0"
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
>PH
TO
TO
TO
TO
Tjj
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
To
TO
TO
TO
TU
TO
TO
TO

5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65. C
70.0
75.0
80.0
5.0
90.0

C.1S449
0.04105
C.C555C
C.C7735
0.12642
C.17C62
C.1449S
C. 06599
0.02274
0.01638
C.C189c
C. 03153
C.C1136
"OY00220
C.CCCOC
C.OCOCC
c.ccccc
c.coooo
.

CEAR 2
EFFICIENCY
nG2
C.SaOOC
C.980CC
C.96CCC
C.980CO
C."98CCC
C. 98000
C.96CCC
C. 98000
C.S8CCO
C. 97647
C. 9 7294
0.96941
C. 96568
0.96235
C. 95882
0.95129
0.95176
0.94823

j.
A 
1.
2.
3.
3.
4.
5.
5.
6.
7.
8.
8.
9.
1.
1.
1.
1.
_..

ELoC iTY
Kf M

501+01
C3 C2
75 *02
45 *C2
151+C2
651+02
551*C2
25<: + 02
952+02
632+02
353+02
053*0
-------
SEKifcS  Run  IA
WITH GEARING
P 1C) =   16 HP
R1BI -   .086  ChHS

ACCELERATICN  =  -e.25.FC -7.i!b MPH/SEC

PROBABILITY =   O.OCC77
VEHICLE PROBABILITY HOrfER
SPEED p DEMAND
KPH i J HP p
K
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30. C
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
Tli
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
70.0
O VEHICLE
SPEED
MPH
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
; 45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
90.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
70.0
O.OOCC4
O.OC014
"0.00029
C.OOC16
0.00010
C.CCC04
00.00000
oo.ccoco
CO. 00000
oc.ccooo
oc.coooo
oo.cccoo
00.00000
oc.coooo
ALPHA
a
C. 99166
C. 89114
C. 78819
0.685C8
C. 58321
0.48357
C. 38643
0.29297
0.40629
0.33839
0.27251
0.48842
0.44412
0.40119
-9.074+00
-2.897+01
-4.816+01
-6.717+01
-8.5*3+01
-1.043+02
-1.224+02
-1.401+02
-1.572+02
-1. S38+02
-1.897+02
-2.049+02
-2.194+02
-2.331+02
PCU
PQriER
Ktf
_ - PPCU
-9.7276-01
-1.2872+0.1
-2.5367+01
-3.3146*01
-5.0976+01
-6.3658+01
-7.6C81+01
-8.8004*01
-9.5801*01
- .0704*02
- .1782*02
- .188 +02
- .2882+02
- .3824*02
GfcAR
LOSS
HP
2.9878-01 -
9. 460 1-01 -
1.6575+00 -
2.4301+00 -
3.2606+00 -
4. 145 "+00 -
5.079 +00 -
6.0579+00 -
7.0763+00 -
8.1287+00 -
9.2088+00 -
TORuUE MOTOR MOTOR
AT NHbfcL TURdUE POwER
FT-L(J FT-L8 HP P'
T . no
0 u
f\ n
1.4512+03 -1.8003+02 -9.375+00 -2.
1.4489+03 -1.7941+02 -2.803+01 -1.
1.4449+03 -1.766 +02 -4.65 +01 -2.
1. 4194+03 -1.7759+02 -6.474+01 -4.
1.4323+03 -1.7639+02 -8.267+01 -5.
1.4235+03-1.7498+02 -1.002+02 -6.
1.4131+03 -1.7339+02 -1.173+02 -7.
1.4011+03 -1.716 +02 -1.34 +02 -8.
1.3875+03 -2.2616+02 -1.501+02 -9.
1.3722+03 -2.2326+02 -1.636+02 -1.
1.3554+03 -2.201 +02 -1.805+02 -1.
1.031 +01-1.3369+03 -3.2506+02 -1.946+02 -1.
1.1425+01 -1.3168+03 -3.1958+02 -2.08 +02 -1.
1.2547+01-1.295 +03 -3.1372+02 -2^205+02 -1.
PCU PCU PCU INPUT BATTERY
EFFICIENCY
IPCU
0.34854
0.87460
0.93125
0.95259
0.96367
0.97036
0.97486
0.97803
0.97654
0.97879
C. 98057
0.97638
0.97808
0.97947
LOSS CURRENT POWER
KM AMPS KM
AP 1 . Pn
1.81U1+00 -4.0034+00 -8.4177+00
1.8456+00 -5.2102+01 -2.0317*01
1.8726+00 -1.0097+02 -3.2812*01
1.8981*00 -1.4939*02 -4.5591+01
1.9217+00 -1.9654+02 -5.8421+01
1.9428+00 -2.4184+02 -7.1103+01
1.9613+00 -2.8505+02 -8.3526+01
1.9768+00 -3.2551*02 -9.5449*01
2.3013*00 -3.4892*02 -1.1035*02
2.3192*00 -3.8435*02 -1.2472*02
2.3343+00 -4.1727+02 -1.3909+02
2.8738+00 -4.187 +02 -1.4434+02
2.8871+00 -4.4785*02 -1.5939*02
2.8971*00 -4.7426+02 -1.7456*02
POWER MOTOR
INPUT FFFICIENCY
7909+00 0.39S18 4
4718+01 0.70409 6
724 +01 0.78543 7
0044+01 0.82941 8
2898+01 0.85800 8
5601+01 0.87755 9
8042+01 0.89150 9
998 +01 0.90012 9
HCTOR
LCSS
K-4PM
.2CC7+.00 -4
.1854+00 -4
.4415+00 -4
.2356+00 -4
.7547+00 -4
.1535+00 -4
.4978*00 -4
.9.843*00 -4
MOTOR
CURRENT
AMPS
*M
.8006*02
.7863*02
.7674*02
.7439*02
.7157+02
.683 +02
.6458*02
.604 +02
8102+01 0.87603 1.3882+01 -5.877 +02
0936+02 C. 88515 1.41S +01 -5.8094+02
2015+02 0.89247 1.4476+01 -5.7358+02
2168*02 0.83816 2
3171*02 0.84899 2
4113*02 0.85810 2
BATTERY
VOLTAGE
VB
2.42S8+02
2.4706+02
2.5122+02
2.5534+02
2.5936+02
2.6322+02
2.669 +02
2.7035+02
2.7456*02
2.7851*02
2.8236*02
2.8375*02
2.8765*02
2.9149*02
BATTERY
CURRENT
AMPS
-3.4*43+01
-8.2236*01
-1.3061*02
-1.7854*02
-2.2525*02
-2.7C13*02
-3.1294*02
-3.5305*02
-4.0193*02
-4.4784*82
-4.9261*02
-5.0871*02
-5.5411*02
-5.9887*02
.3494*01 -8
.3427*01 -8
.3339+C1 -7
BATTERY
LOSS
KM
1.C321-01
5.816 -01
1.467 +00
2.7416*00
4.3634*00
6.2753*00
8.4222*00
1.0719*01
1.3893*01
1.7248*01
2.0869*01
2.2255*01
2.6405*01
3.0843*01
. 1 846+02
.0566*02
.92 *02
RECTIFIER
CUM EN T
ANPS
I.
3.0489*01
2.9985*01
2.9488*01
2.9012*01
2.8563*01
2.8144*01
2.7756*01
2.7402*01
9.295 *01
6.3479*41
7.5297*01
9.0001*01
1.0619*02
1.2444*09
TERMINAL
VOLTAfiE
*"
5.8136*00
3.075 *01
5.7138*01
8.4413*01
.1217*02
.4008*02
.6798*02
.9544*02
.6692*02
. 8825*02
.0948*02
.48*7*02
.6348*02 .
.782 *Ot

>'







-------
        SERIFS
        WITH (.EARING
r
P(IC) = 16 H
Rldl = .Cd6
ACCEL tKATICK
PROBABILITY =
p
jl-f S
= -7 25 TC
C.C0146
-o.2b PPH/iEC
VEHICLE PROBABILITY POrfER GEAR
SPfcEO DEMAND LUSi
MPH
0.0 TO 5.0
5.0 TO 10. C
10.0 TO 15.0
15.0 TO 20.0
23.0 TO 25.0
25.0 TO 30.0
30.0 TO 35.0
35.0 TO 40.0
40.0 TO 45.0
45.0 TO 50.0
50.0 TO 55.0
55.0 TO 60.0
60.0 TO 65.0
65.0 TO 7C.O
VEHICLE
__, SPEED
vo MPH
0.0 TO 5.0
5.0 TO 10.0
10.0 TU 15.0
15.0 TO 20.0
20.0 TO 25.0
25.0 TO 30.0
30.0 TO 35.0
35.0 TO 40.0
4. 0 TO 45.0
45.0 TO 50.0
50.0 TO 55.0
55.0 TO 60.0
60.0 TO 65.0
65.0 TO 70.0
HP HP
C.COCC6
C.CCC35
O.C0040
C.OOC29
C.COC16
C.CC010
C.CCC10
CO. 00000
oc.ocooo
oc.cccco
oo.ccccc
-oc.ccooo
00.00000
cc.ccooo
ALPHA
C. 99479
C.8S098
C. 78664
C. 68725
C. 5(527
0. 48604
0.38923
0.29630
0.40245
0.33420
"C. 26916
0.47847
0.43399
C. 39062
-8.369+00 2.5b45-01
-2.506+01 8.1819-01
-4.163+01 1.4328+00
-5.603+01 2.0995+00
-7.418+01 2.3147*00
-9.002*01
-1.054*02
-1.205*02
-1.35 +02
-1.49 +02
-1.623+02
-1. "749 +02
-1.868+02
-1.978+02
PCU
PJWER
KM
-5.3497-01
-1.1343+01
-2.22 +01
-3.3172+01
-4.4314+01
-5.5212+01
-6.5837*01
-7.5949*01
-8.3102*01
-9.2599*01
-1.0144*02
-1.0313*02
-1.1132*02
-1.1848*02
3.5747*00
4.3751*00
5.2111*00
6.0774*00"
6.9685*00
7.8781*00
b. 7996*00
9.7259*00
1.0649*01
PCU
EFFICIENCY
0.23977
0.86838
0.92729
0.94961
0.96141
0.96852
0.97327
Tti*wbE
AT WHttL
F1-L6
-1.2553+03
-1.253 +03
-1.2491+03
-1.2436+03
-1.2364+03
-1.2276+03
-1.2172+03
-1.2052+03
-I. 1916+03
-1.1764+03
-1.1595+03
-1.141 +03
-1.1209+03
-1.0992+03
PCU
LOSS
KM
1.6961+00
1.7192+00
1.74C5+00
1.7603+00
1.7785+00
1.7944+00
l.bOS +00
MOTOP
TURwUE

-1.5573+02
-1.5516+02
-1.5439+02
-1.5343+02
-1.5227+02
-1.5091*02
-1.4936*02
-1.4761*02
-1.9423*02
-1.9139*02
-1.483 *02
-2.7744*02
-2.7204*02
-2.6627*02
PCU INPUT
CURRENT
AMPS
-2.2031*00
-4.6007+01
-8.8737+01
-1.3072+02
-1.7223+02
-2. 1181+02
-2.495 +02
MOTOR
PJWER
HP
-8.11 *00 -2.
-2.424+01 -1.
-4.02 +01 -2.
-5.593+01 -3.
-7.137+01 -4.
-8.645+01 -5.
- .011+02 -6.
- .153+02 -7.
- .289*02 -8.
- .42 +02 -9.
- .544+02 -1.
- .661*52 -T7
- .77 *02 -I.
-1.872*02 -1.
BATTERY
POKER
KW
-7.9799*00
-1.8788*01
-2.9645*01
-4.0617*01
-5.1759*01
-6.2657*01
-7.3282*01
0.97661 1.8186*00 -2.846 *02 -8.3394*01
0.97530 2.1044*00 -3.0666*02 -9.7657*01
0.97765 2.1166*00 -3.3728*02 -1.1028*02
0.97947 2.1259+00
0.97536 2.6046+00
0.97708 2.6103+00
0.97851
2.6131+00
-3.6495*02
-3.689 +02
-3.9324*02
-4.1517*02
-1.2271*02
-1.2867*02
-1.4189*02
-1.553 *02


POWER MOTCR
INPUT EFFICIENCY
Kri
2311*00
3062*01
3941*01 '
4933*01
6093*01
7006*01
7645*01
7768*01
5207*01
4716*01
0357*02
^S74OT
1393*02
2159*02
BATTERY
VOLTAGE
V
2.4282+02
2.4655+02
2.5018+02
2.5375+02
2.5729+02
2.6066+02
2.6388*02
2.6687*02
2.7099*02
2.7455*02
2.7797*02
2.7958*02
2.831 +02
2.8659*02
0.36890 3.
0.72257 5.


MCTOH
LCSS
KW
8168*00 -4.
0152+.00 -4.


3

MOTOR TERMINAL
CURRENT VOLTAGE
AMPS
2337*02 5.
2205*02 3.
0.79855 6.03S6+00 -4.2026*02 5.
0.83750 6.7777*00 -4.18 *02 8.
0.86604 7.1292*00 -4.1529*02 1.
0.88424 7.
0.89706 .
0.90437
0.88593
0.89421
0.89921
0.65340 I.
0.86273
0.87101
BATTERY
CURRENT
AMPS
-3.2862*01
-7.6204*01
-1.1849*02
-1.6006*02
-2.0116*02
-2.4037*02
-2.7771*02
-3.125 *02
-3.6037*02
-4.0169*02
-4.4148*02
-4.6025*02
-5.0121*02
-5.4191*02
4628*00 -4.
7621*00 -4.
2233*00 -4.
1213*02 1.
085 *O2 1.
0443*02 1.
OS7 *01 -5.1321*02 1.
12C5*01 -5.0658*02 1.
1608*01 -4.9937*02 2.
8164*01 -7.0734*02 1.
8127*01 -6.9476*02 1.
8C0601 -6.813 *02 1.
BATTERY
LOSS
MM
9.2877-02
4.9941-01
1.2075*00
2.2034*00
3.4803*00
4.969 *00
6.6327*00
8.3981*00
l!38T**01
1 . *72*0 1
1.8217*01
2.1604*01
2.5254*01
RECTIFIER
CURRENT
AMPS
3.0508*01
3.0047*01
2.9*11*01
2.9194*01
2.8793*01
2.842 *01
2.8074*01
2.77* *01
5.3*49*01
7.6488*01
9.1343*01
1.079 *02
1.2** *U
V
2*99*00
099 *01
6968*01
3571*01
1098*02
3832*02
*599*O2
9229*02
6*02*02
8696*02
074 *02
4949*02
6399*02
7847*02









-------
        SERIES
        WITH GEARING
n
PI 1C I
mat >
 16 HP
.066 OhHS
ACCELERATION =
PROBABILITY =
= -t.25 TO
0.00392
-5.25 MPH/iEC
VEHICLE PROBABILITY PUER
SPEED JEMAND

0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
MPH
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO

5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50. C
55.0
60.0
65.0
70.0
VEHICLE

C.OCC27
0.00099
0.00110
O.OCC78
O.OC050
C. 00022
C. 00002
O.OOOC4
00. 00000
CC.CCOOO
*00. 00000
co.ocooo
CO. 00000
oc.coooo
ALPHA
_a SPEED
10 MPH
ro
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
* 4O.O
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
*5.0
TO
fO
TO
TO
10
TO
TO
to
ro
TO
TO
TO
TO
1(1
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
70.O
C.S9737
C. 89126
O. 79 101
0.6S155
C. 59035
0.49221
0.3^713
0.30541
0.40415
0.33699
0.27058
0.47213
0.42724
0.38344
HP
-7.063+00
-2.114*01
-3.51 +01
-4.869+01
-6.243+01
-7.560+01
-8.852+01
-1.009+02
-1. 128+02
-1.242+02
-1.349+02
-1.449+02
-1.541+02
-1.626+02
PCU
POWER
KM
-2.3333-01
-9. 7763+00
-1.8936+01
-2.8121+01
-3.7524+01
-4.6635+01
-5.5394+01
-6.3712+01
-6.9839+01
-7.7453+01
-8.4773+01
-8.6568+01
-9.3032+01
-9.8977+01
2.
6.
1.
1.
2.
3.
3.
4.
5.
5.
6.
T.
8.
8.
GEAR TORQUE MOTOR MOTOR
LUSS AT WHEEL TORQUE PJWER
HP FT-LB FT-LB HP
1813-01 -1.0594+C3 -1.3143+02 -6.a45+00 -1
903 -01 -1. 0571+03 -1.3091+02 -2.045+01 -1
2081+00 -1.0532+03 -1.3018+02 -3.39 +01 -2
76B8+00 -1.0477+03 -1.2S26+02 -4.712+01 -2
3689+00 -1.0405+C3 -1.2815+02 -6.006+01 -3
0044+00 -1.031d+03 -1.2683+02 -7.266+01 -4
6711+00 -1.0214+03 -1.2532+02 -8.485+01 -5
3642+00 -1. 0094+03 -1.2362+02 -9.6J7+01 -6
0786+00 -S.9579+C2 -1.6231+02 -1.077+02 -7
8083+00 -9.8C54+02 -1.5953+02 -1.183+02 -7
5<73+00 -9.6366+C2 -1.5649+02 -1.283+02 -8
2892+00 -9.452 +02 -2.2981+02 -1.376+02 -8
0266+00 -9.2509+02 -2.245 +02 -1.461+02 -9
7521+00 -9.0337+02 -2. 1P33+02 -1.538+02 -1
PCU PCU PCU INPUT BATTERY
EFFICIENCY LOSS CURRENT POWER
K* AMPS KW






0.12934 1.5706+00 -9.6112-01 -7.6783+00
0.86020 1.5887+00 -3.9739+01 -1.7221+01
0.92187 1.6048+00 -7.6021+01 -2.6381+01
0.94555 1.6192+00 -1.1154+02 -3.5566+01
0.95830 1.6325+00 -1.4706+02 -4.4969+01
0.96595 1.4435+00 -1.8074+02 -5.408 +01
0.97103 1.0521+00 -2.1246+02 -6.2839+01
0.97463 1.6583+00-2.4203+02 -7.1157+01
0.97348 1.9026+00 -2.6141+02 -8.4394+01
0.97594 1.9C92+00 -2.8657+02 -9.5136+01
0.97792 1.9138+00 -3.1011+02 -1.0604+02
0.97385 2.3243+00 -3.1473+02 -1.121 +02
0.97563 2.3231+00 -3.344 +02 -1.2359+02
0.97710 2.319 +00 -3.518 +02 -1.353 +02
POWER MOTCR
INPUT EFFICIFNCY
KW
.8039+00 0.35341 3
.1365+01 0.74514 3
.0541+01 0.81257 4
.9741+01 0.84631 5
.9156+01 0.87419 5
.8279+01 0.89101 5
.7046+01 0.90157 6
.5371+01 0.9C770 6
.1742+01 0.89265 8
.9362+01 0.89892 8
.6687+01 0.90559 9
.8892+01 0.86607 1
.5355+01 0.87491 1
.0129+02 C. 88291 1
BATTERY BATTERY
VOLTAGE
V
2.4277+02
2.4601+02
2.491 +02
2.5212+02
2.5514+02
2.5802+02
2.6072+02
2.6324+02
2.6716+02
2.7027+02
2.7336*02
2.75C6+02
2.7821+02
2.8135+02
CURRENT
AMPS
-3.1627+01
-7.0002+01
-1.059 +02
-1.4106+02
-1.7624+02
-2.096 +02
-2.4102+02
-2.7032+02
-3.1589+02
-3.52 +02
-3.8793*02
-4.0759*02
-4.4427+02
-4.809 +02
HCTOR
LCSS
KM 
.3CC4+00 -3
.887 +00 -3
.4CC7+00 -3
.6348+00 -3
.228 +00 -3
.6466+00 -3
.6J73+00 -4
.9237*00 -4
.0367*00 -4
.3746*01 -5
.3633+01 -5
.3433+01 -5
BATTERY
LOSS
KW
8.6025-02
4.2142-01
9.6462-01
1.7114+00
2.6714*00
3.7781*00
4.SS58+00
6.2841*00
8.5816*00
1.0655*01
1.2942*01
1.4286*01
1.6974*01
1.9889*01
MOTOR
CURRENT
AMPS
.6668*02
.6546*02
.6377*02
.6162*02
.5901*02
.5595*02
.5243*02
.4846*02
.3872*02
.3223*02
.2515*02
.9623*02
.8385*02
.706 *02
RECTIFIER
CURRENT
AMPS
3.0515*01
3.0113*01
2.974 +01
2.9383+01
2.9035+01
2.8712+01
2.8414+01
2.8142+01
5.4417+01
6.5414*01
7.7776+01
9.2847+01
1.098 +02
1. 2896+02
TERMINAL
VOLTAGE
V
4.9198+00
3.1098*01
5.6469*01"
8.2243+01
1.0906+02
1.3563+02
1.6186+02
1.876 +02
1.6352+02
1.8361+02
2.0389+02
1.4909+02
1.6332+02
1.7752+02








-------
 SEKIES
_ITH GEARlflt
 PTtCi =  16 HP
 RIB) =  ,C8b CHKS

 ACCELERATION = -5.25  1C -4.25 MPH/SEC

 PROBAEILIIY =  C.C11!J9
VEHICLE PROBABILITY PUrfER
SPEED DEMAND
MPH HP
0.0 TO 5.0
5.0 TO 10.0
ro.0 TU 15.0
15.0 TO 20.0
20.0 TO 25.0
25.0 TO 30.0
30.0 TO 35.0
35.0 TO 43.0
40.0 TO 45.0
45.0 TU 50.0
50.0 TO 55.0
55.0 TO 60.0
60.0 TO 65.0
65.0 TO 70.0
VEHICLE
_. SPEED
3 HPH
OJ
C.OOC63
0.00227
O.CC357
0.00249
0.00145
0.00062
C. 00024
C.OOOC8
'CC.CCCCO
*OO.OCOOO
C. 00002
C.OOC02
*OC.CCOOO
*cc.cccco
ALPHA

-5. 757+00
-1.722*01
-2.858+01
-3.975+01
-5.0e>+01
-6.13 +01
-7.154+01
-B. 135+01
-9.065+0"!
-9.939+01
-1.074+02
-1.148+02"
-1.215+02
-1.273+02
PCU
. PUwEk
Krt
UEAK
LOSS
HP
1.77B1-01
5.6242-01
9.8353-01
1.4382+00
1.923 +00
2.4341+00
2.9672+00
3.5174+00
4.0796+00
4.6481+00
5.2167+00
5.7787+00
6. 3273+00
6.8546+00
PCU
EFFICIENCY
TORCUE
AT hhEEL
FT-L6
-8.6363+02
-8.6133+02
-8. 5742+02
-8.51fad+02
-8.4473+02
-8.3596+02
-8.2557+02
-8. 1356+02
-7.9993+02
-7.8469+02
-7.6782+02
-7.4934+02
-7.2924+02
-7.0751+02
PCU
LOSS
KM
MOTOR
TGRJUE
FT-LB
-1.0713+02
-1.0665+02
-1.0597+02
-1.051 +02
-1.0402+02
-1.0276+02
-1.0129+02
-9.9639+01
-1.3038+02
-1.2766+02
-1.2469+02
-1.8219+02
-1.7697+02
-1.7138+02
PCU INPUT
CURRENT
AMPS
MOTOR
POWER
HP
-5.579+00
-1.666+01
-2.759+01
-3.83 1+01
-4.876+01
-5.886+01
-6.858+01
-7.783+01
-8.657+01
-9.474+01
-1.022+02
-1.091+02
-1.152+02
-1.204+02
BATTERY
POWER
KW
POWER MOTCR
INPUT EFFICIENCY
KW
-1.526 +00 0.36677
-9.4327+00 C. 75908
-1.6984+01 0.82534
-2.4557+01 0.85948
-3.1984+01 0.87964
-3.9248+01
-4.6221+01
-5.2806+01
-5.8109+01
-6.3953+01
-6.9343+01
-7.1619+01
-7.6281+01
-8.0309+01
BATTERY
VOLTAGE
V
0.89405
0.90380
0.90976
0.90005
0.90519
0.90920
0.88015
0.88789
0.89376
BATTERY
CURRENT
AMPS
MOTOR
LCSS
KM
2.6347*00
2.9S37+00
3. 5S42+00
4.0148+00
4.3762+00
4.6508+00
4.91S8+00
5.2375+00
6.453 +00
6.6S79+00
6.9251+00
9.7515+00
9.6317-+00
9.546 +00
BATTERY
LOSS
KW
MOTOR
CURRENT
AMP'S
-3.0999+02
-3.0887+02
-3~.072ff*
-------
SERIES
PI ICI  16 HP
Rial * .086 LI-MS
"ACCELERATION = -4.25 TO
PROBABILITY = 0.02551
-3.25 MPH/SEC
VEHICLE PROBABILITY PUriER GEAR TGHgUE MOTOR MOTOR
SPEED DEMAND LOSS AT HEEL TORQUE PUwER
MtH " HP HP FT-Ld FT-LB HP
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
70.0
7j VEHICLE
0.002*3
0.00455
C.C0555
O.CC5E5
O.C0421
0.00189
O.C006S
0.00014
*oc~. coboo
*co.cooco
oo.cccoo
O.OOC02
C.OOC02
00.00000
ALPHA
4k SPEED
MPH
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
TO
TO
TO
TO
10
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
fo
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
70.0
1.00000
C. 89990
0.80574
0.71215
C. 62 049
. C.S3125
0.44323
0.35845
0.43277
0.37038
0.30999
0.47566
0.43424
C. 39491
-4.451+00
-1.33 01
-2.205*01
-3.061*01
-3.893*01
-4.694*01
-5.457+01
-6.177+01
-6.846+01
-7.458+01
-8.007+01
-8.486+01
-8. 889+01
-9.209+01
PCU
POWER
KW
0. +00
-6.1815+00
-1.2022*01
-1.7816+01
-2.3437+Cl
-2.8813+01
-3.3982*01
-3.8776+01
-4.2561+01
-4.6623+01
-5.0288+01
-. 1996+01
-5.4778+01
-5.6995+01
1.3748-01 -6.6777+02 -8.
4.3452-01 -6.6546*02 -8.
7. 5888-01 -6.0156+02 -8.
1.1075*00 -6.5602*02 -8.
1.4771*00 -6.4887+02 -7.
1.8638*00 -6.401 *02 -7.
.2632*00 -6.2971*02 -7.
2.6706+00 -6.177 +02 -7.
3.0808+00 -6.04D7*02 -9.
3.4879*00 -5.8883*02 -9.
3.686 *00 -5.7196+02 -9.
4.2683*00 -5
4.6278*00 -5
.957 *00 -5
PCU
EFFICIENCY
0.00000
0.82461
C. 90095
0.93066
OT94625
0.95577
0.96223
0.96678
0.96625
0.96916
0.97144
0.96774
0.96957
0.97101
284 +01 -4.314*00 -1.
2405*01 -1.287*01 -7.
1771*01 -2.129*01 -1.
0938*01 -2.95 *0l -1.
9909*01 -3.745*01 -2.
8684*01 -4.507*01 -3.
7265*01 -5.231*01 -3.
5652*01 -5.909*01 -4.
8462*01 -6.538*01 -4.
57^9*01 -7.109*01 -4.
2883*01 -7.618*01 -5.
.5343*02 -1.3457+02 -8.059+01 -5.
.3338+02 -1.2944+02 -8.426+01 -5.
.1166*02 -1.2394+02 -8.714+01 -5.
PCU PCU INPUT BATTERY
LOSS
KW
1.2539+00 0
1.3147+00 -2
1.3217+00 -4
1.3273*00 -7
1.3312+00 -9
1.3333+00 -I
1.3337+00 -1
1.332 *00 -1
1.4863+00 -1
1.4832+00 -1
CURRENT POWER
AMPS KW
*00 -7.445 *00
.5252*01 -1.3626*01
.8717*01 -1.9467*01
.163 +01 -2.5261+01
.353 +01 -3.0882+01
.1418+02 -3.6258+01
.3378+02 -4.1427+01
.5173+02 -4.6221+01
.6434+02 -5.7116+01
.7851+02 -6.4306+01
1.4781+00 -1.9094+02 -7.156 +01
1.7332*00 -1.961 *02 -7.7537*01
1.7186+00 -2.0482+02 -8.5345+01
1.7012+00 -2
.11294-02 -9.3319+01
POWER MOTOR MOTOR
INPUT EFFICIENCY LCSS
KW Kb
2539+00 0.38976 1.9632+00 -2.
4962+00 0.78078 2.1C46+00 -2.
3343+01 0.84039 2.5343+CO -2.
9144+01 C. 87004 2. 8553+00 -2.
4768+01 0.88680 3.1616+00-2.
0147+01 0.89687 3.4664+00 -2.
5316+01 0.90534 3.6S24+00 -2.
0108+01 0.91009 3.9621+00 -2.
4047+01 0.90346 4. 7C66+00 -2.
8106+01 0.90736 4.91C3+00 -2.
1766+01 0.91115 5.0474+00 -2.
3729+01 0.89397 6.3725+00 -3.
6496+01 0.89907 6.342 +00 -3.
8696+01 0.90328 6.2848+00 -3.
BATTERY BATTERY EATTERY
VOLTAGE
V
2.4263+02
2.4479+02
2.4677+02
2.4872+02
2.50~58~+02
2.5234+02
2. 54C1 + 02
2.5554+02
2.5897+02
2.6118+02
2.6337+02
2.6515+02
2.6744+02
2.6974+02
CURRENT
AMPS
-3.0683+01
-5.5665+01
-7.8887+01
-1.0156+02
-1.2324+02
-1. 4368+02
-1.63C8+OZ
-1.8C87+02
-2.2055+02
-2.4621+02
-2.7171+02
-2.9243+02
-3.1912+02
-3.4596+02
LOSS
KW
8.0967-02
2.6848-01
5.3519-01
8.8709-01
1.3061+00
1.7755+00
2.2874+00
2.8134+00
4.1833+00
5.2136+00
6.3491+00
7.3541+00
8.7578+00
1.0293+01
f
6
MOTOR TERMINAL
CURRENT VOLTAGE
AMPS ' V
5329+02 4.9505+00
5227+02 2.9714+01
5-079+02 5.3206+01
4885+02 7.6928+01
4645+02 .005 +02
4359+02 .2375+02
4028+02 .4697+02
3651+02 .6957+02
8974+02 .5202+02
8353+02 .6967+02
7673*02 .8706+02
74 +02 .4366+02
6203+02 .5605+02
4919+02 .6809+02
RECTIFIER
CURRENT
AMPS
3.0533+01
3.0263+01
3.002 +01
2.9784+01
2.9563+01
2.9357+01
2.9164+01
2.899 +01
5.6139+01
6.7693+01
8.0727+01
9.6315+01
1.1422+02
1.3451+02

-------
n
 SERIES
 WITH CEAING_
"PC 1C I  =  16 HP
 RIB) *  .C66 OKHS
ACCELERATION =
PROBABILITY =
-3.25 TC
0.03t42
VEHICLE PROBABILITY
SPEED
MPH
0.0 TO 5.0
5.0 TO 10.0
id.o TO "is.o
15.0 TO 20.0
20.0 TO 25.0
25.0 TO 30.0
30.0 TU 35.0
35.0 TO 40.0
40.0 TO 45.0
45.0 TO 50.0
50.0 TO 55.0
55.0 TO 60.0
60.0 TO 65.0
65.0 TO 70.0
VEHICLE
ui SPEED
cn MPH
0.006C7
O.C05<4
C.CC49b
O.CC705
O.C0690
0.00411
C. 00126
C. 00035
C. 00014
C.OC004
C.C0002
' C.COOC6
oc.coooo
*oo.coooo
ALPHA

-2.25 MPH/SEC
POWER GEAR
DEMAND LOSS
HP HP
-3.146*00 9.716 -02
-9.392*00 3.0663-01
-1.552*01 5.3419-01
-2.147*01 7.7688-01
-2.718+01 1.0313*00
-3.257*01
-J.7& *01
-4.213*01
-4.620*01
-4.977*01
-5.265*01
-5.483*01
-5.625*01
-5.684*01
PCU
POWER
KM
1.2935*00
1.5593*00
1.8238*00
2.0819*00
2.3277*00
2.5553*00
2.7579*00
2.9285*00
3.0595*00
PCU
EFFICIENCY
TORuUE
AT WHEEL
fT-Lb
-4.7192*02
-4.6962*02
-4.657 *02
-4.6017*C2
-4.5301*02
-4.4424*02
-4.3385*02
-4.2184*02
-4.0821*02
-3.9297*02
-3.761 *02
-3.5762*02
-3.3752*02
-3. 158 *02
PCU
LOSS
KM
MOTOR
TORQUE
FT-LB
-5.8543*01
-5.8152*01
-5.7562*01
-5.6774*01
-5.5789*01
-5.4608*01
-5.3233*01
-5.1664*01
-6.6537*01
-6.3934*01
-6. 1077*01
-8.6952*01
-8.1911*01
-7.6497*01
PCU INPUT
CURRENT
AMPS
MJTOR
POWER
HP
-3.048*00
-9.085*00
-1.498*01"
-2.069*01
-2.614*01
-3.128*01
-3.604*01
-4.036*01
-4.418*01
-4.744*01
-5.009*01
-5.207*01
-5.332*01
-5.378*01
BATTERY
POWER
KM
POWER
INPUT
KM
-8.0643-01
-5.1315*00
-9.4609*00
-1.3493*01
-1.7287*01
-2.0916*01
-2.4199*01
-2.7156*01
-2.9765*01
-3.1998*01
-3.3871*01
-3.4688*01
-3.5969*01
-3.633 *01
BATTERY
VOLTAGE
V
NOTCH
EFFICIENCY.

0.35469
0.75740
0.84643
0.87428
0.8E657
0.89658
0.90C43
0.90230
0.90343
0.90437
0.90664
0.89839
0.90457
0.90583
BATTERY
CURRENT
AMPS

MOTOR
LCSS
KM
1.4671*00
1.6436*00
1. 7164*00
1.94C2*.00
2.2117*00
2.41*4*00
2.676 *00
2.9402*00
3.1816*00
3.3834*00
3.4E75*00
3.9458*00
3. 7S45*00
3.7766*00
BATTERY
LOSS
KM

MOTOR
CURRENT
AMPS

TERMINAL
VOLTAGE
V
-1.9659*02 4.1019*00
-1.9968*02 2.6223*01
- .943 *02 4.869 *01
- .9247*02 7.0108*01
- .9017*02 9.0906*01
- .8741*02
- .842 *02
- .8054*02
-2.1525*02
-2.0917*02
-2.0251*02
-2.6289*02
-2.5112*02
-2.3849*02
RECTIFIER
CURRENT
AMPS
.116 *02
.3137*02
.9041*02
.3828*02
.5297*02
.6725*02
.9271*02
.4923*02
.5233*02


0.0 TO 5.0
5.0 TO 10.0
10.0 TO 15.0
15.0 TO 20.0
1.00000 0. +00
C. 91704 -3.9612*00
C. 62628 -8.287 +00
C. 74076 -1.2318*01
26.0 TO 25.0 C.t5859 -1.6111*01
25.0 TO 30.0 0.57759 -1.9741*01
30.0 TO 35.0 0.50066 -2.3028+01
35.0 TO 40.0
40.0 TO 45.0
45.0 TO 50.0
56.0 TO 55.0
55.0 TO 60.0
60.0 TO 65.0
65.0 TO 70.0
0.42746 -2.599 +01
0.47S96 -2.8493*01
0.42643 -3.0734*01
0.37567 -3.2616*01
0.50952 -3.3466*01
0.47344 -3.4568*01
0.44334 -3.4952*01
0.00000 8.0643-01 0. +00 -7.445 +00 2.4263*02 -3.0683*01 8.0967-02 3.0533*01
0.77193 1.1703*00 -1.6233*01 -1.1406*01 2.4402*02 -4.6742*01 1.879 -01 3.03$9*01
 0.87591 .1739*00 -3.3755*01 -1.5732*01 2.455 *02 -6.408 *01 3.5314-01 3.0175*01
0.91286 .1757*00 -4.9895*01 -1.9763*01 2.4687*02 -8.0052*01 5.5112-01 3.0008*01
0.93197 .1759*00 -6.4925*01 -2.3556*01 2.4815*02 -9.4926*01 7.7495-01 2.9852*01
0.94384 .1745*00 -7.9166*01 -2.7186*01 2.4936*02 - .0902*02 1.0221*00 2.9708*01
0.95159 .1713*00-9.1945*01-3.0473*01 2.5045*02- .2167*02 1.2731*00 2.9579*01
0.95705 .1662*00 -1.0337*02 -3.3435*01 2.5142*02 - .3298*02 1.5208*00 2.94*5*01
0.95726 .2719*00-1.1193*02-4.3047*01 2.5454*02- .6911*02 2.4596*00 5.7115*01
0.96048 .2645*00 -1.1993*02 -4.8417*01 2.5625*02 - .8894*02 3.0701*00 6.8993*01
0.96293 .2554*00 -1.2643*02 -5.3888*01 2.5797*02 -2.0889*02 3.7527*00 8.24l7*0l
0.95926 1.4213*00 -1.2893*02 -5.9007*01 2.5956*02 -2.2733*02 4.4447*00 9.8391*01
0.96104 1.401 +00 -1.3223*02 -6.5135*01 2.6143*02 -2.4915*02 5.3386*00 1.1685*02
0.96208 1.3776*00 -1.3275*02 -7.1277*01 2.6328*02 -2.7013*02 6.3032*00 1.3782*02

-------
 SERIES
 KITH GEARING
 P(IC) >  16 HP
 R(B) =  .C86 ChHS

~ACCELTRATiCN =  -2^25  TC -1.25 MPH/SEC

 PROBABILITY =   O.C565
VEHICLE PROBABILITY PUwEK
SPEED DEMAND
KPH
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
43.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50. C
55.0
60.0
65.0
70.0
 ' VEHICLE
O.CC944
O.CC6CC
0.00433
O.CC675
C.CICS4
C. 01077
C.CC5C8
0.0014S
C.OC118
C.C0082
C.CC075
0.00050
C. 00027
C.OOOC4
ALPHA
S SPEED
HPH
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55. 0
60.0
65.0
TO
to
TO
TO
ID
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
70.0
l.COOOO
C.S5268
C. 674 14
0.80220
0.73924
C.68CC1
0.62665
0.57SS3
0.60153
0.57282
C. 55216
0.62366
0.61S70
0.62617
HP
-I.d4 +00
-5.475+00
-6. 994 +00
-1.233+01
-1.542+01
-1.821+01
-2.062+01
-2.259+01
-2.406+01
-2.496+01
-2.523+01
-2.48 +01
-2.361+01
-2. 158*01
PCU
POMER
K*
0. +CO
-i.&ooa+oo
-4.2346+00
-6.!>928+CO
"-. 5748+00
-1.0339+01
-1.1801+01
-1.293 +01
- .4013+01
- .4457+01
- .449 +01
- .4483+01
- .3592+01
- .2177+01
GEAR TORQliE MOTOR MOTOR
LOSS AT urtEEL TURJUE PJHER
HP FT-LB FT-Lb HP
5.6837-02 -2.7606+02 -3.4246+01 -1.783+00 -3
1.7875-01 -2.7370+02 -3.3899+01 -5.296+00 -2
3.0953-01 -2.6S84+02 -3.3353+01 -8.6d5+00 -5
4.4621-01 -2.6-i31 + C<: -3.2609+01 -1.188+01 -7
5.8541-01 -2.5715+02 -3.1669+01 -1.484+01 -9
7.2325-01 -2.4336+C2 -3.0532+01 -1.7-9+01 -1
8.5539-01 -2.379S+C2 -2.9201+01 -1.977+01 -1
9.7706-01 -2.259B+C2 -2.7677+01 -2.162+01 -
1.083 +00 -2.1235+02 -3.4613+01 -2.298+01 -
1.1670+CO -1.971 +02 -3.2069+01 -2.379+01 -
1.2246+00 -1.&C24+02 -2.927 +01 -2.4 +01 -
1.2475+00 -1
1.2291+00 -1
1. 162 +00 -1
PCU
EFFICIENCY
0.00000
0.61050
0.80561
0.86595
J. 8S 39 2"
0.91076
0.92140
0.92829
0.93007
0.93274
0.93365
0.92946
0.92680
0.92097
.6176+02 -3.933 +01 -2.355+01 -
.4165+02 -3.4379*01 -2.238+01 -
.1993+02 -2.9053+01 -2.042+01 -
PCU PCU INPUT BATTERY
LOSS CURRENT POWER
Kta AMPS KM
3.6995-01 0. +00 -7.445 +00
1.0213+00 -6.5317+00 -9.0458+00
1.0217+OC -1.7J46+01 -1.1679+01
1.0205+00 -2.6918+01 -1.4037*01
1. 0175+00 -3. 4913+01 -l.t>019+01
1.013 +00 -4.1995*01 -1.7784+01
1.C067+00 -4.7839+01 -1.9247+01
9.9877-01 -5.2331*01 -2.0375+01
1.0535*00 -S.609 +01 -2.8567+01
1.0425+00 -5.7594*01 -3.214 *01
1.0296*00 -5.7455*01 -3.5762+01
1.C992+00 -5.7117+01 -4.0024+01
1.C734+00 -5.3324+01 -4.4159+01
1.0448+00 -4.7515+01 -4.8501+01
PO-Eft NOTCH
INPUT EFFICIFNCY
KW
.6995-01 0.27816 9
.6221+00 C. 66391 1
.2564+CO 0.81160 1
.6133+00 0.85881 1
.5924*00 0.86659 1
.1352*01 0.87C36 1
.2808*01 0.86880 1
.3928*01 0.86391 2
.5066*01 C. 87908 2
.5499*01 0.87335 2
.5519*01 0.86683 2
.5582+01 0.88711 1
.4665+01 0.87875 2
.3222+01 0.86802 2
BATTERY
VOLTAGE
V
2.4263+02
2.4322+02
2.4412+02
2.4492+02
2.456 +02
2.462 +02
2.4669+02
2.47C8+02
2.4983+02
2.51C1+02
2.5219+02
2.5357+02
2. 549 +02
2.5628+02
BATTERY
CURRENT
AMPS
-3.0663+01
-3.7191+01
-4.7843+01
-5.7315+01
-6.5227+01
-7.2234+01
-7.8017+01
-8.24*3+01
-1.1434+02
-1.2804+02
-1.418 +02
-1.5784+02
-1.7324+02
- 1.8925+02
HCTOfi
LCSS
KM
.6CC3-01 -1
.3273*00 -1
.2201*00 -I
.2516+CO -1
.4?66*CO -1
.6SC&+00 -I
.9342+00 -1
. 1S41+00 -I
.0724+00 -1
.2477+00 -1
.3841+00 -1
.9829+00 -1
.0235+00 -I
.0102+00 -1
fc*TTFRY
LOSS
KM
8.C967-02
1.1895-01"
1.5685-01
2.8251-01
3.6589-01
4.4873-01
5.2346-01
5.8481-01
1.1244+00
1.4099+00
1. 7293+00
2.1425+00
2.5811+00
3.C802+00
MOTOR
CURRENT
AMPS
.399 +02 2
.3909+02 I
.3782+02 3
.3608+02 5
.3389+^2 7
.3124*02 8
.2813*02 9
.2457*02
.4076*02
.3482*02
.2829*02
.5177*02
.4021*02
^2779+02
RECTIFIER
CURRENT
AMPS
3.0533*01
3.0458*01
3.0346*01
3.0247*01
3.0163*01
3.009 +01
3.0029+01
2.9983+01
5.8192+01
7.0433+01
8.4304+01
1.0071+02
1.1984*02
1.4158+02
TERMINAL
VOLTAGE
V
.6443+00
.8851+01
.8138*01 "
.5944*01
. 1642*01
.65 +01"
.9961+01
.118 +02
.0703+02
. 1496+02
.2096+02
.0267+02
.0459+02
.0346+02
 -




-------
    SERIES
    N1TM GEAR ING	
    P< 1C I -   1~6 HP
    MB) =   .C86  ChPS

    ACCLERATICN  = -1.25 TCJ -c.75  -PM/SEC

    PROBABILITY g  O.CB253

                  PROBABILITY
       VEHCLE
        SPEED
         MPri
Pu..Eft
DEMAND
  HP
LOSS
 HP
 AT htEL
   FT-Lo
               MOTOH
              TORgJE
               FT-LB
                          MOTOR
                          PJHEK
                         INPUT
                          Krf
                                     MOTCk
                                  EFFICI ENCV
                                      PCTOR
                                      LCSS
                                       KM
                                       MOTOR
                                      CURRENT
                                       AMPS
                                  TERMINAL
                                   VOLTAGE
                                      V
0.
5.
ro.
15.
20.
25.
30.
35,
40.
45.
50,
55,
60,
65,
,0
.0
;o
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
10
TO
TO
5.
10.
IT.
2C.
25.
30.
35.
40.
45.
50.
55.
60.
65.
70.
0
0
7J
0
0
0
0
0
S
0
0
U
0
0
0
c
c
c
0
c
0
0
0
c
0
0
c
c
.CC5S6
.OC423
.OC294
.00562
.01241
.02043
.01543
.C061S
.00257
.00213
.OC170
.00148
.OC1C7
.C0017
                              -3.61  -01
                              -2.537*00
                              -t.CHa+OG
                              -5.479*00
                              -6.613*00
                              -7.442*00
                              -7.89b00
                              -7.9C00
                              -7.418+00
                              -6.36  *00
                              -f.669*00
                              -2.2~79*00
                              8.723-01
                              4.651*00
         2.6392-02
         6.2837-02
         1.4103-01
         1.9322-01
         2.31   -01
         2.9=51-01
         3.2742-01
         1.4194-01
         3.3385-01
         2.9745-01
         2.2659-01
         1.1465-01
         4.7909-02
         2.7599-01
  .2916+02
  .26B6+02
  .2294+02
  . 1741 + 02
  .1026+02
  .0148+02
-s.ICVa+Ol
-7. . 3o4*00
-7.If7+00
-7.567*00
-7.566*00
-7.Od3*00
-6.0o3+00
-4.442*00
-2.1o5*00
 9.203-01
 5.127*00
-1.2952-01
-1.0054+00
-2.2287+00
-3.2358+00
-3.8065+00
-4.0806+00
-4.0513+CO
-3.6839+00
-3.7142+00
-2.7522+00
-1.6342+00
-7.9149-01
 0.     +00
 6.5143+00
0.20814
0.54S34
P.75526
0.82166
0.80202
0.76567
C.71791
0.65286
C.703CO
0.60872
P.49332
0.49C25
O.OOCOO
C.58698
                                                                  4.9275-01
                                                                  8.2484-01
                                                                  7.2221-01
                                                                  7.023 -Cl
                                                                  9.3S6 -01
                                                                  1.2468*00
                                                                  1.5S18+00
                                                                  1.9587*00
                                                                  1.5691*00
                                                                  1.76S *00
                                                                  1.6785*00
                                                                  8.22S6-01
                                                                 -6.8626-01
                                                                  2.6905+00
-9.7387*01
-9.6655*01
-9.5459*01
-9.38  +01
-9.1683+01
-8.9109+01
-8.6031+01
-8.2601*01
-8.4896*01
-7.9062+01
-7.2637+01
-6.8434+01
 6.3298+01
 7.7017+01
1.33  +00
1.0402*01
2.3347*01
3.4496*01
4.1518+01
4.5794+01
4.7064*01
4.4599*01
4.375 *01
3.481 *01
2.2499*01
1. 1565 + 01
0.    00
8.4582*01
10
       VEHICLE
        SPEED
         MPH
                     ALPHA
                                _
                                 P'OliER"
              PCU
          EFFILIENCr
     PCu
    LOSS
              PCU INPUT
               CURENT
                AMPS
              dATTERr
               POtaER
               BATTERY
               VOLTAGE
                  V
                BATTERY
                CURRENT
                 AMPS
             BATTERY
              LCSS
               KM
                                                                                RECTIFIER
                                                                                 CURRENT
                                                                                  AMPS
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
TJ 5.0
TO 10.0
TO 15.0
TO 20.0
TO 25.0
TO 30.0
TO 35.0
TO 40.0
TO 45.0
TO 50.0
To~55.0
TO 60.0
TO 65.0
TO 70.0
l.CCOOO
C.SS579
C. 94296
C. 89780
' C.fc6975
C. 85311
C.E46S6
0.86028
0.86448
C. 90314
0.95651
l.COOOO
0.05561
0.38669
0. *CO
-9.866<:-02
-1.3230*00
-2.3339*00
-2.9096+00
-3. 1903+00
-3. 1693*00
-2.8117+00
-2.8269*CO
-1.8784*00
-7. 752 -01
0. *00
0. 00
7.4433*00
0.00000
0.09812
0.5939C
0.72127
0. 76437
0.78182
0.78227
0.76325"
0. 76112
0.68250
0. 47433
0.00000
0.00050
0.87519
1.2952-01
9.C679-0 1
9.C5C7-01
9.C19 -01
8.569 -01
U.V028-Q 1
8. H
-------
SERIES
WITH GEARING
P1ICI =   16 HP
Rtttl =   .C86 ChNS
                                                                                                                                    10
* ACCELERATION =
PROBABILITY =
-C.75 1C -0.2i MPH/iEC
0.13537
VEHICLE PROBABILITY POwfcR GEAK
SPEED DEMAND LOSS
MPH Mt> HP
0.0 TO 5.0
5.0 TO 10.0
10.0 TO 15.0
15.0 TO 20.0
20.0 TO 25.0
25.0 TO 30.0
30.0 TO 35.0
35.0 TO 40.0
40.0 TO 45.0
45.0 TO 50.0
50.0 TO 55.0
55.0 TO 60.0
60.0 TO 65.0
65.0 TO 70.0
Tri VEHICLE
00 SPEED
MPH
O.C0914 -2.082-01 6.4306-03
O.C058S -5.787-01 1.8893-02
"0.00306 -8.339-01 2.8b99-02
C.CC73C -9.092-01 3.2895-02
0.01864 -7.398-01 2.8072-02
0.03052
0.02744
0.01215
0.00433
C.OC222
0.004C6
0.00656
0.00234
C. 00052
ALPHA

-2.61 -01
5.92 -01
1.884+00
3.679*00
6.043*00
9.04 +00
1.273+01
1.719+01
2.247+01
PCU
POWER
KW
1.0364-02
2.5613-02
8.513>-02
1.7338-01
2.9649-01
4.6112-01
"6.7446-01
9.4422-01
1.2787+00
PCU
EFFICIENCY
roRjut
AT WHEEL
FT-LB
-3.1233+01
-2.8930+01
-2.5C19+01
-1.9484+01
-1.2331+01
-3.5594+00
6.831 +00
1.684 +01
3.2467+01
4.7713+Cl
6.4578+01
8.3061+01
1.0316+02
1.2488+02
PCU
LOSS
KM
MOTOR
TORQUE
FT-LB
-3.8747+00
-J. 5831+00
-3.0925+00
-2.4039+00
-1.5186+00
-4.3755-01
9.1226-01
2.5206+00
5.8026+00
8.5432+00
1.1584+01
2.2391+01
2.7862+01
3.3791+01
PCU INPUT
CURRENT
AMPS
MOTOR
POWER
HP
-2.017-01
-5.598-01
-8.052-01
-8.763-01
-7. 118-01
-2.506-01
6.176-01
1.969+00
3.853+00
6.34 +00
9.502+00
1. 341+01
1.813+01
2.375+01
dATTERV
POWER
KW
POWER MOTCR
INPUT EFFICIENCY
KW
-3.3115-02 0.22006
-2.0016-01 C.47S48
-3.1092-01 0.51777
-3.2745-01 0.50105
0. +00 0.00000
0. +00
0. +00
3.6349+00
5.2627+00
7.6095+00
9.9269+00
1.1676+01
1.5603+01
2. 01 9 6 +01
BATTERY
VOLTAGE
V
0.00000
0.00000
0.40396
0.54595
0.62131
C. 71379
0.85641
0.86684
0.87719
BATTERY
CURRENT
AMPS
HCTOR
LCSS
KW
1.1736-01
2. 1729-01
2.8S58-01
3.26C7-01
5.308 -01
1.86S2-01
-4.6057-01
2.1665+00
2.3855+00
2. 8816+00
2. 8411+00
1. 67664 00
2.0776+00
2.48C3+00
BATTERY
LOSS
KM

MOTOR
CURRENT
AMPS
-6.904 +01
-6.836 +01
-6.7215+01
-6.5609+01
-6'.3543+01
-6.102+01
6.2128*01
6.5881*01
7.3539*01
7.9933*01
8.7029*01
1.1224*02
1.2501*02
1.3884*02
RECTIFIER
CURRENT
AMPS

TERMINAL
VOLTAGE
V
4.7964-01
2.928 *00
4.6257*00
4.9909*00
0. +00
0. 00
0. +00
5.5173*01
7.1564*01
9.5198*01
1.1406*02
1.0409*02
1.2481*02
1.4546*02


0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
TO 5.0
TO 10.0
TO 15.0
TO 20.0
TO 25.0
TO 30.0 J
TO 35.0 <
TO 40.0 (
TO 45.0 (
TO 50.0 (
TO 55.0 (
TO 60.0 (
TO 65.0 (
TO 70.0 (
.coooo
.00000
.00000
.00000
.ocooo
L. COOOO.
3.C5637
>. 28285
). 34440
1.43840
:. 51249
). 46318
2.54512
1.62649
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00
4.492 +00
6.1535+00
8.5239+00
1.0868+01
1.2712+01
1.6687+01
2.1333*01
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00021
0.80918
0.85523
0.89272
0.91339
0.91853
0.93504
0.94670
3.3115-02
2.0016-01
3.1092-01
3.2745-01
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00
8.5716-01
8.908 -01
9.1442-01
9.4125-01
1.0356+00
1.0839+00
1.1369+00
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00
3.5025*00
1.8634*01
2.5327+01
3.5043+01
4.4602+01
5.199 +01
6.8145+01
8.6985+01
-7.445 +00
-7.445 +00
-7.445 +00
-7.445 +00
-7.445 +00
-7.445 +00
-7.445 +00
-2.9529+00
-8.4011*00
-9.1593*00
-1.0404*01
-1.2828*01
-1.3879*01
-1.499 +01
2.4263+02
2.4263+02
2.4263+02
2.4263+02
2.4263+02
2.4263+02
0. +00
2.4106+02
2.4296+02
2.4324+02
2.4366+02
2.4452+02
2.4487+02
2.4525+02
-3.0663+01
-3.0663+01
-3.0683+01
-3.0683*01
-3. 0663+01
-3.0683+01
0. +00
-1.2249*01
-3.4577*01
-3.7655*01
-4.26S8+01
-5.24*3+01
-5.6661+01
-6.1124+01
8.C967-02
8. C 96 7-02
8.C967-02
8.0967-02
8.C967-02
8.C967-02
0. +00
1.2904-02
1.0282-01
1.2193-01
1.5679-01
2.367 -01
2.7629-01
3.2131-01
3.0533+01
3.0533*01
3.0533+01
3.0533*01
3.0533+01
3.0533+01
0. +00
3.0732*01
5.9838*01
7.2684+01
8.7255*01
1.0444*02
1.2474*02
1.4795+02

-------
        SERIES
        XlTH GEARING
n
P(IC)
RIBI '
 16 HP
.086 Ct-HS
                                                                                                                                              n
ACCELERATION =
PROBABILITY -
-C.25 1C
C.3CE6E
VEHICLE PROeAeiLlIY
SPEED
MPH
0.0 TO 5.0
5.0 TO 10. C
10.0 TO 15.0
15.0 TO 20.0
23.0 TO 25.0
25.0 TO 30.0
30.0 TO 35.0
35.0 TO 40.0
40.0 TO 45.0
45.0 TO 50.0
50.0 TO 55.0
55.0 TO 60.0
60.0 TO 65.0
65.0 TO 70.0
U} VEHICLE
to SPEED
MPH
0.0 TO 5.0
$.O TO 1O.O
10.0 TO 15.0
15.0 TO 20.0
20.0 TO 25.0
25.0 TO 30.0
30.0 TO 15.0
35.0 TO 40. 0
40.0 TO 45.0
45.0 TO 50.0
50.0 TO 55.0
55.0 TO 60.0
60.0 TO 65.0
65.0 TO 70.0

0. 13143
O.CC558
O.C03C7
O.C0491
0.0166b
0.0347C
0.04672
O.C2670
0.00731
0.00491
C. 00649
0.01499
0.00442
o.ccceo
ALPHA

0.12926
0. 15243
0.19128
C. 24072
6.30328
0.36938
0.43646
0.51335
O.S26C5
0.61312
C. 70459
0.611C8
C. 68188
0.754E8
0.2a MPH/SEC
PUrfER GEAR
DEMAND LOSS
HP HP
4.446-01
1.379+00
2.4J +00
3.66 *00
5. Ui+00
6.92 +00
9.C79*00
1.167+01
1.477+01
1.844+01
2.275+01
2.775+01
3.351+01
4.01 +01
PCU
POKER
2.5168+00
2.9934+OC
3.8103+00
4.8893*00
6.3123*00
7.9254*00
9.6713*00
1.1804*01
1.4472+01
1.7803+01
2.1649+01
2.5517+01
3.0572+01
3.6369+01
1.4168-02
4.6567-02
8. 661 -02
1.374 -01
2.0254-01
2.8614-01
3.928 -01
5.2766-01
6.9635-01
9.0502-01
1.1603+00
TT 4696+00-
1.8405+00
2.2814+00
PCU
EFFICIENCY
0.63810
0.69505
0.75951
0.81162
0.85313
0.88193
0.90243
0.91919
0.92918
0.94114
0.95042
0.95128
0.95776
0.96304
TCR4UE
AT WHEEL
FT-Lrt
6.6695+01
6.6993*01
7.2409*01
7.6444*01
8.b59701
9.4369*01
1.0476*02
1.1676*02
1.3039*02
1.4564*02
1.625 *02
1.8 9-9* 02
2.0109+02
2.2281+02
PCU
LOSS
KM
9.1063-01
9.1283-01
9.1633-01
9.2103-01
9.27D5-01
9.3573-01
9.4361-01
9.5391-01
1.0248+00
1.0479+00
1.0733*00
1.2431*00
1.2912*00
MOTOR
TURQUE
FT-LB
6.8096+00
9.1297*00
9.6656*00
1.0418*01
1.1389*01
1.2579*01
1.399 *01
1.5622*01
2.3334*01
2.6077*01
2.9151+01
4. (179 +01
5.431 +01
6.0288+01
PCU INPUT
CURRENT
AMPS
1.1412*01
-1.2393+01
1.5791+01
2.0295+01
2.6356+01
3.3005*01
4.0435*01
4.9514*01
6.0259+01
7.4142+01
9.02 01
1.0623*02
1.2732*02
1.3441+00 1.5148+02
MOTOR
P3UER
HP
4.588-01 1.
1.426*00 2.
2.516CO 2.
3.798*00 3.
5.338*00 5.
7.206*00 6.
9.472*00 8.
1.22 +01 1.
1.547*01 I.
1.935*01 1.
2.341*01 2.
2.922*01 2.
3.535*01 2.
4.238+01 3.
BATTERY
POWER
KU
-4.9281+00
-4.4516*00
-3.6346*00
-2.5556*00
-1.1327*00
4.804 -01
2.2263*00
4.3595+00
-8.2402-02
1.2034-01
3.7691-01
-2.3398-02
5.543 -03
4.5164-02
INPUT
KM
6059*00
0805*00
894 00
9683*00
1852*00
9896*00
7277*00
085 *01
3447*01
6755*01
0576*01
4274*01
9281*01
5025+01
BATTERY
VOLtAGE
V
2.417 +02
274153+0-2
2.4129+02
2.4091+02
2.404 +02
2.4012*02
2.3918*02
2.384 +02
2.4016+02
2.4012+02
2.4001+02
2.402 +02
2.4011+02
2.4008+02
MOTOR
EFFICIENCY
0.21303 1.
0.51125
0.64853
0.71372
0.73921
0.76884 .
0.80928
0.83874
0.85811 1.
0.86129 2.
0.86657 2.
PCTOP
LCSS
KM
2638+00 8
C168+00 8
0171*00 8
136 +CO 8
4C43+00 8


MOTOR TERMINAL
CURRENT VOLTAGE
AMPS V
.0555+01 1.
.1302+01 2.
.2552+01 3.
.4309+01 4.
.6574+01 6.
6157+00 8.9352+01 7.
6644+00 9.2643+01 9.
7496+00 9.6453+01 1.
9C8 +00 .1437+02 f.
324 +00 .2084+02 1.
7453+00 .2801+02 1.
0.89767 2.4638+00
0.90039 2.9164+00
0.90244 3.4168*00 2
BATTERY
CURRENT
AMPS
-2.0389+01
-1.843 +01
-1.5C62+01
-1.0608+01
-4.7-if6*bO
2.0006+00
9.3083+OC
1.8266+01
-3.431 -01
5.0115-01
1.5703+00
-9.7411-02
2.3C84-02
1.8811-01
BATTERY
LOSS
KU
3.5751-02
2. <) 2 12-62-
1. $512-02
9.678 -03
1.9091-03
3.4422-04
?. 4516-03
2.8757-02
1.C124-05
2.1599-05
2.1208-04
8.1604-07
4. 582 8-08
3.0432-06
.7384+02 1.
.8672+02 1.
.0067+02 1.
RECTIFIER
CURRENT
AMPS
3.065 +01
3.0671+01
3.0701+01
3.0751+01
3.0815+01
3.0851+01
3.0973+01
3. 1074+01
6.0535+01
7.3627+01
8.8583+01
1.0631+02
1.2721+02
1.5113+02
9936+01
559 +01
7068+01
2203+01
8226+01
4207+01 '
1249+02
1757+02
3865+02
6072+02
3963+02
5681+02
7454+02








-------
SErit ti
N| Til
PI 1C)  =  lb  HP
R(d  =  .Cdo  Cl-MS

ACCELERATION  =  C.>3  1C   C.

PRUti ABILITY  =   C.11415
i/EhlCLE
SPbEO
MPH
0.0 TJ 5.0
5.0 TU 10.0
10.0 TO 15.0
15.0 TU 20. C
20. C TO 25.0
2b.O TO 30. C
30.0 TO 35.0
35.0 TU 40.0
40.0 TO *5.0
45.0 TO 50.0
50.0 TU 55.0
55.0 TO 60.0
60.0 TO 65.0
65.0 TO 70.0
IV3 VEHICLE
5 SPEED
KPH
0.0 TO 5.0
5.0 TO 10.0
10.0 TO 15.0
15.0 TO 20.0
20.0 TO 25.0
25.0 TO 30.0
30.0 TO 35.0
35.0 TO 40.0
40.0 TO 45.0
45.0 TO 50.0
50.0 TO 55.0
55.0 TO 60.0
60.0 TO 65.0
65.0 TO 70.0
PROBABILITY


C. 00621
O.OC421
O.CC213
C.CC466
0.01218
O.C2777
C.C265S
O.C1122
0.00361
O.CC276
O.OC337
0.00562
0.002C6
0.00046
ALPHA


0.17555
0.20045
C. 24598
0.31127
C.3~9T51
0.46257
C. 57812
0.60161
0.64926
0.73538
0.62548
0.70C37
C. 76864
0.84220
POHEK
UfcMANO
HP
1.C97+00
3.338+00
3. OS4+00
d.23 +00
1.10 1 +01
1.41 +01
1.756+01
2. 146+01
2.5a7+01
3.Cfa5+01
3.646+01
4.276+01
4.983+01
5.773+01
PCU
POKER
KW
4.6848+00
5.3824+00
6. 6697+00
8.545 +00
1.5995+Oi
1.3743+01
1.6B43+01
2.0369+01
2.3844+01
2.8097+01
3.2tt9U+01
3.8776+01
4.483 +01
5.1798+01
jtAK
LOSS
HP
i. 4971-02
1. 1266-01
2.0293-01
3. 0892-01
4. 3426-01
5.8307-01
7.5997-01
9. 7018-01
1.2193+00
1.5135+00
1.3596+00
2.2648+00
2.7369+00
3.2841+00
PCU
EFFICIENCY

0.78329
0.81104
0.84710
0.88032
0.90652
0.92479
0.93822
0.94852
0.95151
0.95807
0.96345
0.96264
0.96661
0.97010
TJKJUE
AT WHtEL
FT-LB
1.6462+C2
1.6ti92 + 02
1. 7C83+02
1.7637+02
1. d J3^+C2
1.9229+02
2.0268+02
2. 14t>9+02
2.2832+02
2.43!>7+02
2. 6044+02
2.7892+02
2.9902+02
3.2074+02
PCU
LOSS
KW
1.0152+00
1.017 +00
1.0198+00
1.0226+00
1.027B+00
1.0336+00
1.04C5+00
1.0485+00
1.1561+00
1.178 +00
1.2023+00
1.4486+00
1.4965+00
1.5463+00
MOTOR
TG*JUE
FT-Ld
2.1744+01
2.2088+01
2.2648+01
2.3424+0 1
2.4419+01
2.5633+01
2.7068+01
2.8725+01
4.0806+01
4.3611+01
4. 6718+01
7.5189+01
8.0758+01
8.6786+01
PCU INPUT
CURRENT
AMPS
1.944 +01
2.2358+01
2.7758+01
3. 569 +31
4.6067+01
5. 7817+01
7.1201+01
8.6581 + 01
1.0077+02
1.1895+02
1.3954+02
1.6489+02
1.9095+02
2.2107*02
MOTOR
PJwER
HP
1.132+00 3.
3.451+00 4.
5.897+00 5.
8.539+00 7.
1.144+01 9.
1.408+01 1.
1.832+01 1.
2.244+01 1.
2.709+01 2.
3.236+01 2.
3.832+01 3.
4.503+01 3.
5.257+01 4.
6.101+01 5.
BATTERY
POWER
KM
-2. 7602+00
-2.0625+00
-7.7526-01
1.1 +00
3.5509+00
6.2982+00
9.3981+00
1.2924+01
9.2901+00
1.0414+01
1.1625+01
1.3235+01
1.4263+01
1.5474+01
POWER
INPLT
Krf
6695+00
3654+00
6499+00
5223+00
9681+00
2709+01
5802+01
932 +01
2688+01
6919+01
1695+01
732 7+01
3333+01
025 +01
BATTERY
VOLTAGE
V
2.4098+02
2.4073+02
2.4027+02
2.3942+02
2.3869+02
2.3769+02
2.3655+02
2.3525+02
2.3661+02
2.362 +02
2.3575+02
2.3515+02
2.3476+02
2.343 +02
MOTCR
CFFICIENCY

C. 23013 2.
0.58952 1.
0. 77838 1.
C. 84654 1.
fCTOP
LCSS
KW
825 +00 1
7S19+00 I
2521+00 1
1543+CO 1
0.85625 1.4329+00 1
0.86160 1.
0.86479 2.
0.86(10 2.
0.89056 2.
0.89657 2.
0.90156 3.
0.89962 3.
0.90470 4.
0.90548 4.
BATTERY
CURRENT
AMPS
-1.1453+01
-8.5677+00
-3.2265+OC
4.5944+00
1.4876+01
2.6496+01
3.9728+01
5.4935+01
3.9262+01
4.409 +01
4.93i3+01~
5.6283+01
6.0754+01
6.6C45+01
7569+00 1
1366+00 1
5tfc9+00 1
48i9+00 I
7842+00 1
1199+00 1
7466+00 2
1293+00 2
74S4+00 2
EATTERY
LOSS
KW
1.1282-02
6.313 -03
8.9529-04
1. 8153-03
1.S032-02
6. C 37 7-02
1.3574-01
2.5953-01
1.3257-01
1.6718-01
2.0913-01
2.7243-01
3.1743-01
3.7512-01
MOTOR
CURRENT
AMPS
.1073+02 3
.1153+02 3
.1284+02 5
.1465+02 6
.1697+02 8
.1981+02 1
.2315+02 1
.2702+02 1
.5521+02
.6175+02
.69 +02
.3544+02
.4843+02
.625 +02
RECTIFIER
CURRENT
AMPS
3.0741+01
3.0773+01
3.0832+01
3.0942+01
3.1037+01
3.1166+01
3.1317+01
3.1489+01
6.1442+01
7.485 +01
9.0185+01
1.086 +02
1.3012+02
1.5486+02
TERMINAL
VOLTAGE
V
.3137+01
.9137O1
.0068+01
.5607+01
.5213+01
.0608+02
.2831+02
.521 +02
.4617+02
.6641+02
.8754+02
. 5854*02
. 7*42*02
.9143*02


















-------
        SERIES i  r
        WITH GEARING
r
PCICI = 16 HP
RIB) = .066 OHMS
"AC CE UfR A TTCN~ .75 i c
PROBABILITY = C. 04481
1.25 MPH/iEC
VEHICLE PROBABILITY POWER
SPEED DEMAND
MPH
0.0 TO 5.0
5.0 TO 10.0
OTTO" TO ~T5TJT
15.0 TO 20.0
20.0 TO 25.0
25.0 TO 30.0
30.0 TO 35.0
35.0 TO 40.0
40.0 TO 45.0
45.0 TO 50.0
50.0 TO 55.0
55.0 TO 60.0
60.0 TO 65.0
65.0 TO 70.0
[N3 VEHICLE
2 SPEED
MPH
0.0 TO 5.0
5.0 TO 10.0
10.0 TO 15.0
15.0 TO 20.0
20.0 fO 25.0
25.0 TO 30.0
30.0 TO 35.0
35.0 TO 40.0
40.0 TO 45.0
45.0 TO 50.0
50.0 TO 55.0
55.0 TO 60.0
60.0 TO 65.0
65.0 TO 70.0

0.004E5
O.OC2S5
" "OYC(T232
0.00493
0.01136
0.01703
C.01C69
C.C0391
0.00191
0.00137
0.00139
0.00134
0.00059
O.CCC17
ALPHA

0.17511
0.21114
0.27967
0.364*3
C.46C48
0.55963
C. 66560
0.77644
0.72909
0.82354
0.91914
0.76467
0.83606
0.91096
HP
1.75 +00
5.297+00
"8. S 58 +00
1.28 +01
l.t>bd+01
2.128+01
2.605+01
3. 126+01
3.697+01
4.325+01
5.017+01
5.778+01
6.615+01
7.536+01
f CU
POWER
KW
5.9357+00
7.2C78+00
9.5757+00
1.259 +01
1.609 +01
1.98C8+01
2.3927+01
2.8415+01
3.3314+01
3.8755+01
4.4644+01
5.2244+01
5.9421+01
6.7438+01
GEAR
LUSS
HP
5.5775-02
1.7876-01
3.1927-01
4.8045-01
6.6597-01
8.7999-01
1.1271+00
1.4127+00
1.7422+00
2.1221+00
2.5589+00
3.06 +00
3.6332+00
4.2868+00
PCU
EFFICIENCY
0.81085
0.84409
0.88256
0.91054
0.92984
0.94281
0.95246
0.95976
0.96134
0.96626
0.97022
0.96832
0.97138
0.97404
TOKOUE
AT WHEEL
FT-LB
2.6255+02
2.6435+02
2.6877+02
2.743 +02
2.8140+02
2.9023+02
3.0C62+02
3.1263+02
3. 2626+02
3.415 +02
3. 5837+02
3.7685+02
3.9695+02
4. 1867+02
PCU
LOSS
KW
1.1227+00
1. 1237+00
1.1245+00
I. 1262+00
l".1287"dO
1.1326+00
1.1374+00
1.1431+00
1.2877+00
1.3073+00
1.3294+00
1.6547+00
1.7006+00
1.7504*00
MOTOR
TURUUE
FT-LB
3.468 +01
3.5047+01
3.563 +01
3.0431+01
3. 7449+01
3.8687+01
4.0146+01
4. 1827+01
5. H308+01
6. I 146+01
6.4284+01
1.0158+02
1.072 +02
1.1328+02
PCU INPUT
CURRENT
AMPS
2.4676+01
3.002 +01
4.0032+01
5. 2874+01
6.794 +01
8.4125+01
1.0228+02
1.2236+02
1.4293+02
1.6691+02
1.9301+02
2.2713+02
2.593 +02
2.9545+02
MOTOR
POWER
HP
1.306+00 4
5.475+00 6
9.278+00 8
1.328+01 1
1.755+01 1
2.216+01 1
2.718+01 2
3.267+01 2
3.871+01 3
4.537+01 3
5.273+01 4
6.084+01 5
6.979+01 5
7.964+01 6
dATTERY
"POWER"
KW
-1.5092+00
-2.3716-01
2.1307+00
5.1451+00
8.6458+00"
1.2363+01
1.6482+01
2.097 +01
1.876 +01
2.1071+01
2.3372+01
2.6703+01
2.8854+01
3.1114+01
PGwER MOTCR
INPUT EFFICIENCY
KW
.813 +00 0.27983
.084 +00 0.67114
.4512+00 0.81866
.1463+01 0.86391
.4962+01 0.87484
.8675+01 0.86495
.2789+01 0.88938
.7271+01 0.89345
.2027+01 0.90148
.7447+01 0.90363
.3315+01 0.9C778
.0589+01 0.89685
.7721+01 0.90164
.5668+01 0.90*17
BATTERY BATTERY
VOL TAGE CURRENT
V AMPS
2.4054+02 -6.2745+00
2.4C09+02
2.392 +02
2.3811+02
2.3663+02
2.3546+02
2.3392+02
2.3221+02
2.33C6+02
2.3219+02
2.313 +02
2.3 +02
2.2916+02
2.2825+02
-9.8778-01
8.9C79+OC
2.16C7+01
3.6505+01
5.2507+01
7.0459+01
9.0303+01
8.0491+01
9.0752+01
1.0104+02
1.1609+02
1.2591+02
f. 363 1*02
PCTOP
LCSS
KW
3.4661+00 1
2.0CC7+00 I
1.5324+.00 I
1.56C1+00 1
1.8725+00 1
2.1485+00 I
2.52C7+00 1
2.9C56+CO 1
3.1551+00 1
3.6C66+00 2
3.9543+00 2
5.2161+00 2
5.6773+00 3
6.2S48+00 3
BATTERY
LOSS
KW
3.3857-03
8.3911-05
6.6242-03
4.0153-02
1.146 -01
2.371 '-01
4.2694-01
7.C13 -01
5.5718-01
7.0829-01
8.781 -01
1.1591+00
1.3634+00
1.5479+00
MOTOR
CURRENT
AMPS
.4091+02 3
.4177*02 4
.4313*02 5
.45 *02 7
.4738*02 1
.5027*02 1
.5367+02 1
.5759+02 1
.9605+02 1
.0267+02 I
.0999+02 2
.9704*02 1
.1015*02 1
.2433+02 2
RECTIFIER
CURRENT
AMPS
3.0798+01
3.0855+01
3.097 +01
3.1112+01
3.1279+01
3.1462+01
3.1669+01
3.1902+01
6.2378+01
7.6143+01
9.192 +01
1.1103+02
1.333 +02
1.9896+02
13
TERMINAL
VOLTAGE
V
.4154+01
.2913+01
.9043+01
.9059+01
.0151+02
.2428+02
.4829+02
.7304+0?
.6336+02
.8476+02
.0626+02
.7031+02
.861 +02
.0253+02








-------
SEXIES
fctTH CEAKING
PI 1C I =   16 HP
R(3) =  .CKt
AtCELfcKATlLN =   1.25  TC   2.23 MPH/SEC

PROBABILITY =   C.C77t?
                                                                                                                                  14
VEHICLE PRGtAt-lLllY
SPEED
MPH
O.C TO 5.0 O.OC701
5.0 TO 10.0 C.CC4SO
10.0 TO 13.0 C.CC532
15.0 TU 20. C C.C1C60
20.0 TO 25.0 0.01840
25.0 TO 30.0 0.01621
30.0 TO 35. C C.CC823
33.0 TO 40.0 C.CC277
40.0 TO 45.0 C.CC1C5
45. C TO 50. C C.OCC95
50.0 TU 55.0 C.OOC94
55.0 TO 60.0
60. 0 TO 65.0
65.0 TO 70.0
ro
0 VEHICLE
 SPEED
MPH
0.0 TO 5.0
5.0 TO 10.0
10.0 TO 15.0
15.0 TO 20.0
29.0 TU 25.0
25.0 10 30.0
33.0 TU 3t>. 0
35.0 TO 40.0
40.0 TO 45.0
45.0 TO 50.0
50.0 TO 55.0
55.0 TO 60.0
60.0 TO 65.0
65.0 TO 70.0
c.cocec
0.00055
O.OCCC4
ALPHA
c. lesei
0.217(9
C. 3 1069
0.41554
0. J2592
C. 63665
C. 73796
C. 68273
C. 61626
0.919*2
l.CCOOO
0.64162
C. 92146
1.00000
PG-ER
Lit MA NO
HP

-------
        SERIES
        WITH  GEARING
n
PIICI = 16 HP
R(B) = .086 ChCS
ACCELERATICN =" 2.25 TC
PROBABILITY = 0.0358C
3.23 MPH/ifcC
VEHICLE PROBAeiLUV POWER GEAR
SPEED DEMAND LOSS
MPH
0.0 TO 5.0
5.0 TO 10.0
10.0 TO 15.0
15.0 TO 20.0
20.0 TO 25.0
25.0 TO 30.0
30.0 TO 35.0
35.0 TO 40.0
40.0 TO 45.0
45.0 TO 50.0
50.0 TO 55.0
55.0 TO 60.0
60.0 TO 65.0
65.0 TO 70.0
"> VEHICLE
8 SPEED
KPH
0.0 TO 5.0
5.0 TO 10.0
10.0 TO 15.0
15.0 TO 20.0
20.0 TO 25.0
25.0 TO 30.0
30.0 TO 35.0
35.0 TO 40.0
40.0 TO 45.0
45.0 TO 50.0
50.0 TO 55.0
55.0 TO 60.0
60.0 TO 65.0
65.0 TO 70.0

0.00427
0.00350
~C.CC5C9
0.00733
C.C0715
0.00480
O.CC1S4
0.00078
0.00016
c.oocia
0.00014
C.OOOC4
oc.coooo
ALPHA

0.15980
0.22898
0.34495
0.46378
0.58696
C.715C9
C. 84744
C. 98765
C. 90722
l.OOOCO
1.00000
0.94341
1.00000
1.00000
HP HP
4.035+00
1.215+01
2.038+01
2.879+01
3.745+01
4.641+01
5.575+01
6.553+01
7.582+01
b. 667+01
9.815+01
1.103+02
1.212+02
1.37 +02
PCU
POWER
KW
9.4265+00
1.3482+01
2.0224+01
2.7113+01
3.4256+01
4.1699+01
4.9414*01
5.76 +01
6.7427+01
7.6645+01.
8.6626+01
1.0103+02
1.1232+02
1.2459+02
1.2859-01
4.1011-01
7.2642-01
1.0808+00
1.477 +00
1.9192+00
2.4123+00
2.9615+00
3. 5726+00
4.2519+00
5.0063+00
5.8431+00
6.7703*00
7.7964+00
PCU
EFFICIENCY
0.83900
0.88781
0.92569
0.94489
0.95661
0. 96453
0.97021
0.97457
0.97422
0.97672
0.97683
0.97673
0.97807
0.97810
TCRWUE
AT WHEEL
f-T-Ld
6.0531+02
6.076 +02
6.1152+02
6.1705+02
6.2421+02
6.3298+02
6.4337+02
6.5538+02
6.6901+02
6.8425+02
7.0112+02
7.196 +02
7.397 +02
7.6142+02
PCU
LOSS
KW
1.5176+OC
1.5125+00
1.5028+00
1.4941+00
' 1.4863*00
1.4788+00
1.4717*00
1.4643*00
1.7382+00
1.784 +00
2.C065+00
2.351 +00
2.4621+00
2.728 +00
MOTUtt
TUROUE
FT-Lb
7.9953+01
8.0403+01
8.1069+01
8.1952+01
8.3055+01
B. 4377+01
8.592 +01
8.7685+01
1.1956+02
1.2251+02
1.2576+02
1.93"98+02
1.9977+02
2.0602+02
PCU INPUT
CURRENT
AMPS
3.94 +01
5.6698+01
8.5948+01
1.1651+02
1.4896+02
1.8369+02
2.2073+02
2.6133+02
3.0753+02
3.4587+02
3.5346+02
4.8362+02
5.2614+02
5.4072+02
MOTOR
POWER
HP
4.163+00 7.
1.256+01 1.
2.111+01 1.
2.9d7+01 2.
3.892+01 3.
4. 833+01 4.
5.817+01 4.
6.849+01 5.
7.939+01 6.
9.092+01 7.
1.031+02 8.
1.161+02 9.
1.3 +02 1.
1.448+02 1.
BATTERY
POWER
KW
1.9815+00
6.037 +00
1.2779+01
1.9668+01
2.6811+01
3.4254*01
4.1969*01
5.0155+01
5.2872+01
5.8962+01
6.5353+01
7.5497+01
8.1753+01
8.8267+01
POwFR MOTCH
INPLT EFFICIENCY
KM
9088+00 0.39260
1969+01 0.78262
8722+01 0.84082
5619+01 0.86960
2769+01 C.88i87
022 +01 0.89620
7943+01 0.90478
6136+01 0.90993
5689+01 0.90127
4861+01 0.90570
4619+01 0.90911
8687+01 0.87789
0985+02 0.88278
2186+02 C. 88436
BATTERY BATTtKY
VOLTAGE
V
2.3924+02
2.3778+02
2.3531+02
2.3271+02
2.2995+02
2.27 +02
2.2386+02
2.2041+02
2.1925+02
2.1658+02
2.T369+02
2.0892+02
2.0584+02
2.0251+02
CURRENT
AMPS
8.2823+00
2.5368+C1
5.431 +01
8.4519+01
" 1.1659+62
1.5069+02
1.8748+02
2.2755+02
2.4114+02
2.7223+02
3.05C2+02
3.6137+02
3.9716+02
4.3586+02
fCTOR
LCSS
Kb
4.8C36+00 2
2.6C19+CO 2
2. 96 +CO 2
3.34C6+00 2
3.73S9+00 2
4.1745+00 2
4.5647+00 2
5.0562+00 2
6.4654+00 3
7.05S2+00 3
7.6S1 +00 3
1.2C5 +01 5
1.2877+01 5
1.3647+01 5
BATTERY
LOSS
KM
5.8994-03
5.5435-02
2.5366-01
6.1434-01
1.169 +00
1.S581+00
3.Q228+00
4.453 +00
5.C011+00
6.3734+00
8.C432+00
1.123 +01
1.3565+01
1.6337+01
MOTOR
CURRENT
AMPS
.4655+02 3
.476 +02 4
.4915+02 7
.5122+02 1
.5379+02 1
.5688+02 1
.6048+02 1
.646 +02 2
15
TERMINAL
VOLTAGE
V
.2077+01
.8341+01
.5141+01"
.0198+02
.2912+02
.5657+02
.8405+02
.1215+02
.3898+02 1.9378+02
.4587+02 2.1644+02
.5346+02 2.394 +02
.12~63+02 1.9251+02
.2614+02 2.088 +02
.4072+02 2.2537+02
RECTIFIER
CURRENT
AMPS
3.0965+01
3.1155+01
3.1482+01
3.1834+01
3.2216+01
3.2634+01
3.3093+01
3.361 +01
6.6308+01
7.9781+01
"8.6751+01
1.2223+02
1.4309+02
1.5747+02









-------
SERUS
ITri GEAfllNo
P(1C) =   16  HP
RIB) =   .CS6 Ct-HS
                                                                                                                                        16
ACCELERAT1CN =

PRJBAcILITf =
 3.25  TC

0.02352
                                Mt>H/SbC
VEHCLE PROBABILITY
SPEED
MPH
0.0 TCI 5.C C.CC3C5
5.0 TO 10. C C.OC4C4
10. C TO 15. C C. 005
-------
 SERIES
_XJTH GEARING
 PUCi   16 HP
 Rid) =  .C66 CHMS

 At'CELEkATICN =   4.25  TC  5.25

 PRJBAEILITY =   O.C1164

              PRCdABlLllY
        VEHICLE
         SPEED
          MPH
                            POrtEK
                            DEMAND
                              rlP
          GEAR
          LJSS
           HP
           AT  nEL
             FT-LD
         TurfOUE
          FT-L6
                                    MuTOR
                                    PJ..ER
                        POWFR
                        INPUT
                         KM
                                             MOTCR
                                         EFFICIENCY
                                   LCSS
                                    KM
                                  MOTOR
                                 CURRENT
                                  AMPS
                                                                                                                                       17
                                TERMINAL
                                 VOLTAGE
                                    V
0.
5.
~ 	 10.
15.
20.
25.
30.
35.
	 40.
45.
50.
55.
60.
65.
0
0
C
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TO
TO
Tu
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TC
10
TO
TO
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
70.0
                      C.OC191
                      O.G0316
                      C.CC330
                      O.C0213
                      O.OCK5
                      C.00023
                      C.COOC2
                   OO.CCOCC
                   CC.CCOCO
                   oc.coooo
                   cc.cocco
                   *cc.c6ooo
                   oc.cccoc
                   oc.ccoco
                           6.616+00.
                           1. 59(1 + 01
                           3.3-.4+01
                           4.7C7+01
                           6.C95+01
                           7. 514"*01
                           a.97 *01
                           1.047+02
                           1.202*02
                           1.3o2+02
                           1.529*02
                           l.~704+02
                           I.dd5*02
                           2.075+02
        2.118 -01
        6.7448-01
        1.1917 + OD
        1.7669+00
        2.4039+00
        3.1C7 +00
        3.881 +00
        4.7317+00
        5.6645+00
        6.6&61+00
        7.3035+00
        9.024 +00
        1.0355+01
        1.1B07+01
           9.9702+02
           9.9932*02
           1.0C32+03
           1.CC37+03
           1.0159+03
           1.0247+03
           1.035  +03
           1.0471+03
           1.0607+03
           1.0759*03
           l.052d03
           1. 1113+03
           1.1314+03
           1. 1531+C3
        1.3169+02
        1.3223+02
        1.3299+02
        1.3397+02
        1.3517+02
        1.3659+02
        1.3823+02
        1.4C09+02
        l.a'J37+02
        1.*265+02
        1.9603+02
        2.9958+02
        3.0557+02
        3. 1202+02
          6,85b*00
          2.066+01
          3.4o3*01
          4.bo4*01
          6.335*01
          7.825*01
          9.356*01
          1.094*02
          1.258*02
          1.429*02
          1.60B+02
          1.794+02
          1.989+02
          2.193+02
         1.4477+01
         2.0697+01,
           184l*f1
           3167*01
           4145*01
           5603*01
           7558*01
           0113*01
           0583*02
           1925*02
           336  02
           5306*02
         1.7374*02
         1.9049*02
          0.35327
          0.74438
          0.SllCa
          C.84374
          0.87260
          0.88940
          0.89982
          0.90563
          0.88690
          0.89404
          0.89747
          0.84649
          0.85375
          0.85872
        S.3629*00
        5.2SC5*00
        6.0151*00
        6.7449*00
        6.S7b*00
        7.2559*00
        7.76S5*00
        8.5C31*00
        1.157  *01
        1.2635*01
        1.3657*01
        2.4262*01
        2.54C9+01
        2.6513*01
        3.6728*02
        3.6855*02
        3.7033*02
        3.7261*02
        3.7541*02
        3.7871*02
        3.8254*02
        3.8688+02
        5.0233*02
        5.0952*02
        5.1741*02
        7.5902*02
        7.7299*02
        7.8803*02
         3.9417+01
         5.6158*01
         8.598  +01
         1. 1585*02
         1.4423*02
         1.73~2302.
         2.0274*02
         2.3292*02
         2. 1069*02
         2.3404*02
         2.5822*02
         2.0824*02
         2.2477*02
         2.4174*02
ro
0
en
    VEHICLE
     SPfcED
      MPH
                  t\.Pt-t
 PCo_
PuVi'ER
 KM
    PCO
EFFICIENCY
 PCu
LCSS
PLU INPUT
 CUKKENT
  AMPS
 bATTERY
" POWER
   KM
BATTERY
VOLTAGE
   V
BATTtRY
CURRENT
 AHPS
E*TTERY
 LOSS
  KM
RECTIFIER
 CURRENT
  AMPS
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
TO
10
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
lo
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
"25.15 ~
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
70.0
C. 18950
0.356J4
0.51634
Q.67"526
C.824J1
C. 58543
l.CCOOO
l.COCOO
l.OCOCO
l.OOCCO
l.COCCO
l.CCOCO
l.COCCO
1.6474+01
2.268 +01
3.3755+01
4.3092*01
5.6043+01
6. /47t> + 01
7.9354+01
9.221 +01
1.0821+02
1.2192+02
1.366 +02
1.6167+02
1.7772+02
1.94(17+02
0.87677
0.91256
C. 94216
0.95729
0.96612
0.97230
0.97687
0.97726
0.97801
0.97B03
0.97805
0.977t>7
0.97760
0.97752
1.5831+00
1.5546+00
1.525d+00
1. o9o2*00
1 .6685+00
1.335B+OC
2.0968+00
2. 3788+OC
2.6776+00
2. J97 +00
3. 6C 96+00
3.9b04+00
4.3756+00
o. 9b01*01
9.6763+01
1.4685+02
1.9984+02
2. 5349+02
3. 1226+02
3. 7693+02
3. 868b+02
5.0233+02
5.0952+02
5. 1741+02
7.5902*02
7. 7299+02
7.8803+02
9.0296+00
1.5235+01
2.635 +01
3.7647+01
4.8593+01
6.0031+01
7.1949+01
8.4765+01
9.3663+01
1.0424+02
1. 1533*02
1.3612*02
1.4716*02
1.5855+02
2.3669+02
2.3439+C2
2.3013+02
2.2563+02
2.2107+02
2.16C9+02
2.106 +02
2.0432+02
1.9965+02
1.9372+02
1.8694+02
1.7189+02
1.61 76+02
1.4764+02
3.8143+01
6.5 +01
1.145 *02
1.6685*02
2.1982*02
2.778 *02
3.4163*02
4.1486*02
4.6912*02
5.3813+02
6.1693*02
7.9155+02
9.0974*02
1.0738+03
1.2515-01
3.6335-01
1. 1274*00
2.3942*00
4.1556*00
6.637 *00
' 1.0037*01
1.4801*01
1.8926*01
2.4903*01
3.2731*01
5.3937*01
7.1176*01
9.5177*01
3.1298*01
3.1606*01
3.219 *01
3.2832*01
3.3509*01
3.4282*01
3.5176*01
3.1082*01
6.7485*01
7.388 +01
8.0531*01
1.1989*02
1.3285*02
1.4672+02

-------
SERIES
WITH GEARING
Pt 1C I -  16 HP
R(BI *  .C86 ChMS
                                                                                                                                  18
ACCELERATICN =
PROBABILITY 
5.25 TC
O.OC4B4
VEHICLE PROBABILITY
SPEED
MPH
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65. 0
TO
TO
to
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
70.0
ro
O VEHICLE
C.OC046
O.OC196
O.OC143
C.CCC78
C.OOOil
OO.COOCO
00.00000
oc.coooo
*ec.ccoco
oc.ccooo
oc. cccoo
oc.ocooo
*cc. cccoo
oo.coooo
ALPHA
**> SPEED
MPH
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65*0
TO
fO
TO
TO
ID
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
To
TO
TO
lo
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
70.0
0.18614
' 0.27914
0.41833
0.56384
C. 71532
(X878!3
1.00000
l.COOOO
l.COOOO
1.00000
1.00000
1.00000
o.coooo
o.coooo
6.2S MPH/iEC
POWER GEAK
DEMAND LOSS
riP HP
/. 952+00 2.5341-01
2.39 4-01 a. 0668-01
3.996+01 1.4244+00
5.021+01 2.1099+00
7.27 +01 2.6673+00
8.95 +01
1.066+02
1.242+02
1.424+02
1.61 +02
1.804+02
2.004+02
2.212+02
2.426+02
PCU
POWEK
Kri
1.8774+01
2.7837+01
4.0974+01
5.4204+01
6.7434+01
8.1039+01
9.5018+01
1.0994+02
1.2969+02
1.4573+02
1.6229+02
1.9399+02
2.0782+02
2.2616+02
3. 7C08+00
4.6154+00
5.6166+00
6. 7104+00
7.9032+00
9.202 +00
1.0614+01
1.2148+01
1.3812+01
PCU
EFFICIENCY
0.87983
0.91990
0.94659
0.96040
0.96881
0.97463
0.97774
0.97777
0.97813
0.97812
'0. 97812
0.97693
1.00000
1.00000
TUKliUE
AT nHEEL
FI-Lb
1. 192b+03
1. lSbl+03
1. 1991+03
1.2C46+03
1.2117+03
1.2205+03
.2309+03
.2429+03
.256b+03
.271U+03
.2B86+03
.3C71+03
.3272+03
1.349 +03
PCU
LOSS
KM
2.2559+00
2.2294+00
2.1883+00
2.1462+00
2.1026+00
2.0553+00
2.1146+00
2.4438+00
2.8365+00
3.1875+00
3. 55 03 +00"
4.4737+00
0. +00
0. +00
MUTOK
TUPUUE
f-T-LB
1.5756+02
1.5815+02
I.b896+02
I.b999+02
1.6123+02
1.627 +02
1.6438+02
1.6629+02
2.2457+02
2.2772+02
2.3117+02
3.5238+02
3.5847+02
3.6501+02
PCU INPUT
CURRENT
AMPS
7.9603+01
1.1976+02
1.8026+02
2.4431+02
3."120402
3.8623+02
4.4357+02
4.4802+02
5.8401+02
5.9135+02
5.9939+02
8.8221+02
0. +00
0. +00
MOTOR
PJWER
. HP
8.205+00 1.
2.471+01 2.
4.139+01 3.
5.832+01 5.
f. 557+01 6.
9.32 +01 7.
1.112+02 9.
1.299+02 1.
1.491+02 1.
1.6V +02 1.
1.896+02 1.
2.11 +02 1.
2.333+02 2.
2.566+02 2.
BATTERY
POWER
KW
1.1329+01
2.0392+01
3.3529+01
4.6759+01
5.9989+01
7.3594+01
8.7573+01
1.0249+02
1.1514+02
1.2805+02
1.4101+02
1.6845+02
1.7726+02
1.8984+02
POKER MOTOR PCTOR MOTOR
INPUT FFFICIENCY LCSS CURRFNT
KW KW AMPS
6518+01 C.37C44 1.C3S9+01 4.2765+02 3
5607+01 C. 71957 7.181 +00 4.2903+02 5
8785+01 0.79584 7.9182+00 4.3091+02 9
2058+01 C. 83548 8.5644+00 4.3331+02 I
5331+01 0. 86260 8.9159*00 4.3621+02 1
8984+01 0.87999 9.4786+00 4.3963+02 1
2903+01 0.89333 9.9CS1+00 4.4357+02 2
0749+02 0.90117 1.0623+01 4.4802+02 2
2686+02 0.87654 1.56C1+C1 5.8401+02 2
4255+02 0.88407 1. 6525+01 5.9135+02 2
5874+02 0.89C74 1.7343+01 5.9939+02 2
6951+02 0.83041 3.2138+01 8.8221+02 2
0782+02 0.83731 3.381 +C1 8.9641+02 2
2616+02 0.84615 3. 4793+01 9.1168*02 2
BATTERY BATTERY BATTERY RECTIFIER
VOLTAGE
V
2.3584+02
2.3243+02
2.2729+02
2.2185+02
2.1611+02
2.0982+02
2.0287+02
1.9473+02
1.8706+02
1.782 +02
1.6766+02
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00
CURRENT LCSS CURRENT
AMPS KM AMPS
4.8036+01 1.9844-01 3.1411+01
8.773 +01 6.619 -01 3.1871+01
1.4751+02 1.8713+00 3.2592+01
2.1C76+02 3.8201+00 3.3391+01
2.7759+02 6.6266+00 3.4279+01
3.5075+02 1.C58 +01 3.5307+01
4.3166+02 K 6024+01 3.4583+01
5.2634+02 2.3825+01 3.0189+01
6.1554+02 3.2584+01 6.5463+01
7.186 +02 4.4409+01 7.1737+01
8.4106+02 6.C835+01 7.S523+01
0. +00 0. +OP 1.1613+02
0. +00 0. +00 0. +00
0. +00 0. +00 0. +00
TERMINAL
VOLTAGE
V
)
.8626+01
.9687+01
.0009+01
.2014+02
.4977+02
.7965+02
.0944+02
.3993+02
.1722*02
.4106+02
.6484+02
.1482+02
.3184+02
.4807+02








-------
SEKlci
ITH GEARINo
P(1C) =   lo HP
R(dl =   .Cat,  Gf-MS

ACCELEKAT1CM  =  7.2i> TC  fa.23  NPH/SEC

PKUtjAtUITY =  C.CCC30
19
VEHICLE PROBABILITY
SPEED
MPH
0.0 TO
5.0 TU
10.0 TO
15. C TO
20.0 TU
25.0 TU
30.0 TO
35.0 TO
40. C TO
45.0 TO
50.0 TO
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50. C
55.0
55.0 TO 60.0
60.0 TU 65.0
65.0 TU 70.0
ro
(=> VEHICLE
C. 00004
C.CCC1C
C.C0012
C.CCCC4
oo.coooo
cc.ccccc
OC.OCOQO
*cc.cccco
oc.oocoo
*cc.cooco
00. COOC3
oc.coooo
oo.coooo
oc.coooo
ALPHA
^ SPEED
MPH
0.0 TO
5.0 TO
10.0 TO
15.0 TO
20.0 TO
25.0 TU
30.0 TO
35.0 TO
40.0 TO
45.0 TO
" 50 ."0 TO
55.0 TO
60.0 TO
65.0 TO
5.0
10.0
15. C
20.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
5.0
70.0
C. 19442
0.30878
C.46CC8
0.61922
C. 79721
C.S6S72
l.CCOCO
l.COOOO
l.CCOOO
0.00000
c.cccco
o.coooo
c.ccccc
0.00000
DhMANU
rtP
1.056*01
3.1/3*01
5.302*01
7. 449*01
9.o21*01
1. 182*02
1.406*02
1.634*02
2. 137*02
2.332*02
2.605*02
2.865*02
3. 133*02
PCU
POMER
KM
2.4901*01
~3.ff75i*OT
5.6144*01
7.3314*01
9.0646*01
1.0828*02
1.2701*02
1.4638*02
1.7356*02
1.8983*02
2.1019*02
2.4828*02
2.7059*02
2.9271*02
GEAR
LoSS
HP
3.3663-01
1.C71 *00
1. 8897*00
2. 7961*00
3. 7941*00
4.8t>86*00
6.0842*00
7.3363*00
3.8023*00
1.0337*01
1.1999*01
"1.3794*01
1.5733*01
1. 7823*01
PCU
'EFFICIENCY'
.0.88742
0.95243
0.96466
0.97238
0.97780
0.97812
0.97812
0.97772
1.00000
1.00000
l.OOOCO
l.COOOO
1.86000
TUKwUE
AT WHEEL
FT-Lb
1.5946*03
1.5369*03
1. 5900*03
1.5963*03
1.6035*33
1.6122*03
1.6226*C3
1.6346*03
1.6483*03
1.0635*03
1.6804*03
1.6988*03
1.7189*03
1.7407*03
PCu
LOSS
KM
2.3032*00
2".T465*00
2.6703*00
2.5905*00
2.~5~02~900
2.403 *00
2.7781*00
3.2016*00
3.866 *00
0. *00
0. *OC
0. *00
0. *00
0 . *00
MOTOR
TORUJE
FT-LB
2.093 *02
2.0999*02
2. 1039*02
2.1231*32
2.1335*02
2.1491*02
2.167 02
2.187 02
2.9458*02
2.9786*02
3.0144*02
4.5798*02
4.6426*02
4.71 *02
PCU INPUT
CURRENT
AMPS
1.0661*02
~T. 698 2* 02
2.54 *02
3.4348*02
4V4l9f*a2
5.5345*02
5.6563*02
5.7031*02
7.4735*02
0. *00
o. " *bo
0. *00
0. *00
0. *00
MOTOR
PUMER
HP
1.09 *01 2
3.28 *01 3
5.491*31 5
7.729*01 7
1. *02 8
1.231*02 1
1.467*02 1
1.708*02 1
1.956*02 1
2.21 *02 1
2.472*02 2
2.742*02 2
3.022*02 2
3.311*02 2
BATTERY
POMER
KM
1.7456*01
3.1306*01
4.8699*01
6.5869*01
8.3201*01 '
1.0084*02
.1957*02
.3894*02
.5901*02
.7214*02
.3892*02
2.2274*02
2.4002*02
2.5638*02
PUMCR
INPUT E
KM
.2098*01
.6005*01
.3474*01
.C72301
.6144*01
.0588*02
.2424*02
.4318*02
.697 *02
.8983*02
.1019*02
. 4828*02
. 7059*02
.9271*02
BATTERY
VOLTAGE
V
2.3355*02
2.2818*02
2.2103*02
2.1344*02
2.05C9*02
1.9565*02
1.8416*02
1.695 02
1.4692*02
0. *00
0. *00
0. *00
0. *00
0. *00
NUT OK
FFICIFNCV
0.36783 1
0.67950 1
C. 76582 1
0.81495 1
0.84603 1
0.86709 1
0.88059 1
0.88978 1
0.85954 2
0.86634 2
0.87716 2
0.82382 4
0.83289 4
0.84364 4
BATTERY
CURRENT
AMPS
7.4742*01
1.3719*02
2.2032*02
3.086 *02
4.0$6?*02
5.154 *02
6.4929*02
8.1971*02
1.0823*03
0. *00
0. *OC
0. *00
0. *OC
0. *00
KCTOR
LCSS
KM
.3969*01 5
.1539*C1 5
.2i22*01 5
.3066*01 5
.357 *01 5
.4C72*01 5
.4835*01 5
.57(2*01 5
.3836*01 7
.4SS3*01 7
.582 *01 7
.3741*01 1
.5219*01 1
.5765401 1
BATTERY
LOSS
KM
4.8043-01
1.6188*00
4.1745*00
8.1901*00
1.4152*01
2.2844*01
3.6255*01
5.7785*01
l.CC73*02
0. *00
0. *00
0. 00
0. *00
0. *00
MOTOR TERMINAL
CURRENT VOLT ACE
AMPS V
.4837*02 4.0298*01
.4997*02 6.5467*01
.5208*02 9.6859*01
.547 *02 1.2749*02
.5783*02 1.5801*02
.6147*02 1.8858*02
.6563*02 2.1965*02
.7031*02 2.5107*02
.4735*02 2.2707*02
.55 *02 2.5143*02
.6334*02 2.7537*02
.1286*03 2.1999*02
.1432*03 2.3668*02
.1589*03 2.5255*02
RECTIFIER
CURRENT
AMPS
3.1719*01
3.2465*01
3.3516*01
3.4708*01
3.6121*01
3.7863*01
3.2989*01
2.8841*01
6.2599*01
0. *00
0. *00
0. *00
0. *00
0. *00

-------
 SEX! tS
 WITH GEAK1NG
" P( 1C ) =  16 HP
                                                                                                                                       20
 ACCtLERATICN  =   t.25 1C

 PROdAelLlTY =   C.CC15)
                                MPri/icU
VEHICLE PROBABILITY
SPEED
MPH
0.0 TO 5.0 C.C0012
5.0 TU 10. C C.CCCoS
10. 0 TC 15. C T.OC051
15.0 TO 20.0 0.00025
20.0 TO 25.0 *OO.COCOO
25.0 TO
30.0 TO
35.0 TO
40.0 TO
45.0 TO
50.0 TO
55.0 TO
60.0 TO
65.0 TO
ro
CO VEHICL
SPEED
MPH
0.0 TO
5.0 TO
10.0 TO
15.0 TO
20.0 TO
25.0 TO
30.0 TO
35.0 TO
40.0 TO
45.0 TO
50.0 TO
55.0 TO
60.0 TU
65.0 TO
30.0 OC.COOOO
35.0 *CC.COOCO
40.0 *CC.CCOCO
45.0 *OO.COOOO
50.0 *CC.OOCCO
55.0 *OC.COCOO
6oTd"*o~c.co6co
65.0 *OC.CCOOC
70.0 *OC.CCCOO
E ALPHA

5.0 0.17546
10.0 0.29314
15.0 0.43840
20.0 C. 59061
2V. 0~ C. 7 12 44
30.0 C. 92801
35.0 l.COOOO
40.0 1.00000
45.0 l.COOOO
50.0 l.COOOO
55~.o i.ooodd
60.0 C. 00000
65.0 C. 00000
70.0 0.00000
PL)K
DEMAND
rip
9.253*00
2.732+01
4 . a't 9 +0 1
O.^Ji+Ol
8.445+01
1.03d+02
1.236*02
1.438+02
1.646*02
I.d59*02
2.078+02
"2.304+02
2.538+02
2. 78 +02
PCU
HJHER
KM
2.0151+01
3.3064+01.
4.8332+01
6.3555+01
7. 88" 74+01
9.4383+01
1.1075+02
1.2797+02
1.5176+02
1.6956+02
1. 88 16+02
2.1965+02
2.3976+02
2.5977+02
iitAK
LOSS
HP
2.9502-01
9.3388-01
1.657 +00
2.453 +00
3.3308+00
4.2940+00
5.349d+00
6. 5017+00
7. 7563+00
9. 1203+00
I.Ob +01
1.2204+01
1.394 +01
1.5817+01
PCU
EFFICIENCY
0.87443
0.92486
0.94977
0.96273
0.97077
0.97630
0.97802
0.97803
0.97801
0.97799
0.97797
1.00000
1.00000
1.00000
TORUUE
AT HEEL
FT-LU
1.3od7+03
1.391 +03
1.3949+03
1.400H+03
1. 4076+03
1.4164+03
1.426d+03
1.4388+03
1.4524+03
1. ^676+03
1.4845+C3
1.503 +03
1.5231+03
1. 5448+03
PCU
LOSS
KN
2.5302+00
2.4843+00
2.4274+00
2.3684+00
2.3054+00
2.2361+00
2.4338+00
2.8105+00
3.3365+00
3.7311+00
4. 145 +00
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00
MOTOR
TOKQJE
FT-Lfl
1.8343+02
1.8407+02
1.6492 +-12
1.86 +02
1.3729+02
1.888 +02
1.9054+02
1.925 +02
2.5958+02
2.6279+02
2.663 +02
4.0518+02
4.1136+02
4.1801+02
PCU INPUT
CURRENT
AMPS
8.5629+01
1.4349+02
2. 1547+02
2.9176+02
3. 7408+02
4.6452+02
5.046 +02
5.0917+02
6.6568+02
6.7317+02
6.8137+02
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00
MOTOR
POWER
HP
9.553+00 1
2.875+01 3
4.815*01 4
0.78 +01 6
d. 778*01 7
1.081+02 9
1.29 +02 1
1.503+02 1
1.723+02 1
1.95 +02 1
2.134+02 1
2.426+02 2
2.678+02 2
2.938+02 2
BATTERY
POWER
KW
1.2706+01
2.5619+01
4.0887+01
5.611 +01
7.1429+01
8.6938+01
1.0331+02
1.2052+02
1.3721+02
1.5187+02
1.6689+02
1.9411+02
2.0919+02
2.2344+02
POWER MOTCR.
INPUT EFFICIENCY
Krf
.7621+01 0.4^427
.0579+01 0.7C131
.5905+01 0.78225
.1187+01 0.82640
.6569+01 0.85497
.2147+01 0.87532
.0832+02 C. 88806
.2516+02 0.89595
.4843+02 0.86594
.6583+02 0.87699
.8402+02 0.88516
.1965+02 0.82382
.3976+02 0.83289
.5977+02 0.84364
BATTERY BATTERY
VOLTAGE
V
2.3533+02
2.3042+02
2.243 +02
2.1783+02
2.1085+02
2.0318+02
1.9426+02
1.8351+02
1.7C98+02
1.5658+02
1.2686+02
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00
CURRENT
AMPS
5.3993+01
1.1118+02
1.8228+02
2.5759+02
3.3877+02
4.2787+02
5.3183*02
6.5677+02
8.0249+02
9.6993*02
1.3 154 + 03
0. +00
0. +OC
0. +00
HCTOR
LCSS
KW
1.0497+01 4
9. 13 36*. CO 4
9.9S57+00 4
1.0621+01 4
1.1104+01 4
I. 1468*01 5
1. 2125 + 01 5
1.3C22+01 5
1. 9898+01 6
2.0397+01 6
2.1131*01 6
3.8699+01 1
4.CC66+01 I
4.0616+01 I
BATTERY
LOSS
KM
2.5071-01
1.C631+00
2.8576*00
5.7061*00
9.8698+00
1.5744+01
2.4324+01
3.7C96+01
5.5382+01
8.0906*01
1.4882*02
0. *00
0. +00
0. +00
MOTOR
CURRENT
AMPS
.8801+02
.895 +02
.915 +02
.94 +02
.9702+02
.0055+02
.046 +02
.0917+02
.6568+02
.7317+02
.8137+02
.0054+03
.0198+03
.0353*03
RECTIFIER
CURRENT
AMPS
3.1479*01
3.2151*01
3.3027*01
3.4009*01
3.5135*01
3.646 +01
3.375 01
2.9475*01
6.3767*01
7.019 +01
7.6989+01
0. +00
0. +00
0. *OO
TERMINAL
VOLTAGE
V
3.6108*01
6.2471*01
9.3399*01'
1.2386*02
1.5405*02
1.8409*02
2.1467*02 
2.4582*02
2.2297*02
2.4634*02
2.7008+02
2. 1847*02
2.351 02
2.509 +02








-------
PARALLEL EMT  Run TAA
MITH GEARING
PdCJ 
R(dl =
ETA(GCI
 11.75 HP
.C86 QhHS
  .900
ANY ACCELERATION
VEHICLE SPEEDER
SPEED INPUT PUKES
HPH
WR
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
70.0
75.0
o 80.0
10 85.0
KM
PA1
TO 5.0 7.4682+OC
TO 10.0 6.6333+00
TO TBTS  5 .~7* 83 VC C
TO 20.0 4.9634+00
TO 25.0 4.1284+CO
TO 30.0
TO 35.0
TO 40.0
TO 45.0
TO 50.0
TO 55.0
TO 60.0
TO 65.0
TO 70.0
TO 75.0
TO 80.0
TO 85.0
TO 90.0
3.2934+CO
2.4585+CC
1.6235+CC
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
+CC
+CC
+ CC
+CC
+ CC
+00
+ CO
+CO
+ CC
+00
SPEEDER iPEEDER 
VOLTAGE EFFICIENCY
VA "A
i.
l.
l.
l.
l.
8941+02
6823+02
4705+02
25d8+02
047 +02
8.3529+01
6.2353+01
4.1176+01
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
+00
+00
+00
+00
+00
+00
+ 00
+00
+ 00
+00
0.85151
0.84461
0.83524
0.82200
0.80076
0.77401
0.71529
0.53388
0.53388
0.53388
0.53388
0.53368
0.53388
0.53388
0.53388
0.53388
0.53388
0.53388
SPEEDER 'VCUA
CURKENT EFFICIENCY
AMPS
'A .
3.3574+01 0.96760
3.3302+01 0.96349
3.2932+01 0.95618
3.241 +01 0.95106
3.1573+01 0.94097
3.05i'8+"Cl 0.9~2567
2.8203+01 0.89924
2.105 +01 0. 83779
0. +CO 0.00000
0. +00 0.00000
0. +00 0.00000
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
+ 00
+00
+ 00
+ 00
+ 00
+ 00
+ 00
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0. 00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
PPCUA DRIVE SHAFT Gl
POWER OUT POhER EFFICIENCY
KW HP , -
P0 
6.1533+00 5.5S85-01 0.9o911
5.398 +00 1.6795+00 0.96735
4.6405+00 2.7992+OC 0.9655b
3.8802+00 3.9189+00 0.96382
3.1107+00 5.0386+00 0.96205
2.3597+00 6.1583+OC 0.96029
1.5813+00 7.278 +00 0.95852
7.2618-01 8.3977+00 0.95676
0. +00 1.5165+01 0.95500
0. +00 1.8966+01 0.95323
0. +00 2.3433+01 0.95147
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
+ 00
+00
+00
+00
+ 00
+ 00
+ 00
2.8637+01
3.4649+01
4.154 +01
4.9382+01
5.f249 + 01
6.8213+01
7.9349+01
0.94970
0.94794
0.94617
0. 94441
0.94264
0.94068
0.93911
O.S8889
0.98709
C.S8529
0.98349
0.98169
0.97989
0.97809
0.97629
0.97449
0.97268
0.97C88
0.96908
0.96728
0.96548
0.96368
0.96188
0.96008
0.95828

-------
PARALLEL EMT   Run TAA
KITH GEAR 1N
PIICI   11.75 HP
*B -  .C86 OMS
ETMGOI_- ...900

ACCELERATION - -8.25  1C  -7.2!)  MPH/SEC
VEHICLE TCRCUE MOTOR
SPEED AT hKEEL TdRyUE
CPH FT-LB FT-LB
MR TR TM
MOTOR PUrtfcR MOTOR
POMER INPUT EFFICIENCY
HP KM
0.0 TO 5.0 -1.4512+C3 -1.23C7*02 -9. 9246+00 -3.8t03+00 0.52160
5.0 TO I'O.O"- '.44'S + 03 -1.2267 + 02 -2.9678+01 -1.7332+01 0.78315
10.0 TO 15.0 - .4449+03 -1.2215+02 -4.9252+01 -3.1131+01 0.84762
15.0 TO 20.0 - .4394+03 -1.215 +02 -6.8585+01 -4.4S7 +01 0.87929
20.0 TO 25.0 -
25.0 TO 30.0 -
30.0 TO 35.0 -
35.0 TO 40.0 -
40.0 TO 45.0 -
45.0 TO 50.0 -
50.0 TO 55.0 -
55.0 TO 60.0 -
60.0 TO 65.0 -
65.0 TO 70.0 -
ro
O VEHICLE
SPEED
MPH

0.0 TO 5.0
5.0 TO 10.0
10.0 TO 15.0
15.0 TO 20.0
20.0 TO 25.0
25.0 TO 30.0
30.0 TO 35.0
35.0 TO 40.0
40.0 TO 45.0
45.0 TO 50.0
50.0 TO 55.0
55.0 TO 60.0
6O.O TO 65.0
*5.0 TO 70.0
.4323+C3 -1.2072+02 -8.7615+01 -5.0669+01 0.89797
.4235+03 -1.1981+02 -1.0628+02 -7.207 +01 0.90934
.4131+C3 -1.1878+02 -1.2452+02 -8.4473+01 0.90969
.4011+03 -1.1763+02 -1.4228+02 -9.6547+01 0.90995
.3675+03 -1.6051+02 -1.6503+02 -1.1122+02 0.90379
.3722+03 -1.6036+02 -1.8427+02 -1.2419+C2 0.90379
.3554+03 -1.6023+02 -2.0351+02 -1.3715+02 0.90379
.3369+03 -2.4019+02 -2.2274+02 -1.5012+02 0.90379
.3168*03 -2.40C7+02 -2.4199+02 -1.6309+02 0.90379
.295 +03 -2.4 +02 -2.6128+02 -1.7609+02 0.90379
ALPHA "m* INPUT PCW VcUM INPUT BATTERY
a COMER EFFICIENCY CURRENT POMER
KM. AMPS KM

0.98283 -2.0289+00
0.87111 -1.547 +01
0.75S76 -2.924 +01
C. 65054 -4.3053+01
0.'54427 -5.6727+01
0.44153 -7.01C6+C1
0.34(66 -8.2491+01
0.25418 -9.4551+01
0.33222 -1.0891+02
0.261*4 -1.2185+02
0.19320 -1.3478+02
0.36910 -1.4723+02
0.32136 -1.6017+02
0.27455 -1.7313+02
PB
0.52560 -8.3526+CO -8.1823+00
0.89250 -6.2566+01 -2.0868+01
0.93926 -1.1622+02 -3.386 +01
0.95736 -1.6831+02 -4.6933+01
0.96690 -2.1834+02 -5.9838+01
0.97275 -2.6591+02 -7.2465+01
0.97654 -3.0887+02 -8.4072+01
0.97931 -3.4S7B+02 -9.5277+01
0.97919 -3.9725+02 -1.0891+02
0.96113 -4.3874+02 -1.2185+02
0.98271 -.. 7929+02 -1.3478+02
0.98078 -5.1751+02 -1.4723+02
0.98210 -5.5645+02 -1.6017+02
0.98324 -5.9468+02 -1.7313+02
TERMINAL
VJLTAbE
VM
7.9336+00
3.5703+01
6.4347+01
9.3365*01
1.2245+02
1.5136+02
1.7867+02
2.0586+02
1.8697+02
2.0892+02
2.3087+02
1.8301+02
1.989 +02
2. 148 +02
BATTERY BATTERY
VOLTAGE CURRENT
y AMPS
B i
2.4291+02 -3.3683+01
2.4726+02 -8.4397+01
2.5158+02 -1.3466+02
2.5578+02 -1.8349+02
2.5981+02 -2.3031+02
2.6364+02 -2.7486+02
2.6708+02 -3.1479+02
2.7031+02 -3.5247+02
2.7417+02 -3.9725+02
2.7773+02 -4.3874+02
2.8122+02 -4. 7929+02
2.8451+02 -5.1751+02
2.8786+02 -5.5645+02
2.9115+02 -5. 9468+02

BATTERY
LOSS
KM
9.7574-C2
6. 1257-C1
1.5596+CO
2.8955+OC
4.5618+00
6.4973+OC
8.5219+00
1.0684+01
1.3571+01
1.6554+01
1.9755+01
2.3032+01
2.6629+01
3.0413+01

-------
        PAHALLfcL EKT
        UlTH GEARING
        P11O -  11.75 HP
f~!      *01
-1.022 *02
-1.4791*02
-1.9191*02
-2.3425*02
-2.7231*02
-3.085 *02
-3.5147*02
-3.8873*02
-4.2524*02
-4.5879*02
-4.9393*02
-5.2651*02
-7.9509*00
-1.8997*01
-3.023 +01
-4.1455*01
-5.2537*01
-6.3482*01
-7.3454*01
-8.3023*01
-9.4975*01
-1.0629*02
-1.176 02
-1.2821*02
-1.3952*02
-1.5086*02
2.4282*02
2.4662*02
2.5038*02
2.5403*02
2.5755*02
2.6093*02
2.6394*02
2.6677*02
2.7023*02
2.7343*02
2.7657*02
2.7946*02
2.8248*02
2.8545*02
-3.2742*01
-7.7026*01
-1.2C73*02
-1.6318*02
-2.0399*02
-2.4329*02
-2.783 *02
-3.1122*02
-3.5147*02
-3.8873*02
-4.2524*02
-4.5879*02
-4.9393*02
-5.2851*02
9.22 -02
5.1C24-01
1.2 536*. 00
2.2901*00
3.5786*00
5.0S06*00
6.6608*00
8.3298*00
1.0(23*01
1.2995*01
1.5551*01
1.8101*01
2.0981*01
2.4021*01

-------
PAAALLfcL E*T
MlTh oEARlNG
PI 1C I =  11.75 HP
R(tt =  .C86 ChMS
ETAI CO = , .900

ACCELEKATICN = -e.25  1C  -
                               MCH/sEC
VEhlCLE
SPEED
MPH
0.0 TO 5.0
5.0 TO 10.0
10.0 TO 15. C
15.0 TO 20.0
20.0 TO 25.0
25. 0 TO 30.0
30.0 TO 35.0
35. C TO 40.0
40.0 TO 45.0
45.0 TO 50.0
50VO TO 55.0
55.0 TO 60. C
60.0 TO 65.0
65.0 fU 70.0
ro
TCRCUE
AT hhEEL
FT-Lb
-1.C5S4+C3
-1.0571*03
-1.0i32+C3
-1.0477*C3
-1.C405+C3
-1.0318*03
-l.0i!4*03
-l.CCS4*C3
-9.9579*C2
-9.8C54*02
-9
-9
-9
-9
^ VEHICLE
SPEED
MPH

0.0 TO
5.0 TO
10.0 TO
15.0 To
20.0 TO
25.0 TO
30.0 TO
35.0 TO
40.0 TO
45.0 TO
50.0 TO
55.0 TO
60.0 TO
65.0 TO

5.0
10.0
15.0
2T5.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
70.0

- -



.6368*C2
.452 *C2
.2509+C2
.0337*02
AL'PhT '
0.984C8
O.E7646
C. 76995
0.46536
0.56272
0.36629
0.27135
0.35704
0.28737
0.218S8
0.394S5
' 0.34961
0.30350
MOTOR
TOR WOE
FT-LB
-9.1689+01
-9.135 +01
-9.C863+01
-9.0269+01
-U. 9567+01
-.t*719+01
-b. 7745+01
-8.6646+01
-I. 1928+02
-1.192 +02
-1.1915+02
-1. 7868+02
-1.7868*02
-1.7872*02
PCIW INPUT
POxER f
-1.4d21*00
-1. 1621*01
-2.1831*01
-3.1*85*01
-4.2023*01
-5.19C7+01
-b. 1008+01
-6.9737*01
-8.1204*01
-9.0913*01
-1.0062+02
-1.0922+02
-1.189 +02
-1.2662*02
MOTOR
POxE*
HP
-7.3938+00
-2.2C99+01
-i. 6644+01
-5.0966*01
-6.5004+01
-7.8697+01
-9.1985+01
-1.048 +02
-1.2263+02
-1.369B+02
-1.5133+C2
-1.657 +02
-1.8011+02
-1.9456+02
nPCUM ,
EFFICIENCY


0.47961
0.87719
0.92995
0.95065
0.96168
0.96853
0.97296
0.97617
0.97620
0.97848
0.98032
0.97800
0.97956
0.98090
PUxEK MOTOR
INPUT EFFICIENCY
KM
-3.0903+00 0.56050
-1.3248+01 0.80392
-2.3476+01 0.85912
-3.3t45+01 0.88527
-4.3697+01 0.90146
-5.3593*01 0.91325
-6.2703+01 0.91413
-7.1439+01 0.91407
-8.3183+01 0.9C958
-9.2912+01 0.909oO
-1.0264+02 0.90961
-1.1167+02 0.90379
-1.2138+02 3.90379
-1.3112+02 0.90379
'CUT INPUT
CURRENT
AMPS
-6.1062+00
-4.7249+01
-8.7627+01
-1.268 +02
-1.6466+02
-2.0112+02
-2.3405+02
-2.6512*02
-3.0501*02
-3.3789*02
-3.7018*02
-3.9825*02
-4.2938*02
-4.6C08+02
BATTERY
POWER
Kri
-7.6355*00
-1.7019*01
-2.6472*01
-3.5865*01
-4.5133*01
-5.4267*01
-6.2589*01
-7.0463*01
-8.1204*01
-9.0913*01
-1.0062*02
-1.0922*02
-1.189 *02
-1.2862*02
TERMINAL
VOLTAGEi
V
8.0563*00
3.4639+01
0.163 +01
8.8786+01
1. 1604+02
1.4339+02
1.6923+02
1.9472+02
1.7534+02
1.9595+02
2.1657+02
1.691 +02
1.8381+02
1.985 +02
BATTERY'
VJLTAGE
V
2.4273+02
2.4595+02
2.4914+02
2.5222+02
2.552 +02
2.5809+02
2.6065+02
2.6304+02
2.6623+02
2.6906*02
2.7184*02
2.7425*02
2.7693*02
2.7957+02

BATTERY
CURRENT
AMPS
-3. 1456*01
-6.9196*01
-1.0625*02
-1.4219+02
-1.7684+02
-2. 1026*02
-2.4012*02
-2.6786*02
-3.0501*02
-3.3789*02
-3.7C18*02
-3.9625*02
-4.2938+02
-4.6008+02



	 	 	 	
--  	  	
BAT TEA V
LOSS
Kh

8.5C98-C2
4.1178-C1
9.7092-01
1.7388*00
2. 4697+00
3.8C22+CO
4.9588+00
6.1713*00
8.0C0800
9.8186*00
1.1784+C1
1.364 +01
1.5855+C1
1.8203+01

-------
PARALLEL E*T
MTU GEAR! NG _
PUC -  11.75 HP
RIB)   ,C6 ChPS
ACCELERATION  -5.25 TC -4.25 MPH/SEC
VEHICLE
TORCUE
SPFED AT tot- EEL
*PH FT-Ld
	 0.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
59.0
60.0
65.0
ro
CO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
ID
TO
TO
lu
5.0 -8.6363+C2
10.0" -8. 6133*02
15.0 -fi. 5742+02
20.0 -B. 5168*02
25.0 -8.4473+C2
30.0 -8.3596*02
35.0 -8.2557C2
40.0 -8.1356*02
45.0 -7.9SS3+02
50.0 -7.8469*02
55.0 -7.6762*02
60.0-7.4934*02
65.0 -7.2924*02
70.0 -
VEHICLE
SPEED
MPM

0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
20.0
39.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60*0
65.0

10
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
to
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
10
ro

5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
69.0
70.0
7.0751*02
ALPHA

C.S8695
C.8832C
0.78106
' C,68C93
0.582C8
0.48JJ3
C. 39492
0.30554
0.36810
0.29848
0.230CO
0.39831
0.35038
0.30314
HJTOK
TUR,Ufc
FT-LB
-7.5997*01 -
-7.5687*01 -
-7.52*9+01 -
-7.46a3+01 -
MOTOR
PUtR
HP
6.1284+00
1.831 +01
3.034 +01
4.2157+01
-7.3989*01 -5.3698*01
-7.317 *01 -6.4904*01
-7.2224*01 -7.5714+01
-7". 1154*01 -d. 6068+01
-9.8663+01 -1.0144+02
-9;d625+01 -1.1333+02
~9T8TI +01 -1.2524*02
-1.4793*02 -1.3718*02
-1.4798+02 -1.4916+02
-1.48C8+02 -
PPCIK INPUT
POWER EF
Krf
-1.0549+00
-9.5152+00
-1.7952*01
-2.6285+01
-3.4534+01
-4.2548+01
-5.0012+01
-5.7057+01
-6.736 01
-7.545 *0l
-8.3554*01
-9.0281+01
-9.8338+01
-1.0643+02
1.612 +02
nPCUM ,
FIClENCY
0.41394
0. 86324
0.92192
0. 94494
0.95727
0.96487
0. "9 69 8 5
0.97342
0.97409
0.97660
0.97863
0.97633
0.97804
0.97950
PCJuEK ^JTOS
INPUT EFFICIENCY
K*
-2.54d4+00 0.55766
-1.1022+01 0.80729
-1.9472+01 0.86066
-2.7616+01 0.89435
-3.0075+01 0.90091
-4.4C97+01 0.91111
-5.1567+01 0.913J3
-3.861S+01 3.91327
-6.9151+01 3. 9141o
-7.725b+01 0.91417
-8.5378+01 0.91417
-9.2469+01 0.90392
-I.OC54+02 0.90391
-1.0665+02
'CUT INPUT
CURRENT
AMPS
-4.34d2+00
-3.68 +01
-7.2432*01
-1.0498+02
-1.366 02
- 1 .6b7o02
-1.9441*02
-2.2014*02
-2.57 +02
-2.8522+02
-3.1303+02
-3.3577+02
-3.6262+02
-3.8919+02
0.90389
BATTE*r
POMER
KM
-7.2082+00
-1.4913+01
-2.2592+01
-i. 0165+01
-3. 7645+01
-4.4907+01
-5.1593+01
-5.7783+01
-6.736 +01
-7.545 +01
-8.3554+01
-9.0281+01
-9.8331*01
-1.0643+02
TERMINAL
VOLTAGE
V
7.6486+00
3.3179+01
5.6657+01
d. 4535+01
1. 1036+02
1.3598+02
1.6049+02
1. 8436+02
1.7002+02
1. 9001+02
2. 1001 + 02
1.657 +02
1.8012+02
1.9455+02
bATTERV
VOLTAGE
V
2.426 +02
2.4523*02
2.4784C2
2. 5036*02
2.5281+02
2.5513*02
2.5725*02
2.5917+02
2.621 +02
2.6453+02
2.6692+02
2.6888+02
2.7119+02
2.7347+02
BATTERY
CURRENT
AMPS
-2.9711+01
-6.0812+01
-9.1156+01
-1.2048+02
-1.489 +02
-1.7601+02
-2.0C55+02
-2.2295+02
-2.57 +02
-2.8522+02
-3.1303+02
-3.3577+02
-3.6262+02
-3.8919+02
BATTERY
LOSS
Kk
7.5S18-C2
3. 1803-C1
7.1461-01
1.2484+00
1.9C68+00
2.6(43+00
3.4592+00
4.2748+00
5.6801+CO
6.9963+00
8.4266+00
9. 6957+00
1.1308+61
1.3026+01

-------
PAKALLEL EMT
MlTH GtAKlNG
PI 1C I *  11.75 HP
R(0 =  .C86 CHPS
ETA(OC) *  .900

ACCELEKATICN = -4.25 TO -3.2S MPH/SEC
VEHICLE
SPEED
MPH
0.
5.
10.
15.
20.
25.
30.
35.
40.
45.
50.
55.
60.
65.
ro
0
b
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ooo
0
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
5.0
10.6
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
70.0
VEHICLE
SPEED
KPH

0.
5.
10.
15.
20.
25.
30.
35.
40.
45.
50.
55.

0
0
0
ooo
0
0
0
ooo
60.0
65.0

TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO

5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
70.0
TCRwLE
AT .KEEL
FT-LU
-6.6777+C2
-6.6548+02
-6.6156+C2
-6.5602+02
"-6. 4867+02
-6.401 +02
-6.2S71+02
-6.177 +02
-6.04C7+C2
-5.8883*02
-5.7196*02
-5.5348*02
-5.3338+02
-5.1166*02
ALPHA v

0.99C49
0.89116
0.79379
C.64835
0.60336
O.S1112
0.42234
0.3371S
0.39374
0.32561
0.25640
0.41702
0.36958
0.32274
MUTtJR
TOHUUE
FT-Lb
-6.0305*31
-6.0024+01
-5.S614*01
-5.<>C76*01
-5.8412*01
-5.76^1*01
-5.67C4*01
-5.5662*01
-7.8045*01
-7.8045*01
-7.8068*01
-1.1717*02
-1.1728*02
-1.1744*02
POM INPUT
POriER
-6.4336-01
-7.4037*00
-1.4067*01
-2.0594*01
-2.7045*01
-3.3219*01
-3.9017*01
-4.4384+01
-5.3066+01
-5.9486+01
-6.5925+01
-7.1798+01
MOTOR
POWER
HP
-4.863 +00
-1.452 +01
-2.4036+01
-3.3347+01
-4.2393+01
-5.1112+01
-5.9444+01
-6.7329+01
-8.0242+01
-8.9683+C1
-9.9153+01
-1.0866+02
-1.1822+02
-1.2785+02
" nPCUM 	
EFFICIENCY
0.32007
0.84329
0.91045
~OV9~3"67B
0.95096
0.95963
0.96541
0.96950
0.97069
0.97357
0.97591
0.97365
-7.827 +01 0.97559
-8.4783+01 0.97725
POfcER MOTOR
INPUT EFFICIENCY
KM
-2.01 +00 0.55429
-fi. 7795+00 0.81079
-1.S4SI+01 0.86204
-2.1S64+01 0.88407
-2.8439+01
-3.4616+01
-4.0415+01
-4.57B +01
-5.4669+01
-6.1101+01
-6.7552+01
-7.3741+01
-8.0227+01
-6.6757+01
PCUT INPUT
CURRENT
AMPS

-2.6535+00
-3.0279+01
-5.7061+01
-8.2883+01
-1.0802+02
-1.3175+02
-1.5375+02
-1.7391+02
-2.0591+02
-2.2905+02
-2.5194+02
-2.7254+02
-2.9495+02
-3.1721+02
0.89963
0.90822
0.91174
0.91183
0.91363
0.91363
0.91363
0.91005
0.91002
0.90999
BATTERY
POWER
KW

-6.7966+00
-1.2801+01
-1.87C8+01
-2.4474+01
-3.0155+01
-3.5578+01
-4.0599+01
-4.511 +01
-5.3066+01
-5.9486+01
-6.5925+01
-7.1798+01
-T.sir+ei
-8.4783*01
TERMINAL
VOLTAGE
V
7. 1986+00
3.1557+01
5.5836+01
8.0009+01
1.0441+02
1. 2844+02
1.5183+02
1.7447+02
1.6095+02
1. 7989+02
1.9884+02
1.5773+02
1.7147+02
1.8523+02
BATTERY
VOLTAGE
V

2.4245+02
2.4451+02
2.4653+02
2.4847+02
2.5036+02
2.5213+02
2.5376+02
2.552 +02
2.5771*02
2.597 *02
2.6167*02
2.6344*02
"2.6557+02
2.6728*02



BATTERY
CURRENT
AMPS

-2.8033*01
-5.2357*01
-7.5884*01
-9.8499*01
-1.2044*02
-1.411 +02
-1.5998*02
-1.7676+02
-2.0591+02
-2.2905*02
-2.5194*02
-2.7254*02
-2.9495*02
-3.1721*02
_ 	 	




.

BATTERY
LOSS
Kta

6.7584-02
2.3574-C1
4.9522-C1
8.3438-01
1.2476*00
1.7124+00 ,
2.2012+00
2.6871*00
3.6465+00
4.5121*00
5.4588+00
6.388 +CO
7.4815*00
8.6*33*00

-------
PARALLEL EPT
MlTrt GEARING
PIICI "  11.75 HP
RIB)   .C86 OHPS
ETAtGCI   .900

ACCELERATION  -3.25 TO -i.l<> MPH/iEC
VEHICLE TCRCOE
SPEED AT HEEL
MPH FT-LB
0.0
5^0"
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55. 0
60.0
65.0
ro
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
10
TO
TO
TO
5.0 -4.7192*02
1076 -4.6962*02
15.0 -4.657 +C2
20.0 -4.6C17+02
25.0 -
30.0 -
35.0 -
"4TJ.O -
45.0 -
50.0 -
4.5301*02
4.4424*02
4.3385*02
4.2164*02
4.0821*02
3.9297*02
55. O -3.761 *02
60.0 -3.5742*02
65.0 -3.3752*02
70.0 -3.156 *C2
in VEHICLE
SPEED
NPH

0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
55.0
4O.O
45.0
50.0
55.0
6O.O
65.0

10
TO
TO
10
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
To
TO
TO
10
TO

5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
70.0
MOTOR MOTOR
TuriUE POWER
FT-LtJ HP
-4.4613*01 -3.5976*00
-4.43t> +01 -1.0731+01
-4.3S79+01 -1.7732+01
-4.347 01 -2.4538*01
-4.2834*01 -3.1087*01
-4.2071*01 -3.7319+01
-4.1183*01 -4.3173*01
-4.C17 *01 -4.859 01
-5.7427*01 -5.9044*01
-5.7465*01 -6.6035*01
-5.7527V01 -7.3063*01
-8.6419*01 -8.0141*01
-6.6588*01 -8.728 +01
-B.67V9+01 -9.4493*01
Hn^iMj
PU6R MOTOR
INPUT EFFICIENCY
Kta
-1.413 +00 0.52670
-6.4
-------
PARALLEL EMT
PUC)   11.75 HP
RIBJ   ,C86 ones
ETA(GO) -  .900                  -

ACCELERATION = -2.25  TC -1.25  MPH/SEC
VEHICLE
SPEED' 	
MPH
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
TO
To
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
5.0
. TCRCUE ' 
"AT WHEEL
FT-LB
-2.7606+02
10~.6~-2. 7376 + 02
15.0 -2.6S84+02
20.0 -2.6431+02
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
70.0
CT) VEHICLE
SPEED
MPH

0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0

IU
TO
TO
10
TO
TO
ro
TO
TO
10
TO
TO
ID
TO

5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
70.0
-2.5715+02
-2.4838+02
-2.3799+02
-2.2598+02
-2.1235+02
-1.971 +02
-1.8024*02
-1.6176+02
-1.4165+02
-1.1993+02
P
ALPHA '

i.oooco
0.92312
0.84511
0.769C9
C. 6949 8
0.62313
0.55482
0.4SCC7
0.49155
0.42937
0.36868
0.49031
0.44496
0.4C035
MOTOR  .
TJROJE
FT-'Lb ,
-2.6921+01
-2.8697+01
-2.8344+J1
-2. 7864+01
-2.7256+01
-2.6522+01
-2.5663*01
-2.4678*01
-3.68C9*01
-3.6860*01
-3.6985+01
-5.5664*01
-5.5889*01
-5.6158+01
MUTOR : "
 POw'Ert ' 
HP-
-2.3322+00
-6.9424+00
-1.1428+01
-1.5728+01
-1.9781+01
-2.3526+01
-2.6903+01
-2.9851+01
-3.7845+01
-4.2386+01
-4.6974+01
-5.162 +01
-5.6336+01
-6.1136+01
Tlnrnu
PCUM INPUT rv-u"
POWER EFFICIENCY
KM

0. +00
-3.0629+00
-6.1444+00
-9.0927*00
-1.1884*01
-1.4482*01
-1.681 +01
-1.8819*01
-2.4335*01
-2.7466*01
-3.057 *01
-3.3636*01
-3.6899*01
-4.018 *01

0.00000
0.73844
0.84989
" 0.89346
0.91657
0.93073
0.94005
0.94645
0.95361
5.95849
0.96237
0.96069
0.96385
0.96651
-PCWE-k  '
 I;MPUT - e
Km '
-6.0775-01
-4.1477+00
-7.2296+CO
-1.0176+01
-1.2966+01
-1.5559+01
-1.7B32+01
-1.9B84+C1
-2.5519+01
-2.8656+01
-3.1766+01
-3.5012+01
-3.8283+01
-4.1572+01
PC JT "INPUT"
CURRENT
AMPS

0. +00
-1.2603+01
-2.52 +01
-3.Trr9+OT
-4.8457+01
-5.8894+01
-6.8218+01
-7.6248+01
-9.7957+01
-I. 101 *02
-1.2204*02
-1.3374*02
-1.4609*02
-1.5842*02
FF
" ~B
-6
-8
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
-2
-2
-3
-3
-3
-4
MOTOR
ICIENCY
0.46446
0.80120
0.84832
0.86767
0.87901
0.88691
0.89139
0.89327
0.90424
0.90662
0.90686
0.90956
0.91127
0.91188
ATTERY
POWER
KM

.1533+00
.461 +00
.0784*01
.T9T3+01
.4995+01
.6841+01
.8392+01
.9545+01
.4335+01
.7466+01
.057 +01
.3636+01
.6899+01
.018 +01
TERMINAL '
VOL'TAGF. "
V
4.9031+00
2.5298+01
4.4433+01
6.3206+01
3. 1619+01
9.9567+01
1. 1669+02
1.3277+02
1. 3245+02
1.4852+02
1.6432+02
1.3343+02
1.4544*02
1.5735+02
BATTERY
VOLTAGE
V
2.4218+02
2.4301+02
2.4381+02
2.4456+02
2.4526+02
2.4589+02
2.4642+02
2.4682+02
2.4842+02
2.4947+02
2.5049+02
2.515 +02
2.5256*02
2.5362*02
'- *  '. ,. -i '
BATTERY
CURRENT
AMPS
-2.5407*01
-3.4816+01
-4.4233+01
-5.3C44+01
-6. 114 +01
-6.8491+C1
-7.4635+01
-7.919 +01
-9.7957+01
-1.101+02
-1.2204+02
-1.3374*02
^1.4659*02"
-1.5642*02
BATTERY
LOSS
KU
5.5516-C2
1. 0424-01
1.6826-C1
2.4198-C1
3.2148-01
4.0342-01
4.7S06-C1
5.3931-C1
8.2522-C1
1.0424*00
1.2808*00
1.5382*00
~I. 8356* 06
2.1583*00

-------
PARALLEL EMT
WITH GEARING
PUCJ =  11.75 hF
R(dl =  .C86 CHfS
ETAI&UI =  .900

ACCELERATION = -1.25  TC -0.75  MPH/SEC
VEHICLE
SPtEO
MPH
0.
5.
10.
15.
20;
25.
30.
35.
40.
45.
50.
55.
60.
0 TO
0 TU
0 TU
0 TO
0 TO
0 TO
0 TO
6 TO
0 TO
0 TO
0 TO
0 TO
0 TO
65.0 TO
ro
Z^ VEhlCL
SPEED
MPH

0.
5.
10.
15.
20.
25.
30.
35.
40.
45.
50.
55.
60.
65.

0 TO
0 TO
0 TO
IT TO
0 TO
0 TO
0 TO
0 TO
0 TO
OHfO"
0 TO
0 TO
0 TO
0 TO
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
70.0
E
5.0
10.0
15.0
2070"
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50TO
55.0
60.0
65.0
70.0
TCRCUF
AT nt-.tbL
FT-LB
-1. 2916 + 02
-1.2666+02
-1.2294+02
-1.17<1C2
-1.1026+02
-1.0146+02
-9.1C98+01
-7.9C89+01
-6.5461+01
-5.0215+01
-3.3T5 ~+Cl
-1.4it7+Cl
5.2343+00
2.6954+01
n

ALPHA r
MOTOR
TJrtOJt
FT-LB
-1.71S2+01
-1.6949+01
-1.6618+01
-1.6159+01
-1.5573+01
-1.486 +01
-1.4022+01
-1.3059+01
-2.1345+01
-2.1451+01
-2.1579+01
-3.2597+01
-3.2809+01
-3.287 +01
PCUM TNPUT"
PCUER
KM
l.OOOCC 0. +00
0.95055 -1.4306+00
C. 88914 -3.174 +00
"0..87924 -4.8139+00
C. 77252 -6.2812+00
0.71945 -7.5439+00


C. 67099
0.62687
0.60139
0.54927
0.49772
0.56521
0.52365
0.48300
-8.5636+00
-9.2867+00
-1.3462+01
-1.5303+01
-1.7152+01
-1.9059+01
-2.1025+01
-2.2905+01
MOTOR
POWER
HP
-1.3831+00
-4.10C4+00
-6.7005+00
-9.1216+00
-1.1302+01
-1.3162+01
-1.47 +01
-1.5796+01
-2.1947+01
-2.4&49+01
-2.7407+01
-3.0229+01
-3.3072+01
-3.5784+01
nPCtW '
EFFICIENCY
0.00000
0.59688
0.76706
0.83375
0.86812
0.88849
0.90132
0.90930
0.92926
0.93702
0.94323
0.94371
POWER MUTOR
INPUI EFFICIENCY
Kn
-4.1516-Cl 0.40251
-2.3968+00 0.78387
-4.1379+00 0.82814
-5.7738+00 0.84883
-7.2354+00
-8. 4906+00
-9.501 +00
-1.0213+01
-1.4467+01
-1.6331+01
-1.8 185+01
-2.0195+01
-2.2167+01
-2.405 +01
PCUT INPUT
CURRENT
AMPS
0. +00
-5.9008+00
-1 .3072+01
-1.9802+01
-2.5811+01
-3.0981+01
-3.5156+01
-3.8131+01
-5.5CC7+01
-6.2367+01
-6.9726+01
-7.727 +01
0.94849 -S. 5013+01
0.952)8 -9.238 +01
0.85847
0.86375
0.86673
0.86700
0.88520
0.8B848
0.88979
0.89591
0. 89886
0.90130
BATTERY
POWER
Kw
-6.1533+00
-6.8287+00
-7.8145+00
-8. 6? 42 +60
-9.392 +00
-9.9036+00
-1.0144+01
-1.0012+01
-1.3462+01
-i.53"03+bl
-1.7152+01
-1.9059+01
-2.1025+01
-2.2905+01
TERMINAL
VJLTAGE
V
3.4538+00
2.0084+01
3.5038+01
4.9787+01
6.3765+01
7.6887+01
8.8915+01
9.94 +01
1.0498+02
1.1802+02
1.3099+02
1.1363+02
1.242 +02
1.3459+02
BATTERY
VOLTAGE
V
2.4218+02
2.4244+02
2.4279+02
2.4309+02
2.4334+02
2.435 +02
2.4358+02
2.4354+02
2.4473+02
2.4537+02
2.46 +02
2.4665+02
2.4732+02
2.4794+02
_ 	
"BATTERY 	
CURRENT
AMPS
-2.5407+01
-2.8166+01
-3.2185+01
-3.5764+Oi
-3.8595+01
-4.0671+01
-4.1648+01
-4.1113+01
-5.5007+01
-6.2367+01
-6.9726+01
-7.727 +01
-8.5013+01
-9.238 +01


-- 	 	 	


^

BATTER*
LOSS
KW

5.5516-C2
6.8226-02
8.9C88-02
1.1 -Cl
1.281 -01
1.4226-01
1.4917-C1
1.4536-C1
2.6021-01
3.3451-01
4.1811-C1
5.1347-C1
6.2155-01
7.3393-01

-------
PARALLEL E'T
PUCI -  11.75 HP
*
-------
    PARALLEL  EPT
    alJH GEARING
    PIICI -   11.75  HP
    RIB) -  .086 OHMS
    ETACGO) -   .9CC

    ACCELERATION   -0.25  TC  0.25 MPH/SEC
                                                                                                                   71
       VEHICLE
        SPEED
          HPH
AT HhEEL
  FT-LB
 MOTOR
TOMJOE
 FT-Ld
MOTOR
POWER
 HP
POnER
INPUT
 KV.
   HOTCR
EFFICIENCY
TERMINAL
 VOLTAGE
    V
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
.0
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
ro
TO
TO
lu
5
10
IS
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70



*



0
C
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6
6
7
7

9
1
.6695+01
. 6593*01
.29C9+01
.55S7+C1
.4369+01
.0476+02
1.1(76+02
1.3C39+02
1.4564+C2
.0 1
.0 1
.0 2
.0 2
.625 +02
.8C99+02
.0109+02
.2281+02
-1.3395+00
-1.14C9+00
-8.0850-01
-3.4164-01
2
1
1
3
-7
0
~ 0
-3
0
1
.7132-01
.04 +00
.9511+00
.0055+00
.272 -06
+ 00
+00
.2249-05
+00
.3736-05
-1.0801-01
-2.7601-01
-3.2601-01
-1.9285-01
1.9691-01
9.2254-01
2.0454+00
3.6354*00
-7.4768-06
0. +00
0. +00
-2.9907-05
0. *00
1.4953-05
-4.2886-02
-1.46*6-01
-1.7823-01
-1.0657-01
1.9619-01
9.0123-01
1.9(51*00
3.425 +00
-4.2095-06
0. *00
0. *00
-1.6792-05
0. +00
8.4341-06
ro
0.53242
0.71402
0. 73316
0 . 74 1 1 1
OT74842
0.76333
0.77617
0.79149
0.75500
0.75777
"0. 76044
0.75297
0.75460
0. "75636
9.0476-01
3.1676+00
3.9862*00
2.5166*00
4.6721*00
1.9641*01
3.8915*01
6.1343*01
1.0363-04
0. *00
"or. ~~+oo" ~ ~" 	
4.1341-04
0. *00
-2.0763-04
       VEHICLE
        SPEED
         PPH
  ALPHA   IPCUM .INPUT     'PClfT    PCUT INPUT   BATTERY    BATTERY    BATTERY     BATTERY.
          ~   POWER   EFFICIENCY    CURRENT     POWER     VOLTAGE    CURRENT      LOSS
              KW                    AMPS        KW          V        AMPS         KW
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
4fl.O
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
*5.0
TO
TO
TO
lo
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
lo
TO
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
70.0
l.CCOCC
1.00000
1.00000
l.COOOO
0.09600
0.15304
0.22851
0.31810
l.CCOOO
T.OOOOO
l.COOOO
1.00000
l.OOCOO
1.00000
0. +00
0. *00
0. 00
" 0". "+00 "
9.6842-01
1.6865+00
2.764 +00
4.2394*00
0. +00
0. *00
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.20259
0.53436
0.71094
0.80791
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00
4.0314*00
7.0224+00
1.1539+01
1.776 +01
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00
0. +60
0. +00
-6.1533+00
-5.398 +00
-4.6405+00
'-3.8802+00
-2.1423+00
-6.7318-01
1.
3.
0.
0.
0.
0.
6.
0.
1826+00
5132+00
+00
+00
+00
+00
+00
+00
2.4218+02
2.4191+02
2.4165+02
2.4138+02
2.4021+02
2.4016+02
2.3953+02
2.3869+02
2.4 +02
2.4 +02
2.4 +02
2.4 +02
2.4 +02
2.4 +02
-2.5407+01
-2.2313+01
-1.9203+01
-1.6075+01
-8.9183+00
-2.803 +00
4.9374+00
1.4718+01
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00
5.5516-C2
4.2819-02
3.1714-02
2.2223-02
6.8402-03
6.7569-04
2.0965-03
1.863 -02
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00
0. +.00
0. +00

-------
PARALLEL EMT
HLU GEARING
PIICI   11.75 HP
mat   .066 OHMS
ETA(GO)   .9CC

ACCELERATICN   0.25 1C  C.75  MPH/SEC
12
VEHICLE
SPEED
CPH
0.0 TO
5.0 TO
10.0 TO
15.0 TO
20.0 TO
25.0 TO
33.0 TO
35.0 TU
40.0 TO
45.0 TU
50.0 TO
55.0 TO
60.0 TO
65.0 TU


5.0
1C.C
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
53.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
70.0

{^ VEHICLE
TOR CUE
AT WHEEL
FT-LB
1.6462*02
1.6692*02
1.7C83*02
1.7637C2
1.8352*02
1.9229*02
2.0268*02
2.1469*02
2.2832*02
2.4357*02
2.6044*02
2.7892*02
2.9902*02
3.2074*C2
p
ALPHA
0 SPEED
NPH

0.0 TO
5.0 TO
10.0 TO
15.0 TO
20.0 TU
25.0 TO
90.0 TU
35.0 TO
40.0 TO
45.0 TO
50.0 TO
55.0 TO
60.0 TO
65.0 TO


5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
70.0


0.11383
0.14155
0.19924
C. 26049
0132S56
0.40312
0.48516
0.57420
0.49282
0.54568
0.59910
0.11786
MuTOR
TLKJUt
FT-LB
6.9552*00
7.1bl2*00
7.3426*00
d. 0441*00
8.6866*00
9.4fCB*00
1.0397*01
I.i46701
1.1303*01
1.1324*01
1.1345*01
1.7049*01
1.7C61+01
1.7113+01

PtUM INPUT
POWER
KM-

2.0846+30
2.6258+00
MOTOR
POwER

5
1
3
4
6
8
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
.

HP
.6119-01
.7372+00
.0411+00
.5407+00
.3044+00
.4CC9+00
.0899+01
.3B7 +01
.1621+01
.3012+01
.4409+01
.581 +01
.7217+01
.863 +01
nPCUM -
EFFICIENCY




3. 7734+00
5.0T23+00
6.5964+00
8.3823+00
1.04S7+01
1.2976+01
1.1C76*01
1.2253*01
1.344 +01
1.4554+01









0.55952 1.5713*01
0.60162
1.6883+01


0.57148
0.65893
0.76162
0.82161
0.86175
0.89023
0.91143
0.92751
0.91514
0.92340
0.93028
0.92990
0.93516
0.93974
PUMER NJTOR
l*PuT EFFICIENCY
KM
1.1913+00
I. 7302+00
2.B739+CO
4.1675+CO
5.6845+00
7.4622+00
9.5675+00
I. 2035+01
1.0136+01
1.1315+01
1.2503+C1
1.3534+01
1.4694+01
1.5865+01

PCUT INPUT
CURRENT
AMPS
tt". 6 344+ 00
1.0895+01
1.5701+01
2.1189+01
2.7631+01
3.5248+01
4.4339*01
5.5C97*01
4.6944*01
5.2C2701
5.7174*01
6.2023*01
6.7CTJ7+01
7.2217*01

0. 35125
0.74973
0. 7-J909
0.81248
0. 82701
0.83950
0.84953
0.85939
0.85494
0.85759
0.85938
0.87113
0.87373
0.87561
BATTERY
POWER
KM

-4.0686*00
-2.7722*00
-8.67C6-01
1.192 +00
3.4856*00
6.0225*00
8.9157*00
1.225 *01
1.1076*01
1.2253*01
1.344 +01
1.4554*01
1.5713+01
1.6883*01
TERMINAL
/JLTAGF.
V
1.5707*01
2.2478*01
3.647 *01
b. 1234+01
0.7598+01
8.5343+01
1.0468+02
1.2543+02
1.0641+02
1. 1867+02
1.3101+02
1.13 +02
1.2255*02
1.3217*02
BATTERY
V3LTAGE
V
2.4143*02
2.4099*02
2.4032*02
2.3938*02
2.3873*02
2.378 *02
2.3674*02
2.3551*02
2.3594*02
2. 3551*02
2.3507*02
2.3466*02
2.3422*02
2.3378*02
































BATTERY
CURRENT

-1
-1
-3
4
1
2
3
5
4
5
5
6
6
7
AMPS
.6851*01
.1503*01
,6C78*00
.9797*00
.46 *01
.5325*01
.766 *01
.2014+01
.6944*01
.2C27*r>l
.7174*01
.2C23*Ol
.7C8701
.2217*01
















BATTERY
LOSS
KW
2.4421-02
1.138 -C2
1.1194-C3
2.1325-C3
1.8333-02
5.5157-02
1.2197-C1
2.3266-C1
1.8952-C1
2.3279-01
2.8113-C1
3.3082-C1
3.8706-C1
4.4852-C1

-------
PARALLEL EMT
Ml TH Gt-AH I NG
P ICI = 11.
R(d) = .Cd6
tTA(Gj) = .
ACCELERAT 1CN
VEHICLE
SPEEO
HPH
0.0 TO 5.
5.0 TU 10.
10.0 TO 15.
15.0 TO 20.
20.0 TO 25.
25.0 TJ 30.
30.0 TO 35.
35.0 TO 40.
40.0 TO 45.
45.0 TO 50.
50.0 TO
5S.O To
60.0 TO
65.0 TJ
ro
ro
55.
60.
65.
7C.
75 HP
90C
= C.75 Fi.
TCKCoE
AT "(-EEL
FT-Lb
0 2.6255*02
0 2.6<,8502
0 2.6E77+C2
0 2.743 *C2
0 2.8146C2
0 2.9C23+C2
0 3.0C62+02
0 3.12t3*C2
0 3.2626*02
0 3.415 C2
0
0
0
0
VEHICLE
SPEED
MPH
0.0 TO
5.0 TO
10.0 TO
15.0 TU
20.0 TO
25.0 TO
30.0 TO
35.0 TO
40.0 TO
45.0 TO
50.0 TO
55.0 TU
60.0 T0
65.0 TO


5.
10.
15.
20.
25.
30.
35.
40.
45.
50.
55.
60.
65.
70.


0
0
C
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3.5637*02
3.9695+02
4.1667*02
p
ALPHA P


IT. 12438
C. 16940
0.24792
0.32864
0.414C7
0.50220
0.596E6
0.69610
0.62310
0.69323
0.76532
0.65386
0.7C915
0.76484
1.25 MHH/iEC
liJTGR
TJKWJE
Hf-LiJ
1.5313*01
l.tbi *01
1.3*27*01
1.6444*31
1.7101*01
1.7901*01
1.6:143*01
1.9*29*01
2.2oCo*01
2.2640*01
2.269 *01
3.4099*01
3.4162*01
3.4226* Jl
CUM INPUT
POnER ET
KM
3.36T506
4.6148*00
6.81b8*00
9. 1741+00
1.1767*01
1.4624*01
1.7798*01
<:. 1358*01
2.0624*01
2.2684*01
2.3192*01
2.74e9*01
2.9735+01
3.1984*01
MOTOR
rlP
1.234b*00
3.7ol9*0n
6.4216*00
9.2823*00
1.2411*01
1.5879*01
1.9754*01
2.4106*01
2.3243*01
2.6025*01
2.8018*01
3.1622*01
3.4435*01
3.726 +01
"PCUM " PC
FICIENCY

0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.
0.

69o83
77859
84999
68817
91242
92910
94131
95068
94715
95252
95702
95555
95904
96204
PO.EK MJTOK
INPUT EFFICIENCY
KM
2.J466CO 0.39240
3.5931*00 0.78073
5.7959+00 0.82621
8.1402*00 0.84948
1.0737*01 0.86201
1.3507*01 0.87147
1.6754*C1 0.87922
2.0305*01 0.80528
1.9535*01 0.88725
2.1797*C1 0.89034
2.4109*01
2.6267*01
2.8517*01
3.077 01
;UT INPUT
CURRENT
AMPS
1.3975*01
1.9205*01
2.8506*01
3.8534*Cl
4>9685*01
6.2C95*01
7.6052*01
9.192 +01
8.6761*C1
9.8853*01
1.0924*02
1.1967*02
1.2994*02
1.4032*02
0.89135
0.89770
0.90046
0.90297
BATTERY
POMER
KM
-2.7857*00
-7.8321-01
2.1783+00
5.2938+00
8.6568+00
1.2264+01
1.6217+01
2.0632+01
2.0624+01
2.2884+01
2.5192+01
2.7489+01
2.9735+01
3.1984+01
TEKM1NAL
VOLTAGE
V
2.0885+01
3. 1693*01
5.0.09*01
6.9534*01
8.9483*01
1.101 *02
1.3148*02
1.5377*02
1.3713*02
1.5286*02
1.6889*02
1.4352*02
1.5562*02
1.6771*02
BATTERY
VOLTAGE
V
2.4095*02
2.4028*02
2.392 *02
2.3807*02
2.3684*02
2.3551*02
2.3403*02
2.3235*02
2.3236*02
2. 3149*02
2.306 *02
2.297 *02
2.2882*02
2.2792+02


BATTERY
CURRENT
AMPS
-1.1561*01
-3.2594*00
9. 1064*00
2.2236*01
3.655 +01
5.2076+01
6.9295+01
8.8795+01
8.8761+01
9.8853+01
1.0924+02
1. 1967+02
1.2994+0?
1.4032 + 02
13
	 	 	 
BATTERY
LOSS
KM
1.1494-C2
9.1367-04
7.1318-03
4.2522-02
1. 1489-C1
2.3322-01
4.1295-C1
6.7808-C1
6.7755-01
8. 4039-01
1.0263*00
1.2316+.00
1.4522+00
1.693400

-------
PARALLEL EHT
JITH GEARING
PtlCI   11.75 HP
R(BI   .086 ChMS
ETA(GU) *  .900
14
ACCELERATION
                 1.25  TC  2.25 MPH/SEC
VEHICLE
TCRCUE
SPEED AT HhEEL
MPM FT-LB
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25. 0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
ro
ro
TO
5.0
TO 10.0
TO 15.0
TO 20.0
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
to
TO
TO
YO
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
70.0
ro VEHICLE
SPEED
urn

0.0
5.0
iO.O
15.0
20.0
25.0
M.O
s
*0
*i.o
50.0
55.0
OO
; s.o

TO
TO
TO
10
TO
TO
To
TO
n
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO

5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35*0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
70.0
4.C945+02
4.1 175+02
4.1566*C2
4.212 +02
4.2835*02
4.3712*02
4.4751*02
4.5fS2+02
4.7315*02
4.864 *02
5.0*26+02
S. 2374*02
$.4385*02
5.6557+02
p
ALPHA ' f

0. 12518
0.19438
0.29109
O. 39170
0.49551
0.60285
0.71565
0.83S93
0.75455
0.84426
0.93729
0.76201
0.83129
0.90300
MOTOR
TURUUE
FT-Ltt
2.7844+01
2.0104+01
2.8504+01
2.9043+01
2.9724+01
3.0547*01
3.1513+01
3.2622+01
3.9561+01
3.V634+01
3.97C8+01
5.9673+01
5.9784*01
5.9856*01
>CUN INPUT
POWER EF
KM

4.8453*00
7.5258*00
1.1291*01
1.5259*01
1.943 +01
2.3847+01
2.86C8+01
3.3813+01
3.4722*91
3.863 +01
4.2631*01
4.6816*01
5.076 *01
5.4782*01
MOTOR
POWER
HP
2.2453*00
6.799 +00
1.1492+01
1.6394+01
2.1573+01
2.7097+01
3.3035+01
3.9459+01
4.0675+01
4.5545+01
5.0432+01
5.5338+01
6.0262*01
6.5205*01
POWER MOTOR
INPUT EFFICIENCY
KM
3.6489+CO 0.45886
6.3324+00 0.80063
1.01 +01 0. H4847
1.4C7 +01 0.86880
1.8242+01
2.2658+01
2.7418+01
3.2621+01
3.3444+01
3.736 +01
4.1369+01
4.5296+01
4.925 +01
5.3283+01
"PClffl PCUT INPUT
FICIENCV CURRENT
AMPS

0.75307
0.84143
0.89456
0.92209
0.93885
0.95015
0.95840
0.96476
0.96319
O^T6T12
0.97040
0.96753
0.97025
0.97262

0.88184
0.89176
0.89846
0.90200
0.90693
0.90905
0.90907
0.91101
0.91244
0.91254
BATTERY
POWER
KM
2.0147+01 -1.3079+00
3.1462+01 2.1277+00
4.7526*01 6.6506*00
~6:47 *CT~ T. 13 79+01
8.3037*01 1.&319+01
1.0277*02 2.1487+01
1.2444*02
1.4863*02
1.5307*02
1.715 +02
1.9065+02
2.1102*02
2.3054*02
2.5C8 +02
2.7027+01
3.3086*01
3.4722*01
3.863 +01
4.2631+01
4.6816+01
5.076 *01
5.4782+01
TERMINAL
VOLTAGE
V
2.2672+01
3.9123+01
6. 1865+01
8.5185+01
1.0885+02
1.329 +02
1.5767+02
1.8346+02
1.6485+02
1.8391+02
2.0337+02
1.6356+02
1.7758+02
1.9184+02
BATTERY
VOLTAGE
V
2.4049+02
2.392 +02
2.3757+02
2.3584+02
2.3399+02
2.3202+02
2.2988+02
2.2749*02
2.2683*02
2.2524*02
2.236 +02
2.2185+02
1.2017+52
2.1842*02
C
a
2
4
6
9
1
1
1
" 1
I
2
2
2

ATTERV
URRENT
AMPS
.4386*00
.8952*00
.7993*01
.8247*01
.9743*01
.2607*01
. 1 756*02
.4544*02
.5307*02
. 7 15 02
.9065+02
.1102*02
.3054*02
.SOB +02

BATTERY
LOSS
KM
2.5437-03
6.8C47-03
6.7393-C2
2.0019-01
4.1831-C1 .
7.3755-01
1.1887+00
1.8192400
2.0151*00
2.5295+00
3.126 +00
3.8298+00
4.5711*00
5.4095*00

-------
        PARALLEL EMT
        WITH BEARING
        PUCI *  11.75 HP
P      R(bl -  .066 CHMS
        ETAIGJI *  .900

        ACCELERATION '  2.25
i.25 MPrt/iEC
                                                                                                      15
VEHICLE
SPEED
MPH
0.0 TO 5.0
5.0 TO 10.0
10.0 TO 15.0
15.0 TO 20.0
20.0 TO 25.0
25.0 TO 30.0
30.0 TO 35.0
35.0 TO 40.0
40.0 TO 45.0
45.3 TO 50. C
50.0 TO 55.0
55.0 TO 60.0
60.0 TO 65.0
65.0 TO 7C.O
ro
ro
00 VEHICLE
SPEED
MPH
0.0 TO 5.0
5.0 TO 10.0
10.0 TO 15.0
~ ~'l$73TB "ZO'.O
20.0 TO 25.0
25.0 TO 30.0
30.0 TO 35.0
35.0 TO 40.0
40.0 TO 45.0
45.0 TO 50.0
50.0 TO 55.0
55.0 TO 60.0
60.0 TO 65.0
65.0 TO 70.0
TCRCUE
AT ht-EEL
FT-Ld
6.0531*02
6.C76 C2
.11*2*02
.17CS*C2
.2421*02
.328C2
.4337*02
6.5536*C2
6.6901*02
6.8425*02
7.0112*02
7.1S6 *02
7.3S7 *02
7.6142*02
p
ALPHA
0.12258
0.21131
0.3271C
0.44-272
C.56CS6
0.48382
0.61371
0.95314
C. 8587 5
0.96911
l.COCOO
c.setti
0.97575
l.COOOO
MOTOR
TOKJUE
FT-Ltt
4.4552*01
4.4842*01
4.5273*01
4.5843*01
4.6555*01
4.7409*01
4.8405*01
4.9545*01
6.2168*01
6.2283*01
6.2399*01
9.3772*01
9.3947*01
9.4122*01
PCUM FNPUT
POWER
KM
~ 675104*50
1.1391*01
1.725 *01
2.3311*01
2.9535*01
3.6047*01
4.2976*01
5.0443*01
5.3753*01
5.9986*01
6.6369*01
7.2783*01
7.9059*01
8.5492*01
MOTOR
HdhER
HP
3.5926*00
1.0648*01
1.8254*01
2.5877*01
3.3788*01
4.2053*01
5.0744*01
5.993 *01
6.3918*01
7.1571*01
7.9251*01
8.696 01
9.4698*01
1.0246*02
"PCUM
EFFICIENCY
O.T8T43
0.87579
0.91047
0.93998
0.95284
0.96152
0.96785
0.97273
0.97147
0.97473
0.97552
0.97439
OV9T674
0.97731
FOtaER
IftPUT
KM
5.0675*00
9.97o2*CO
1.5843*01
2.1912*01
2.8143*01
3.466 *01
4.1594*01
4.9068*01
5.222 *01
5.6471*01
6.4745*C1
7.092 *01
7.722 *01
6.3553*01
PCUT INPUT
CURRENT
AMPS
2.7137*51
4.7896*C1
7.3285*01
1.0012*02
1.2834*02
1.5862*02
1.9175*02
2.2864*02
2.4558*02
2.7755*02
2.8681*02
3.4622*02
3.816~*02
3.9166*02
MOTOR
EFFICIENCY
0.52659
0.81089
J. 85914
0.88065
0.89527
0.90477
0.90974
0.91078
0.91275
0.91276
0.91277
0.91435
0.91447
0.91448
bATTERY
POWER
KW
3.5716HH
5.9929*00
1.26C9*01
1.943 *01
2.6424*01
1.3687*01
4.1394*01
4.9717*01
5.3753*01
5.9966*01
6.6369*01
7.2783*01
7.9ff59*OT
8.5492*01
TERMINAL
VJLTAGE
V
2.2981*01
4.4847*01
7.0717*01
9.6688*01
1.23 *02
1.4942*02
1.765 02
2.0454*02
1.826 *02
2.0416*02
2.2574*02
1.8161*02
1.9745*02
2.1333*02
BATTERY
VOLTAGE
V
2.399 02
2.3782*02
2.3538*02
2.3281*02
2.3012*02
2.2724*02
2.2411*02
2.2061*02
2.1887*02
2. 1612*02
2.314 *02
2. 1022*02
2.0718*02
2.1828*02



BATTERY
CURRENT
AMPS
1.4687*00
2.5199*01
5.357 *01
8.346 *01
1.1482*02
1.4823*0?
1.847 *02
2.2535*02
2.4558*02
2.7755*02"
2.8681*02
3.4622*02
3.816 02
3.9166*02



BATTERY
LOSS
Kb
1.9C61-C4
5.4609-02
2.468 -Cl
5.9*04-91
1.1339*00
1.8898CO
2.9339400
4.3674*00
5.1868*00
6.6249*00
7.0745*00
1.0308*01
1.2522C1
1.3191401

-------
PARALLEL EMT
MlTrt GEARING
PI ICt -  11.75 HP
Rib) =  .C86 ChMS
ETA(GC)   .900

ACCELEKAHCN =   3.25  TO  4.2? MPH/StC,
VEMCLE TCRCUE
SPfcEC AT hhtEL \
MPH FT-Lb
0.0 TO 5.0 8.0117*02
5.0 TO 10. 6 8.0346+02
10.0 TO 15.0 8.0738+02
15.0 TO 20.0 8.1291+02
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55. 0
60.0
65.0
INJ
TO
TO
TO
to
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
25.0
30.0
35. 0
40.0
45.0
53.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
70.0
ro VEHICLE
-*=" SPEED
MPH

0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0

to
TO
TO
10
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO

5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
70.0
6.2CC7+02
6. 2884 + 02
8.3923+02
6. 5124 + 02
8.6467+C2
8. 8011 + 02
8.9698+02
9.1546+02
9.3556+02
MJTUR
TOrfJUE
F.T-LB
6.126 +01
6.1381+01
6.2042+01
6.2643+01
6.3386+01
6.427 +01
6.52S8+01
6.6469+01
8.W75+01
8.4932+01
8.5C89+01
1.2787+02
1.281 +02
9.5728+02 1.2834+02
ALPHA PPCUM INPUT
POHER EF
KW

0.12277
0.22883
C. 34960
Q. 47559
0. 60463
0.74054
C.667C8
l.OCCCO
0.96060
l.COOOO
l.COOOO
l.OCOOO

8.3019+60
1.5353+01
2.327 +01
3.1427+ 81
3.9695+01
4.8314+01
5.7482+01
6.729 +01
7.2862+01
8.1505+01
9.025 +01
9.9594+01
1.00000 1.0846+02
1.00000
1.1736+02
.MOTOR .
PUWER .
..HP
4.94 +00
1.4897+01.
2.5015+01
3.536 +01
4.6003+01
5.701 +01
6.8453+01
3. 0401+01
8.7162+01
9.7596+01
1.0807+02
1.1858+02
1.2913+02
1.3972+02
nPCUM P
FICIENCY
0. 79977"
0.89270
0.92990
ff. 94858
0.95907
0.96718
0.97270
0.97588
0.97599
0.97694
0.97695
0.97801
0.97801
0.97801
PUwER MOTOR
INPUf  EFFICIENCY
K.H
6.6396+00 0.55491
1.3706+01 0.81053
2.1t36+01 0.86205
2.9811+01 0.83450
3.8C94+01
4.6728+01
5.5913+01
6.3667+01
7.1113+01
.7.9626+01
8.8171+01
9.7404+01
1.0607+02
1.1478+02
CUT INPUT
CURRENT
AMPS

3.4706+01
6.4953+01
9.9819+01
1.3682+02
1.7557+02
2.1742+02
2.6375+02
3.0157+02
3.4666+02
3.6137+02
3.6187*02
5.0034+C2
5.0102+02
5.017 +02
0.90050
0.90978
0.91294
0.91301
3.91398
0.91398
0.91399
0.90783
0.90778
0.90773
BATTERY
POWER '
KM

2.1486+00
9.9551+00
1.8629+01
2.7547+01
3.6584+01
4.5954+01
5.59 +01
6.6564+01
7.2862+01
8.15C5+01
9.025 +01
9.9594+01
1.0846+02
1.1736+02
TERMINAL
VJLTAOE
V
2.3487+01
4. 8286+01
7.5787+01
1.0362+02
1. 3118+02
1.5915+02
1.8805+02
2. 1775+02
1.9705+02
2.2034+02
2.4365+02
1.9467+02
2. 1172+02
2.2878+02
dATTERY
VOLT4GE
V
2.392 +02
2.3637+02
2.3312+02
2.2968+02
2.2608+02
2.2221+02
2.1794+02
2.2313+02
2. 1018+02
2.2554+02
2.494 +02
1.9905+02
2.1648+02
2.3392+02






BATTERY
CURRENT
AMPS
8.
4.
7.
1.
1.
2.
2.
2.
3.
3.
3.
5.
5.
5.
9822+00
2116+01
9913+01
1993+02
6182+02
068 +02
565 +02
9831+02
4666+02
6137+02
6187+02
0034+02
0102+02
017 +02



BATTERY
LOSS
Kh
6.9386-03
1.5254-01
5.492 -01
1.237 +00
2.2519+00
3.6779+00
5.6579+00
7.6532+00
1.0334+01
1.123 +.01
1. 1261 + 01
2.1528*01
2.1587+C1
2.1646*01

-------
n
PARALLEL EMT
WITH GEARING
P(IC -  11.75 HP
R(fl) =  .086 OHMS
ETAIGOI   .900
ACCELERATION 
VEHICLE
SPEED
HPH
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
ro
ro
tn
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO"
TO
TO
lo
TO
TO
TO
4.25 TO
TCSUUE
AT WHEEL
FT-LB
5.0
10. 0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
70.0
VEHICLE
SPEED
MPH

0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
90.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0

lo
TO
TO
10
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
lo
TO
TO
TO
TO

5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
70.0
S.S7C2*C2
9.9932*02
1.0032*03
l.CC87*03
1.0159+C3
1.0247+C3
1.035 +03
1.0471*03
1.06C7*OJ
1.0759+C3
1.0428*03
1.1113*03
1.1314*03
1.1521*03
p
5.25 MPH/SEC
MO TDK
TOUJUb
FT-LB
7.7968*01 6
7.8319*01 1
7.b811*0l 3
7. 9443+01 4
8.0216+01
8.1132+01
8.2191+01
8. 3393+01
1.073U+02
1.0758+02
1.0778+02
1.6197+02
1.6227+02
1.6257+02
ALPHA POJM INPUT
POWER
KM

0.12718
0.24233
0.37224
~ -B.50H2'
'C. 65002
0.7SS5C
O.S6C36
.ccoco
.COGOO
. OO'OCO
.oocco
.ooocc
.00000
.00000

1.0294*01
1.9382*01
2.9385*01
3".960~2*0l
4.9964*01
6.0591*01
7.2035*01
8.4254*01
9.231 +01
1.0336+02
1.1446+02
1.267 +02
1.3797+02
1.4929*02
5
7
8
1
1
1
MOTOR
PUMER
HP
.2d73+CO
.8947+01
.1776+01
.4844+01
.8217+01
il967+01
.6162+01
.0087+02
.104 +C2
.2362+02
1.3688*02
1.502 +02
1.6357+02
1.7698+02
POWER MOTOR
INPUT EFFICIENCY
8.4021+00 0.55801
1.7513+01 0.80073
2.7543+01 0.86031
3.7766+01 0.8849d
4.8176+01
5.8U31+01
7.03C8+C1
8.2306+01
9.0251+01
1.0106+02
1.1191+02
1.2393+02
1.3495+02
1.4602+02
PCUM PCUT INPUT
EFFICIENCY CURRENT
AMPS



0.81615
0.90359
0.93.730
0.95415
0.96420
0.97095
0.97601
0.97688
0.97768
0.97769
0.97769
0.97812
0.9T8T2~
0.97812

4.3167+01
8.2521+01
1.2/33+02
1.7489*02
2.2523+02
2.7934+02
3.4087+02
3.5652+02
4.3546+02
4.3611*02
4.3676*02
5.9915*02
6.0092*02
0.90113
0.91219
0.91384
0.91391
0.91222
0.91217
0.91213
0.90379
0.90379
0.90379
BATTERY
POWER
KM
4.1414*00
1.3984*01
2.4744*01
3. 5721+61
4.6853+01
5.8231+01
7.0454+01
8.3527+01
9.231 +01
1.0336+02
1.1446+02
1.267 +02
1.3797+02
1.4929+02
TERMINAL
VCJLTAGF
V
2.4755+01
5. 1431+01
3. 0518+01
1.0982+02
1.3903+02
1.6838+02
1.9932+02
2.3086+02
2.0725+02
2.3173+02
2.5623+02
2.0684+02
2.2491+02
2.43 +02
BATTERY
VOLTAGE
V
2.3848+02
2.3487+02
2.3077+02
2.2643+02
2.2183+02
2.1691+02
2. 1132+02
2.3632+02
2.1198+02
2.3702+02
2.6208+02
2. 1147+02
"2.2994+62
2.4844+02

BATTERY
CURRENT
AMPS
1. 7365+01
5.9538+01
1.0722+C2
1.5775+02
2. 1121 + 02
2.6846+02
3.3339+02
3.5345+02
4.3546+02
4.3611+02
4.3676+02
5.9915+02
&!o092+02

BATTERY
LOSS
KW
2.5934-02
3.0485-01
9.8874-01
2.1403*06
3.8364*00
6.1981*00 '
9.5586+CO
1.0743*01
1.6307*01
1.6356*01
1.6405*01
3.0672*01
3.0963*01
3.1054*01

-------
PARALLEL  EPT
HlTH OEAklNb
P( 1C I =   11.75  HP
KlJJ =   .066  GhNS
ETA(GC)  =   .900

ACCELERATILN  =   5.
                      TC
                               MPH/SSC
18
VEHICLE TCRUlit
SPfcEO AT wFEEL
MPH FT-Lb
0.0 TU 5.0 1.1S28+C3
5.0 TO 10.0 1.1951+03
10.0 Tu 15. C 1.1991+03
15.0 TO 2C.O 1.2C46+C3
20.0 TO 25.0 1.2117+03
25.0 TO 30.0 1.2205+03
30.0 TO 35.0 1.23CS+03
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
ro
ro
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TU
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
70 ."0
i>b +01
9.0243+01
9.7C47+01
9.7993+01
9.9083+01
1.C031+02
1.2SS8+02
1.3022+02
1.3047+02
1.9606+02
1.S643+02
1.968 +02
7
2
3
5
7
8
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
PCUM INPUT
PUMER EFF
KM
1.2268+01
2.3439+01
3.5518+01
4.7764+01
6.0221+01
7.2839+01
3.669 +01
1.013 +02
1.1229+02
1.2574+02
1.3924+02
1.5342+02
i;67(T7+02
0. +00

MOTOR
POWEK
HP
.6346+00
.2996+01
.U537+01
.4327+01
.0432+01
.6924+01
.0387+02
.2134+02
.3364+02
.4964+02
.657+02
.8182+02
.98 +02
.1424+02
nPCUM- "
1CIENCY
0.82712
0.91096
0.94228
6.95788
0.96726
0.97352
0.97747
0.97750
0.97803
0.97803
0.97803
0.97781
" 0.97T80
1.00000
POWER MOTOR TERMINAL
INPUT EFFICIENCY VJLTAGE
KW V
1.0147+Oi 0.56106 2.5787+01
2.1352+01 0.80309 5.409 +01
3.3468+01 0.85865 8.4411+01
4.5753+01 0.88544 1.1475+02
5.825 +01 0.90166 1.4513+02
7.0911*01 0.91409 1.753+02
8.4737+01 0.91407 2.0763+02
9.9021+01 0.91379 2.4023+02
1.CS82+02 0.90741 2.1688+02
1.2298+02 0.90737 2.4252+02
1.3tl8+02 0.90732 2.682 +02
1.5002+02 0.90379 2.0624+02
1.0337+02 0.90379 2.2442+02
1.7676+02
PCU'T fNFUT
CURRENT
AMPS

5.16 +01
1.0045+02
1.5552+02
2. 1 4 IT* 02
2.77 +02
3.447 +02
4.081 +02
4.1219+02
5.0641+02
5.071 +02
5.0779+02
7.2739+02
7.2795*02
0. *00
0; 90379
"BATTERY
POWER
 KM
6.1147*00
1.8041*01
3.0877*01
4.3884+01
5.711 +01
7.0479+01
8.5109+01
1.0057+02
1.1229+02
1.2574+02
1.3924+02
U5342+02
0. +00
2.4264+02
BATTE"RY 	
VOLTAGE
V
2.3775+02
2.3334+02
2. 2837+02
2.2308+02"
2. 174 +02
2.1131+02
2. 1242+02
2.4575+02
2.2175+02
2.4797+02
2.7422*02
2. 1092*02
2.2951*02"
0. +00

BATTERY
CURRENT
AMPS
2.5719+01
7.7317+01
1.352 +02
1.9~671 + 02
2.6269+02
3.3353+02
4.0C66+02
4.0924+02
5.0641+02
5.071 +02
5.0779+02
7.2739+02
7.2795+02
0. *00
 	 .. 	






BATTERY
LOSS
Kh

5.6886-C2
5.1411-01
1.5722 + 00
3.328 +00
5. 9344+, 00
9.5667+00
1.3805+.01
1.4402+01
2.2054+01
2.2114*01
2.2175+01
4.5502*01
4.5572+01
0. +00

-------
        PARALLEL EMT
    	  WITH GEARING
        P1C)   11.75 HP
f~]      R(fl) =  .CE6 ChHS
        ETA(GC) *  .900

        ACCELERATION =  6.25  10  7.25  MPH/SEC
19
VEHICLE
SPEED
MPH
0.0 TO 5.0
570 TO i'0. 0""
10.0 TO 15.0
15.0 TO 20.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
ro
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
lo
TO
TO
ID
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
70.0
iCj VEHICLE
SPEED

0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0

III
TO
TO
lu
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
to
TO

5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0
70.0
ICROUE
AT hhEEL
FT-LB
1.3EE7+C3
1.391 +03
1.3S49+03
1. 4004 + 03
1.4C76+03
1.4164+03
1.4268+C3
1.4368*03
1.4524+C3
1.4676*03
1.4845+C3
1.503 *03
1.5231+03
1.5448*03
PrL
MUTUR MOTOR
TURJUE PUWtR
FT-La HP
1.1138+02 8.982 +00
1.1179+02 2.7045+01
1.1234+02 4.52S9+01
1.1304+02 6.381 +01
1.1387+02 8.2647+01
1.14*5+02 1.0168+02
1.1597+02 1.2157+02
1.1724+02 1.4181+02
1.5259+02 1.5689+02
1.5237+02 1.7567+02
1.5316+02 1.9452+02
2.3016+02 2.1344*02
2.3C59+02 2.3244+02
2.3102+02 2.515 +02
PUMER MOTOR
INPUT EFFICIENCY
KK
1.2424+01 0.53909
2.5487+01 0.79130
3. 9636+01 0.85180
5.3987+01 0.88138
6.8551+01
8.3447+01
9.9593+01
1.162 +02
1.2944+02
1.4494+02
1.6049+02
1.7611+02
1.9178+02
2.0751+02
ALPHA PUfll INPUT fUUM PCUT INPUT
POMER . EFFICIENCY CURRENT
KM AMPS

0.13916
0.26673
0.41101
0.563S6
0.72797
C.SC669
l.OOOCO
l.OCOOO
1.00000
l.OOCCC
1.00000
o.coooo
0.00000
o.ccoco

1.4785+01
2.7802+01
4.1921+01
5.6198+01
7.0705+01
8.5538+01
1.0184+02
1.1883+02
1.3234+02
1.4818+02
1.64C8+02
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00

' 0. "8 402 9
0.91670
0.94597
0. 96064
0.96953
0.97555
0.97785
0.97788
0.97812
0.97812
0.97812
1.00000
1.00000
1.00000
6.2423+01 "
1.2 +02
1.8565+C2
2.5603+02
3.3247+C2
4.17 +02
4.6358+02
4.6772+02
5.717 +02
5.7253+02
5.7336+02
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00
0.89903
0.91042
0.91031
0.91003
0. 90379
0.90379
0.90379
0.90379
0.90379
0.90379
BATTERY
POMER
KM
8.6323+00 "
2.2404+01
3.728 +01
5.2318+01
6.7594+01
8.3178+01
1.0026+02
1.181 +02
1.3234+02
1.4818+02
1.64C8+02
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00
TERMINAL
VOLTAGE
V ' .
2. 7698+01
5.665 *01
8.7791+01
1. 1891+02
1.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
5009+02
8144+02
1483+02
4845+02
2642+02
5316+02
7993+02
2222+02
4163+02
61 06+. 02
BATTERY
VOLTAGE
V

2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
0.
0.
0.

3686+02
3167+02
2579+02
195 +02
1266+02
0512+02
197 +02
5407+02
3148+02
5883+02
8619+02
+ 00
+ 00
+ 00



'BATTERY
CURRENT
AMPS
3.6444+01
9.6706+01
1.651 +02
2.3835+02
3.1 785+02
4.055 +02
4.5638+02
4.6486+02
5.717 +02
5.7253+02
5.7336+02
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00



BATTERY
LOSS
KM
1.1422-01
8.0428-01
2.3443+.OC
4. 86'57+CC
8. 6882*00
1.414 +01
1.7912+.01
1.8584+C1
2.8108+01
2.819 +C1
2. 8271+01
0. +CO
0. +,00
0. +00

-------
n
PARALLEL  EMT
WITH GEARING
P{ 1C I =   11.75  HP
R(BI =  .Cti6  OHMS
ETA(GG) =   .900

ACCiLERATILN  =   7.25 1C  d.23 MPH/SEC
                                                                                                                                            20
VEHCLE TORCCE
SPEED AT hhEFL

0.0
5.6
10.0
15.0
20. 0"
25.0
30.0
 3 5 . 6
40.0
45.0
"50.0
55.0
60.0
: 65.0
MPH
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TU
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO

5.6
10.0
15. C
20.0
25.6
30.6
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55."0
60.0
65.0
70. 0
00 VEHICLE
FI-Lb
1.5846+C3
1.5869+03
1.59C8+03
'1.5963+03
1.C035+C3
1.6122+03
1.6226+03
1.6346+03
1.6483+03
1.6635+03
1.6e6"4"+6"3
T. 6988 + 03
1.7189+03
1.74C7+03
MOTOR
TORQUE
FT-LB
1.23C9+C2
1 2d3 J+02
1.2911+02
1.2984+02
1.3C7 +02
1.3171+02
1.3266+02
1.3416+02
1.752 +02
1.7552+02
1.7565+C2
2.6427+02
2.6476+02
2.6525+02
ALPHA PpCUM "INPUT
SPEED
	 	 - - 
0.0
5.0
10. 0
15". 0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45. 0
- 50.0
55.0
60.6
65.0
MPH
"TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TC
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO

5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
40.0
45.0
50.0
55.0
60. C-
65.0
70.0

0.14658
0.43058
0.5S25C
0.76921
C. 9665
l.COOOO
l.COCCO
l.OOOCO
O.CCCCC
o.ccooo
o.cccco
o.ccoco
c.ccccc
POWER
KM
1.7554+01
3.2293+01
4.8413*01
6.4686+01
6.1217+01
9.8265+01
1.171 +02
1.3647+02
1.5195+02
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00
MOTOR
HP
1.0329+01
3.1095+01
5.2C6 +01
7.3293+01
9.4862+01
1.1683+02
1.3928+02
1.6228+02
1.8013+02
2.017 +02
2.2334+02
2.4507+02
2.6688+02
2.6d76+02
nPCUM
EFFICIENCY

0.85202
0.92138
0.94895
0.96291
0.97144
0.97733
0.97805
0.97806
0.97806
1.00000
1.00000
1.00000
1.00000
1.00000
PO*ER MOTOR
INPUT EFFICIENCY
KM
1.4956+01
2.9754+01
4.5942+01
6.2287+01
7.6898+01
9.6058+01
1. 1453+02
1.3348+02
1.4862+C2
1.6641+02
1.B427+02
2.022 +02
2.2019+02
2.3825+02
PCuT INPUT
CURRENT
AMPS
7.4434+01
1.4044+02
2. 1697+02
2.998 +02
3.9113+02
4.9533+02
5.1467+02
5.1838+02
6.4518+02
0. +00
0. +CO
0. +00
0. +CO
0. +00

0. 51498
0. 77930
0.84500
0. 87746
0. 89658
0.90701
0.90686
0. SO 660
0.90379
0.90379
0.90379
0. 90379
0.90379
0.90379
BATTERY
POWER
KM
1.1401+01
2.6894+01
4. 3772+01
6.0806+01
7.3106+01
9.5926+01
1.1552+02
1.3574+02
1. 5195+02
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00
TERMINAL
VOLTAGE
V
2.9855+01
5.9243+01
9.1171+01
1.231 +02
1.5516+02
1.8784+02
2.2254+02
2.575 +02
2.3036+02
2.5738+02
2.8437+02
2.2828+02
2.4822+02
2.6818+02
BATTERY
VOLTAGE
V
2. 3583+02
2.2993+02
2.2312+02
2.1576+02
2.0765+02
1.9842+02
2. 2753+02
2.6327+02
2.3552+02
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00
0. +00
































BATTERY
CURRENT

4
1
1
2
3
4
5
5
6
0
0
0
0
0
AMPS
.8343+01
.1696+02
.9617+02
.8182+02
.7614+02
.8344+02
.0772+02
.1563+02
.4518+02
+ 00
+ 00
+ 00
+ 00
+ 00
















BATTERY
LOSS
KW
2.0098-C1
1.1765+CO
3.3C98+CC
6. 8302 + 00
1.2167+01
2.0C99+01
2.2168+01
2.2?64+Cl
3.5798+01
0. +00
0. +.00
0. +00
0. +00
0. +CO

-------
                              APPENDIX H

Design of Traction Motor PCU for Size and  Cost Estimates-
     There is a large number of components in each of the, power control
units each of which must be identified and specified so that potential
vendors can provide "best" cost data for assembling units .in high volume.
     The series and parallel hybrids both contain motor PCUs which are
rated for 600 amperes for estimating purposes.  (The use of variable
gearing was shown in the simulation to give higher LA-4 efficiency;
also lower cost solid state and commutating devices can be used in
this system.)  The following presents a condensed design and costing
exercise directed at estimating the size and cost of such a unit.

     600 Ampere Chopper for Motor PCU
     The PCU under consideration is shown in the schematic, diagram of
Figure E-l.
     Rating - 54 kw at 240 VDC maximum steady state load  (design for
              series system)
     Commutation capability - 240A nominal, 600A maximum, 144 KVA
     Forced air cooling provided by external fans
     Chopper frequency - 1 KHZ
     Power SCR, SCR, - equivalent to GE C395M; turn-off time 15 microsec.
     Power SCR dissipation 1.5 V x 240 = 360 watts (@ 54 kw)
     Commutation SCR (SCRC) - equivalent to GE C364M; turn-off time 10
                              microsec.
     Commutation capacitor - Cc
            _ rt _ 600x1 5x10"6 _ .
          c " V  "   240x.9    "
              Maximum voltage swing - 504 volts
              Require 2-20 wfd capacitors equivalent to GE 28F5137
                    (4.6" x 2.8" x 5.2", weighing 3.5 pounds each)
              Capacitors will occupy about 170 in^ and with mounting
                    brackets will weigh about 10 pounds.
     Commutation inductor - LC
              Chose 6 yH inductor
         t = TT /LC  = ir /6xlO"6x42xlO"6 = 50.4 MS', (*5% of chopper period)
                                  229

-------
     Commutation impedance - Z

         Z = AJC = ^740 = 0.39

     Commutation current - I

         lc peak = 68 amperes
         lc rms = 68        = 108 amPeres
     Commutation linear inductor - 6 yH air type
          _
         17
         N =   -      = 6.55 ^7 turns
              Wire size @500 cm/A is  #3 AWG;  8 feet  only
              Weight of chopper - 1.27 pounds
              Inductor resistance -  1.58x10" 3 ohms
              Additional weight for  structure, mounting
                   brackets, etc. -2.0 pounds
              Total inductor assembly - 3.3 pounds

     Power SCR Assembly
     The power SCR dissipates 360 watts on a  steady  state  basis;  allow-
ing a case temperature of 80C and ambient air at 40C leads  to the
selection of a heat sink having 270  in^ volume, weighing 5 pounds with
the SCR.

     Other Semiconductors
     Commutating SCR (SCRC)  and heat  sink ----------------- 4.0 pounds
     Two flyback rectifiers  and heat  sinks ---- ;- ..... ------ 5.0 pounds
     Precharge, charging and polarizing rectifiers -------- 2 pounds
     All semiconductors with respective heat  sinks
          and mounting brackets ----- - --------------------- 16  pounds
     Commutation and filter  capacitors -------------------- 10  pounds
     Commutation linear inductor and  mounting system ------ 3.3 pounds
     Saturable reactor and mounting  system ---------------- 2.0 pounds
                                  230

-------
      Switches  (two)	
      Fusing  and  protection  network			
      Logic module  and  current  sensors	
          Total electric  system weight	
          Structural  panel,  lightweight  honeycomb-
               Total  PCU  weight	
                                    -15.0 pounds
                                    10 pounds
                                    15 pounds
                                    71.3 pounds
                                    16.8 pounds
                                    -88.1 pounds
      Size:   2.3  cubic  feet  (10"x20"x20")
 Parts  and OEM Price  List  for Motor PCU
      PCU Specification:   600 amperes, 240 VDC,  1  KHZ  using  15  psec
                          turn-off SCRs
        Symbol
(SCRs and Heat  Sinks)
         SCRr
         SCR2
         SCRD
         SCRR
Manufacturer's Designation*

        C395M
        C364M
        C390M
        C390M
(Rectifiers ft Heat Sinks)
         CRF
         CRT
         CR2
         CRD
         CRR
(Commutation Elements)
        Cc(2 req'd)
        LC
        SR
      (Fuses)
        Fx
 Logic & Ancillaries
 Structural
        A396M
        A396M
        A396M
        A390M
        A390M

     28F5125(40yfd)
          (9
     4.5 mV-sec (104 Arms)
     (176 discrete elements)
                                                         Total
OEM Cost ($)

     20
     10
     17
     17

      5
      5
      5
      4
      4

     10
      2
      2

     10
     33
      5
    TT49
 *General  Electric designation for reference only.
                                  231

-------
 Parts, and.OEM Price List  for  Alternator  PCU  for  Parallel Hybrid System
      PCU Specification:   TOO  amperes,  240  VDC, 1  KHZ using 10 usec
                          turn-off  SCRs
     Symbol
(SCRs &.Heat Sinks)  .
      SCR]
      SCRo
                       Manufacturer's Designation*.

                                  C364
                                  C364
(Rectifiers & Heat Sinks)
      CRF
      CR1
      CR2
      CR(Bridge)
(Commutation Elements)
      cc
      Lc
      SR
   (Fuses)
      Fx
Logic & Ancillaries
 Structural
                                  SC5F6
                                  SC5F6
                                  SC5F6
                                  SC5F6

                               28F5122  (5pfd)
                               13  yhg  (16
                               2.5 mV-sec  (12
                              (166  discrete  elements)
                                                  Total
OEM Cost ($)

    10
    10

     4
     4
     4
    12

    , 2
     2
     2

    TO
    31

   JT3T
 *G'eneral  Electric  designation  for  reference only
                                   232

-------
                                                      TABLE  1-1

                                   HYDROCARBON ACCUMULATOR MATERIALS  SCREENING DATA
ro
CO
CO
Accumulator
Material
Activated
Carbon
Pittsburgh
A.C. Co.
Type BPL

"as received"
(1st Cold
Start)






2nd Cold
Start












Bed
Particle Weight
Size (grams)
4x6 270
mesh











270
(no
measur-
able
attri-
tion)









Time
From
Engine
Start-Up
(min.)
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
3.0
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0*
8.0
10.0
12.0
14.0
16.0
18.0
20.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
7.0*
8.0
10.0
12.0
14.0
16.0
18.0
20.5
Ave.
Bed
Temp.
(F)
110
135
170
190
220
310
390
430*
495
555
605
640
670
700
720
105
130
155
170
230
315
380
465*
500
550
610
650
685
715
740
Ave. Exhaust
centrations
ceding Time
ppm In
7500
2350
1300
830
610
500
450
530
525
490
470
530
520
510
510
500
4500
2250
1100
710
550
425
420
450
460
460
460
460
460
460
460
HC Con-
for Pre-
Interval
ppm Out
1400
650
360
265
235
240
350
430
465
550
620
710
690
630
560
500
1200
600
270
235
215
245
280
400
500
580
650
650
610
536
470
Ave. Exhaust HC
Concentrations
(ppm) During
Adsorption Desorption
Holdup In Out In Out
81
72
72
68
61
52
22
19
12
-12
-32
-34
-33
-24
-10
'




1353 444



505 610


0 /
77
73
75
67
61
42
33
11
-9
-26
-41
-41
-33
-16
-2



940 385






460 570




-------
                                                      TABLE   1-1  (cont'd)
                                   HYDROCARBON  ACCUMULATOR  MATERIALS  SCREENING DATA
IM
Accumulator
Material
3rd Cold
Start












4th Cold
Start













Bed
Particle Weight
Size tgrams)
270
(no
measur-
able
attri-
tion)








270
(no
measur-
able
attri-
tion)









Time
From
Engine
Start-Up
Gnin.)
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0*
6.0
8.0
10.0
12.0
14.0
16.0
18.0
19.5
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0*
6.0
8.0
10.0
12.0
14.0
16.0
18.0
20.5
Ave.
Bed
Temp.
(F)
105
130
-
175
260
340
385*
420
510
570
610
660
685
720
730
105
130
155
175
240
320
380*
425
490
555
610
650
680
710
735
Ave, Exhaust
centrations
ceding Time
ppm In
6600
2150
900
620
480
370
320
315
320
375
460
540
560
500
500
7200
2400
1100
750
590
460
425
385
420
430
500
510
510
510
525
HC Con-
for Pre-
Interval
ppm Out
1250
600
250
210
215
255
295
340
430
550
670
725
695
570
520
950
630
280
230
235
290
360
410
500
640
755
740
685
635
600
Ave. Exhaust HC
Concentrations
(ppm) During
Adsorption Desorption
Holdup In Out In Out
81
72
72
66
55
31
8
-8
-34
-47
-46
-34 J



1261 384






455 578
-24 I
-14 )
-4 /
87
74
75
69
60
37
15
-7
-19
-49



1440 386






-51 493 635
-45
-34 \
-24
-14 /

-------
                                                  TABLE  1-1  (cont'd)

                              HYDROCARBON ACCUMULATOR MATERIALS SCREENING DATA

Bed
Accumulator Particle Weight
Material Size tgrams)
5th Cold
Start**
















Time
From
Engine
Start-Up
(min.)
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5*
3.0
3.5
4.0
5.0
6.0
8.0
10.0
12.0
14.0
16.0
18.0
19.0
26.0
Ave.
Bed
Temp.
(F)
115
140
155
170
195*
225
265
320
385
415
480
540
595
640
670
695
710
-
Ave. Exhaust
centrations
ceding Time
ppm In
7000
2600
1000
750
600
500
480
425
370
340
340
440
480
510
520
530
535
530
HC Con-
for P re-
Interval
ppm Out
1350
1000
550
570
510
600
750
1050
1800
2700
3100
2950
2600
2100
1600
1350
1100
680
Ave. Exhaust HC
Concentrations
(ppm) During
Adsorption Desorption
Holdup ~Tn Out Tn Out
81
62
45
30
16
-20
-56
-146
-385
-690
-810











-570
-440 [
-310 V
-210 \
-154 1
-87 )
-28 /
**Prior to this start the accumulator was subjected to four 30-sec.  by HC rich  cold  starts.
  Estimated total HC retention during these loadings:   16 grams.

-------
                                                        TABLE  1-1 (cont'd)



                                    HYDROCARBON ACCUMULATOR MATERIALS SCREENING DATA
O>
Accumul ator
Material
Nuclear ,
(Activated
Carbon )
Westvaco
WV-H Type


'as received"
(1st Cold
Start)






2nd Cold
Start








-

-





Bed
Particle Weight
Size (grams)
. 6x16 .---. 202
mesh














6x16 190**
mesh
or
smaller
due
to
attri-
tion


"' -.  
--'-
: '  ~





Time
From
Engine
Start-Up
train.)
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5*
5.0
5.5
6.0
8.0
10.0
12.0
14.0
20.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
8.0 -
10.0
12.0
14.0
14.0
20.0
Ave.
Bed
Temp.
tF)
105
145
170
190
215
245
-
330
360*
380
..
420
480
535
580
615
690
105
135
155
175
195
230
-
300
-
345
-
400
470
520.
580
615
_
690
Ave. Exhaust
centrations
ceding Time
ppm In
9000
2450
1350
780
630
560
520
460
440
410
380
380
380
420
380
420+20
420+20
5100
2300
1300
820
750
660
620
600
560
530
510
510
490
450
470
480
400+30
400+30
HC Con-
for Pre-
Interval
ppm Out
800
610
280
235
220
225
260
330
400
410
415
390
418
440
380
420+20
420+20
800
615
300
285
280
305
370
440
460
465
510
520
540
540
550
520
400+30
400+30
Ave. Exhaust HC
Concentrations
(ppm) During
Adsorption Desorption
Holdup In Out In Out
91
75
79
70
65
60
50
28
9




1800 373




0 v
~9\
~-l \ 396 421
-5 )
0
0
0
84
73
77
65
63
54
40
27
18
12



1324 432





0
-2
-10
-20
-17
-8
 .  . ~ "  . ~.
~ Jt'~t'c ' JC*5T 
475 537
"'--'-- J , J

0 .' - '
0

-------
                                                      TABLE 1-1  (cont'd)



                                  HYDROCARBON ACCUMULATOR MATERIALS  SCREENING  DATA
ro
Accumulator
Material
Charcoal
(coconut
shell)
Barneby-
Cheney
MI 8588
"as received"
(1st Cold
Start)






2nd Cold
Start












Bed
Particle Weight
Size (.grams)
10x20 171
mesh













10x20 150**
mesh
or.
smaller
due
to
attri-
tion






Time
From
Engine
Start-Up
(mi n . )
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
5.0
8.0*
10.0

20.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
3.0
3.5
4.5
6.0*
8.0
10.0
12.0
14.0

20.0
Ave.
Bed
Temp.
(F)
100
125
155
170
180
190
210
230
260
320
370
390
470*
530
-
700
105
140
160
175
230
265
310
390*
465
520
580
615
_
705
Ave. Exhaust
centrations
ceding^ Time
ppm In
7500
3200
1300
960
910
750
675
630
580
535
510
510
510
510
480+1 0
480+1 0
5900
2500
1300
830
660
545
510
480
455
460
440
430
400+10
400+10
HC Con-
fer Pre-
Interval
ppm Out
1000
650
250
225
205
195
195
200
215
270
315
360
440
480
480+1 0
480+1 0
750
650
275
265
255
310
360
420
540
550
495
430
400+10
400+10
Ave. Exhaust HC
Concentrations
(ppm) During
Adsorption Desorption
Holdup In Out In Out
85
80
' 80
77
77
74
71
68
63
50
38
30
14






} 1256 365





6
0
0
87
74
79
68
61
43
29
13
"


1170 393
1 1 / \J *J J*J



-20) ''..'..
"20 > 452 528
TO/ ' -. Twt-  %J^\J
- 1 o I
0 )
0
0

-------
                                                      TABLE  1-1  (cont'd)
                                  HYDROCARBON ACCUMULATOR MATERIALS SCREENING DATA
r\>
Accumulator
Material
Charcoal
3rd Cold
Start













Bed
Particle Weight
Size (grams)
10x20 130**
mesh
or
smal 1 er
due
to
attri-
tion








Time
From
Engine
Start-Up
(min.)
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0*
6.0
8.0
10.0
12.0
14.0
16.0
Ave.
Bed
Temp.
(F)
105
135
150
175
190
225
250
280
320
360*
400
475
530
585
615
660
Ave: Exhaust
centrations
ceding Time
ppm In
2700
1550
840
580
530
520
520
490
460
470
430
410
420
460
460
425
HC Con-
fer P re-
Interval
ppm Out
900
660
330
245
240
280
315
340
380
460
515
560
555
525
480
425
Ave. Exhaust HC
Concentrations
(ppm) During
Adsorption Desorption
Holdup In Out In Out
67
58
61
58
55
46
40
30
17
2
-20
-36
-32
-14
-4


843 410
U"T 
-------
                    TABLE 1-1  (confd)



HYDROCARBON ACCUMULATOR MATERIALS  SCREENING DATA
Time
From
Bed Engine
Accunulator Particle Height Start-Up
Material Size (grams) (m1n.)
Molecular 1/8x1/16" 314 0.5
Sieve Li nde cylinders 1.0
13X 1.5*
2.0
"as received" 2.5
(1st Cold 3.0
Start) 3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
8.0
10.0
12.0
14.0
16.0
20.0
2nd Cold 314 0.5
Start (no 1.0
measur- 1.5*
able 2.0
attri- 2.5
tion) 3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
8.0
10.0
12.0
14.0
16.0
20.0
Ave.
Bed
Temp.
(F)
110
160
235*
275
305
325
345
355
370
385
395
410
455
520
565
620
670
740
130
210
255*
270
305
315
330
335
350
370
-
395
440
495
555
615
650
710
Ave. Exhaust
centrations
ceding Time
ppm In
3200
2150
950
720
620
540
480
480
470
450
450
470
500
470
360
400
375
I
4700
2350
1050
800
640
600
500
440
440
480
480
455
420
420
420
500
530
1
HC Con-
for Pre-
Interval
ppm Out
900
1400
980
770
680
600
530
520
490
470
470
470
500
470
390
420
375
t
1500
1900
1400
1100
840
710
635
560
535
540
525
495
440
440
450
530
530
1
Ave. Exhaust HC
Concentrations
(ppm) During
Adsorption Desorption
Holdup ~Tn Out In Out
7? (
(i } 2100 1093
3D 1
-3 >
. -7
-10
-11
-11
-8
-4






'J / 464 485
0 \
0 \
0 1
-8
-5 /
0
1
68
19
-33
-38
-31
-18
-27
-27
-21
-13
-9
-9
-5
-5
-7
-6
0
3525 1700







500 575









-------
                                                        TABLE 1-1  (cont'd)

                                    HYDROCARBON ACCUMULATOR MATERIALS SCREENING DATA
ro
o
Accumulator Particle
Material Size
Molecular 1/16"
Sieve spheres
Davidson
10A-13X

"as received"
(1st Cold
Start)







2nd Cold
Start
(Engine
cool ed
for 4
hours)







Bed
Weight
(grams)
350













350
(attri-
tion
<3% in
2 runs)








Time
From
Engine
Start-Up
(min. )
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5*
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
8.0
lOiO
20*0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0*
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
8.0
10.0
Ave.
Bed
Temp.
(F)
95
125
175
200
240
280
310*
330
-
365
-
405
445
505
720
95
125
160
195*
225
250
260
270
300
_
320
370
430
Ave. Exhaust
centrations
ceding Time
ppm In
4500
2050
930
700
620
530
440
440
440
380
410
380
400
470
1
5000
2250
1100
850
760
660
570
510
510
510
440
440
460
440
HC Con-
for Pre-
Interval
ppm Out
850
1100
800
600
510
460
440
470
470
420
430
420
430
470
1
940
1250
900
850
800
720
680
640
640
620
540
510
490
440
Ave. Exhaust HC
Concentrations
(ppm) During
Adsorpti on . Desorpt i on
Holdup ~7n Out In Out
81
46
14
14
17
13
0
-9
-9
-10
-7
-10
-7


1555 720





40fi 4^7
~Uw ^J/


0
1
81)
44 > 2300 985
18)
0
-5
-9
-19
-25
-25
-21
-23
-16
-7




520 593



0
                                          20.0
670

-------
ro
                                                      TABLE 1-1 (cont'd)



                                  HYDROCARBON ACCUMULATOR MATERIALS SCREENING DATA
Accumulator
Material
Silica Gel
Davidson
Grade 40
"as received"
2nd Cold
Start
(Engine
cooled
overnight)














Time
From
Bed Engine
Particle Weight Start-Up
Size [grams) Grain. )
6x12 355
mesh

Ave.
Bed
Temp.
(F)



Test was aborted before completion
340** 0.5
1.0
1.5*
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
8.0
10.0
12.0
14.0
16.0
f
20.0
105
145
175*
195
-
220
_
250
-
280
_
330
455
505
555
595
630

690
Ave. Exhaust HC Con-
centrations for Pre-
ceding Time Interval
ppm In Out ppm



due to extremely poor
8500 1500
2150 1500
1150 1050
760 800
650 710
575 655
490 590
435 550
450 550
400 530
425 540
420 550
400 600
450 660
450 580
400 445
420 420
I 1
* \
Ave. Exhaust HC
Concentrations
(ppm) During
Adsorption Desorption
Holdup In Out In Out



engine start
82)
30} 3933 1350
9)
-5
-9
-14
-20
-26
-22
4.cc coe
O*> H>JU JOO
^1 /
-49
-47
-28
-11
0

i

-------
                                                       TABLE I-l(cont'd)


                                   HYDROCARBON ACCUMULATOR MATERIALS SCREENING DATA
ro
A
ro
Accumulator
Material
Silica Gel
3rd Cold
Start
(Engine
cooled
for 3
hours)











Activated
Alumina
Harsh aw
as received"
/ i
(only one
test was
performed
with this
material
because of
the very
low "cross-
over" temp-
erature)
Bed
Particle Weight
Size (grams)
325**
(total
attri-
tion in
3 runs,
45 grams)












1/8x1/8" 435
cylinders








Time
From
Engine
Start-Up
(min.)
0.5
1.0
1.5*
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
6.0
8.0
10.0
12.0
14.0
16.0
18.0
20.0
0.5
1.0*
1.5
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
20:0




Ave.
Bed
Temp.
(Op)
no
140
170*
190
200
220
-
245
-
270
310
410
510
570
615
635
665
695
no
140*
175
195
230
245
290
330
700




Ave. Exhaust
centrations
ceding Time
ppm In
3500
2100
1000
760
675
580
510
500
490
480
420
380
470
530
550
530
530
520
8000
2250
2000
900
590
450
400
580




HC Con-
for P re-
Interval
Out ppm
1075
1450
1000
850
800
710
630
580
560
540
480
510
660
670
620
580
550
535
3000
2350
2100'
1075
780
560
460
580




Ave. Exhaust HC
Concentrations
(ppm) During
Adsorption Desorptipn
Holdup ~Tn Out In Out
3*| 2800 1263
0
-12 \
-18
-22
-25
-16
-14
-12
-14
-34
-40
-26
-13
-10
-4
-3
63
-4
-5
-20
-32
-25
-15
I








510 598






5125 2675

892 1014







-------
                               APPENDIX J

Determination of Stoichlometric Mixture Ratio
     A measure of the stoichiometric mixture ratio is necessary so that
catalyst conversion data can be interpreted.  For rich mixtures the con-
version of NO, HC and CO are limited by the chemical balance of oxidants
and reductants.  On the lean side, HC and CO conversion can be complete;
NO conversion depends on the reaction selectivity of NO and 02<
     The air-fuel ratio at which the combustion equation could precede to
completion is solely a function of the carbon/hydrogen composition of the
fuel.  There are several ways which the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio can
be determined; each method has limitations which are described below.

     Stoichiometric Air-Fuel Ratio Calculated from Fuel Composition
     The fuel used in the emission tests was reported by Texaco Oil Corp.
to have a hydrogen/carbon mass ratio of 0.148.  Thus, the ratio of hydrogen
to carbon atoms in the fuel is 1.76.  Thus,

          C^ 76 + 1.44 02 + 5.46 N2 -> C02 + 0.88 HgO + 5.46 N2

Thus, 13.76 grams of fuel combine with 199.1 grams of air, or the stoichio-
metric air-fuel ratio is
                              199.1 _ ,. ,
                              T3T76 = 14'5
     The error in the determination of stoichiometry using this method
is to the extent that the composition of the fuel used in the test work
was of the composition assumed in the calculation.

     Stoichiometric Air-Fuel Ratio Determined by Engine Carbon Monoxide
     Variation
     A common method of estimating stoichiometry is to observe the carbon
monoxide variation with air-fuel ratio.  A plot of carbon monoxide con-
centration versus air-fuel ratio at fixed throttle and engine speed will
show an almost linearly decreasing CO level as the A/F increases from the
rich side toward stoichiometry.  This effect is due to the increasing

                                   243

-------
                                                             O
                                                             3
                                                             LL.
                                                             I
                                                             Q
                                                             LJJ
                                                             Qi

                                                             Z)
%-.NOUvaiN33NO3ODH3aNnAD^ 'ON
                   FIGURE J-l
      DETERMINATION OF STOICHIOMETRY USING
     EXHAUST CO FROM #4 CYLINDER OF VW 1600

                     244

-------
degree of combustion completeness as more oxygen is available.   Beyond
stoichiometry, there is excess air for combustion; however, wall effects
will insure that there will always be a small region in the cylinder where
the reaction is quenched and combustion cannot go to completion.  Thus,
the CO concentration tends to remain flat for a small  region lean of
stoichiometry.  A single cylinder's profile will exhibit a fairly sharp.
break in the CO curve; a multi-cylinder engine will have a less distinct
break due to air-fuel variation among the cylinders.
     Figure J-l shows CO signature from the #4 cylinder of the  VW engine
as a function of indicated air-fuel ratio.   The data shows an equivalence
ratio of 1.0 at an indicated air-fuel ratio of 15.65.
     It is interesting to note that a similar plot for the Vega exhaust
does not indicate the narrow data spread and estimates of the stoichio-
metric air-fuel ratio using this technique have a much higher degree of
uncertainty.

     Stoichiometric Air-Fuel Ratio Determined by Oxidant-Reductant Balance
     Another way of defining the Stoichiometric air-fuel ratio  is by find-
ing the mixture ratio which results in equal exhaust oxidants and reduc-
tants.  The oxidants in the exhaust are 02 and NO; reductants are HC, H2
and CO.  (There may be amounts of C-N or N-H compounds in the exhaust but
they are so small as to be within the accuracy of measuring the primary
species.)
     The error in determining stoichiometry by this technique depends on
the errors in the individual concentration measurements.  However, this '
method has the advantage that for multi-cylinder engines, the exhaust
stream make-up does not depend on the mixture ratio in each cylinder but
the gross mixture ratio at the carburetor.   When the catalytic  converter
works on the total stream as in the full scale emission tests with the
Vega and the full scale TRW-Harshaw converter only the overall  mixture
ratio is important for catalyst operation.
                                   245

-------
I  ~10

U
   -20



   -30 i
a
LU
0
                                                   APPARENT STOICHIOMETRIC

                                                      MIXTURE RATIO 15.1
                             14                     15

                                MEASURED AIR-FUEL RATIO
                                   FIGURE J-2

                       DETERMINATION OF STOICHIOMETRY FROM
                     REDUCTANT-OXIDANT BALANCE IN  VEGA EXHAUST


                                     246

-------
     Figure J-2 presents the difference in reductants and oxidants from
the Vega engine as a function of the indicated air-fuel ratio.  The
difference is expressed in CO equivalents; that is, the reducing potential
of a single CO molecule is 1 ppm.  The reductant-oxidant difference equals
zero at stoichiometry and in the Vega tests stoichiometry appears at a
measured A/F equal to 15.1.
     From the previous discussions it is apparent that the stoichiometric
mixture ratio is difficult to establish.  The engine CO method gave over
one point higher A/F ratio than the fuel composition reading, a difference
of about 7%.  On the other hand, the two experimental methods differ by
only about 3.7%, which suggests that there may be a systematic error in
measuring the A/F ratio and accounts for the grouping of the experimental
points away from the calculated value.
     The Flowtron fuel flowmeter was calibrated in-situ on the dynamometer
using a catch and weigh technique.  Periodic checks of the calibration
suggested that the maximum error in fuel measurements would not exceed
3% in the fuel flow range of these experiments.
     The accuracy of the Merlam Laminar Flow Meter is stated as +p.5% full
scale.  For the devices used 1n this test, that corresponds to about 0.5
cfm or about +2% error in the air-flow ranges used in the tests.
     Another source of error 1n using the Meriam Instrument is the correc-
tion of the volume flow rates to standard conditions.  In the case of the
single cylinder tests with the VW engine, the air temperature was read on
a mercury-ln-glass thermometer mounted 1n free air about five feet from
the engine air inlet.  There 1s no way of knowing exactly how much the
temperature of the air in the Inlet flow varied from cell air.  However,
a 10F difference could have been possible with the engine inlet air
hotter than the cell air.  This temperature difference would have intro-
duced a 3% error in the air flow; the actual flow rate would be less than
the measured.  This of course would tend to overestimate the air-fuel ratio
by 3%.
                                   247

-------
     The above considerations suggest the following:

            The differences between the calculated stoichiometric A/F
             and the two experimental techniques may be attributed to
             systematic errors in measuring the air and fuel flow rates.

            The differences between the two experimental techniques can
             be partially accounted for by improper temperature correc-
             tions of the air flow rate in the VW test work.  Additional
             differences are possible due to curve fitting errors and
             errors in measuring the oxidant/reductant specie concentra-
             tions.

     The following procedure was thus adopted for reporting all the char-

acterization data.  For the single cylinder catalyst tests all data is

referenced to a stoichiometric mixture ratio of 15.65.  For all full scale

catalyst work using the Vega engine all data is referenced to a stoichio-

metric mixture ratio of 15.1.
                                   248

-------
                               APPENDIX K

Engine Modifications, Instrumentation and Test Fuel
     The 1971 Chevrolet Vega engine used in the full  scale hybrid system
emission tests was purchased from a salvage yard.   The engine had accumu-
lated approximately 3000 miles of vehicle operation.   The Vega is an in-
line, overhead cam four cylinder engine with a displacement of 140 cubic
inches.  The engine used was the higher-powered version of the engine
which uses a two-barrel downdraft carburetor and is  advertised as having
a peak power output of 110 hp at 4800 rpm.
     The alternator of the engine was removed for these tests, however
the water pump, starter motor, fan and ignition system were left untouched.
A radiator from a 1963 Pontiac Tempest was  used for cooling.
     Initially, it was planned to use the two-barrel  carburetor in conjunc-
tion with a combination of fuel bowl  pressurization  and external needle
valving in the main fuel circuit for air-fuel ratio control.   However,
severe problems were encountered in this approach.   The engine proved
difficult to start lean as it was hard to establish  the proper needle
valve settings from run to run.  Secondly,  at mixtures leaner than stoichio-
metry the engine had a tendency to surge under load.   Finally, there were
problems of fuel flow resolution and repeatability.   For these reasons,
the carburetor modification approach was abandoned.
     In its place, we chose a form of intake manifold fuel injection.  The
manifold pressure transducer, four fuel injectors and fuel pump from the
VW 1600 engine were combined with specially built injector control elect-
ronics to provide a well regulated, easily adjusted fuel control system.
A photograph of the installation on the Vega is shown iff Figure K-l.
     A plenum box was constructed to serve as; a mounting plate on the in-
take manifold, a mounting plate for the injectors,  a mounting plate for
the butterfly valve body of the Vega carburetor, and a return port for the
hydrocarbon accumulator desorption line.  Engine air was drawn in through
a Meriam laminar flow element flowmeter and across  the butterfly valve
which was controlled by a cable from the control/instrumentation room area.
The air then was turned through two 90 bends into  the intake manifold.

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                                     LAMINAR FLOW ELEMENT
INJECTOR ELECTRONICS
                                        ANIFOLD PRESSURE TRANSDUCER
                                                     HC ACCUMULATO?RFTi
VEGA CARBURETOR BODY
  INLET AIR MIXE
                                         INTAKE MANIFOLD
                                      THROTTLE CONTROL CABLE
                                  FIGURE K-l
                         VEGA CARBURETION MODIFICATIONS
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LAMINAR FLOW ELEMENT
           FIGURE K-2
        VEGA INSTALLATION
         251

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     The four injectors from the VW were mounted in a gang so that their
spray was directed down into the opening in the intake manifold casting.
The injectors were fired as a group.  Basic engine speed and injection
pulse initiation were supplied to the injector control electronics by a
set of extra point contacts mounted within the distributor.   These con-
tacts were activated by the distributor cam and thus an injection pulse
was initiated for each spark plug firing event.  The basic duration of
each pulse was controlled by the decay of an L-R circuit.   The L portion
of the circuit was provided by the VW manifold pressure transducer which
uses a diaphram-driven variable reluctance coil.  The variable R portion
of the circuit was a Helipot resistor controlled from the control room
area.  The Helipot had sufficient resistance capacity to change the L/R
time constant of the circuit so that air-fuel  ratio control  over a wide
range was possible with a high degree of resolution.
     The position of the four injectors over the intake manifold opening
was found to be very important for a uniform emission profile from each
cylinder.  Exhaust sample taps were installed in each leg of the exhaust
manifold and individual cylinder emission signatures were compared as the
injector group was moved about the top of the plenum box.   After consider-
able trial and error, a balance was found which gave rise to no more than
a 10% variation in the NO-CO levels among the four cylinders.
     Several other minor modifications were made to the engine some of
which can be seen in Figures K-l  and K-2.   The bimetallic element-controlled
damper valve in the air cleaner and the heat riser shroud over the exhaust
manifold were modified slightly.  With the engine cold, the valve was
manually set so that engine air was drawn over the exhaust manifold, through
the valve and LFE into the plenum box.  When the air temperature in the
LFE reached 100 F, the valve was manually operated so that air was drawn
in from the test cell, bypassing the exhaust manifold.
     The timing belt cover was cut away so that a drive disc on a DC tacho-
meter could be pressed against the outside of the belt.  The tachometer was
driven by friction; its output was used as a measure of engine speed and
was the primary feedback signal to the EMT system for engine speed control.
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     The starter motor was powered from a 24 volt battery package.  The
 increased voltage was used to insure a high cranking speed and elimina-
 tion of poor starting conditions.  The coil was fed from a 12 volt tap
 on  the 24 volt supply.
     The clutch assembly and drive shaft from the driven clutch plate
 into the gear box was modified.  The shifting level was operated by a
 small pneumatic cylinder allowing the engine to be remotely coupled or
 uncoupled from the EMT system.  The drive shaft was machined so that it
 could be coupled to a Baldwin-Lima-Hamilton Torque Transducer.  The
 other end of the torque transducer mated with the sun gear of the planet-
 ary gear portion of the EMT.  The torque transducer was used in the
 initial phases of the Vega development to calibrate the engine output
 power at various manifold pressures and air-fuel ratios.  In later
 experiments, the torque transducer was eliminated.

     Gasoline Used in Tests
     In all the emission tests using the VW 1600 or Vega engines, a single
 gasoline was used.  Texaco "lead free" gasoline was purchased from a local
 service station in ten gallon batches, thus the fuel composition reflects
 what was available at that service station over the duration of the program.
     The VW engine had been run on lead-free gasoline for over six months
 prior to the start of the program in an attempt to burn out any lead de-
 posits which might have accumulated prior to this work.  The gasoline used
 in  the Vega prior to its acquisition is unknown; however it was felt that
 there was substantial running with unleaded gasoline on the dynamometer
 prior to catalyst tests to have eliminated any small lead buildup.
     The research laboratories of Texaco reported that their lead free
.gasoline marketed in the Los Angeles area had the following properties:
            91 research octane number
            hydrogen/carbon mass ratio - 0.148
            distillation data
                - 98F initial boiling fraction
                - 10% evaporation at 131F
                - 50% evaporation at 233F
                - 90% evaporation at 326F
                - 407F final boiling fraction
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REFERENCES

1.  Analysis and Advanced Design Study of an Electromechanical Transmission,
    G.H. Gelb, B. Berman, T.C. Wang, E. Koutsoukos, TRW Systems report
    prepared for Division of Advanced Automotive Power Systems Development,
    Environmental Protection Agency, Contract No.  EHSH-71-002, April  1971.

2.  G.H. Gelb, N.A.  Richardson, T.C. Wang and R.S.  DeWolfe, "Design and
    Performance Characteristics of a Hybrid Vehicle Power Train" Society
    of Automotive Engineers paper no. 690169, January 1969.

3.  Develop High Charge and Discharge Rate Lead/Acid Battery Technology,
    TRW Systems report 18353-6006-RO-OO, prepared  for Division of Advanced
    Automotive Power Systems, Environmental Protection Agency, contract no.
    68-04-0028, March 1972.

4.  Catalytic Control of NOX Emissions from Mobile  Sources, M.I. Seegall,
    J.C. Napier, W.A. Compton, Solar Report RDR 1700, prepared for Division
    of Emission Control Technology, Environmental  Protection Agency,  Contract
    no. EHS-70-114,  December 1971.
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