February  1972        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION TECHNOLOGY SERIES
             FOR w


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    A WORKING  DOCUMENT
                 FOR
AIR  POLLUTION  MEASUREMENT
   TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT
              (1972-77)
                   by

         Esso Research and Engineering Co.
         Government Research Laboratory
             Linden, New Jersey
           Contract No. CPA 22-69-154
           Program Element No. AUDIO
        EPA Project Officer:  Dr. A. H. Ellison

         Chemistry and Physics Laboratory
       National Environmental Research Center
     Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711
                Prepared for

      OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
      U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
           WASHINGTON, D.C. 20460

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This report has been reviewed by the Environmental Protection Agency and




approved for publication.  Approval does not signify that the contents




necessarily reflect the views and policies of the Agency, nor does




mention of trade names or commercial products constitute endorsement




or recommendation for use.
                                 11

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                         TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                      Page

    FOREWORD	V

    SUMMARY	1


PART 1 - INTRODUCTION, BACKGROUND AND SCOPE

1.  INTRODUCTION	1-1

2.  BACKGROUND	1-2

3.  SCOPE	1-4


PART 2 - MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES REQUIRED

1.  LEGAL JUSTIFICATION FOR THE MEASUREMENTS REQUIRED	2-1

2.  MATRIX - SUMMARY OF THE MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES REQUIRED	2-21


PART 3 - RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT NEEDS

1.  STRUCTURE OF THE TASK STATEMENTS	3-1

2.  MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES TO SUPPORT EPA RESEARCH
    AND INVESTIGATIONS	3-11

    2.1  Effects and Extent of Air Pollution	3-11

    2.2  Remote and Long Path Sensing	3-17

    2.3  Meteorological Measurements	3-26

3.  MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES TO IDENTIFY AND QUANTITATE
    AIR POLLUTANTS	3-30

    3.1  Ambient Air Quality Measurements	3-30

    3.2  Stationary Source Emission Measurements 	 3-56

    3.3  Moving Source Emissions Measurements	 3-84

4.  TECHNIQUES TO SUPPORT EPA PROGRAMS TO MAINTAIN
    ADEQUATE MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES	3-106

    4.1  Equivalency Testing	3-106

    4.2  Quality Control	3-108
                                   ill

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                           TABLE OF CONTENTS
                              (continued)

                                                                          Page


5.  RESOURCES REQUIRED 	 3-111

    5.1  Consolidation of Funding Requirements on
         Task Statements	3-112

    5.2  Funding for Replacement and/or Improvement
         of Measurement Methods	3-115

    5.3  Funding for Future Requirements 	 3-117

    5.4  Funding Summary	3-118

    5.5  Manpower Required	3-120
APPENDIX A.  MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT
             EFFORTS OUTSIDE EPA	   A-l


APPENDIX B.  A STUDY OF MARKETS FOR AIR POLLUTION
             MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTATION 1971-1980	   B-l
                                    IV

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                                FOREWORD







          The important role played by measurement  techniques in meeting




the legal commitments imposed by  the Air Quality Amendments of 1970 re-




quires an integrated and  far reaching research,development, test and




evaluation plan.  The Environmental Protection Agency which has the




primary responsibility for  the  effort, undertook the development of




this plan.  The Office of Program Development  (OPD) in  the Office of




Air Programs (OAF) initiated the  development of the integrated plan in




1969 by negotiating a contract  with Esso Research and Engineering Company




(Esso) to act as an extension of  the EPA in-house capability in the study.




          The development of the  plan involved a dynamic  interplay between




the contractor and iiPA personnel  which led  first to a recognition and




assessment of the measurement capabilities  required to  meet the legal




commitments imposed by the  new  air pollution control legislation and later




to a plan to achieve these  capabilities.  Some 90 individuals within EPA




contributed to development  of the plan through the  coordinating efforts of




the Division of Chemistry and Physics (DCP), the lead EPA organization




charged with developing air pollution measurement capabilities.




          This document is  a formal report  of  the findings and conclusions




developed during the two  years  of this study; many  of the results them-




selves having been already  integrated into  the DCP  program plans for 1972-




1977 during the last EPA  planning cycle.  This document is intended as a




working document, reflecting a  current assessment of the  measurement needs




and a plan to meet these  needs.   It is anticipated  that this plan will re-




quire continuous updating to reflect new findings and the availability




of the implementing resources.

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          This document was prepared for EPA by Esso Research and




Engineering Company under the direction of Drs. Robert S. Kirk (OPD),




Alfred H. Ellison (DCP) and Rene R. Bertrand (Esso).  Participants from




Esso included Messrs. H. J. Hall, N. L. Morrow, R. H. Salvesen,




R. A. Brown, W. H. King, Jr. and G. M. Varga, Jr.  The final copy




prepared by Esso reflects the opinions and comments of EPA.  The




major portion of the summary was prepared by Dr. R. S. Kirk of EPA (OPD)
                                 Vi

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                                 SUMMARY
          The following is a comprehensive summary of the working
document for air pollution measurement technique development for fiscal
years 1972 through 1977.  It is written to give the reader, in briefest
fashion, a comprehensive idea of the scope of the development program
defined in the working document and the specific tasks required to
carry it out.  The reader is referred to the supplementary working
document for complete details.  The summary is organized in the same
manner as the working document for easy reference and is outlined
as follows;

Part 1 - Introduction, Background and Scope

Part 2 - Measurement Capabilities Required

Part 3 - Research and Development Needs

         1.  Structure of the Task Statements
         2.  Measurement Techniques to Support EPA Research
             and Investigations

         3.  Measurement Techniques to Identify and Quantitate
             Air Pollutants
             3.1  Ambient Air Quality Measurements
             3.2  Stationary Source Emission Measurements
             3.3  Moving Source Emission Measurements
         4.  Techniques to Support EPA Programs to Maintain
             Adequate Measurement Capabilities
         5.  Resources Required
             5.1  Consolidation of Funding Requirements
                  on Task Statements
             5.2  Funding for Replacement and/or Improvement
                  of Measurement Methods
             5.3  Funding for Future Requirements
             5.4  Funding Summary
             5.5  Manpower Required

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Part i - introduction^ Background and Scope

          The Clean Air Act of 1967 authorized development of instrumental
and analytical methods required to meet the legal obligations that have
been or will be set.  Only a portion of the requirements of the original
act plus those specified in the Amendments of 1970 can be fulfilled with
currently available measurement techniques.  A recent survey indicated
private industry does not have adequate incentives to develop many of
the required techniques.  Therefore, it is necessary for the Federal
Government to fund research and development to assure the availability
of adequate instrumentation and methodology.

          The scope of this EPA plan is broad but not all inclusive.
It does include the development of the following:

          1.  Measurement techniques for identification and quantifica-
              tion of air pollutants to assist in the setting of standards
              and to determine compliance with the standards.

          2.  Measurement techniques to support EPA research and investi-
              gations into the causes and extent of air pollution.

          3.  Measurement techniques to support EPA studies on effects
              of air pollution.

          A.  Test procedures to support programs for determining
              equivalency of new measurement techniques.

          5.  Test procedures, test samples and calibrated gases required
              for quality control programs.

However, it does not include the following which are, in most cases, the
subject of other EPA investigations:

          1.  Determining where to sample emission sources to obtain
              representative emissions.

          2.  Determining how to simulate representative emissions from
              moving sources.

          3.  Measuring the effects of pollutant exposure level on the
              health of individuals.

          4.  Measurement techniques for support of programs to develop
              air pollution control technology (one of a kind methods).

          5.  Measurement techniques required during air pollution
              episodes.  (The techniques included in this report will
              probably be adequate to accommodate most such episodes.)

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          6.  Development and implementation of actual quality control
              and equivalency determination programs.

          7.  Measurement techniques for pesticides or radiation control.

          Both manual and automated instrumental methods are included
where appropriate for most of the test requirements.  The manual method
is a technique suitable for intermittent measurements and requires the
presence of an operator.  The automated instrumental method is intended
to permit unattended measurement of the particular pollutant desired and
should be suitable for monitoring purposes.
Part 2 - Measurement Capabilities Required

          The Clean Air Amendments of 1970 imposed a number of require-
ments on Federal, state and local governments as well as private
organizations.  Analyses of these requirements and of the EPA promulgations
issued to date indicate measurement requirements in the following areas:

          1.  To support research and investigations relating to causes,
              effects and extent of air pollution.

          2.  To identify and quantitate data on air quality and source
              emissions to assist in the setting of standards and to
              determine if pollution levels comply with the standards.

          3.  To support the continuing.program to maintain adequate
              measurement capability required by the nation's air
              pollution control program.

          The analysis of requirements for each of these areas is treated
in separate sections of the report.

          Within the research and investigations section, development
needs are aimed at personnel exposure level dosimeters and economic
effects measurement packages.  In addition, the section covers the require-
ments for remote and long-path measurement of air pollutants.

          Measurement capabilities required to identify and quantitative
air pollutants are needed in 3 general areas:  ambient air quality,
stationary source emissions, and mobile source emissions.  Ambient air
measurements are tied to National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)
and National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP).
Pollutants already covered under NAAQS are sulfur dioxide, particulates,
nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, non-methane hydrocarbons and oxidants.
NESHAP's are discussed below.  Measurements required are of two distinct
types; a 24-hour sample of the pollution level conducted at 6 to 14 day
intervals, and a continuous measurement.

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          The emissions from stationary sources of air pollution will
be controlled under:  (1) New source performance standards (NSPS);
(2) NESHAP; and (3) Implementation plans to achieve National Air Quality
Standards.  If the pollutant covered by NSPS is not covered by NAAQS,
the amendments of 1970 require that the states establish similar standards
for existing plants.  At the time of writing this report, standards  of
performance for new stationary sources have been issued for 5 industry
sources and standards have been established for the emissions of particu-
lates, sulfur dioxide, sulfuric acid, and nitrogen oxides.  Three pollutants
have been designated as hazardous air pollutants - beryllium, asbestos,
and mercury.  Depending upon the specific case of pollutants and industry,
the measurements required are the manual and automated instrumental
method and in addition an automated portable measurement device for spot
checking.

          The. moving source emission measurement requirements deal  mainly
with automobiles.  Also included are gasoline fueled light and heavy duty
engines,  heavy duty diesel engines, aircraft, and other newer power
sources such as heavy duty turbines for motor vehicles.  In addition,
there are measurement techniques required for a fuel registration regula-
tion program.  Due to characteristics of the emissions of mobile sources
while in use,it is necessary to establish a test cycle in addition  to
procedures and methods for analysis of the emissions.

          Section 202 of the clean air amendments establishes automobile
emission standards for 3 air pollutants - carbon monoxide,  hydrocarbons,
and oxides  of nitrogen.   It  further  specifies  that the measurement
techniques on which such standards are based shall be prescribed by
regulations.  There are requirements to measure emissions from new  motor
vehicles as well as vehicles in general use.  Section 206 of the legisla-
tion covers new motor vehicles and motor vehicle engines.  This type of
testing is normally referred to as certification or compliance testing
and the administrator shall by regulation establish methods and procedures
for making the tests required.  Testing of vehicle engines in actual use
is covered in Section 207 which gives the administrator the authority
to establish methods and procedures and check motor vehicles in use, and
in Section 110 which requires that the state provide in implementation
plans a program to the extent necessary and practical for the periodic
testing and inspection of motor vehicles to enforce compliance with
applicable emission standards.  These programs require the measurement
capability to conduct emission testing of vehicles in general use.

          Section 231 of this legislation provides for aircraft emission
standards.  They have not been issued at the time of writing this report.
Section 211 provides for regulation of fuels and fuel additives, and this
may require analytical techniques that can be used to test and measure
additives in fuels and to determine emissions which result from the use
of such fuels.

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          Available plans of tin: KPA have been considered so Lhnt ni-w
measurement requirements could be anticipated.  Source categories tor new
source performance standards and a schedule Cor promulgation as well as
for the pollutants which standards are to cover have been estimated  for
the purposes of this plan and are listed by five groups of industries.
Listings and future dates of standard promulgation represent estimates
to enable scheduling of measurement requirements, and must not be construed
as rigid at this writing; they are subject to change.  The industries
covered by the various groups are listed below.

          Group I - Steam generators greater than 25MW, cement plants,
          municipal incinerators, sulfuric acid plants and nitric acid
          plants.  (Performance standards promulgated on December 23, 1971.)

          Group II - Asphalt batch plants, petroleum refineries, render-
          ing plants, steam generators, (25 MW and less) brass and bronze
          refining, iron and steel mills, sewage treatment plants,
          secondary lead smelters.  (Promulgation date estimated July 1, 1972.)

          Group III - Copper smelters, lead smelters, zinc smelters,
          aluminum reduction plants,  pulp and paper mills, coke plants,
          phosphate  fertilizer plants, phosphorus reduction plants,
          animal feed defluorination plants, ferro-alloy plants and coal
          cleaning plants.  (Promulgation date March 1, 1973.)

          Group  IV  - Petrochemical plants, grey iron foundries, sulfur
          recovery units, gas turbines,  lime plants, grain milling and
          handling, hydrochloric acid plants, phosphoric acid plants,
          paint  and varnish, and graphic art plants.   (Promulgation
          date November  1,  1973.)

          Group V - Soap and detergent manufacturers, cotton gins, auto
          assembly plants,  chlorine and caustic plants, rendering plants,
          sewage treatment  plants,  and additional iron  and steel  plants
          and petroleum refineries.   (Promulgation date .July 1,  .1974).

          Additional moving and stationary source emission standards
have been anticipated for the purposes of this R/D plan to cover odor,
fine particulates,  aldehydes, reactive organics,  rubber and asbestos.

          Two EPA programs have been identified which will require
measurement support to assure the maintenance of adequate measurement
capabilities.  They are:  (1) equivalency determination and (2)  quality
control.  The development and implementation of these programs is outside
the scope of this plan but the measurement techniques in support of them
are provided for in the plan.  Techniques necessary to conduct equivalency
determinations must yet be established and this plan provides for the
development of methods, procedures,  and standards required.  The quality
control program must provide the capability for routine calibration of
measurement  methods which are in general use, and must  also provide for
a periodic evaluation of user competence.  This plan provides for the
development of measurement methodology and materials required to support
the quality control program.  It does not include the supply of such
materials for implementation of the program.

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          A detailed matrix chart presenting a summary of the development
 requirements  has  been  prepared for  the  working document,  to  serve  as  an
overall status check and guide  for  future work specified by  this RDT&E
plan.  A brief version of this  matrix is enclosed in the summary below.
The matrix chart  in the summary shows by a dot at the intersection of
the source and pollutant where  test method development is required.  The
matrix chart  lists the pollutants,  source of the pollutants  and the
measurement needs.  The more detailed matrix in the working  document
indicates the tasks by number which are necessary to satisfy the require-
ments .
Part 3 - Research and Development Needs

          This section of the report gives in detail the work tasks
which are required to comply with the air pollution measurement technique
development plan.  The rationale for each task is given along with a
brief background on the current state of the art where appropriate and
a brief summary of what is involved in the actual task to be accomplished.

     1.  Structure of the Task Statements

          Task statements are assigned wherever work needs to be done.
The task statement gives information of the following type:  (1) a
brief description of the work required, (2) cost and time estimates
required for completion of the task, and (3) a list of critical milestone
dates for compliance with EPA needs.  The work categories are defined
as research, development, field testing, evaluation and promulgation.
If a task starts out with research, it is automatically implied that
the other work required will have to be done such as development,  field
testing,  and evaluation before this particular task can be promulgated.
If a task starts out with evaluation program,  it means that the research
development and the field testing have already been done and generally
need not be repeated for these requirements.

          As noted above,the work activity may start at any one of five
levels.  Research includes basic research on new measurement concepts
and analytical methods.  It is anticipated that much of this activity
may be done under grants in academic institutions, however, it  can be
done in government or industrial laboratories.  Development activity
provides a prototype analytical method which would generally be the
culmination of laboratory work done under the  research activity.  Field
testing would follow the development work and  it would be anticipated
that much of the initial field work would be carried out by or under the
close supervision of the individuals who are responsible for the develop-
ment of the particular technique.  Evluation is intended to determine
the actual performance of the measurement technique in the hands of the
intended final users.  Such an evaluation would probably be run at
selected locations by the people who will eventually use this equipment.

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An analysis of the test results would be required to determine limits
of accuracy and reproducibility.  The final activity is promulgation of
a measurement technique which requires a review, adjustments in the
methods which may be required, and finally, publication as an official
measurement method in th*; Federal Register.

          Funding required to accomplish the task is listed on each task
sheet.  Manpower requirements are not included but are discussed in other
sections of this report.  Funding is specific only for the individual
task.  The funds required for each specific activity over the time period
required to complete the task are given.  Contingency funding to cover
unexpected difficulties in the test method development is not included
on each task but a general contingency fund is discussed in a later
separate section of the report.

          In the detailed working document, time schedules for completion
of the tasks if carried out as planned have been indicated by one or more
of three milestones.  The first milestone is the estimated date at which
the method would be needed for promulgation of a standard.  In most cases
this has been assumed to be about 9 months prior to the standard promul-
gation date, to leave about 6 months for measurement activity antecedent
to proposing the standard and a 3 month period for comment on the proposed
standard.  It is assumed that an automated instrumental method will not
be required for at least 18 months following promulgation of the standard.
The second milestone listed is the expected date on which an interim
measurement technique would be available.  The third and last milestone
indicated is the date on which a fully evaluated measurement technique
is expected to be ready for proposal as an official EPA measurement method.

     2.  Measurement Techniques to Support
         EPA Research and Investigations

          Research and investigation programs of the EPA on the effects
and extent of air pollution health and welfare are covered in this
section of the report.  These aspects of air pollution receive special
emphasis in the Clean Air Amendments of 1970.  The health effects research
requires tasks to develop dosage monitors for personnel (similar to
radiation dosimeters) to measure cumulative dosages of specific pollutants.
The health effects research studies will require the measurement of
different pollutants or the measurement of the same pollutants in many
cases in a different manner from that required in the Ambient Air Quality
Monitoring Program.  The development of the required techniques to
perform these measurements is covered below.  Personal monitors for
pollutants covered by NAAQS such as S0, NOX, CO, and oxidants and also
trace metals need to be developed (RI-1)*.  Two tasks have been included
to develop new measurement techniques for aeroallergens, a natural
pollutant, which include development of standard aeroallergen samples
and a rapid means of measuring specific aeroallergens (RI-2,3).  While
many other measurement techniques vere identified to support health
effects research, they did not involve the identification or quantifica-
tion of an air pollutant and thus are outside the scope of this plan.
However, a listing of 8 different areas for instrumentation development
is included in the more detailed working document.
* Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers assigned in the main text of
  this report to the task necessary to satisfy the need indicated.

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          Measurement techniques to determine the long-term effects of
air pollution damage to plants and materials, are needed.  Techniques
suggested are based on the use of an "effects package", which is a
selection of materials in a suitable container which can be placed in
specific locations to determine the effect oi air pollution exposure
on the materials (RI-4).  While this is the only task described in this
section, many of the other measurement techniques described later, especially
in the Ambient Air Quality Monitoring section, will be applicable to
assessing economic damage of air pollutants.

          To support EPA requirements for programs investigating the
causes and effects oC air pollution, measurement techniques for remote
sensing are required.  The measurement techniques suggested are intended
to survey a hroad range of materials to determine overall air quality
and to monitor gross effects of pollutants.  A study including cost
benefit analysis should be run to evaluate the potential of these tech-
niques for more routine application (RI-5).  A number of instrumental
techniques have been studied.  Some are in use to study particulates in,
for example, plumes from power generating plants.  These techniques have
included optical transmission, laser beams, and other techniques which
generally depend on particulate density in the area under study.  However,
further development work is required to develop practical instruments
and data interpretation techniques (RI-6,7).  Remote sensing of gases
has received considerable study, since this method offers a number of
advantages over point sampling.  Advantages include more representative
samples and avoidance o interfacing between an analyzer and the particular
source being studied.  Electro-optical techniques are fairly well advanced
using IR emission and absorption spectroscopy.  Convair of San Diego has
developed an instrument and delivered this to EPA personnel for field
evaluations in the Los Angeles area in the spring of 1971.  Additional
systems have been developed by Bendix for EPA.  Additional grants and
contracts have been issued to G.E.,  Zaromb Research Foundation and the
University of Florida for development of improved remote sensing systems.
Out of this work should come a practical field instrument for remotely
measuring gaseous pollutants emitted from a single source (RI-8) and long
path integrated measurement techniques for measuring emissions from area
sources (RI-9).

          To satisfy the requirements of meteorological measurements,
development of additional capabilities are indicated to be needed to study
the interaction of dispersant atmospheric forces and pollutants.  The
measurement techniques anticipated are beyond the currently applied
technology.  For example,  remote sensing of the temperature profile,
atmospheric turbulence and wind measurements up to a height of 1500
meters are required (RI-10,11,12,13).  These tasks all begin in the
development stage but generally will require merely refinement of one
of the already developed techniques for meteorological measurements.

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                                    10
     3-.  Measurement Techniques to Identify
         and Quantitate Air Pollutants	

          This section covers the tasks required to satisfy the measure-
ment needs of monitoring ambient air levels of stationary and moving
source emissions.  A total of 122 tasks are included, 49 in the ambient
section, 39 in the stationary source section and 34 in the moving source
section.

          3.1  Ambient Air Quality Measurements

          The analytical methods and instruments which will be required
to measure the ambient air quality level throughout the United States
are considered.  Specific requirements are indicated by pollutant classes
as noted below.

                     1.   SC>2  and  sulfur compounds
                     2.   Particulates
                     3.   Carbon oxides
                     4.   Nitrogen oxides
                     5.   Ozone  and oxidants
                     6.   Hydrocarbons
                     7.   Halogens
                     8.   Hazardous air pollutants
                     9.   Other  pollutants
                    10.   Odors

          An analytical  manual method for S02 has been listed in the
Federal Register of April 30, 1971.  However, additional work is required
for instrumental methods for continuous analysis of S02 as well as
cumulative 24-hour sampling  and  measurements of S02 (IQA-1,2).  Flame
photometric detector techniques  look promising for total gaseous sulfur
compounds and for specific sulfur containing compounds.  Thus, with very
little development work  and  field testing, this method should be ready
for approval (IQA-3).  A simple  method for cumulative ^S measurements
over a period of time less than  1 hour is needed (IQA-4).  A manual
method for molecular sulfuric acid mists does not exist and needs to be
developed (IQA-5).

          Current techniques for measuring total particulate mass are
primarily based on the high  volume filter samples or on collections on
tapes  for more rapid measurement.  These need to be replaced with better
techniques  employing improved tape samplers or instrumental methods (IQA-6,7).

          Development of an  improved filter medium is needed before Hi-Vol
samplers .are completely  satisfactory (IQA-8).  Other techniques for improved
instrumental measurement of  cumulative particulate mass  loading will need
evaluation  (IQA-9).  Instruments for measurement of particulate size
distribution are available for sizes down to 0.1-0.5   micron but they
need evaluation and  for  smaller  particle size measurements, new instrumental
techniques  need to be developed  (IQA-10,11).  The effect of particulates

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                                     u
when fully evaluated should be suitable for instrumental measurement
(IQA-12).  Composition of collected particulates can generally be measured
by emission spectroscopy, atomic absorption, etc., depending on the
particular type of material, but additional developmental and evaluation
work is required to assure the adequate application of these techniques
at concentrations encountered in air pollution studies (IQA-13).

          Measurement of CO by ND1R was specified in the Federal Register
recently.  However, improved methods such as the GC with FID need to be
developed to enable more satisfactory measurement of the lower levels
of CO (IQA-14).  Additional instrumental methods for ambient level CO
measurements are anticipated to become available from the private sector
and will need evaluation for improved official methods (IQA-15).  Research
is needed to develop a simple instrumental method for cumulative sampling
and measurement of CO (IQA-16).

          Measurement of N0 by  the  Jacobs-Hochheiser manual method  needs
further evaluation  (IQA-17), and  there  is  an  apparent need  for an
improved  method  (IQA-18).   Developments  in  instrumental  methods  for
continuous measurement  and  cumulative sampling  and  measurement of N02
are  required  (IQA-19,20).   The development  of instrumental  methods  for
continuous measurement  of NO is  nearly  complete,  and  instruments are
needed  for cumulative sampling and measurements  of  this  material (IQA-21,
22).  A method  for  nitric acid vapor or  mist  is  required  (IQA-23).

          Total  oxidants (TOX) and ozone  in ambient air  are measured by
the  KI  method  as  indicated  in  the Federal  Register;  this  method  needs
further evaluation  for  correlation to other methods in use  (IQA-24).
Many  instruments  have been  offered for  measurement  of these oxidants in
air  and need  to  be  evaluated as  possible  improvements over  the KI method
(IQA-25).  A  simple device  for cumulative  measurement of  TOX is  needed
(IQA-26).

          Hydrocarbons  of many types including  substituted  compounds
such  as alcohols, aldehydes, and  esters  have  been generally lumped
together  as air  pollutants.  However, specific  tests will be needed  to
distinguish the  various  components.  The  gas  chromatograph  coupled with
FID  looks promising but  needs  further evaluation for  total  hydrocarbons
above methane,  and  further  development  for  identification of specific
components such  as  PCB  (polychlorinated  biphenyl) etc. (IQA-27,28).
Hydrocarbons which  are  most active in smog  and  oxidant forming reactions
are. a special  class and  a routine procedure  for measuring this class is
desired (IQA-29).   Instrumental  methods  for the  routine  measurement  of
aldehydes need  further  development and  evaluation (IQA-30). Polycyclic
aromatic  materials  (POM) are of  particular  concern  and some of them  have
been  identified  as  carcinogens;  chief among these is benz-a-pyrene  (BaP).
Many  techniques  are available  to measure  these  compounds but there  is  a
need  to select  the  best  procedure for analysis  of BaP (IQA-31).  An
automated instrumental method  for this  material  looks promising based  on
GC  techniques  (IQA-32).  It is anticipated  that  additional  POM compounds
may be  of particular concern in  the  future  and  thus, additional  test
methods will probably be required for specific  carcinogenic compounds  (IQA-33)

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                                       12
          Halides of concern are generally fluorides and chlorides.  These
materials may be released from industrial operations, such as aluminum
plants, fertilizer plants, etc., as well as from incinerators and coal
combustion.  Several instrumental methods for HF detection need evaluation
to select the most promising technique for this component in the gaseous
state (IQA-34).  The present indication,which is still to be confirmed,
is that a preferred manual method for total particulate fluorides must
be developed which includes the determination of both water soluble and
insoluble fractions (IQA-35).  Many methods are available for measurements
of both chlorides and HC1 in the atmosphere, and the best instrumental
methods need to be field tested (IQA-36).

          Hazardous air pollutants include asbestos, mercury and beryllium.
Microscopic techniques are generally required to distinguish asbestos from
other fibers and established manual techniques need to be evaluated
(IQA-37); research is needed for techniques which can measure asbestos
by instrumental methods (IQA-38).  Mercury is present in various forms
in the atmosphere and, due to the toxicity of almost all forms of mercury,
detection equipment for its measurements at the ppb level by atomic
adsorption or neutron activation techniques need to be developed (IQA-39).
Beryllium has been included in the list of hazardous air pollutants.
Measurement techniques are fairly well developed for beryllium and field
testing of manual wet chemical techniques is required to promulgate an
interim method (IQA-40).  However, further development is required for
an acceptable instrumental technique (IQA-41) .

          The measurement of lead, which is generally in the form of
molecular organic or inorganic compounds can be accomplished by the use
of atomic adsorption techniques.  Further developments and evaluations
are required for an acceptable manual technique (IQA-42).  Cadmium in
solid particulates may be detected by IQA-13 but both manual and
instrumental techniques need to be developed for volatile cadmium com-
pounds (IQA-43,44).

          Manual techniques for other pollutants such as volatile compounds
of the toxic non-metals, i.e., arsenic, selenium, and phosphorus, and
of trace metals are required (IQA-45,46).

          Detection of odors currently relies on field tests with human
sensors and procedures need to be perfected for conducting these tests
(IQA-47).  In addition, specific tests are needed for instrumental measure-
ment of specific odorants such as reduced nitrogen compounds and corre-
lation of these measurements with general public response levels (lQA-48,49)
Measurement methods for reduced sulfur compounds and for organic acids
and aldehydes will be provided by tasks IQA-3,4 and 30.

          3.2  Stationary Source Emission Measurements

          Permanently fixed facilities that contribute to air pollution
are designated as stationary sources.  This section covers the research
and development tasks required to meet the needs for measurements from
these sources.  While many industries have been identified in this section,

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                                      13
not all the specific industries have been enumerated.  Development activity
expenditures are considerably less in this section since there is a
significant incentive for private industry development.  Thus, most of
the tasks start out with a field test activity.  The major pollutant
classes which are covered are (1) sulfur oxides, (2) oxides of nitrogen,
(3) total particulate mass loading, (4) visible emissions, (5) other
particulate properties, (6) hazardous substances, (7) carbon monoxide,
(8) organic compounds, (9) odors, (10) halogens, and (11) other pollutants.
A brief description of the measurement techniques required for each of
these areas follows.

          Satisfactory manual methods do exist for the measurement of
total SC>2, sulfate ions, sulfuric acid mist, and 803, however, these
methods need to be field tested and evaluated (IQS-1).  Since S02 and
sulfuric acid mist are of particular concern, there is a need for continuous
monitors of the emission of these pollutants.  Many automated continuous
monitors for SC>2 are fairly well developed and need evaluation (IQS-2) .
No monitors are available for sulfuric acid mist and thus development
of an automated method is required (IQS-3).

          The available manual method for total nitrogen oxides based on
a reaction with phenol disulfonic acid (PDS) needs to be evaluated to
insure its adequacy and reproducibility in the hands of users (IQS-4).
Manual methods are required for particulate nitrate and nitric acid mists
to enable emission factor determinations (IQS-5).  At least 4 different
techniques have been considered for automated analysis and monitoring
of NOX and these are currently being field tested under contract at
Monsanto Research Corporation; subsequently, evaluation for an official
method will be conducted (IQS-6).

          To measure total particulate mass one of the main problems
appears to be sampling.  It is anticipated that there will be a need  for
an isokinetic sampling device, and once this is established, a satisfactory
automated isokinetic sampling device will have to be perfected (IQS-7)
The proposed Federal particulate sampling method requires prior cooling
of the effluent gases before their collection, and since this is somewhat
different from some of the various methods used by different agencies,
the importance of full evaluation of the Federal method is stressed (IQS-8).
A constant volume sampling method of determining total particulate mass
from stationary sources with appropriate dilution to represent effluent
gases from the stack should be developed (IQS-9).  Available devices
and promising concepts for automated methods are currently being evaluated
under an EPA contract with Thermosysterns, Inc.  Two techniques look best
at present:  the piezoelectric crystal detector and the use of beta guaging.
Based upon this evaluation, the most promising concepts will be developed
and/or evaluated (IQS-10).

          A manual method for the determination of white smokes needs
promulgation (IQS-11).  Automated instruments based on light extinction
devices look promising and need further development and evaluation,  and
also need to be correlated to the opacity measurement obtained by human
observations (IQS-12).

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                                      14
          Other participate properties such as particle size, number of
particles and particle composition need further test method development
work.  Particle size can be determined by available devices (i.e., Anderson
or Brinks sampler), but new techniques need to be developed for a manual
method for determining particle size distribution in the range of .05 to
.5 microns (IQS-13) .  EPA currently has a contract with Environmental
Research Corporation for the development of an automated sampler analyzer
for particle size distribution (IQS-14).  Available instrumental techniques
employing optical detection methods appear promising for use as instrumental
techniques to sample and analyze for the number of particles in a gas
sample and need evaluation (IQS-15) .  Particle composition may become a
requirement in future standards.  The Naval Research Laboratory currently
has a contract with EPA which should lead to an on-stream analyzer for
measurement of the composition of particulate matter (IQS-16).

          Analytical manual methods for the determination of hazardous
substances such as asbestos, mercury, and beryllium  are well known.
However, they have not been fully evaluated for use in testing emissions
from stationary sources (IQS-17, 18, 19) .  Automated instruments fo.r
measuring mercury are fairly well developed and need evaluation; however,
development work needs to be done on a similar method for asbestos and
beryllium (IQS-20, 21, 22).

          Commercial instruments for the determination of carbon monoxide
need to be evaluated for manual and automated measurement (1QS-23) .

          Total gaseous (non-methane) hydrocarbons may be readily detected
by use of non-dispersive infrared or flauxe ionization techniques.  However,
these commercial techniques have limitations and need complete evaluation
and for more specific differentation of the composition other instruments
(i.e., GC with specific detectors) need to be developed and evaluated
(1QS-24, 25).

          The major odors from stationary source emissions are hydrogen
sulfide, total reduced sulfur, amines, organics, acids and aldehydes.
Odor levels not specific to particular compounds are best determined by
human odor panels, and the evaluation of this technique is included in
IQA-47.  For sources which generate mainly sulfur based odorants, gas
chromatographic columns may be used for separation followed by flame
photometric detectors.  Currently available instruments need to be evaluated
to determine their suitability for stationary source emission measurement
(IQS-26).  Similarly, GC techniques followed by more specific detection
equipment may be used to determine odorants based on ammonia, amines,
organic acids and aldehydes and need evaluation or development as deter-
mined required from evaluation studies (IQS-27, 28).  Gaseous effluents
from many different plants have not been identified thoroughly enough
and this must be done in order to develop test method progress (IQS-29).

          Manual methods for halogens are generally based on colorimetric
or gravimetric methods, and these need to be further tested and evaluated

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                                     15
for gaseous sLalionary source emissions (IQS-30,3 1) .  Automated U'cliniques
for fluorine based on colorimetric or ion electrode and lor chlorides
based on ultraviolet absorption or ion electrode analyzers need further
field testing and evaluation (IQS-32,33).

          Cadmium and lead are currently of special significance and manual
methods for their measurement must be developed and more fully evaluated
(IQS-34,35).  Additional pollutants which are of concern at present include
gaseous compounds of arsenic, selenium and phosphorus.  It is necessarv
to develop manual methods for these materials and additionally for gaseous
compounds of trace metals such as copper, nickel, zinc, boron, tin, lithium,
chromium, vanadium,  and manganese so that at least emission factors can
be determined and ambient air quality levels predicted (IQS-36,37).  Auto-
mated instruments for the detection of cadmium and other materials have
not been included in the DRT&E plan but may be required.  In order to
obtain mass emission rates needed to set standards and to determine
compliance with the standards data on mass flow velocity, temperature
and pressure from stacks will be required; techniques for temperature
and velocity profile measurement must be developed (IQS-38,39).

          3.3  Moving Source Emission Measurements

          Three areas of concern are discussed in this section: (1) Motor
vehicles, (2) Aircraft, and (3) Fuel registration programs.  Most of the
measurement techniques required are covered in the motor vehicle emissions
section, since many of these tests will also apply to emissions from
aircraft, and also to the fuel registration program.

          Of special concern in test development of motor vehicle emissions
is sampling to assure measurement of meaningful emissions.  The operating
cycle under which motor vehicles are to be evaluated has already been
specified by Federal regulations.  Sampling under these operating conditions
presents a problem because of the different volumes of exhaust emissions
which may be emitted depending upon the vehicle operating conditions.
For example, the oxides of nitrogen emissions may range between 5 and A,000
parts per million in the exhaust depending on whether the vehicle is in
a deceleration or acceleration mode.  Collection of the total exhaust
emission is not practical nor is it practical to sample only a small
portion since the exhaust composition is known to vary over this cycle.
Thus, it is necessary to develop a simplified exhaust flow and/or carburetor
air intake sensor to control proportionating volumes when sampling raw
exhaust (IQM-1).  Currently, EPA regulations required a constant mass sampler
(CMS).  This CMS system does appear practical for on-the-road use if it
can be reduced in size and, thus, it should undergo development for
simplification, then evaluation for on-the-road use (IQM-2).  The present
plans anticipate that fine particulate (below 2n) mobile source emission
standards may be required about 1975.  Consequently, this requires develop
ment  of adequate sampling procedures (IQM-3).  Sampling procedures for
other vehicles such as heavy duty gasoline powered engines,  heavy duty
diesel engines and automotive gas turbine engines also need to be developed
(IQM-4,5,6).  It is anticipated that new power plants will be forthcoming
and thus sampling procedures for such power plants will be required (IQM-7).

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                                       16
Additional air pollutants from motor vehicles during  operation  are  being
considered, among them asbestos particles from brakes and rubber particles
from tire wear.  Thus, additional sampling procedures need to be developed
for such materials (IQM-8,9).  Additional sampling procedures need  to be
developed for evaluation of automotive emissions other than on  the  road,
or under the conditions of the Federal test cycle, such as, at  the  end
of the line in production plants, in state motor vehicle inspection stations
for spot checking, and in service stations and repair facilities.   Different
and simplified techniques need to be developed for these requirements
(IQM-10,11,12,13).  Gaseous pollutants emitted from mobile sources  now
covered by emission standards include hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and
oxides of nitrogen.  Additional materials such as particulates, fine
particulates, reactive hydrocarbons, heavy hydrocarbons, oxygenates, poly-
cyclic organic matter and odors are additional materials which  are  anticipated
to be covered by emission standards later in the decade.  Techniques
similar to those which have already been mentioned for these materials
need to be developed and adapted specifically for moving vehicle emissions
(IQM-14,15,16).

          Carbon monoxide levels from moving sources generally  are  about
1400 parts per million, but the Clean Air Amendments of 1970 specifies
a 90 percent reduction by 1975.  This is very close to the background
level of clean ambient air.  The EPA has a fluorescent carbon monoxide
sensor under development and this system needs further development  and
evaluation for measuring carbon monoxide at the lower levels anticipated
(IQM-17).  Currently available methods for the measurement of nitric
oxide based on chemiluminescent reactions with ozone will probably be
used to test compliance with Federal emission standards required for 1973
model automobiles.  Improved sensors such as those under study by Monsanto
Research will be needed for routine monitoring of nitrogen oxide emissions
(IQM-18).  A need is anticipated for a routine instrument for measurement
of polycylic organic matter in the 1976 period.  Current analytical methods
for polycylic organic matter are satisfactory but instruments need  to be
developed for routine monitoring of these substances from automobile
exhaust (IQM-19).  Certain hydrocarbons from auto exhaust are known to
be contributors  to eye irritation and smog formation.  To better define
this problem and for control,  methods are needed to determine the cause
of these responses and to identify the hv 'rocarbons responsible.for them
(IQM-20,21).  Oxygenated compounds from exhaust have also been  identified
as reactive species and there is need for a research capability to measure
manually such compounds from mobile sources in the first quarter of 1972
and a capability to routinely measure these pollutants by June  1974 (lQM-22,23)
Obnoxious odorants emitted from diesel and gas turbine engines need to be
characterized and manual and instrumental analytical techniques developed
for their measurement from moving sources (IQM-24,25,26).

          Adaption of particulate measurement methods based on stationary
source requirements are needed for control of such emissions for 1977 model
year vehicles (IQM-27).  A requirement for routine capability to measure
fine particulates has been delineated.  This necessitates further characteri-
zation work to determine particle size and composition and subsequently

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                                    17
to develop a routine instrumental capability (TQM-28,29).  Emissions of
smoke, especially irom diesel and gas turbine engines, can be satisfactorily
measured with commercially available equipment,  but these instruments
need evaluation to determine their acceptability for routine use (IQM-30) .

          Since most piston aircraft emissions are identical with auto-
motive emissions, automotive sampling procedures are applicable.  Thus,
the main development requirements are sampling procedures for both gaseous
and particulate jet engine exhaust pollutants (IQM-31,32).  Analytical
techniques developed for hazardous air pollutants and trace metals in
ambient air and stationary source emissions should be satisfactory to
meet the requirements of the EPA program to register six fuel classes
and their additives.  It will be necessary to determine if they are
acceptable for these programs (IQM-33,34).

     4.  Techniques to Support EPA Programs to
         Maintain Adequate Measurement Capabilities

          This section of the report describes the measurement develop-
ment tasks required to support the equivalency determination of new
measurement techniques and the quality control program.  It is anticipated
that new instrumental developments will be forthcoming from industry or
other control agencies and these new instruments and measurement techniques
must be compared to methods promulgated by the current plan.  Thus, there
is a need to establish protocols to certify alternate methods and equip-
ment (MP-1) .  The quality control program must provide the capability
for routine calibration of measurement methods which are in general use
and must provide for a periodic evaluaticn of user competence.  Tasks
to support the quality control program are intended to provide for the
development of the standard gas mixtures for calibration and methods
for evaluation of performance level of those who use the test
methods (MP-2,3).  This present plan does not provide the funding or
manpower required to run the equivalency determination on the quality
control programs.

      5.   Resources  Required

           5.1   Consolidation  of  Funding
                Requirements on Task  Statements

          The funding requirement shown on the Task Statements totals
over $50 Million over the period fiscal year 1972-1977, with a peak
funding requirement of $17 Million in fiscal year 1973.

          5.1.1  Funding by Application Areas

          A breakout of the funding by application areas is shown  in
Table 3.1 and is summarized below for the three major application  areas.

                                                    Funding Requirement
                                                       FY 1972-1977
 .	Application Area	  Millions of Dollars
  Support of EPA Research & Investigation Program         7.04
  Identification & Quantification of Pollutants          41.00
  Support of EPA Maintenance Programs                     2.29

                                                          50.33

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                                      18
          5.1.2  Funding by Activities
          The funding requirement by activities and application areas is
given in Table 3.2.  A summary of the funding by activities for the
period covered by this plan is given below.
                                                 Funding Requirement
                                                    FY 1972-1977
          	Activity	                   Millions of Dollars
            Research                                   3.725
            Development                               22.165
            Field Test                                12.650
            Evaluation                                10.470
            Promulgation                               1.365
                                                       50.375
          5.1.3  FundinR by Pollutant
          The matrix of capability needs, Part 2, Section 2, has been used
to assign the funding to specific pollutants.  If a task involves more
than one pollutant, the funding assignment reflects a pro-rata share of
the task cost to each pollutant.  The funding by pollutant and applica-
tion area year is given in Table 3.3.  The funding requirement by
pollutant is summarized below.
                                                 Funding Requirement
                                                    FY 1972-1977
                   Pollutant                     Millions of Dollars
            Sulfur Oxides                              3.54
            Oxides of Nitrogen                         3.72
            Particulates                              10.84
            Hazardous Pollutants                       4.70
            Carbon Monoxide                            1.50
            Hydrocarbons                               6.07
            Odors                                      4.10
            Halogen                                    1.86
            Oxidants                                   1.23
            Other Pollutants                           3.575

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                                      19
          5.2  Funding for Replacement and/or
               Improvement of Measurement Methods

          Once measurement techniques are developed and in use for one
to two years, some techniques will be unacceptable in routine practice,
others will need major or minor improvements.  It is assumed that 50%
of all techniques will be completely acceptable, 207, will require minor
and 20% major improvements and 10% replacements.  The cost of minor
improvements is assumed to be 30% of development of a new instrument,
of major improvements 60% of new instrumental development.  The total
factor of 0.28 is multiplied times the average yearly cost of measurement
technique development, and this amount is added to the costs for the
second fiscal year following, e.g., 28% of the base funding for FY 1972
is added to the FY 1974 funding requirements.  Since there is no way
to ascertain which specific tasks will require this additional effort,
it is not possible to allocate the funds to specific items.

          5.3  Funding for Future Requirements

          The funding requirements defined so far only provide for
measurement techniques to satisfy the measurement needs imposed by
current legislation.  The nation's air pollution control program is
however still in the formative stages and new legislation can be expected
during the period covered by this plan.  It is anticipated that future
legislation will require the availability of improved instrumentation,
e.g., higher sensitivity and better specificity.  Obtaining this degree
of improvement in measurement capabilities will require substantial
advances in the state of the art and accomplishing these advances will
require long lead time.  A research and development program to provide
for advancement of the state of the art of measurement technology is
required.  This program would be done "in-house" and through EPA
sponsorship of research grants to the academic community.  It is
difficult to set an amount of funding for this activity although a
figure of approximately 10% of the measurement development program
base funding level or some 5 million dollars over the time period of
this plan seems reasonable.  Manpower limitations will require that
this funding be concentrated in the last three years of the plan period.

          5.4  Funding Summary

          The total funding required in fiscal years 1972 to 1977 to
implement the measurement technique development plan is 69 million
dollars.  In fiscal years 1973 to 1975, the funding required is two or
three times that currently budgeted for FY 1972.  Table 3.4 summarizes
the funding required by fiscal year.

          5.5  Manpower Required

          The implementation of the measurement technique development
plan will require EPA manpower in addition to the funding requirements
previously discussed.  This manpower will be needed to conduct the
in-house programs,  to monitor and administer the contract program and
for general program supervision.

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                                   20
          At the peak funding period of FY-1973, some 18 million dollars
is required for the measurement development program.  It is expected
that 15 million dollars will be in contract programs requiring 30 people
for contract monitoring and administration.  About 65 people will be.
required for the in-house program and 20 people for general program
supervision during this period, for a total manpower requirement of
115 people.

          By FY-1977, it is anticipated that approximately 50% of the
measurement development program will be "in-house" with emphasis on
programs to advance the state-of-the-art.  The 2.5 million dollars to
be spent in the in-house programs will require some 80 people directly
involved in laboratory programs.  Contract monitoring and administration
should require an additional 6 people, on the assumption that one person
can monitor about 500 thousand dollars of contract research.  At the
relatively small size of the contracts let in the measurement develop-
ment program, this amounts to 5-6 contracts per contract mpnitor.
General program supervision will require an additional 19 people, for
a total manpower requirement of 105.

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                                AIR POLLUTION MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT TASK SUMMARY
Function/
Task Number
Research &
Investigation
RI - 1
RI - 2
RI - 3
RI - 4
RI - 5
RI - 6
RI - 7
Pollutant/
Description

S02, NOX, CO,
oxidants and
trace metals
Ragweed Pollen
Aeroallergens
Effects Package
Multi-Pollutant
Plume Opacity
Part. Mass
I/ Date 21 Total Funding
Activities Start End $l,000's Task Description

D, FT, E 1-6 2-6 525 Develop Personal Air Pollution Cumulative
Exposure Monitors for S02, NOx, c. Oxi-
dants and Trace Metals 73
R, D 0-6 2-6 350 Develop Standard Samples of Aeroallergen
Materials with the Initial Effort on Rag-
weed Pollen
R, D, FT 0-6 4-5 510 Develop a Rapid Means for Identifying and
Quantifying Aeroallergens in the Ambient
Atmosphere ^
I i
R, D, FT, 0-6 3-10 535 Develop an Effects Package to Enable As-
E, P sessment of the Damage Caused by Air Pol-
lution to Economically Important Materials
R 1-6 2-6 200 Conduct a Cost Benefit Analysis of Remote
Sensing Techniques Applied to Routine Air
Pollution Control
D, FT 0-6 3-6 625 . Develop a Practical Field Instrument for
the Remote Measurement of Plume Opacity
D, FT, E, 2-6 4-6 340 Develop the Data Interpretation Techniques
P to Enable Remote Measurement of Particu-
RI - 8
Gaseous Pollutants  R, D, FT,
of Sources Point    E, P
0-6
3-10    1525
late Mass Loading

Develop a Practical Field Instrument for
the Remote Measurement of Gaseous Pollu-
tants Emitted from Single Sources

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Fun
Tas
RI

RI 
ction/ Pollutant/
k Number Description
- 9 Integrated Emis-
sions of Aggrega-
ted Source

 10 Temperature
Profiles
\l
Activities
R,
E,

D,
D, FT,
P

FT
Date 2/
Start End
0-6 4-9

0-6 1-6
Total Funding
$l,000's
990

400
Task Description
Develop a Practical Field Instrument
Based on the Use of Long-Path Inte-
grated Measurement Techniques for the
Measurement of Emissions from Area
Sources
Develop and Evaluate an Advanced Proto-
type Instrument to Remotely Measure
RI - 11
RI - 12
RI - 13
Wind Speed and      D,  FT
Turbulence Pro-
files
Wind Speed and      D, FT
Turbulence Pro-
files
Moisture Profile    D, FT
Measurements
                                                    0-6
               0-6
               1-6
                                            1-9
                                                             1-9
                                                             3-6
                                 230
                                                     265
                                                     550
Vertical Temperature Profiles

Develop and Evaluate a Prototype Instru-
ment Based on the Laser Cross-Beam
Technique to Measure Wind Speed and Tur-
bulence Profiles

Develop the Data Handling Techniques Re-
quired to Obtain Wind Speed and Turbu-
lence Profiles Using Ground-Based Ac-
coustical Measurement Techniques

Develop an Instrument Based on Optical
Dispersion Techniques for Moisture
Profile Measurements and Field Test the
Measurement Method
Ambient Air

IQA - 1


IQA - 2



IQA - 3
S02
SO,
S,
D, FT, E
P

D, FT, E
P
D, FT, E
P
                                                    0-7       2-10     280
                                                    0-7      2-10     335
                                   0-7      2-10     285
                                                                    Develop  and Evaluate an Instrumental
                                                                    Method for Continuous Measurement of S02

                                                                    Develop  and Evaluate an Instrument for 24
                                                                    Hour  Cumulative  Sampling and  Analysis of
                                                                    S02

                                                                    Develop  and Evaluate Instrumental Methods
                                                                    for Total  Gaseous  S Compounds and for
                                                                    Specific Sulfur-Containine Compound

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Function/
Task Number
IQA -
IQA -
IQA -
IQA -
IQA -
IQA -
IQA -
IQA -
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
Pollutant/
Description
H2S
H2S04
Part. Mass
Part. Mass
Part. Mass
Part; Mass
Part. Size
Respirable Part.
I/
Activities
D,
P
R,
E,
D,
P
R,
E,
D,
P
FT
D,
R,
E,
FT, E
D, FT,
P
FT, E
D, FT,
P
FT, E,
, E, P
FT
D, FT,
P
Date 2J
Start End
0-7 1-11
0-7 2-10
0-7 2-7
0-7 3-7
1-7 2-10
1-7 3-11
1-7 2-9
1-7 4-10
Total Funding
$l,000's
210
285
180
510
200
155
125
635
Task Description
Develop and Evaluate A Manual Method for
1 Hour or Less Cumulative Sampling and
Measurement of H2S
Develop a Manual Method for Molecular
H2S04(Sulfuric Acid Mists)
Develop Beta-Gauging Techniques to Replace
the Photometric Measurement of Particulates
Collected on the Tape Sampler
Develop and Evaluate An Improved Instru-
mental Method to Measure Hourly Particu-
late Mass Loading w
Develop an Improved Filter Medium for Use
in Cumulative Measurement of Total Partic-
ulate Mass by Hi-Vol Equipment
Field Test and Evaluate Techniques for
an Improved Instrumental Measurement of
Cumulative Particulate Mass Loading
Test and Evaluate Commercial Instruments
for Size Distribution of Suspended Par-
ticles
Develop New Instrumental Techniques for
Respirable Particles, Including the
IQA - 12
Visibility
D, FT, E, P    0-7
2-10     170
Smaller Particles of 0.1 to 2 Micron Size

Field Test and Evaluate Available Instru-
ments to Measure Visibility

-------
Function/
Task Number
Pollutant/
Description
         II          Date 21   Total Funding
 Activities     Start    End	$1 .OOP's
                                             Task Description
 IQA - 13



IQA - 14




IQA - 15




IQA - 16


IQA - 17


IQA - 18



IQA - 19


IQA - 20



IQA- 21
Part,
CO
CO
CO
NOX
NO-i
N02
N09
NO
D, FT
E, P
E, P
1-7      2-10    225
3-6      3-10     85
D, FT, E, P     1-6      2-10    165
D, FT, E, P     0-6      2-10    260
0-6      0-10    110
R, D, FT,       1-6      3-10    385
E, P
D, FT, E, P     0-6      2-10    385
D, FT, E, P     0-6      3-3     260
D, FT, E, P     0-6
         2-3     210
Develop and Evaluate Laboratory Methods
for Determining the Composition of
Collected Particulate Matter.

Test and Evaluate Currently Available
Instruments Based on G.C. - FID for In-
strumental Measurement of CO at Normal
Ambient Levels

Field Test Alternate Methods of Ambient
Level CO Measurement and Conduct Evalua-
tions as soon as Developmencs Appear
to Justify an Alternate Official Method

Develop Simple Instrumental Methods for
Cumulative Sampling and Analysis of CO

Evaluate the Jacob Hochheiser Modified
Saltzman Method for N02

Conduct Research and Development Leading
to an Improved Analytical Method for
Ambient N0

Complete the Development of Instruments
for the Continuous Measurement of
Develop Simple Instrumental Methods for
Cumulative Sampling and Measurement of
N02

Complete Development and Evaluation of
Instrumental Methods for Continuous
Measurement of NO

-------
Function/
Task Number
IQA - 22
IQA - 23
IQA - 24
IQA - 25
IQA - 26
Pollutant/
Description
NO
HN03
Total Oxidants
Ozone
Ozone
I/
Activities Start
D, FT, E, P 0-6
D, FT, E, P 0-6
FT, E, P 0-6
E, P 1-6
D, FT, E, P 1-6
Date 2/
End
3-3
2-10
1-10
1-9
3-10
Total Funding
$l,000's
260
210
160
110
285
Task Description
Develop and Evaluate Instruments for
Cumulative Sampling and Analysis of NO
Develop Analytical Methods for Ambient
Molecular HN03
Evaluate the KI Instrumental Method for
Total Oxidants and Correlate the Measured
TOX Values with Values Obtained by the
Other Oxidant and Ozone Measurement Methods
Now in Use
Evaluate an Ozone Instrument as an Alter- 
nate Official Method for Total Oxidants
Develop and Evaluate a Simple Instrumental
IQA - 27
IQA - 28
IQA - 29
IQA - 30
HC
Specific HC's
Reactive HC's
Aldehydes
E, P
D, FT, E, P
R, D, FT,
E* P
R, D, FT,
E, P
         1-7
         85
1-6
0-6
0-6
3-10    335
4-10    460
4-8.
435
Device for Cumulative Sampling and Ana-
lysis of Total Oxidants or Ozone

Evaluate the G.C. - FID Instrumental
Method for Determination of Total Hydro-
carbons Above Methane

Develop Modifications of the G.C. - FID
Instrumental Method for Specific Hydro-
carbons

Develop and Evaluate Instruments for
Measurement of Reactive Hydrocarbons as
a Class

Develop and Evaluate Instrumental Methods
to Routinely Measure Aldehydes

-------
Function/ Pollutant/
Task Number Description
IQA - 31 BaP
IQA - 32 BaP

IQA - 33 POM's
IQA - 34 HF, F
IQA - 35 F -


IQA - 36 HC1, C12
IQA - 37 Asbestos
IQA - 38 Asbestos
I/ Date 21
Activities Start End
D, FT 0-6 1-8
D, FT, E, P 1-6 4-3

R, D 1-6 3-12
D, FT, E, P 1-6 2-10
D, FT, E, P -1-6 3-10


D, FT, E, P 1-6 3-10
E, P 0-6 1-3
R, D, FT, 1-6 5-3
E, P
Total Funding
$l,000's
125
260

450
165
210


285
135
635
Task Description
Evaluate Available Measurement Procedures
for an Interim Manual Method for Analysis
of Benz-a-Pyrene
Develop and Evaluate Automated Instru-
mental Methods for the Determination of
Benz-a-Pyrene
Continue Development of Methods for
Analysis of Additional Specific Carcino-
genic Compounds
Test and Evaluate Instrumental Methods
for Gaseous HF J
Develop and Evaluate Manual Methods for
Both Water Soluble and Insoluble Fluoride
Particulates for the Determination of
Total Fluorides
Develop and Test a Chlorine/HCl Instru-
mental Detector Technique for Issurance
as an Official ^Instrumental] Method
Evaluate Measurement Methods Based on
Visual Counting for an Interim Manual
Method for Asbestos
Continue Research for Techniques which
can lead to an Instrumental Method for
                                                                                   Asbestos
IQA - 39
Hg
D, FT, E, P
0-6
2-10
210
Develop and Evaluate Available Instrumental
Technique for Measurement of Mercury

-------
\
Function/
Task Number
IQA - 40


IQA - 41


IQA - 42

IQA - 43


IQA - 44


IQA - 45


IQA - 46

IQA - 47

IQA - 48

IQA-49
Pollutant/
Description
Be


Be


Pb

Cd


Cd


As, Se, P


Trace Metals

Odors

N

Odors
I/
Activities Start
D, FT, E, P . 1-6


D, FT, E, P 0-6


R, D, FT, 1-6
E, P
D, FT, E, P 2-6


D, FT, E, P 1-6


D, FT, E, P 1-6


. D, FT, E, P 1-6

FT, E, P 0-6

D, FT, E, P 1-6

R 1-6
Date 2/
End
3-10


3-5


4-6

4-8


4-6


4-6


4-6

3-6

4-3

3-12
Total Funding
$l,000's
335


285


285

335


385


690


615

315

335

300
Task Description
Field Test and Evaluate Currently Avail-
able Manual Methods for Volatile Be as
an Interim Method
Develop and Field Test an Instrument for
the Continuous Measurement of Ambient
Levels of Volatile Be
Evaluate Available Manual Techniques
for Organic and Volatile Pb
Field Test and Evaluate Currently
Available Manual Analytical Techniques
for Volatile Cd
Develop and Field Test an Instrument for
the Continuous Measurement of Ambient
Levels of Volatile Cadmium
Develop a Method for Measurement of Vola-
tile Compounds of Toxic Non-Metals, i.e.,
Arsenic, Selenium and Phosphorous
Develop Manual Methods for Volatile Com-
pounds of the Trace Metals
Conduct Field Tests and Evaluations Lead-
ing to an Official Method for Odor Panels
Develop and Evaluate Instruments for
Measurement of Reduced Nitrogen Compounds
Continue Correlation Studies Among Odor
                                                                                        Response, Odor Persistence, and Measured
                                                                                        Levels of Specific Odorants in Complex
                                                                                        Mixtures

-------
Function/
Task Number
Stationary
Sources
IQS - 1
IQS - 2
IQS - 3
IQS - 4
IQS - 5
Pollutant/
Description

Total Sulfur
Oxides
so2
Sulfuric Mist
NOX
Part. Nitrate,
HN03 Mist
I/ Date 2J Total Funding
Activities Start End $l,000's Task Description

FT, E, P 3-6 3-11 400 Field Test and Evaluate Manual Analytical
Methods for Determining Total Sulfur Oxides
(Particulate Sulfate, Sulfuric Acid Mist
SO- and SO.) at Source Level Concentrations
FT, E, P 0-6 1-3 525 Complete the Field Test and Evaluate Auto-
mated Continuous Monitors f:-r S0_ at
Emission Sources
R, D, FT, 0-6 3-4 305 Develop and Evaluate an Automated Monitor
E, P for Sulfuric Mist from Sulfuric Acid Plants
E, P 0-6 1-3 85 Evaluate PDS Manual Analytical Method for
Source Level Concentrations of Nitrogen
Oxides ot
D, FT, 0-6 2-10 235 Develop and Evaluate Manual Methods for
E, P Determining Particulate Nitrate and
7\T -i *- - -i .- A ^i -T A \f -i o t- ftr rvm Q *- 
-------
Function/
Task Number
IQS - 9
Pollutant/ I/ Date 2/ Total Funding
Description Activities Start End $l,000's Task Description
Part. Mass D, FT, E, 2-6 5-3 510
P
Develop a Constant Volume Sampling Proce-
dure which will Permit the Measurement of
IQS - 10



IQS - 11


IQS - 12




IQS - 13



IQS - 14
Part. Mass
D, FT, E, P
Visible Emissions  FT, E, P
Visibility of      R, FT, E,
Effluent Plumes    P
Part. Size         D, FT
Particle Size      D, FT
Distribution
IQS

IQS

- 15

- 16

No. of
Particles
Particle
Composition
D, FT

D, FT

IQS - 17
Asbestos
FT, E, P
0-6
                0-6
                0-6
                0-6
                0-6
                                                    1-6
                                                    0-6
OT-6
2-10     1715
         1-10     235
         2-3
         1-10
         2-10
                                            2-10
                                            4-3
1-10
         740
         150
         375
                                  130
                                  450
155
Total Particulate Mass Loading with ap-
propriate Dilution to Represent the Prob-
able Particulate Formation of the Effluent
Gases after Leaving the Stack

Develop an Instrument for and Evaluate
Continuous Measurement of Total Particu-
late Mass Loading

Promulgate a Manual Method for Visible
Emissions Based on White Smoke Guides

Develop and Evaluate a Transmissometer for
In-Stack Automated Measurement of Visi-   ^
bility of Effluent Plumes and Relate      ^
Opacity Measurement to Human Observations

Develop a Manual Method for Determining
Particle Size Distribution in the Range
of 0.05 to 0.5y

Develop and Evaluate an Automated Sampler/
Analyzer to Determine Particle Size Dis-
tribution

Evaluate Instruments to Sample and Analyze
for the Number of Particles in a Gas Sanple

Develop and Test an On-Stream Analyzer
for Measurement of Composition of Particu-
lates

Evaluate Manual Methods of Analysis for
Asbestos

-------
Function/
Task Number
IQS
IQS
IQS
IQS
IQS
IQS
IQS
IQS
IQS
IQS
- 18
- 19
- 20
- 21
-- 22
- 23
- 24
- 25
- 26
- 27
Pollutant/ I/
Description Activities
Hg FT, E, P
Be D, FT, E, P
Hg Ft, E, P
Asbestos D, FT, E, P
Be R, D, FT,
E, P
CO D, FT, E, P
HC D, FT, E, P
Organic D, FT
Compounds
H2S and Totally D, FT, E, P
Reduced S Odors
NH RNH2 D, FT, E, P
Date
Start 1
0-6
1-6
1-6
1-6
1-6
0-6
0-6
1-6
0-6
0-6
Date 2_/   Total Funding
    En_d_	_$_!_ ,000_' s___
    2-3
    2-9
    4-3
    2-3
    2-3
    3-3
180
155
    2-10     155
310
    4-10     355
310
    1-10     365
    2-10     350
360
260
                          Task Description
Evaluate Manual Methods of Analysis for
Mercury

Develop and Evaluate Manual Methods of
Analysis for Beryllium

Evaluate Automated Instruments for
Measuring Mercury Emissions

Develop and Evaluate Automated Asbestos
Emission Monitors

Research, Develop and Test Automated  In-
struments for Continuous Monitoring of
Beryllium Emissions                      o

Evaluate Available CO Instruments for
Manual and Automated Measurements

Evaluate Available Instruments for
Measuring Total Hydrocarbons

Evaluate Gas Chromatographic Systems  In-
cluding Separation Columns and Detectors
for Measuring Specific Organic Compounds
in Effluent Cases

Evaluate Commercially Available Instruments
for Determining ^S and Totally Reduced
Sulfur Odors from Stationary Source
Emissions

Develop Tests and Evaluate Appropriate
Columns for the Analysis of Ammonia and
Amines from Effluent Gases to Determine
the Specific Concentration of the
Odorants

-------
Function/
Task Number
Pollutant/
Description
IQS - 28
IQS - 29
IQS - 30
IQS - 31
IQS - 32
IQS - 33
IQS - 36
IQS - 37
RCOOH, RCHO
Odors
Cl
HC1, Cl
IQS - 34         Cd


IQS - 35         Pb
As, Se, P
Trace Metals
        y           Date 2J   Total Funding
Activities      Start    End     _$l^OOP_'s __
                                            Task Description
D, FT, E, P
R
D, FT, E, P


D, FT, E, P


D, FT, E, P



D, FT, E, P



D, FT, E, P


D, FT, E, P



D, FT



D, FT
1-6
0-6
                                   0-6
0-6
                                   0-6
1-6
                                   1-6
                                   3-6
1-6
2-6
4-3
2-6
         2-8
2-3
3-3
         3-3
3-3
4-3
365
275
         245
140
         2-11     250
140
         2-10     180
         155
300
550
Develop Tests and Evaluate Commercially
Available Separation Columns for Deter-
mining Organic Acids and Aldehydes

Determine the Chemical Constituents which
are Responsible for Odors from Pulp and
Paper Mills, Petroleum Refineries, Petro-
chemical Plants, Sewage Sludge Incinera-
tors and Animal Rendering Plants

Test and Evaluate Manual Analytics.! Methods
for determining Fluorides

Test and Evaluate the Manual Analytical  w
Methods for Determining Chlorides

Test and Evaluate the Available Consnercial
Instruments for Automated Measurement of
Fluorides

Test and Evaluate the Available Ccrmercial
Instruments for Automated Measurements of
Hydrogen Chloride and Total Chlorides

Develop and Evaluate Manual Methods for
Analysis of Cadmium

Develop Manual Methods for the Measurement
at Source Emission Levels of Gaseous Com-
pounds of Lead

Develop Manual Methods for Source Emission
Level Measurements of Gaseous Compounds of
Arsenic, Selenium and Phosphorous

Develop Manual Methods for the Source
Emission Level Measurements of Gaseous
Compounds of the Trace Metals

-------
Function/        Pollutant/                 _!/
                                    Activities
                                        Date  2]   Total Funding
                                   Start   End      $1,OOP's
IQS -

IQS -
38

39
Temperature
Profile
Flow Velocity
D,

D,
FT,

FT,
E,

E,
P

P
1-6

0-6
3-3

3-10
205

255
Mobile Sources
IQM - 1
IQM - 2
IQM - 3
IQM - 4
IQM - 5
IQM - 6
                 Profile
Exhaust Sampling   D,  FT
System
On-the-Road        D,  FT
Sampling System
Particulate
Mass Sampling
D, FT, E, P
Sampling Proce-    D,  FT, E, P
dures Gasoline
Engines

Sampling Proce-    D,  FT, E, P
dures Diesel
Engines

Sampling Proce-    D,  FT, E, P
dures Gas Turbine
                1-6       2-10      150
                2-6      4-10      350
0-6
                0-6
                1-6
                0-6
2-10
         1-11
         2-10
         3-10
460
         210
         210
         260
                                                  	Task Description
                                                                  Develop Techniques  for Determining  the
                                                                  Temperature Profile Across  Stack

                                                                  Develop Techniques  for Determining  the
                                                                  Flow Velocity Profile Across Stack
Develop and Evaluate a Simplified Exhaust
Flow and/or Carburetor Air Intake Sensor
to Control the Proportional Sampling Rates
for Use with the Raw Exhaust Sampling
System                                   w
                                         N>
Simplify and Evaluate the Constant Mass
Sampling System for Potential Use On-the-
Road to Confirm the Validity of the Oper-
ating Test Cycles for Measurements to De-
termine Compliance with the Light Duty
Vehicle Emission Standards

Develop and Evaluate a Sampling Procedure
for Particulate Total Mass Loading Con-
sistent with the Currently Accepted Con-
stant Mass Sampling Procedure

Develop and Evaluate Sampling Procedures
to Obtain Representative Emissions from
Heavy Duty Gasoline Powered Engines

Develop and Evaluate Sampling Procedures
to Obtain Representative Emissions from
Heavy Duty Diesel Powered Engines

Develop and Evaluate Sampling Procedures
to Obtain Representative Emissions from
the Auto Gas Turbine

-------
Function/
Task Number
Pollutant/
Description
        _!/           Date  2/   Total Funding
Activities	Start    End      $l,000's
IQM - 7
IQM - 8
IQM - 9
IQM - 10
IQM - 11
IQM - 12
IQM - 13
Sampling Proce-
dures , Other
Advanced Power
Plants

Asbestos
D, FT, E, P
D, FT, E, P
Rubber Particles   D, FT, E, P
Assembly Line
Sampling
D, FT, E, P
Inspection System  D, FT, E, P
Sampling
Spotcheck Idle
Sampling
Sampling for
Engine Tuning
D, FT, E, P
D, FT, E, P
                                                                                                Task Description
1-6      4-6
0-6
                1-6
0-6
                1-6
2-10
         3-10
2-10
         3-10
         1000
310
         210
510
         470
1-6      3-10     340
1-6      3-10     390
              Develop  and Evaluate Sampling Procedures
              for External Combustion and Other Advanced
              Automotive  Power Plants
Develop and Evaluate a Sampling and
Measurement Procedure for Asbestos
Particles Emitted During Operation of
the Motor Vehicle

Develop and Evaluate a Sampling Procedure
for Rubber Particles Emitted During
Operation of the Motor Vehicle
                                         u>
Develop and Evaluate a Simplified Pro-   <**
cedure for Sampling at the End of the
Line Compatible with the End of the Line
Operating Test Cycle

Develop and Evaluate Sampling Procedures
to Support State Inspection of Motor
Vehicles in General Use Where the Measure-
ment is Made According to the Selected
Operating Procedure at a Fixed Location
with Inertia Wheels or Other Appropriate
Devices to Simulate Road Loading Con-
ditions

Develop and Evaluate a Sampling Procedure
for Use by the States in Inspecting Vehi-
cles in General Use Where the Measurement
is made as Spot Checks at Idle Conditions

Develop and Evaluate Sampling Procedures
for Use by Service Stations and Repair
Facilities to Restore Motor Vehicles to
Proper Emission Standards

-------
Function/
Task Number
 IQM -  14
 IQM -  15
 IQM  -  16
 IQM -  17
 IQM -  18
 IQM -  19
 IQM  -  20
 IQM -  21
Pollutant/                 H           Date 2/  Total Funding
Description    .    Activities      Start    End     $1 .OOP's
 Non-methane  HC     D, FT, E, P     0-6
 Heavy  HC
 Heavy  HC
 CO
 NO
 Reactive  HC
 Reactive  HC
D, FT
FT, E, P
 Polycyclic        D, FT, E, P     1-6
 Organic Matter
D, FT
0-6
                         2-10     285
0-6      1-11     200
D, FT, E, P     0-6      2-11     260
D, FT, E, P     0-6      2-10    .260
0-6      0-9
                                                     135
                         3-10     360
2-6      425
D, FT, E, P     1-6      3-10     590
                                                                                               Task Description
                      Develop  and  Evaluate  a  Continuous Analyzer
                      for Measurement  of Total Hydrocarbon  Less
                      Methane  From Automotive Exhaust

                      Develop  an Analytical Technique  to  Enable
                      Research Measurements to be Made of Heavy
                      Hydrocarbon  Emissions

                      Develop  and  Evaluate  an Instrument  for
                      Measurement  of Heavy  Hydrocarbons from
                      Mobile Source Exhaust to Enable  Routine
                      Measurement  of Heavy  Hydrocarbons During
                      Certification and Inspection  Procedures
Complete Development and Evaluate an
Instrument for Carbon Monoxide with Im-
proved Sensitivity

Complete the Test and Evaluation of
Routine Monitors for Total Nitrogen
Oxide Emissions

Develop and Instrumental Capability for
Routine Monitoring of Polycyclic Organic
Matter from Automobile Exhaust

Develop Laboratory Analytical Methods
for Determining Reactive Hydrocarbons
Present in Automotive Emissions

Develop the Instrumental Capability for
Routine Measurement of the Reactive Com-
ponents of Auto Exhaust
                                                                                                                            u>

-------
Function/
Task "ur.ibcr
Pollutant/
Doscripti o_n
        I/           Date 2f  Total Funding
Activities      Start    End         KXV s
                                            Task Description
IQM - 22


IQM - 23



IQM - 24
IQM - 25
IQM - 26
IQM - 27
IQM - 28
IQM - 29
Oxygenates


Oxygenates



Odors
Odors
Odors
Part. Mass
Part. Mass
Part. Mass
D, FT


D, FT, E, P
D, FT


D, FT



FT
R
D, FT, E, P
0-6
0-6
                0-6
1-6
150
0-6
0-6
3-10     335
         2-6
1-6      3-6
         300
0-6      2-3      275
1-6      3-11     525
1-11     175
         300
2-11     335
Develop Laboratory Analytical Methods  frr
Determining Oxygenates from Auto Exhaust

Develop an Instrumental Routine Meth:d  for
Measuring Oxygenates Which Could be Used
to Make Certification and Inspection Tests

Chemically Characterize the Constituents
Responsible for Odors from Diesels and
Gas Turbines to Define Chemical Con-
stituents Which Can be Selected as the
Basis for a Quantitative Measure of Oder

Develop Analytical Techniques for the
Measurement of Odors from Moving Sources *"<

Develop Routine Instrumental Techniques
for the Measurement of Odors from Moving
Sources

Evaluate the Available Methods for the
Research Determination of Both Parti:ulare
Mass Loading and the Quantity of Fine
Particulates from Mobile Source Vehicular
Exhaust

Characterize the Particulate Emissions
from Motor Vehicle Exhaust to Provide
Information for Design of Routine Instru-
mental Monitors

Develop a Routine Instrumental Capability
to Measure Total Particulate Mass Loading
and the Quantity of Fine Particulate

-------
Function/
Task "i!n;ber
IQM - 30
IQM - 31


IQM - 32



IQM - 33
IQM - 34
Pollutant/
Description
Smoke
Jet Engine
Part. Sampling
Fuel Additive
and Emissions
Fuel Additive
Emissions
Measurement Maintenance
MP - 1
MP - 2
Equivalence
        I/           Date 2/  Total Funding
Activities      Start    End     $1,000's
FT, E, P
Jet Engine Gas     D, FT
Sampling
D, FT
D, FT, E, P
D, FT
D, FT, P
0-6
                0-6
1-6
0-6
1-11
3-6
0-6      2-6
Quality Control    R, D, FT, E,    0-6      1-9
                   P
135
1-11     275


2-rlO     275
1000
         1695
0-6      2-9      290
                                                                      1600
                                                                                                Task Description
Complete the Evaluation of Smoke Meters
for Both Diesel and Gas Turbine Exhausts
to Determine Their Acceptability for
Routine Monitoring of Smoke from Motor
Vehicle Exhaust

Develop and Evaluate Sampling Procedures
for Jet -Engine Exhaust Gaseous Pollutants

Develop and Evaluate Sampling Procedures
to Obtain Representative Emissions for
Jet Engine Particulate Pollutants

Evaluate Measurement Techniques Developed
for Air Pollutants and Trace Metals to   ^
Determine if they are Acceptable for     "^
Measurements to Support the Fuels and Fuel
Additives Registration Program: Promulgate
Official Measurement Techniques for Fuel
Analysis of Additives

Develop the Procedures Required to Deter-
mine the Nature of and the Amount of
Emissions Resulting From the Use of Fuels
and Fuel Additives to Support the Fuels
and Fuel Additive Registration Program
                       Develop and Evaluate Procedures for
                       Determining the Equivalency of New
                       Measurement Techniques

                       Develop and Evaluate Standard Materials
                       to  Enable the Routine Calibration of
                       Measurement Methods  in  General Use

-------
Function/
Task Number
Pollutant/
                                            _!/
                                    Activities
MP  -  3
Quality Control    D, FT, E, P
     Date 2_/   Total Funding
Start    End	$1,OOP's
                                                                               Task Description	
                                                    0-6
         2-10
390
Develop and Evaluate the Procedures and
Test Samples for a Program to Period-
ically Evaluate the Performance Level
of Users of Measurement Techniques
_!/ Activity Abbreviations:   R= Research
                             D = Development
                            FT = Field Test
                             E - Evaluation
                             P = Promulgation of official method unless otherwise noted

2] Start and End dates are in terms of fiscal year and month where "0" is FY72, ''!" is FY73, etc.:
   1-7 would be the 7th month in IY73 or January, 1973.

^j Abbreviations of pollutant descriptions are chemical symbols for sulfur dioxide (S02) , carbon monoxide (CO), etc,
~  NOX= Nitrogen Oxides

-------
                                   PART 1




                    INTRODUCTION. BACKGROUND AMD SCOPE
1.   INTRODUCTION




2.   BACKGROUND




3.   SCOPE

-------
                                   1-1
                           I .   INTRODUCTION







          The purpose of this  report is to present  in detail  a  research,




development, test and evaluation (RDT&E)  plan for the Environmental




Protection Agency, covering the fiscal years 1972 through 1977, to




assure the availability of measurement techniques required in meeting




the legal commitments imposed by the Clean Air Amendments of  1970.




          The RDT&E plan will provide for development of air  pollution




measurement techniques:  to support EPA research and investigations




into the causes, effects and extent of air pollution; to identify and




quantify air pollutants; to assist in the setting of standards  and to




 determine compliance with standards; and to support a continuing EPA




 effort to maintain adequate measurement capabilities.

-------
                                   i-2
                            2.  BACKGROUND






          Instrumentation and analytical methods  development  is auth-




orized under Sections 103 and 104 of the Clean Air Amendments  of  1970.




Other provisions of the Act require that instrumentation  and  analytical




techniques be available for enforcing the standards  that  have  been  or




will be set.  The control of air pollution depends on the ability to




determine the concentrations of pollutants in the ambient air  and at




the sources of the pollutants.  The measurement of the pollutants de-




pends on the availability of accurate and consistent instrumentation and/or




methodology for measurement.  No truly satisfactory  methods or instruments




are currently available for routine monitoring of ambient air  or  pollution




sources for most pollutants, yet Federal, State,  and local control  agencies




must soon enforce a series of controls on emissions  from  sources  and must




monitor the ambient air for the achievement of the National Ambient Air




Quality Standards.  The apparent potential market for instruments or  measurement




apparatus does not provide sufficient incentive for  private industry to




invest the required capital into an appropriate research  and  development




program.  Therefore, the Federal government must  provide  funding  for the




KDT&E phases of  instrumentation and methodology development,  with private




industry undertaking the commercialization of instrumentation so  developed.




          Because of the acceleration of the air  pollution control  program




called for in the Clean Air Amendments of 1970, particularly with respect




to new source performance standards and emission  standards for hazardous




pollutants, a major expansion in the instrumentation and  analytical methods

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                                    L-3
development program is necessary.  Of particular importance is the lack




of methodology for measuring emissions from stationary sources.  The




special provisions of the Act for control agency authorities to measure




and to require and specify the monitoring of emissions by stationary




sources stress the importance of the availability of such methodology.




          The pollutants or classes of pollutants that have been




delineated to be of highest priority for control must be covered by ade-




quate measurement techniques.  At the minimum, manual methods must be




developed  for all of these pollutants, both for ambient air and source




emissions.  It is expected that  approximately one-third of the pollutants




will have  continuous instrumentation developed for ambient air monitoring;




approximately one-half of  the pollutants will have stationary  source




monitoring instrumentation developed.  In addition, many diverse categories




of  industries each with  its own  unique requirements must be covered for




emissions  sampling methodology.  Instrumentation for measuring compliance




with the standards applicable to 1975 and 1976 light duty motor vehicles




(including advanced  power  sources) must be developed, as well  as  instrumenta-




tion to measure  emissions  from other mobile source classes such as  heavy




duty vehicles, aircraft, off-highway vehicles, locomotives, and vessels.

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                                   1-4
                                3.  J3C.OPE
3 .1  Genera 1
          The RDT&E plan includes only the development of measurement
techniques which contribute to the identification and quantification of
air pollutants.  The identification and quantification of the air pollutant
can be used to discharge a legal  commitment  for measurement in a
specific pollution control application area, e.g. source emission measurement,
or it can be a supporting element in the general research or program
maintenance areas.  What determines whether a technique is included in
the plan is whether it contributes to defining the pollutant and determining
its level.

3.2  Discussion  of  the  Scope  of  the  Plan
           Several  important areas involving the  application  of  measurement
 techniques  are outside  the scope of  this  KDT&E  plan.   These  areas  must
 be  considered by EPA if the data obtained from  the  measurement  techniques
 are to be useful  in support of a  program to control  air pollution.   Perhaps
 the most important is  the specification of how  to simulate  representative
 emissions  from moving  sources and defining where to sample  a source of
 emissions.   We will consider  the simulation of  emissions  in  defining
 the measurement  capabilities  required  for the moving source  emission
 measurement area by referring to the need for an operating  test cycle
 which  is needed  to simulate,  at  a fixed location, the on-the-road  emissions
 from a motor vehicle.   The problems  of where to sample is encountered
 in  determining where in an industrial  source one makes the measurement(s)
 needed to  determine the true  emissions from the  source.   The development
 of  techniques and  procedures  to  determine how to simulate representative
 emissions  from moving  sources and the  development of  procedures to determine
 where  to sample  is  not  included  in  this RDT&E plan.
           The plan provides for  special measurement techniques  in  support
 of  studies  into  the causes and extent  of  air pollution.   Techniques provided
 for this area include  remote  pollutant monitoring capabilities  to  permit
 following the level of  a pollutant  from the point of  emission into the

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                                      1-5
ambient atmosphere and the development of meteorological measurement  capabilities
to provide information on the wind speed and turbulence and on the  temperature
profile in the planetary boundary layer.
          The plan also provides for special measurement techniques in
support of studies and investigations into the effects of air pollution.
In the health effects area, this includes the development of personnel
dosimeters to measure the exposure of individuals to air pollutants.
The plan does not include the measurement techniques which will be
required Co determine the effect of that pollutant exposure level on  the
health of the individual.
          The plan recognizes the need for but does not include the
special measurement techniques which may be required to support a
program to develop air pollution control technology.  The basic
tools needed for the identification and quantification of air pollutants
in these programs are provided by measurement techniques to be developed
Cor the source emission measurement application area.  What is not
included is special one-of-a-kind measurement needs, e.g. the distribu-
tion of limestone dust injected into a utility boiler as part of a  SCL
control project.
          The plan provides no special techniques for measurements which
may be required during air pollution episodes.  The measurement techniques
provided in the plan for ambient air quality monitoring and for source
emission measurement are assumed to be versatile enough to meet measurement
needs during periods of air pollution episodes.
           The plan does not include specific tasks for development of
 measurement techniques for fine particulates.  Fine particulates is  a sub-
 division of the particulate class which is currently being considered for
 either a separate standard or for Inclusion in a modified particulate
 standard.   The fine particulate designation refers to the quantity of
 particulate with particle size below a certain size.  Measurement  techniques
 for fine particulates will involve a combination of techniques developed
 for the particulate total mass-loading and particulate size distribution
 groupings which are covered in the plan.  The reader will note that  tasks
 for these two groupings are frequently written to include additional work
 required in anticipation of a possible fine particulate standard.

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                                  1-6
          The plan provides for the development of test procedures to
support the program for determining the equivalency of new measurement
techniques.  It also provides for the development of test procedures,
test samples and calibration gases required to support the quality control
program.  The plan does not provide the funding and manpower required to
conduct either the equivalency determination or the quality control programs,
          This plan does not include specific test procedures to control
or monitor pesticides or radiation.  There may be a need to add these
areas of concern in future revisions.
3.3  Measurement Techniques Included in the Plan
          The RDT&E plan provides for the development of two general types
of measurement techniques:  a manual method and an automated (instrumental)
method.
          The manual method is a technique suitable for intermittent
measurements and requires the interaction of an operator with the
measurement procedure.  In its most basic form, the individual making
the measurement obtains a sample of the atmosphere or stream containing
the pollutant and returns the sample to a laboratory where the level of
the pollutant is determined using a suitable analytical procedure.  The
sampling procedure can be short or it can involve collection of the
sample over a period of days or even weeks.  Included in the manual
method category is the development of portable measurement instruments
for the most prevalent pollutants.  These instruments will enable
governmental representatives to conduct spot inspections of source
emissions to determine compliance with the emission standards.
          The automated instrumental method, permits unattended repetitive
measurements of the pollutant level.  Once the instrument has been
installed and calibrated, the instrument automatically samples and
analyses the pollutant at a selected repetition rate.  The repetition
rate  depends on the intended use of the instrument and can vary from
continuous measurement to measurements made at specified intervals
of every few minutes or hours.   The automated  instrumental method is
intended to be  suitable for continuous monitoring of pollutants.

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                                  PART 2

                     MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES REQUIRED


1.   LEGAL JUSTIFICATION FOR THE MEASUREMENTS REQUIRED

    1.1  Procedure Used to Determine Measurement
         Capabilities Required

    1.2  General Requirements

    1.3  Measurement Capabilities Required to Support
         Research and Investigations

    1.4  Measurement Capabilities Required to Identify
         and Quantitate Air Pollutants

         1.4.1  Ambient Air Quality Measurements

                1.4.1.1  National Ambient Air Quality Standards

                1.4.1.2  National Emission Standards for
                         Hazardous Air Pollutants

                1.4.1.3  Measurement Requirements

                1.4.1.4  Summary of Measurement Capabilities Required

         1.4.2  Stationary Source Emission Measurements

                1.4.2.1  Standards of Performance for New
                         Stationary Sources

                1.4.2.2  National Emission Standards for
                         Hazardous Air Pollutants

                1.4.2.3  Implemental Plans

                1.4.2.4  Measurement Requirements

                1.4.2.5  Summary of Measurement Capabilities Required

         1.4.3  Moving Source Emission Measurements

                1.4.3.1  Special Considerations

                1.4.3.2  Measurement of Emissions from Motor Vehicles

                1.4.3.3  Measurement of Emissions from Aircraft

                1.4.3.4  Measurement Techniques to Support the
                         Regulation of Fuels

                1.4.3.5  Summary of Measurement Capabilities Required

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                                  PART 2
                                (CONTINUED)
    1.5  Future Plans of the Environmental Protection Agency

         1.5.1  Source Categories for New Source Performance Standards

         1.5.2  Pollutants Under Consideration for Future
                Control

         1.5.3  Additional Moving Source Emission Controls

  .  1.6  Measurement Techniques to Support the Programs Required
         to Maintain Adequate Measurement Capabilities

         1.6.1  Equivalency Determination
                                ' '   '        .
         1.6.2  Quality Control Program

2.  MATRIX - SUMMARY OF THE MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES REQUIRED

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                                   2-1
                                 PART 2

                   MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES REQUIRED



          This portion of the report is divided into two sections:  one

deals with the legal justification for the measurements required, and

the other gives a complete summary of the current status of and needs

for measurement capabilities in a matrix chart.  The first section analyzes

the measurement capability required to assure the timely availability of

analytical methods and instrumentation needed to meet the legal commitments

imposed by the Federal, State and local governments and on private citizens

by the Clean Air Amendments of 1970.  Section two described a matrix chart

which is included to give an easy to use reference and summary of

measurement capabilities required.  The matrix lists pollution sources,

and specific pollutants to be measured and shows at various intersections

the current status of measurements, methods and additional requirements

needed to achieve the desired measurement capabilities.

                       1.   LEGAL  JUSTIFICATION  FOR THE
                           MEASUREMENTS REQUIRED	

 1.1   Procedure Used  to  Determine the
      Measurement  Capabilities  Required


          This section of the report describes the procedure used to

determine what these measurement needs are and when the measurement

capability .will be needed.  At this time, there is no comprehensive

official list of measurement needs nor a timetable for their application

that can be consulted.  It is necessary to anticipate many of these

needs so that research and development efforts can be undertaken to

assure the timely availability of measurement techniques required by the

promulgation of air quality and emission standards and  by the imple-

mentation of control programs and special research studies.

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                                   2-2
          In determining these measurement needs, we have analyzed the




legislation, "The Clean Air Amendments of 1970," to determine both the




broad areas of application and the specific goals of this Nation's




program to achieve clean air.  These goals will require the availability




of measurement techniques if they are to be successfully accomplished.




          These goals were further refined by considering the adminis-




trative promulgations which have been issued by the Environmental




Protection Agency.  While these promulgations cover only a relatively




few of the anticipated measurement needs, they provide an official




indication of the trend and direction of the air pollution measurement




 program.   These  promulgations  indicate  what  is  to  be measured, where




 the measurements will be  made, how the  measurements will be  made  and  who




 will be  responsible for making the measurements.   All  of these factors




 are important  in specifying the  capability of measurement  techniques.




           Information on  additional pollutants  to  be measured and on




 additional sources  at which measurements will be required  were obtained




 by considering the  future plans  of the  Environmental Protection Agency.




 These plans also provide  timetables for measurement needs.





 1.2  General Requirements



           The Clean Air Amendments of 1970 provide broad guidelines for the




 control of air pollution and establish the framework within which measure-




 ment techniques must operate as effective tools in support of the air pollu-




 tion control program.  An analysis of this legislation suggests three broad




 areas for inclusion in the measurement techniques  development plan:




      (1) Measurement techniques to support research and investigations




          relating the causes, effects and extent of air pollution.

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                                     2-3
       (2) Measurement techniques to identify and quantitate data on air

          quality and source emissions  to assist in the setting of

          standards and  to determine if pollution levels comply with

          the standards.

      (3) Measure techniques to support a continuing program to maintain

          adequate measurement capabilities required by the Nation's air

          pollution control program.

          The research and development  required in each of these broad

areas is the subject of one section of  this report.   In the sub-sections

to follow, an analysis of the legislation and of recent adminsitrative

actions to execute the legislation will enable a more detailed definition

of the goals in each of these areas.

1.3  Measurement Capabilities Required to
     Support Research and Investigations

          Section 103 of the Amendments of 1970 continues a national

program to conduct research and investigations relating to the causes,

effects, extent, prevention and control of air pollution.   This program

will require the availability of special, often one of a kind, measure-

ment techniques.

          While many of the specific measurement capabilities required

to support this program during the next five years cannot be foreseen

at this time, the current direction of the research and investigation

program suggests that measurement capabilities will be required to

support programs involving the health and welfare effects of air

pollution, the dispersion of air pollutants, the interaction of

pollutants within the planetary boundary layer and the development of

emission control technology.  As these programs progress, additional

measurement capabilities will be required.

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                                      2-4
           A  further  analysis  of  the measurement  techniques needed  to

 support  studies on the health and welfare effects of air pollution suggests  the

 development  of personal exposure level dosimeters and economic effect measurement

 packages.  Studies on the dispersion of air pollutants will require the

 capability to remotely sense  the pollutants as will studies on the inter-

 action of  pollutants within the  planetary boundary layer.  The latter studies

also require the capability to remotely measure meteorological profiles

within the boundary layer.


 1.4  Measurement Capabilities Required to
     Identify and Quantitate  Air Pollutants
          The identification  and quantification of data on air quality and

 source emissions to assist in the setting of standards and to determine if

pollution  levels comply with  the standards requires a measurement capability in

the following application'areas:

     (1) Ambient air quality measurement.

     (2) Stationary source emission measurement.

     (3) Mobile source emission measurement.

     1.4.1  Ambient Air Quality Measurement

           Section 109 of the  Clean Air Amendments of 1970 requires the pro-

mulgation of national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS).  The NAAQS are

ambient air quality standards, the attainment of which is requisite to pro-

tect either the public health or welfare.  Section 112 of the Amendments of

1970 designates hazardous air pollutants, the emission of which is con-

trolled by national emission  standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP).

Pollutants covered by NAAQS and NESHAP are expected to be measured in

the ambient air.

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                                    2-5
          1.4.1.1  National Ambient Air
                   Quality Standards
          The pollutants to be covered under national ambient air quality
standards (NAAQS) are not specified in the legislation but result from
the issuance of air quality criteria under Section 108.  At this time
air criteria have been issued for six pollutants leading to NAAQS for sulfur
dioxide,  particulates, nitrogen dioxide,  oxidants,  carbon monoxide and
non-methane hydrocarbons.
          1.4.1.2  National Emission Standards
                   for Hazardous Air Pollutants
          In addition to the pollutants covered under NAAQS,  it is assumed
that a capability will be needed to measure the ambient air quality level
of those pollutants covered by national emission standards for hazardous
air pollutants  (NESHAP).  A hazardous air pollutant is an air pollutant
to which no ambient air quality standard is applicable and which may
cause, or contribute  to, an increase in mortality or an increase in
serious  irreversible  or incapacitating illness.
          Although no ambient air quality standards are applicable for
materials described as  hazardous air pollutants, the serious nature of
these pollutants  justifies  their measurement  in the ambient air.  At  this
time, three  pollutants  have been designated as hazardous  air pollutants:
asbestos, mercury and beryllium.
          1.4.1.3 Measurement  Requirements
          The  Environmental Protection Agency has  clarified  the needs in the
ambient  air  quality  measurement area  through  its promulgation  of Guidelines
for  State Implementation  Plans  in  the  August  16, 1971,  issue of the  Federal
Register.   In  this promulgation, EPA  specified a requirement for two  distinct
types of ambient air  quality  measurement  techniques.
      (1) a  24-hour sample of  the pollution  level conducted at  6-14 day
         intervals and
      (2) a  continuous measurement.

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                                    2-6
The 24-hour sample technique is amenable to field collection of the sample
followed by a laboratory analysis using an acceptable analytical method
to determine the level of pollution.  However, the availability of an
instrumental technique to cumulatively sample and analyze the pollutants
on an intermittent basis would be desirable.  The continuous measurement
requirement will necessitate an automated instrumental technique.
          Responsibility for operation of appropriate devices and methods
to monitor data on ambient air quality is assigned to the States in Section
110 which specifies that EPA implementation plans provide for the implemen-
tation, maintaining and enforcement of the ambient air quality standards.
The measurements required to obtain data for use in standard setting will
be conducted by the Federal government employees.  Federal, state and local
government officials will be responsible for making ambient level measure-
ments to determine both the compliance with air quality standards and to
determine trends in air quality.

          1.4.1.4  Summary of Measurement
                   Capabilities Required
          The above analysis of the legislative requirements and of EPA
promulgations Issued  to date suggest  the following needs in the ambient
air quality  level measurement area:
(a)  A capability to  measure the ambient air  quality  level of:
     (1)  pollutants  covered by NAAQS.
     (2)  pollutants  covered by NESHAP.
          The pollutants for which measurements are now  required are sulfur
dioxide, particulates, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, non-methane
hydrocarbons, asbestos, mercury, and  beryllium.
(B)  The availability of:
     (1)  an analytical method for ambient  air quality levels.
     (2)  an automated intermittent sampler/analyzer  for the most
          prevalent pollutants in the ambient air.
     (3)  a  continuous monitor for ambient  air quality levels measurement.

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                                       2-7
     1.4.2   Stationary  Source
            Emission Measurement

           The  emissions  from  stationary  sources  of  air  pollution will  be

 controlled under:

      (1) Standards  of  Performance  for  New  Stationary  Sources.

      (2) National Emission  Standards for Hazardous  Air  Pollutants.

      (3) Implementation  Plans  to Achieve National Air Quality Standards.


          1.4.2.1  Standard  of Performance
                  jor New Stationary Sources

          Section 111 of the Amendments of  1970 requires the promulgation

of standards of performance  for new stationary sources (NSPS).   The "stand-

ard of performance"  limits the emissions that can be discharged  from new

or modified stationary sources for those categories  of sources  which contri-

bute significantly to the endangerment of public health or welfare.  The

sources and the pollutants to be controlled under NSPS will be  determined

by the Environmental Protection Agency.  If the pollutant is not covered

by NAAQS or by NESHAP, the Amendment of 1970 requires that the  states

establish similar standards for existing plants.



           At this time,  NSPS have been issued  for five  industry sources and

standards have been established for the emissions of particulates,  sulfur dioxide,

sulfuric acid mist and nitrogen oxides from some of these sources.   In addition,

the visible emissions  from these sources or also controlled.

           1.4.2.2  National Emission Standards
                   for Hazardous Air Pollutants

           Section 112 of the Clean Air Amendments establishes emission

standards  for hazardous  air pollutants.  At this time three pollutants have

been designated as hazardous agents:  beryllium, asbestos and mercury.

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                                      2-8
          1.4.2.3  Implementation Plans



          Section 110 requires that state implementation plans include limi-




tations on emissions necessary to insure attainment and maintenance of NAAQS.




At this time the pollutants covered by these plans are the six pollutants




for which criteria documents have been issued.  The potential sources to




which these emissions standards can be applied is large and far exceeds




those covered by NSPS.




          1.4.2.4  Measurement Requirements




          Section 114 authorizes the Environmental Protection Agency to re-




quire the owner or operator of any emission source to install and use moni-




toring equipment or methods and to sample emissions in such a manner as EPA




shall prescribe for the purpose of developing implementation plans or any




standard of performance under  NSPS or NESHAP.  This section also authorizes




EPA representatives to sample any emission which the owner or operator of




the source may be required to sample.  The state implementation plans re-




quired under Section 111 also provide similar requirements for installation




of equipment by owners or operators of existing sources to monitor emissions




from these sources.




          These legislative authorizations suggest as a minimum measurement




capability an analytical method suitable for determining the emission pollu-




tant level in the presence of interfering species in the effluent from the




various sources.  This necessitates that any analytical method selected for




determining the emission level be evaluated for applicability in each indus-




trial  source being considered for emission standards.  The requirement on




owner/operators to monitor  their emissions and on  government  representatives




to periodically sample  these emissions would  be greatly facilitated  if an auto-

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                                      2-9
mated measurement device were available.  KI'A proposed NSSI'S lor live in-

dustry sources in the Federal Register of August 17, 1971, and proposed con-

tinuous monitoring for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and visible emissions

from some of these sources.

          The measurements  required will be  conducted at  all levels.

Federal and  State government employees will  be concerned  with measurement of

emissions to obtain data  for setting  standards.  Federal, State and

local government employees  will make  measurements  to determine if emissions

are within the standards.   Private citizens  will be required to monitor the

emission  from sources under their control.

          1.4.2.5   Summary of  Measurement
                    Capabilities  Required

          The  above analysis of  the  legislative  requirements of  the Amend-

ments  of  1970  and  of  the EPA promulgations issued  to  date suggest  the

following needs  in the  stationary source emisions  measurement  area:

 (A)  A  capability  to measure the  emission  from stationary sources emitting:

      (1)   pollutants  covered by  NAAQS.

      (2)   pollutants  covered by  NESHAP.

      (3)   pollutants  covered by  NSPS.

           The  pollutants for which measurements  are now required are:  SOo

 (NAAQS)  (NSPS),  sulfuric acid  mist  (NSPS),  nitrogen oxides  (NAAQS)  (NSPS),

particulates (NAAQS),  carbon monoxide (NAAQS), non-methane  hydrocarbons

 (NAAQS),  mercury (NESHAP),  asbestos  (NESHAP),  beryllium (NESHAP).

 (B)  The  availability  of:

      (1)  a  manual  method consisting  of  sample  collection followed by

          laboratory analysis using an analytical method suitable for

          source  emission levels.

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                                     2-10
     (2)  an automated  instrument for  the continuous monitoring of

         source  emissions.

     (3)  an automated  portable  measurement device to supplement collection

         of the  sample followed by  laboratory analysis.



    1.4.3  Moving Source Emission
           Measurement s	

          Section 202 of the Clean Air Amendment of 1970 provides for the

establishment of emission standards from motor vehicles and motor vehicle

engines.   Section 231 of the Amendments requires the commencement of a

study of emissions from aircraft leading to emission standards.   Section 111

authorizes the regulation of fuels.   This section of the report will consider

the measurement techniques needed to support the air pollution control pro-

gram for motor vehicles and aircraft and the fuel regulation program.

          1.4.3.1  Special Considerations

          The determination of emissions from moving sources differs from

most measurements of air contaminants in that the measurement is normally

made not at the place where we are concerned with reducing the atmospheric

burden, i.e., on the road or in the air, but because of economic and prac-

tical considerations is made at a fixed location under test cycle condi-

tions.  This  approach requires consideration of three factors to determine

if the emission standard is being achieved:   (1) the operating cycle, (2)

the sampling  procedure and (3)  the analysis of the emissions.

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                                     2-il
          The first of these factors, i.e., the test cycle, involves deter-

mining an operating procedure which simulates the actual emissions which

would contribute to the atmospheric burden if the vehicle were operated on

the road in a manner representative of normal driving patterns.  While de-

fining such operating procedures, which would enable the test to be con-

ducted in an economic and practical manner without resorting to on the road

or in the air testing of the vehicles, is an important element in defining

the emissions from moving sources, consideration of the operating cycle is

not within the scope of this measurement technique development plan.  The

other two factors, obtaining a representative emission sample from the

operating test cycle and measuring the emission with appropriate analytical

techniques or instruments, are considered in this plan.

          The plan accordingly provides for two capabilities which are neces-

sary to achieve the goals of the moving source emission control program:  (1) a

capability to representatively sample the emissions from moving sources and

(2) the capability to analyze the emissions from the sources.

          1.4.3.2  Measurement of Emissions
                   from Motor Vehicles	

          Section 202 of the Clean Air Amendments requires that the Admini-

strator of EPA shall by regulation prescribe standards applicable to the

emission of any air pollutant from any class of new motor vehicles or

new motor vehicle engines, which in his judgment is likely to cause

or contribute to air pollution which  endangers the public health or welfare.

This section of the legislation  establishes standards  for  three air pollu-

tants:  carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen.  Section 202

further specifies that  the measurement techniques on which such standards

are based shall be prescribed by regulation.

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                                      2-12
          In EPA promulgations to execute this section of the legis-



lation (Federal Register November 10, 1970), emission standards  have been




further broken down into those for gas fueled light duty and heavy




duty  engines and heavy duty diesel engines.  As new propulsion systems




are developed  (gas turbines,  advanced automotive power plants, etc.),




additional emission standards are expected  to be promulgated.




          While  Section  202 provides the  general objective  for motor vehicle




emission  measurements,  the specific  measurement needs are based on  regula-




tions described  in subsequent sections of the Clean Air Amendments.  These




regulations cover two areas of application:  measurement of emissions from




new motor vehicles and measurement of emissions from vehicles in general




use.




          The  regulations covering new motor vehicles and motor vehicle en-




gines are found  in Section 206.  This section requires that the Administrator




test, or  require to be  tested, in such manner as he deems appropriate, any




new motor vehicle or new motor vehicle engine submitted by  a manufacturer to




determine whether such a vehicle or  engine  conforms with regulations pre-




scribed under  the standards.  This testing  is normally referred to  as cer-




tification or  compliance testing.  The Administrator is also authorized to




test  new  motor vehicles  or new motor vehicle engines being  manufactured to




determine whether they in fact conform with regulations with respect to




which a certificate of conformity was issued.  For this purpose the test may




be conducted by  the Administrator directly  or by the manufacturer in accor-




dance with conditions specified  by the Administrator.  This group of tests




is referred to as end-of-line or quality  assurance testing.  Section 206




emphasizes the responsibilities  of the Administrator regarding the  develop-




ment  of measurement techniques for the purpose of conducting these  tests by

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                                      2-13
requiring that the Admin L.strator shalJ by regulation establish methods and

procedures for making tests required for new motor vehicle emission control.

          The justification for a measurement capability to determine com-

pliance by vehicles and vehicle engines in actual use is found in Section 207.

This section  authorizes the Administrator to establish methods and procedures

for determining whether motor vehicles and engines in actual use conform

with the emission standards.  This determination can be conducted through

the surveillance testing  of a sample  of available vehicles or engines by

the Administrator or  through a  comprehensive inspection program conducted

by the states.  The authority for state inspection programs is contained in

Section 110 which requires  that the state implementation plan provide to

the extent necessary  and  practical for  the periodic inspection and  testing

of motor vehicles to  enforce compliance with applicable emission standards.

          These programs  require the  measurement capability to conduct

emission  testing of vehicles in general use.

          1.4.3.3  Measurement  of Emissions
                   from Aircraft	

          Section 231 of  the Clean Air  Amendments provides for the  establish-

ment of  aircraft  emission standards following  a  study of  emissions  of air

pollutants  from aircraft.  The  aircraft emission standards have  not been  is-

sued   at  the  time of  this report.   However,  if and when  such  standards  are

promulgated,  measurement  techniques will  be  required  to  sample and  analyze

aircraft  emissions.

          1.4.3.4  Measurement  Techniques to
                   Support the  Regulation of Fuels

          Section 211 of  the Clean Air  Amendment provides for regulation  of

fuels  and fuel additives.  For  the  purpose of  regulation of fuels  and  fuel

additives,  the Administrator may require the manufacturer of  a  fuel or  fuel

additive to  furnish  the description of  available analytical techniques  that can be

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                                     2-14
used to test and measuru any additive in such fuel and to determine, the

emissions resulting from the use of the fuel or additive contained in such

fuels, or the effect of such fuel or additive on the emission control per-

formance for any vehicle or vehicle engine.  This requires that the Admini-

strator develop methods and information on the procedures for sampling and

analysis of fuels and fuel additives to determine if the analytical methods

furnished by the fuel or fuel additive manufacturer comply with legal requirements

          1.4.3.5  Summary of Measurement
                   Capabilities Required

          The analysis of the legislation and of EPA promulgations suggests

that the following needs in the moving source emission measurement area:

(A)  Measurement technique development programs in three major areas:

     (1) Motor vehicle emissions (including gasoline fueled light and  heavy

         duty engines and heavy duty diesel engines).

     (2) Aircraft emissions.

     (3) Fuels and fuel additives.

(B)  A capability to measure the emissions from:

     (1) new motor vehicles which will be the responsibility

         of the Federal government (certification program) and the manu-

         facturers.

     (2) vehicles in general use which will be the responsibility

        . of the Federal government (surveillance program) and the

         states (inspection program).

The pollutants for which measurements will be required are:   carbon

monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides.

          The techniques to meet these requirements  must consider:

     (1)  the  sampling problem.

    .(2)  the  identification and quantization of the  pollutants.

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                                      2-L5
1 . r>  KU tun- 1'l.aii.s of tho
     Environmental Protection Agency

          Available plans of the Environmental Protection Agency have been

considered to anticipate additional measurement techniques which may be re-

quired.  Information which has been considered includes the projected

schedules for source categories for new source performance standards, a

listing of pollutants for which air pollution controls are being considered

and the schedule for potential moving source emission controls.  The

following listings and future dates of standards promulgation represent

estimates to enable the scheduling of measurement requirements and must

not be construed as rigid; they are subject to change.


     1.5.1  Source Categories for New
            Source Performance Standards

          The source categories for new source performance standards have

been divided into five groups.  The Group 1 sources include steam

generators greater than 25 MW, cement plants, municipal incinerators,

sulfuric acid plants and nitric acid plants.  The performance standards

for the Group 1 sources were promulgated on December 23, 1971.  The addi-

tional groups of sources, with estimated promulgation dates and the

pollutants for which emission standards are anticipated follow:

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                           2-16
                ESTIMATED SCHEDULES FOR NEW
         SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS  PROMULGATION
     (FOR MEASUREMENT REQUIREMENTS  PLANNING PURPOSES)
                         Group 2
               Designation Date:
               Proposal Date:
               Promulgation Date:
12/1/71
 4/1/72
 7/1/72
        Industry
Asphalt Batch Plants
      Pollutants
Particulates, Visible
Emissions
Petroleum Refineries
Rendering Plants
Particulates, Visible
Emissions, CO, H S, HC

Odors - Panel Method
Referee
Steam Generators, 25 MW
and Less
Visible Emissions
Brass and Bronze Refining
Particulates, Visible
Emissions
Iron and Steel Mills
Particulates, Visible
Emissions
Sewage Treatment Plants
Particulates, Visible
Emissions
Secondary Lead Smelters
Particulates, Visible
Emissions
                         Group 3

               Designation Date:
               Proposal Date:
               Promulgation Date:
Copper Smelters
Lead Smelters
Zinc Smelters
 8/1/72
12/1/72
 3/1/73

Particulates, Visible
Emissions, S02, Acid Mist

Particulates, Visible
Emissions, S0, Acid Mist

Particulates, Visible
Emissions, SO^, Acid Mist

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                            2-17
                          Croup 3
                          (Cont'd)
         Industry
Aluminum Reduction Plants


Pulp and Paper Mills


Coke Plants

Phosphate Fertilizer Plants


Phosphorus Reduction Plants
Animal Feed Defluorination
Plants

Ferro-Alloy Plants
Coal Cleaning Plants
                          Group 4

                Designation Date:
                Proposal Date:
                Promulgation Date:
Petrochemical Plants
Grey Iron Foundries
Sulfur Recovery Units
Gas Turbines
Lime Plants
Grain Milling and Handling
Hydrochloric Acid Plants
Phosphoric Acid Plants
Paint and Varnish
Graphic Arts Plants
      Pollutants
 Particulates,  Visible
 Emissions,  Fluorides

 Particulates,  Visible
 Emissions,  S0?,  TRS

 Visible Emissions

 Particulates,  Visible
 Emissions,  Fluorides

 Particulates,  Visible
 Emissions,  Fluorides,
 Acid Mist (H PO  )

 Particulates,  Visible
 Emissions,  Fluorides

 Particulates,  Visible
 Emissions

 Particulates,  Visible
 Emissions
 4/1/73
 8/1/73
11/1/73

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                                  2-18
                                 Group 5

                       Designation Date:
                       Proposal Date:
                       Promulgation Date:
12/1/73
 A/1/74
 7/1/74
                   Industry
        Soap and Detergent Manufacture
        Cotton Gins
        Auto Assembly Plants
        Chlorine and Caustic Plants
        Rendering Plants
        Sewage Treatment Plants
        Iron and Steel Plants
        Petroleum Refineries

          The pollutants for which emission standards are planned have not

been determined at the time of this writing for the last two source category
groups.

     1.5.2  Pollutants Under Consideration
            for Future Control	

          Additional pollutants for which controls are being considered
for implementation and the areas specified in the Amendments of 1970
under which the control programs are expected to be initiated are listed
for planning purposes as follows:

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          PLANNING ASSUMPTIONS FOR POLLUTION CONTROL
         Pollutant
Non-Methane Hydrocarbons
Odorous Materials
Fluorides
Lead
Lead
     Potential Control  Area

 Aircraft Emission Standards
 NSPS
 NSPS
 NSPS
 Fuel Regulation
Fine Particulates
Cadmium
Arsenic
Polychlorinated Biphenyls
Nickel
Polycyclic Organic Matter
NAAQS
NESHAP
NESHAP
NESHAP
NESHAP
NAAQS
Vanadium
Manganese
Chromium
NESHAP
NESHAP
NESHAP
Reactive Organics
Selenium
C12-HC1
Copper
Zinc
Boron
Barium
Tin
Phosphorus
Lithium
Synthetic Organics
           Under Consideration
           Under Consideration
           Under Consideration
           Under Consideration
           Under Consideration
           Under Consideration
           Under Consideration
           Under Consideration
           Under Consideration
           Under Consideration
           Under Consideration

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                                  2-20
     1.5.3  Additional Moving
            Source Emission Controls

          For planning purposes,  the following measurement capabilities

have been developed to be consistent with potential controls:
                                                              Technique
      	Pollutant	 	Application Area	   Requirement

      Odor                    Aircraft and Diesel Emis^    Research Method
                              sion Standards               Routine Meas.

      Fine Particulates       Motor Vehicle Emission       Routine Meas.
                              Standards

      Aldehydes and Reactive  Motor Vehicle Emission       Research Method
      Organics                Standards                    Routine Meas.

      Rubber and Asbestos     Motor Vehicle Emission       Routine Meas.
                              Standards
1.6  Measurement Techniques to Support the
     Programs Required to Maintain
     Adequate Measurement Capabilities

          Section 1.4 indicated the measurement capabilities required
to identify and quantitate data on air quality and source emissions to
set standards and determine if pollution levels comply with the standards.
In this section, the measurement technique needs to support the programs
required to maintain these measurement capabilities are indicated.  Two
programs which will require measurement support are:

     (1)  Equivalency Determination
     (2)  Quality Control

     1.6.1  Equivalency Determination

           The measurement methods promulgated by EPA are expected to

 be supplemented by additional measurement techniques developed by private

 industry in response to competitive forces in the market place.  These

 techniques must be tested to determine their equivalency with the tech-

 niques promulgated by EPA.  Failure to provide a mechanism for such

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                                   2-21
an equivalency determination will deny participation of potentially
improved and lower cost measurement techniques, particularly instruments,
in the Nation's air control program.  The capability to conduct equivalency
determinations must be established.  This plan provides for the develop-
ment of the methods, procedures and standards required for an equivalency
determination  program.

    1.6.2  Quality  Control Program
          There is a need for a continuing quality control program to
insure that the methods and instruments being used are giving the
correct answers.  Without such a program a valid comparison of data
obtained by different operators or using different instruments is not
possible.  This could  lead to  frequent court challenges of measurements
made  by EPA or state  inspectors which do not agree with similar  measure-
ments  made by  private  citizens and could seriously hinder the air
pollution control program.  The quality control program must provide
the capability for  routine calibration of measurement methods which
are in general use  and must also provide for a periodic evaluation of
user  competence.  This plan provides for the development of measurement
methodology and materials  required  to support  the quality control program.
It  does not include  the  supply of  such materials  for  implementation of
the program.

        2.  MATRIX -  SUMMARY OF THE  MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES  REQUIRED
         The  general  needs defined  above, the  pollutants currently listed
for control and the plans  of  the Environmental Protection Agency have
been  considered in  defining the  total measurement capabilities  required.
The summary of these  capabilities  is presented in the form  of  a matrix
chart whose elements  are the  pollutants, and  the  needs.  A  total of 48

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                                  2-22
different pollutants are listed in twelve separate categories as noted
below.  (The number of specific pollutants in each category is shown
in parenthesis.)
              1.  Oxides of Sulfur (3)
              2.  Oxides of Nitrogen (4)
              3.  Particulates (7)
              4.  Hazardous Air Pollutants (3)
              5.  Carbon Monoxide (1)
              6.  Organic Compounds (5)
              7.  Halogens (3)
              8.  Not Pollutant Specific (1)
              9.  Odors (6)
             10.  Oxidants (1)
             11.  Other Pollutants (13)
             12.  Aeroallergens (1)
The needs shown on the matrix total 60 and are separated into six categories
as noted below.
              1.  Measurement Techniques to Support EPA Programs on
                  Research and Investigations (5)
              2.  Ambient Air Quality Monitoring - Sensor Development (2)

              3.  Stationary Source Emission Measurements
                  a.  Sensor Development (2)
                  b.  Group 1 (5)
                  c.  Group 2 (8)
                  d.  Group 3 (11)
                  e.  Group 4 (10)
                  f.  Group 5 (4)

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                                  2-23
              4.  Other Industries Emitting Hazardous Pollutants (1)

              5.  Moving Source Emission Measurements
                  a.  Sensor Development (2)
                  b.  Application Areas:  Motor Vehicles (5) and Aircraft (1)
                  c.  Fuel and Additive Registration and Regulation (J
              6.  Measurement Techniques to Support EPA Programs to
                  Maintain Measurement Capabilities (3)
         A capability requirement is indicated on the matrix by an entry
at the pollutant-need intersection which represents the development
task statement number under which an RDT&E effort to achieve the measure-
ment capability will be found in Part 3.  There are a total of 138 task
statements separated into the following categories.  Each task is identified
by number and code as shown in parenthesis.
              1.  Measurement Techniques to Support EPA
                  Research and Investigations (RI 1-13)
              2.  Measurement Techniques to Identify and
                  Quantitate Air Pollutants
                  a.  Ambient Air Quality Measurement (IQA 1-49 or 50)
                  b.  Stationary Source Emission Measurement (IQS 1-39)
                  c.  Moving Source Emission Measurement (IQM 1-34)
              3.  Techniques to Support EPA Programs to Maintain Adequate
                  Measurement Capabilities (MP 1-3)
Some tasks may appear at more than one intersection.  For example IQS 10
for the measurement of total particulate mass loading intersects with
a number of industries, i.e., steam generators, incinerators,  cement
plants, etc.  There also may be some intersections which require more
than one task, as for example at the intersection of Nitric Oxide and
Remote Sensing RI 8 and 9 are required to satisfy the needs.  A number
of intersections are blank because not all pollutants apply to all the
industries or needs shown on the chart.

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                                2-24
          The matrix also provides a rapid means for the user of the report




to determine how many different application areas must be considered in




developing measurement techniques for identifying and quantifying a particular




pollutant.  The matrix also enables a quick determination of the different




capability requirements which an individual development task provides for.

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                                  PART 3


                       UKSEAKCll AND  DEVELOPMENT NEEDS



1.   STRUCTURE OF THE TASK STATEMENTS

    1.1  Rationale

    1.2  Activities

         Research

         Development

         Field Test

         Evaluation

         Promulgation

    1.3  Resources Required

    1.4  Schedules

2.   MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES TO  SUPPORT EPA
    RESEARCH AND INVESTIGATIONS

    2.1  Effects and Extent of  Air  Pollution

         2.1.1  Health Effects

         2.1.2  Economic Effects

    2.2  Remote and Long Path  Sensing

         2.2.1  Remote Sensing  of Particulates

         2.2.2  Remote Sensing  of Gases

    2.3  Meteorological Measurements

         2.3.1  Temperature Profile Measurement

         2.3.2  Atmospheric Turbulence and Wind Measurements

         2.3.3  Moisture Profile Measurements

3.   MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES TO IDENTIFY AND QUANTITATE AIR POLLUTANTS

    3.1  Ambient Air Quality Measurements

         3.1.1  Introduction

         3.1.2  Specific Requirements

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                              PART 3
                            (CONTINUED)

            3.1.2.1  S02 and Sulfur Compounds

            3.1.2.2  Particles

            3.1.2.3  Carbon Oxides

            3.1.2.4  Nitrogen Oxides

            3.1.2.5  Ozone and Oxidants

            3.1.2.6  Organic Compounds

            3.1.2.7  Halogen

            3.1.2.8  Hazardous Air Pollutants

            3.1.2.9  Other Pollutants

            3.1.2.10 Odors

3.2  Stationary Source Emission Measurements

     3.2.1  Introduction

     3.2.2  Specific Requirements

            3.2.2.1  Sulfur Oxides

            3.2.2.2  Nitrogen Oxides

            3.2.2.3  Measurement of Total Particulate Mass

            3.2.2.4  Visible Emissions (Opacity)

            3.2.2.5  Other Particulate Properties

            3.2.2.6  Hazardous Substances

            3.2.2.7  Carbon Monoxide

            3.2.2.8  Organic Compounds

            3.2.2.9  Odors

            3.2.2.10 Halogens

            3.2.2.11 Other Pollutants

            3.2.2.12 Other Tasks

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                              PART 3
                            (CONTINUED )_

3.3  Moving Source Emission Measurements

     3.3.1  Introduction

     3.3.2  Motor Vehicle Emission Measurements

            3.3.2.1  Sampling Motor Vehicle Emissions

            3.3.2.2  Gaseous Pollutants

            3.3.2.3  Particulate Pollutants

     3.3.3  Aircraft Emissions

     3.3.4  Measurement Procedures  to  Support EPA Programs to
            Register and Regulate Fuels and Fuel Additives

TECHNIQUES TO SUPPORT EPA  PROGRAMS  TO  MAINTAIN
ADEQUATE MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES

4.1  Equivalency Testing
4.2  Quality Control

RESOURCES REQUIRED

5.1  Consolidation of Funding Requirements on Task Statements
     5.1.1  Funding by Application  Area

     5.1.2  Funding by Activities
     5.1.3  Funding by Pollutant

5.2  Funding for Replacement and/or Improvement of Measurement Methods

5.3  Funding for Future Requirements

5.4  Funding Summary

5.5  Manpower Required

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                                     3-1
                     1.  STRUCTURE OF THE TASK STATEMENTS







          The following sections of the report will compare the state-




of-the-art in the three application areas with the measurement needs




identified in Part 2.  This comparison will lead to a definition of




RDT&E tasks that remain to be accomplished to achieve the desired




measurement capabilities.  This section explains the rationale behind




some of the information contained in the tasks sheets which will be




developed and also defines the terms used in the task descriptions.




1.1  Ra t ionale





           Once the need for a measurement technique has been defined,




  EPA initiates a sequence of action steps which is not unlike that in-




  volved in taking any new product from the concept stage to its




  availability for use by the eventual customer.  This sequence of actions




  involves a number of activities which must be performed by EPA, either




  in-house or by its contractors, and also involves several review and




  decisions points.  The eventual product of these actions is an official




  procedure for conducting the measurement, which the Administrator can




  promulgate by listing in the Federal Register.  The RDT&E task includes




  the schedule and funding requirements for conducting these activities.




  The task also lists  certain critical milestones: the date that the




  measurement technique is required  to support EPA control plans and  the




  dates that an interim and an official measurement technique can be




  expected.

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                                  3-2
          For a given measurement technique not all activities in the




action sequence are required; in many cases the state-of-the-art will




enable EPA efforts to begin at the test and evaluation, stage, using




commercially available instruments.  The relationship and scheduling




among the various activities is shown in Figure 2.





1.2  Activities





          The action steps leading to official EPA measurement.tech-




niques have been divided into five activities: research, development,




field test, user evaluation and promulgation.  While an attempt has




been made to keep the definition of the activities consistent with OMB




nomenclature, the divisions were selected to identify measurement




technique development areas within EPA.  This division was found to be




useful in projecting resource requirements for individual activities




based on prior EPA experience.





     Research





          The research activity involves the laboratory scale  investi-




gation of new measurement techniques.  This includes basic research on




new measurement concepts and analytical methods.  The demonstration of




the feasibility of the measurement technique concludes the research phase.




          The research activity can be conducted in-house or by means of




contracts and grants.  This is the activity most likely to generate grant




support for academic work.

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                                                                                                                                                              3-3
         product
I    I     Activity
 f\     Review/Decision
                                                  Is Development
                                                   Complete?
                                                   Have Measurement
                                                   Requirements  Been
                                                         Met?
 Are Measurement
 Methods Available
                                                                             Evaluation
 Is Measurement
Method Acceptable
As EPA Official
    Method?
                                            Figure 2
                                  Schematic of Action Steps in
                                Measurement Technique Development

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                                       3-4
     Development




          The development activity provides a prototype analytical




method or instrument.  The end of the development activity is a




laboratory test of the prototype to determine accuracy, operating




characteristics, reproducibility, reliability, interfererences,




responses and sensitivity.  It is expected that such a laboratory




test will be required even when commercially available measurement




instruments are available.  The development activity can be done




in-house but normally is a contracted effort.




     Field  Test





          The  field  test  activity takes  the  new  instrument or  analytical




method  into the  field under  typical  operating  conditions  to determine




if  it meets the  measurement  technique  requirements.   Based on  the results




of  this  field  test the  technique is  either passed on  to the promulgation




activity as a  potential  interim  method or is recycled to  the development




activity for additional work.




          This activity will normally  be performed  under  contract, al-




though  consideration must be given to  conducting the  test in conjunction




with  routine measurements made by state  or local air  pollution control




agencies.   Regardless of  how the activity  is performed, the close super-




vision  and  participation  of  the  individuals  responsible for development




of  the  technique is  required.





      Evaluation	





           The  evaluation activity  marks  the  transition of the  mea-




surement technique from one  that is  known  to  be acceptable in the hands




of  experts  to  one that  is acceptable for general use.   This activity




begins  with the availability of  a measurement  technique,  which, following

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                                       3-5
a review by EPA, has been accepted as an interim measurement technique.




The technique and the instructions for its use are then made available




to a body of typical users who have not been directly involved in its




development.  If on review by EPA the results of the evaluation suggest




that the measurement technique is acceptable for general use, and would




be considered valid under legal investigation, its promulgation as an




official EPA measurement method is initiated.





           The  procedure involved  in  the  evaluation activity varies




 depending  on the intended  use of  the measurement  technique  which  is




 being  evaluated.   If  the measurement technique  is  one  that  will be used




 primarily  by a small  group  of relatively skilled  scientists or engineers,




 e.g.,  a technique for conducting  emission  measurements  required by the




 Federal motor  vehicle emission certification program,  the  evalua~




 tion  can be rapidly accomplished  at  low  cost.   On the  other hand, if  the




 measurement technique is to be used  by a large  number  of individuals




 over whose qualifications  EPA has no control then an extensive and costly




 collaborative  test procedure may  be  required to insure  that the measure-




 ment  technique and the  instructions  for  its  use permit  valid measurements




 in  the hands of representative users.  These procedures and the subse-




 quent  EPA  review of the evaluation will  assure  that the official




 EPA measurement methods which will issue based on  these results are




 sufficient to  withstand any  challenge pertaining  to their applicability




 or  validity, through the courts or otherwise.




           The  collaborative  test  program is  expected to be  widely used




 in  the evaluation of  measurement  techniques  for ambient air quality




 level  monitoring,  stationary source  emission measurement, and motor

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                                      3-6
vehicle emission inspections.  The need for standard methods in the air




pollution field made it imperative that a collaborative test program be




undertaken.  EPA is required by law to establish standards and to approve




implementation plans developed by state air pollution control agencies.




Such plans  to be most meaningful  require the availability of standard  methods




of analysis available for use by  all concerned.  Therefore, EPA  initiated a




program of  this nature as a  portion of a long-range effort  in standardization




which had been in progress for some time.  Using various techniques to




provide controlled atmospheres for testing, collaborative tests are




being conducted in order to provide the necessary data to complete the




process of standardization.




          To provide a valid statistical evaluation, the participants




in a collaborative test series should be representative of the ultimate




users of the method.  Since air pollution measurements are a matter of




concern to many people, the users of the method in this case can be




assumed to include laboratories of the federal government, state and




local air pollution control agencies, private industrial plants of many




different types, universities, and basic research organizations, among




others.   To date,  approximately 150 laboratories have indicated a




willingness to participate in the collaborative testing of ambient air




quality level monitoring methods.  A majority of these are state and




local air pollution control agencies,  although the other types of




laboratories listed above are also represented.  The various

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laboratories also vary in size from one- or two-man laboratories up to




large organizations with a laboratory staff of several dozen people.





     Promulgation





          The promulgation activity is a frequently overlooked but very




important part of the measurement technique development program.  The




activity involves an EPA in-house review of the measurement techniques




and of the instructions for their use that are recommended for the air




pollution control programs and also a review of the various field test and




evaluation results.  Based on these reviews the necessary instructions



and techniques are formalized and comments on the proposed measurement tech-




niques are solicited from advisory groups such as the Standardization




Advisory Committee within EPA and the Intersociety Committee.  The




recommendations of the advisory groups form  a basis for necessary re-




visions or modifications in the techniques and the instructions for




their use, and final endorsement of the advisory groups is obtained.




          The next step in the promulgation activity is EPA proposal of




the measurement technique as an official measurement method, through




publication in the Federal Register.  This procedure allows time for




outside comments.  Comments received are considered, and a final ver-




sion of the method is submitted for EPA promulgation as an official mea-




surement method.  The elapsed time required to conduct the promulgation




activity is about four to five months, three months of which is the




period allowed for comments following proposal of the method by EPA in the




Federal Register.

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                                     3-8
          The Jntersociety Committee, whose counsel and ciulorscMiienL of




new measurement techniques is solicited,is a coordinating body presently




supported by eight scientific and engineering societies.  Present members




include:  Air Pollution Control Association, American Chemical Society,




American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygenists, American Industrial




Hygiene Association, American Public Health Association, American Society




for Testing and Materials, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and




Association of Official Analytical Chemists.  This group has been supported




financially by the Environmental Protection Agency and by its predecessor,




the National Air Pollution Control Administration.




1-3  Resources Required




          The task statement lists only the funding required to accomplish




the task.  The basis for these funding requirements is EPA experience on




previous measurement development projects.  It is recognized that, in addi-




tion to funds, other resources in the form of EPA manpower will also be




needed  to accomplish the task.  These manpower requirements are not included




on the  individual task statements, but will be discussed in later sections




of the  report. 




          The funding allocated to an individual task is only sufficient




to pursue one measurement technique to satisfy the measurement requirement.




While  this funding permits several concepts to be evaluated through the




research activity, the funding level does not permit carrying out a parallel




development or field test program on more than one concept.  Additional




funding will be required to cover the redevelopment and re-testing of those




measurement techniques which do not live up to their expectations,if we are

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                                  3-9
to insure that adequate measurement capabilities are achieved.  Since tin:
specific tasks which will require this additional funding cannot be speci-
fied at this time, we will add a general contingency for this purpose to
the total program in a later section of the report.
1.4  Schedules
          The task statements include the indication of one or more of
three major milestones related to the measurement technique.
          The first milestone is the assumed actual date by which the
measurement technique is needed if EPA schedules for promulgation and en-
forcement of air quality level and emission standards are to be met.  This
date is based on planned EPA schedules for promulgation of standards when
these are available, and has been estimated for those application areas
and pollutants for which promulgation plans have not yet been established.
The date shown on the task sheet as the date by which the measurement
technique is needed is not the estimated date for promulgation of the
standard which will require the availability of the measurement technique.
Some form of measurement capability will be required before promulgation
of the standard, to obtain data on air quality levels or emissions needed
in determining the standards.  Unless more specific information was
available, it has been assumed that an interim manual method must be available
at least nine months prior to the anticipated promulgation date.  This pro-
vides for six months of measurement activity to obtain air quality or emission
data prior to proposing the standards and the three month comment period
between proposing the standard and its promulgation.  It has been assumed
further that an evaluated instrumental method will not be required for
at least eighteen (18) months following promulgation of standards which re-
quire such a measurement technique.  The 18 month period is based on the assump-
tion that significant use of an  instrumental technique will not occur until

-------
                                     3-10
 compliance with the air quality level or emission standards is required.  In the




 source emission standards area, compliance must await the installation




 of adequate emission control techniques.   Control equipment for existing




 stationary sources or for new stationary  sources should take at least




 18 months to design, procure and install.  In the moving source area




 the time allocated for compliance with the standards has historically




 been in the order of two years.   In the ambient air quality level




 monitoring area, one year has normally been given for the States to




 develop their implementation plans,and an additional four months pro-




 vided for EPA review of the implementation plan prior to its acceptance.




           The second milestone is the expected date on which an interim




 measurement technique would be available.  On this date a field tested prototype




measurement technique which has had a preliminary review and evaluation




 by the promulgation activity is  available for use.   The elapsed time




 required to reach this stage depends on the state-of-the-art and on the




 time needed to complete any activities required inclusive of the field




 test program.




           The last milestone shown on the task statement is the date on




 which a fully evaluated measurement technique is expected to be available




 for proposal as an official EPA measurement method.

-------
                                  3-11
                '/.  MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES TO SUPPORT EPA
                       RESEARCH AND INVESTIGATIONS
          This section of the report describes  the  tasks  required  to

develop the measurement techniques required to  support  EPA  research and

investigation programs on the effects and extent  of air pollution.


2. 1  Effects and Extent of Air Pollution

          The Clean Air Amendments of 1970 call for special emphasis

on research into the short- and long-term effects of air  pollutants on

public health and welfare.  This includes an accelerated  research  program

to improve the knowledge of the contribution of air pollutants  to  the

occurrence of adverse effects on health, including the  behavioral,

physiological, toxicological and biochemical effects.  This research

can involve epidemiological studies, clinical and laboratory studies.

In this section, the measurement technique development  required to

support these research programs will be discussed.

     2.1.1  Health Effects

          The health effect research program, like other  EPA air

pollution control programs, needs to identify and quantitate air

pollutants.  If the health effect need involves the identification

and quantification of a pollutant which is now or is expected to be

widely measured in the ambient air quality monitoring program,  the

necessary measurement technique development program is  not covered in

this section but is covered under the ambient air quality measurement

technique development program.  Pollutants which fall in this category

are:   pollutants covered by NMQS  or NESHAP, fine participates in the

respirable particulate size range,and trace metals.  In addition,

-------
                                   :3-i2
the health effects research studies will require the measurement



of other pollutants and/or the measurement of the same pollutants



in a manner different than that required in the ambient air quality



monitoring program.  The development of the necessary techniques  to



perform these measurements is covered herein.




          The health effects  research program has a  need  for personal



air pollution monitors for various pollutants to obtain a better  estimate



of the exposure of individuals participating in the.  long  term field



studies.  The movement of the individuals from one level  of pollutant



exposure to another during the course of these extended studies makes  the



average exposure estimates obtained from ambient air quality monitors  un-



acceptable.  The personal air pollution monitors should be reliable,  cumulative



exposure dosage monitors similar in size to radiation dosage badges.



This type of personal monitor for air pollutant exposure  is not available.



The development of personal monitors for the same pollutants covered



by NAQS and other selected pollutants should be immediately initiated.



          TASK REQUIRED;  Develop and evaluate personal air



          pollution cumulative exposure dosage monitors for



          S09, NO , CO, oxidants and trace metals.  (RI-1)
                X
Taiik_
Task
fitle: Deve
Expos
and T
No.: RI-i

MUes
ton*
Resenrcli
Field Test
Evaluation
Promulgation
Totals
A i)
A In
op and Evaluate Personal Air Pollution Cumulative
urc Dosage Monitors for SO?, NOX, CO, Oxldanta
race Met a Is
Fiscal V
rr- Tl 72 | 73 ( 7A
! i o-U-
Funding Required
ear
75 | 76 77
* 1
(Sl'ion's)
1 ;
150 i 75 !
' 100

-100
50 50 ...

, '.... . 150. .: I7i_! .150 50 . .
Lfc Capat.il it.y Initially Kuq-Jir.'d ^
Lerini Method Available
.'- '^
Tiilols
1972
to
1977

225
200
100
JL'JL..


-------
                                   3-13
          Ac-ro.'il largens , while otter, ii natural pollutant, are nonetheless




a major air pollutant with at times serious effects on the health of




individuals.  The identification of specific aeroallergens is now a




tedious procedure and new measurement techniques are required to permit




routine quantification,if progress is to be made in determining their




potential synergistic role in the health effects of other air pollutants.




EPA is conducting an in-house program to develop these measurement




techniques, although the lack of suitable standard aeroallergen samples




is retarding progress in this area.







          The development of suitable standard aeroallergen samples is




required.   Initially,  the program should concentrate on development of




standard ragweed pollen samples because of the widespread distribution




and the adverse effect on many individuals of this aeroallergen.




          TASK REQUIRED:  Develop standard aeroallergen samples.




           (RI-2)




          The development of rapid means for measuring specific aero-




allergens  in  the ambient atmosphere should be initiated.  This task




would  begin at  the  research activity and should  include determining




 the feasibility of  specific chemical reactions which might be the basis
Task

Task
Title: Deve

No.: DI-?

M< leston^s
'//
Activities
mmm
Research
Development
Field Test
(valuation
Promulgation
Totals
op Standard Aeroallergen Samples.
Fiscal Year
'n; J^ 72 , 73
1 i 0
74

75

76

77

Funding Required (SlOOQ's)
75 , 75
100
! ' t
100
i



i i

1 75 175 i 100
'
i
ft Interim Method Available
''''%%.
Totals
1972
1977
150
200



350


-------
                                    3-14
of identifying given aeroallargens as well as  automated  electro-optical




techniques to classify aeroallergens based on  their shape  and  size.   Both




of these approaches could be supported by research grants  through their




early development period.




          TASK REQUIRED;  Develop rapid means  for measuring




          specific aeroallergens in the ambient atmosphere.




          (RI-3)






          The above  listing by  no means completes  the listing of




measurement  techniques  required to  support the health effects research




studies.  During preparation of the  plan, additional measurement




 techniques were  identified, but they did  not  involve the  identification




or quantification of an air pollutant.  Accordingly, they  are.not within




 the scope of the plan.   A listing of these additional needs follows  to




make organizations and  individuals  outside of the  effects  research




program aware of the needs.






   Instrumentation Needs for Health Effects Research




          a.  Development of a  solid particle aerosol generator  that




can separate the larger particles so that only respirable  particles




get to the animals for  use in animal inhalation studies.




          b.  Development of breath testers - e.g. for  Hg, ambient




pollutants and  evidence of smoking.
Task
Title: Devt-l
ip Rapid Means for Ho a
AuroollL-rgena In the Ambien
Tnsk No. : RI-1

Milestones
W$>
v<
a

ft'"
'$$$'$$$
Research
Development
Field Test

Promulgation
Totals
Flsc
re 73 72 , 73
|
Funding Requ
75  75
100 1


t
soring Sptcil tc
t Almosphtrc
il Year
4 75
>

76
t

77

Ired (SlOOO's)
i
00
50 i
!ioo
1




10
' 75 175 ! 150 J 100 10
te Capability Initially Required*}
tertn. Method Available






'4'.-;?
Tntals
1972
to
1977
150
200
50 _
.r
10
510
Evaluated Method Available

-------
                                     3-1-5
          c.  Measurement of SOx and NOx in saliva.




          d.  Measurement of methemaglobin for  NO.




          e.  Measurement of urine or salivary  thiocyanates  or




acetonitriles to better define smoking biochemistry.




          f.  Measurement of pollutartt metabolic products  in biological




systems.




          g.  Measurement of altered levels or  types  of metabolic




products  caused by pollutant effects, e.g. blood delta  ALA dehydrase




for Pb.




          h.  Extension to other pollutants of  measurement techniques




similar to the monitoring of pollens by looking at  the  sputum changes




in people with bronchitis.




     2.1.2  Economic Effects




          The development of measurement techniques to  support  studies




on the economic effects of air pollution, including the effects on




plants and materials,is the subject of this section.  A measurement of




the long term effects of air pollution on materials is  needed to define




a pollution damage function.  These measurements can be made using




"effects packages".  The effects package is a selection of materials




in a suitable container which can be conveniently located  throughout




the country to determine the result of air pollution exposure on the






materials.  This  enables EPA  to assess what the economic penalty




associated  with dirty  air really  is.  Effects package air pollution




sampling  stations are  currently commercially available, but the components




of  the package do not  permit measurement of the effect of air pollution




on  economically  important materials, e.g., paints, galvanized products,




 tire-sidewall  rubber,  etc.  A task  to develop a more meaningful effects

-------
                                    3-16
package should be initiated.  This task would start with a  research




program to develop simple  techniques for assessment of the  economic




damage function.




          TASK REQUIRED;  Develop and evaluate an effects




          package to enable assessment of the damage caused




          by air pollution to economically important




          materials.  (RI-4)




          Economic penalties result from reduced visibility and odors.




Reduced visibility often delays aircraft landings and can contribute to




air and highway  accidents.  Odors can sharply reduce property values




in the affected  area.  Measurement  techniques to measure visibility




and odors will be required  for the  assessment of economic effects.




The development  of  these techniques is  covered in  the ambient air quality




monitoring  section.




          The  economics effects  research program will also require




specialized measurement  techniques  to  assess  the effects of air pollution




on  plants,  e.g., measurement  of  vegetative damage.  This type of




measurement does not involve  the identification or quantification  of  an




air  pollutant and accordingly is not  covered in  this  plan.  Rapid




transfer  of technology  generated in NASA's earth resources measurement




program to  the air  pollution  effects  surveillance  effort may be




possible.
Task

Task
Title: Develo
of the
Import
No.: BI-4

Miles tones
f/$
ffifijff//
V
U
f-l
>
2

Research
Development
Field Test
Evaluation
Promulgation
Totals
Aua
0'"
p and Evaluate n Effects Package to Enable Asociloer
Damage Caused by Air Pollution to Economically
ant Materials
FlscaJ Year
re 73 72
1
Pun
75
|_ 73

74
4
1 75
t
76

77

ding Required (SlOOO'o)
150
100



1 75
250
i *
100
50


150

50

1


I
10 '< '
60
tPiim Method Available
'f4%
Totals
1972
1977
225
200
100

10
535


-------
                                    3-17
 2.2  Remote and Long 1'aLli Sensing
           This section o.l" the report describes the measurement technique
 development tasks that are required to achieve a remote sensing
 capability in support of EPA research programs into the causes and extent
 of air pollution.  These research programs include studies to obtain a
 quick and relatively coarse assessment of the distribution of pollution
 in a community atmosphere or from various source emissions; to assess
 the effectiveness of control techniques; to investigate chemical
 transformations, atmospheric transport and dispersion processes; to
 develop mathematical models of the pollution potential of urban
 atmospheres; and to develop design and performance criteria of instrument
 systems for routine field utilization.

          Remote sensing instrumentation is currently unsuited for routine
development for compliance monitoring.  At present it is over-designed, complex,
and prohibitively expensive.  Nontheless, improvements in remote sensing
techniques could lead to practical field instrumentation which would enable
this measurement technique to play a major role in routine air pollution
measurement programs.  A cost benefit analysis to define the application
areas in which remote sensing techniques would result in the most favorable
cost effective measurement method should be undertaken.
          TASK REQUIRED;  Conduct a cost benefit analysis of remote
          sensing techniques applied to routine air pollution control.(RI-5)
^**fc ^jt ! ! Conduct  Cott Benefit Analysts of Re
Sensing Techniques Applied to Routine
Pollution Control
IS*
Ho. ; RI-5

K.*lcton*
w


ti"
4 1
WMr/m
Baaaarch
DcvtlopMnt
Flald Test
Evaluation
Proaulfat ion
Totals

r 7^ 72
1
riictl Tor
73

74

75

mote
Air
	

76

77

Fundlni H.qulr.d (SlOOO'l)
1 100




1
ata Capability Initially Raq
Dt*tin Method Avilbl
100


i

I 1
i
1 1
1
100 | 100




i
uird ^ Evlu
$$
Toc>l
1772
Co
177
200




200
Itui Method Available

-------
                                     3-18
          Traditional methods of measurement  consist of instrument




systems that sample at a point in the ambient air or sample through a




probe introduced within a source of emissions (in-stack sampling).




Inadequacies of such systems to meet some current needs and recent




advances in the technology of remote sensing have led to an EPA




program of remote sensing applied to air pollution research studies and




measurement activities.




    2.2.1  Remote Sensing of Particulates




          The earliest need was realized in EPA's (then APCO's) cooperative




study with the Edison Electric Institute (EEI) in assessing the opacity




of plumes from power plants.  The conclusion of the study of the optical




properties of these plumes was that optical transmission of the plume




best characterized the aerosol loading in the emissions.  Furthermore,




an objective instrumental measurement of plume transmission was demonstrated




to be feasible, in terms of remote sensing by "Lidar" techniques




(Stanford Research Institute Contract).  The EPA-EEI Cooperative Study




was extended to include the development of a Lidar system (as a research




tool) specifically for further assessment of the technique under field




conditions and for the eventual development of a practical field device




based on such a technique.  The Lidar system was further advanced under




development by contract with General Electric Company and the system was




delivered in April 1971.




          The G.E. system, as presently executed, doesn't lend itself to




a practical field device in terms of portability, economy of cost,  and




laser hazards, with its high laser power requirements.  A contract




study with Stanford Research Institute is underway to investigate the




possibility of utilizing the Lidar technique wherein the signal back-




scattered directly from the plume aerosol is analyzed and related to the

-------
                                  3-)')
transmission of  the  plume  instead  of  the  signal  that  is  backscattered




fruiii  i ho .-Huh i out ;i i r beyond  the  plume.  The  fo.nsibilify  of  such  .-in




approach will permit the use of  a  very  low powered  laser and  the design




of a practical field instrument.  Another promising approach involves




the use of a low powered continuous wave  laser (compared  to the  present




pulsed technique) in conjunction with frequency modulation techniques




to give optical transmission.





          The above program  is concerned with the remote sensing




of particulate air pollution.   It will continue towards the initial




objective of developing practical  field instrumentation  for the  remote




measurement of plume opacity.





          TASK REQUIRED;   Develop  a practical  field instrument  for  the




          remote measurement of  plume opacity .  (RI~6)





          Once a remote plume opacity measurement technique has  been




successfully developed, EPA  expects to  extend  the capability  to  remotely




determine particulate mass loading.   It is expected that  this extention




will not require new instrumentation  development, but  merely  the




development  of techniques  to interpret  the data  contained in  the signal




from  the remote  opacity measurement device to  extract  a  meaningful




determination of mass concentration.




          TASK REQUIRED:   Develop  data  interpretation  techniques to




          enable remote measurement of  particulate  mass  loading  and




          field  test the measurement  method.   (RI-7)


TofiV


(hp Remote Hennurewient of plump Opaf
No.: Bi-6

M' len tones
W$i
A
|
%%$:///',
Research
Development
Field Test
Evaluation
ProtmilRfltion
Totals

'V


re 1^ 72  73
1 i*
Funding R
74

7'j
t
76

77

quired (51000's)
! ! . !
]00
75

100
100
'
50 '
I




> 75 JOO
200
50


Tntals
1972
1977

too
225


(,25
4} Intrrlra Method Available
Tank

Task
Title: Develop Data Interpretation Techniques to Enable

No.: RT-7

M1 lestones
^^
i
t>
S
ffM^Mfy
Reseat t\
Develo nent
Field L-st
Evalua Ion
l-rcmul atiott
Total
V .<
<>,
Fiscal Year
te 7Z, 72 | 73 74 75 76 77
I i  -T
Funding Required (SlOOO's)
1 !
ISO 
! ! 75 I
50 . 50 ,
' 15
' 150 125 65 '

?&*
Totals
1972
to
1977

ISO
75
100
IS
MO
i.' Capability InUinlly Hi'qulr.-d A Evaluated Method Available
trrim Method Avnl hiblc

-------
                                  3-20
    2.2.2  Remote Sensing of Gases




          Remote sensing of gases offers several advantages over point




sampling.  These include:  more representative sampling by spectral




integration and averaging over a long path in ambient air or across




the diameter of a stack plume; avoidance of interfacing between analyzer




and the stack with appropriate probes and sample conditioning such as





dilution, gas cooling, particulate scrubbing,  water condensation,  etc.;




the only effective way of executing a measurement of an extended source




such as an oil refinery with undefined leakage sources, etc.




          Electro-optical techniques in infrared emission and absorption




spectroscopy appeared to offer the most advanced state of technology




development in related areas such as gas measurement in planetary




 space studies and in chemical agent detection in the military.




EPA's  initial  effort  at  remote  sensing of S0 emissions in  power plant




emissions  consisted of an IR  feasibility study with Dalmo Victor




followed by  a  prototype  development of what might constitute a field




instrument.  Although the execution of the technique in terms of




engineering  the hardware was well done, the operation was unsatisfactory




and an evalutation of the inadequacy was not determinable because of the




lack of  supporting research instrumentation for  remote sensing.




           A  contractual  program was initiated to provide remote sensing




research instrumentation and  data for the development of field instru-




ments  utilizing  IR emission and absorption techniques for remote




monitoring of  sources and  long  path measurements in ambient air.  A




contract was undertaken  with  Convair of San Diego to develop a high




resolution (Otl  cm  ) scanning  IR spectrophotometer  (3 to 5.5 microns and




7  to  14 microns)  with capability  for both emission and  absorption

-------
                                  3-21
spectroscopy.   This instrument is to provide Held data on IK spectra

of urban atmospheres and o emissions from various sources and is to be

the ultimate reference in the field performance evaluation of prototype

field instruments.  An appropriate assessment of the performance of the

Dalmo Victor prototype S0.; monitor can be made with this Convair research

instrument.  The Convair instrument was delivered in the spring of 1971.

A 3-month field program is currently underway in the Los Angeles area.


The objectives of the field program are:  to familiarize EPA's staff with

the instrument's operation; to generate representative long path spectra

(2 miles) of Los Angeles atmosphere under various smog conditions; to

generate representative spectra of power plant source, incinerator

source, and extended source, i.e., chemical complex or oil refinery.

          Another IR research instrument system was developed under

contract and delivered by Bendix in September 1970.  This system is a

multichannel spectrophotometer (7 to 14 microns), based on an earlier

design for the Chemical Corps and modified to EPA's needs.  This instru-

ment has a range of capabilities that start somewhat below that of the

Convair system and approach the simplest single channel prototype field

device.  A built-in computer (programmed to direct the procedure of

operation of the instrument and to execute the operation) provides as
   
many as' 50 channels of analysis and can be degraded to a minimum of one

channel.  This is compared to Convair's 7000 channels of O.lcm   spectral

segments in the 7 to 14 micron spectral region.  The Bendix system will

permit the development of optimum design and performance specifications

for a prototype field instrument that is minimized in channel require-

ments and adequate in accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity.

          Paralleling the development of the field research instruments,

a contract was undertaken with the Wave Propagation Laboratory of NOAA  in

-------
                                3-22
Boulder, Colorado to consolidate and generate as required high resolution


IK specliviJ 
-------
                                 3-23
resonance- Knnum KcfilU-r and an improvement in S/N in the ordei/ol

  45                                                  /
10  to 10  could be obtained in fluorescent scatter techniques.  It was
concluded that more productive effort would be realized in pursuing


these approaches at this time and cancelling any follow up on the


RFP's on Raman scatter.  This conclusion was further/reinforced by an


invitation from Langley Research Center, NASA^to conduct a cooperative  "\


study wherein they wished to conduct Raman scatter measurements with their


ongoing system on power plant sources and wanted EPA assistance in


conducting supporting  in-stacK measurements to provide "ground truth"

                         /  '
so-to-speak.  EPA is planning to accept this invitation which serves


the  interest of both/parties.
                 {?'

          EPA has also initiated contracts to adapt advanced technologies


in IR spectroscopy  that have potential as second generation field


instrument systems  in  remote sensing.  These include the development of


very low  powered tunable IR diode lasers in a contract with the Lincoln


Laboratories of MIT and long path IR laser coincidence spectroscopy in


a contract with G.  E.  in Syracuse, N. Y.


          EPA has  funded research grants in long path and remote sensing


instrument developments.  These  include:


          A.  Zaromb Research Foundation - Laser Stimulation of Raman


              Scattering as Source for Absorption Spectroscopy of


              Pollutant Emissions in Ambient Air.


          B.  University of Florida  (Gainesville) - Correlation


              Spectroscopy.


          Commercial prototype  remote monitors of S0~ and NO,  (correlation


spectroscopy) were  utilized in  a field  studies contract  that EPA had


with Barringer  Research, Inc.  The objectives of these studies were to

-------
                                  3-24
conduct a number of field experiments that may shed light on research




questions relating results obtained by remote sensing to those by




in-stack-methods and those by long path to those by point sampling in




ambient air.  The experiments were also to give some information on




the performance capability of this instrumentation under field conditions.




This study included remote sensing from aircraft of N02 in a plume downwind




and tracking of NO  in an air mass traversing a community.  The results




were informative but still of a preliminary nature.  Present plans are




to purchase a remote sensing system and further assess the performance




in conjunction with the Convair system as a reference.




          A continuing program to develop a practical field remote




sensing capability to determine the emission of gaseous pollutants from




single sources, e.g., stacks, must be maintained.   This task will




permit "in-site" sampling of the plume and detection at a distance of




1/4 to 1 mile from the source.  The initial emphasis will be on the




measurement of SO  and NO with later extention of the concept to NO  ,




HCl and other pollutants.




          TASK REQUIRED;  Develop a practical field instrument for the




          remote measurement of gaseous pollutants emitted from single




          sources.   (RI-8)
Task Title: D.un

Task
Sing
No- : RI-fl

Milestones
liia
 to
H
H
W^^^M'^'
Research
Development
Field Test
Evaluation
Promulgation
Totals
op a Practical Field Instrument for the Remote
re went of Gaseous Pollutants Emitted from
e Sources
Fiscal Year
r'c 72, 72
1
73
V-
74

75
fl
76

77

Funding Required (SlOOO'n)
' 200
100
100 _
250
50

250
1 100

\ \
1 300
400
350


150 !
100
in
15
365


1
.-100 ,.

10
no !
^>*
Totals
1972
to
1977
300
750
250 .
200
25
1525
A Date Capability Initially Required^ Evaluated Method Available
fo Interim Method Available

-------
                                  3-25
          In.-: I riniiciit ;i I inn to provide I he oi|>;il>i Illy noi'dril to iin'miurr




the emissions from area sources, e.g., petrochemical facilities, should




be developed.  This instrumentation would be based on the use of long-




path  integrated measurement  techniques.  The  required  program could




build on  data obtained  from  the remote  gaseous pollutant sensing pro-





grams and from DOD  and  NASA  activities.  The  measurement capability




provided  by  this technique will also enable measurement  of integrated




ambient air  quality  levels across valleys, along  city streets,  etc.




This  should  greatly  facilitate  measurements required for research  studies




into  the  extent of  pollution.




          TASK REQUIRED;  Develop a  practical  field  instrument  based on




           the use of long-path  integrated measurement  techniques  for




           the measurement of emissions  from area  sources (TASK No.  RI-9).







           EPA has maintained an exchange of  information of mutual




interest  in  remote  sensing with several  government agencies  having




ongoing programs  and made contact with  others.  These  include NASA at




Washington Headquarters, Langley Research Center, former Electronics




Research  Center,  and Amos Research  Center;  Army Chemical Corps at  Edgewood;




Naval Research Laboratory, D.  C.; Naval  Weapons Laboratory,  Dahlgren,




 Virginia; Air Force Cambridge Research  Laboratories.


Tank

of Long-Path Integrated H
Measurement of Emissions
No.: BI-9

H1 leg
w//
Activities
tones
m&w.*
Research
Uevelopment
Field Teat
Evaluation
Promulgation
Totals
Inatrume
eaauremen
rron Area
nt Based on the Use
i Technique* for the
Sources
Fiscal Year
rrc 72 72 , ,3
1 1
74 7
t*
5 76
t
77

Funding Required (SIOOS's)
100 75
100 2 SO


150,
too i



50

' IOO SO

1 200 125

15
250 1 150 t>5 !
4} Interim Method Available
; '" /.
T.H.I.B
197*
1977
175
500
150
ISO
L5
?90


-------
                                  3-26
2 . 3  Mt'Lc-orc) Logj c;i I Mt'.'ia


          The quality of the ambient air is the result of emissions of


pollutants from discrete sources and the presence of geographical


formations and climatological conditions which enhance or hinder the


dispersive forces of the atmosphere.  This section of the plan covers


the research and development projects needed to establish the capability


to measure the dispersive forces of the atmosphere and other atmospheric

                                               v
properties required for an understanding of the causes and extent of air


pollution.  The measurement capability provided by this section will also


enable a timely advance prediction of local air pollution episodes.


          Obtaining information on the dispersive forces acting in the


lower two kilometers of the atmosphere above an urban area cannot be


accomplished with conventional meteorological measurement techniques,


because of air safety restrictions.  Accordingly, EPA's support of


meteorological measurement programs in recent years has focused on the


development of remote techniques to measure these transport properties


in the planetary boundary layer.  These measurements provide information


on the dispersive nature of the atmosphere and permit forecasting of the


extent to which interactions between air pollutants and atmospheric


processes will affect community air pollution levels.  EPA's meteorology


program is conducted by personnel on assignment from the National Oceanic


and Atmospheric Administration of the Department of Commerce.

-------
                                    3-27
          The mot oorol o}1. i c;i I  inensu return I  technique pro>r,r.'ini includes




three areas:   (1)  remote  measurement of  the atmospheric temperature




profile; (2)   remote measurement of wind speed and turbulence profiles




and (3)  measurement of atmospheric moisture profiles.




     2.3.1  Temperature Profile Measurement




          Because atmospheric temperature gradients (differences in




temperature with increasing altitude) are among the factors that




influence the transport and dispersion of air pollutants, and because




of the limitations of conventional means  of obtaining atmospheric




temperature profiles, EPA has been supporting the development of




remote sensing techniques.  In this regard, a prototype radiometer for




measuring vertical temperature profiles has been developed and success-




fully evaluated by EPA under contract with Sperry Rand.  An advanced




prototype radiometer for measuring temperature profiles suitable for




field use is  currently under development.  This technique is based on




sensing the radiation from atmospheric oxygen molecules in the millimeter




radiation spectrum. Completion of the development and evaluation of an




advanced prototype remote instrument to measure vertical temperature




profiles is required .




          TASK REQUIRED;  Develop and evaluate an advanced prototype




          instrument  to remotely measure vertical temperature  profiles




           (RI-10)


1'iisk


Instrument to Remotely Measure Vertlea
Temperature Profiles

-------
                                  3-28
     2.5.?.  Atmospheric Turbulence, mid Wind Measurements,




          The wind speed and turbulence of the asmosphere at altitudes




within the planetary boundary layer (up to 1500 m)  are also factors




that influence the transport and dispersion of air pollutants.  Again



the limitations of conventional methods of measuring wind speed and




turbulence vertical profiles in urban areas necessitates a remote




measurement capability.  EPA is supporting development of a laser cross-




beam technique which obtains information on wind speed and turbulence by




focusing a laser beam on an area of the planetary boundary layer and




looking at the back scatter of radiation.  The construction and




evaluation of a prototype of the laser cross beam technique for wind




speed and turbulence profiles remains to be accomplished.




          TASK REQUIRED;  Develop and evaluate a prototype instrument




          based on the laser cross-beam technique for measurement of




          wind speed and turbulence .  (RI-11)




          EPA is also sponsoring development of ground-based accoustical




techniques as an alternate method to measure wind speed and turbulence




profiles in the planetary boundary layers.  An operational prototype is




available but the technique to obtain the desired profiles from the




data remain to be worked out.  Once the necessary techniques are available




a  field test of the measurement method is required.
TasV

Task

Title: Develop
on the
Speed a
"- i RI-11


Milestones
WM
Activities

Research
Development
Field Teat
Evaluation
Promulgation
Totals
and Evaluate a Prototype Inatru
Laser Croaa-fleam Technique for Hi
nd Turbulence
Fiscal Year
Pr'e ?.> 72
1
73
4
74

75

ment Based
easureoent of

76

77

Funding Required (1000' t\
!
130
50
sq



1
'
! 130
100








1




i

A Date Capability Initially Required A Evalu
^ Interim Method Available

m
Totals
1972
1977

180
SO


230
ted Method Available

-------
                                    3-29
          TASK REQUIRED:   Develop the data  handling techniques  required




          to obtain wind  speed and turbulence profiles  from ground-based




          accoustical techniques and field  test the measurement method-  (RI-12)







     2.3.3  Moisture Profile Measurements




          NOAA is currently investigating optical dispersion techniques




for application to moisture profile determinations.  The timely develop-




ment of an operational prototype for use by EPA and State Air Pollution




Control Agencies will require EPA support of the development phase,





followed by a  field evaluation of the measurement method.




          TASK REQUIRED:   Support the development of the instrument




          based on optical dispersion techniques  for moisture  profile




          measurement and field  test the measurement method  .  (RI-13)
Task .
Taak
T J 1 1 e : Develop the Data Handling Techniques Required to
Obtain Wind Speed and Turbulence Profiles From
Cround-Dased Accouatlcal Techniques and Field Tost
The Measurement Method
"No.: Ri-12
Milestones
ffljff/j
Activities
''$$:,/#{
Research
Development
Field Test
Evaluation
Promulgation
Totals
Flsca
I'rc 72, 72 . 73 74
1 ! >
Irar
75


76

77

Funding Required ($1000's)
1
135 BO 1
50 J


1 135 130 1
A Date Capability Initially Required A
ft Interim Method Available
i


;
.
!




'"$&
Totals
1972
1977

215
50


265
Evaluated Method Available
Task

Task
Title: Develop
Diapers
and Fie
No': RI-13

Miles

 M
l
>
<
tones

Research
Development
Field Teat
Evaluation
Promulgation
Totals
merit of an Instrument Baaed on Optical
ion Technique* (or Holaturc Profile Meaaurementa
Id Teat the Measurement Hathod

Pro 7^ 72 73
1
74

75

76
t
77

Funding KeQulred (SlOOO'j)

200



200



> 200
200
1 i
50
i
L 100 I

i !

150 i
Wi
Totals
1972
1977

450
100


550
A Date Capability Initially Required A Evaluated Method Available
^ Interim Method Available

-------
                                    3-'JO
                  3.  MEASUREMENT  TECHNIQUES TO  IDENTIFY AMD
                     QUANTITATE AIR POLLUTANTS	

3.1  Ambient Air Quality Measurement

     3.1.1  Introduction

          Ambient air may be defined as the atmosphere in our immediate

surroundings.  The quality of this ambient air is a function of a variety

of natural and man-made conditions.  Solids,  liquids and gases continuously

cycle into and out of the atmosphere at different concentrations and rates.

The atmosphere inherently contains many dispersed materials from natural

sources whose concentration may vary from minute to dense.  For example,

plants emit oxygen, water vapor,  pollen, etc.; animals emit CO , NH~ and

other low molecular weight compounds;  and from natural episodes such as

volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and storms high concentrations of diverse

solids, liquids and gases may be dispersed into the atmosphere.  Above this

background of naturally occurring pollutants,  other pollutants enter the

atmosphere as emissions from a host of discrete mobile and stationary sources,

          Wide variations in ambient air quality exist in different regions

of the Nation as a result of differing local emissions and the presence of

geographic formations and meteorological conditions which enhance or hinder

the dispersive forces of the atmosphere.  This section of the report is

concerned with the analytical methods and instruments which will be required

to measure the ambient air quality level throughout the United States.

     3.1.2  Specific Requirements by Pollutant

          3 .1.2.1  SOp and Sulfur Compounds

          Sulfur dioxide is the gaseous pollutant most frequently measured,

and the development of measurement methods for this pollutant is correspond-

ingly relatively well advanced.  A manual measurement technique for S00

-------
                                  3-31
based on the pararosanili.no method has been collaboratively LcsLcil by




EPA and promulgated as the measurement method in the Federal Register




of April 30, 1971.  No further work on an analytical method for SO. is




anticipated.  The various instruments available do not give identical




results.  This situation creates a need for evaluation of commerically




available instrumental procedures which can be promulgated as official




measurement methods.




          TASK REQUIRED;  Develop and evaluate an  instrumental method




          for continuous measurement of SCL .  (IQA-1)




          Research and development is needed for simple non-wet chemical




instrumental methods, for 24-hour cumulative sampling and measurement of SO.





          TASK REQUIRED;  Develop and evaluate an instrument for 24-hour




          cumulative sampling and analysis of SO .  (IQA-2)




          The recently developed flame photometric detector (FPD)  can measure




all types of volatile sulfur compounds in the atmosphere,  over a wide range




of concentrations, from 1 ppb to 10 ppm.  It detects photometrically the emission




of atomic sulfur  formed during  controlled combustion in a hydrogen-




rich flame.   This can be used directly to measure total gaseous  sulfur com-




pounds, or coupled with GC to analyze separately for H2S,  RSH,  RSR or S02




in admixtures.  The FPD method will probably be acceptable as an interim
TMk Title: D.v.lm>
Hiuura
Tk Xo.: IOA-I

Milestones

Research
." Uevcloprai/nt
"S Flpld Tpst

"* Pronulgntlon
Totals
and Evaluate an Instrumental Method for Continuous
wnt of SO Z
Fiscal Year
TP 72 72 | 73 i 74
1 -T  1 *
75 76

77

Funding Required ($1000' B)
! 1 ' i
100 50 1 i i
50 i


1 5
I too 100 ; 80


'


'%$>
Totals
1972
1977

150
50
n
j
280
	 into Capability initially Required  Evaluated Method Available
4). Interim Method Aval lob lu
Tnsk

Title: Develop
Samp 1 In
Task No. i ,,,-,

M( lestones
'W$ti
V
rt
ft
'$w^'s/.y.
R search
D velopmcnt
F eld Test
E aluatlon
P otnulgatlon
Totals
and Evaluate an Instrument for
g and Analyst a of S02
Fiscal Y
Prc 7^ 72 i 73 74
1 A 0 f
Funding Required
ear
75

24 Hour

76

Cumulative

77

($1000' 6)
, 1
75 T.
50 50
7_i
10
i 75 125 |135
A Date Capability Initially Required A
^ Interim Method Available







Evalu










Totals
1972
to
1977

ISO
100
,s
10
335
Led Method Available

-------
method for total sulfur,  as soon as field tests to determine its limitations




are completed,  and the full procedure promulgated later as the official EPA




method after further work and evaluation tests.




          TASK REQUIRED:  Develop and  evaluate  instrumental methods for total




          gaseous S compounds and for specific sulfur-containing compounds.




          (IQA-3)





           H S is a specific pollutant that is often a local nuisance




 and the development of a simple means for its measurement in the ambient




 air is justified.  The method can be cumulative but should be sensitive




 enough to permit measurements in time intervals as short as 1-hour.




           TASK REQUIRED;  Develop and evaluate a manual method for 1-hour




           or less cumulative sampling and measurement of HS.  (IQA-4).




           A rapid method to determine molecular sulfuric acid (sulfuric




 acid mist) currently does not exist.  The development of a rapid manual




 method, most likely based on cumulative sampling, is required to support




 planned EPA community studies.




           TASK REQUIRED;  Develop a manual method for molecular H^SO,




           (sulfuric acid mists).  (IQA-5).*





           *Asterisk  indicates  task sheet  carried over to next page.
T.ir,k Tlrlc: Develop and Evaluate InHtrumental Methods for Total
Gaseoua R Compounds and for Specific Sulfur-ContalnlnR
Compounds
l2!i_
N.^: ,,A-3

M' lestonps
W^f/y

fir //'':/$%
He.si'ni-ch
llcvulopmi-nt
Field Test
Evaluation
rr,,o,,lB.,t u.ii
'iKtillS
Fiscal Ve;ir
'n- 7^ 72 , 73 74 75 76 77
lift
Funding Required ($](KJO's}
i : '
75 75 ! 1
50 I i :
75 ' . i
; 10 '
1 75 125 1 85 !
f$
Totals
1972
1977

150
50
75
10
285
A l';'le i:i|>.il'i 1 ily Inili.-illv Itrtjuir* d A i:v.ili atf
Tank
Task
TU_le_: Develop and Evaluate A Manual Method for 1-Hour Or Leaa
Cuaulatlve Sampling and Meaeurenent of HjS
No. : IOA-4

MUes
m/s/j
M
V
>
\
tones
mm<
Research
Development
Yield Test
{valuation
1'ronuilgat Ion
Totals
Fiscal Year
're 1^ 72 , 73
1 1* il
74

75

76

77

Funding Required (SlOOO'n)

100
JO
I


!
1

sn :


10 !
1100 110



$ft
Totals
1972
to
1977

100
5p
50
10
210
V UaLe Capability Initially Required aV Evaluated Method Available
^ Interim Method Availnblc

-------
                                   3-33
          3.1.2.2  Particulates




          Particulates include fumes,  mists,  smog,  aerosols,  sprays,




as well as smokes and dust,  and they can be composed  of  almost  any




 material.  Particulate  size distribution,  chemical composition, and




 physical  properties,  such as  density, shape, surface area and reflectance




 are all highly  variable.   Conventional methods of  ambient air  total




 particulate mass  loading measurement  have  used either the high volume




 samplers  for  cumulative sampling or the  tape samplers for rapid measurement





          Tape  samplers have  been promulgated as an interim method for




 measurement of  total  particulates and are  in widespread use at the




 present time.   This method is  currently not acceptable as an official




 EPA measurement method because of several  problems, chief among which




 has been  the  effect of  particle color and  surface reflectance on the




 photometric measurement of spot loading on the tape.   A development




 program to  apply alternate methods for the measurement of particulate




collected  on the tape, such as beta-gauging,  should be  undertaken  to




upgrade the tape sampler pending development  of improved techniques for




the hourly measurement of  total particulate mass  loading.




          TASK REQUIRED;  Develop beta-gauging  techniques  to  replace  the




          photometric measurement of particulates collected on  the  tape




          sampler.   (IQA-6)
T/isk Tllh : n.u.in.

T.sk ...

No..! IQA-5
'
M4 lostoneB
/ ^
AcClvlcle*

7f/-//"''/47'
Research
Development
Field Tent '

Promulgation
Totaln
A Manual fo
r Molecular H
^SOj (Sulfurtc
Acid Mists)
fiscal Year
re- H n


73
74
ft | t
Funding Ri

SO

100
5n
75

76

77

quired (SlOOO's)




! 

1 75 '


SO
ISO
10 !
69
A Date CopubllUy Initially Required A
4^ Interim Method Available

Lvalu
:JP3
Totals
1972
to
1977
9 .
100
SO
'5
10
285

Task Title: tt.vi.ln,.

Task
H'lcs
Measure
"Q-: IQA-6

tones
'W'&^-fltfi''*',
M
V
Research
Development
Field Te-t

I'ronul gation
Totals
^y i'
Beta-Gauging Techniques To Hrplare The Photometric
ment of Particulates Collected On The Tope Sampler
Fiscal Year
re 1\ 72 73 74
1 ft t
Funding Koqiiircif

75 !
50 .
75

76

77

(SlOUll'n)





50 '
 5
1 75 50 ' 55
tc Capability Initially Required.^
tcrirn Method Avotlohh-


Kvalu




-A v
Total1.
1972
1977

T,
50
50
5
180
atcd Method Available

-------
                                    3-34
           TASK REQUIRED:  Develop and evaluate an improved instrumental




           method to measure hourly particulate total mass  loading.   (IQA-7)




           Modern Hi-Vol equipment for cumulative total particulates  has




 been greatly improved by providing measurement devices and controls  for a




 continuous flow rate of air.   A preliminary description of this  equipment




 and its proper operation was  set forth in  the  Federal  Register for January 30,




 1971.   A collaborative user evaluation of  the  high  volume  sampler method has




 recently been completed.  There are still  a number  of  problems to be solved,




 however, one of which is the  changing efficiency of filtration for variously-




 sized particles during a 24-hour period, as the filter becomes partially coated




 in use.  Operation is affected by humidity, temperature changes, and chemical




 interactions of the material  collected.




          Many of these effects have been attributed to the fact  that no




currently available Hi-Vol filter medium is completely satisfactory.




The development of a temperature-and humidity-stable filter medium




with good mechanical properties and high collection  efficiency which  can be




easily manufactured in large,  uniform quantities is  required.   It should




be ashless for the chemical analysis of particulate  composition.  This




task is judged to need only a  modest investment, particularly  at  the




R/D stage, in view of its considerable commercial potential.
Task
Title: Develop and Evaluate An Improved Inatru
mental
Method To
Measure Hourly Particular Total Haas Loading
Task
No. : IQA-7

H< lea tones

in
>
J!
y$t$W$fy
Research
Development.
Field Test
Evaluation
Promulgation
Totals
Fiscal Year
re 73 72 , 73
1 i *
7

75
t
76

77

Funding Required ($1000's)
50 1
150
50


100
50





: 1
100

I 50 200 150
r 10




110 |
t%0
':'*:*
Totals
1972
to
1977
5.0.
250
100
10,0
10
510
A Date Capability Initially Required f Evaluated Method Available
 Interim Method Available

-------
                                3-35
          TASK REQUIRE!):  Develop an improved litter medium for use in




          cumulative measurement of total particulate mass by Hi-Vol




          equipment.  (IQA-8)




          It is recognized  that alternate methods, for example, staged




filtration or completely different equipment such as large-scale impingers




may be developed which will also meet the requirement of providing




samples for further analysis.  As a contingency a program to evaluate





revised instrumental methods for cumulative particulate mass loading




is included.



          TASK REQUIRED:  Field test and evaluate improved techniques




          for instrumental  measurement of cumulative particulate mass




          loading.  (IQA-9)





          Particle size measurements have become increasingly important




with the realization that the physical,  chemical and biological effects of




particulates all vary with particle size, and are generally greater for




smaller particles.  At the same time,  the increasing efficiency of dust




collecting devices in industry is increasing the relative amount of total




particulates which are in these smaller sizes.  A variety of cascade samplers




are available on the market which are claimed 'to give satisfactory performance




in the larger size range,  down to about 1.0 or 0.5 microns.  These are ready
ll'Jv-TiKlil1 Develop an Improved Filter Medium for Use In Cumulative
Measurement of Total Particulate Mass By HI-Vol Equlpiwnt
EstUt^- >*-8
S,
H
t ones
'*{,'/' 'f  >'~
' : . ' * _ / .
Rr.!,-orl>'
Tnsk

Task
M'lcs
%%
m
";>
-C
Title: field T<
Inatrune
M*i. lot
Ho._ ; IQA-9

tones
/^w->
Kescnrcli
Development
ridd TCJ.L
Evaluation
I'ronmlgatlun
Totals
at and Evaluate Improved Technique* for
ntal Measurement of Cumulative Particulate "
ding
Fiscal Year
re 72 72 . 73 7ft 75 76 77
1 i 0 ~t
Funding Kqulred (ilOOO's)
! ill
 1
50 30 i
' ! 50
: 1
1 50 50 55
^
totals
1972
to
1971


100
5.A
i
155
^ Dale Crtj>,bUHy Initially Required A Evaluated Method Available
^} Inlvrfa Method AvalUbh-

-------
                                    3-36
for field testing, to select a preferred procedure for evaluation and
promulgation as an official method for the routine collection of fractionated

samples .
          TASK REQUIRED:  Test and evaluate commercial instruments for
          size distribution of suspended particulates.  (IQA-10)
          The smallest particles below 1 micron in size are not completely
measured by present methods of sample collection.  They are an important
part of the "respirable particulates".  These range in size from an upper
limit of about 2 microns, which is not filtered out on breathing, to a
lower limit of about 0.1 microns, below which the particles inhaled tend to
remain suspended and escape from the  lungs again on exhalation.  New methods
are needed which are capable of measuring the total amount of respirable
particulates, either as a  single measurement or in several stages.  Possibili-
ties for the smaller particles include light scattering using laser beams,
centrifugal separation with or without size classification, and the meas-
urement of pulse size as a function of particle size in pulse flame ioniza-
tion.
          TASK REQUIRED:   Develop new instrumental techniques for respirable
          particulates, including the smaller particles of 0.1 to 2 micron
          size.  (IQA-11)
          The effect of particulates  on visibility is  important for aesthe-
tic values, and frequently for practical purposes as well.  Visibility  is
Task

Tk
Title: irK 
Dlscrl
"" : IQA-10

H'.lcs

Accivicies
tones

Research
Development
Field Test
Evaluation
Promulgation
Totals
id Evaluate Commercial InKrunent for Size
juclon of Suspended Particular
Fiscal Year
re 72, 72
1
73

74
*
75

76

77

Funding Required (SlOQO'sl


50



1 50
1

75 .


|


! i

75






P*^
Totals
1972
1977

50
75


125
A Dace Capability Initially Required A Evaluaced Mechod Available
Task

Task
Title-
Parcicu
Micron
"n-: IQA-11

MUes

-H
tones
'ffiffiffyf?1'-
Research
Development
Field Test
Evaluation
Promulgation
Totals
New Instrumental Techniques fa
late.. Including Che Smaller Par
Size
Respirable
cicles of 0.1 to 2
Kisi-al Year
re 72, 72 . 73 74
| 1
75
ft
76 77
t
Funding Required ($lUO'J'^i
100
100



i 100 j 100
A Date Capability initially Required 

200
50


250
tvalu



100 1
10
185
r~i"
1972
to
197!
100
.inn
125
100
10
635
ated Method Available-

-------
                                      3-37
tisiKilLy measured over  long distance's, often in a particular direction.  Its

measurement may be affected by special effects such as light reflection

or diffraction.  Equipment now available includes integrating nephelometers

which are ready to be field tested, in comparison with optical transmission

and visual observation.  Correlations should also be established with other

measureable properties of the particles present.  This should be followed  by

evaluation on a selected procedure prior to promulgation as an official

method.
           TASK REQUIRED:   Field  test  and evaluate available  instruments

           to  measure visibility.   (IQA-12)

           Manual methods  are  required to determine  the composition of

 collected particulate  samples.   It  is expected that these analyses will

 be  done  using available  laboratory  techniques such as emission  spectroscopy,

atomic absorption, etc.   Some additional development work will  be required

 to adapt  these  techniques  to  the  concentration levels that are  encountered

 in air pollution studies.

           TASK  REQUIRED:   Develop and evaluate laboratory methods for

           determining  the  composition of collected particulate matter.
           (IQA-13)

          3.1.2.3  Carbon Oxides

          Carbon monoxide is present  in nature at very low levels,  below

1 ppm, and recent data indicate  that  its appearance  and  disappearance in

nature are related  to the biochemistry of the  oceans and  of  soil.   The
J'1- 7 '
i '
!
1 75 1 150
i
A Date Capability Initially Required A Lvalu
^ Interim Method Available

Totals
19/2
lo
19/-1

150
75


225
ted Method Available

-------
                                      3-38
usual, concentration range for air niou.su ring instruments is 0-r>() ppm

(0-56 mg./in ).  This requires different instriiineiits than those best suited

for much higher concentrations, in the range of 0.17, or more,  which are

commonly encountered in source measurements.  The measurement of CO by

n'on-dispersive infrared (NDIR) was specified in the Federal Register for

April 30, 1971.  A collaborative  evaluation of this method has been

recently completed.  However,  this method is sensitive to both temperature

and moisture  changes, and calibration becomes increasingly difficult at
very  low levels.  While these  problems can  be minimized by careful

controls, alternate methods which will avoid them are  needed  for

routine measurement of ambient level  trends.

            The combination of gas chromatography and a flame ionization

  detector is giving useful results in this range.   The system measures

  both CO and methane, in the  range of 0.1 to 100 ppm.  It operates by
  catalytically reducing CO in a  portion of the gas stream to methane, after

  interfering gases are removed.   The  equipment  has been field tested  and

  is available from several  manufacturers.   It  is now ready for evaluation,

  to define  its limitations  and preferred  operating conditions,  as  an
  official  method.
             TASK REQUIRED;   Test and  evaluate  commercially available

             instruments  based on the  gas  chromatograph with  FID detector

             for instrumental measurement  of CO at  normal ambient levels.

             (IQA-U)
T.isl.

Title: Test ar
Baled
of CO
Task Mo.: IOA-14

M< les
m

T

tones
'"''l7.^' ''/;"'.
Kesearch
Development 
Field Test
Evaluation
1'roi.ulgation
Totals
d Evaluate Comnerclally Available Inatruinenta
on C.C.'FID Detector for Instrumental Meaaurement
at Normal Ambient LeveK
Fiscal Year
re 72 72 . 73 ; 74
t>| ^ ti
75 | 76 77
1
Funding Required (SJOOO's)
! :



75 ' -
10
i 8} :
A Date Capability initially Required 
4} Interim Method Available
j

Totals
1972
1977



V.
10
85
livflluoted Method Availiibli'

-------
                                     3--J9
            Improved CO measurement methods are  in various stages of




  development.  These  include modifications to ND1R  such as  the use of




  fluorescence  resonance  radiation  light  sources by  Arkon, and a German




  technique  sensitive  at  very low  levels  in which mercuric oxide is reduced




  by  CO  to elemental mercury, which is  then detected by atomic adsorption.




  It  is  assumed that within  a period  of about two years some of these




  alternates may have  established a position in  the  instrument market,




  because of their  simplicity.  When  this  occurs, a  further  program of




  evaluation tests  may be required  to establish  an improved method.



          TASK REQUIRED:   Field test  alternate  methods of  ambient  level




          CO measurement  and conduct  evaluations as  soon  as  developments




          appear  to justify an  alternate  official  method-   (IQA-15)




          Research is  desirable to develop and  standardize a  simple




instrumental method for  cumulative sampling and  measurement  of  CO.




          TASK REQUIRED;   Develop  simple  instrumental  methods  for




          cumulative sampling and  measurement  of CO.  (IQA-16)




          3.1.2.4  Nitrogen Oxides (NOX)




          The Saltzman (colorimetric) method  as  modified by  Jacobs/Hochheiser




is the most  widely accepted analytical  method for  measurement  of N0  and this




procedure has been promulgated  as  an  interim  method  for ambient air analysis.




A user evaluation remains to be completed.
Tnnk
Title: Held Tet Alternate Met ho
ment and Conduct Evaluatloi
Appear To Juatlfy An Alter
Task
1o.: 104-15

I'M IcPtonca

3
'"' ' '/>'
Renonrcli
Development
Fluid Ten
Evaluation
I'rniiiuluat Ion
Totals
d of Aablent Level 00 Heaaure-
 a Soon aa Developments
Kte Officl.l Method
Fiscul Year
Pro 72, 72 ' 73
1 1 *
Funding R

10
50


1 BO
A Dato Cnpablllty Initially Kvqulretl <
^ Interim Mctliod Available
74
f
quired



75
10
>^-
75 76 77

(SIOOO'5)







Tolals
1977

30
50

10
165
Evaluated Method AvjilabK
Task

Tank
M< let.
Activities
fit lu: Develop
Samp 1 In
VTK: IQA-16
tones
f".^---f//7'
Keftenrcl)
Development
Field To i
Evaluatl n
Promulga Ion
To ale
Simple Instrumental Methods for
g and Measurement of CO

fiscal Vt-ar
're 7< 72 73 j 74 j 75



! I* t|
Funding Kcqulretl ($100
I j
Cumuli
tlve

/6

_^_ 	
77

	
75 75 ! '
; sn !
' 50 '
' in
' 75 75 Min .!
A Date Capabl Ity Initlu
^ Interim Method Aval lab



Totals
1972
1977
150
SO
50
10
260


-------
TASK
                                     3-40
                           Evaluate the JftcobS-llochlKjisur modified Saltzman
          manual method for NO,,.   (IQA-17)

          Considerable controversy still surrounds the adequacy of  the

Jacobs -Ho chheiser modifed Saltzman method, for ambient measurement of NO  .

Research and development of alternate analytical techniques  for N0~ measure-

ment should continue until a truly acceptable analytical method is  developed.

          TASK REQUIRED:  -Conduct  research and development leading  to an

          improved analytical method for ambient N0_ .   (IQA-I8)

          Several commercial instruments are available for  coloritnetrically

determing NO .  These techniques also allow measurement of NO   (NO  + NO )

by  adding ozone or by passing the  gas sample through a filter (^2^3) to

oxidize the NO to NO..  Alternate  instruments that are under development  as

a replacement for the colorimetric method include techniques based  on

electrochemistry, flame photometry and  spectroscopy.
          TASK REQUIRED:   Complete the  development  of  instruments  for  the

           continuous measurement  of  NO,,    (IQA-19) *

          Further research is also desirable to  develop and  standardize a

much simpler method for cumulative sampling and  measurement  of  NO  , possibly

using  a solid adsorbent or plug-in sensor cell.

          TASK REQUIRED:  Develop  simple instrumental methods for  cumulative

          sampling and measurement of N0_.   (IQA-20)*

           *Asterisk  indicates  task sheet carried over  to  next  page.
Tank
Task
ILL'.: Evaluate the Jacob-Hochheiser Modified Saltioan Manual
Method for N02
'".: IQA-17

H' let;
 #>. ;'/
V
>
^
tones
/ .v' j/;..
Research
Development
Field Test
Evaluation
rTmmiLgat jmi
Totals
A Dal (Japabi lity
^ Interim Method A
KUrl Year
'r.- ^ 72 n < 7A
l tl i
n \ ?a
1
77

Funding KerlUlr,.,l (flUdd's)
!


i :

100 :
10
no :
lit lolly Kequlred ^





Totnl.i
1972
1977



,199
10
110
Kvaliiatud Mctliud AvallabU*
Task

Tiiult

M'les
2
Title: Conduct
Analytl
No.: IQA-18


tones
Hes arch
Uev lopment
Fie d Test
Eva uatioo
PronulKalion
Totals
^'i-
Re pea re h and Development Leading To An Improved
cal Method for Ambient N(>2
Fiscal Year
Pre 7? 72 73 | 71
! i ' 1 
75
t
76

77

	 rundln^Roqulrod ($100.Vs)
100 1



i 150 :
50 '
' 7^
10
1 100 200
te Cap.ilti lily Indiiilly Kft\\ti i .-J A
orim Mclliod Avail.il'K'
85
tv.ilu;

led >!,.


To 1. 111.
1972
I u
1977
100
150
50
75

J85
ilo.l .wailal.l,

-------
          The measurement of NO is important because the NO  emitted by




combustion sources and automobiles is predominantly NO.  This is subse-




quently (and reversibly) converted to N0 by the action of sunlight and




air, over a period of time which may be hours or days.  NO has been analyzed




for years by converting it first to N0_, and new methods such as ozone




titration (gas phase) and flame photometry are just now being developed.




These methods are promising,  but they require further development and field




testing before  they can  be designated as official measurement methods.




Instrumental  methods for continuous measurement  and for cumulative  sampling




and analysis  are required.




          TASK REQUIRED:   Complete  development and evaluate  instrumental




          methods for continuous measurement  of  NO.   (IQA-21)




          TASK REQUIRED:   Develop  and evaluate instruments  for cumulative




          sampling and analysis of  NO.   (IQA-22)
Tosh

Tank
Title: Connie.
teaourt
No. : IQA-19

M-Meitttii.es
^//
.S

Hencarcli
Development
Field Test
Evaluation
1 rotmilgatiun
Totals
AD*
ft In
c the Development of Inot rwnentn for the Continuous
cent of NOj
Fiscal Year
* n n n \ /A 75 ?& 77
! JA ft i t
1 1
100 100 1
50 '50
75
' 10 '
1 100 150 135
' ,x
Tot J Is
1972
1977
200
100
ls
10
3
terlm Melliod Aval lable
Tnit
Task
H'lvn
T-iLJ: Complete Developnent and E
for Continuous Ntaaurvoent
11LU: IQA-21
toneo
f/'.'f-/-"//' ''// *'
a
T-l
Itcseorch
t)cveloi>ncnt
Kitld Tobt

t'romulgat ion
Totals
valuate InHtr
of NO
lawncal
Hethoda
Fiscal Year
're Ji 12 73
! *
74
t
75

76

77

Funding lleaulred ^lUII'I'sj

75
50
75




!








10 '
.Ji 115.

A Uoic Capability Initially KL-qulrrd ^
ft Interim t let hod Available

Lvaln

it o.l Me

 .'
fot.nls
1972
to
1977
75
>
75
10
210.
'""' """' 1"l>"1
.'.'.>_' ".'.'J.: ""!lop Simple In.itrumental Method* lot Cunul.il Iw s.wllnit
and Measurement of N02
.V.-JLjii.' IQA-20

nMe.,,,,,e,
Research
.2 Development
S Field Test
 Evaluation
*> rnmulBatlon
Totals
fl :i.il '..-ir

L . ; ifi 1* i I
	 liiiiilliill .'qiilr..d CU' IN) 	 	
1
75 75 
50
50
10
_n 75 no 
1 -l.il
^
ay

50
10
260
A Date tapi'Mltty Initially Required A llvnlu^ted Mi-tluid (wall. U.U-
^Interim Method Available
Tash
TfVik
M' leu
?%'i
Activities
"FUJ^ : Develop and Evaluate InC
and Analyala of NO
o.: IQA-22

tones
/. S'$ -/ft ''/I
HeHt arcli
Development
Field Test
Evaluation
Promulgation
Totnln
UDenta
for C.
imilall
i> Sanp] Ing
FUcol v.-r
Pre 11

72

73

Funding R



30

100
74
ft
quirex
j 	

75
t
76

77

(SlOOU's)






' 50 '
1 50 '
' 10 '

A Date Cupobillty Inlltf)
ft Interim Mctliod Aval lab
$0
ly Keq
f
100
l\n i
"'"' *
Lvalu

rnt,ilt,
1972
to
1977
150
50
50
ip
2f,n
ited Method Available

-------
                                    3-42
           A. method for the determination of free nitric acid as a vapor or




 mist  is needed.






           TASK REQUIRED:   Develop  analytical methods for ambient  molecular




           HNO  .   (IQA-23)




          3.1.2.5  Ozone and Oxidants




          Oxidants are widespread air pollutants for which National Air




Quality Standards have been issued.  The KI method has been issued




(April 30, 1971)  in the Federal Register as an interim standard method for




the determination of total oxidants (TOX) and ozone in ambient air.  A




large number of other instruments and techniques are in use, and there is




an apparent need to establish correlations  between  the  KI method  and




at least some of the other methods in common use.  An ozone measurement




technique based on the chemiluminescence of ethylene and ozone appears to




have considerable.promise but still requires evaluation and promulgation




as an alternate measurement technique for TOX.




          TASK REQUIRED:  Evaluate the KI instrumental method for total




          oxidants and correlate the measured TOX values with values obtained




          by the other oxidant and ozone measurement methods now in use.




           (IQA-24)




          TASK REQUIRED:  Evaluate an ozone instrument, as an alternate




          official method for "total oxidants".  (IQA-25)*
Task

Task
Tide: Develop

Sn.! 10A-23

M'li-s
WT*
:.-/: 
-H
>
f
tones
//^W?
Jesearch
Uevelopment
Field Tes .
Evalultio
Pra.ulgac 0"
Tot Is
A Da
*ln
Analytical Methods for Ambient Molecular HNO
Fisc-Hl Year
Pre 72,

72 73 | 74
.1 l 
75 | 76
1
77

Funding Kec.ulr.id (SlOUO's)

 i


50 50 1 !
50 !



' 50 .
10
1




so 100 i 60 ! :
cc Capabll ty Initially Required A
terlm Neth d Available
.- ,.
Totnls
1972
1977

100
50
?=
10
210
Evaluated Method Available
Task

Task
Title: Evaluat
Correli
the Oth
Use.
Ho. : IQA-24

M' lea
W/P
'
3
tones
'/*'%'. //jf^.
Research
Development
Field Test
Bvalustion
Promulgation
Totals
$"
e the KI Instrumental Method for Total Oxldanta and
te the Measured TOX Values with Values Obtained by
er Oxidant and Ozone He as u re men t Methods Now in

I'ru 72, 72 , 73 [ 74 75 | 7o 77
l i " " i
Funding Required (JICJIIO'sJ
1   ' '
i
50 | '
100 _. _ : 	 __
10 '..
i 50_ lp ;

Totals
1972
to
197;


in
100
10
160
terim flcthod Available

-------
                                    3-43
          A simple device for :iirmi1 nti ve ly sampling and ;innlyzint> nxttl.'ints

or ozone is needed, such as an exposure plate or indicator tubes.

          TASK  REQUIRED:  Develop  and evaluate  a simple instrumental  device

           for cumulative  sampling  and analyzing total oxidants or ozone.

           (IQA-26)

           3.1.2.6  Organic  Compounds

           Hydrocarbons  in air are  significant as a  source  of  photochemical

oxidants.  This class of  pollutants comprises straight  and branched chain

paraffins, olefins and  other  unsaturates,  aromatics, cyclic,  polycyclic,
and  chlorinated aliphatic and aromatic  (polychlorinated biphenyl PCB)

compounds.   It  also  includes  alcohols,  aldehydes, esters,  heterocyclic com-

pounds,  most  solvents,  and  any  volatile organic materials. Also included

is polycyclic organic matter  (POM) which is  recognized  as  carcinogenic.

           The measurement of  total hydrocarbon  is a common ambient  air

quality measurement.  This  measurement  can be made  using  the  sensitive

 flame  ionization detector (FID)  which  detects any compound having  a carbon-

hydrogen bond.   Methane is  a  special  problem since  it  is  present in normal

ambient air,  in an amount of  about 1.2-1.5 ppm.  This  level  may be 60% or

more of the  total  hydrocarbons  in  the  ambient air,  even in an industrial

environment.  Accordingly,  it is important to define an official method to

determine non-methane hydrocarbons.   A commercial instrument  based  on the
''''ll T" le; Evaluate an Ozone Inatrument a an Mccmate Official
Method for "Total Onldantn"
Tiiik.^..: 1QA-25
MM.".
r77rr
 ' . /
tfl

~3~?-
Di-Vflopffii-ni
Hold Test
Evaluation
rroraulg.it Ion
Tot i. Is
A i>-i
--ir-^-nrprj
&l i t i j 1
77

	 f.indliij; Ki'iji.l i.-d_(?lllll.l'<) 	 	
! f
1 '

100
10
1 no . !



Tnlalo
11(2
to
1977


100
10
110
lc LapobilUy Iniiinllv Koqiilrcd A LlvalnaiciJ Mi-tliod Avail.ibJt
it-rin Holho.l Av.iiliil-U'
T.iik Title: Develop and Evaluate a Simple Instrumental Device for
Cumulative Sampling and Analyzing Total Oxldanta or Ozoni>
Tni.1,
Jo. : IQA-26

M'li".
'VTT.-t
&,
>
v4
S

V
IOI1PS
-2^r.i-
Westarcli
DeveUH'incni
field Test
evaluation
I'ronulgatlon
Totals
Kisrnl Vf.ir
re I'l 72 71  74 1 75 | la | 77
! ! i l tl 1
	 F'.".vll.iis_E;.i!i! jyi-SAiffiilsJ 	
100 1 50 '
i 50 >
75 	

' 100 '100 ' a
1 	 h.
\in
t.i
1977
ISO
50
15
! ia
I IK
tcrim Metliod Avitl hiltle

-------
                                   3-44
 combination of a gas cliromatograpli and tin- FID is available! I.or Lhi.s




 purpose buL requires evaluation.  (See also 1QS-25)








           TASK REQUIRED;   Evaluate  the GC-FID  instrumental method for




           determination  of total hydrocarbons  above methane.  (IQA-27)




           Useful  distinctions  between different  groups  of  hydrocarbons




 using  the  FID  can be  made  in numerous ways.  Substractive  adsorbants  can




 separately remove olefins  or aromatics, and  selective precombustion  can




 give an  indication  of total hydrocarbons  most  reactive  to  oxidation.  The




 combination of temperature programmed GC  and FID  is  considered  most  promis-




 ing.   A  simple procedure using parallel GC columns  for  different type




 measurements has  been worked out and  is to be  field  tested  in the State of




 Pennsylvania,  to  distinguish methane,  ethane,  ethylene, acetylene, CO, and




 other  low  molecular weight hydrocarbons.  At the  same time, significant




 improvements may  be possible in  the FID procedure itself,  including adjustments




 of flow  sensitivity  or the elimination of expensive  flow regulators




 by generating  electrolytic hydrogen and oxygen.




           TASK REQUIRED;   Develop modifications of  the  GC-FID instrumental




           method  for  specific  hydrocarbons.  (IQA-28)




          While all  hydrocarbons  and their derivatives  are  reactive  in the




formation of photochemical  oxidants,  some  hydrocarbons  are  more  reactive
Task Title: ,..,.
of Tot
Task No. : IQA-27

Milestones
W/'//-'f'%'"''//''f'
Research
4J Development
'5 Field Test

"** I'romulgation
Totals
e the G.C.-FID Instruiwntal Method for
il Hydrocarbons Above Methane
Determination
Fiscal Year
Pre 72. 72 , 73
l i *
Funding R

74

.q^ed
75

_(?100
76

1.
77



1
!
75
10
! .. 85

A Llate Capability Initially Required 
^ Interim i-tet\\od bailable




Totals
1972
1977



75
10
as'
Evaluated Mctiiod Availabje
Task
Title: Develop
Method
Task
No. : tQA-28

M'.les
"
tones
'&?'$://$/.:
Research
Development
Field Test
Evaluation
Promulgation
Totals
Modifications of the G.C.-FIO Instrumental
for Specific Hydrocarbons
Fiscal Vear
're 7^ 72 73 Ik \ 75 76 77
i f| t 
Funding Required (SlOOO's)
L _i_ !
100 i 100 !
: 50 i : :
11 75
1 I 10
1 100 ' 150 ! flS

TntlB
1972
to
1977

200
50

10
ITS
A Date Capability Initially Required A Evaluated Method Available
^Interim Method Available

-------
 Chan others.  This reactivity may vary between hydrocarbons,  depending on
 the amount of other gases present such as NO  or other oxidants.  In general,
                                             X
 the most reactive hydrocarbons present are branched olefins.   There is an
 increasing interest in the measurement of "reactive hydrocarbons" in areas
 where smog is a problem,  and a routine procedure is desired which will
measure  "reactive hydrocarbons" as a class.
          TASK  REQUIRED:   Develop and evaluate instruments  for the measure-
          ment  of reactive hydrocarbons as a class.   (IQA-29)
          Aldehydes are important in air  at the  level of 1  to 200 ppb, both
because  of odor and because  of their reactivity  toward oxygen leading  to
peroxides.  A great deal  of  effort has been spent in  trying to adapt wet
chemical methods  for routine use in the field for aldehydes at this con-
centration level.  These  efforts have not been successful,  although there
are a number  of such methods available which have the required sensitivity
under laboratory  conditions.  The most promising instrumental method at
present appears to be IR spectroscopy; derivative UV or polarography are also
possibilities; however, further development and evaluation tests are needed.
          TASK REQUIRED:  Develop and evaluate instrumental methods to
          routinely measure aldehydes.   (IQA-30)
           The polycyclic aromatic materials (POM)  of primary  concern as
 carcinogens in air are chiefly fused ring hydrocarbons.   These are found
 in the tar fractions of coal smoke,  cigarette smoke and  automobile exhaust.
 This aromatic tar is a product of incomplete  combustion.
Tjl^-li-jLli-iS : Develop and Evaluate Inatrinenta for the Measurement ot
Reactive Kydrocarbona Aa a Clans
TRk No. : IQA-29

H* Icutoi.ca
^/''^"fl ? '''
Ri' eorcli
% Of oloprx.nl
? Fl Id T st
E v lut on
Pr raulg tion
T lulu
Flsc.il Year
Pro 1i 72 73  74 1 7i 76 77
! ! i 
M
-S
* 4 // '.
Kesenrcli
ucvcloptceni
field Test
Evaluation
1'romu.gation
To tali*
$?n
nnental Hethoda to Routinely

Prtf 7^ 7^ 73
1 1 '
74

Funding Kequircd
50

75
^
76
\
77

(SlOCO'a)



150 t 100 '
I so ' :
 75
! 10
1 50 150
Le Capability Initially KcqulreJ i
terim Method Available
r--
75

lo


'' .''
Totals
1972
to
1977
50
250
50
7J
10
435


-------
                                    3-46
          The usual procedure in analysis lias been to Identify one or more




compounds which are known to be carcinogens, chiefly henz-a-pyrene (BaP).




The measurement of POM is commonly made on an extract of particulates, al-




though some of it is present as vapor in the air.  Extraction with cyclo-




hexane appears to give a more representative sample than extraction with




benzene, and adsorption or absorption methods are being investigated for




total sampling from air.  The preferred method of detection uses chroma-




tography to concentrate from the extract a fraction which is examined by




UV absorbance or by spectrofluorimetry.  Good, research results have been




obtained by thin layer chromatography, and liquid-solid columns when an




analysis for additional POM's is desired.  Present indications are that




gas chromatography can give a more rapid and selective separation for the




rountine analysis of BaP or selected other carcinogens.  Present procedures




need to be field tested.   An interim manual method can be  issued based on




current techniques.




          TASK REQUIRED;   Evaluate available test procedures for an interim




          manual method for analysis of  benz-a-pyrene. (IQA-31)






          Continuing research to lead to an automated instrument must de-




pend in part on concurrent developments in cancer research to decide




whether the measurement of BaP with or without other specific POM's is




most useful for purposes of controls.   It  is now possible to develop  a
Task
Task
M'les
m.
u
>
1-4
2
J_l_ii: Evaluate Available Teat Procedures for an Interim
Manual Method for Analysis of Benz-a-Pyrene
<(*._: IQA-31
>nes
WftrZf?/.
Research
Development
Field Test

Promulgation
Totals
Fiscal Y
rr 7? 72 ( 73
1 t
74

ear
75


76

77

Funding Required ($10()0'6)

50




!
75 i








1 50 75 !

ft Interim Method Available

Totals
1972
1977

M
7^


125


-------
                                    3-47
single discrete peak for BaP itself from an extract of particulars,  using




 CC and  a  mixed substrate  column  based  on  sodium chloride and SE 30 on




 Chromosorb  G.   This method  is  simple enough  for direct measurement,  and




 its development should  be continued, along with alternate  procedures as




 available,  since it now appears  probable  that  the  measurement of BaP will




 continue  to be important  as an official method.




          TASK REQUIRED:  Develop  and  evaluate automated  instrumental




          methods for the determination of BaP.   (IQA-32)



          The  study of  methods suitable for  the analysis of other POM com-




 pounds  requires continuing  research mainly for newly  found carcinogens.  Most




 of those  now known can  be measured by  modification of the  GC procedures and




 combinations already developed.  Methods  of  identification, after preli-




 minary  separation, which are available include spectroscopy by UV, MS, 1R




 NMR, ESR, and fluorescence.  No  organic compounds  have been identified




 which are strong carcinogens outside of the  broad  class of POM's, but this




 possibility exists and must be considered if it does  arise.




           TASK REQUIRED:  Continue development of  methods  for analysis of




           additional specific carcinogenic compounds.  (IQA-33)




           3.1.2.7  Halogens




           Fluorides are present  in ambient air in  a gaseous form, and as  a




 component of particulate matter  near  industrial plants which manufacture
Task Title: Devleop and Evaluate Automated Inat ruwntal Methods for
the Determination of BaP
Task No. t IQA-32 '[


M' Ico tones
'?/?
s
2>
5

t&jtjyd''
Reacarcli

Field Teat

Promulgation
Totala
Kisc.il Year
re 72 72 73 j 71 75 | 76 77







!
i * It
Funding Required ($10U.>'s)
1
75 1
75 	
100 	

.7J__t._H ' 110 	 L- 	 .

Totals
1972
to
1977

n
75
.-WO-
IO
, 268
fDace Capability Initially Required f Evaluated Method Avaliaoie
Interim Method Available
Task Tit IP: Continue
Speclfl<
lMBJii: IQA-33

H* lustoneg
'$* # -/ y~fr // y  /
Ke. ic cli
^J Ucve opcii'iit
 Fie I IV it
 Eva at ton
* IT"" KnUmi
Totals
Devleopnent of Methodd (
Carcinogenic Compounds
Kisr.il ^
To 12. 72 73 | 76
] ' | #-
or Analynln of Additional
-.11
7b 76 77
*
100 1 100
. 100 150



_J,flO... 2PJL.
A l)attf Cj^itii-1 ity "initially He-quired f^
A Interim Hutliori Av^Jhiblc
i* .  .  _- 	 i . . 
.150 	 . 	 .

iHt.lls
1V72
t
.1*11.
200
250



4JO_


-------
                                   3-48
aluminum nu'tal,  phosphate fertilizers, stfc-l, bricks and cc-ramie glazes,




and generally at low leVels in urban areas from incineration and coal




combustion.  Fluorides occur most often as gaseous HF, and sometimes




as SiF,/, which hydrolyzes to HF in humid air.  Several methods for gaseous




HF are available, and the neutral buffered specific ion electrode is considered




most promising.  Other possibilities include instruments based on colorimetry





(Mini-Adak,  Imcometer),  and a micro-diffusion method.  These methods




are ready  for testing to select a preferred  method, to be  evaluated




for an  official  method.




          TASK REQUIRED:  Test and evaluate  instrumental methods for gaseous




          HF.  (IQA-34)




          Total airborne fluorides include both gaseous HF and solid




 fluorides in dust particules.  Some water soluble participate fluorides




 are known to be harmful to vegetation and animal life.  The distinction




 between water soluble and insoluble particulates may sometimes be




 of importance.  Its significance lies in the fact that calcium fluoride




 which  is water  insoluble and harmless to vegetation  is a  major constituent,




 and sometimes the only  fluoride present as  dust.  It becomes available




 biochemically on ingestion, at a level which has been considered as within




 the limits  of normal animal metabolism.  Present indications which are still




 to be confirmed are that a preferred method for total particulate  fluorides


i!>_

M
ss

Z
j
j
-e

*"


'*' IQV14

t,,M
' -f'^ .//''
Kosearch
DevtfloptncnL
Held TiJst
Evaluation
rromulgiit ion
To tii IK
ic C;ipj!iLI ity
tcrttn Me Html A\


Visral fear
TC 12 li 73 j 7A 7.S | 7fi 77
i l t 1
funJlnj. ,.,,,lrcd (JlHWCn)
i | : :
30 1 '
so i !  '
75 '
; 10 i
80 ' 85
nitia ly Hcqnircd A Kvulnuicd Melliu>l Av
.d l,tl>]o


.'<-'^
Totnl:;
1972
1977

30
ta
75
10
ifti


-------
                                  3-49
should include both insoluble and water-soluble fluorides.  Methods are




available which determine total gaseous and solid fluorides with a filter




system to remove particulates,  or which depend on selective wetting to




separate gaseous and soluble constituents.  Samples are stable enough




that field collection and analysis in the laboratory is satisfactory.





          TASK  REQUIRED:  Develop and evaluate manual methods for both




          water-soluble  and  insoluble fluoride particulates  for the  deter-




          mination  of total  solid fluorides.   (IQA-35)






          Chlorine  is chiefly of concern  as an industrial hazard or as a




result of local accidents but HC1 may be  encountered more commonly, from




the incineration of plastics based on polyvinyl chloride.  It can be




measured reliably by conventional wet chemistry.






         TASK REQUIRED:   Develop and  test a chlorine/HCl instrumental




         technique  for  issuance as an official instrumental method.   (IQA-36)




          3.1.2.8  Hazardous Air Pollutants




          Qualitative identification of asbestos by means of the electron




microscope presents no problems but  quantitative measurement has depended




on visual counting,  to distinguish between asbestos and other fibers




present.




          An interim method  is required based on the best manual procedures




now available and. continuing research is needed for the development of
T.t-;k Tltlr: Develop and Evaluate Manual Methods for Both Water Soluble
and Insoluble Flunride Partlculates for the Detennlnatlnn
of Total Solid Fluorides
T.-mk No.; IQA-35

M> let*
lono,,
lflJL
Renearch
UcvMopmvnt
Field T*t
Evaluation
I'rorulK.ition
TutnlH
A Date Capability
^} Intctia Method A
nfciMl War
T.- 7: 12 n  7
! I fr
	 	 lumllng Koqulr...
1
75 1 .

71 j 7li 77
tl
_mXi!L&...-- 	


' 75
10
75 : 50
nitlnlly Kuqiilr.-d A
allaiile
i 85
;;::
197i
1977
75
..59
75
in
210
LvaluaU'i! MullioU Avdil.il>!.
laSJi-lUi' : Develop and Teat a Chlorine/HCI Iimrunental Technique
lor laauance aa an Ofllclal Inatrumental Method
Tj4k
M'lon
X

lii. : IQA-36

,o,,e..
t '  _y .' '
Hi'm-;ir<-h
Uc-vi'loinnent
Held IVsl
evlucloi\
l>rwil||iitl..ii
Tnuils
KlK-.l \>r
r.' 11 12 73 j 74 | )> 76 77
i i i frl fi ' '
	 	 KundinE n.-quirffd <$lmij's) 	
100 1 50 !
50 !
75

100 100  85

T.,r,,K
1972
1977
nr>

75
10
285
A UiiK' Uip.iM ! iiy liiUiiillv Hi li>

-------
                                     3-50
 instrumentation.  Possibilities include infrared spectroscopy and electron




 .sciiniiLii}.' (reflection),  as well as electron diffraction which is not too




 selective in the presence of other fibers.  The extent to which informa-




 tion may be needed on some other fibers should be considered during the




 course of the project.




           TASK REQUIRED:  Evaluate measurement methods based on visual




           counting for an interim manual method for asbestos.  (IQA-37)






           TASK REQUIRED:  Continue research for techniques which can lead




           to an instrumental method for asbestos.  (IQA-38)





         The persistence  of mercury as  a cumulative toxicant  from un-




expectedly widely  distributed sources has  directed recent attention to




its measurement  as a hazardous  chemical in ambient air as well as in other




media.   It is not  necessary and probably not desirable to distinguish




between  the various forms in which mercury can be present in  air.  Commercial




equipment is now available from several manufacturers for its measurement




at the ppb level by atomic absorption,  as well as by neutron  activation




which is more expensive but possibly more  sensitive.  Comparative tests




of these and conventional colorimetry are needed to select a preferred method.




          TASK  REQUIRED:   Develop and evaluate available instrumental




          techniques for measurement of  mercury.   (IQA-39)*
Ta2S_'Jlil: Evaluate Meaaurenent Methode Ba.ed on Ul.ual Counting'
for An Interim Manual Method for AabeatoB
Task lo. : iqA-37

M'.les
'JLii.
u
torn..
.''*.'/' '///,
'- '' />'
Kpsearrli
ui-vi!l,ipm?nt
Flo 111 IV su
Evaluation
rrinnul||iill.iti
Totals
Fiscal Year
To 72 72 73
! if.-
Funding K



m
10
' 125 10
74

quired


75

76

(SIQOil'n)


77












^ Interim Method Available
"' "&
Totals
1972
to
1977



125
10
135

 -
Task
Til lr: Continue Research for Techniques Which
Instrumental Method for Aabeatof
No-! IQA-38

m
H

tones
'"'''$ '-fy-*'.
Kest'arch
Development
I'leld 1 st
Evalciat on
rronulg tion
T tain
Can Lead To an
Fiscal Year
' 72, 72 73 ! 74 ^ 75
i ! i 
76 77
f
Funding Kcq^iired ^lOUO's)
75 I.JJ : ._ _
UOO ' 200
1 50


50
'. 75
' ' 10
r 75 il75 ! 250
125 10

Totals
1972
1977
150
300
100
71
kO
635
A Date Capab lity Initially Required ^ Evaluated Method Available
4} Interim Method Available

-------
                                    3-51
       UuryIlium has bt'en included in the list of hazardous air pollutants.




The analysis of the solid beryllium compounds can be obtained by analysis




of collected particulate samples.  (IQA-13)  Techniques which are well




developed for this use include X-ray fluorescence, atomic absorption (flame




photometry), electron emission in the UV and optical regions, microwave




emissions, polarography, and anodic stripping voltammetry.  If the beryllium




is present as volatile materials, sample collection followed by wet chemical




methods of analysis is currently required.  The field testing and evaluation




of these wet chemical techniques is required to promulgate an interim method.




          TASK REQUIRED:  Field test and evaluate currently available




          manual methods for volatile Be as an interim method.  (IQA-40)




          The development of continuous measurement techniques  for volatile




compounds of these  pollutants  should be undertaken to provide a measure  of




air quality levels  in regions  near sources which  can  emit these hazardous




materials:




          TASK REQUIRED:  Develop and  field test  an instrument for the con-




          tinuous measurement  of ambient levels of volatile  Beryllium







            3.1.2.9  Other Pollutants




           A number of other pollutants are also being considered by EPA.




 Manual measurement methods for many of these pollutants are required to
I'.ink Title: Oevelo
tfeaeur
,.,:,, ,Q4-3,
M< It-:, I,. UPS
^"'7/--'
RL O.ircli
.JJ UL" rlopiariu
'" I-'. Id -J.--,t
M Ev liiatlon
1 IT ni.l|>.,lion
Tin .1 1 
p and Evaluate Available Instrun
enent of Mercury
Fiscal Y.-.ir
l tl
Fundliig K..n,,li,.,l (f\,ut
\
ntal Technique for


'}





50 50 ! '
50 ; '
10

' 50 100 60
A l>al>* r.tpa'nitiy \i.U,.i\lv Ki-qniu .1 A Iv.iln
Q InlCfim ,'liMh-nl AvJil,i!> i-




lU-J >V






197;

100
50
in
.ja .

'"'"' "" il1"1'1



Task Title: Field T
Methods
lil^.Ji'J.v IQA-40
H.1,H..,0S
*'/*'/ "y* '7*1 '
R search
-H 1) vclopment
^ F .-Id Test
 E aluatlon
"* 1 omulgjlion
Totals
eat and Evaluate Currently Available Manual
for Volatile Be AB an Interl ttethod
ripc.il Y
* 	 ~  ~ 	 1 	
! ! "t"*
Funding Kpqulrn
1 _._
loo iog_'
i V

t




IflOO-Ts)





' 75
 10
100 100 !l25
A I'.n Ciipabllity Initially Kcqulrod A
^ Int rtni Method Available
ID
Kvalu


.*- . /
1K(2
1977

200
. id.,

10
1M
aled Method Available

-------
                                   3-52
obtain data on air quality levels which could lead to future standards.




Measurement of select compounds of these pollutants is provided by




Task No. IQS-16.






           Lead  in  the form of  trace amounts of  its alkyl derivatives and




volatile inorganic halide compounds is prevalent  in the ambient air of




 highways and urban areas,  throughout  the United States,  as a result  of the




 use  of lead  alkyls in motor  fuel.   (Lead is also  present  in various  indus-




 trial  dusts  which  are of concern  in industrial  hygiene, but not commonly




 in ambient air  considerations).   The  preferred  method  for  instrumental




 measurement  is  atomic absorption.   Field collection  followed by colorimetric




 analysis in  the laboratory  is  also well  developed and  considered  satisfactory,




 It is  not  necessary  to  separate  specific lead compounds  for analysis.   An




 official method is needed,  even  though  the  importance  of  this  measurement




 may decrease if present plans  are  fulfilled to  convert automobiles to




non-leaded fuel-





           TASK  REQUIRED;  Develop and evaluate  available manual techniques




            for organic and volatile inorganic Pb.  (IQA-42)





          Cadmium may be present  in the  atmosphere in the form of  volatile




compounds and as a component of particulate  matter especially near metal




coating plants and metal producing facilities.   Techniques  are well developed
Task Title: ..,_

Measurei
Task :io. : r()-ii

m,
H
on 8
<-- 7'?.~^J^'
Re earcli
l)e eloptnent
Fi Id Test
Ev luatlon
Pr mulgatlon
Totals
and Field Test an Instrument for the Continuous
wnt of Ambient Levels of Volatile Berylliun
KiscaJ Vvar
re 72, 72 73 74 1 75 1 7f, 77
i r-ft t
	 Fmidlns Ktfquired _($10U3's> 	
1 150 '
! ! 50
; ' 75
10
1 ! 150 i 125 10

Totals
1972
to
1977

lp and Evaluate Available
Ic and Volatile Inorganic
Manual
n
Techniques for
fiscal Year
Pre 7^ 72 73 74
1  t
Funding Required
50 .
75

76

77

(Sioua's)



100 '
50 '
' 75
10
1 50 ISO i 85
A Date Capability Initially Required J&
^ Interim Method Available



Uvalu*







IVKals
1972
19V7
50
100
50
75
10
285
ted Method AvaiJrfUlv

-------
                                   3-53
for analysis of solid cadmium compounds in particulate and include the




usi> of X-r;iy I LuorL-scenr-.o, atomic absorption (flame photometry), electron




emission in the UV and optical regions, microwave emissions,  polarography




and anodic stripping voltommetry.  For volatile cadmium materials, sample




collection followed by wet chemical methods of analysis is currently




required.  The field testing and evaluation of these wet chemical techniques




is required to promulgate an interim method.




          TASK REQUIRED;  Field test and evaluate currently available




          manual analytical techniques for volatile cadmium (IQA-43)




          Continuous measurement techniques for volatile cadmium compounds




should be developed to provide a measure of air quality levels in regions




near sources which can limit these pollutants.




          TASK REQUIRED:  Develop and field test an instrument for the




          continuous measurement of ambient levels of volatile cadmium. (IQA-44)






          A measurement  method  is  required  for  volatile compounds of




 toxic  non-metals,  specifically arsenic, selenium and  phosphorous.




 Perhaps  these elements  can  be most  readily measured using an  instrumental




 method similar  to  the flame photometric techniques developed  for  total




 sulfur measurement.
Talk

Task
Title: Field T
Analytl
o. : 1QA-43

H'lcti
tones
'i'ff/f'f v/y, '///-%!

1

Rcocarcli
Uuvclopmcnt
Field Tost
Evaluation
Prrrulgatlon
Totala
sat and Evaluate Currently Available Na
cal Technlquea lor Volatile Cd.
nual
Fiscal Yen.'
Prc It, 72 , 73
1
Funding

100


74 75
f
76
*
77

Keoulred (SlOOO'a)
.
100







1 75 , 1
' 10
1 100
A 0t Capability loHlallj Kequlted
A Interln Holhod Available
ilOO 123
Lvalu
in

?'
Totals
1972
1977

200
30
1\
in
"

Task
Tit le; Develop
feaaure
Tank
No. : IQA-U

H1 lestones

N
II
/. /'.ft y/%
Research
Development
Field Teat
valuation
Promulgation
Totals
and Field Test an Inac rumen t for the Continuous
tnt of Ambient Uv*U of Volatile Cadmium
Fiscal Year
pro 7^ 72 73 74 [ 75 76 77
1 '"~*
funding Required (S1003'i)
1 : !
100_ 1 150 '
 so ;
1 75 :
' ! 10
1 100 | 150 50 15 !

r.it.ii
Co
1977

250
JO
75
10
MS
at D*te Capability "initially Required A Evaluated Method Available
J Interim Method Available  '

-------
                                    3 -54
          TASK REQUIRED;   Develop manual methods Cor measurement  of




          volatile compounds of toxic non-metals i.e.,  arsenic,




          selenium and phosphorous.   (IQA-45)




          Measurement methods will also be required for volatile  compounds




of the trace metals;   copper, nickel, zinc, boron, tin, lithium,  chromium,




vanadium, and manganese.




          TASK REQUIRED;   Develop manual measurement methods  for  volatile




          compounds of the trace metals.  (IQA-46)





          3.1.2.10  Odors




          The  measurement of odors  is  the  one problem  in air pollution in




which  the subjective  response  of  human  sensors has  continued to be most




important.   This  cannot be  entirely  avoided, since  the sensitivity of human




sensors  to  odors  differs  markedly for  different individuals, or for a given




individual  at  different times.  Considerable effort  has been devoted to  the




development of organoleptic  methods  which  use odor  panels and dilution




procedures  to  put  a  quantitative  value  on  the odor  threshold, for  specific




odorants or  types of odor in a given sample.  Several different procedures




have been developed in the U.S. and  elsewhere (Sweden,  Switzerland, U.K.).




These need to be compared and evaluated to define an official method.




          TASK REQUIRED;   Conduct field test and evaluations leading to




          an official method for odor panels.   (IQA-47)*
Task Tille: Develop MmuL Method* for Me
of Toxic Non-Hetila, i.e., Arf
Task No.: IQA-*5

tV lestones
^/^'.j'^ffi'//^*:
Research
3 IJevelopmcni
'> Field Test
^ Evaluation
"* I'romulgal ion
Tolola
uremenc of Volatile Compounds
enlc, Selenium snd Phosphorus
Fiscal Year
Pre 7^ 72 73 7
1
* 75 76 77
^ * s^->
Funding Required ($1000' s)
1
i . :
100 1 150 ! 150 .



50 50 50 ;
il 50
10 5
i 100 ; 200 1 285 105
A Dale Capability Initifllly HoqulreJ f^
Q Interim Method ftvailablt
v.  . ', '
Totnl.i
1972
1977

400
150
125
15
690
Evaluatf-d McLlmd Aviill.ittli'
Task

Task
Title; Develop
of the
No. : IQA-46
H* leatoncR
'ff/ffffi/?' :$/$
V
-H

Research
Development
Field Test
Evaluation
Promulgation
Totals
H*nuAl HeiaurecDent Method* for Volatile Compound.!
trice Mctalt
Fiscal Year
ri' 7^ 72 , 73 74 75 76 77
1 " "ft. **
Funding Kvouirfd (SlOOO'sJ
"1 ""
100 1 100 ! 150
i 50 50 . ;
1 ,5 75
 10 5 '
1 100 150 285 80

T.iLdls
I'lli
to
197;
258.
100
-litt-
IS
615
^ Interim Method Available

-------
                                     3-55
          Odor measurements may be accomplished more conveniently l>y Llic




measuring of specific odorants or combinations of odorants,  rather than




attempting to measure odor as such.  This requires a preliminary deter-




mination of key compounds responsible for the odor to be controlled.




Progress on this already has been made by organoleptic methods for several




odor situations of specific interest, such as paper and pulp mills,




petroleum refineries, tanneries, animal rendering plants, and soap manu-




facture.  Odorous compounds which are common to several of these sources




include reduced sulfur compounds surh as inerrvtpfnns and sulfldes; reduced




nitrogen compounds such as alkyl amines, diaminys and heterocyclic nitrogen




compounds; and organic acids and aldehydes.  The odor characteristic of




each source is usually a complex mixture, so identification will commonly




require a separation process such as GC followed by the quantitative measure-




ment of individual compounds or groups of compounds.  Measurement methods for




the reduced sulfur compounds will be provided by task  nos.  IQA-3 and A




and for the organic acids and aldehydes by task  no.  IQA-30.  Instruments




to measure reduced nitrogen compounds remain to be developed.




          TASK REQUIRED:  Develop and evaluate instruments for measurements




          of reduced nitrogen compounds.  (IQA-48)
T.isk

Tank
Title: Condu
an Of
No.: 1QA -47

Milestones
"v/ttl^fl '%'
M
w
w

Research
Development
Field Test
Evaluation
Promulgation
Totals
ct Field Teat and Evaluations Leading to
ficlal Method for Odor Panel i
risc.il Year
re li 72 73 [ 74 75 7b ;;
1 1 1 *
Funding Required (JIOOO's)
1 ;

50 inn ! '
1 150 ' . !
1 i 15
1 50 100 ! 150 15 
7
Totals
1972
to
1977


ISO
150
IS
315,
A Date Capability Initially Required & Evaluated Method Available
 Interim Method Available
I2ii
Trtsl.
rm^: Develop and Evaluate Instruwnte
of Reduced Nitrogen Compounds
::<>.: IQA-48

M'lca
tones
' '/ . ./ " ' /.*'
u
Research
Development
Field Tt-st
Evaluation
ITonulgat Ion
T0ln;
A u
Klscal 1
're 7^ 11 73 i 74
1 1 *
Funding Koqulrcd
i
for Measurement!
ear
75

j;y.<>

76
t
':)


77



150 1 75 
: 50 ,
' 50
' 10
150 .125
te Capability Inltlnlly 1'equircd A
tcrlm Method Aval liibtt
60
l.valu


7
TOI.IK
If72
197;
m
so
5(1
10
335
led Mualuxl Avai l.ihl<

-------
                                      3-56
          ConL iiuiliiK rosi'arcli will he required to rorrel ntt1 orf>nnoli:pt fc




measurements and general public response with the results obtained by the




instrumental analysis of selected odorants in complex mixtures.




          TASK REQUIRED;  Continue correlation studies among odor response,




          odor persistence,  and measured levels of specific odorants in




          complex mixtures.   (IQA-49)




3.2  Stationary Source Emission Measurements




     3.2.1  Introduction




          Stationary sources of air pollution consist of permanently fixed




facilities which produce air pollutants that are recognized as significant




contributors to the deterioration of air quality.  This section of the measure-




ment technique development plan is concerned with the R&D tasks that are




required to provide the capability necessary to meet the needs for measurement




of air pollutants at these stationary sources.





          The pollutant  groupings discussed below cover  the  emissions cur-




rently designated  for  control  under  existing  legislation.   In addition,  several




areas of concern are mentioned which may  require control  in  the  future.




No attempt  has been made  to  identify all  of  the  specific  industries  where




the  pollutants may originate.  However, pollutants  from  specific  industries




are  noted where appropriate, generally  as  examples  to  justify certain




aspects  of  the measurement  technique being discussed.   In addition,  the  task

Persistence and Measured Levels of Spec
Complex Mixtures
Toak No. : IQA-49

M< leslont-H
^/^s:-'"'/* ' '//''
Research
.H Development
'5 Field Teat
^ Evslustlon
* rromulBation
TotnlH
Response, Odor
Iflc Odoraats In
Fisc.il Year
n> 72 12 , 73 M 75
1
76 77

Funding Required (Slmm's)
100 ! inn inr^

1 !
! ' 1 ' :
! i ' ;
1
1 ion : 100 ! 100
A vo C.jpai'iil'ty Initially Required^ tvalu
''.:.:'-
Totals
1972
1977
300




inn
led Method Available

-------
                                       3-57
 sheets note the number of industries  where the  specific  test  method  may




 be applied.  The measurement requirements  will  be covered in  eleven




 pollutant groupings:   (1) sulfur oxides;  (2)  oxides  of nitrogen;  (3)




 total particulate mass loading;  (4) visible emissions  (opacity);




 (5) other particulate properties (including particle size,  particle




 number and particle composition); (6) hazardous substances;  (7) carbon




 monoxide; (8) hydrocarbons;  (9)  odors;  (10) halogens;  and (11)  other




 pollutants.  Specific task numbers will be assigned  to cover  the  work




 required.




           The tasks described in this section have a significantly




 smaller percentage of the total  expenditure in  the development  activity




 than did the tasks covering ambient  air quality level  measurement.  This




 difference is due to the significant  market potential  for stationary source




 emission measurement instruments; a  potential which  should lead to con-




 siderable expenditures on R&D by private industry*.  Accordingly  the EPA




 expenditure shown on the task sheet  assumes that many  of the  required




 instruments will be developed by the  instrument industry and  that EPA




 efforts can begin at the field test  activity.





     3.2.2  Specific Requirements




          3.2.2.1  Sulfur Oxides



Manual Methods of Analysis




          Manual  methods  for the determination  of  sulfur  oxides are cur-




 rently available. When the sulfur emissions can be considered as sulfur




dioxide the total SO  can be measured by reacting the SO  with dilute




hydrogen  peroxide in a bubbler to form sulfate  ion.  Sulfur dioxide




concentration can then be indirectly  determined by titrating the sulfate






*See Appendix B

-------
ion with standard barium perchlorate.  Alternately,  the suifate ion con




be determined with barium chloranilate reagent releasing the  highly colored




chloranilate ion which is measured spectrometrically.




          When the different sulfur oxides have to be  discriminated,  the




sulfuric acid mist (molecular H-SO.)  particulate  suifate as well as




sulfur trioxide (S0~) can be individually determined.   The  particulate




suifate and the molecular H_SO,  are captured on a glass wool filter, maintained




in a heated compartment above the dew point at the effluent gas temperature.




The remaining gas is allowed to pass through a heated  probe and into




bubblers containing 807<, isopropyl alcohol to capture the S0_  and to allow




the S09 to pass.  The glass wool filter is extracted with isopropyl




alcohol and a total acid titration made to determine the amount of  total




acidity present.  A suifate analysis on the residue  provides  a  measure




of total suifate.  From these two measurements both  the amount  of particulate




suifate and the sulfuric acid mist can be determined.   The  SO  captured




in the isopropyl alcohol is extracted with sulfuric  acid to form suifate




ion and is indirectly analyzed in the same manner as SO  above.



While these methods are in use for determining emission factors from




sources containing sulfur oxides, a field test and evaluation of the methods to




assure their adequacy and reproducibility in the hands of representative




users is needed.  This is particularly true for the  lower concentrations




of S09 to be expected from controlled sources of emission.




          TASK REQUIRED;  Field test and evaluate manual analytical methods




          for determining total sulfur oxides (or  the  individual sulfur oxides




          such as particulate suifate, sulfuric acid mist,  803  and  S02) at




          source level concentrations.  (IQS-1)*

-------
                                     3-59
Automated Method of Analysis




          Instrumental techniques are available for the direct continuous




measurement of source emission levels of sulfur dioxide.  Techniques




available for the measurement include:  (1) nondispersive infrared absorption,




(Beckman, MSA-LIRA, Bendix-UNOR); (2) ultraviolet absorption system




(DuPont and Honeywell);  and (3)  a correlation spectrometer which uses a




comparison of the absorption of  the stack gas with a photographic




reproduction of the S0? ultraviolet spectrum (Barringer) .  The first two




instruments, the NDIR and the ultraviolet absorption are direct continuous




measurement devices for making the measurement out of stack while the




correlation spectrometer instrument is capable of shooting directly across




a portion of the stack to obtain a spatial average of the SCL concentration.




Other  instrumental techniques available for measuring SCL involve the




dilution of the source sample to a concentration approaching that of  the




ambient atmosphere and interfacing with ambient  level monitoring  instruments.




While  these instruments  have been extensively  used for research




 applications  to monitor  S02 emissions at  source  level  concentrations,




 a detailed field test is only now underway at TRW under contract from EPA.








           TASK  REQUIRED:   Complete  the field  test and  then evaluate  automated




           continuous monitors for SCL  at  emission sources.  (IQS-2)
iliiKJLL'J,1'.1 Field Test and Evaluate Manual Analytical Methods for
Determining Total Sulfur Oxides '(or the Individual Sulfur
Oxldca such a Sulfate Part Iculatea. Sutfurlc Acid Hlat.
 -
M< }cti
w*.
V
l!i-: 1QS-I
, -
tout":
f>/'j -yjft<
Rcni'.irrli
Dcvelnpncnt
Field Test
Evaluftlcni
Hronul(;ntion
Totals
Fl
re 72 72 ; 73
ok ti
seal Ymr
74

75


76

77

Funding Required (flOOO'tiJ


75 100
50 100
15
1 125 215



1

54
10
60



1
ft Interim Method Available
Total s
1912
to
1977


175
-ififi-
25
400

Tank

Task
Tltle: comolc
Cont In
No. : iqs-2

M' les tones
vff$

>
<
M$$y-//4
Research
Development
Field Test
Evaluation .
rromulpat ion
To in Is
te tlic Klcld Teat and Then Evaluate Automated
uoua Monitors for SO,, at Emission Source**
Fiscal Year
Pre 7'^ 72 \ 73
1 $lt**
74

Funding Kequlrcd


i
100 125
75 200

75

76

77

(51000'B)



i
'
1 ; , ,
10 15 !
! 185 .WO i
\ Dnte Capability Initially KequlredA
^ Interim Method Aval l;.b 1,-



$&
totals
1972
U77


*n.
2J5
25
525
Evaluated Mctliud Available
     InduDtry Sources
                                           *9 Industry Sources

-------
                                     3-60
          No continuous monitors are currently available for measuring



the emission of sulfuric acid mist from stationary sources although a



new source performance standard for this pollutant is currently proposed



for sulfuric acid plants.  Thus, development of a continuous monitor for


sulfuric acid mist is required.



          TASK REQUIRED:   Develop and evaluate  an automated  monitor


          for sulfuric mist .  (IQS-3)



          3.2.2.2  Nitrogen Oxides


Manual Methods of Analysis



          A manual method for measuring total nitrogen oxides (NO ) is
                                                                 X


available.  This method is based on the collection of the nitrogen oxides



in a solution of dilute sulfuric acidhydrogen peroxide.  The peroxide



converts the oxides of nitrogen (excepting N?0) to nitrate ion which is



then determined colorimetrically after reaction with phenol  disulfonic



acid (PDS).  The method has been used extensively for analyzing grab



samples of effluent gases to determine emission factors at uncontrolled



sources.  The method has been proposed as the Federal method for compliance



measurements for new source performance standards.  A collaborative test



of the method to insure its adequacy and reproducibility in the hands



of representative users is needed.



          TASK REQUIRED;   Evaluate PDS manual analytical



          method for source level concentrations of nitrogen



          oxides.  (IQS-4)
Task
Title: Develop and Evaluate an Automated Monitor
for Sulfuric Mlet
Task
No.: T(js-1

Milestones

Activities

Research
Development
Field Test
Evaluation
Fr omul gat Ion
Totala .
Fiscal Year
Pre 72, 72
|
Fu.
50


73

74 75 76
~5H
77

ding Required (SlOOO's)

150



1 50
1 ;

50 1 '
50




5 ! ;
150 | 100 5
Hi^
Totals
1972
to
1977
50
150
50
50
5
305
A Date Capability Initially Required A Evaluated Method Available
ft Interim Method Available
Task

Task

lines
W///
mtf
Activities

Title: Evnlu
for S



tones
^|f/^^
Research
Development
Field Test
Evaluation
Promulgation
Totals
ate PDS Manual Analytical Method
ource Level Concentrations of 111
Fiscal Yeur
<"' J]  !  _|
4k *
74

75

t rogen
Oxides

76

77

Funding Required (SlOOO's)
!


75
1







i . ;
10 !
! 85


^ Interim Method Available

T.Jl.ill.
1972
J_97!


7S
10
85


-------
                                    3-61
 Future standards may require determination of  nitric  acid mist  (molecular


 HN03)  and particulate mitrate (NC>3)   from stationary  sources.   Manual


 methods for conducting these measurements must be  developed  to  enable


 emission factor determinations prior to a decision on standard  requirements


          TASK REQUIRED;  Develop and evaluate manual  methods for


          determining particulate nitrate and nitric acid mist


          from stationary sources.  (IQS-5)


Automated Methods of Analysis


          A number of  instrumental techniques are available for continuous


measurement of source  emission levels of nitrogen oxides.  Most of these


techniques analyze directly for either NO or N00.   A measure of total NO
                                                                        x

is obtained by conversion of the NO  mixture to the particular nitrogen


oxide that the instrument measures.


          Techniques available for continuous out-of-stack measurement


include:  (1) the non-dispersive infrared analyzer  (NDIR) for measuring


NO (Beckman, MSA-LIRA, Bendix-UNOR);  (2) the dispersive UV analyzer for


N02 which provides a measure of total NO  by converting the  NO to NO by
                                        x                           2

reaction with high pressure oxygen (DuPont); (3) the electrochemical


sensor for N02 or N0x> with NO obtained by difference  (Dynasciences,


Environmetrics); and (4) the chemiluminescent detectors that  measure NO


or N02  by observing  the luminescence  of the reaction with 0   and singlet
Task

Tatik
Title: ptvtu.

p and Evaluate Manual Methods fo
Stationary Sources
No. : iqs-5

H'led
&$W(
H
2
tones

Research
Development
Field Test
Evaluation
Promulgation
Totals

t Deter

lining
Fiscal Year
Pre 7^ 72
1
73
^
74
*
75

76

Funding Required (51003'n)


50 50
SO

1


75
1 10
1 SO
A Date Capability Initially Rcc
4} Interim Method Available
100 ' 85




77





|

'
m
Totals
1972
to
1977

100
50
75
10
235
ulred A Evaluated Method Available

-------
                                   3-62
oxygen .-.iLiJin.'i rcspcd i vc ly (A'.-rocliem, Ford).  A i-ont i ninm:;  i n-sl jic.k an.ily/.ri




based on dispersive  IR  is also available (Environmental Data).  While




these instrumental  techniques are available, they have not been evaluated




to determine their  acceptability for monitoring requirements  especially




with effluent concentrations and conditions representative of  controlled




stationary sources.  A program to field test the most promising analyzers




for application at  combustion sources is currently underway at Monsanto




Research Corporation under EPA contract.




          TASK REQUIRED:  Complete  the field test and then evaluate




          automated analyzers and monitors for NO    (IQS-6)
                                                 X



          3.2.2.3   Measurement of Total Particulate Mass



Manual Methods of Analysis




          The manual determination of total particulate mass involves



the collection and weighing of the particulate.  A probe is inserted




into the stack to be measured, a sample of effluent gas is withdrawn




(under isokinetic conditions if necessary) and the particulate trapped




either on a filter or in impingers.  Normally, a liquid is placed in




the impingers to increase the efficiency of trapping the fine particulates.




After evaporating the trapping solvent and drying the particulate, the




amount of particulate is weighed to determine the particulate content




of the gas stream.  While, in principle, this appears to be a simple
Task

Tusk
Title: complete the Field Test and the

No. : IQS-6

W7P
Activities
tones
ji^fC^iii
Research
Development
Field Test
Evaluation
Promulgation
Totals
AUa
0"
n Evaluate Automated
Fiscal Year
Frr 7^ 72 j 73
1 m*
74
k
75

76

77

Funding Required (SlOOO's)
i

100 50
' 50 50
1 10
1 150 110
1



!




! i i
10
10
!

te Capability Initially Required A Evalu
terlm Method Available
'>&#
''2^>
Totals
1972
to
1977


JJS_
inn
20
270
ated Method Available

-------
                                   3-63
procedure, in practice exacting requirements are needed to assure  a




representative sample and many variations in the sampling procedure  have




been developed.




          The first major consideration is to determine the need for an




isokinetic sample.  This is a sample taken with a probe in which the flow




velocity in the sampling probe is equal to the flow velocity in the  duct




being sampled.   This may be necessary because the inertia of the




particles results in their following the gas flow streamlines when the




particles are relatively light and moving in straight lines as their




velocity increases.  To insure obtaining a representative sample,




one must first determine the velocity of the gas in the duct by use  of




a pitot tube and then adjust the flow rate in the sampling probe to




obtain isokinetic conditions.  The availability of a device to automatically




obtain an isokinetic sample condition would facilitate the manual determination




of total particulate mass.




           TASK REQUIRED;  Develop an automated isokinetic




           sampling device for use in the measurement of




           particulates.  (IQS-7)




           A number of variations of the method for determining  total




 particulate mass loading are currently in use by different agencies  concerned.




with particulate measurement.  These variations normally reflect differences




 in the definition of particulate  mass.   Some  procedures  involve the
Task Title: Dev<
for
Tank
No.: IQ<:.7

M'.lestonea
m
Activities


Research
Development
Field Test
Evaluation
Promulgation
Totals
op an Automated laoklnettc Sampling De
Dae in the Measurement of Particulatea
vile
Fiscal Year
"'} "
1
73

74
&
75

76

77

Funding Required (SlOOO's)


100




50

; ^!
1
100 | 50




1
, . I

1
5^^
Totals
1972
1977

100
50


150
Evaluated Method Available
^ Interim He t hod Available

-------
                                  3-64
 collection of particulates at  the effluent gas conditions of temperature
 and humidity, requiring that the particulate collection filter be maintained

 at stack conditions.  Other procedures require that particulates be collected
 after the gas effluent has been cooled, so that the definition of particulate
 becomes that of any material which is condensable or solid at the cooled

 gas temperature.  The proposed Federal particulate sampling methods for
 use with new source performance standards requires cooling  of  the

 effluent gases before their collection; therefore, the particulates measured
 consist of the total condensable and solid materials at the cooled temperature
          A field test and evaluation of  the  Federal  method  for
 determining total particulate mass is necessary.   Its application to about
 28 industry categories covering many different problems such as tangential
 flow,  low concentrations and sticky particules must be examined.
          TASK REQUIRED;   Test  and evaluate the Federal manual  method
          for total particulate mass  loading  measurements.   (IQS-8)
          The currently proposed Federal method for determining particulate
 mass from stationary sources, while  requiring  the cooling of the effluent
 gases and measurement of  total solid and condensable matter at a low
 temperature, does not provide for the dilution of the  stationary source

 gas sample with ambient air.  This dilution would normally occur on escape
of the effluent gases from the stationary source  stacks.  Under dilution
conditions the total amount of particulate which  would be  formed could
Task

Task
M< les
w
>
Tit IP: Teat a
Partlc
No.: IQS-8
tones

Research
Development
Field Test
Evaluation
Prnmulgatlan
Totals
JkDa
O1"
nd Evaluate the Federal Manual M
ulate Mass Loading Mesnurementi*
F
T, 72 72 , 73
1 fM-
:thod for total
seal tear
7A

Funding Require!
,

100 200
100

--
75

76

77

CSlOOO's)



200 1 100 ''
_ 200 _
' 15 ' 25
1 100 315 425
ti; Capability Initially Required A
tcriro Method Available
290
25
325
Kvalu
100
2i
125






m
Tntals
1972
1977


600
600
90
1290
iti'd Mvthod AvaiUil'lc
                    28 Industry Sources

-------
                                  3-65
.differ substantially I"rum that obtained n.slnn tin: current no-dilution




procedure.  The availability  of a dilution system whicb would provide a




constant volume sampling arrangement for stationary sources particulate




measurements will enable measurements which are more representative of




the actual  particulate burden to the ambient air.




          TASK REQUIRED;  Develop a constant volume sampling




          procedure which will permit the measurement of total




          particulate mass of stationary sources with appropriate




          dilution to represent the probable particulate formation




          of the effluent gases after leaving the stack.  (IQS-9)







Automated Methods of Analysis




          No instrumental methods for the measurement of total particulate




mass  from stationary sources  are currently in wide spread use.  The




commercial  methods which are  available  include (1) the piezo crystal




detectors (Thermosystems, Atlantic Research), which utilize the change




in vibration frequency of a quartz crystal caused by the increase in




weight resulting from impaction of particulates contained in a gas onto




the crystal and; (2) the paper tape samplers which enable intermittent




measurements of the particulate loading to be made by observing the change




in optical  transmission or reflectance  of the tape (Gelman, Unico, RAG).




EPA has  recently completed a  contract with Thermosystems Inc. to evaluate
Develop a Constant Volume Sampling Procedure which
J.a,?k .Tit_le: 111 Permit the Measurement of Total Partlculate Maaa
of Stationary Source* with Appropriate Dilution
to Represent the Probable Particulate Formation of the
Bffluen Caaea after J.evlnn the Stack



Milestones
HiS

rt
W'wff/wfy,
Research
Development
Field Test

Promulgation
Totals

Pre 7




72

Fur

Fiscal Year
73

74

75


76
A
77
f
ding Required (SlOOO'n)
"









200 100



200
100






: 100 i
 10 !
200 <
110

^P2
Totals
J972
1977

100
100
100
10
510
A Date Capability Initially Required A Evaluated Method Available
^ Interim Method Available

-------
                                    3-66
 available  instruments  for measuring total participate mass at power plants
 as  well as to consider the  potential  of new concepts  in this  area.  The
 two most promising concepts identified were the  piezoelectric crystals

described above and the use of ^-gauging.  The ^-gauging technique is  a
variation of the paper tape sampler where,  instead of using light transmission
or reflectance to  judge the amount of particulates the absorption of a
beam of  radiation provides a measure of particulate mass which is not
subject to errors resulting from the reflectance of the materials which
may be  light or dark color.   This program has been extended to cover the
field evaluation on power plants of the piezoelectric and/^-gauging
monitors.
          TASK REQUIRED:  Develop and evaluate an instrument for
           continuous measurement of total particulate mass loading.  (IQS-10)
          3.2.2.4  Visible  Emissions  (Opacity)
Manual Methods of Analysis
          The manual technique for determining plume opacity is  the
visual comparison with a smokeshade.  The use of the Ringlemann  chart
for evaluation of smokeshade is admittedly subjective and this has led
to its criticism by many investigators.  The background sky,  the location
of the sun in reference to the stack plume,  and the observer  all play  a
part in influencing the apparent smoke density.  The Ringlemann  technique,
however, has been widely accepted and repeatedly held valid by the courts.


Task Ho.: iqs-m

M< lestones
%Sj^-$y/y/:fa
Research
.3 Development
; Field Test
 Evaluation
* Promulgation
Totals




Fiscal Tear
re 7 72 j 73 74
i Q t
75

76

77

Funding Required (SlOOO'sl
j !
250 100 75!
100 | 200 1 200
L 100 ': 2ft(L
15
250 200 ! 390
2i_
425
A Date Capability Initially Required  Evalu
^ Interim Method Available


100
200
25
325



IW
25
125

m
Totals
1972
1977

425
600
m
90
1715
ted Method Available
                     28 Industry Sources

-------
                                    3-67
Special problems have been found wben one attempts to use the Ringlemann




chart for evaluation of light shaded smokes.  For white smoke, which is




also covered under the proposed Federal visible emissions standard for




new source performance standards, a special guide is required.  A white




smoke guide based on the use of film strips with four different shades




of grey produced by application of diamond dust has been developed by




EPA and will be produced in sufficient quantity for its distribution to




control agencies in selected parts of the country.




          TASK REQUIRED;  Promulgate a manual method for visible




          emissions based on white smoke guides.  (IQS-11)




Automated Methods of Analysis




          The  common method  of  instrumentally  determining stack opacity




 is  through  the use  of  light  extinction techniques.  In these  techniques,




 (Bailey, Rimco, Wager)  the attenuation of a beam of  light which is collimated




 across  the  stack  is used as  a measure of the opacity of  the effluent gas.




 Several  attempts  have  been made  to  relate this  opacity to the Ringlemann




 smoke  shade measurement.  The state  of Texas is currently using light




 extinction  for the  in-stack  measurement  of  opacity*





          The  light extinction devices usually  employ a  fairly wide




 spectrum of  radiation.  The  light attenuation  should be  in the




 response region of  the  photopic vision which relates to  the visible
To

k Title: promul
Emlafll
Task_
H(
NJL: IQS-ll

PS tones
W$$i$$i*//$fy

Research
Uevelopment
Field Ifst

rrnmiilgnt ion
Toluls
A
gate n Manual Method for Visible
ona Bused on White Smoke Guides*
Fiscal Year
re 7i 72 73
1 0 Af
74

75



76

77

Funding Required (SlOOO'e)




75
50 ^00

10
1 125 110


1

!



1

Interim Hfilmd A VH Hub IP
WM
Totals
1972
1977


75
150
10
235

                      )1 Industry Sou reem

-------
                                   3-68
 omission standards.  The development of a transn.isson.eter,  limited  to

 the measurement of attenuation in the photopic region,  is  required  to

 enable exact opacity measurements which can be related  to human observa-

 tions  and determinations of compliance with visibility  standards.

           TASK REQUIRED;  Develop and evaluate a transmissometer

           for in-stack automated measurement of visibility

           of effluent plumes and relate the opacity measure-

           ment to human observations.  (IQS-12)

           3.2.2.5  Other Pa'rticulate Properties

           In addition to measurements of  gross  particle  effects described

 in the previous two  sections  (Total  Particulate Mass  Loading and Visibility),

 three other  types of particulate measurements may be  required  for  compliance

with future  source emission controls.   These  are  (1)  particle size

distribution,  (2) total  number  of  particles and (3) particle composition.


Particle  Size

Manual Methods of Analysis

          The determination of  the size distribution  of  the particles

 emitted from a stationary source  can currently  be done manually by inserting

 an  appropriate classification device (i.e. Anderson or Brinks Sampler) to

separate  the particulate stream into a  number of different  size fractions

prior to  collecting  the particulate  sample.     The amount  of each fraction
Task

Task

Automated Measurement of Visibility of
and Relate the Opacity Measurement to H
No-= IQS-12

Milestones
O>g?

0)
|
W!$$M%>
Research
Development
Field Test
Evaluation
Promulgation
Totals


Effluent Plumci
uraan ObBervctlono*
Fiscal Year
Pre 72 72 , 73
1 |^
74
t
75

76

77

Funding Required (1000' sj
.100(1)

75 150
i

75
75 | 150
15 15
!' 75 340
240


! i
1 1

10 ' '
85


locals
1972
1977
LOO

300
31)0
40
740
A Date Capability Initially Required ^ Evaluated Method Available
ft Interim Method Available
                 (1) Relation of measured opacity to Rlnglemann observations
                 * 31 Industry Sources

-------
                                   3-69
 (different size range) is then determined l>y procedures similar to those
used in determining the total mass of particulates.   These techniques  are

not adequate  below 0.5y and, therefore, do not provide data in the total

respirable particle size range.
          TASK REQUIRED;  Develop a manual method for determining

          particle size distribution in the range 0.05 to 0.5u.  (IQS-13)

Automated Methods of Analyses
          The above technique should be suitable for determining emission

factors for particulate size distribution from various sources but it

will probably not provide a rapid enough technique for routine monitoring

of size distribution  if this becomes necessary in the future.
          EPA currently has a contract with the Environmental Research

Corporation  to construct a device to classify according to the size of

 the particulates and measure the mass concentration in each class.  This

contract is based on  inertial separation of different size fractions,

each size fraction then being analyzed by p-gauging to enable an intermittent

measurement  of particle mass versus size distribution.  Another- instrumental

 technique which is suitable for the manual determination of particle size

 involves the use of a electrolyte solution containing a suspension of

 particles.   The particles must first be collected by some other means
 (Coulter).   In this technique an electrical current is maintained in a

 small dimensioned orifice.  Particles suspended in the electrolyte are
Task

Task
Tltlc' Dtvolo
Part Ic
0.05 i
No': iqs-n

H< lestones
&$ffi
Activities

wM//i
Research
Development.
Field Tent
Evaluation
Promulgation
Totals
p a Manual Method for DctijAining
Le Size Distribution in the Range of
o 0.5..U
Fiscal Year
re 72 72 , 73
1 1 0
74

75

76

77

Funding Required ($1000's)
,
100
SO




1
i 1
1
1
; i
1 100 30

!
1
f^
Totals
1972
to
1977

1W
SO


ISO
A Date Capability Initially Required 4} Evaluated Method Available

-------
                                   3-70
  forced  through  the  orifice;  and  each  particle:  displaces ;i  (|iuinlity  ol  llir




  electrolyte  in  the  orifice  essentially  equal  to  its  interface volume.




  Thus,  the  three  dimensions  of particle  volume are  the basis  for  sizing




  the  particulate  sample.   This allows determination of the particle size




  distribution from a representative sample  of  the collected particulate




  emissions.




           TASK REQUIRED;   Develop and evaluate an automated sampler/




            analyzer  to determine particle size distribution.   (IQS-14)




Number of Particles




          Several instrumental techniques are available for counting the




number of particles  in a gas sample as distinguished from the total




mass  of the sample.   These instruments are based on the optical detection




and registering of particles as small as a half micron.  The instruments




have  adjustable discriminators to provide for gauging the gas sample




into  varying  particle sizes which are registered  in one of four




different channels (Particle Technology, Sartorius).




          TASK REQUIRED;   Evaluate instruments to sample and




          analyze for the  number of particles in a gas sample.  (IQS-15)





Particle Composition




          The determination of particle composition while not  presently




required as part of the particulate standards is anticipated to be required
,Tas.^,_T?tle: ncvrlop und Evnluflfe an Automared 3oipler/Anlyzer

Tas> o.: IQS_U

Milestones
W-^///^/J/'^i &?'///''//>
*Hy$V// 7'' y'/ffiy-r
Research

^ Field Test
^ Evaluation
"* Promulgation
Totnla



Fiscal Year
"'] "
1
73

74
A
75

76

77

Funding Required (SlOOO's)

200
100


1

75


1 200
100
75


'



! i


$%&
Totals
1972
to
1977

300
75.


375
A JJale Capability nltially Requlrt-t! A Evaluated Me mod Avanaoie
A Interim Hetl'ud Available


Task
MUes


"^: IQS-15

tunes

V
Research
Development
Field Test

Promulgation
Totals
A Da
0'"




fiscal Year
re 7ii, 72
1- 
73

7
A
75


76

77

Funding Required (SlOOO'r.)


30
50

1
i

50

1
i 80
50

j



i i
!

te Capability Initially Required A. Kvalu
tcrlm Method Available

figs
T..I.-.IB
1972
19/7

.JO .
100


1110
itfid Method Available

-------
                                 3-71
in future standards at least for some components of tlie sample.   Most




of the heavier matals whi.clt are considered as air pollutants are ("omul




as compounds in the particulate samples.




          The current manual method for determining the composition of




the particulate normally involves first collecting the particulate and




then subjecting the collective samples to either an atomic absorption,




X-ray spectroscopy, neutron activation, or emission spectroscopy method




of analysis. This method is adequate as is but rather tedious, and the




following work is intended to overcome this problem.  EPA has a feasi-




bility contract with  the Naval Research Laboratory to investigate the




potential of X-ray  fluorescence as a means for determining particulate




composition.   If this program is successful the intent is to follow-up




with  an  on-stream device which would be available in prototype form




by mid-1974.




          TASK REQUIRED;  Develop and test an on-stream analyzer




          for measurement of composition of particulate matter.  (IQS-16)




          In addition to this task the development of analytical methods




for specific particulates is covered in Task No.  IQS-1 (sulfates),




No. IQS-7 (nitrates), and No. IQA-13 (particulate composition).




          3.2.2.6  Hazardous Substances




          Asbestos, beryllium and mercury were defined as  hazardous




pollutants in March 1971.
Task

Task
Title: Deveto
Meaaur
"-! IQS-16

H'.lefltones
w&
IB
^4
M
U


Research
Development
Field Teat
Promulgation
Total*
i and Teat an On-S cream Analyter for
cnent of Conpoaltlon of Particulate Natter
Fiscal Year
re 7^ 72 j 73
1 1
74 75


76
ft
77

Funding Required (JloOO's)

100

i
i i
200 ! !
1 75
!






| 75 100 j 200 f 75 \
/?irf
Tot.iU
1972
to
1977

300
150

4 50
fbate Capability Initially Required f Evaluated Method Available
Interim Method Available

-------
Manual Methods ol' Analysis




          A large number of laboratory analytical methods are available




in the literature for determining these hazardous pollutants.  At present,




none of these methods has been extensively used for determining the




concentration of these hazardous substances in stationary source emissions.




They cannot be considered at this time to be accepted methods of determining




gaseous emissions.  A thorough investigation of the available methods




must be conducted and additional methods developed for pollutants or indus-




tries  for which current methods are found to be unacceptable.  The methods




to be  evaluated here are for particulate asbestos, and volatile mercury and




beryllium compounds.  It is not desirable to distinguish between the various




forms  of mercury  in the air.  Problems of SOj interference and very low




levels of mercury have already been identified.  Methods for beryllium




compounds in  particulate matter are included in  IQS-16 and IQA-40A.  An




evaluation  of these methods must also be conducted to determine  their




suitability for use by representative users.




          TASKS  REQUIRED:   Evaluate manual  methods of




          analysis  for asbestos.   (IQS-17)




          TASKS  REQUIRED:   Evaluate manual  methods of




          analysis  for mercury.   (IQS-18)


Task
M' leH
'!
ilL: IQS-17


fMffityj? /I.
Research
Development
Vi.'ld T^'it
Evaluation
ITomulgation
Totals
^ Im .M ini Metliod A


Fiscal Year
re. 72j 72
k^
Fun
73
4
74

75






76

77

ding Required ($10U!>'s>


50
j



1
1
100


!
5 ' ''
1 50
105

nUinlly Ruquircd A Kvalu
allablc

H?
Totals
1972
1977


50
100
5
155
ted MeUiod Aviii lahU'
Task Title; Eva!

Task
No': IQS-18

M
Research
Development
Field Test

Promulgation
Totals
ate Manual Methods of Analysis for Mercury
Fiscal Year
re 1\ 72
4k
73

74
t
75


76

77

Funding Required (SlOOO'n)



75



100 !
! 5 !
1 75
105


1
[

i




1
^
Totals
1972
197)


..,7.5
.Iflfl
5
.180
 Date Capability Initially Required^ Evaluated Method Available
^ Interim Method Available

-------
                                    3-73
          TASK REQUIRED;  Develop and evaluate manual methods  of




          analysis for beryllium.  (IQS-19)





Automated Methods of Analysis




          No instrumental methods for the continuous  monitoring of




asbestos is currently available.  A feasibility study for such an




instrument is planned for FY 1972.  If a  promising technique  is found,




this will be followed by the construction and evaluation of a  prototype




instrument.  No instrumental methods for the continuous monitoring  of




beryllium are available.




          The testing and evaluation of the most promising commercially




available  instruments (Olin, Barringer, DuPont) for the determination




of mercury are  required.  These  instruments are based on the  spectroscopic




determination of  elemental mercury  in the ultraviolet spectrum following




its  chemical release  from the mercury compounds present in the source




effluent.




          TASK  REQUIRED:  Evaluate automated  instruments for  measuring mercury




           emissions.  (IQS-20)




           TASK  REQUIRED;  Develop and evaluate automated asbestos




           emission monitors.  (IQS-21)*




          TASK  REQUIRED;  Research,  develop and test automated instruments




           for continuous monitoring  of beryllium  emissions.  (IQS-22)*
Task

Tk
M'lCB
vMff>
n
>
V4
5
Tttlc: Deve
Anal
iIL: IQS-19
tones
WM/t
Rene arch
Uevclopmcni
Fitild Teat
Evaluation
Pronulgatlon
Totals
op and Evaluate Menu* I Methods of
yla for Beryl Itum
Fiscal Year
re 72 n , 73
o k i *
74

75


7(j

77

Funding Required (51000'fl)
,
50
50
50
' 5
1 100 55








1 I
1

!

1
A Date Capability Initially Required A Evalu
^ Interim Method Available
ted He
-^
lotals
1972
to
1977

50
.,,20
50
5
155
hod Available
Task

Tank
Til In B..I.,,,
Mercury
llo..: 1QS-20

H//ffit,
Resear h
Develo men I
Field rst
Evlui Ion
Prtxsul At ion
Totals
e Autoajced
Emlielona
Inatruncnta fur Mean
Klsral YiMr
re 72 72
1
73
4
74
4
75

.ring


76

77

Funding Rrqulred (SlOOO's)
,

100


t




i .
; 1
50 !
, 5 !
! 100
55





g^
Totals
1972
1977


100
50
5
155
B, Date Capability Initially X^qutred V tvaluatcd Mclltud Available
^ Interim Method Available

-------
                                  3-74
           3.2.2.7  Carbon Monoxide




           Carbon monoxide is determined by the non-dispersive  infrared




analysis of the effluent gas stream.  This technique is applicable for




manual and automated requirements.  Several instruments are commercially




available for this purpose (Beckman, Bendix, MSA, LIRA) and improved




instruments are beginning to appear (Arkon) .  An evaluation of  these




instruments is required to determine an official method for manual and




automated measurements of CO emissions from stationary sources.




           TASKS REQUIRED:  Evaluate available carbon monoxide




           instruments for manual and automated measurement.  (IQS-23)
J/ijik _TU_l_i* : Develop ami
Kmlaalun Ho
Tiisl. Ho. : r'JS-Jl

"'**''*
>
Z
[ones
'^$jr;J//$?4
Research
Development
Field Ti-st
Evaluation
rrorau.Kat.ioii
ToUilK
Kvalua
ilrora
te Automated Aabearoa
Fiscal Year
"rtf /4 /2



Fun


73

74

75


76
f
77

ding Required (SlOOO'j)

100


j

100 | '
50
1

! 50



A Dam Capability Inlcliiily Keq
A Interim Method Available
100 150
10 ' '
60 !
"$$,
Totals
1972
to
1977

200
50
, 20,
10
310
Hired A Evaluated Method Available
Taxk
Task

l!l!i: Research, Develop .ind Teal Automated Inatrumenla
for continuous Monitoring of Beryllium Erolaslona


F seal Year
re 72 72 73 74 75
H* les tones
m

WW/MA
Research
Development
Field T st
Evaluat on
fromulg tion
T tl
! ^

76
4
77

Funding Required ($1000' s)
. 100 :

100 SO '.. !
 SO '
1
50


: . ' '5
1 100 : 100 100
A Date Capab llty Initially Required A Evalu
!} Interim Method Available
55

tf$
Totals
1972
1977
100
ISO
sn
50
5
355
ted Method Available
Task

Task
Title: ,,.
Auco
No.: IQS-23

HUeii

V
tones
Wfifflifffify
Research
Development
Field Test
Evaluation
Promulgation
Totals
'A Da
te Capnbi lity
tcrim Method A\
ate Available CO Instruments for
oated Measurement*
Manual
and

Pre 7^ 72 j 73
1 4Qi 4s^
74
fA
75

76

77

Funding Required ($1000'B>

! ' 1
UQ 1
50 75 '


1
50 75 1


10 ' 10 !
I 90 135 85

nitially Required 4} .Ivvalu
allable 1. Manual Method; 2. I
W&
Totals
1972
1977

40
12S

20
310
istrunental Method
                    * 3 Industry Source*

-------
                                    3-75
           3 .2 .2 .8  ^rganic Compounds




          The batch determination of total non-methane hydrocarbons from




stationary source emissions can be made by combusting the effluent gas and




determining the hydrocarbon content as water and carbon dioxide.




While this method is acceptable as a reference method for the




determination of total hydrocarbons the method, is  not  suitable  for




the routine determination of stationary source effluents.  The routine




determination of non-methane hydrocarbons from stationary sources is based




either on total hydrocarbon determination or on determining the specific




chemical constituents present in the gas mixture.  When one can




determine hydrocarbons without differentiating the hydrocarbon types




the analysis of stationary source emissions is made using either the




flame ionization detector which measures the total number of hydrocarbon




bonds present (Beckman, Gomak) or by the use of the non-dispersive




infrared radiation which measures the total hydrocarbons by absorption




in the infrared spectrum (Beckman, MSA, Bendix, LIRA).




          The flame ionization detector, while an extremely sensitive




hydrocarbon detector, measures only the carbon-hydrogen bonds contained




in the gas stream and accordingly does not measure the total organic




content of the gas, i.e., it fails to determine carbon connected to




bonds other than hydrogen such as nitrogen, oxygen, or halogen.  The




NDIR sensitivity varies depending on the hydrocarbon present in the gas




stream due to the difference in absorption of various hydrocarbons in




that region of the infrared spectrum.  Accordingly, it is not a completely




suitable technique for determining compliance.  A field test of commercially

-------
                                  3-76
nv.'i i l;il>l' instruments for do1(.' nn i.ning hydrocarbon con lent  in I hi.: omissions




from stationary sources is needed.




          TASKS REQUIRED:  Test and evaluate the available commercial




          instruments for measuring total non-methane hydrocarbons.




          (IQS-24)






          The identification of specific hydrocarbons is carried out




by using routine gas chromatographic detectors with  the  flame




ionization detector which is very sensitive for materials with carbon




hydrogen bonds or the electron capture detector which allows the




determination of organic materials containing other  bonds such as:




oxygen, nitrogen, or halogen.  This latter method would be suitable for




PCB and other similar halogens of interest.




          TASKS REQUIRED:  Test and evaluate gas chromatographic




          systems including separation columns and detectors  for




          measuring specific organic compounds in effluent gases.   (IQS-25)




          Methods for determining non-methane hydrocarbons in particulate




matter are included in IQA-13.




          3.2.2.9   Odors





          The major  odors  in  stationary  source  emissions are  hydrogen




sulfide  (HpS),  total reduced  sulfur, amines,  organics,  acids  and aldehydes.




The determination of odor  can be  conducted  either  by determining the
Task Title: TMt

Tack
for
No. : IOS- 24

HI lea

Activities
tones
WMMft.
Research
Development
Field Teat
Evaluation
Promulgation
Totals
A Da
*'"
and Evaluate Available Commercial InatrunentB
teaaurlng Total Non-Methane Hydrocarbon**
Fiscal Year
rr 72 72 j 73
1 41 4
74
.A
75

76

77

Funding Required (1000'B)

40


50 100 !
50
! LO
100
15
1 90 160 1 115

!
r i i




1 ' !


m
Totals
1972
to
1977

40
150
ISO
25
365
te Capability Initially Required A Evaluated Method Available
terim Method Available
Task

Task
Title: Test
Separ
Sped
^: IQS-25

Mtlei
te
Activities
tones
WSMSfA
Kcsearcti
Development
Field Test
Evaluation
Promulgation
Totals
nd Evaluate Gas Chromatographic System
tlon Columns and Detectors for Measurt
ic Organic Compounds in Effluent Cases

're 72, 72
1
Fiscal Y
73

74
4
Funding Required

150


ear
75


76

 Including
g

77

(SIOOO's)



100 I
100
!
! ;
1 \
\
^Interim Method Available
150
200

!


:'' ?
T.II,,|,
1172
to
197?
250
100


350

  1 6 Industry Sourcea

-------
                                     3-77
rusponso ol  individuals to  the odor as a class or by tie term! i\i un  tlu-.

concenltai ion ol sp>cii.ic chemical constituents which have been previously

determined to be responsible  for  the odor  from a particular source.


The Measurement of Odor

           In determining  the  total odor  from  stationary  source emission

a  grab sample of the  effluent gas  in the odor offending  source is  taken

and the amount  of clean diluent air required  to just dilute the odor

response  to  a human  threshold level is  determined.  The  determination of

threshold  response  is carried out  by a  group  o trained  odor  receptors

known as  an  odor panel.   This technique  can be quantified  by  assigning
 odor  units  (O.U.)  which  measure  the  amount  that  the
sample must be
 diluted  to reach the  threshold  level.   While  subjective,  the  technique
                                                    I
 has  been repeatedly upheld in the  courts  as a valid means for determining

 the  amount of odor as a class from an  offending source.   The  task

 required is included  in IQA-47.


 Determining Specific  Qdorants

           Instrumentation is currently available to determine H2S and

 total reduced sulfur  component  of  odors by using a gas  chromatographic

 separation column which separates  the  odor constituents  followed by a

 flame photometric detector to determine low levels of sulfur  containing

 compounds (Bendix, Melpar).   When  it is desirable  to determine  the  total

 sulfur containing compounds in the odor source indiscriminately the

 determination can be  conducted  by  first oxidizing the sulfur  compounds

 to S02 and then determining the amount of SO- produced  coulometrically

 (Barton).  While commonly used for manual measurements,  these instruments

have not been fully evaulated to determine their acceptability for making

-------
                                   3-78
compliance measurements from stationary sources emitting sulfurous odors.




A fully automated instrumental system needs to be developed for monitoring




purposes.




          TASKS REQUIRED;  Evaluate commercially available instruments




          for manual measurement and develop an instrumental method




          for determining l^S and total reduced sulfur odors from




          stationary source emissions.  (IQS-26)





           The determination of amines, organic acids, and aldehydes




 which are specific odorants normally associated with rendering plants,




 sewage incineration facilities and petrochemica1  plants  requires  the




 separation of the chemical component of interest from the gas stream by




 using suitable gas chromatographic columns.  The separated components




 are then measured with suitable detectors.   While such techniques




 have been widely utilized in laboratory investigation of these particular




 compounds, the concentration level for the compounds have normally been




 far in excess of those encountered in the stationary source emissions.




 A thorough test and evaluation of available separation columns and




 detectors to determine a particular odorant and the development of




 additional columns as required should be undertaken to support the




 emission control programs in the odorant area.
Tank

Task

H'les
to
*t
Title: fuai,ia
Heaaur
De terra
Statlo
No. : IQS_ IK

tones
^^^^^-.
Research
Development
Field lest
Evaluation
Promulgation
Totals
te Comae re La Uy Ava
ement and Develop a
inlng H2S and Total
nary Source Emiaalo
liable Instruments lor Manual
n Instrumental Method for
Reduced Sulfur Odors from
Fiscal Year
Te 72 72 | 73
1 $^$44
74
4>
75

7o

77

Funding Required (SlOOO's)

40
i

30 120 !
50
10
1 70 180
I
I
I


100 ! : <
10
110
i !

#$.
Totiils
1972
1977

40
150
ISO
20
360
A Date Capability Initially Required A Evaluated Method Available
Q Interim Method Available I. Manual Method; 2. Automated Method
                     6 Industry Sources

-------
                                     3-79
            TASKS Rli(jLITREI):  Develop tests ;in<| i:valu;ito appropr i;i Lr




            columns for the analysis of ammonia and amines  from




            effluent gases to determine the. specific concentration




            of  the odorants.  (IQS-27)




            TASKS REQUIRED;  Develop tests and evaluate commercially




            available separation columns for determining organic




            acids and aldehydes.  (IQS-28)




            A program to -better determine the chemical constituents  in



 the gas effluent which is responsible for odors must be conducted for those





 sources for which odor controls  are  to be  promulgated in order to allow




 the development of adequate test methodology.





            TASKS REQUIRED:  Determine the chemical constituents




            which are responsible  for  odors  from pulp and paper




            mills,  petroleum refineries, petrochemical plants,




            sewage sludge incinerators, and animal rendering




            plants.  (IQS-29)
Task Tit_Ui OevoVop Teata and Evaluate Appropriate Columna for
the Analysis of Anraonla and Amines from Effluent Gasca
to Determine the Specific Concentration of the Odorant**
Task
Hp... : IQS-27
H leu tones
w,

T4
>
3
WMM;
Research
Development
Field Teat
Evi tuition
Promulgation
Total a
A Data Capability
^ Interim Method AN
Fiscal Year
[frc 7^ 72 , 73
1 i 0
74

75
f

76

77

Funding Required (SlOOO'll
t
100
75
t j
1

1 J5
10
1 100 75
AS

' 1
:




\jy* 'SA
w$-
Tot a-1 si
1972
1977

100
75
1^
10
?ftn
nltially Required k Evaluated Method Available
allable
* 3 Industry Sources
Task
Title: Develop Teats and Evaluate Com-norc is t ly
Ava ilablu

Aldehydes*
Task
No. : 1QS-28

Milestones
w$-
a
u
>
-<
%/{$.
Research
Development
Field Test
., , ,
Promulgat ion
Totals
Fiscal Vear
n- 7<- 72 , 73 74 7b
1 i $'"
t'uci 72
1
73

74

75

16

77

Funding Required ($1000*.)
75
100



100 ! 1 '




!


'" i
1
I 75
100
A Date Capability Initially Required t
^ Interim Method Available
100
f



'&?%
Totals
1972
to
1977
275




275
Evaluated Mutltod Available

-------
                                   3-80
          3.2.2.10 Halogens




          Now source performance standards planned for promulgation




will include the control of emissions of various halogens from a variety




of installations.  Several examples follow:  (1) Control of fluoride




emissions from phosphate fertilizer and lime plants,  and also animal  feed




defluorination plants,  (2) Control of hydrogen chloride (HCl) from




hydrochloric acid plants,  (3) Control of chlorine gas (Cl9) from chlorine




and caustic plants.  In addition, it is probable that future performance




standards will include  the control of fluoride emissions from the iron




and steel industries and the control of chloride emissions from municipal




incinerators.




Manual Method of Analysis




          Manual methods for the analysis of halogens based on the




gravimetric determination  of the halogen as the silver halogen salts




are available.  Other techniques based on colorimetric measurement are




also available.  These  techniques must be tested and  evaluated to select




suitable methods for manual measurement of gaseous halogen emissions  from




stationary sources.




          TASKS REQUIRED:  Test and evaluate the manual analytical




          methods  for determining gaseous  fluorides.   (IQS-30)




          TASKS REQUIRED;  Test and evaluate the manual analytical




          methods  for determining gaseous  chlorides.   (IQS-31)
Task

Title: Teat an
for Det
Tsk No. : IQS-30

M1 leo
J
2
tones
%ffi$X$$$i
Research
Development
Field Test
Evaluation
Promulgation
Tot n IB
A Da
d Evaluate tjje .Manual Analytical
ertnlnlng Caseous Fluorides*
HeChoda
Fiscal Year
re 7^ 72 . 73
Uoi
74
4
75

76

77

Funding Required (SlQOO'sl
;
30
50 50
75
1 : '


j 1
: 1
25 
10 ' 5
! SO 135 1 30



;
$*&
Totals
1972
1977

30
100
100
15
245
tc Capability Initially Required A Evaluated Method Available
tcrim Method Available
Task

Task
Title: Teat
tor 0
No_.: IQS-31
. . .
H'.les
W/#
W//t>
1
U
tones
%$($3$/'fy.
Research
Development
Field Test
Evaluation
Promulgation
Totals
nd Evaluate the Manual Analytical Methods
eterminlng Gaaeoua Chlorides*
Fiscal fear
re 72 72 | 73
1 |^A
74
t
75

76

77

Funding Required ($IOOO's>
I
30
50
J : ;
1




50 i !
10 !
1 80 60

A Date Capability Initially Required A
^ Interim Method Available
j
Evali.

^5
Totals
1972
to
1977

30
50
50
10
IbO

  * 4 Industry Sources
                                            * 3 Industry Sources

-------
                                  3-81
Automated Methods of Analysis

          Colorimelr i.c analyzers currently exist for the measurement of

fluorine in the atmosphere.  These methods are based on the reduction

or change in coloration produced by fluorine complexes.  These techniques

have been automated for use as intermittent continuous analyzers for
measurement of fluorine emissions  (Leigh).  An evaluation of this  technique

and the fluoride specific ion electrode  (Corning, Orion) is required to

provide an acceptable  instrumental method for monitoring fluoride  emissions.

          TASKS REQUIRED;  Test and evaluate the available

          commercial instruments for automated measurement

          of fluorides.   (IQS-32)

          The determination of hydrogen  chloride can be conducted  by

measuring absorption in its ultraviolet  spectrum (DuPont).  Total  chlorides

(Cl~)can be determined by use of the chloride specific  ion  electrodes

(Corning, Orion).

          TASKS REQUIRED:  Test and evaluate the available

          commercial instruments for automated measurements

          of hydrogen  chloride and total chlorides.  (IQS-33)

          Methods for  the determination  of halides  in particulates are

included in IQA-13.
          3.2.2.11  Other Pollutants

          Current plans call for measurement of the ambient air quality

level of additional pollutants which have not yet been covered in  this
Tonl TUle: Teat <
Initr
Talk No.: IQS-32

H'le.loM,
^^///' .'//^/
m
5
2
te.rcl.

Promulgotion
Totals
A Dale Cap.iUl) it y
ft imcrln lU-ltioti A
nd Evtu*te the AvllKtc Commc
mentfl for Automated Measurement
rclal
of Fluorides*
Fiscal Year
n- 72 72 7T 1 74
I ^U 4
r'itn
-------
                                    3-82
section on  stationary source emission measurements.  These include  cadmium

and lead, the  non-metals:  phosphorous,  arsenic and selenium;  and the trace

metals:  copper,  zinc, boron, nickel,  tin,  lithmium, chromium,  vanadium

and manganese.  Cadmium and lead  are  special pollutants of particular

concern and are thus treated in separate tasks below (IQS-34,35).

Task  No.  IQS-16 provides for the  development and evaluation  of

instrumentation for on-stream measurement of particulate  composition from

stationary  sources of emission and along with Task No.  IQA-13 which

provides  the capability  for manual determination of particulate composition

from  collected particulate  samples should suffice  for measurements of

solid compounds of these pollutants which may be required.   As a minimum

techniques to manually measure source emission  levels  of  the gaseous com-

pounds of  these pollutants  will be necessary  to enable  the  determination

 of emission factors.

            TASK REQUIRED;  Develop manual methods  for  the  measurement

            at  source  emission levels of gaseous  compounds  of cadmium.

            (IQS-34)

            TASK REQUIRED:  Develop manual methods  for  the  measurement

            at  source  emission levels of gaseous  compounds  of lead.

           CIQS-35)
Taa
Taak




~~~ ~ Source Enlialon Level! of 'Gaaeou* Cdolpbunda of 	 ~'
Cadmium
No.: IQS-36

1 H-llaatonaa
m,
actlvitlaa
WfflS&i
(rch
.HvalopMtit
Field Ttat
Evluclon
ProaulgAtion
total*
ri>cl Tear
*M "
1
73

74

75
4
7f

77

Pundioi Haqulrad (SlOOO'a)


1 75



i

i i
50 I
1 30

I
5
75 | 105

i


p


m
Totala
1411
H77

^}
50
50
3
ISO
A Data Capability Initially Baqulrad 4> Evaluaiad Hathod Available
4} Int.rl. Mat hod Avallabla
                                          taat. tttlat  Davalop Hanual Mathoda (or tha Maaauraane at
                                                  Soyrca Enlaalori Lavala ofCaaeoul CMpoUtlda of UU ------
                                             Ho. i IQS-35
                                             Prou(*Cion
                                                       7^ 72  73   74  73  | 7   7
                                                           ' 30
                                                                TT
                                                                    nOOO'al
 1*71
I to
I 1*77

                                                            SO  I 103
                                            Data Capability Initially Kaqulrad A   Evaluated Mathod
                                            Intaila Mathod Jnallakta

-------
                                    3-83
            TASK. REQUIRED:  Develop manual methods for the measurement at




            source emission levels of gaseous compounds of arsenic,




            selenium and phosphorous.  (IQS-36)




            TASK REQUIRED:  Develop manual methods for the measurement




            at source emission levels of gaseous compounds of the




            trace metals.  (IQS-37)





          No task for development of automated instruments for




continuous measurement of these pollutants at source emission levels is




included in this plan.  The need for such tasks  should be considered




during the next revision of this working  document.



           3.2.2.12   Other  Tasks




           Current  emission standards  place  limitations on  the mass  of




 pollution that  is  emitted  from a  stationary  source, while  the manual




 and  instrumental measurement methods  provided for  in  this  plan generally




 provide  information  only on the volumetric concentration of pollutants.




 In order to relate this  information to mass  emission  rates  needed  to




 set  standards and to determine compliance with the standards data on the




 mass  flow velocity,  temperature and pressure in the emitting stack  is




 required.  Pressure  is relatively constant in the stack and its




 measurement poses no problem.  Temperature and flow velocity, on the




 other hand, are often non-uniform across the stack and require careful
Task Tit le; Devel

 -
Eotaa
Selen
t! 1QS-36

M< I IT. tones
ii^
n
ftl
2
'f.'i'i/fV/J-^
Keserrl,
Ik-vclopraent
Held Tet
Eviluaflon
frowulgation
Tolnlo
op Manual Hcthoda tor Heaiureoen
.on Le-vela oC Gaaeoue Compoundt
urn and Phoiphoroua
t ac Source
at &r*nlc.
Floral Year
re 72, 72
1
L 73

74

75
A
76

77

Funding Requited (51000's)
.


100


1
100
50

1
1
100
A Date Capability Inltlnlly Required i
Q Interim Method Available
150

r

SO '




1
50

m
Totals
1972
tu
1977

.200
100


300
k Evaluated Kctliod Available
Task Title: Devel
Sou re
Trace
Task Ho. i ns-T)

H1 Ic-stotiPS
WVf^JWtf.t'
Research
3 Development
"> Field Test
" Evalua^fk
"* Troraulgation
Totals
op Manual Methodf for the HeaaureoenE at
e Eoltaion Level* of G**eoua Compoondg of the
Hetala
Flecft. \e*>-
rt- 7* 72 , 73 74 75
1 1 ~n
76 77
fc
Flindlnit Required (SlOOO's)

| 100 1 200
I j SO
100 I
100 |
i
'
1 i 100 250
200 1
.&4
Tntal!)
1972
1977

60Q
ISO


550
A atc Capability Initially Required A Evaluited Method Available
4} Interim Method Available

-------
                                    3-84
measurement if meaningful mass emission rates are to be obtained.




Work is required to develop improved methods for determination of




temperature and velocity profiles across a stack.




          TASK REQUIRED;  Develop techniques for determining the




          temperature profile across a  stack.  (IQS-38)




          TASK REQUIRED;  Develop techniques for determining the




          flow velocity profile across  a  stack.   (IQS-39)




 3.3   Moving Source Emissions Measurements^




     3.3.1   Introduction




           Moving sources of air  pollution consist  of  discrete sources




 of air pollution that are recognized as  significant contributors  to  the




deterioration of local air quality particularly  in  urban  areas,  along




 interstate  freeways and in the vicinity  of airports.  In common with




 stationary  sources of pollution,  they  are discrete sources  but  they




 have their  own special characteristics which require  special  measurement




 tools  and techniques.   This section of the R&D  plan is concerned with




 three  areas of work necessary to  achieve  the capability  to  measure the emis-




 sions from moving sources;   (1)  measurement of emissions from motor vehicles;




 (2)  measurement of emissions  from aircraft;  and (3) measurement techniques




 to support  the fuel registration  program.
Task Title: Dvlop T'chnlquea fo
Temperature profile A
Task No- : jr^-m

Milestones
^W^yijr'ffl'$/ffij%
Accivlties

Be ie arch
Development
Field Test
Evaluation
promulgation
Totals
Determining t
TO a Stack
e

Fiscal Year
Pra 7^ 72 73
I
Funding
.
100



1 100
74
JL
75
4
76

77

Required (SlOOO's)
i

SO


!

'50
1 5
! 105



i '

W4
Totals
1972
to
1977

in
50
.50-
5
205
A Date Capability Initially Required ^ Evaluated Method Available
ft Interim Method Available
Task

Task
Title: Devel
rim
do.! IQS-39

Milestones
W/r"

V
>
3.
wmmf,
Research
Development
Field Teat
Evaluation
Promulgation
Totals
op Technlquea for Determining the
velocity Profile Across s Stack
Fiscal Year
Pre 72, 72

73

74
*
75
i

76

77

Funding Required (51000'a)
i
 7J
75



1 75
JL Date Capability Initially Req
$ Interim Method Available
r i

so
i 1


50 ;

75 SO


5
55
'*%$.
'&&
Totals
1972
1977

150
50
50
j
255
ulred a} Evaluated Method Available

-------
                                  3-85
      3 .').2  Motor Vehicle Emission Measurement
           3.3.2.1 Sampling Motor Vehicle Emissions
          The operating cycle  procedures which  have  been  developed .to
simulate road driving  patterns  of  necessity  involve   a  number of driving
modes; idling, accelerating,  cruising  and decelerating.   Each of these
modes involves different  concentrations  of air  pollutant   emissions.   For
example, the hydrocarbon emission will  range  between  300 ppm and  12,000 ppm
with a representative emission in the exhaust gas  of  some  800 ppm hydrocarbon
at idle conditions and 5000 ppm during  the deceleration mode.  The oxides
of nitrogen emissions will range between  5 and 4000 ppm  in the exhaust with
representative emissions being about 6  ppm in deceleration and  1500 ppm
during acceleration modes.  In addition to the wide variation  in  pollutant
emission concentration during the different driving modes  the exhaust
volume  ranges over a ratio of about 8.  This involves a gas exhaust
volume  range between 5 standard cubic  feet per  minute during idling and
deceleration modes to  as  much as 40 standard cubic  feet  per minute
during acceleration.  Exhaust gas temperature also varies between the
different  driving modes ranging between  150C during idling to as high
as 500C during  the acceleration cycle.

          In order to obtain a representative measurement  of the exhaust
emission during a complete test  procedure involving various combinations
of these driving  modes, several  different sampling procedures have been
utilized*

-------
                                   3-86
          The raw gas can be sampled directly and led to the measurement




device.  In sampling the raw gas exhaust, three different sampling strategies




can be considered.  The first involves collecting these total raw emissions




in a suitable container during the test cycle and analyzing an aliquot




of the total collected raw emissions.  This procedure while inherently




simple requires that a container of suitable size be provided to collect




the total raw emissions.  For the 23 minute time-trace operating cycle,




currently required by Federal procedures for certification testing, the




container required would be enormous.  In addition,  this sampling strategy




suffers from the disadvantage that the storage time  prior to analysis of




the gas tan result in marked chemical changes  in  gas  composition and the




 dilution of the exhaust gases normally occurring  in the atmosphere is




 absent.




         The second strategy which can be used while  sampling the raw




exhaust involves collecting only an aliquot of the raw emissions in the




bag during the test cycle and again analyzing a portion of it at the




end of the test.  This has the advantage of reducing the size of the




sample container necessary.  It, however, also retains the same dis-




advantages as collecting the total raw emissions in  that again the




storage time results in marked chemical changes in composition and the




dilution of the exhaust gases normally occurring in  the atmosphere is




absent.  This strategy requires  the use of  appropriate sensors to control




 the proportionating sampler to insure that  the  collected sample is




 representative of the mass emission rate  that  is  being emitted during




 the total driving cycle.

-------
                                    3-87
          TASK  REQUIRED:  Develop and iwahiaU-  a  simpHFie.l i-xhaiisf




          flow and/or carburetor air intake  sensor to  contro]  the proportional




          sampling rates for use with the raw exhaust  sampling system (IQM-1).




          The vehicle emissions could also be determined by using con-




tinuous on-line analysis of the raw exhaust with  integration  of the




analyzer output signals to obtain data on emissions during the test cycle.




The third approach would provide information  on  emissions as the driving cycle



changes and should be of prime usefulness in the  research and develop-




ment program to devise more effective control systems.  Again this




technique requires the development of appropriate sensors to  properly




weigh the analyzer output by taking account of  the exhaust flow rate and




temperature.





          The sampling procedure currently required by EPA regulations




for determining the emissions from motor vehicle  sources involves the




use of a constant mass "sampler  (CMS).  This procedure insures that the




total exhaust gas will have been representatively collected and auto-




matically provides for weighting of the exhaust volume by the dilution




with clear air.  CMS procedure also results  in  dilution of the exhaust




gas which more closely  represents what actually occurs in the atmosphere,




which of course is what  one is  trying  to determine by the total test




procedure.  The procedure which is  required  for constant mass sampling
TnoK Tlt.le: Develof

Carbutc
Sanpl lr
Task No.: IQM-1
^ 	 .! 	 ....
H< les tones
yjj&M
3
*
2
xJFffcffi: 
Rr.se* rc
Development
Field Test
tvalu-atVpA
1'ronulftat ion
Totals
and Evaluate a Simplified Exhaust Flow And/or
tor Air Intake Senior to Control the proportional
g Rates for Use With the Raw Exhaust Sampling System
Fir.ro) Year
Prc 1\ 72 , 73 j 74 75 76 77
1 *
Funding Required (^lOUO'n)
! 1  J
50 50 .1
! 50 !


1 50 100 ! |
?' ''
Totals
1972
1977

100
50


150
A Date Capability Initially Required^ Evaluated Metnod Available
ft Interim Hethod Available

-------
                                 3-88
is relatively complex.  It involves the use of positive air displacement




pumps that draw some 8 times the maximum exhaust flow rate of the auto-




mobile exhaust and a proportionating system to collect a small portion




of this exhaust in a container for later analysis.  The constant mass




sampling system appears adequate for certification testing and surveillance




testing of the gaseous air pollutants during the coming years.  The




CMS system does, however, result in a considerable dilution of the




exhaust gas sample, some 8-fold average dilution;and results in a much




reduced concentration of the air pollutant to be measured.  Although




not particularly a draw-back for measurements in the 72-74 model year




time period, this will pose some instrumental capability requirements




as the emission levels are continuously decreased in time for the 1976




emission standards.  The constant mass sampling system can also be con-




sidered for continuous on-line analysis using integration of the analyzer




output signal to obtain data on emissions during this test cycle.  The




use of the constant mass sampling system for potential future "on the




road" surveillance testing will require a size reduction of the constant



mass  sampling hardware.




         TASK REQUIRED:   Simplify and evaluate the constant mass sampling




         system for potential use on-the-road to  confirm the validity




         of the operating test  cycles  for measurements to determine




         compliance with the light  duty  vehicle emission standards (IQM-2).
Tank
Title: Simplify and Evaluate the Confta
Potential Use on-the-Rojd to Con
it Haaa Sampling Syatero for
firm the Validity of the
Compliance with the Light Duty Vehicle Eallon Standards
Task
No.: IQM-2

HUe-s tones
W^fi'^if*'
H
Resenrcli
Development
Field Teat

Promulgation
Totals
Fiscal Year
re 72, 72 \ 73 74
1 1
Funding Required

< 100
75 76 77
0
(SlOOO'sJ

100
! ! 50 ; 100

: 1
1 100
Allan- eligibility liilinlly Kvc|iurrJ f
^ Int. -rim flt'tlim) Av.i i 1 ;il> U-
150 100
^
Totals
1972
to
1977

200
15


350
Kvahmicd Mi- 1 hod Av:iil.iMi<

-------
                                 3-89
          Tho measurement  of pnrticulnlu totni nines  am I It ml I rum l.lf'ht




duty motor vehicles although not currently specified by legislation may




be required in support of standards subsequent to 1975 model year.   At this




time, it is still not known whether particulate emission standards  will be




necessary and if so whether they will involve only the total particulate mass




or whether a fine particulate standard will also be promulgated following




removal of lead from gasoline.  Measurement techniques must be made available




to enable determination of the need for particulate standards to be promul-




gated in mid-1975 for application to the 1977 model year vehicles,   the




current sampling procedure for certification testing^ involving constant




mass sampling with collection of an aliquot of the sample in a bag  for




subsequent analysis is not expected to be suitable for  collection of particu-




lates.




          TASK  REQUIRED:   Develop  and evaluate a sampling procedure for




          particulate  total  mass loading  consistent with the currently




          accepted  constant  mass sampling procedure  (1QM-3),




          Other vehicles  under  control which  are classified in  the  Federal




 Register  as  those  powered by heavy duty engines  and  dieselsj  These are




 mainly trucks  and  busses.  Off  the road vehicles such as farm  tractors,




 heavy earth  moving equipment,  and  stationary  generators> etc* may  employ




similar power  sources.  Fuels used in  these vehicles  may be either
la'iti
Title: tirvrlut
Total M
tonntur
Talk

No. t IQH-1

H1 If atones
$y
rl

"3> D
v '
/$&'. ffiSt
Research
Development
Field Tefct j
Bvlu4tUn ^
Pr omul gat ion
T(,iM
*nd evaluate a Simp ling pfocedu
a Loading C"nalstenl with Lhk
t Maefl SitDpllng Procedure
Fiscal Year
Pre 7^ 7^
1
pui

150
73
0
74
t
75

ding Required (S100

100
50


50
re for P. rtlcul.tr
Currently Accepted

76

7;

)'>




i
100 .
! 10
1 ISO
150
160

i
K:;
-------
                                      3-90
 gasoline or diesel fuels similar to those used  in automobiles.   However,




 their use and operating procedures  vary  and  thus  different  sampling procedures




 need to be developed.




          TASK. REQUIRED;  Develop and evaluate sampling procedures to




          obtain representative emissions from heavy duty gasoline




          powered  engines (IQM-4).



          TASK REQUIRED;  Develop and evaluate sampling procedures to




           obtain representative  emissions  from heavy duty diesel




           engines  (IQM-5) .






           The nation's program for reducing air pollution from moving




 sources  involves  development of advanced automotive power plants with




 low  emissions.  One  of  the  non-conventional power plants for potential




 early application to light  duty vehicles  is the  automotive gas turbine.  The




  turbine has exhaust flow characteristics considerably different  from those




  of the  1C engine.  New sampling procedures  to  determine  the  very low levels




  of pollutant concentration that result from the  large volume of air  that




  is entrained by the gas turbine are required.





            TASK  REQUIRED:  Develop  and evaluate sampling procedures to obtain




            representative emissions  from the auto gas  turbine  (IQM-6).





          Sampling procedures will  have to be promulgated for other  ad-




vanced automotive  power plants as they become available.  This requirement
Task

Task
Title: Develo
Re ores
Engine
No. : IQM-4

H< ten
*?/$)
Activities
tones
$$$$$'%.
Research
Development
Field Test
Evaluation
ProDu.lRation
Totals
and Evaluate Sampling procedures to Obtain
ntatlve Em it  ion t from Heavy Duty Gasoline powered

Fiscal Year
Prc 72. 72 , 73
*
74

Funding Required

75
75
75

76

77

CSlOOO's)
1
i
! i '

50 1
i i


; 10 ! 
75 135 i
A Date Capability Initially Required 4}
^ Interim Method Available
-;3v*.
Totals
1972
1977

75
75
SO
10
210
Evaluated Method Available
Task

Tank
Title: Develo
R*prea
Engine
No. : IQM-5

MUci
!|^>
a
V
>
H
3
tonea
W!*%F%M
Research
Development
Field Teat
Evaluation
Promulgation
Totals
p and Evaluate Sampling Procedures to Obtain
entatlve BaislonB from Heavy Duty Dieitl
Fiscal Year
Pr* 7^ 72 73

M
*
75

76

77

Funding Required (SlOOO'.l

75

'


75




: i
5J> i ' '
10 | . 
75
135 1


$*A
Totals
1972
to
1977

75
75
50
10
210
A naif Capability Initially Required A Evaluated Method Available
ty Interim Method Available

-------
                                     3-91
will exist whether  the vehicles  go  into  production or whether one is





interested only  in  pre-production testing of the emissions from these




power  plants.  Many of  these advanced automotive power plants will involve




external heating of a working fluid which will pose a different type of




emission sampling than  that currently encountered with the 1C engine.




This is a continuing program the results  of which will perhaps be  initially




required in the  1973 fiscal year.




          TASK REQUIRED;  Develop and evaluate the sampling procedures




          for externally  heated and other advanced automotive power  plants  (IQM-7)




          Additional air pollutants are being considered  for possible




motor  vehicle emission regulations.  These include the emission of




 asbestos  and  the emission of  rubber  materials during operation of the




 motor  vehicle.   Asbestos  is  emitted  from wear of brakes and clutch facings,



 etc.   Wear  of the automobile tires are a prime source of  rubber  particle




 emissions.   Since the emission of these  air pollutants will  be from




 portions  of  a vehicle from which measure:  nt of air  pollutants are not




 currently being made,  different sampling procedures will be  required.



          TASK REQUIRED:  Develop and evaluate  a sampling procedure for




           asbestos  particles  emitted during  operation of the motor vehicle




           (IQM-8) . *
lo.sk Tit IP: Develop and


Tusk No. : IQM-6


H1 looionca
W/y''''''^;//]!^
a
<

KeHearcU
Development
Field Test
Evaluation
Promulgation
Total*
Evaluate Stop ling Procedure


Flsrtl Year
r,. 7

11

73
ft
71 75
t
8 to obtain


7h

77

Funding R-(]i>(r'd <$1000'r.)



75
75



1 75
75
i

i

1 100




10 '
110
A Dole (apabillty Initially Required 4} Evalu
A Interim Method Available
t

?Jjg
totnls
1972
1977

.n
-U
100
10
260

'Ijv.k _TJ_i _ljp ; Develop and Evaluate the Sampling Procedures for Eiiternally
Heated nd Other Advanced Automotive power Plants
Tnsk No.: IOM-7

M' lert
s

,o,,o
/Jfffijfyf?'
Research
Development
Field Tes
EvtluaLio
Vromulgat on
Tot Is
Fi
re 72, 72 i 73
1 .
Funding Ke

100


sen) Year
74
IV
5 76 77
E:
quired (SlOOO's)
1
200
75

1
1 100
.275

100-100 '
00  50
75 100 75
IS ' 10
Z75 265 B5

Tolals
1972
1977

ion
225
250
25
1000
A Date Cipabll ty Initially Required f Evaluated Method Avallnl.le
^ Interim Meth H Avflllablu

-------
                                    3-92
          TASK REQUIRED:  Develop and evaluate  a  sampling procedure  for




          rubber particles emitted during operation  of  the motor  vdile l<:




          (IQM-9).




          If sampling of new motor vehicles produced by a manufacturer




Is conducted at the end of the line  to determine the conformance of vehicle




production with the certification standards one may require different




sampling procedures to be compatible with the  expected operating cycle




procedure which will be needed if more than a  small statistical  sample of




the vehicle production is inspected  at the end of the line.   Such sampling




procedures may be required in any case as technical support from the Federal




government for those states such as  California who are planning  inspection




of at least 25% of the new motor vehicles before they can be  sold in the




state.




          TASK REQUIRED:   Develop and evaluate  a simplified procedure for




          sampling at  the  end of  the  line compatible with the end of  the




          line operating test cycle (IQM-10).
Task
Tank
Title: Develop and Evaluate a Sampllni
Prtlcle Emitted During Oper.tt
No. : IQM-8
	
H'.lea
%/f/if//
Activities
tones
WittMtt,
Research
Development
Field Test
Evaluation
Promulgation
Totals
Prqcedure Cor
on ot th Hot
Aabeatoa
r Vehicle
Fiscal Year
"re 1\ 72

7.1
t
74
At
Funding Required
75

76

77

(SlOO.Tsi
1 ! '  '
100
50

75 !


1 100
A Dale Capability Initially Keq
^Interim Method Available


125
7!
10
85
ulrfcii A








EvBlu.
',&*
Totals
1972
1977

150
75
'?
10
310
ted Method Available
Task

Task
Title: Develo
Par tic
No. : IQM-9

Milestone
W$
Activities

Res arcli
l)ev lopment
Fie d Test
Eva uatloo
Promulgation
Totals
> and Evaluate a Sampling Procedure for Rubber
lea Emitted During Operation of the Motor Vehicle
Fiscal Year
Pre 72^ 72 73
1
74
*t
75
ft
76

77

Funding Required ($1000'a)
i
75



50
1
; ]
! -75
50





1 1
7<  1
10 i !
85 1
$&'&
Totals
1972
to
1977

75
50
75
10
210
A Date Capability Initially Required A Evaluated Method Available
{y Interim Method Available
Task

Task
Title: Develo
the End
Opera t
No. ; IQH- 10

Milestones
*&K$/j
Activities
Wm%m
Research
Development
Field Test
Evaluation
Promulgation
Totals
and Evaluate a Simplified Procedure for Sampling t
of the Line Compatible with the End of the- Line
ng Teat Cycle
Fiscal Year
Pre 72, 72 ( 73 j 74
1 l i t
75

76

77

Funding Required ($1000's)
i !
, 75 200 1

1
50 i 75 1 :
1100 '
' 10
! 125 200 JIBS




^O*
Totals
1972
to
1977

275
125
100
10
510
A Date Capability Initially Required A Evaluated Method Available
 Interim Method Available

-------
                                   3-93
           A  decision  to  inspect vehicles in general use will require




 Mint"  s .-imp I i UK  procedures  l>e developed  Tor use in tlie state inspection




 of  motor vehicles.  This  sampling could occur under a number of different



 operating  cycle procedures ranging from measurements made at idl^. with  the




 transmission  in neutral to measurements made under different drive mode




 conditions with the vehicle physically restrained and rotating against




 inertia wheels to simulate the load imposed by normal driving conditions.




 Likewise the routine  inspection of vehicles in general use could occur  by




 spot  checking  vehicles at the side of the road.




          TASK  REQUIRED:   Develop and evaluate sampling procedures  to support



          state inspection of motor vehicles  in general use where




           the  measurement is  made  according to the selected operating




          procedure at a fixed location with  inertia wheels or other



          appropriate devices to simulate road loading  conditions (IQM-11) .




          TASK  REQUIRED:  Develop and evaluate a sampling procedure  for use




          by the states in inspecting vehicles in general use where  the




          measurement is made as spot checks at  idle  conditions  (IOM-12)



          The introduction of  a program  to  determine  the compliance of




vehicles in general use with  the automotive standards  by means  of  a state




inspection program will require that action be  taken by  the owners  or




operators of those motor  vehicles which do  not  meet  the  standards.   This




will impose a requirement  for  adjustment of the vehicle  engine  control
Tank
Task
Develop and evaluate Sampling Procedures to Support State
ULU5: Inspection of Motor Vehicles In General Use Where the
Measurement Is Made According to the Selected Operating
Procedure at a Fixed Location With Inertia Wheel  or Other
No.: IQM-11

M'll'H
lonca
>%$*/ V' J^'-//'
2
Hi. search
lX-vi-l.'1-n.-ni
Hold If HI
Evaluation
Prnmulc,at ion
To 1,1 1 u
Fiscal Year
re 7^ 72 { n
\ i
funding K

7

75
i
76

77

<]lrcd (Sin(lI)'H)




200 '> !
100
1

1 200
100
i
ISO
20
170



^ Interim Method Available



'$&.
Totals
1972
to
1977

200
100
UO
20
470

Task

Task

Title: Develo
Staled
Measur
No.: iqn-12

M< lestones
MJ2i
M
-H
>
2
WWZML
Research
Development
Field Test
Sf luttJUin
nmulgatlon
Totala
p and Evaluate a Sampling procedure for Use by the
In Inspecting Vehlclea In General Use Where the
enent Is Made as Spot Checks at Idle Conditions
Fiscal Year
Pro 7^ 72 73
' 1
H

75
+

76

77

Funding Required (SlOOO's)
1
100



50
75
, ;




1
1 100
i
1 100
125

15
115

'&$.
Totals
1972
to
1977

150
75
100
15
MO
A Date Capability Initially Required A Evaluated Method Available
^ Interim Method Available

-------
                                     3-94
devices or systems by repair facilities  to  restore the vehicle to proper




emitting conditions.  Sampling procedures  will  have  to  be provided for the




routine service station adjustment of motor  vehicles.




          TASK REQUIRED:  Develop and evaluate simple sampling procedures




          for use by service stations and repair facilities to restore




          motor vehicles to proper emission standards (IQM-13).




           3.3.2.2  Gaseous  Pollutants




          The gaseous pollutants  emitted from mobile  sources which are




covered by emission standards  include hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and




oxides of nitrogen.  Additional  classes  of  pollutants which are under




examination for emission standards to be promulgated  possibly  later in the




decade include particulates, fine particulates,  reactive hydrocarbons,




oxygenates, polycyclic organic matter, and  odors.  Measurement  techniques  for




support of research studies  to define emissions  and set  emission standards




as well as for subsequent routine measurements  of  these  various pollutants




will be required to enable certification of motor  vehicle engines.






          Hydrocarbons




          The measurement  of hydrocarbons from mobile source emission




exhaust is currently made  by means of either  the non-dispersive




infrared analyzer  or the flame ionization detector.   The  non-




dispersive infrared  technique seems  to  be  more  prominent in  the  instruments




which have been developed for use with  inspection procedures  while the
T.i si.
LLLL 100
125
A Dale Capability Initially Required A
^ Interim Method Available
165


1972
to
1977

150
75
150
15
390
Evaluated Method AvallabU-

-------
                                   3-95
federal certification procedure  requires  the  use of flame ionizalion detection.
The flame ionization detector measures  the  total amount of carbon-hydrogen
bonds in the emitted gas effluent  and accordingly also measures methane.
The national ambient air quality standards, however,  define  the ambient air
quality from a measurement of total hydrocarbons less methane and it  is  desirable
 to  obtain comparable measurements  of automotive  emissions.  The automo-
 tive  manufacturers have requested  that  a similar  standard be issued for
 mobile  source emissions.  A continuous  analyzer  for measurements of
 automotive  exhaust which measures  hydrocarbon minus methane is required.
         TASK REQUIRED:  Develop  and evaluate  a  continuous  analyzer  for
         measurement  of  total hydrocarbon  less methane from automotive
         fwdiaust (IQM-14) 
         It  is expected  that mobile sources will utilize an increasing
 amount  of heavier distillate fuels in the years  to  come.   This will make
 it  necessary to perhaps include  a  specific emission standard on a heavy
 hydrocarbon from both turbine engines and from  automotive  engines utilizing
 heavy fuels.  At this time, no hydrocarbon detection  system is available
 for measurement of heavy hydrocarbons as  a class.
         TASK REQUIRED:  Develop an analytical  technique to enable
          research measurements  to  be made of heavy hydrocarbon
          emissions to determine  if a standard for heavy hydrocarbons
         is required  (IQM-15).
Taut
Taut
II' ICO
'%$$/,
0)
H
5
Title: Develop and Evaluate a Cor
of Total Hydrocarbon Leaa
S.t*. i JQM- 14
tones
W-$///'//fy,
Research
Development
Field Test
tlnuoui Anflyter for Heagurenent
Hechane from Automot Ive Exhauat
Fiscal Year
f" 7] " i 
1 1 ft
lit
i
75

76

77

Fundlntt Required (SlOOO'fl)
1
75 75
50

Promulgation
Totals

1 75 125



i :



7} !
10 !
95





aft Bate Capability Initially Required A Lval"
^ Interim Method Available
d.'J
Totls
1972
to
1977

150
50
75
10
285
ted Method Available
Task
Title: Develop ao Analytic
Measurements to be
Determine If a Stan
Task
Ho.; IQM-15

Milestones
X
V
-H
r4
>
^
5
WMm
Research
Development
Field Teat
Evaluation
t'romulgatlon
Totals
1 Technique to Enable Research
Hade of Heavy Hydrocarbon Eralatlona to
dard for Heavy Hydrocarbon* la Required
Fiscal Year
Pre 72, 72
|
73
*
74

75

76

77

Funding Required (SlOOU's)
,
75
75



i
c
50 | :


\
\ 75
125





1
A Date Capability Initially Required A Kvalu

w
Total:
1972
to
1977

ISO
50


200
iled Method Available

-------
                                        3-96
                      !l!2:   Develop  and  evaluate an  instrument  for measurement




           <>|  heavy  hydrocarbons  from mobile .-.ourrc exhaust  to enable routine




           measurement  of heavy hydrocarbons during certification and inspec-




           tion  procedures  (IQM-16).





           Carbon Monoxide




           Carbon monoxide  from moving  sources is currently measured using




a non-dispersive infrared  analyzer.  This instrument is acceptable for the




measurement currently  required under  the 1972 through 1974 emission standards,




However,  the  ten-fold  reduction  in carbon monoxide emission which is required




by  the Clean  Air Amendments  of 1970  for meeting  the  1975 emission standards




will  require  precision and sensitivity tor the carbon monoxide detector




which is  beyond  currently  available instruments.  The  current  carbon monoxide




content of the  gas  sample  with  the CMS sampling  procedure is about 1400 parts




per million while the  1975 reduction in carbon monoxide emissions will result




in  a  carbon monoxide content  of  about  140 paits  per  million if the constant





mass  sampling system remains  in  use.   The Environmental  Protection Agency has




under contract  the  development of  a fluorescent carbon monoxide sensor which




should provide  a higher degree of  sensitivity than the current non-dispersive




infrared  instrument.



          TASK REQUIRED:  Complete  development  and evaluate  an instrument




          for  carbon monoxide  with  improved sensitivity for  use with 1975+




          standards  (IQM-17).


Task
M '!<.<.
w
>
<



Heavy Hydrocarbons from Mobile Source Exhaust, to Ena
Routine Meaaurement of Heavy Hydrocarbons Durina
Certification and Inspection Procedures
Ho. . KJM-lfe
l ones
'$:v/J^
Research
Development
Field TeM
Evaluation .
Promulgation
Totals
fiscal Year
're 7^ 72 73
1 1 *
74
t
75


76

77

Fundlne Required (SlOOO'o)

75 75
i i :
! i
50 ' 
i i
50 !  (
1 10
1 75 125 I 60


f
)le
'/' ><
Totals
1972
1977

150
50
50
10
260
AVlate Capability Initially Required *V Evaluated Method Available
Task
Title: Complete Development end Evaluate an Inatrutnent for Carbon
Monoxide with Improved Sensitivity for Dae With 1975 +
Standards
Task
M< les

in
H
s
Co.'. KJH-17

tone.
wy^Mfy
Research
Development
Field Test

Promulgation
Totals
Fiscal Year
"re 72 72 73 74 75 76 77
1 ft ^
Funding Required ISlOOO's)
i
75 75 . . '
50 i 
50 !  !
! 10
1 75 125 j bO !
'@$i
Mti l>
197?
1977

150
50
50
10
2bO
A Date Capability Initially Required  Uvaluated ,Metliod Availjble
^} Interim Method Available

-------
                                   3-97
          Nitrogen Oxides




          Tlit: Federal  emissions standards requirr I: lie inr-a surencnl  ol.




nitrogen oxides for determining compliance with 1973 model year emission




standards.  Instruments that are currently available are based on the




use of the chemiluminescent reaction of nitric oxide with ozone and




measure only nitric oxide and not total nitrogen oxides.  These




instruments will probably have to be used for 1973 standards.




           EPA  has  a program with Monsanto Research  to develop a  total




 nitrogen  oxides  sensor based  on the  reaction  of  NOx with  oxygen  atoms.




 This  instrument  will  provide  a measurement capability to  directly measure the




 total oxides of  nitrogen as required by current  Federal emission standards.




           TASK REQUIRED:  Complete the test and  evaluation of routine




           monitors for total nitrogen oxide emissions (IQM-18).






            Other Pollutants
            It  is  possible  that  a national  ambient  air  quality standard will




  be established for polycyclic  organic  matter during the  planning period




  covered by this  report.   This  emphasises  the importance  of  determining




  mobile source emissions  of this pollutant.   A research analytical method




  to determine  polyorganic  matter in automotive exhaust is currently avail-




  able to enable information to  be obtained which could lead  to the setting




  of an emission standard.   A routine instrument for measurement of polycyclic
Tatty
Title; complete the Teat 
Total Nitrogen Oxld
Tnak
M'lf,
*&
Activities
No.-: IQM- 18

tones

Reae^rch
Development
Field Test
Evaluation
Promulgation
Tot Hi a
nd Evaluation of Rot
e BalMloni
Fiscal Year
Prc 72 72
1 
L n

74

75

tine H
ml,,,r. for

76

77

Funding Required (SIOOO'j)



SO
75
1 10
1



i




| ;
1
1 135


1
A Dote Capability Initially Required * Kval..
''?''
Totals
1972
to
1977


50
. , !?,.
10
135
ted Method Aval l.ittto

-------
                                    3-98
 organic matter as a class would have to be available by early 1974 for
 potential application to standards which might be promulgated for 1977 or
 later model year vehicles.
          TASK REQUIRED;   Develop an instrument for routine
          monitoring of polycyclic organic matter  from automobile  exhaust
          (IQM-19).
          Another pollutant class being considered  for  emission standards
from mobile source exhaust is reactive hydrocarbons.  This is a sub-class
of total hydrocarbons which are primarily responsible for eye irritation
and smog formation from auto exhaust.  The initial  requirement in this
reactive hydrocarbon standard setting is to define  the  composition of  the
gaseous pollutants from automobile exhaust which are reactive and  to
define what we mean by reactivity.
          TASK REQUIRED:  Develop laboratory analytical methods  for
          determining reactive hydrocarbons present in automotive  emissions
           in support  of a  program to  define what we mean by reactivity (IQM-20)

           TASK REQUIRED:   Develop the instrumental capability  for
           routine measurement of the reactive components of  auto  exhaust
           consistent with the definition of reactivity (IQM-21).*
           Additional reactive species  from auto  exhaust  include  the
 oxygenates, a class of compounds which contain reactive carbon
Task

Task
Title: oevelo
of Pol
No.: IQM-19
	
Milestones


V
t4
>
s

Wimm,
Research
Uevelopaent
Field Test

Promulgation
Totala
i> an instrument for Routine Monitoring
Acyclic Organic Hatter from Automobile Exhaust
Fiscal Year
Pre 7^ 72 73
1
 74
ft
75
*
76

77

Funding Required (SlOOO'd) 
i
100
i
100 .
50


1 ' 100



up
10
150 |UO




i


m
Totals
1972
1977

200
50
iqo
10
360
A Date Capability Initially Required A Evaluated Method Available
^ Interim Method Available
Task

Tajfc
Hf.lea
te
Activities
Title: Develo
Recce L
Supper
Ho.; IQM-20
tones
v/&/if/M7//
ft/fats.' .-> /.///t -;,
Research
Development
Field Test
Bvlucipn
Pron.ulf.ai Ion
Tot n IB
p Laboratory Analytical Method* for Deternlnlng
< Hydrocarbon* Pretent la Automotive Emissions In
t of g Program to Define What We Mean by Reactivity
Fiscal Year
Pr'e 1\ 72
! *
73
A
74

Funding Required
75

76

77

(Siooo'e)
1 : : .;
loo
200
50
i < ;
J5


' 100
A Date Ca.v.i ility Initially Req
^Interim .: ,od Available
250 1 75
uirctl A








'"'%&
;:'?&
Totals
1972
1977

300
.125


42 i


-------
                                    3-99
oxygen bonds.  A research capability to measure aldehydes and other




oxygenates from mobile sources is needed in the first quarter of




calendar year 1972 and a capability to routinely measure these pollutants




by June 1974.  This class of pollutants, like reactive hydrocarbons,




requires first a definition of the composition of gaseous pollutants emitted




from the automobile to enable the definition of which oxygenated species



must be measured.  Once the species have been identified, programs to




develop methods for research analysis and eventually instruments for




routine measurement can proceed.



          TASK  REQUIRED:   Develop  laboratory  analytical  methods  for




          determining oxygenates  from  auto  exhaust  to provide  data




          leading  to  potential  standards  for  oxygenates  (IQM-22).




          TASK  REQUIRED:   Develop  an instrumental  routine method




           for measuring  of oxygenates  which could  be used to make




           certification  and inspection tests  in support  of  a standard




           for oxygenates  (IQM-23).
l'i!H_.'!lU: Dlop the Instrumental Capability tor
ment o( the Reactive Components ul Auto
with tho Definition of RractlvHy
lasl. Nn. : 1QH-Z1
f
MM os
a
I..!.*.
*. / /// '
Resejirrl.
Development
Field LP-.I
Evaluation
I'rortmlgat ion
TotnJs
Routine Meaaure-
Exhauat Consistent
Fiir.il Yfflr
'- ?4 I* 73 ! 71
i 4^
7'>
f
Funding KL-qntrod ($JO(
1 !
76

77

s)


75 I 100 200
 50 ! 50 : <
1 I

1 75 1150
100

15 '
250 115


to
1977

375
1110
ipp
15
590
A Halt' <:.ip,tMlitv lniti;i ly KoqulrcJ A Evaluate*. Method Available
ft Inlcrin M-Mlioit Available
-- - - -   -"  	 	 	 	 	 !
H'^A'.'.L"1 Q^^^''"1"^'""^

Tnik ,..: |QM-2i

I'.1 l.'-H.UH'j
'^'/^ '$ ?/'
Rc'ie.irdi
" Ucvi-lopmi'tit
"> Field Tiv.l
jj Evaluation
** FrnnillR.tl.OII
lot 

100


77


: I
!
50 : : ' :

!
! 100
50

A O.itO C.i|.l>tltty Inlli.illy h.-q.n r< J A
^ Interim tic- th.nl Av.-ii |.il
77




75 j : !
t

1 50 100 i ;>
A D.itc Cjp.ih 1 )i(y In it 1.1 11 y Hfquiii 0 A
ft Interim i'lcili.-d Av.-iihii.lt-
too
10




110
I.VjJdfl
ted Me
r^;-;j

197.1
to
1977

150
75
100


toil Available

-------
                                  3-100
          Odors are a particularly obnoxious  emission  from  the diesel




and the gas turbine.  The Federal Mobile  Source  Program  has  as a goal




the issuance of standards on odors from these two moving sources by




mid-1975.   Research techniques  for quantitatively  determining odor




must be available for laboratory use by March 1973  to  permit the obtain-




ment of information required for setting  odor standards  and  routine




instrumental techniques for monitoring odor should  be  available by June




of 1974 to support certification of vehicles  with respect to the odor




standards.





           Obtaining a  capability to measure  odors  quantitatively either




from the  laboratory or  routinely requires  that  we  first characterize




the chemical constituents  responsible for  odors from the diesel and




from the gas turbine.




           Task Required;   Chemically characterize  the constituents




           responsible  for  odors from diesels and gas  turbines to




           define  chemical  constituents which can be selected




           as the basis for a quantitative measure of odorant. (IQM-24)




           TASK REQUIRED:  Develop analytical  techniques  for the




           measurement of odors from moving sources  (IQM-25).
Task Title: Chemica

Odors f
Con* tit
Quant it
Task No.: IQM-24

Milestones
^^^^^^^
Activities

Research
Development
Field Test

Ptomul gat loli
Totals
Liy Characterise the Constituents Responsible for
rom Dtes>ls and Gas Turbines to Define Chemical
uents Which Can be Selected s the Baals for a
atlve Measure of Odor
Fiscal Year
re 72 72
1
73

74

75

76

77

Funding Required ($1000's)
' 10P_

100



!
1 100
100




100 1 100




1 I





[%>%%
Totals
1972
1977
300




300
fDate Capability Initially Required a} Evaluated Method Available
Interim Method Available
Tnsk

Task
Title: Develo
from M<
"o. : IQM-25
--
Miles
W/l
Activities
tones
//$ .ffl '';
Research
Development
Field Test.

Promulgation
Totals
'
Analytical Techniques fo
vlng Sources
r the Measurement of Odor*
Fiscal Year
re 72 72 73 ' 74 [ 75
! i A*
Funding Required
1
100 75 '
100 

Mm


76




77






|
* ! 100 175 ;
te Capability Initially Required ^

Evalu

To till:.
1972
1977

175
100


275
dted Metiiod Available

-------
                                 3-iOl
          TASK  REQUIRED;   Develop  routine  instrumental techniques for
          tlic measurement  of odors  from moving sources (IQM-26).
           3.3.2.3.   Pa^rticulate Pollutants
          The specifics of a particulate standard for automobile exhaust
 emissions or  for  that matter whether a particulate standard ever will be
 issued  is not known  at this time.   The Mobile Source Program planning
 assumption  is that if a fine particulate standard is needed, it will
 be  promulgated  for 1977 model year  vehicles.  Techniques are currently
 available  for the research determination  of both total particulate

 and fine particulate  from automobile emissions using the methods similar
to those described under particulatesin  the  stationary source measurement
area.  Some of  these techniques  must be  more carefully evaluated to
determine their suitability for  making measurements from automobile
exhaust.
          TASK  REQUIRED:   Evaluate  the available methods for the
          research determination of both total particulate mass loading
          and the quantity of fine  particulates from mobile source
          vehicular  exhaust (IQM-27).
          A routine  capability to  measure  particulates should be made
 available by January 1974.  Presently, no  routine techniques exist either
 for total  particulate  loading or for routine  measurement of fine particulates.
'lank TUlc: Develop Routine Inatiufflental Technique* for the Meaiuiement
of Odor* from Moving source*
Task .'Jo. : IQM-26

H'lCOtOHC'l
7^-7//./, /''/ x^'-'
* HrtK'.ireh
 Development
 Kit- 1(1 1 it
;'. Evaluation
** ITowulR l ion
1 mis
Fiscal Year
Prc- 72, 72 73 74
! i fl
Funding Requtrec
75 70 77
A *
(?IOU0^S)
1
\T> 1 200
50

100


175 , 2>>0
A "ale 1-lp.ib li'ty InlllJlly Koqulred /^
100

Totals
1972
to
1977

Hi
150


525

Ta-.W
Vllle: Evaluate the Available Methods for the
tlon of Both Total Pcf.lcuUt Haaa Lo*
QOanflty "o7 FLne'faVtlculatea froo tobl
Exhauit
Task
Mo.: IQM-27

M'lca


tone,
??$- ///*',
Research
Development
Field Test
Evaluation
Promulgation
To la la
Reaearch Determina-
ting and the
le Source Vehicular
Fiscal Year
To 74 72 , 73
frl t^
74

75

76

77

Funding Requited ($1001* B!


I
75 I0p

i


1

'75 100 :



r :;
Totals
1972
1977


175


175
A ate Capability Initially Required  Evaluated Method Available
ft ntcrim Method Available

-------
                                3-102
 Before  developing instrumental capabilities for these measurements, the

 particulate emissions from the automobile must be characterized to
                                                                     /
 determine the size distribution and particulate composition.       /

           Task Rcquircd:   Characterize the particulate emissions

           from motor vehicle exhaust  in support of potential

           standards  for total and fine particulate mass loading as  well

           as  to  provide information for design of routine instrumental

           monitors  for these vehicular exhaust pollutants (IQM-28).

           TASK REQUIRED:  Develop a routine instrumental capability

           to  measure  total particulate mass loading and the  quantity

           of  fine particulates in anticipation of a possible particulate

           mass loading standard (IQM-29) .

          One of the objectionable particulate emission  characteristics

from motor vehicle exhausts is smoke.  Emission of  smoke  is especially

severe from the exhaust from diesel engines and from some gas  turbines.

Smoke meters  for determining the smoke level  from  diesel  exhaust based

on the USPH smoke meter are available.  Other smoke meters  are also

commercially available for this measurement.  A-^evaluation  of  the

commercial available smoke meters is required to determine  acceptable

instruments for use  in certification and  inspection programs on

 smoke emissions  from motor vehicles.
Task

'Ulr: Exhauat
Fine pa
Inform*
Task No. : IQM-28

M.
0"
rn.u.s
WMlf;
Hescarch

i'ield Test
Evaluation
I'romulyalimi
Totals
In Support of potential Standards fur Total and
rticulate ttasa trading aa Well as to provide
Fiscal Ye.ir
r 12, 72 75 \ Ik 75 76 77
i i i
funding Required ($1000'.-?) 	  	
100 1 100 100
1 !
i


1 100 : 100 ; 100

Tnt.lls
1972
In
1977
300




300
te Capability nitially Hequired ^ iiv.iluated Method Avaiiaiuc
terim Hetliod Available
Ti-k


Paniculate Mass Loading and the Quantity of Fine
^articulate* in Anticipation of a Poaalble Particular
Maoa Loading Standard
Tusk Sci. : IQM-29

M'lpi
$''
1 ,,.
'^~?''~
DuveloiwnL
Field Test
Evaluation
I'rnnulKJilimi
Titls

IT n 7'2 ; 73 ] 74 ?S 76 77
j frj ^f
	 i-^j<^-U^^_.r __
100 100 '
50 : i
75 '
10 '
100 150 85
to Cipul)i Illy Initinily K.M|U i rt-j A l.v;ilij;iu-d Mi-tiu..t ,w
tcrin: llutliod Av.il ];il>U-
i'll.ll.s
lilt
J9/7
200
50
7*1
to
-^5-

-------
          TASK. REQUIRED:   Complice  the  ev.-Uu;-iM on  of  smoke  mclors  for

         both diesel and gas  turbine exhausts  to  determine their  accept-


          ability for routine  use  in measuring  smoke  from motor


          vehicle exhaust (IQM-30) .



          J3.3.3  Aircraft Emission Measurements
                       *

          The initial aircraft standards were to be proposed by October 27,  1971,


The exhaust emissions from piston  aircraft are  expected to  be similnr


enough to those encountered with motor  vehicle   1C engines  to enable


the use of the same sampling procedures with minor modifications.   The


jet engine will require development of  sampling procedures  both  for


gaseous and particulate pollutants.


          TASK REQUIRED:  Develop  and evaluate  sampling procedures for


          jet engine exhaust gaseous pollutants (IQM-31).


          TASK REQUIRED:  Develop  and evaluate  sampling procedures to


          obtain representative emissions for jet engine particulate


          pollutants (IQM-32).*


          Once acceptable sampling procedures have been developed,


it  is expected that pollutant sensors developed for motor vehicle


emission measurements will be  satisfactory for  measuring aircraft  emissions.


TllHk
Caa Tur
Routine
1o. i IQM-30

M* IciHoni; .
riW
Activities
' '"' ''//' '
Re .i>arch
Development
eld Test
valuation
roculgailon
Tot nib
o the Evaluation of Smoke Metera for Both Dleiel and
bine Exhauata to Determine Their Acceptability for
Uao In Meaauring Smoke from Motor Vheicle Exhauit
Flsc.ll Yeur
re 7^ 72 ( /J
^1 *
71

75

/o

n

Funding Required ($1000' O


50
75
10
I SO 85
A dt Capability Initially Requited t
ft Int rim Method Available












I
! 	 .-, _-.

i






f ;*
Tot;iU
I9/2
to
1977


50
7^
10
U5









Exhaust Caspous Pollutants
!!!-
H'lti,
wp
 /
iUnelrcli
Oevelopmi-nt
Field 'If-si
Evaluation
I'romulgation
Totals


et Engine
fiscal leat
Ti' // 11
\
Kun

100
7J | 74

-------
                                     3-104
          3.3.4  Measurement  Procedures  to  Support  HPA  Programs
                 to  Register  and  Regulate Fuels  and Fuel Additives

          Analytical techniques and instrumentation  are  required  to

determine both the  nature and amount of emissions resulting from  the

use of fuels and fuel additives.  Official techniques will be required

for analysis of those additives which are regulated to facilitate deter-

mination of compliance with the regulations.  These emissions are

expected to consist of low concentrations of materials which were con-

sidered as air pollutants or trace metals in the ambient air quality

monitoring and stationary source emission measurement areas.  The

measurement techniques developed in these two areas and techniques supplied

by manufacturers during registration will provide the foundation for

measurements required in support of the fuels and fuel additive regis-

tration program. An evaluation of these techniques  is required to

determine if they are acceptable for measurement of the  nature and

amount of emissions resulting from the use of fuels  and  fuel additives,

and the development of detailed procedures for conducting the measurements.

Present plans call  for registration of motor vehicle gasoline, fuels and

fuel additives, aviation fuels and fuel additives, diesel fuels and  fuel

additives, heating  fuels and fuel additives, LPG fuels and fuel additives

and lubricants and  their additives.

          TASK REQUIRED:  Evaluate measurement techniques developed

          for air pollutants and trace metals to determine if they are
T.ick Title: Develop and Evaluate Sampling Procedures to Obtain
Representative Emissions f
pollutants
Task
M'lea
"ST^T
0"
No^: 1QM-32

tones
$?//>//''!.
Resear .
Uevelo ment
Field rut
Evalua log
I'routul at ion
olal
or Jet
Engine
Panic
ulate
Fiscal Year
re 72, 7'2 73

74
ft
75

76

77

FiiiidlnE Required (SlOOO's)

200






75





I 200
75
ir C.ip. i\lty luivinlly Wt-qulrutl ^
.rlin rlrllmcl Av.lihll. c-

twalw

HBii .He

y"::/S
Tntals
1972
1977

200
75 .


275
hod ,wathU:U'

-------
                                            3-105
             acceptable for measurements  to support  the  fuels  and  fuel

             additives registration  program;  and promulgate official

             measurement  techniques  for analysis in  fuel  of additives

             to  be regulated.   (IQM-33).

             TASK REQUIRED:  Develop the  procedures  required  to determine

             the nature of and  the amount of  emissions resulting from  the

             use of  fuels  and fuel additives  to support  the fuels  and  fuel

             additive registration program.   (IQM-34)
        Evaluate Measurement Technique* De
Tan* mv>v.  poHutanto and Trace Metalt to Det
Acceptable for Measurement* to Support the Fuel
ReR.et.rat,on Program and Promulgate Official He
for Analviln in Fuel of Additivea to be Reau.at
Teak Ni>. : IQM-13
                             eloped for Air
                             rmlne If They are
                              and Fuel Additives
                             lurement Techniques
                      rural v.sr
                       i_
    Promulgation
I
  Date Capability Initially' Required
  tntetln Method Available  	
                            (SIUOO'iil
                            Evaluated Hetl
Ta*V. Title: Develop
of and
Fuela a
AddUlv
Taik No.: 1QM-34

HUBton*a
M
Activities

Research
Development
Field Teat
Bva,lu4tlfin
Promulgation
total*
the Procedures RL>q
the Amount of Etnisn
nd Fuel Addttlvpn t
c RvRlatratlon Prog
liret) to DiitfrmltH' the Nature
lonl Keaulting from the llae ol
> Support the Fuel a and Fuel
Flacal Year
frre 7.> 72 | 73
1 It-."
74

7S 76 77

Fundlnt Required (SIOOO's)
' 1
120 100
75
200
! 150
1


]

200 ' 700 i ?nn.
ISO ' 150 150
,
'

$#
Totals
1972
to
1977

lojfl
675



A Date Capability Initially Required A Evaluated Method Available
^ Interim Method Available

-------
                                    3-106
                  4.  TECHNIQUES TO SUPPORT EPA PROGRAMS
               TO MAINTAIN ADEQUATE MEASUREMENT. CAPABILITIES
          This section of the report describes the tasks required to

develop the procedures and techniques required to support a continuing

EPA program to maintain an adequate measurement capability in support

of -the Nation's air pollution control program.  These tasks support a

program to determine the equivalency of new measurement techniques and

support the quality control program.

      4.1   Equivalency Testing

          The Environmental Protection Agency has through promulgations

defined both the type of measurement and in some cases the number of

measurements required to comply with various air pollution control

standards.  An extension of these measurement requirements to the additional

 pollutants and sources  for which standards  are planned will  result  in a

 considerable market  for  air pollution measurement equipment.  While  the

 market for ambient air quality monitors  is  perhaps not  large enough.to

 support research and development expenditures  by  private  industry,  the

 market for stationary source  emission measurement and  parts  of  the  market

 for  the moving source emission measurement  should lead  to considerable

 industrial R&D expenditures.* The  instrumentation industry, based  on

 contacts  they  have made  with  EPA, appears very interested in serving this

 market.   New and improved  measurement techniques  can be expected  as  the

 instrumentation industry competes for the market.  EPA  intends  to encourage

 this  interest  on the part  of  the instrumentation  industry, as it  re-

 presents  the potential for improved and  perhaps  lower  cost measurement




 *See  Appendix  B

-------
                                   3-107
techniques without the need for continued EPA funding for development




of improved instrumentation.  New instrumentation does, however, pose





a problem for EPA.





          In order to insure the timely availability of measurement




techniques for the air pollution control program, EPA will have to




conduct field test and user evaluations of currently available measurement




instrumentation prior to the effective date of standards.  The necessary




tasks to conduct these tests and evaluations were discussed in Section 2.




It is not likely that the instrumentation industry will make significant




private  commitments  to develop new instruments until the market for




these instruments exists, and the market will follow the issuance of the




standards.  In order to get these new instruments into widespread use




in the air pollution control program they will have to be certified




by EPA as equivalent to the measurement techniques originally proposed




at the time the standards were promulgated.  Certification of new




instruments by recycling them through the EPA field testing,user evaluation,




and promulgation activities would be a very costly and never ending




process.  An alternate procedure for certifying these instruments as




acceptable measurement techniques must be developed.  Procedures which




can be considered for this purpose include:  (1) requiring the manufacturer




to conduct the field test and user evaluations of the instrument according




to EPA specifications; and  (2) developing a set of criteria for instrument




performance similar to those used in "military specifications".




          EPA has initiated this program in a contract to the State




of California to provide "Performance Evaluation Procedures for Continuous




Atmospheric Analysers".  The information generated will allow the preparation

-------
                                  3-108
of a manual of methods for continuous air analysers related Co performance




rather than specific commercial instruments.




          This plan provides for the continued development and




evaluation of the procedures required to conduct equivalency




determinations.  The plan does not provide the funding or manpower




required to run the equivalency determination program.




          TASK REQUIRED;   Develop and evaluate procedures for




          determining the equivalency of new measurement techniques.




          (MP-1)




4.2  Quality Control




          Two of the elements included in the portion of the quality




control program within the scope of this plan are:   (1)  standard gas




mixtures for routinely calibrating measurement methods in general use;




and (2)  the periodic evaluation of the performance level of the user




of these methods.



           The capability to routinely calibrate measurement methods




 which are in general use requires the availability of calibrated  gas




 mixtures.  It is difficult  to obtain a gas  mixture of known composition




 suitable for use in the  air pollution control  program because of  the




 low level and at times reactivity of the air pollutant  being measured.  This




 is particularly true in  the ambient air quality level monitoring  program




 where pollutant concentrations are often in the ten parts  per billion
Tusk

Task
Title: Develop and Evalu

Jo.: MR-!

Milestones
m
Activities
'$.'$?/$&.
Research
Development
Field Test
Evaluation
Erooulgat ion
Totals
ate Procedures for DotemLn


Ine

Fiscal YPJM-
re 72 72
1
73

74
t
75 | 76


77

Funding Required C$lO()0's)

50
150


i 75

i !
' 15
1 50
A Date Capability Initially Keq
^ Interim Method Available
150
90

i
ulred A  Evalu

> 7
To, a Is
1972
1977

2QO
75

15
290
iteu Mctltod Available

-------
                                    3-109
range.  Recognizing  this  problem,  EPA has  initiated a program  to develop




,-icceptnhlc standard  gases  for  use  in measurement  I I'diniquc-.s  calibration.




An EPA  in-house program has  already led  to a practical  approach for obtaining




the  low levels of S0_ needed  to  calibrate  ambient  quality  level measurement




methods for  this air pollutant.  This approach based on the  permeation




of liquid sulfur dioxide  through a permeable membrane has  been available



from the National Bureau of Standards since October 1970 as a Standard




Reference Material for SO  .  The feasibility of using N0~ permeation




tubes and the development and  certification of a stable reproducible




ozone source is underway at NBS.   The development of similar Standard




materials to routinely calibrate the measurement methods for all




pollutants subject to standards must be pursued.  The task to accomplish




this end must include a significant research activity to demonstrate




feasible approaches.




          TASK REQUIRED:   Develop  and evaluate standard materials  to




          enable the routine calibration of measurement methods in




          general use-   (MP-2)




          The evaluation of user performance level requires the establishment




of test procedures and the development of test samples.   Unknown test




samples, representative of the pollutant atmosphere to be measured,




would be periodically sent to participating laboratories and operators




for analysis at their location.  The results of the analysis would, be
Task

Tusk
Tlllc; Develop
Routine
No. : MP-2

M'les

M
rones
yjfyfi$/P'.
Research
Ucvclopmc t
Field Tea
Ev.ilu.Uto
Fromulgat on
Tot la
and Evaluate Stand
Cal Ibratlon of Mea
ard Ha
aurene
erUVa to EnA
t Ht-thoda in
hie the
General Uae
Fiscal Year
Prc 7^ 72 73
1 i t-
74
-
Funding Require'
75 100
100 200
50
50
5
Il75 405
100
200
50
59
5
405
' 75

76

77

($10UQ's)

150
50
50
5
255
A D-ite Ciipabli ty Initially Required A twalud
^ Interim tlelhod AvaiUblu

100
50
50
5
205
led Me

loo
25
2^
5
155

Totals
1972
1977
275
S50
225
n\
25
1600
hud Available

-------
                                    3-LIO
reviewed by EPA to determine the competance of individual users to make
valid measurements.  This evaluation procedure is similar to that employed
by some state agencies to certify laboratories for making water quality
level measurements.  It is expected that this program will be the corner-
stone for a nation-wide air pollution measurement certification program.
This plan provides for development and evaluation of the necessary test
procedures and test samples required to establish the user performance
level evaluation program.  The plan does not provide for the funding or
manpower to conduct the user evaluation program.
          TASK REQUIRED:   Develop and  evaluate the procedures and test
          samples  for  a program to periodically evaluate the performance
          level of users of measurement techniques .  (MP-3)

for a Program to Periodic
Level of Users of Measure
Task No. : MP-3

H'lesioneg
W$$l$$$3%&,
Research
 Development
"> Field Test
" Evaluation
" I'romulgat ion
Totals


ally Evaluate-
ment Tcchnlqu
d Test Ssmptes
the Performance
es
Fiscal Ye;ir
re 72 72 , 73
1 tf
Fnndlne R

75 150
50
74
*
quired

75

76

77

(51000's)



j !
t :
i 100 ! i
i ! 15
| 75 200
115
A Date Capability Initially Required A
4} Interim Method Available



j
^VX'.''
Totals
1972
1977

225
50
100
15
390
Evaluated Method Available

-------
                                   3-111
                          .
                             KliSOUKCKS
          This section of the report covers the resources required




to implement the RDT&E plan.




          The task statements presented in Part 3 of the report give




the first glimpse into the magnitude of the funding that is required




to carry out the measurement technique development program.  In this




section, the funding data from these task sheets will be consolidated




and summarized by application areas, activities, pollutants and the




fiscal year in  which the funding is required.




          In the scope of the plan Part 1, Section 3, we have indicated




that the funding level shown on the task sheets is only sufficient




to carry out a single approach to achieve the measurement capability




required, and is not sufficient to repeat the development, field test,




user evaluation and promulgation activities if the measurement method




is found to be unacceptable.  In this section the necessary funding to




provide for replacement or improvements of measurement methods as re-




quired  to assure the availability of adequate measurement techniques




will be considered.




          So far the plan has only considered the measurement needs




that are either currently required or which can be projected to be




required based on current legislation.  The funding required to improve




measurement techniques in anticipation of the needs posed by future




legislation will be considered.




          The resources required to implement the plan include EPA




manpower in addition to funding availability.  The probable manpower




requirements will be discussed.

-------
                                   3-112
5.1  Consolidation of Funding
     Requirements on TASK Statements

          The funding requirement shown on the Task Statements totals over

$50 Million over the period fiscal year 1972-1977,  with a peak funding

requirement of $17  Million in fiscal year 1973.

          5.1.1  Funding by Application Areas

          A breakout of the funding by application areas is shown in

Table 3.1 and is summarized below for the three major application areas.

                                                      Funding Requirement
                                                         FY 1972-1977
	Application Area       	   Millions of Dollars

  Support of EPA Research & Investigation Programs          7.04

  Identification & Quantification of Pollutants            41.00

  Support of EPA Maintenance Programs	2.29	

                                                            50.33

          5.1.2  Funding by Activities

           The funding  requirement  by  activities and  application  areas is

 given in Table  3.2.  A summary  of  the funding by activities for  the

 period covered  by  this plan  is  given  below.

                                            Funding  Requirement
                                               FY  1972-1977
          	Activity	                Millions of Dollars

              Research                              3.725

              Development                          22.165

              Field Test                           12.650

              Evaluation    ,                     10.470

              Promulgation                   	1.365	

                                                  50.375

-------
                                                                     TABLE 3.1
                                                SUMMARY OF FUNDING REQUIRED BY APPLICATION AREAS*
Support of EPA Research's. Investigation Programs
  Health & Welfare Effects
  Remote Sensing Programs
  Meteorological Measurements

Identification & Quantification of Pollutants
  Ambient Air Quality Monitoring
  Stationary Source Emission Measurements
  Moving Source Emission Measurement

Support cf EPA Programs to Maintain Adequate
Measurement Capabilities	
  Equivalency Determination Program
  Quality Control Program
Fiscal Year
1971



1.86
1.90
1.28(a)
5.04(b)


5.04
1972
0.225
0.575
0.56
1.36
1.71
2.44
2.16
6.31
0.05
0.25
0.30
7.97
1973
0.750
1.125
0.53
2.405
4.70
4.60
4.33
13.63
0.15
0.60
0.75
16-785
1974
0.575
1.05
0.20
1.825
4 .62
3.86
3.26
11.74
0.09
0.52
0.61
14.175
1975
0.31
0.69
0.15
1.15
2.60
1.74
2.15
6.49
..
0.26
0.26
7.90
1976
0.06
0.24
-.
0.30
0.62
0.82
0.83
2.27
..
0.21
0.21
2.78
1977
--

.-
~~
0.01
0.12
0.43
0.56
..
0.16
0.16
0.72
Totals
FY-1972
to
FY-1977
1.92
3.68
l.4
7.04
14.26
13.58
13.16
41.00
0.29
2.00
2.29
50.330
                                                     *Millions of Dollars
                                                     (a)  Includes 5300,000 of Supplemental Funds for Fuel Additive Registration - Emissions Sesearcr
                                                     (b)  Includes 56/4,970 of FY-1971 Carry-Over Funds

-------
                                                        TABLE 3.2
                                         SUMMARY OF FUNDING REQUIRED FY 1972-77
                                          BY APPLICATION AREAS AND ACTIVITIES*
Activity
Research
Development
Field Test
Evaluation
Promulgation
TOTALS
Support of EPA Programs on
Research and Investigations
Health &
Welfare
525
825
350
200
20
1920
Remote
Sensing
675
1800
700
450
55
3680
Meteorology

1145
300
~

1445
7045
Identification and Quantification
of Pollutants
Ambient
Air Quality
1125
6580
2875
3620
460
14660
Stationary
Source
525
3970
4575
4025
535
13630
Moving
Source
600
6570
3500
1850
240
12760
41050
Support of EPA
Maintenance Programs
Equivalency
Determination

200
75

15
290
Quality
Control
275
1075
275
325
40
1990
2280
Totals
3725
221*5
12650
10470
1365

50375
                                                                                                                               U)
                                                                                                                                I
Thousands of Dollars

-------
                                3-Hr>
          5.1.3   Funding by  Pollutant

          The matrix of capability needs, Part 2, Section 2, lias been used

to assign the funding to specific pollutants.  If a task involves more than

one pollutant, the funding assignment reflects a pro-rata share of the task

cost to each pollutant.  The funding by pollutant and application area year

is given in Table 3.3.  The funding requirement by pollutant is summarized

below.
                 Pollutant
            Sulfur Oxides

            Oxides of Nitrogen

            Particulates

            Hazardous Pollutants

            Carbon Monoxide

            Hydrocarbons

            Odors

            Halogen

            Oxidants

            Other Pollutants

 5.2   Funding for  Replacement and/or
      Improvement  of Measurement  Methods

          Once  measurement  techniques  are  developed  and  in use  for one

 to two  years,  some  techniques  will be  unacceptable  in routine practice,

 others  will need  major or minor  improvements.   It  is assumed  that  50%

 of all  techniques will be completely acceptable,  207,, will require  minor

 and  20% major  improvements  and 10% replacements.   The cost of minor

 improvements is assumed  to  be  30?0 of development  of  a new instrument,

 of major improvements  607, of new instrumental  development. The total
  Funding Required
Fiscal Years 1972-1977
 Millions of Dollars

         3.54

         3.72

        10,84

         4.70

         1.50

         6.07

         4,10

         1.86

         1.23

         3.575

-------
                                                              TABLE 3.3


                                                SUMMARY OF FUNDING REQUIRED FY 1972-77
                                                 BY APPLICATION AREA AND POLLUTANT*
Pollutants
Sulfur Oxides
Oxides of Nitrogen
Particulates
 Mass. Loading
 Visible Emissions
 Other Properties
Carbon Monoxide
Hydrocarbons
Halogens
Oxidants
Other Pollutants
Odors
Not Pollutant Specific
Hazardous Pollutants
Aeroallergens
TOTALS
Support of EPA Programs on
Research and Investigations
Health &
Welfare
105
105

~
~

105

~
105
105
~
535

860
1920
Remote
Sensing
840
755

340
625

~
245
430
245

~
200


3680
Meteorology

--






--
--

--
1445


1445
7045
Identification and Quantification
of Pollutants
Ambient
Air Quality
1045
1820

1045
210
985
510
2190
660
555
1305
1735

2605

14665
Stationary
Source
1230
590

3665
975
1105
310
715
775
--
1005
1260
460
1490

13580
Moving
Source

135

1545
135
210
260
2605
--
--
300
1100
5860**
610

12760
41005
Support of EPA
Maintenance Programs
Equivalency
Determination



--
--
.






290


290
Quality
Control
325
320


~
--
315
315
.
325

~
390


1990
2280
Totals
3545
3725

6595
1945
2300
150C
6070
1865
1230
2715
4095
9180
4705
860
50330
* Thousands of Dollars
**Primarily for Development of Sampling Procedures

-------
                                    3-117
factor i)l 0.28 is imilr.ip I i.c-cl time.s Llic average yearly cost of measure-




ment technique development, and this amount is added to the costs for




the second fiscal year following, e.g., 28% of the base funding for




FY 1972  is added to the  FY 1974 funding requirements.  Since there is




no way to ascertain which specific tasks will require this additional




effort,  it is not possible to allocate the funds  to specific items.






5.3  Funding for Future Requirements




          The funding requirements defined so far only provide  for measure-




ment techniques  to satisfy the  measurement needs  imposed  by  current  legislation.




The nation's air pollution control program is however still  in  the




formative stages and new legislation can be expected during  the period




covered  by  this  plan.  It is anticipated that future legislation will




require  the availability of  improved instrumentation, e.g., higher




sensitivity and  better specificity.  Obtaining this degree of  improvement




in measurement capabilities will  require substantial advances  in the




state  of the art and accomplishing these advances will require  long




 lead time.  A research and development program to provide  for  advance-




ment of  the state of the art of measurement technology is  required.




This program would be done "in-house" and through EPA sponsorship of




research grants  to the academic community.  It is difficult  to  set an




amount of funding for this activity although a figure of  approximately




10% of the measurement development program base funding level  or




some 5 million dollars over  the time period of this plan  seems




reasonable.  Manpower limitations will require that this  funding




be concentrated  in the last  three years of the plan period.

-------
                                 3-118
5.4  Funding Summary




          The total funding required in fiscal years 1972 to 1977 to




implement the measurement technique development plan is 69  million




dollars.  In fiscal years 1973 to 1975 the funding required is two or




three times that currently budgeted for FY 1972.  Table 3.4 summarizes




the funding required by fiscal year.

-------
                                                  TABLE 3.4

                                    SUMMARY OF THE TOTAL FUNDING REQUIRED
                                    FOR MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT*
(A)  Base Funding Level

     (From Individual Task Statements,
      see Table 3.1)

(B)  Replacement & Improvements of
     Developed Methods

(c)  R&D to Prepare for Future
     Requirements

     TOTALS
Fiscal Year
1971
5.04

--
5.04
1972
7.97

--
7.97
1973
16.785
1.41
--
18.195
1974
14.075
2.19

16.265
1975
7.90
4.68
1.00
13.58
1976
2.78
3.94
2.00
8.72
1977
0.72
2.20
2.00
4.92
Totals
FY-1972
to
FY-1977
50.335
14.42
5.00
69.195
u>
I
                                          * Millions of dollars

-------
                                 3-120
 5. r>  Manpower Required





           The implementation of the measurement technique development




 plan will require EPA manpower in addition to the funding requirements




 previously discussed.  This manpower will be needed to conduct the in-




 house programs, to monitor and administer the contract program and for




 general program supervision.



           At the peak funding period of FY-1973,  some  18  million




 dollars is required for the measurement development program.   It  is ex-




 pected that 15 million dollars will be in contract programs requiring




 30 people for contract monitoring and administration.   About  65 people




 will be required for the in-house program and 20 people for general




 program supervision during this period, for a total manpower  requirement




 of 115 people.





          By FY-1977 it is anticipated that approximately 50% of the measure-




ment development program will be '"in-house" with emphasis on programs to




advance the state-of-the-art.  The 2.5 million dollars  to be spent in




the in-house programs will require some 80 people directly involved




in laboratory programs.  Contract monitoring and administration should




require an additional 6 people, on the assumption that one person can




monitor about 500 thousand dollars of contract research.  At the




relatively small sife of the contracts let in the measurement development




program this amounts to 5-6 contracts per contract monitor.  General




program supervision will require an additional 19 people, for a total




manpower requirement of 105.

-------
                                APPENDIX A




          MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT EFFORTS OUTSIDE EPA







A.I  Efforts in Other Federal Agencies




A.2  Efforts in State and Local Agencies




A. 3  Efforts Within Organizations




A. 4  Industrial Efforts

-------
                                  A-l
                               APPENDIX A

          MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT EFFORTS OUTSIDE EPA

          This  plan  defines  the EPA measurement technique development

 effort.   In  developing  the plan,  consideration was given  to measurement

 development  efforts  in  several other sectors:  Federal agencies, state and

 local  governmental agencies,  private organizations, and industry.

 A.1  Efforts in Other Federal Agencies

          During the course  of this program visits were made to the fol-

 lowing Federal  facilities to gather information on measurement technique

 development.  (EPA personnel have contacted additional facilities whose

 programs and activities have been reflected in this plan, but  these have

 not  been enumerated.)


          (1)  NASA Laboratory for Electronics Research,  Cambridge, Mass.

          (2)  Office of Aerospace Research (U.S.  Air  Force), Arlington,
               Va.

          (3)  Army Research Office,  Arlington,  Va.

          (4)  Defense Development & Engineering  Laboratory,  Edgewood
               Arsenal,  Md.

          (5)  Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory, Mass.

          (6)  Land Warfare Laboratory,  Aberdeen  Proving  Ground, Md.

          (7)  National Center for Atmospheric Research,  Boulder,  Colorado.

          (8)  Instrumentation Laboratory (MIT),  Cambridge, Mass.

From these visits efforts in other Federal agencies  were  observed  that

 involve pertinent measurement techniques needed  for  support  of  EPA  research

and investigation studies.  EPA is maintaining close liaison  with  these

governmental facilities.  A summary of  the more  pertinent  observations

follows.

-------
                                 A-2
     Defense Development & Engineering Laboratory
     Edgewood Arsenal, Md.

          The IR applications group is active in all aspects of LOPAIR,

 laser and remote detection techniques.  This group has been active in

 this field since the rnid-50's and now spends 1 1/2-2 million dollars

 per year on these programs.  Currently developed capability includes

 active and passive LOPAIR, isotopic CCL laser for active LOPAIR, laser

raman shift for LOPAIR, and laser raman remote measurement.  Contractors

 include Bendix, G. E. and Block Engineering.  Similar work is also

 underway at NASA Langley and at the Naval Research Office.

          The Alarms group has a very impressive "package-engineering"

 capability, particularly with their E-41 and M-8 battery operated

 colorimetric field analysers.  These devices use detection principles

.similar to many commercially available AP instruments.  Air pollution

 instruments with similar "package-engineering", dust-proofness, temperature

 control, ruggedness and modular construction would be significant advances

 for field use.

     Defense Research Department
     Edgewood (MD.) Arsenal

          The Detection Research Laboratory works on personal detectors,

 enzyme-based detectors, miniature mass spectrometers and pico-gram

 quantity analysis.  Areas of expertise include the detect of pesticides

 and chlorine containing materials.

          The work on solid state detectors is concerned with the

 development of simple detector devices, some based on the fluorescence

-------
                                  A-3
principle.  Although most of the relevant work in solid state  detection

is classified, indications are that some potential air pollutants  can  be

measured using currently available detectors.

     Land Warfare Laboratory
     Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.

          This laboratory has an impressive capability in the  detection

of condensation nuclei.  Condensation nuclei (CN) are extremely small

particles, 0.001 to 1 micron diameter, which resulting from combustion

and industrial fumes and mists.  Their XM-3 unit is an airborn detector

capable of producing CN contours over incinerators, stacks, open burning

areas (traces shown during the contractors visit were very impressive).

The E-63 is man-pack version of the CN detector.  Work is also underway  on

portable mass-spectroscopy and plasma gas chromatographic detection

techniques.

     NASA
     Houston, Texas

          The Earth Resources Group is evaluating multi-spectral scanners

for the airborn measurement of the extent and effects of air pollution.

     NCAR
     Boulder, Colorado

          NCAR is an NSF-funded research center specializing in atmos-

pheric science.  Most of its staff is concerned with the upper atmosphere.

However, some of its efforts are applied to pollution-type problems, with

a group concerned with atmospheric chemistry.   This group is heavily

involved in methods development and evaluation and is particularly con-

cerned with the measurement of very low levels of pollutants.   Another

group is working on photochemistry, including chemiluminescence and the

analysis of peroxyaclnitrate.

-------
                                  A-4
A.2  Efforts in State & Local Agencies




          During the development of the plan the contractor made




contact with the following state and local agencies.




          (1)  New York City Air Resources Agency




          (2)  Los Angeles County Air Pollution Control District




          (3)  New Jersey Air Pollution Control Department




          (4)  Bay Area Air Pollution Control Administration




          (5)  Allegheny County Air Pollution Control Administration




          (6)  California Air Resources Board




          (7)  New York State Air Pollution Monitoring Network




          (8)  Massachusetts Division of Environmental Health




          (9)  Boston Air Pollution Control Commission




Most of these agencies are engaged in some programs involving measurement




technique development.  In most cases the programs are limited to the




evaluation of commerically available instruments or the development  of




analytical methods required to obtain data on pollutants which are of




concern in the local air quality region but which have not  yet been  covered




by NAQS.  The need for this activity at the state and local level should




diminish as the EPA measurement technique development effort reaches




maturity.




          Some agencies have been involved in major measurement techniques




development programs, e.g. the New Jersey auto exhaust inspection program,




funded  in part by an EPA grant and the California Air Resources Board's




"Project Clean Air".




          In the case of Project Clean Air, efforts are being made to




avoid duplication of CARB and EPA activities.  These efforts are  mainly




in the  form of close verbal and written communications between the board

-------
                                    A-5
members and personnel of EPA.  CARB has  been  informed  that EPA considers

the development of measurement methods and instrumentation for Air

Pollution Control a Federal responsibility and,  therefore, that  it is

unnecessary to fund such efforts  through Project Clean Air.  Further,

the relatively short term of "Project Clean Air" will  allow  little more

than a limited evaluation of available instruments.

A.3  Efforts Within Organizations

          The contractor held discussions with  the following private

organizations in an effort to determine  development work  in  the  private

sector.

          (1)  National Council of the Paper  Industry  for Air and Stream
               Improvement, Inc.

          (2)  American Iron and Steel Institute

          (3)  American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)

          The only major effort underway is Project Threshhold, an ASTM

sponsored endeavor.  This major,  concerted effort  to obtain  know-

ledge about precision and accuracy is being undertaken by ASTM to produce

authoritative standard methods for measuring  more  than thirty  important

pollutants.  Approximately thirty-five standard methods will be

evaluated over a three-year period by five contracting cooperators, sup-

plemented by qualified volunteer participants.  The scientific planning

of the work includes statistical gathering and analysis  of the data in

accordance with ASTM criteria.  The cooperative tests will be conducted

on real, rather than synthetic, samples  under conditions of use.  Personnel

and equipment from each cooperating laboratory will be assembled at a

field location suitable for each pollutant,  to take their samples slmul-

-------
                                    A-6
taneously and to perform the analysis separately either on-site or




later, in their own laboratories.  The data and related findings will




be reported as available to Committee D-22, providing the basis for




recommending the addition of statements on accuracy and precision




pertinent to each test method.  Acceptance of these recommendations will




be confirmed by a letter-ballot of the entire committee and of the Society.




Standard Reference Materials will be prepared by the National Bureau of




Standards so that the accuracy of the methods can be proven.  These




materials also make it possible to validate future measurements and




to calibrate measuring instruments.  A Research Associate, employed by




ASTM, will augment the NBS research staff.




          EPA acknowledges the activities of Project Threshhold.   Unfortunately,




 Project Threshhold activities do not involve testing of manual and




 instrumental methods proposed by EPA in Regulations announced in  the




 Federal Register.  The validation of these methods as alternate methods




 for measurement(s) would be useful contribution to the Nation's air




 pollution control program.  EPA  is maintaining contact with this  project




 through  its  liaison member to committee D-22 of the ASTM.




 A.4  Industrial  Efforts




           The contractor made visits to several industrial firms engaged




 in  the development and manufacture of air pollution measurement




 instrumentation during the course of this program.  These visits were




 made primarily to determine the market for air pollution instrumentation,




 which is the subject of another report issued under this contract.  In




 addition some three score additional manufacturers contacted the contractor




 to  discuss the market and their development efforts.

-------
                                  -7
          Wliile a considerable number of interesting measurement techniques




are being worked on in the industrial sector, there were no surprise




projects.  Industry has developed some new measurement techniques but most




of the projects have received some EPA financial support in either the




prototype development or the evaluation stage.  From this level of




industrial activity and the conclusion of the market study that a sub-




stantial market opportunity exists for source emission measurements*




it is likely that  the  industrial  sector will be the prime source of




new instruments for test  and  evaluation by EPA.  This RDT&E plan accordingly




assumes that little EPA effort  and resources will be required to develop




source emission instruments,  although considerable testing and evaluation




of the instruments by EPA will  be required.

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                              APPENDIX B

                 A STUDY OF MARKETS FOR AIR POLLUTION
                 MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTATION 1971-1980
B.I  Ambient Air Quality Level Monitoring

B.2  Stationary Source Emission Measurements

B.3  Auto Emission Measurements

B.4  Dollar Value of the Market

B.5  Time Frame for the Market

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                                  B-l
                              APPENDIX B

                      A STUDY OF MARKETS FOR AIR POLLUTION
                      MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTATION 1971-1980

          This report presents an analysis of the domestic market for air

pollution instrumentation for the period 1971-1980.*

          The market for air pollution instrumentation during the decade

of the 70 "s has been determined as part of a project being conducted by

Esso Research and Engineering Company for the Office of Air  Programs of the

Environmental Protection Agency.  This project has as its primary objective

the delineation of a federal research and development plan for air pollution

measurement instrumentation.  One part of this project involved a market

analysis to assess the opportunities available and thus the  contribution

to this R/D program that might be expected from the private  sector in

providing the measurement instrumentation required to assure the ability

of this nation to conduct an effective air pollution control effort.

          The market for three different areas requiring instruments to

obtain information on the concentration level of air contaminants is dis-

cussed.  These include;  monitoring of the ambient air quality level,

measurement of the emissions from stationary sources of air  pollution,

and measurement of the emissions from the automobile.  The market for

these areas of instrumentation is based on a review of instrumentation

requirements at the federal, state, and local level and on an analysis of

current legislation and air pollution control codes.
*The work reported here was performed under Contract No. CPA 22-69-154
for the Office of Air Programs of the Environmental Protection Agency.
 The statements and conclusions presented are those of the author and
 do not necessarily reflect the views of the Environmental Protection Agency.
 The full report summarized here is now available as Document No. APTD-0800,
 through the National Technical Information Service, No. PB 204,174.

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                               B-2
          The scope of the market analysis has  been limited to the sensors




required to detect and measure air contaminants and special hardware re-




quired to obtain the sample.  We have specifically excluded from our market




estimate the quantity and value of telemetering equipment and the cost of




instrument maintenance.  The analysis also excludes the market for instru-




mentation needed  for the research and development programs which will sup-




port  the Nation's  air pollution control program.  The dollar value esti-




mates presented in this report include, where  appropriate, a device to




record  the pollutant concentration level.




B.1  Ambient Air  Quality Level Monitoring




          The market for ambient air quality level measurement equipment




has been divided  into two basic types of air monitors.  The automatic




and continuous, sample-analyzer monitors produce numerical and/or graphi-




cal information directly.   The non-automatic or intermittent monitors




employ  collection devices and separate  laboratory  facilities  for  subse-




quent analysis of the sample.




           In this study of  the market for  ambient  air quality monitoring,




we have considered only instrumentation required for the  following air con-




taminants:   particulates, sulfur  dioxide,  oxidants, carbon monoxide, hydro-




carbons, oxides of nitrogen,  fluorides, polynuclear organic matter, 'and




odors.




           The market  for  continuous  air quality monitors  during  the




decade, while  impressive  in terms  of  the  total number of  new  instruments




required,  is  fragmented  into many different  analyzers each with  a rela-




tively  small market.

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                                  B-3
                                TABLE  1

                   SUMMARY:   CONTINUOUS AMBIENT AIR
                  QUALITY LEVEL MONITOR REQUIREMENTS
                                                                     Total
                                                                       1421
                                                                       1136
                                                                       1394
                                                                       1382
                                                                       1520
                                                                       1434
                                                                       490
                                                                       1292
                                                                       386
                                                                       570
                                                                       380

          Non-automatic air monitors  will be a significant  part  of  the

total agency requirements for ambient monitoring.   These  monitors have

the potential to be an effective means for providing  a reasonable defini-

tion of air quality over urban areas  as well as background  pollutant  levels

in less polluted portions of the country.  Requirements in  this  area  in-

clude:

                                TABLE 2

                   SUMMARY:  NON-AUTOMATIC AMBIENT AIR
                   QUALITY LEVEL MONITOR REQUIREMENTS

Analyzer
Sulfur Dioxide
Nitric Oxide
Nitrogen Dioxide
Carbon Monoxide
Non-Methane Hydrocarbon
Oxidants (Ozone)
Polynuclear Organic Matter
Odors
Automatic Tape Soiling Index
Particulate
Fluorides
Ins trumentation
Initial
671
626
744
722
950
814
380
867
386
570
380
Market 197:
Replacement
750
510
650
660
570
620
110
425
--

--

Collection Devices
Gas Collector
Devices
Dust Fall Collector for
Settleable Particulates
High Volume Sampler for
Suspended Particulates
Market 1971-1980 (Units)
Initial Replacement
16838 9578

6713 5643

7233 5383


Total
26416

12356

12616


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                                 B-4
li.2  Stationary Source Emission Measurements

          The stationary source emission measurement market that has been

estimated is based on measurements that the author anticipates will be

made by industry and by the control agencies under current air quality

legislation and legislative trends.  The stationary source emission mea-

surement instrumentation estimates have been based on discussions with

representatives of selected industries and on an analysis that has con-

sidered:  legislation, A.P codes and the magnitude of the air pollution

problem for a particular industry.

          This market estimate for stationary source emission measurement

instrumentation includes instrumentation for continuous source monitoring

of the following air contaminants:  particulates, sulfur dioxide, oxides

of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide arid fluorides.  Instrumentation

requirements for these source emission measurements are expected to be a

major fraction of the total source emission instrumentation market during

the decade, although additional markets, which were not considered in

this analysis, can be expected for measuring other air pollutants which

are emitted from stationary sources.

          Instrumentation needs in the stationary source emission measure-

ment area include:

                                TABLE 3

     SUMMARY:  STATIONARY SOURCE EMISSION MONITORING REQUIREMENTS

                               Instrumentation Market 1971-1980 (Units)
	Analyzer            Initial            Replacement           Total
Particulates                18800                 5120              23920
Sulfur dioxide               3935                 1075               5010
Carbon monoxide              2705                 1840               4545
Hydrocarbons                 4755                  825               5580
Nitrogen oxides              9760                2110              11870
Fluorides                     505                  165                670

In addition, a market exists for 500 instruments to remotely measure the

emissions from stationary sources.

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                                  B-5
15.3  Auto Emission Measurements

          The potential market for auto exhaust emission measurements

assumes the adoption of an annual nation-wide auto exhaust measurement

program.  The agency instrumentation requirements were estimated using

two possible alternate inspection testing procedures.  The first alternate

involves an extrapolation of the state inspection lanes that would be re-

quired to inspect on a once-a-year basis each vehicle in the United States

using the plans and inspection lane requirements of the State of New Jersey

as a model.  The second alternate involves the use of state franchised auto

emission inspection facilities.  Each auto emission inspection alternative

investigated suggests a major instrumentation requirement.

                                TABLE 4

                    SUMMARY:  AUTO EXHAUST EMISSION
                    INSPECTION TESTING REQUIREMENTS*

                          	Instrument Market 1971-1980 (Units)	
   Analyser               Initial           Replacement           Total
Carbon monoxide             4240                2968               7208
Hydrocarbon                 4240                2968               7208
Nitrogen oxides             4240                2544               6784
Particulates                4240                 --                4240

          The auto emission measurement market also includes the purchase

of measuring instrumentation by the service area segment for use by

service stations and auto repair facilities to adjust the auto emission

control devices of those automobiles that have been found to be unaccept-

ably high polluters during the state inspection.  This market segment

provides an opportunity for the development of a low cost combined hydro-

carbon-carbon monoxide instrument  to measure auto exhaust emissions.   In

the mid to late seventies a nitrogen oxides instrument may also be required
for the same market.

* The estimates presented in Table 4 are based on conducting the auto
  exhaust emission measurements in state inspection lanes.  The estimate
  of the total auto emission measurement market if inspection testing
  is conducted in state franchised auto emission inspection facilities
  is given in Tables 28 and 30.

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                                   B-6
                                TABLE 5

                    SUMMARY:  AUTO EXHAUST EMISSION
                       SERVICE AREA REQUIREMENTS
                                         Market 1971-1980 (Units)
	Analyzer	       Initial       Replacement        Total
Hydrocarbon-carbon monoxide       176000           35200           211200
  (combined analyzer)

          A small market also exists for industry purchases of instrumen-

tation to conduct end-of-the-line emission quality assurance testing.

B.4  Dollar Value of the Market

          The market amounts to nearly one-half billion dollars during the

coming decade, some 76% of which represents initial purchases of air

pollution measuring equipment.  Industry will be the major purchaser of

instrumentation accounting for 45% of the market.  The market is heavily

oriented towards stationary source emission measurement instrumentation,

this area accounting for 517, of the total instrumentation market value.

                                TABLE 6

               ESTIMATE OF AIR POLLUTION INSTRUMENTATION
                     MARKET TOTAL VALUE 1971-1980
(Millions

Ambient Level
 Agency (CAM)
 Agency (Non-Automatic)

Stationary Source Emission
 Industrial
 Agency

Auto Emissions
 Agency
 Service Area
 Industry

TOTALS
of Dollars)
Initial
Purchase
25
12
37

167
25
192

47
87
3
137
366


Rej> lacement
17
8
25

46
5
51

19
18
1
38
114


Totals
42
20
62

213
. 30
243

66
105
4
175
480

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                                            B-7
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          B.5  Time Frame for the Market



                    Timing appears to be a critical factor in the market with each of



          the three areas of measurement reaching maturity at different periods during



          the decade.  The ambient air quality level monitoring market is expected to



          reach maturity about 1975 and the auto emission measurement instrumentation



          market about 1977, while the stationary source emission measurement in-



          strumentation market will continue to grow throughout the decade.





                                          FIGURE 1



                        TIME FRAME FOR THE INSTRUMENTATION MARKET
                                             Stationary

                                            Emission
                                                        Source

                                                     Measurement
       71
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                                      75
77
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-------
 BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATA
 SHEET
1. Report No.
 APTD-1451
3. Recipient's Accession No.
4. Title and Subtitle
     A Working Document for A1r  Pollution Measurement Technique
     Development     Fiscal Years  1972-1977
                                                 5. Report Date
                                                  December 1971
                                                 6.
7. Auihor(s)
                                                 8- Performing Organization Kept.
                                                   No-   GRU.2GAPI.71
>. Performing Organization Name and Address
     Esso Research  and Engineering Company
     Government Research Laboratory
     Linden, New Jersey
                                                 10. Project/Tsk/Work Unit No.
                                                 11. Contract/Grant No.
                                                                          CPA 22-69-154
12. Sponsoring Organization Name and Address
     Office of Program Development
     Office of Air  Programs
     ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
     Rockville, Maryland	
                                                 13. Type of Report & Period
                                                    Covered
                                                 14.
15. Supplementary Notes
16. Abstracts
  The report  presents,  in  detail, a  research, development, test and evaluation plan  for
  the Environmental Protection Agency,  covering  the fiscal years 1972 through 1977.   The
  plan will provide for  development  of  air pollution measurement techniques:  to support
  EPA research  and investigations into  the causes,  effects and  extent of  air pollution;
  to identify and quantify air pollutants; to assist in the  setting of standards and  to
  determine compliance with standards;  and to support a continuing EPA effort to maintain
  adequate measurement capabilities.
 17. Key Words and Document Analysis.  17o. Descriptors
     Air pol1ution
     Measurement
     Research  
     Development
     Methodology
     Emission
     Standards
     Sulfur  dioxide
     Particles
     Carbon  dioxide.
 17b. Idcntifiers/Open-Ended Terms 
       Ozone
       Hydrocarbons
       Halogens
       Odors
 JUN   4 1973
 17c. COSATI FieM/Gtoup   ]
 18. Availability Statement
                    Unlimi ted
                                      19. Security Class (This
                                        Report)
                                          UNCLASSIFIED.
                                      II    W^\..1.H.-'JH II. U
                                     20. Security Class (This
                                        Page
                                          UNCLASSIFIED
           21. -No. of K..-I ;
              215
                                                                                 22. Price
FORM NTIS-35 IREV. 3-721
                                                                                 USCOMM-DC

-------