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1 introduction
2 Creating a Good Plan
Overall Organization •
Circulation 	
Design Elements of the Plan
The Americans with Disabilities Act
Power and Signal Services. 	
Diagram - Better Plan 	
? How Much Space9
Offices and Workstations
Office Support Sp?Ce?
Special Spaces r
Guidelines for Specific Spaces
Office Types 	
Office or Workstation E . ...
Workstation F
Workstation G 	
Workstation H . , - -. . . 	
Meeting/Conference Rooms 	 — 	 — -
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Projection Screens
Trainino Center ^ , ,

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                                 Computer Printer Room --- —

                                 Local Area Network Room -------- '• - : ----------- ~~

                                 High Density File Storage ------------------------------------------ JU

                                 Employee Lounge --------------------------------------------------- ?]j
                                                             _            _  ___        __  O^
                                                 "                       ™..-   ..— L L . II ..... - ......... r . •  -..____.._... . I ..~..~ ----  ........
                                                                          .         _                    ww
                                 Public Information Center
                            if EPA Mission and EPA Space ____________ , ______________ 61
                               Indoor Air Quality. ________ '. ________________________________ 63
                               Energy Conservation ______________ __ ________ •. _______ :_ 65
                               Recycling .......... ____ „ ___________________ 67
                               Pollution Prevention _______________________ 68

                            S Selecting Materials & Furniture ___________ : ____________ 69
                               Floor Finishes - Carpet ---------------- 71
                               Floor Rnishes - "Tile" --- -------------- 73
                               Walls and Wall Rnishes ------------------------ 75
                               Ceilings and Millwork - ------- 77
                               Selecting a Furniture System -------- 79
                               Plants for a Healthier Environment --- 5 ---- 81

                            6 Getting it Done _________ 83
                               EPA Initiates the Process --- — - 84
                               GSA Solicits Appropriate Space- ----- ---- fj
                               EPA Procures Professional Services -- = ------- 86
                               GSA Reviews & Selects Space ----- - 87
                               Interior Design Process ---------- 91.
                               Furniture Selection & Procurement ----- 96
                               Construction, Installation & Occupancy --- 97

                            1 Concerning Maintenance— __ : __ 99

                            ? Definitions ____________________________________________________________________ - ___________ '. ______ 101*
                               Metric Equivalents _____ 105
B>A SPACE GUIDELINES                                                                                      VOLUME 1
                                                                                                      PAGE i

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  v^*
*  A \        UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
* -*—'-                         WASHINGTON. D.C. 20460
                                                                            OFFICE OF
                                                                          ADMINISTRATION
                                                                          AND RESOURCES
                                                                           MANAGEMENT
  I am pleased to present the first edition of the EPA Space Guidelines.  For many years there has
  been a need for a single source of information to help EPA facilities managers, space managers
  and line personnel better design and utilize their office, storage and special space.

  We all spend a great deal of time in our offices.  It is important then, that .care and thpught be
  given when planning and laying out that  space.  Office design is a dynamic industry with new
  technologies constantly  emerging.  We have tried to  cover and encapsulate those rne&ogs
  which will best serve the needs of the average EPA office environment.  At the same time we
  need to be sensitive to issues of  indoor air quality, the environment ergonomics and a hosfbf
  complex and often competing priorities.                                   ^  ;.

  My hope is that we have provided a framework which organizes these concepts and puts them
  into a manageable, and  more importantly, a useful packag|.  I'm sure there are items in these
  books we could have covered better, more in-depth or perhaps not as extensively.  We tried to
  put in what would be helpful and keep out that which is cumbersome.r-You, however, ^are;the
  best judge.  The binder design allows  us to update the Guidelines as needed.  Your comments
  are appreciated and anticipated.  We want to hear from you.

  I am proud of the work my staff has done on this project - the real credit goes to them. JPIease let
 them know that you appreciate their efforts as well.  We have taken-a great leap forward yyitte
 this publication. Thanks  for your support.                                "    -        J
              Rich Lemley, Director
              Facilities Management and Services Division
                                                                            Prtmd on fซpซrthซt cantatas

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        EPA REGIONS
 Since its inception in the early 1970's, The United States Environmental Protection
 Agency has  experienced  remarkable growth in its  Programs and workforce -
 resulting in a parallel growth in its facility inventory. In 1992, Headquarters, Regions
 and Laboratories occupied approximately 7.75 million square feet of assignable and
 parking space. Personnel growth has averaged 3.5% annually over the last 20
 years, with virtually every Region, as well as Headquarters, adding new space or
 moving to a new building.

 Rapid growth and organizational change have tested the EPA's ingenuity and ability
 to develop facilities in a consistent manner.  These guidelines are meant to capture
 the Agency's most successful office expansion experience and share it nationwide,
 by creating  a handbook  of practical standards, design hints  and  technical
 considerations.

 Organization of the  Handbook

 These guidelines are meant to be used by EPA facility and space managers  as a
 reference document that addresses  space issues from many perspectives.  It is
 aimed at helping with both significant moves or expansion and the everyday minor
 renovation or carpet replacement Information is organized into specific topic areas,
 such as Circulation, Special Space, Indoor Air Quality, Walls. Although interrelated,
 each is described separately to highlight specific recommendations, with illustrations,
 tips and references. The range of topics includes space distribution, environmental
 considerations, suggestions for planning and design, space acquisition procedures
 and selection of materials and furniture. A full Table of Contents will help you find
 the appropriate information.

 There are two volumes. Volume One describes the basic issues, planning principles
 and key findings of each topic. It should be the first reference source. Volume Two
 has more detailed or technical  information on some of the  space topics.  For
 example, Volume One has a two-page discussion of Indoor Air Quality Issues;
 Volume  Two  describes  the  causes, criteria  for   mechanical  systems  and
 recommendations concerning carpets, particle board, adhesives, paints etc. Volume
 Two also incorporates relevant documents by EPA or others, such as GSA's FPMR.

 Space and Design Principles

 The recommendations here reflect needs specific to  the EPA's organization and
 mission.  Underlying principles of this document are:

 Quality Office Space.  The EPA's  goal of consistent quality  office space for
 everyone  is practical and  achievable, even  with the  constraints  imposed by
 governing GSA space regulations.  Expansion has resulted in an  uneven mix of
 space, some compromised by crowding, makeshift facilities or split operations. Also,
 there may be a perception that because it is a large government agency, the EPA
 will have second-rate office space. However, the EPA is committed to providing a
 good  office environment,  recognizing it as a  basic requirement for  satisfied,
 productive employees.

 Space Consistent with  the EPA's Mission.   As the Nation's  protector of the
 environment,  the EPA has a responsibility to encourage conservation measures
through example. These guidelines have incorporated environmental considerations
for EPA office buildings and specific rooms, including the topics of indoor air quality,
 energy efficiency,  resource conservation and pollution prevention.  The discussion
EPA SPACE GUIDELINES
                                                                                                  VOLUME 1
                                                                                                    PAGE1

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is  aimed  at  awareness  and  practical  application  for  today's  installations.
Technology, practice and product availability are always improving and tomorrow's
EPA can be even more responsive. Resources and knowledge are available within
the EPA, and specific references are included in this document where useful.

A Balance with GSA Regulations. Most of the EPA's office space is controlled by
the GSA and subject to the limits of the Federal Property Management Regulations
(FPMR). Meeting these regulations requires a balanced approach to the room mix
and the sizes of workstations and shared support  Recent successful EPA office
development  experience  has  formed   the basis  for  design  and  space
recommendations in these guidelines.

Change as a  Positive Force. The strength of a good plan lies in its ability to
accommodate changing circumstances. These guidelines accept, and anticipate,
that  the Agency will change with the  evolution  of EPA Programs and specific
regional needs. Rexible facilities can be accomplished if they are  planned for in
advance.

Change is  also anticipated in these guidelines.   These documents capture a
snapshot of today's EPA experience and recommendations.   New experience,
changing regulations and additional technical information can be incorporated easily
into the handbook format.
                                                                                           EPA SPACE GUDELNES

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 REGIONS
 DENVER. CO
 12,000 SF
REGION 1
BOSTON. MASS
90,000 SF
    OFFICE/WORK STATION 0 100 SF

    CORE AREA
Good design not only suits the users; it also suits the building.  To create the best
office environment requires balancing the program guidelines with the specific
physical features of the building you will occupy. These guidelines describe soft
building blocks that can be arranged in various ways.

Building characteristics differ. Different sizes, shapes and design details affect the
location and configuration of all office  elements.   Good office space does not
happen by luck but can be  achieved if the buildings' features and potential are
understood and used.  When EPA acquires and designs new space, the following
features are considered.

Building Characteristics

Floor Size. Although EPA strives for a minimum floor of 20,000 occupiable square
feet, a wide range of floor sizes is currently used. Thus your request for 50,000 sf
could be on four floors or on one. This would affect the location of Branches and
Support Spaces, the duplication of services, and the total square footage devoted
to circulation.

Floor Shape. The shape of a building affects the efficiency of its layout - generally
a simple floor shape has more  flexibility. Careful planning of room locations and
circulation will maximize the potential of an awkward floor.  For example,  an oddly
shaped  corner wastes less space in a library than it would in an office space.

Core-to-Window Depth.  The distance from the windows to the core (elevators,
stairs, toilets etc.) determines the overall layout of the circulation system, clustering
of workstations and the location of enclosed rooms.  A deep floor needs a more
open layout to distribute natural  light and more circulation space for fire safety than
a shallow floor. EPA recommends a maximum core-to-window depth of 40-50 feet.

Windows. Few buildings will have "perfect" windows. What you want, however, are
enough windows to distribute natural light, spacing that coordinates with workstation
sizes and layouts,  windows without awkward HVAC units, window design that
responds efficiently to sun orientation and heat gain, built-in solar shading.

Bay Size.  The spacing between columns is known as the "bay size", and its
dimensions influence the efficiency of the floor layout and the selection of a furniture
system.  Speculative  office  buildings often use a 20' x 20' bay size,  which  is
economical to build and suitable for tenants with small working groups. The EPA,
however, recommends a larger bay size for layout efficiency.  On floors over 20,000
sf in size, an increased efficiency of 5% - 8%  has been demonstrated with a 30' x
30' bay.

Floor Loading.  The structural system of any building is designed to accommodate
a certain "live load", which is the expected weight of furnishings, interior partitions,
and people.  A low live load capacity (e.g. 50 pounds per square foot) would require
a spread out design for libraries, filing, storage etc., while a high capacity (e.g. 150 -
200 Ib/sf) would allow high - density filing. Common in recent office building is a live
load capacity of 80-100 Ib/sf.  Some buildings are reinforced  in certain areas of
each floor for high live loads and this is where filing or computer rooms would be
located. For a flexible  layout, 5 -10% of each floor's occupiable space should have
a live load capacity of 150 - 175 Ib/sf.
B>A SPACE GUIDELINES
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The EPA has a full range of building types, some used well and some not
Illustrated on these two pages are some specific examples of the diversity of EPA
office buildings; plans are at the same scale for comparison.

Creating a good plan in any building is a joint responsibility between you and your
architect For review and discussions, EPA needs to consider not only specific
spaces but also the cohesion and quality of the entire design.  To assist with that,
the following design issues will be considered on the following pages:


•   Overall Organization
    Circulation
•   Design Features
    Integration of Power and Signal Services
•   Americans with Disabilities Act
    Environmental Issues of the Plan
                                                              HEADQUARTERS
                                                              ARLINGTON, VA
                                                              24.000 SF
                       HEADQUARTERS
                       WASHINGTON. DC
                       190.000 SF
                                                              REGION 9
                                                              SAN FRANCISCO. CA
                                                              20.000 SF
  VOLUME 1
  RAGE 4
EPA SPACE GUIDELINES

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  VERTICAL ORGANIZATION

  % . PUBLIC CENTBl

  M 'CORE

  • SHARED ROOR SUPPORT
The careful physical organization of your facility - strategic locations for important
components and an organized approach to assigning space — is the first step in
developing good office space. Ineffective design often results from not considering
the whole, but responding to each situation as it arises. One compelling reason for
a forward looking "master plan" of your building(s) is created by the dynamic nature
of  the  EPA  organization, -  its  constant program  growth,  shrinkage and
reorganization.

Keeping in mind that the office groupings will change, treat all office space equally
in the initial concept Concentrate instead on the non-office elements of your space.
These areas become fixed  with the  initial design/construction and are  difficult and
costly to change later.  These include (a) Circulation plan, especially  the primary
circulation on each floor; and (b) Special Spaces, such as computer rooms, libraries,
conference/training  rooms, copy centers etc.

Moving your Regional offices into new space is obviously the best time for an overall
organization plan. But,  any change to existing facilities is also an opportunity for
improvement.  You can evaluate your current offices for the following and make
gradual improvements:

    Evenly distributed services;
    A consistent approach to the assignment, size and  use of workstations and
    offices; and
    The ease  of circulation and finding desired rooms.

KEY CONSIDERATIONS

Flexibility.  Organization is  an attitude. Future flexibility means planning for five
years from now, as  well  as  planning for today.

    Develop a regular pattern - a rhythm of services, offices and work areas that
    are adaptable to changing programs.

    Group Special  Spaces and other fixed elements on the floor in  a way that
    leaves large blocks  of space for workstations.

    Anticipate changes and upgrading, i.e.  plan a conference room today that can
    become a teleconferencing room later, when  the budget allows.

Circulation. Both vertical and horizontal circulation are central to the efficiency and
coherence of your plan.  Circulation  is discussed in  the following section.

Vertical Organization. All EPA offices, Regional  and Headquarters, are on more
than one floor, with some in more than one building.  There is no universal rule
about the vertical stacking of uses - buildings  and organizations vary.  Some
considerations for assigning floors are the amount  of traffic (staff and visitors) to the
space, technical limits (e.g. distances for hardwired equipment) and service/delivery
requirements.  Also, save some time for arguing about who gets the prime view.

Special Access Functions. Certain areas share similar requirements for controlled
access.  Grouping them  together makes supervision easier and more effective.
EPA SPACE GUIDELINES
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                                                                                                     PAGES

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Examples are:
    Public use areas, including public dockets, libraries, training centers and public
    information center, should be easy to find and easy to monitor.  Ideally they all
    would be located on the ground floor with direct lobby access. But, if they are
    not on  one  floor because  of internal EPA use or available space, their
    entrances should have direct access from the main elevator bank.

    High delivery/service uses, such as the mail and stock room, main copy center,
    recycling centers, are best located adjacent to the building's service elevators.

Office Support Certain shared support areas are suggested for every office floor -
Copier Room, Meeting Room(s), Satellite Recycling and Computer Printer Rooms.
To  make  it easier for all employees, a standardized location on  each floor is
recommended.

Large Floor Size.  Large floor sizes  (e.g. over  40-50,000 square feet) should be
organized into smaller units, each with its  own shared  service area  (meeting
room(s), computer printer room, satellite copy center).  Certain support areas could
serve the entire floor, such as an employee lounge and the recycling collection area.
                                                                   >
Multiple Locations.  Several EPA Regions, as well as Headquarters, are located in
more than one building, making efficient space use difficult. Satellite duplication of
certain  functions is inevitable - mail/stock room and the  main reception at a
minimum. Public access functions should be located in one  building/location.  To
best use a separate location, assign the space to one Program rather than several
unrelated  groups.

Floor Loading. When planning the location of office  components, its important to
know the  live load capacity of the floors - there may be only one location for the
library, regardless of where you might want it to go.  The structure of a building is
designed  to take the weight of  a certain "live load"  of furnishings,  equipment
partitions and people. In new buildings it is common to have a live load capacity of
80 - 100 pounds/square foot, while in some older buildings it may be as low as 50
Ib/sq. ft Storage areas, such as libraries, high-density filing, security files, and stock
rooms, require a higher floor loading capacity, (eg. minimum 175 Ib/sq. ft for high
density file units). Consult a structural engineer if you need to use any of the above
elements  or other heavy equipment and your  building has  an average  live load
capacity.  Roor areas can be structurally reinforced for the new use, or the storage
can be spread out over a larger floor area.  Some new buildings have specific areas
on each floor that have been structurally reinforced for heavier loads.

Special Features. All suggestions aside, dont fail to take advantage of any special
qualities the building has, which may make a more pleasant or exciting space for
your employees.  A top floor with a  great view might be the best place  for the
Regional library;  a distinctive corner might make a good shared meeting room on
every floor.  Enjoy your building.
LARGE FLOOR PLATES
SC. SEFMCECENTER

M  CORE

ฉ  SHARED FLOOR SUPPORT
 MINIMUM UNIFORM LIVE LOADS

 OFFICES     SOLB/SQ.FT.
 LOBBIES    100
 ASSEMBLY
  FIXED      60
  MOVABLE  100
 LIBRARY
  STACKS   150+
 HI-DENSITY
  FILES     175+

 SOURCE- AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL
 ENGINEERS, "MINIMUM DESIGN LOADS FOR
 BUILDINGS AND OTHER STRUCTURES', 12/88
 VOLUME 1
 PAGE 6
               EPA SPACE GUEaiNES

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EXAMPLE OF CIRCULATION
   PRIMARY CIRCULATION

   SECONDARY CIRCULATION
  EXAMPLE OF CIRCULATION
  PARTIAL FLOOR
  ma PRIMARY CIRCULATION

  %$ SECONDARY QRCULXnON

  WS- WORKSTATION

   T. TOILET
 EPA SPACE GUIDBJNES
While the vertical circulation in your building is set at construction, the horizontal
circulation on each floor is usually subject to your control.  There is a hierarchy of
primary and secondary circulation, in which the primary is the main corridor on each
floor, linking the elevators, exits and major components.   In older buildings the
primary circulation usually was established by the owner who constructed a walled
corridor around the core areas. In modem buildings sprinklers improve fire safety
and most local building codes dont require enclosed corridors. Following are some
suggestions for both primary and secondary circulation.

PRIMARY CIRCULATION

The goals for a good primary circulation system are two-fold:

    To maintain an efficient traffic flow while disturbing  the fewest number of
    people; and
    To create a simple pattern that helps people orient themselves.

Key considerations for establishing a primary circulation corridor on your office floors
are as follows:

Building Codes.   For safety,  local .codes regulate building  construction and
occupancy,  including the amount,  width and configuration of circulation and fire
egress. Each locale has different applicable codes, which are the first consideration
when developing a circulation system.

Width. Generally the minimum width for the primary corridor is five feet, established
by GSA and/or local  building codes.  A wider corridor of six feet is more pleasant
and tends to stay in better repair (fewer cart scrapes),  but requires more of the
available square footage.

Simple Pattern.  Main circulation connects the  key shared spaces and  the safety
components  on  the  floor - firestairs, toilets,  elevators, reception areas, major
conference rooms etc.  A straightforward pattern is the safest for  egress and the
simplest to understand. If the building shape allows it use straight corridors in a
loop pattern; avoid jogs if possible.  You also should consider enlarging the corridor
at major comers or intersections. This aids in traffic flow and orientation, as well as
protecting the walls.

Public Street. Primary circulation is most attractive when it is treated like a.public
street  It serves as the main path, but is neither quiet nor private. Certain functions
should have direct access from a main street - conference rooms,  reception,
libraries - but not the private workstations or offices of the employees. Service
functions such as recycling centers, toilets, copy centers, should be easy to find, but
they would detract from the primary circulation if their entrances were directly on the
corridor.

Stacking. Each floor should have the same primary circulation pattern to the extent
possible. This is for  safety as well as way-finding; the path to the fire exits would
always be the same.

Orientation.   Primary circulation  is the way used  by visitors as well as EPA
employees.   To  minimize confusion and maximize security,  it should  be visually
evident and  dominate the other pathways. A consistent and  different appearance
will assist in distinguishing your otherwise straight, simple and wider path. Windows

                                                                    VOLUME 1
                                                                       PAGE?

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that open onto the primary circulation are excellent aids in orientation, as well as
making the space more pleasant.

Signage. Signs only assist and punctuate, and should not replace a well thought
out circulation system, especially for safe egress.  They should however, be an
integral part of the design.

SECONDARY CIRCULATION

Secondary circulation provides access to workstations, offices and support spaces
from the primary circulation system. The term is meant to include all secondary
corridors as well as the passageways between workstations. Key considerations
include:

Width.  The appearance of your space will be improved  if you keep a regular
corridor width between workstations instead of jogging in and out For workstations
of differing  sizes, either adopt a standard panel depth or  introduce files/support
space to keep  a consistent  aisle width.  Consult  GSA, local  codes and the
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) for the minimum permitted widths (36" - 44"
typical for most secondary circulation).
                                                                  >
Simple Pattern.  Like primary circulation, a simple pattern here  is best leading
directly back to the main corridor.

Dead-end Corridor.  A dead-end corridor is one that does  not lead to a safe fire
egress in two directions.  This usually refers to the last portion  of a passageway,
and its maximum length is regulated by the local building code. In Washington DC,
for example, the permitted dead-end  corridor is  only 20 feet, which  allows
approximately 2-3 workstations.  These rules  mean  that if there is a significant
distance between your main corridor and the windows, you will need a secondary
corridor, connecting these potentially dead-end situations. One good way to do this
is to create a corridor along the window wall.

CORRIDOR TREATMENTS

It  is possible to meet the recommendations  of regular patterns and  standard
locations without creating a boring sameness.  With an open plan layout, corridors
are seldom created by using floor-to-ceiling walls with doors.  Instead they are
usually defined by a combination of walls, systems furniture panels and support
elements (files, cabinets etc.),  Use variety to give the floors interest and use the
regular pattern to keep it from becoming chaotic. Natural light coming into both the
primary and secondary circulation will give it life.
DEAD END CORRIDOR EXAMPLE
 VOLUME 1
 RAGE 8
             EPA SPACE GUIDELINES

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                        OFFICES
 GROUPING WORKSTATIONS
The design of the floor layout is unique to each situation and depends on the
building, the user needs  and the design concept  envisioned by the  architect
However, one underlying assumption is the use of an open plan  layout, which is
necessary to meet EPA's mission and GSA's regulations.  With open  plan and
systems furniture, workstations are created for the majority of personnel with
enclosed offices being limited to supervising personnel —  Section Chiefs  to
Administrator.  The amount of shared support is more generous than traditional
layouts.  (See the section  "How Much Space?" for more information).

Below are suggestions about floor layouts.  They are meant to outline the issues
and help you review plans.

KEY CONSIDERATIONS

Bay Size.  The pattern and spacing of columns defines the bay size and creates a
module that helps set the pattern for a floor layout   Speculative office buildings
often  have 20' x 20' bays, although for a flexible layout a larger bay size is better.

Planning Module. Workstation dimensions need to be coordinated with the bay and
column sizes. Typically a planning module (e.g. 5' x 5') is adopted to coordinate the
size and positioning of workstations, 'partitions, the ceiling grid,  and underfloor
systems (if any)- A modular approach makes later changes easier - it causes less
physical  disruption.

Columns. As a suggestion to prevent surprises, have your architect field check the
actual sizes of the columns.  Individual columns are  often enlarged in the field to
cover pipes or other services without modifying the drawings.

Grouping Workstations.  When planning for the layout of workstations, look ahead
and build in flexibility to meet EPA's changing needs. A classic mistake is  to assign
blocks of space to various Sections or Branches, and then design each one to meet
their needs.  It's better to  develop, for an entire floor, the circulation system and
basic layout for workstations, offices and support based on typical section  needs.
Later it can be modified slightly for each group,  while retaining the underlying
flexible plan.

Grouping Offices. Walled offices should be grouped in several clusters on an office
floor,  rather than sprinkled  among the workstations.  Clustering walled  offices
together not only leaves more open space, but also allows Section or Branch sizes
to fluctuate with little  or no  impact on the layout.  Groups of offices, and other
enclosed spaces, can  be strategically located to give visual variety to the plan and
also be convenient to the appropriate workstations.  Clustering creates efficient and
economical construction as well as good HVAC distribution.

Use of the Windows. Windows and their spacing are a great organizing force in the
office.  For example:

    The spacing of the windows  will  determine if and how workstations  and/or
    offices can be practically located along the window wall.

    Offices located along the windows will restrict the penetration of natural light
    into the interior of  the  floor,  affecting  energy conservation  as well  as the
    atmosphere of the interior work areas. The majority of walled offices should
0>A SPACE GUIDELINES
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    be located on the interior; the use of glazed panels will bring natural light into
    the offices.

    The configuration of the  interior window wall system will determine  if
    workstations can abut the window. The wall may have irregular projections;
    clearances  may be needed  for maintenance;  panels  may restrict  heat
    distribution.

    To distribute natural light throughout the office area, higher or larger panels
    should be placed away from the perimeter wall.  High panels, if required for
    overhead storage, should be placed perpendicular to the windows.

    Orientation and solar heat gain are an issue.  Window treatments should aid
    in reducing glare, especially in buildings without tinted or reflective glazing.

Support and Special Spaces.  Support and Special Spaces have characteristics that
affect their location on the floors (and/or require special treatment of the space).
Examples include:

    Spaces that generate noise and  need to be removed from workstation areas
    or  be treated  for  sound  transmission -- copy center,  mail/stock  room,
    conference/training, employee lounge.

    Spaces that require separate and modified HVAC (heating, ventilating , and air
    conditioning), which suggests their location near the building's core - copy
    center, computer room, computer printer room, telecommunications and LA.N.
    rooms, conference and training rooms.

    Spaces that generate a high live load and need to be clustered in an area of
    reinforced floor support — library, high density files  or security files, stock room,
    heavy equipment

Use of Irregular  Floor Space.  If your floor plate or building core creates irregular
comers,  their use should  be planned early in the design process.   Generally,
support space is more adaptable to unusual shapes than workstations, e.g. copy
rooms, meeting rooms, lounges.

Demountable Walls. While planning your layout and choosing the systems furniture,
if s also the time  to consider the use of demountable, or movable, wall systems for
the offices (instead of more permanent construction).  They typically mount above
the finished floor and below the finished  ceiling.  They are very flexible, easy to
move and don't disturb the floor or ceiling (power can feed from below the floor).
Their  disadvantages include a higher  initial cost.

Renovation.   Changes to existing office space need a systematic approach  -
looking at more  than the layout, to consider also the  impact  on engineering and
lighting systems.  In renovated  space,  employee complaints of stuffiness or
discomfort are often the result of adding or changing partitions without changing the
distribution pattern (balancing) of the HVAC systems.  In general, creating more or
different, rooms is more disruptive than opening up the floors.
 VOLUME 1
 PAGE 10                                                                                      EPA SPACE GUDaWES

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         60- WIN.
   MINIMUM PASSING
 Implementation of the Americans with Disabilities Act effectively started January 26,
 1992.

 The Americans  with Disabilities Act , commonly known as the ADA, intends to
 provide disabled persons with accommodations and access equal to, or similar to,
 that available to the general public. The ADA is a national Civil Rights Law, and
 it will be enforced as a Civil Rights Law, and not as a building code. Therefore an
 •aggrieved party* can bring forth a legal action.  A party does not have to allege
 discrimination 'after the fact," rather an action based on "reasonable grounds" can
 be brought forth if a person believes discrimination is about to occur with regard to
 new construction or alterations.   State or local building inspectors will not be
 enforcing the ADA since it is a Federal Civil Rights Law and supersedes state and
 local laws, unless a State or local jurisdiction adopts the ADA requirements or
 unless the U.S. Justice Department certifies the state or local code.

 The Americans with Disabilities Act is divided into four titles: I Employment; II Public
 Services  and   Transportation;  III   Public   Accommodations;   and    IV
 Telecommunications.  Title III Public Accommodations is the portion of the Act that
 addresses accessibility in buildings. New installations and physical alterations (after
 January 26, 1992)  will need to comply with ADA regulations.  In existing office
 spaces, architectural barriers need to be removed, where such removal is "readily
 achievable". This is determined on a case-by-case basis, and there has been little
 history on its interpretation.
                                                              / .
 Many ADA regulations apply to the base building, e.g. building access,  parking,
 stairs, elevators, public toilets and telephones, fire safety issues etc.; they therefore
 are the responsibility of the landlord. Within an office space, however, certain ADA
 regulations apply.   There are different more  stringent, regulations for areas  of
 "public accommodation" then for office space, which may apply to certain areas in
 your space (e.g. Public Information, fitness center, library).

 KEY CONSIDERATIONS

To help you understand when detailed review is necessary, and key topics  of
 concern for office interior design are listed below.  This list just identifies common
 issues and is by no means complete; you should refer directly to the Americans with
 Disabilities Act.

 Base Building.   Accessibility of the  overall  office building - its parking areas,
entrances, public circulation and core areas - are  subject to ADA regulations. This
is typically the responsibility of the landlord.

Accessible Routes - Interior. At least one circulation route will connect the entrance
to  all accessible rooms or areas within your space.  Provisions of ADA cover the
width, changes in level,  headroom, floor surface,  protruding objects, means  of
emergency egress and areas of rescue.  Common issues:

 •  Minimum clear width of a corridor is 36ฐ except as allowed at doors.  (Minimum
   only - local codes or GSA regulations may require wider path.)
 •  Passing space is required at least every 200'  if the route is less than 5' wide.
   This could be a 5' x 5' space, or a T-intersection of two corridors.
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•   Protruding objects cannot reduce the clear width of 36".  This would include
   drinking fountains, telephone booths, display cases etc.  Even when they don't
   intrude upon the minimum width there are regulations about allowed projection
   at various heights.
•   Review ADA for regulations concerning emergency egress and areas of rescue
   assistance.

Doors.  Doorways along an accessible route need to comply with regulations
concerning width (typically 32" clear), maneuvering clearance, thresholds, hardware
and  opening force.  One of the common  areas of non-compliance in existing
buildings is the clearance for maneuvering.  A disabled person needs clear space
(18") on the latch side of the doorway and a level area to pull the door open.

Toilet Rooms.  Common use toilet  rooms and fixtures need to comply with ADA.
In addition, other toilet rooms provided for the specific use of occupants of specific
spaces (e.g. the RA's toilet room)  must be adaptable. The room will need to be
capable of complying with these regulations if a future occupant is disabled.

Assembly Areas.  For places of assembly with fixed seating, the ADA has specific
requirements for the amount and placement  of wheelchair seating and  the
requirements for Assistive Listening devices.                          >

Storage. Fixed or  built-in storage facilities such as cabinets, shelves, closets  and
drawers, in  accessible spaces  (private offices, workstations  not  included)  are
covered by ADA.  At least one of each type provided must comply with provisions
on height, approach clearance and  hardware.

Libraries.  Public areas of a library have specific requirements.

Alarms. Emergency warning systems will include both visual and audible alarms,
and must be located in all areas of common usage (e.g. meeting rooms, hallways,
lobbies, places of assembly).  Specific visual alarm features are described.

Signage.   Permanent signs,  whether  indicating  direction  or information, or
designating  rooms,  are covered  by ADA requirements of  size,  location  and
characteristics.

In addition to the considerations above, other ADA issues common to office interior
design are:
            A
•   Ground and floor surfaces (e.g. carpets, floor tiles etc.).
•   Ramps (e.g. when floor elevation differences occur, such as between a raised
   and unraised floor).
•   Doors  (e.g. position of hardware, clearances with door swings etc.).
•   Drinking fountains and water coolers
•   Sinks (e.g.  a sink in a staff lounge pantry).
•   Reach regulations for controls and operating mechanisms (e.g.  a microwave
   oven, coffee maker or  refrigerator in a staff lounge  pantry, or other office
   equipment).
•   Telephones (e.g.  public telephones in the office space).
•   Fixed or built-in seating and tables (e.g. in a library).
•   Dressing and fitting room (e.g. a locker room in a fitness area).
                   4" MAX.
MAXIMUM PROJECTIONS
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           EPA SPACE GUBSJNES

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                                Bectric power and signal distribution is one of the most complicated aspects of
                                moving or expanding, especially considering the power requirements of equipment,
                                linking computer components, establishing telephone communications for voice and
                                data.  The methods of distributing these services are discussed here, while the
                                technical aspects are left to engineering/communication professionals. With an open
                                plan, there are fewer walls to conceal wiring, nor is in-wall wiring conducive to the
                                constant changes of the modem office.

                                No right or wrong method of distributing services exists - solutions vary.  The
                                complexity of the office, the construction of the building, the technologies available,
                                the design intent, the budget and the time available for the job all affect the range
                                of possible choices.

                                Deciding on a method or combination of methods to power and signal an office
                                should be done in conjunction with professionals, and should consider the specific
                                issues unique to each building as well as the applicable standards and codes. Very
                                important to future flexibility is good record-keeping of the installation.  Following is
                                a  description  of  common methods of power and  signal delivery  and  their
                                implications:

                                Ways Power And Signals Can Reach The'Workarea

                                Poke-Through Method, the  most  widely  used approach in existing high-rise
                                buildings,  requires drilling through the  floor assembly to  bring the horizontally
                                distributed lines from the underside of the floor to the desired access point in the
                                workarea.  Initial installation provides widereaching design freedom. Access to the
                                ceiling plenum below the floor, however, may not be available (e.g. another tenant
                                may rent that space and deny access to the ceiling) and a less-than-cleariy defined
                                organization of the wire layout  in the ceiling may cause wire-management and
                                redesign difficulty with future workarea changes.

                                     Attributes:  Locations very flexible at initial installation.  Low initial costs.

                                     Limitations: Capacity limited.  Structural damage may result from repeated
                                     changes.   Relocation is disruptive  to  occupants, and  high  in  cost. Limited
                                     security.

                                Flat Cable Conductors, also known as "flat wiring", are 3" wide, thin strips of power
                                and signal transmission wires encased  in protective  metal.  They are laid under
                                carpet tile, which provides necessary access for office layout flexibility.  Rat cable
                                is  best used for remodelling in buildings which  have poured concert flooring
                                systems, and have no other wiring system in place.

                                     Attributes:  Easy for  remodeling. Rexible.  Accommodates both power and
                                     signal. Aesthetically acceptable. Acceptable for most future electronics. Roor
                                     integrity preserved.  Installation on move-in.

                                     Limitations: Advance planning and wire management imperative.  Installation
                                     is a specialized service.  Overlapping cables may cause signal transmissions
                                     interference.  Cable durability a concern in high traffic areas. Limited security
                                     and electronic capacity.  Labor/code acceptance.  Because of its vulnerability,
                                     EPA discourages its use.
EPA SPACE GUIDELINES                                                                                      VOLUME,
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Underfloor Duct Systems are placed in the structural floor system and incorporate
deep channels; this allows horizontal wire distribution to reach essentially any point
in the workarea. Several types of receptacles have been developed to access the
distribution channels and are usually located in a grid pattern about 6 feet on center.
This approach provides a good appearance in the workarea, but much flexibility is
lost after the system is set  Underfloor Duct System wire capacity may be limited,
especially in older buildings, thus requiring an additional method of wire distribution.

     Attributes: A construction industry standard.  Low fire hazard. Available in
     concrete or metal deck systems.  Satisfies all code requirements. Low cost for
     new construction. Accommodates power, signal and special cable needs.

     Limitations: Grid set at the time of construction may not match desired layout
     Wire management and  capacity  limited  by system as installed, making
     expansion or future electronics difficult to accommodate.  Cannot be installed
     during remodeling.

Raised Floors, originally known  as "computer floor systems," are composed  of
pedestal legs  resting on a structural floor system with removable floor surface
panels 18 to 30 inches square. The height above the structural floor varies from 6
to 18 inches to allow the horizontal distribution of a wide array of services. T/hey are
known for their ease of access, though it is important to select a raised floor with a
module that works with the  planning module.

     Attributes: Optimum flexibility.  Relocation costs and labor minimal. Low life
     cycle costs.  Accommodates  all  future electronics, other equipment and
     distribution lines.  Communication interference is  minimum.  No clean-up or
     damage on removal.

     Limitations:  Extra  floor-to-floor height  required.   High initial cost  Limited
     security, acoustical performance, floor loads, durability and floor finish options.
     Level installation required.

Surface-mounted Raceways are generally applied to walls, columns or ceilings, and
carry the wiring to a point at or near its use.  The  traditional surface-mounted
raceway is an applied channel on the wall, common in light industrial applications
and old building conversions.  However, they can be attractively designed at the
time of construction, e.g. hidden behind a molding  strip.

     Attributes:  Low initial cost.   Flexible  at  installation and for future wiring
     changes.  Minimum cable lengths. Future electronics easily accommodated.

     Limitations:  Visually  intrusive unless custom designed.  May be difficult to
     access.   Wiring from  the wall to point of need  can  create safety, security,
     aesthetic problems.

Power Poles stand floor-to-ceiling with wire connections for horizontal distribution
at either end. Power poles usually provide a quick connection, but are controversial
with regard to both safety and aesthetics; and their layout organization may also
conflict with the planning bay module.

     Attributes:  Easy to  move  and connect to  distribution lines in the  ceiling
     plenums.  Low cost Accommodates both power and signal. Additional outlets.


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                                   Limitations:  Visually intrusive.  Not durable - subject to bumping.  Code
                                   restrictions in some locales.  Requires special ceiling penetrations.  Not suited
                                   for future electronics. Possible electromagnetic interference.

                               Cable Trays don't provide complete distribution, but they are devices to carry wiring
                               through the ceiling plenum or floor to be distributed by one of the other methods,
                               e.g. Poke-Through,  Power Pole or Surface Raceways.

                               All these methods, together with in-wall wiring, bring power and telecommunication
                               signals to all areas of the office, especially to the open plan workstations. With
                               older panel systems, each station had to be served, but newer systems furniture can
                               have its own internal wiring.   This not only conveniently serves the user but also
                               allows distribution to continue through an entire run of workstations.

                               Systems Furniture  Wiring offers  both vertical and horizontal  wire distribution in
                               workstation panels.  The distribution channel is usually located within the base of
                               the panel.  Some manufacturers offer systems  that now provide distribution at
                               unlimited locations.  Access to the power and signal source typically occurs via one
                               of the other methods described here - from a column, cellular floor, poke-through
                               or  power pole.  Rexibility, excellent wire management and good  aesthetics  are
                               achieved by using systems furniture it) the workarea; its wire capacity, however,
                               must satisfy program power and signal needs.

                                   Attributes: Power and signal accommodation good. Rexible for changes and
                                   accommodating future electronics.  Connects to one of the other methods.

                                   Limitations:  Panels must interconnect, which may hinder movement Wire
                                   capacity determined by the  furniture system.   Installation by trade  may be
                                   required.
                                          •TO FLOOR ABOVE
SUSPENDED
CEIUNG
                                      SURFACE MOUNTED
                                      RACEWAY
                                                                           RAISED FLOOR
                              UNDERFLOOR  POKE THRU  UNDERFLOOR  FLAT CABLE
                              SYSTEM      SYSTEM    SYSTEM       UNDER CARPET
                              ALTERNATIVE METHODS FOR BRINGING POWER AND
                              SIGNALS TO THE WORKSTATIONS
EPA SPACE GUIOaiNES
                                                                                                 VOLUME 1
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VOID ME 1
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                              The following are two floor plans utilizing the same building and space requirements.

                              The Original Plan is an actual design for a government agency, altered only slightly to
                              illustrate the EPA's requirements.

                              The Modified Plan is a reworking of the first design to illustrate some of the guidelines
                              discussed.
EPA SPACE GUIDELINES                                                                                         VOLUME 1
                                                                                                        PAGE 17

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 Program Shown:

 Private offices     21
 Workstations     107
 Shared Stations    2
 Meeting Rooms
 Copy Rooms
 Library
 High Density Files
 Lounge
 Reception
2
2
Legend

    Building Core

    Primary Circulation

    Enclosed Offices

    Enclosed Support
                                                  EXECUTIVE OFFICES:
                                                  • 2 ARE REMOTE FROM
                                                   RECEPTION AND
                                                   DIFFICULT TO FIND
                                                  •ONE HAS DOOR THAT
                                                   OPENS DIRECTLY TO
                                                   RECEPTION LOBBY
B
PRIMARY
CIRCULATION JOGS,
CREATING CONFUSING
INTERSECTIONS
c
CONFUSING
RELATIONSHIP OF
WORKSTATIONS
AND MAZE-LIKE
CIRCULATION
RANDOM LOCATION
OF FIXED WALLS
LIMITS FUTURE
CHANGE
LIBRARY DOES HAVE
A WINDOW LOCATION,
BUT ACCESS IS INDIRECT
AND DISTURBING TO
NEIGHBORS. CHANGING
THE SHAPE COULD GIVE
IT A WINDOW AND LOCATE
THE ENTRANCE AT THE
CORRIDOR.
                                                                                                                                                                      DIFFICULT LOCATION
                                                                                                                                                                      TO REINFORCE FLOOR
                                                                                                                                                                      LOADING CAPACITY
                                                                                                                                                                              G
                                                                                                                                                                              WORKSTATIONS
                                                                                                                                                                              OPEN DIRECTLY
                                                                                                                                                                              ON TO MAIN
                                                                                                                                                                              CORRIDOR (ACROSS
                                                                                                                                                                              FROM TOLET TOO)
H
CONFERENCE ROOMS
(BOTH) ARE NOT NEAR
FLOOR RECEPTION, NOR
ARE THEY EASY TO FIND
FROM RECEPTION AREA.
                                                                     M
                                                                     WORKSTATION SIZES
                                                                     AND SHAPES VARY
                                                                     CONSIDERABLY
                                                                        MAZE-LIKE
                                                                        CIRCULATION
                         RECEPTION AREA
                         CRAMPED AND
                         UNDISTINGUISHED-
                         DIFFICULT TO
                         RECOGNIZE FROM
                         THE ELEVATOR LOBBY
                                            K
                                            LOCATION AND
                                            CONFIGURATION OF
                                            FIXED PARTITIONS
                                            AND OFFICES (TYPICAL)
                                            CHOPS UP FLOOR INTO
                                            RIGID COMPARTMENTS
                                            OF IRREGULAR SHAPE-
                                            RESTRICTS FLEXIBILITY
                                LENGTH OF THIS
                                DEAD-END CORRIDOR
                                (+/- 301) MAY BE TOO
                                FAR UNDER SOME
                                BUILDING CODES
                                                                      ADJUST THESE
                                                                      TWO OFFICES
                                                                      TO ALIGN WITH
                                                                      MAJOR COLUMNS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    f
VOLUME 1
PAGE 18
                                                                                                                                                                                                EPA SPACE GUDELINES

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                            B
                             PRIMARY CIRCULATION
                             IS EASY TO UNDERSTAND
              SECONDARY CORRIDOR
              MINIMIZES DEAD-END
              SITUATIONS
    H
    CONFERENCE ROOMS
    ADJACENT TO RECEPTION
    AND/OR ELEVATOR LOBBY
    (CONFERENCE ROOM
    LOCATION AND
    WORKSTATIONS COULD
    BE SWITCHED FOR
    WINDOWED MEETING AREA)
RECEPTION AREA GRACIOUS
AND VISIBLE FROM THE
ELEVATOR LOBBY. NATURAL
LIGHT INTO RECEPTION
EXECUTIVE OFFICES
ARE NEAR RECEPTION
YET DONT HAVE ENTRANCES
ON TO PRIMARY CIRCULATION
    M
    OPEN AREAS FOR
    WORKSTATIONS
    ALLOW A REGULAR
    PATTERN OF SIZES
    AND SHAPES.

              OPEN ZONES FOR FLEXIBLE
              LAYOUT OF WORKSTATIONS.
              SECTION SIZES/ASSIGNMENTS
              CAN FLUCTUATE AND STILL
              RELATE TO THE SUPERVISORY
              OFFICES. GROUPED OFFICES
              (AND SUPPORT) ORGANIZE
              THE FIXED PARTITIONS
HIGH DENSfTY FILES
AND LIBRARY LOCATED
IN SAME ZONE - EASIER
TO REINFORCE FLOOR
LOADING CAPACITY
            WALL OF LIBRARY
            COULD BE WINDOWED
            TO BRING IN NATURAL
            LIGHT
         NO WORKSTATIONS
         OPEN DIRECTLY ON
         MAIN CIRCULATION
PLAN WOULD BE IMPROVED
IF CORRIDOR WERE OPEN
TO NATURAL LIGHT (LKE
SECONDARY CORRIDOR
JUST ABOVE)
 Program Shown:

 Private offices   21
 Workstations    115
 Shared Stations  2

 Meeting Rooms   2
 Copy Rooms     2
 Library
 High Density Files
 Lounge
 Reception

 With  the modified plan,  there was an  increase of 8
 professional size workstations, and a lower percentage
 of small stations. (However, there are somewhat fewer
 file cabinets shown).
Legend

    Building Core

    Primary Circulation

    Enclosed Offices

    Enclosed Support
EPA SPACE GUOELNES
                                                                                                                                                                          VOLUME 1
                                                                                                                                                                           PAGE 19

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 GROSS SQUARE FOOTAGE
NET USABLE SQUARE FOOTAGE
 You need enough space to create a pleasant office environment that meets EPA's
 mission, enough space that all employees work well and enough so the Region can
 serve  its public functions.   However, the exact  answer to 'How much?" is
 complicated, and in the federal government is tied to regulations and budgets.

 Specific guidelines for the types of space common to the Regions, their sizes and
 frequency are presented  in this chapter.   These  are based on  research  and
 experience with recent Regional and  Headquarters space installations and are
 meant to reflect several goals:

 1.  To create a quality workplace. People often think of guidelines as "standards"
    that limit But at EPA, these space planning guidelines could improve the office
    quality for many employees by providing a more pleasant,  efficient work place
    and improved indoor air quality.

 2.  To  suggest a  pattern of use that ages well.   EPA changes  often,  thus a
    systematic approach to workstation variations and  common support elements
    increases the longevity of any office plan.   Fewer physical modifications are
    required as activities and people change.

 3.  To improve consistency, not only flegion-to-Region, but also within Regions.
    The  gradual application of space  guidelines  promotes  and simplifies  the
    resolution of uneven space distribution.

 4.  To meet the space limits set by GSA.   GSA sets limits on the amount and
    distribution of space for Agency offices and enforces them through allocation of
    space and  rent for facilities.

 5.  To provide technical data and assist EPA managers in defining performance
    guidelines for commonly used spaces at  EPA.

 GSA Regulations

 GSA regulations play an integral part in determining space allocated to any given
federal agency. The General Services Administration publishes a document called
the Federal Property Management Regulations (FPMR), which describes its policies
on  the  acquisition, assignment and alterations of  space within  GSA controlled
buildings. .Of first importance when planning  for space  are the FPMR's categories
of Occupiable Office Space and the maximum  square footage assigned to each.
Occupiable space is divided into three main categories:
                                   Office Space
                      Storage Space     Special Space
Office Space includes the workstations and offices for personnel, the common
support areas (filing, meeting rooms etc.) and the internal circulation that connects
them.  Most ordinary office  areas fit into this category.  Historically, GSA has
regulated the amount of office space permitted, to control capital/operating costs and
to consistently distribute government space. Currently (summer 1993) the maximum
permittable square footage for Office Space is 125 square feet per person for
offices, workstations and circulation,  plus an estimated 22% additional space for
shared support  This FPMR allocation effectively works out to 152.5 Occupiable
square feet per person. This is an average utilization rate; not every person gets
152.5 sf of personnel work area. The total allocation must accommodate reception,
meeting rooms, corridors,  reference areas, coffee stations etc.
 EPA SPACE GUIDELINES
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Storage Space  is designated for bulk storage, with unfinished interiors, minimal
lighting and heating. Most storage areas in office buildings are not included, but are
classified instead as Office Space.

Special Space accommodates specific equipment or uses by modifications to the
building's architectural or engineering systems, such as augmented ventilation/air
conditioning, reinforced floor loading or increased electrical power.  Typical
examples in EPA buildings are copy centers, high-density filing, conference rooms
with A.V. capability, computer rooms, and pantries. These spaces are individually
planned, based on specific need. An observation based on the most recent EPA
Regional installation,  the average amount of Special Space ranges from 25-30
square feet per person.  No maximum square footage is prescribed, but all special
spaces must  be reviewed and  approved  by GSA and  EPA.  Higher rent and
alteration costs are charged for them.

How To Meet  Guidelines

We have reviewed recent EPA  office installations and offer these suggestions.
Architects or  interior  designers  should be retained for  all  but the  most  minor
changes and should be encouraged to:
                                                                   >
1.  Keep circulation simple and efficient. Circuitous or ill-defined corridors decrease
    the space  available for other uses.            -   '

2.  Develop a  regular  pattern of shared support and equipment that discourages the
    proliferation of reception areas, meeting rooms, printers, etc.

3.  Choose  modest sizes for offices and workstations  and  balance this with
    generous shared support.

4.  Select a furniture  system that is flexible in its components and range of sizes.

Space Measurement

Office  space is commonly defined and measured in several ways:
    Net Useable square footage
    Occupiable square footage
    Gross square footage
    Rentable square footage
The space in  this document is expressed in  Net Usable  square footage,  unless
otherwise indicated.  GSA definitions of space terms are  included in this volume
(Definitions).   So  many variations  occur that, when  discussion  your  space
requirements,  it is very  important to  establish a mutual understanding of what is
included.

Metric equivalents are shown on the following charts, and a conversion table is
included in the Definitions section of this document
RULES OF THUMB FOR EPA
SPACE NEEDS

OFFICE, SUPPORT, SPECIAL SPACE TOTAL.
ESTIMATED FOR SEVERAL EXAMPLES:

1. ADDING IS-20PEOPLE
  tl40 OSF/PERSON FOR OFFICE
   & SUPPORT;

2. ADDING UP TO 100 PEOPLE/SAME
  LOCATION
  t16S OSF/PERSON FOR OFFICE,
  SUPPORT, AND SPECIAL

3. MOVING ENTIRE REGIONAL OFFICES
  ฑ180 OSF/PERSON

SUITABLE FOR FIRST DISCUSSION ONLY;
SPACE PROGRAMMING MUST FOLLOW
BECAUSE EACH GROUP HAS DIFFERENT
REQUIREMENTS.
 NET USABLE SPACE


 Z3  TYPICAL OFHCE SPACE

 งงi  SPECIAL SRAC6

 H  INTERNAL CIRCULATION
 R?l
 IcJ  BUILDING SUPPORT SPACE

 WSซ WORK STATION
  VOLUME 1
  PAGE 22
               EPA SPACE GUIDELINES

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                                At EPA today, the amount of space devoted to offices and work stations varies
                                widely as a percentage of total occupiable square footage.  Our experience in both
                                the Regional Offices and Headquarters indicate that offices and workstations should
                                represent approximately half of the total occupiable space. (This means 82-85 sq.
                                ft. per person, averaged from RA to SIS). With this distribution, high quality office
                                space can  be achieved within GSA regulations, while providing adequate  office
                                support and Special Space.

                                Space Guidelines

                                The purpose  of space guidelines is to give order and long term flexibility to  the
                                interior design.  They help establish a regular  pattern that organizes your  office
                                floors both visually and operationally.  The categories and space allocations here
                                are based on  research into EPA's typical mix of personnel and its most recent office
                                installations.  An underlying assumption is the use of systems furniture for ail
                                workstations,  laid out in a modular, open plan.  Enclosed offices are assigned to
                                supervising personnel - Section Chiefs to Regional Administrator.

                                Each office and workstation size is given as a range, recognizing that situations  are
                                different -- created by different floor shapes, structural bay sizes,  furniture systems.
                                In addition, a limited number of workstation types are presented. Fewer varieties
                                simplify the assignment, layout and future flexibility of the workstations.  EPA
                                Regions have implemented two approaches in recent buildouts:

                                A.  The majority of workstations are the same size, using the middle station, Type
                                    G at 60-65 square feet. Assigned to all professionals and senior clerical staff,
                                    the single workstation size readily accommodates change and reassignment

                                B.  Workstations are distributed in three configurations based on a profile of  the
                                    Branch to be accommodated. The range of sizes more closely matches  the
                                    functions for the various positions, but reassignment is. more complex because
                                    it requires matching or changing workstation sizes for the new users.

                                Either way, some standardization will ensure the long-term usefulness  of your floor
                                layout A plan based on the typical size and profile of your Sections can be more
                                useful than one tailored to specific individuals.  These "custom" plans are often out-
                                of-date before the carpet is down. A good open-plan design can build in enough
                                flexibility for normal variations.

                                Sometime you might reuse an already configured office floor without renovating for
                                the  new users.  The existing offices and partitions probably will not match these
                                space guidelines.  One suggestion is to  concentrate on satisfying your support
                                space needs first, before trying to assign offices.  Then share offices to approximate
                                the guidelines. Otherwise, you may find that everyone has a little  more  office space
                                than they need, but there  is no meeting room and the "library" is scattered into
                                several offices.

                                Note that these recommendations don't reflect the current practice at EPA.  With
                                gradual implementation, some people will get larger work areas, some smaller. But
                                the overall plans will meet EPA goals for quality and efficient office space.
EPA SPACE GUIDELINES
                                                                                                   VOLUME 1
                                                                                                    PAGE 23

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  TYPE
ASSIGNMENT
KEY SPACE ATTRIBUTES
APPROX

  SIZE
                                                                 net square feet
                                                                 (square motets)
*A
*B
*C
*D
*E
*F
*G
*H
Regional
Administrator
Deputy Regional
Administrator
Assoc. Regional
Administrator
Division Director
General Counsel
Deputy Division
Director
Branch Chief
Section Chief
Senior Legal
Senior
Professional
Senior
Professional
Professional
Senior Clerical
Contractor
Clerical
Contractor
AARP. SIS
• Enclosed office, with several visitor
chairs and conference table (6-8)
• Window location
• Furniture: Standard or Systems
• Enclosed office, with visitor chairs
and conference table (4-6)
• Window location
• Furniture: Standard or Systems
• Enclosed office, with either
a. Conference table
(4) or
b. Informal seating plus pull-up
chairs
• Window location
• Furniture: Standard or Systems
• Enclosed office with small table or
pull-up chairs for conference (3-4)
• D.D.D. - Window location
• B.C. - Interior location
• Furniture: Standard or Systems
• Enclosed office or semi enclosed
workstation
• Interior office location
• 2 visitor chairs
• Furniture: Systems
• Semi-enclosed workstation, with 0-2
visitor chairs
• Variations in equipment and storage
needs
- Furniture: Systems
• Semi-enclosed workstation
• Variations in equipment and storage
needs
• Furniture: Systems
• Semi-enclosed workstation
• Variations in equipment and storage
needs
• Furniture: Systems, low panels
350-375 sf
(32-35 sm)
275-300 sf
(25-28 sm)
225-250 sf
(20-23 sm)
\
s
150-180 Sf
(14-1 7 sm)
100-1 20 Sf
(9-11 sm)
75-80 sf
(7-7.5 sm)
60-65 sf
(5.5,6 sm)
40-50 Sf
(4-4. 5 sm)
* Indicates that a diagram of this space follows.
VOLUME 1
PAGE 24
                                                                                               EPA SPACE GUEELWES

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                           Office support spaces are those usual shared rooms, equipment areas and filing/storage that
                           augment the workstations and offices. This group includes functions that can occupy regular
                           office space with no engineering modification — either as a separate room or as a shared area
                           interspersed with the workstations.  By GSA definition, these are part of Office Space and
                           subject to the utilization limit of 152.5 occupiable square feet per person.

                           Some support can be classified as Office Space in one case and as Special Space in another,
                           for example a library. A small reference library with three rows of bookshelves and a reading
                           area could be accommodated in regular office space. A large Regional Library would be
                           Special Space because of the structural live load requirement of the book stacks (non-stack
                           areas may be considered office). Another example is  the conference/meeting room.  When
                           a meeting room requires changes to the engineering systems for augmented ventilation or the
                           installation of audio-visual equipment, it is classified as Special Space. Therefore some of the
                           following support areas are listed again under Special  Space.
SUPPORT
SPACES
DESCRIPTION

APPROXIMATE
SIZE
FREQUENCY
GUIDE
net square feet
\ (square meters)
Reception Area
*Main
*Departmental
* Public
Information

Public Dockets


Meeting Room

Library/
Reference
• Central reception & security
point for visitors
• Desk/counter area; display;
seating for 6
• Adjacent to entry lobby; near
Public Information and Dockets
• Reception/waiting for senior
administrators, eg. R.A., D.D.
• Seating for 2-4
• Adjacent to secretary (not in sf)
• Public education center
• Information/display area
• Library
• Small video theater
• Workstations & support
• Reference & research area
• Work areas
• Storage of dockets
• Standard room for meetings of
6-20 people
(also see Special Spaces:
Conference Room)
• Reference area for employees,
typically for a specific Division
• Shelving and seats
300 sf minimum
(28 sm)
lOOsfforD.D.
(9sm)
Varies

Varies


15Osfto400sf
(14-38sm)

300 Sf
maximum; see
Special Space:
Library

1 per facility
1 per Division
1 per facility

Varies
Co-locate if
possible
Varies

Varies
                            Indicates that a diagram of this space follows.
EPA SPACE GUIDELINES
                                                                                                   VOLUME 1
                                                                                                    RAGE 25

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Central Evidence
Copy Center
Main/Satellite
jt
Convenience
Ring - General
Equipment
Station
Closets
Coffee Station
* Recycling
Employee
Counseling
Recreation A.
Credit Union
Union Office
• Secure evidence storage room
• May contain security files, safe
• If increased floor loading is
required, this is Special Space
See Special Space
• Small copier located in office
area
• Use is discouraged because
copier exhaust affects indoor air
quality
• Filing cabinets distributed in
open plan office area
• Shared station for computer,
microfiche reader, typewriter, or
other equipment
• Space for worksurface and chair
• Closets or hanging space for
employees' and visitors' coats
• Amenity within office area
• Counter with sink and storage
(proximate to wet stack)
• Coordinated system of collection
for recyclable materials. Plan
for 7 materials (white paper,
newsprint, other paper, glass,
aluminum, plastic, trash)
• Usual method has convenience
bins distributed locally, satellite
collection rooms each floor, and
central building
collection/storage
• Career, retirement personal
counseling
• Discreet access
• Office space devoted to these
employee amenities
1 00-200 sf
(9-18 sm)
40 sf
(3.5 sm)
9 sf per cabinet
(14sf in file
rm.)
20 sf
(2sm)
0.5 sf per
employee
30-35 sf
(3sm)
Coordinate with
building's
method
120 sf per room
(11 sm)
200-500 sf each
1 per facility
(O.I.G only)
Discouraged
Varies
As needed
>
Distributed
1 periSO
employees
Minimum of 1
satellite center
per floor
Varies
Varies
 Other desirable areas that fall under GSA "Office" space limits
 Child Care
 Center
 Fitness Center
 Health Unit
These areas are desirable, but currently considered office-type space by
GSA and subject to the utilization limit  Policy changes; check with GSA
and FPMR for specific situation.
  Indicates that a diagram of this space follows.
VOLUME 1
RAGE 26
                                                                                   EPA SPACE GUIDELINES

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                              Special spaces are those that require modification to the building's architectural or engineering
                              systems for their use. These changes might be to augment the HVAC system, reinforce the
                              structure for high live loads, increase the electrical power to  a specific room or introduce
                              plumbing. Following are common EPA Special Space (see also Office Support).
                                SPECIAL
                                SPACES
                           DESCRIPTION
                                  APPROXIMATE
                                       SIZE
                     FREQUENCY
                        GUIDE
                                Common Special Spaces
                                Conference
                                Room
YOUR RENT TO GSA FOR SPECIAL SPACE
VARIES BY TYPE. AS A RATIO OF BASE
OFFICE RENT (X):

CONFERENCE/TRAINING     1.19X

AOP                   1-58X

STRUCTURALLY CHANGED     1.80X
Copy Center
*Main
                                 Satellite
                              *" Computer Printer
                               Room
                               Computer Room
                               LAN. Room
                               Telecom-
                               munications
                               Room
                    Meeting room with audio-visual
                    capabilities
                    Specialized lighting, power,
                    HVAC
Shared facility for large volume
copying, collating & binding
Service counter, reproduction
equipment, tables, storage,
recycling bins
Specialized HVAC, power,
acoustics             >

Centralized room for routine
office copying
1-2 copiers, table, storage,
recycling bins
Specialized HVAC, power,
acoustics
                    Enclosed space for laser printers
                    serving PC's, LAN's
                    Counter, paper storage
                    For IAQ, recommended over
                    providing printers in open work
                    areas; special exhaust
                    Specialized room for mainframe
                    or LAN equipment and related
                    workstations
                    Specialized HVAC, power,
                    telecommunications
                    Equipment support for networked
                    computer services
                    Cable racks, table/counter for
                    monitor and file servers
                    Locate centrally; stack floors
                    Specialized HVAC, power,
                    telecommunications
                    Storage of equipment for voice &
                    data communications
                    Locate centrally; stack floors
                    Specialized HVAC, power,
                    telecommunications
                                    net square feet
                                    (square meteis)

                                Varies
                                See Volume 2
750 sf
(70 sm)
                                                                                   225 sf
                                                                                   (20 sm)
                                70 sf for
                                1 -3 printers
                                (6.5 sm)
                                Varies with
                                equipment
                                Varies w/equip.

                                (e.g. 80-100 sf per
                                100 employees
                                served
                                Varies
                                (e.g. 150sffor250
                                people) Sometimes
                                built into bldg. core
                     minimum 1
                     per facility
1 per facility
                                                                        1 per floor or
                                                                        1 per 150
                                                                        employees
                    Walking
                    distance
                    maximum 75"
                    1 per floor
                    1 per floor
                               ' indicates that a diagram of this space follows.
  EPA SPACE GUmaiNES
                                                                                                          VOLUME I
                                                                                                            PAGE 27

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*LJbrary
Ring: Secure
*High Density
Mail & Stock
Room
Employee
Lounge
Record
Management
• Reference area for EPA
employees and public
• Reading area, stacks,
cataloguing, storage
• Specialized floor loading,
humidity control, lighting
• Enclosed area or special file
cabinets for confidential material
• Specialized floor loading,
fireproofing
• Compact storage for files or other
media, using mechanized
equipment
• Specialized floor loading
• Receiving, storage and
dispensing of office supplies;
distribution of mail
• Work area and storage
• Locate with easy access to
service elevator
• Specialized floor loading
• Strategically located break room
• Tables & chairs, peak occ. 15
• Pantry with sink, refrigerator,
storage, microwave
• Specialized HVAC, plumbing
• On-site storage for records
• Shelving, min. interior finishes
• Specialized floor loading, climate
control
Varies with size of
region +
specialization
Varies
80 sf per
Lecktriever *
18sf perTimes-2*
H.O. systems vary
Varies
\
>
250 Sf
May be smaller if
fewer employees
(23 sm)
500-600 sf
(46-56 sm)
1 per facility;
Maybe
separate law
library
As needed
1 H.O. unit per
floor if needed
& structure
allows
1 per facility
Satellite if split
location
1 peri 200
employees
or 1 per floor
1 per facility
 Desirable areas if budget permits
 Training/
 Conference
 Center
Sophisticated, flexible multi-
purpose facility, A.V. capability
Moveable partitions, storage for
materials and equipment, tables,
chairs
Specialized HVAC, acoustics,
lighting, audio-visual installation
minimum 750 sf for
1 room
(24 persons at
tables or 40 in
rows)
1 per facility
May share
with another
Agency
"" Video
 Conferencing
Facility to allow multi-party
meetings at 2 or more locations,
using visual, voice and data
communications
Specific design of equipment &
furniture available
Specialized HVAC, power,
telecommunications, lighting,
acoustics
600 sf
201 x 301
(56 sm)
1 per facility
  Indicates that a diagram of this space follows.
VOLUME 1
PAGE 28
                                                                                EPA SPACE GUDEUNES

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                                Diagrams and technical guidelines for common EPA spaces have been prepared,
                                including individual descriptions of offices, workstations, shared support and Special
                                Spaces.  They are intended to be  a  reference when planning new spaces, by
                                illustrating the basic requirements, important considerations and possible variations.

                                These diagrams are only guides and examples — circumstances such as planning
                                module, furniture system, equipment and occupant needs will determine final size
                                and features.

                                The following are included:

                                Personnel Spaces
                                    Office Types - Examples of A,B,C,D
                                    Office or Workstation E
                                    Workstation F
                                    Workstation G
                                    Workstation H

                                Support and Special Space
                                    Meeting/Conference Rooms
                                    Teleconferencing
                                    Projection Screens
                                    Training Center
                                    Copy Centers
                                    Computer Printer Room
                                    Location Area Network Room
                                    High Density File Storage
                                    Employee Lounge
                                    Reception
                                    Recycling Areas
                                    Library
                                    Public Information Center
EPA SPACE GUIDELINES                                                                                   VOLUME 1
                                                                                                  RAGE 29

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VOLUME 1
PAGE 30                                                                                                                EPA SPACE GUIDELINES

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 TypeD:
 150-180 Square Feet
 (14-17 Square Meters)

 Assignment:
 Deputy Division Director
 Branch Chief
G
G
	OVERHEAD STORAGE UNITS
	TASK LIGHTS BELOW OVERHEAD STORAGE

•—' OPTION FOR COMPUTER


  ^ -BULLET- SHAPED WORKSURFACE

   PAPER RECYCLING BIN

   UNDERCOUNTER PEDESTAL CABINET
 Type C:
 225-250 Square Feet
 (20-23 Square Meters)

 Assignment:
 Associate Regional
  Administrator
 Division Director
 General Counsel
                                      OPTION FOR COMPUTER

                                      BASIC FEATURES OF TYPE D
                                      PLUS:
                                     CONFERENCE TABLE FOR 4
 Type B:
 275-300 Square Feet
 (25-28 Square Meters)

 Assignment:
 Deputy Regional
  Administrator
                                    'OPTION FOR COMPUTER

                                     BASIC FEATURES OF TYPE D
                                     PLUS:

                                     CONFERENCE TABLE FOR 4-6
                                     VISITOR CHAIRS
                                     OPTIONAL SHELVING
Type A:
350-375 Square Feet
(32-35 Square Meters)

Assignment:
Regional Adminstrator



a
,a
DISPLA'
SYSTEN





,u
t
\
\

D
D
^
\ \ !
\ \j

a
(
DC





~)
ซ.
. — -

Co
\
<

                                          -OPTION FOR COMPUTER


                                       ~   BASIC FEATURES OF TYPE D
                                       r   PLUS:

                                           CONFERENCE TABLE FOR 6-8
                                           VISITOR CHAIRS
                                           OPTIONAL SHELVING
                                           DISPLAY SYSTEM
EPA SPACE GUIDELINES

-------
BASIC OFFICE GUIDELINES

Worksurface:
Approximately 15 linear feet (24"-30" deep is typical)

Storage:
Shelving at 12-20 linear feet
Undercounter pedestal cabinets and/or lateral files - minimum of 2 with options for
drawer configuration and mobility.

Lighting:
Task lights and/or general lighting consistent with Green Lights Program.
Combination of task and ambient lighting.

Equipment:
Up to 3 elements.

OPTIONAL OFFICE FEATURES

-Additional storage - Shelves or undercounter pedestal.
-Additional worksurface and/or equipment; may reduce conference capacity.
-Drafting surface                                                     \
-Glazed wall and/or door sections.
-Straight slide or articulated undercounter keyboard.
-Panel hung work organizers.
-Coat hooks
-Display system, electronic keyboard, or projection screen.

Note:  Printers require slotted worksurface to accommodate paper feed.
Note:  If loose furniture replaces systems furniture, the layout efficiency of the office may be reduced.

TECHNICAL GUIDELINES

Power:
Minimum of 3 duplex convenience  electrical outlets (2 in Office Type D).
One isolated, grounded outlet for computer.
Power for task lighting as required.
Additional power requirements may be determined by program.

Lighting:
Task lighting to provide 50 footcandles at desk.
Overhead lighting at conference table.
Lights dimmable in Office Types A, B for audio-visual use.
Ambient lighting to provide 30 footcandles.

Data/Telecommunication:
Line quantity and need determined by program.

Acoustics:
The desired result is a sound transmission class rating of 24 and noise reduction
coefficient of .80.

Worksurface for computers should be located 261/2" above finished floor. Offices
with windows need daylight control method.
                                                                                         <
   !ME1                                                                                      EPA SPACE GUIDELINES
    32

-------
                                  12' MINIMUM IF 2 VISITORS CHAIRS
 100-120 Square Feet
 (9-11 Square Meters)

 Assignment:
 Section Chief
 Senior Legal
                                                                              OVERHEAD STORAGE UNITS

                                                                              TASK LIGHTS BELOW
                                                                              OVERHEAD STORAGE
                                                                              BULLET RETURN
                                                                              WORKSURFACE
         UNDERCOUNTER
         KEYBOARD SLIDE OR
         ARTICULATED KEYBOARD


         PAPER RECYCLING RACK
         AND CPU UNDERCOUNTER

         UNDERCOUNTER LATERAL
         RLE AND PEDESTAL CABINET

         ADDITIONAL OVERHEAD
         STORAGE POSSIBLE
                              BASIC GUIDELINE
                              Worksurface:
                              Approximately 15 linear feet (24"-30" deep is typical) with a bullet return worksurface.

                              Storage:                            >
                              Shelving at a minimum of 6 linear feet.
                              Undercounter pedestal cabinets and/or  lateral files - minimum of 2 with  multiple
                              options for drawer configuration and for mobility.

                              Lighting:
                              Task lights consistent with Green Lights Program

                              Seating:
                              1 adjustable ergonomic chair and 2 visitor chairs

                              Equipment:
                              Up to 3 elements.

                              OPTIONAL FEATURES

                              Additional Storage:  Shelves and/or pedestal cabinet
                              Additional filing and/or equipment (eliminate worksurface)
                              Drafting surface
                              Glazed panels
                              Straight slide or articulated undercounter keyboard
                              Panel hung organizers, coat hook, marker board
                              Adjustable task lamp or ambient light fixture
                                       POSSIBLE WINDOW LOCATION v
WORKSTATION:
Some Regions  have provided  Workstations for
Section Chiefs intead of enclosed offices. Usually
another amenity  is included, such as a window, or
prime location. Features remain the same.
EPA SPACE GUIDELINES
                               VOLUME 1
                                PAGE 33

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VARIATIONS:
                    LOW OR
                    HIGH FILES

                    OPTIONAL
                    WORKSURFACE
                    OVER LOW FILES
                               LOW OR
                               HIGH FILES

                               OPTIONAL
                               WORKSURFACE
                               OVER LOW FILES
OFFICE WITH EXTRA
FILING AND/OR WORKSURFACE
           WORKSTATION WITH EXTRA
           FILING ANO/OR WORKSURFACE
TECHNICAL GUIDELINES

Power:
Minimum of 2 duplex convenience electrical outlets. One isolated, grounded outlet
for computer. Power for tasklighting as required. Additional power requirements may
be determined by program.

Lighting:
Task lighting to provide 50 footcandles at desk, 30 footcandles ambient.

Data/Telecommunication:
Line quantity and need determined by program.                         \

Worksurface for Computers:
Should accommodate the keyboard at a height of approximately 27" above finished
floor.

HINTS FOR GOOD DESIGN

-Some furniture systems have floor-to-ceiling moveable walls with doors.

-Use the advantages of open plan  layout,  and reduce visual chaos, by grouping
 walled office together. Locate them on the interior, not along the windows.

-Dimensions will vary with the furniture system  and the building module - Bay size,
 building depth, window modules.

-If panels are used, coordinate their height with  height and size of shelving/cabinets,
 when a computer is to be placed beneath.

PANEL HEIGHT & COMPUTERS:
           TOP OF PANEL

           OVERHEAD
           STORAGE

           LIGHT       !
      CRITICAL
      DIMENSION
      FOR COMPUTER
               a
           KEYBOARD
      FINISHED FLOOR
15-16-
TYPICAL
MONITORS VARY
12-16-TYPICAL
                         30" TYPICAL
                                      Minimum panel height is 60-64* if you want to place
                                      a computer monitor under the overhead storage unit
                                                                                         EPA SPACE GUIDaiNES

-------
Size:
75-80 Square Feet
(7-7.5 Square Meters)

Assignment:
Senior Professional
                                                                                OVERHEAD STORAGE
                                                                                UNIT OR SHELF

                                                                                TASK LIGHT BELOW


                                                                                PANEL
                                                                                UNOERCOUNTER
                                                                                PEDESTAL CABINET
                             BASIC WORKSTATION GUIDELINES

                             Worksurface:
                             Approximately 14 linear feet (24"-30" deep is typical)

                             Storage:
                             Shelving at a minimum of 6 jinear feet
                             Undercounter pedestal cabinets and/or lateral files  - minimum of 2, with multiple
                             options for drawer configuration and for mobility.

                             Lighting:
                             Task lights consistent with Green Lights Program

                             Seating:
                             1  adjustable ergonomic chair and 1 visitor chair

                             Equipment:
                             Up to 3 elements

                             OPTIONAL WORKSTATION FEATURES

                             Additional storage - Shelves and/or pedestal cabinet.
                             Additional filing and/or equipment (eliminate worksurface)
                             Drafting surface
                             Glazedpanels
                             Straight slide or articulated undercounter keyboard
                             Panel-hung work organizers, coat hook
                             Marker board
                             Adjustable task lamp

                             Note: Printers require slotted worksurlace to accommodate paper feed, placed beneath.

                                                                   OVERHEAD STORAGE UNITS OR SHELVES
                                                                   TASK LIGHTS BELOW OVERHEAD STORAGE

                                                                   LATERAL RLE
                                                                    UNDERCOUNTER KEYBOARD
                                                                    SLIDE OR ARTICULATED KEYBOARD
                                                                   WORKSURFACE

                                                                   PAPER RECYCLING RACK
                                                                   WITH CPU UNDERCOUNTER

                                                                   UNDERCOUNTER
                                                                   PEDESTAL CABINET
EPA SPACE GUIDELINES
VOLUME 1
 PAGE 35

-------
 VARIATIONS:
WORKSTATION
FOR INTERVIEWING

TECHNICAL GUIDELINES
                      WORKSTATION
                      FOR DRAFTING
WORKSTATION FOR
HIGH TECHNOLOGY USE
 Power:
 Minimum of 2 duplex convenience electrical outlets. One isolated, grounded outlet
 for computer. Power for task lighting as required. Additional power requirements may
 be determined by program.

 Lighting:
 Task lighting to provide 50 footcandles at desk, 30 footcandles ambient.

 Data/Telecommunication:
 Line quantity and need determined by program.

 Acoustics:
 Panels' acoustical features determined as part of an office-wide acoustical strategy.
 The desired result is a sound transmission class rating of 24  and noise reduction
 coefficient of .80.

 Worksurface for Computers:
 Should accommodate the keyboard at a height of approximately 27 inches above the
finished floor.

 HINTS FOR GOOD DESIGN

 -Panel heights will vary with design, for visual variety, function, natural light.

 -Reduce visual chaos by considering grouped workstations as a whole; especially
 coordinate components/shelving that occur above the worksurface.

 -Dimensions will  vary with the furniture system and  the building module - Bay size,
 building depth, window modules.

 -Coordinate panel height with height and size of shelving/cabinet, if computer is to be
 placed beneath.

 PANEL HEIGHTS COMPUTERS:
                          15-16"
                          TYPICAL

                          2"
                         MONITORS VARY
                         12-16-TYPICAL
CRITIQAL
DIMENSION
FOR  OMPUTER
           KEYBOARD
      FINISHED FLOOR
                         30- TYPICAL
                                       Minimum panel height is 60-64' if you want to place
                                       a computer monitor under the overhead storage unit
VOLUME 1
PAGE 38
                                                                                    EPA SPACE GUIDELINES

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 Size:
 60-65 Square Feet
 (5.5-6 Square Meters)

 Assignment:
 Senior Professional
 Professional
 Senior Clerical
 Contractor
                                                                     PANEL
                                                                     OVERHEAD STORAGE UNIT OR SHELF
  TASK LIGHT BELOW
  UNDERCOUNTER PEDESTAL CABINET
                              BASIC WORKSTATION GUIDELINES

                              Worksurface:
                              Approximately 11 linear feet (24"-30" deep is typical)

                              Storage:
                              Shelving at a minimum of 5 linear feet. .
                              Undercounter pedestal  cabinets and/or lateral files - minimum of  2, with multiple
                              options for drawer configuration and for mobility.

                              Lighting:
                              Task lights consistent with Green Lights Program.

                              Seating:
                              1 adjustable ergonomic chair

                              Equipment:
                              Up to 2 elements

                              OPTIONAL WORKSTATION FEATURES

                              Additional storage - Shelves and/or pedestal cabinet.
                              Additional filing and/or visitor chair (eliminate worksurface)
                              Drafting surface
                              Glazeo pane Is
                              Straight slide or articulated undercounter keyboard
                              Panel-hung work organizers, coat hook
                              Marker board
                             Adjustable task lamp
                             Note: Printers require slotted worksurface to ac
todate paper feed placed beneath.
                                                           PAPER RECYCLING RACK
                                                           WITH CPU UNDERCOUNTER
                                                           UNDERCOUNTER KEYBOARD
                                                           SLIDE OR ARTICULATED KEYBOARD

                                                           WORKSURFACE


                                                           OVERHEAD STORAGE UNITS OR SHELVES

                                                           TASK LIGHTS BELOW OVERHEAD STORAGE
                                                           UNDERCOUNTER
                                                           PEDESTAL CABINET
                                                           LATERAL FILE
FPA SPACE GUIDELINES
                              VOLUME 1
                                PAGE 37

-------
 VARIATIONS:

WORKSTATION WITH
ENCLOSURE/FILES

TECHNICAL GUIDELINES
WORKSTATION WITH WRAP-
AROUND WORKSURFACE
WORKSTATION FOR
HIGH TECHNOLOGY USES
 Power:
 Minimum of 2 duplex convenience electrical outlets. One isolated, grounded outlet
 for computer. Power for tasklighting as required. Additional power requirements may
 be determined by program.

 Lighting:
 Task lighting to provide 50 footcandles at desk, 30 footcandles ambient.

 Data/Telecommunication:
 Line quantity and need determined by program.

 Acoustics:
 Panels' acoustical features determined as part of an office-wide acoustical strategy.
 The desired result is  a sound transmission class rating of 24 and noise reduction
 coefficient of .80.

 Worksurface for Computers:
 Should accommdate the keyboard at a height of approximately 27" above finsihed
 floor.

 HINTS FOR GOOD DESIGN

 -Panel heights will vary with design, for visual variety, function, natural light.

 -Reduce visual chaos by considering grouped workstations as a whole; especially
 coordinate components/shelving that occur above the worksurface.

 -Dimensions will vary  with the furniture system and the building module - Bay size,
 building depth, window modules.

 -Coordinate panel height with height and size of shelving/cabinet, if computer is to be
 placed beneath.(See below).
PANEL HEIGHT & COMPUTERS:
                          15-16-
                          TYPICAL
       CRITIQAL
       DIMENSION
       FOR COMPUTER
           KEYBOARD
       FINISHED FLOOR
MONITORS VARY
12-16'TYPICAL
                          30- TYPICAL
             Minimum panel height is 60-64* if you want to place •
             a computer monitor under the overhead storage unit
             or shelf. Otherwise, eliminate storage
VOLUME 1
PAGE 38
                                                                 EPA SPACE GUIDELINES

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 Size:
 40-50 Square Feet
 (4-4.5 Square Meters)

 Assignment:
 Clerical
 Contractor
 AARP, SIS
                                                                          PANEL HEIGHT ON ONE OR TWO
                                                                          SIDES MIGHT BE HIGHER
                                                                          PANEL
UNDERCOUNTER PEDESTAL CABINET
                             BASIC GUIDELINE

                             Worksurface:
                             Approximately 9 linear feet (24"-30" deep is typical).

                             Storage:
                             Shelving is optional (panel  height may be low).  Undercounter pedestal cabinets -
                             minimum of 1 with multiple options for drawer configuration and for mobility.

                             Lighting:
                             Task lights consistent with Green Lights Program.

                             Seating:
                             1  adjustable ergonomic chair.

                             Equipment:
                             Up to 2 elements.

                             OPTIONAL WORKSTATION FEATURES

                             Additional Storage: Shelves and/or pedestal cabinet;
                             Additional filing and/or worksurface
                             Glazed panels
                             Straight slide or articulated undercounter keyboard
                             Panel hung organizers, coat  hook
                             Marker board
                             Adjustable task lamp or ambient light fixture

                             Note: Printers require slotted worksurface to accommodate paper feed placed beneath.
                                                            PAPER RECYCLING BIN
                                                            AND CPU UNDERCOUNTER
                                                            UNDERCOUNTER KEYBOARD SLIDE
                                                            OR ARTICULATED KEYBOARD

                                                            WORKSURFACE

                                                            UNDERCOUNTER PEDESTAL CABINET
B>A SPACE GUIDaiNES
                       VOLUME 1
                         PAGE 39

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 VARIATION:
WORKSTATION
FOR FILING/SORTING
TECHNICAL GUIDELINES

Power:
Minimum of 2 duplex convenience electrical outlets. One isolated, grounded outlet
for computer. Power for task lighting as required. Additional power requirements may
be determined by program.

Lighting:
Task Lighting to provide 50 footcandles at desk, 30 footcandles ambient.

Data/Telecommunication:
Line quantity and need determined by program.

Acoustics:
Panels' acoustical features determined as part of an office-wide acoustical strategy.
The desired result is a sound transmission class rating of 24 and noise reduction
coefficient of .80.

Worksurface for Computers:
Should accommodate the keyboard at a height of approximately 27 inches above the
finished floor.

HINTS FOR GOOD DESIGN

-Panel heights will vary with design, for visual variety, function, natural light.

-Reduce visual chaos by considering grouped workstation as a whole especially
 coordinate components/shelving that occur above the work surface.

-Dimensions will vary with the furniture system and the building module - Bay size,
 building depth, window modules.

-Coordinate  panel height with height & size of shelving/cabinet, if computer is to be
 placed beneath.

PANEL HEIGHT & COMPUTERS:
           	-v
           TOP OF PANEL
           OVERHEAD
           STORAGE

           LIGHT
       CRITICAL
       DIMENSION
       FOR COMPUTER
           KEYBOARD
       FINISHED FLOOR
15-16-
TYPICAL
MONITORS VARY
12-16" TYPICAL
                          30- TYPICAL
                                       Minimum panel height is 60-64* if you want to place
                                       a computer monitor under the overhead storage unit
                                       or shelf. Otherwise, eliminate storage
VOLUME 1
PAGE 40
                                                                 EPA SPACE GUIDaiNES

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                                                            VARIES (See Chart)
                              CO
                                                                                       SSCREEN
                                                                                            REDENZA
                                                                                          PEDESTALS
                                                                                           INIMIZE
                                                                                          SEATING
                                                                                          OBSTRUCTIONS
                             CONSIDER WHEN PLANNING

                             Meeting Rooms, in this context, are standard rooms for meetings of 6-20 people.
                             Consider the number of users and plan for pinup surface on one wall minimum. A
                             pull-down slide screen is an option.

                             Conference rooms are Special Spaces, requiring specialized HVAC, power, and/or
                             lighting. Plan for audio-visual capability and pinup surface, and consider the need for
                             spectator seats, storage, coat closets nearby, or night time access. These rooms are
                             generally for 16+ people.
                             MINIMUM MEETING ROOM SIZES
Number
of Users
6
8
10
12
16
30
Rectangul
Room Size
120-140nsf
150 -170 nsf
160-180nsf
200 - 225 nsf
240 - 275 nsf
Spe
ar Table
Table Size
2'-6"x5'-6"
3'-0" x 7-0"
3'-6" x 8'-0"
4'-0"x11'-0"
4'-6"x14'-0"
cial
Round
Room Size
130 -150 nsf
170 -200 nsf
200 - 225 nsf
225 -260 nsf
Table
Table Size
54"
72"
84"
96"
Not Recommended
For Credenza
Add 20 nsf
Add 20 nsf
Add 25 nsf
Add 25 nsf
Add 30 nsf
EPA SPACE GUIDELINES
VOLUME 1
 PAGE 41

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                     VARIES (See Chart)
TECHNICAL GUIDELINES

Power:
One general purpose duplex receptacle for every 25 linear feet of perimeter wall.
Additional power requirements may be determined by program.

Lighting:
General illumination by fluorescent fixtures that utilize High Color Rendition (parabolic
lens  fixtures  recommended).  Supplemental illumination: fluorescent directional
fixtures (e.g. track lighting or wall  washers) along one wall used for display
(minimum).  Conference rooms with audio-visual  capabilities  to  have  recessed
incandescent light fixtures, controlled by dimmer switches (100 watt PAR type lamps
recommended).

Telecommunication:
Need determined by program.

Acoustic:
Sound transmission properties of the enclosure should  have  an acceptable (STC)
rating. The room enclosure elements should have an acceptable sound absorption
(NRC) rating.  •

HVAC:
Minimum of 8  air changes per hour for odor-free air and good-ventilation. Sound
attenuation for diffusers.

Audio-Visual: Meeting Rooms
On one wall provide  tackable  wall surface or tack board, and chart rail. Projection
screens, when present, to be recessed in ceiling or otherwise concealed when not in
use (See separate page on projection screens).

Audio-Visual: Conference Rooms
Specifically designed  to program needs. May have  special electrical requirements,
video outlet, sound system or other capabilities.

Recommended Finishes:
Carpeted floors, vinyl wall covering or acoustical wall panels, chair rail,  acoustical
ceiling.
VOLUME 1
PAGE 42
EPA SPACE GUIDELINES

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 Size:
 600 Square Feet
 (56 Square Meters)
             SOUND SOAK
             WALLCOVERING
                                      FULL LENGTH
                                      DRAPE
                                                     CORRIDOR OR
                                                     VESTIBULE ENTRY
                                                                                            -'
CONTROL
CONSOLE
CONFERENCE MASTER
                                                   GRAPHICS
                                                   MONITOR
                                                                                             OVERHEAD
                                                                                             GRAPHIC
                                                                                             CAMERA
  DRY-ERASE   GRAPHICS
  BOARD     fSTAND
                                  ROOM
                                  THERMOSTAT
                                                                    GRAPHICS
                                                                   .M.QNLTQR
                                                             30' MINIMUM
                             TECHNICAL NOTES

                             Given  the  sophisticated level of  this room's  communications technology  and
                             equipment, it is advisable for the designer to collaborate with qualified engineering,
                             code and communication consultants who are experienced in video teleconferencing
                             design and construction.

                             Acoustical and lighting designs are the most critical elements for a successful video
                             teleconferencing facility.

                             Ceiling recommended 8'-0" above finished floor.

                             Using this room for non-video meetings may not  be practical  because of room
                             security and schedule considerations. Sharing a teleconferencing facility with other
                             government agencies may be possible.

                             SOURCE

                             More information and established guidelines are available in the EPA document:
                             FTS-2000 Switched Digital Video
                             General Guidelines for EPA Video  Teleconferencing Facilities

                             This document, as well as assistance and technical support, is available from the
                             Architectural Planning and Management Branch, National  Data Processing Division,
                             EPA Research Triangle Park.
EPA SPACE GUIDELINES
                                                  [E1
                                                   43

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 TECHNICAL REFERENCE:
                                                 MANUAL OR ELECTRICAL,
                                                 RECESSED SCREEN
                                                V= Vertical Height of Screen
           OPTIMUM RANGE OF VIEWING
 The size of the Projection Screen depends on the height of the wall to which it is
 attached. The chart below provides a rough guideline to the relationship between
 screen size, room size & configuration, and the seating capacity of the room.
 SCREEN SIZE REQUIRED BY ROOM SIZE:
Room Ratio:
Length:Width
Minimum Vertical
Screen Size (Inches)
      40"
      50"
      60"
      70"
ROOM SIZE SEATING
  (Feet)   CAPACITY
 20 X 20     21
 24 X 24     33
 30 X 30     57
 36 X 36     82
ROOM SIZE SEATING
  (Feet)   CAPACITY
 20X15    16
 24X18    26
 30 X 22    47
 35 X 26    69
ROOM SIZE SEATING
  (Feet)   CAPACITY
 20X13    10
 24X16    23
 30 X 20    41
 35X23    48
SCREEN SIZE REQUIRED BY PROJECTION EQUIPMENT:
To determine screen size required by different types of projection equipment, use the
following formula (All dimensions are in inches).
Screen Width= Aperture width X Projection distance
Lens focal I
Aperture
Width (Inches)
8MM Movie
Super 8MM Movie
16MM Movie
35MM Slide
Filmstrip
0.172
0.210
0.380
1.35
0.885
ength
Lens Focal
Lenoth (Inches)
1
1
2
4-5
3
VOLUME 1
PAGE 44
                                                                   EPA SPACE GUIOaiNES

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                            TYPICAL SMALL TRAINING ROOM
 Size:
 Example shown is
 750 Square Feet
 (70 Square Meters)
<	PROJECTION SCREEN
     -DRY MARKER BOARD WITH
      CHART RAIL AND TACKBOARD
                                 COAT
                                 CLOSET
                            MOVEABLE
                            PARTITION
                  COAT
                CLOSET
                           CONFIGURATION OPTIONS
                                      D
                                    _/

                                    D
                                               C
                                               C
                   QQQ


                          D
                          D
                          D
  _CL
C
C
D  a
D  a
                a
D  c
D  C
D
D
                                         nnn nnn nnn  .


1
                                                                      uuuuuuuou
                                                           p
                           CONSIDER WHEN PLANNING
                           Training rooms should be designed to be flexible. The configuration of the spaces will
                           depend on the specific program requirements. The use of a sound insulated move-
                           able wall partition will allow for added flexibility of the space. Storage spaces for
                           coats, equipment and furniture (i.e. chairs and tables) should be provided.
EPA SPACE GUIDaiNES

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 EXAMPLE OF TRAINING/CONFERENCE FACILITY:
                            FURNITURE/
                           (EQUIPMENT STORAGE
     TRAINING/
     CONFERENCE
     ROOM(S)
 BREAK
 ROOM
                                                   RECEPTION

                                                   SEMINAR ROOM(S)

                                                   TRAINING MATERIALS
                                                   & RECORD STORAGE

                                                   CPU ROOM
COMPUTER
TRAINING
ROOM(S)
 TECHNICAL GUIDELINES

 Power:
 Provide  general purpose  duplex receptacles, one  every  25 linear feet  on the
 perimeter wall. Provide 2 semi-dedicated outlets for every 100 square feet of gross
 area. Connect the semi-dedicated outlets to  emergency power supply needs for
 computer or technical training rooms determined by program.

 Lighting:
 Standard fluorescent fixtures utilizing high color rendition lamps. Compact florescent
 task  lighting  should be used to increase foot candle levels where  necessary.
 Dimmable down lights and/or wall fixtures. Install occupancy sensors.

 Telecommunication:
 To be determined by program requirement.

 Acoustic:
 Sound transmission properties of the enclosure-walls, ceilings and floors should
 have acceptable (STC) rating. The room enclosure elements shall have acceptable
 sound absorption (NRC) rating, in order to control sound reflection/reverberation.
 Operable walls to be sound insulated and sound sealed.

 HVAC:
 Minimum of 8 air changes  per hour for odor free air and good ventilation. Separate
 control for each training room recommended. Sound attenuation for diffusers.

 Audio-Visual:.
 To be determined by program requirement
VOLUME 1
PAGE 46
                                    EPA SPACE GUIDELINES

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 Size:
 Varies. Example shown is
 750 Square Feet
 (70 Square Meters)
                              MAIN COPY CENTER EXAMPLE:
                                   HIGH
                                   SPEED-
                                   COPIER
VARIED
n
ฃ90^
—
o
VARIES

                                  PAPER STORAGE- OPEN METAL SHELVING
                                                                                   ROP OFF/PICK UP
                                                                                  COUNTER WINDOW
                                                                                  •RECYCLING BIN
                       TRASH
                                                                                  FINISHED JOB
                                                                                  STORAGE BINS

                                                                                 ^SORTING COUNTER
                                                                                  WITH STORAGE
                                                                                  ABOVE & BELOW
                                                                                 •SUPPLY STORAGE
                                                                                 •HAND TRUCK
                             CONSIDER WHEN PLANNING

                             The specific size of either Center would depend on the equipment chosen and the
                             number of copiers. The Main Center example is based on three high speed copiers.
                             Typical maintenance and ventilation clearances are shown.

                             The locations of either should consider the noise generated.

                             The Main Copy Center would receive shipments of paper and would send out boxed
                             printed material-locate with easy access to building's service elevators.

                             The Satellite Centers would be located on office floors - locate convenient to users
                             and near the core where it would be easy to accommodate HVAC requirements.
                             SATELLITE CENTER EXAMPLE:
Size:
200-225 Square Feet
(19-20 Square Meters)
-STORAGE
                                                            RECYCLING
                                                            BINS
                                                            TABLE


                                                            MAINTENANCE
                                                            CLEARANCE (APPROXIMATE)
S>A SPACE GUIDELINES
                                     VOLUME 1
                                      PAGE 47

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TECHNICAL GUIDELINES

Power.
One general purpose duplex receptacle for every 25 linear feet of perimeter wall.
One dedicated electrical  outlet for every high speed copier. Additional power or
telecommunication requirements may be determined by program.

Lighting:
General illumination by fluorescent fixtures that utilize high color rendition lamps
(approximately 50 footcandles). Where necessary, task lighting should be used to
increase foot candle levels, at Main Center work areas. Install occupancy sensors.

Acoustic:
Sound transmission properties of the enclosure (walls, ceiling, and floor) should have
acceptable  STC  rating.  Enclosure  elements  should have  acceptable  sound
absorption (NRC) rating in order to control sound reflection/reverberation.

HVAC:
Special HVAC design for ventilation and temperature control. Copiers using ammonia
or wet toners exhausted directly to the outside.


CONVENIENCE COPIERS
                                                                   >

The use of small convenience copiers located in the open work areas is discouraged.
Although handy, the copier's exhaust affects indoor air quality, and the machine is
better located in a ventilated room.  A small copier might be located in a  room that
also contains computer printers.
                                                                                           CLEARANCE
                                                                                           PORTRAY
                                                                                           REMOVAL
                                                                               Convenience Copier

                                                                               Size:
                                                                               Approximately 40 Square Feet
                                                                                        (3.5 Square Meters)
VOLUME 1
PAGE 48
EPA SPACE GUIDELINES

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 70 Square Feet
 (6.5 Square Meters)
 For up to 3 printers.
                             EXAMPLE:

                             RECYCLING
                             BINS BELOW
                             COUNTER
                             COUNTER
                             PRINTER

                             PRINTER TABLE UNIT
                             (30- X 36') WITH —
                             PAPER STORAGE
                             CONSIDER WHEN PLANNING

                             Actual size of the printer room is dependent upon the quantity and sizes of the
                             printers. For planning purposes the minimum size of a room should be 70 square
                             feet for 3 printer units, with 24-30 square feet for each additional 2 units.

                             Proximity:
                             The  number of computer printer rooms  per floor should be  determined by the
                             convenience to all the users, rather than by square footage. Therefore, a maximum
                             walking distance for the user is recommended to be 75 feet.

                             Noise Generation:
                             Locate away from areas requiring bw noise level.

                             If a small convenience copier is required by a nearby Section, it could be located in a
                             room with computer printers (size adjusted).

                             TECHNICAL GUIDELINES

                             Power and Telecommunications:
                             Requirements to be determined by program.

                             Acoustic:
                             Sound transmission properties of the enclosure (walls, ceiling and floor) shall have
                             an acceptable STC rating.

                             HVAC:
                             Special ventilation and exhaust for Indoor Air Quality (IAQ).
EPASPACE GUIDELINES
VOLUME 1
 PAGE 49

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                                   (LAN)
               COUNTER WITH
               SHELVING ABOVE
                                               CABLE RACKS
                                               MINIMUM CLEARANCE
                                               FOR SERVICE ACCESS
                                               (APPROXIMATE)
                                                                                  Size:
                                                                                  Varies with equipment.
                                               MONITOR
                                               FILE SERVERS
CONSIDER WHEN PLANNING

Actual size of LAN room is dependent on the number of computers that the network
serves and the actual equipment required. For planning purposes 80-100 square feet
serves 100 computers.                                                  n

Secured Access is important.

Rooms should be stacked floor-to-floor and centrally located. It should be in dose
proximity to the telecommunications room to minimize cable distribution runs.

TECHNICAL GUIDELINES

Power:
2 duplex outlets per circuit distributed at one (1) per 20 square feet of closet space,
mounted  18"  above finished floor, typical. Actual requirements depend  upon  the
equipment served.

Lighting:
Fluorescent fixtures, for an illumination level of 80 footcandles.

HVAC:
For rooms with heat sensitive equipment only: temperature  range 65-85 F, relative
humidity 20-60%. Air Conditioning unit which functions 24 hours per day, 7 days per
week to handle BTU's generated by equipment. Air circulation via air transfer grills
and/or vented door.
VOLUME 1
PAGE 50
EPA SPACE GUIDELINES

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                               The need to secure and consolidate files in order to use them more efficiently and
                               save expensive floor space drives the decision to select "high density filing systems
                               for office areas. High density mobile  file systems, usually comprised of 7 or 8 tier
                               units, are standard selections for maximizing  space efficiencies. High density (HD)
                               systems have racks of files that move along rails, taking advantage of vertical space
                               and eliminating aisles. As an example, a  4-drawer 36" lateral file has 144" of filing
                               space; a 7 tier 36" high density file of equal depth has 252" of filing space. Depending
                               on the configuration, height and  specific features, an HO system can store 2 to 3
                              SEVEN TIER
                              HIGH UNIT
                                                                    MOBILE RUNG
                                                                    UNIT CARRIAGE
                                                        CARRIAGE TRACKS
STATIONARY
RUNG UNITS-
                              CONSIDER WHEN PLANNING

                              Floor loading. The most important design consideration regarding high density files is
                              the greatly increased live loads these systems place on floor slabs. The accepted
                              engineering floor slab live load standard for a library is 150 pounds per square foot,
                              whereas a 7 high density file tier system creates a live load range between 175 and
                              200 Ibs. per square foot. To reinforce for a high  density storage system in new
                              construction adds little to the cost of the system or the project. The need however, to
                              reinforce  an existing  building's  floor  slab to meet  high  density  file loading
                              requirements adds to the file system's cost. There are two options for reinforcement:

                              1. Below the floor slab (more expensive).
                              2. Above the floor (raises the floor; necessary to consider access for disabled and
                                overall height).

                              Program storage needs versus the space available - and the system and installation
                              cost balanced against the rent change (less space, but higher rent per square foot).

                              Configuration and capacity. Rles come 6,  7,  or 8 tiers  high  in  a variety  of
                              arrangements, with storage options for files, books, computer tapes or other records.

                              Use of a system with manual or mechanically assisted handwheel or electric drive
                              (larger/deeper installations require electric).

                              Possibility for future expansion.
EPA SPACE GUIDELINES
                       VOLUME 1
                        PAGE 51

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Selection of a specific system should consider: the structural rails (profile, number,
lengths); the file carriage (load rating, profile and dimensions); systems controls and
guidance; safety features; delivery time, ease of installation and service.

Security - systems can have their own security or be located in a tacked room.

TECHNICAL GUIDELINES

Power:
If using an electrical system, plan for one dedicated 120 volt, 10 amp power junction
to be located above stationary unit for each electrified run of storage units. If using an
electric or mechanical system within  its own room,  provide one general purpose
duplex receptacle for every 25 linear feet of accessible perimeter wall.

Lighting:
General illumination by  fluorescent fixtures that use high  color  rendition lamps
(parabolic lens recommended). Install occupancy sensors.

Safety:
Safety floor, to prevent the carriage from  moving while someone is in the aisle;
Anti-tip  protection;  determine  seismic  requirements; other  requirements as
determined for system chosen.

HINTS FOR GOOD DESIGN

-Side tabs save space over files with top tabs and are easier to retrieve. AruHD filing
 system with  top-tabbed  files  requires  a 12" O.C.  shelving  space,  whereas
 side-tabbed file shelves require only 10 1/2" O.C. Thus an extra 10 1/2" side-tabbed
 file shelf can be obtained in a standard 7-tier,  12" O.C. file. (7 x 12"=84"; 8  x 10
 1/2"=84"). A file with side-tabbed folders on a top shelf at 6'-5" above the finished
 floor is easily accessible to a 5'-5" tall person (six 12" O.C. shelves with a 5" carriage
 base equals 6'-5").

-Floor level - when a mobile HD file system is installed, a 5/8" fire resistant plywood
 subfloor is  generally laid by the file  manufacturer  so the  client's finish flooring
 material can level put at the top of the carriage track, which leaves +/- 3/8" between
 the bottom of the file carriage and the top of the  finished floor.

-Standard units of measure for comparing storage capacity is "filing inches".

-For safety reasons,  do not top load the filing racks; make sure employees  do not
 leave  loose material on top of the system.


MECHANIZED VERTICAL FILES (e.g. LEKTRIEVERฎ).

Another high density file option is the automated  vertical file - a self contained cabinet
with vertical rotating shelves of files and a work counter.
  Example is the LEKTRIEVER ฎ brand. Standard unit requires approximately 80
  square feet for unit and seating.
                                                                  0

  Capacity of units varies with the model and the media stored.

  Floor loading capacity must be determined.

  Dedicated power circuit required.
VOLUME 1                                                                                      EPA SPACE GUIDELINES
PAGE 52

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                             LOUNGE WITH PANTRY & RECYCLING
 Size:
 250 Square Feet
 (23 Square Meters)
                                                       \ \ 'DISHWASHER (OPTION)
                                           STORAGE^    \
                                           r.ARIMPTS ARDVP  X|
MICROWAVE
                          RECYCUNG
                             WET COLUMN    CABINETS ABOVE  ^REFRIGERATOR
                             CONSIDER WHEN PLANNING

                             Should be strategically located for access by employees.
                             Requires specialized HVAC and plumbing.
                             Recycling Area
                             Vending Area (Optional) Add 60-80 square feet.
                             Review and meet ADA requirements
                            TECHNICAL GUIDELINES

                            Power:
                            Pantry area should be equipped with one dedicated outlet for each appliance, i.e.
                            Refrigerator, Microwave, Coffee Maker, etc.

                            Lighting:
                            Standard fluorescent fixtures utilizing high color rendition.
EPA SPACE GUIDELINES
                                    VOLUME 1
                                     PACE 53

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BUILDING RECEPTION EXAMPLE:
                      O
          to
           *-SPV
            SEATING
                                                 /DISPLAY-
    RECEPTION
^
         )ISPLAY
                                                                                       Size:
                                                                                       Example shown is
                                                                                       300 Square Feet.
                                                                                       (28 Square Meters)
       TO PUBLIC
      FUNCTIONS
                             AUTHORIZED
                             ACCESS
                               BUILDING
                                LOBBY
CONSIDER WHEN PLANNING

Main Reception:
Security measures for Agency visitors.
Location adjacent to building lobby, with easy access for visitors to Public Dockets
and Public Information Center (if present).
Actual size  and design will depend on the configuration of the building lobby. Include
desk,  seating and display.

Division Reception:
Location with easy access and a visual connection to the elevator lobby.
Include seating for 2 - 4 persons and coat closet.
Adjacent to secretarial workstation.
DIVISION RECEPTION EXAMPLE:
      RECEPTION
        WAITING
        O
             o
              ADJACENT
              • SECRETARIAL
              WORKSTATION
Size:
Example shown is
100 Square Feet
Plus workstation
(9 Square Meters)
   ME1
   54
                                                               EPA SPACE GUIDELINES

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                              The recycling system that you adopt depends on the system that your building has in
                              place or is capable of accommodating, as well as policies adopted by the Agency
                              regarding the types of materials to be recycled.

                              However, in order to provide for multi-material recycling (all office paper, newspaper,
                              glass, metal and plastic) areas must be identified for the  collection, separation,
                              transportation,  storage and  shipment of recyclable  materials.  Space  should  be
                              designed for the following functions:

                              Local Areas:
                              Collection bins located on the  office floor convenient to users, e.g. paper bins in
                              workstations and copy rooms, glass and metal bins in lounges, etc.

                              Satellite Areas:
                              Separated waste, such as  recyclable paper, glass, aluminum and other trash from
                              individual workstations and recycling containers, would be deposited (by employees
                              or custodial staff) into collection bins stored on each floor in  areas contiguous to
                              freight elevators  for consolidation into larger containers; and then transported to
                              Central Recycling Area.

                              Central Recycling Area:
                              Further consolidation of materials into  large storage/shipping  containers and/or
                              crushing, compaction in a central storage and shipping area.  In a large building
                              containers would be kept on skids or pallets for easy moveability  by fork lifts or
                              pallets jacks. Additional sorting (e.g. glass by colors)  prior to loading into shipping
                              containers may be necessary. The large containers are stored in a holding area close
                              to the'dock area awaiting  scheduled pick-ups for crushing,  compacting or bailing
                              depending on the building's system.

                              CONSIDER WHEN PLANNING

                              Key to any recycling program is having  sufficient space both on the floors and in the
                              shipping/storage  area  in which to separate, sort  and  store  recyclables  prior to
                              shipment. As new recyclables  such as  plastic and cardboard are added to the
                              system, additional equipment may be  needed.  The storage  area must be flexible
                              enough to meet changing requirements.

                              EXAMPLE OF MULTI-MATERIAL SATELLITE STATION:
Size:
70-90 Square Feet
(6.5-8.5 Square Meters)
                              20 GALLON
                              PLASTIC
20 GALLON
ALUMINUM CANS
                                                                     20 GALLON
                                                                     NEWSPRINT 32 GALLON
              20 GALLON
              GLASS    32 GALLON
                                                      COLORED PAPER
                                                  WHITE PAPER  TRASH
EPA SPACF GUIDELINES-

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To assist in understanding or planning space needs for recycling, following is a list of
the components and their sizes:
EQUIPMENT AREA REQUIREMENTS


Equipment/Area	Use	
                                                        Location
Bins
3 - 20 gallon:
 Up to 2 square feet.
                        Sorting at source, workstations.
Primary office space,
some collection
centers.
Containers
32 -100 gallon:
 2 to 3 square feet
1.5 - 4 cubic yards:
 12 to 30 square feet.
                        Collection from bins and other
                        containers.
Lobbies, satellite and
main collection
rooms.
Storage/Shipping
Containers
4-5 cubic yards:
 25 to 30 square feet.
                        Collection from containers,
                        sorting, storage till pick-up or
                        crushing or compaction.
Shipping, sorting,
storage areas.
Fork Lifts
Variable.
 35 to 50 square feet.
                        Hauling and lifting large
                        containers to compactors,
                        crushers and in and out of
                        shipping/storage area.
Loading docks,
shipping/storage
areas.
Pallet Jacks
 15 square feet.
Compactor
Area varies.
Crusher
 64 square feet.


Baler
 60 square feet.
Dumpster
30-45 cubic yards.
23' x 8' x 6':
 250 square feet.


Can Dumper
                        Moving or transporting of heavy
                        containers.
                        Volume reduction of materials,
                        especially refuse.
                        Volume reduction for glass, metal
                        and plastic.


                        Compresses compacted materials
                        into bundles or packages for
                        shipping (e.g. cardboard, cans).


                        Large container permanently
                        stationed at the docks, or rolled
                        off into pickup truck. Sometimes
                        compactor attached.
Main trash rooms per
floor, freight elevators,
shipping, storage
area, loading docks.


Loading dock
Loading dock,
shipping/ storage area
Loading dock,
shipping/storage
areas.
Loading dock.
                        Mechanically lifts and empties 100  Shipping/storage and
                        gallon carts and 1/2-1 cubic yard   loading dock.
                        containers into bulk shipping
                        containers or dumpsters.
Shredder
 Up to 500 square feet.
                        Shreds classified material (paper,  Large capacity at
                        microfilm) into strips or flakes.      storage or loading
                                                        dock, or smaller units
                                                        at specific programs.
m1
                                                                                           EPA SPACE GUIDBJNES

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                              EXAMPLE:
 Size:
 Varies by Region.
 Example shown is
 approximately
 3,000 Square Feet
 (280 Square Meters)
                             STACKS
                              READING
                             ACCESS

                             TERMINALS
                             STACKS
                                                                                          RESEARCH
                                                                                          ROOM
                                                                                          AUDIO-VISUAL
                                                                                          ROOM
                                                                                          STACKS
                                                                                          PUBLIC

                                                                                          DISPLAY/

                                                                                          INFORMATION
                                                                                          RECEPTION/
                                                                                          ENTRY
                                                                                         STAFF
                             This example illustrates a Reference/Research Library accommodating
                             approximately 2,000 linear feet of shelving, or 24,000 volumes of reference materials,
                             using 7' high stacks.
EPA SPACE GUIDELINES

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CONSIDER WHEN PLANNING

Library space allocation is dependent on the size and the type of collection, number
of reader stations, facilities for library staff and the public, and provisions for possible
future growth.

The following guidelines identify several basic required function areas of a typical
library facility.

  Stack Space:
  Shelf space for books and any other reference material.
  Space allocation for stacks at 7'-6" high including aisles:
  General - 0.2 sq.ft/volume
  Legal- 0.4sq.ft/volume

  Reading Study Area:
  This may be in the form of table seating, carrels for periodicals, etc.
  Space allocation:  25 sq.ft/person

  Equipment Area:
  This may  contain equipment such as  microfiche readers/printers, as well  as
  computers with on-line technical services.
  Space allocation:  20 sq.ft/equipment station

  Office Space:
  The administrative and technical assistance required to operate library and space
  for cataloging circulation, research, mailing, copying, etc.                \
  Space allocation:  Should follow the guidelines for other EPA office space.

  Catalog and Central Support Area:
  Area to issue/receive circulation material, card catalog and for general control and
  supervision.
  Space allocation:  Usually 5 to 10% of total library area.

  Other Specialized Functions may be:


TECHNICAL GUIDELINES

Power:
Provide  one general purpose duplex outlet for every 25 linear feet  of wall space.
Additional  power required for equipment.  Reading tables may require  power for
lamps.

Lighting:
25-35 footcandles for general illumination. Task lighting to provide 50-60 footcandles
in work or reading areas.

Note: Lighting and stack configuration to be coordinated to provide proper lighting tor spine of shelved
books.

Telecommunication:
Requirements dependent on program.

Structural:
Floor loading for stacks to be  150 minimum: otherwise, stacks  will  need to be
distributed  further apart.

Acoustic:
Acoustical partitions to achieve an STC rating not less than 50.

HVAC:
Humidity control.

Audio-visual:


PAGEMM1                                                                                       EPA SPACE GUIDaiNES

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                                                  ป*Xe* Ct+k* (PIC).
 Size:
 Example shown
 is approximately
 2,500 Square Feet
 (233 Square Meters)
                              COPY AND  COFFEE
                              RECYCLE _ STATION
    VIDEO
    EQUIPMENT^
                                                                                          \COMPUTER
                                                                                           STATIONS
                                                                                        DISPLAY
                                                                                        SPACE
MATERIAL AND
LITERATURE
                                                                          PROJECTORS
                               LIBRARY AND
                                                         HANDICAPPED
                                                         SEATING
                                                                      DISPLAY
                                                                      SPACE
                                                                                   RECEPTION/
                                                                                   INFORMATION
                            CONSIDER WHEN PLANNING

                            As this facility serves an  inherently important public relations function, it should
                            ideally:
                             -Be located in a high traffic and visibility zone to maximize public access.
                             -Have glazed walls between the display spaces and the outside to attract public
                              attention and interest.

                            A  ceiling height of minimum 10'0 is desirable in the display and theatre areas as it
                            lends flexibility to display, lighting, equipment and theatre seating design.

                            Specific  requirements include number of personnel and their workstation sizes;
                            quantity of library/storage space; number of computer stations and  reading tables
                            (will vary, and would depend on the needs of the actual client).

                            It is advisable to have specialist consultants for the following tasks:

                            Audio-visual equipment selection and installation design.
                            As the  electronic media  grows  in  importance  in comparison to  other more
                            conventional modes of display and information dissemination,  it may be assumed
                            that any PIC would utilize a substantial amount of state-of-the-art  computer and
                            audio-visual equipment.

                            Graphics display and audio-visual presentation.
                            A media  agency that combines exhibit design abilities with graphics and slide/video
                            production  capabilities  would  be  best  equipped to provide  a  cohesive and
B>A SPACE GUIDELINES

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Lighting:
A critical  part of any exhibit design, the importance of good lighting cannot be
overemphasized.

The mini-theatre could be conceived as a multipurpose space, capable of being used
either for the screening of videotapes (large format) or as a lecture room (with slide
presentation capability).

As school children are one of the most important segments of anticipated visitors, the
theatre  should be  designed to accommodate one  classroom (approximately 30
people).
EXAMPLE:
                   DISPLAY
                                                                OFFICE
TECHNICAL GUIDELINES

Power:
Provide to accommodate additional/special audio-visual and computer requirements.

Lighting:
Low level of general lighting in display space with accent/spot lighting over displays.
Theatre  lights to  have  dimming  control. Office/library space to  have 25-35
footcandles of general lighting. Task lighting where necessary.

Acoustic:
Display and theatre  space to  have high  absorbency  materials  on all  finished
surfaces. Low level white noise in display space is desirable.

Audio-visual:
Provide in accordance with program and audio-visual consultant recommendations.

Recommended finishes:
Acoustic tile with NRC minimum rating of 1.0.
Walls in theatre to be covered in wall carpeting or other sound absorbing material.
Carpet to be heavy duty, capable of withstanding constant heavy traffic.
Neutral tones recommended for finishes so as not to  clash with or overpower
graphics and colors of display.
VOLUME 1
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EPA SPACE GUIDELINES

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                                               i** **X EPA
                              EPA  Mission.   In  1970,  the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was
                              established to control and abate environmental pollution and conserve the Nation's
                              vast resources for future generations. Since then, the EPA has undertaken research
                              and set environmental standards, which it has regulated and enforced. The Agency
                              interacts with and supports numerous state  and local government  environmental
                              projects and enters into agreements with universities, industrial laboratories and private
                              institutions to conduct research.  Authorized by legislation, the Agency controls
                              programs such as Clean Water Act, Clean Air Act, Superfund, Resource Conservation,
                              and Recovery Act, etc. to implement its policies on Resource Conservation, Energy
                              Conservation, and Pollution Prevention. The Agency has also been on the forefront
                              in the areas  of Indoor Air Pollution. Clearly,  the exercise of the Agency's mission
                              includes the application of sound environmental policies, where feasible, over its own
                              facilities.

                              EPA  Space.   To effectively carry out  the national mandate, the Agency occupies
                              millions of square feet of office and laboratory space across the United States, housing
                              approximately 25,000 federal and other employees in hundreds of facilities. A large
                              proportion  of EPA  space  is  leased  and  managed  by the General  Services
                              Administration (GSA) under the Federal Property Management Regulations (FPMR).
                              The FPMR establishes a well defined rฃal estate acquisition process to ensure a fair
                              competition and best value for the Government. However, as part of the acquisition
                              process, client agencies such as EPA are encouraged to define special Agency and
                              mission related requirements.

                              Therefore,  the application of environmental practices  in GSA-controlled  space is
                              contingent  upon a multitude of factors related to procurement, lease agreement,
                              maintenance and operations. For example, a new acquisition for Regional Offices may
                              allow  the  EPA substantial  latitude  in  requesting  GSA to  include mission-related
                              elements in both the base building and  its interiors,  while in a  short-term  lease
                              situation, building modifications may be limited. Recent acquisitions in Chicago and
                              New York indicate that the GSA has been extremely sensitive to EPA mission needs,
                              and space  solicitations have succeeded in including EPA requirements. To ensure
                              that special base building requirements are met, they need to be identified  early and
                              included in  GSA's Solicitation for Offers.

                              A small percentage of EPA inventory is controlled  by the EPA itself.  This includes
                              specialized buildings such as EPA laboratories. The opportunity to build exemplary
                              facilities can be fully exercised in such situations.

                              Design, Construction and Environment

                              The field of  design and construction, as it relates to environmental concerns, is rapidly
                              evolving.  New materials and products are coming to the market which avoid or limit
                              the extent of Volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) that contaminate the air. New ways
                              are  being found to use materials that were formerty_destined for the  incinerator or
                              landfill.  Methods to  make  more efficient use of energy are being  discovered or
                              developed.  Because of this evolution, the suggestions and ideas contained herein
                              should be considered as a guide only; every effort should be made to take advantage
                              of the many advances that continue to be made.
EPA SPACE GUIDELINES                                                                                     VOLUME 1
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 This section of the Guidelines point out environmental considerations to address in the
 selection, planning, and frtout of EPA facilities. The considerations listed here may be
 fully or partially applicable depending on the acquisition and lease status of individual
 facilities.   These mission-related concerns are Indoor  Air Quality (IAQ), Energy
 Conservation, Recycling and Resource Conservation, and Pollution Prevention. Each
 describes actions in two steps: a). Understanding the base building planning issues,
 over which the EPA may or may not have control; and b). Interior design issues that
 the EPA can control through the design process.  See Volume Two for a more detailed
 discussion.

 This document is not meant to be a comprehensive discussion of building-related
 environmental practice, but an introduction to the breadth of the issues. The topics are
 complex in  themselves, and they also are interdependent and constantly changing.
 Thus a lighting fixture might be energy efficient in use, but exact a high environmental
 cost in its manufacture.  More information and policies are available within EPA;
 references are indicated throughout this document. In addition, the American Institute
 of  Architects publishes  a document,  with quarterly  updates, that  reports  on
 environmental aspects of  architecture  and building materials.   (Environmental
 Resource Guide Subscription; American Institute of Architects, Washington, D.C.,
 1992).
VOLUME 1                                                                                       EPA SPACE GUIDELINES
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                                              c*
                              We address IAQ first because this aspect of pollution prevention is the one of most
                              immediate personal concern to EPA employees. Poor air quality — sometimes called
                              "sick building syndrome" — is a characteristic of the workplace that can directly affect
                              the productivity, well-being, and even the health of each person, ft can be caused by
                              pollutants introduced into the building from the outside, from the building's mechanical
                              systems, or from materials used within the building interiors including finish materials.
                              When  occupied,  the space  can be affected by human  activity; the odors  and
                              contaminants from printing inks, artists' materials, copy machines, cooking, smoking,
                              cleaning supplies etc. will affect  IAQ.   It is therefore important that  each of these
                              elements  be examined  carefully, both  prior to space acquisition, and during the
                              selection and specification of interior materials.

                              INTERIOR DESIGN

                              Assuming your new  building  meets the conditions described below,  good IAQ will
                              depend upon exercise of careful choice and control of interior materials. The materials
                              that  require  attention include carpet  and  carpet  backing, wood finishes  and
                              preservatives, adhesives, plywood and particleboard, and sealants. Because it is not
                              possible to eliminate  entirely the gases that emanate from these materials, there are
                              several strategies to minimize their effect   on IAQ.  Remember, the selection of
                              materials is a GSA function and needs to be done with their approval.

                                  Carpet should be carefully selected, to assure that the least amount of VOCs are
                                  discharged. The EPA has studied this question, and developed specifications to
                                  guide in this selection.  GSA  has supported and agreed with EPA  specifications.

                                  Prior to installation, carpet should be rolled out and aired for several days, ideally
                                  in  a separate location. Once installed, the carpet should be allowed to "cure"
                                  before occupancy, which  includes venting at 100% capacity of outside air.

                                  Low VOC emitting adhesives, caulks,  and sealants should be specified.  For
                                  some purposes,  more benign water-based adhesives are available.

                                  Plywood and particleboard, which emit formaldehyde, should be sealed to prevent
                                  the continuous escape of gas.

                                  During the tenant fitout period, operable windows (if any) should remain open to
                                  permit gases to escape. Upon completion, the space can be "flushed out," using
                                  a high rate of ventilation to drive out most of the gases that remain.

                              Maintenance.  Maintaining a high level  of Indoor Air Quality requires that building
                              managers observe certain common sense precautions during occupancy.  Cleaning
                              compounds, waxes, and polishes should be chosen with a view towards their possible
                              effect on IAQ. Ducts should be cleaned and filters replaced periodically to prevent the
                              buildup of dust, bacteria, pollen, and fungi.

                              Finally, plants can be used to "landscape" the workplace; they can  absorb some
                              carbondioxide, formaldehyde, and other gases that may be present. However, they
                              must be selected and maintained  property.
B>A SPACE GUIDELINES                                                                         .            VOLUME 1
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 UNDERSTANDING BASE BUILDING

 Every step of the acquisition and build-out process requires careful planning to prevent
 poor air quality in EPA space.  The base building design  and its environs play an
 important part. As we have stated several times, EPA does not directly participate in
 acquisition of GSA controlled space but exercises leverage in defining its space needs
 and therefore is able to influence the acquisition of an environmentally acceptable
 building.   The opportunity for  EPA  to  define  the general facility location, the
 performance and technical requirements and important criteria for space selection will
 generally ensure acquisition of buildings with sound IAQ.

 The following building characteristics  must be pre-defined in the solicitation, thus
 putting offerers on notice as to the importance of  these items in selection.

 1.   The general location is in a commercial zone and away from large industrial
     plants, to avoid any possibility of noxious fumes entering the  building.

 2.   The building is required to be away from local sources that contribute to pollution,
     e.g. a heavy traffic truck route.

 3.   If EPA is  required to occupy a building that might entrain pollutants >from the
     atmosphere, an analysis of micro-climatic conditions using available Government
     data and  EPA's own in-house expertise may suggest a method to control or
     mitigate the problem.

 To achieve a facility with good IAQ, a careful evaluation of the existing (or proposed)
 mechanical system is made.  Points include the following:

     Intakes for outside  air are  located away from sources of pollutants, and well
     above grade (above vehicle exhausts) and protected from intrusion by insects,
     birds, and rodents.

     Air  intakes for fresh air are  adequately  separated from the exhausts from
     kitchens, garages, truck  docks, and toilet rooms, to avoid "short-circuiting" of
     contaminated air.

     The mechanical system utilizes an efficient method to filter the air, and, in some
     cases, to absorb gases and odors. Filters should be easily cleaned or replaced.

     The air distribution  system is  designed to prevent the introduction  of
     particles and fibers from insulation and sound lining into the indoor atmosphere.
     The ductwork is readily cleaned with non-toxic cleaners, to  prevent buildup of
     dust, fungi, bacteria.

     Ventilation is adequate.  This is probably the single most important requirement
     to achieve satisfactory air quality.  For typical office occupancies, the mechanical
     system should provide outside air based on a standard of 20 cfm/person (based
     on 150 sq.ftVperson of occupiable space for  office use)>

     Exhausts from kitchens, parking areas,  large copy  machines, and toilet  rooms
     should be directly exhausted to the outside.

VOLUME 1                                                                                       EPA SPACE GUDRINES
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                               EPA's mission to promulgate efficient use of our energy resources is of  prime
                               importance in the selection and design of EPA's own facilities. Energy efficiency must
                               be a foremost consideration in the space acquisition process, and some of the things
                               that  should be  looked  at are noted below. In the office workplace, the largest
                               consumers of energy are the mechanical and the lighting systems. Office machines
                               and incidental appliances also use energy and should be chosen judiciously, but these
                               are a less significant factor in total energy use.

                               INTERIOR DESIGN

                               Once space has been acquired by the Agency, the planning and specifying of the
                               interior space should include the following energy-saving considerations:

                                   Maximum use of open-space planning to maximize daylight. If possible,  avoid
                                   enclosed offices at the window perimeter; where unavoidable, provide borrowed
                                   light glazing to extend daylight to the interior of the space.

                                   EPA's "Green Lights" program used as guidance in the design of the lighting
                                   system.  This means using high-efficiency fluorescent fixtures with  electronic
                                   ballasts.  The current recommendation by EPA for overhead fixtures is to use
                                   2'x2' (or 2'x4') large cell parabolic reflectors with T-8 lamps. Also used is indirect
                                   fluorescent lighting combined with task lighting.  It is advisable to consult with the
                                   Green Lights program on this aspect of the lighting design.

                                   In conjunction with  the  recommended fluorescent fixtures, daylight sensing
                                   controls used to dim fixtures  near windows, thereby taking advantage of natural
                                   light. Use occupancy sensors to control lighting in rooms and offices so that
                                   unoccupied spaces do not needlessly waste lighting energy.  Advice on such
                                   controls is also available from the Green Lights program.

                                   Where feasible, compact fluorescent lamps replace incandescent lamps.

                                   The  proliferation of  individual fans, space heaters, coffee pots, and microwave
                                   ovens should be avoided. A property designed mechanical system should obviate
                                   any need for individual fans or heating units.  A space layout that provides for
                                   convenient lounge/pantry areas that can accommodate a microwave cooking
                                   station will  help avoid them at the workstations and thereby reduce the energy
                                   drain, and,  at the same time, help to keep cooking odors out of the work areas.

                                   Appliances (if any) should be selected  on the basis of their energy efficiency.

                                   The use of task lighting to reduce levels of ambient lighting.

                              These strategies, combined  with  the  technical design measures  that can be
                              implemented by qualified mechanical and electrical design engineers, will result in a
                              high degree of energy efficiency.
EPA SPACE GUIDELINES                                                                                      VOLUME 1
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 UNDERSTANDING BASE BUILDING

 Prior to acquisition of space for EPA use, the following energy efficiency aspects for
 new space are considered and weighed by GSA and EPA:

     The building  is considered  in terms of passive design techniques to minimize
     heating  and cooling  loads - that  is, whether the  building has been sited and
     designed to take advantage of local climatic conditions, local vegetation, and solar
     path.

     Because building mechanical systems, as well as building codes, have evolved
     in recent years in  response to shortages of fossil fuels, newer buildings with
     newer HVAC systems will almost  inevitably be more energy efficient.  Wasteful
     systems should be avoided, such  as those that require extensive use of electric
     resistance reheat.

     The  Offerer  provides information on the proposed building to demonstrate
     whether the  insulation  in the  walls and  roof  meet (or  exceed) current code
     standards.  A qualified engineer or the local utility determines whether a retrofit
     ( e.g. modifications to the existing mechanical system or the  addition of more
     insulation and weatherstripping) could result in significant energy savings.

     Existing windows should be dual glazed (or triple glazed) and windows thermally
     broken;  that  is, the metal frame  should contain  a synthetic rubber spacer to
     reduce the conduction of heat through the frame from interior to exterior.

     The HVAC control system should be up-to-date to minimize energy use; replacing
     an older control system may be considered.

     Existing glazing  should  take maximum advantage of potential for daylighting,
     thereby reducing need for artificial lighting. At the same time, glazing should not
     allow excessive  solar heat gain,  thus  burdening  the air conditioning system;
     shading or sun control of some type may be required.

     If space under consideration includes tenant lighting, fixtures and lighting controls
     should have been planned with energy efficiency in mind, or replacement of the
     existing system should be studied for feasibility and cost-effectiveness.

     The local utility serving the facility may have incentive programs that will conserve
     energy and also generate cost savings.

     The use of buildings with convenient inter-floor stairs may be favored, to reduce
     the use of elevators.
VOLUME 1                                                                                      EPA SPACE GUIDELINES
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                              Conservation of the planet's limited resources is another aspect of the Agency's
                              mission that can, and should, be exercised in the selection and design of Agency
                              facilities.

                              INTERIOR DESIGN

                              After space for EPA has been acquired, a program to implement the recycling policy
                              must be developed.  Depending on the policy, the program could include:

                                   Design of recycling centers in the space plans, located in convenient relationship
                                   to employee workstations.

                                   Recycling centers to contain bins of appropriate size for the various categories of
                                   recyclables.

                                   Provision for central storage near the truck dock for collected recyclables,  plus
                                   compactors, balers, and/or glass crushers as may be required by the program.

                              Conservation of resources refers to any material that is the product of a limited, non-
                              renewable  resource.  As applied to space design for an Agency facility, examples
                              would include:

                                   Utilization of hardwoods for cabinetwork and furniture that are the product  of a
                                   managed,  sustainable forest, rather than  hardwoods from unmanaged tropical
                                   forests. See Volume  2 for examples.

                                   Use of linoleum tile, which is based on  linseed oil, instead of Vinyl composition
                                   tile (VCT),  which is petroleum based.

                              UNDERSTANDING  THE BASE BUILDING

                              When investigating space to be acquired, EPA and GSA look into these quesiicns:

                                   What recycling policies will be followed in the new facility? What materials will be
                                   recycled: paper (what categories?), plastics  (what kinds?), glass  (clear  and
                                   colored?), aluminum,  other metals?  Will separation be at the source, or post-
                                   collection? Are these  the policies of the local governmental jurisdiction, the solid
                                   waste management contractor, or the landlord/building manager? Or, is EPA free
                                   to develop  a program  of its own?

                                   What facilities for solid waste management exist at the building, e.g. truck docks,
                                   trash chutes, storage areas for recyclables, compactors?

                              Water is also a resource to be conserved. The building proposed for EPA use should
                              be checked to see if low-flow water-conserving plumbing fixtures are used, or, if  not,
                              whether it would be feasible and cost-effective to substitute such fixtures. The use of
                              flow-metering faucets are also considered.
EPA SPACE GUIDELINES                                                                                     VOLUME 1
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 In the design of its space, and the selection of materials, the EPA should take every
 effort to minimize the potential to pollute the atmosphere, the ground, and water runoff
 to streams and rivers.  Similarly, design choices need to be made that will minimize
 the impact on landfills. Basic strategies include the selection of materials and products
 that utilize a high content of recycled or recovered materials, avoidance of products
 that generate excessive pollutants in their acquisition and manufacture, selection of
 materials that may be recycled or easily disposed of, and selection of quality products
 and materials that are durable and long-lasting, thus diminishing the disposal problem.

 The following are several examples of ways to minimize pollution:

     Avoid the use of refrigerants and fire extinguishing equipment (e.g. Halon) that
     utilize CFC's, an ozone-depleting gas. Avoid products, such as some insulation
     materials, that are manufactured using CFC's.

     Specify  products that contain a  high  proportion of recycled material. As
     technology advances,  many more such  products are being  added  to  the
     construction industry's inventory. Current examples are: drywall, ceramic tile,
     acoustical  ceiling tile, toilet partitions, and many other products (See Volume 2).
     Recycled  materials  should be  evaluated to ensure that they do not  impact
     adversely the Indoor Air Quality by off-gassing VOCs.
VOLUME 1                                                                                        EPA SPACE GUIDELINES
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C3   H   OH
                                 The selection of the materials comprising your office space is never a simple, or
                                 individual, effort  Instead it is an accumulation of decisions over time, primarily by
                                 professionals such as architects, engineers, contractors and building owners.  The
                                 material that go into the base building - windows, insulation,  masonry etc. - are
                                 usually in place before the EPA chooses a building. However, you can influence the
                                 choice  of interior materials, by working with the professionals and GSA as  new
                                 space or renovation is planned.  The range of components selected as part of an
                                 interior fit-out include partitions, acoustic treatment floor and wall coverings, ceilings,
                                 window coverings, lighting,  architectural details and furniture.

                                 While there are "standard" selections, your understanding of the  range and variety
                                 within each category can help create a quality office environment  Consideration
                                 needs to go  beyond availability, cost and color to reflect longer  range objectives.
                                 Products are available that meet a wide list of goals.  Linoleum is an example.
                                 Eclipsed in  popularity by  vinyl composition tile (VCT),  linoleum  is similar in
                                 performance  to VCT yet is made of natural materials, emits no VOC's and is
                                 biodegradable.

                                 Furniture also must be viewed in a broader light  Today's open plan layouts
                                 demand that  furniture both define space and deliver services.  Furniture and panel
                                 systems enhance office acoustics, deliver power and electronic  signals, augment or
                                 provide  lighting, as well create visually separated work areas.   Selecting  the
                                 appropriate furniture system and using it well establishes a functional office  and
                                 helps create  a pleasant place to work.

                                 Specific discussion of materials and furniture follow in this  chapter, with more
                                 detailed environmental information provided  in Volume 2. Selection of materials or
                                 products is not a straightforward process but rather a balancing of many factors,
                                 including:

                                 Impact on IAQ.  The primary indoor air  quality consideration when  choosing
                                 materials is possible contamination from Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's).
                                 These are chemical substances emitted into the air from carpet adhesives, paints
                                 and other finishes, sealants, plywood etc.  The level of VOC's emitted by interior
                                 materials varies by product  and manufacturer and decreases with time.

                                 Resource Conservation.  Many building materials are now incorporating recycled
                                 materials - wall panels, ceilings, carpet ceramic tile, insulation etc. Consider the
                                 useful life and disposal/recycling of a product when you choose it  In addition,
                                 substitutes should  be  sought for products made of  limited or non-renewable
                                 resources.

                                 Hidden Materials. More of today's products are composites of several materials  and
                                 each part needs to be evaluated. For example, acoustical panels have a structural
                                 material, insulation  and fabric  covering;  an  acceptable  carpet fiber might have a
                                 potentially hazardous backing.  Also realize that chemicals may have been applied
                                 to fabrics to create specific  qualities, such as soil or fire resistance.

                                 Safety.   Safety considerations  include flammability,~slipping and  tripping hazards,
                                 potential for  furniture tipping,  structural capacity  of  shelving  and unexpected
                                 projections.

                                 Durability.  Sturdiness and wearability are important factors ~ wearability for fabrics
                                 and finishes, and sturdiness when choosing products made of separate components,
EPA SPACE GUIDELINES
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such as systems furniture.  Evaluate the connectors as well as the specific parts.
Life expectancy is tied to value, but also related  to anticipated usage,  e.g  a
temporary installation doesn't need the most long-lasting carpet

Soiling  Qualities.  Ease  of cleaning,  coordinated  with the  intended  use and
maintenance expectations, should be considered.  Carpets, fabric panels and wall
coverings can be treated to improve resistance to soiling.

Special Features. An analysis of special material  needs should be made early in
the design process, e.g. acoustical requirements, anti-static carpet, special lighting,
tackable surfaces.

Visual Qualities. Visual considerations go beyond aesthetics to include features that
make work  easier and save energy - glare reduction and appropriate lighting,
especially for computer use, windows in partitions to share daylight etc.

Budget and Value. Always an  important consideration.

Availability and Manufacturers Support Availability (delivery of all components when
you need them) and  manufacturer's support  (replacement parts and additional
components years later) contribute  greatly to  a products  value.  Lack, of these
characteristics in your furniture system will limit your ability to reconfigure and easily
expand.

Installation Characteristics.  Products that need to  be moved or replaced often
should be  reviewed for their ease  of installation.  The ability  to use  in-house
maintenance staff can be an important advantage for long-term flexibility.

ADA Regulations. Proposed floor coverings, thresholds and changes in level must
be reviewed in light of the Americans with Disabilities Act (e.g. maximum carpet pile
thickness of 1/2 inch).

EPA Assistance. Assistance and information on materials is available within EPA.
Contact the Environmental Health and Safety  Division for  the latest policies and
guidelines on testing and safety.

Signage and Artwork

Signage, both for directions and identification, are an integral part of the visual
design - yet often forgotten until the last minute. The base building design includes
elevator and lobby signage, as well as signs to identify fire exits and the  building's
mechanical/support rooms.   The  signs within EPA's space are a GSA/EPA
responsibility, including directional signs to the exits, room numbers, directories,
signs identifying Branches and  special spaces.   A signage package should  be
developed during the design intent phase of the interior design  process, in order to
coordinate  it with the furniture and base building signage, budget for its production
and installation, and ensure that it arrives in time.  ~

Artwork in the public areas will give the office a coordinated and professional look,
yet need not be expensive. Framed posters and prints are suggested, for reception
areas, conference rooms and lounges. (Inexpensive security hardware is available
to make sure they stay on the walls.)  A budget for artwork should be  set aside
when planning  the project - one-half of one percent of the interior design budget
is commonly used.   Provision  for  display and bulletin boards also should  be
included.
    BACKING]


         TUFTED CARPET
REAL ESTATE SPACE MANAGEMENT
BRANCH CAN PROVIDE FURTHER
INFORMATION OR DIRECT YOU TO
ANOTHER EPA SOURCE
PHONE 203/260-2022
 VOLUME 1
 PAGE 70
             EPA SPACE GUIDELINES

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                               Carpet is the most widely used and popular flooring material for office areas, because
                               it is comfortable underfoot, absorbs sound, installs quickly and easily, and requires low
                               maintenance.  It is available in a great range of colors,  textures,  and patterns,  in
                               natural or synthetic fibers, and in various weights. In most commercial applications,
                               it is usually glued directly to the concrete floor slab, although it can also be placed over
                               a pad for additional comfort.  Carpet can also be obtained as carpet  tiles, a form that
                               permits ready access to underfloor wiring, and also allows replacement of individual
                               tiles in areas of excessive wear.

                               The various carpet options available to the designer or specifier include:

                               Type of fiber.   Natural  (wool or cotton), or synthetic  (nylon, polyester  or  acrylic,
                               polypropylene—called olefin, and terepthalate). Although wool is the most luxurious,
                               it is also expensive, and not  as durable as nylon. Terepthalate made from recycled
                               plastic  bottles, is a relatively new carpet material, similar to polyester.  It is not as
                               durable as wool or  nylon, and at present is available only with SB latex  backing (see
                               below). Of the synthetic fibers, nylon is the most durable, and the most stain resistant.
                               It is the fiber of choice for most commercial uses.

                               Type of Backing. Backing can be natural (jute)  or synthetic (polypropylene, fiberglass
                               or SB latex).  SB (styrene butadiene) telex backing has a  high VOC content,  and
                               should  be avoided.

                               Type of Construction. There are three types of carpet construction: woven, knitted,
                               and tufted.  All are acceptable, but tufted construction has become  prevalent in
                               commercial applications because it is most economical.

                               Texture. Two basic surface textures  may be used: Loop construction (including level
                               loop, cut and loop, and ribbed loop); and Cut pile construction (plush, shag, multilevel).
                               Because it is more durable under heavy traffic conditions, level loop carpeting is used
                               most often in commercial applications.

                               Cushion.  To provide a more comfortable feel underfoot or to improve acoustic or
                               insulating qualities of the floor, cushioning is sometimes provided. This can be bonded
                              to the carpet, or can be separate. Materials used include polyurethane foam, urethane
                              foam, sponge  rubber, felt, rubberized jute, and synthetic fiber.  Most are made from
                              waste materials, and are typically low in VOCs. Padding should be  selected based
                              on the performance needs of the particular installation.

                               Installation. The majority of commercial installations are of the "direct glue-down" type,
                              which means that an adhesive is spread over the concrete floor and the carpet is then
                              applied. Sometimes an impervious barrier (e.g. linoleum) is introduced between the
                              concrete and carpet, to  prevent any  excess moisture  from the concrete from being
                              absorbed into the carpet and promoting mold growth.  Where a separate cushion is
                              involved, the installation uses adhesive at two levels, and is called "double glue-down."
                              The direct glue-down method is not applicable to all types of carpet. A second method
                              of installation is called " tackless strip " and  consists "of stretching the carpet  over a
                              broad area and then securing it at the perimeter with narrow plywood tackless strips.
                              This method is less successful than glue-down in areas  that are quite  large and
                              receive heavy traffic, because the carpet can shift and the seams can pull apart.


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 Other Considerations.  In addition to the concerns described above, the specifier will
 need to look into factors  such  as  flammabilrty,  generation  of static  electricity
 (particularly with  respect to electronic equipment), and acoustical characteristics.
 Carpet and backing weights, pile height, and yam density also need to be selected.
 Environmental Concerns.  The primary environmental consideration with any carpet
 installation is the possible effect on indoor air quality.  This is discussed in detail
 elsewhere in these standards, but is mentioned here as a reminder that care should
 be taken in the selection of carpet, backing, cushion (if any), and adhesive, to avoid
 those with high VOC emissions.  Where wool carpeting is used, particularly in areas
 that are subject  to  moisture, the  use of an anti-microbial  additive in the carpet is
 recommended.
                    CARPET
 Where Used
Offices and office areas
Corridors (moderate traffic)
Conference Rooms
Libraries
 Options
Type of Construction: woven; tufted;knitted
Type of Fiber: Natural (wool, cotton); Synthetic (nylon,
polyester, olefin, terephtalate)
Type of Backing: Jute; polypropylene; fiberglass; SB Latex
Texture: Loop construction; Cut pile construction
Cushion (if  required or desired): Polyurethane foam;
rubberized jute; felt sponge rubber; urethane foam
 Sizes
Carpet rolls typically 12' wide (Broadloom carpet)
Carpet Tiles typically 18"x18"
 Installation
 Methods
Tackless Strip installation
Glue-down or Double glue-down
Factory application (optional) of carpet tiles over access flooring
"Free-Lay" (adhesiveless) carpet and carpet tiles
 Environmental
 Concerns
VOC emissions from carpet, from backing ,and from adhesives.  (Use
low-VOC adhesive)
Avoid double glue-down installation, because it doubles
quantity of adhesive
Avoid SB latex backing because of VOCs
Disposal of used carpet burdens landfills; select a durable product and
maintain it properly.
Avoid carpet cushions made with CFC blowing agent
Carpet acts as sink for contaminants generated elsewhere in the space;
keep carpet dean.
 Recommendations
 and Remarks
Use 28 oz. or 32 oz. (face weight) nylon carpet; tufted continuous loop
or cut pile construction; tackless strip or glue-down installation. Use
polypropylene backing.
Use a 4" high straight vinyl base at carpeted areas.
Allow carpet to air out before and after installation.
A carpet of good quality, if well maintained, should last for approximately
ten years.
An anti-microbial additive is recommended for wool carpeting.
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                               RESILIENT FLOORING

                               Resilient flooring is the material of choice in areas that receive heavy traffic, and where
                               the sound-absorbing qualities of carpet are not required. It is also more easily washed
                               than carpet, and can be used where spillage of food and drink could occur.  It is an
                               appropriate flooring for lounges/pantries, copy rooms, recycling centers, and storage
                               and utility rooms.

                               Several different materials are classified as resilient flooring, and, as with carpet, are
                               made in a wide range of colors, grades, patterns, and weights. The  most commonly
                               used products are:

                               Vinyl Composition Tile (VCT). This is the  resilient flooring most often used, because
                               it is economical and durable, and suited to most interior applications where carpeting
                               is not called for.  For commercial and institutional use, 12"x12" tiles, in 1/8" gauge, is
                               usually selected. The material is also available in sheet form, where the cleanliness
                               and appearance of a seamless installation is desired.  VCT is a petroleum based
                               product, and is not biodegradable.

                               Vinyl Tile. This is similar to VCT, but is d solid, or homogeneous, vinyl material. It has
                               a more luxurious look and feel than VCT,  and is more costly, so its use is limited to
                               spaces that require its special qualities.  It is also available in sheet form.

                               Linoleum.  This  product is  similar in appearance to VCT, but is made of natural
                               materials (primarily linseed oil), emits no toxic or irritating gases, and is biodegradable.
                               It is made in  12"x12" and 24"x24" tiles, 1/8"  gauge for commercial  use.  It, too, is
                               made in sheet form. Linoleum is regaining popularity and is now available in a wide
                               variety of colors and patterns.

                               Other Resilient Flooring.  In  addition to the above products, cork tile,  rubber tile, and
                               sheet rubber flooring can be  utilized in specialized conditions, but are  not likely to find
                               application in  typical EPA offices.  Asphalt tile and vinyl asbestos tile are no longer
                               made, but many floors covered with these materials still exist.

                               Environmental Concerns.  Resilient flooring is installed using adhesives. Care should
                               be taken to specify adhesives that emit low levels of VOCs, and to ventilate the space
                               thoroughly prior to occupancy.  If renovating an older space, any tile to be removed
                               should be checked for asbestos content.

                               CERAMIC TILE

                               Where durability, resistance to wear, and ease of maintenance are paramount, ceramic
                              tile  is usually chosen.  It is a material that  is usually a part of the base building, and
                               not often used as part of the tenant fitout. Ceramic tile is often selected for toilet
                               rooms, shower and locker rooms, and food service facilities, where its hard impervious
                              surface can  be washed down.  It resists  staining, abrasion, and water penetration.

                              Ceramic tile comes in many shapes, colors, and sizes, and offers unlimited design
                              possibilities. It is made from natural materials, and emits no VOCs. Installation is with
                              Portland cement mortar, or with thin-set adhesive.

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 Environmental Concerns.  Ceramic tile with content of recycled material has recently
 come onto the market,  and  should be  considered  for use.   Some adhesives and
 sealers contain VOCs.
                     RESILIENT TILE
                                CERAMIC TILE
  Where Used
Stairs
Corridors (heavy traffic)
Copy rooms
Mail rooms
Storage rooms
Vending areas
Pantries
Toilet rooms
Shower & Locker rooms
Kitchens & Food Service
areas
  Options
Vinyl Composition Tile
Linoleum tile
Solid vinyl tile
Sheet vinyl
Sheet linoleum
Rubber tile & cork tile
  (for special situations)
Unglazed floor tile
Ceramic Mosaic tile
Quarry tile (often used for floors
in commercial kitchens)    \
  Sizes Available
Tile: 12"x12" x 1/8" gauge,
also 9"x9"
Sheets: 6'x90' (typical)
Various sizes; 1"x1" and
2"x2" usually used;
hexagons & larger sizes
also available
Quarry tile: 4"x4";6'x6"&
8"x8"(1/2" thick)
 Environmental
 Concerns
VOC emissions from adhesives
and from VCT; little or none
from linoleum
VCT: non-biodegradable
Linoleum: biodegradable
Possible VOC emissions from
.adhesives, sealants and
grouts. (Low emitting adhesives
are available).
Recycling: Ceramic tile made
from recycled material is
available.
 Recommendations
VCT or Linoleum Tile in
12"x12"(1/8"ga.) recommended;
linoleum/s preferred.
Use low VOC emitting adhesive
Use 4" high coved vinyl base at
resilient tile areas.
Use unglazed ceramic
mosaics; 1 "x1" or 2"x2" in
Portland cement mortar. Use
4" high glazed cove base.
If budget allows, use tile
made from recycled materials.
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                               Gypsum Wallboard.  This material, usually called "drywall" is the wall material most
                               often encountered in office space.  Drywall is a sheet of gypsum, typically 1/2" thick,
                               with a paper surface prepared to received paint or adhesive for wallcovering.  Drywall
                               comes in 4'x8' sheets, which are attached to wood or metal studs to form partitions.
                               Construction is fast and inexpensive. Various metal stud and drywall assemblies can
                               be constructed, providing different characteristics of fire and/or acoustical separation
                               as required to  meet code or privacy  needs.  Selection  and specification of such
                               assemblies should be made by someone familiar with code requirements and the
                               various drywall assemblies.

                               Paint. The simplest and most economical way to finish a drywall partition or masonry
                               wall is to paint it. Paint provides a uniform appearance, and can be easily cleaned or
                               repainted if necessary. The paint used almost universally for interior walls is flat latex
                               (water-based) wall paint. Latex paint dries quickly, cleans up easily, and is relatively
                               free of VOCs.  For  new drywall,  a latex primer followed by two finish coats, is
                               recommended.  Where cleanability and a more soil resistant surface is required, such
                               as in toilet rooms or food surface areas, alkyd-based enamels (available in flat, semi-
                               gloss, or gloss finish)  may be used. Most present-day  interior paints (including water-
                               based paints) emit VOCs, primarily during application,  which can be irritating to some
                               people.  Alternative ("natural") paints are available which may be used where there
                               could be particular sensitivity to such irritants; "natural" paints are rare in commercial
                               installations.

                               Vinyl Wallcovering.  A surface that is tougher and more durable than paint  is vinyl
                               wallcovering.  It is recommended for use in areas of high traffic, such as corridors, or
                               where the walls are  subject to more than usual abuse.   A great variety of color,
                               texture, pattern, and weight can be obtained.  Three classifications of this material are
                               made: Type 1, Light  Duty; Type II, Medium Duty; and Type III, Heavy Duty.  Type II
                               is appropriate for most office space. Vinyl wallcovering is further classified based on
                               its backing material:  Type II backing provides the strength suited to most commercial
                               applications.  Vinyl wallcovering, which is furnished in 54: wide rolls, is installed on the
                               substrate with an  adhesive.   A non-toxic adhesive should be specified.  The
                               wallcovering material  itself is made from plasticized Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), which
                               is a toxic substance, however, offgassing from wallcovering has not been identified as
                               a problem in most installations.

                               Fabric Wallcovering.  Besides vinyl, various other materials may be applied to a
                               backing and hung on the substrate with an adhesive to achieve decorative or other
                               effects, such  as acoustic softening. Such materials include paper, fabric, and wood
                               veneer.  Of these, fabric is most often used in office applications, where its acoustic
                               properties and decorative qualities may be preferred to those of vinyl wallcovering.
                               Fabric should be selected that is economical, durable, and easily maintained (it can
                               be treated to resist soil), as well as aesthetically appealing.  Besides an overall wall
                              treatment with fabric wallcovering, discrete fabric wall panels can be installed, often as
                               an acoustical treatment in meeting rooms or other spaces where noise is a problem.
                              They can be used for  decorative effect, or, when covered with fabric both sides, used
                              as room dividers. Panel cores typically are molded fiberglass, and attachment is with
                              clips, adhesive, or velcro fasteners.
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                    GYPSUM WALLBOARD
                              PAINT
                            VINYL OR FABRIC
                            WALLCOVERING
 Where Used
 Typical for great majority
 of interior walls: applied
 to metal studs, wood
 studs or furring on
 masonry.
  Lowest cost finish for dry-
  wall, masonry, wood, and
  metal. Can be cleaned.
  Painting is economical
  way to change colors
  and to refurbish soiled
  walls.
Vinyl wallcovering can be
used in corridors, offices,
reception/ wailing areas
where durability and ease
of maintenance are reo/d.
Use fabric in conference
rooms or audrtoria for special
decorative effect
 Options
• Various sizes and gauges
 of metal studs to meet
 specific needs.
• Sound insulation for conf.
 rooms, offices as required
• Special drywall assemblies to
 meet fireresistance
 requirements.
• Water resistant drywall for
 toilet/shower rooms.
  Latex based flat wall paint
  is standard for most walls.
  Semi-gloss alkyd paints
  can be used for doors, trim,
  and walls subject to fre-
  quent cleaning.
  Alternative (natural) paints
  available for especially
  sensitive areas.
Various colors, weights,
patterns and textures.
Backing: Type II (moderate
duty) suitable for most
locations.
If fabric, select for durability
and treat for soil resistance.
 Sizes Available
 Typical sheet size: 4*x8'
 1/2" thickness usually used,
 3/8" and 5/8" also available.
 Two thicknesses of dry-
 wall sometimes used for
 increased sound reduction,
 fire rating, or structural
 rigidity.
  Not Applicable
Vinyl wallcovering comes
in rolls 54* wide by 30 yards
long.
Fabric usually 36" to 54"
wide (sold by the yard).
 Environmental
 Concerns
 No known environmental
 problems associated wih
 gypsum wallboard.
 Wallboard made from re-
 cycled material is made,
 and is recommended.
 All paints, including water-
 based paints, emit VOCs,
 mostly during application.
 Provide good ventilation.
 Use alternative paints if
 circumstances warrant
Installation of wallcoverings
uses adhesives, some of
which emit VOCs. Select
tow VOC-emrtting adhesive;
provide good ventilation.
 Recommendations
 and Remarks
 Select drywall assemblies
 to meet Code req'ments
 for fire ratings, and provide
 desired STC (acoustic) rating.
 Use WR type drywall in
 toilet rooms and similar
 moist locations.
• Prime new drywall or mas-
  onry with primer sealer,
  then paint with two coats
  flat latex paint, or two coats
  semi-gloss alkyd in copy
  rooms, mail & store rooms.
• Allow ample drying time
  (72 hrs) before occupancy
Use 13 oz/sq yd vinyl wall-
covering for most locations;
use 22 oz. (min.) material for
elevator lobbies, lounge/
kitchen/ vending areas, and
areas subject to heavy use.

Building Code may require
fabric with low flame-spread
rating. Class 1 flame spread is
recommended but may be an
above standard charge.
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                               CEILINGS

                               Ceilings in office areas are typically suspended from the floor slab above to create a
                               space in which ductwork, piping, and wiring can be concealed and fluorescent troffers
                               may be recessed.  The suspended ceilings are usually made of a sound absorbing
                               material with a textured pattern of perforations or other deformations.

                               Several choices are available to the designer.  The metal suspension grid, hung with
                               wires from the structure above, can be concealed or exposed. With either method, it
                               is possible to access the utilities above the ceiling.  If exposed, the grid can have a
                               factory applied enamel finish (most often, white) or, it can be white metal (aluminum)
                               in color.  The grid is most often a 2'x4' or a 2"x2' module, matching the size of
                               recessed fluorescent fixtures.

                               Ceiling tiles  are made  of  fiberglass  or  mineral  fiber,  in many patterns and
                               configurations. Usually, they are white or off-white (factory applied latex paint), and
                               may be repainted if the ceiling becomes discolored, although this would affect the
                               acoustical rating.  From the functional standpoint, a key design consideration  is the
                               Noise Reduction Coefficient (NRC), a measure of the tile's acoustical performance,
                               that is, its ability to absorb rather than reflect sound. For most office applications, an
                               NRC of .60 or better is desirable; higher ratings are available for special areas.

                               In some spaces,  acoustical considerations  may be less important than  the need for
                               washability and moisture resistance, for example, in locker rooms and shower rooms,
                               or in food preparation areas.  In such  locations, a  suspended drywall ceiling, painted
                               with a alkyd semi-gloss enamel provides an acceptable ceiling surface.  The drywall
                               is the same as that used for partitions (sheets 4'x8'x1/2"), but it should  be specified
                               as water resistant drywall for moist locations.

                               MILLWORK

                               Millwork (cabinetwork) and furniture are also an  important part of  the working
                               environment.  Furniture is discussed elsewhere in these  guidelines.  Millwork -
                               sometimes called "custom casework" - consists of those items  of fixed-in-place
                              furnishings, traditionally made of wood, such as paneling,  shelving, and  cabinets.  In
                              years past, such  things were made of solid wood, or of wood veneers  bonded to a
                              lumber core.  Now, it is probable that the lumber core is replaced by particleboard (or,
                              possibly, plywood), and the rich-looking hardwood veneers replaced by high-pressure
                              plastic laminates.  The advantages of the newer  methods of millwork and furniture
                              construction are  several:   lesser cost, a  wider  selection  of colors and finishes,
                              improved dimensional stability, and greater resistance to fire and abrasion.

                              Besides the fundamental concerns of function, cost and appearance, the design and
                              specification of  millwork should  address the  environmental issues of VOC and
                              formaldehyde emissions. Particleboard and/or plywood with tow formaldehyde content
                              should be used, and adhesives low in VOC emissions should be called for. All  sides
                              of particleboard should be sealed, to encapsulate  the potential escape of gases. To
                              evaluate VOC emissions, it is best to have potential suppliers submit "chamber test"
                              data on their products. Finally, if real wood veneers are to be used, wood that  is the
                              product of a managed, sustainable forest should be used.

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                    CEILINGS
                                            MILLWORK
 Where Used
Acoustical tile ceilings used wherever
sound absorption is needed: offices,
corridors, conference rooms
Suspended drywall often used in toilet/
locker rooms, where moisture resistance is
desired.
  Paneling, shelving,
  cabinetwork
  Custom furniture.
 Options
Acoustic tile material typically mineral fiber,
but fiber board, metal, fabric, or film faced
also available.
Various colors, patterns, and textures.
Various NRC ratings available.
Ceiling suspension grid can be concealed or
exposed.
  Choices of materials and
  details limited only by
  budget and designer's
  imagination.
 Sizes
Ceiling tiles typically 2'x2' or 2'x4'; 3/4" or
5/8" thick. Sometimes tiles are scored
to look like 1'x1'.
Suspended gypsum wall-board: 4'x8'x1/2"
sheets
  Not Applicable (custom)
 Environmental
 Concerns
Few environmental concerns with use of
acoustical tile, although material can
shed glass fibers into the air
Some tile is made using recycled
material.
  Offgassing from Urea Forrr
  aldehyde in plywood and
  partideboard.
  VOCs in glues, adhesives,
  and wood finishes.
  Depletion of tropJcaThard-
  woods.
 Recommendations
 and Remarks
Recommended acoustic tile: 2'x2'x3/4"
mineral fiber with tegular edge; exposed
grid system.
Use NRC of '.90-1.0 for open plan offices,
copy rooms, libraries; use tile w/ NRC
of .50-.60 (or better) elsewhere.
Paint suspended drywall with semi-gloss alkyd
enamel.
•  Seal all faces of plywood
  and partideboard. Use
  low VOC adhesives and
  wood finishes.
•  Specify wood veneers
  from managed forests.

•  Millwork details are spec-
  ific to each individual
  application.
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SYSTEM COMPONENTS
                                Why is 'Systems Furniture" used in offices? It is designed primarily for use in an
                                open office plan that calls for few fixed floor-to-ceiling partitions.  Open office
                                planning derives its purpose from its ability to respond easily to requirements for
                                increased flexibility and for lower long term expenses. The major requirements that
                                systems furniture responds to are:
                                Rexibility of Planning:
                                Rexibility of Function:
                                Rexibility of Plan
                                Modification:
EPA SPACE GUIDELINES
                      Systems furniture in an open plan configuration efficiently
                      maximizes the net usable space.

                      Systems furniture allows individual workstation modification,
                      so  that workstation design  can reflect the functional
                      requirements of the task performed.  Changes in function,
                      therefore,  can be accommodated without total furniture
                      replacement

                      Systems Furniture in an open office allows easier response
                      to organizational changes in size, structure  and function.
                      Open planning helps your Divisions respond to change by
                      lowering costs related  to partition  relocation,   HVAC
                      modification, lighting relocation, construction and  moving
                      time.
Finally the new, rapid developments in telecommunication and electronic technology
in the office environment require adaptable  and responsive systems  furniture
products.  The following list of issues focuses on the key considerations in the
selection of a furniture system.

KEY CONSIDERATIONS

GSA Regulations. In selecting furniture, EPA must follow the process and products
of the GSA Federal Supply Schedule in effect at the time of acquisition.

Integrity and Simplicity of Components.  Engineering design is at the heart of a
Furniture System's integrity and sturdiness.  Simple engineering design responds
successfully to structural, assembly and operational requirements.   Therefore,
installation is easier and faster, as are future furniture rearrangements. If installation
goes quickly, delivery schedules are  more realistically achievable.  Simplicity also
means fewer parts which translates  into better inventory control. All this creates
substantial initial and life-cycle cost savings.

Sturdiness. Another aspect of the engineering design is the ruggedness  built into
the system. Are the panels and hanging shelves designed to support a full load of
computer manuals?  Can the panel  connectors withstand a moderate amount of
bumping?

Wire Management. One of the chief concerns in open offices is wire management
The systems furniture's capacity to accommodate an increasing number of power
and signal wires and to distribute them appropriately within the system configuration
may determine the selection of one system over another. Does the system have
the ability to bring wiring directly to the work surface?  How easy is it to access the
wire management channels?

Electrical  Capacity.  In  addition to  wire management  when  selecting  systems
furniture one must also consider its electrical capacity:  How much electrical power

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                                                                     PAGE 79

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can each workstation carry? Can it carry enough clean power for ADP usage?
What is the arrangement for convenience outlets?

Size and Modularity.  A broad range of sizes for systems furniture provides more
flexibility to accommodate varying workstation configurations as well as planning
modules. Are the sizes of components set at standard dimensional increments for
both width and height; does enough variety of sizes in both dimensions exist? Does
the system offer floor-to-ceiiing panels? Do those panels accommodate doors; does
the system have freestanding panels that can take doors? Does the system set its
dimensioning point on the centerline of its workstation module (to do so keeps the
"layout creep" factor to a minimum)?

Budget and Value.  Since a very wide array of systems furniture exists, a cost that
matches a specific  budget can usually be found. An  important part of  that cost,
however, pertains to the systems furniture's finish. Some manufacturers offer only
a limited range of finishes, whereas others offer a broad selection menu.  The
quality of the finish strongly affects the aesthetics and functional longevity of the
fumiture-the better the quality of finish, the better it will look and wear.  Thus the
capacity of a finish to  resist the effects of wearing significantly determines the
furniture's useful life-cycle.

Lighting Applications.  Does the system offer overhead lighting units in increments
longer than the system's standard panel widths?  This feature saves on the cost of
convenience outlets or on the  number of outlets dedicated to lighting; this  also
provides greater system furniture rearrangement flexibility. Local electrical codes
need  to be checked to determine whether lighting units  can be connected in series;
if they can, this too will  save on the use of convenience outlets.

Acoustic Rating. Check and compare different systems sound transmission ratings.

Aesthetics. What does the system look like and what are the options for variety and
change overtime? Visual consideration is especially important when choosing new
furniture and  integrating it with existing furniture.  What is the "shelf life" of the
system and the manufacturer's commitment to keeping finishes and fabrics?

Matching Furniture.  Does the system offer loose furniture, either as independent
pieces or as pieces constructed with systems parts?

Some new trends in systems furniture design, such as the following, should also be
considered.

• Does the system provide any integrated air handling  mechanism to circulate and
  filter air within or between the workstations?

• Does the furniture manufacturer offer, as  part of an inventory control process,
  computer software designed to coordinate and track loose furniture and system
  components?

• What environmentally safe materials does the manufacturer use in the furniture?
  Does the manufacturer offer a selection of environmentally benign finishes; does
  a cost premium exist for using them?
 VOLUME 1
 PAGE 80                                                                                       EPA SPACE GUIDELINES

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     WEEPING RG
                                Beyond beautifying our interior and exterior environments, plants make our world a
                                healthier place to live.  In the closed environments of today's modem  offices air
                                quality can be  a health concern.   Chemicals emitted from  building  materials,
                                cleaning products, furniture, finishes, office equipment and the like are all potential
                                pollutants. Gasses released from inks, plasters, rubber, tobacco smoke, as well as
                                from simple human breathing  all  add to the problem.   Properly selected and
                                maintained indoor plants, however, can provide an inexpensive and refreshingly
                                natural aid to the removal of pollutants from office air.

                                Research into the ability of interior plants to improve indoor air quality is relatively
                                recent, although the role of plants and the earth's atmosphere has been studied for
                                decades.   Following is a summary of research on interior plants provided by the
                                non-profit organization  Plants for  Clean Air Council,  in  Reston, Virginia.  The
                                information below was taken from a study by Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc.
                                (see following page) and PCAC's synopsis of results from a study by NASA and the
                                Associated Landscape Contractors of America. They found, through testing specific
                                pollutants, that tropical plants normally used indoors as well as many well-known
                                flowering  plants  are effective  cleaners of indoor air.  Specific pollutants, some of
                                their sources and  plants that  clean the air of them are listed here, in descending
                                order of tested removal  rate.
                                POLLUTANT
                                Formaldehyde
                                Benzene
SOURCES

foam insulation
plywood
particle board
clothes
carpeting
furniture
paper goods
household cleaners
water repellents
tobacco smoke
synthetic fibers
plastics
inks
oils
detergents
rubber
gasoline

paints
varnishes
lacquers
adhesives
dry cleaning
inks
                                * Indicates indoor plants commonly available.
                                Trichloroethylene
BENEFICIAL PLANTS

Boston fern*
Chrysanthemum
Gerber daisy
Dwarf date palm
Bamboo palm*
Janet Craig
Kimberley queen fem
English ivy*
Weeping fig
Peace lily
Areca palm*
Com plant

Gerber daisy
Chrysanthemum
Peace lily
Wameckei
Bamboo palm*
Marginata*
Sansevieria
Janet Craig

Gerber daisy
Marginata*
Peace lily
Janet Craig
Bamboo palm*
Wameckei
EPA SPACE GUIDELINES
                                                                                                  VOLUME 1
                                                                                                   PAGE 81

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POLLUTANT
Xylene
Ammonia
SOURCES

adhesives
jointing compound
wallpaper
caulking compounds
floor covering
floor lacquer
grease cleaners
tobacco smoke
varnish
office cleaners
copy inks
BENERCIAL PLANTS

Areca palm*
Dwarf date palm
Dumb cane*
Dragon tree
King of hearts
Kimberiy queen fern
Wameckei
Lady Jane
Com plant
Weeping fig

Lady palm
King of hearts
Ulyturf
Lady Jane
Chrysanthemum
Peacock plant
BOSTON FERN
* Indicates indoor plants commonly available

Sources:  Wolverton, B.C. and Wolverton, John.
          Interior Plants and Their Role in Indoor Air Quality: an Overview.
          Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., Picayune, Miss, 1992

          Plants for Clean Air Council
          Plant Tips for Commercial and Residential Environments
          P.C.A.C., Reston Virginia.
 VOLUME 1
 RAGE 82
                                                               EPA SPACE GUDaWES

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FTPS
                         1-7.622
1972                    1992

     WORK YEAR GROWTH
 The Environmental Protection Agency is a dynamic organization, in a continual state
 of flux.  Programs are regularly initiated, reorganized and contracted in response to
 changing environmental priorities.  This  condition requires facility managers in the
 Agency to  regularly assess  changing space needs and respond with appropriate
 action.  Each EPA component therefore needs to develop logical  solutions that
 respond to individual space problems,  defining needs and generating workable
 solutions.  The process is called Office Planning.

 Good Office Planning is not an accident. It requires informed decision making through
 careful examination of the existing situation, an understanding of the characteristics
 of the occupied space, working knowledge of the procurement process, and a fair idea
 of  detailed  user  requirements  e.g. space,  functional  relationships,  technical
 requirements, etc.

 In 1983, the  General Services Administration (GSA), through its Public Buildings
 Service (PBS), began focusing on development of an Advanced Technology Buildings
 Program for its federal clients. This action was bom out of the recognition that, over
 a 30 year life-cycle, the comparative costs of building construction and  maintenance
 were only about 10% of the total expenses, while salaries amounted to approximately
 90% of the costs.  Which means that>good office  planning and design, while not
 costing much proportionately, can significantly improve performance and efficiency of
 employees  and contribute towards productivity, and today GSA  encourages  an
 interactive design process.

 GSA controls and manages the space acquisition process, and any addition of space,
 whether for 20 people or 2,000, follows a similar process:

 1.   EPA initiates the process by developing preliminary space needs and requesting
     space from GSA.

 2.   GSA seeks the appropriate space in a Federal Office Building, or if not available,
    solicits offers.

 3.   EPA procures professional services to assist them.

 4.  GSA, with input from EPA, reviews the offers and adequacy of the buildings, and
    selects/procures the additional space.

5.  The interior design process begins, as a cooperative  effort between GSA and
    EPA.

6.  Parallel with the interior space design is the furniture selection and  procurement
    (by EPA under GSA Federal Supply Schedule).

7.  Construction, Installation and Move.
   EPA SPACE GUIDELINES
                                                                      VOLUME 1
                                                                       PAGE 83

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            XUU* Ite.
 The expiration of an existing lease, move from a building because of environmental
 upgrades, proposed  consolidation  of fragmented offices and program growth or
 contraction are reasons that require project initiation.

 The first step for EPA is to form an interdisciplinary planning team. The purpose of
 the team is to make  certain that the requirements and activities  of the EPA users,
 GSA,  EPA Headquarters and  consultants are coordinated.  The make-up of the
 planning team is contingent upon the size of the EPA organization involved and the
 project scope. For example, the team size and composition will be very different when
 you are adding 20,000 sq.ft. to an existing facility from when you are acquiring a new
 building for an entire regional office. Therefore, the formation of this team should be
 flexible and responsive to specific EPA  project needs.   The team should  be
 responsible for all planning tasks, holding meetings with EPA  users, hiring  outside
 consultants, selection of furniture, coordinating with GSA and EPA headquarters. This
 method of planning has  been successfully deployed in several regions, headquarters,
 and NEIC to the satisfaction of  EPA employees.  The team is usually drawn from in-
 house personnel and is augmented with specialists as needed.

 The second step is to  develop a preliminary program of space requirements and
 request the space from GSA.  In order for GSA to begin the  Solicitation Process,
 EPA's project needs must be defined in sufficient detail to enable GSA to approach
 Offerers  and obtain lease  proposals  that  can  be easily compared.   This is
 accomplished by the EPA Initiating Office through completion of Form 81, which
 defines overall space requirements for office, special and storage needs. Additionally,
 GSA above-standard  requirements are also articulated so that Offerers are aware of
 cost implications as they relate  to 24-hour HVAC, structural reinforcement, electrical
 power needs, Uninterruptable Power Supply, etc.  Depending upon the size of the
 project, this effort can be done in-house, by using 'Space Standard Guidelines,' or by
 hiring consultants.
  Landlord
 Development
                               EPA PLANNING TEAM
                                   ronmontst I
                                      IAQ,
                                Pollution Prevention
                                   Conservation
Division/Prograrn/Un
   Representatives
Telecommunications
    Furniture,
VOLUME 1
PAGE 84
                                                                                 EPA SPACE GUIDELINES

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           ffARegfanalor
                Component
             Develop
             Space
          Requirements

          ERAHeadquam
             FMSO
        Checks space need,
         utilization, budget
         implications and
         approves with or
         without change.
              V
           Corresponding
            GSA Office
Reviews space request
Begins acquisition
process.
>
f
      GSA checks availability
        in Federal Building
         YES      NO
      E^o of Spscc
       Acquisition
            Advertises intent to
             lease. Provides
             interested lessors
            with SFO document
 The Federal Property Management Regulations (FPMR) are very specific as to the
 process to be followed when requesting space.  The majority of new leases, or
 additional space requests are GSA  controlled.  Based upon Form 81, GSA first
 attempts to provide the Agency with space in a Federal Office Building (FOB).  If
 unavailable, GSA solicits proposals from interested parties to lease space within a
 neighborhood (Area of Consideration) mutually agreed upon by GSA and EPA.

 The responses from Offerers are based upon information contained in the Solicitation
 for Offers (SFO), which among other items, specifies the technical and performance
 specifications for the base building, the quantitative and qualitative requirements for
 EPA space,  life safety  requirements,  the  services,  utilities and  maintenance
 procedures, and the procurement, award and lease process.

 The SFO contains specifications that ascertain acquisition of first class office space.
 However, the information contained is generic for all federal acquisitions and GSA
 encourages client Agencies such as EPA  to provide specific requirements and criteria
 to meet its mission needs. This includes all special space  requirements, technical
 requirements   like    Indoor   Air,   Energy   Efficiency  and  Recycling,   and
 maintenance/operational requirements, that can be  easily  accommodated in the
 acquisition process without hampering competition.   It is important that you work
 closely with FMSO to identify these special needs before the SFO is issued.

 You must note that GSA negotiates rent for space obtained for a client agency based
 upon a standard list of interior construction items (called "Workletter" in private industry
jargon)  for useful occupancy.  The quantities of these items are provided based on
occupiable square footage.  These  include the following: a basic HVAC  system;
drywall, electrical and telephone outlets; doors, frames and standard hardware; ceiling
and floor  covering; lighting  fixtures  and fire protection sprinklers;  and  window
coverings.

The GSA allows upgrades in quality and  quantity, where necessary, on payment of
extra costs to the landlord. Before embarking upon requesting any additional items,
please ascertain that estimated costs are budgeted and available.  (Refer to GSA
 Facilities Standards - PBS/PQ100).

 In cases where the Agency has been granted "Delegation of Authority" for special
areas such as its laboratories, EPA controls the entire process and prepares a detailed
"Program of Requirements" that includes space requirements as well as technical
requirements for the Base Building itself.
EPA SPACE GUIDELINES

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 Early selection  of professional services will enable EPA to participate  in GSA's
 selection of appropriate space, as well as easily coordinate the later design work.

 The procurement of Planning and Design Services is dependent upon the size and
 complexity of the project.  Several Regions and Headquarters have in-house staff of
 architects/planners for routine facility management tasks. Expansion, contraction and
 moves  of fifty  to hundred persons  have been  successfully handled by in-house
 technical staff in several regions.  However, when a large project such as an entire
 regional office move is planned, it usually becomes necessary to augment existing staff
 with outside consultants.  The role of the in-house technical staff then reverts to
 coordinating, directing and monitoring consultants, to enable  EPA to meet schedule
 and budget goals.

 Besides the services of Architects, Planners and Interior Designers, a project needs
 specialized  consultants  like mechanical and electrical engineers. Other consultants
 such as structural engineer, lighting consultant, tele-communication consultant, audio-
 visual consultant, environmental consultant  etc. may also be required

 The services of the technical experts can be obtained in a number of ways, provided
 both money and time are adequately budgeted. The following mechanisms have been
 employed by various EPA organizations; some projects have used a combination of
 contract opportunities.

 In-house Support.  The  availability of workyears can allow part-time or full-time hires
 on EPA staff.  As stated earlier such  assistance is extremely valuable in maintaining
 basic facility management activities. Usually, such in-house technical staff keeps the
 space situation in control, updates drawings, produces designs for expansion, keeps
 up-to-date furniture inventory etc.

 Design Services through GSA. In several regions, the General Services Administration
 (GSA)  pre-selects local  architectural and planning firms and signs term contracts of
 one to  five  years with them to provide design services to federal agencies.   Such
 mechanisms are useful when a design needs to be completed to meet a lease-
 imposed deadline and EPA is unable to procure services within the required timef rame.

 Lessor provides Design Services.  In the absence of design assistance from GSA the
 lessor may  agree to  provide design services. The cost of such services is built into
 lease payments. However, design teams hired by the lessor may not be in a position
 to develop an objective  design and fully represent EPA interests.  In our experience,
 schematic and design development should be developed by EPA consultants with the
 lessor design team producing construction documents and obtaining necessary local
 municipal permits.

 EPA procures design services.  GSA must  issue a waiver before EPA is allowed to
 hire its  own consultants.  Once such a waiver is obtained, EPA Contracts Division
 procures design services under the Federal Acquisition Regulations, which can take
 anywhere from 6 to  12 months.   The process  requires advertising in Commerce
 Business Daily (CBD), development of  a 'Request for Proposals' outlining scope of
 services, receiving proposals and selection of a design firm.
VOLUME 1.                                                                                      EPA SPACE GUDEUNES
PAGE 66

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         CORE
 GSA reviews offers and selects a building based on the Federal Property Management
 Regulations process and the Solicitation for Offers (SFO) they have prepared. In order
 to get suitable space for EPA, GSA examines the base building design for technical
 excellence. We have listed items which, if applied during space selection, will ensure
 acquisition of an adequate building.  Relevant parts of the listing may be included in
 the SFO as requirements or as evaluation criteria. Regardless, the application of the
 following adequacy listing will be useful when GSA and EPA review buildings.

 BASE BUILDING ADEQUACY

 The quality of interior space is related to the quality of the Base Building itself.  You
 must ensure that the  capacity of structural,  mechanical,  and electrical systems
 provided in the building is  adequate to support the present and future EPA office
 automation requirements.   When obtaining expansion or new space, the following
 aspects of the base building should be carefully examined by relevant professionals:

 Core

 Core is a term utilized to define the assemblage of vertical circulation and services in
 mutti-storeyed buildings. It consists of "passenger elevators, freight elevators, toilet
 rooms, janitor closets, maintenance  rooms,  primary mechanical and  electrical
 distribution, ducts/shafts, electrical/data closets, fire protection equipment areas, and
 structural  elements for building structural functions.  The arrangement  of these
 elements and the overall design of the core impacts the efficiency of space under
 consideration.
   See Volume 2 -
   Technical
   Considerations for
   more details
            Office
        SHELL
 Core Support. Adequate equipment closet space to meet current and future demands
 of EPA's occupancy must be built within the existing core. In buildings where electrical
 and telephone closets fall short of need and no area is provided for data closets, the
 Agency ends up converting occupiable area for these functions.  The inclusion  of
 space for mail management and recycling in core design is an added plus.

 Elevator Lobbies.  The passenger elevator lobby must be a minimum of 10'-0" wide
 in double loaded elevator situations. The waiting time during peak period should be
 no more than 18 seconds.  A service vestibule isolating freight activities should be
 provided.

 Building Shell

This term defines the external skin  of a building and includes the glass, aluminum,
steel, concrete and masonry skin of the building and the window sill condition including
heating,  ventilation and air distribution  system.   The shell may include  structural
columns located within or outside of the glass line at the window wall.

Perimeter Conditions.  When assessing space suitability for EPA occupancy, the
perimeter conditions (the configuration and protrusions~along the inside surface of the
building's outside walls) become important to investigate, since they have a major
impact on space planning and workstation layout and in turn planning efficiency.  For
example, large number of protrusions from the wall, e.g. columns, convectors etc., may
ffASPACE GUIDELINES
                                                                                                    VOLUME 1
                                                                                                      PAGE 87

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 require a perimeter corridor instead of engaging stations with external wall, thus losing
 occupiable space.
Height of Window Sill.  The height of the window sill varies with the perimeter air
conditioning systems. In modem buildings, especially in Washington, D.C. and south
of Washington D.C., perimeter conditioning is provided through forced air distributed
through ceilings instead of under the sill convectors.  This allows the window sill to be
tower than the furniture  height of 30", which is a difficult planning condition. In some
buildings the sill is totally eliminated,  causing problems with the accommodation of
data, telecommunication and electrical wiring.

Building Structure.  Programs within EPA require substantial secure space for filing,
functionally adjacent to the office space. Typical offices spaces do not provide unusual
floor loadings to accept central  filing, libraries, dockets, etc.  Similarly, in large
acquisitions for entire regional offices, the Agency may need column-free areas and
extra height for spaces such as auditorium, cafeteria, training center, etc.  Therefore
when  assessing a base building, attention  must be given to the  capacity of floor
loading, available floor-to-ceiling heights, bay sizes, regularity of structural elements
and availability of area (mostly on ground floor) to accommodate columnless and extra
height spaces.                                                        >
FUNCTIONAL ADEQUACY

It is clear from observing several existing EPA facilities that the availability of requisite
occupiable area does not always translate to space suitable for intended occupancy.
This is particularly true for older structures with irregular layouts that were constructed
when life-safety codes were not as stringent. The following aspects of space must be
kept in mind.

Building Shape.  The occupiable area needed may be apparently  available in the
building under consideration, but may be so poorly configured that intended EPA office
functions cannot  be accommodated.  Several EPA buildings around  the country,
especially those  located in older buildings or non-office structures, lose efficiency
because of narrow or  angled floors, poorly proportioned  areas, irregular column
spacing, inadequate core design, etc. It is a good idea to prepare a conceptual layout
of a typical floor in order to assess the efficiency of space for EPA's use.

Below Grade and Interior Space.  A portion  of EPA spaces do not usually require
daylight.  Uses such as storage  rooms, stock rooms, mail area, computer rooms,
copying, and even conference rooms can be satisfactorily  located  in below grade
space or interior space.  (Below grade workstations are not acceptable). However, this
represents only 10 to 15% of programmed net area. Therefore buildings offering a
larger percentage of below grade  space may  be unsuitable.

As discussed previously, the core-to-wall depth (called lease depth) and the window-
to-wall area determine the extent  of daylight available on a typical floor.  Both these
variables alter somewhat based upon the climatic conditions of the area where the
building is located. Our experience indicates that  a lease depth of 40'  to 50' and a
VOLUME 1                                                                                       EPA SPACE GUIDELINES
PAGE 86

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                              minimum  window-to-wall area ratio of 40% usually satisfies most  performance
                              requirements.

                              MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ADEQUACY

                              The mechanical system in each building can be engineered in a variety of ways to
                              achieve requisite performance requirements for  heating, cooling  and ventilation.
                              Although the mechanical system design has to meet minimum local code criteria, it is
                              a good idea to further assess the systems in areas critical to EPA occupancy.  Our
                              experience indicates that, if engineering drawings and specifications are available, the
                              analysis can be easily conducted within a few days by EPA consultants at minimal
                              initial  costs.  We recommend  that the following  items  related to  the mechanical
                              systems should be investigated:

                              Outside Air Capacity.  The system must meet the  minimum ASHRAE standard 62-
                              1989 for 'Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality.'  This means that at least 20
                              cubic feet  per minute (cfm) of fresh air per  person at a density of 150 sq.ftVperson
                              must be available.  In other words, a 15,000 sq.ft. floor accommodating 100 EPA
                              employees should be capable of providing a minimum of 2,000 cfm of outside air.

                              Zoning.  Office buildings have two discrete zones of temperature control. The first is
                              called the  perimeter, the second the interior.  The  perimeter is commonly described
                              as a band  approximately fifteen feet deep adjoining the windows.  The interior is the
                              balance of the floor plate, the entire remainder beyond the perimeter band.

                              The perimeter is affected by seasonal variations in the outdoor air temperature and the
                              diurnal effects of solar radiation.  The perimeter has contrasting demands for both
                              heating arid cooling, even within the frame of a single day.  The interior requires
                              cooling all year long because the heat released  by lighting,  office machines  and
                              human metabolism are nearly constant all year.

                              Both  the interior  and exterior  zones are further  subdivided into  sub-zones  and
                              controlled by thermostats. Each thermostat regulates the amount and temperature of
                              air delivered to maintain desired temperatures.

                              The proposed mechanical systems must be  investigated to determine the method of
                              heating/cooling adopted to control perimeter temperature on each side of the building;
                              the size of sub-zones controlled by thermostats (Range between 1,000-1,500 sq.ft.);
                              and the capacity of air supply boxes on the perimeter and interior zones.

                              Ducts. A well balanced Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning system, among other
                              things, is dependent upon unimpeded flow of air from central mechanical rooms. A
                              proper duct layout will ensure that it follows straight horizontal and vertical rows and
                              minimizes sharp bends or jogs caused by structural and other plenum elements. A
                              large presence of such obstructions may cause constriction of air flow and cause air
                              turbulence  that leads to noisy air diffusion and loss of efficiency in  air distribution.
                              Space with such problems should be avoided.  Further, the air distribution  systems
                              must permit space planning flexibility and allow EPA space to be re-designed without
                              impacting performance or efficiency.
B>A SPACE GUIDELINES                                                                                    VOLUME 1
                                                                                                    PAGE 89

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Auxiliary Ventilation.  Several EPA programs maintain graphic, printing, copying,
blueprinting and kitchen uses that require special ventilation requirements, such as
direct exhaust to  outside.  At times the base building's existing exhaust ductwork
serving toilet rooms and other core requirement is  insufficient to accommodate
additional direct exhaust needs.  The availability of tenant ventilation duct shafts
becomes important to EPA occupancy when noxious fumes from aforementioned uses
need to be filtered and exhausted to the outside.

Off-hour operation  for computers and  personnel.    EPA's office operations are
supported by computer rooms and other equipment  rooms that require 24-hour air-
conditioning.  Additionally, after normal-office-hours access is usually required by EPA
staff in the late evenings and on the weekends.  When assessing mechanical systems
in a base building, it becomes important to  establish if the systems have been
designed to support small loads during off-hours. A building incapable of supporting
24-hour operation from the base building mechanical  systems may require EPA to
install  its own auxiliary air conditioning system for  computer rooms, necessitating
independent ducted air supply from window wall or ducts from roof-top.  These sources
of air are very expensive to add.

Noise.  The base building is equipped with elevator machinery, mechanical equipment,
fans, and ducts that carry high velocity air that can subject the occupants to disturbing
noise levels in the absence of proper acoustic isolation.

Sound  ratings of air terminals and equipment should be based on Noise Criteria (NC)
curves as defined  in ASHRAE Guide System and Applications 1987. They should be
as follows:

-    General  Office Space           NC35-NC40
-    Private Offices                  NC30-NC35
     Conference Room and
     Executive Offices               NC 25 - NC 30
     Computer Equipment Rooms     NC 40 - NC 45
VOLUME 1                                                                                     EPA SPACE GUIDELINES
PAGE 90

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                              The exact organization of the interior design process and the working relationship
                              between GSA and EPA will vary with the specific project.  However, all will need the
                              following steps:

                              DEVELOP SPACE REQUIREMENTS

                              Review Existing Situation: To develop a program of requirements, it is important to
                              review the existing situation. A lot is learned through observing how a specific EPA
                              organization operates, the station sizes  used, relationships of central functions to
                              various divisions, etc.  Further, analysis of documents such as layout plans, furniture
                              inventory, staffing list, environmental and adjacency problems are all important in the
                              development of a Program of Requirements.

                              Detailed Programming. The detailed requirements for additional or new space are
                              developed through a process called Programming. The end result of Programming is
                              usually a document called the 'Space Program' that contains information about the
                              Organization, its departments, the number of employees, sizes of workstations for
                              various employees, special spaces, workflow requirements, operational needs, security
                              needs, growth projections, organizational goals, etc.  This is accomplished through
                              observation, study of existing documentation and interviews. The basic purpose of the
                              document is to provide a  design team adequate information to enable them design
                              EPA space.  See the chapter "How  much space?" for general  guidelines and
                              standards.

                              PREPARE PROJECT SCHEDULE

                              The interaction between project participants and the complex procurement process
                              requires development of a project schedule.  A schedule establishes events, activities
                              and responsibilities. It creates a framework that enables project managers to monitor
                              the  EPA, GSA,  landlord  and consultant activities,  project start  and  end,  when
                              consultants are needed, client review periods, budget planning, move and occupancy.

                              The schedule depends upon several project variables that need to be established up
                              front.  For example: a) Is the space requested available  in a Federal building or
                              requires to be leased?; b) Are the design services being provided by the landlord, GSA
                              or obtained by EPA?; c) Does EPA already have a contract for furniture supply or does
                              it need to go out on street, and whether EPA will lease furniture or buy it?

                              The development of a project schedule is critical in project implementation. In itself,
                              the  schedule does not guarantee timely or successful completion  but, if properly
                              monitored, it acts like a barometer for tracking planned progress with actual progress
                              and makes an effective decision-making tool.

                              For the EPA project manager, this tool provides a useful basis for encouraging EPA
                              users to make timely decisions and also helps establish and justify design fees for
                              various kinds of consultants.

                              We have provided an example of a schedule for a 50,000 sq.ft. development on the
                              next page.
EPA SPACE GUIDBJNES                                                                                     VOLUME 1
                                                                                                    PAGE 91

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EPA Activities
Develop Requirements - - - -1



Assemble personnel/support data
Set design policies
Record final space allocation -

Consultant Activities
Stack A Block --------



Municipal Approvals
Quantity take offs

Punch List

QSA Activities


Finalize space classification • *
1
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Municipal Approvals

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1 May be developed by consultants In cases of large end complex projects
2 Alternatively, may be obtained from QSA or landlord II teaelbto
3 This time Is not required II EPA elects to go to an available Federal Facility.

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                              ESTABLISH PROJECT BUDGET

                              Every EPA project initiated and completed costs money. At the outset, the Agency
                              should ensure that estimates for renting space, design and consulting services, above
                              standard-cost,  furniture  and  installation,  equipment, telecommunications  and
                              move/occupancy  are established and budgeted for appropriate fiscal years.  The
                              following macro-budget items are of importance when planning a new project:

                              1. Rent.  This cost is established by GSA based upon the extent of Office, Special,
                              Storage, and Parking space leased. It is usually in dollars per occupiable square foot
                              and is for standard construction.  The EPA Headquarters commits itself for such
                              payments on EPA occupancy.

                              2. Above-standard costs.  To meet several mission-related design requirements, such
                              as special construction  for secure areas, card key entrances, direct exhausts for print
                              rooms, dean  power, 24-hour operation  for computer rooms, uninterrupted power
                              supply, energy-efficient lighting and use of interior materials that are environmentally
                              suitable.  These costs can be accurately estimated after completion of Design Intent
                              drawings when quantities and specifications for interior materials, such as walls, wall
                              coverings, lighting, electrical outlets, etc. are established, when it is possible to identify
                              above-standard items.  However, at the planning stage, a set-aside budget of $5.00
                              to $10.00 per square foot, is usually sufficient.

                              3. Design Fee. The budget for programming, schematic design, design development,
                              and construction documents usually depends upon the size of the project.  A budget
                              of $3.50 to  $4.50  per square foot that includes all the above mentioned phases, as
                              well as construction monitoring is a good rule-of-thumb for interior design projects.
                              Note that a project may require EPA to budget for all or part of design services only.
                              EPA responsibilities must be established at the start of the project.

                              4. Furniture Costs. The costs for furniture, furnishing, installation and furniture design
                              are usually established  by inviting bids from various vendors. A budget of $3,500 to
                              $4,000 per station for systems furniture, inclusive of support furniture such as filing,
                              reception and design fees is adequate. If EPA desires to re-utilize existing furniture,
                              the design fees need to  be increased due to the time and effort of conducting a
                              furniture inventory and designing  on that basis.

                              5. Voice  and Data Communications.  The  EPA National Data Processing Division
                              (NDPD) has established technical standards for voice and data communications to be
                              used in EPA office facilities. These standards recommend specifications  related to
                              cables, jacks, distribution system, hardware equipment, etc. In NDPD's assessment,
                              approximately $1,000.00 per workstation is a reasonable budget to cover costs related
                              to general wiring, wiring closets, phone sets etc.  Beware, that in some cases GSA
                              pays for all or portion of telecommunication costs.  Check the FPMR.

                              6. Equipment Costs. These are based upon actual equipment that EPA proposes to
                              install in its new space.  This can only be developed after assessing the extent of
                              additional equipment the EPA needs to obtain.
EPA SPACE GUIDaiNES                                                                                     VOLUME 1
                                                                                                    PAGE 93

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 7. Move and Occupancy Costs. The move and occupancy costs are related to the
 transfer of equipment, filing and personal effects from the current to the proposed
 location. These vary considerably depending upon the extent of equipment, furniture
 and the distance between the existing and new location.  Within Washington, D.C., the
 Agency budgets an estimated cost of approximately $150/person for personal effects
 and equipment, assuming no furniture is to be moved. The FPMR identifies conditions
 under which GSA or EPA pick the move costs.

 8. Expert Consultants. Depending upon the needs and complexity of a project, the
 services of expert consultants are usually  required.   Since  such services are
 associated with specific areas, it is not possible to define these needs unless the
 scope of the project is established.   Given the environmental focus, projects may
 require review and consulting from lighting experts, IAQ experts, specialized engineers,
 graphic artists, etc.  Costs for these services must be estimated at the beginning of the
 project.
 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

 Blocking and Stacking. On completion of the detailed program and selection of space,
 the design can be initiated.  As a first step, the EPA components need to be placed
 on each floor, representing the extent of square footage needed for major functions.
 Logical placements of division and central support should determine the Block Plan.
 This means that due regard should be given to functions that could be on the interior,
 equal access to windows, desired  adjacencies between planning units and possible
 sharing of support.

 In situations where EPA occupies more than a single floor of the building,  a vertical
 section indicating distribution and relationship among various divisions is prepared.
 This is called the Stack Plan. On approval of the Block and Stack Plan by EPA, the
 design process can continue.

 Schematic Design. With the Block and Stack Plan as a guide, the  layouts for each
 floor are prepared as concepts.  These concepts are based upon the space program.
 EPA operational requirements, environmental requirements, base building constraints,
 the building module, window wall conditions, etc. Make sure that the architects/interior
 designers  have field  measured the  space, that the  plans  actually reflect  the
 dimensions, are drawn to a scale  appropriate for the  size of the project and show
 circulation, location of partitions, doors, cabinets, furniture, etc.

 Design Intent Documents. On approval of the schematic design, the  plans are further
 articulated to begin defining station layouts, ceiling conditions, lighting, materials etc.
 The architects and interior  designers  define performance specifications of drywalls,
 ceilings, wall coverings, carpets, to meet the technical and performance requirements
 associated with each space.  Elevations, isometrics and three dimension studies are
 completed.

 Power requirements, exhaust requirements, mechanical ventilation for each type of
 space is noted.  Use of sensors and type of lighting is also defined, recognizing the
 energy efficient requirements.
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          STACK PLAN
VOLUME 1
PAGE S4
           EPA SPACE GUIDELINES

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                               The  end result of this phase should be the definition of design to  a level so that
                               construction documents and specifications can be prepared.  In an ideal situation, the
                               furniture system and equipment should have been identified by now so that the design
                               intent documents are based on actual dimensions of panels, furniture, and equipment
                               under consideration.

                               Normally, this is the stage at which  GSA hands over the design to the lessor for
                               preparation of construction documents.

                               Construction Documents. Since the interior build-out often is carried out by the lessor,
                               the Solicitation for Offers (SFO) usually specifies construction documents as a lessor
                               responsibility.   This enables the architectural team already familiar with the  base
                               building systems to develop, integrate  and obtain municipal approvals for the interiors.
                               However, the GSA/EPA responsibility does not end at design intent levels.   Rather,
                               EPA should stay involved to ensure that the intent of the design is completely carried
                               out in construction documents, and professionals need to carefully monitor the layout
                               and construction details and the shop drawings prepared by lessor team.

                               EPA should obtain the final set of documents, preferably on CADO systems, for their
                               records.
EPA SPACE GUIDELINES                                                                                       VOLUWE1
                                                                                                      PAGE 95

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 The selection of furniture and its  procurement needs to follow the process and
 products delineated in the  GSA Federal Supply Schedule.  There  are numerous
 furniture systems that are on GSA schedule. However, before going out to procure
 them,  Federal Agencies  are expected to utilize furniture produced by UNICOR.  In
 situations where UNICOR is unable to supply the extent of furniture or supply it within
 the period in which it is required, the GSA issues a waiver to go out in the market for
 procurement.

 Regardless of the furniture chosen, it is critical for EPA to select a system by the time
 design intent documents commence. This is important because various systems work
 on different modules, and a layout that is based on one system will require substantial
 revision if another is chosen.  Minor dimensional variations, when factored over an
 entire  floor, may end up significantly altering  clearances  and passage widths and
 reducing the number of stations.

 EPA has successfully selected systems furniture by soliciting bids on the basis of four
 to five generic workstation configurations and estimated quantities.  Additionally, the
 bids include other services such as furniture design, the preparation of documents and
 furniture installation. Based on the size of the procurement, this process has allowed
 the Agency to  purchase furniture at  extremely attractive prices,  benefiting the
 Government.

 The quality and style of furniture systems made by various manufacturers varies
 significantly. It is in EPA's interest that selection criteria be established when soliciting
 proposals.  Systems manufacturers  will go to great lengths to  provide technical data
 to win contracts. Some  of the usual  criteria include, but are  not limited to, quality,
 flexibility, safety, wire management, availability etc. (See Selecting Furniture Systems,
 in this Volume).   Besides  these factors it is important  for EPA to analyze the
 environmental implications of  furniture  systems offered.  The  Indoor Air  Pollution
 potential due to the use  of  glues, fabrics and  woods must be examined by testing
 various system products.
VOLUME 1                                                                                      EPA SPACE GUIDELINES
PAGE 96

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                               The construction of the interiors is a lessor's responsibility and is supervised by
                               construction managers.  In GSA controlled leases EPA typically has a limited role
                               during this phase. However, you should discuss with GSA a greater EPA participation
                               at this stage - in which you or your consultant architect monitors the work to protect
                               EPA's interest.

                               The installation of furniture is carried out by  manufacturers vendors. Several on-site
                               problems do surface that need consultation with  designers.  EPA should make sure
                               that these services are included in their contracts on an as needed basis.

                               The Agency is responsible for moving its employees to the new location.  Usually this
                               is done through contracting with moving companies.  Such  events should be used to
                               purge unnecessary papers, equipment and furniture.

                               It is important that the employees are oriented to their new offices, furniture, security
                               systems and the neighborhood.  Recently the  EPA Region 5 and Headquarters
                               prepared a hand-out addressing these issues.

                               As-built documents should be obtained and filed by EPA facilities to enable future
                               alterations and revisions. As EPA has started using CAOO extensively,  this may be
                               the right media for recording.
EPA SPACE GUIDELINES                                                                                      VOLUME 1
                                                                                                     PAGE 97

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EPA SPACE GUIDELINES

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                               The development of a successful maintenance program for your space is the way
                               of keeping a good "quality" office environment Beyond recognizing, selecting and
                               installing environmentally appropriate materials, office space must also be properly
                               maintained if it is to remain environmentally sound. Two primary areas of concern
                               are adequate maintenance of the Air Handling System(s) and the choice of cleaning
                               materials and their use.  Both issues seriously affect the long term standards  of an
                               office's Indoor Air Quality (IAQ).

                               One  should  keep in  mind  that the  relationships among building  owners,
                               management,  staff and  occupants are important factors in decisions that affect
                               indoor air quality.  As occupants, your primary concern is that your space be a safe,
                               efficient and pleasant environment in which to work. On the other hand, the building
                               owner's and manager's concerns are more dollar driven.  It is therefore a balancing
                               act to satisfy the occupants' needs for a good quality space within the parameters
                               set by operating and maintenance budgets.

                               However different the  objectives of the players may be, the issue of providing a
                               healthy indoor environment is a common concern and should be addressed. The
                               time to plan for  good maintenance is  when  a  Solicitation for Offers (SFO) is
                               prepared to  acquire new space.
                                                                  >
                               With regard  to maintaining a continued high level of IAQ, the entire HVAC system
                               should be designed with  access panels so a person inspecting the system can get
                               into it at  key points for regular inspections and cleaning.  Moisture in the HVAC
                               system is the major catalyst in indoor air pollution. Water is the  medium in which
                               dangerous bacteria, mold and fungi breed. Since A/C cycles cool air and extract
                               moisture,  the  system  must be kept trouble-free by eliminating all  the  residual
                               moisture it creates. A preventive maintenance program for the HVAC system should
                               also include:

                                   Routine inspection and cleaning of cooling coil drain pans.
                                   Removal  of  loose dust and  debris that may accumulate in  air-handling,
                                   induction,  and fan coil units.
                                   Inspection and calibration of automatic temperature and other control systems
                                   (for example, for variable air-volume  systems).
                                   Routine inspection and servicing of humidification systems that may be present
                                   Treatment of cooling tower water  with biocide, and scale and corrosion
                                   inhibitors.

                               It is important that renovation projects be given as much attention as a new building.
                               Adjacencies, zoning, finishes, furnishings  and new equipment should be evaluated
                               to identify any possible cause of air quality problem, and to make the necessary
                               changes to the mechanical equipment to  handle the problem.

                               Ultimately the long term quality  of your office depends on its maintenance.
                               Sufficient budget should  be allocated for  proper maintenance and repair of HVAC
                               equipment cleaning programs  and chemical storage.  The consequences of not
                               doing so can lead to poor system operations or even obsolescence. Facilities staff
                               should be involved in all building modifications in order to  ensure that the impact of
                               the resulting changes to  the building mechanical systems are addressed.
EPA SPACE GUIDELINES                                                                                    VOLUME 1
                                                                                                    PAGE 99

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The following short list provides a broad guideline for maintaining an office's IAQ.

Air Quality Maintenance and Operation

    Establishment of cleaning schedules and mechanical schedules
    Selection of cleaning chemicals
    Storage of cleaning chemicals
    Maintenance of equipment; filters, humidifiers
    Occupancy awareness about
       smoking (CO)
       aerosols (fluorocarbon, vinyl chloride)
       cleaning products (organic pollutants)
       automobile exhaust (CO and lead)
    Sampling:  particulates, gases, micro-organism airflow, and percent fresh air
    Replacement program  that considers IAQ when selecting  paint, carpet,
    adhesives etc.
 VOLUME 1
     100                                                                                      EPA SPACE GUDaWES

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                                Ambient Lighting. Refers to the background level of general illumination. Generally
                                used within the context of task\ambient lighting where task lit areas are illuminated
                                to a high intensity and ambient levels maintained at a low intensity. Ambient lighting
                                levels are  often achieved through use of indirect or reflected light sources.

                                ASHRAE - Abbreviation for American  Society  of Heating Refrigeration and Air
                                Conditioning Engineers.

                                Base Building.  In a leased facility, it generally refers to the portions of a building for
                                which the landlord has responsibility including: public lobbies; elevator, stairs; toilets
                                and maintenance spaces; central building heating, air conditioning, and electrical
                                systems; the exterior walls, windows, doors, roof and building  structure. The Base
                                Building includes all elements of a building not the responsibility of and/or supplied
                                by tenant

                                Building Shell.  The exterior walls and roof of a structure exclusive of any interior
                                finishes applied by the occupant.  Unfinished, interior floor slabs are sometimes
                                referred to as being part of the as building shell.

                                Construction Documents.   Drawings and written specifications  prepared by  a
                                licensed architect or engineer which are sufficiently detailed to provide the basis for
                                obtaining bids from contractors and undertaking construction.

                                Core. The assembled vertical circulation elevator lobbies, mechanical equipment
                                (air conditioning, telephone and electrical), toilet and janitorial spaces that are
                                centralized elements in a typical multi-story building.  Core elements are generally
                                part of the  "base building'.

                                Design Intent Drawings.   Drawings  and written specifications prepared by an
                                architect planner, or interior designer which  are sufficiently detailed to establish
                                office layouts, finishes, and engineering  criteria  These documents are completed
                                prior to the preparation of construction documents.

                                Electro-magnetic Field. Electrical radiation often attributable to certain types of
                                office equipment, wiring, or related electronic  components.

                                FOB  - Abbreviation for Federal Office Building.

                                FPMP - Abbreviation for Federal Property Management Regulations.  Regulations
                                established by the United States Government controlling the acquisition, occupancy,
                                management of federally owned, leased, or controlled space.

                                GSA  - Abbreviation for the United States General Services Administration.

                                Glazed Areas.  Generally refer to the portions  of a wall or roof which is constructed
                                of glass including windows,  glass  block, skylights,  vision panels or any glass
                                materials.

                                Green Lights Program. An existing EPA program for achieving energy efficient
                                lighting  in the work place.  Conservation strategies include:  maximum  use of
                                daylight; use of energy efficient lamps and fixtures; control of lighting based upon
                                occupancy.
EPA SPACE GUIDELINES                                                                                       VOLUME 1
                                                                                                      PAGE 101

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 Gross Square Footage (FPMR Definition).  "Gross, square footage means all floor
 area (including all openings in floor slabs) measured to the outer surfaces of exterior
 or enclosing walls, and includes all floors, mezzanines, halls, vestibules, stairwells,
 servjce and equipment rooms, penthouses, enclosed passages and walks, inside
 parking, finished usable space with sloping ceilings (such as attic space) having 5
 feet or more headroom, and appended covered shipping or receiving platforms at
 truck or railroad  car height Also included in gross floor area, but calculated on one-
 half of  actual floor area,  are covered open process, passages and walks, with
 appended uncovered  receiving  and shipping  platforms at truck or railroad car
 height"

 High Density File Storage. The use of any of a variety of techniques to achieve
 increased file storage capacity per unit of area. Techniques include use of movable
'compact storage unite .which eliminate  aisles, - mechanical systems  such  as
 Lektreiversฉ, and open shelf or file storage employing  increased storage height
 It is cautioned ttiat these techniques may require structural reinforcement to support
 floor loads generated'by increased storage capacity. (See page 51).

 IAQ - Abbreviation for Indoor Air Quality.  Refers to a range of issues affecting the
 healthfulness of the office  environment as affected by mechanical systems, finishes
 'and materials, .and processes employed within the work place.          >

 MSDS  • Abbreviation^for Material Safety Data Sheet.  This document which  is
 prepared by manufacturers listing the ingredients/chemical composition of products.

 Net Usable Space (FPMR Definition).  "Means the area to be leased for occupancy
 by personnel and/or equipment  It is.determined as follows:

 1.  if space is on a  single tenancy floor, compute the inside gross area  by
     measuring between the inside finish of the permanent exterior building walls or
     from the face of ;ithe converters (pipes or other  wall-hung fixtures) if the
 ^'_'., conyectoE,pepupies at least 50 percent of the length of exterior walls.

 ฃ!." ft the space, iscQn a multiple tenancy floor, measure from the exterior building
     walls, as in (i) above, to the room side finish of fixed corridor and shaft walls
     and/or the center of tenant separating partitions.

 3."  In  all, measurements, make no  deductions  for  columns and  projections
     enclosing the structural elements of the building and deduct the following from
 iyi.  the grpss^area Including, their enclosing walls.

           Toilets and lounges
           Stairwells
 ,,,-..-.    Beyators and escalator shafts                 -•::.  -•  •
 rr>v- -'•"--Bufldinij:equiprnent and service areas
 ,,irii ,.-    Entra^c^and elevator lobbies
 "'"'" -    Stacks and shafts
           Corridors in place or required by local codes  and ordinances."
  cAJ•-•*-: or;.v: B^J^ ffii- •  .'       - -'-         •         '  •- •'•''
 NRC -  Noise Reduction Coefficient  An ASTM measure of the sound  absorptive
 quality of an acoustic material

 STC - Sound Transmission Class. An ASTM measure  of the sound transmission
 qualities of a.material.
 VOLUME 1,                                                                                       EPA SPACE GUIDELINES

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                                Space Categories. j~The General Services Administration defines 3 space categories
                                which commonly occur withih:EPA facilities.
                                                  -•: -.--'   ..[  ' ..'.                         •' -.'     •       • •' '
                                1.    Office Space.  Refers to all non-specialized (see Special Space definition
                                      below) space which is suitable for occupancy and use "as an office setting.
                                      These spaces are generally comprised of two componeHts:
                                          Personal Space - refers to areas that are designed to be occupied on a
                                          continuous basis; predominantly by staff,  in the performance of their
                                          work.

                                          Support Space -^refers to areas that provide" for; ancillary functions
                                          including reception* conference, incidental stofeg6, Tfil^ig,"; lounge  or
                                          common facilities in a non-specialized setJtHg."*''""'1'' s* r":     '
                                                          •lK. „             -  •: .  "I-.SK,-; K>,  ,i->.  *<
                                2.    Storage Space.  General purpose area,  typically firijjsheld tS ; frelow  office
                                      space levels of quality, which provide space for b^ilk'stofag^ Of fiiesTbuildihg
                                      materials, furniture, equipment and supplies.
                                                                             -~    ,_n\ \r? XniK-   •-"••• •  ' •••
                                3.    Special Space.   Space that  necessitates the expenditure -of ' additional''* or
                                      varying sums to construct, maintain, and/or operate as compareo1 with the
                                      amount spent for office and storage space. Typically the provisions of  items
                                      such as  increased floor  loading, enhanced mechanical systems,' power
                                      supply, unusual materials, etc. which are over and above typical! office space
                                      capacity or quality are designated with the special space.
                                Power and Signal. Refers to electrical service and telecommunications.^ Power and
                                signal plans denote the location and characteristics of electrical outlets, telephone
                                connections and data connections.  (See page 13). " ' ~ '        !   ~'~~"  "
                                                                          ...  '". Si -7 '.Svr-.VtiX j.r.~,!. *•%ฃ:''•
                                Raised Floor System.  A means of readily providing : electricaff1 computer,  and
                                telephone cable access to equipment by creation of an efevale'd:pYatfomTsupported
                                by pedestals above and existing or proposed floor. The platform, is most frequently
                                constructed of removable concrete panels and provides aispace of between 'fe and
                                18 inches in depth for cable distribution.            '     "-1CS& 'r- '"  "* =i;SW
                                                                                               ~   '
                                Schematic Design.  The initial  phase of a design project where office layouts,
                                approaches to ceiling design, and use of materials and firiisffe^ii^tutiied.
                                                    ;,.                       ,-.-ซ•••.-.. ifcT.'trtnte 3fu ^\^.^-: ^
                                Systems Furniture Workstation. An individual office cbristructed of fncfdular furniture
                                components and often enclosed by free-standing furniture panels between 36' -72*
                                in height                                          -/n.'cซb.'-
                                Task Lighting.  A method of energy efficient lighting desigriiCwh6r^byihe greatest
                                illumination is directed at the work surface.  Fixtures are gene'raliy:associated with
                                the workstation and furniture-mounted, thereby reducing1 the aWibtTfif of -ceiling light
                                    .   .                             '             ,,„.-, V- *ir  -a-j- • r*-
                                required.                                          •   ::  '•••*•  ' •   -
                                                      ...         •                 -j  ^q n? ?\or.:n:O
                                UNICOR.  Furniture produced through an industries program of the United States
                                Federal Bureau of Prisons.                             ro^bsR  aA SPACE GuraawES
                                                                                                      PAGE 103

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                                                                                                    EPA SPACE GUIDELINES

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                              LINEAR CONVERSION - FEET TO METERS
                              FEET

                              1
                              2
                              3
                              4
                              5
                              6
                              7
                              8
                              9
                              10
                              11
                              12
                              13
                              14'
                              15
                              16
                              17
                              18
                              19
                              20
                              21
                              22
                              23
                              24
                              25
                              26
                              27
                              28
                              29
                              30
                              31
                              32
                              33
                              34
                              35
                              36
                              37
                              38
                              39
                              40
                              41
                              42
                              43
                              44
                              45
                              46
                              47
                              48
                              49
                              50
 METERS

 0.3048
 0.6096
 0.9144
 1.2192
 1.5240
 1.8288
 2.1336
 2.4384
 2.7432
 3.0480
 3.3528
 3.6576
 3.9624
 4.2672
 4.5720
 4.8768
 5.1816
 5.4864
 5.7912
 6.0960
 6.4008
 6.7056
 7.0104
 7.3152
 7.6200
 7.9248
 8.2296
 8.5344
 8.8392
 9.1440
 9.4488
 9.7536
10.0584
10.3632
10.6680
10.9728
11.2776
11:5824
11.8872
12.1920
12.4968
12.8016
13.1064
13.4112
13.7160
14.0208
14.3256
14.6304
14.9352
15.2400
FEET
METERS
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
ฃ5
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
=
=
=
=
=
s
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
• =
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
' =
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
15.5448
15.8496
16.1544
16.4592
16.7640
17.0688
17.3736
17.6784
17.9832
18.2880
18.5928
18.8976
19.2024
19.5072
19.8120
20.1168
20.4216
20.7264
21.0312
21.3360
21.6408
21.9456
22.2504
22.5552
22.8600
23.1648
23.4696
23.7744
24.0792
24.3840
24.6888
24.9936
25.2984
25.6032
25.9080
26.2128
26.5176
26.8224
27.1272
27.4320
27.7368
28.0416
28.3464
28.6512
28.9560
29.2608
29.5656
29.8704
30.1752
30.4800
EPA SPACE GUIDELINES
                                                                                             PA3E105

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 AREA CONVERSION - SQUARE Fl
 SO. FEET    SQ. METERS
 20
 30
 40
 50
 60
 70
0
              36.^22
       3^.0902
       39.0193
       39.9483
       46v8773
       41.8064
       ,4^:7354
       43.6844
       -,44.^34
       45.5225
530
540
550
sect
570
580
590
600
620
630
640
650-v
660
                                     680
                                     690
                                     700
                                     710
                                     7^0
                             "740
                              7$0
                              760
                              770
                              780
                              790
                              800
                              810
840
850
860
890
900
                                    920
                                   vs9|D,
                                    940s
                                     970
                                     980
                                     990
                                     1000
SQ. METERS

 46.4515
 47.3805
 48.3096
 49.2386
 53-1676
 51.0967
;52.0257
 52.9547
 53.8837
 543128
 55.7418
 5*.6Vp8..
 57.59S9:
 58.5289
 59,4579
 60^3870
                                                   62,2450
              64.1031
              65.0321
              65.9611
              66.8902
              67!8192
              68.7482
              69.6773
              70.6063
              72.4643
              73.3934
              74.3224
 76.1805
 77^095
 7^0385
 78.9676
                                                   ฃ0.8256
 82.6837
 83.6127
"84-5J*17
 85.4708
              87.^286
              88.2579
              89.1869
             -90.1T59
              91.0449
              •91.9740
              92.9030
                                                                                       EPA SPACE GUIDELINES

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