ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
              OFFICE OF ENFORCEMENT
                      REPORT ON

                    WATER QUALITY
                        n ii H
              WASTE-SOURCE  INVESTIGATIONS
        BIG SIOUX RIVER AND  SELECTED TRIBUTARIES
NATIONAL FIELD INVESTIGATIONS CENTER-DENVER
               DENVER.COLORADO
                        AND
REGION VII                             REGION VIM
KANSAS CITY. MISSOURI       DENVER. COLORADO
                      JUNE 1973

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       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
            OFFICE OF ENFORCEMENT     *
                  Report On
WATER QUALITY AND WASTE-SOURCE INVESTIGATIONS
  BIG SIOUX RIVER AND SELECTED TRIBUTARIES
 National Field Investigations Center-Denver
              Denver, Colorado
                     and

      Region VII              Region VTII
 Kansas City, Missouri     Denver, Colorado

                  June 1973

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                          TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES	     v

LIST OF FIGURES	     vi

LIST OF APPENDICES	     vii

GLOSSARY OF TERMS	    viii


I.   INTRODUCTION	      1

II.  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 	      5

     A.  FALL STREAM SURVEY, 1972	      5
     B.  WINTER 1973 STUDY (WASTE-SOURCES EVALUATION)  ....      6
         John Morrell and Company	      6
         Mailman Food Industries
           (Formerly Spencer Foods, Inc.)  	      6
         Sioux Falls, South Dakota,
           Wastewater Treatment Plant  	      7
     C.  WINTER 1973 STUDY (STREAM SURVEY) 	      9

III. RECOMMENDATIONS	     13

IV.  DESCRIPTION OF AREA	     17

     A.  PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION	     17
     B.  POPULATION AND THE ECONOMY	     17
     C.  HYDROLOGY	     20
     D.  CLIMATE	     23

V.   WATER QUALITY STANDARDS 	     25

     A.  INTRODUCTION	     25
     B.  EXISTING WATER QUALITY STANDARDS  	     27
     C.  DIFFERENCES BETWEEN STATES  	     30

VI.  STREAM SURVEY	     35

     A.  FALL STREAM SURVEY, 1972	     35
     B.  WINTER STREAM SURVEY, 1973	     43
         Biological Conditions 	     45
           Algal Assays	     45
           Fish Assays	     47
                                 iii

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                      TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont.)
         Bacteriological Conditions  	     48
           Big Sioux River and Selected Tributaries  	     48
           Rock River	     50
         Chemical Quality  	     51
           Dissolved Oxygen-(Big Sioux River and
             Selected Tributaries)  	     51
           Dissolved Oxygen (Rock River) 	     53
           Ammonia Nitrogen-(Big Sioux River and
             Selected Tributaries)  	     55
           Ammonia Nitrogen-(Rock River) 	     56
           Nitrogenous Oxygen Demand 	     56

VII. WASTE-SOURCES EVALUATION	     61
     A.  GENERAL	     61
     B.  SIOUX FALLS, SOUTH DAKOTA,
         WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT	     61
         Treatment Facilities  	     62
           Industrial Waste Pretreatment System  	     62
           Combined Domestic-Industrial System 	     63
           Sludge System 	     63
           Results of In-Plant Study 	     64
           Wastewater Treatment Plant Flows  	     64
           Waste Loadings from John Morrell and Co	     65
           By-passing of Wastewaters	     68
           Negative Removals 	     68
           Domestic Wastes 	     69
           Organic Overloading	     69
           Treatment Efficiencies	     70
           Nitrogen Balance	     72
     C.  JOHN MORRELL AND COMPANY	     77
         Pretreatment Facilities 	 . 	     77
         Proposed Abatement Measures 	 . 	     79
         Sewer Charges Levied by City  ....... 	     81
     D.  MEILMAN FOOD INDUSTRIES
         (FORMERLY SPENCER FOODS, INC.)  	     82

VIII. POLLUTION ABATEMENT NEEDS  	     87

      A.  RESTRICTED OXYGEN RESOURCE 	     87
      B.  POTENTIALLY TOXIC CONDITIONS 	     88
      C.  IMPAIRED BACTERIAL QUALITY 	     89

REFERENCES	     92
                                  iv

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                           LIST OF TABLES
Table No.                                                         Page

  IV-1         MEAN FLOW OF BIG SIOUX RIVER AT SIOUX FALLS,
               SOUTH DAKOTA	      21

   V-l         SOUTH DAKOTA WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
               BIG SIOUX RIVER BASIN 	      28

   V-2         SUMMARY OF INTERMITTENT STREAM CRITERIA
               SOUTH DAKOTA WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
               BIG SIOUX RIVER BASIN 	      29

   V-3         FLOW-DEPENDENT, DISSOLVED-OXYGEN CRITERION
                FROM KLONDIKE DAM TO THE LOWER END OF
               SIOUX FALLS DIVERSION DITCH 
               SOUTH DAKOTA WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
               BIG SIOUX RIVER BASIN 	      29

   V-4         IOWA WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
               BIG SIOUX RIVER BASIN 	      31

   V-5         MINNESOTA WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
               BIG SIOUX RIVER BASIN 	      32

 VII-1         JOHN MORRELL AND COMPANY CONTRIBUTION TO LOADS
               RECEIVED AT SIOUX FALLS WWTP (PERCENT)   ....      66

 VII-2         AVERAGE RAW WASTE LOADINGS (PER DAY)
               SIOUX FALLS WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT  ....      67

 VII-3         WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT
               REMOVAL EFFICIENCIES (PERCENT)   	      71

 VII-4         SIOUX FALLS, SOUTH DAKOTA
               WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT NITROGEN BALANCE
               24-31 JANUARY 1973	      76

 VII-5         ANIMALS PROCESSED BY JOHN MORRELL AND COMPANY
               24 JANUARY THROUGH 10 FEBRUARY 1973	      78

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                           LIST OF FIGURES

                                                                 Follows
Figure No.

  IV-1       Sampling Locations,  Big Sioux River and
             Selected Tributaries,  Estelline,  South Dakota        Inside
             to Sioux City,  Iowa	back cover

  IV-2       Sampling Locations,  Big Sioux River and
             Selected Tributaries,  Sioux Falls,
             South Dakota and Vicinity	      18

  IV-3       Periods During  which Wastewaters  were >^
             50 Percent of Flows  in the Big Sioux River
             Downstream from Sioux  Falls,  South  Dakota
             (June 1961-March 1967)   	      22

  VI-1       Chlorophyll  from Periphyton, Big  Sioux River
             10 September to 3 October 1972	      36

  VI-2       Dissolved Oxygen Profile, Big Sioux River,
             Renner to Canton, South Dakota
             0600 to 1200 Hours [CDT], 9/26-27/72	      42

  VI-3       Species Diversity [d]  of Benthic  Invertebrates,
             Big Sioux River, September-October, 1972  ....      42

  VI-A       Bacterial Densities  (Logarithmic  Mean)
             Big Sioux River, South Dakota, February 1973  .  .      48

  VI-5       Dissolved Oxygen Profile, Big Sioux River
             Estelline, South Dakota to Sioux  City,  Iowa
             1-10 February 1973	      52

  VI-6       Nitrogen Profile, Big  Sioux River
             Estelline, South Dakota to Sioux  City,  Iowa
             1-10 February 1973	      56

 VII-1       Wastewater Treatment Plant, Sioux Falls,
             South Dakota, 24-31  January 1973	      62

 VII-2       Wastewater Treatment Plant Study,
             Sioux Falls, South Dakota
             24-31 January 1973	      62

 VII-3       Treatment Efficiency-Sioux Falls, South Dakota
             Wastewater Treatment Plant - 7 DAY  AVERAGE
             24-31 January 1973	      68
                                  vi

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                       LIST OF FIGURES (Cont.)
                                                                 Follows
Figure No.                                                         Page

 VII-4       Treatment Efficiency-Sioux Falls,  South Dakota
             Wastewater Treatment  Plant - WEEK  DAY AVERAGE
             24-31 January 1973	      70

 VII-5       Treatment Efficiency-Sioux Falls,  South Dakota
             Wastewater Treatment  Plant - WEEKEND AVERAGE
             24-31 January 1973	      70

 VII-6       Proposed Pretreatment Facilities-Flow Schematic
             John Morrell and Company,  Sioux Falls Operation .      80
                         LIST OF APPENDICES


     A       WATER QUALITY STANDARDS  FOR THE  SURFACE WATERS
             OF SOUTH DAKOTA (EXCERPTS)

     B       IOWA WATER QUALITY STANDARDS (EXCERPTS)

     C       MINNESOTA WATER QUALITY  STANDARDS  (EXCERPTS)

     D       METHODS OF ANALYSIS

     E       SOURCES OF POLLUTION

     F       SUMMARY OF TABLES FROM STREAM AND
             PLANT STUDY DATA

     G       DANGERS INHERENT IN INADEQUATELY
             TREATED DOMESTIC SEWAGE

     H       LISTING OF SAMPLING STATIONS

     I       STREAM FLOWS DURING WINTER-1973

     J       FLOWS AT SIOUX FALLS,  SOUTH DAKOTA,
             WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

     K       BIOLOGICAL STUDIES DATA-FALL 1972
             AND WINTER 1973
                                vii

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                     GLOSSARY OF TERMS
BOD

GOD

DO

MPN

MF
      N02-N
TKN

TOC

Total P

RM
CaC03

Ca(OH).

WWTP

N


pH


1

lm/m2

mg/1

yg/1
Biochemical Oxygen Demand, 5-day

Chemical Oxygen Demand

Dissolved Oxygen

Most Probable Number

Membrane Filter

Ammonia as Nitrogen

Nitrate and Nitrite as Nitrogen

Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen

Total Organic Carbon

Total Phosphorus

River Mileage (e.g. 76.2/5.8) with first number
denoting distance from mouth of the Big Sioux River
to the confluence with a tributary stream, and
second value indicating distance upstream of mouth
of the tributary stream

Calcium Carbonate

Calcium Hydroxide

Wastewater Treatment Plant

Normal solution, one that contains 1 gram equivalent
weight of solute per liter of solution

The logarithm (base 10) of the reciprocal of the
hydrogen ion concentration

Volume in liters = 0.2642 gallons

Measurement of light intensity  10.76 foot candle

Concentration given in milligrams per liter

                11   "  micrograms  "
                           viii

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                 GLOSSARY OF TERMS (Cont.)


m            - Length in meters = 3.281 feet or 1.094 yards

km           - Distance in kilometers => 0.621 miles

cm           - Length in centimeters = 0.3937 in. or 0.03281 ft.

 C           - Temperature in degrees Celsius  5/9 (F-32)
o
cfs          - Flow rate given in cubic feet per second
               = 0.0283 cubic meters per second or
               28.3 liters per second

cfm          - Flow rate given in cubic feet per minute
               = 0.4720 liters per second
                                                        3
gpd          - Flow rate in gallons per day = 0.003785 m /day

gpm          - Flow rate in gallons per minute = 0.0631 liters
               per second
 3
m /sec       - Flow rate in cubic meters per second <= 22.81 million
               gallons per second

mgd          - Flow rate in million gallons per day
               = 3.785 cubic meters per day

ymhos/cm     - Unit of specific conductance (mhothe inverse of
               the standard unit of electrical resistance, the ohm)
               measured over a 1-cm distance, conventionally at 25C

kg           - Weight in kilograms = 2.205 pounds

ppm          - Concentration given in parts per million parts
                            ix

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                          I.  INTRODUCTION






     In the past, water-quality problems in the Big Sioux River have




been manifested by the severe depletion of oxygen resources and by exces-




sive ammonia concentrations downstream of Sioux Falls, South Dakota.




Low-flow conditions occur periodically in the Big Sioux River, thus




increasing its vulnerability to the effects of carbonaceous and nitro-




genous waste loads.  A major source of these wastes is the Sioux Falls




Wastewater Treatment Plant that in turn receives large x^astewater inputs




from two meat-packing plants, the John Morrell and Company and Meilman




Food Industries (formerly Spencer Foods, Inc.).




     The Big Sioux River forms the boundary between South Dakota and




Iowa from near Sioux Falls downstream to its confluence with the Missouri




River near Sioux City, Iowa.  In February 1972  the Iowa State Department




of Health conducted a limited water-quality survey of the lower Big




Sioux River.  This study concluded that as a result of waste discharges




in South Dakota the Iowa Water Quality Standards for dissolved oxygen




and ammonia were being violated.  On 6 September 1972 Governor Robert




D. Ray of Iowa requested EPA to call an enforcement conference, according




to Section 10(D)(1) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as




amended.  The Administrator of EPA replied to the Governor's letter on




21 November 1972, subsequent to the passage of the Federal Water Pol-




lution Control Act Amendments of 1972.  In his letter, the Administrator




emphasized the regulatory procedures for pollution control under the new




legislation (i.e. , the permits system) and suggested that representatives




of the States of Iowa, Minnesota, and South Dakota and the EPA hold an

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informal meeting in a cooperative and coordinated effort toward deter-




mining effluent limitations for all waste sources affecting the Big




Sioux River.  Moreover, the Administrator indicated that the agreements




reached at this meeting may be later incorporated in the permits issued




for these waste sources.




     The National Field Investigations Center-Denver (NFIC-D)  was re-




quested by EPA Regions VII and VIII to conduct water-quality investi-




gations in the Big Sioux River and selected tributaries prior to and




during critical conditions of low flow and ice cover.  The first phase




of these investigations was undertaken during the period 15 September-




5 October 1972 and was directed toward determining the effects of waste




discharges on the water quality of the Big Sioux River and the resultant




influences upon aquatic organisms.  The second phase of the study in-




cluded evaluating major waste sources and determining the effects of




their discharges on receiving-water quality.  The emphasis was placed




on the evaluation of the Sioux Falls Wastewater Treatment Plant that,




as indicated earlier, represents the major source of pollution in the




basin.  The investigations were conducted 24 January through 10 February




1973  and concentrated on the following objectives:



     1.  To characterize water quality in the Big Sioux River and its




         tributaries during critical low-flow, winter conditions and to




         determine whether or not interstate violations of Iowa Water




         Quality Standards occurred.




     2.  To evaluate existing waste-treatment processes at the Sioux




         Falls Wastewater Treatment Plant and to determine what improve-




         ments are needed to comply with existing water-quality standards

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         and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972.




     3.  To characterize major waste sources in the Big Sioux River




         Basin.




     4.  To provide recommendations for the development of compatible




         interstate water-quality standards for the Big Sioux River




         Basin States of Iowa, South Dakota, and Minnesota.




     5.  To provide technical information for the development of dis-




         charge permits pursuant to the requirements for the National




         Pollutant Discharge Elimination System of the Federal Water




         Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972.




     In these investigations valuable information and assistance were




received from personnel of the City of Sioux Falls Wastewater Treatment




Plant and from municipal, industrial, State, and Federal officials.  The




cooperation extended by these many individuals is gratefully acknowledged.

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                    II.  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS





     During the fall of 1972 and winter of 1973, studies were conducted




to assess water quality in the Big Sioux River Basin, which comprises




portions of Iowa, Minnesota, and South Dakota.  A summary of the find-




ings of these studies is as follows:





A.  FALL STREAM SURVEY, 1972




     1.  Widespread urban, agricultural, and industrial pollution sources




caused varying degrees of water-quality degradation in reaches of the




Big Sioux River from Estelline, South Dakota (RM 263.5), to Sioux City,




Iowa (RM 2.2).  Dissolved-oxygen studies and examination of the stream




biota disclosed that the most severe pollution occurred downstream from




the City of Sioux Falls, South Dakota.  Major sources of pollution in




this area included "condenser" waters from the John Morrell and Company




(RM 143.2), process wastes from Spencer Foods, Inc. (now Meilman Food




Industries, RM 154.2), and wastewaters discharged from the Sioux Falls




Wastewater Treatment Plant (RM 143.0).




     2.  During the fall, nitrogen was found to be the growth-limiting




nutrient in test waters upstream of the Sioux Falls, South Dakota,




municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant.




     3.  Algal assays indicated that there is sufficient nitrogen in




the effluent from the Sioux Falls Wastewater Treatment Plant to stimu-




late algal growth in the Big Sioux River.  However, field studies demon-




strated that algal growth was reduced in the river downstream from the




municipal wastewater treatment plant.  This inhibition of primary pro-




duction could have resulted from toxic chlorine and chloramines in the




effluent.

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B.  WINTER 1973 STUDY (WASTE-SOURCES EVALUATION)



John Morrell and Company



     1.  The John Morrell and Company plays the dominant role in con-



tributing to municipal wastewater treatment plant loadings, especially



in contrast to the operating costs the firm is required to pay.  During



the seven-day evaluation Morrell accounted for 67 percent of the BOD



load, 78 percent of the suspended solids, 70 percent of the total


Kjeldahl nitrogen, and 57 percent of the total phosphorus entering the
                  t

Sioux Falls Wastewater Treatment Plant.  The contract between Morrell


and the City of Sioux Falls, which is valid until 1 September 1975,


requires annual sewer charges of $16,000 per year.  This represents


only 4.4 percent of the 1973 operating costs ($359,972) for the municipal


wastewater treatment plant.


     2.  Current abatement plans by the John Morrell and Company call for


reductions of present loadings of BOD and suspended solids to the treatment


plant by 60 and 75 percent, respectively, by approximately 1 January 1974.



Meilman Food Industries (Formerly Spencer Foods, Inc.)


     1.  The abatement plans by John Morrell and Company (previously


mentioned) will be largely offset by the recent connection of Meilman


Food Industries into the Sioux Falls Wastewater Treatment Plant.


Because wastewaters from Meilman discharge to the domestic sewerage


system and enter the combined domestic-industrial activated sludge


system, pretreatment in the two-stage trickling filter system is pre-


cluded.  Consequently, even though Morrell decreases their daily average


BOD loading to the wastewater treatment plant by about 19,050 kg

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(42,000 Ib), the addition of a predicted 5,440 kg (12,000 Ib)  from

Meilman will increase the BOD loading to the City activated sludge

system by approximately 725 kg/day (1,600 Ib/day).


Sioux Falls, South Dakota, Wastewater Treatment Plant

     1.  Removal efficiencies measured during the 24-31 January 1973

study were as follows:

          Parameters              Removals (%)

          BOD                         89
          COD                         88
          TOG                         89
          Suspended Solids            93
          Nitrogen                    22
          Total P                     22

Considering both the effect of winter temperatures on biological systems

and the organic overloads to the activated sludge system, one sees that

these removals reflect a high degree of expertise on the part of plant

personnel.  However, the waste loadings discharged to the Big Sioux

River were substantial.  During the seven-day evaluation the effluent

from the municipal treatment plant contributed, to the Big Sioux River,

average daily loads of 3,370 kg BODj>7,420 Ib @ 99 mg/1), 1,170 kg
                   'v               ^
suspended solids (2,590 Ib @ 37 mg/1); 1,690 kg total Kjeldahl nitrogen

(3,720 Ib @ 51 mg/1); and 470 kg total phosphorus (1,040 Ib @ 14 mg/1).

The by-pass of the municipal treatment plant added another 730 kg BOD

(1,620 Ib @ 1,010 mg/1); 187 kg suspended solids (413 Ib @ 429 mg/1);

67 kg total Kjeldahl nitrogen (148 Ib @ 131 mg/1); and 14 kg total

phosphorus (31 Ib ( 22 rag/1).

     The removal efficiencies during the study are in marked contrast

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to previously reported removals.  Wastewater-treatraent-plant data show-



Ing the operations from July 1970 to September 1972 indicate that the



monthly average influent BOD loads ranged from 39,690 to 70,010 kg/day



(87,500 to 154,350 Ib/day).  During the same period the final effluent BOD



load discharged to the Big Sioux River varied from 365 to 1,400 kg/day



(800-3,100 Ib/day).  Overall BOD removal efficiencies, based on load fig-



ures, ranged from about 96 percent to greater than 99 percent.  The aver-



age BOD loadings during the 24-31 January study were only 36,110 kg/day



(79,600 Ib/day); however, the average waste load discharged was



4,100 kg/day (9,040 Ib/day), nearly three times as high as previously



reported monthly averages.



     2.  The activated sludge portion of the Sioux Falls municipal treat-



ment plant was grossly overloaded organically, thus corroborating the


                                         2/
findings of  a  previous, 1972 EPA study.   Overloads were evidenced



by average food-to-microorganism (F/M) ratios of 1.1 g BOD/g (1.1 Ib



BOD/lb) mixed-liquor suspended solids (MLSS) under aeration and by


                     3                     3
loadings of 2,676 g/m  (167 Ib BOD/1,000 ft ) aeration-tank volume.



Overloading was particularly evident in the quality of the effluent



where, contrary to theory, the BOD exceeded the concentrations of



suspended solids (99 mg/1 vs. 37 mg/1).



     3.  Generally, the Sioux Falls, South Dakota, Wastewater Treatment



Plant is ineffective in removing nitrogen as evidenced by overall re-



movals of 22 percent.  Overall "removals" of the total Kjeldahl nitrogen



were 33 percent, resulting in a discharge, to the Big Sioux River, of



1,680 kg/day (3,720 Ib/day @ 51 mg/1) in the effluent and 67 kg/day

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(148 Ib/day @ 131 mg/1) in the bypass.  Much of this unoxidized nitrogen




is needlessly discharged as a result of current, sludge-lagoon super-




natant handling practices.  During the seven-day study a daily average




of 970 kg (2,150 Ib @ 1,280 mg/1) of total Kjeldahl nitrogen, once having




been segregated from the system, was reintroduced for subsequent discharge.




     The abatement program of the John Morrell and Company may signi-




ficantly decrease the TKN loading to the municipal treatment plant.




Although Morrell officials are not prepared to estimate TKN-removal




efficiencies, the fact that 85-percent of the total Kjeldahl nitrogen




remains in the organic form should enable significant reductions by




means of the capture of proteinaceous solids material.  On the other




hand, the addition of wastes, effected by the recent connection of




Meilman Food Industries, will offset this reduction to some degree.






C.  WINTER 1973 STUDY (STREAM SURVEY)




     1.  Although there are numerous waste sources in the Big Sioux




River Basin  [Appendix E], the City of Sioux Falls, South Dakota, was




demonstrated to be a substantially more significant one than any of the




others in adversely affecting the quality of the Big Sioux River.  Con-




sequently, any future improvement of water quality in the Big Sioux




will largely be determined by abatement measures required of the




Sioux Falls municipality.




     2.  Average concentrations of dissolved oxygen upstream of the Sioux




Falls area (RM 243.9 near Volga, South Dakota,to RM 162.2 near Renner,




South Dakota) ranged from 10.9 mg/1 to 8.9 mg/1, indicative of an abundant




oxygen resource.  Downstream from the Sioux Falls area, however, the

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10
     wastewaters emanating from the Sioux Falls Wastewater  Treatment  Plant




     (RM 143.0)  and the waters  from the Rock  River  (RM 76.2)  created  a




     severely restricted oxygen resource.   At RM  80.9, near Hudson, South




     Dakota,  dissolved-oxygen concentrations  were in violation of the South




     Dakota criterion of 5.0  mg/1  on five of  ten  days (average =4.8  mg/1).




     Iowa Water  Quality Standards,  on the other hand, specify that the dis-




     solved oxygen should not be less than 5  mg/1 during  any  16-hr period




     nor less than 4.0 mg/1 at  any time during the  24-hr  period.   In  the




     river reach extending from Hawarden,  Iowa (RM  66.9), downstream  to




     near Sioux  City, Iowa (RM  5.0), DO concentrations were,  in 22 of the



     24 samples  collected over  the ten-day period,  in violation of both




     Iowa and South Dakota criteria.  At RM 5.0 the average DO concentration




     was 2.3 mg/1, indicative of a severely restricted oxygen resource.



          3.   The bacteriological  quality of  the  Big Sioux  River between



     RM 243.9 near Volga, South Dakota, and RM 143.2, immediately upstream



     of the wastewater treatment plant, was acceptable, with  no log mean



     fecal-coliform bacterial density greater than  200/100  ml.  Discharges



     from the Sioux Falls Wastewater Treatment Plant resulted in unacceptable



     bacterial quality between  RM  143.0 and 128.5,  approximately 2.5  km



     (1.5 mi) upstream of the Iowa-South Dakota state line.  Log mean fecal-



     coliform bacterial densities  ranged from 1,400 to 13,000/100 ml.



     Salmonella, attributable to the municipal treatment  plant, were  isolated




     In the Big  Sioux River.  The  bacterial quality downstream from the state




     line (RM 127.0 to RM 5.0)  was found to be acceptable with log mean fecal-



     coliform bacterial densities  not exceeding 240/100 ml.

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                                                                       11
     4.  Concentrations of ammonia nitrogen were excessive downstream




from the Sioux Falls, South Dakota, area as a result of discharges from




the Sioux Falls Wastewater Treatment Plant.  Whereas average concen-




trations upstream of Sioux Falls did not exceed 0.88 mg/1, downstream




from the Sioux Falls Wastewater Treatment Plant they reached as high




as 6.57 mg/1 (at RM 134.5).  Bioassays performed on the effluent from




the municipal treatment plant indicated a 96-hr TL  of 63.5 percent




effluent or 35.5 mg/1 NH -N.  Applying a standard application factor




of 1/20 yielded a chronic toxicity level for channel catfish of approxi-




mately three percent effluent or 1.8 mg/1 NH -N.  Other unidentified




components present in the effluent could also increase or inhibit the




toxicity of NH .  However, the calculated chronic toxicity level




(1.8 mg/1 NH.-N) closely correlates with the 2 mg/1 criterion widely




accepted as the maximum concentration of NH_-N allowable in receiving




waters.  Thus, other components did not significantly influence ammonia




toxicity levels determined in the study.




     The South Dakota Water Quality Standards do not include a NH -N




criterion; however, the Iowa Water Quality Standards stipulate that




NH_-N shall not exceed 2.0 mg/1.  From the Iowa-South Dakota state line,




at RM 127.0, to the furthest downstream station, at RM 5.0, 100 percent




of the 47 samples collected exceeded 2.0 mg/1 NH.-N, thus violating Iowa




Water Quality Standards.  Average NH -N concentrations varied from




4.56 mg/1 at RM 106.2, near Canton, South Dakota, to 2.32 mg/1 at




RM 5.0, near Sioux City, Iowa.




     5.  Mass-balance analyses employing decreases in stream TKN

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12
   loadings and increases in NO. 4- NO.-N loadings, between Sioux Falls,




   South Dakota (RM 141.2) and Akron, Iowa (RM 46.8), were unable to




   demonstrate any significant degree of nitrification occurring in the




   Big Sioux River.  There remains, however, a significant, potential




   nitrogenous oxygen demand during the warmer periods of the year when




   stream temperatures are amenable to the growth of nitrifying organisms.




        6.  Algal assay studies showed phosphorus to be the growth-limiting




   nutrient, during the winter, in test waters ups-tream of the Sioux Falls




   Wastewater Treatment Plant.  There is sufficient phosphorus in the




   Sioux Falls Wastewater Treatment Plant effluent to stimulate algal




   growth in the Big Sioux River.




        7.  The Rock River was found to have a detrimental effect upon




   the Big Sioux River.  This was manifested in lower DO concentrations




   and sustained, excessive NH_-N concentrations.  The average DO concen-




   tration on the Rock River (RM 76.2/5.8) was 3.0 mg/1, in violation of




   the Iowa 4.0-mg/l criterion on nine of ten days sampled.  NH--N concen-




   trations (average  2.13 mg/1) were in violation of the Iowa 2.0 mg/1




   criterion on eight of ten days.  The State of Minnesota has ordered




   that dischargers to the Rock River (including the towns of Luverne and




   Edgerton, Minnesota, and the Iowa Beef Packers Plant at Luverne)  provide




   180 days storage of wastewater flows with controlled release during




   periods of adequate streamflow.  If Luverne and Edgerton desire to have




   a continuous discharge, the effluent must have BOD and suspended solids




   concentrations less than or equal to 5 mg/1.

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                                                                       13
                        III.  RECOMMENDATIONS





     In order to protect the water quality of Big Sioux River and its




tributaries and to attain compliance with the Federal Water Pollution




Control Act Amendments of 1972, it is recommended that:




     1.  The waste discharge permit issued to the City of Sioux Falls




under the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System include the




following effluent limitations (daily average concentrations):




          a)  BOD?= 10 mg/1;




          b)  SS  = 15"mg/l;




          c)  TKN =  2 mg/1;




The permit further stipulates that continuous disinfection be provided




with no monthly average (logarithmic mean) fecal-coliform bacterial




density exceeding 200/100 ml and no weekly average exceeding 400/100 ml;




     2.  The City of Sioux Falls establish enforceable pretreatment




standards for those pollutants that are not susceptible to treatment




by the municipal system or which may pass through, or otherwise inter-




fere with, its operation, and that the ordinance establishing the pre-




treatment standards must include adequate sewer charges for all indus-




trial waste sources to assure equitable recovery of treatment costs;




     3.  Bypassing of wastewaters by the City of Sioux Falls be




eliminated;




     4.  The States of Iowa and Minnesota investigate all sources of




wastewaters that could adversely affect the Rock River system and




initiate appropriate abatement actions to insure compliance with the




Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972; and

-------
14
        5.  Existing water quality standards covering the Big Sioux River




   Basin for the States of South Dakota, Iowa, and Minnesota include the




   following additions or deletions applicable to all waters of the Big




   Sioux River Basin:




        A.  South Dakota




            1.  The intermittent classification with its resultant lesser




                quality requirements be abolished;




            2.  The minimum use on the Big Sioux River be classified for




                Desirable Species of Aquatic Life and Secondary Contact




                Recreation (boating, fishing and etc.);




            3.  A year-round DO criterion be established, requiring that




                DO concentrations shall not be less than 5 mg/1, except for




                4 mg/1 during short periods of time within a 24-hr period;




            4.  Consistent with the previously mentioned use classification,




                fecal coliform densities not exceed a geometric mean of




                2,000/100 ml;




            5.  South Dakota Water Quality Standards do not include an




                ammonia nitrogen criterion; therefore, it is recommended




                that such a criterion be established consistent with




                Iowa and Minnesota requirements that NH.-N concentrations




                not exceed 2.0 mg/1;




        B.  Iowa




            1.  The minimum use on the Big Sioux River be classified for




                Desirable Species of Aquatic Life and Secondary Contact




                Recreation (boating, fishing and etc.);

-------
                                                                 15
    2.  Currently no fecal coliform criterion exists;  therefore,




        it is recommended that Iowa establish a fecal coliforra




        criterion requiring that geometric mean densities not




        exceed 2,000/100 ml;




C.  Minnesota




    1.  Currently no fecal coliform criterion exists;  therefore,




        it is recommended that Minnesota establish a fecal coliform




        criterion requiring that geometric mean densities not




        exceed 2,000/100 ml;




    2.  Minnesota Water Quality Standards provide that the DO




        concentration must be greater than or equal to 3.0 mg/1




        from 1 June-31 March on all tributaries of the Big Sioux




        River with the exception of Split Rock Creek where it must




        be at least 5.0 mg/1; therefore, it is recommended that




        Minnesota adopt a DO criterion requiring that concentra-




        tions shall not be less than 5 mg/1 except for 4 mg/1




        during short periods of time within a 24-hr period.

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16

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                                                                       17
                      IV.  DESCRIPTION OF AREA   ,

A.  PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION

     The Big Sioux River Basin is located in eastern South Dakota,

southwestern Minnesota, and northwestern Iowa [Figure IV-1 inside back

cover and Figure IV-2].  Approximately sixty-nine percent of its drainage
                     2
area (about 24,800 km  or 9,570 sq mi) is located in South Dakota,
with 15 and 16 percent of the area located in Iowa and Minnesota,
                             2
respectively.  About 5,100 km  (1,970 sq mi) of the South Dakota

portion of the Basin does not contribute surface runoff to the Big
Sioux River.  The mean elevation of the basin is approximately 430 m
(1,400 ft) above sea level.
     The Big Sioux River originates north of Watertown, South Dakota,

and flows southward, about 675 km (420 river mi), to join the Missouri
River near Sioux City, Iowa.   The Rock River is the largest tributary,
                                                                       2
draining most of the Minnesota and Iowa portions of the basin (4,400 km
or 1,700 sq mi).  Another tributary is Skunk Creek which has a drainage
           2
of 1,400 km  (540 sq mi) and  enters the Big Sioux River at Sioux Falls,
South Dakota.  One other important tributary is Split Rock Creek which

enters the Big Sioux River approximately 5 km (3 mi) upstream of the
South Dakota-Iowa state line.

B.  POPULATION AND THE ECONOMY
     The topography within the basin varies from nearly level land to

steep bluffs.  The northern portion of the basin is primarily flat land

with numerous pot holes and shallow lakes (caused by glaciers that once

-------
18
   covered the area) and a poorly defined drainage pattern.  There is




   little or no surface runoff to the Big Sioux River from most of this




   area.  Downstream from Sioux Falls drainage patterns are well defined,




   and the river has developed a flood plain.  This plain varies from 1 to




   5 km (0.5 to 3 mi) in width.  Near its mouth, the river flows across the




   Missouri River flood plain.  Hills flanking the flood plain become pro-




   gressively steeper and higher between Akron, Iowa, and the Missouri




   River bluffs.




        Throughout most of the length of the Big Sioux River its channel




   is located in alluvial materials and is characterized by a meandering




   path with tree lined pools and shallow riffles.  At normal and low-flow




   stages, flow velocities are slow and could approach zero in some lo-




   cations.  Two exceptions to the typical characteristics of the river are




   the Dells of the Big Sioux near Dell Rapids where the river cuts through




   a narrow rocky canyon, and the falls, in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, where




   the river flows over a rocky outcrop. "The falls provide aeration of the




   river, often producing saturated dissolved oxygen levels.




        Within the Big Sioux River Basin, as over most of the country,




   there has been a gradual movement of people from rural to urban areas.




   From 19AO to 1960 the basin population increased 11 percent; from 1960




   to 1970 it decreased two percent.  The basin population was, at the time




   of the 1970 census, approximately 215,000 people.  Most of the growth




   has occurred in the Sioux Falls Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area




   (SMSA), which had a 1970 population equal to A5 percent (95,209) of the




   basin total.  Except for Brookings and Watertown, South Dakota, with




   1970 population levels greater than 13,000, the remaining segment of

-------
          V	**~r	T
L-	1
                            SCALE IN MILES
                                                               LEGEND
                                                             SAMPLE LOCATIONS
                                                                SEPTEMBER AND
                                                                OCTOBER. 1972
                                                                JANUARY AND
                                                                FEBRUARY. 1973
                                                            SOUTH DAKOTA
                                                                             IOWA
 Figure IV-2.  Sampling  Locations, Big Sioux River and Selected 'Tributaries,
                    Sioux Falls, South Dakota and Vicinity.

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                                                                       19
the basin population is located in small communities and on farms.  Most


of the future population growth of the basin is expected to occur in


these three metropolitan areas.


     Agriculture and related enterprises are the principal constituents


of the basin's economy.  The entire basin contains fertile farmland that


produces high yields of corn, alfalfa, oats, and other feed crops.  Farms


throughout the basin are involved in cash-grain operations.  Farm units

                        2
average about one per km  (two to three per sq mi).  In addition, most


farms have some livestock production which includes beef and dairy cattle,


sheep, and swine.  The basin contains approximately 110,000 cattle on


feed, 500,000 hogs, 200,000 sheep, and 1,500,000 chickens.


     Livestock raising is generally found in the upper portion of the


basin, and livestock feeding operations are located in the lower, or


more southerly areas.  Five cattle feeders in the basin carry more than


1,000 head.  Very few hog, sheep, or poultry operations are large.  Of


the total annual cash farm income ($210 million) three-fourths is gen-


erated from sales of livestock, poultry, and related products.


     Sioux Falls, South Dakota, has a number of manufacturing plants


and is the central distributing center for many wholesale companies and


sales outlets.  According to the 1970 census, 5,835 people were employed


in manufacturing activities, with 75 percent of these involved in the


category of food and associated products.  About half the people of this


75 percentage were employed in the meatpacking industry centered in


Sioux Falls.  The John Morrell and Company packing plant, located there,


is one of the largest meat-packing plants in the nation.  The Sioux Falls


Livestock Market ranks among the top ten in the nation.

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20
    C.   HYDROLOGY


        The  primary  source  of water  In  the  Big  Sioux River  is  direct sur-


    face runoff  from  many  small westward flowing tributary streams.   The


    Rock River,  a major  tributary,  contributes more  than  30  percent  of the


    entire basin's  annual  flow.   Skunk Creek, the principal  western  tributary,


    contributes  only  six percent  of the  average  annual river flow.   All of


    the  runoff in the contributing  area  of the basin is uncontrolled.   During

                                                                      2
    the  irrigation  season  diversions  and return  flows from about  12  km


    (3,000 acres) of  land  upstream  of Sioux  Falls cause minor changes  in


    stream flows.   (Irrigation permits,  granted  up to 1969,  would allow

                                                 2
    expansion of this area to approximately  57 km or 14,000 acres.)


        Of the  annual basin runoff about 70 percent results from spring


    snowmelt  and rain during the  months  of March through  June.  Most of this


    runoff is diverted from  the lower part of the basin where the precipi-


    tation rate  is  greatest.  During  the remainder of the year, particularly


    during fall  and winter months,  ground-water  storage is the  principal


    source of streamflow.  These  ground-water resources are  stored in  areas


    of glacial outwash and alluvial deposits located along both glacial melt,


    water channels, and  stream valleys.   Recharge to the  ground-water  aquifers


    is primarily from precipitation filtering into the outwash  deposits.


        Near Watertown, South Dakota, in the upper  reaches  of  the basin,


    the  Big Sioux River  does not  normally flow during the fall  and winter


    months.   Downstream  at Brookings  the river flow  has reached zero only


    a few times  in  the past  two decades.  From Dell  Rapids on downstream,


    the  river flow  has never been recorded as zero for accretion  from


    ground water sustains  the river flow during  fall and  winter months.

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                                                                       21
     The stream flows within the basin are highly variable.  During the

March through June period when most of the suface runoff occurs, the

flow variation is the greatest.  For example, during the past two
                                                            3
decades, the average April flow has varied from 1.3 to 173 m /sec (45 to

6,104 cfs) in the Big Sioux River at Sioux Falls.  For the period of

record it has had instantaneous flow readings that varied from 0.01 to
     3
390 m Is (0.5 to 13,800 cfs).  The one- and seven-day minimum flows
                                               3
occurring once in ten years are 0.03 and 0.05 m /s (1.0 and 1.6 cfs) .

respectively.  The flow variation can also be illustrated [Table IV-1]

using mean monthly stream flows in the following table as reported by

the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.

                             TABLE IV-1

      MEAN FLOW OF BIG SIOUX RIVER AT SIOUX FALLS, SOUTH DAKOTA

                      Flow                                Flow
Month
October
November
December
January
Feb ruary
March
m fs
2.6
2.1
1.3
0.6
3.5
19.0
(cfs)
(93)
(75)
(47)
(22)
(123)
(671)
Month
April
May
June
July
Augus t
September
m fs
34.8
16.0
17.9
11.2
6.3
3.7
(cfs)
(1,228)
(564)
(634)
(397)
(223)
(131)
     As indicated in the South Dakota Water Quality Standards  [Appen-

dix A], provisions are made for streams that sometimes fall into the

intermittent-stream use category.  This category alters water-quality

requirements to meet various beneficial uses when the flow in  the river

is less than a specified flow.  The intermittent classification is in

-------
22
    effect  downstream from Sioux Falls when  flows  at Brandon,  South Dakota,

    are  less  than:

                                     	Flow	

    Season                            m  /s           (cfs)

    Summer                             2.5           (90)
    (June 15-September 15)

    Fall                              1.0           (35)
    (September  15-December 15)

    Winter                             1.7           (60)
    (December 15-March 15)

    Spring                             1.0           (35)
    (March  15-June  15)

    The  intermittent-stream use  category generally is  in effect  from the

    middle  of December through the end of February but also  applies to  some

    late summer or  early  fall periods.

        There  have been  periods in which the flow of  the Big  Sioux River,

    downstream  from Sioux Falls,  was at least 50 percent wastewaters

    [Figure IV-3],  The duration of these periods has  varied from  less-

    than-one  to greater than seven months.   Although South Dakota  clas-

    sifies  the  Big  Sioux  as an intermittent  stream during low-flow

    conditions, Iowa,  the bordering state, does not have similar criteria.

    As a consequence,  Iowa  requires maintenance of considerably  higher

    water quality during  low-flow periods than does South Dakota.

        Within the Big Sioux River Basin virtually all the  incorporated

    municipalities  obtain their  water supply from ground-water sources  

    with the  exception of Sioux  Falls and Watertown, South Dakota,  which

    use  a combination  of  both surface and ground water.  Sioux Falls only

-------


1966-.67.

1965-66

1964-65

1963-64

1S62-63

1961-62

APR













MAY













JUH













JUL













AUG

0











S













EP





A4V.A., (





v
LAJ

OCT











Lfc*r-t, ...

f











1

<0'

ftiifti











/













I













)EC

U i,





I.



"i
l^s. .

J






i






A









I



N



A. ^ ,



Ti- i

^i., 	

Jw^

FEB



]









M

1





i-t:

J



A





'J,
?







R











'"J



J966-6Z

J965-66

1964-65

1963-64

1962-63

1961-62,

Figure  !V-3. Periods During  which  Wastevvaters vme>50 Percent of Flows in the
            Big Sioux River  Downstream from Sioux Fails, South Dakota
                            (June 1961-P/iarch 1967)

-------
                                                                       23
uses these surface-water intakes during peak summer conditions.  This


amounts to 0 to 1.5 percent of its total annual water production.  Most


of the wells for the municipalities are less than 150 m (500 ft) deep,


but range in depth from 6 to 410 m (20 to 1,360 ft).  The deeper wells


(greater than 240 m or 800 ft) have more highly mineralized water than


do the shallow wells.  Most of the municipalities (85 percent) have


water systems, but only 45 percent of these have treatment plants.  The


average daily water consumption of Sioux Falls during 1970 was approxi-


mately 42,770 m /day (11.3 mgd).  The Sioux Falls municipal plant has

                                                              3
been recently (1971) expanded to a total capacity of 196,820 m /day


(52 mgd), with the majority of the supply collected from the Big Sioux


River Aquifer.  (This aquifer, located in the valley north of the city,


is about 30 km or 18 mi long and from 2.5 to 3 km or 1.5 to 2 mi in width.)



D.  CLIMATE


     The climate of the Big Sioux River Basin may be described as mid-


continental, sub-humid, and subject to rapid temperature fluctuation.


Temperature extremes range from minus 41 to plus 46C (-42 to 115F);


the basin has an average annual temperature of about 7C (45CF).  The


frost-free period ranges from about 160 to 130 days in the southern


and northern part of the basin, respectively.


     Precipitation is greatest in the southeastern part of the basin,


averaging about 66 cm (26 in)  with the range being from 38 to 109 cm


(15 to 43 in) per year.  The annual precipitation decreases to about


51 cm (20 in)  with the range being from 33 to 76 cm (13 to 30 in)

-------
24
    In the northwestern  part  of  the basin.  Approximately  three-fourths  of




    the annual  rainfall  occurs between  the months of April and  September,




    with the  greatest  portion falling during June.  Approximately  15  to



    20 percent  of  the  average annual precipitation  is  in the  form  of  snow




    or sleet.

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                                                                        25
                     V.  WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
A.  INTRODUCTION
     The Big Sioux River and/or its tributaries flow through or border




the States of Iowa, Minnesota, and South Dakota.  Waters of the Big




Sioux River are subject to applicable, Federally approved water quality




standards promulgated under the provisions of the Water Quality Act




of 1965.




     Pursuant to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of




1972, existing water-quality standards for interstate waters are pre-




served.  In addition, the Amendments require that water-quality standards




be extended to intrastate waters during the first year after enactment




of the Act.




     The objective of the 1972 Amendments is to restore and maintain the




chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation's waters.




National goals established to achieve the stated objective include:




1) that the discharge of pollutants into the navigable waters be eli-




minated by 1985; 2) that wherever attainable, an interim goal of water




quality that provides for the protection and propagation of fish,




shellfish and wildlife, and provides for recreation in and on the water




be achieved by 1 July 1983; and 3) that the water-quality standards




established shall be such that they protect the public health and wel-




fare, enhance the quality of water, and serve the purposes of the Act.




     It is the policy of the Environmental Protection Agency that all




waters, as part of the National Water Quality Standards program, should




be protected for recreational uses in or on the water and for the

-------
26
    preservation and propagation of desirable species of aquatic biota.  Use




    and value of water for public water supplies and for agricultural, indus-




    trial, and other purposes, as well as navigation, shall also be con-




    sidered in setting standards.




         In applying this policy, the terms "recreational use" and "desir-




    able species of aquatic biota" must be given common-sense application.




    It is the policy of EPA that the existence of man-made pollution should




    be viewed as a problem to be solved, not as an impediment in assigning




    this use classification.




         The Amendments also require that all point sources of pollution




    other than publicly owned treatment works that discharge directly into




    the waters of the United States are required to achieve, not later than




    1 July 1977, effluent limitations which shall require the application




    of the best practicable control technology currently available as deter-




    mined by the EPA.  Not later than 1 July 1983, the same point sources




    must achieve effluent limitations that shall require the application of




    the best available technology economically achievable as determined by




    the EPA.  Point sources discharging into publicly owned treatment works




    must comply with pretreatment standards promulgated by the EPA.  Pub-




    licly owned treatment works must meet effluent limitations, by 1 July




    1977, that are based on secondary treatment and, by 1 July 1983, the




    best practicable waste treatment technology.




         In cases where compliance with prescribed effluent limitations will




    not achieve a level of water quality to comply with  water-quality




    standards, EPA shall impose the more stringent effluent limitations,

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                                                                      27
as would be necessary to achieve that goal, taking into account the




benefits derived and the cost involved.






B.  EXISTING WATER QUALITY STANDARDS




     South Dakota Water Quality Standards established certain uses to be




protected on the Big Sioux River [Appendix A].  Protection of specific




uses is ensured by the maintenance of water quality as determined by




the measurement of certain parameters.  [In Table V-l is a summary of




the critical levels for these parameters.]  Although there are differ-




ences in the water uses designated for each reach, the critical levels




of many of the various pollutants are the same.




     The South Dakota Water Quality Standards call for intermittent




stream, water-quality criteria [Table V-2] to apply when the flow in a




stream becomes zero or less than the daily average flow of wastewater.




Between the lower end of the Sioux Falls Diverson Ditch and Klondike




Dam, determination of applicable stream criteria is somewhat more




complex.  When the flows in the Big Sioux River at Brandon, South Dakota,




equal or exceed the flows specified in the South Dakota Standards [Table




V-3], the respective criterion of 4.0 mg/1, or 5.0 mg/1 dissolved oxygen,




applies from Klondike Dam to the lower end of the Sioux Falls Diversion




Ditch.  When flows at Brandon are less than those indicated for 4 mg/1




DO, the "Intermittent Stream" category applies [Table V-3].  The Big




Sioux River downstream from Sioux Falls is frequently classified under




this intermittent category during low flow, fall and winter periods.




     From immediately south of Sioux Falls, South Dakota, to Sioux City,




Iowa, the Big Sioux River and several tributaries are subject to Iowa

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                                               TABLE V-l
                                                                                                                      oo
                                  SOUTH DAKOTA WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
                                          BIG SIOUX RIVER BASIN

                            Summary of Critical Levels  for Designated Reaches
REACH
Parameter
D.O.
H.S
Sus. Solids
NO-
TDS
Iron (total)
Alkalinity (as CaCOj)
Cyanides
pH ./
Temp. F-'
Turbidity (JTU) -
Elect. Conductivity 
en
SAR
Soluble Sodium Z
Missouri River
to Klondike Dam
5.0 mg/1
1.0
90
50
700-1,500
0.2
750
0.02
6.3-9.0
90
100
1,000-2,500
10-26
30-70
Klondike Dam to
Sioux Falls
Diversion Ditch
S.O^ mg/1
1.0
90
50
700-1,500
0.2
750
0.02
6.3-9.0
90
100
1,000-2,500
10-26
30-70
Sioux Falls
Diversion Ditch
to Headwaters
5.0 mg/1
1.0
90
45
1,000
0.2
750
0.02
6.3-9.0
90
100
1,000-2,500
10-26
30-70
All Tributaries^



50 mg/1
700-1,500

750

/6.0-9.5


1,000-2,500
10-26
30-70
Coliform
Fecal Coliform
Water
                                                                   .5,000  monthly
                                                                    100 ml average
                          200
                                 monthly^-'
                                                                    20,000
                                                                    100 ml
1.000
                          100 ml average

                            2d,3a,3b,4,5
monthly^
                                                                             52 of
                                                                             samples
100 ml average

 2d,2e,3b,4,5
1,000  monthly^
100 ml average

2d,l,2e,3b,4,5
.000
monthly^'
                                                                                         100 ml average
/ Owens Creek is also classified 2c and 3b.
b/ See Appendix A for variation in D.O. criterion with flow.
/ These values are equivalent to 32C.
d/ Recreation criteria (3a, 3b) will normally apply only during the summer recreation season.
   However, if the receiving waters are used extensively for winter recreation, the criteria
   for limited contact recreation (3b) shall apply during the winter months.
/ This value applies during irrigation season only.
fj See Appendix A for description of water uses.

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                                                                      29
                              TABLE V-2

              SUMMARY OF INTERMITTENT STREAM CRITERIA
               SOUTH DAKOTA WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
                        BIG SIOUX RIVER BASIN
Parameter                                      Limit
BOD                               30 mg/1

Suspended Solids                  30 mg/1

pH                                6.0-9.5

Coliforms                         < 20,000/100 mi-monthly average
                                  < 50,000/100 mi-single sample



                              TABLE V-3

              FLOW-DEPENDENT, DISSOLVED-OXYGEN CRITERION
 FROM KLONDIKE DAM TO THE LOWER END OF SIOUX FALLS DIVERSION DITCH
                SOUTH DAKOTA WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
                        BIG SIOUX RIVER BASIN

                                  4.0 mg/1              5.0 mg/1
                                    1970   .              1970    .
Season                          (flow-cfs)-'           (flow-cfs)-'

Summer
(June 15-Sept. 15)                   90                   160

Fall
(Sept. 15-Dec. 15)                   35                    45

Winter
(Dec. 15-Mar. 15)                    60                    70

Spring
(Mar. 15-June 15)                    35                    45
aj The metric flow equivalent is 1 cfs = 0.0283 m /s.

-------
30
     Water Quality Standards [Appendix B].   Iowa Standards designate that the




     entire reach of the Big Sioux River bordering Iowa as well as the Rock




     River are classified as warm-water areas for the propagation of aquatic




     life.  In addition, the Rock River upstream of Rock Rapids is classified




     for primary contact recreation.   [The  allowable limits of various para-




     meters for warm water aquatic life and primary contact recreation are




     summarized in Table V-4.]




          Several tributaries of the Big Sioux River head in Minnesota.




     Minnesota Water Quality Standards classify these streams for fish pro-




     pagation, non-contact recreation, and  general industrial use [Appendix




     C].  In addition, Split Rock Creek, from its source to Split Rock Lake




     outlet, is classified for direct contact recreation.  [Water-quality




     criteria for these classifications are summarized in Table V-5.]






     C.   DIFFERENCES BETWEEN STATES




          Comparison of South Dakota, Iowa, and Minnesota Water Quality




     Standards for the Big Sioux River Basin reveals significant differences




     in the criteria for dissolved oxygen,  bacteria, and ammonia nitrogen.




     During low-flow conditions in the Big  Sioux River, waters could be at




     the same time in compliance with the South Dakota water-quality standards




     and in violation of the Iowa standards.  The South Dakota intermittent-




     stream category limits total coliform  organisms to less than or equal




     to 20,000/100 ml but provides no requirements for dissolved oxygen or




     ammonia nitrogen.  Iowa water-quality  standards, on the other hand,




     provide no bacterial criterion but require DO concentrations of at




     least 4.0 mg/1 and ammonia nitrogen of less than or equal to 2.0 mg/1.

-------
                                                                       31
                             TABLE V-4

                    IOWA WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
                        BIG SIOUX RIVER BASIN
                                                                       a/
   Water Uses:  Warm Water Aquatic Life and Primary Contact Recreation'
Parameter-
             Limit
DO



pH, S.U.

Temp., F


Ammonia (N)

Cyanide

Phenols
Ba
Cd
Cr
  +6
Cr

Cu

Pb

Zn
  +3
                       e/
Fecal Coliform, numbers'
>5.0 for 16 hr

24.0 for 24 hr

6.8-9.0

<9Q-^ or
_<_ 5 over background

2.0

0.025

0.001 (other than natural  sources)

1.0

5.0

0.03

0.05

1.00

0.10

0.10

1.0

<200/100 ml
/ Primary contact recreation applies to portions of Rock River,  a
   tributary of Big Sioux.
b/ All units are mg/1 unless otherwise noted.
cj This value is equivalent to 32C.
A_f The total heavy metals is less than or equal to  5.0 mg/1.
e/ Applied only to primary contact recreation.

-------
                                          TABLE V-5

                               MINNESOTA WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
                                     BIG SIOUX RIVER BASIN

                       Summary of  Critical Levels  for Designated Reaches
                                                                                 OJ
                                                                                 ho
                                                       REACH
Parameter
       Split Rock Creek
        from source to
    Split Rock Lake outlet
                              All other
                      Minnesota Tributaries
                                         a/
                          Big Sioux River
                                                                                       of
Chlorides
Hardness
pH
Temp.
          100 mg/1
          250 mg/1
        6.5-9.0    .
86F July & Aug.-'
80F June & Sept.
67F May & Oct.
55F April & Nov.
43F March & Dec.
<37F Jan. & Feb.
5 above
ambient, '
whichever
is greater
but not to
exceed 90F
            100 mg/1
            250 mg/1
          6.0-9.5
86F July & Aug.
86F June & Sept
75F May & Oct.
63F April & Nov
   'F March & Dec
                                                            51'
                                                            <45F Jan.  &  Feb.
5 above
ambient,
whichever
is greater
but not to
exceed 90F
Total Coliform
Dissolved Oxygen

Ammonia (N)
Chromium
Copper
Cyanides
Oil

Phenols

Radioactive
 Materials
     1,000/100 ml
26 mg/1  April 1-May 31
25 mg/1  June 1-March 31
           1 mg/1
          0.05 mg/1
          0.2 mg/1
          0.02 mg/1
Not to exceed a trace

          0.01 mg/1

Lowest concentration allowed
 by controlling authority
                            5,000/100 ml
                  25 mg/1  April 1-May 31
                  23 mg/1  June 1-March 31
                               2 mg/1
                              0.05 mg/1
                              0.2 mg/1
                              0.02 mg/1
                  Not visible or to adversely affect
                   fish, biota, or watercourse
                  None that could impart taste or
                   odor to fish flesh
                  Lowest concentration allowed
                   by controlling authority
a/ The Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards  (1962)  also apply,
W The metric equivalent is C  5/9 (F-32).

-------
                                                                       33
The Rock River is another example of conflicting water-quality standards.



Minnesota requires DO of greater than or equal  to  3.0  mg/1;  a NH -N of



less than or equal to 2.0 mg/1; and total  coliform organisms of less



than or equal to 5,000/100 ml.  Iowa, on the  other hand,  requires a DO



of greater than or equal to 4.0 mg/1; a NH--N of less  than or equal to



2.0 mg/1 and includes no bacterial criteria.



     On Split Rock Creek, the other major  interstate tributary, the



standards of Minnesota and South Dakota are not compatible.   Minnesota



requires a DO of at least 3.0 mg/1; a NH.-N of not more  than 2.0 mg/1;



and total coliform organisms not to exceed 5,000/100 ml;  South Dakota



sets no limits on Split Rock Creek for these  parameters.  t?A'M<*-^nfH*-fi---r





                                                                 9-  ~

-------
34

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                                                                       35
                         VI.  STREAM SURVEY






     Water-quality investigations of the Big Sioux River and selected




tributaries were conducted prior to and during critical conditions of




low flow and ice cover.




     The first phase was conducted during the fall of 1972 (15 Sept.-




5 Oct.) with primary emphasis on the effects of waste discharges on




Big Sioux River quality and influences upon aquatic organisms.  The




second phase was conducted during the winter of 1973 (1-10 Feb.).




Primary emphasis was placed on quality of the Big Sioux River as af-




fected by major waste sources and tributary inflows.






A.  FALL STREAM SURVEY, 1972




     During late September and early October 1972, a biological survey




was conducted from Estelline, South Dakota (RM 263.5), downstream to




near confluence with the Missouri River (Sioux City, Iowa).  Throughout




this river reach the Big Sioux is a prairie stream, characterized by a




well-entrenched channel, moderate gradient, and by a mud or sand bottom




with few riffle areas.  Consequently, organic materials contributed to




the river by both agricultural and domestic sources are assimilated




slowly.  [Study methods for the survey are included in Appendix D.




Data summaries are included in Appendix K.]




     Near Estelline, South Dakota (RM 263.5), the Big Sioux River was




enriched.  Attached algae (periphyton) grew profusely on artificial




substrates, as evidenced by high chlorophyll a^ levels [Appendix K,




Table K-2 and Figure VI-1],  Dissolved-oxygen concentrations as high

-------
36
    as 12.8 mg/1 [Appendix K,  Table K-l]  were an additional manifestation




    of the presence of abundant  algae.  Although the diversity  of benthic




    invertebrates was  low (d  1.15), most  of the organisms collected were




    pollutant  sensitive [Appendix K, Table  K-9],




        Water quality improved  downstream  near  Volga,  South Dakota




    (RM 243.9).  Periphyton densities decreased  [Figure VI-1], and the




    diversity  of benthic  macroinvertebrates increased to an acceptable 3.65.




        Downstream from  Brookings,  South Dakota (RM 237.6), Big Sioux water




    quality was  judged moderately degraded.   Attached algae grew profusely




    on artificial substrates,  and the benthic species diversity decreased to




    2.A6.   The benthic community was dominated by a variety of sensitive forms.




        From  the vicinity of  Flandreau,  South Dakota,  at RM 206.1 down-




    stream to  Renner,  South Dakota  (RM  162.2), the water quality of the Big




    Sioux  River  was acceptable.   Periphyton growth on artificial substrates




    was restricted  [Figure VI-1], and the species diversity of benthic in-




    vertebrates  increased to values  greater than 3.0 [Appendix K,  Table K-3].




    However, some of the  field measurements provided indirect  evidence of




    enrichment throughout this river reach;  turbidity increased from a range




    of 7 to 17 units in the reach upstream  from  Flandreau to 25 to 32 units



    at Renner.   High DO concentrations  (in  excess of saturation)  were




    detected throughout the river reach [Appendix K, Table K-l],  indicating




    considerable photosynthetic  activity.




        In the  reach  of  the Big Sioux  River between northwest Sioux Falls






    *  See  Methods of Analysis  [Appendix D]  for "diversity."

-------
   60 -
   50 t
fs

 =. 30
 04
 "I
 - 20
 3=
 O.
    10
    0 -4
      270     250
 I
200
150
 I
100
                                                                                           50
                                                           I
                                                           0
                                                      RIVER MILE
                         Figure  VI-1. Chlorophyll from Periphyton, Big Sioux River.
                                       10  September to 3 October  1972

-------
                                                                       37



and the Iowa-South Dakota state line, numerous factors operate to influ-


ence water quality.  As this is the largest urban and industrial area in


the river basin, diverse pollutional sources, such as storm run-off, and


domestic and industrial wastes combine with already enriched Big Sioux


River waters, resulting in varied water quality.  The Spencer Foods, Inc.


(now Meilman Food Industries) meat-packing plant, located in Northwest


Sioux Falls, discharged inadequately treated wastes [Appendix K, Table


K-4] to the Big Sioux River (RM 154.2).  The John Morrell and Company


packing plant discharged most of its wastes to the Sioux Falls Waste-


water Treatment Plant which discharges to the Big Sioux at RM 143.0.

                                  2 /
Also at the time of the 1972 study  Morrell discharged "condenser"


water to the Big Sioux River at RM 143.2.  In addition, minor amounts


of untreated domestic and industrial wastes were being discharged


through numerous outfalls in the Sioux Falls area.


     In the vicinity of Sioux Falls, the physical characteristics of


the river are variable.  Unlike most of the river, which flows smoothly


over a mud or sand bottom, the Sioux Falls reach consists of a series


of riffles and pools, and in places the bottom is smooth rock.  In the


riffle areas re-aeration occurs, and the effects of organic pollutants


are often not apparent for a considerable distance downstream.  Con-


versely, in reaches with smooth rock substrates where benthic habitats


are poor and the benthos is sampled therefore with difficulty, water


quality could be better than biological sampling would seem to indicate.


     At RM 155.4, in northwest Sioux Falls, the Big Sioux River was


moderately degraded.  The specific sources of this degradation are not

-------
38
     known.    The diversity of the benthos  decreased to 2.62,  and dissolved-




     oxygen  concentrations  decreased  to less  than saturation.   However,




     turbidity values  were  low,  and no ammonia was detected [Appendix K,




     Table K-l],




          At RM 154.2, the  river carried wastes discharged immediately up-




     stream  by Spencer Foods.   Ammonia concentrations increased to as much




     as  4.5  mg/1, and  DO  concentrations were  less than 10 mg/1 [Appendix K,




     Table K-l].   Periphyton densities increased [Appendix K,  Table K-2],




     and the midday  DO concentration  decreased 5 mg/1 from value found




     upstream at  RM  155.4.




          Skunk Creek  (RM 152.8/1.1)  contributed poor-quality  water to the




     Big Sioux.   Dissolved-oxygen concentrations as high as 17.1 mg/1 (175 per-




     cent saturation)  were  detected,  and the  DO varied as much as 5 mg/1.




     These conditions  reflect  photosynthetic  activity by large densities of




     algae.   The  diversity  of  benthic invertebrates was severely restricted




     (d  = 0.98)  in this tributary.




          From RM 154.2 to  RM  143.2,  immediately upstream of the Sioux




     Falls WWTP,  the water  quality in the Big Sioux was moderately degraded.




     Ammonia was  detected at most sampling  locations in the reach, with




     the highest  concentrations  at points nearest the Spencer-Foods dis-




     charge  [Table K-l].  Periphyton  populations increased [Figure VI-1],




     indicating nutrient  enrichment.   Although the diversity of the benthos




     was variable, most of  the variability  is attributed to substrate dif-




     ferences.  At two locations (RM  150.6  -  d = 1.41 and RM 143.8 - d <= 1.73)




     benthic diversity was  unacceptably low.

-------
                                                                      39



                                 *
     Algal-growth-potentlal (AGP)  studies were conducted for the fol-


lowing purposes: (1) to assess the potential of wastes from the Sioux


Falls WWTP for stimulating primary production in the Big Sioux River;


(2) to determine how this stimulation might change under differing


waste-discharge loadings; and (3) to determine whether either nitrogen


or phosphorus is the cause of algal stimulation.  Grab samples from the


river upstream of the waste discharge were tested using final clarifier


(not chlorinated) overflow and combinations of nitrogen and phosphorus.


     Waste effluent containing 15.5 mg/1 P and 18.9 mg/1 inorganic N


stimulated algal growth when added to river-water samples taken upstream


of the municipal wastewater treatment plant.  The amounts of the addi-


tions correlated closely (R = 0.90) with increases in production [Appen-


dix K, Table K-7],  A 50-percent effluent addition would have increased


production by about a factor of three, and about eight times as much


algae would be produced if the river flow were 80-percent effluent.


During the study period, the effluent from the municipal wastewater treat-


ment plant made up about 40 percent of the river flow.


     Additions of phosphorus to the water of the Big Sioux River did not


stimulate algal growth  [Appendix K, Table K-8], thus indicating that


phosphorus was not limiting; i.e., production was not inhibited by phos-


phorus deficiencies in  the river at the time of the fall survey.  The


water sample tested contained, before any additions, 1.1 mg/1 phosphorus,


a concentration considered sufficient for algal blooms in flowing waters.


     Nitrogen additions of up to 10 mg/1 stimulated algal growth, and
* The method is described in Appendix D.

-------
the increased production correlated closely with the amounts of the




additions.  The addition of 10 mg/1 N (without phosphorus additions)




stimulated a seven-fold increase in algal growth [Appendix K, Table




K-8].  Ten mg/1 was the highest nitrogen concentration used in the




nitrogen addition test.  Undiluted wastewater containing 22.9 mg/1 N




stimulated even more production [Appendix K, Table K-7],




     To ascertain whether primary production in the Big Sioux River




was actually being stimulated by wastes discharged from the Sioux Falls




WWTP, photosynthesis was measured at seven points along the river




[Appendix K, Table K-6].  These measurements indicated that, contrary




to what would be expected from the AGP test results, photosynthesis was




inhibited downstream from the wastewater discharge.  Photosynthesis (and




carbon fixation) was stimulated between RM 162.2 and 143.2, became




severely depressed downstream from the wastewater discharge at RM 141.2,




and did not recover until RM 106.2 near Canton, South Dakota.  A pos-




sible cause of the difference between the AGP and photosynthesis-test




results is the chlorination of the effluent from the municipal waste-




water treatment plant during the fall.  The waste used in the AGP test




was not chlorinated, whereas the chlorinated wastewaters discharged to




the Big Sioux River probably contained toxic concentrations of chlorine




and chloramines.




     From the point of discharge of the Sioux Falls WWTP (RM 143.0) down-




stream to Hudson, South Dakota (RM 80.9), severe-to-moderate pollution




was detected.  Ammonia concentrations as high as 14.0 mg/1 were detected




in this reach and were as high as 2.7 mg/1 at the South Dakota-Iowa state

-------
                                                                      41
line [Appendix K, Table K-l].  A dissolved-oxygen profile [Appendix K,




Table K-5 and Figure VI-2] showed generally declining DO in Sioux Falls




upstream of the municipal wastewater treatment plant and rapid DO depres-




sion downstream from the plant.  The most severe DO depression occurred




at the Iowa state line (RM 127.0); downstream near Canton, South Dakota




(RM 106.2), the river had not completely recovered.  Probable causes of




DO depression were supression of photosynthesis in the affected reach




and the demand for oxygen by carbonaceous and nitrogenous materials.




     Downstream from the Sioux Falls WUTP discharge, damage to Big Sioux




River biota was moderate to severe.  Between RM 142.7 and 127.0 the




diversity of benthic invertebrates increased to accepteble levels




(d = 2.17 to 4.52), then decreased to as low as 0.94 at RM 80.9.  The




diversity decrease of Big Sioux River benthos closely paralleled the




DO depression but was displaced downstream [Figures VI-2 and VI-3].




Benthic invertebrates are long-term river inhabitants, and their diver-




sity reflects water quality for the entire year.  Consequently, the




apparent delay in damaging effects to benthos is attributed to waste




assimilation and oxygen depletion proceeding at a slower rate during




the cold winter months.



     The growth of attached algae was also affected by pollutants between




RM 141.2 and 80.9.  These organisms, grown on artificial substrates,




reflect short-term water quality.  Downstream from the Sioux Falls WWTP




effluent at RM 141.2 and 134.5, periphyton growth was inhibited [Figure




VI-1], probably by the same factors that inhibited photosynthesis in




this reach.  Split Rock Creek (confluence at RM 130.1) discharged highly

-------
42
     enriched water to the Big Sioux.   Dissolved oxygen reached concentrations




     as high as 11.8 tng/1 and fluctuated widely in the creek,  but no ammonia




     was detected [Appendix K, Table K-l],   Periphyton growths were abundant




     [Appendix K, Table K-2], and benthic species diversity (d  2.02)  was




     low.   Downstream from the Split Rock Creek at RM 127.0, Big Sioux River




     periphyton growths increased, then gradually diminished  [Figure VT-1].




          The Rock River (RM 76.2) discharged highly enriched  water to the




     Big Sioux.   Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were as high  as 12.8 mg/1




     and varied greatly at different times  of the day [Appendix K, Table




     K-l].   Periphyton growths in this  tributary were abundant [Appendix K,




     Table K-2],  and the diversity of benthic invertebrates was moderately




     low (d - 2.36).




          Downstream from the Rock River (RM 66.9 to RM 2.2)  the Big Sioux




     River was enriched.  The waters were generally supersaturated with DO




     [Appendix K, Table K-l].  Periphyton growths increased greatly at




     RM 66.9, then,  as the river assimilated the enrichment,  they gradually




     diminished downstream [Figure VI-1].  Benthic species diversity in-




     creased [Figure VI-3] and remained at  values indicative  of clean or




     moderately enriched water.




          At the sampling location farthest downstream (RM 2.2 in Sioux




     City,  Iowa), the Big Sioux River was backed up by the Missouri River




     and flowed very slowly.  Benthic habitat was poor, causing diversity




     to decrease (d * 1.82).  Dissolved-oxygen concentrations  were as high




     as 18.0 mg/1 (about 180 percent saturation) at midday but only decreased




     to 13.0 mg/1 in the early morning.

-------
  13 0
  12 0


    -


  11 0
BOS
E
  10 0
C3
>-
X
   9 0
CO
CO
   8 0
                                                         KEY
                                                  RANGE
                                      ME AH
   7 0
   6 0
    J70
                I
               160
 I
150
 I
140
                     130

             RIVER  MILE
 I
120
 i
110
 I
100
           Figure VI-2.  Dissolved  Oxygen Profile, Big Sioux River,
                        Renner to  Canton,  South  Dakota,
                     0600 to 1200 Hours (CDT), 9/26-27/72

-------
_A. 5
-4.0-
   270     250
200
                                                        RIVER MILES
                     Figure VI-3.  Species  Diversity (d) of Benthic Invertebrates,  Big  Sioux River.

                                                   Septem'ber-October, 1972
                                                                                                             CLEAN WATER
                                                                                                               MODERATELY
                                                                                                                 POLLUTED
                                                                                                               OR ENRICHED

-------
                                                                      43
B.  WINTER STREAM SURVEY, 1973




     During 1 through 10 February 1973, a water-quality study of the




Big Sioux River Basin was conducted from Estelline, South Dakota (RM 263.5)




to Sioux City, Iowa (RM 5.0).  The major waste sources in the study reach




are the Sioux Falls Wastewater Treatment Plant and Meilman Food Industries




(formerly Spencer Foods, Inc.).  The tributaries that were monitored




included Skunk Creek, Split Rock Creek, and the Rock River.  Nineteen




stream stations were selected  [Figures IV-1 and IV-2, and in Appendix H,




Table H-l].




     Stream samples were single grab samples.  Samples from the Sioux




Falls WWTP and Meilman discharges were collected over a 24-hr period




using SERCO automatic samplers.  The treatment plant samples were flow




composited; those from Meilman were time composited.




     Field measurements were carried out for determination of temper-




ature, pH, and conductivity, and laboratory analyses were performed




to determine BOD, COD, TOC, total and suspended solids, total Kjeldahl




nitrogen, NH.-N, NO  + NO.-N, and total phosphorus.  In addition, there




were bacteriological analyses performed to quantify the total and fecal



coliforms and fecal streptococci.  Salmonella analyses were also performed




on samples collected at selected locations.  Biological studies included




fish assays and algal-growth potentials.




     A major objective of the study was to determine water quality




during critical low flows in the Big Sioux River.  Kerwin Luther Rakness,



                        4/
in an M.S.-degree thesis', determined that 50 percent of the time flows


                           3

would equal or exceed 0.6 m Is (22 cfs) during 1 through 10 February at

-------
44
   Brandon,  South  Dakota,  approximately  14 km  (9 mi) downstream from the

   Sioux  Falls WWTP  and  only  10 percent  of the time would  flows equal or

   exceed 0.9 m  /s (32 cfs).  These data were  based on records  from 1959-65.

   Statistical data  from the  former gaging station in Sioux  Falls  (1943-60)

   indicated that, for 50  percent of the time,  flows would equal or exceed
        3
   0.3 m  /s  (10  cfs) and for  only 10 percent of the time would  flows exceed

   2.0 m  Is  (70  cfs).  If  one considers  that the Sioux Falls WWTP  alone
                                 3
   discharged approximately 0.4 m Is (14 cfs),  there would be greater than

   a 50-percent  chance that the wastewaters from the Sioux Falls plant

   would  equal or  exceed half of the total flow in the stream downstream

   from the  plant.   However,  as a result of an unusually mild winter,  flows

   [Appendix I,  Table 1-1] at the Cliff  Avenue gaging station,  0.5 km

   (0.3 mi)  downstream from the plant discharges, far exceeded  anticipated
                         3
   flows, averaging  3.4  m  Is  (122 cfs) over the 10-day period.   Because  of

   these  abnormally  high flows, the South Dakota intermittent stream clas-

   sification was not in effect, and criteria  previously mentioned [Table

   V-3] applied.   During the  survey the  plant  effluent comprised approxi-

   mately 11 percent of  the total stream flow.  Despite abnormally high

   flows, there  was  a severe  degradation of downstream water quality.

        Flow records from  seven U. S. Geological Survey gaging  stations

   were employed [Appendix I, Table 1-1],  Gage readings were recorded

   daily  by  EPA  personnel  and submitted  to the USGS for computation of

   flows, with a correction for ice-cover conditions.  EPA personnel also

   gaged  the river at Akron,  Iowa, to determine flows during the survey.

        In addition  to monitoring receiving-water quality at low-flow

-------
                                                                      45
conditions, the study was planned for conditions-of ice cover when


minimal re-aeration would be expected.  It is estimated that more than


90 percent of the Big Sioux River from Estelline, South Dakota (RM 263.5),


to the mouth was covered.  The only significant, open-x^ater stretch was


from the spillway of the diversion canal (RM 143.0) to near RM 130.0.


The entire flow of the Big Sioux River was diverted through the diversion


canal [Figure IV-2].  This is not the normal practice but was done to


facilitate bridge-construction work in the downtown area along the main


stem.  Consequently, the only flow in the main stem of the Big Sioux


River from the diversion point, at RM 158.8, to the diversion spillway,

                                   3
at RM 143.0 was approximately 0.3 m Is (10 cfs), emanating from Skunk

              3                                                  3
Creek O.(0.2 m /s or 6 cfs); from Meilman Food Industries (0.01 m /s or


0.5 cfs); and from miscellaneous sources including ground waters pumped

                                                        3
from a rock quarry and accretions of ground water (0.1 m /s or 3.5 cfs).


No other waste sources of any consequence were observed in this stream


reach (RMs 158.8-143.0).


     The biological, bacteriological, and chemical quality of the Big


Sioux River and selected tributaries are discussed in the following


subsections.



Biological Conditions


     Algal Assays  Additions of 40, 60, 80, and 100 percent of the


waste effluent from the Sioux Falls Wastewater Treatment Plant to test


water obtained from the Big Sioux River, upstream of the plant, stimu-


lated algal bloom conditions (visible green) in the laboratory-assay

-------
46
    studies.  The percent effluent added correlated closely (R  0.87) with




    increases in algal production  [Appendix K, Table K-12].




        Additions of primary trickling-filter underflow by-passed directly




    to the Big Sioux River stimulated algal growth at additions through 60




    percent  [Appendix K, Table K-13].  At 80 and 100 percent, inhibition




    took place.  A toxic effect was probable.




        Additions of nitrogen to Big Sioux water did not stimulate algal




    growth [Appendix K, Table K-12], thus indicating that nitrogen was not




    limiting.  The water sample contained 0.55 mg/1 ammonia nitrogen before




    additions.




        Phosphorus additions of up to 10 mg/1 stimulated algal growth




    [Appendix K, Table K-14], and the increased production correlated




    closely with the amounts of the additions.  Although 10 mg/1 was the




    highest phosphorus concentration used in the test, higher phosphorus




    concentrations could stimulate additional growth.




        In tests using nutrient-stripped effluent, algal bloom (visible




    green) conditions were stimulated only by 80- and 100-percent effluent




    [Appendix K, Table K-15].  Phosphorus was the growth-limiting nutrient




    [Appendix K, Table K-16].




        In summary, the growth-limiting nutrient was nitrogen in the fall




    and phosphorus in the winter.  Algal problems that can occur during




   periods of low-flow downstream from the Sioux Falls WWTP have been dis-




    cussed previously.  The potential for algal problems in this Big Sioux




    River reach during the winter is slight because ice cover, cold temper-




    atures, or dilution of the nutrient-rich wastewaters in the river gen-




    erally inhibit algal growth.

-------
                                                                      47
     Fish Assays  A flow-through bioassay was conducted in order to




evaluate the final effluent from the Sioux Falls, South Dakota, Waste-




water Treatment Plant from 30 January through 3 February 1973 (96 hr).




Of special interest was the NH_ present in the final effluent.  [Water




chemistry data from the experimental conditions are shown in Appendix K,




Table K-10 together with mortality data.]




     In general, the test organisms were fairly tolerant to the unchlor-




inated final effluent.  The determined 96-hr TL  was 63.5 percent effluent
                                               m
or 35.5 mg/1 NH,-N.  Applying a standard application factor of 1/20




yields a chronic toxicity level for channel catfish of approximately




three percent effluent or 1.8 mg/1 NH_-N.  Other components in the efflu-




ent that were not identified could increase or inhibit the toxicity of




ammonia.  However, the calculated chronic toxicity level (1.8 mg/1 NH,-N)




correlates closely with the 2 mg/1 criterion widely accepted as the




maximum allowable in receiving waters.  Therefore, the conclusion is




reached that other components did not significantly influence ammonia




toxicity levels determined in the study.




     With an average discharge of 56 mg/1 NH_-N from the wastewater




treatment plant, the effluent must constitute less than 63 percent of the




stream flow in order to prevent an acutely toxic condition and less than




three percent to prevent chronic toxicity.  In addition, the toxicity




of NH_-N is greatly influenced by physical and chemical factors, such as




pH.  During the bioassay, the pH of the river (dilution water) was ap-




proximately 7.5, thus minimizing toxicity.  At other times of the year




the pH of the river is approximately 8.5, and the toxicity of NH--N could




be considerably greater.

-------
     Channel catfish exposed in situ in the main outfall of the muni-




cipal wastewater treatment plant survived the first 48 hr, but after




96 hr only 20 percent survived.  Mortality of these fish could have




been a result of a power failure, after 72 hr of exposure, which re-




sulted in industrial wastes being routed through the combined domestic-




industrial system without pretreatment.




     All fish exposed in situ at the four river sites [Appendix K,




Table K-ll] survived the 96-hr exposure period.  During this period,




NH--N concentrations in the river were as high as 7.45 mg/1  a




concentration sufficient to be chronically toxic, but lower than the




acute toxicity level.  The duration of exposure (96 hr)  was insuf-




ficient to monitor chronic toxicity.






Bacteriological Conditions




     Big Sioux River and Selected Tributaries  During the 1-through-




10-February-1973 study, the bacteriological quality of the Big Sioux




River and tributaries was monitored from near Volga, South Dakota




(RM 243.9), downstream to Sioux City, Iowa (RM 5.0)  [Appendix F, Table




F-l].  As mentioned previously, no fecal-coliform criterion exists on



the Big Sioux River during the non-recreation season.




     The upper reaches (RM 243.9 to RM 143.0) of the Big Sioux River




were of acceptable bacterial quality [Figure VI-4 and Appendix F,




Table F-l].  Fecal-coliform bacterial densities did not exceed




200/100 ml  at any of the sampling stations between RM 243.9, near Volga,




South Dakota, and the Sioux Falls, South Dakota WWTP (RM 143.0).
* All bacteria densities are reported as log mean.

-------



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                                                                   141 I
                                                                             IIVEI ORES
                                     Figure VI 4   Bocleriol Densities (logorilhmic Meon)--Big Sioux River, South  Dokolo
                                                                         Februory 1973

-------
                                                                      49
     The flow in the main stem of the Big Sioux River between RM 158.8


and RM 143.0 was about 0.3 m /s (10 cfs).  The majority of this flow

              3
(approx. 0.2 m /s or 6 cfs) originated from Skunk Creek which was of


acceptable bacterial quality (FC = < 24/100 ml).  Approximately


0.01 m /s (0.5 cfs) was discharged by Meilman Food Industries.  These


wastewaters contained total (TC) and fecal coliform (FC) densities of


210,000/100 ml and 57,000/100 ml, respectively.  The fecal streptococci


(FS) density was 3,300,000/100 ml.  In addition the pathogens, Salmonella


siegbia>gs S. tennessee, and S.  binza, were isolated [Appendix F, Table F-3]


The presence of these pathogenic bacteria constitutes a serious health


hazard to individuals coming in contact with such contaminated water.


Salmonella were not isolated from background station in the diversion


canal (RM 143.0/0.2).


     The Sioux Falls WWTP discharges contained excessive bacterial


densities.  In the effluent organism densities were greater than


1,300,000/100 ml for total coliform bacteria, greater than 180,000/100 ml


for fecal coliforms, and 2,000,000/100 ml for fecal streptococci.  The


by-pass contained densities of 16,000,000/100 ml, total coliform;


4,300,000/100 ml, fecal coliforms; and greater than 82,000,000/100 ml,


fecal streptococci.  S. heidelberg and S.  organienbwg were isolated


from the wastewater-treatment-plant effluent, and S. Heidelberg and


S. anatum were isolated from the by-pass.


     Bacterial contamination [Figure VI-4] attributed to the Sioux Falls


WWTP discharges was evident from RM 142.7 to the Iowa-South Dakota


state line (RM 127.0).  The apparent anomaly represented by increases

-------
50
    in bacterial densities between EM 142.7 and 141.2 is probably the result




    of inadequate mixing at the Cliff Avenue Station (RM 142.7).




         In addition to high densities of indicator organisms, Salmonella




    were also isolated downstream of the treatment plant.   The presence




    of 5.  heid&lberg at RM 128.5, RM 134.5, and RM 142.7,  as well as in




    the discharges from the Sioux Falls, South Dakota, WWTP indicates that




    the pathogenic bacteria are contributed by the treatment plant.




         Split Rock Creek (RM 130.1/5.3) was found to be of acceptable




    bacterial quality (FC = 19/100 ml).   Also, selected Big Sioux River




    sampling stations along the Iowa-South Dakota state line at RMS 106.2,




    80.9,  66.9, 46.8, and 5.0 exhibited acceptable bacterial quality.  Log




    mean fecal-coliform bacterial densities did not exceed 240/100 ml.






         Rock River  The bacterial quality of the Rock River near its




    mouth  (RM 76.2/5.8) was poorer than that of the Big Sioux upstream of




    the confluence (RM 76.2).  The fecal-coliform bacterial density was




    630/100 ml whereas upstream on the Big Sioux (RM 80.9)  it was less




    than 55/100 ml.




         During the last two days of the study additional  sampling was




    conducted on certain portions of the Rock River (RM 76.2/52.5 to




    RM 76.2/5.8) and at one station on the Little Rock (RM 76.2/22.1/4.0)




    [Appendix F, Table F-2],  The background station, upstream of Luverne,




    Minnesota (RM 76.2/52.5), showed acceptable quality water; the fecal-




    coliform bacterial density was 11/100 ml.  Downstream, at the Minnesota-




    Iowa state line (RM 76.2/40.8), the bacterial density  increased (FC =




    410/100 ml).  This increase was attributed to the Luverne, Minnesota,

-------
                                                                      51


Wastewater Treatment Plant; however, the bacterial densities from this
                                                        *
source were not determined.  The Iowa Beef Packers Plant  at Luverne is

another potential source of pollution, but it was not discharging wastes

to the Rock River during the sampling period.  At the station (RM 76.2/

25.7) just upstream of the Little Rock River the fecal-coliform bacte-

rial density increased slightly to 690/100 ml and was sustained down-

stream near the mouth (RM 76.2/5.8).  The Little Rock River (RM 76.2/23.I/

4.0) was found to be of acceptable bacterial quality (FC = 31/100 ml).

     As discussed previously [Section V], no fecal coliform criterion

applies to either the Minnesota or Iowa portions of the Rock River during

the non-recreation season.  Minnesota Water Quality Standards include a

total-coliform-bacterial-density criterion of less than 5,000/100 ml,

but this criterion was not violated [Appendix F, Table F-l].  Iowa Water

Quality Standards do not include a bacterial criterion,


Chemical Quality

     Dissolved Oxyg_en-(Big Sioux River and Selected Tributaries)  Dis-

solved-oxygen levels [Figure VI-5] upstream of the Sioux Falls area

(RM 243.9 near Volga, South Dakota to RM 162.2 near Renner) averaged 8.9

to 10.9 mg/1, sufficient to support diverse communities of aquatic life.

     As previously mentioned, the Big Sioux River was diverted in its

entirety at RM 158.8 leaving only about 0.3 m /s (10 cfs) in the main
                              3
stem.  The approximately 0.2 m Is (6 cfs) from Skunk Creek (RM 152.8/1.1)
* The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency has ordered Iowa Beef Packers
  to provide 180 day storage capacity for wastewater flows with controlled
  discharge during periods of adequate streamflow.  Construction must be
  completed by 15 December 1973.

-------
52
                                                                           3
     contained an average DO concentration of 7.4 mg/1.   The combined 0.3 m /s


     (10 cfs), after flowing as open water for a portion of the metropolitan


     main stem and passing over the falls, contained 13.2 mg/1 DO immedi-


     ately upstream (KM 143.2)  of the confluence with the diverted flow.


          Immediately downstream of the Sioux Falls WWTP, at RM 142.7 and


     141.2, the average DO concentrations were 12.9 and  12.6, respectively


     (saturation = 13.9 mg/1),  because of the re-aeration afforded by the


     diversion canal spillway.   The average DO concentration at RM 134.5


     (Brandon Road Bridge) was  11.0 mg/1.  Downstream from this station,


     however,  the effects of the BOD (3,715 kg, or 8,190 Ib, or 108 mg/1)


     from the Sioux Falls WWTP  accompanied by the minimal re-aeration under


     ice cover was evident.   The DO concentration at RM  128.5, approximately


     2.5 km (1.5 mi) upstream of the Iowa-South Dakota state line, declined


     to 7.8 mg/1.  This was in  part due to the Split Rock Creek inflow

           3
     (0.6 m IB or 22 cfs) that  contained 6.8 mg/1 of DO.


          Downstream from the state line DO concentrations continued to


     decline.   The average concentration at RM 106.2, near Canton, South


     Dakota, was 6.5 mg/1.  At  RM 80.9, near Hudson, South Dakota, it was


     4.8 mg/1, a violation of the South Dakota water quality criterion of


     5.0 mg/1.  However, this was not a violation of Iowa Water Quality


     Standards for the State of Iowa specifies that DO shall not be less


     than 5 mg/1 during any 16-hr period nor less than 4.0 mg/1 at any


     time during the 24-hr period.


          The average DO concentration of 3.3 mg/1 at RM 66.9, north of


     Hawarden, Iowa, was in violation of both Iowa and South Dakota Water

-------
13

12


11

16
7

6

5 -

4 -
          OHE VALUE
                                     DIVERSION  CANAL'
                                                                                           \
                                                        RIVER  MILES

                                  Figure  VI-5  Dissolved Oxygen Profile. Big Sioux River
                                        Estelline, South Dakota to  Sioux City, Iowa
                                                    1-10 February 1973

-------
                                                                       53
Quality Standards.  On eight out of ten days monitored the DO was less


then 4.0 mg/1, reaching a low of 2.4 mg/1.  At Akron, Iowa (RM 46.8),


the DO ranged from 1.8 to 3.4 mg/1 (average = 2.6 mg/1), a violation of


Iowa and South Dakota Water Quality Standards on all ten days of sampling.


     The DO levels were monitored for four days at the furthest down-


stream station in north Sioux City, Iowa (RM 5.0).  Concentrations ranged


from 1.7 to 3.0 mg/1, in violation of both Iowa and South Dakota Water


Quality Standards, indicating that the river had not recovered from the


impact of upstream waste loads.



     Dissolved Oxygen (Rock River)  The previously mentioned decline in


DO in the Big Sioux River between RM 80.9 and 66.9 was largely attributed


to the Rock River, which joins the Big Sioux at RM 76.2.  The flow of the

                          3
Rock River was about 5.7 m /s (200 cfs)  with an average DO concentration


of only 3.0 mg/1.  DO concentrations in the Rock River (RM 76.2/5.8) were


in violation of the Iowa Water Quality Standards on nine of the ten days


sampled.  The average DO concentration in the Big Sioux River (approx.

     3
4.8 m /s or 170 cfs), 7.6 km (4.7 mi) upstream from the confluence with


the Rock River, was 4.8 mg/1.  BOD loads were approximately the same


(5.9 mg/1 in the Rock River vs. 5.7 mg/1 in the Big Sioux).  Hence, by


dilution alone the Rock River was capable of lowering the DO concen-


tration to about 3.8 mg/1, which is 0.5 mg/1 greater than the value


actually measured at RM 66.9.  It should be noted, however, that DO


profiles in the Big Sioux exhibited a rapid decline from the Sioux Falls


area downstream to the Rock River, thus indicating the stream was ap-


proaching a restricted oxygen resource even without the Rock River input.

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54
         As previously mentioned, additional sampling was conducted 9 and

    10 February 1973, on the Rock River.  At the Minnesota-Iowa state

    line (RM 76.2/40.8) the average DO concentration was 3.8 mg/1, which

    is in violation of the 4.0 mg/1 Iowa criterion but not in violation of

    the Minnesota 3.0 mg/1 criterion.  At the background station (RM 76.2/

    52.5), upstream of the Luverne, Minnesota  (pop., 4,750), municipal

    WWTP and other significant sources, the average DO concentration was

    2.4 mg/1, a violation of Minnesota Water Quality Standards.  A minor
                                                       *
    upstream source of pollution is Edgerton, Minnesota  (pop., 1,119),

    which is approximately 32 km (20 mi) upstream of the background station.

    The causes of low DO concentrations upstream of Luverne are unknown and

    are indicative of the complex stream dynamics existing during ice-cover

    conditions.  The increases in dissolved oxygen downstream from Luverne

    at RM 76.2/25.7 (average = 6.6 mg/1) could be due, in part, to the

    re-aeration effect of the small dams at Luverne, Minnesota, and Rock

    Rapids, Iowa.

         The Little Rock (RM 76.2/23.1) which, according to USGS personnel,
                                       3                         3
    could have carried as much as 3.5 m Is (125 cfs) of the 5.7 m /s (200 cfs)

    measured in the Rock River was in violation of Iowa Water Quality Stan-

    dards, with an average DO of 2.4 mg/1.  The flows contributed by Little

    Rock tended to sustain the previously mentioned depressed-oxygen levels

    downstream in the Rock River (RM 76.2/5.8).
    * The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency has ordered Luverne and
      Edgerton, Minnesota, to either (1) provide storage capacity for
      180 days of flow with controlled release during periods of adequate
      stream flow, or (2) provide facilities capable of producing an ef-
      fluent of 5 mg/1 BOD and suspended solids if a continuous discharge
      is to be made.  Compliance schedules include 15 December 1974 for
      Luverne and 30 September 1973 for Edgerton.

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                                                                       55
     Ammonia Nitrogen-(Big Sioux River and Selected Tributaries) 



Ammonia, under certain conditions of pH, DO, CO., etc., can be very



toxic to aquatic life.  In order to protect aquatic life from the



toxic effects of ammonia, many states, including Iowa, have established



an ammonia criterion in their water-quality standards.  The Iowa Water



Quality Standards specify that NH.-N concentrations shall not exceed



2.0 mg/1.  South Dakota, on the other hand, has not established any



ammonia criterion.  As determined by the bioassay studies, the 96-hr



TL  for unchlorinated Sioux Falls Wastewater Treatment Plant efflu-
  m


ent was 63.5 percent effluent or 35.5 mg/1 NH -N.  On a chronic basis,



the value toxic to channel catfish would be approximately three percent



effluent (1.8 mg/1 NH_-N), depending on the chemical nature of the



receiving waters.  At the time of the 1 through 10 February 1973, study



the Sioux Falls WWTP effluent constituted approximately 11 percent of



the total flow in the Big Sioux River immediately downstream from the



plant.  This percentage, as previously mentioned, exceeds 50 percent



during many winter and late-summer periods.



     In spite of above-normal flows during the 1 through 10 February



1973 study, ammonia levels in the Big Sioux River were excessive 



as a result of discharges from the Sioux Falls Wastewater Treatment



Plant.  Whereas upstream average concentrations  [Figure VI-6] varied



from 0.88-0.38 mg/1 NH -N, the average value, downstream from the treat-



ment plant at RM 141.2, jumped to 4.7 mg/1.  The plant discharged about



34,070 m /day (9 mgd) containing an average concentration of 40 mg/1
NH
-N and 12 mg/1 of org-N.

-------
56
        Both NH -N and organic-N concentrations increased in the river




   water between RM 141.2 and 134.5.  This sudden change is not supported




   by changes in other indicator parameters, such as microbiological




   analyses, BOD, COD, TOO, or solids.  A mass balance of upstream  inputs




   of TKN, versus the TKN at RM 134.5, was not able to account for  that




   high a quantity of nitrogen, leaving this anomaly unexplained.




        Both Skunk and Split Rock Creeks were monitored for NH_-N during




   the survey.  Average concentrations in Skunk Creek (RM 152.8/1.1) were




   0.94 mg/1 and in Split Rock Creek (RM 130.1/5.3), 1.74 mg/1.




        From the Iowa-South Dakota state line, at RM 127.0, to the  furthest




   downstream station, at RM 5.0, 100 percent of the 47 samples collected




   from the Big Sioux River exceeded the Iowa 2.0 mg/1 NH--N criterion.




   Average NH--N concentrations varied from 4.56 mg/1 at RM 106.2 near




   Canton, South Dakota, to 2.32 mg/1 at RM 5.0 near Sioux City, Iowa.






        Ammonia Nitrogen-(Rock River)  The Rock River (RM 76.2/5.8) con-




   tained an average NH..-N concentration of 2.13 mg/1.  Concentrations




   ranged from 1.89 to 2.72 mg/1, in violation of the 2.0 mg/1 Iowa crite-




   rion on eight of the ten days of sampling.  Additional sampling, 9 and




   10 February, on the Rock River did not pinpoint any significant  sources




   of ammonia.  Average NH_-N concentrations varied from 1.56 mg/1  at the




   control station upstream of the Luverne, Minnesota, WWTP (RM 76.2/52.5)




   to 1.66 mg/1 at RM 76.2/25.7 [Appendix F, Table F-3].  The Little Rock




   River (RM 76.2/23.1/4.0) contained 1.47 mg/1 NH.J-N.  The only potential




   source of pollution downstream from the Little Rock confluence is Rock




   Rapids, Iowa (pop., 2,632), at RM 76.2/18 (approx.).

-------
7 0
8 0 _
5.0 _
3 0 _
2 0 _
 1 0
                                    -  DIVERSION CAHAt..
   4
SPENCER FOODS-
  Orj R
                                                              RIVER  MILES
                                           Figure  VI-6  Hitrogen  Profile,  Big  Sioux River
                                              Estelline, South Dakota  to Sioux City,  Iowa
                                                          1  10  FetHuary 1973

-------
                                                                      57







     Nitrogenous Oxygen Demand  Nitrogen, in the reduced forms of




NH and organic nitrogen, has a further potential for creating a signi-




ficant demand upon the oxygen resources of the stream.  The mechanism




involved includes hydrolysis of the organic form to NH, followed by




the oxidation to N0 and then NO. by autotrophic organisms.  Oxidation




of NH- to NO  is rate limiting followed by rapid oxidation to N0~.




Thus, the presence of N02 in the aquatic environment is generally a




fleeting state.  The rate of oxidation or nitrification is a temper-




ature-dependent reaction, becoming minimal at low temperatures.




     The wastewaters discharged from the Sioux Falls WWTP are especially




rich in nitrogen, largely as a result of proteinaceous waste material




received from the John Morrell and Company facility.  During the stream-




survey portion of the study, the Sioux Falls WWTP discharged an average




of about 1,810 kg or (4,000 Ib), 52 mg/1, of total Kjeldahl nitrogen




per day.  From a stoichiometric standpoint, approximately 2.0 kg (4.5 Ib)




of 0_ are required to oxidize 0.4 kg (1 Ib) of nitrogen.  Hence, these




wastewaters had a potential demand of 8,165 kg (18,000 Ib) of oxygen.




If this demand were exerted upon oxygen resources of the Big Sioux River,




especially under adverse conditions of minimal re-aeration (i.e., ice




cover), significant dissolved-oxygen depressions would be expected.  As




discussed previously, severe DO depressions did develop, raising a




question of whether nitrification played a role in these depressions.




     In order to determine whether nitrification was occurring in the




Big Sioux River, an attempt was made to balance the mass of nitrogen




in the stream between Sioux Falls, South Dakota, and Akron, Iowa.  From

-------
58
     USGS  and EPA measurements of discharge, made during  the  study,  average

     cross-sectional velocities were obtained on the Big  Sioux at  Cliff  Avenue

     in  Sioux Falls (RM 142.7), Split Rock Creek (RM 130.1/3.5), Rock  River

     (RM 76.2/11.8), and Big Sioux River at Akron, Iowa (RM 46.8).   Using

     these velocities and known distances between points, an  approximation

     of  time of travel  was made between Sioux Falls (RM 141.2) and Split

     Rock  Creek (RM 130.1), Split Rock Creek and Rock River (RM 76.2), and

     Rock  River and Akron, Iowa (RM 46.8), yielding an overall flow  time

     of  about six days.  From these flow times, data were selected to  route

     units of mass down the Big Sioux River.  The parameter selected for

     the initial mass balance was TKN which under ice-cover conditions should

     be  conserved except for the amount nitrified (sedimentation considered

     negligible).  This  approach led to the following balance:

                                                Avg  TKN Loading
      Inputs                  Dates            kg             Ib

     Big Sioux River           2/1-4           2,073          4,570
      (RM  141.2)

     Split Rock Creek          2/2-5             213            468
      (RM  130.1/5.3)

     Rock  River                2/5-8           2,000          4,410
      (RM  76.2/5.8)                            	          	

                                              4,286          9,448
     Big Sioux River           2/7-10         -4.128          -9,100
      (RM  46.8)                                  158            348

     As  noted above, approximately 158 kg (348 Ib) total Kjeldahl  nitrogen,

     or  four percent of the mass, was either oxidized or  otherwise "lost"

     within the system.

          In an attempt to refine the previous balance, the quality, as

-------
                                                                       59
measured at RM 141.2, was replaced with its individual inputs, including

the Big Sioux River upstream of Sioux Falls at Renner, South Dakota;

Skunk Creek; the effluent from Meilman Food Industries; and the WWTP

effluent and by-pass.  This approach yielded the following balance:

                                            Avg  TKN Loadings
  Inputs                    Dates          kg             Ib

Individual Loadings         2/1-4         2,303          5,078
  to Big Sioux River
  that comprise flow
  at RM 141.2

Split Rock Creek            2/2-5           213            468
  (RM 130.1/5.3)

Rock River                  2/5-8         2,000          4,410
  (RM 76.2/5.8)                           	          	
                                          4,516          9,956
Big Sioux                   2/7-10       -4,128         -9,100
  (RM 46.8)                                 388            856

This 388 kg (856 Ib) of TKN still constitutes only nine percent of the

total Kjeldahl nitrogen into the system.
                                             a
     The converse to considering the "loss" of total Kjeldahl nitrogen

in the stream, ostensibly to nitrification, is to investigate the

increase in oxidation products, N0? and N0~.  Employing the same logic,

as previously mentioned, yielded the following balance:

                                             Avg  NO? + NO^-N Loadings
  Inputs                 Dates                kg                  Ib

Big Sioux River          2/1-4                 371                 817
 (RM 141.2)

Split Rock Creek         2/2-5                  52                 115
 (RM 130.1/5.3)

Rock River               2/5-8                 649               1,430
 (RM 76.2/5.8)                               	               	
                                             1,072               2,362
Big Sioux                2/7-10             -1,423          c    -3,138
 (RM 46.8)                                     351                 776
                                                   gained between Sioux
                                                   Falls and Akron

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60
          Whereas this represents  an increase of 33 percent over the inputs

     to the system,  a more detailed  analysis, as before,  considering indi-

     vidual inputs that make up the  Big Sioux River at  Sioux Falls  does not

     support this increase.
       Inputs

     Individual inputs
       that  comprise flow
       at  RM 141.2

     Split Rock Creek
       (RM 130.1/5.3)

     Rock  River
       (RM 76.2/5.8)

     Big Sioux River
       (RM A6.8)
Dates
2/1-4
2/2-5
2/5-8
2/7-10
52
649
1,387
-1,423
36
Avg  N02 + NOyN Loadings
 kg                  Ib

  686               1,512
                                          115
                                        1,430
                                        3,057
                                       -3.138
                                           81
                          gained between Sioux
                          Falls and Akron
     This  represents  an  increase  of  only  three  percent.

          This  analysis  indicates that  significant nitrification was  not

     occurring  during the  1  through  10  February survey.   As  has been  stated

     previously,  the  potential  nitrogenous  oxygen demand  of  wastewaters of

     the Sioux  Falls  WWTP  is  approximately  8,165 kg  (18,000  lb)/day.   Climatic

     conditions during February precluded the growth of nitrifying organisms.

     However, under low-flow  conditions and warmer temperatures during the

     summer or  early  fall  the nitrogenous demand could seriously deplete

     stream-oxygen resources.

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                                                                   61
                   VII.  WASTE-SOURCES EVALUATION





A.  GENERAL




     Numerous municipal and industrial waste sources discharge into




the Big Sioux River Basin  [Appendix E],  Based on a study of the basin




and review of existing data, it was determined that three sources were




potentially the most significant dischargers, directly or indirectly,




to the Big Sioux River.




     As previously mentioned, the population of the Sioux Falls, South




Dakota, metropolitan area constitutes 45 percent of the population of




the entire basin, making it the major municipal waste source.  With the




exception of two industrial waste sources the majority discharging to




the Big Sioux River are of relatively minor importance.




     The John Morrell and Company of Sioux Falls, one of the Nation's




largest meat packing plants, is the largest industrial waste source in




the basin.  The Company discharges virtually all its wastewaters into




the Sioux Falls sewerage system and contributes greater than 70 percent




of the BOD, suspended solids, and nitrogen load received at the muni-




cipal wastewater treatment plant.




     Meilman Food Industries (formerly Spencer Foods,  Inc.), another




meat-packing plant in the Sioux Falls area, discharged directly to the




Big Sioux River but has recently expanded production and connected into




the city sewerage system.   This industry will have a major impact on




the Sioux Falls Wastewater Treatment Plant.  All three of these sources




were evaluated during the Winter 1973 study.   The following discussion




will center on the findings of those evaluations.





B.  SIOUX FALLS, SOUTH DAKOTA. WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT




     During 24 through 31 January 1973, the Sioux Falls, South Dakota,

-------
62
    Wastewater Treatment Plant was evaluated In order, to:


         1.  Characterize the wastewaters;


         2.  Determine unit-process removal efficiencies;


         3.  Assess the impact of industrial wastes (from John Morrell


             and Company) on the system;


         4.  Determine the waste loads discharged to the Big Sioux River;


         5.  Ascertain pollution abatement necessary to meet water-quality


             standards and to comply with the Water Pollution Control Act


             Amendments of 1972.



    Treatment Facilities


         The Sioux Falls treatment system [Figures VII-1 and VII-2] consists


    of a two-stage, trickling filter system for industrial-waste pretreat-


    ment, followed by a complete-mixed activated sludge system that treats


    both the pretreated industrial wastes and domestic wastes.  The phys-


    ical plant consists of a potpourri of units, vintage 1920-1960*s, that


    creates considerable maintenance work load for plant personnel.



         Industrial Waste Pretreatment System  The industrial waste pre-


    treatment system receives wastewaters primarily from the John Morrell


    and Company meat-packing plant.  These wastewaters, in addition to


    those from a small residential area, the stockyards, and various smaller


    industries are pumped to a flocculator that merely serves to combine


    raw indistrial wastes, sludge, and lagoon supernatant prior to their


    entry into the industrial primary clarifiers.

                                                                         3
         Flows in excess of the maximum influent pumping rate of 22,710 m /day

                            o          6
    (6 mgd) enter an 1,890-m  (0.5 x 10  gal.) equalization basin that normally

-------
           H51A1	JOHt! HOR81U & CO IRC.
 INDUSTRIAL PLANT
 INDUSTRIAL HASTE
                   SIIPERMATAHT FROH
                    SLUD6E UGOOHS
             IHTERKEDUTE  -
              CU8IFIER   -
   SECOHOm X TRICKLING
            DOMESTIC PUNT
          DOMESTIC lUSTEr/AHR
                                DAS SCREED
                              PADSHAH FLUME
                                     1454
                                          1455
                                       c=_ 1457
    AERATION
     TAHKS
               SECONDARY
               CIA8IFIE8S
    14U
     TO filVEB
                                     CHLORIKATION
                                       CORTACT
                                       LAGOON
                                                       PRIMARY
                                                      OLARIFIERS
-rvrvrvo.
 FINAL
CLARIFIERS
                     HOT IN USE
                     DURING WINTER
                     I E 6 E H D

                    SAMPLE  LOCATIONS
Figure VIM.  Wastewater Treatment Plant, Sioux Falls, South Dakota
                    24-31 January, 1973

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                        [JAW & SECONDARY SLUDGE  HANDLING
 LEGEND

i  SAMPLE LOCATIONS
                      V    V
                                      1459
              GRIT TO
         SANITARY LANDFILL
      DORR CLONE
     GRIT REMOVAL
     THICKENER EFFLUENT
         TO  HEAD  OF
       DOMESTIC PLANT
        SLUDGE GAS TO
          HEATERS
          ENGINES
          BOILERS
           WASTE
                                                       SLUDGE
                                                     THICKENING
                                                     CLARIFIERS
                                                 THICKENED SLUDGE
                                                   TO  DIGESTERS
                                                       SLUDGE HEAT
                                                       EXCHANGERS
                                                          COMPLETE MIX
                                                          SINGLE  STAGE
                                                            DIGESTERS
                      DIGESTED SLUDGE
                      TO  DRYING LAGOONS
t
                                         1462
Figure Vll-2. Wastewater Treatment  Plant  Study,  Sioux Falls, South  Dakota
                           24-31  January, 1973

-------
                                                                      63
is filling during the peak industrial uses (approx. 6:00 AM - 6:00 PM)




and then is draining into the flocculator as the industrial flow de-




creases.  When flows to the equalization basin exceed its capacity,




the excess flow enters the head end of the combined domestic-indus-




trial system.




     After the flocculator, industrial wastes enter primary clarifiers,




followed by primary trickling filters, an intermediate clarifier, and




secondary trickling filters.  Most of the secondary trickling filter




under-flow is sent to the head end of the combined domestic-industrial




system without settling.  However, a portion is sent to the industrial




secondary clarifiers, with subsequent recycle to the secondary filters.





     Combined Domestic-Industrial System  Domestic wastewaters entering




the plant pass through a screen house, combine with the effluent of the




industrial-waste-pretreatment system, and enter the primary clarifiers.




After primary clarification, wastewaters go into a complete-mixed acti-




vated sludge system, followed by final clarification and discharge to




the Big Sioux River.  Although the plant chlorinates its final effluent




during the spring, summer, and fall months, no disinfection is practiced




during winter months.





     Sludge System  Sludge generated in the secondary clarifiers of the




industrial-waste-pretreatment system, as well as waste activated sludge,




is returned to the primary clarifier of the industrial waste pretreatment




system for sedimentation and removal.  The sludge thus generated, as well




as that collected from the combined domestic-industrial primary clarifters,




is combined and sent to Dorr Clone units, [Figure VII-2] for grit removal.

-------
64
     Following passage  through  the  Dorr Clones,  the  degritted  sludge  is  gra-




     vity  thickened, with  subsequent return of supernatant  to  the  combined do-




     mestic-industrial  primary  clarifiers.  The  underflow from the thickeners




     is  sent  to  single-stage, complete-mix digesters,  followed by  discharge




     to  sludge lagoons  adjacent  to  the plant.  Partially dewatered digested




     sludge is pumped from the  lagoons, hauled away, and spread on farm  land




     that  the City  of Sioux Falls owns about 6.5 km  (4 mi)  northeast  of  the




     plant.   Supernatant from the lagoons is returned  intermittently  to  the




     flocculator at the head of  the industrial pretreatment system.





     Results  of.In-PIant Study




          Fifteen sampling stations [Figures VII-1 and VII-2 and Appendix H,




     Table H-2],  including monitoring the waste  input  of the John  Morrell




     and Company, were  established  at the treatment  plant.   Samples were com-




     posited  on  the basis  of flow over a 24-hr period.  With the exception of




     grab  compositing of the sludge lagoon supernatant, underflow  from the




     sludge thickeners, and effluent from the complete mixed digesters,  auto-




     matic sampling equipment was used at all points.  In order to reflect




     both  processing and non-processing conditions at  the Morrell  Company,




     the analytical data were examined on the basis  of the  full seven days,




     five  weekdays, and two weekend days covered during the study.




          [Summaries of data collected during the 24 through 31 January  1973,




     evaluation  of  the  treatment plant are presented in Appendix F.]   Major




     findings of the evaluation  follow.





          Wastewater Treatment Plant Flows  During the seven-day study total




     flow  into the  Sioux Falls WWTP averaged 33,380  m  /day  (8.82 mgd).   Of

-------
                                                                       65
this, flows entering the industrial waste pretreatment system averaged

14,800 m3/day (3.91 mgd), of which 12,110 m3/day (3.20 mgd) or  36 per-

cent of the total treatment-plant flow emanating from the Morrell Company.
                                               3
Influent domestic waste flows averaged 18,580 m /day (4.91 mgd).  Weekend

and weekday flows differed (as seen in the following tabular material),

reflecting reduced domestic-water use as x
-------
66
                             TABLE VII-1

              JOHN MORRELL AND COMPANY CONTRIBUTION TO
            LOADS RECEIVED AT SIOUX FALLS WWTP (PERCENT)
                    7-DAY PERIOD            WEEKDAY            WEEKEND

 BOD                   67                    70                 42

 COD                   73*                   74*                57

 TOC                   76*                   78*                A3
                         *                     *                  *
 SS                     78                    81                 63

 TKN                   70*                   74*                29
                         *                     *                  *
 Total P                57                    61                 37
 *  As  a  result  of  the difficulty in obtaining a representative sample
   of  the  solid-laden Morrell wastewaters, these analyses indicated a
   greater loading from Morrell than in the combined loading to the
   industrial pretreatment system  [Appendix F, Table F-5 (Stations 1451
   and 1450)].  In these cases the figure for the combined load to the
   pretreatment system was used in determining the Morrell contribution
   to  the  total wastewater treatment plant loading.  Hence these per-
   centages  are conservative estimates.

-------
             TABLE VII-2

 AVERAGE RAW WASTE LOADINGS (PER DAY)
SIOUX FALLS WASTEWATLR TREAT1ENT PLANT
                                                                     67
Domestic
7 Days
BOD
COD
TOC
SS
TKN
Total P
BOD
COD
TOC
SS
TKN
Total P
9,980
14,200
2,840
4,230
780
270

26,130
38,010
9,070
15,380
1,860
360
Ib
22,000
31,100
6,270
9,320
1,720
590

57,600
83,800
20,000
33,900
4,110
790
Weekdays


-------
68
        By-passing of Wastewaters  During the 24 through  31 January 1973,


   evaluation  the treatment plant by-passed inadequately treated  industrial


   wastewaters to the Big Sioux River  [Figure VII-1].  Waste loadings dis-


   charged via the by-pass were dramatically reduced, however, on 25 January


   when plant personnel discovered and repaired a partially destroyed by-


   pass gate in  the industrial-waste-pretreatment secondary clarifiers.

                                                    3
   The by-pass flow rate dropped from  3,030 to 190 m /day (0.8 to 0.05 mgd).


   The decline in waste loading is reflected [Appendix F, Table F-5 (1424)]


   in average daily weekend (following repair) vs. weekday  BOD loadings  of


   85 and 990 kg (190 and 2,190 Ib), respectively.



        Negative Removals  Both the intermediate clarifier of the indus-


   trial waste pretreatment system and the primary clarifiers for com-


   bined domestic industrial waste system provided negative removals of  BOD

    [Figure VII-3].  In the case of the former, the removal  over the seven-


   day period was a negative two percent.' Probably, this was a result of


   excessive hydraulic conditions that subjected it to an average overflow


   rate of 36.0  m3/day/m2 (884 gpd/ft2)  (43.4 m3/day/m2  or 1,065 gpd/ft2


   during weekdays).  However, the unit was able to remove  14 percent of

   the WWTP influent, suspended-solids loading.


        Negative removals through the combined domestic-industrial primary


   clarifier were the result of several causes.  During the seven-day period


   an average of 6,030 kg/day (13,300 Ib/day) of BOD contained in the sludge-

                                 3
   thickener supernatant (4,500 m /day or 1.19 mgd) was returned  directly


   to the clarifier.  In addition, during the 24-hr period  beginning on


   24 January 1973, the clarifier received sludge-lagoon supernatant

-------
INDUS
76 Illlllllllllllllllllllllllll
72 illlllllllllllllllllllllll
73 iiiimmiiimiiiiimiii
78 Illlllllllllllllllllllllllll
70 inmininiiiiiiiiiiiii
57 imimimiiimiii
BY PASS TO
BIG SIOUX RIVEI
2 mm
2 Hill
2 nun
i m
3 Illllllll
2 mm
24
TRIAL PLANT 28
i ;;
1 30
FLOCCULATOR
TOC .^^^^__
BOD '
COD PRIMARY
ss CLARIFIERS
TK N
1 " TOC HIIIIIIIIIIHIII 49
^| coo ininmiiiimi 47
1 ss iiinnniiniii 45
^^ 1 	 TKN Illlllllllllllllllllllllll 73
/^ ^^\. TOT p IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII 54
/ PRIMARY \
I TRICKLING I
\ FILTERS y

TOC
BOD S ****.
COD / \
ss / INTERMEDIATE \
TKH I CLARIFIER I
TOT P \ /
\^ y/ TOC Illllllllllllll 43
^ 	 ^-^ BOD Illlllllllllllll 45
L COD 111111111111111 40
^r ss iiiiiiiiiii 31
TKN iniimiiiinniininii 72
u TOT p imimniimini 52
SECONDARY
CLARIFIERS
1
/ SECONDARY \ " """"I TC
( TRICKLING I 2 IIIM" BD J
1 FILTERS / '9 """l COD 1
\ / 29 minimi ss
N. ./ 71 Illlllllllllllllllllllllll TKN
T 51 IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII TOT P
ilium TOC
111111111 BD DOMESTIC PLANT
Illllllll COD
Illllll SS
	 TKN ^|
Illllllllllllll TOT P T
i 	 * IOC HIIIIIIIIIIHIII 48
f L BOD Illlllllllllllll 48
^ COD Illlllllllllllll 46
ss iniimiiiiiinn 51
1 TKN iinniiiiiinnnmniiimiinni 101
^~~^*>^ TOT P Illlllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 94
/ PRIMARY \
1 CLARIFIERS I TC """
\ / BOD iiiimiimiiimiiii 64
\^ y coo iinnniiinniiiii 57
^^^ ^/ SS Illllllllllllllllllllllllll 74
L TK^ nmiiiiininiinnminmmminmiiiiiii 137
^ TOT p miiiiimmnniiimiiiniiiiii 98
LEGEND
SA
A SAMPLING STATION & NUMBER
AERATION TANKS
*BAR GRAPH VALUES REPRESEf
PLANT LOADINGS AS PERCE
OF TOTAL REMOVAL
EFFICIENCIES MAY BE
^^-^^ CALCULATED USING THESE
f >, VALUES
/ FINAL \
\ CLARIFIERS /
\ / TOC Km 9
>v / BOD III 9
^ 	   ^ COD Illl 10
L SS II 6
^ TKN Illlllinilllllllllllll 64
TOT p iiiniiiiiiiiiiinimmiii 76
| TO BIG
SIOUX RIVER *
Figure VII-3 Treatment Eff iciency-Sioux Falls, South
Wastewater Treatment Plant
    24-31  January 1973
    "7 DAY AVERAGE"

-------
                                                                       69
containing about 2,000 kg (4,400 Ib) of BOD.  The normal practice is to


return this supernatant to the head of the industrial waste system, but


clogged lines required returning it to the primary clarifier.  The


primary-clarifier overflow BOD measured for the 24-hr period (61,240 kg


or 135,000 Ib BOD @ 1,700 mg/1) greatly affected the seven-day average


loading.  If this value were ignored.the average daily loading would be


16,830 kg (37,100 Ib) BOD rather than 23,180 kg (51,100 Ib), or a plus-


0.9-percent removal through the primary clarifiers.  Suspended-solids


removals through the primary clarifier were also negative  [Figure VII-3],


However, if the loading for 24 January 1973, were ignored, the average


overflow loading would be 7,200 kg (15,900 Ib) rather than 14,380 kg


(31,700 Ib), yielding an overall 13.9-percent removal.



     Domestic Wastes  Domestic wastes (BOD equals 520 mg/1) entering


the Sioux Falls WWTP are considerably more concentrated than are normal


domestic wastes (i.e., BOD of about 200 mg/1).  A number of creameries


discharge to the city sewerage system; this could account for these


abnormally high concentrations.  This hypothesis is supported by influ-


ent, suspended-solids concentrations of only 227 mg/1.   Dairy wastes


include a predominance of soluble BOD that could cause the influent BOD


concentrations to exceed suspended solids; this relationship is atypical


of normal domestic wastes.




     Organic Overloading  Organic loadings to the activated sludge


system were excessive; this concurs with the findings of an earlier EPA

      2/
study.   Even if the value for 24 January 1973, is neglected,  daily

-------
70
     organic  loadings  still  average  2,676  g BOD/m3  (167  Ib BOD/1,000  ft3)


     of  aeration  tank  volume.   In  the EPA  analysis  of WWTPs  past  operating

             2 /                                           3
     records,' average  daily  loadings were 1,280 g BOD/m (80  Ib BOD/

             3
     1,000  ft ).   These  loadings greatly exceed  the generally recommended

                               3                    3
     value  of about  640  g BOD/m (40 Ib BOD/1,000 ft ).   Food-to-micro-


     organism (F/M)  ratios also dramatically  reflect this organic over-


     loading.  The F/M was 1.1 g BOD/g (1.1 Ib/lb)  of mixed  liquor suspended


     solids (MLSS) under aeration, which is in marked contrast  to recommended


     values of about 0.4.  The organic overload  was especially  evident  in


     effluent quality  where, contrary to theory, the average BOD  exceeded


     suspended solids  (99 mg/1 versus 37 mg/1).



         Treatment  Efficiencies   [Overall  WWTP removals as well as the


     portions removed  by the industrial pretreatment system  and combined


     domestic industrial system are  presented in Table VII-3.   Figures  VII-3


     to  VII-5 enable the same  computations, as well as removals between indi-


     vidual units.]  In  calculating  overall removal efficiencies, the amount


     by-passed must  be subtracted  from the apparent removal. For example,


     although the apparent removal of BOD  during the seven-day  period is


     91  percent,  2 percent was by-passed,  yielding  an overall removal of


     89  percent.


         Whereas overall removal  efficiencies during the study are admirable


     considering  both  the effect of  winter temperature on biological  system


     and the  organic overloads to  the activated  sludge system,  the waste


     loadings to  the Big Sioux River were  substantial.   During  the seven-day


     evaluation  the  effluent from  the WWTP contributed a daily  average load of:

-------
         INDUSTRIAL PLANT
78   iimiiiiiimiimiiiiiiiii
74    iiiiiiiiiimimiiiiiiiiii
74    Illllllllllllllllllllllllll
81  imilllllimiimmilimi
74    iiimimiiiimiiimiii
61      Illlllllllllllllllllll
                                  PRIMARY
                                 TRICKLING
                                  FILTERS
                                                          milllllllllimi         53
                                                          Illllllllllllllll          48
                                                          Illlllllllllllllll         SO
                                                          Illllllllllllllll          47
                                                          Illllllllllllllllllllllllll    74
                                                          Illllllllllllllllllll       58
   BY-PASS  TO
   BIG  SIOUX RIVER
        llllllll
        mini
        iiiiuii
           in
      iiiniiiii
      iiiiiiiin
                          INTERMEDIATE
                            CLARIFIER
                                 SECONDARY
                                 TRICKLING
                                  FILTERS
SECONDARY
CLARIFIERS
                                                      Illllllllllllllll           46
                                                      Illllllllllllllll           48
                                                      minimum            43
                                                      Minim               29
                                                      Illllllllllllllllllllllllll     76
                                                      Illlllllllllllllllll         57
                                                                                                   22
                                                                                                   26
                                                                                                   26
                                                                                                   19
                                                                                                   26
                                                                                                   39
                                    mini
                                   iiiiinni
                                   iniinni
                                    mini
                                   Minim
                                 iiiinmml
                                                                                                                                   DOMESTIC PLANT
25            Illlllllll
21             llllllll]
20             llllllll
29           Illlllllllll
71   iiiiiiiiiniimiiiiniiii
55      Illllllllllllllllllll
TOC
BOD
COD
ss
UN
TOT  P
                                                                                                                          AERATION  TANKS
                                                                                                                                             Illlllllllllllllll                47
                                                                                                                                             jiinniiiiiniiii                41
                                                                                                                                             iiimiiniiinn                 46
                                                                                                                                             Illlllllllllllllll                48
                                                                                                                                             iiiiiiniiiiiniiiiiniiiiiniini      97
                                                                                                                                             immmimmimimiiiimii       94
                                                                                                                                                minnimnni
                                                                                                                                                iiiininimnnniim
                                                                                                                                                inniiiiimiiiiiii
                                                                                                                                                iiiimninniiiiiniiniii
                                                                                                                                                iiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimmniiinim
                                                                                                                                                iiiiiiiiiiiiniiiimiiniiiniim
TO BIG
SIOUX RIVER
                                ill)
                                mi
                                nn
                                n
                                iinnminnniiii
                                ininiiiiniiiiiinniiii
 9
10
 5
58
74
                                                                                                        49
                                                                                                        66
                                                                                                        57
                                                                                                        78
                                                                                                       134
                                                                                                        95
                                                                                                           LEGEND

                                                                                                    SAMPLING STATION  & NUMBER


                                                                                                   ^BAR GRAPH  VALUES REPRESENT
                                                                                                     PLANT  LOADINGS  AS   PERCENT
                                                                                                     OF   TOTAL      REMOVAL
                                                                                                     EFFICIENCIES   MAY   BE
                                                                                                     CALCULATED   USING   THESE
                                                                                                     VALUES.
                                                                                                                                                                                     r.
                                                                                                                                 Figure   VII-4   Treatment  Efficiency-Sioux  Falls,  South  Dakota
                                                                                                                                                             Wastewater  Treatment  Plant
                                                                                                                                                                   24-31  January  1973
                                                                                                                                                                 "WEEKDAY   AVERAGE"

-------





INDUSTRIAL PLANT,
64
56
61
62

47

36








imnniiiinniiiiiiii
IMIIMIIMMIMIIII
ininiiiiniiiiiiini
iimimiimiiiuii!


iiiiiiiiiiiiinii











ininiiniii

TOC

COD FLOCCULATOR
SS

TKN



PRIMARY
TOT P

CLARIFIERS




^

^^
/^
/


L

r
^
^\
\

36 Illlllllllllll TOC
44 Illllll 	 III! BOD DOMESTIC PLANT
39 Illlllllllllll COD
38 Illlllllllllll SS
J*
53 Illllllllllllllllll TKN ^
64 Illlllllllllllllllllllll TOT P I






TOC
BOD
COD
SS
TKN
TOT P

Illlllll 22
Illlllllll 26
Illllllll 25
iniiiiiiinn 37
Illlllllllllllllllllllll 67
IMIIIIIIIM 32














/ PRIMARY \
[ TRICKLING 1
\ FILTERS /






























BY PASS
-* 	
\
^^

TO
A

BIG SIOUX RIVER
1
1
1
0
2
1











III
III
III

Illllll
mi
TOC
BOD ^ 	
COD f
/
^s



i
 ^
\
















SS / \
_,, / INTERMEDIATE \
TKN 1



TOT P \ CLARIFIER /
\
x-~.




1




SECONDARY
CLARIFIERS


'


^^^
s
/
/
r^
1
'



f
'

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\
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1 TRICKLING
V FILTERS J

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1
/
^/
f

TOC
BOD
COD
-SS

TKN

TOT P

Illlllllll 25
Illllllll 25
Illlllll 22
Illllllllllllll 41

IMMIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIHIIII 70

Illllllllllllll 40


16 Illlll
14 inn
is Mini
27 nininii
68 iiimiinniiiininim
32 illinium











TOC
BOD
COD ^
SS
TKN
TOT P

TOC

 BOD
f
COD
1 SS
1 	 TKN
/^ ^V TOT P
iiiiiiiiiniiiiiini 52

iiiiinniniiinnin ss

Illllllllllllllllll 54
Illlllllllllllllllllllll 65
iiiinninininiinnninininnnniiii 1 2 1
iiiinnininnnniiiiiinninn 95
/ \
I PRIMARY \
I CLARIFIERS /
 \ /TOC
\ y BOD
^+*^ ^S COD
^L ss
^ TKN
f TOT P
Illllllllllllllllll 50
MIMIIIIIIMMIIIII 55
IIIMIIIIIIIIIIIIIIl 54
IMIMIIIIIIMI 42
MMIMIIIIMMMMIIIMMIIMIIIMMIIMMMIIMIIIMIM 1 5 9
IMIIIIIIIIMMMMIMIMMIIIIIIIIIIMI 111
LEGEND
A SAMPLING STATION & NUMBER
AERATION TANKS

*BAR GRAPH VALUES REPRESEI
PLANT LOADINGS AS PERCEI
OF TOTAL REMOVAL

EFFICIENCIES MAY BE
.^-^^ CALCULATED USING THESE
f >v VALUES
/ FINAL \
I CLARIFIERS I
\ /
\ / TOC

>s S BOD
^^^^^^^^^^^
1 COD
^f ss
TKN
TO BIG TOT p
mi is

III! 14

Illlll 16
III 11
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIMIIIIIIIII 104
nnniiiiiinnnniiiiiiiii ss
SIOUX RIVER f
F oure VII-S Treatment Eff icipnr v-Smux Fnll<; ^r>nfk
1 5J w ' *^ Til \J ll^\-liiliwlll Lvlll^l^llVv^r \J I \J w^ 1 Ulld. wwwll
Wastewater Treatment Plant
 24-31  January  1973
"WEEKEND  AVERAGE"

-------
                                         TABLE VII-3

                  WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT REMOVAL EFFICIENCIES (PERCENT)
7-Day Period
BOD
COD
TOC
SS
TKN
Total P
IPS-9/
50
52
50
48
-4
4
CDIS&./
39
36
39
45
37
18
Total
89
88
89
93
33
22
IPS
51
52
51
51
0
3
Weekday
GDIS
38
36
38
43
39
20

Total
89
88
89
94
39
23

IPS
41
45
47
35
-23
3
Weekend
GDIS
44
38
37
54
17
11

Total
85
83
84
89
-6
14
aj This is an acronym for Industrial Pretreatment System.
b/ This is an acronym for combined Domestic-Industrial System.

-------
72
Parameter

BOD
SS
TKN
Total P
The WWTP by-pass
Parameter


kg /day
EFFLUENT
Load
Ib/day
3,370 7,420
1,175 2,590
1,690 3,720
470 1,040
discharged an additional:
BY-PASS

kg/day
Load
Ib/day
BOD 735 1,620
SS 190 413
TKN 67 148
Total P 14 31
Nitrogen Balance  Special emphasis was
Cone.
rag/1
99
37
51
14
Cone.
mg/1
1,010
429
131
22
placed on de
    fate of nitrogenous compounds in the treatment plant.   Sampling stations




    were selected to monitor changes of nitrogen forms within the treatment




    system, the nitrogen taken out in the sludge,  and that returned via




    sludge-thickener supernatant and sludge-lagoon supernatant.   A precise




    assessment of the total nitrogen balance was hampered  by difficulties




    in performing the NO- + NO_-N analysis.   An undetermined interference




    prevented reduction of N0_ to N02 in certain samples.   However, in com-




    parison to the values obtained for the total Kjeldahl  nitrogen most




    NO. -f NO--N values throughout the treatment plant were insignificant,




    affording a reliable balance.




         During the seven-day evaluation the industrial pretreatraent system




    received an average daily TKN loading of 1,865 kg (4,110 Ib)  at 121 mg/1

-------
                                                                       73
 [Appendix F, Table F-5],  Of this, 76 percent was in the org-N form and



24 percent in the NH -N form.  The N0_ + NO_-N concentrations were
                    J                -     J


reported as less than 0.5 mg/1, indicating an insignificant contribution



to the total nitrogen load.  The John Morrell and Company accounted for



virtually 100 percent of the industrial pretreatment loading, or 70 per-



cent of the total WWTP loading of total Kjeldahl nitrogen.



     As the wastes passed through the industrial primary clarifiers,



the TKN loading remained essentially constant (1,940 kg or 4,280 Ib in



overflow vs. 1,865 kg or 4,110 Ib in influent).  Significant, however,



was the change in nitrogen forms.  The organic-N fraction decreased to



54 percent, reflecting the hydrolysis of the organic-N to NH -N and of



the input of sludge-lagoon supernatant.  The latter contained an average



daily loading of 975 kg (2,150 Ib) at 1,280 mg/1 total Kjeldahl nitrogen



of which 71 percent was in the NH -N form.  The NO- + NO.,-N in the over-



flow of the primary clarifier remained insignificant (<0.5 mg/1).



     As the wastewaters passed through the primary trickling filter and



overflowed the intermediate clarifier, the TKN loading remained essen-



tially constant (1,900 kg or 4,190 Ib vs. 1,865 kg or 4,110 Ib in raw



waste).  The organic-N fraction continued to decrease to 47 percent.



NO  + NO--N remained insignificant (<0.5 mg/1).



     After passing through the secondary filter, the TKN loading remained



unchanged from the raw waste load (1,865 kg or 4,110 Ib @ 126 mg/1).



The organic-N fraction declined further, to 27 percent, a decrease of



49 percent from influent values.  The NO. + NO--N concentrations were



indicated as less than 10.0 mg/1, but this calculation can be further

-------
74
    refined by performing an analysis of concentrations in the combined


    domestic-industrial, primary clarifier overflow, a value reported as

                                                          3
    less than 2.0 mg/1.  This flow was made up of 18,600 m /day (4.91 mgd)


    of domestic raw waste containing less than 2.0 mg/1; and 14,800 m /day


    (3.91 mgd) of industrial waste.  If one back calculated, the industrial


    effluent concentration of NO  + NO -N was less than 4.3 mg/1.  This


    value is fortified by unchanged TKN loadings throughout the industrial


    pretreatment system and indicates only a minor degree of nitrification.


         The domestic raw waste (18,600 m /day or 4.91 mgd) contained 780 kg


    (1,720 Ib) TKN (@ 42 mg/1) which is within the typical ranges cited in the


    literature for domestic wastes.  Of this 780 kg (1,720 Ib), 34 percent


    was in the form of organic N and 66 percent in the NH.-N form.  Combined


    with the 1,865 kg (4,110 Ib) of TKN in the effluent of the industrial


    waste pretreatment the loading to the primary clarifier was 2,640 kg


    (5,830 Ib) (29 percent being in the organic-N form and 71 percent in the


    NH3-N form).


         After passing through the primary clarifier, the TKN loadings in-


    creased by 37 percent to 3,630 kg (8,010 Ib @ 105 mg/1) as a result


    of the introduction of the sludge-thickener supernatant and of the


    24-January return of sludge-lagoon supernatant previously mentioned.


    The organic-N fraction in the primary-clarifier overflow increased to


    46 percent, and the NH--N fraction decreased to 54 percent.  If one


    disregards the TKN data for 24 January 1973 (7,350 kg or 16,200 Ib @


    180 mg/1), the TKN loading in the primary clarifier overflow would


   . average 3,010 kg (6,640 lb)/day rather than 3,630 kg (8,010 Ib) with

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                                                                       75






64 percent NH -N and 36 percent organic N.  The NO- + NO.-N concentrations




in primary clarifiers overflow were less than 2.0 mg/1, indicating only




a minor amount of nitrification.




     The effluent TKN loading was 1,690 kg (3,720 Ib @ 51 mg/1) repre-




senting a 36-percent removal.  Because approximately three percent of




this x^as discharged through the plant by-pass, the actual removal was




33 percent.  Virtually all of the removal was accomplished in the




activated-sludge portion of the plant.  The effluent TKN consisted of




13 percent organic-N form and 87 percent NH -N.




     The NO- + NO,-N in the effluent was reported as less than 15 mg/1




during the plant portion of the study.  This can be refined, however,




by employing values obtained during the following ten days of stream




study.  The loads of total Kjeldahl nitrogen discharged during the




stream survey were similar to those measured during the plant evaluation.




Hence, the NO  + NO--N values found during the stream survey were con-




sidered representative of effluent quality.  On this basis the average




effluent N02 -f NO -N load would be 295 kg (647 Ib @ 8.8 mg/1).  From




this loading, of the 33-percent TKN "removals," 11 percent was oxidized




to N0~ + NO--N forms, and 22 percent was actually removed from the system.




     A nitrogen balance [Table VII-4] accounted for all but 5.9 percent




of the nitrogen entering the plant.  It is especially noteworthy that a




daily average of 975 kg (2,150 Ib) of nitrogen was reintroduced into the




plant in the sludge-lagoon supernatant.  Further nitrogen reductions




would be realized by not returning this supernatant to the plant.  Had




this method not been employed during the survey, as much as 1,570 kg




(3,465 Ib) of nitrogen could have been removed, thus affording a 59-percent

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   76
                                        TABLE VII-4

                               SIOUX FALLS, SOUTH DAKOTA
                         WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT NITROGEN BALANCE

                                  24-31 JANUARY 1973

                                     kg       (Ib)
Nitrogen Entering Wastewater
  Treatment Plant:

  Industrial Pretreatraent Raw
  Waste Load

 .Domestic Raw Waste Load
1,865


  780

2,645
(4,110)


(1,720)

(5,830)
                                                           2,645
 (5,830)
Nitrogen Leaving Wastewater
  Treatment Plant:

  Effluent:

    As TKN

    As N02 + NO--N

    Wastewater Treatment Plant
    Bypass
1,690

  290

   70
                                   2,050
(3,720)

  (647)

  (148)

(4,515)
                       -2,050
Nitrogen Removed as Monitored Within
  Wastewater Treatment Plant:
                                       Nitrogen removed in   595
                                       Wastewater treatment
                                       plant
(-4.515)

 (1,315)
                                               595
                                             (1,315)
  Nitrogen Taken out in Raw
  and Secondary Sludge

  Nitrogen returned via
  Supematants:

    Sludge Thickener
    Supernatant

    Sludge Lagoon
    Supernatant
                        2,125
                        (4,680)
  710


  975

1,685
(1,560)


(2.150)

(3,710)
                                                          -1,685    (-3,710)

                                                             440       (970)

                                                         Nitrogen Removed but
                                                         not Accounted for
                                              -440
                                               155
                                              (-970)

                                               (345)

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                                                                       77
reduction in nitrogen rather than a 22-percent reduction.  It must be




remembered, however, that this potential, 59-percent reduction in nitrogen




would not be continuous as supernatant is pumped intermittently from the




sludge lagoons.







C.  JOHN MORRELL AND COMPANY




     As discussed previously, the waste flow from the John Morrell and




Company facility to the municipal system was monitored separately




[Appendix F, Table F-5 (1451)] in order to determine its relative con-




tributions to the WWTP loadings.  (By employing 2,800 persons, this




meat-packing plant is one of the mainstays of the Sioux Falls, South




Dakota, economy.)  Morrell is the major waste source in the Sioux Falls




area.  The plant operates on an approximate 40-hr kill week, slaughtering




and processing hogs, cattle, and sheep at a site just across the river 




to the east, from the Sioux Falls Wastewater Treatment Plant.  [During




the study period the plant processed the number of animals tabulated




in Table VTI-5.3




     A "typical" day includes kill operations from approximately 6:00 AM-




3:00 PM, followed by major cleanups between 3:00 and 6:00 PM and minor




cleanups between 6:00 PM and 6:00 AM.  Some special processing, such as




bacon or sausage slicing, might occur during the evening hours but is not




considered a significant water use.






Pretreatment Facilities




     Current pretreatment facilities are minimal.  Blood is recovered




and sold for use, primarily, in animal feeds.  Recoverable meat scraps,




etc., are collected on the kill floors, and additional large scraps are

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                 TABLE VII-5

ANIMALS PROCESSED BY JOHN MORRELL AND COMPANY
     24 JANUARY THROUGH 10 FEBRUARY 1973
                                                                                          oo


Hogs
Cattle
Live Wt.
Date
1/24/73
1/25/73
1/26/73
1/27/73
1/28/73
1/29/73
1/30/73
1/31/73
2/1/73
2/2/73
2/3/73
2/4/73
2/5/73
2/6/73
2/7/73
2/8/73
2/9/73
2/10/73
No. Head
4,843
4,860
5,560
0
0
4,727
4,696
4,554
4,760
5,388
0
0
5,426
5,396
5,550
4,835
4,618
0
kg
544,803
546,715
625,460
0
0
561,772
558,088
541,212
559,751
640,327
0
0
622,692
619,249
636,922
554,868
529,965
0
Ib
1,201,064
1,205,280
1,378,880
0
0
1,238,474
1,230,352
1,193,148
1,234,020
1,411,656
0
0
1,372,778
1,365,188
1,404,150
1,223,255
1,168,354
0
No. Head
857
880
782
0
0
678
680
683
677
778
0
0
731
782
880
856
876
0
Sheep
Live Wt.
kg
414,247
447,481
386,761
0
0
352,307
328,382
337,188
307,885
435,801
0
0
309,388
428,700
452,219
469,381
454,897
0
Ib
913,244
986,510
852,648
0
0
776,690
723,946
743,360
678,758
960,760
0
0
682,072
945,105
996,956
1,034,790
1,002,860
0
No. Head
1,964
1,960
1,760
760
0
1,561
1,962
1,965
1,960
1,953
0
0
1,764
1,960
1,962
1,959
1,960
0
Live Wt.
kg ,
91,340
97,227
85,558
38,831
0
78,001
96,854
96,958
103,228
92,628
0
0
85,696
95,876
98,911
96,218
97,325
0
Ib
201,369
214,346
188,619
85,606
0
171,960
^13,524
213,753
227,576
204,206
0
0
188,924
211,366
218,057
212,121
214,561
0

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                                                                       79
collected in floor-drain baskets.  Solids passing the floor-drain screens


go to a collection basin for solids capture and grease recovery, follox^ed


by rotary screening for the capture of additional solids.  Paunch manure


by-passes the collection basin and combines with the plant wastewaters


at the rotary screens.  Screenings are hauled away for land disposal.


Then, screened wastewaters flow into a pumping station on the east bank


of the Big Sioux River and are pumped across the river into the Sioux


Falls WWTP industrial pretreatment system.


     Until recently, Morrell had a separate "condenser-water" discharge.


The quality of this discharge varied widely due to boilovers and miscel-


laneous sewer connections.  In late 1972, the Company connected this dis-

                             3
charge (approximately 1,890 m /day or 0.5 mgd) into the main plant sewer


to the treatment plant.



Proposed Abatement Measures


     Morrell is expanding its Sioux Falls operations; they are to include


the modification and construction of pollution control facilities.  New


construction will also include cured-meat and rendering facilities.  The


cured-meat facility will include grease interception and solids capture


[Figure VII-6].  The nex^ rendering facility is designed to eliminate


direct application of steam to the raw material, thereby eliminating


some of the contamination inherent in the older rendering systems that


employ direct steam application.  Excess heat leaving the system is


designed to be recovered prior to discharge of exhaust gases, thereby


eliminating the need for barometric condensers and the inherent pollution.


     Proposed pretreatraent facilities [Figure VII-6] will include the


following.

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80
         1.  There will be dry removal of paunch manure (currently not


             practiced in existing facilities).


         2.  There is to be segregation of storm drains from waste dis-


             charge lines.


         3.  Modification of catch basins is designed to achieve more ef-


             ficient solids-and-grease capture.  The influent to the catch


             basins will include "strong wastes" from the basic plant and


             liquid wastes from the rendering plant.  Grease recovered by


             the skimmers will be sent to the rendering system, and solids


             settled will be hauled to the municipal sanitary landfill.


             Screens will be added to the system to enhance solids capture.


         A.  Air-flotation system  the liquid effluent from the catch

                           r
             basins as well as the effluent from the cured-meats system


             will be sent to an air-flotation system.  The grease re-


             covered from the system will be returned to the rendering


             plant whereas solids are to be hauled to the municipal


             sanitary landfill.


         5.  The effluent from the air-flotation system, as well as "weak


             wastes" from the basic plant, will be sent to a rotary


             screening system for further solids capture and disposal.


             Wastewaters passing the screens will be discharged to the


             Sioux Falls WWTP.


         According to plant personnel, the pretreatment facility that is


    scheduled to be in operation by 1 January 1974, will reduce present BOD


    loadings to the municipal wastewater treatment plant by 60 percent,

-------
B
A
S
1C
P
L
A
NT
            CO
            cc
            I
            CO
                           RENDERING
                   PAUNCH MANURE
                         REMOVAL
  CATCH
  BASINS
              L_
   AIR
FLOTATION
ROTARY
SCREENS
                        GREASE
                        SOLIDS*
                       GREASE
CURED
MEATS
                                     GREASE',
                         323=
                        SOLIDS*
                        SOLIDS*
          EFFLUENT TO
  SIOUX FALLS,  SO.DAK ,  WWTP
                                    GREASE   |
                                ^INTERCEPTOR?
                                                  SOLIDS*
                                SOLIDS ARE  HAULED  TO
                                MUNICIPAL  SANITARY
                                LANDFILL
Figure  VII-6. Proposed  Pretreatment Facilities-Flow Schematic
        John Moriell  and  Company,  Sioux  Falls Opeiation

-------
                                                                      81
suspended solids by 75 percent, and grease by 80 percent.   On the


basis of survey data for the processing week, the following loadings


would result:


                      P r e sent	          	Anticipated

BOD
SS
S ewer
kg/day (Ib/day)
31,525 (69,500)
26,950 (59,400)
Charges Levied by City
kg /day (Ib/day)
12,610 (27,800)
6,740 (14,850)

     As mentioned previously, during the seven-day survey period the


wastes from Morrell represented, on an average, 67 percent of the BOD,


78 percent of the suspended solids, 71 percent of the total Kjeldahl


nitrogen, and 57 percent of the total phosphorus loads entering the


Sioux Falls WWTP.  Morrell, however, pays the City only $16,000 per year;


this represents only 4.4 percent of the 1973 operating costs ($359,972)


for the Sioux Falls WWTP.


     The existing contract that is valid until 1 September 1973, stipu-


lates that hydraulic loadings shall not exceed an average daily flow of

        3
18,920 m /day (5 mgd) but makes no waste-loading stipulation other than


"The strength of the sewage, as determined by the total Kjeldahl nitrogen


shall not exceed an average daily weight of five thousand seven hundred


fifty pounds, based on the number of working days in any calendar month,


but a maximum weight of seven thousand pounds Kjeldahl nitrogen shall be


permitted as a maximum daily load."  Although the Morrell wastes were not


sampled on enough working days to determine compliance with the average


monthly load of 2,610 kg (5,750 Ib) total Kjeldahl nitrogen, the average

-------
82
    TKN load during  five days of sampling  (2,600 kg or 5,730  Ib)  approached


    this limit.  There was a violation on  26 January when the maximum daily


    load limit of  3,175 kg (7,000 Ib) TKN  was exceeded; the plant received


    4,110 kg (9,070  Ib) of total Kjeldahl  nitrogen.  The contract further


    stipulates that  "It is agreed that if  and when the flow of  sewage and


    industrial waste  from the John Morrell Company plant shall  exceed in


    gallons or in  strength the maximum provided herein, or shall  become of


    such a character  as not to be amenable to treatment by the  existing


    processes, due to any changes in processing made by John  Morrell  and


    Company plant  at  Sioux Falls, then this contract shall be renegotiated".


         The inequity of the contract between the City and Morrell can


    readily be seen  by comparing it with that entered into by the City and


    Greenlee Packing  Company, Inc. of Sioux Falls (formerly Spencer Food,


    Inc., and now  Meilman Food Industries).  The latter includes  sewer


    charges of $.01/lb of BOD and $.02 per 1,000 gal.  During the seven


    days of monitoring the Morrell waste discharges, the average  BOD  and

                                                    3
    flow rate was  24,270 kg (53,500 Ib) and 12,110 m /day (3.2  mgd),  respec-


    tively.  If Morrell were charged in a  similar manner, the annual  sewer


    charge would be  $219,000, or an increase of $203,000 over current con-


    ditions.  With the aforementioned installation of pretreatment facilities


    by Morrell these  charges are estimated at $110,000/year which is  still


    almost seven times the present contract price.



    D.  MEILMAN FOOD  INDUSTRIES (FORMERLY  SPENCER FOOD. INC.)


         Meilman Food Industries (formerly Spencer Food, Inc.)  slaughtered,


    processed and  rendered approximately 700 to 800 head of beef  per  day at

-------
                                                                      83
its plant in western Sioux Falls, South Dakota. ,Wastewaters generated


in the process were discharged to a three-cell aerated lagoon, with


subsequent discharge to the Big Sioux River (KM 154.2).  During January


1973, the industry completed its connection to the city sewerage system.


It was originally planned to sample the Spencer raw-waste load in order


to predict the effects on the Sioux Falls WWTP.  On 26 January 1973,


the plant closed to facilitate process changes required by new owners,


Meilman Food Industries; hence, the plant generated no raw waste loads


during the l-through-10-February-1973 study.  However, contents of the


lagoon system were continuously discharged, from 31 January through


9 February, to the Big Sioux River (Rll 154.2)  and were monitored.

                                                                3
     Average flows during the nine days of sampling x^ere 1,400 m /day


(0.37 mgd).  Efforts to measure daily BOD loadings proved fruitless as


a result of an unknown toxicant.  The daily COD and suspended solids


loads averaged 560 kg (1,240 lb @ 420 mg/1) and 118 kg (261 Ib @ 90 mg/1),


respectively.  The effluent also contained an average TKN loading of


128 kg (283 lb @ 94 mg/1), and a total P loading of 15 kg (34 lb @


11.6 mg/1).  As discussed in a previous section, bacterial indicator


densities were excessive (FC=56,000/100 ml and FS=3,300,500/100 ml).


Pathogens, including Salmonella siegburg, S. tennessee, and S. binza,


were also isolated.


     Since the completion of the study, Meilman Foods negotiated an


agreement with the City of Sioux Falls, South Dakota, to discharge the


remainder of the lagoon contents to the sewerage system.  Having


completed this, they arc now filling in the former lagoons with earthen

-------
84
   material.  During the week of 26 March 1973, kill operations resumed on




   a limited scale, with wastewaters discharged to the Sioux Falls WWTP.




   Current plans call for a full-scale operation to include kills of ap-




   proximately 1,000 to 1,200 head of beef per day, of which approximately




   25 percent will be a kosher operation.




        Current pretreatment facilities are minimal.  Process wastes con-




   taining any fatty materials are sent to a settling tank from which the




   skimmed and settled material is then forwarded to the rendering system.




   Wastewaters leaving the tank combine with other plant wastes and are




   discharged to the municipal sewerage system.  Paunch manure is wet-




   removed and screened for subsequent land disposal.




        Projected loadings for the full-scale operation are unavailable.




   However, use of standard raw-waste loads indicate the Meilman Food




   Industries waste loading to the combined^domestic-industrial system




   will offset the current abatement program of the John Morrell and




   Company.  As previously discussed, weekday average BOD loadings from




   Morrell are expected to decrease from 31,525 to 12,610 kg (69,500 to




   27,800 Ib or a 60-percent reduction).  If the two-stage, trickling-




   filter system provides the same levels of removals (69 percent), and




   the remainder of the BOD loadings to the industrial-waste pretreatment




   system remains constant at 1,770 kg (3,900 Ib), loadings in the pretreat-




   ment system effluent will be 4,410 kg (9,730 Ib) rather than 9,210 kg




   (20,300 Ib).  Adding the current domestic raw waste load of 11,430 kg




   (25,200 Ib) yields a loading to the combined,domestic-industrial system




   of about 15,830 kg (34,900 Ib) rather than the 20,640 kg (45,500 Ib)

-------
                                                                       85
measured during the survey.  If one considers a standard raw-x^aste


load of 6.0 kg BOD/500 kg live weight killed  (12.1 Ib BOD/1,000 Ib LWK)


and an average live weight of about 500 kg (1,000 Ib)/head of beef,


Meiltnan Food Industries will have a loading that is to be approximately


5,490 kg (12,100 Ib) BOD.  Wastewaters from Meilman Industries discharge


to the City of Sioux Falls domestic sewerage system; hence, the meat-


packing plant wastes enter the combined, domestic industrial system


rather than the industrial-waste pretreatment system.


     With the addition of this projected loading from Meilman the


combined domestic-industrial-system waste loading will be 21,320 kg


(47,000 Ib).   Consequently, even though the John Morrell and Company


could decrease their BOD load to the industrial-waste pretreatment


system by 18,910 kg (41,700 Ib), loadings to the combined domestic


industrial system, as a result of Meilman will increase by 680 kg


(1,500 Ib).  If the activated-sludge system provides comparable removals


to those found during the recent study (81 percent reduction), effluent


loadings will be 4,050 kg (8,930 Ib) rather than 3,910 kg (8,620 Ib), an


increase of 140 kg (310 Ib).  Even if higher degrees of removal as

                                 2
reported in a previous EPA report/ were accomplished in both the trick-


ling filter (87 percent) and activated sludge (92 percent) systems, the


addition of Meilman Food Industries to the domestic system will largely


offset planned reductions by the John Morrell and Company.
* This was an industrial waste study performed for the Environmental

  Protection Agency by the North Star Research and Development Institute.

-------
86

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                                                                   87
                  VIII.  POLLUTION ABATEMENT NEEDS







     Studies during the fall of 1972 and winter of 1973 have demon-




strates the Big Sioux River to be a sensitive ecosystem.  Documented,




undesirable effects included a severely restricted oxygen resource,




potentially toxic conditions, and impaired bacterial quality.






A.  RESTRICTED OXYGEN RESOURCE




     The winter-1973 study disclosed that dissolved-oxygen levels were




severely depressed downstream from the Sioux Falls, South Dakota, area




in spite of abnormally high flows.  The major cause of depressed-oxygen




level was the oxygen demand of a large waste load (Sioux Falls, South




Dakota, WWTP)  vs. a receiving stream of minimal assimilative capacity.




Because the elements governing the assimilative capacity, including




minimal re-aeration during periods of ice cover and recurrent low-




flow conditions, are fixed, the only effective controls are at the




waste source itself.  The WWTP effluent, often constituting greater




than 50 percent of the doxtfnstream flows, must be viewed as an integral




part of the stream and consequently must approach the upstream




water quality.  In the case of the Big Sioux River, this quality was




defined by a BOD and suspended solids level of less than 10 and 15 mg/1,




respectively.   Unless the Sioux Falls Wastewater Treatment Plant is




capable of continuously producing a comparable quality effluent, the




Big Sioux River will continue to be a severely restricted resource




during at least some of the low-flow-winter and late-summer portions




of the year.  The Sioux Falls Wasteuater Treatment Plant personnel

-------
88
    are extremely competent.   However,  the evaluation  of  the plant demon-




    strated that  present  activated sludge  facilities are  organically over-




    loaded, thereby precluding,  on a continuous  basis,  an effluent of the




    quality previously mentioned.






    B.   POTENTIALLY TOXIC CONDITIONS




         The Winter-1973  study established a  chronic-toxicity level of




    three-percent effluent, or 1.8 mg/1 NH -N.   Despite abnormally high




    flows,  NH--N  concentrations  downstream of the Sioux Falls area were




    found to be in excess of  this  level.   These  conditions  resulted from




    the discharge of nitrogenous materials from  the municipal treatment




    plant.   During the 17 days of  monitoring, the Sioux Falls WWTP dis-




    charged an average of 1,760  kg (3,880  Ib  @ 52 mg/1) of  total Kjeldahl




    nitrogen.  As the plant effluent can constitute upwards  of 100 per-




    cent of downstream flows,  the  treatment plant must  produce an  efflu-




    ent with a TKN of less than  or equal to 2.0  mg/1 in order to preclude




    potentially toxic conditions.   This  will  require a  highly nitrified




    effluent that will also remove the  potential of a nitrogenous  oxygen




    demand  (stochiometrically  about 8,150  kg/day or 18,000  Ib/day)  upon  the




    Big Sioux River.   This latter  accomplishment could  prove to be paramount




    in  the  low-flow-summer and early fall  months when stream temperatures




    are conducive to the  growth  of nitrifying organisms.




         Nitrification is recommended;  complete  nitrogen  removal is not.




    The removal of oxygen-demanding carbonaceous and nitrogenous materials




    from the Sioux Falls  WWTP  effluent,  should offset diurnal oxygen sags




    related to the algal  community.

-------
                                                                       89
     Three sources of nitrogen are especially amenable to exclusion or




treatment.  The first is wastewaters from the John Morrell and Company




that contributed about 74 percent of the load of total Kjeldahl nitrogen




received by the Sioux Falls plant during the work week.  Steps should




be taken immediately by Morrell to ascertain what degree of removal




xvill be accomplished in their abatement program.  This will enable an




assessment of need for further pretreatment-versus-treatment by the




City.  The second controllable source is the sludge-lagoon supernatant




that is returned to the head of the industrial pretreatment system.




During the 24 through 31 January 1973, evaluation this accounted for




an average of 975 kg (2,150 Ib @ 1,280 mg/1) TKN being reintroduced




into the plant; this represents 56 percent of the TKN discharged from




the municipal wastewater treatment plant (1,750 kg or 3,868 Ib).  The




TKN load in the sludge-lagoon supernatant should be removed, using, for




example, land application of supernatant or separate treatment at the




plant.




     Meilman Food Industries while not a part of the Sioux Fa]Is,




South Dakota, sewerage system during the survey, is also expected to




contribute a substantial nitrogen load to the plant.  The City must




ascertain the magnitude of the load and require either pretreatment by




the industry or adequate remuneration to pay for treatment costs at




the plant.






C.  IMPAIRED BACTERIAL QUALITY




     Studies performed during the winter of 1973 demonstrated that




the Sioux Falls WWTP was causing impaired bacterial quality downstream

-------
90
    from the Sioux Falls area.   This resulted from the decision by the City




    to eliminate disinfection during winter months.   It is recommended that




    the plant provide continuous disinfection of wastewaters with no




    monthly average (logarithmic mean)  fecal-coliform bacterial density




    exceeding 200/100 ml and no weekly average exceeding 400/100 ml.




         The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972




    require by 1 July 1977, publicly owned treatment works meet effluent




    limitations based upon secondary treatment, as defined by the Admin-




    istrator.  It is recognized that aforementioned  effluent-quality recom-




    mendations for the City of Sioux Falls, South Dakota (i.e., BOD  10 mg/1,




    SS  15 mg/1, and TKN _< 2 mg/1)  are more stringent than this.  However,




    the Act also provides that in instances such as  the Big Sioux River,




    where compliance with prescribed effluent limitations will not assure




    compliance with water quality standards, EPA shall impose more stringent




    effluent limitations.




         In summary, in order to improve and protect the water quality of




    the Big Sioux River, it will be necessary for the City of Sioux Falls,




    South Dakota, to take the following steps:




         1.  Establish enforceable pretreatment standards for those pol-




             lutants that are not susceptible to treatment by the municipal




             system or which pass through, or otherwise interfere with its




             operation.  The ordinance establishing the pretreatment standards




             must include adequate sewer charges for all industrial waste




             sources to assure equitable recovery of treatment costs.

-------
                                                                  91
2.  Continue to pretrcat industrial waste in the existing two-




    stage, trickling-filter system.




3.  Treat sludge lagoon supernatant separately or use land




    application.




4.  Oxidize carbonaceous materials in the activated-sludge system.




    This will necessitate the expansion or replacement of existing




    aeration facilities to eliminate organic overloads.




5.  Nitrify wastewaters to a TKN of <_ 2 mg/1.  This could possibly




    be combined with the system included for oxidation of carbon-




    aceous materials but probably will require a separate system




    to assure  a nitrifying environment.




6.  Provide tertiary filtration of wastewaters to assure a contin-




    uous high quality effluent with a BOD <_ 10 mg/1 and SS <_




    15 mg/1.




7.  Provide continuous disinfection of wastewaters with no monthly




    average (logarithmic mean) fecal coliform density exceeding




    200/100 ml and no weekly average exceeding 400/100 ml.

-------
92
                                 REFERENCES
     \l    Water Pollution Report for the Iowa Reach of the Big Sioux River,
          Iowa Water Pollution  Control Commission.  Limnology Division  of
          the State Hygienic Laboratory.  Des Moines, Iowa.  30 March 1972.

     2J    Investigation of the  City of Sioux Falls, South Dakota Municipal
          Wastewater Treatment  Facility, July 13 and  14, 1972.  Environmental
          Protection Agency, National Field Investigations Center-Cincinnati.
          Cincinnati, Ohio.  October 1972.

    ^/    Water Quality Control Study-Big Sioux River Basin, Iowa, Minnesota,
          and South Dakota, U.  S. Department of the Interior, Missouri  Basin
          Region,  Federal Water Pollution Control Administration. Kansas City,
          Missouri.  September  1969.

     UJ    Kerwin Luther Rakness, Analysis of the Flow Variation of the  Big Sioux
          River -  A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements
          for the  degree of Master of Science Major in Civil Engineering.
          South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota.  (1970)

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                 APPENDIX A









           WATER QUALITY  STANDARDS




                   for the




       SURFACE WATERS  OF  SOUTH DAKOTA









(Portion applicable to Big Sioux River Basin)

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                                                                         A-l
CATEGORY NUMBER 1 - DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY
Definition;  Waters in this category shall be suitable for use for human
consumption, culinary or food processing purposes and other household
purposes after suitable treatment by conventional processes.

General;  Waters in this category shall be such that with treatment con-
sisting of coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection, or its
equivalent, the treated water will meet in all respects the mandatory
requirements of the "Drinking Water Standards-1962" prepared by the Public
Health Service of the United States Department of Health, Education and
Welfare.

     Criteria presented herein pertain to the untreated water.

Criteria;
                                                                Frequency
Parameter               Limit                                     Code

Total dissolved solids  1000 mg/1                                   c

Coliform Organisms      Not to exceed a MPN or MF of 5000/100 ml
                        as a monthly average value; nor to exceed
                        this value in more than 20% of the samples
                        examined during any one month; nor to
                        exceed 20,000/100 ml in more than 5% of
                        the samples examined in any one month.

Nitrates                10 mg/1 (as N) or 45 mg/1 (as NO )          a

pH                      Greater than 6.0 and less than 9.0          a
CATEGORY NUMBER 2 - FISH LIFE PROPAGATION

Description:  All waters in this category shall be such that they will
provide a satisfactory environment for the class of fish described and
for all other aquatic life essential to the maintenance and propagation
of fish life.  There shall be separate quality criteria for each of the
following five sub-categories:

     a.  Cold water permanent       All lakes, streams and reservoirs in
                                    this category shall be capable of sup-
                                    porting a good permanent trout fishery
                                    from natural reproductions or fingerling
                                    stockings.

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A-2
     b.  Cold water marginal
     c.   Warm water permanent
     d.   Warm water semi-permanent
     e.   Warm water marginal
Criteria:
All lakes, streams and reservoirs
in this category shall be suitable
for supporting stockings of
catchable size trout during
portions of the year but due
to low flows, siltation and
warm temperatures will not sup-
port a   permanent cold water
fish population.

Lakes, streams and reservoirs
in this category shall be
suitable for permanent
maintenance of warm water
fish including walleyes,
black bass or blue gills.

Lakes, streams and reservoirs
in this category shall be
suitable for a quality warm
water fishery but may suffer
occasional fish kills because
of critical natural conditions.
Principal species managed in
these waters will include
walleyes, perch, northern
pike or channel catfish.

Lakes, streams and reservoirs
in'this category shall be suitable
for supporting more tolerant
species of fish with frequent
stocking and intensive manage-
ment.  Principal species
managed in these lakes include
perch, northern pike or
bullheads.
     Criteria for each of the described sub-categories  are presented in
tabular form on the following page.

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                                                                               A-3
Criteria:  (Fish Life Propagation-continued)
Parameter
Chlorides
Cyanides
Dissolved Oxygen
(greater than)
Hydrogen Sulfide
Iron (total)
pH*
Suspended Solids
Temperature
(degrees F)
Turbidity**
a
100
0.02
6.0
0.3
0.2
6.6-8.6
30
68
25
b

0.02
5.0
0.5
0.2
6.5-8.8
90
75
50
c

0.02
5.0
0.5
0.2
6.5-8.8
90
80
50
d e

0.02 0.05
5.0 2.0
1.0 1.0
0.2
6.3-9.0 6.0-9.3
90 150
90 93
100
Frequency
Code
c
a
a
a
b
a
c
a
c
Note:  All values in mg/1 unless indicated otherwise.  The frequency code shown
       applies to all sub-categories.
* in pH units.
**Jackson Candle units

          Pesticides, herbicides and related compounds shall be treated as toxic
materials and taste and odor producing chemicals and controlled under the provisions
of Chapter II, Section II, subsection 2 and 4.

          Temperatures shall not be affected by more than 4F. in sub-categories
a, b and c, 5F. in sub-category d, and 8F. in subcategory e.

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A-4
      CATEGORY NUMBER 3 - RECREATION
      Definitions;  Water in this category shall be suitable for swimming,
      water skiing, skin diving, fishing, boating, sailing, picnicking and
      other water  related types of recreation.  There shall be separate quality
      criteria for each of  the following two sub-categories:

          a.  Immersion Sports which would include swimming, x^ater skiing,
              skin diving  and other water sports.

          b.  Limiticd Contact Recreation which would include fishing, boating,
              sailing, picnicking and other water related recreation.

      General:  The criteria for recreation will normally apply only during the
      summer  recreation season.  However, if the receiving waters are used
      extensively  for winter recreation, the criteria for limited contact
      recreation shall apply during the winter months.
      Criteria;

      Parameter

      a.   Immersion  Sports

      "Fecal  Coliform  Organisms
Limit
Frequency
  Code
          Dissolved  Oxygen

      b.   Limited  Contact Recreation

      "Fecal  Coliform Organisms
          Dissolved Oxygen
Not to exceed a concentration of
200/100 ml as a monthly average;
nor to exceed this value in more
than 20% of the samples examined
in any one month; nor to exceed
500/100 ml on any one day during
the recreation season."

Greater than 2 mg/1
Not to exceed a concentration of
1,000/100 ml as a monthly average;
nor to exceed this value in more
than 20% of the sample examined in
any one month; nor to exceed
2,000/100 ml on any one day during
the recreation season."

Greater than 2 mg/1

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                                                                        A-5
CATEGORY NUMBER 4 - WILDLIFE PROPAGATION AND STOCK WATERING

Definition;  Waters in this category shall be satisfactory as habitat
for aquatic and semi-aquatic wild animals and fox^l and shall be suitable
for watering domestic and wild animals and fowl.

General;  No pollution shall be permitted to enter waters in this category
which will produce inhibited growth, physical impairment or injurious
effects on wild or domestic animals and fowl normally inhabiting or using
the water.

Criteria:
Parameter

Alkalinity (Total)
  (as CaCO )

Total dissolved solids

Electrical conductivity

Nitrates (as NO )

PH
2,500 mg/1

4,000 micromhos/cm @ 25C.

50 mg/1

Greater than 6.0 and less
 than 9.5
                                Frequency
                                  Code
c

c

b

a
CATEGORY NUMBER 5 - IRRIGATION

Definition;  Waters in this category shall be suitable for irrigating farm
and ranch lands, gardens and recreation areas.

General; Since the suitability of a water for irrigation is primarily
dependent on characteristics of the irrigated soil, only ranges for upper
limits of pollutional parameters affecting irrigation have been specified.
The required water quality will be established by the Committee on an
individual basis after giving due consideration to appropriate soil test
results and other pertinent information.

     Criteria for coliform organisms apply only to waters used to irrigate
root crops and recreation areas.

     Irrigation criteria apply during the irrigation season only.  In the
enforcement of these criteria, the Committee will specify which parameters
shall be used between total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity
and between sodium absorption ratio and soluble sodium percentage, it being
understood that the criteria for total dissolved solids and electrical
conductivity apply to the same pollution characteristic as do the criteria
for sodium adsorption ratio and soluble sodium percentage.

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 A-6
IRRIGATION (continued)

Criteria:


Parameter

"Fecal Coliform Organisms
Total dissolved solids

Electrical conductivity


Sodium adsorption ratio*

Soluble sodium percentage**
    Limit

    The concentration shall not
    exceed 1,000/100 ml as a
    monthly average; nor shall
    the number exceed 2,000/100 ml
    in any one sample.  (Root crops
    and recreation)."

    700 to 1500 mg/1

    1000 to 2500 micromhos/cm
    @ 25C

    10 to 26

    30 to 70%
                    Frequency
                      Code
                        d

                        d

                        d
Note:  When two values are given, they are ranges in the premissable limit.
* Calculated from:  SAR =
   Na
where Na, Ca, and Mg are
                                       ,1/2
                          [l/2(Ca
concentrations of sodium, calcium and magnesium in milliequivalents per
liter of water
**Calculated from:  Na% =
100 Na
where Na, Ca, Mg and K
                          Na + Ca + Mg + K
are concentrations of sodium, calcium, magnesium and potassium in mg/liter.
CATEGORY NUMBER 7 - INTERMITTENT STREAM

Definition:  Most watercourses with zero flow; flows less than the daily
average waste flow; or with flows less than the daily average irrigation
return flow shall be placed in this category.

General;  All wastes discharged to streams, lakes or reservoirs in this
category shall have been subjected to at least secondary treatment or its
equivalent and, if prescribed by the Committee, approved tertiary treatment
shall be provided.  Industrial or other waste waters not amenable to
biological treatment shall be nhysically or chemically treated as directed
by the Committee after giving due consideration to downstream land and
water uses.  The criteria for coliform organisms may be waived at the

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                                                                       A-7
INTERMITTENT STREAM (continued)

discretion of the Committee if downstream land and water uses do not
warrant such control.  The provisions of these criteria will apply to
irrigation return flows and other similar waters discharged to surface
lakes, streams or reservoirs.
Criteria:
Parameter
Coliform organisms
Biochemical oxygen demand
  (5 day 20C)

PH
Suspended solids
Limit

Not to exceed a KPN or MF of
20,000/100 ml as a monthly aver-
age value; nor to exceed this
value in more than 20% of the
samples tested in any one month;
nor to exceed 50,000/100 ml in
any of the samples tested.

30 mg/1
Greater than 6.0 and less
 than 9.5

30 mg/1
                                                                  Frequency
                                                                    Code
Note:  The provisions of Chapter II, Section II, subsection 1, 2, 3, and
4 shall also apply to this category.
Section V - Designation of Beneficial Uses of Surface Waters

     Beneficial uses of the surface waters of South Dakota are designated
herein for the purpose of specifying quality objectives of all lakes,
streams and reservoirs.  The designation does not limit beneficial uses
nor prohibit beneficial uses other than those listed.

     Categories of use are indicated by number and letter as follows:

     1.  Domestic water supply

     2.  Fish life propagation

         2a  Cold water permanent
         2b  Cold water marginal
         2c  Warm water permanent
         2d  Warm water semi-permanent
         2e  Warm water marginal

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Section V - (continued)

     3.  Recreation

         3a  Immersion sports
         3b  Limited contact recreation

     A.  Wildlife propagation and stock watering

     5.  Irrigation

     6.  Commerce and industry

     7.  Intermittent stream (this category is not indicated since it
         application is automatic depending upon stream flow.)
     Names and locations of lakes, reservoirs and marshes are as shown
on maps and lake inventory records maintained by the South Dakota
Department of Game, Fish and Parks.  Stream nanes and locations are as
shown on the drainage nap of the State of South Dakota, edition of 1963,
as compiled by the United States Geological Survey in 1961.
BASIN
                               STREAMS
 TRIBUTARY
           LOCATION
USE
BIG SIOUX
*llain stem
Missouri River to Klondike Dam    2d,3a,3b,4,5


                                  2d,2e,3b,4,5
                             Klondike Dan to Lower End of
                             Sioux Falls Diversion Ditch
                             Lower End of Sioux Falls Diver-
                             sion Ditch to headwaters        l,2d,2e,3b,4,5
               Owens Creek   Day and Roberts Counties

               All other
               tributaries
                                                    2c,3b,4,5
                                                          4,5
* Interstate Waters

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                                                                       A-9
Big Sioux River has been classified as "2d" except under the following
conditions:

Then flows in the Big Sioux River at Brandon equal or exceed the  flows
given below, the respective criterion of 4.0 mg/1 or 5.0 mg/1  dissolved
oxygen applies from Klondike Dam to the lower end of Sioux Falls
Diversion Ditch:

                                  4.0 mg/1 D.O.           5.0  mg/1
                                      1970                  1970
SEASON                            (flow - cfs)          (flow  - cfs)

Summer                                 90                    160
(June 15 - Sept. 15)

Fall                                   35                      45
(sept. 15 - Dec. 15)

Winter                                 60                      70
(Dec. 15 - Mar. 15)

Spring                                 35                      45
(Mar. 15 - June 15)
When flows at Brandon are less than those indicated for 4 mg/1 D.O.,  the
"Intermittent Stream" category (7) applies.

THIS SECTION ADDED BY AMENDMENT 12-11-70

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                 APPENDIX B
        IOWA WATER QUALITY  STANDARDS
(Portion applicable  to  Big  Sioux  River Basin)

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                                                                        B-l
               IOWA WATER POLLUTION CONTROL COMMISSION
                        RULES AND REGULATIONS
                       WATER QUALITY STANDARDS
Pursuant to the authority of sections 455B.9 and 455B.13, Code of Iowa,

1971, as amended by S.F. 402, Acts of the 64th G.A., rules appearing in

July 1967 Supplement, Iowa Departmental Rules, pages 38-39, are rescinded

and the following adopted in lieu thereof.


Section 1.2 (455B)  Surface water quality criteria

     1.2(1)  General policy considerations.  Surface waters are to be

evaluated according to their ability to support the legitimate (beneficial)

uses to which they can feasibly be adapted, and this specific designation

of quality areas shall be done by the Iowa Water Pollution Control

Commission.

     Samp]ing to determine conformance to these criteria shall be done at

sufficient distances downstream from waste discharge points to permit

adequate mixing of waste effluents with the surface waters.

     1.2(2)  General Criteria.  The following criteria are applicable

to all surface waters at all places and at all times:

       a.  Free from substances attributable to municipal, industrial, or

other discharges that will settle to form putrescent or otherwise objec-

tionable sludge deposits;

       b.  Free from floating debris, oil, scum and other floating

materials attributable to municipal, industrial or other discharges in

amounts sufficient to be unsightly or deleterious;

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B-2
       c.  Free from materials attributable to municipal, industrial,




or other discharges producing color, odor, or other conditions in




such degree as to be detrimental to legitimate uses of water;




       d.  Free from substances attributable to municipal, industrial,




or other discharges in concentrations or combinations which are detri-




mental to human, animal, industrial, agricultural, recreational,




aquatic, or other legitimate uses of the water.




     1.2(3)  Specific criteria for designated water uses.




     The following criteria are applicable at flows greater than the




lowest flow for seven consecutive days which can be expected to occur




at a frequency of once every ten years.




       b.  Aquatic life.  The following criteria are designated for




the maintenance and propagation of a well-balanced fish population.




They are applicable to any place in surface waters but cognizance




will be given to opportunities for admixture of waste effluents with




such waters.




       (1)  Warm water areas:  Dissolved oxygen:  Not less than




5.0 mg/1 during at least 16 hours of any 24-hour period and not less



than 4.0 mg/1 at any time during the 24-hour period.




       pH:  Not less than 6.8 nor above 9.0




       Temperature:




            Mississippi River  Not to exceed an 89F maximum  tem-




perature from the Minnesota border to the Wisconsin border and  a




90F maximum temperature from the Wisconsin border to the Missouri




border nor a 5F change from background or natural temperature  in




the Mississippi River.

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                                                                   B-3
            Missouri River  Not to exceed a 90F maximum daily tem-

perature nor a 5F increase over background or natural temperature.

       Interior streams  Not to exceed a 90F maximum temperature

nor a maximum 5F increase over background or natural temperature.

            Lakes and reservoirs  Not to exceed a 90F maximum tem-

perature nor a maximum 3F inc case over background or natural temperature.

       Chemical constituents:  Not to exceed the following concentrations:

             Specific constituents (mg/1)                       ^-

         Ammonia Nitrogen (N)      2.0        *Copper              0.02

         *Arsenic                  1.0         Cyanide             0.025

         *Bariura                   5.0        *Lead                0.10

         *Cadmium                  0.05       *Zinc                1.0

         *Chromium (hexavalent)    0.05        Phenols             0.001
                                                (Other than natural sources)
         *Chromium (trivalent)     1.0

         *A maximum of 5.0 mg/1 for the entire heavy metal group shall

not be exceeded.

     All substances toxic or detrimental to aquatic life shall be limited

to nontoxic or non-detrimental concentrations in the surface water.

       c.  Recreation.  The following criteria are applicable to any

waters used for recreational activities involving whole body contact

such as swimming and water skiing:

       (1)  Bacteria:  Waters shall be considered to be of unsatisfactory

bacteriological quality for the above recreational use when:

       A sanitary survey indicates the presence or probability of the

presence of sewage or other objectional bacteria-bearing wastes or

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B-4
                  Numerical bacteriological limits of 200 fecal coliforms per




      100 m] for primary contact recreational waters are exceeded during low




      flow periods when such bacteria can be demonstrated to be attributable




      to pollution by sewage.




           1.2(4)  Disinfection.




           Continuous disinfection shall be provided for all municipal waste




      treatment effluents and for all other wastes which may be sources of




      bacterial pollution throughout the year where such wastes are discharged




      into waters designated for public water supplies and throughout the




      recreational season (April 1 to October 31) where such wastes are dis-




      charged into waters used or classified for recreational use and at all




      other times as necessary to prevent bacterial pollution which may endanger




      the public health or welfare.




           1.2(5)  Non-degradation.




           Waters whose existing quality is better than the established standards




      as of the date on which such standards become effective will be maintained




      at high quality unless it has been affirmatively demonstrated to the State




      that a change is justifiable as a result of necessary economic or social




      development and will not preclude present and anticipated use of such




      waters.  Any industrial, public or private project or development which




      would constitute a new source of pollution or an increased source of




      pollution to high quality waters will be required to provide the necessary




      degree of waste treatment to maintain high water quality.  (In implemen-




      ting this rule, the appropriate agency of the Federal Government will be




      kept advised and will be provided with such information as it will need

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                                                                  B-5
be provided with such information as it will need to discharge its




responsibilities under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as




amended.)




     1.2(6)  Interstate waters.




     (1)  The Mississippi river, Missouri river, Fox river, Des Moines




river, East Fork of the Des Moines river, West Fork of the Des Moines




river, Iowa river, Cedar river, Shellrock river, Winnebago river,




Wapsipinicor river, Upper Iowa river, Chariton river, Middle Fork




Medicine river, Weldon river, Little river, Thompson river, East Fork




of the Big river, Grand river, Platte river, East Fork of the 102 river,




Middle Fork of the 102 river, Hedaway river, West Tarkio river, Tarkio




river, Nishnabotna river, Little Sioux river, Rock river and Kanaranzi




Ditch are hereby designated as interstate waters.




     (2)  Treatment:  All municipal wastes discharged into the interstate




waters of the Mississippi river and the Missouri river shall receive a




minimum of ninety percent (90) reduction of BOD prior to discharge, no




later than dates fixed by order of the Iowa Water Pollution Control




Commission.  All industrial wastes discharged into such interstate waters




shall receive equivalent treatment prior to discharge, no later than




dates fixed by order of the Iowa Water Pollution Control Commission.

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                                                  TABLE  11

                            WATER POLLUTION  CONTROL NEEDS AND DESIGNATED WATER USES
                                           (Revised June  1,  1968)
                                                                                                             w
STREAM AND TRIBUTARY

"Big Sioux River

   Indian Creek
  *Rock River

   Burr Oak Creek
   Little Rock River


      Otter Creek

   Hud Creek

  *Kanaranzi Ditch
MUNICIPALITY
 OR INDUSTRY

 Akron
 Hawarden
 Ireton
 Rock Valley
 Rock Rapids
 Hull
 Doon
 George
 Little Rock
 Ashton
 Sibley
 Alvord
 Lester
 Inwood
POPULATION

   1351
   2544
    510
   1693
   2780
   1239
    430
   1200
  '  564
    615
   2352
    238
    239
    638
 PRESENT
TREATMENT

  AE
  None
  IT-TF
  ST-SF
  PC-TF
  PC-TF
  IT
  ST-SF
  IT-TF
  L
  PC-TF
  L
  L
  L
 TREATMENT
   NEEDS
New Plant

Replacement

Expansion
Replacement
Replacement


Expansion
 COMPLIANCE
  SCHEDULE
July 1, 1968

July 1, 1969

July 1, 1972
July 1, 1972
July 1, 1963


July 1, 1969
WATER
 USE

 4
 4
 4
 2
 2,3
 4
 4
 4
 4
 4
 4
 4
 4
 4

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                 APPENDIX C
      MINNESOTA WATER QUALITY  STANDARDS
(Portion applicable to Big Sioux River Basin)

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                                                                      C-l
                      POLLUTION CONTROL AGENCY

                      CHAPTER FIFTEEN:   WPC 15

   CRITERIA FOR THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE INTERSTATE WATERS OF THE STATE
        AND THE ESTABLISHMENT OF STANDARDS OF QUALITY AND PURITY

WPC 15  The official policy and purpose of the State of Minnesota in
regard to these matters is set forth in the Minnesota Water Pollution
Control Statutes:

     Sec.  115.42.  It is the policy of the state to provide for the
prevention, control and abatement of pollution of al] waters of the
state, so far as feasible and practical, in furtherance of conservation
of such waters and protection of the public health and in furtherance of
the development of the economic welfare of the state . .  . .It is the
purpose of Laws 1963, Chapter 874, to safeguard the waters of the state
from pollution by: (a) preventing any new pollution; and (b) abating
pollution existing when Laws 1963, Chapter 374, become effective, under
a program consistent with the declaration of policy above stated.

Section.  115.44 Subd. 2.  In order to attain the objectives of Laws 1963,
Chapter 874, the commission* after proper study, and after conducting
public hearing upon due notice, shall,  as soon as practicable, group the
designated waters of the state into classes and adopt classifications and
standards of purity and quality therefor.  Such classification shall be
made in accordance with considerations of best usage in the interest of
the public and with regard to the considerations mentioned in subdivision
3 hereof.

Sec.  115.44 Subd. 8. . . .The commission* may classify waters and adopt
criteria and standards in such form and based on such evidence as it may
deem necessary and sufficient for the purposes of meeting requirements
of such federal laws, notwithstanding any provisions in Chapter 115 or
any other state law to the contrary. .  . .Notwithstanding the provisions
of subdivision 4, wherever advisable and practicable the commission''* may
establish standards for effluent of disposal systcns entering waters
regardless of whether such waters are or are not classified.
                          (a)   INTRODUCTION

(1)  Defintions:   The terms "waters of the state" for the purposes of this
     regulation shall be construed to mean interstate x^aters as herein
     below defined, and the terms "sewage," "industrial wastes," and other
     wastes," as  well as any other terms for which definitions are given
     in the Water Pollution Control Statutes, as used herein have the
     meanings ascribed to them in Minnesota Statutes, Sections 115.01 and
     115.41, with the exception that disposal systems or treatment works

* Laws of 1967, Chapter 882, abolished the Water Pollution Control Com-
  mission and transferred its  powers and duties to the Minnesota Pollution
  Control Agency.

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C-2
          operated under permit of the Agency shall not be construed to be
          "waters of the state" as the tern is used herein.  The current
          requirements of applicable federal la\;s which must be met arc set
          forth in the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended
          (33 U.S.C. 460 et seq.).  Interstate waters are defined in Section
          13(c) thereof as including all rivers, lakes, and other waters that
          flox-7 across or form a part of state boundaries.  Other terms and
          abbreviations used herein which are not specifically defined in the
          law shall be construed in conformance with the context, and in
          relation to the applicable section of the statutes pertaining to
          the matter at hand, and current professional usage.

      (2)  Uses of the Interstate Waters:  The classifications are listed
          separately in accordance with the need for interstate water quality
          protection, considerations of best use in the interest of the
          public and other considerations, as indicated in Minnesota Statutes,
          Section 115.44.  The classifications should not be construed to be
          an order of priority, nor considered to be exclusive or prohibitory
          of other beneficial uses unless so stated in regard to discharge or
          disposal of sewage, industrial wastes or other wastes commonly
          associated with such other uses, vhcre such discharges may adversely
          affect the specified uses.  Only the uses of the interstate waters
          of the state as a medium for disposal of sewage, industrial wastes
          or other wastes is subject to regulation by the Agency, not their
          appropriation or other use such as for navigation or recreation.
          Where more than one of the listed uses may occur without reasonable
          separation in distance on the same interstate waters, appropriate
          adjustments will be made in the classifications and standards to
          take into account such intermingling of uses.

      (3)  Determination of Compliance;  In making tests or analyses of the
          interstate waters of the state, sewage, industrial wastes or other
          wastes to determine compliance with the standards, samples shall be
          collected in such manner nnd place, and of such type, number and
          frequency as may be considered satisfactory by the Agency from the
          viewpoint of adequately reflecting the condition of the interstate
          waters, the composition of the effluents, and the effects of the
          pollutants upon the specified uses.  Reasonable allowance will be
          made for dilution of the effluents in relation to the uses of the
          interstate waters into which they are discharged or other inter-
          state waters which may be affected.  The samples shall be preserved
          and  analyzed in accordance with procedures given in the 1965 edition
          of Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste-Water,
          by the American Public Health Association, American Water Works
          Association, and the Water Pollution Control Federation, and any
          revisions or amendments thereto, or other methods acceptable to the
          Agency.

      (4)  Natural Interstate Water Quality:  The interstate waters may, in a
          state of nature, have some characteristics or properties approaching
          or exceeding the limits specified in the standards.  The standards

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                                                                      C-3
     shall be construed as limiting the addition of  pollutants  of  human
     origin to those of natural origin,  where  such be present,  so  that
     in total the specified limiting concentrations  will  not  be exceeded
     in the interstate waters by reason of  such  controllable  additions;
     except that where the background level of the natural  origin  is
     reasonably definable and normally is higher than the specified
     standard the natural level may be used as the standard for control-
     ling the addition of pollutants of human  origin which  are  comparable
     in nature and significance x;ith these  of  natural origin, but  where
     the natural background level is lower  than  the  specified standard
     and where reasonable justification exists for preserving the  quality
     of the interstate waters as nearly as  possible  to that found  in  a
     state of nature,  the natural level may be used  instead of  the
     specified standard as the maximum limit on  the  addition  of pollutants.
     In the adoption of standards for individual interstate waters, the
     Agency will be guided by the standards set  forth herein  but may
     make reasonable modifications of the same on the basis of  evidence
     brought forth at a public hearing if it is  s^own to  be desirable and
     in the public interest to do so in order  to encourage  the  best use
     of the interstate waters or the lands  bordering such interstate  waters,

          Waters which are of quality better than the established  standards
     will be maintained at high quality unless a determpation  ] s  made by
     the State that a change is -justifiable as a reasult  of necessary
     economic or social development and will not preclude appropriate
     beneficial present and future uses  of  the waters. Any project or
     development which would constitute a source of  pollution to hiph
     quality waters will be required to  provide  the  highest and best
     practicable treatment to mainta:n high water quality and keep water
     pollution at a minimum.  In implementing  this policy,  the  Secretary
     of the Interior will be provided with  such  information as  he  requires
     to discharge his responsibilities under the Federal  Water  Quality
     Act, as amended.

(5)   Variance From Standards:  In any case  where, upon application of the
     responsible person or persons, the Agency finds that by  reason of
     exceptional circumstances the strict enforcement of  any  provision
     of these standards would cause undue hardship;  that  disposal  of  the
     sewage, industrial x/aste or other waste is  necessary for the  public
     health, safety or welfare; and that strict  conformity  with the
     standards would be unreasonable,  impractical or not  feasible  under
     the circumstances; the Agency in its discretion may  permit a  variance
     therefrom upon such conditions as it may  prescribe for prevention,
     control or abatement of pollution in harmony with the  general purpose
     of these classifications and standards and  the  intent  of the  appli-
     cable state and national laws.  The Federal Water Pollution Control
     Administration will be advised of any  permits which  may  be issued
     under this clause together with information as  to the  need therefor.

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C-4
                          (b)  WATER USE CLASSIFICATIONS
                        ALL  INTERSTATE WATKRS OF Till-: STATE

            Based  on  considerations of best usage an the interest  of  the public
       and  in  conformance  with the requirements of  the applicable  statutes,  the
       interstate  waters of  the state shall be grouped into one or more of  the
       following classes:

            1.  Domestic Consumption (to include all interstate waters vhich are
               or may  be  used as a source of sunply for dnnl-inr;, culinary  or
               food  processinp use or other domestic purposes, and for "hicli
               quality control is or may be necessary to protect  the public
               health,  safety or welfare.)

            2.  Fisheries  and Recreation (to include all interstate waters which
               arc or  may be used for fishing, fish culture, bathing or any
               other recreational purposes, and for which quality control  is
               or may  be  necessary to protect aquatic or terrestrial life,  or
               the public health, safety or welfare.)

            3.  Industrial Consumption (to include  all interstate  waters which
               are or  may be used as a source of supply for industrial process
               or cooling water, or an" other industrial or cornercial purposes,
               and for which quality control is or may be necessary  to protect
               the public health, safety or welfare.)

            4.  Agric.nltural and Wildlife (to include all interest waters which
               are or  may be used for any agriculture purposes, including  stock
               watering and irrigation, or by waterfowl or other  wildlife,  and
               for which  quality control is or may be necessary to protect
               terrestrial  life or the public health, safety or welfare.)

            5.  Navipation and Waste Disposal (to include all interstate waters
               which are  or may be used for any form of water transportation
               or navigation, disposal of sewage,  industrial waste or other
               waste effluents, or fire prevention, and for which quality
               control is or may be necessary to protect the public  health,
               safety  or  welfare.)

            6.  Other Uses (to include interstate waters which are or may serve
               the above  listed uses or any other  beneficial uses not listed
               herein,  including without limitation any such uses in this  or
               any other  state, province, or nation of any interstate waters
               flowing through or originating in this state; and  for which
               quality control is or may be necessary for the above  declared
               purposes,  or to conform with the requirements of the  legally
               constituted  state or national agencies having jurisdiction  over
               such  interstate waters, or any other considerations the Agency
               may deem proper.)

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                                                                       C-5
                  (c)   GENERAL STANDARDS  APPLICABLE
                TO ALL INTERSTATE WATERS  OF THE  STATE

(1)   No untreated sewage shall be discharged into  any interstate waters
     of the state.  No treated sewage,  or industrial  waste  or other
     wastes containing viable pathogenic  organisms, shall be discharged
     into interstate waters of the state  without effective  disinfection.
     Effective disinfection of any discharges,  including combined flows
     of sewage and storm water, will be required where necessary to
     protect the specified uses of the  interstate  waters.

(2)   No raw or treated sewage, industrial waste  or other wastes  shall be
     discharged into any interstate waters of the  state so  as to cause
     any nuisance conditions, such as the presence of significant amounts
     of floating solids, scum, oil slicks, excessive  suspended solids,
     material discoloration,  obnoxious  odors, gas  ebullition, deleterious
     sludge deposits,  undesirable slimes  or fungus growths,  or other
     offensive or harmful effects.

(3)   Existing discharges of inadequately  treated sewage, industrial waste
     or other wastes shall be abated, treated or controlled  so as to
     comply with the applicable standards.  Separation of sanitary sewage
     from natural run-off may be required where  necessary to ensure con-
     tinuous effective treatment of sewage.

(4)   The highest possible levels of water quality, including dissolved
     oxygen, which are attainable in the  interstate waters  by continuous
     operation at their maximum capability of all  units of  treatment works
     discharging effluents into the interstate waters shall  be maintained
     in the interstate waters in order  to enhance  conditions for the
     specified uses.

(5)   Means for expediting mixing and dispersion  of sewage,  industrial
     \tfaste, or other waste effluents in the receiving interstate waters
     shall be provided so far as practicable when  dceired necessary by
     the Agency to maintain the quality of the receiving interstate waters
     in accordance with applicable standards.

(6)   It is herein established that the  Agency will require  secondary
     treatment or the  equivalent as a minimum for  all municipal  sewage
     and biodegradable,  industrial or other wastes to meet  the adopted
     water quality standards  and a comparable high degree of treatment
     or its equivalent also will be required of  all non-biodegradable
     industrial or other wastes unless  the discharger can demonstrate
     to the Agency that a lesser degree of treatment  or control  will
     provide for water quality enhancement commensurate with present
     and proposed future water uses and a variance is granted under the
     provisions of the variance clause.   Secondary treatment facilities
     are defined as works which will provide effective sedimentation,
     biochemical oxidation, and disinfection, or the  equivalent, including
     effluents conforming to  the following:

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C-6
                                                  Limiting Concentration
                Substance  or Characteristic        	or Range	

              5--Day biochemical  oxygen demand      25 milligrams per liter
              Total coliform group organisms       1,000 11PM/100 ml
              Total suspended  solids               30 milligrams per liter
              Oil                                  Essentially free of visible oil
              Turbidity                            25
              pH range                             6.5 - 8.5

      (7)   Allowance  shall not be made in  the design of treatment works  for  low
           stream  flow  augmentation unless such flow augmentation of minimum
           flow  is dependable  under applicable laws or regulations.

      (8)   In any  instance where it is evident that natural mixing or dispersion
           of an effluent  is not effective in preventing pollution, or that  it
           may not be feasible to provide  by other means for effective mixing
           or dispersion of an effluent, or if at the applicable stream  flows
           meantioned in the sections on specific standards of interstate water
           quality and  purity  it is evident that the specified stream flow may
           be less than the effluent flow, the specific standards nay be
           interpreted  as  effluent standards for control purposes, where
           applicable.  The period of record for determining the specific flow
           for the slated  recurrence interval, where records are available,  will
           include at least the  nost recent 10 years of record, including flow
           records obtained after establishment of 1ov regulation devices,  if
           any.  Such calculations will not be applied to  lakes and their
           embayments which have no comparable flow recurrence interval.  Where
           stream  flow  records are not available, the flows may be estimated
           on the  basis of available information on the watershed characteristics,
           precipitation,  run-off and other pertinent data.  In addition, the
           following  effluent  standards may be applied without any allowance
           for dilution where  stream flow  or other factors are such as to
           prevent adequate dilution, or where it is otherwise necessary to
           protect the  interstate waters for the stated uses:

                        Item                              Limits

              5-day biochemical  oxygen demand       20 milligrams per liter
              Total phosphorus                      1 milligram per  liter
              Total suspended  solids                20 milligrams per liter

           It is the  intention of the Agency to require removal of nutrients
           from  all sources to the  fullest practicable extent wherever sources
           of nutrients are considered to  be actually or potentially  innuical
           to preservation or  emunccment  of the designated water uses.

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                                                                         C-7
(9)   In any case where,  after a public  hearing,  the  Agency  finds  it
     necessary for conservation of  the  interstate waters  of the state,
     or protection of the public health,  or  in furtherance  of  the devel-
     opment of the economic welfare of  the state, it may  prohibit or
     further limit the discharge to any designated interstate  waters of
     any sewage, industrial waste,  or other  waste effluents, or any com-
     ponent thereof,  whether such effluents  are  treated or  untreated,  or
     existing or new, notwithstanding any other  provisions  of  classifi-
     cation or specific  standards stated  herein  which may be applicable
     to such designated  interstate  waters.

(10)  In any proceeding where specific standards  have been adopted which
     are directly or  indirectly applicable to  named  interstate waters  of
     the state,  it shall be incumbent upon all persons responsible for
     existing or new  sources of sewage,  industrial wastes or other wastes
     which are or xjill be discharged to such interstate waters, to treat
     or control their wastes so as  to produce  effluents having a  common
     level or concentration of pollutants of comparable nature and effect
     as may be necessary to meet the specified standards  or better, and
     in no case shall the concentration of polluting substances in any
     individual effluent be permitted to  exceed  the  common  concentration
     or level required of the other sources  of comparable nature  and
     effect discharging  to the same classified and named  interstate
     waters, regardless  of differences  in the  amount of pollutional
     substances discharged, or degree of  treatment involved.

(11)  Liquid substances which are not commonly  considered  to be sewage  or
     industrial wastes but which could  constitute a  pollution  hazard shall
     be stored in accordance with Regulation WPC 4,  and any revisions  or
     amendments thereto.  Other wastes  as defined by law  or other sub-
     stances which could constitute a pollution  hazard shall not  be de-
     posited in any manner such that the  same  may be likely to gain entry
     into any interstate waters of  the  state in  excess of or contrary  to
     any of the standards herein adopted, or cause pollution as defined
     by law.

(12)  No sewage,  industrial waste or other wastes shall be discharged into
     the interstate waters of the state in such  quantity  or in such manner
     alone or in combination with other substances as to  cause pollution
     thereof as defined  by law.  In any case where the interstate waters
     of the state into which sewage, industrial  wastes or other waste
     effluents discharge are assigned different  standards than the inter-
     state waters into which such receiving  interstate waters  flow, the
     standards applicable to the interstate  waters into which  such sewage,
     industrial waste or other wastes discharge  shall be  supplemented
     by the following:

     The quality of any  waters of the state  receiving sewage,  industrial
     waste or other waste effluents shal] be such that no violation of
     the standards of any interstate waters  of the state  in any other
     class shall occur by reason of the discharge of such sewage, industrial
     waste or other waste effluents.

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08
       (13) Questions concerning the permissible levels, or changes in the same,
           of a substance, or combination of substances, of undefined toxicity
           to fish or other biota shall be resolved in accordance with the
           methods specified by the National Technical Advisory Committee of the
           Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, U. S. Department of
           the Interior.  The Committee's recommendations also will be used as
           official guidelines in other aspects where the recommendations may
           be applicable.

       (14) All persons operating or responsible for sewage, industrial waste or
           other waste disposal svstens which are adjacent to or which discharge
           effluents to these waters or to tributaries which affect the same,
           shall submit regularly every month a report to the Agency on the
           operation of the disposal system, the effluent flow, and the char-
           acteristics of the effluents and receiving waters.  Sufficient data
           on measurements, observations, sampling and analyses, and other
           pertinent information shall bo furnished as may be required by the
           Agency to in its judgment adquatelyreflect the condition of the
           disposal system, the effluent, and ttie waters receiving or affected
           by the cff]uent.

           (d)  SPECIFIC STANDARDS OF QUALITY AND PURITY FOR DESIGNATED
                    CLASSLS OF INTERSTATE WATEPS OF THE STATE

       The  following standards shall prescribe the qualities or properties of
       the  interstate waters of the state which arc necessary for the designated
       public use or benefit and which, if the limiting conditions given are
       exceeded, shall be considered indicative of a polluted condition which is
       actually or potentially deleterious, harmful, detrimental or in]urious
       with respect to such designated uses or established classes of the inter-
       state waters:

       (1)  Domestic Consumption

           Class A  The quality of this class of the interstate waters of the
                    state shall be such that without treatment of any kind the
                    raw waters will meet in all respects both the mandatory and
                    recommended requirements of the Public Health Service
                    Drinking Water Standards - 1962 for drinking water as
                    specified in Publication No. 956 published by the Public
                    Health Service of the U. S. Department of Health, Education
                    and Welfare, and any revisions, amendments or supplements
                    thereto.  This standard will ordinarily be restricted to
                    underground waters with a high degree of natural protection.
                    The basic requirements arc given below:

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                                                                  C-9
         Substance or Characteristic

         Total coliform organisms

         Turbidity value
         Color value
         Threshold odor number
         MeLhylene blue active substance
           (NBAS)
         Arsenic (As)
         Chlorides (Cl)
         Copper (Cu)
         Carbon Chloroform extract
         Cyanides  (CN)
         Fluorides (F)
         Iron (Fe)
         Manganese (Mn)
         Nitrates  (NO )
         Phenol
         Sulfates  (SO.)
                     Q
         Total dissolved solids
         Zinc (Zn)
         Barium (Ba)
         Cadmium (Cd)
         Chromium  (Hexavalent, Cr)
         Lead (Pb)
         Selenium  (Se)
         Silver (Ag)
        Limit or Range

  1 most probable number
   per 100 mililiters
  5
 15
  3
  0.5 milligram per liter

  0.01 milligram per liter
250 milligrams per liter
  1 milligram per liter
  0.2 milligram per liter
  0.01 milligram per liter
  1.5 milligrams per liter
  0.3 milligram per liter
  0.05 milligram per liter
 45 milligrams per liter
  0.001 milligram per liter
250 milligrams per liter
500 milliprans per liter
  5 milligrams per liter
  1 milligram per liter
  0.01 milligram per liter
  0.05 nillipram per liter
  0.05 milligram per liter
  0.01 milligram per liter
  0.05 milligram per liter
Class B  The Quality of this  class  of the interstate  waters  of  the
         state shall be such  that with approved  disinfection, much
         as simple chlorination or  its equivalent,  the treated  vater
         will meet in all resepcts  both the mandatory and  recommended
         requirements of the  Public Health Service  Drinking  Water
         Standards - 1962 for drinking water as  specified  in Publi-
         cation No. 956 published by the Public  Health Service  of
         the U. S. Department of Health, Education  and Welfare, and
         any revisions, amendments  or supplements thereto.   This
         standard will ordinarily be restricted  to  surface  and  under-
         ground waters with a moderately high degree  of natural pro-
         tection.  The physical and chemical standards quoted above
         for Class A interstate waters shall also apply to  these
         interstate waters in the untreated state,  except  as listed
         below:
         Substance or Characteristic
         Total coliform organisms
        Limit or Range

 50 most probable number
   per 100 milliliters

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C-10
     Class C  The quality of  this  class  of  the interstate waters  of the
              state shall be  such  that with treatment  consisting  of
              coagulation, sedimentation,  filtration,  storage  and chlori-
              nation, or other equivalent  treatment  processes,  the treated
              water will meet in all respects  both  in  mandatory and
              recommended requirements of  the  Public Health  Service
              Drinking Water  Standards - 1962  for drinking water  as
              specified in Publication No.  956 published  by  the Public
              Health Service  of the U. S.  Department of Health, Education
              and Welfare, and any revisions,  amendments  or  supplements
              thereto.  This  standard will  ordinarily  be  restricted to
              surface waters, and  ground waters in  aquifers  not considered
              to afford adequate protection against  contamination from
              surface or other sources of  pollution.  Such aquifers
              normally would  include fractured and  channeled limestone,
              unprotected impervious hard  rock where interstate water is
              obtained from mechanical fractures, joints,  etc., with
              surface connections, and coarse  gravels  subjected to surface
              water infiltration.   The physical and  chemical standards
              quoted above for Class A interstate waters  shall  also apply
              to these interstate  waters in the untreated state,  except
              as listed below:

              Substance or Characteristic            Limit or  Range

              Total coliform  organisms            4,000 most probable number
                                                    per  100 milliliters
              Turbidity value                       25

     Class D  The quality of  this  class  of  the interstate waters  of the
              state shall be  such  that after treatment consisting of
              coagulation, sedimentation,  filtration,  storage  and chlori-
              nation, plus additional pre,  post, or  intermediate  stages
              of treatment, or other equivalent treatment processes, the
              treated water will meet in all respects  the recommended
              requirements of the  Public Health Service Drinking  Water
              Standards - 1962 for drinking water as specified  in Publi-
              cation No. 956  published by  the  Public Health  Service of
              the U. S. Department of Health,  Education,  and Welfare, and
              any revisions,  amendments  or  supplements thereto.  This
              standard will ordinarily be  restricted to surface waters,
              and ground waters in aquifers not considered to afford
              adequate protection  against  contamination from surface or
              other sources of pollution.   Such aquifers  normally would
              include fractured and channeled  limestone,  unprotected
              impervious hard rock where water is obtained from mechanical
              fractures, joints, etc., with surface connections,  and
              course gravels  subjected to  surface water infiltration.

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                                                                        C-ll
              The concentrations  or  ranges  given .below  shall not  be
              exceeded in raw waters before treatment:
              Substance or Characteristic

              Total coliform organisms

              Arsenic (As)
              Barium (Ba)
              Cadmium (Cd)
              Chromium (Cr + 6)
              Cyanide (CN)
              Fluoride (F)
              Lead (Pb)
              Selenium (Se)
              Silver (Ag)
      Limit or Range

  4,000 most probable number
     per 100 milliliters
      0.05 milligram per liter
      1 milligram per liter
      0.01 milligram per liter
      0.05 milligram per liter
      0.2 milligram per liter
      1.5 milligrams per liter
      0.05 milligram per liter
      0.01 milligram per liter
      0.05 milligram per liter
     In addition to the above listed  standards, no  sewage,  industrial
     waste or other wastes,  treated or  untreated, shall be  discharged
     into or permitted by any person  to gain  access  to any  interstate
     waters classified for domestic consumption so  as to  cause  any  material
     undesirable increase in the taste,  hardness, temperature,  toxicity,
     corrosiveness  or nutrient content,  or  in any other manner  to impair
     the natural quality or value of  the interstate  waters  for  use  as  a
     source of drinking water.

(2)   Fisheries and  Recreation

     Class A  The quality of this class of  the interstate waters of the
              state shall be such as  to permit the propagation  and  main-
              tenance of warm or cold water sport or commercial fishes
              and be suitable for aquatic recreation of all kinds,  including
              bathing for which the waters  may be usable.   Limiting con-
              centrations or ranges of  substances or characteristics which
              should not be exceeded  in the interstate waters are given below:
              Substance  or Characteristic
              Dissolved oxygen
              Temperature
              Ammonia (N)
              Chlorides  (Cl)
              Chromium (Cr)
              Copper (Cu)
      Limit or Range

Not less than 7 milligrams
  per liter from October
  1st and continuing through
  May 31st, and
Not less than 5 milligrams
  per liter at other times
No material increase
Not to exceed a trace
50 milligrams per liter
Not to exceed a trace
Not to exceed a trace

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C-12
                    Cyanides  (CN)
                    Oi]
                    pH value
                    Phenols
                    Turbidity value
                    Color value
                    Total coliform organLsms

                    Radioactive materials
                                  Not  to  exceed a- trace
                                  Not  to  exceed a trace
                                  6.5  - 8.5
                                  Not  to  exceed a trace
                                  10
                                  30
                                  1,000 most  probable number
                                    per  100  millilitcrs
                                  Not  to  exceed the. lowest
                                    concentration permitted
                                    to be discharged to  an
                                    uncontrolled environment
                                    as prescribed by the
                                    appropriate authority
                                    having  control over
                                    their use.
           Class B
Discharges of sex/age,  industrial waste or other waste
effluents shall be controlled so that the standards will
be maintained at all stream flows which arc equal to or
exceedc^ by 90 percent of the seven consecutive daily
average flous of record (the lowest weekly flow with a
once in ten year recurrence interval) for the critical
month(s) .

The quality of this class of the interstate waters of the
state shall be such as to permit the propagation and main-
tenance of sport or commercial fishers and he suitable for
aquatic recreation of all kinds, including bathing, for
which the waters may be usable.   Limiting concentrations
or ranges of substances or characteristics which should
not be exceeded in the interstate waters are given below:
                    Substance or Characteristic
                    Dissolved oxygen
                    Temperature
                                        Limit or Range

                                  Not less than 6 milligrams
                                    per liter from April 1
                                    through May 31, and
                                  Not less than 5 milligrams
                                    per liter at other times.
                                      F in July and August,
                                  80 F in June and September,
                                  67 F in ?Iay and October,
                                  55 F in April and November,
                                  43 F jn March and December,
                                        and
                                      F in Jan. and February.
                                      5F above ambient,
86'
                                                      37
                                                       Or
                                                       whichever is greater,
                                                       except that in no case shall
                                                       it exceed 90F.

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                                                                   C-13
         Ammonia (N)                        1 milligram per liter
         Chronium (Cr)                      0.05 milligram per liter
         Copper (Cu)                        0.2 milligram per liter
         Cyanides (CN)                      0.02 milligram per liter
         Oil                               Not to  exceed a trace
         pll value                          6.5 - 9.0
         Phenols                           0.01 milligram per liter
         Turbidity                        25
         Total coliform organisms      1,000 most  probable number
                                             per 100 milliliters
         Radioactive materials            Not to exceed the lowest
                                             concentration permitted
                                             to be discharged to an
                                             uncontrolled environment
                                             as prescribed by the
                                             appropriate authority
                                             having control over
                                             their use.

         Discnarges of  sevage industrial waste or  other waste effluents
         shall be controlled so that  the standards wilJ be maintained
         at all stream  flows which are equal to or exceeded by 90
         percent of the 7 consecutive daily ax'erage flows of record
         (the lowest weekly flow with a once in 10 year recurrence
         interval for the critical month.

Class C  The quality of this class of the interstate waters of the
         state shall be such as to permit the propagation and main-
         tenance of fish of species,  commonly inhabiting waters of
         the vicinity under natural conditions, and be suitable for
         boating and other forms of aquatic recreation not involving
         prolonged intimate contact with the water for which the
         interstate waters may be usable.   Limiting concentrations
         or ranges of substances or characteristics which should not
         be exceeded in the interstate waters are  given below:

         Substance or Characteristic             Limit or Range

         Dissolved oxygen                  Not less than 5 milligram
                                             per liter from April 1
                                             through May 31, and
                                           Not less than 3 milligrams
                                             per liter at other times.
                                           90 F in July and August,
                                           87 F in June and September,
                                           75 F in Hay and October,
                                           63 F in April and November,
                                           51 F in March and December,
                                                  and

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C-14
                     Ammonia
                     Chromium  (Cr)
                     Copper (Cu)
                     Cyanides  (CN)
                     Oil
                     pH value
                     Phenols
                    Turbidity value
                    Total coliCorn organisms

                    Radioactive materials
   45 F in January and Feb.
   )0r 5F above ambient,
    whichever is greater,
    except that in no case
    shall it exceed 90F.
   2 mill}prams per liter
   0.05 millieram per liter
   0.2 milligram per liter
   0.02 milligram per liter
   None in such quantities
    as to __(_!_) produce a
    visible color film on
    the surface, (2) impart
    an oily odor to water or
    and oil t?stc to fish
    and edible invertebrates,
    (3) coat the banks and
    bottom of the watercourse
    or taint any of the
    associated biota, or
    (4) become effcctive
    toxicants according to
    the criteria recommended.
    6.0 - 9.5
   None that could impart odor
    or taste to fish flesh or
    or other freshwater edible
    products such as crayfj&h,
    clams, prawns and lil-e
    croat.urcq.  Where it seems
    probable that a cischarqr
    iTiny result in tainting of
    ecbblc aqua products,
    bioassayq and taste ponds
    will  be required to
    determine whether tainting
    is likely.
   25
5,000 most probable nunber per
      100 milliliters
   Not to exceed the lowest
    concentrations permitted
    to be discharged to an
    uncontrolled environment
    as prescribed by the
    appropriate authority having
    control over their use.

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                                                                        C-15
              Discharges  of  sewage,  industrial waste  or  other waste
              effluents  shall be  controlled  so that the  standards will
              be maintained  at all stream  flows which are  equal  to or
              exceeded by 90 percent  of  the  7 consecutive  daily  average
              flows  of record (tnc lowest  weekly  f]ow with a once in
              10 year recurrence  interval) for the critical month.

     The aquatic habitat, which includes the interstate  waters and stream
     bed,  shall not  be degraded in any material manner,  there shall be no
     material increase in undesirable sline  growths or aquatic plants,
     including algae,  nor shall there be any significant increase in harm-
     ful pesticide or other  residues  in  the  waters, sediments and aquatic
     flora and fauna;  the normal  fishery and lower aquatic biota upon
     which it is dependent and the use thereof shall  not be seriously
     impaired or endangered, the  species composition  shall not be altered
     materially, and the  propagation  or migration of  the fish and other
     biota normally  present  shall not be prevented or hindered by the
     discharge of any sewage,  industrial waste or other  waste effluents
     to be interstate waters.

     No sewage, industrial waste  or  other  wastes  shall be  discharged into
     any of the interstate waters of  this  category so as to cause any
     material change in  any  other substances or characteristics  which may
     impair the quality  of the interstate  waters  or the  aquatic  biota of
     any of the above-listed classes  or  in any manner render them unsuitable
     or objectionable for fishing, fish  culture or recreational  uses.
     Additional selective limits  or  changes  in the discharge bases may
     be imposed on the basis of local needs.

(3)   Industrial Consumption

     Class A  The quality of this class  of the interstate  waters of the
              state  shall be such as  to  permit their  use without chemical
              treatment,  except softening  for ground  water, for  most
              industrial  purposes, except  food processing  and related
              uses,  for which a high  quality of water is required.  The
              quality shall  be generally comparable to Class B waters
              for domestic consumption,  except for the following:

              Substance  or Characteristic      Permissible Limit or Range

              Chlorides  (Cl)                   50 milligrams per liter
              Hardness                         50 milligrams per liter
              pH value                         6.5 - 8.5
              Temperature                      75 F in July and August,
                                               70 F in June and September,
                                               60 F in Hay and October,
                                                  (Surface)
                                               50 F in April and November,

-------
C-16
                    Total coliform organisms
 40 F in March and December,
     and
 35 F in January and February
 55 F  (Ground)
 5,000 most probable number
       per 100 millilitcrs
           Class B  The quality of this class of the interstate waters of the
                    state shall be such as to permit their use for general
                    industrial purposes, except food processing, with only a
                    moderate degree of treatment.  The quality shall be generally
                    comparable to Class D interstate waters used for domestic
                    consumption, except for the following:
                   Substanceor Characteristic

                   Chlorides (Cl)
                   Hardness

                   pH value
                   Temperature
                   Total colj.form organisms
Permissible Linit or Range

100 milligrams per liter
250 milligrams per liter (Surface)
350 milligrams per liter (Ground^
6.0 - 9.0
65 F (ground) 86 F (surface)
5,000 most probable number
  per 100 milliliters
v_<^./
 I
           Class C  The quality of this class of the interstate waters of the
                    state shall be such as to permit their use for industrial
                    cooling and materials transport without a high degree of
                    treatment being necessary to avoid severe fouling, corrosion,
                    scaling, or other unsatisfactory conditions.  The following
                    shall not be exceeded in the interstate waters:
                    Substance or Characteristic

                    Chlorides (Cl)
                    Hardness
                    pH value
                    Temperature
                    Total coliform organisms
       Limit or Range

 250 milligrams per liter
 500 milligrams per liter
 6.0 - 9.5
 65 F (ground) 90 F  (surface)
 5,000 most probable number
   per 100 milliliters
           Additional selective limits may be imposed for any specific inter-
           state waters as needed.

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                         STATE OF MINNESOTA
                 WATER POLLUTION CONTROL COMMISSION
                                                                      C-17
WATERS
                  Classifications and Criteria for
                The Interstate Waters of Minnesota
     REACH OR AREA INVOLVED
                            (1)
Rock River

Kanaranzi Creek

Little Rock River

Mednry Creek

Flandreau Creek

Pipestone Creek

Split Rock Creek

Split Rock Creek


Beaver Creek

Mud Creek
  Missouri River Basin

Source to Iowa border

Source to Iowa border

Source to Iowa border

Source to South Dakota border

Source to South Dakota border

Source to South Dakota border

Source to Split Rock Lake outlet

Split Rock Lake to South Dakota
 border

Source to South Dakota border

Source to Iowa border
CLASSIFICATION



     2C, 3B

     2C, 3B

     2C, 3B

     2C, 3B

     2C, 3B

     2C, 3B

     2B, 3B

     2C, 3B


     2C, 3B

     2C, 3B
                                                                         (2)
(1)  All interstate waters are included, although some ninor water courses
     such as unnanied streans or interconnecting waters and/or intermittently
     flowing creeks, ditches, or draws,  etc. are not listed individually
     herein.  The requirements for previously classified waters are given
     in Regulations WPC 1 through 3, inclusive, and 5 through 13, inclusive.

(2)  Includes knoxm present uses and/or uses which may be made of the waters
     in the future.  In addition to the classify cation(s) e,iven below, the
     interstate waters are also included in Classes 3C, 4, 5 and 6 for all
     reaches or areas where such uses are possible.  Where specific criteria
     are common to two or more listed classes the more restrictive values
     shall apply.  For additional information refer to the Criteria for
     Classification and Establishment of Standards (Regulation WPC 15).

-------
C-18
                       MINNESOTA POLLUTION CONTROL AGENCY
                            Division of Water Quality

                          Priority of Interstate Waters
                                                 C1 \
                             Enforcement Projects^'
 System Name
 and Project
 Designation

 Rock River (Rock)
 Reach or Area
 Affected, and
Ad-jacent States
 or Provinces

Hendricks-Hills
Jackson
(South Dakota
and Iowa)
   Specific Waters
Involved, and Counties
 in or Through '>Thich
    They flowO)

  Flandreau Creek
    Lincoln County
    Pipes tone County
  Pipes tone Creek
    Pipestone County
  Split Rock Creek
    Pipestone County
    Rock County
  Beaver Creek
    Rock County
  Hud Creek
    Rock County
  Rock River
    Pipestone County
    Rock County
  Kanaranzi Creek
    Nobles County
    Rock County
  Little Rock Creek
    Nobles County
 Enforcement
Hearing to be ,.\
Scheduled B^  '
October 1, 197
J
 NOTE:  Lakes or reservoirs which are an integral part of the main stem of the
        named river, such as Uinnibigoshia Lake in the case of the Mississippi
        River, or Okamanpeedan Lake in the case of the East Fork of the Des
        Ifoines River, are usually not listed separately but are considered to
        be included as part of the river system.  In the same manner, some lakes
        which lie on a border, such as Iowa Lake, although not named arc  con-
        sidered to be part of the interstate stream by which they are drained.
        Named bays are usually considered to be part of the lake to which they
        are  connected, but in sone cases, such as St. Louis and Superior  Bays
        of Lake Superior, may be included as part of a river system.

-------
                                                                             C-19
                      MINNESOTA POLLUTION CONTROL AGENCY
                           Division of Water Quality

       Major Actual or Potential Sources of Sewage or Industrial Wastes
                (Source Categories I and 2) Which Discharge to
                      and/or May Affect Interstate Waters
                                  March 1969
WATERS
     SOURCES
  REMAINING CONTROL
AND/OR TREAT>!ENT NEEDS
    SCHEDULED
  COMPLETION BY
Rock River
Kanaranzi Cr.

Little Rock R.

Pipestone Cr.
Split Rock Cr.

Mud Creek
                             Missouri River Basin
Luverne
Sewer separation
Expand sewage works
                  Iowa Beef Packers  Coliform reduction
                  Inc., Luverne
Edgerton


Holland


Adrian

Rushmore

Pipestone

Pawnee Packing
Co.,
Pipestone


Jasper

Hills
                                     Coliform reduction
                                     Sewer separation

                                     Coliform reduction
                                     Sewer separation
Treatment works

Sewer separation

Waste disposal
facilities concur-
rently with plant
construction
June 18, 1978(rec)
Dec. 18, 1971(rec)
June 18, 1978(rec)


June 18, 1978(rec)



Dec. 18, 1971(rec)

June 18, 1978(rec)
 (rec) - means the completion date has only been recommended, not established
        formal order

-------
    APPENDIX D
METHODS OF ANALYSIS

-------
                                                                           D-l
                         METHODS OF ANALYSIS




A.  BACTERIOLOGY


     Bacteriological analyses of total and fecal coliform bacteria and


fecal streptococci were performed according to standard techniques,


employing the membrane filter procedure.  To prevent contamination,


all samples were collected in sterile bottles prepared by the accepted


procedure.


     Salmonella sampling involved placement of sterile gauze pads at


selected stream locations for a three-to-five-day period.  The pads


were retrieved, placed in sterile plastic bags, chilled, and transported


to the laboratory within one hr for analyses.  There is no standard


procedure for detection of Salmonella in surface xjaters.  The method

                                                                      2/
employed by NFIC-Denver is the elevated temperature technique of Spino


with modifications.  Selective enrichment media included dulcitol-


selenite broth and tetrathionate broth.  Incubation temperature was


41.5C.  On each of four successive days the growth in each of the


enrichment media containing the pads was streaked onto selective plating


media that consisted of brilliant green and xylose-lysine-deoxycholate


agars.  Colonies with characteristics typical of Salmonella were picked


and subjected to biochemical identification.  Salmonella were identified


serologically, and representative serotypes from each location were sent


to the National Center for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia, for


confirmation.

-------
D-2
    B.  CHEMISTRY
                                                                         I/
         BOD and DO tests were conducted according to standard techniques'




    using the azide modification of the Winkler method.




         All other laboratory analyses and field measurements were con-




    ducted in accordance with accepted standard techniques.




         The following analytical Quality Control values are attendant to




    the data released for the subject survey:




                                  Accuracy
Parameter
NH3-N
NH3-N
N03 + N02-N
TKN
TKN
Total P
Total P
TOC
COD
COD
Range of
Values
(mg/1)
28-117
1.54-5.34
1.81-2.73
57-170
9.0-12.6
0.50-11.98
22-35
18.2-72.4
249-307
292-1,551
Range of
% Recovery
89-109
86-106
99-114
91-115
97-115
91-117
86-121
94-105
98-112
89-106
Avg
Recovery
6
6
4
6
11
7
8
2
5
4
Standard
Deviation
(mg/D
5.78
0.23
0.095
6.6
0.42
0.70
2.6
1.02
13.2
26
    NOTE:  Avg A% Recovery equals 100% + (Observed % Recovery)

-------
                                                                          D-3
                              Precision
Parameter
BOD
BOD
NH3-N
NH3-N
N03 + N02-N
TKN
TKN
TOC
TOC
COD
COD
Total Solids
Total Solids
Range of
Values
(mg/D
300-1,200
425-2,420
23.4-85.3
0.35-3.43
0.80-1.62
0.81-6.6
41-188
155-384
9.0-37.90
224-1,711
78-152
1,870-5,090
398-989
Range of
% Precision
12
 8
 8
10
 7
 5
10
 5
 7
17
 9
 4
 1
Avg
Precision
5
3
3
5
3
3
4
3
4
5
5
1
1
Standard
Deviation
(mg/1)
50
46
 1.97
 0.12
 0.05
 0.13
 6.9
11.2
 0.85
26
 5.3
71
 3
     Precision calculations in this report are based upon results of




replicate analyses conducted regularly during each series of samples.




     Similarly calculated are accuracy data based upon percent recovery




of standard additions to previously analyzed samples in a series of




analyses.  It should be emphasized that standard deviations calculated




in this regard serve only as an indicator of precision or accuracy limits




for the particular series of analyses under consideration.  Standard-




deviation values calculated in this manner can be used for inter-




laboratory or literature comparisons in order to indicate the ability

-------
D-4
    of a particular laboratory to perform a given analysis.  It is not,


    however, a quantitative value that defines maximum or minimum limits


    for any specific item of data.




    C.  BIOLOGY


    Fall Survey


         Benthos  Bottom-dwelling invertebrates were quantitatively


    sampled, with a Petersen grab, at four sites (cross-stream transects)


    per station.  In addition, qualitative samples were taken at each


    sampling location by two methods: (1) between 10 September and 3 October


    1972, Hester-Bendy artificial substrates were exposed for 24-day periods;


    (2) available habitats were sampled by screening sediments and manually


    removing organisms from beneath rocks and on debris, etc.  Organisms


    collected only in qualitative samples were arbitrarily assigned values

                          *
    of one per square foot  of stream bed and were counted with the quanti-


    tative samples.  In the laboratory, the alcohol-preserved samples were


    separated from debris, identified, and counted.  Results of quantitative

                                                                   A
    sampling were expressed as numbers of organisms per square foot  of


    stream bed.


         In order to determine species diversity the information theory


    method of Lloyd, Zar, and Karr'  was employed.  Diversity has at least


    two meanings: (1) It refers to the species richness in terms of numbers


    of species in an area (equals species diversity), and (2) it is based


    on the relative composition of the individuals in an area (equals
    * The number of organisms per square meter is obtained by multiplying

      No./ft2 by a factor of 10.76.

-------
                                                                          D-5
dominance diversity).  The species-diversity concept, as used in this




report, measured the mathematical relationship of the species collected




to a theoretical maximum for a given community under the conditions




found at a given station.  Calculated diversity values fall into three




categories: 0-1.0 indicates gross organic pollution; 1.1-3.0 indicates




moderate pollution or enrichment; and greater than 3.0 indicates clean




water.






     Primary Productivity 




     A.  In Situ Measurement




         1.  Periphyton;  Periphyton growth in the Big Sioux River and




             its tributaries was assessed using artificial substrates




             containing five 5.08 x 7.62-cm (2 x 3-in.) glass micro-




             scope slides.  A substrate was placed near each bank at




             the biological sampling stations [Table K-2].  After




             24-day exposures, between 10 September and 3 October




             1972, the glass-slide substrates, together with the at-




             tached organisms, were recovered, disassembled, and stored




             on dry ice, in the dark  for transport to the NFIC-Denver




             laboratory.




                  At the laboratory the periphyton samples were analyzed




             for chlorophyll ji concentrations per unit area, according




             to accepted procedures.




         2.  Primary Production: Dark and light bottles filled with river




             water were incubated four hr (0800 to 1200) at River Miles

-------
D-6
                 106.2, 113.0, 127.0, 134.5, 141.2, 143.2, and 162.2.  Net




                 and gross photosynthesis, respiration, and carbon fixation




                 were calculated using available formulas.   During the




                 dark-light bottle incubation period,  dissolved oxygen in




                 the river was measured hourly,  from 0600 (1 hr before




                 sunrise)  until 1200.
         B.  Algal Assays




              Algal assay tests were conducted as outlined in "Algal Assay




         Procedure-Bottle Test," August 1971.




              Two specific algal assay tests were conducted at the NFIC-




         Denver laboratory using the receiving water (Big Sioux River




         immediately upstream of the Sioux Falls WWTP)  as dilution water.




              1.  Sewage Effluent Additions; Unchlorinated effluent from the




                  final clarifier of the Sioux Falls WWTP was collected on




                  the same day (9/13/72)  as the dilution water.  The ef-




                  fluent was added in triplicate to effect 0, 0.1, 1.0,




                  5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80,  and 100-percent concentra-




                  tions.  An inoculum of algae, Selenastmtm cccpricornutwn




                  (standard test organisms obtained from the EPA Pacific




                  Northwest Water Laboratory), was added to each flask.




                  The initial culture volume was adjusted to 100 ml per




                  250 ml Erlenmeyer flask in order to allow maximum aera-




                  tion.  Initial in vivo fluorescence readings were made




                  employing a modified, high-sensitivity Turner Fluorometer.




                  Fluorescence readings were converted to chlorophyll-^

-------
                                                                          D-7
             concentrations, and algal growth was, then expressed as




             changes in chlorophyll-a concentrations (yg/1).  The test




             cultures were incubated in a 24 C water bath mounted on a




             shaker platform.  Light at mid-flask level was adjusted to




             432 Im/m  (400 ft-c i.e., 24-hr light), and the shaker




             set at 100 oscillations/min.  Daily in vivo fluorescence




             readings were made of each culture until the first expo-




             nential phase of growth was completed.  The algal cultures




             were subsampled periodically for cell identification.




         2.  Phosphorus and Nitrogen Additions; Various concentrations




             of phosphorus and nitrogen (0,  0.01, 0.10, 1.0, and 10.0 mg/1)




             were added to receiving water in order to determine the




             amounts of phosphorus or nitrogen that were algal-growth




             limiting in the Big Sioux River at the time of the Fall




             1972 EPA Survey.  Test conditions were as outlined above.






Winter Survey




     Algal Assays  On 24 January 1973, samples were collected, for




algal assays, from the Sioux Falls WWTP main effluent and by-pass dis-




charge and from the Big Sioux River (dilution water).  Test conditions




were identical to those employed for the fall investigations, with the




following exception: One of the triplicate tests was conducted using




500 ml of sample in 1,000 ml flasks in a static water bath.




     Additional algal assays were performed using nutrient-stripped WWTP




effluent.  Nutrient stripping was accomplished by precipitation.  Effluent

-------
D-8
    samples were heated with 400 mg/1 Ca(OH)  for two hr; the heated super-




    natant was then aerated for two additional hr.  During precipitation and




    aeration, the pH was maintained at 11.  After stripping x^as completed, the




    pH was adjusted to 9.  Phosphorus-removal efficiency was 95 percent




    (from 13.9 to 0.69 mg/1) for the WWTP final effluent and 94 percent




    (from 25.4 to 1.4 mg/1) for the by-pass effluent.  The receiving (dilu-




    tion) water contained 0.48 mg/1 total phosphorus.  Ammonia-nitrogen




    removal from the final effluent was 95 percent (from 36 to 1.7 mg/1);




    63 percent of the ammonia nitrogen (from 48 to 18 mg/1) was stripped




    from the by-pass effluent.   The receiving x^ater contained 0.55 mg/1




    NH -N.  Waters tested for algal-growth potential contained 0, 0.3,




    1, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100-percent stripped effluent.  Also,




    0.1, 1, 10, and 50 percent dilutions of stripped effluent with com-




    binations of 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/1 additions of nitrogen and phosphorus




    were tested.






         Fish Assays  Channel catfish (Ictalurus pimctatus) approximately




    7.6 cm (3 in.) in total length x^ere received from the U.S. Fish and




    Wildlife Service National Fish Hatchery, Senecaville, Ohio, and trans-




    ferred into acclimation tanks filled x^ith 9-10C xiter of pH 7.70.2.




         After four to five days of acclimation, fish were used to evaluate




    the toxic effects of the effluent from the Sioux Falls, South Dakota,




    WWTP.  Fish testing included flow-through bioassays and in situ sur-




    vival studies.




         The flow-through bioassay system consisted of an effluent dilutcr




    (modified from Mount and Brungs ) and epoxy-coated x>odcn test tanks.

-------
                                                                          D-9
The diluter was constructed and calibrated to provide a series of




seven dilutions [100, 52, 36, 27, 16, and 8 percent effluent and 100




percent dilution water (control)].   Test water was obtained from the




final effluent of the Sioux Falls WWTP, and dilution water was obtained




from the diversion canal 0.4 km (0.25 mi) upstream of the treatment




plant.  Effluent and dilution-water reservoirs were refilled on an




average of every six hr.




     To maintain a satisfactory, dissolved-oxygen level, test water was




aerated using finely dispersed air bubbles.  This aeration procedure




caused no measurable loss of NH, from the test water.  All other test




conditions were ambient.



     Diluter cycles delivered 500 ml of water to test chambers in




approximately four hr.




     Test chambers were duplicated and placed in random order to




minimize external environmental influences; all were monitored twice




daily for NH , DO, pH, and temperature.  Mortality was recorded at the




end of each 24-hr period.  Data from the bioassays were analysed sta-




tistically by the probit method of Litchfield and Wilcoxon.




     In situ fish-survival studies were initiated after a four-day




acclimation period.  Catfish were placed in 10-liter plastic buckets.




Numerous 0.5-cm holes in the buckets permitted the stream water to flow




through, yet retain the fish.  Two buckets with ten fish each were




suspended in the river at each station, and one bucket was placed in




the effluent from the main outfall of the Sioux Falls, South Dakota,

-------
D-10
    WWTP.  Following a 96-hr exposure, the cages were removed and the per-




    cent fish survival was determined.  During this period, dissolved




    oxygen, water temperature, pH, and ammonia x^ere monitored in the Big




    Sioux River at the fish cage sites [RM 142.95, 142.85, 128.5, and the




    diversion channel, Table K-ll].

-------
                                                                          D-ll
                             REFERENCES
_!/   M. J. Tarus, A. E. Greenberg, R. D. Hoak, and M. C. Rand, Standard
     Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater 13th Edition,
     American Public Health Association.  New York, New York 1971.

2J   Donald F. Spino, Elevated-Temperature Technique for the Isolation
     of Salmonella from Streams3 Applied Microbiology, Vol. 14, No.  4
     July 1966.  Araer. Soc. for Microbiology.

_3/   Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes 3 Environmental
     Protection Agency, National Environmental Research Center,
     Analytical Quality Control Laboratory  Cincinnati, Ohio. July 1971.

4/   Algal Assay Procedure Bottle Test3 National Eutrophication Research
     Program, Environmental Protection Agency.  82 p. (1971).

51   J. T. Litchfield and F. Wilcoxon. A Simplified Method of Evaluating
     Dose-Effect Experiments. Jour. Pharmacal Exp. Ther., 96:99-113.
     (1949).

_6/   N. Lloyd, J. H. Zar, and J. R. Karr.  On the Calculation of
     Information - Theoretical Measures of Diversity. Amer. Midland
     Naturalist.  79:257-272.  (1968).

]_l   D. T. Mount and W. A. Brungs.  A Simplified Dosing Apparatus for
     Fish Toxicity Studies.  Water Res., 1:21-29.  (1967).

-------
     APPENDIX E






SOURCES OF POLLUTION

-------
                                                                     E-l
MUNICIPAL WASTE SOURCES




     [Tables E-l to E-3 list the municipal waste sources discharging




to the Big Sioux River Basin.]






INDUSTRIAL WASTE SOURCES




     [Table E-4 lists the industrial waste sources with direct dis-




charges to the Big Sioux River Basin.]






AGRICULTURAL SOURCES OF POLLUTION




General




     The Big Sioux River Basin is fertile and rich farmland.  As a




result, various agricultural activities contribute pollutants to the




Big Sioux River.  These pollutants include sediments, pecticides,




fertilizers, animal wastes, and other organic materials.  Most of the




pollutants reach surface waters in runoff following rainfall or during




the spring thaw.  As a result, agricultural sources of pollution are




intermittent in nature and difficult to quantify.  They are also,




with the exception of animal feedlots, diffuse sources adding to the




difficulties of identification.




     The magnitude of agricultural pollution problems in the Big Sioux




River Basin is not well defined.  Average water-quality conditions only




partially reflect the impact of such pollution as slugs of pollutants




during runoff events can cause short-term, water-quality degradation




not reflected in monitoring data.  It is known, however, that agri-




cultural sources contribute to increased turbidity and nutrient levels




in the Big Sioux River.

-------
E-2


     Animal  Feedlots

         The trend in  livestock production is toward confined feeding.

     As  a result,  a vast  increase in the number of feedlots has occurred over

     the last decade.   The water-pollution hazard from feedlots is greater

     than from open grazing because the animal xjastes have a greater  tendency

     to  run  off than  to become incorporated in the soil.

         Most of  the previous studies of feedlot runoff in the Big Sioux

     River Basin have concluded that the problem, x^hen considered on  the

     basis of a daily or yearly average pollution load, is not of major

     significance.  There is, however, a significant potential for short

     term water quality problems as most of the feedlot runoff reaches a

     water course  in  slug discharges.  State water-pollution-control  agencies

     have initiated efforts to control wastes from feedlots.  [Table  E-5 is

     a list  of applications for wastewater disposal permits from South Dakota

     operators of  feedlots with possible drainage to the Big Sioux River or
                                                                     *
     its tributaries.]  A South Dakota State University Masters Thesis  lists

     feedlots observed, during a September 1967 Aerial Survey, adjacent to

     the Big Sioux River.  More than fifty feedlots are tabulated in  this

     list, thus indicating that many South Dakota feedlot operators have not

     yet applied for wastewater-disposal permits.

         Iowa has also initiated registering feedlots.  [The registered feedlots

     in  the Big Sioux River Basin in Iowa are listed in Table E-6.]
    *  John Edward Foley, Tiie Pollution Potential of Feedlots Along the Main
       Stem of the Big Sioux River - A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment
       of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science Major in Civil
       Engineering.  South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota.
       (1968)

-------
                                                            TABLE E-l
Bristol
Brookings
Bryant
Canton
Castlewood
                                             SOUTH DAKOTA MUNICIPAL WASTE SOURCES^'
                                                      BIG SIOUX RIVER BASIN
                                                                                 a/
Source
Alcester
Arlington
Aurora
Baltic
Bradley
Brandon
Receiving Water
Brule Creek
y
Tributary of Medary Creek
Big Sioux River
y
Big Sioux River
Population
Served
627
954
200
360
157
656
Flow
3
m /day (mgd)
223 (0.059)
314 (0.083)

No Flow

174 (0.046)
Type of Treatment
Secondary
(Trickling Filters)
Secondary
(Trickling Filters)
Stabilization Pond
Secondary
(Stabilization Ponds)
None
Secondary
    y

Six-Mile Creek


    y

Big Sioux River

Big Sioux River
                                       (Stabilization Ponds)

   470          300        (0.08)       Secondary
                                       (Trickling Filter & Discharge
                                       to Landlocked Lake)

13,860        3,785        (1.000)      Secondary
                                       (Trickling Filter & Stabilization
                                        Ponds)

   500          151        (0.040)      Secondary
                                       (Stabilization Ponds & Discharge
                                       to Landlocked Slough)

 2,660          806        (0.213)      Secondary
                                       (Stabilization Ponds)

   520          185        (0.049)      Secondary
                                       (Stabilization Ponds)

-------
           TABLE E-l (Cont.)
                                    ^
SOOTH DAKOTA MUNICIPAL WASTE SOURCES^'
         BIG SIOUX RIVER BASIN
Source
Chester
Clear Lake
Colman
Colton
Corson
Crooks
Sanitation District
Dell Rapids
DeSinet
Eden
Egan
Elkton
Receiving Water
Skunk Creek
Hidewood Creek
Bachelor Creek
Skunk Cieek
Split Rock Creek
Big Sioux River
Big Sioux River
Silver Lake^
W
Big Sioux River
Spring Creek
Population
Served
277
1,135
456
600
100
202
1,990
1,336
132
300
500
Flow
m /day
72
386
151
159
26.5

492
405
34

178

(mRd)
(0.019)
(0.102)
(0.040)
(0.042)
(0.007)

(0.130)
(0.107)
(0.009)

(0.047)
Type of Treatment
Secondary
(Stabilization Ponds)
Secondary
(Stabilization Ponds-Normally
Do Not Discharge)
Secondary
(Stabilization Ponds-Normally
Do Not Discharge)
Secondary
(Staoilization Ponds)
Secondary
(Stabilization Ponds)
Secondary
(Stabilization Pond)
Secondary
(Trickling Filter)
Primary
(Imhoff Tank)
Primary
(Irahoff Tank)
None
Primary
(Imhoff Tank)

-------
                                                        TABLE E-l  (Cent.)
Lake Kanpeska
 Sanitary District

Lake Norden
                                                                                 a/
                                              SOOTH  DAKOTA MUNICIPAL WASTE SOURCES-
                                                      BIG SIOUX  RIVER BASIN
Source
Estelline
Flandreau
Flandreau (BIA)
Florence
Garden City
Garretson
Hartford
Hayti
Hudson
Humboldt
Population
Receiving Water Served
Big Sioux River 720
Bic Sioux River 2,027

b/ 257
b/ ' 126
Split Rock Creek 840
Skunk Creek 800
Marsh Lake^-/ 420
Big Sioux River 360
Skunk Creek 440
Flow
m /day (mgd)
189 (0.05)
681 (0.18)

1,160 (0.308)

257 (0.068)
(0.6)
114 (0.030)
110 (0.029)
110 (0.029)
Type of Treatment
Secondary
(Stabilization Ponds)
Secondary
(Trickling Filter)
Secondary
(Trickling Filter)
Secondary
(Stabilization Ponds)
None
Secondary
(Stabilization Ponds)
Secondary
(Trickling Filter)
Secondary
(Stabilization Ponds)
None
Secondary
Lake St. Johi
1,400


  330
223
(0.059)
                                                                                                   (Stabilization  Ponds)
                                                                          Hone
Secondary
(Stabilization Ponds)

-------
                                                                                       Pd
           TABLE E-l (Cont.)
Trent
Valley Springs
                                   -^
SOUTH DAKOTA MUNICIPAL WASTE SOURCES-
         BIG SlObX RIVER BASIN
Source
La'
-------
                                                         TABLE E-l (Cont.)
                                                                                  a/
                                              SOOTH DAKOTA MUNICIPAL UASTE SOURCES^-'
                                                       BIG SIOUX RIVER BASIN
Population Flow
Source
Volga
Watertown
Waubay
Webster
Wentworth
Toronto
White
Willow Lake
Worthing
Receiving Water
Big Sioux River
Big Sioux River
Slough to Bitter Lake-
Waubay Lake

Deer Creek
Six-lttle Creek
Willow Lake^
Snake Creek
Served m /day
900 900
14,000 11,100
1 696 185
2,252 681
196
200
410 114
353 151
294 79
(tn^d)
(0.238)
(2.920)
(0.049)
(0.180)


(0.030)
(0.040)
(-0.021)
Type of Treatment
Secondary
(Stabilization Ponds)
(Trickling Filters,
Stabilization Ponds)
Primary
(Iirihoff Tank)
Secondary
(Stabilization Ponds)
None
Secondary
(Stabilization Ponds)
Secondary
(Trickling Filter)
Primary
(Iirihoff Tank)
Secondary
(Stabilization Ponds)
&_/ This includes industrial wastes discharged to municipal plants.
b/ This is a non-contributing part of the basin.
                                                                                                                                     M
                                                                                                                                      I

-------
                                                            TABLE E-2
                                                  IOWA MUNICIPAL WASTE SOURCES-'
                                                       BIG  SIOUX RIVER BASIN
Source
Akron
Alvord
Ash ton
DOOT
George
Hawarden
Hull
Invood
I re ton
Larchvood
Lester
Little Rock
Rock Rapids
Rock Valley
Sibley
Wee (field
Receiving Water
Big Sioux River
Hud Creek
Otter Creek
Little Rock River
Little Pock River
Big Sioux River
Unnamed Tributary of
Rock River
Unm-ed Tributary of
Big Sioux River
Indian (jreck
Unnamed Tributary of
Big Sioux River
Hud Creek
Little Rock River
Rock River
Rock River
Otter Creek
Big Sioux River
Population
Served
1.300
200

420
1,140
2,415
1,289
600
800
450
230
535
2,000
1.610
2,750

Flow
n /diy
265
64
114
167
265
378
322
114
151
114
57
91
609
409
10,900
98
(nd)
(0.070)
(0.017)
(0.030)
(0.044)
(0.070)
(0.1)
(0.085)
(0.030)
(0.040)
(0 030)
(0.015)
(0.024)
(0.161)
(0.108)
(2.879)
(0.026)
Type of Treatment
Secondary
(Activated Sludge)
Secondary
(Stabilization Ponds)

Prlnary
(Inhoff Tank)
Secondary
(StabiHration Ponds)
Secondary
(Activited Sludge)
Secondary
(Trickling Filter)
Secondary
(Stabilization Ponds)
Secondary
(TricKling Filter)
Secondary
(Stabilization Ponds)
Secondary
(Stabilization Ponds)
Secondary
(Trickling Filter)
Secondary
(Trickling Filter)
Secondary
(Septic Tank & Sand Filter)


                                                                                                                                                          CO
/ This includes industrial wastes discharged to municipal plants.

-------
                                                             TABLE E-3
                                                                                 a/
                                                MINNESOTA MUNICIPAL WASTE SOURCES-'
                                                       BIG SIOUX RIVER BASIN
Source
Adrian
Beaver Creek
Edgerton
Ellsworth
Hatfield
Hills
Holland
Jasper
Lake Benton
Luverne
Pipes tone
Rushmore
Receiving Water
Kanaranzi Creek
Beaver
Chanarambie Creek
Tributary of Kanaranzi Creek
Rock River
Mud Creek
Tributary of Rock River
Split Rock Creek
Flandreau Creek
Rock River
Pipestone Creek
Little Rock River
Population
Served
1,350
231
1,119
588
86
514
237
452
683
4,233
4,795
394
Flow
3
m /day (ragd) Type of Treatment
Secondary (Stabilization Ponds)
(Stabilization Ponds)
Secondary (Trickling Filter)
Secondary (Trickling Filter)
Secondary (Imhoff Tank and Lagoon)
742 (0.196) Secondary (Stabilization Ponds)
Secondary (Trickling Filter)
326 (0.086) Secondary (Trickling Filter)
Secondary (Stabilization .Ponds)
2,930 (0.774) Secondary (Trickling Filter)
1,360 (0.360) Secondary (Trickling Filter)
Stabilization Ponds
aj This includes industrial wastes discharged to municipal plants.
                                                                                                                                        i
                                                                                                                                       VO

-------
                                                            TABLE  E-4
                                                   INDUSTRIAL WASTE
                                            (DIRECT DISCHARrES) BIG  SIOJX  RIVER BASIN
Source
Concrete Materials Co., Inc.
Sioux Falls, S. Dak.
Concrete Materials
Suanlt, S Dak.
DeSiet "tendering Co.
DcS^et, S Dak
EROS
Sioux Falls, S. Dak.
Hallett Construction Co.
Hatertcwn, S. Dak
lova Beef Processors, Inc.
Luverae, Xlnn.
' L. C Everist, Inc.
=- Dell Rapids, S. Dak.
s t'orthern States Power Co.
(Lavrence Plcnt)
Sioux Falls, S Dak.
/I Northern States Power Co.
- (Pathfinder Plant)
Sioux Fills, S Dak.
F J I'cLauc'illn
Construction Co
WatertoJn, S Dak.
Rock River Gravel Co.
Pipes tone, Minn
Watertown Rendering Co
Watertovn, S Dak
Manufacturing Hoi.
Process n /t*ny (^r^)
Crushed aggregate 1,060 (0.28)
(Aprll-Nov,)
Gravel washing

Rendering activities 265 (0 07)

Photofinlshing

Gravel washing

Meat Packing 3,780 (1.0)

Gravel washing and 5,300 (1.40)
quarrying (Aprll-fcov.)
Power generation 908 (0.24)


Power generation 2,200 (0.58)


Gravel washing


Gravel washing

Rendering activities 189 (0.05)

Receiving Water
Big Slous River

Tributary to Big
Sioux River
V

No DiBcharge until
Spring of 1975
Willow Creek

Rock River

Big Sioux River

Big Sioux River


Big Sioux River


Big Sioux River


Pipes tone Creek

Big Sioux River

Tvpe of Trcatne-t
Screening, Sedimentation

Settllrg Pontis-clooed ova ten

Crease reaoval



Settling pond

Sedimentation , anaerobic.
lagoon, aerobic lagoon-
Settling Ponds

Cooling towers, screening,
line precipitation

Coolin? towers, settling basin


Settling bnoin (closed ayaten)




Settling ponds

a/ The data were taken fron various sources  Refuse Act  Perclt  Applications,  Interim  Plan-Big  Sioux River Basin-South Dakota,
   Correspondence-Iowa Water Pollution Control Aocusission,  NFIC-D Reconnaissance  of Big  Sioux  River Basin-Minnesota.
b/ This la a non-contributing part of the basin.
/ The firm la installing a epray-lrrigation systco with complete retention  during tho irrigation ccaaon.

-------
                                                                                       E-ll
                                           TABLE E-5

                       APPLICATIONS FOR WASTEWATER DISPOSAL PERMITS FROM
                   OPERATORS OF FEEDLOTS IN SOUTH DAKOTA WITH POSSIBLE DRAINAGE
                          TO THE BIG SIOUX RIVER OR ITS TRIBUTARIES.
                                          AUGUST 1972
Number
a/ 1
2
3
4
5
6
a/ 7
8
b/ 9
10
b/ 11
b/ 12
b/ 13
a/ 14
15
b/ 16
b/ 17
b/ 18
b/ 19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
County
Brookings
it
it
it
it
it
it
n
it
i
1
i
1
i
t
it
tt
11
Minnehaha
n
it
ti
n
ii
n
Liticoln
n
n
tt
Union
Union
Owner
L.S. Barrnet
SDSU
SDSU
SDSU
SDSU
C.E. Nelson
A.J. Vanderwal
Steven Good fellow
Alvin Johnson
Stanley Hesby
M.V. Kleinjan
Arthur Vanderwal
Leland Schlimmer
Earnest Telkamp
Lloyd Minor
D. W. Harvey
Richard Jenson
Lyle Telkamp
Howard Johnson
Paul Rooney
Henry Sieps
Wayne Burkhurt
Roger Skallard
Herbert Ranschau
C.J. Delbridge
Gerhard Sweeter
Ronald Larson
Robert Roetzel
Lowell Larson
Andrew Quara
Larry L. Nilson
                                                         Drainage

                                                    Big Sioux River
                                                    Six Mile Cr.
                                                    Six Mile Cr.
                                                    Six Mile Cr.
                                                    Six Mile Cr.
                                                    Medary Cr.
                                                    Big Sioux River
                                                    Oakwood Lake
                                                    N. Deer Cr.
                                                    Lake Sinani
                                                    Trib. Big Sioux R.
                                                    Big Sioux River
                                                    Trib. Big Sioux R.
                                                    Medary Creek
                                                    Medary Creek
                                                    Medary Creek
                                                    Trib. Big Sioux R.
                                                    Medary Creek
                                                    Split Rock  Creek
                                                    Split Rock  Creek
                                                    Split Rock  Creek
                                                    Pipestone Creek
                                                    Split Rock  Creek
                                                    Skunk Creek
                                                    Trib. Big Sioux R.
                                                    Beaver Creek
                                                    Beaver Creek
                                                    Beaver Creek
                                                    Trib. Big Sioux R.
                                                    Trib. Big Sioux R.
                                                    Trib. Big Sioux R.
 Animal Units^-

100 C, 500 S
11,000 P
300 C
370 C
500 S
800 C & S
1,000 C
300 C & S
300 C, 500 S
225 c, ;oo
150 C, 450
135 C
300 C, 400 S
5,000 C 6r S
490 C
200 C
100 C, 250 S
250 C
600 C & S
3,000 C
150 C
1,000 C & S
200 C
500 C
844 C
& Sh
800
100 S, 300 Sh
400
150
450
1,000 C
a/ The feedlot has been inspected.
b/ This feedlot has been inspected  and needs waste control facilities.  (Of the eleven
   feedlots inspected,  eight need control.)
ej C refers to cow;
   S refers to swine;
   Sh to sheep;
   P to poultry; and
   C & S to combined cows & swine.

-------
                                                                                                          I
                                                                                                          I1
                                                                                                          tS3
       Owner


Ralph L. Kooiker


Vertis Gamineister


Alfred TeSlaa


Walter Jansnia & Son


Howard P. Mogler


John Colenbrander


Ken Aulstein


Lawrence Ter Horst


Theodore Port


J. Thomas Kenney
                                          TABLE E-6


                      REGISTERED FEEDLOTS IN THE BIG SIOUX RIVER BASIN
                                           IN IOTA
 County


Lyon
Sioux
Plymouth
              Location
                               b/
a^l Except where otherwise denoted numbers
b/ The letter "T" denotes the township.
   E 1/2, Sec.  10, Cleveland T.-


   NE 1/4, Sec.  8, Wheeler T.


   Sec.  5, Rock T.


   Sec.  6 & 7,  Rock T.


   SE 1/4, Sec.  12, Logan T.


   SW 1/4, Sec.  30, Welcome T.


   SE 1/4, Sec.  18, Welcome T.


   SW 1/4, Sec.  28, Center T.


   SE 1/4, Sec.  8, Sioux T.


   NE 1/4, Sec.  12, Westfield T.


refer to cattle.
        a/
Capacity


3,500


2,500


1,500
  800


1,000


1,000


1,600


  300 Hogs


  600

-------
        APPENDIX F

    SUMMARY TABLES FROM
STREAM AND PLANT STUDY DATA

-------
                                                                 TABLE 7-1
                                                    SUMMARY OF BACTERIOLOGICAL ANALYSES
                                                              BIG SIOUX RIVER
                                                              FEBRUARY, 1973
Station Description
Big Sioux River at U S. Highway
14, 3.2 km east of Volga, S. D.
(RM 243.9)
Big Sioux River 16.2 km S.E.
of Brookings, S.D ; 0.8 km
downstream from 1-29 Bridge
(R.1 232.6)
Big Sioux River at S D Highway
34, 4.8 km s.W Flandreau, S.D.
(RM 2U6 1)
Big Sioux River 1.6 km west of
Reiner, S.D. (RM 162.2)
Meilnan Food Industries Lagoon
System Effluent (RH 154.2)
Sl-unk Creek at Marion Road W. Sioux
Falls, S.D. (RM 152 8/1.1),
Big Siouy River at l-'estern Avenue
S V. Sioux Falls, S D (RM 150.6)
Big Sioux River opposite Morrell
Total Coliforn-s
Count/100 ml
Maximum Log Mean Minimuri
16,000 820 120


84,000 3,000 800



29,000 7,600 1,100


12,000 2,200 820

360,000 210,000 120,000

10,000 670 20

10,000 1,300 320

19,000 1,700 600
Fecal Coliforms
Count/100 ml
Maximum Log Mean Minimun
1,300 100 50


350 170 20



980 150 50


320 200 100

140,000 57,000 37,000

100 <24 <4

490 210 100

2,200 240 43
Fecal Streptococci
Count/100 ml
Maxinum Log Mean Klnimua
30,000 650


3,900 1,500



50,000 3,600


10,000 2,100

8,600,000 3,300,000 1,000

9,500 1,500

99,000 42,000 22

3,100 1,200
100


950



550


660

,000

230

,000

390
Condenser 0.2 km   upstream of
Diversion Canal, Sioux Falls,  S D.
(RM 143 2)

Sioux Falls, S D.  KWTP Effluent   >8,000,000
(RM 143.0)
>1,300,000     470,000    >600,000     >180,000      23,000  53,000,000    2,000,000     120,000

-------
                                                             TABLE F-l (Cent.)
                                                    SUMMARY OF B\CTERTOLOGICAL ANALYSES
                                                              BXG SIOJA. RIvES.
                                                              FEBRUARY, 1973
                                                                                                                                               T)
                                                                                                                                               ro
        Station Description
            Total Coliforras
             Count/100 ml
   Maximum	Log Moan	Minimum
                                Fecal Coliforms
                                 Count/100 ml
                       haximum	Log Mean	Minimum
                                                       Fecal  Streptococci
                                                         Cojnt/100  -il
                                                Ma {y.uni	Log Me?-1	Minir-.jrn
Sioux Falls, S D , WWTP
By-pass Effluent
(RM 142 9)

Big Sioj>  Ri/er at Highway 77
(Cliff A.enue) 0.5 km
dcvnstrea-i fron Sioux Falls,
S.D., Wastewater Treatment
Plant (RM 142.7)

Eig SiouA River dovnstrcam from
1-229 2.9 kn    downstream from
Sio^ Falls, S D. , Wastcwater
Treatment Plant (RM 141.2)

Big Siou  River at Brandon Road,
west of Braruon, S.D. (RM 134 5)

Split Rock Creek at U  S. High-
way 16,  2.4 km   east of Brandon,
S D. (RM 130 1/5 3)

Big Sioux River at Hightav 38
Bridge, appro^matel> 2.4 km
upstream of lo-.a-South Dakota
state boundary (RM 128 5)

Big Sioux River at Highway 18
4.8 urn  east of Canton, S D.
(RM 106 2)

Rock River 4.8 km  east of Hudson,
S D. on South Dakota Spur #46
(RM 76.2/5.8)
54,000,000   16,000,000   1,500,000  30,000,000    4,300,000     150,000 540,000,000  >82,000,000    2,800,000
   210,000
    36,000
     3,700
    10,000
70,000
280,000      120,000
13,000
 1,500
 4,700
17,000
                             51,000
 3,900
   270
 1,600
17,000
                        50,000
 3,900
   480
 1,000
                                                    5,900
                         13,000
540,000
9,900
100,000
2,200
9,900
390
56,000
68
12,000
39
                                                    1,400
                            130
                                                      630
2,200     390,000      110,000        7,100
                          1,300  >1,000,000      >14,000        1,900
                                                                     680   1,400,000       74,000        1,200
                                                                      10       7,000
                             10       3,100
  390      31,000
                                                                           1,900
                                                                                              760
                                                                              730
  170      91,000       11,000        2,100
                                                                                          260
5,800       1,100

-------
                                                                      TABLE F-l (Cont.)
                                                             SUMMARY OF BACTERIOLOGICAL ANALYSES
                                                                       BIG SIOUX RIVER
                                                                       FEBRUARY, 1973
*
Station Description
Big Sioux River 1.6 km east of
hudson, S.D Spur #46 (R'l 80.9)
Big Sioux River at loja Highway
Maximum
1,900
3,600
Total Coliforms
Count/100 ml
Log Mean
560
2,100
Minimum
190
1,000
Maximum
170
490
Fecal Coliforms
Count/100 ml
Log Mean Minimum
<55 <10
240 120
Fecal Streptococci
Count/100 irl
Maximum Log Mean Minimum
3,100 930
4,300 3,200
540
1,700
         10, 6.4 km  north of Hawarden,
         loia (RM 66.9)

         Big Siouy River at South Dakota        3,300
         Highway 48, Akron, lo^a
         (R.M 46 8)

         Big Siouy River at U.S. 77 North-      3,200
         west Sioux City, Iowa  (Military
         Road) (RM 5.0)
1,200
  910
600
250
260
200
170
100
80      24,000
40       9,400
7,400       3,700
5,100       2,800
* Under individual station  descriptions, metric unit equivalents are nade as 1 km - 0.62 miles.

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                                                                          TABLE  F-2
                                                             SUMMARY OF BACTERIOLOGICAL ANALYSES
                                                                         ROCK RIVER
                                                                       FEBRUARY, 1973
*
Station Description Maximum
Rock River 0.8 km upstream of <100
Lu/erre, Minnesota, Was tewater Treat-
ment Plant (RM 76 2/52 5).-<*
Rock River at Mni>esota-Io\va State 2,500
Line Bridge, 7.2 km north of
Fock Rapids, Io..'a (RM 76 2/40 8)**
Little Rock River at Highway 75 170
P/ridge, 4.8 km r>ast of Doon, Iowa
(R;; 76 2/23 i/4 o)**
Rock River at Lyon, Colorado Road 3,100
K42 Bridge, 1.6 km north of Doon,
lo a (RM 76.2/25 7)"*
Fock River 4.8 km east of Hudson, 10,000
Total Coliforms
Count/ 100 ml
Log Mean Minimum
<84 70
2,500 2,500
130 100
2,800 2,600
4,700 1,600
Fecal Coliforms
Count/ 100 ml
Mrxirura Log Meap Minimum
12 11 10
590 410 280
32 31 30
1,200 690 400
1,000 630 390
Fecal Streptococci
Count/ 100 trl
Maxirum Log Mean
390 350
2,300 1,600
2,700 1,900
2,700 2,400
31,000 5,800
Mini-urn '
320
1,100
1,300
2,100
1,100
         S D.  on South Dakota So^r #46
         (JU 76 2/5 8)>*

  Under individual station descriptions metric  unit equivalents are made as 1 km  0.62 mile.
** Suraary of 2 samples.
*** Summary of 10 samples.

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                             TABLE F-3

                     SALMONELLA ISOLATIONS FROM
                   BIG SIOUX RIVER, FEBRUARY, 1973
                                                                      F-5
River
Mile
    Station Description
   Serotypes
   Isolated
143/0.2
154.2
143.0
142.9
142.7
134.5
128.5
Diversion Canal 0.3 km (0.2 mi.)
upstream of Sioux Falls, South
Dakota, Wastewater Treatment
Plant.

Meilman Food Industries Lagoon
System Effluent at Point of
Discharge to Big Sioux River.

Sioux Falls, South Dakota,
Wastewater Treatment Plant
discharge.

Sioux Falls, South Dakota,
Wastewater Treatment Plant
by-pass discharge.

Big Sioux River at U.S. Highway
77 bridge, 0.5 km (0.3 mi.)
downstream from Sioux Falls,
South Dakota, Wastewater
Treatment Plant.

Big Sioux River at Brandon Rd.;
west of Brandon, South Dakota.
Big Sioux River at Highway 38
bridge, 2.4 km (1.5 mi.)
upstream of Iowa-South Dakota
State line.
No Salmonella
 isolated
S. siegberg
S. tennessee
S. bare-illy

S. heidelberg
S. oranienbitrg
S. heidelberg
S. anatwn
S. heidelberg
S. derby
S. heidelberg
S. anatwn
S. derby

S. heidelberg
S. anatwn
S. eimsbuettel

-------
F-b
                                               TABLE F-4

                              SUMMARY OF FIFLD DATA AND ANALYTICAL RESULTS
                                     BIG SIOUX RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES
                                       SOUTH DAKOTA-IOWA-MINNTSOfA
                                           1-10 FEBRUARY 1973
  Parameter^-'
No. of
Samples
                                                  Range
                 Average
                                                                                  Average 1 oad
kg/dav
Ib/day
                 RM 263.5  Big Stoux River at S.D. Hwv. 28, 2.4 km  (1.5  mi)
                             W  of Estelline, S.D. (1423)
  Flow (m /sec)
  Flov (mgd)
  pH (standard units)
  Temperature (C)
  Conductivity (umhos/cm)
  BOD
  COD
  TOC
  Total Solids
  Suspended Solids
  NH -X
  Total Kjeldahl Nitiogen-N
  Organic-N
  KO- + NO -N
  Total Fhosphorus-P
  Turbidity (JTU)
  Dissolved Oxygen
                                   0.40
                                    6.8
                 EM 243.9  Big Sioux River at U.S. Hwy. 14, 3 kin (2 mi)
                             E  of Volga, S.D. (142?)
  Flov (in /sec)
  Flow (mgd)
  pH (standard units)
  Temperature (C)
  Conductivity (umhos/cra)
  BOD
  COD
  TOC
  Total Solids
  Suspended Solids
  NH.-N
  Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N
  Organic-N
  NO. + N03-N
  Total Phosphorus-P
  Turbidity (JTu)
  Dissolved Oxygen
                7.7-7.9
                0.0-0.0
                650-850
                1.4-6.2
                 37-78
                  9-71
                560-661
                  5-18
               0.31-0.42
               1.27-1.
               0.91-1.
               1.13-1.
               0.19-0.
                  3-6
                8.6-12
      .75
      .33
      .32
      .39
                    0.29
                    10.4
                 RM 232.6  Big Sioux River, 15.2 km (9.5 mi) SE of
                             Brookinps, S.D , 0.8 km (0.5 mi) downstream
                             from the 1-29 River Crossing at USCS Caging
                             Station (1421)
  flow (m /sec)
  Flow (mgd)
  pH (standard units)
  Temperature (C)
  Conductivity (umhos/cm)
  BOD
  COD
  TOC
  Total Solids
  Suspended Solids
  NH--N
  Total Kjeldahl Hitrogcn-N
  NO. + N03-N
  Total Thospliorus-P
  turbidity (J1U)
  Dissolved Oxygen
    3
    4
    4
    3
    2
    8
    8
    8
    8
    4
    4
    8
 1.5-1.8
  34-41
 7.4-7.9
 0.0-1.0
 600-950
 3.4-47
  54-120
  10-45
 457-637
    y
0_. 38-0.81
1.60-4.36
1.04-3.63
0.80-1.33
0.37-0.93
   4-8
 7.8-11
                                   1.63
                                   37.2
18
90
20
570
8
0.63")
2.12]
1.49f
1.2l)
0.53
2,500
12,500
2,750

1,240
89.3
29.8
20.8
170
74.3
5,510
27,700
6,060

2,740
197
656
458
376
164
                                    9.1

-------
                                          TABLE F-4 (Cont.)

                            SUMMARY OF FIELD DATA AND ANALYTICAL RESULTS
                                   BIG SIOUX RIVER ATD TRIBUTARIES
                                     SOUTH DAKOTA-IOUA-MINNKSOTA
                                         1-10 FEBRUARY 1973
                                                                                                 F-7
         a/
Parameter-
No, of
Samples
                                                                                Average  Load
   Range
                  Averaee
kg/day
Ib/day
               KM 206.1  Big Sioux River at S.D. Hwy. 34, 4.8 km (3
                           SW of Flandreau, S.D. (1420)
Flow (m /sec)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (ymhos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
NH -N
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N
Organic-N
NO, + NO -N
ToEal Phosphorus-P
Turbidity (JTU)
Dissolved Oxygen
                7.4-8.0
                0.0-0.0
                650-800
                7.8-12
                 90-110
                 16-20
                479-549
                  7-20
               0.69-1.03
               2.40-3.73
               1.52-2.75
               1.09-1.48
               0.60-0.67

                7.7-10.0
               RM 162.2  Big Sioux River 1.6 km (1 mi) W
Flow (m /sec)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (^mhos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
KH -N
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N
Organic-N
N02 + N03-N
Total Phosphorus-P
Turbidity (JTU)
Dissolved Oxygen
               1.97-3.23
                 45-74
                7.4-7.8
                0.0-0,0
                650-875
                6.8-16
                 62-86
                 16-26
                449-606
                  7-29
               0.45-1.14
                2,17-3^4
               1.64-2.50
               1.34-1.51
               0.49-0.72
                  3-18
                 10-12
10
97
18
509
12
0.88")
2.85F
1.96)
1.30f
0.63
8.9
of Renner, S.D.
2.67
61
9.5
76
20
522
14
0.88
2.80
1.92
1.42
0.57











(1419)


2,240
17,600
4,720


203
648
444
327
132
                     10.9
               RM 154.2  Spencer Foods, Inc. Lagoon Effluent at Point of
                           Discharge to Big Sioux River, 60 M (200 ft) upstream
                           of 12th St.  Bridge in W  Sioux Falls, S.D. (1425)
Flow (m /sec)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
Nil -N
Total Klcldahl Nitrogen-N
Organic-N
NO  + NO -N
Total Phosphorus-P
Turbidity (ITU)
Dissolved Ox>gen
    /
    9
    9
    9
    9
    9

    9
    9
    9
    9
  965-2,290
0.255-0.604
  7.3-7.8
  0.0-0.1
2,000-3,000

  310-520
   73-150
  990-1,750
   54-170
   44-130
   28-69
   64-105
   24-44
 0.01-0.39
  7.1-14.1
                                  1,400
                                  0.370
420
103
1,510
90
73
59
94
35
0.11
11.6
562
141

118
96.6
77.1
128
49.4
0.22
15.5
                                              4,940
                                             38,800
                                             10,400
                                                448
                                              1,430
                                                980
                                                721
                                                290
              1,240
                310

                261
                213
                170
                283
                109
               0.49
               34.1

-------
F-8
                                          TABLE F-4  (Cont.)

                            SUMMARY OF FltLD DATA AND ANALYTICAL  RESULTS
                                   BIG SIOUX RlVfR AND TRIBUTARIFS
                                     SOUTH DAKOrA-IOWA-MINNESOlA
                                         1-10 FEBRUARY 1973
Parameter
No. of
Samples
                                                Range
                                  Average Load
                 Avcrape	kg/da,	Ib/day
               RM 152.8/1.1  Skunk Creek at Marion  Rd., W of  Sioux Falls, S.D. (1416)
Flow (m /sec)                     10
Flow (myj)                        10
pH  (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (pmhos/cm)
BOD                               5
COD                               6
TOC                               6
Total Solids                       4
Suspended Solids                   4
N1I.-N                             10
Total KJeldahl Nitropen-N         10
Organic-N                         10
NO. + N03-N                       10
Total Phosphorus-P                 5
Turbidity (JTU)
Dissolved Oxygen                  10
               0.17-
                3.9-
                7.1-
                0.0-
                650-
                3.2-
                 40-
                  8-
                399-
                  5-
               0.56-
               1.65-
               0.76-
               1.02-
               0.19-
     0.19
     4.5
     7.6
     or.o
     850
     34
     98
     29
     669
     12
     1.38
     4.41
     3.03
     1.40
     0.74
                5.2-9.0
0.18
 4.1
  12
  55
  17
 525
   8
0.94
2.38
1.44
1.19
0.35

 7.4
 197
 857
 265

 128
14.6
37.3
18.0
18.4
5.58
  434
1,890
  585

  282
 32.
 82.
 39.8
 40.7
 12.3
               RM 150.6  Big Sioux River at Western Ave., SW Sioux Falls, S.D. (1415)
Flow (m /sec)
Flow (mgd)
pH  (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
NH -N
Total Kjcldahl Nitrogen-N
Organic-N
NO. + NO -N
Total Phosphorus-P
Turbidity (JTU)
Dissolved Oxygen
    2
    2
    2
    1
    1
    4
    4
    4
    4
    2
 7.5-7.. 5
   0-0
 960-1,150
 6.8-8.0
    y
    b/
0.57-2.85
2.11-4.28
1.33-1.91
0.81-0.98
0.60-0.70

 7.3-8.3
 7.4
  49
  10
 802
  26
 .95
 .50
 .55
0.89
0.65

 7.8
               RM 143.2  Big Sioux River Opposite John Morrell  and  Co.  Former
                           Discharge, 0.2 km  (0.1 mi) upstream of Diversion Canal (1413)
Flow (m /sec)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (yiriios/cm)
BOD                                9
COD                                9
TOC                                9
Total Solids                       7
Suspended Solids                   7
NH--N                             10
Total kjeldahl NitroRen-N         10
Organic--N                         10
NO, + NO..-N                       10
Total Phosphorus-P                10
Turbidity (JTU)
Dissolved Oxygen                  10
 7.5-8.2
[0.0-0.0
 380-:,100
 4.2-6.6
  46-66
   9-19
 640-79^
   6-27
1.37-2.47
2.87-3.94
1.04-2.52
1.01-1.16
0.38-0.97

  13-15
                                    5.8
                                     55
                                     13
                                    702
                                     16
                                     04
                                     57
                                     52
                                     08
                                   0.54
                                   13.2

-------
                                                                                                 F-9
                                          TABLE F-4 (Cent.)

                            SUMMARY OF FIFLD DATA AND AVAIYTICAL RF.SULTS
                                   BIG SIOUX RIVFR AND TRIBUTARITS
                                     SOUTH DAKOTA-IOUA-MINNPSOTA
                                         1-10 FEBRUARY 1973


           .                    No. of                                          Average  Load
Parameter	Samples	Rani^e	Average	kp/day	Ib/day

               RM 143.0  Sioux Falls, S.D., Wastewater Treatment
                           Plant Effluent (1412)

Flow (m3/sec)                               24,100-39,400       34,000
Flow (mgd)                        10          6.38-10.4           8.99
pH (standard units)                            7.2-7.8
Temperature (C)                               9.0-12.0
Conductivity (ymhos/cm)                      2,200-3,000
BOD                                8            72-140             110        3,710         8,190
COD                                8           110-210             152        5,310        11,700
TOG                                8            24-69               38        1,300         2,860
Total Solids                       8         1,450-1,830         1,580
Suspended Solids                   8            16-67               33        1,120         2,460
Volatile suspended solids          8            14-44               24         794         1,750
NH -N                              8            36-45               40        1,400         3,090
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N          8            41-65               52        1,820         4,010
Organic-N                          8             4-25               12         419           924
NO, + NO--N                        8           5.5-12.6            8.7         300           661
Total Phosphorus-P                 8          12.4-15.3           13.7         475         1,048
Turbidity (JTU)
Dissolved Oxygen
               RM 142.9  Sioux Falls, S.D., Wastewater Treatment
                           Plant By-pass (1424)

Flow (m3/sec)                                 83.3-435             193
Flow (mgd)                                   0.022-0.115         0.051
pH (standam units)                            6.8-7.4
Temperature (C)                              11.5-16.0
Conductivity (ymhos/cm)                      2,200-5,500
BOD                               10           250-1,300           880          173           382
COD                               10           560-1,900         1,450          294           649
TOC                               10           130-500             330        68.0           150
Total Solids                      10         1,850-3,300         2,600
Suspended Solids                  10           220-640             450        87.5           193
Volatile Suspended Solids         10           200-550             376        74.8           165
NH -N                             10            40-72               54        10.3          22.8
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N         10           120-180             151        29.4          64.8
Organic-N                         10            67-119            97.4        19.0          42.0
NO  + NO -N                       10          0.05-0.67           0.17        0.03          0.06
Total Phosphorus-P                10          16.3-24.9           20.1        4.10          9.05
Turbidity (JTU)
Dissolved Oxygen

               RM 142.7  Big Sioux River at U.S. Hwy. 77 (Cliff Ave.),
                           0.5 km (0.3 mi) downstream from Sioux Falls, S.D.
                           Wastewater Treatment Plant (1411)

Flow (m /sec)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)                            7.4-8.0
Temperature (C)                              <0.0-1.5  -^
Conductivity (ymhos/cm)                        500-1,200 ^\
BOD                                5             5-11        X     7.9
COD                                5            89-100              96
TOC                                5            15-29               19
Total Solids                       4           584-675             611
Suspended Solids                   4             3-18               11
NH,-N                             10          1.26-6.33           3.34
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N         10           2.6-8.75           6.13
Organic-N                         10          1.34-4.43           2.78
NO  + NO -N                       10          1.23-1.40           1.33
Total Phosphorus-P                 6          0.89-1.67           1.28
Turbidity (JTU)
Dissolved Oxypcn                  10            12-13             12.9

-------
F-10
                                           TABLE F-4 (Cont.)

                             SUMMARY OF FIFLD DATA AVD ANALYTICAL RESULTS
                                    BIG SIOUX RIVFR AND TRIBU1ARIFS
                                      SOUTH D\K01A-IOWA-MIN'-li:SOTA
                                          1-10 FLBRUARY 1973


                                No. of                                           Avernt*g Load	
 Parameter-	Samples	Ranp,e	Average	kp./day	Ib/day

                RM 141.2  Big Sioux River downstream from 1-229, 2.9 km  (1.8  mi)
                            Downstream from Sioux Falls, S.D., Wastcwater
                            Treatment Facility (1410)

 Flow (m3/sec)                     10          3.13-3.95           3.45
 Flow (mgd)                        10          71.6-90.3           79.1
 pH (standard units)                            7.4-7.8
 Temperature (C)                              <0.0-3.5
 Conductivity (urahos/cm)                        600-100
 BOD                               10           4.6-11              8.2       2,470        5,440
 COD                               10            64-94               75       19,600       43,300
 TOC                               10            15-71               18       5,400       11,900
 Total Solids                       8           541-722             632
 Suspended Solids                   8             7-16             11.4       3,470        7,660^
 KH.-JJ                             10          3.26-7.05            4.7       1,400        3,080
 Total Kjeldahl Hirrogen-N         10          5.86-31.5           7.53       2,260        4,980(
 Organic-N                         10          1.43-4.32           2.87          862        1.900J
 NO  + NO..-N                       10          1.18-3.45           1.29          386          852
 Total Phosphorus-P                10          1.07-1.99           1.52          454        1,000
 Turbidity (JTU)
 Dissolved Oxygen                  10            12-13             12.6

                RH 134.5  Big Sioux River at Brandon Rd. Bridge 0.8 km (0.5 mi)
                            W  of Brandon, S.D. (1409)

 Flow (n /sec)
 Flow (rogd)
 pH (standard units)                            7.3-7.6
 Temperature (C)                              <0.0-3.0
 Conductivity (umhos/cm)                        400-1,300
 BOD                                5           6.2-9.9             8.1
 COD                                5            65-95               76
 TOC                                5            12-22               17
 Total Solids                       4           627-801             682
 Suspended Solids                   4             7-23               12
 NH -N                             10          5.17-7.79           6.57
 ToEal Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N         10          9.18-12.7           10.6
 Organic-N                         10          2.80-6.98           4.35
 NO- + NO--N                       10          1.35-1.70           1.58
 Total Phosphorus-P                 5          1.71-2.67           2.14
 Turbidity (JTU)
 Dissolved Oxygen                  10            11-12               11

                RM 130.1/5.3  Split Rock Creek at U.S. Hwy. 16, 2.4 km (1.5 mi)
                                E  of Brandon, S.D. (1408)

 Flow (m3/sec)                     10          0.48-1.18           0.63
 Flow (mgd)                        10            11-27.1           14.5
 pH (standard units)                            7.1-7.7
 Temperature (C)                               0.0-0.5
 Conductivity (mnhos/cra)                        375-500
 BOD                                5           3.0-12              7.2          476        1,050
 COD                                5            73-100              86       5,160       11,370
 TOC                                5            20-43               27       1,740        3,840
 Total Solids                       4           281-353             323
 Suspended Solids                   4             3-18                9          429          947
 Nil -N                              9          1.34-1.96           1.74         93.0          205
 ToEnl Kjeldahl Mtrogen-N          9          3.50-4.27           3.90          216          477
 Organlc-1                          9          1.73-2.93           2.17          124          273
 NO. + NO.-N                        9          0.93-1.05           0.99         54.0          119
 Total Phosphorus-P                 5          0.63-0.86           0.72         43.5           96
 Turbidity (JTU)                    5             2-13
 Dissolved Oxvpen                  10           6.4-7.4             6.8

-------
                                                                                                 F-ll
                                          TABLE F-4 (Cont.)

                            SUMMARY OF FIELD DATA AND ANALYTICAL RESULTS
                                   BIG SIOUX RIVFR AND TRIBUTARIES
                                     SOUTH DAKOTA-IOWA-MINNFSOTA
                                         1-10 FEBRUARY 1973
           .                    No. of                                          Averape  Load
Parameter-	Samples	Ran%e	Average	kg/day	Ib/day

               RM 128.5  Big Sioux River at Hwy. 38 Bridge, approx. 2.4 km  (1.5 mi)
                           upstream of Iowa-Sout,h Dakota State Boundary (1407)

Flow (m /sec)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)                            7.1-7.8
Temperature (C)                               0.0-1.0
Conductivity (limhos/cm)                        540-850
BOD                               10           4.6-11              7.3
COD                               10            74-98               86
TOC                               10            17-27               21
Total Solids                       8           526-623             574
Suspended Solids                   8             5-31               15
NH -N                             10          2.04-6.31           4.85
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N         10          5.39-9.56           7.33
Organic-N                         10          1.76-3.94           2.48
NO. + NO..-N                       10          1.26-1.49           1.38
Total Phosphorus-P                 5          1.21-1.76           1.58
Turbidity (JTU)
Dissolved Oxygen                  10           6.6-8.9             7.8

               RM 106.2  Big Sioux River at U.S. Hwy. 18, 4.8 km (3 mi)
                           E  of Canton, S.D. (1406)

Flow (m /sec)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)                            7.2-7.6
Temperature (C)                               0.0-0.5
Conductivity (pmhos/cm)                        600-900
BOD                                9           4.6-12              6.3
COD                                9            61-86               77
TOC                                9            17-25-               20
Total Solids                       7           506-639             580
Suspended Solids                   7             8-16               11
NH -N                             10          2.97-6.61           4.56
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N         10          5.17-7.94           6.27
Organic-N                         10          0.63-2.20           1.72
NO- + NO -N                       10          1.38-1.73           1.56
Total Phosphorus-P                10          1.01-1.62           1.39
Turbidity (JTU)                    9             4-10
Dissolved Oxygen                  10           5.6-7.3             6.5

               RM 80.9  Big Sioux River 1.6 km (1 mi) E - of Hudson, S.D.
                          on S.D. Spur No. 46 (1404)

Flow (m /sec)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)                            6.9-7.5
Temperature (C)                               0.0-1.0
Conductivity (yrahos/cm)                        700-870
BOD                                5           3.6-9.6             5.7
COD                                5            64-100              84
TOC                                5            18-28               20
Total Solids                       4           555-612             597
Suspended Solids                   4            12-22               16
NH,-N                             10          2.48-4.10           3.61
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N         10          4.69-6.64           5.52
Organic-N                         10          1.39-2.75           1.91
NO  + NO -N                       10          1.49-1.75           1.64
Total Phosnhorus-P                 5          0.94-1.37           1.20
Turbidity (JTU)
Dissolved Oxygen                  10           4.2-5.5             4.8

-------
  F-12
                                          TABLE F-4 (Cont.)

                            SUMMARY OF FIFLD DATA AND ANALYTICAL RESULTS
                                   BIG SIOUX RIVfR A.VD TRIBUTARIES
                                     SOUTH DAKOT^-IOTA-ItlMIFSOTA
                                         1-10 FEBRUARY 1973
          .                     No. of                                           Average Load	
Parameter- 	Samples	Range	Average	kg/day	Ib/day

               RM 76.2/52.5  Rock River, 0.8 km (0.5 mi) upstream of Luverne,
                               Minnesota, Wastewater Treatment Plant  (1429)

Flow (m /sec)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)                            7.2-7.3
Temperature  (C)                               0.0-0.0
Conductivity (ymhos/cm)                        480-540
BOD                                2           2.0-6.2             4.1
COD                                2            56-72               64
TOC                                2            21-24               22
Total Solids                       2           389-398             394
Suspended Solids                   2            13-14               14
mi -N                              2          1.54-1.57           1.56
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N          2          3.04-3.11           3.08
Organic-N                          2          1.50-1.54           1.52
NO, + NO--N                         2          1.40-1.44           1.42
Total Phosphorus-P                 2          0.44-0.57           0.50
Turbidity (JTU)
Dissolved Oxygen                   2           2.2-2.6             2.4

               RM 76.2/40.8 - Rock River at Minnesota-Iowa State Boundary,
                              8 km (5 mi) N  of Rock Rapids, Iowa (1428)

Flow (m /sec)
Flew (mgd)
pH (standard units)                            7.2-7.3
Temperature  (C)                               0.0-0.0
Conductivity (umhos/cm)                        500-580
BOD                                2           6.2-6.3             6.2
COD                                2            53-30               66
TOC                                2            23-38               20
Total Solids                       2           413-440              42
Suspended Solids                   2            20-25               22
NH.-N                              2          1.66-1.68           1.67
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N          2          3.32-3.40           3.36
Organic-N                          2          1.66-1.72           1.69
NO, + NO--N                         2          1.18-1.28           1.23
Total Phosphorus-P                 2
Turbidity (JTU)
Dissolved Oxygen                   2           3.8-3.8             3.8

               RM 76.2/25.7 - Rock River at Lyon County Road K 42 Bridge,
                              1.6 km (1 mi) N  of Doon, Iowa (1426)

Flow (m /sec)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)                            7.4-7.5
Temperature  (C)                               0.0-0.0
Conductivity (ymhos/cm)                        500-580
BOD                                2           3.5-5.6             4.6
COD                                2            58-76               67
TOC                '                2            16-22               19
Total Solids                       2           389-405             397
Suspended Solids                   2             4-12                8
NH--N                              2          1.59-1.72           1.66
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N          2          3 44-3.50           3.47
Organic-N                          2          1.78-3.85           1.82
NO, + NO -N                         2          1.27-1.28           1.28
Total l'hosphorus-P                 2          0.52-0.85           0.68
Tuibidity (JTU)
Dissolved Oxygen                   2           6.6-6.6             6.6

-------
                                          TABLE F-4 (Cont.)

                            SUMMARY OF FIELD DATA AND ANALYTICAL RESULTS
                                   BIG SIOUX RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES
                                     SOUTH DAKOTA-IOWA-MINNESOTA
                                         1-10 FEBRUARY 1973
                                                                                                 F-13
Parameter-
No, of
Samples
  Range
Average
                                                                               Average  Load
kg/day
Ib/day
               RM 76.2/23.1/4.0  Little Rock River at Hwy 75 Bridge,
                                   4.8 km (3 mi)  E of Doon, Iowa (1427)
Flow (m /sec)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (grahos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
NH -N
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N
Organic-N
NO- + N03-N
Total Phosphorus-P
Turbidity (JTU)
Dissolved Oxygen
                7.1-7.1
                0.0-0.0
                650-700
                3.5-5.0
                 38-64
                 13-16
                457-503
                  4-13
               1.46-1.48
               2.65-2.67
               1.09-1.19
               1.63-1.65
                2.4-2.4
               RM 76.2/5.8  Rock River 4.8 km (3 mi)  E
                              on S.D.  Spur No.  46 (1405)
Flow (m /sec)
Flov fmgd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
NH -N
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N
Organic-N
NO. + N03-N
Total Phosphorus-P
Turbidity (JTU)
Dissolved Oxygen
   10
   10
    5
    5
    5
    4
    4
   10
   10
   10
   10
    5
    5
   10
    b/
    /
 7.0-7.6
 0.0-1.0
 420-600
 1.9-9.2
  45-69
  20-31
 348-405
   8-20
1.89-2.72
3.50-4.80
1.45-2.79
1.22-1.44
0.65-1.06
   5-20
 1.4-6.0
                     4.2
                      51
                      14
                     480
                     8.5
                    1.47
                    2.66
                    1.14
                    1.64
                     2.4
                           of Hudson, S.D.
   5.64
    129
5.9
61
24
363
15
2.13
4.13
2.00
1.30
0.83
2,880
29,750
1,180

7,350
1,040
2,010
975
635
403
6,350
65,600
26,000

16,200
2,290
4,440
2,150
1,400
888
    3.0
               RM 66.9  Big Sioux River at Iowa Hwy.  10, 6.4 km (4 mi) N
                          Hawarden, Iowa (1403)
                                             of
Flow (m /sec)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
BOD                                4
COD                                4
TOC                                4
Total Solids                       4
Suspended Solids                   4
NH--N                             10
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N         10
Organic-N                         10
NO, + NO-j-N                       10
Total Phosphoruo-P                 4
Turbidity (JTU)
Dissolved Oxygen                  10
                6.9-7.6
                0.0-1.0
                520-850
                3.6-5.8
                 71-89
                 18-24
                445-510
                  4-21
               2.30-3.45
               4.37-5.44
               1.54-2.51
               1.37-1.52
               0.93-1.18

                2.4-5.6
                     5.1
                      80
                      21
                     483
                      12
                      84
                      87
                      00
                      44
                    1.04
                     3.3

-------
  F-14
                                          TABLE F-4 (Cont.)

                            SUMMARY OF FIELD DATA AND ANALYTICAL  RFSULTS
                                   BIG SIOUX RIVTR AND TRIPITARIES
                                     SOUTH DAKOTA-IWA-MINHFSOTA
                                         1-10 FEBRUARY 1973
         a/
Parameter-
No. of
Samples
                                                                                Average Load
                                                Ranpe
            Average
          kg/day
                                      Ib/dav
                RM 46.8   Big  Sioux  River  at  South  Dakota  Hwy.  48,
                           Akron,  Iowa  (1402)
Flow (ra /sec)                     10
Flow (mRd)                        10
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
BOD                               10
COD                               10
TOC                               10
Total Solids                       7
Suspended Solids                   7
NH.-N                             10
Total KJeldahl Nltropen-N         10
Organic-N                         10
NO. + N03-H                       10
Total Phospnorus-P                10
Turbidity (JTU)
Dissolved Oxygen                  10
               10.0-
                232-
                7.0-
                0.0-
                460-
                3.7-
                 60-
                 16-
                433-
                 10-
                 25-
                 22-
                 61-
                 34-
               0.74-
16.8
384
7.5
0.5
690
14
94
27
524
43
3.07
5.21
2.85
1.55
1.47
                1.8-3.4
12.8
 293
 7.0
  84
  21
 478
  24
2.53
4.66
2.13
1.45
1.02

 2.6
 8,340
95,200
24,900

24,900
27,800
 5,220
 2,420
 1,590
 1,170
               RM 5.0  Big Sioux River at U.S. Hwy. 77 (Military Rd.)
                         NW Sioux City, Iowa (1401)
at All values are reported as mg/1, except where specified.
]j[/ All values arc the same.
ct Sample was toxic and no DO depletion occurred.
 18,400
210,000
 54,900

 55,000
  6,140
 11,500
  5,330
  3,500
  2,570
Flow (m /sec)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (ymhos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Ml.-N
Total Kjeldahl Nittogen-N
Organic-N
NO, + N03-N
Total Vhosphorus-P
Turbidity (JTU)
Dissolved Ovvpen





4
4
4
4
4
7
7
7
7
2

4


6.9-7.5
0.0-1.0
500-650
5.0-6.8
67-78
16-23
460-518
21-38
2.19-2.64
3.96-5 22
1.82-3.01
1.24-1.70
0.71-1.09

1.7-3.0





5.6
75
21
495
31
2.32
4.43
2.11
1.34
0.90

2.3

-------
                                                                                              F-15
                                           TABLE F-5

                            SUMMARY OF FIELD DATA AND ANALYTICAL RFSULTS
                        SIOUX FALLS, SOUTH DAKOTA, WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT
                                        24-31 JANUARY 1973

Station No.  1450    Industrial Pretreatment Plant - Influent (Combined)

                                        SEVEN-DAY
a/
Parameter-'
Flow (ra /day)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (Mmhos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
NH--N
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N
Organic-N
NO. + NO -N
Total Phosphorus-P

Flow (m3/day)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (prahos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
NH--N
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N
Organic-N
NO, + N03-N
Total Phosphorus-P

Flow (ra3/day)
Flow (rogd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (ymhos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
NII--N
Total Kjeldahl Nitrofien-N
Organlc-N
NO, * .v;o3-N
Total Phosphorus-P
No. of .
Samples
1




7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7






5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5






2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
Average Load
Range
7,120-18,700
1.88-4.94
6.6-8.1
8.5-25.0
1,600-5,000
1,000-3,800
1,300-4,700
290-980
2,530-4,520
170-1,900
130-1,500
23-40
57-240
30-200
<0.5
17.3-31.6
WEEK-DAY
15,900-18,700
4.21-4.94
6.6-8.1
15.5-25.0
2,600-5,000
1,000-3,800
2,100-4,700
470-980
2,530-4,520
530-1,900
420-1,500
23-40
92-240
68-200
<0.5
22.4-31.6
WEEK-END
7,110-7,190
1.88-1.90
6.7-7.6
8.5-22.0
1,600-3,100
1,100-1,200
1,300-2,200
290-620
2,790-2,960
170-1,400
130-950
27-34
57-110
30-76
<0.5
17.3-19.0
Average kg/day lb/dav
14,800
3.91



1,700
2,470
593
3,320
1,010
813
30
121
91
<0.5
23.3

17,800
4.71



1,920
2,760
648
3,500
1,110
922
30
136
106
<0.5
25.3

7,150
1.89



1,150
1,750
455
2,880
785
540
30
84
53
<0.5
18.2





26,100
38,000
9,070

15,400
12,600
440
1,860
1,420

357






33,300
48,100
11,400

19,300
16,100
526
2,370
1,840

448






8,210
2,500
3,250

5,560
3,850
218
594
378

130





57,600
83,800
20,000

33,900
27,800
969
4,110
3,140

787






73,400
106,000
25,100

42,600
35,600
1,160
5,220
4,060

988






18,100
27,600
7,160

12,300
8,480
481
1,310
833

286

-------
                                        TABLE F-5  (Cont.)

                           SUMMARY OF FIELD DATA AND  ANALYTICAL  RESULTS
                       SIOUX FAL1.S,  SOUTH  DAKOTA,  WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT
                                       24-31 JA.NUARY  1973

Station No.  1451  Industrial  Pretreatment Plant  - John Morrell &  Company,  Inc.
                      Discharge to City System

                                       SEVEN-DAY
a/
Parameter-
Flow (m3/day)
Flow (mgd)
pU (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (umhos/cn)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
NH -N
Total K^eldahl Nitrogen-N
Organic-N
NO- + NO--N
Total Phosphorus-P

Flow (m3/day)
flaw (ngd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (ymhos/cra)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Susperded Solids,
Volatile Suspended Solids
NH -N
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N
Organic-N
NO, 4 N03-N
Total Phosphorus-P

Flow (m3/day)
Flow (mgd)
pll (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (v.mhos/cra)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
Kli.-N
Total K1e]dahl Nitrogen-N
Organic-'.'
NO- + N03-N
Total Phosphorus-P
No. of, .
Samples





7
7
7
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
7






5
5
5
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5






2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
Ran Re
5,190-15,400
1.37-4.08
5.9-10.5
8.0-27 0
3,000-8,000
1,000-3,600
1,900-6,300
320-1,500
3,250-7,270
820-3,100
660-7,600
19-42
58-290
34-248
<1.0
16.3-46.2
WEEK-DAY
13,900-15,400
3.67-4.08
6 . 3-10 . 5
20.0-27.0
3,100-8,000
1,700-3,600
3,300-6,300 
720-1,500
3,890-7,270
1,100-3,100
890-2,600
19-42
120-290
98-248
<1.0
35.0-46.2
WEEK-END
5,180-6,430
1.37-1.70
5.9-7.7
8.0-26.5
3,000-5,000
1,000-1,100
1,900-2,100
320-440
3,250-3,660
870-1,500
660-1,000
24
58-71
34-47
^1. 0
16.3-42.5
Averar.e
12,100
3.20



1,840
3,830
809
5,190
1,610
1,330
26
146
119
<1.0
36.4

14,600
3.87



2,160
4,560
980
6,050
1,840
1,580
27
178
151
<1.0
39.2

5,830
1.54



1,050
2,000
380
3,460
1,160
830
24
65
41
^1  0
29.4
Average
kg/day





24,300
51,300
10,800

20,100
17,000
323
1,960
1,640

458






21,500
66,700
14,300

2C.'-*00
2J. 00
7
O
> , - 00

572






6,080
11,700
2,170

6,530
4,720
139
371
231

179
.Load
lF73ay





53,500
113,000
23,900

44,400
37,500
712
4,320
3,610

1,010






69,500
147,000
31,500

59,400
51,100
375
5,730
4,860

1,260






13,400
25,800
4,790

14,400
10,400
307
817
510

395

-------
                                                                                            F-17
                                       TABLE F-5 (Cont.)

                           SUMMARY OF FIELD DATA AND ANALYTICAL RESULTS
                       SIOUX  FALLS, SOUTH DAKOTA, WASTLWATER TREAThENT PLANT
                                      24-31 JANUARY 1973

Station No.  1452  Industrial Pretreatment Plant - Primary Clarificr Overflow

                                      SEVEN-DAY
Parameter-
Flow (m3/day)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (^mhos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
NH -N
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N
Organic-N
NO + NO -N
Total Phosphorus-P

Flow (m3/day)
Flow (tngd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (pmhos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
NH.-N
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N
Organic-N
NO, + NO--N
Total Phosphorus-P

Flow (m3/day)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (^mhos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
NH -N
Total KJeldalil Nitrogen-N
Organic-N
NO. -f N03-S
Total Phosphorus-P
No. of, .
Samples





7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7






5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5






2
2
2
2
2
2
2

2
2
2
Range
7,120-18,700
1.88-4.94
6.5-7.7
7.5-23.0
3,100-5,200
340-1,700
560-2,400
140-620
1,900-3,390
360-970
180-700
37-99
110-200
30-115
<0.50
16.0-26.7
WEEK-DAY
15,900-18,700
4.21-4.94
6.5-7.5
14.0-23.0
3,100-5,200
820-1,700
1,600-2,400
320-620
2,520-3,390
360-970
180-700
38-85
110-200
49-115
<0.5
21.4-26.7
WEEK-END.
7,110-7,190
1.88-1.90
6.9-7.7
7.5-16.0
3,300-4,100
340-720
560-880
140-170
1,900-2,110
400-520
210-270
80-99
110-130
30-31
<0.50
16.0
Average
14,800
3.91



1,010
1,510
356
2,690
584
389
66
131
65
<0.50
21.6

17,800
4.71



1,200
1,820
436
2,960
634
448
57.0
135
78
<0.5
23.8

7,150
1.89



530
720
155
2,010
460
240
90
120
31
<0.50
16.0
A\erage
ki>/dav





16,200
24,400
5,810

8,890
6,120
894
1,940
1,050

335






21,200
32,200
7,670

11,100
7,890
993
2,380
1,380

423






3,800
5,120
1,110

3,290
1,710
639
857
218

115
Load
Ib/dav





35,800
53,900
12,800

19,600
13,500
1,970
4,280
2,310

739






46.800
70,900
16,900

24,500
17,400
2,190
5,240
3,040

933






8,370
11,300
2,450

7,260
3,780
1,410
1,890
481

253

-------
 F-18
                                       TABLE F-5 (Cont.)

                           SUMMARY OF FIELD DATA AND ANALYTICAL RESULTS
                       SIOUX FALLS, SOUTH DAKOTA, UASTEUATER TREATMENT PLANT
                                      24-31 JANUARY 1973

Station No.  1453  Industrial Pretreatment Plant - Intermediate Clarifier Overflow

                                      SEVEN-DAY
Parameter-
Flow (m3/day)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
NH--N
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N
Organlc-N
NO. + N03-N
ToEal Phosphorus-P

Flow (m3/day)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (ymhos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
N11..-N
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N
Organic-N
NO. + NO,-N
2 3
Total Phosphorus-P

Flow (m3/day)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (pmhos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
NH -N
Total Kjeldahl NitroRen-N
Organic-N
NO H NO^-H
Total Phosphorus-P
No. of
Samples'





7
7
7
7
7
7
6
6
6
6
6






5
5
5
5
5
4
4
4
4
4






2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
Range
7,120-18,700
1.88-4.94
6.6-7.6
7.0-20.5
3,400-5,500
320-1,800
420-2,000
130-500
1,920-3,190
220-800
180-650
58-100
110-180
27-99
<0.50
17.5-26.3
WEEK-DAY
15,900-18,700
4.21-4.94
6.6-7.3
9.0-20.5
3,400-5,500
700-1,800
1,200-2,000
330-500
256-500
240-380
58-81
120-180
54-99
<0.5
20.2-26.3
WEEK-END
7,110-7.190
1.88-1.90
7.0-7.6
7.0-15.5
3,500-4,200
320-690
420-820
130-230
1,940-2,120
220-800
180-650
83-100
110-140
27-40
<0.50
17.5-22.5
Average
14,800
3.91



1,010
1,290
323
2,530
425
331
75
133
58
<0.50
22.4

17,800
4.71



1,210
1,560
380
391
297
67
138
70.3
<0.5
23.6

7,150
1.89



505
620
180
2,020
510
415
92
125
34
<0.50
20.0
Average
kp,/day





16,400
21,000
5,170

5,990
4,580
1,010
1,900
898

326






21,500
27,600
6,710
6,940
5,260
1,180
2,400
1,220

418






3,610
4,440
1,290

3,660
2,980
653
894
241

143
Load
Ih/day





36 , 100
46,300
11,400

13,200
10,100
2,220
4,190
1,980

719






47,300
60,900
14,800
15,300
11,600
2,610
5,300
2,700

922






7,960
9,800
2,840

8,080
6,560
1,440
1,970
531

315

-------
                                                                                           F-19
Station No.  1454
                   TABLE F-5  (Cont.)

       SUMMARY  OF FIELD DATA AND ANALYTICAL RESULTS
   SIOUX FALLS, SOUTH DAKOTA, WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT
                   24-31 JANUARY 1973

Industrial Pretreatment Plant - Secondary Trickling Filter
  Underflow (i.e.,  Effluent from Industrial Plant)

                   SEVEN-DAY
Parameter^'
Flow (m3/day)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOO
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
NH -N
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N
Organic-N
NO. + NO -N
Total ?hosphorus-P

Flow (rc3/day)
Flow (mgd)
pll (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (pmhos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
NH.-N
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N
Organic-N
NO. + N03-N
Total Phosphorus-P

Flow (m3/day)
Flow (mgd)
pll (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (ptnhos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
Nil -N
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N
Organic-N
NO + K03-N
Total Phosphorus-P
No. ofb/
Samples





7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7






5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5






2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
Range
7,120-18,700
1.88-4.94
6.5-7.7
7.0-17.5
3,600-5,200
140-900
280-1,000
86-290
1,900-2,710
190-580
84-390
75-120
100-160
20-48
<10.0
15.0-23.4
WEEK-DAY
15,900-18,700
4.21-4.94
7.1-7.7
7.0-17.5
3,600-5,200
290-900
480-1,000
150-290
2,120-2,710
190-580
190-390
75-116
100-160
25-48
O.O.O
21.9-23.4
WEEK-END
7,110-7,190
1.88-1.90
6.5-7.7
7.0-15.0
3,700-4,400
140-440
280-570
86-140
1,900-2,200
200-460
84-180
79-120
100-140
20-21
<10.0
15.0-17.0
Average
14,800
3.91



459
643
177
2,310
380
239
94.4
126
31.3
<10.0
20.7

17,800
4.71



526
730
202
2,420
400
282
92.4
128
35.6
<10.0
22.6

7,150
1.89



290
425
113
2,050
330
132
100
120
21
<10.0
16.0
Average
kp/day





7,170
10,100
2,800

5,720
3,830
1,370
1,860
494

320






9,210
12,900
3,600

7,030
4,990
1,630
2,260
630

403






2,080
3,040
812

2,370
948
717
862
147

114
Load
Ib/day





15,800
22,200
6,170

12,600
8,450
3,020
4,110
1,090

706






20,300
28,400
7,930

15,500
11,000
3,600
4,990
1,390

888






4,590
6,710
1,790

5,220
2,090
1,570
1,900
323

252

-------
  F-20
                                      TABLE F-5 (Cont.)

                         SUMMARY OF FIELD DATA AND ANALYTICAL RESULTS
                      SIOUX FALLS, SOUTH D1KOTA, WASItWATER TREATMENT PLANT
                                     24-31 JANUARY 1973

Station No.  1455    Domestic and Industrial Plant - Domestic Influent to Plant
                      (Before Combining With Industrial Pretreatraent Plant Effluent)

                                     SEVEN-DAY
a/
Parametei 
Flow (m3/day)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
KH -N
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N
Organic-N
KO + NO -N
Total Phosphorus-P

Flow (ra /day)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
NH3-N
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N
Organic-N
NO + NO -N
Total Phosphorus-P

Flow (m3/day)
Flow (mgd)
pll (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
NH -N
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N
Organic-N
NO + NO -N
Total Phosphorus-P
No. of, ,
r- i Of
Samples





7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
W





5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
W





2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
Range
14,800-22,400
3.90-5.91
6.9-8.2
11.0-14.0
1,500-3,000
330-840
400-920
110-190
1,160-2,420
170-310
100-190
26-32
40-45
13-17
<0.2
9.06-17.1
E E K - D A Y
17,000-22,400
4.50-5.91
6.9-8.2
12.0-14.0
1,800-3,000
330-840
780-920
150-190
1,320-2,420
200-310
120-190
26-28
40-45
13-17
<0.2
9.06-17.1
E E K - E N D
14,800-16,900
3.90-4.46
7.3-8.1
11.0-12.5
1,500-2,900
380-420
2400-600
110-120
1,160-1,220
170-260
100-160
28-32
41-45
13
<0.2
13.1-15.3
Average
18,600
4.91



520
744
151
1,510
227
159
28
42
14
<0.2
14.4

19,700
5.20



568
842
166
1,640
232
170
27
42
15
<0.2
14.5

15,800
4.18



400
500
115
1,190
215
130
30
43
13
<0.2
14.2
Average
kg/dav





9,980
14,100
2,840

4,230
2,780
517
780
264

266






11,400
16,500
3,260

4,580
3,360
535
821
288

282






6,350
8,030
1,820

3,350
2,020
472
680
206

226
Load
Ib/day





22,000
31,100
6,270

9,320
6,570
1,140
1,720
583

587






25,200
36,400
7,180

10,100
7,410
1,180
1,810
635

622






14,000
17,700
4,020

7,390
4,460
1,040
1,500
454

498

-------
                                                                                          F-21
                                      TABLE F-5 (Cont.)

                          SUMMARY OF FIELD DATA AND ANALYTICAL RESULTS
                      SIOUX FALLS, SOUTH DAKOTA, WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT
                                     24-31 JANUARY 1973

Station No.  1457  Domestic and Industrial Plant - Primary Clarifier Overflow

                                     SEVEN-DAY
a/
Parameter-
Flow (m3/day)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (lamhos/cra)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
NH -N
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N
Organic-N
NO + NO -N
Total Phosphorus-P

Flow (m3/day)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (vnhos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
NH -N
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N
Organic-N
NO. + N03-N
Total Phosphorus-P

Flow (m /day)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (ymhos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
NH -N
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N
Organic-N
N0? + NO.-N
Total Phosphorus-P
No. ofb/
Samples





7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
W





5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
W





2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
Ranpe
21,900-40,900
5.78-10.8
7.1-7.7
8.5-14.0
2,200-3,700
240-1,700
340-2,300
89-320
1,430-2,670
100-1,400
90-1,200
47-72
75-180
25-126
<2.0
15.0-20.5
E E K - D A Y
35,200-40,900
9.30-10.8
7.1-7.6
9.0-14.0
2,400-3,600
490-1,700
550-2,300
140-320
1,840-2,670
100-1,400
90-1,200
49-68
79-180
25-126
<2.0
15.6-20.5
E E K - E N D
21,900-24,100
5.78-6.36
7.3-7.7
8.5-12.5
2,200-3,700
240-440
340-620
89-130
1,430-1,630
140-190
100-120
47-72
75-100
28
<2.0
15.0-19.0
Average
33,300
8.81



673
819
167
1,920
389
311
59
105
46
<2.0
18.1

37,500
9.91



806
954
190
2,080
478
392
59
112
53
<2.0
18.6

23,000
6.07



340
480
110
1,530
165
110
60
88
28
<2.0
17.0
Average
kg/day





23,200
29,500
5,900

14,400
11,700
1,970
3,630
1,660
607






29,300
36,800
7,210

18,600
15,300
2,200
4,270
2,060

694






794.0
11,200
2,540

3,760
2,540
1,380
2,020
644

393
Load
Ib/day





51,100
65,100
13,000

31,700
25,700
4,340
8,010
3,660
1,340






64,600
81,200
15,900

41,000
33,800
4,860
9,420
4,550

1,530






17,500
24,700
5,600

8,300
5,600
3,050
4,460
1,420

867

-------
F-22

                                        TABLE F-5 (Cont.)

                           SUMMARY OF FIELD DATA AND ANALYTICAL RESULTS
                       SIOUX FALLS, SOUTH DAKOTA, WASTEUATER TREATMENT PLANT
                                       24-31 JANUARY 1973

 Station No. 1412  Domestic and Industrial - Final Clarlfier Overflow
                       (i.e., Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent)

                                       SEVEN-DAY
Parameter-
Flow (tn3/day)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (pmhos/cra)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
NH -N
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N
Organic-N
NO, + N03-N
Total Phosphorus-P
No. offe.
Samples





7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
Avrra^e Load
Ranpe
21,900-40,900
5.78-10.8
7.0-7.7
9.0-14.5
2,300-3,300
56-140
95-250
25-42
1,370-1,700
21-64
8-42
33-56
41-61
5-9
<15
12.2-15.4
Average
33,300
8.82



99
158
34
1,530
37
24
45
51
7

14.0
ke/dav





3,370
5,350
1,120
51,300
1,170
844
1,470
1,690
219

472
Ib /dav





7,420
11,800
2,480
113,000
2,590
1,860
3,240
3,720
483

1,040
 Flow (m /day)
 Flow (mgd)
 pH (standard units)
 Temperature (C)
 Conductivity (pmhos/cja)
 BOD                              5
 COD                              5
 TOC                              5
 Total Solids                     5
 Suspended Solids                 5
 Volatile Suspended Solids        5
 NH -N                            5
 Total Kjeldahl Nitropen-X        5
 Organic-N                        5
 NO  + NO -V                      5
 Total Phosphorus-P               5
Flow (m /day)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (ymhos/cm)
BOD                              2
COD                              2
TOC                              2
Total Solids                     2
Suspended Solids                 2
Volatile Suspended Solids        2
NH^-N                            2
Total Kjeldahl Nitrof.cn-N        2
Organic-N'                        2
NO, + N03-H                      2
Total Phosphorus-P               2
WEEK-DAY

   35,200-40,900
     9.30-10,8
      7.0-7.7
      9.0-14.5
    2,300-3,300
       56-140
       98-250
       25-42
    1,410-1,700
       21-52
       14-42
       33-56
       41-61
        5-9
     <15 (8.8)         <15
     13.4-15.4

WEEK-END.

   21,900-24,100
     5.78-6.36
      7.1-7.6
      9.0-13.0
    2,400-3,?00
       74-100
       95-190
       27-37
    1,370-1,500
       20-64
        8-18
       48-55
       54-61
         6
     <15 (8.8)         <15
     12.2-13.9
                                                                 37,500
                                                                   9.91
103
164
34
1,560
34
29
42
49
7
(8.8)
14.4
3,910
6,210
1,280
58,500
1,270
1,070
1,580
1,840
252
293
540
8,670
13,700
2,820
129,000
2,790
2,350
3,490
4,050
555
647
1,190
                                                                  23,000
                                                                    6.07
87
143
32
1,440
42
13
52
58
6
(8.8)
13.1
2,010
3,310
739
33,000
943
293
1,190
1,320
138
293
301
4,440
7,290
1,630
72,800
2,080
646
2,620
2,920
304
647
664

-------
                                                                                           F-23
                                       TABLE F-5 (Cont.)

                          SUMMARY OF FIELD DATA AND ANALYTICAI  RESULTS
                      SIOUX FALLS, SOUTH DAKOTA, WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT
                                      24-31 JANUARY 1973
Station No. 1424  Wastewater Treatment Plant Bypass

                                      SEVEN-DAY
Parameter-
Flow (m /day)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
NH--N
Total Kjeldahl NitroRen-N
Organic-N
NO, + NO.-N
2 3
Total Phosphorus-P
No. of. .
, b/
Samoles





7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
Ranpe
5.3-2,910
0.0014-0.77
6.5-7.5
8.0-21.0
3,000-6,000
370-1,800
560-2,200
160-560
1,190-3,260
190-820
80-560
48-120
110-190
20-103
<0.5
15.6-25.9
Averaee
587
0.155



1,010
1,240
341
2,530
429
296
75.1
131
56.3

21.9
Average
kc/dav





735
821
207

187
126
32.3
67.1
34.7

14.0
Load
Ib/dav





1,620
1,810
456

413
278
71.3
148
76.5

30.8
Flow (m /day)
Flow (mfd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
NH -N
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N
Organic-N
NO, + N03-N
Total Phosphorus-P
Flow (m /day)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (pmhos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
NH -N
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N
Organic-N
NO  + N03-N
Total Phosphorui-P
                                       WEEK-DAY





5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5.3-2,910
0.0014-0.77
6.5-7.5
11.5-21.0
3,300-6,000
720-1,800
780-2,200
320-560
2,520-3,260
300-820
200-560
48-87
110-190
49-103
<0.5 (0.16)
20.2-25.9
749
0.198



1,220
1,460
398
2,880
508
368
63.6
132
68.4
<0.5 (0.16)
23.9





993
1,100
275

246
169
37.9
84.8
46.7
0.093
18.4





2,190
2,420
607

542
372
83.5
187
103
0.206
40.5
                                       WEEK-END

                                               178
                                             0.047
                                             7.0-7.4
                                             8.0-16.0
                                           3,000-4,500
                                 2           370-600
                                 2           560-830
                                 2           160-240
                                 2         1,190-2,080
                                 2           190-270
                                 2            80-150
                                 2            88-120
                                 2           120-140
                                 2            20-32
                                 2         <0.5 (0.16)
                                 2          15.6-18.5
        178
      0.047
        485
        695
        200
      1,640
        230
        115
        104
        130
         26
<0.5 (0.16)
       17.1
86.2
 124
35.6
 291
41.0
20.5
18.5
23.1
4.63
0.09
3.03
  190
  273
 78.4
  641
 90.3
 45.1
 40.8
 51.0
 10.2
0.206
 6.68

-------
F-24
                                       TABLE F-5 (Cont.)

                          SUMMARY OF FIFLD DATA AND ANALYTICAL
                      SIOUX FALLS, SOU1H DAKOTA, HASTEWATER TREATMENT  PLANT
                                      24-31 JANUARY 1973

Station No. 1459  Sludge System - Influent to Sludge Thickeners

                                      SEVEN-DAY
Parameter-
 No, of
Samples'
                                                                                Average Load
                                              Range
Average
k;>/day
                        Ib/dav
Flow (m /day)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (vimhos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
NH -N
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N
Organic-N
NO  + N03-N
Total Phosphorus-P
Flow (m /day)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
NH -N
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N
Organic-N
NO, + N03-N
Total Phosphorus-P
Flow (m /day)
Flow (mgd)
pll (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (vimhos/cra)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
NH -N
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N
Organic-N
NO  + NO.-N
Total Ptiosphorus-P
              3,970-6,100
               1.05-1.69
                6.5-7.6
                8.5-18.0
              2,800-4,800
                 48-115
                240-610
                181-562
                 <0.80
                 58-136

          WEEK-DAY

              5,030-6,400
               1.33-1.69
                6.5-7.5
               10.5-18.0
              2,800-4,800
                 48-125
                240-610
                181-562
                 <0.80
                 58-136

          WEEK-F. ND

              3,970-5,150
               1.05-1.36
                6.8-7.6
                8.5-15.0
              3,200-4,000
                 76-115
                350-420
                274-305
                 <0.80
                 62-76
  5,150
   1.36
     86
    417
    331
  <0.80
     88
  5,370
   1.42
  4,580
   1.21
     96
    385
    290
  <0.80
     69
   439
 2,120
 1,680

   450
  968
4,680
3,710

  993
82
430
348
<0.80
95
436
2,260
1,820

503
962
4,990
4,020

1,110
   446
 1,770
 1,330

   319
  983
3,910
2,930

  703

-------
                                                                                           F-25
                                      TABLE F-5 (Cont.)

                          SUMMARY OF FIELD DATA AND ANALYTICAL RESULTS
                      SIOUX FALLS, SOUTH DAKOTA, WASTLWATER TREATMENT PLANT
                                     24-31 JANUARY 1973

Station No. 1460  Sludge System - Supernatant From Sludge Thickeners

                                      SEVEN-DAY
Parameter^
Flow (m3/day)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
NH.-N
Total KJeldahl Nltrogen-N
Organic-N
NO- + NO -N
Total Phosphorus-P

Flow (m /day)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (pmhos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
NH -N
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N
Organic-N
NO, + NO.-N
Total Phosphorus-P

Flow (m /day)
Flow (mgd)
pll (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (ymhos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
NH -N
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N
Organic-N
NO + NO -N
Total Phosphorus-P
No. ofb/
Samnles





7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7






5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5






2

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
Ranste
3,670-5,680
0.97-1.50
6.3-7.5
9.0-17.5
2,900-4,400
820-2,400
1,200-2,600
220-540
1,930-13,200
300-13,000
240-9,000
48-96
130-210
52-125
<0.50
16.3-64.6
WEEK-DAY
4,240-5,680
1.12-1.50
6.3-7.4
10.0-17.5
2,900-4,400
1,000-2,400
1,600-2,600
450-540
2,730-13,200
660-13,000
540-9,000
48-85
130-210
62-125
<0.50
24.2-64.6
WEEK-END
3,670-4,650
0.97-1.23
6.8-7.5
9.0-15.0
3,500-4,000
820-960
1,200
220-330
1,930-2,220
300-830
240-350
78-96
130-170
52-74
<0.50
16.3-24.2
Aver a EC
4,500
1.19



1,340
1,810
416
4,270
2,490
1,750
73
157
85
<0.50
32.1

4,650
1.23



1,520
2,060
472
5,140
3,260
2,340
67
160
93
<0.50
36.9

4,160
1.10



890
1,200
275
2,080
565
295
87
150
63
<0.50
20.3
Average
kg/day





6,030
8,210
1,900

13,200
9,340
327
708
380

146






6,940
9,520
2,190

17,700
12,600
311
735
424

169






3,670
4,990
1,170

2,220
1,200
367
635
268

86.2
Load
Ib/dav





13,300
18,100
4,190

29,200
20,600
720
1,560
837

321






15,300
21,000
4,830

39,000
27,800
685
1,620
936

373






8,090
11,000
2,590

4,900
2,650
808
1,400
590

190

-------
F-26
                                       TABLE F-5 (Cont.)

                          SUMMARY OF FIELD DATA AND ANALYTICAL RFSULTS
                      SIOUX FALLS, SOUTH DAKOTA, WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT
                                      24-31 JANUARY 1973

Station No. 1461  Sludge System - Influent to Complete Mixed Digesters

                                      SEVEN-DAY
a/
Parameter-
Flow (m3/da>)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (pmhos/cm)
No. ofb/
Sampler RanRe
333-931
0.088-0.246
4.9-7.2
8.5-19.0
2,100-4,000
Average
6,175
0.163
Average Load
kc/day Ib/dav

BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
NH3-N
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-Nf
Organic-N
NO. + N03-N
Total Phosphorus-P
Flow (co /day)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
NH--N
ToEal Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N
Organic-N
NO  + N03-N
  , +
  tal
Total Phosphorus-P
Flow (ra /day)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (prohos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
NH--N
Total Kjeldahl Nitrop,en-N
Organic-N
NO. + N03-N
Total Phosphorus-P
      140-390
    1,400-1,860
    1,105-1,540
        <2.0
      168-600

WEEK-DAY

      439-931
    0.116-0.246
      5.1-7.2
     12.0-19.0
    2,100-5,000
      140-300
    1,500-1,800
    1,330-1,540
        <2.0
      188-480

WEEK-END

      333-477
    0.088-0.126
      4.9-7.1
      8.5-17.5
    2,800-4,600
                                             295-390
                                           1,400-1,860
                                           1,105-1,470
                                               <2.0
                                             320-600
                                                                    268
                                                                  1,660
                                                                  1,390
                                                                   <2.0
                                                                    384
                                                                    700
                                                                  0.185
                                                                    405
                                                                  0.107
                             342
                           1,630
                           1,290
                            <2.0
                             460
  157
1,030
  866

  230
  347
2,260
1,910

  506
238
1,670
1,430
<2.0
354
163
1,170
998

243
360
2,570
2,200

535
  142
  676
  535

  196
  314
1,490
1,180

  432

-------
                                                                                            F-27
                                       TABLE F-5 (Cent.)

                          SUMMARY OF FIELD DATA AND ANALYTICAL RESULTS
                      SIOUX FALLS, SOUTH DAKOTA, WASTEWATER TREA1MF.NT PLANT
                                      24-31 JANUARY 1973

Station No. 1462  Sludge System - Effluent From Digesters

                                      SEVEN-DAY
Parameter^
 No. of
Samples
                                                                               AverjPC Load
Range
Average
kg/day
Ib/dav
Flow (m ,'day)
Flow (mRd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (iimhos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
NH--N                            7
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N        7
Organic-N                        7
NO, + N03-N                      7
Total Phosphorus-P               7
Flow (m /day)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (pmhos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
NH.-N                            5
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N        5
Organlc-N                        5
NO, + N03-N                      5
Total Phosphorus-P               5
Flow (m /day)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (umhos/cra)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
NH.-N                            2
lotal Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N        2
Orpanlc-N                        2
NO, + NO -N                      2
Total Phosphorus-P               2
                333-931
              0.088-0.246
                7.0-8.9
               10.5-34.0
              5,600-9,500
                465-1,000
              1,770-2,140
                810-1,415
                  <2.0
                250-430

          WEEK-DAY

                439-931
              0.116-0.246
                7.0-8.9
               10.5-34.0
              5,600-9,500
                465-1,000
              1,770-1,940
                810-1,415
                  <2.0
                250-430

          WEEK-END

                333-477
              0.088-0.126
                7.1-7.6
               13.5-32.5
              6,500-9,500
                920-930
              2,020-2,140
              1,090-1,220
                  <2.0
                370-420
                      617
                    0.163
                      866
                    1,930
                    1,060
                     <2.0
                      354
                      700
                    0.185
                      405
                    0.107
                      925
                    2,080
                    1,060
                     <2.0
                      395
               526
             1,180
               653

               211
             1,160
             2,600
             1,440

               466
843
1,860
1,020
<2.0
338
590
1,310
726

231
1,300
2,890
1,600

509
               374
               844
               472

               161
               825
             1,860
             1,040

               356

-------
F-28
                                        TABLE F-5  (Cent.)

                           SUMMARY  OF FIELD DATA AND ANALYTICAL  RESULTS
                       SIOUX FALLS,  SOUTH  DAKOTA,  WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT
                                       24-31 JANUARY 1973
 Station No.  1463  Sludge System - Supernatant  Return  From  Sludge  Lagoons

                                       SEVEN-DAY
Parameter^-
Flow (m3/day)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (umhos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
NH.-H
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N
Organic-N
NO. + N03-N
Total Phosphorus-P
No. ofj,
Samples





7
7
7
7
7
7
6
6
6
6
6
Average Load
Ranpe
307-2,150
0.081-0.567
7.1-7.3
0.0-3.0
8,000-14,000
680-1,700
2,000-2,600
300-870
3,660-4,290
480-2,000
390-1,200
500-990
660-2,070
110-1,130
<1.0
50.4-72.0
Average
780
0.206



1,160
2,290
470
3,820
1,240
829
839
1,280
428

-------
                                                                                         F-29
                                       TABLE F-5 (Cont.)

                          SUMMARY OF FIELD DATA AND ANALYTICAL  RESULTS
                      SIOUX FALLS, SOUTH DAKOTA,  WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT
                                      24-31 JANUARY  1973

Station No. 1464  Sludge System - Waste Activated  Sludge  (Sampled in
                      Return Activated Sludge Channel)

                                      SEVEN-DAY
Parameter^/
Flow (m /day)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (vmhos/cm)
No. ofb.
Samples
7
Range
2,010-3,360
0.530-0.888
7.1-7.5
8.5-14.0
2,200-3,500
Average
2,630
0.696
Average Load
kg/day Ib/dav

BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids                 7
Volatile Suspended Solids
NH--N                            7
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N        7
Organic-N                        7
NO- + N03-N                      7
Total Phosphorus-P               7
Flow (m /day)
Flow (mgd)
pll (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (iimhos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids                 5
Volatile Suspended Solids
NH.-N   -                         5
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N        5
Organic-N                        5
NO, + NO.-N                      5
Total Phosphorus-P               5
Flow (m /day)
Flow (mgd)
pH (standard units)
Temperature (C)
Conductivity (pmhos/cm)
BOD
COD
TOC
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Volatile Suspended Solids
    3,900-5,400

       53-76
      320-490
      261-421
        <0.5
     68.5-83.1

WEEK-DAY

    2,010-2,720
    0.530-0.720
      7.1-7.5
      8.5-14.0
    2,200-3,500
    3,900-5,400

       53-70
      320-490
      261-421
        <0.5
     68.5-83.1

WEEK-END

    3,330-3,360
    0.880-0.888
      7.2-7.4
      9.0-13.5
    2,900-3,200
    3,800-4,300
4,370

   66
  421
  355
 <0.5
 76.6
2,350
0.621
11,400

   174
 1,110
   934

   201
4,500

   64
  420
  356
 <0.5
 77.3
3,340
0.884
10,600

   148
   980
   835

   181
4,050
13,600
25,200

   384
 2,440
 2,060

   444
23,400

   327
 2,160
 1,840

   400
29,900
Nil -N
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen-N
Organlc-N
NO. + NO-j-N
Total Phosphorus-P
2
2
2
2
2
67-76
390-460
323-384
<0.5
72.1-78.0
72
425
354
<0.5
75.0
239
1,420
1,180

251
528
3,140
2,610

554
t(J All values nre reported ns mp/1, except where otherwise specified.
b/ This refers to number of samples analyzed during seven-day,  wcek-dav,  or week-end period.

-------
           APPENDIX G
DANGERS INHERENT IN INADEQUATELY
     TREATED DOMESTIC SEWAGE

-------
                                                                         G-l
                  DANGERS INHERENT IN INADEQUATELY
                       TREATED DOMESTIC SEWAGE
     Inadequately treated sanitary or domestic waste contains significant

populations of bacteria, viruses, and protozoa'that multiply within the

gastro-intestinal tract of man and which are excreted in the feces of

warm-blooded animals, including humans.

     Inadequately treated waste poses a health threat because of the high

numbers of pathogenic bacteria and viruses whose presence is indicated by

fecal coliform bacteria.  Fecal coliform bacteria are that portion of the

coliform group of bacteria found in the feces of man and animals.

     Among the disease-producing micro-organisms indicated by the presence

of fecal coliform bacteria are enteropathogenic E. ooli (causes acute

localized infections such as cystitis, oculitis, colitis, diarrhea, and

septicemias which sometimes are fatal for infants and aged) , Leptospir>at

(commonly known as Weils disease, characterized by jaundice and kidney

hemorrhage), Salmonella (which causes gastro-enteritis, typhoid and

paratyphoid fevers) , Shigella (which causes bacterial dysentery) , Bruoella

(which causes undulent fever), frfycobaeterium tuberculosis (which causes

tuberculosis), and vibrio dholeipa (which causes cholera).  The presence

of Salmonella also indicates a high probability of the presence of other

pathogenic bacteria.  Waste may also contain protozoa such as those

causing amoebic dysentery.

     Enteroviruses are concentrated in particulate fecal matter when

waste treatment is insufficient to adequately separate the solids from

wastewater.  Massive numbers of virus particles can be dispelled in the

waste effluent to receiving surface waters.

-------
G-2
           Enteroviruses  are  generally  transmitted by the  fecal-oral  route.   A




       very small quantity of  viruses are capable of infecting a susceptible




       individual.




           Enteroviruses  are  pathogenic to humans and cause a variety of




       diseases, including poliomyelitis, aseptic meningitis (a paralytic disease




       similar  to paralytic polio), herpangina  (a throat infection common to




       children), pleurodyna (an  infection which causes excruciating muscular




       pain), myocarditis  (inflammation of the heart valves), coxsackie virus




       infection (a disease similar to polio but without paralysis), adenovirus




       infection (causes common colds, respiratory disease, and rashes), and




       other intestinal disorders  such as diarrhea.




           Also, the infectious hepatitis virus may be present in sewage and




       cause serious liver diseases.




           Such viruses have  a water survival time of many months.  This is




       especially dangerous when they are replaced and supplemented by continued




       discharges of waste.  Additionally, viruses do not lose their virulence,




       although they may diminish  in number.




           Enteroviruses, pathogenic bacteria, and protozoa endanger not only




       the original host of the disease organism, but they also threaten whole




       communities  because the initial host can infect his family and others




       with whom he comes  into contact.  Also, these micro-organisms can increase




       in virulence by host passage.

-------
         APPENDIX H
LISTING OF SAMPLING STATIONS

-------
                                                                     H-l
                              TABLE H-l

       LISTING OF SAMPLING STATIONS - BIG SIOUX RIVER STUDY
               (STREAM STATIONS AND DIRECT DISCHARGES)
                      FALL 1972 AND WINTER 1973
                 Sampling
River Mile        Period       _ Description _

  263.5            A, B        Big Sioux River at S.D.  Hwy.  28,  2.4 km
                                (1.5 mi) west of Estelline,  S.D.

  243.9            A, B        Big Sioux River at U.S.  Hwy.  14,  3 km
                                (2 mi)  east of Volga,  S.D.

  237.6            A           Big Sioux River at Brookings  County Road 12,
                                approx.  3 km (2 mi)  downstream from Sixmile
                                Creek confluence   approx.  5 km (3 mi) SE
                                of Brookings, S .D.

  232.6            B           Big Sioux River, 15.3 km (9.5 mi)  SE of
                                Brookings, S.D. , 0.8 km (0.5 mi)  down-
                                stream of the 1-29 river crossing at USGS
                                gaging station

214.6/0.1          A           Willow Creek 5 km (3  mi) east of  Flandreau,
                                S.D.

  206.1            A, B        Big Sioux River at S.D.  Hwy.  34,  5 km (3 mi)
                                SW of Flandreau, S.D.

  186.9            A           Big Sioux River at Minnehaha-Moody County
                                Line Road, 5 km (3 mi)  NE of Dell Rapids,
                                S.D.

  173.0            A           Big Sioux River at Baltic, S.D.

  162.2            A, B        Big Sioux River 1.6 km (1 mi) west of
                                Renner,  S.D.

  155.4            A           Big Sioux River at Madison St. NW Sioux
                                Falls,  S.D., 1.2 km (0.75 mi) upstream
                                of the Spencer discharge

  154.2            B           Meilman Food Industries (formerly Spencer
                                Foods, Inc.) lagoon effluent at  the point
                                of discharge to Big Sioux River,  61 m
                               (200 ft)  upstream of 12th St. Bridge in
                                West Sioux Falls, S.D.

-------
H-2
                            TABLE H-l (Cont.)

          LISTING OF  SAMPLING STATIONS - BIG SIOUX RIVER STUDY
                 (STREAM STATIONS AND DIRECT DISCHARGES)
                        FALL 1972 AND WINTER 1973

                           *
                   Sampling
   River  Mile         Period       	Description	

     154.2           A           Big Sioux River at 12th St., NW Sioux Falls,
                                  S.D., 91 m (300 ft) downstream from the
                                  Mailman discharge

   152.8/1.1          A, B        Skunk Creek at Marion Rd., West Sioux Falls,
                                  S.D.

     150.6           A, B        Big Sioux River at Western Ave., SW Sioux
                                  Falls, S.D.

     146.8           A           Big Sioux River at 26th St., SE Sioux Falls,
                                  S.D.

     143.8           A           Big Sioux River at McClellan St., north
                                  Sioux Falls, S.D.

     143.2           A, B        Big Sioux River opposite John Morrell and
                                  Co., former discharge, 0.2 km (0.1 mi)
                                  upstream of the diversion canal

     143.0           B           Sioux Falls, S.D., WWTP effluent

     142.9           B           Sioux Falls, S.D., WWTP by-pass

     142.7           A, B        Big Sioux River at U.S. Hwy. 77 (Cliff Ave.),
                                  0.5 km (0.3 mi) downstream from the Sioux
                                  Falls, S.D., WWTP

     141.2           A, B        Big Sioux River downstream from 1-229,
                                  2.9 km (1.8 mi) downstream from the Sioux
                                  Falls, S.D., WWTP

     134.5           A, B        Big Sioux River at Brandon Rd. Bridge,
                                  0.8 km (0.5 mi) west of Brandon, S.D.

   130.1/27.3         A           Split Rock Creek at Minnesota-South Dakota
                                  State boundary line, 1.6 km (1 mi) east
                                  of Sherman, S.D.

-------
                                                                   H-3
                          TABLE H-l (Cont.)

       LISTING OF SAMPLING STATIONS - BIG SIOUX RIVER STUDY
               (STREAM STATIONS AND DIRECT DISCHARGES)
                      FALL 1972 AND WINTER 1973
                 Sampling
River Mile        Period       _ Description _

130.1/5.3          A,  B        Split  Rock Creek  at  U.S.  Hwy.  16,  2.4  km
                                (1.5  mi)  east  of Brandon,  S.D.

  128.5            B           Big Sioux  River at Hwy.  38  Bridge,  approx.
                                2.4 km (1.5  mi)  upstream of  the  Iowa-
                                South Dakota State  Line

  127.0            A           Big Sioux  River at the Iowa-South  Dakota
                                State Line,  4  km (2.5 mi)  SW  of  Rowena, S.D.

  113.0            A           Big Sioux  River at Klondike,  Iowa

  106.2            A,  B        Big Sioux  River at U.S. Hwy.  18,  5  km
                                (3 mi)  east  of Canton, S.D.

  80.9             A,  B        Big Sioux  River 1.6  km (1 mi)  east  of
                                Hudson, S.D.,  on S.D. Spur No. 46

76.2/52.5          B           Rock River, 0.8 km (0.5 mi) upstream of
                                Luverne,  Minnesota, WWTP

76.2/40.8          A,  B        Rock River at Minnesota-Iowa  State  Line,
                                8 km  (5 mi)  north of Rock  Rapids,  Iowa

76.2/25.7          B           Rock River at Lyon County Road K  42 Bridge,
                                1.6 km (1 mi)  north of Doon,  Iowa

76.2/23.1/4.0      B           Little Rock River at Hwy. 75  Bridge, 5 km
                                (3 mi)  east  of Doon, Iowa

76.2/5.8           A,  B        Rock River 5  km (3 mi) east of Hudson, S.D.,
                                on S.D. Spur No. 46

  66.9             A,  B        Big Sioux  River at Iowa Hwy.  10,  6  km
                                (4 mi)  north of  Hawarden,  Iowa

  46.8             A,  B        Big Sioux  River at South  Dakota Hwy. 48,
                                Akron ,  Iowa

-------
H-4
                             TABLE H-l (Cont.)

          LISTING OF SAMPLING STATIONS - BIG SIOUX RIVER STUDY
                  (STREAM STATIONS AND DIRECT DISCHARGES)
                         FALL 1972 AND WINTER 1972

                            *
                    Sampling
   River Mile        Period       	Description	

     35.3             A           Big Sioux River at South Dakota Hwy.  50,
                                   3 km (2 mi)  west of Westfield, Iowa

     16.8             A           Big Sioux River at Union County (S.D.)
                                   Road 8, 45 m (50 yd)  downstream from
                                   confluence with Broken  Kettle Creek

     5.0              A, B        Big Sioux River at U.S.  Hwy. 77 (Military
                                   Rd.) NW Sioux City, Iowa

     2.2              A           Big Sioux River at Riverside City Park,
                                   western Sioux City, Iowa
   * The letter "A" refers to the Fall Study and the "B" to the Winter Study.

-------
                                                      H-5
                 TABLE H-2

LISTING OF SAMPLING STATIONS - SIOUX FALLS
     WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT STUDY
        24 THROUGH 31 JANUARY 1973
                        Description
Station
Numbers     	

 1450       Industrial Pretreatment Plant - influent (combined)

 1451       Industrial Pretreatment Plant - John >forrell & Company
              discharge to city system

 1452       Industrial Pretreatment Plant - primary-clarifier overflow

 1453       Industrial Pretreatment Plant - interroediate-clarifier overflow

 1454       Industrial Pretreatment Plant - secondary trickling-filter
              underflow (i.e., effluent from Industrial Plant)

 1455       Domestic and Industrial Plant - domestic influent to plant
              (before combining with Industrial Pretreatment Plant effluent)

 1457       Domestic and Industrial Plant - primary-clarifier overflow

 1412       Domestic and Industrial - final-clarifier overflow (i.e.,
              wastewater treatment plant effluent)

 1424       Wastewater Treatment Plant - by-pass

 1459       Sludge System - influent to sludge thickeners

 1460       Sludge System - supernatant from sludge thickeners

 1461       Sludge System - influent to complete mixed digesters

 1462       Sludge System - effluent from digesters

 1463       Sludge System - supernatant return from sludge lagoons

 1464       Sludge System - waste activated sludge (sampled in Return
              Activated Sludge Channel)

-------
          APPENDIX I
STREAM FLOWS DURING WINTER-1973

-------
                                                       1-1
           TABLE 1-1




STREAM FLOWS  DURING UINTER-1973
Station
Big Sioux River 15.2 km (9.5 mi)
East of Brookings S.D.






Big Sioux River 4.8 km (3 mi) S.E. of
Dell Rapids on Minnehaha County
Rd. 110





Skunk Creek 4.0 km (2.5 mi) upstream
of confluence with Big Sioux at
Marion Rd. bridge







Diversion Canal - top of spillway in
Sioux Falls, S.D.








Date
2/1/73
2/2/73
2/3/73
2/4/73
2/5/73
2/6/73
2/7/73
2/8/73
3/1/73
2/2/73
2/3/73
2/4/73
2/5/73
2/6/73
2/7/73
2/8/73
2/1/73
2/2/73
2/3/73
2/4/73
2/5/73
2/6/73
2/7/73
2/8/73
2/9/73
2/10/73
2/1/73
2/2/73'
2/3/73
2/4/73
2/5/73
2/6/73
2/7/73
2/8/73
2/9/73
2/10/73
Time
(hr)
0845
1045
1135
1235
0625
1030
0950
1235
1032
1207
1300
1352
0745
1200
1245
1350
1135
1220
1345
1435
0835
1330
1150
1430
1400
1120
1200
1200
1200
1200
1200
1200
1200
1200
1200
1200
CaRe
(ft)
3.32
3.32
3.33
3.35
3.40
3.40
3.41
3.43
3.87
3.82
3.77
3.83
4.05
4.16
4.17
4.02
32.52
32.52
32.52
32.52
32.52
32.50
32.52
32.52
32.53
32.52
7.99
7.93
7.95
7.87
7.92
7.96
7.99
8.02
8.02
8.02
Flow
1.50
1.50
1.53
1.58
1.73
1.73
1.75
1.81
2.66
2.35
2.07
2.41
3.79
4.53
4.58
3.59
0.175
0.170
0.170
0.170
0.198
0.198
0.184
0.184
0.170
0.170
2.97
2.49
2.69
1.78
2.41
2.69
2.97
3.25
3.25
3.25
Flow
(cfs)
53
53
54
56
61
61
62
64
94
83
73
85
134
160
162
127
6.2
6.0
6.0
6.0
7 0
7.0
6.5
6.5
6.0
6.0
105
88
95
70
85
95
105
115
115
115

-------
1-2
                                          TABLE  1-1  (Cont.)




                                   STREAM FLOWS  DURING WINTER-1973
Station
Big Sioux River at Cliff Ave. North
Side of Sioux Falls, S.D.











Split Rock Creek 5.6 km (3.5 mi)
upstream of confluence with
Big Siouy River County Road bridge,
0.8 km (0.5 mi) east of Corson, S.D.







Rock River at Highway 18 Bridge
2.9 km (1.8 mi) west of Rock
Valley Iowa







Rock River at City Park,
Rock Rapids , Iowa

Date
2/1/73
2/1/73
2/2/73
2/2/73
2/3/73
2/4/73
2/4/73
2/5/73
2/6/73
2/7/73
2/8/73
2/9/73
2/10/73
2/1/73
2/2/73
2/3/73
2/4/73
2/5/73
2/6/73
2/6/73
2/7/73
2/8/73
2/9/73
2/10/73
2/1/73
2/2/73
2/3/73
2/4/73
2/5/73
2/6/73
2/7/73
2/8/73
2/9/73
2/10/73
2/7/73
2/9/73
2/10/73
Time
(hr)
0900
1330
0930
1355
1320
1000
1550
0750
1005
1000
1415
0955
0735
0845
1210
1430
1620
0650
0820
0920
0900
1322
0855
0635
1100
1005
1200
1430
0650
1115
1220
1420
1100
0945

1135
0920
Gage
(ft)
5.61
5.63
5.60
5.63
5.63
5.57
5.64
5.64
5.72
5.74
5.75
5.68
5.63
3.62
3.26
3.16
3.20
3.19
3.25
3.21
3.15
3.12
3.14
3.54
6.40
6.40
6.40
6.38
6.37
6.37
6.38
6.37
6.38
6.38

2.07
2.08
Flow
(mVsec)
3.17
3.28
3.11
3.28
3.28
2.94
3.34
3.34
3.79
3.91
3.96
3.57
3.28
1.19
0.736
0.538
0.623
0.594
0.736
0.623
0.538
0.481
0.509
0.538





5.66




2.13


Flow
(cfs)
112
116
110
116
116
104
118
118
134
138
140
126
116
4?
26
19
22
21
2b
22
19
17
18
19





200




75



-------
        APPENDIX J

         FLOWS AT
SIOUX FALLS, SOUTH DAKOTA,
WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

-------
                                                              TABLE J-l




                                    FLOWS  AT  SIOUX FALLS,  SOUTH  DAKOTA, WASTEWATER TREATMENT  PLANT
Industrial
Raw
*
Date
January 24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
February 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
m /day
18,400
18,100
15,900
7,190
7,110
18,100
18,700
19,500
16,500
16,500
8,670
8,140
18,600
18,700
18,200
17,600
16,100
ragd
4.86
4.77
4.21
1.90
1.88
4.78
4.94
5.14
4.35
4.35
2.29
2.15
4.91
4.94
4.81
4.66
4.25
Domestic
Raw
m /day
22,400
21,100
20,700
16,900
14,800
17,100
17,000
17,900
20,300
16,500
18,100
19,200
19,300
20,800
17,800
19,300
18,200
mgd
5.91
5.57
5.48
4.46
3.90
4.52
4.50
4.73
5.37
4.35
4.79
5.08
5.10
5.50
4.69
5.10
4.80
Supernatant
Sludge to Sludge to Return from
Total Thickener Digester Thickener
m /day
40,800
39,200
36,600
24,100
21,900
35,200
35,700
' 37,400
36,800
33,000
26,800
27,300
37,900
39,500
36,000
36,900
34,300
mgd m /day mgd ra /day mgd m /day mgd
10.77 5,150 1.36 681 0.18 4,470 1.18
10.34 5,190 1.37 946 0.25 4,240 1.12
9.69 5,070 1.34 719 0.19 4,350 1.15
6.36 5,150 1.36 492 0.13 4,660 1.23
5.78 3,970 1.05 341 0.09 3,630 0.96
9.30 6,400 1.69 719 0.19 5,680 1.50
9.44 5,030 1.33 454 0.12 4,580 1.21
9.87
9.72
8.70
7.08
7.23
10.01
10.44
9.50
9.76
9.05
* Tins periods include 8 A.M.  of day listed  to  8 A.M.  of  following day.

-------
            APPENDIX K

BIOLOGICAL STUDIES DATA - FALL 1972
          AND WINTER 1973

-------
               TABLE K-l
 Field Measurements and Analytical  Data.
Big Sioux River and Selected Tributaries,
   Minnesota, South Dakota, and Iowa.
       September and October, 1972
Mainstem Tributary
River Mile River Mile
263.5
263.5
263.5
243.9
243.9
243.9
237.6
237.6
237.6
214.6/0.1
214.6/0.1
214.6/0.1
Date
9/26
9/30
10/1
9/26
9/30
10/1
9/26
9/30
10/1
9/26
9/30
10/1
Time
0935
1255
1245
1055
1210
1205
1140
1135
1135
1300
1050
1105
Temp (C)
10.0
12.0
14.0
10.0
10.5
14.0
10.0
10.0
13.0
12.5
10.5
12.0
PH
8.0
8.5

8.1
8.4
--
8.2
8.3

7.8
8.0
__
NH3-N
(mg/1)
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Turb.
(J.T.U.)
10
11
7
12
14
17
16
18
14
10
8
25
DO
(mg/1)
10.1
12.8
12.8
11.1
11.7
11.3
11.5
11.1
10.8
7.7
9.0
12.0
DO
(% sat.)
93
123
129
102
108
113
105
102
106
75
83
115

-------
                TABLE K-l
 Field Measurements and Analytical  Data.
Big Sioux River and Selected Tributaries,
   Minnesota, South Dakota, and Iowa.
       September and October, 1972
             (Continued)
Mainstem Tributary
River Mile River Mile
206.1
206.1
206.1
186.9
186.9
186.9
173.0
173.0
173.0
162.2
162.2
162.2
155.4
155.4
155.4
Date
9/26
9/30
10/1
9/26
9/30
10/1
9/26
9/30
10/1
9/26
9/30
10/1
9/27
9/28
9/29
Time
1340
1000
1050
1430
0845
1010
1505
0815
0950
1540
0750
0940
0730
1240
0835
Temp.(C)
13 0
10.5
12.0
14.0
9.5
12.0
14.0
10.0
12.5
15.5
8.5
11.0
9.0
13.0
8.0
pH
8.2
8.4

8.2
8.5
--
8.2
8.4
--
8.4
8.4
--
8.4
8.4
8.4
NH3-N
(mg/1)
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Turb.
(J.T.U.)
29
23
25
25
23
30
23
16
27
25
32
30
14
12
15
DO
(mg/1)
12.4
10.3
11.2
14.0
10.4
11.0
11.5
10.2
11.0
14.2
9.7
9.8
9.2
14.3
10.3
DO
(% sat.)
122
95
107
140
94
106
115
94
109
148
86
93
82
143
90
                                                                                          NJ

-------
                TABLE K-l
 Field Measurements and Analytical  Data.
B1g Sioux River and Selected Tributaries,
   Minnesota, South Dakota, and Iowa.
       September and October, 1972
             (Continued)
Mainstem Tributary
River Mile River Mile
154.2
154.2
154.2
152.8/1.1
152.8/1.1
152.8/1.1
150.6
150.6
150.6
146.8
146.8
146.8
143.8
143.8
143.8
Date
9/27
9/28
9/29
9/26
9/30
10/1
9/27
9/28
9/29
9/27
9/28
9/29
9/27
9/28
9/29
Time
0755
1225
0900
1620
0730
0930
0825
1205
0930
0855
1145
0955
0925
1050
1040
Temp. ((
9.0
12.5
8.0
16.5
8.5
11.5
10.0
12.0
9.5
10.0
12.5
9.5
11.0
11.5
11.5
:) PH
8.1
7.9
8.1
8.3
8.2
--
7.9
8.0
7.9
7.9
8.0
8.1
8.1
8.5
8.2
NH3-N
(mg/1)
3.0
4.5
2.2
ND
ND
ND
0.3
<0.1
0.1
ND
ND
ND
<0.1
ND
ND
Turb.
(J.T.U.)
21
27
19
16
17
17
20
17
15
15
15
10
27
30
25
DO
(mq/1)
8.0
9.3
8.9
17.1
12.2
13.2
8.9
12.1
9.6
8.8
11.0
10.4
10.4
10.0
10.7
DO
(% sat.)
72
90
77
175
107
125
82
116
87
80
107
94
98
95
102

-------
                 TABLE  K-1
 Field Measurements and  Analytical  Data.
Big Sioux River and Sleeted  Tributaries,
  Minnesota, South Dakota, and  Iowa.
       September and October, 1972
             (Continued)
Mainstem Tributary
River Mile River Mile
143.2
143.2
143.2
142.7
142.7
142.7
142.7
142.7
142.7
142.7
142.7
141.2
141.2
141.2
Date
9/27
9/28
9/29
9/27
9/28
9/29
9/30
10/1
10/2
10/3
10/3
9/27
9/28
9/29
Time
0950
1035
1055
1020
1010
1115
1425
0830
1330
1405
0700
1105
0955
1135
Temp.(C)
11.5
11.5
11.5
14.0
13.5
13.0
14.5
14.0
16.5
18.0
14.5
13.5
12.0
12.0
pH
8.2
8.2
8.3
8.5
8.1
8.0
8.1

7.9
7.6
8.1
8.2
8.2
8.2
NH3-N
(mg/1 )
<0.1
<0.1
ND
5.2
14.0
9.5
8.4
1.0
8.0
13.5
3 7
2.7
4.0
2.8
Turb.
(J.T.U.)
25
27
28
27
30
25
22
32

--

27
32
25
DO
(mq/D
10.4
9.5
11.5
9.8
9.2
9.8
10.1
9.6
9.3
9.2
9.3
10.3
9.1
10.5
DO
(% sat.)
99
90
109
98
91
96
103
96
99
100
95
103
87
101

-------
                 TABLE K-1
 Field Measurements and Analytical  Data.
Big Sioux River and Selected Tributaries,
   Minnesota, South Oakota, and Iowa.
       September and October, 1972
             (Continued)
Mainstem Tributary
River Mile River Mile Date
134.5
134.5
134.5






127.0
127.0
127.0
127.0
127.0
9/27
9/28
9/29
130.1/27.3 9/27
130.1/27.3 9/28
130.1/27.3 9/29
130.1/5.3 9/27
130.1/5.3 g/28
130.1/5.3 9/29
9/28
9/29
10/1
10/2
10/3
Time
1215
0935
1155
1330
0815
1330
1245
0915
1300
1315
1240
0800
1255
0740
Temp.(
13.0
12.0
12.5
12.5
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.5
11.0
14.0
11.5
11.0
15.5
14.5
C) pH
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.3
8.2
8.1
8.3
8.9
7.9
7.6
7.9
7.8
NH^-N
(mgTl)
1.0
5.0
2.1
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
2.6
2.7
1.0
0.4
2.1
Turb.
(J.T.U.)
27
26
25
24
25
17
21
22
15
24
23
24
--
--
DO
(mg/1)
9.8
7.5
9.5
11.8
8.2
13.6
11.2
8.3
11.8
9.4
9.7
7.6
9.9
6.1
DO
(% sat.)
97
72
93
114
78
130
107
80
110
94
92
71
103
62
                                                                                          Ui

-------
                 TABLE K-1
 Field Measurements and Analytical  Data.
Big Sioux River and Selected Tributaries,
   Minnesota, South Dakota,  and Iowa.
       September and October, 1972
             (Continued)
Mainstem Tributary
River Mile River Mile Date
106.2
106.2
106.2
80. 9
80.9
80.9






66.9
66.9
66.9
10/1
10/2
10/3
10/1
10/2
10/3
76.2/40.8 10/1
76.2/40.8 10/2
76.2/40.8 10/3
76.2/5.8 10/1
76.2/5.8 10/2
76.2/5.8 10/3
10/1
10/2
10/3
Time
0935
1130
0910
1055
1040
0950
0845
1210
0820
1110
1055
0935
1145
1010
1045
Temp.(
12.0
15.0
14.5
13.5
14.0
15.5
10.5
14.5
14.0
13.5
14.5
15.0
14.5
13.5
15.0
C) pH
8.2
8.1
8.1
8.5
8.4
8.3
8.3
8.4
8.2
8.3
8.2
8.0
8.4
8.5
8.4
NHa-N
(mg/1)
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Turb.. DO
(J.T.U.) (mq/1)
28 10.0
11.4
9.1
27 11.9
11.4
10.2
20 9.4
15.0
8.3
15 12.8
12.5
9.5
27 12.6
10.5
10.4
DO
(% sat)
96
117
93
118
114
106
87
152
83
127
127
98
128
104
107

-------
                 TABLE K-1
 Field Measurements and Analytical  Data.
Big Sioux River and Selected Tributaries,
   Minnesota, South Dakota, and Iowa.
       September and October, 1972
             (Continued)
Painstem Tributary
River Mile River Mile
46.8
46.8
46.8
35.3
35.3
35.3
16.8
16.8
16.8
5.0
5.0
5.0
2.2
2.2
2.2
Date
10/1
10/2
10/3
10/1
10/2
10/3
10/1
10/2
10/3
10/1
10/2
10/3
10/1
10/2
10/3
Time
1210
0940
1110
1235
0900
1130
1300
0835
1150
1325
0815
1210
1340
0745
1215
Temp. (
14.5
14.0
16.0
14.5
14.0
16.5
14.5
13.5
16.0
14.5
13.5
15.5
17.0
13.5
17.5
C) pH
8.5
8.5
8.3
8.5
8.5
8.2
8.5
8.4
8.4
8.4
8.5
8.4
8.5
8.5
8.6
NH3-N
(mg/1)
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Turb. DO
(J.T.U.) (mq/1)
32 12.8
10.6
11.5
27 13.0
10.0
11.6
22 13.1
10.0
10.7
19 13.6
11.9
12.2
20 17.1
13.0
18.0
DO
(X sat.)
130
106
121
1
132
100
124
134
99
112
138
118
126
175
129-
180

-------
K-8
                                        TABLE K-2
                                                         f

          Chlorophyll a from periphyton.  Artificial substrates  exposed for
           24-day periods between 10 September 1972 and 3 October 1972.


                                                     Chlorophyll a
River Kile
263.5
243.9
237.6
214.6/0.1
206.1
186.9
173.0
162.2
154.2
150.6
146.8
143.2
141.2
134.5
130.1/27.3
130.1/5.3
127.0
106.2
80.9
76.2/40.8
76.2/5.8
66.9
46.8
35.3
16.8
2.2
/ 2
yg/cm
8.71
5.52
5.92
0.71
1.39
1.30
1.52
0.68
5.02
4.65
2.08
6.73
2.60
1.18
4.22
3.91
3.98
3.01
1.52
7.42
6.26
6.43
2.14
4.42
3.38
2.05
yg/in2
56.2
35.6
38.2
4.6
9.0
8.4
9.8
4.4
32.4
30.0
13.4
43.4
16.8
7.6
27.2
25.2
25.7
19.4
9.8
47.9
40.4
41.5
13.8
28.5
21.8
13.2

-------
                                                          K-9
                      TABLE K-3
Species diversity (d)  of benthic macroinyertebrates,
      Big Sioux River  and selected tributaries.
            September  and October, 1972.
River
Mile
263.5
243.9
237.6
214.6/0.1
206.1
186.9
173.0
162.2
155.4
154.2
152.8/1.1
150.6
146.8
143.8
143.2
d
1.15
3.65
2.46
3.03
3.69
3.39
3.51
3.10
2.62
3.42
0.98
1.41
3.99
1.73
3.17
River
Mile
142.7
141.2
134.5
130.1/27.3
130.1/5.3
127.0
106.2
80.9
76.2/40.8
76.2/5.8
66.9
46.8
35.3
16.8
2.2
d
3.17
4.52
4.25
3.48
2.02
3.22
1.64
0.94
2.50
2.36
3.91
2.59
3.15
4.14
1.82

-------
K-10
                                  TABLE  K-4
                     Results  of  nitrogen analyses from
             selected waste discharges to  the  Big Sioux River
                          Sioux  Falls, South Dakota.

                                            TKN   NH3-N  Org.-N  N02+NCh-N
  Location	Date   Time   mg/1   mg/1   mg/1	mg/1

  Meilman Food Industries
   (formerly Spencer Foods, 10/2/72   1145     35.0   31.0   4.0      <0.05
   Inc.) effluent from
   process-waste lagoons.   10/2/72   1625     38.0   32.0   6.0       0.26

                           10/3/72   0830     43.0   33.0  10.0      <0.05

                           10/3/72   1230     37.0   36.0   1.0       0.26


  John Worrell  and  Company
   condenser discharge.     10/2/72   1200     1.8    0.2    1.6       0.79

                           10/2/72   1405     1.9    0.2    1.7       1.10

                           10/2/72   1600     2.1    0.2    1.9       0.97

                           10/2/72   1800     1.9    0.1    1.8       0.92

                           10/3/72   0800     12.0   9.8    2.0       0.98

                           10/3/72   1200     5.1    3.5    1.6       0.60

-------
                                                    K-ll
                 TABLE  K-5
        Dissolved-Oxygen Profiles.
Big Sioux River, Sioux Falls,  South  Dakota
             September, 1972.
River
Mile Date
162.2 9/26
9/26
9/26
9/26
9/26
9/26
9/26
9/26
9/27
9/27
9/27
9/27
9/27
9/27
9/27
143.2 9/26
9/26
9/26
9/26
9/26
9/26
9/26
Time
0600
0610
0700
0800
0900
1000
1100
1200
0600
0700
0800
0900
1000
1100
1200
0605
0700
0800
0900
1000
1100
1200
Temp(C)
11.5
11.5
11.5
n.o
10.5
11.5
11.5
11.5
11.0
11.0
10.5
11.0
11.5
11.5
12.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
9.5
10.0
11.0
DO
(mg/1 )
9.4
9.2
9.5
10.0
10.0
10.9
11.0
12.2
9.6
9.6
9.7
9.8
10.5
11.3
12.1
8.7
8.6
8.9
9.4
10.0
10.5
11.0
DO
(% sat)
89
87
90
94
93
104
105
115
90
90
90
92
100
107
115
77
76
79
84
90
96
103

-------
K-12
                                   TABLE K-5
                         Dissolved-Oxygen Profiles.
                 Big  Sioux  River, Sioux Falls, South Dakota
                              September, 1972.
                                 (Continued)
River
Mile
141.2






134.5






134.5






Date
9/26
9/26
9/26
9/26
9/26
9/26
9/26
9/26
9/26
9/26
9/26
9/26
9/26
9/26
9/27
9/27
9/27
9/27
9/27
9/27
9/27
Time
0610
0700
0805
0908
1000
1103
1200
0615
0705
0805
0900
1000
1100
1200
0605
0700
0800
0900
1000
1100
1200
Temp(C)
12.5
12.0
12.0
11.5
12.5
12.5
13.5
11.0
11.0
11.5
11.5
11.5
12.0
12.5
12.0
12.0
11.0
12.0
12.0
12.5
12.5
DO
(mq/1)
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.7
9.9
9.9
10.0
7.1
7.3
7.5
7.9
8.4
9.0
9.5
7.4
7.4
7.5
8.0
8.6
9.4
9.9
DO
(% sat)
89
89
90
92
96
96
99
67
68
71
75
80
86
93
70
70
70
76
83
91
96

-------
                                                     K-13
                 TABLE  K-5
        Dissolved-Oxygen Profiles
Big Sioux River,  Sioux Falls,  South  Dakota
             September, 1972.
               (Continued)
River
Mile Date
127.0 9/26
9/26
9/26
9/26
9/26
9/26
9/26
127.0 9/27
9/27
9/27
' 9/27
9/27
9/27
9/27
113.0 9/27
9/27
9/27
9/27
9/27
9/27
Time
0634
0700
0800
0900
1000
1100
1200
0600
0702
0800
0900
1005
1100
1206
0715
0800
0900
1000
1100
1200
Temp(C)
11.5
11.5
10.0
12.0
11.5
11.5
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
11.5
11.5
12.0
12.5
11.5
10.0
11.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
DO
(mg/1 )
7.3
7.2
7.3
7.3
7.8
8.2
8.7
7.8
8.9
7.6
7.7
8.1
8.6
9.1
7.5
7.8
7.6
8.2
8.3
9.5
DO
(% sat)
69
68
66
70
74
77
84
75
85
73
73
76
83
84
71
72
71
79
80
91

-------
K-14
                                   TABLE  K-5
                         Dissolved-Oxygen Profiles
                Big Sioux River, Sioux Falls, South Dakota
                              September, 1972.
                                 (Continued)
River
Mile
106.2





Date
9/27
9/27
9/27
9/27
9/27
9/27
Time
0700
0800
0900
1000
1100
1200
Temp(C)
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.5
DO
(mq/1)
8.4
8.7
8.8
9.1
9.4
9.7
DO
(% sat)
77
79
80
83
85
85

-------
                                                             K-15
                           TABLE K-6

Gross and Net Photosynthesis,  Respiration, and Carbon Fixation,
                 Big Sioux River - Fall, 1972
River Mile Date
162.2
162.2
143.2
141.2
134.5
127.0
127.0
113.0
106.2
9/26
9/27
9/26
9/26
9/26
9/26
9/27
9/27
9/26
.Photosynthesis (mg/1)
Gross Net Respiration
4.9
6.4
5.9
1.7
1.6
1.7
1.8
2.8
6.1
4.8
6.3
5.6
1.8
1.9
2.0
1.8
2.7
5.7
0.1
0.1
0.3
- 0.1
- 0.3
- 0.3
0
0.1
0.4
Carbon Fixed
mg/m /dav
4,950
6,500
6,050
1,855
1,955
2,060
1,855
2,785
5,870

-------
K-16
                                TABLE K-7

            Algal Growth, Stimulated by  Additions of Sioux Falls
      WWTP Final Clarifier Effluent to Big Sioux River Receiving Water
            [Expressed as Concentration  of Chlorophyll  (yg/1)]
            Samples Collected 9/13/72; Incubated 9/15 to 9/24/72.
     _.,   .                      Chlorophyll a (yg/1)
     Dilutions                              ~~
     % Sewage

         0.0

         0.1

         1.0

         5.0

        10.0

        20.0

        40.0

        60.0

        80.0

       100.0
Initial
4.9
4.8
4.9
4.7
4.6
4.3
3.5
2.9
2.1
1.5
Peak
10.8
26.3
24.4
26.2
9.0
28.6
26.5
34.0
80.8
88.0
(Day
(4)
(4)
(A)
(4)
(5)
(7)
(9)
(9)
(9)
(9)

-------
                                                                 K-17
                             TABLE K-8

         Algal Growth,  Stimulated by Additions of Nitrogen
              And Phosphorus to Big Sioux River Water
        [Expressed as Concentration of Chlorophyll  (vg/1)]
       Samples Collected 9/13/72, Incubated 9/15 to 9/24/72.
Nitrogen (N)   Phosphorus (P)    Chlorophyll a  (yg/1)
   mg/1            mg/1	    Initial         Peak      (Day)

    0.0            0.0             4.9            4.9       (0)
    0.01           0.0             4.9           26.4       (4)
    0.1            0.0             4.9           29.4       (4)
    1.0            0.0             4.8           39.9       (5)
   10.0            0.0             4.4           33.0       (4)
    0.0            0.01            4.9           19.5       (4)
    0.01           0.01            4.8           29.1       (5)
    0.1            0.01            4.9           22.8       (4)
    1.0            0.01            4.9           30.3       (4)
   10.0            0.01            4.4           53.4       (5)
    0.0            0.1             4.9           24.9       (4)
    0.01           0.1             4.9           22.2       (4)
    0.1            0.1             4.9           11.1       (3)
    1.0            0.1             4.4           23.1       (5)
   10.0            0.1             4.5           48.9       (5)
    0.0            1.0             4.9           24.0       (4)
    0.01           1.0             4.9           22.2       (4)
    0.1            1.0             4.8            6.9       (9)
    1.0            1.0             4.9           29.1       (5)
   10.0            1.0             4.5           33.0       (5)
    0.0           10.0             4.5            8.0       (9)
    0.01          10.0             4.5           11.0       (6)
    0.1           10.0             4.5           11.2       (6)
    1.0           10.0             4.4           27.6       (7)
   10.0           10.0             4.1           43.8       (9)

-------
                                                                             TABLE K-9
                                                      BENTHOS, BIG SIOUX RIVER A.ID SELECTED  TRIBUTARIES
                                                                SOUTH DAKOTA,  IOWA, MINNESOTA
                                                                   (Nurabers p?r square foot)  /
                                                                   September-October, 1972                                                                                 y^

             River H1le  2 2  16 8  35 3  46 8  66 9  76 2/8 5  76 2/32 0  80 ')   106 2   127  0   130 1/9 3  130 1/27 3  134 5  141 2  142 7   143  2   143 8                  rf
  Organisms			  	  	  	  	  	                  OO

Annelida
  01 igochacta                                                                 12                                            Q^/
    Tublficldae           42                 2           43       354                               14          4          00
    Hirudlnea
      Dina parva                                                                                                1          g

Crustacea
  Amphipoda
    TalUridae
      'lyalella. azteca                                     1                                  Q                   1          Q                     Q
  Decapoda
    Carbannae
      Orconectes sp_.

Insecta
  Ephcreroptera
    Leptophlebiidae
      Pjraleptophlebla sp.       Q                 Q                          (JQQ1                      QQQ
    PoU anthiclTe
      P'o*-p--3nthus sp                                                                         Q        7          29
    BaeTTTcTdae
      Ea"ti-.ra ip                                         5
    Siphlonui idae
      Isoiychia s                                 q                          1      Q                                     Q      Q
    Tricoiythidae
      Tricorythodes S_p_                 Q                  1                          2
    Caenfdje
      ^Illi 5                  Q                                            C)      Q                          Q
    LC'-tciphlebildae
      L-p'oohl'bia sp_.                             Q                                 Q                                                   Q
    EptrC or.da"
               . i         2                                                                         1           6                        Q
               	                                     61                                q           i

                                             q                      3         Q      Q               Q                             Q
                                 qqqqs4        14         cqqq           i          qqqqi
                           qqqiq                9&oqq                      qq                     i

                                 qqqqi978         34qs                      qq              q
                                                                  544                4               2          21
      w j'-'oclooon sp                                                                (f
  Odonita
    Coe^gri idae
      Enellagra sp               q                                            q                      q           q
      Arena 22.             q           q                                      q                                 q
      Gomhus sj>           2     1                         q                   1                                 q          q
  Coleoptcra
    Oytiscidae                         q                                                                        Q
    Elrnldae                                                                                                     q                               q
      Stenelnls sp_.                                 q      1                          q              3           4                               q
                                                \

-------
Organisms
           River Mile    146 8
Trlcoptera
  Hydrops/chfdae
    Hydropsyche sp_
    Ch'j'j-a'opsyche sp.
  Polycentropidae
    Polycenf opus sp.

Dlptpra
  Tipulidae
  Sinulildae
    Sinul 11 urn sp_
  Ctratopo'ionidae
  Chironomm
    ChironoTjs
    Cr t^it' hironomus
  	"ndipes
  Epdochironcius
  Glyptot"ndipes
  Harm sen 13
  Li-inor hiroioiajs
  Hicrotend'pes
  Paratendipes
  ft'tip*oil urn
    PsgU'.ochirGnomus
    TFiliflos
    /en jchi ronomus
  Orthocladiinae
    Ccrynejra
    Mf feriella
  Orthoclidius
  Pro^ladius
  Psectrocladius
  Triienenanniella
  Snittia
Tanypodinae
  Coeltanypus
Podononinae
Tanvtarsinf
  Tan_, tarsus
Pelecypoda
    Sphaer11dae
      Sphaerlum

Gastropoda
  Pulmonata
    Physfdae
      Physa

HUKBER OF KINDS
MK8ER/SQ FT5/
                            18    531
                            19
                            18
                            30
                           102
                                 76
                                  2
                                 25
                                664
                                                                    TABLE K-9 (Cont.)
                                                    BENTHOS, BIG SIOUX RIVER AND SELECTED TRIBUTARIES
                                                              SOUTH DAKOTA, IOWA, MINNESOTA
                                                               (Numbers per square foot)  5/
                                                                Septembei-October, 1972
                                                                     (Continued)

                                                  154 2  155 4  162 2  173 0  186 9  206 1
                                           392

                                            61
 5
27
                                                      2

                                                      q      2
 11
471
                                                     n
                                                     12
14
52
11
 1
                                                                    3

                                                                   24
15
51
                                                                         4
                                                                         2

                                                                        22
19
60
              17
        1      7
                                                                                  2      2

                                                                                  q
                                                                                                       237 6  243 9  263 5
                         10
                         92
                                                                                3      9
                                                                                  q      Q

                                                                                  q
12
19
16
57
                          q    130
                          q      Q
                                                                                                                  q      2
                                                                                                                  i


                                                                                                                  q      2

                                                                                                                  q
                                                                                                                         q

                                                                                                                  q      2
8     14     16     15
9    149     21    148

-------
                                                         TABLE K-9 (Cont.)
                                        BENTHOS, BIG SIOUX RIVbR AND  SELECTED  TRIBUTARIES
                                                  SOUTH DAKOTA,  IOWA, MINNESOTA
                                                    (Numbers PIT square foot)  /
                                                     September-October, 1972
Piver M11e    146 8  150  6  152 8/1 1  154 2  155 4  162 2
Organises
Annelida
Oligorh-iPta
Tubificfdae
Hirudinea
Dina parva
Crustacea
Anphipoda
Talitridae
I'/alella azteca
Deca(/oda
Cambannae
Insecta
Epr.cncroptera
Leptophlebi idae
Paralppjiophlebla sp
Potanantmdae
Pot^ianthjs sp
Baetiscidae
Baetisca sp
Slphl onurld'"1e
Isonychia s
TrlcoryttTuTae
Tricorythodes sp
Caeniflae
Cac 11 s SP_
Leptophltbudae
LestrjoMebia sp.
Ephfirendae
rlo/a^^nia sp
Erarrycercus sp
C'ny;-')la 22.
Ste-.oneira s?
Hpota^enia sp
Bactidae
Baetis sp
Centrostilum Sl>
Pseudocloeon sp
Odonata
Coenagrndae
Ena ila;Tia s_
Gosipnidae
Gorphjs sp_
Coleoptera
Dytiscldae
Elmldae
Stenelnils sp.
7
3
q
2
q
5
2
q
i
q
q
i
q
2
q
q
q
i
q
2
3
1
4
1
                                                                                              17
                                                        Q                    1                 Q       Q       Q

                                                        Q                                                    Q
                                                                                                      q

                                                                                                      6
                                          q                                                    q      q
                                          i      i      q      q      q      i           q      q      q
                                                        Q                    Q                         q
                                                        q      q             q           q
                                                                             Q
                                                                             e

-------
  Organisms
            River Mile  2 2  16 8  35 3  46 8  66 9
                                                                     TABLE K-9  (Cont.)
                                                    BENTHOS, BIG SIOUX RIVER AND  SELECTED TRIBUTARIES
                                                             SOUTH DAKOTA,  IOWA,  HIMESOTA
                                                              (Numbers per  square foot)  /
                                                               September-0( tober, 1972
                                                                    (Continued)

                                                                           9  106 2   127 0
  Tricoptera
    Hydropsychidae
H,dropsyche sp q J 2 5
Oieur.otopsyche sp q 17
Pol/centropidae
Polycentropus sp. Q
Olptera
Tipul idae
Siiruliidae
Simul 1 tun sp q q
Ceratopoionidae
Chlrono-iinl q
Chironorys 3
Cryptochironomus 3 2
Dicrotend i pos q
En'iorhiro miius
Giyptotf ndipes q q
Hirivsrhia
LiTinocnironoTius
M icrof endi pos 1
Paraf'ndipos 2
PenMnediluri
Po l_/r  d 1 1 urn q q
Pseud -rhironomus
Tribelos
Xcnochi ronorrus 13
Qrtiioclddume
Cory ->'i'a
Ci icotopus q
Eu" loMcriel la
0~t thocladius Q
Pi ocladiu;
PTectnxJaiMus q
Thienr"anniella q
iiUJ-iJA
Tan>podin.ie q
Crel tanypus
P&donOir.inae
Tanytarsus
Pelecypoda
Sphaerndae
Sphierlum 1 2
Gastropoda
Pulmonata
Ph/sidae
Physa
NUMBER OF KINDS, 11 17 13 10
NUM3ER/SQ FT I/ 58 18 32 27
q 89
q 236
2
q 18
q
q
q
q
14 14
14 507
                                                               846
                                                               490
                                                                158
207    310
        51
                                                                                 19
                                                                16        16
                                                             2.521       316
a/ Ho /n2 Is obtained  by  multlolylna Ho /ft2 by a factor of 10.76.
B/ The capital  letter,  0,  eouals  organisms collected Qualitatively, arbitrarily
   assigned a value of one for computing.
         1

        24
       420
                                                                           q      3
                                                                                  Q
10
10
       265
         1
                                                                                               11
                                                                                                3
                      ,12




                      11

                       q



                       q

                       q
 24
348
                             130 1/27  3  134 5  141.2  142 7  143 2  143 8
             i
           29
 25
118
18
18
                                                                                                                     q      q
                                                                                                                            q
                                                                                                                     q
                                                                                                                     q      q
21
24
                                       33
                                        q
 9
42
                                                                                                                                                                      I
                                                                                                                                                                     ro

-------
                                            TABLE  K-10

                       WATER-QUALITY CONDITIONS AND 96-HOUR BIOASSAY RESULTS
                         SIOUX FALLS, WWTP, JANUARY 30-FEBRUARY 3, 1973
                                                                                                             IS3
                                                                                                             r-o
Dilution
7. SPWSOR
100
52
36
27
16
8
Control
NH3
55.9 mg/1
(54-64)
23.4 mg/1
(18-27)
16.25 mg/1
(14-18)
14.6 mg/1
(11-18)
13.7 mg/1
(11-20)
6.5 mg/1
(4-12)
0.25 mg/1
(0.0-1.5)
D.O. pH Temperature Number of fish alive/dead Mortality
C after 96 hr %
4.7 mg/1 7.3-7.5
(4.0-5.8)
5.6 mg/1 7.4-7.6
(3.4-7.0)
6.2 mg/1 7.4-7.7
(5.4-7.3)
6.3 mg/1 7.4-7.7
(4.8-7.3)
6.0 mg/1 7.4-7.8
(5.5-7.0)
5.6 mg/1 7.5-7.7
(3.4-7.3)
7.4 mg/1 7.7-7.9
(5.4-8.6)
16.6 o/20
(14-18)
16.1 19/1
(13-18)
15.4 20/0
(11-18)
15 20/0
(13-18)
15.9 20/0
(12-18)
15.5 20/0
(13-18)
14.8 20/0
(11-17)
100
5
0
0%
0
0
0
100%
Dilution

-------
                                                                 K-23
                             TABLE K-ll

             LOCATION OF FISH CAGES IN BIG SIOUX RIVER
                     SIOUX FALLS, SOUTH DAKOTA
                     29 January-February 1973
River
Mile                     Description

             Diversion canal approximately 1.1 km (0.66 mi)
               downstream from Big Sioux RM 158.8
               (Reference Site).

142.95         Big Sioux River, about 135 m (150 yd) upstream of
               Sioux Falls, South Dakota. WWTP effluent outfall.

142.85         Big Sioux River, about 135 m (150 yd) downstream
               from Sioux Falls, South Dakota, WWTP effluent outfall.
128.5          Big Sioux River, Hwy 38 bridge approximately
               2.4 km (1.5 mi) upstream of Iowa-South Dakota
               state line.

142.9          Main outfall,  Sioux Falls,  South Dakota,
               WWTP effluent.

-------
K-24
                                TABLE K-12

          Algal Growth, Stimulated by Additions of Sioux Falls WWTP
             Final Effluent to Big Sioux River Receiving Water
           [Expressed as Concentration of Chlorophyll a^ (yg/1) ]
            Samples Collected 1/25/73, Incubated 1/31 to 2/9/73
Dilutions
% Sewage
0.0
0.1
1.0
5.0
10.0
20.0
40.0
60.0
80.0
100.0
Chlorophyll a.
Initial
1.1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.3
1.5
1.7
2.1
2.4
2.6
(yg/D
Peak
2.0
1.8
3.5
3.1
3.8
4.9
25.0
80.6
122.9
65.6
(Day)
(7)
(7)
(9)
(7)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(9)
(9)
(9)

-------
                                                                 K-25
                            TABLE K-13

     Algal Growth, Stimulated by Additions of Sioux Falls WWTP
             By-pass to Big Sioux River Receiving Water
       [Expressed as Concentration of Chlorophyll a. (ug/1) ]
        Samples Collected 1/25/73, Incubated 1/31 to 2/9/73


Dilutions             Chlorophyll a  (yg/1)
% Sewage

   0.0

   0.1

   1.0

   5.0

  10.0

  20.0

  40.0

  60.0

  80.0

 100.0
Initial
1.0
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.8
2.3
3.2
4.0
4.9
6.0
Peak
1.3
1.4
2.6
3.1
3.7
4.4
8.0
4.7
4.9
6.0
(Pay)
(7)
(6)
(7)
(7)
(7)
(6)
(9)
(5)
(0)
(0)

-------
K-26
                                  TABLE K-14

              Algal  Growth,  Stimulated by Additions of Nitrogen
                   And Phosphorus to Big Sioux River Water
              [Expressed  as Concentration of Chlorophyll a_ (yg/1)]
              Samples Collected  1/25/73, Incubated 1/31/73  to  2/9/73
Nitrogen
mg/1 as N
0
1
10
30
70
0
1.0
10
30
70
0
1
10
30
70
0
1
10
30
70
0
1
10
30
70
Phosphorus
mg/1 as P
0
0
0
0
0
.01
.01
.01
.01
.01
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
Chlorophyll a
Initial
1.2
1.1
1.1
1.0
0.9
1.3
1.3
1.1
1.0
0.9
1.2
1.2
1.1
1.1
.9
1.2
1.1
1.1
1.1
0.8
1.3
1.3
1.2
1.0
0.8
(yg/D
Peak
1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
2.2
2.2
1.3
1.0
0.9
2.5
1.8
2.1
1.7
1.2
4.6
4.8
4.7
4.1
1.0
7.0
6.1
6.4
5.4
4.1

(Day
(7)
(7)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(8)
(9)
(8)
(0)
(0)
(9)
(7)
(9)
(7)
(4)
(7)
(7)
(7)
(7)
(5)
(8)
(8)
(8)
(8)
(5)

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                                                                  K-27
                             TABLE K-15

          Algal Growth, Stimulated by Additions of Stripped
Effluent from the Sioux Falls WWTP to Big Sioux River Receiving Water
        [Expressed as Concentration of Chlorophyll a_ (yg/1) ]
         Samples Collected 1/25/73, Incubated 2/28 to 3/9/73
Dilutions                Chlorophyll  a.  (yg/1)
%  Sewage

    0.0

    0.1

    1.0

    5.0

   10.0

   20.0

   40.0

   60.0

   80.0

  100.0
Initial
2.2
2.2
2.0
2.0
2.1
3.0
3.2
2.6
2.3
2.3
Peak
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.1
2.8
5.8
8.8
13.1
53.1
334.6
(Day)
(1)
(5)
(1)
(1)
(5)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(9)
(9)

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K-28
                                 TABLE K-16

             Algal Growth,  Stimulated by Additons of Stripped
     Effluent from the  Sioux Falls  WWTP Plus Nitrogen and Phosphorus to
                       Big  Sioux River Receiving Water
            [Expressed  as  Concentration of Chlorophyl] ji (vig/1) ]
             Samples  Collected 1/25/73, Incubated 2/28 to 3/9/73.
Dilutions
% Sewage
0
0.1
0.1
0.1
1.0
1.0
1.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
0.1
0.1
0.1
1.0
1.0
1.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
50.0
50.0
50.0
0.1
0.1
0.1
Nitrogen
mg/1 as N
0
0.1
0
0.1
0.1
0
0.1
0.1
0
0.1
0.1
0
0.1
1.0
0
1.0
1.0
0
1.0
1.0
0
1.0
1.0
0
1.0
10.0
0
10.0
Phosphorus
mg/1 as P
0
0
0.1
0.1
0
0.1
0.1
0
0.1
0.1
0
0.1
0.1
0
1.0
1.0
0
1.0
1.0
0
1.0
1.0
0
1.0
1.0
0
10.0
10.0
Chlorophyll a_ (yg/1)
Initial
2.2
2.2
2.6
2.3
2.2
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.6
2.5
2.9
2.7
2.8
2.5
2.5
2.4
1.8
2.6
2.3
1.9
2.4
2,4
2.7
2.4
2.4
1.9
2.3
2.5
Peak
2.2
2.3
Contaminated
5.4
2.4
5.6
5.3
3.2
7.3
6.9
11.1
12.0
11.7
2.5
9.0
8.9
1.9
9.0
8.9
3.1
11.4
11.2
10.8
16.0
17.9
2.5
12.3
Contaminated
(Day)
(1)
(1)
(6)
(7)
(1)
(6)
(6)
(5)
(9)
(9)
(7)
(7)
(9)
(1)
(5)
(5)
(1)
(6)
(6)
(5)
(8)
(8)
(9)
(9)
(8)
(5)
(6)
(5)

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                                                                    K-29
                         TABLE K-16 (Cont.)

        Algal Growth, Stimulated by Additions of Stripped
Effluent From the Sioux Falls WWTP Plus Nitrogen and Phosphorus to
                  Bie Sioux River Receiving Water
       [Expressed as Concentration of Chlorophyll a_ (PS/1)]
        Samples Collected 1/25/73, Incubated 2/28 to 3/9/73


Dilutions       Nitrogen      Phosphorus    Chlorophyll a_ (yg/1)
% Sewage        mg/1 as N     mg/1 as P      InitialPeak(Day]

   1.0             10.0           0.0          1.9         2.6       (6)
   1.0              0.0          10.0          2.3        12.2       (5)
   1.0             10.0          10.0          2.3        12.5       (5)

  10.0             10.0           0.0          2.0         4.0       (6)
  10.0              0.0          10.0          2.3        10.6       (5)
  10.0             10.0          10.0          2.5        11.1       (5)

  50.0             10.0           0.0          2.7        12.8       (5)
  50.0              0.0          10.0          2.4        12.8       (6)
  50.0             10.0          10.0          2.5        16.5       (7)

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                                 LEGEND
                                SAMPLE LOCATIONS
                                         September and October, 1972
                                         January and February, 1973
Figure IV-l   Sampling Locations, Big Sioux River and  Selected Tributaries,
                 Estellme , South Dakota  to Sioux City, Iowa

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