EPA -908/2-78-001
WATER & AIR QUALITY
TRENDS  IN REGION 8
UNITED STATES
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
AGENCY
DENVER, COLORADO 80295

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EPA-908/2-78-001
                         WATER AND AIR QUALITY TRENDS
                                      IN
                                  REGION VIII
                     U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                              Data Analysis  Branch
                       Surveillance  and Analysis Division
                             Denver,  Colorado   80295
                                  March  1978

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                                 DISCLAIMER









     This report has been reviewed by the Surveillance and Analysis




Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region VIII, and approved




for publication.  Mention of trade names or commercial products does not




constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.
     Document is available to the public  through  the National Technical




Information Service, Springfield,  Virginia   22161.

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                                ABSTRACT









     Water and air quality trends and summaries were determined for the




six states in Region VIII.  These states are Colorado, Montana, North




Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming.




     Only the data on EPA's "ational Data Banks were used.  The STORET




data bank was used for the water quality analysis and the SAROAD base was




used for the air analysis.




     The water quality status and trends were calculated and reported in




two ways;  (1) as single parameter percentages of standard or criteria




violations, and (2)  as a single "index" number derived as the aggregate




of percentage violations of four parameter groups.




     The air quality report provides information where quality standards




are achieved as well as areas which still have significant problems.




Indices are used where appropriate.




     This report was not intended to be a comprehensive analysis of cause




and affect relationships.

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                            TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract                                                             i

List of Figures                                                      iv
List of Tables                                                       v
SECTION I - Water Quality Report                                     1

     Introduction	   3

     Summary and Findings	   4

          Oxygen Related Group 	   5
          Bacteria 	   7
          Nitrogen 	   9
          Phosphorus	   11
          Total Dissolved Solids 	   13
          Group Summary as a Water Quality Index	   15

     Description of the Water Quality Index	   17
     Basin Discussions	   21

          Colorado
               Arkansas River 	   22
               Colorado River 	   25
               Rio Grande River 	   27
               South Platte River 	   29

          Montana
               Big Horn River 	   32
               Clark Fork River 	   34
               Missouri River	   37
               Powder River	   40
               Yellowstone River	42

          North Dakota
               James River	  	   45
               Missouri River                                        47
               Red River of the North                                49
               Souris River	51

          South Dakota
               Big Sioux River	54
               Cheyenne River 	   50
               James River	55
               Missouri River	  	     59
                                   ii

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                            TABLE OF CONTENTS



                                                                     Page

          Utah
               Bear River 	  72
               Green River	74
               Jordan River	  76
               Weber River	  78

          Wyoming
               Green River 	  80
               North Platte River 	  82
               Powder River 	  85
               Wind-Big Horn Rivers 	  88


SECTION II - Air Quality Report 	  91

     Introduction 	  93

     Region-wide Summary 	  96

          Status 	  100
          Trends	101

     State Summaries	  102


APPENDICES	   117

                                 (Water)

     A.  State Water Quality Standards Utilized in Water Quality
          Index Program	    119
     B.  State Water Quality Standards	    122

                                  (Air)

     C.  National Ambient Air Quality Standards 	    132
     D.  Breakpoints for Pollutant Standards Index	    134
     E.  Procedures Used to Construct Indices and Judge Trends. .    136
                                  iii

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                             LIST OF FIGURES
Figures                 SECTION I - Water Quality                  Page


 1.    Standards/Criteria Violations 
       Oxygen Related Group	    6

 2.    Standards/Criteria Violations 
       Bacteria	    8

 3.    Relative Concentrations of Nitrogen 	   10

 4.    Relative Concentrations of Phosphorus 	   12

 5.    Standards/Criteria Violations  TDS  	   14

 6.    Water Quality of Major Streams in Region VIII 	   16



                        SECTION II - Air Quality


 1.    Status of Air Quality by County	   99

 2.    Status and Trends in Air Quality - Colorado	103

 3.    Status and Trends in Air Quality - Montana	104

 4.    Status and Trends in Air Quality - North Dakota	105

 5.    Status and Trends in Air Quality - South Dakota	106

 6.    Status and Trends in Air Quality - Utah	107

 7.    Status and Trends in Air Quality - Wyoming	108

 8a.   Number of Days over TSP Primary Standard by Severity. .  .  109

 8b.   Number of Days over Standard by Severity	110
                                   iv

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                             LIST OF TABLES










TABLE                                                               PAGE







  1     Summary of Air Monitoring in Region VIII in 1976	     98

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     SECTION  I




WATER QUALITY REPORT

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                              INTRODUCTION










     The purpose of this report is to present summaries and trends for




STORET resident data collected at active data-rich monitoring stations




located on the major stream segments of Region VIII.




     The trend data for this analysis which represents observations made




during subsequent time periods was selected so as to  provide for a two-




year overlap, to aid in eliminating some of the bias  that might arise




because of year-to-year flow differentials.




     The first period of study was from January 1, 1971 to December 31,




1974.  The second period began January 1, 1973 and ended December 31, 1976.




     This report does not attempt to classify or precisely determine




stream quality or to analyze detailed cause and effect relationships.  It




attempts, rather, to impart a sense of status and trend (i.e. improvement,




degradation, etc.,) by comparing simple mathematical  ratios of water




quality violations to water quality observations in successive time periods.




     Data are summarized and reported in two ways;  (1), as a single para-




meter percentage of standard or criteria violations,  and (2), as a single




"index" number derived as the product of percentage violations of several




parametric groups.




     This effort to organize and manipulate water data by completely




divorcing it from existing knowledge of geography, hydrology, or land use




practices (except where unavoidably obvious) and considering only




numerical variations, is the logical first step in the statistical approach




towards a total environmental related water quality analysis.

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                            SUMMARY AND  FINDINGS



     The discussion in this section reports results for the four pollutant

groups analyzed in the study.  It includes information about their

predominance in the main streams of the region and their combined effect

on overall water quality as represented by the Region VIII Water Quality

Index.


     The groups are:

             Oxygen Related
             Bacteria
             Nutrients (Nitrogen and Phosphorus)
             TDS

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                            Oxygen Related Group









Group Effects and Characteristics




     The oxygen related group is generally more significant and applicable




to streams passing through populous areas where wastes are present in the




water.  The two interrelated parameters comprising this group are:




     Dissolved Oxygen (DO):  The availability of high dissolved oxygen con-




centration in a stream is a measure of good quality and indicates that the




water can adequately support aquatic life and rapid bacteria propagation for




assimilating wastes quickly.




     Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) :  This measurement indicates the amount




of oxygen that is being used in the stabilization of organic matter by




microorganisms.  The higher the BOD load the more dissolved oxygen is




required and this in turn lowers the dissolved oxygen concentration.







Findings




     Problems are apparent at several stream segments in the region (see




Figure 1).  The analysis indicates that the Jordan River below Salt Lake




City, Utah has the highest percentage of oxygen related violations.  Although




data of the U.S. Geological Survey continuous monitoring station at their




Henderson station on the South Platte River is not in STORET, the USGS re-




ported that dissolved oxygen concentration dropped below 5 mg/1 practically




every day of the year.  These violations are probably caused by the large




number of municipal treatment plants found along the two stream segments




that are located within large metropolitan areas.  Other stream segments in




the region (shown in yellow) indicate marginal problems which are probably




caused by municipal treatment plants and livestock wastes draining into




the stream.

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                                                                       I



                                                                       I
 Trends







Significant Improvement







Significant Degradation
Figure 1.   Standards/Criteria Violations --  Oxygen  Related  Group.

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                                  Bacteria









Group Effects and Characteristics




     The parameters reviewed for this group are total coliform and fecal




coliform.  Presence of fecal organisms in the stream is indicative of sewage




or pollution from warm-blooded animals, including man.







Findings




     Figure 2 illustrates a substantial number of problem segments in the




Region.  The significant problem areas are located mainly below municipali-




ties.  Most of the minor problem segments shown in yellow can be char-




acterized as being impacted from municipal wastewater treatment facilities,




drainage from areas containing livestock, and irrigation return flows




containing manure fertilizers.

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                                                                 * KJ5L T  *   -^1
                                                                  "-H.         I  I
                                                                       ^        V
                                                                t
 Trends



Significant Improvement



Significant Degradation
Figure  2.  Standards/Criteria Violations  --  Bacteria,
                               8

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                                  Nitrogen









Group Effects and Characteristics




     Municipal wastewater discharges, livestock wastes and fertilizers




that have been applied to irrigated fields are the main contributors of




nitrogen concentrations in the stream.  Various forms of nitrogen are eval-




uated in the index calculations.  Excessive concentrations of most nitrogen




forms have deleterious effects on biotic life yet each stream segment




requires independent analysis to determine its limiting characteristics.




Nitrogen and phosphorus when in certain combination can pose a eutrophica-




tion hazard to relatively slow moving bodies of water along a stream




course.







Findings




     The map shown in Figure 3 illustrates the relative differences in




nitrogen concentrations found in waters in Region VIII.  The flow of




nutrient rich irrigation return is the primary contributor to poor stream




quality for those segments of the South Platte River, Arkansas River, and




the Colorado River.

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                                   !      C O  lG RAD
                                       Aw"
                                       * W IMIV
UTAH
          If . 5   -v.n
       :, /Uv'-'-N^i  "'
	- ^r.ii'*'
                                                                                   Average
                                                                                 Concentrations
                                                                                    (Me/1)
                                                                                            Low

                                                                                            Medium

                                                                                            High
                                                                                          Trends
                                                                                          Significant Improvement
                                                                                          Significant Degradation
 Figure  3.   Relative  Concentrations  of Nitrogen  in Major  Streams of Region  VIII
                                                10

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                                 Phosphorus



Group Effects and Characteristics

     Perhaps the most important characteristic of phosphorus is that it

can stimulate algal production in the presence of nitrogen and carbon.


Findings

     The map shown in Figure 4 illustrates that the presence of phosphorus

is detected in all Regional streams in varying concentrations.  The map also

suggests that the contribution of phosphorus is principally due to natural

sources.  A recent publication from our Corvallis laboratory!/ states that

there seems to be little or no relationship between geologic formations and

phosphorus derivations.  Our findings suggest a definite relationship

between phosphorus concentrations and the geology in Region VIII.  This does

not, however, negate the fact that loadings from irrigation returns are

highly significant.
   Omernik, J.M., "Nonpoint Source-Stream Nutrient Level Relationships:
    A Nationwide Study," EPA-600/3-77-105, Environmental Research
    Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, Oregon
    97330.
                                      11

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                                                 r*nr
                                                 cm






                                	_
UTAH
                                                                                      Average

                                                                                    Concent radons

                                                                                       (Mg/1)
                                                                                           Low



                                                                                           Medium


                                                                                           High
                                                                                    I
                                                                                        Trends
Significant Improvement
                                                                                        Significant Degradation
Figure 4.   Relative  Concentrations  of  Phosphorus  in Major Streams of  Region VIII
                                                12

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                        Total Dissolved Solids (IDS)









Group Effects and Characteristics




     Total Dissolved Solids is the measure of nongaseous minerals in




solution in water - its relative "saltiness" or "hardness."  Hardness




effects water taste and causes increased costs for water softening and




shortened life expectancies of household plumbing and appliances.  High




concentrations of TDS in the streams are of utmost concern to agricultural




irrigators.  These high concentrations also decrease crop yields in addi-




tion to taking land out of production where excessive salts have accumula-




ted in the soil.







Findings




     The map of TDS Standards/Criteria Violations (Figure 5) shows the




predominance of violations determined for the streams of the Region.
                                     13

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UTAH
                                                                               I
                                                                                   Trtnds
Significant Improvement
                                                                                  Significant Degradation
    Figure  5.  Standards/Criteria Violations   Total  Dissolved Solids  (IDS)
                                            14

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                   Group Summary as a Water Quality Index



     The rationale for the index derivation is discussed in a separate

section.  The water quality index actually represents the product of the

percentages of violations for the five pollutant groups that were previously

discussed.  A map illustrating index values for the Regional Waters is shown

in Figure 6.

     The range of index values utilized in developing the descriptive map

is as follows:

        0-5    Infrequent water quality problems
        5-15   Intermediate and/or intermittent water quality problems
       15-100  Significant water quality problems
                                    15

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   /
    >^,-'*w 
w&'.r   _"'.
                                                                                  Significant Improvement





                                                                                  Significant Degradation
                                                                         Infrequent Water Quality Problems
                                                                         Intermediate and/or Intermittent

                                                                         Water Quality Problems


                                                                         Significant Water Quality Problems


                                                                         Insufficient Data
   Figure 6.   Water  Quality of  Major  Streams  in Region VIII.



                                       16

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                   DESCRIPTION OF THE WATER QUALITY INDEX










     The Region VIII Water Quality Index was developed primarily in




response to the water quality assessment requirements placed upon the region




by Section 305(b) of P.L. 92-500.  This index utilizes some of the conceptual




ideas developed by (1) The National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) for its




Water Quality Index used in the publication "Water Quality Index Application




in the Kansas River Basin" and (2) EPA's Region X in its "Water Quality




Index."  These concepts tempered with experience and knowledge of the




geography, geology, hydrology and land use in Region VIII allowed the emer-




gence of a simple, easily understood method for qualifying regional streams




which also considered the regions unique water data characteristics.







         Rationale for Parameter Group Selection and Equal Weighting







     After examining several indexing systems the idea of giving equal




weights to each of 4 parameter groups was adopted.  Weights developed for




the NSF index were used as a reference for the equal weight assignments.




     Group 1, the oxygen related group, consists of D.O.  and BOD which have




NSP weights of (0.17) and (0.11)  respectively for a group total of (0.28).




This weight was reduced to (0.25) for Region VIIl's use since few D.O. and




BOD violations occur in the main stems monitored by fixed sampling stations.




     Group 2, consists of total coliform (0.0) and fecal coliform (0.16)




with a combined NSF weighting of (0.16).  This weighting was considered to




be much too low for the Region Index since total coliform, a significant




indicator for both point and nonpoint sources was completely neglected




in the NSF assessment.  Group 2 is weighted at (0.25).
                                      17

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     It was felt that Group 3, consisting of nitrogen (0.10)  and phosphorus

(0.10)  was weighted low.  Since the nutrient problem is a function of the

availability of both Nitrogen and Phosphorus they were weighted equally at

(0.125).   The NSF Group 3 total weight was raised to (0.25) because of the

over abundance of natural phosphorus and nitrogen in this region and due to

the National Water Quality Assessment of 1972, highlighting nutrient enrich-

ment as the number one water quality problem.

     Group 4, a combination of total solids and turbidity, represented by NSF

weights of (0.07) and (0.08) respectively, was considered as being weighted

too low at (0.15).  These parameters are related to a number of different

land use practices which are not readily resolvable and apparently are

worsening year by year.  The Group 4 weight was raised to (0.25).


                              Index Calculations


     After screening the data for outlying values and attempting to rectify

other  data discrepancies that are obvious and immediately recognizable, the

percentage of criteria or standards violations of each group is calculated.

These  values are then raised to the even weighted 0.25 power from which a

single product, the Water Quality Index, was computed.
(% violations) {.25 '(%  violations)
 DO + BOD       + !  BAC-T
                                   .25 (% violations) 1.125 (% violations)
                                    +  I NITROGEN      I +   I PHOSPHORUS
.125
                    '"
Since each group expressed as a percentage must range from 0-100 and the sum

of the fractional exponents is 1 the WQI must have a value from 1 (best) to

100  (worst) .
                                      18

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     If a group violation percentage was less than 1, or if it had no




violations, it was set to 1 to prevent the group product from being less than




1.




     Roughly, a Water Quality Index of 10 corresponds to a station where




violation of state standards or criteria occurs 10 percent of the time in each




group.
                                      19

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20

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                              BASIN DISCUSSIONS









     Discussions of the analytical results obtained for each of the




principal streams in the Region are contained in this section according




to State and in alphabetic order.




     The discussion treats individual stream pollutants in each first and




then an aggregate of these pollutants is computed as the water quality




index.  Trends in the data are discussed whenever appropriate.
                                     21

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                               ARKANSAS RIVER



                                  COLORADO
               Reach



1.   Headwaters to Canon City,

     Colorado


2.   Canon City, Colorado to CO.-KS,

     state line
      Use



Unlimited Man

Cold Water Fish



Unlimited Man

Warm Water Fish
Classification



     B-l




     B-2
                               Group Analysis




Oxygen Related Group


     Violations were only evident at the Nepesta station where 3 violations



were noted in 178 observations.
Bacteria



     Significant violations of this group appeared at the Nepesta station.



Although this station is forty miles downstream from the City of Pueblo,



Colorado, the City is probably responsible for the violations.  Sub-



stantial improvement is noted for the latter time period (see graph below),



which can probably be credited to the NPDES Program.


 ^    75
 i i     ' -*
  c
  cu
  o
 CO
 ti
 o
 o
 rl
       50
       25
        cd
        a)
  1971-74
                                                        1973-76
4-1
H
0

C!
0
e
cd
o
o
c
cd
.H
4J
u
o
Pn


O
^-(
J3
0)
3
0,

cd
4J
CO
01
a,
QJ

                             Flow
                                                          C!
                      CO
                      cd
                          cd
                          S

                          C
                                                                   O
                                                                   *-J
Lamar
                                                                                c
                                                                               rH
                                      O
                                      O
                                     22

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Nitrogen




    The percentage of violations above Pueblo, Colorado, were 25 percent, but




at the Nepesta station and downstream to the Colorado-Kansas state line the




violations were about 98 percent.  The municipal wastewater treatment




facility at Pueblo probably starts off the high loading.  Other towns and




agricultural activities do their share to sustain this load.  No trends were




discernible.







Phosphorus




    Phosphorus violations at the Nepesta station were about 95 percent.  Up-




stream and downstream from this point the violations were between 40 and 70




percent.  The most significant change noted for the two time periods was the




decrease of violations from 79 percent to 37 percent recorded at the Salida




station.






TDS




    Violations in this group ranges between 40 percent to 97 percent for




the segment between Nepesta and the Colorado-Kansas state line.  A 6 percent




decrease in violations were noted for the latter time period.







Other




    The presence of total iron, manganese and zinc in the river were noted




at the first station near the headwaters (below Leadville).  The concentra-




tions (pg/1) were:
                                       23

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Violations
Observations
Minimum
Mean
Maximum
Fe
total
9
15
40
573
1000
Mn
total
12
13
0
234
610
Zn
total
12
13
0
557
1200
     The concentrations diminish a small amount downstream but rise again near




the Town of Portland.   The maximum total iron concentration at the Colorado-




Kansas state line was  7700 mg/1.







                                 Index Analysis






     The index values  above the City of Pueblo, Colorado,  were less than 4.




Below the station at Nepesta and all the way downstream to the Colorado-




Kansas state line the values were about 20.   Generally, the index values for




the latter time period were about 10 percent lower than for the first  time




period.
                                       24

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                               COLORADO RIVER

                                  COLORADO



              Reach                        Use              Classification

1.  Headwaters to Grand Valley,     Unlimited Man                 B-l
     Colorado                       Cold Water Fishery

2.  Grand Valley, Colorado to       Unlimited Man                 B-2
     CO.-UT. state line             Warm Water Fishery


                               Group Analysis


Oxygen Related Group

     No violations were observed.


Bacteria

     Percentage of violations of 18 percent and 23 percent were observed at

Fruita, Colorado and Loma, Colorado, respectively for the latter time

period.  These violations can only be associated with discharges from the

municipal and wastewater treatment facilities.  The above violations were a

change of 40 percent less than observed for the first period.


Nitrogen

     For the latter time period, the percentage violations above Grand Junc-

tion, Colorado, were about 7 percent, but at Fruita, Colorado, the violations

were 65 percent.  Causes of this load can be to some extent attributed to the

municipal wastewater treatment plants from the various towns.  Although

this section includes the Grand Valley where there is extensive irrigation

for orchards, it does not seem that applied fertilizers would contribute as

heavily to the nitrogen load as would be expected for the South Platte and
                                    25

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and Arkansas basins, but the results appears to be about the same.  The




Gunnison River also joins the Colorado River at Grand Junction and this tri-




butary carries a significant nitrogen load.







Phosphorus Related Group




     Violations for this group were first apparent at the Hot Sulphur Springs




station.  This station is located about 20 miles downstream from the head-




waters.  There were 23 Ortho PC>4 violations per 45 observations.  Downstream




from this station the percentage of violations fluctuated between 14 percent




and 87 percent.






Index Analysis




     The index values for the latter time period were 16 percent less than




the values for the first time period.






TDS




     The appearance of high TDS concentrations became noticeable in the index




at the state's Dotsero station.  The concentrations continue to rise down-




stream.  The statistics for the state station at Loma were 283 mg/1 minimum,




783 mg/1 mean, and 1442 mg/1 maximum.






                               Index Analysis







     The index values for the segment above Dotsero Springs, Colorado, were




below 3, but the values were from 26 to 45 percent higher for the latter time




period.  At New Castle, Colorado, the index was 9.  No trends could be deter-




mined for the river below Dotsero Springs because some stations would show




improvement whereas the next station downstream would show degradation.
                                     26

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                                 RIO GRANDE RIVER

                                     COLORADO



                 Reach                           Use             Classification

1.  Headwaters to CO.-NM. state line       Unlimited Man               B-l
                                           Cold Water Fish


                                  Group Analysis


Oxygen Related Group

     At the Lobatos, Colorado station, 4 percent violations (2 violations per 57

observations)  were noted for the first time period but no violations occurred

during the latter time period.


Bacteria Related Group

     The largest number of violations noted were observed by the State at their

Manassa station where 6 violations per 50 observations (12 percent)  were recorded

for both time periods.  The City of Alamosa and other communities may be the

source of this load although the concentrations are comparatively low (697 mpn/

100 ml mean and 4600 mpn/100 ml maximum).


Nitrogen Related Group

     The violations noted at Alamosa and the downstream stations vary between 1

percent and 10 percent.   The USGS noted one violation of N02+N03 in  21 observa-

tions at their Lobatos station.


Phosphorus Related Group

     High percentage violations occurred at all the water quality stations in

the valley.  The average was 90 percent.  It appears that the phosphorus
                                        27

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load was initially picked up near the headwaters and the load is being carried




downstream.







Physical Related Group




     The only item of note is the decrease in the percentage of violations from




10 percent to 1 percent for the two respective time periods.  The mean TDS con-




centrations at Lobatos was 194 mg/1 and the maximum recorded was 338 mg/1.







Other




     Extensive mining activities occur in the San Juan Mountains.  Hence, the




influence of this area on the river is evident because of the presence of trace




metals  in the analyzed samples.  Some concentrations (ng/1) noted are as follows:
Violations
Observations
Min imum
Mean
Maximum
Cd
total
6
8
0
8
10
Fe
total
8
8
340
980
2500
Hg.
diss.
2
8
0.0
0.17
1.00
Hg
total
2
8
0.0
0.29
1.70
Mn
diss.
4
16
0
41
130
Pb
total
7
8
5
88
100
                                  Index Analysis






     An  index value of less than 5 was calculated for portions of the Rio Grande




River below Alamosa, Colorado.  Insufficient data above this station did not




permit the calculations of an index number for the upper segment of the river.
                                        28

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                              SOUTH PLATTE RIVER

                                   COLORADO



                Reach                             Use             Classification

1.   Fairplay, Colorado to Exposition        Unlimited Man               B-l
     Avenue, (Denver, Colorado)              Cold Water Fish

2.   Exposition Avenue, (Denver,              Unlimited Man               B-2
     Colorado)  to CO.-NB. state  line        Warm Water Fish


                                 Group Analysis


Oxygen Related Group

     Percent of violations were  in the order of 40 percent between the 88th

Avenue station in Denver, Colorado, and the Henderson, Colorado station.   With-

in this reach the violations for the latter time period were 5 percent lower

than the first time period.  The USGS continuous monitoring station at

Henderson, recorded Dissolved Oxygen concentrations dropped below 5.0 mg/1

almost every day of the year. Violations for the remainder of the river never

exceeded 2 percent.
                                       29

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Bacteria



     The percentage of violations for the main-stem are shown in the graph



below.




   100
Percent
Violations
    75
    50
    25
       en
       t-i
       0)
       4J
       (0


      g
       n)
       0)
                                                             1971-74 ~
C!
0
o
(0
P
0
0)

4-

CO
          00
          M


          XI
          10
          HI
      The violations begin with the municipal wastewater  treatment  plants lo-



 cated in the southern edge of the Denver metropolitan  area.   These violations


 are further sustained all the way downstream from  sources  such as  "liquid



 manure" applied to fields for fertilizers and the  numerous feedlots located


 along the river.  The graph for the latter time period could indicate an



 improvement due to the impact of the NPDES permit  program.




 Nitrogen


      High violations in the order of 78 percent were first noticed at the



 Dartmouth Avenue Station in Denver, Colorado.  The percentage of violations



 increased to 97 percent and remained at that level all the way to  Sterling
                                        30

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where the percentages dropped to 76 percent.  From where the violations first




became noticeable the cause is pointed to the municipal wastewater treat-




ment plants beginning at Littleton, Colorado.  Fertilizers, especially the




manure applied to the fields from the numerous feedlots, have to be




responsible for much of this nitrogen load.  The overall improvement in




trend varied between 2 and 9 percent reduction in violations.






Phosphorus




     Violations for the segment from Littleton, Colorado, to the Colorado-




Nebraska state line were about 100 percent for the two time periods.







IDS and Turbidity




     Violations for this group were between 60 and 70 percent between Denver




and the Colorado-Nebraska state line.  No violations were observed above




Denver.






                                Index Analysis







     Index values for the segment above the City of Littleton, Colorado,




were 3.5 and 2.5 for the two time periods.  Downstream, from this station to




the Colorado-Nebraska state line, the index values were over 20.  The




maximum value was 62 at the 124th Avenue station in Denver.  The overall




index values for the latter time period were about 5 percent lower than the




first time period.
                                      31

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                               BIG HORN RIVER

                                   MONTANA



             Reach                         Use             Classification

1.   Wyoming Border to Williams      Unlimited Man               B,D1
     Coulee below Hardin            Cold Water Fishery

2.   Williams Coulee below           Unlimited Man               B,D2
     Hardin to the Yellowstone      Cold Water Fishery
     River


                               Group Analysis


Oxygen Related Constituents

     No violations were observed for either period at any point in either

reach.


Bacteria (fecal and total)

     A bacteria violation percentage of 7 percent was observed along both

reaches for the second period.  The Hardin station showed an improvement in

bacterial quality by a decrease from 20 percent to 7 percent violations be-

tween the two periods.


Nitrogen

     No nitrogen violations were observed for either period at any station

along both reaches except for 3 violations out of 58 samples for the second

period at the St. Xavier station.


Phosphorus

     Phosphorus violations for both reaches rose from 35 percent for the
                                     32

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first period to 46 percent during the second period.  The Big Horn station




showed a major decline in phosphorus quality indicated by an increase of




violations from 27 percent for the first period to 59 percent for the second




period.







TDS-Turbidity




     Overall TDS-turbidity violations decreased from 80 percent for the first




period to 60 percent for the second period.  The Big Horn station had viola-




tions of 50 percent for both periods.  This was the lowest percentage of




violation along either reach.







Other




     Heavy metals samples showed a high percent of violations at Big Horn,




Montana.  Only a small amount of heavy metal samples were taken at Big Horn




during the first period.  During the second period, samples were numerous




and indicated cadmium had a 44 percentage of violations and zinc 32 percent.







Probable Causes




     Irrigation uses in Wyoming and Montana affect water quality as well as




Big Horn Lake (an upstream reservoir).






                               Index Analysis







     The index decreased slightly from 9 to 8 for the two periods.  This




would indicate that the quality had no major change.  Due to the lack of




data at the St. Xavier station the quality effect of water coming from




Yellowstone Reservoir could not be ascertained.  The Big Horn station just




upstream of the confluence bith the Yellowstone River showed some decline




in quality (4 to 7 index).







                                     33

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                                CLARK FORK RIVER

                                    MONTANA



                 Reach                          Use                Classification

1.   Warm Springs Creek to Cottonwood       Limited Man                  C,D2
     Creek                                 Cold Water Fishery

2.   Cottonwood Creek to the Little         Limited Man                  C,D1
     Blackfoot River                       Cold Water Fishery

3.   Little Blackfoot River to the Idaho    Unlimited Man                B,D1
     Border                                Cold Water Fishery


                                 Group Analysis


Oxygen Related Constituents

     No violations of the oxygen parameters were observed for either period

along the three reaches.


Bacteria (fecal and total)

     Bacteria violations for the upper segment (Galen-Deer Lodge)  of Reach 1

became higher between the first and second period (21 percent to 30 percent).

Progressing down the river the quality continued to improve till it reached a

no violation level at Thompson Falls.


Nitrogen

     Violations for the Galen-Deer Lodge segment of Reach 1 increased at both

the Galen and Deer Lodge stations for the two time periods.  Galen had a rise

from 8 percent violations to 17 percent violations and Deer Lodge  had no viola-

tions for the first period with 10 percent violations for the second period.
                                       34

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Phosphorus




     Phosphorus violations decreased at all the stations along the reaches from




the first to the second period.  The violations became less numerous progressing




downstream from Galen.  The violation percentage was from a high of 83 percent




for the last period at Galen to a low of 50 percent for the last period at




Thompson Falls.







TDS-Turbidity




     Quality was noted to improve progessively downstream from Galen.  Galen




had 100 percent violations, Deer Lodge 56 percent and the Missoula-Thompson




Falls segment of Reach 2 had no violations for the last period.  A major de-




cline in TDS-turbidity quality occurred between the periods at Galen, 61




percent to 100 percent violations.







Other




     Numerous heavy metal violations occurred in all the reaches during the




first period but no heavy metal samples were taken during the second period.







Probable Causes




     Copper mining and refining activities at Butte and Anaconda contribute to




the metals problems in the upper portion of Reach 1.  Inactive mines in that




area also add to the metal and TDS violations.  Major STP's probably cause




the bacteria problems at Galen and Deer Lodge.
                                       35

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                                Index Analysis









     The upstream area consisting of Galen and Deer Lodge stations (Reach




1)  has considerable more violations than the downstream segment (Reaches




2 and 3) from Missoula to the Idaho border.  The overall index rose from 13




for the first period to 19 in the second period for the Galen-Deer Lodge seg-




ment of Reach 1.  For the same time period, the index for the Missoula-Thompson




Falls segment (Reaches 2 and 3)  remained low.  An index of 3 for both periods




was calculated for this segment.
                                      36

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                               MISSOURI RIVER

                                  MONTANA
             Reach

1.   Headwaters to the Sun River


2.   Rainbow Dam to Fort Peck
3.  Fort Peck to the Milk
     River

4.  Milk River to the North
     Dakota Border
       Use

Unlimited Man
Cold Water Fishery

Unlimited Man
Cold Water Fishery

Unlimited Man
Cold Water Fishery

Unlimited Man
Cold Water Fishery
Classification

     B,D1


     B,D3


     B,D2


     B,D3
                               Group Analysis


Oxygen Related Constituents

     No violation in oxygen criterion was noted in any of the reaches.


Bacteria (fecal and total)

     The segment of Reach 1 between the headwaters and Townsend showed a

slight increase in violations (4 to 8 percent).  Only at the Fort Benton sta-

tion was a sizeable improvement in water quality noted.  The percentages of

violation went from 36 to 11 percent between the periods.  No violation

occurred at/or downstream of Zortman for reaches 2, 3 and 4.


Nitrogen

     Nitrogen violations were noted only from the headwaters to Zortman and

these were no greater than 7 percent for either time period and any station in

the reaches.  No violations occurred in Reaches 3 and 4 from Fort Peck to the

Montana-North Dakota border.
                                      37

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Phosphorus




     Phosphorus violations remained constant for the two periods.  From




the headwaters to Fort Benton the percentages of violation were from 85 to




100 percent.  In the portion of the river from Zortman to Fort Peck the




violations dropped drastically to less than 10 percent.  Then the viola-




tions rose steadily in the portion of the river from Fort Peck Dam to the




Montana-North Dakota border.  At Culbertson, near the Montana-North Dakota




border, it had risen to 65 percent.







TDS-Turbidity




     IDS  violations were not greater than 7 percent for Reaches  1 and 2.




These reaches extend from the headwaters to below Fort Peck Dam.  However,




at  Culbertson the percentages of violation rose to 24 percent for the




second  period.






Other




     The  heavy metals, consisting of cadmium, zinc, lead and manganese,




 showed  violations which occurred intermittently for both time periods at




 several stations along all  the reaches.  These violations were as high as




 45 percent  for  some of the  metals at several stations.






Probable Causes




     Abondoned mines  in Reach  1 can cause some of the severe metal problems,




 Industrial,  irrigation, and municipal uses in the Great Falls-Fort Benton




portion of  the  river account for the water quality being slightly poorer




 than the  quality of water in the downstream areas of the reaches.
                                     38

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                              Index Analysis







     The index values for both periods remained low.  The general index




range was from 1 to 6.  Only the part of the river from the headwaters to




Fort Benton had an index value as high as 6.
                                    39

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                             POWDER RIVER

                                MONTANA



          Reach                       Use               Classification

1.   Wyoming Border to the      Unlimited Man                 B,D3
     Yellowstone River         Cold Water Fishery


                            Group Analysis


Oxygen Related Constituents

     The oxygen violation percentage remained the same for both periods

at less than 2 percent.


Bacteria (fecal and total)

     Bacteria violations for the first period amounted to 21 percent.  No

bacteriological samples  were taken the second period.


Nitrogen

     Nitrogen violations remained the same for both periods at 9 percent.


Phosphorus

     Phosphorus violations declined slightly from 100  percent in the

first period to 89 percent in the second period.


TDS-Turbidity

     TDS-turbidity violations for the reach declined slightly between

the two periods.  (100 percent to 88 percent).
Other
     Heavy metals were high and in most cases showed an increasing percent


                                  40

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of violations from period one to period two.  Cadmium went from 0 to 90




percent violations, lead 4 to 67 percent and zinc 21 to 56 percent.




Mercury violations remain high at 50 percent.







Probable Causes




     Natural runoff and irrigation diversion appear to be the major




factors influencing violations.






                            Index Analysis







     Only one station, at Moorhead, was monitored within this reach.




The index dropped from 13 to 7 but no bacteriological data were present




in the second period.  This biases the index to a lower value.  Had the




bacteria violations for the second period been the same percent as the




first period, the index would be 16.  This suggests little improvement




occurred in quality between the periods.
                                  41

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                             YELLOWSTONE RIVER

                                  MONTANA



             Reach                        Use             Classification

1.   Yellowstone Park to Laurel     Unlimited Man               B,D1
     WTP                           Cold Water Fishery

2.   Laurel WTP to Billings WTP     Unlimited Man               B,D2
                                   Cold Water Fishery

3.   Billings WTP to North          Unlimited Man               B,D3
     Dakota Border                 Cold Water Fishery


                              Group Analysis


Oxygen Related Constituents

     No violations were observed for either period.  The range of dissolved

oxygen was from 7 to 13.


Bacteria (fecal and total)

     The segment upstream of the Laurel WTP station (Reach 1)  showed a

Decrease in violations from 23 percent the first period to 17  percent the

second period.  However, the segment downstream of Billings (Reach 3)

showed an increase from 33 percent to 41 percent violations between the

periods.  The Huntley station, approximately 10 miles downstream of

Billings showed an increase of violations from 65 to 84 percent between the

two periods.  This rate decreased downstream till it reached less than 15

percent violations at Sydney.


Nitrogen

    Nitrogen violations for both periods were from 0 to 5 percent along all
                                   42

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the reaches except for the station at Billings.  This station showed a




higher number of violations (16 percent for both periods).






Phosphorus




     In a fashion similar to the bacteria violations in the reaches, a




violation decrease from 59 percent the first period to 40 percent the second




period was noted in Reach 1 at and above the Laurel WTP.  Reach 3, below the




Billings WTP, showed a sizeable increase in violations from 53 percent the




first period to 74 percent the second period.  At Corwin Springs 85 per-




cent violations occurred, possibly due to natural sources at Yellowstone




Lake.  Billings and Miles City had a significant rise in violations.  The




two time periods showed a violation increase from 32 to 48 percent viola-




tions for Billings and 34 to 57 percent violations for Miles City.






TDS-Turbidity




     The overall TDS-turbidity violation percentages remained almost the




same for both time periods.  Violations of less than 15 percent occurred




in Reach 1, Reach 2 and the portion of Reach 3 upstream of the confluence




with the Big Horn River.  Downstream the violations rose to 35 percent.




The Big Horn River had TDS-turbidity violations of greater than 50 percent.




The Powder River, which had violations over 50 percent, causes the viola-




tions downstream of the confluence with the Yellowstone to rise to 57




percent for the second period.







Other




     Heavy metal violations occurred for both time periods in Reach 3,




the part of the river from Billings to the Montana-North Dakota border.
                                    43

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The two metals with the highest violations (lead and zinc) have shown a




decline in violation percentages from the first to second period.  Lead




violations dropped from 72 to 55 percent and zinc declined from 62 to 34




percent between the periods.  The violations seemed to occur more fre-




quently in the Billings area but they did extend as far downstream as




Sydney, Montana.







Probable Causes




     The quality of the Yellowstone River at and downstream of Billings is




affected by two oil refineries, a sugar refinery, two STP's and a power




plant.  Irrigation diversions influenced the quality along the entire




reach.  As indicated earlier the inflows of the Powder and Bighorn Rivers




affect the water quality of the Yellowstone.







                              Index Analysis






     The  index changed very little between the periods.  Reach 1 from




Yellowstone Park to the Laurel WTP had an index decrease of 1 (6 to 5) .




Reach  3,  from the Billings WTP to the Montana-North Dakota border has an




index  of  12 for both periods.  The Billings station showed a noticeable




index  increase  from the first period to the second period.  This was caused




by increased  violations of bacteria, phosphorus and TDS-turbidity criteria.
                                     44

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                               JAMES RIVER

                               NORTH DAKOTA
               Reach                         Use            Classification

1.  Headwaters to the North Dakota-      Limited Man              IA
     South Dakota Border                 Native Fish
                              Group Analysis


Oxygen Related Constituents

     The overall percentage of violations rose from 4 percent to 6 percent

over the two periods.  The greatest increases between periods were at

Edmunds and Oakes, (23 to 50 percent and 6 to 19 percent respectively).

The middle section of the river (Jamestown and Lawrence) had no violations.
                                           V
Bacteria (fecal and total)

    Bacterial violations for the reach decreased slightly (31 to 27 per-

cent) .  Despite the fact that the Jamestown stations showed a drop in

violations (34 to 21 percent), all the other stations showed an increase,

from 8 to 22 percent.


Nitrogen

    Nitrogen samples were taken only at the two stations on the down-

stream portion of the reach (Lawrence and Oakes).  The violations remained

approximately the same, varying only from 10 to 15 percent for both periods

at both stations.


Phosphorus

    Phosphorus violations were close to 100 percent for the reach during

both time periods.
                                    45

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TDS-Turbidity




     IDS and turbidity violations in the reach remained approximately  the




same, at 70 percent for both periods.







Other




     Manganese violations from 80 to 85 percent were noted at Jamestown




and  further downstream at Lawrence for both periods.







Probable Causes




     Frequent low  flow conditions along with agricultural and municipal




diversions and nonpoint sources created the high IDS violation percentage.




Naturally occurring phosphorus accounted for the high phosphorus  levels.






                              Index Analysis






     The overall index showed an increase  (24 to 26) between the  two time




periods, indicating some deterioration in  quality.  However, the  Edmunds




station  (farthest  upstream) and the Oakes  station  (farthest downstream)




showed marked index increases.  Edmunds increased  from 24 to 36 and Oakes




increased  from  17  to  34 between the two periods.   Moving from upstream




to downstream for  the last period, Edmunds had an  index value of  35.   The




index was  11 at Jamestown and began to rise again  until it reached 34  at




Oakes.
                                    46

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                                MISSOURI RIVER

                                 NORTH DAKOTA



                Reach                         Use            Classification

1.  Montana-North Dakota Border to       Unlimited Man             I
     North Dakota-South Dakota           Native Fish
     Border


                                Group Analysis


Oxygen Related Constituents

     No oxygen violations occurred in either period at any station along the

reach.


Bacteria (fecal and total)

     Bacteria violations decreased from 12 percent for the first period to

5 percent for the second period.  The only area of significant increase was

at Williston where 3 percent violations were noted the first period and 12

percent the second.


Nitrogen

     Only one to 2 percent violations were noted for the entire reach.


Phosphorus

     Violations of phosphorus criteria for the reach remained the same for

both periods at 44 percent.  Only at Garrison Dam and Bismarck was an improve-

ment in quality noted.  Garrison Dam violations declined from 24 percent to

18 percent and Bismarck violations also declined from 55 percent to 42 per-

cent violations between the two periods.
                                      47

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TDS-Turbidity




     IDS and turbidity violations for the reach increased from 5 percent




to 9 percent from one period to the next.  The Williston station samples




indicated a drastic rise in violations (12 to 42 percent).  The other




stations in the reach were relatively stable in violation percentages.







Other




     The segment from Williston to Garrison Dam is plagued with intermittent




heavy metal problems.  Cadmium above 80 percent, zinc above 50 percent and




mercury above 40 percent occurred in both periods.  Manganese showed a




drastic violation increase from 0 to 32 percent over the two periods.






Probable Causes




     The influence of the Yellowstone River above Williston is a probable




cause of the high metals violation ratings extending from Williston to




Garrison Dam.  Phosphorus occurs naturally in this reach.







                               Index Analysis






     The Missouri River index has remained very good throughout both periods




(4 and  2).  A value of approximately 8 for both periods occurs at Williston




apparently because the Yellowstone River merges with the Missouri just




upstream of Williston.  Beside the index of 8 at Williston, only at Bismarck




does the overall index rise as high as 5.
                                      48

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                         RED RIVER OF THE NORTH

                              NORTH DAKOTA
               Reach                        Use           Classification

1.   Wahpeton to the Canadian Border    Unlimited Man            I
                                       Native Fish
                             Group Analysis


Qxjrgen Related Constituents

     Oxygen violations for the reach increased only slightly during the

two periods (1 percent to 3 percent).  The quality from an oxygen stand-

point is still very good.


Bacterial (fecal and total)

     Bacteria violations decreased from the first to the second period

(39 to 33 percent).  The only two areas having major problems are Fargo

and Oslo.  Both have 60 to 65 percent violations with no sign of de-

creasing violations with time.


Nitrogen

     Nitrogen violations showed a slight increase between periods (16 to

19 percent).   Almost every station showed some increase.  Violations were

low (below 15 percent) from Fairmont to Fargo.  At and below Fargo, the

violation percent rose and then dropped again at all the stations below

Grand Forks.


Phosphorus

     Phosphorus violations were 95 to 100 percent along the entire reach
                                    49

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except at and upstream of Wahpeton, where the violation rate was 85




percent.







TDS-Turbidity




     Measurements for IDS and turbidity showed a marked increase in




violation percent, (18 to 27 percent).  A significant rise in violations




was shown downstream of Grand Forks and Oslo.







Other




     Heavy metal violations were prevalent along the entire river with




no sign of improvement between the time periods.  Cadmium and manganese




are the prime violators with 98 percent and 90 percent violations.






Probable Causes




     Several sugar refineries, major STP's and major power plants degrade




this river.  Low flow conditions and agricultural runoff also causes




some of the violations.  Phosphorus occurs naturally which makes the




percent of violations close to 100.






                             Index Analysis






     The overall index values shows an increase from 13 to 18 from the




first to second periods.  In most of the stations at Grand Forks and




upstream, the quality is improving.  Below Grand Forks the quality




becomes worse between the two time periods.
                                    50

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                              SOURIS RIVER

                              NORTH DAKOTA
                 Reach                         Use        Classification

1.  Canadian Border to Canadian Border     Limited Man          IA
                                           Native Fish
                             Group Analysis


Oxygen Related Constituents

     The percent of oxygen related constituent violations for the reach

rose slightly between the two periods (10 to 14 percent)-  Upstream of

Minot, the violations remained constant at less than 15 percent but,

downstream of Minot to the Canadian border the violations for the second

period were greater than the first period violations (11 to 15).


Bacteria (fecal and total)

     Bacteria violations rose from 10 to 15 percent between the two

periods.  This is almost exactly the same violation percentages noted for

oxygen related constituents.  The major bacterial degradation was at Saw-

yer, which is below Minot (4 percent to 26 percent).


Nitrogen

     Violations of the nitrogen parameters rose 50 percent (8 to 12 per-

cent) between the two periods.  Sherwood (near the Canadian border) had

11 percent and 24 percent violations during the two periods.  The only

other major degradation in nitrogen was noted at Minot (7 to 38 percent).
                                   51

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Phosphorus




     Phosphorus violations remained constant  for both periods averaging




about 95 percent.  Only at Minot was a major  degradation noted  (44  to




100 percent).  All the other stations had an  initially high violations




rate which  continued in the second period.







TDS-Turbidity




     IDS and turbidity violations in the reach  dropped considerably (62




to  49 percent).  An improvement in quality occurred  at almost all the




stations examined.






Other




     pH violations were noted  3 to 5 percent  of the  time for both periods




at  most stations.  Cadmium, manganese, mercury, lead and zinc violations




were prevalent.  The highest percentages of violation were for  cadmium




and manganese  with 95 and  74 for the last period.






Probable  Causes




     Naturally occurring phosphorus accounts  for some of the high phos-




phorus  violations.  Oxygen and nitrogen problems at  and below Minot are




 probably  caused  by the STP's and municipal runoff  from the Minot area.






                               Index Analysis




     The  index value  increased slightly  (20 to  24) between the  two  periods




 indicating some degradation  in the water quality.  The index at Sherwood,




near  the  Canadian border,  rose from 22 to 28.   The water coming from




Canada  showed  an increase  in violations between periods.  Violations in
                                     52

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water flowing back into Canada, measured at the two Westhope stations,




also increased (16 to 23 percent).  Based on violations observed, water




flowing into Canada appears to be of higher quality than that flowing




from Canada in both time periods.
                                    53

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                                BIG SIOUX RIVER

                                 SOUTH DAKOTA



             Reach                        Uses            State Classification

1.  Headwaters to the Diversion     Limited Man               1,5,8,9,10,11
     Canal at Sioux Falls           Warm Water Fishery


                                Group Analysis


Oxygen Related Index (P.O.  and BOD)

     During the first period of record only one D.O.  violation was recorded in

the total reach.  The Dissolved Oxygen violations increased to 8 percent

during the second period with the major concentrations occurring between the

headwaters and the Brookings, South Dakota station.   Presumably part of this

change is due to seasonal recording differences at low flows and pooled condi-

tions when considerable organic nutrients were present.


Bacteria Related Index (fecal and total)

     The high bacteria violations which contribute to the Quality Index for

this stream segment have remained essentially constant showing no improvement

over the two periods of study with an average near 22 percent.  This problem

is probably related to the increased oxygen and nutrient problems.


Nitrogen

     The percentage of nitrogen violations increased  markedly from the first

to second time period in a consistent manner all along this stream segment.

Forty-seven percent (47) violations in 1971-1974 to  65 percent violations in

1973-1976.
                                      54

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Phosphorus




     Phosphorus violations remained at approximately 100 percent throughout




both time periods.  This seems to be due primarily to nonpoint phenomena




stemming from natural phosphates in the soil.







IDS and Turbidity




     Little change noted over the two time periods in TDS and turbidity




parameters.  Violations are consistently observed in the 72 percent range.




Maximum values for TDS range from 1008 mg/1 in the first period to 4501 mg/1




in the second period.






Other




     Temperature and pH violations are nonexistent in the segment but th^re




are numerous zinc, lead and manganese criteria violations.







Probable Causes




     There exists frequent near no flow and pooled water conditions.  Concen-




trations of ammonia and nitrates are the result of decomposition of animal




wastes in runoff from pastures and cultivated fields.  A major sand and




gravel plant, a rock quarry and crushing operation and three sewage treatment




plants are in this reach.






                                Index Analysis







     Index values calculated show a marked increase for the second time period




over the entire length of the reach (19 vs 31).  That portion of the stream




at and above Watertown contributed most of to this increase.  The index for
                                       55

-------
                                      -3-







the Brookings and for the Dell  Rapids station continued  to show generally




poor water quality.   Both time  periods have sufficient data available to




allow the assumption that the index is reflecting the existing stream




quality.
                                     56

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                                BIG SIOUX RIVER

                                 SOUTH DAKOTA



               Reach                       Uses           State Classification

1.   Sioux Falls Diversion Canal     Limited Man                5,8,9,10,11
     to Klondike Dam                Warm Water Fishery

2.   Klondike Dam to the Iowa        Limited Man                4,7,8,9,10,11
     Border                         Warm Water Fishery


                                Group Analysis


Oxygen Related Constituents (DO and BOD)

     Dissolved oxygen violations in this segment increased from 8 percent in

the first time period to 10 percent in the second time period with 70 per-

cent of all observed violations occurring in the stretch below Brandon, South

Dakota.


Bacteria (fecal and total)

     Bacteria violations were reduced nearly in half over the two time periods.

Approximately 71 percent violations occurred in time period 1 as compared to

37 percent violations in time period 2.  This reduction seems to be fairly

uniform over all sampling stations in this segment.


Nitrogen

     Nitrogen violations doubled over the two periods of study, the largest

increase being noted at stations immediately downstream of Sioux Falls.


Phosphorus

     No noticeable change is observed in phosphorus standards violations over
                                      57

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the two time periods.   Violations occurring at all sampling stations in the




segment are practically 100 percent.   Perhaps a seasonal breakdown of the




data could pinpoint and differentiate those areas affected by contributions




from municipalities and from natural  sources.







IDS and Turbidity




     Violations of the IDS standards  remain at the 75 percent level during




both time periods.  Chloride and sulfate violations approach 50 percent.




Chlorides seem to show a marked increase below the Sioux Falls plant during




the second time period.  This along with the decrease of bacteria in the seg-




ment is probably due to higher levels of chlorination during sewage treat-




ment and in the winter from road salts carried by storm sewers.






Other




     There were no observations of temperature or pH violations during the




first  time period.  Two pH violations (9.5) were recorded in the second time




period.  Frequent zinc, lead, manganese and mercury violations were recorded




during both time periods.






Probable Causes




     The major sewage treatment plant at Sioux Falls: two meat packing plants,




three  power plants, urban runoff.  Upstream agricultural uses.






                                Index Analysis






     The overall index calculated for the two different time periods shows




little change despite the fact that bacteria violations in the total length of
                                       58

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the reach have decreased and nitrogen violations have increased.  It is




evident that the sewage treatment plant at Sioux Falls has considerable effect




on quality throughout the entire length of this segment.
                                      59

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                               CHEYENNE RIVER

                                SOUTH DAKOTA



             Reach                      Uses          State Classification

1.  Wyoming Border to Angostura      Limited Man           5,8,9,10,11
     Dam                             Warm Water
                                      Fishery


                               Group Analysis


Oxygen Related Constituents

     No D.O. violations were observed during the first time period and only

one violation in 57 observations was found in the second time period.

There were no BOD violations in either time period.


Bacteria

     Bacteria violations showed no change in Edgemont and held at 15 per-

cent throughout both periods of this study.


Nitrogen

     Percentage violations for nitrogen changed considerable over the two

time periods by increasing from 13 percent to 52 percent.  Most lakes in

the area show advanced stages of eutrophication.


Phosphorus

     Phosphorus violations showed some improvement with a decrease from 75

percent to 50 percent.


TDS and Turbidity

     Measurements of TDS and turbidity violations remain at 100 percent


                                     60

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over the two time periods.  Conductivity sulfate and chloride violations




are all in the 95 to 100 percent range and show no improvement from one




time period to the next.






Other




     One p" event was detected in the second time period and all 25 of the




manganese observations were excessive.
                                     61

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                                CHEYENNE RIVER

                                 SOUTH DAKOTA



            Reach                      Uses;               State Classification

1.  Angostura Dam to the Fall       Limited Man               4,7,8,9,10,11
     River                          Warm Water
                                     Fishery

2.  Fall River to the Missouri      Limited Man               5,7,8,9,10,11
     River                          Warm Water
                                     Fishery


                                Group Analysis


Oxygen Related Constituents

     During each time period only one D.O.  violation was recorded.  BOD

information is not available for any portion of this reach and there is no

D.O. data for that segment immediately below the Angostura Dam and the

Buffalo Gap Station.


Bacteria

     Violations of criteria set for bacteria remain at approximately 28 per-

cent throughout each time period.  All of these violations occurred at the

Wasta and Plainview stations.  No information on bacteria is available at

the upstream stations of this reach.
 /

Nitrogen

     Nitrogen violations increased from 61  percent in period one to 71 per-

cent in period 2.  Only a few of these violations (6 percent)  occurred in the

upper reach near the Angostura Dam.
                                      62

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Phosphorus




     Phosphorus violations although still excessive showed some decline.




Violations of 74 percent were observed during period one and 68 percent




during period two.  Violations of the phosphorus standard criteria were




found to approach a fairly constant level throughout the reach.







IDS and Turbidity




     IDS and turbidity violations were found in the 94-98 percent range




during both periods.  These concentrations remain constant throughout the




entire reach.  Excessive salinity events were observed and sulfate and




conductivity violations were consistently at 100 percent.






Other




     One p" event was observed in the first time period and three in the




second period.  Several cadmium, lead, zinc, selenium, chromium,  manganese




and mercury violations were noted in both periods.







Probable Causes




     o  Industrial and municipal discharges at the Rapid City Power




        Plants near Rapid City.




     o  Sand and gravel washing at Hot Springs, Wasta, Sturgis,




        Wall and Spearfish.




     o  Timbering and mining activities (open pit mines and




        tailings dumps), agriculture (irrigation, cultivation,




        stock feeding).
                                     63

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     o   Irrigation  increases  dissolved  solids  in tributaries




        entering this  reach.




     o   Bog iron in the Rapid Creek drainage.




     o   Placer mining  scars on French,  Battle,  Castle,  Rapid,




        Bear Butte  and Whitewood  Creeks.




     o   Home Stake  Gold Mine  wastes from Whitewood Creek.




     o   Cement plant discharges at  Rapid  City.




     o   Nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon, BOD,  calcium,  magnesium,




        sodium, suspended solids  and other  chemicals are added  to




        all surface waters in this  area from natural sources.







                               Index Analysis







     A change in index values over  the  two  time periods,  from 26  to  23




suggests some improvement of  the  overall  water  quality  in  this  reach.




Highest violation percentages continue  to occur for  nitrogen, phosphorus




and IDS.
                                     64

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                                   JAMES RIVER

                                   SOUTH DAKOTA



              Reach                         Uses           State Classification

1.  North Dakota Border to Huron,    Limited Man                5,8,9,10,11
     South Dakota                    Warm Water Fishery


                                 Group Analysis


Oxygen Related Constituents

     No BOD data are available in the reach and there is no DO data at Columbia.

DO violations observed show little change over the two trend periods.


Bacteria (fecal and total)

     Observations of bacteria violations remain at approximately 3 percent and

are only recorded at Hecla and Stratford.


Nitrogen

     Nitrogen violations show some slight increase over the observed time

periods (49 percent - 58 percent).


Phosphorus

     Phosphorus violations continue to remain at the 100 percent level for both

time periods.


TDS-Turbidity

     TDS and turbidity show some improvement over the trend periods with a

violation percentage of 74 during time period 1 and 57 during time period 2.

However, the maximum and mean observations in time period 2 exceed those in

period 1.
                                       65

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Other




     One pH violation (10.0)  in 54 observations was noted in the first time




period and 2 violations in 35 were found in period 2.  No temperature viola-




tions were observed.  Excessive manganese violations (100 percent) were




observed in each period.






Probable Cause




     Intermittent flows occur in the headwaters region above Huron, South




Dakota.  Lower stream gradient in portions of the basin often causes reverse




flows in the reach.  Feedlots, cultivated fields and pastures abound in the




basin.  Sixty-five percent of the total land in the basin is under




cultivation.






                               Index Analysis






     The index value for this stream segment shows a slight increase in the




second time period suggesting some decrease in overall stream quality




(16-18).
                                      66

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                                 JAMES RIVER

                                 SOUTH DAKOTA



             Reach                       Uses           State Classification

1.   Huron, South Dakota to the    Limited Man                5,8,9,10,11
     Missouri River               Warm Water Fishery


                               Group Analysis


Oxygen Related Constituents

     There seems to be no significant change in BOD or DO;  observations over

the two time periods continue to show an average of 10 percent violations.


Bacteria

     Bacterial violations remain at approximately 10 percent and are concen-

trated in the upper portion of the reach in the vicinity of Huron,  South

Dakota.


Nitrogen

     Nitrogen violations show a significant increase over the two time periods.

38 percent to 59 percent.  Here again the greatest concentrations occur

immediately below the Huron station.


Phosphorus

     Phosphorus violations continue at 100 percent throughout the length of

this segment during each of the time periods.


TDS and Turbidity

     Violations of TDS and turbidity criteria remain at near 80 percent.
                                      67

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Chloride and sulfate violations in the second time period are 19 percent




and 62 percent respectively.







Other




     No temperature violations were observed in the first time period.  There




was one violation in the second period at the South Dakota station north of




Yankton.  Three pH violations were noted at Huron.  Several manganese and




mercury violations occurred.







Probable Cause




     Two major sewage treatment plants are located at Mitchell and Huron.




There are several industrial dischargers, upstream feedlots and irrigation




diversions and returns on this reach.







                               Index Analysis




     The index values (24-26) for this stream segment signify a slight




decrease in quality.  These calculations are probably more representative




and reliable than others due to the relative abundance of data observed




in this reach.
                                     68

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                          MISSOURI RIVER (CENTRAL)

                                SOUTH DAKOTA



               Reach                      Uses           State Classification

1.  North Dakota Border to Big     Unlimited Man            1,2,7,8,9,10,11
     Bend Dam                      Cold Water Fishery

2.  Big Bend Dam to the Iowa       Unlimited Man            1,4,7,8,9,10,11
     Border


                               Group Analysis


Oxygen Related Constituents

     Over 6000 D.O. measurements with 20 violations were observed in the

first trend period.  No violations were found in the second period where some

1400 observations were made.  One BOD violation occurred in period one,  none

were found in the second time period.


Bacteria (fecal and total)

     No bacteria violations were found in either time period for that por-

tion of the segment between the North Dakota border and the Pierre, South

Dakota station.  In the reach below Pierre and the Iowa border there were

16 percent violations noted in the first period and 20 percent violations in

the second period all occurring at the station near Yankton, South Dakota.


Nitrogen

     Nitrogen violations increased from 6 percent in period one to 25 per-

cent in period two.
                                    69

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Phosphorus




     Phosphorus violations went from 50 percent to 30 percent in the upper




stream reach (above Pierre).  No violations were observed in the lower




stream reach during either period.







TDS and Turbidity




     Measurements of TDS and turbidity violations remain much the same




throughout the study periods and the supporting data are sparse for this seg-




ment.  However, numerous conductivity measurements (1200) are available and




show an overall violation percentage in excess of 20 percent.  No sulfate




violations occurred and only 3 chloride violations were observed.






Other




     Two pH violations appeared in the first period and seven (7) in the




second; several mercury, lead, and cadmium (10) violations occurred in both




periods.






Influencing Factors and Probable Causes




     Quality is dominated by four major man-made lakes  Oahe, Sharpe,




Francis Case and Lewis and Clark.  Irrigation diversions and returns on




tributaries have some impact.




     Two major sewage treatment plants are on the main stem and a major




source of heavy metals tailings is located on a far upstream tributary.






                               Index Analysis







     The index value increased from 2 to 6 over the two time periods and
                                     70

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reflects some deterioration.  However, the overall quality for this seg-




ment of stream is generally quite good.  Significant stations in the reach




are below the Oahe, Big Bend and Gavins Point Dams.
                                     71

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                                BEAR RIVER

                                   UTAH



               Reach                            Use            Classification

1.   Headwaters to  UT.-WY.  state  line     Limited Man                 CC
                                        Cold Water Fishery

2.   ID.-UT.  state  line to  mouth          Limited Man                 CC
                                        Warm Water Fishery


                              Group Analysis


Oxygen Related Index

     The Geological Survey did not record any violations for the oxygen

related group at their monitoring  station near the Bird Refuge (mouth of the

Bear River).  However, 70  miles  upstream the state reported that about 13

percent violations had occurred  at their Amalga station.


Bacteria

     The state recorded 56 and 67  percent bacteria violations at their Amalga

station for the two time periods.   Near the  mouth of the Bear River the

observed violations were 17 percent and 13 percent for the two respective

time periods.


Nitrogen

     The state recorded an increase in violations for the two time periods

from 20 percent to 60 percent at their uppermost station; but a short dis-

tance downstream no violations were recorded.  At the mouth the USGS recorded

violations of 75 percent and 36  percent for the two time periods.
                                     72

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     It appears that there is substantial irrigation throughout this reach




and the upstream reach in Idaho which affects this pollutant group.






Phosphorus




     Violations of the phosphorus pollutants varied between 42 percent and




80 percent.  The violations computed for the total reach were 50 percent




for the first time period and 65 percent for the latter period.







IDS




     The percentage violations for this group for the two time periods were




constantly 25 percent, except at the mouth where the USGS recorded 3 viola-




tions in 4 observations (75 percent).






                               Index Analysis







     The index values for the reach of the Bear River between the Idaho-Utah




state line and the mouth varied between 16 and 23.  The differences in index




values at each station for the two time periods were not significant for




trend evaluation.
                                     73

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                                 GREEN RIVER

                                    UTAH
              Reach                        Use              Classification

1.   Flaming Gorge Reservoir to      Limited Man                   CC
     UT.-CO.  state line             Cold Water Fishery

2.   CO.-UT. state line to mouth     Limited Man                   CW
     (Colorado River)                Warm Water Fishery
                               Group Analysis


Oxygen Related Group

     The only violations observed were at the station near Jensen, Utah,

where 4 percent was noted.


Bacteria

     The State of Utah observed between 17 and 27 percent violations occur-

ring in the reach between the Flaming Gorge Dam and Jensen, Utah.  Also,

40 and 52 percent violations were noted above the wastewater treatment

facility at Green River, Utah for the two respective time periods.  No trends

are discernible in the data for the lower reach of the Green River.


Hitrogen

     Violations of 93 and 53 percent were recorded below the Flaming Gorge Dam

for the two time periods.  Perhaps the wastewater treatment plant located

at Dutch John  is responsible for these violations.  Downstream 85 miles at

Jensen, Utah,  the State of Utah recorded 67 percent violations while the

USGS recorded  18 percent.  The next station, Green River, Utah, is located

about 200 miles downstream.  The violations here were 70 percent and 29

percent as determined by the state and USGS, respectively.


                                      74

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Phosphorus




     Below the Flaming Gorge Dam the percentage of violations were about




15 percent.  For the reach between Jensen and Green River, Utah, the




percentage of violations were in the order of 60 percent.  Trends cannot be




determined because the variations of the index are not consistent between




stations and for the two time periods.  Differences in concentrations as




determined by the USGS and the state could cause these wide variations in




violations.






IDS




     Violations of this parameter group begin with 2 percent observed near




the headwaters in Wyoming and progressively rise to 40 percent at the




Flaming Gorge Dam.  At the Green River, Utah station the violations obser-




ved were about 80 percent.  Values for both time periods were almost the




same.







                              Index Analysis







     The index for the Green River near the Flaming Gorge Dam was about 13




and at the Green River, Utah station it was about 20 for the second time




period.  Both these values represent a 25 percent increase over the values




calculated for the first time period.
                                    75

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                               JORDAN  RIVER

                                   UTAH



              Reach                          Use              Classification

1.   Utah Lake to Utah-Salt  Lake       Limited Man                   CW
     County Line                     Cold Water Fishery

2.   Utah-Salt Lake County Line to     Limited Man                   CC
     mouth (Great Salt  Lake)          Cold Water Fishery


                              Group  Analysis


Oxygen Related Group

     Violations were noted  throughout the  fifty mile length of the Jordan

River in Utah.  This reach  is characterized by numerous municipalities and

industries located alongside the  front  range of the Wasatch Mountains.

Violations in excess of 80  percent were dominant at the water quality

stations located below  the  discharge  points of the wastewater treatment

plants.  The index values  for both time periods were about the same thus,

no trends could be determined.


Bacteria

     Violations in the  order of  15 percent  were recorded below Utah Lake and

the percentage levels rose  to 80  percent below Murray,  Utah and continued at

that level throughout the remaining portion of the river.  The State of Utah

commonly monitors the stream above and below the discharge points of the

numerous wastewater treatment plants.  At  most stations the data for the two

time periods appear to  be constant.
                                     76

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Nitrogen and Phosphorus

     Percentage of violations for the entire length of the Jordan River is

about 100 percent for each group.


IDS and Other

     The Jordan River originates at the outlet of Utah Lake.  At this point

the IDS concentrations have been observed to be in the order of 1000 mg/1.

At some of the downstream stations the concentrations are over 2000 mg/1.

Also, the stream is highly concentrated with iron.  At station No. 491545,

the observed concentrations (pg/1) of some trace metals are as follows:
Fe
(diss.)
1
18
0
43
700
Fe
(total)
13
17
200
1328
7000
Hg
(total)
1
17
0.0
0.02
0.30
Mn
(diss.)
2
12
0
24
100
Zn
(diss.)
1
19
0
17
239
Violations
Observations
Minimum Cone.
Mean    Cone.
Maximum Cone.
                               Index Analysis


     Index values at the upper end of the Jordan River were 23: and 49 for

the first and second time periods, respectively.  These values progressively

increase to the extent that they were 73 and 68 at the mouth near

Farmington Bay.
                                     77

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                                WEBER RIVER

                                    UTAH



               Reach                        Use              Classification

1.   Headwaters to U.S.  Highway       Limited Man                   CC
     40                              Cold Water Fishery

2.   U.S.  Highway 40 to  mouth         Limited Man                   CW
     (Great Salt Lake)                Warm Water Fishery


                               Group Analysis


Oxygen Related Group

     At the station above the Central Weber wastewater treatment facility

the percentage of violations was 12 percent for the first period and 6 per-

cent for the latter.


Bacteria

     This parameter is directly related to the oxygen group.   Surprisingly,

the percentage of bacteria violations was found to be higher  at the station

above the plant.  Yet,  as would be expected the concentrations of total

coliform were higher below the plant with a mean of 57,790 mpn/100 ml and

a maximum over 100,000 mpn/100 ml.


Nitrogen

     The stations for the three forks of the river, all located near the

mouth, recorded 44 and 100 percent violations for this group.   This parameter

is N02+N03.
                                     78

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Phosphorus




     Almost 100 percent violations of this parameter were recorded at each




of the three fork's mouths of the Weber River.  The USGS recorded 20 per-




cent violations at their Gateway station which is located about 20 miles




upstream from the mouth.






IDS




     Percentage violations recorded above the Central Weber plant were 31




percent and 20 percent, respectively, for the two time periods.







                               Index Analysis







     Only at one station was there sufficient data to calculate an index




number.  This station is located above the Central wastewater treatment




facility.  The calculated index was 22 for the first time period and 26 for




the second period.
                                     79

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                                 GREEN  RIVER

                                  WYOMING



               Reach                        Use             Classification

1.   Headwaters to WY.-UT.  state     Cold and Warm Water           I
     line                            Fishery


                               Group Analysis


Oxygen Related Group

     No violations were observed.


Bacteria

     The USGS recorded 17  percent and 74 percent violations at their stations

above and below the City of Green River, Wyoming respectively.  Probably,

the high percentage violations at the latter station are due to the boom town

effects of the extensive energy development activities occurring in the

Bitter Creek drainage area.  The recent influx of people into this area has

overloaded the existing wastewater treatment facilities and has increased the

bacterial concentrations of the groundwater in areas where there are no treat-

ment facilities.  The trend for the two time periods indicates a minor

improvement and it is expected that substantial improvement will be evident

in the future because of the Construction Grants Program.


Nitrogen

     Although the Green River has been loaded severely by the wastewater

treatment facilities at Green River and Rock Springs, there were only

4 percent nitrogen violations noted.
                                     80

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Phosphorus




     Below the headwaters where the river leaves the mountain range, the




percentage of violations for this group were 56 percent for the first time




period and 10 percent for the second period.  From this station to the




station at Green River, Wyoming, the percentage of violations varied between




0 and 14 percent.  At Green River, Wyoming, the percentage of violations




were 78 percent.







TDS




     Violations of this parameter group begins with 2 percent observed near




the headwaters and progressively rise to 40 percent at the Flaming Gorge




Dam.







                               Index Analysis







     The segment of the Green River above the USGS Big Island station has




an average index value less than 3.  Just above the City of Green River, the




value is about 8 and from a point below the City to the Flaming Gorge Dam




the index is about 13.  The indices for the two time periods are about the




same.
                                     81

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                        NORTH  PLATTE  RIVER

                               WYOMING



          Reach                     Use            Classification

1.   CO.-WY.  state line to        Cold and Warm             I
     WY.-NB.  state line         Water Fishery


                           Group Analysis


Oxygen Related Index

     Only one violation in 479  observations was noted.


Bacteria

     The highest exceedances of criteria levels (75  percent)  were

recorded at the station below Casper,  Wyoming.   The  percentage level

drops to 29 percent at the next station downstream near Douglas.   At

the Wyoming-Nebraska state line the percentage level is 23 percent.

The towns along the river  are probably the main contributors  along with

some contributions coming  from  ranches.


Nitrogen

     The frequency of nitrogen  violations vary along the entire North

Platte River.  The violations are  most apparent below the reservoirs

where irrigation occurs.  As would be  expected from  municipalities,

there are increases of violations  below the cities of Casper, Mills,

Lingle, and Torrington.
                                 82

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Phosphorus




     Violations of phosphorus are predominate throughout the Basin.




The occurrence of violations approach 90 percent just downstream of




the municipalities named in the Nitrogen index discussion.






IDS




     The concentration of TDS builds up uniformly along the North Platte




River and reaches a mean concentration of 660 mg/1 near the Wyoming-




Nebraska state line.  The maximum concentration recorded was 1010 mg/1




near Casper.




     The State of Wyoming recorded TDS violations of 95 and 98 percent




at their two stations of which one is located south of Douglas and the




other is Rawhide Creek.







Other




     The North Platte River Basin Valley must contain a substantial




amount of iron.  The concentration of dissolved iron in the river




increases from 130 yg/1 near Seminoe Reservoir to about 270 yg/1 at




Mills, Wyoming.  The total iron concentrations vary from 240 yg/1 to




790 yg/1 at the two corresponding stations.




     The index indicated a few violations of the trace metals between




Alcova and the Wyoming-Nebraska state line.  The proportion of




violations (violations/observations) noted for this reach are as




follows:
                                 83

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             Cd,  Total      - 7/7        Mn,  Total      - 2/8
             Cu,  Dissolved - 3/15       Pb,  Total      - 7/7
             Fe,  Total      - 5/8        Zn,  Dissolved - 6/15
             Hg,  Total      - 3/8        Zn,  Total      - 5/8
             Mn,  Dissolved - 1/15
                           Index Analysis


     Above the station at  Mills, Wyoming,  the index was  less  than 5.

Between Casper and the Wyoming-Nebraska  state line the index  fluctuated

between 9 and 16 with the  higher values  appearing  just below  the

larger municipalities.  Trends  are  not discernible from  the data

because some segments show improvement while  other segments show  some

degradation.
                                  84

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                          POWDER RIVER

                             WYOMING



          Reach                    Use            Classification

1.  Headwaters to WY.-MT.     Cold and Warm             I
     state line                Water Fishery


                         Group Analysis


Oxygen Related Index

     There were four violations recorded in 24 observations at the

Arvada station for the latter time period.  This station is located

some 70 miles below the next station upstream.  Therefore, the extent

of the dissolved oxygen problem is uncertain.  The State of Wyoming

305(b) Report for 1976 mentions that the condition of oxygen deple-

tion along this river is due to low flow velocity characteristics.


Bacteria Related Index

     Violations of the bacteria index were detected at the first

station at Kaycee and the violations are apparent all the way down-

stream.  This problem is somewhat peculiar because there are only a

few small towns located in the 200 miles of the main stem of the

Powder River.  But, there are a number of ranches in the upper portion

of the basin and it is therefore surmised that the livestock is the

contributing source.

     The only large community in the Basin is the City of Buffalo

which is located on Clear Creek, a tributary that enters the Powder
                               85

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River below Arvada.   Any effects noted for the City will be included

in the Montana index.

     The Wyoming 305(b) Report states that because of the condition of

the City of Buffalo's wastewater treatment facilities, Clear Creek

is in noncompliance with the state's water quality standards and is

not expected to meet the 1983 goals.


Nitrogen

     Nitrogen related violations for the entire river are in the order

of 14 percent (7 violations in 50 observations.)  The index identifies

this parameter as dissolved nitrate nitrogen, NC^-N.  There is

probably irrigation occurring along the upper reaches of the river for

the hay fields but it is not known whether this is the contributing

source of the nitrogen load.


Phosphorus

     Violations for the phosphorus index average about 48 percent or

40 violations per 83 observations.  Again, it is surmised that the

excessive concentrations are derived from natural sources.


TDS

     High percentage of violations for this category exists for the

entire basin.  The index reports maximum TDS concentrations of

2680 mg/1.  Also, the state's 305(b) Report describes the problem

very explicitly.  A few condensed comments are:

          Soil erosion and natural runoff causes increases in
          sediment and salinity loads.
                               86

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          Salinity loadings from numerous oil brine discharges
          into Salt Creek result in a fourfold concentration
          increase...

          The South Fork is classified as a high sediment
          loading area.  Produced water from oil producing
          facilities contributes heavily to salinity.
     This basin is characteristic of the deposits of sedimentary shales

which are highly saline and erodible.  Hence, any storm activity will

cause the overland runoff to be highly concentrated with suspended

solids.  Also, the groundwater will be found to be highly concentrated

with TDS.


                         Index Analysis


     Index values for the stations near Kaycee, Wyoming were 8 and 12

for the respective two time periods.  At the Arvada station (150 miles

downstream) the index was 18 and 37.  The higher index value for the

second time period does not completely indicate a trend but does show

the sensitivity of the index to the percentage of violations for the

component groups.  For example, it appears that for this basin the

collection of 39 samples of phosphorus reveals a more significant

number of violations (41 percent) than the 15 samples collected for

the first time period (7 percent).  Time of the year and frequency

of data collection could be influencing factors.
                                87

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                        WIND-BIG HORN  RIVERS

                                WYOMING




               Reach                      Use            Classification

1.   Headwaters to  WY.-UT.  state     Cold and Warm             I
     line                            Water Fishery


                             Group Analysis


Oxygen Related Group

     For the total reach,  only 3 violations were detected in 234

observations.   The violations were below Boysen Dam.


Bacteria

     Above Boysen  Reservoir the exceedance of  criteria levels was 53

percent, but no excesses were detected  below  the reservoir.   According

to the map, the source of  these high values appears to be the waste-

water treatment facilities owned by the City  of Riverton, Wyoming.

Further downstream from the reservoir,   the percentage levels rise

again to 50 percent near the cities of  Lucerne and Worland and from

there diminish to  29 percent near Kane.  The  small towns and ranches

with livestock possibly account for these high bacteria levels.


Nitrogen

     Nitrogen violations of 14 percent  were recorded for the reach

between Worland and Kane,  Wyoming.


Phosphorus

     Phosphorus violations (84 percent) were  highest at the uppermost
                                  88

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stations of the Wind River.  The minimum violations (11 percent) were

noted at the station below Boysen Reservoir.  Below this station to

the Wyoming-Montana state line, the percentage of violations approached

57 percent.


TDS

     This basin is characteristic of another typical salt producing area.

TDS concentrations at the Dubois station range from 84 to 156 mg/1.  At

the Wyoming-Montana state line the TDS concentrations vary between 410

and 1010 mg/1.  The percentage violations calculated for the entire

river were 27 percent.


Other

     The State of Wyoming 305(b) Report discusses the problem situation

of the basin very adequately.  Brief comments extracted from their

report are as follows:

          Increases in coliform, salinity, and nitrogen are
          noted between Riverton and Boysen Reservoir.

          The segment below Riverton will not meet 1983 goals
          because of the nitrogen increases caused from the
          City's waste discharges and irrigation return flow.
          (Two other segments have been identified as not
          expected to meet "83 goals).

          Violations of Drinking Water Regulations for total
          gross Alpha and Beta occur below the Town of
          Thermopolis.  This is caused by natural source.

          Produced water from oil extraction activities
          contributes heavily to salinity.
                                  89

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                            Index Analysis







     The index values for the Wind River station at Riverton, Wyoming,




were 4 and 7 for the two time periods.   For the stations above Boysen




Reservoir, the index was 12 and below the reservoir,  which is the Big




Horn River, the index was 3.   The Big Horn River station at Kane,




Wyoming, had an index value of 14 for both time periods.
                                 90

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    SECTION II




AIR QUALITY REPORT
          91

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92

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                        AIR QUALITY IN REGION VIII









I.  Introduction




         Monitoring of air quality in Region VIII has increased greatly in




    both scope and frequency over the last five years due to the public




    demand for information on harmful pollutants in the air and the passage




    of federal legislation in 1970 known as the Clean Air Act Amendments.




    Some minimal historical data are available prior to that time through




    such federal efforts as the National Air Sampling Network (NASN) and




    the Continuous Air Monitoring Program (CAMP), as well as state and




    local programs.  However, with the State Implementation Plans required




    by the legislation, state agencies began aggressive monitoring plans




    which have resulted in the creation of an extensive monitoring networks




    and the building of a large air quality data base.






         The majority of all data from these networks are stored in EPA's




    computerized system, Storage and Retrieval of Aerometric Data (SAROAD).




    In this data bank are stored measurements for a variety of atmospheric




    pollutants and meteorological measurements.  The system is able to




    generate summary reports on the data it contains or it can print out




    the raw data in some suitable format.  In Region VIII the Surveillance




    and Analysis Division is responsible for putting all the data into the




    system and responding to requests for summary information and raw data.




    The Division is also responsible for reporting on the quality of the




    Region VIII environment as measured by the air monitoring equipment at




    sites throughout the Region.
                                    93

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     This report summarizes available air quality data.  It's primary




objective is to determine the status and trends in air quality within




the six-state Region.   In achieving this objective, the report




provides information on whether or not air quality standards have been




achieved and defines areas which still have significant problems to




solve.  An attempt has been made to present the information in a form




which can be understood by both technical and nontechnical readers and




still accurately reflect actual conditions and complexities inherent in




monitoring those conditions.  Indices are used wherever possible.






     The report is not intended to be a comprehensive analysis of cause




and effect relationships or to evaluate the effects of control




atrategies on air quality.  However some general conclusions become




evident from looking at the data.   In addition, neither the collected




data nor calculated indicators are beyond reproach.  Data gaps, both in




time and space, do exist and raise questions as to the appropriateness




of certain indicators.  Variations in weather which have tremendous




impacts in examining trends over the years are not taken into considera-




tion.  The quality of the data itself may be questioned.  The indica-




tors have been developed to minimize these problems as much as




possible, and the report narrative explains what the indicators may




actually mean.  Refinements to index calculation procedures, expanded




networks, and better quality control in data collection and analysis




should provide a better data base to work with in future reports.






     The report contains two primary sections and Appendices.  The first
                                 94

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section describes in general terms the monitoring activity in the




Region and results of that monitoring.  Indicators are defined and




pollutants of primary interest are described in terms of their




effects.  The second section describes in greater detail the extent




and magnitude of air quality problems throughout each state in the




Region on a pollutant specific basis.  Finally, future trends are




predicted based on efforts to control pollution.  The Appendices




contain information on air quality standards and criteria used to cal-




culate indicators for each pollutant.
                                 95

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II.  Region-wide Summary




          The Environmental Protection Agency has been given the authority




     to establish ambient air quality standards which specify, for the




     principal and most widespread classes of air pollutants, limitations




     necessary to protect the public health and welfare.  These pollutants




     currently are total suspended particulate matter, sulfur dioxide,




     nitrogen dioxide, photochemical oxidants, and carbon monoxide.




     Standards for lead have recently been proposed.






          Two types of standards were established.  Primary standards are




     set at levels to protect human health.  Secondary standards are set




     at levels to protect against other forms of damage to such things as




     vegetation and materials.  The numerical value of each standard is




     listed in Appendix C.







          Research has concluded that the following specific health effects




     can result from exposure to concentrations above the primary standards:




     Total suspended particulates (TSP)  aggravation of asthma and chronic




          lung diseases, increased cough, chest discomfort, restricted




          activity, aggravation of heart and lung disease symptoms in




          the elderly, increased death rates;




     Sulfur dioxide (S02)  aggravation of asthma, aggravation of heart




          and lung disease symptoms in the elderly, increased lung




          illness, increased death rate;




     Carbon monoxide (CO)  interference with mental and physical activity,




          reduced capacity in persons suffering from heart and other cir-




          culatory disorders;
                                     96

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Photochemical oxidants (Ox)  aggravation of asthma and chronic




     lung disease, irritation of the eye and of the respiratory




     tract, decreased vision, reduced heart and lung capacity;




Oxides of nitrogen (NOX)  increased chronic bronchitis.







     The severity of these effects increases with increased pollutant




concentrations.







     Status and trends in air quality are determined by comparing




measurements made at monitoring stations to these standards.  The main




indicators used to characterize air quality in this manner is the




number of days in which measurements exceeded the primary standards at




the worst site in each county.  The indicator may not represent air




quality for the entire county, however the worst site is always




selected in areas which have some population exposure so that the




measured concentrations are affecting some segment of the population.




To account for variations in meteorology the indicator is averaged




over the three-year period, 1974-76.







     A second indicator is used to demonstrate the severity of the




problem.  Each pollutant has been assigned an alert level, the concen-




tration at which the public must be notified of possible adverse




health effects.  These values shown in Appendix D are significantly




higher than the standards and are not frequently encountered.  The




average number of days per year (1974-76) over the alert level for




each county has been chosen as the indicator of severity.
                                97

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          These two indicators correspond  to breakpoints  in  the  Pollutant

     Standards Index  (PSI)* which  is becoming  the  nationwide index for

     reporting air quality levels  to the public.   In  the  PSI the worst site

     pollutant concentration  in  each metropolitan  area is chosen, and the

     index  is calculated  from the  concentration  at the site  referenced to

     primary  standards  and alert levels.   (see Appendix D)


          Methods were  developed to estimate the values of the indicators

     when samples are not always taken  every day,  instruments malfunction,

      and sites are moved. Otherwise there would be no standard  procedure

      for comparing one  site to another.  These methods are detailed by

      pollutant  in Appendix E.


          The results of  this analysis  are summarized in  Table 1 and shown

      graphically  in  Figure 1.  A more detailed breakdown  by  state can be

      found  in Section III.

                                   Table 1
                        Summary  of Air  Monitoring  in
                              Region VIII in  1976

                                     TSP   S02  N02    CO   Oxidants (ozone)2
Total sites                           233    79     44     19       17
Counties with data                    122    45     33     14       12
Counties exceeding primary standard     37     6      0     12       10
Counties exceeding alert level          14     5      0      7        1
Counties with deteriorating air         6000        0
 quality
Counties with improving air quality      6002        0
Counties with insufficient data or    110    45     33     12       12
 no discernible trend
                    Total number of  counties:   291
     U.S.  EPA.   "Guideline for Public  Reporting of  Daily  Air Quality 
     Pollutant  Standards Index (PSI)," EPA 450/2-76-013,  August  1976.

     Instrumentation measures ozone which is  the primary  constituent of
     oxidants.
                                     98

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'>
                                                                                                                      Insufficient data

                                                                                                                      No  evidence prinary standard
                                                                                                                      exceeded for any pollutant

                                                                                                                      Primary standard exceeded
                                                                                                                      for at least one pollutant

                                                                                                                      Alert level exceeded for
                                                                                                                      at  least one pollutant
                                             Figure 1.   Status  of  Air  Quality  by  County.

-------
     It should be noted that if more than one pollutant is being




monitored in the county, the map shows the worst of these pollutants;




therefore for some counties the effects of multiple-pollutant problems




are masked.  County to county comparison cannot be made by relying on




this map alone.







     The extent of air quality monitoring shows total suspended parti-




culate networks to be most prevalent followed in order by SOo and NC^,




respectively.  Carbon monoxide and ozone are normally measured only in




urban areas where the probability of encountering standards violations




is high.  NC>2 has proven to be a problem only in urban areas.




Although violations have not occurred, to date, both Denver and Salt




Lake County are on the threshold of exceeding the standard.  More




recent data indicate that Denver exceeded the NC>2 standard in 1977.







Status




     TSP presents the most widespread pollutant problem with 37




counties over the primary standard.  Only six counties are above the




SC>2 standard and these are affected by specific point source of SC>2.




Urbanized counties account for all 12 of those exceeding CO standards.




Oxidant violations occur in 10 counties, both urban and non-urban,




and there is a high probability that violations would be found in




counties not now being monitored.






     In terms of severity, only a few counties have values exceeding




the alert level.  Adams County north of Denver is singled out for




reaching the oxidant alert level.  Major urban counties have high CO
                                100

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concentrations.  Counties with or near point sources, smelters or




refineries, have high SC>2 values.  Explanations for high TSP values




is more complex.  Urban areas as well as high mountain valleys and




smaller arid communities all have recorded values above the alert level.






Trends




     As shown in Table 1, no significant, general, regionwide trends




are evident except in the case of CO, which has been decreasing over




the years in the central-city areas of both Salt Lake City and Denver.




The number of counties showing decreasing concentrations of TSP




equalled the number of counties with increasing TSP concentrations.




Since the majority of sites in the Region have been established since




1972, an analysis of trends is somewhat impractical.  Many of the




counties described as having no trend actually had insufficient




data to determine any accurate trend.







     County-by-county trends are presented in the next section.
                               101

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III.  State Summaries




          This section presents a summary of all air quality data in the




     Region, in terms of the five criteria pollutants.  The indicators are




     1) the average number of days per year over primary standard and 2)




     days over alert level.




        A.  Introduction to graphics




Figures 2 thru 7 show status and trends in air quality for all counties in




which sufficient data are available.  Trends are determined by criteria as




described in Appendix E.  Status is defined as an average over the three




year period, 1974-76.






          The frequency of occurrence of days over standard and alert level




     is shown in Figure 8 (a and b).  It is possible to compare areas




     according to the severity and frequency of the problem by referring




     to the bar charts.  The location of the worst site within the county is




     identified.




        B.  Inference and discussion by pollutant






     TSP




          TSP values which exceed alert levels are recorded in areas of




     widely differing degrees of topography, demography, and industrializa-




     tion.  Values exceeding standard in such places such as Pueblo,




     Colorado and Magna, Utah, may be explained, in part, by emissions from




     traditional sources.  These are fuel combustion sources or industrial




     process emissions from both stacks and non-point fugitive emission




     sources.
                                     102

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FIGURE 2:  STATUS AND TRENDS  IN AIR QUALITY
                  COLORADO
County
Adam: 5
Alamosa
Arapahoe
Archuleta
Boulder
Clear Creek
Delta
Denver
Douglas
Eagle
El Paso
Fremont
Garfield
Gunnison
Huerfano
Jackson
Jefferson
La Plata
Larimer
TSP
CO   O
     00
                      x
County       TSP  SOg  NO^  CO
o
D
o
o
              i>
                      103
Las Anirreis
Logan
Mesa
Moffat
Montezuma
Mont rose
Morgan
Otero
O
o
o
if
6
o
o
fi\
              Pueblo
              Rio Blanco
              Routt
              San Miguel
              Weld
              Pitkin
              Prowers     &/
            O
                                                        D
                 ;io evidence standard exceeded
                 Exceeds primary standard
                 Exceeds alert level
                 Increasing trend (deterioration)
             j~\No apparent trend
             (^Decreasing trend (improvement)

-------
               FIGURE 3:   STATUS AND TRENDS IN AIR QUALITY
                                 MONTANA
County
Big Horn
Carter
            TSP   S02   N02   CO    Ox
              TSP  S02  N02  CO
Cascade

Custer
           D
           O
Daniel.,    > Q Q
Dawson     I\
Deer Lodge [^
Flathead
Granite
Glacier     Q L> Q

           0
County
Jefferson
Lewis & Clark  ^\ r~\
Lincoln        l~\
Missoula
Powder River
Powell
Rosebud
Silver Bow
Yellowstone
                                                       O O D
                                  g\
                        No evidence  standard  exceeded
                       jExceeds  primary  standard
                        Exceeds  alert  level
                    "f  pncreasin9  trend (deterioration)
                    j^)>No apparent trend
                    J  \ Jecreasing  trend Cimprovement)
                                    104

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             FIGURE 4:  STATUS AND  TRENDS IN AIR QUALITY

                          NORTH DAKOTA
Barnes
Billings
Bowman
Burleigh
Cass
O
O
O
1>OO
i>OO
Dunn
Grand Forks
Grant
           O
           O
           OOO
Hettinger   Q> H^> O
           OOO
           OOO
McKenzie
McLean
Mercer

Morton

Mountrail

Oliver

Ramsey   |\

Richland

Sheridan

Stark

Stutsman

Ward

Williams [_"/
                                                 OOO
                                                 too
                               No evidence standard exceeded
                               Exceeds primary standard

                               Exceeds alert level

                           /\ Increasing trend (deterioration)
                           I  \ No apparent

                           I  I  Decreasing trend (improvement)
                                105

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   FIGURE 5:   STATUS AND TRENDS IN AIR QUALITY



                   SOUTH DAKOTA
County




Beadle





Brookings  I\





Brown





Codington  I\





Custer





Davison    I\





Fall River [~"\
TSP  SO?  NO
County     TSP  S02  N0



Harding
                                 Hughes




                                 Lawrence   f~N I  \ I  \





                                 Minnehaha  H|N f^>




                                 Pennington Ij^ I  \




                                 Yankton    I\
                   No evidence standard exceeded




                   Exceeds primary standard



                   Exceeds alert level




               j j- Increasing trend (deterioration)



               [~NNO apparent trend




               
-------
FIGURE 6:  STATUS AND TRENDS IN AIR QUALITY



                    UTAH
                TSP  SQ2  N02  CO   Ox
    Weber
                        No evidence  standard  exceeded



                        Exceeds  primary standard




                        Exceeds  alert level



                        Increasing trend (deterioration)





                        No apparent trend




                   J  I  Becreasing trend (improvement)
                     107

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   FIGURE 7:   STATUS  AND TRENDS IN AIR QUALITY


                     WYOMING
County      ISP  S02


Albany



Bi/; Horn



Campbell



Carbon



Converse



Crook



Fremont



Goshen



Hot  Springs



Johnson     I*S



Laramie
o
o
o
ODD
                                                O O
County    TSP  S02  N02


Lincoln



Nat rona



Par,



Platte



Sheridan



Sublette  r~\



Sweetwater



Teton



Uinta



Washakie  |  ^
 Weston
                                           Q\ [~\ r~\
                       No evidence standard exceeded


                       Exceeds  primary  standard


                       Exceeds  alert  level



                       Increasing trend (deterioration)


                   I  \No apparent trend



                       Decreasing trend (improvement)
                         108

-------
                    FI6.8(a): NUMBER of DAYS OVER TSP PRIMARY
                               STANDARD by SEVERITY
         County (City)
n o
 4->
c 
Cascade (Great Falls)
Flathead (Columbia Falls)
Missoula (Missoula)
Silver Bow (Butte)

Cass (Fargo)
Morton (Mandan)
Burleigh (Bismarck)

Minnehaha (Sioux Falls)
Pennington (Rapid City)
Brown (Aberdeen)

Carbon (Price)
Salt Lake (Salt Lake City)
Utah (Provo)
Weber (Ogden)

Sweetwater (Rock Springs)
                                                                  Exceeds  standard
                                                                  Exceeds  alert level
                                        109

-------
                  FIG 3(b):NUMBER of DAYS OVER STANDARD
                               by SEVERITY
     County (City)
   Deer Lodge  (Anaconda)
   Jefferson (Saddle Mtn.)
   Yellowstone  (Laurel)

   Iron (Cedar  City)
   Salt Lake (Kearns)
   Tooele  (Tooele)
   Adams  (Weiby)
   Boulder  (Boulder)
   Denver (Denver)
   El  Paso  (Colo. Springs)
   Jefferson (Arvada)
   Larimer  (Ft. Collins)
   Weld (Greeley)
O
O
    Yellowstone  (Billings)

    Davis  (Bountiful)
    Salt Lake  (Salt Lake)
    Utah (Provo)
    Weber  (Ogden)
                                 Average Number of Days Per Year  (1974-76J
                             SULFUR  OXIDES
                               0          20          4C
                                                                  60
                             CARBON  MONOXID
                         80
                                                                                  ZULU
                             0  X  I  D A  N T
o
u
   Adams (Weiby)
   Denver (Denver)
   El Paso (Colorado  Springs)
   Jefferson (Arvada)

   Yellowstone (Billings)
   Oliver (Stanton)

   Davis (Bountiful)
   Salt Lake (Salt Lake)
   Utah (Provo)
   Weber (Ogden)
                                                                JL.
:4Q	_aa	ao
zzzj Exceeds standard
Exceeds alert  level
                                    110

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     Most of the airborne particulate in this Region emanate from




nontraditional and natural sources.  Nontraditional sources include




dusty paved and unpaved roads, construction and demolition operation,




auto exhaust, other urban activities (e.g., street-sanding), and




agriculture.  The semi-arid to arid climate which characterizes the




area tends to exacerbate the potential for dust to become airborne.




Windstorms are often severe enough to account for some high values.




The combination of non-traditional sources and meteorology could pro-




vide one explanation for anomalies where alert levels are reached in




communities like Telluride, Colorado, and Rapid City, South Dakota.




General urban activity in cities of 30,000 or more seems sufficient to




produce readings over the primary standard.  No explanation is yet




available for the high values at Aberdeen, South Dakota, and Columbia




Falls, Montana.







     In contrast to most of the country, TSP levels in this Region




have not changed much over the years.  No significant trend is evident




anywhere, although some individual sites may display a trend in one




direction or another.  Since the indicators are based on 3 year averages,




the figures do not show the effect of the drought on TSP levels, however,




1976 and 1977 values do appear somewhat higher than past years.







S02




     Since S02 background concentration is negligible and the




contribution from residential and commercial fuel combustion sources




is minimal, the only sources of atmospheric S02 are fuel combustion
                                111

-------
and industrial processes.  Areas with high S02 levels usually coincide




with the locations of smelters, refineries, and power plants.







N02



     Both Denver and Salt Lake City are on the borderline of exceeding




the annual N0 standard.  (Recent data show the standard was exceeding




in Denver in 1977.)  The automobile is the major source.  Monitoring




for NC>2 by an acceptable method is relatively new, and no trends are




discernible.







CO.




     The CO 8-hour standard is exceeded at nearly every location




exposed to a sufficiently large average daily traffic load.  In Denver,




the CO standard is exceeded more frequently than any other standard,




about 24 percent of the days each year, most frequently in the winter




months.  The levels in both downtown Salt Lake City and downtown Denver




have been decreasing, however concentrations recorded at these sites




are probably conservative estimators of actual levels since traffic is




heavier at other  locations.  Insufficient historical data preclude




analyzing for trends at any other sites.






Qxidants




     Violation of  the oxidant standard is probably more wide-spread




and frequent than  the data show.  Although only 10 counties are shown




as exceeding oxidant standards, the number is probably much higher,




particularly in the Northern Great Plains, where data are not avail-




able.  In many remote areas, even where the compounds which react to
                               112

-------
form oxidants are not available in high concentrations, oxidant




standards are exceeded.  Whether the high values are natural or man-




made is yet to be determined.  Since oxidants are formed in the




atmosphere and not emitted from sources, the highest concentrations are




usually found downwind from major urban areas.  Thus, Adams County north




of Denver, Jefferson County west of Denver, and Davis County north of




Salt Lake City are most frequently over standard.  The site in Welby




(Adams County) is over standard approximately 20 percent of the days




of each year, mostly in the summer months.
                               113

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IV.  Outlook for the future




          If trends in historical data are difficult to determine, predicting




     future ambient concentrations is little more than guesswork.  On the




     other hand, if we can exclude variations in meteorology and look solely




     at emission rates and expected emission reductions due to control




     programs, the picture becomes somewhat clearer.  Some general predic-




     tions can be made.






          The outlook for S02 is probably the best since point sources can




     be controlled through the addition of control equipment for existing




     sources and reviews of new sources for appropriate emission limitations.




     S02 concentrations should thus be decreasing in areas which are now




     recording values over the standard.  Slight increases may occur in




     areas surrounding new power plants or other energy related developments,




     as the prevention of significant deterioration increments are used up.






          The outlook for TSP is not as encouraging due to the nature of




     TSP sources in the Region and the dry climate.  Some decrease may occur




     in central-city areas due to control strategies aimed at non-traditional




     sources, however not much improvement is expected from natural sources




     of windblown dust in rural areas.  An extended drought would increase




     values substantially.







          Pollutants from the automobile will continue to be a problem over




     the next few years until the combined effects of emission controls on




     cars and inspection-maintenance programs begin to reduce emissions, or
                                    114

-------
 until significant reductions are made in vehicle-miles-traveled in

 urban areas.  A recent study  predicts a gradual reduction in both CO

 and oxidants, over the next 20 years, despite an increase in the number

 of registered vehicles, because of the Federal Vehicle Emission Control

 Program.  Localized CO problems will continue to exist in locations of

 high vehicular traffic.  N02 concentrations, may increase and perhaps

 begin to exceed annual standards in urban areas because strict emission

 control standards for cars have been delayed and production of N02 in

 the photochemical smog reactions as hydrocarbon levels are lowered.

 This study was completed prior to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977,

 which postponed the requirements for high altitude certification of new

 cars at least until 1981.  In addition recent information on high

 altitude emissions indicate even higher emission rates than originally

 used in the study.


      Enough data should be available for subsequent reports to allow a

 better analysis of trends in oxidants and N02-  Procedures will also

 be available to adjust data for meteorological conditions.  Trends in

 population exposure to various pollutants will be a feature of future

 reports.
* "Air Quality in Denver Metropolitan Region, 1974-2000," EPA Region VIII,
  EPA-908/1-77-002 (May, 1977).
                                115

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116

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                     APPENDICES

                        Water
A.  State Water Quality Standards Utilized in Water
     Quality Index Program

B.  State Water Quality Standards
                         Air


C.  National Ambient Air Quality Standards

D.  Breakpoints for Pollutant Standards Index

E.  Procedures Used to Construct Indices and Judge Trends
                        117

-------
118

-------
                 APPENDIX A

State Water Quality Standards and/or Criteria
Utilized in Water Quality Index Program
                    119

-------
                           STATE WATER QUALITY STANDARDS

                      (Utilized in Water Quality Index Program)
     Reach
     Class
     Colorado
 1.   Bl
 2.   B2
15.
     Montana
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

8.
9.

10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
B, Dl
B, D2
B, D3
C, Dl
C, D2
North
I
IA
South
A
B
C
D
E





Dakota


Dakota





     Wyoming
     Utah
16.   C
17.   CC
18.   CW
                     DO
6.0
5.0
                     7.0
                     7.0
                     5.0
                     7.0
                     7.0
                     5.0
                     5.0
                     5.0
                     5.0
                     5.0
                     5.0
                     5.0
6.0
5.5
6.0
6.0
        BOD
10
10
        10
        10
        10
        10
        10
        10
        10
        10
        10
        10
        10
        10
10
        Total
        Coliform
1000
1000
          1000
           100
          1000
          1000
          1000
          1000
          1000
          5000
          1000
          1000
          1000
          5000
           Fecal
           Coliform
1000
1000
              200
              200
              200
              200
              200
              200
              200
             1000
              200
              200
              200
             1000
             1000
          5000
          5000
          5000
           Chloride
250
250
             250
             250
             250
             250
             250
             100
             175
             100
             100
             100
             100
             100
             250
                          250
                          250
                          250
           Sulfate
250
250
             250
             250
             250
             250
             250
             250
             450
             250
             250
             250
             250
             250
             250
                          250
                          250
                          250
    Seasonal
                                       120

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Criteria Utilized in Water
   Quality Index Program
STORET
Number
Nutrient Group

00631
00618
71851
00630
00620
71887
00600

00665
00650
00666
00660
00671
IDS
00095
00515
70295
70300
Trace Metals and
01005
01025
01027
01030
01034
01040
01042
00950
00951
01046
01045
71890
71900
01056
01055
01065
01067
01049
01051
09503
01147
01090
01092
Parameter

Nitrogen
N02 & N03
N03-N
Nitrate
N02 & N03
N03-N
Total N
Total N
Phosphorus
Phos.-Tot.
T. P04
Phos.-Dis.
Ortho P04
Phos.-Dis.

Conductivity
Residue
Residue
Residue
Others
Barium-Dis.
Cadmium-Dis .
Cadmium-Tot.
Chromium-Dis.
Chromium-Tot .
Copper-Dis.
Copper-Tot.
Fluoride-Dis.
Fluoride-Tot.
Iron-Dis.
Iron-Tot.
Mercury-Dis .
Mercury-Tot.
Manganese-Dis.
Manganese-Tot .
Nickel-Dis.
Nickel-Tot.
Lead-Dis.
Lead-Tot.
RA-226
Selenium-Tot.
Zinc-Dis.
Zinc-Tot.
Standard
Value


0.6
0.6
2.6
0.6
0.6
2.6
0.6

0.03
0.09
0.03
0.09
0.03

750
500
500
500

1000
4
4
50
50
20
20
1.6
1.6
300
300
0.2
0.2
50
50
100
100
30
30
3
10
30
30
                                      mg/1
                                      yMHO
                                      mg/1
                                      Mg/1
                                      pC/1
                                      yg/i
             121

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         APPENDIX B




State Water Quality Standards
           122

-------
           COLORADO
WATER QUALITY STANDARDS SUMMARY
STANDARD
Settleable
Solids
Floating
Solids
Taste, Odor,
Color
Toxic
Materials
Oil and
Grease
Radioactive
Material
Fecal Col i form
Bacteria
Geometric Mean
Turbidity
Dissolved
Oxygen
PH
Temperature
CLASS
A!
Free From
Free From
Free From
Free From
Cause a film or
other discoloration
Drinking Water
Standards
<200/100ml
No increase of more
than 10 J.T.U.
6 mg/1 minimum
6.5 - 8.5
Maximum 68 F.
Maximum Change 2F.
A2
Free From
Free From
Free From
Free From
Cause a film or
other discoloration
Drinking Water
Standards
<200/ 100ml
No increase of more
than 10 J.T.U.
5 mg/1 minimum
6.5 - 8.5
Maximum 90F.
Maximum Change:
Streams - 5F.
Lakes - 3F.
Bl
Free From
Free From
Free From
Free From
Cause a film or
other discoloration
Drinking Water
Standards
< 1000/1 00ml
No increase of more
than 10 J.T.U.
6 mg/1 minimum
6.0 - 9.0
Maximum 68F.
Maximum Change 2F.
B2
Free From
Free From
Free From
Free From
Cause a film or
other discoloration
Drinking Water
Standards
<1 000/1 00ml
No increase of more
than 10 J.T.U.
5 mg/1 minimum
6.0 - 9.0
Maximum 90F.
Maximum Change:
Streams - 5F.
Lakes - 3F.

-------
(1)  Special  limits for the Clark  Fork
     have been established.
            Montana
Water Quality Standards Sumnary
Total
Col ifortn
(Average)
Dissolved
Oxygen
PH
Turbidity
Temperature
Settl cable
Solids
Sedimentation
Res.
Radioactive
Material
Toxic Materials
(Free From)
Oil a
Grease
Color
A-Closed
50/100 ml max.
Total coil-form
NA
Mo Change
No Increase
No increase
No increase
No increase
No waste
No increase
No increase
:
-------
                                               Mater Quality Standards Summary
Fecal Col i form
fipnitiPrrir. Mp^n
Total Col i form
Geometric Mean
Dissolved Oxygen
pH
Turbidity (1)
Temperature
Color
Taste, odor
Floating Solids
Toxic Material
Oil & Grease
Iodine 131
Radium-226
Strontium- 89
Strontium-90
Tri tium
(1) Unless due tc
Class I Class IA Class II Class III
200/100 ml.
1000/100 ml.
5.0 mg/1 minimum
7 - 8.5
10 JU
85 F maximum
5F max. change
15 units
Free from
Free from
Free from
Not to exceed
10 mg/1
5 pc /I
1 PC /I
100 pc /I
10 pc /I
3000 pc /I
i runoff
200/100 ml.
1000/100 ml.
5.0 mg/1 minimum
7 - 8.5
10 JU
85 F maximum
5F max. change
15 units
Free from
Free from
Free from
Not to exceed
10 mg/1
5 pc/1
1 pc/1
100 pc/1
10 pc/1
3000 pc/1
200/100 ml.
1000/100 ml.
5.0 mg/1 minimum
6 - 9
25 JU
90 F maximum
3F max. change
25 units
Free from
Free from
Free from
Not to exceed
10 mg/1
5 pc/1
1 pc/1
100 pc/1
10 pc/1
3000 pc/1
1000/100 ml.
1000/100 ml.
5.0 mg/1 minimum
6 - 9
40 JU
90 F maximum
3F max. change
40 units
Free from
Free from
Free from
Not to exceed
10 mg/1
5 pc/1
1 pc/1
100 pc/1
10 pc/1
3000 pc/1
NJ
Ul

-------
                                                           North Dakota
                                                  Water Quality Standards Summary
N>
                                                     Class  I
Class IA
Class II
Class III
Ammonia
Arsenic
Barium
Baron
Cadmium
Chlorides
Chromium (hexa) or trivalent
Copper
Cyan i des
Lead
Nitrates
Phenol s
Phosphates (as "P")
Selenium
TDS (2)
Zinc
Sodium X nf ratinnc
1.0 mg/1
0.05 mg/1
1.0 mg/1
0.5 mg/1
0.01 mg/1
100 mg/1
0.05 mg/1
0.05 mg/1
0.01 mg/1
0.05 mg/1
4.0 mg/1
0.01 mg/1
0.1 mg/1
.01 mg/1
500 mg/1
0.5 mg/1
50%
1.5 mg/1
0.05 mg/1
1.0 mg/1
0.5 mg/1
0.01 mg/1
175 mg/1
0.05 mg/1
0.05 mg/1
0.01 mg/1
0.05 mg/1
4.0 mg/1
0.01 mg/1
0.1 mg/1
.01 mg/1
1000 mg/1
0.5 mg/1
60%
1.5 mg/1
0.05 mg/1
1.0 mg/1
0.5 mg/1
0.01 mg/1
250 mg/1
0.05 mg/1
0.1 mg/1
0.01 mg/1
0.05 mg/1
5.0 mg/1
0.01 mg/1
0.2 mg/1
.01 mg/1
1000 mg/1
1.0 mg/1
60%
2.0 mg/1
0.1 mg/1
1.0 mg/1
0.75 mg/1
0.01 mg/1
250 mg/1
0.05 mg/1
0.1 mg/1
0.1 mg/1
0.1 mg/1
5.0 mg/1
0.01 mg/1
0.2 mg/1
.01 mg/1
>1000 mg/1
1.0 mg/1
60%
                 (2)  Unless naturally higher

-------
                                                                             South Dakota
                                                                    Water Quality Standards Summary

IDS
Nitrates
(as .1)
PH
Total coll.
neometric
Mean
Fecal coli.
Geometric
Mean
Chlorine Res
Airror. i a
Nitrogen
(as N)
Chlorides
T. Cyanide
Free
Cyanide
0.0.
D.O.
Spawning
Season
1
1000 mg/1
10 mg/1
6.0-9.0
5000/
100 ml
Drinking
Mater
Standards
Free from
Free from
Free from
Free from
Free from
Drinking
Water
Standards
N/A
2
1000 mg/1
10 mg/1
6.6-8.6
5000 /
100 ml
Drinking
Water
Standards
0.02 mg/1
0.06 mg/1
100.0
mg/1
0.02 mg/1
0.005
mg/1
6.0 mg/1
7.0 mg/1
3
1000 mg/1
10 mg/1
6.5-8.8
5000/
100 ml
Drinking
Water
Standards
0.02 mg/1
1.0 mg/1
100.0
mg/1
0.02
mg/1
0.005
mg/1
5.0 mg/1
7.0 my/1
4
1000 mg/1 '
10 mg/1
6.5-9.0
5000/
100 ml
Drinking
Water
Standards
0.02 mg/1
1.0 mg/1
100.0
mg/1
0.02
mg/1
0.005
mg/1
5.0 mg/1
N/A
5
1000 mg/1
10 mg/1
6.3-9.0
5000/
100 ml
Drinking
Water
Standards
0.02 mg/1
1.0 mg/1
100.0
mg/1
0.02
mg/1
0.005
mg/1
5.0 mg/1
N/A
6
1000 mg/1
10 mg/1
6.0-9.0
5000/
100 ml
Drinking
Water
Standards
0.02 mg/1
1.5 mg/1
100.0
mg/1
0.02
mg/1
0.005
mg/1
5.0 mg/1
N/A
7
1000/100 ml
10 mg/1
6.5-8.3
1000/100 ml
Recreation season
any sample 2000/
100 ml
200/100 ml rec-
reation season
any sample 400/
100 ml
0.02 mg/1
1.5 mg/1
100.0 mg/1
0.02 mg/1
0.005 mg/1
5.0 mg/1
N/A
8
1000 mg/1
10 mg/1
6.0-9.0
5000/100 ml
Recreation sea-
son any sample
10.000/100 ml
1000/100 ml rec-
reation season
any sample 2000/
100 ml
0.02 mg/1
1.5 mg/1
100.0 mg/1
0.02 mg/1
0.005 mg/1
5.0 mg/1
N/A
9
2500 mg/1
50 mg/1
MN03
6.0-9.5
See #8
See #8
0.02 mg/1
1.5 mg/1
100.0 mg/1
0.02 mg/1
0.005 mg/1
5.0 mg/1
IVA
10(5-1/9-30)
1500 mg/1
50 mg/1
as N03
6.0-9.5
5000/
100 ml
root crons/
rec. area
1000/
100 ml
root crops/
rec. area
0.02 mg/1
1.5 mg/1
100.0
mg/1
0.02
mg/1
0.005
mg/1
5.0 mg/1
N/A
11
2000/mg/l
50 ng/1
as N03
6.0-9.5
5000/
100 ml
1000/
100 ml
0.02 mg/1
1.5 mg/1
100.0
mg/1
0.02
mg/1
0.005
mg/1
5.0 :ng/l
N/A
N>

-------
     South Dakota (Contd)
Water Quality Standards Summary
HS (undis-
sociated)
H- T. Iron
M
UU
TSS
Temp.
Turbidity
Conduc-
tivity
Sod i urn
abs. ratio
Alkalinity
(as CaC03)
1
Free from
Free from
Free from
Drinking
Water
Standards
Drinking
Water
Standards



2
0.002 mg/1
0.2 mg/1
30 mg/1
65F max.
10 J.C.U.



3
0.002 mg/1
0.2 mg/1
90 mg/1
75F max.
50 J.C.U.



4
0.002 mg/1
0.2 mg/1
90 mg/1
80F max.
50 J.C.U.



5
0.002 mg/1
0.2 mg/1
90 mg/1
90 F max.
50 J.C.U.



6
0.002 mg/1
0.2 mg/1
150 mg/1
90F max.
50 J.C.U.



7
0.002 mg/1
0.2 mg/1
150 mg/1
90"F max.
50 J.C.U.



8
0.002 mg/1
0.2 mg/1
150 mg/1
90F max.
50 J.C.U.



9
0.002 mg/1
0.2 mg/1
150 mg/1
90 F max.
50 J.C.U.
4000 micro
MHO's at
25C

750 mg/1
10
0.002 mg/1
0.2 mg/1
150 mg/1
90F max.
50 J.C.U.
2500 micro
MHO's at
25C
10

11
0.002 mg/1
0.2 mg/T
150 mg/1
90 F max.
50 J.C.U.
2500 micro
MHO's at
25eC



-------
       NOTES - SOUTH DAKOTA


     For All Classifications

A.  Radioactive Material
Iodine
Radium
Strontium
Strontium
Tritium
- 131
- 226
- 89
- 90
-
- 5 pc/1
- 1 pc/1
- 100 pc/1
- 10 pc/1
300 pc/1
B.  Toxic Materials Above Standard

    Allowed for certain
    beneficial purposes
    if no danger to health

C.  Petroleum Products

    No materials of petroleum
    derivation shall be dis-
    charged which results in
    concentration of excess
    of 10 mg/1 or imparts of
    visible film or sheen
D.  Gas Pressure

    Less than 110% of saturation.
                129

-------
                                                                                Utah
                                                                   Miter Quality Standards  Summary
u>
o
       Total coll fora
       Avenge
Fecal coll fora


B.0.0.



0.0.



 pM.



Temp.
       Chemical
       Standards
       Physical
       Standards
      Radiological
      Standards

      Settleable
      Solids

      Floating Solids
"A"
Drinking
Uater
Standards
Drinking
Uater
Standards
Free from
Drinking
Water
Standards
6.5-8.5
Suitable
for in-
tandad use
Drinking
Water
Standards
Drinking
Water
Standards
I/ 30th of
MPCU
Values
Free from
Free from
"B"
50/100 !
See A
See A
See A
6.5-8.5
Set A
See A
Set A
See A
See A
See A
"C"
5000/100 !
See A
Except Biological
Uater Std's
5 mg/1
5.5 g/l
6.5-8.5
See A
See A
SM A
See A
See A
See A
cc-
See C
See C
See C
6.0 mg/1
6.5-8.5
68"F MX
2'F change
See A
See A
See A
See A
See A
"CW
See C
See C
See C
SM C
See C
80'F max
4*F change
SeeA
See A
SM A
See X
See A

"CR"
1000/100 !
See C
See C
See C
SM C
SM A
See A
SM A
See A
SM A
See A
ecu"
SM C
SM C
See C
See C
See C
68F MX
2*F change
SM A
SM A
SM A
See A
SM A:
CWR"
SM C
SM C
SM C
See C
SM C
80* F MX
4*F change
SeeA
SM A
SM A
SM A
SM A.
..
5000/100 al
See C
25 mg/1
SM A
6.5-9.0
None Added
SM A
See A
SM A
See A
SM A
f "S"
C
S
m
Ul

M
M
a
C
o

C
3
M
|
*
tl

u
M
5
8
2
M
t
1


I
1
I
i

9
J
+>

i
I

i
ut
1
s
IA
s
u

I
M

&


*
M
HI

c?
M 1
-J
*"2
AS
                                                             Wat:er>

-------
                                                 Wyoming
                                     Water QuVMty Standard Summary

Fecal Collform
Geometric Mean
Total CoHforra
D.O.
Floating Solids
011 & Grease
PH
Radioactive Material
a. Radium - 226
b. Strontium - 90
Salinity
Sett 1 cable Solids
Taste, Odor, and Color
Temperature
Toxic Material
Turbidity
Total Gas Pressure
I
*May 1 thru Sept. 30
280/100 ml primary contact
1000/100 ml secondary contact
None
6.0 mg/1
Free from
10 mg/1 max.
6.5 - 8.5
BPT
3 pc/1
10 pc/1

Free from
Free from
Warm water 90 F (max)
Cold water 78F (max.)
2/4 max. increase
Free from
Increase of 10 JTU max.
110% of Atmosphere
II
**May 1 thru Sept. 30
10001/1 secondary contact
None
5.0 mg/1
Free from
10 mg/1
6.5 - 8.5
BPT

--
Free from
Free from
Warm water 90F (max. J
Cold water 78 F (max.)
2/4" max. Increase
Free from
Increase of 10 JTU max.
1102 of Atmosphere
III
None
None
None
Free from
10 mg/1
6.5 - 8.5
BPT

Under study
Free from
None
None
Free from
None
110% of Atmosphere
 *  Applies to stm water below 7000 feet and certain other streams.
**  Applies to all  other waters not in I.

-------
              APPENDIX C




National Ambient Air Quality Standards
                 132

-------
                  NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS
Pollutant
Suspended particulate matter
(Total suspended particulates)
(TSP)

Sulfur dioxide
(S02)
Carbon monoxide
(CO)
Oxidants/ozone
(0 + Oz or 0.,)
X -5
Nitrogen dioxide
(N02)
Time period/standard
Annual, secondary
Annual, primary
24-hr, secondary
24-hr, primary
Annual, primary
24-hr, primary
3-hr, secondary
1-hr, primary
8-hr, primary
1-hr, primary
Annual, primary

Maximum
permissible
concentration
60 ug/m3
75 ug/m3
150 ug/m3C
260 ug/m30
80 ug/m3
365 ug/m3C
1300 Mg/m3C
40 mg/m3
10 mg/m3
160 ug/m30
100 ug/m3C

aPrimary:  to protect public health.




 Secondary:  to protect public welfare.



These values are not to be exceeded more than once per year.
                               133

-------
               APPENDIX D




       Breakpoints for Pollutant




            Standards Index




(Includes alert level for each pollutant)
                   134

-------
Breakpoints for PSI
                                                                  in Metric Units
01

Breakpoints
50'" of primary short-
term NAAQS
Primary short-term NAAQS
Alert Level
Warning Level
Emergency Level
Significant Harm Level
PSI
Value
M
50

100
200
300
400
500
TSP
iig/m3
24-hr.
75a

260
375
625
875
1000
ug/m3
24-hr.
80a

365
800
1600
2100
2620
TSPxSO?
(yg/m3)2
b

b
65xl03
261xl03
393xl03
490xl03
CO
mg/m3
8 hours
5.0

10.0
17.0
34.0
46.0
57.5
03 ,
ug/m3
1-hr.
80

160
400C
800
1000
1200
N02
1-hr.
b

b
1130
2260
3000
3750
               Annual  primary NAAQS.

               No index value reported at concentration levels  below those  specified  by  the  Alert
         level  criteria.

               For the PSI index 400 yg/m3 appears to be a more consistent  breakpoint between  the
         descriptor words "unhealthful" and "very unhealthful"  than the         03 Alert Level  of
         200

-------
         APPENDIX E




Procedures Used to Construct




  Indices and Judge Trends
            136

-------
                       TOTAL SUSPENDED PARTICULATE
Indices
     1.  Select worst site in each county based on


            o  Number of days per year greater than 260 yg/m


               averaged over three year period (1974-76)


            o  Data available in 1976


            o  Population exposure of site.  Should be


               representative of populated area of county



     2.  For the selected site, estimate the number of days greater than


         260 yg/m^ for each year (1974-76) and average over the years of


         record.


            o  In years with no recorded violations, estimate is


               automatically zero


            o  For other years estimate is made assuming a log-


               normal distribution of data throughout the year


            o  If data are not log-normal, actual distribution


               is used to estimate number


            o  If data do not allow for construction of a


               credible distribution, the actual number of days


               over standard is used



     3.  For same site, estimate number of days with at least one average

                              o
         greater than 375 yg/m-5-


            o  Use same criteria as above
                                   137

-------
Trend




     1.  Analysis done only for counties with 5 or more years of data.




     2.  Judgements based on




            o  Annual frequency distributions




            o  Annual geometric means




            o  Number of days per year greater than primary




               standard




            o  Second highest values per year




            o  Trends in other sites within county
                                  138

-------
                             SULFUR DIOXIDE
Indices
     1.  Select worst site in each county based on


            o  Population exposure.  Must be in area where


               people are present


            o  Representativeness within county


            o  Number of days per year greater than 24-hour


               average of 365 yg/m


            o  Data available in 1976



     2.  For the selected site, average number of days per year  greater


         than primary 24-hour standard for three year period  (1974-76).


            o  Actual data used


            o  Continuous data preferred over non-continuous



     3.  For same site count number of days with at least  one average

                              o
         greater than 800 pg/m .


            o  Actual data used
Trends
     1.  Analysis done only for counties with 5 or more years of data.


     2.  Judgements based on


            o  Number of days per year over standard


            o  Annual frequency distribution


            o  Second highest value per year


            o  Annual average
                                  139

-------
                            NITROGEN DIOXIDE
Indices
     1.  Select worst site in each county based on


            o  Highest annual average


            o  Data available in 1976


                                                                  o
     2.  Determine whether annual average is greater than 100 yg/m ,


         average 1974-76.

            o  Actual data are used

            o  Years without valid annual average are disregarded
Trends
     1.  Analysis done only for counties with 5 or more years of data.

     2.  Judgements based on

            o  Annual average concentrations

            o  Annual frequency distributions

            o  Trends in other sites within county
                                  140

-------
                             CARBON MONOXIDE







Indices




     1.  Select worst site in each county based on




            o  Number of days greater than 10 mg/m  8-hour average




            o  Data available for 1976







     2.  For selected site, count the number of days per year (1974-76)




         with at least one 8-hour average greater than 10 mg/m^.




         Average these yearly values.




            o  For periods with no data, estimate by examining




               data for same site for same period of other




               years and by looking at data for other nearby




               sites.







     3.  For same site count number of days with at least one average




         greater than 17 mg/m .




            o  Actual number always used
Trends
     1.  Analysis done only for those counties with 5 or more years of




         data.




     2.  Judgements based on




            o  Number of days per year over standard




            o  Annual frequency distributions




            o  Annual average concentration




            o  Second highest concentration




            o  Trends in other sites within county






                                  141

-------
                                (OZONE)






Indices




     1.  Select worst site in county based on




            o  Number of days greater than 160 yg/nr




            o  Data available for at least one year




               (1974-76) during the months April through




               September.




     2.  For selected site, count the number of days per year (1974-76)




         with at least one hourly average greater than 160 yg/m .




         Average these yearly values.




            o  For periods with no data,  estimate by examining




               data from nearby sites and for the same site




               during same period of other years.




            o  Data are insufficient if  unavailable during the




               peak ozone season (April-September).






     3.  For same site, count number of  days with at least one average




         greater than 400 yg/m^.




            o  Actual number is always used




Trends




     1.  Analysis done only for those counties with 5 or more years of




         data.




     2.  Judgements based on




            o  Number of violations per  year




            o  Number of days greater than standard for each year
                                 142

-------
o  Annual frequency distribution




o  Second highest value for each year




o  Trend in other sites within county
                      143

-------
                                   I ECHNICAL REPORT DATA
                            (Please read Instructions on the reverse before completing)
  RFPORTNO.                   |2.
  EPA-908/2-78-001
4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE
 Water  and  Air Quality Trends in Region VIII
  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
             3. RECIPIENT'S ACCESSION NO.


             5. REPORT DATE

              March 1978	..
7 AUTHOR(S)
  Thomas A.  Entzminger,  Richard Sotiros, Barry  F.  Levene
  William H. Tabor
             6. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION COUl
             8. I'LHFOHMINi; OIU1 AN I / A II ON III I'DM I NO
9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS
  U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency
  Surveillance and Analysis Division
  1860  Lincoln Street
  Denver,  Colorado  80295
             10. PROGRAM ELEMENT NO.
             11. CONTRACT/GRANT NO.
12. SPONSORING AGENCY NAME AND ADDRESS
   Same
                                                            13. TYPE OF REPORT AND PERIOD COVERED
                                                              Final
                                                            14. SPONSORING AGENCY CODE
15. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES
 16. ABSTRACT
       Water and air quality  trends and summaries were determined for the six  states  in
 Region. VIII.   These states are Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah,  and
 Wyoming.

       Only the data on EPA's national data banks were used.   The STORET data  bank was
 used  for  the water quality analysis and the SAROAD  base was  used for the air  analysis.

       The water quality  status and trends were calculated and reported in two ways;
  (1)  as single parameter percentages of standard or criteria violations, and  (2)  as  a
 single "index" number derived as the aggregate of percentage violations of  four  para-
 meter groups.

       The air quality report provides information where quality standards are achieved
 as well as areas which still have significant problems.  Indices are used where
 appropriate.

       This report was not intended to be a comprehensive analysis of cause  and effect
 relat ionships.
17.
                                KEY WORDS AND DOCUMENT ANALYSIS
                  DESCRIPTORS
Air Pollution Forecasts
Air Quality
Water Quality
Water Quality Index
                                              b.IDENTIFIERS/OPEN ENDED TERMS
 Colorado     STORET
 Montana      SAROAD
 North Dakota
 South Dakota
 Utah
 Wyoming
                           :. COSATI I ield/Group
18. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT


Release to  public
19. SECURITY CLASS (This Report)
  Unclassified
21. NO. OF PAGES
     144
20. SECURITY CLASS {This page)

  Unclassified
                           22. PRICE
EPA Form 2220-1 (Rev. 4-77)   PREVIOUS EDITION is OBSOLETE
                                          144

-------
                                                          INSIHUUMONS

   1.   REPORT NUMBER
       Insert the I PA report number as it appears on the cover of the publication.

   2.   LEAVE BLANK

   3.   RECIPIENTS ACCESSION NUMBER
       Reserved lor use by each report recipient.

   4.   TITLE AND SUBTITLE
       Title should indicate clearly and briefly the subject coverage of the report, and be displayed prominently.  Set subtitle, if used, in smaller
       type or otherwise subordinate it to main title. When a report is prepared in  more than one volume, repeat the primary title, add volume
       number and include subtitle for the specific title.

   5.   REPORT DATE
       Each report shall carry a date indicating at least month and year.  Indicate the basis on which it was selected (e.g., date of issue, date of
       approval, date of preparation, etc.).

   6.   PERFORMING ORGANIZATION CODE
       Leave blank.

   7.   AUTHOR(S)
       Give name(s)  in conventional order (John R. Doe, J. Robert Doe, etc.).  List author's affiliation if it differs from the performing organi-
       zation.

   8.   PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER
       Insert if performing organization wishes to assign this number.

   9.   PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS
       Give name, street, city, state, and ZIP code. List no more than two levels of an organizational hirearchy.

   10. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER
       Use the program element number under which the report was prepared.  Subordinate numbers may be included in parentheses.

   11. CONTR ACT/G R ANT NUMBE R
       Insert contract or grant number under which report was prepared.

   12. SPONSORING AGENCY NAME AND ADDRESS
       Include ZIP code.

   13. TYPE OF REPORT AND PERIOD COVERED
        Indicate interim final, etc., and if applicable, dates covered.

   14. SPONSORING AGENCY CODE
        Insert appropriate code.

   15. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES
        Enter information not included elsewhere but useful, such as:  Prepared in cooperation with. Translation of, Presented'at conference of.
       To be published in. Supersedes, Supplements, etc.

   16.  ABSTRACT
        Include a brief (200 words or less) factual summary of the most significant information contained in the report.  If the report contains a
       significant bibliography or literature survey, mention it here.

   17.  KEY WORDS AND DOCUMENT ANALYSIS
       (a) DESCRIPTORS - Select from the Thesaurus of Engineering and Scientific Terms the proper authorized terms that identify the major
       concept of the research and are sufficiently specific and precise to be used as index entries for cataloging.

       (b) IDENTIFIERS AND OPEN-ENDED TERMS - Use identifiers for project names, code names, equipment designators, etc. Use open-
       ended terms written in descriptor form for those subjects for which no descriptor exists.

       (c) COSATI I 1ELD GROUP - Field and group assignments are to  be taken from the 1965 COSATI Subject Category List. Since the ma-
       jority of documents are multidisciplinary in nature, the Primary Field/Group assignment(s) will be specific discipline, area of human
       endeavor, or type of physical object.  The application(s) will be cross-referenced with secondary Field/Group assignments that will follow
       the primary posting(s).

   18. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT
       Denote releasability to the public or limitation for reasons other than security for example  "Release Unlimited."  Cite any availability to
       the public, with address and price.

   19. &20. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION
       DO NOT submit classified reports to  the National Technical Information service.

   21. NUMBER OF PAGES
       Insert the total number of pages, including this one and unnumbered pages, but exclude distribution list, if any.

   22. PRICE
       Insert the price set by the National Technical Information Service or the Government Printing Office, if known.
EPA Form 2220-1 (Rev. 4-77) (Reverse)

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