vvEPA
           United States
           Environmental Protection
           Agency
            Environmental Monitoring
            Systems Laboratory
            P.O. Box 93478
            Las Vegas NV 89193-3478
Pre-lssue Copy
November 1987
            Research and Development
A Comparative Study of
Water Chemistry Analyses
from Canada, Norway,
and the United States:
Analytical Methods
Raw Data

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A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF WATER CHEMISTRY ANALYSES FROM  CANADA,  NORWAY,
      AND THE UNITED STATES:   ANALYTICAL METHODS AND  RAW  DATA

                                 by
                        Martin A.  Stapanian
     Lockheed Engineering and Management Services  Company,  Inc.
                      Las Vegas,  Nevada  89119
                      Contract No.  68-03-3249
                          Project Officer
                          R.  D.  Schonbrod
               Exposure Assessment Research Division
            Environmental  Monitoring Systems Laboratory
                      Las  Vegas, Nevada  39114
            ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING SYSTEMS LABORATORY
                 OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
                U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                      LAS VEGAS,  NEVADA  89114

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                                     NOTICE

     The information in this document has been funded wholly  or  in  part  oy
the United States Environmental Protection Agency under contract 568-03-3249
to Lockheed Engineering and Management Services Company,  Inc.   It has  been
subjected to the Agency's peer and administrative review,  and it has  been
approved for publication as an EPA document.

     Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute
endorsement or recommendation for use.

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                                    ABSTRACT


     During the National Surface Water Survey Eastern Lake Survey - Phase I,
110 identical aliquots  (split samples) from 97 lakes in North Carolina were
routed to one analytical laboratory in Norway and one in the United States.
In addition, 105 split  samples from 92 lakes in New York state were routed to
two laboratories in Canada and to a second laboratory in the United States.
This report documents the analytical methods used by each of the five labora-
tories and presents the data from the analyses conducted by the Norwegian and
Canadian laboratories.  Results from the U.S. laboratories are published else-
where.  Statistical analyses and interpretation of the data are encouraged tor
subsequent investigation.
                                      i11

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IV

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                                    CONTENTS
Abstract	   iii
Tables	    vi

   1.  Introduction	      1
   2.  Conclusions and Recommendations 	      2
   3.  Methods	      3
            Collection of Samples	      3
            Laboratory Analytical Methods	      3
   4.  Results and Discussion	      8
   5.  References	    21

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                                     TABLES


Number                                                                     Page


  1  Analytical Methods Used by the Canadian Laboratories	      4


  2  Analytical Methods Used by the Norwegian Institute for Water
       Research	      6
                                        /

  3  Analytical Methods Used by the U.S. Laboratories	      7


  4  Data from the Canadian Laboratories	      9


  5  Data from the Norwegian Institute for Water Research	     17

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                                   SECTION 1

                                  INTRODUCTION
     There are no standard international methodologies for analysis of water
samples (Sullivan et al., 1986).  Observed differences in water chemistry
analyses from different laboratories may be attributed to acidification pro-
cesses, differences in methodologies, or both.  The objective of this  study
was to compare the analytical methods used during the National Surface Water
Survey (NSWS) Eastern Lake Survey - Phase I (ELS-I) (Linthurst et al., 1986)
with those used in Canadian and Norwegian laboratories.  Samples from  two
regions were used in the study.  Identical aliquots (split samples) from lakes
in New York state were analyzed by two Canadian laboratories and by a  U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) contract laboratory, and split samples
from lakes in North Carolina were analyzed by a Norwegian laboratory and by  a
second EPA contract laboratory.  The two Canadian laboratories analyzed for
different parameters.  This report lists the methods used by the five  labora-
tories and documents the data from the analyses performed by the Canadian  and
Norwegian laboratories.  The corresponding data from the EPA contract  labora-
tories appear as part of the complete ELS-I data set published in Kanciruk
et al. (1986).  Statistical analyses and interpretation of the data are
encouraged for subsequent investigation.

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                                   SECTION 2

                        CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

     The purpose of this report is to present the data from the Norwegian and
Canadian laboratories, not to test hypotheses.  Stapanian et al.  (in prep.)
tested whether the results for each analyte in the two sets of split samples
were equal and comparable.  In this experiment, methods for certain analytes
differed between two laboratories that analyzed samples from the  same lakes
(Stapanian et al., in prep.; Hillman et al., 1986).  However, the effects of
method and laboratory are totally confounded in the statistical sense (Stapanian
et al., in prep.).  Extreme caution should be used when interpreting inter-
laboratory statistical comparisons from this study.

     Differences between analytical methods should be assessed so that more
rigorous interpretations of data from acidic deposition studies in other coun-
tries can be made.  Such assessments should be made with identical  aliquots  of
known concentrations, within the same laboratory.  When the bias  and accuracy
of each method are determined, standard international methods for analysis of
each analyte can be established.

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                                   SECTION 3

                                    METHODS

COLLECTION OF SAMPLES

     All ELS-I samples were collected, preserved, and prepared as aliquots  Dy
using standard techniques (Hillman et al., 1936).  For the study describee  here,
110 identical aliquots (split samples) from 97 lakes in the Southern Blue Ridge
Mountains of North Carolina (ELS-I batches 704 through 709) were routed  by  air
charter to the Norwegian Institute for Water Research (P.O. Box 333, Oslo 3,
Norway) and to Glooal Geochemical Corporation (6919 Eton Avenue, Canoga  Park,
California 91303).  Of the 97 lakes, 9 were sampled twice, and 2 were sampled
three times in accordance with the ELS-I quality assurance plan (Drouse  et  al.,
1986).  In addition, 105 split samples from 92 lakes in the Adirondack region
of New York (ELS-I batches 209 through 214) were routed by air charter to three
laboratories:  the National Water Quality Laboratory of the Canada Centre for
Inland Waters, P.O. Box 5050, Burlington, Ontario L7R 4A6; Environmental Moni-
toring Services, Inc. (EMSI), 2421 W. Hillcrest Dr., Thousand Oaks, California
91320; and the Water Quality Section of the Ontario Ministry of the Environment,
P.O. Box 213, Rexdale, Ontario M9W 5L1.  Four of these lakes were sampled twice,
three lakes were sampled three times, and one lake was sampled four times in
accordance with the ELS-I quality assurance plan.  As discussed below, the
samples were analyzed for different parameters at the two Canadian laboratories.

     A rigorous quality assurance program (Drouse et al., 1986) was implemented
to minimize the variance introduced during sample collection, transportation,
and preservation.  The results of the quality assurance program can be found  in
Best et al. (1986).

LABORATORY ANALYTICAL METHODS

     The Canada Centre for Inland Waters analyzed for 13 parameters, and the
Ontario Ministry of the Environment analyzed for 5 parameters.  The parameters
assigned to each laboratory, the analytical methods used, and the reference for
each method are given in Table 1.  The Norwegian Institute for Water Research
analyzed for 11 parameters (see Table 2).  Global and EMSI analyzed for all
ELS-I parameters (see Kanciruk et al., 1986);  13 of these parameters (Table  3)
correspond to parameters for which the Canadian and Norwegian laboratories
analyzed.  For all analyses, the U.S. laboratories used the methods described
in Hillman et al.  (1986).

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         TABLE 1.  ANALYTICAL METHODS USED BY THE CANADIAN LABORATORIES

 Laboratory       Parameter (Units)            Method              Reference
Canada Centre
 for Inland
 Waters3
pH (pH units)
                  Cr (mg/L)

                  Nitrogen as N03
                   (mg/L)

                  Ca (mg/L)
                  Conductance
                   (uS/cm)

                  SiOŁ (mg/L)

                  Dissolved Organic
                   Carbon (mg/L)

                  Dissolved Inorganic
                   Carbon (mg/L)

                  Na (mg/L)

                  K  (mg/L)

                  Mg (mg/L)
                  Acid-neutralizing
                   capacity as CaC03
                   (mg/L)D
                  SO,
                     2-
pH meter
                         Ion chromatography
                         Ion chromatography

                         Atomic absorption
                          spectroscopy
                          (flame)

                         Conductivity
                          meter

                         Automated colorimetry
                         Carbon analyzer


                         Carbon analyzer

                         Flame photometry

                         Flame photometry

                         Atomic absorption
                          spectroscopy
                          (flame)



                         Gran analysis

                         Ion chromatography
Environment
 Canada (19791
                                                                    (continued)
Footnotes on next page.

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                             TABLE 1.  (Continued)

 Laboratory       Parameter (Units)            Method      •        Reference
Ontario
 Ministry
 of the
 Environment
Total P (mg/L)
                  Total F (mg/L)
                  Total Al (mg/L)
                  Fe (mg/L)
                  Mn (mg/L)
Automated
 colorimetry
Ontario Ministry
 of the Environ-
 ment (1983)
                         Ion-selective
                          electrode

                         Atomic absorption
                          spectroscopy
                          (furnace)

                         Inductively coupled
                          plasma emission
                          spectroscopy

                         Inductively coupled
                          plasma emission
                          spectroscopy
aWater Quality National Laboratory, Analytical Services, Canada Centre for
 Inland Waters, Burlington, Ontario, L7R 4A6
^Although acid-neutralizing capacity was measured in mg/L CaC03, data were
 converted to 'ueq/L for this report.
cLaboratory Services Branch, Water Quality Section, Rexdale, Ontario M9W 5L1

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TABLE 2.  ANALYTICAL METHODS USED BY THE NORWEGIAN INSTITUTE FOR WATER RESEARCH3

  Parameter
   (Units)                     Method                       Reference
pH (pH units)
Orion APC-1 pH meter with
 Radiometer GK 2401 C
 electrode
Manufacturer's specifications
Ca, Mg, Na, K
 (mg/L)

Conductance
 (uS/cm)

NOj (mg/L)
Cr (mg/L)
Extractable Al
 (mg/L)
S042" (mg/L)
Acid-
 neutralizing
 capacity
 (ueq/L)
Perkin Elmer 560 flame atomic
 absorption spectrophotometer

Phillips digital conductivity
 meter PW 9509

Copperized Cd-wire reduction
 method on Technicon Auto-
 Analyzer II

Automated thiocyanate method
Pyrocatechol  violet method
Thorin method AC
Fixed endpoint
U.S. EPA (1983).   Methods
215.1, 242.1, 273.1,  253.1

Manufacturer's specifications
U.S. EPA (1983).  Method
 353.2
U.S. EPA (1983).  Method
 325.2

Henriksen and Bergmann-
 Paulsen (1975)
Rtfgeberg and Henriksen (1985)

Henriksen and Bergmann-
 Paulsen (1974)

Henriksen (1982)
aP.O. Box 333, Oslo 3, Norway

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          TABLE 3.  ANALYTICAL METHODS USED BY THE U.S. LABORATORIES3

  Parameter Units	      Methods                       Reference
Acid neutralizing
 capacity  (ueq/L)

pH (pH units)

Conductance  (uS/cm)

Dissolved  inorganic
 carbon  (mg/L)

Dissolved  organic
 carbon  (mg/L)

Ca (mg/L)


Fe (mg/L)


Na (mg/L)


Mg (mg/L)


Mn (mg/L)


K (mg/L)


N03~ (mg/L)

S042~ (mg/L)

Cr (mg/L)

Si02 (mg/L)

Total F  (mg/L)

Total Al (mg/L)


Extractable  Al  (mg/L)
                            Gran analysis


                            pH meter

                            conductivity meter


                            Carbon analyzer


                            Carbon analyzer

                            Atomic absorption spectroscopy
                             (flame)

                            Atomic absorption spectroscopy
                             (flame)

                            Atomic absorption spectroscopy
                             (flame)

                            Atomic absorption spectroscopy
                             (flame)

                            Atomic absorption spectroscopy
                             (flame)

                            Atomic absorption spectroscopy
                             (flame)

                            Ion chromatography

                            Ion chromatography

                            Ion chromatography

                            Automated colorimetry

                            Ion-selective electrode
                            Atomic absorption spectroscopy
                             (furnace)
Hillman et al.  (1985)
                            Atomic absorption spectroscopy
                             (furnace)                              "

Environmental Monitoring Services, Inc., 2421 W. Hillcrest Dr., Thousand OaKS,
 California 91320
 Global Geochemical Corporation, 6919 Eton Ave., Canoga Park, California 91303

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                                   SECTION 4

                             RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

     The results from the Canadian and Norwegian laboratories are  presented  in
Tables 4 and 5.  Results from the EPA contract laboratories  are  published
elsewhere (Kanciruk et al., 1986).  Lake identification numoers  can  be  used  to
identify corresponding samples in the data sets.  Statistical  analyses  of  the
data are presented and discussed in Stapanian et al.  (in prep.).

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                          TABLE 4.  DATA FROM THE CANADIAN LABORATORIES^
Lake ID&
1A1-003
1A1-004
1A1-009
1A1-012
1A1-014
1A1-016
1A1-016
1A1-038
1A1-042
1A1-043
1A1-046
1A1-049
1A1-050
1A1-051
1A1-055
1A1-057
1A1-061
1A1-077
1A1-079
1A1-080
1A1-084
1A1-094
1A1-095
1A1-097
1A1-099
1A1-101
1A2-001
1A2-002
JA2-004
pH
(pH uni
4.79
4.71
4.57
5.86
6.30
4.63
5.57
6.56
6.21
6.16
6.32
4.66
5.73
6.20
6.39
4.85
4.49
5.68
5.39
5.61
4.77
4.96
4.85
4.74
5.98
6.18
6.48
5.48
4.69
Acid-
Neutralizing
Capacity
ts) (ueq/L)c
-23.978
-29.973
-37.966
4.396
31.372
-27.975
-2.198
94.914
43.561
52.952
41.962
-33.969
-1.399
27.375
28.175
-25.977
-43.960
1.199
-3.397
-0.799
-16.985
-21.980
-16.785
-21.980
22.979
35.168
128.284
-5.195
-25.977
Total
Al
0.290
0.180
0.530
0.030
0.036
0.360
0.000
0.036
0.051
0.043
0.092
0.260
0.057
0.039
0.051
0.320
0.540
0.160
0.190
0.110
0.420
0.350
0.300
0.210
0.034
0.020
0.051
0.072
0.330
Conduc-
tance
(uS/cm)
25.40
23.10
29.30
18.20
19.80
26.00
1.30
25.80
21.80
26.60
25.30
26.40
21.00
24.40
22.40
22.80
32.10
21.70
20.80
18.80
24.90
24.90
22.90
24.50
20.00
22.80
29.20
20.00
24.00
ci-
0.26
0.25
0.30
0.28
0.27
0.26
0.01
0.37
0.27
0.45
0.33
0.25
0.27
0.30
0.33
0.24
0.34
0.33
0.35
0.28
1.32
0.43
0.32
0.26
0.29
0.28
0.42
0.23
0.21
Ca
1.17
0.90
1.12
1.74
2.01
0.90
0.02
2.37
1.95
2.66
2.62
1.01
1.76
2.29
2.04
1.30
1.04
2.05
1.54
1.43
1.09
1.15
1.16
1.10
2.07
2.56
3.05
1.68
0.90
Mg
0.19
0.20
0.26
0.31
0.37
0.16
0.01
1.00
0.42
0.54
0.48
0.20
0.35
0.45
0.36
0.25
0.21
0.36
0.36
0.34
0.23
0.21
0.22
0.20
0.40
0.33
0.77
0.30
0.17
Na
0.39
0.30
0.42
0.35
0.48
0.33
0.01
0.42
0.69
0.85
0.76
0.35
0.60
0.76
0.70
0.39
0.40
0.48
0.45
0.50
0.34
0.51
0.47
0.38
0.41
0.51
1.08
0.52
0.35
K
0.24
0.28
0.06
0.18
0.14
0.24
0.01
0.16
0.32
0.39
0.43
0.26
0.32
0.43
0.37
0.32
0.15
0.15
0.19
0.24
0.18
0.24
0.26
0.29
0.19
0.24
0.31
0.05
0.07
(continued)
Footnotes at end of table.

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                                           TABLE  4.   (Continued)
Lake IDb
1A1-003
1A1-004
1A1-009
1A1-012
1A1-014
1A1-016
1A1-016
1A1-038
1A1-042
1A1-043
1A1-046
1A1-049
1A1-050
1A1-051
1A1-055
1A1-057
1A1-061
1A1-077
1A1-079
1A1-080
1A1-084
1A1-094
1A1-095
1A1-097
1A1-099
1A1-101
1A2-001
1A2-002
1A2-004

so42~
6.42
5.30
6.18
4.56
4.47
5.59
0.00
4.86
4.52
5.82
5.29
6.20
6.22
6.39
5.75
5.65
6.46
5.39
5.45
4.82
6.29
5.89
6.23
6.25
4.26
5.50
3.50
5.50
5.56

N03-Nd
0.00
0.12
0.01
0.01
0.03
0.24
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.01
0.01
0.04
0.07
0.10
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.02
0.00
0.00
0.01
0.05

Total
P
0.000
0.000
0.010
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.013
0.007
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.005
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.007
0.000
0.024
0.000
0.006

DICe
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.4
0.4
0.4
1.8
1.3
1.2
l.l
0.4
0.5
1.0
1.0
0.6
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.1
0.3
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.4
1.1
2.9
0.3
0.3

DOCf
1.3
0.9
3.2
2.1
1.8
1.9
0.1
3.1
4.4
4.6
4.5
0.8
2.1
3.5
3.4
4.5
4.8
3.8
2.8
1.7
1.6
3.2
2.3
1.0
2.7
2.6
5.5
1.4
1.6

Si02
0.83
0.40
1.88
1.19
2.40
1.50
0.02
0.62
0.98
3.71
3.51
0.32
2.00
1.50
3.60
1.38
4.13
2.62
2.97
2.89
1.67
3.11
0.88
0.25
1.82
1.74
2.86
1.08
0.81

Fe
0.056
0.041
0.092
0.051
0.027
0.046
0.012
0.220
0.240
0.220
0.370
0.033
0.042
0.057
0.140
0.130
0.160
0.094
0.150
0.034
0.027
0.190
0.038
0.017
0.094
0.130
0.200
0.025
0.041

Mn
0.031
0.052
0.035
0.023
0.007
0.044
0.001
0.007
0.025
0.050
0.063
0.035
0.018
0.015
0.043
0.048
0.040
0.019
0.061
0.042
0.041
0.046
0.028
0.050
0.021
0.044
0.031
0.036
0.020

Total
0.0513
0.0389
0.0377
0.0376
0.0339
0.0550
0.0000
0.0829
0.0706
0.0850
0.1290
0.0558
0.0609
0.1060
0.0803
0.0867
0.0335
0.0389
0.0457
0.0510
0.0350
0.0560
0.1070
0.0565
0.0411
0.1270
0.0524
0.0452
0.0253
(continued)
Footnotes at end of table.

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                                       TABLE 4.   (Continued)
Lake ID&
1A2-011
1A2-011
1A2-016
1A2-018
1A2-021
1A2-022
1A2-023
1A2-031
1A2-036
1A2-037
1A2-0.18
1A2-039
1A2-040
1A2-041
1A2-042
1A2-044
1A2-045
1A2-046
1A2-048
1A2-048
1A2-052
1A2-053
1A2-054
1A2-056
1A2-058
1A2-058
1A2-058
1A2-063
1A2-065
pH
(pH units)
6.80
6.38
6.37
4.74
4.73
6.62
4.97
5.24
6.48
6.22
6.36
6.30
6.96
5.99
5.51
5.91
5.96
6.27
5.77
5.02
5.31
6.12
4.92
5.74
6.84
5.70
6.64
5.97
5.95
Acid-
Neutralizing
Capacity
(|Jeq/L)c
120.092
118.693
107.104
-25.977
-31.971
213.807
13.588
-19.183
172.245
150.265
117.494
133.080
233.789
22.180
-7.793
-3.197
57.948
7.793
-23.978
-9.591
-3.60
46.96
-17.38
14.39
384.65
-3.00
382.06
22.38
19.58
Total
Al
0.022
0.026
0.004
0.170
0.310
0.012
0.250
0.090
0.041
0.068
0.037
0.017
0.041
0.120
0.160
0.180
0.017
0.029
0.000
0.084
0.250
0.068
0.210
0.030
0.007
0.000
0.004
0.062
0.100
Conduc-
tance
(uS/cm)
36.80
36.60
40.40
23.40
23.30
32.10
23.10
18.50
34.10
32.20
26.00
37.00
50.70
22.50
21.10
21.60
18.00
21.40
1.30
19.30
22.50
25.40
19.90
12.35
61.20
1.43
61.30
23.60
61.20
ci-
0.49
0.49
3.06
0.30
0.36
0.21
0.53
0.27
0.42
0.48
0.30
2.49
2.82
0.45
0.36
0.51
0.39
0.42
0.00
0.63
0.95
0.44
0.26
0.28
0.80
0.02
0.83
0.20
0.31
Ca
3.86
3.78
3.26
1.22
1.11
4.71
1.38
1.16
4.49
3.44
3.11
3.41
5.37
2.10
1.58
1.55
1.49
1.81
0.04
1.18
1.52
2.51
1.09
1.06
7.02
0.05
7.02
2.50
2.12
Mg
1.09
1.08
0.67
0.26
0.24
0.45
0.31
0.27
0.54
0.82
0.52
0.96
1.08
0.43
0.40
0.38
0.30
0.50
0.00
0.33
0.41
0.55
0.26
0.24
2.13
0.01
2.13
0.47
0.45
Na
0.60
0.60
2.55
0.45
0.51
0.12
0.61
0.55
0.79
0.88
0.84
1.76
2.01
0.75
0.68
0.69
0.60
0.45
0.00
0.45
0.78
0.65
0.37
0.36
0.75
0.00
0.74
0.52
0.75
K
0.22
0.22
0.53
0.32
0.25
0.33
0.30
0.13
0.34
0.34
0.09
0.28
0.39
0.16
0.20
0.23
0.14
0.17
0.00
0.29
0.25
0.22
0.20
0.28
0.32
0.02
0.33
0.14
0.35
(continued)
Footnotes at end of table.

-------
                                         TABLE 4.   (Continued)
Lake IDb
1A2-011
1A2-011
1A?-016
1A2-018
1A2-021
1A2-022
1A2-023
1A2-031
1A2-036
1A2-037
1A2-038
1A2-039
1A2-040
1A2-041
1A2-042
1A2-044
1A2-045
1A2-046
1A2-048
1A2-048
1A2-052
1A2-053
1A2-054
1A2-056
1A2-058
1A2-058
1A2-058
1A2-063
1A2-065

so42~
7.09
7.08
5.54
5.88
4.97
2.58
5.64
5.23
4.19
3.89
3.37
4.35
6.17
5.30
5.71
5.68
5.49
6.57
0.26
4.44
5.78
4.60
5.02
2.23
7.51
0.00
7.48
5.45
5.63

N03-Nd
0.00
o.oo
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.04
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.01
0.00
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.05
0.00
0.02
0.06
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Total
P
0.000
0.006
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.014
0.010
0.000
0.008
0.010
0.008
0.008
0.005
0.015
0.005
0.005
0.006
0.000
0.000
0.012
0.008
0.000
0.000
0.009
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.009
0.000

DICe
2.0
1.9
2.1
0.7
0.4
3.5
0.9
0.4
2.3
2.3
1.8
2.0
3.1
0.9
0.5
0.8
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.8
0.5
0.8
4.8
0.4
4.8
1.2
0.9

DOCf
4.5
4.5
2.2
4.6
4.3
4.6
5.0
0.8
5.7
4.5
5.3
4.8
3.7
6.3
4.0
4.9
1.7
1.5
0.1
4.4
4.10
2.80
3.80
4.70
3.70
0.10
3.70
5.30
3.70

Si02
0.72
0.74
0.24
2.08
2.88
0.29
1.24
2.08
3.91
5.38
1.82
1.15
6.06
3.91
3.88
4.01
1.78
1.76
0.02
1.28
2.18
3.68
1.17
0.18
0.81
0.02
0.49
0.57
3.18

Fe
0.030
0.035
0.042
0.110
0.330
0.190
0.340
0.073
0.093
0.390
0.077
0.120
0.280
0.090
0.091
0.220
0.058
0.076
0.001
0.170
0.210
0.095
0.110
0.310
0.230
0.009
0.022
0.160
0.370

Mn
0.007
0.008
0.007
0.020
0.036
0.017
0.032
0.029
0.010
0.029
0.008
0.004
0.015
0.021
0.028
0.032
0.036
0.017
0.001
0.031
0.035
0.023
0.028
0.020
0.015
0.001
- 0.016
0.014
0.022

Total
0.1600
0.1600
0.0624
0.0954
0.0642
0.0251
0.1640
0.0286
0.1030
0.0445
0.0240
0.0521
0.0384
0.0590
0.0421
0.0415
0.0407
0.0360
0.0000
0.0441
0.0431
0.0426
0.0272
0.0474
0.0410
0.0000
0.0400
0.1280
0.0970
(continued)
Footnotes at end of table.

-------
                                      TABLE 4.  (Continued)
Lake ID&
1A2-068
1A2-070
1A2-071
1A2-072
1A2-073
1A2-074
1A2-078
1A2-093
1A3-018
1A3-020
1A3-022
1A3-025
1A3-027
1A3-028
1A3-028
1A3-029
1A3-031
1A3-051
1A3-067
1A3-067
1A3-067
1A3-067
1A3-069
1C1-056
1C1-059
1C1-059
1C1-059
1C1-061
1C1-062
1C1-063

PH
(pH units)
5.20
4.81
6.24
5.10
4.94
4.93
5.09
5.21
6.61
6.61
6.47
6.90
7.17
5.19
5.24
6.71
6.77
8.27
5.63
6.82
6.47
4.95
5.18
6.25
7.46
6.91
5.56
7.79
6.96
6.92

Acid-
Neutralizing
Capacity
(ueq/L)c
-10.59
-18.38
49.56
-15.59
-19.98
-31.97
-13.39
-11.39
270.16
330.50
193.03
570.09
78.73
-8.99
-7.59
39.76
620.04
1469.48
-4.20
590.67
594.66
-18.18
-169.85
150.86
1068.64
1064.44
-1.60
602.66
659.41
1949.24

: = =:=-= — = = = = = = :
Total
Al
0.150
0.220
0.080
0.230
0.160
0.200
0.140
0.230
0.025
0.004
0.000
0.230
0.025
0.016
0.017
0.004
0.016
0.008
0.000
0.003
0.004
0.260
0.140
0.027
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.016
0.006
0.066

Conduc-
tance
(liS/cm)
19.90
22.00
25.40
24.90
19.90
22.10
22.00
23.70
37.40
58.90
41. JO
82.70
30.50
12.20
12.20
26.40
97.40
155.00
1.30
86.50
86.80
20.50
21.20
34.10
146.90
147.50
1.40
89.40
82.00
250.00

ci-
0.31
0.33
0.30
0.27
0.25
0.24
0.26
0.37
0.00
2.49
0.57
1.09
0.48
0.25
0.25
0.45
2.99
2.56
0.00
3.26
3.22
0.35
0.33
0.53
7.09
7.62
0.02
1.53
0.83
3.99

Ca
1.37
1.15
2.63
1.27
1.14
1.17
.1.33
1.62
5.33
6.95
5.16
10.47
3.12
0.91
0.93
2.72
12.50
20.90
0.19
11.80
12.00
1.19
1.34
3.82
12.70
13.50
0.14
12.10
13.20
35.30

Mg
0.31
0.23
0.56
0.26
0.26
0.21
0.32
0.34
0.89
1.09
0.83
2.18
0.72
0.16
0.15
0.51
1.96
5.40
0.02
1.17
1.22
0.26
0.30
1.07
6.00
5.90
0.03
1.15
1.26
3.40

Na
0.39
0.37
0.80
0.58
0.38
0.35
0.58
0.56
1.29
0.78
0.58
1.32
0.80
0.08
0.08
0.85
2.57
1.49
0.00
1.98
1.96
0.47
0.47
0.60
5.24
5.26
0.00
2.06
0.93
7.45
(conti
K
0.15
0.16
0.37
0.25
0.12
0.10
0.13
0.25
0.14
0.29
0.41
0.42
0.18
0.21
0.21
0.30
0.42
0.67
0.00
0.88
0.88
0.1.0
0.16
0.29
0.53
0.53
0.01
0.84
0.31
1.45
nued)
Footnotes at end of table.

-------
                                         TABLE 4.   (Continued)
Lake IDb
1A2-068
1A2-070
1A2-071
1A2-072
1A2-073
1A2-074
1A2-078
1A2-093
1A3-018
1A3-020
1A3-022
1A3-025
1A3-027
1A3-028
1A3-028
1A3-029
1A3-031
1A3-051
1A3-067
1A3-067
1A3-067
1A3-067
1A3-069
1C1-056
1C1-059
1C1-059
1C1-059
1C1-061
1C1-062
1C1-063

v-
5.33
5.68
4.47
4.92
5.09
5.94
6.85
6.63
2.72
6.16
6.64
8.86
6.94
2.95
2.89
6.19
10.81
3.33
0.07
4.97
4.94
5.39
6.24
5.16
3.30
3.45
0.04
2.R9
4.43
5.33

N03-Nd
0.03
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Total
p
0.004
0.000
0.010
0.005
0.008
0.004
0.000
0.007
0.016
0.006
0.000
0.000
0.012
0.008
0.006
0.000
0.005
0.000
0.007
0.019
0.012
0.012
0.000
0.022
0.011
0.007
0.000
0.005
0.008
0.028

DICe
0.5
0.1
1.4
0.6
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.9
3.5
4.3
2.8
6.9
1.1
0.5
0.4
1.0
7.6
17.6
0.1
7.7
7.7
0.4
0.3
2.5
12.4
12.5
6.9
7.3
8.4
25.6

DOCf
2.60
1.40
8.00
4.90
3.20
1.00
0.80
3.80
8.10
2.80
3.36
2.70
3.10
2.60
2.50
2.80
2.50
2.60
0.10
4.20
4.20
3.20
0.80
5.90
3.30
3.30
1.80
2.40
5.00
3.30

S102
0.96
0.64
3.93
1.02
0.73
0.36
0.72
1.26
6.63
3.27
0.92
3.48
0.75
0.24
0.23
1.69
1.01
0.57
0.04
1.94
1.91
1.65
2.71
0.18
0.45
0.43
0.02
1.53
0.79
7.34

Fe
0.048
0.031
0.460
0.320
0.140
0.017
0.009
0.110
0.150
0.094
0.100
0.100
0.069
0.065
0.059
0.047
0.022
0.030
0.001
0.230
0.230
0.150
0.006
0.098
0.013
0.017
0.001
0.013
0.051
0.170

Mn
0.033
0.036
0.050
0.039
0.027
0.033
0.050
0.051
0.007
0.035
0.026
0.053
0.005
0.031
0.028
0.001
0.010
0.023
0.001
0.025
0.025
0.031
0.082
0.032
0.022
0.030
0.001
0.003
0.006
0.150

Total
0.0354
0.0337
0.1320
0.1170
0.0326
0.0348
0.0477
0.0926
0.0552
0.0709
0.0499
0.0536
0.0816
0.0156
0.0154
0.0811
0.0444
0.0455
0.0000
0.0415
0.0405
0.0319
0.0326
0.0341
0.0239
0.0248
0.0000
0.0590
0.0298
0.0422
(continued)
Footnotes at end of table.

-------
                                      TABLE  4.   (Continued)
Lake ID&
1C1-081
1C1-091
1C1-105
1C1-108
1C1-114
1C2-071
1C2-071
1C2-071
1C3-011
1C3-012
1C3-013
1C3-014
1C3-017
1C3-021
1C3-059
1C3-065
1C3-072
pH
(pH units)
7.86
5.78
6.48
6.46
6.10
6.57
6.70
5.84
7.84
6.95
7.39
8.19
8.12
6.73
6.54
7.33
7.81
Acid-
Neutralizing
Capacity
(|ieq/L)c
1485.66
16.19
146.67
52.55
63.94
81.33
66.14
-4.00
823.46
558.30
589.07
1331.40
1998.20
720.55
1073.83
817.46
568.29
Total
Al
0.006
0.053
0.073
0.024
0.100
0.052
0.048
0.000
0.033
0.099
0.000
0.000
0.007
0.022
0.017
0.005
0.000
Conduc-
tance
(uS/cm)
176.00
18.90
37.40
23.70
20.30
27.80
27.90
1.38
115.00
72.20
89.4
152.2
229.0
85.7
124.4
103.0
98.0
cr
0.28
0.29
0.40
0.25
0.25
0.34
0.35
0.00
1.76
1.19
1.24
2.81
3.02
0.39
1.84
0.39
3.96
Ca
28.20
1.73
4.62
3.02
1.88
3.31
3.30
0.17
14.30
9.66
11.46
22.60
29.30
14.80
13.70
16.20
10.98
Mg
1.09
0.46
0.58
0.38
0.87
0.44
0.46
0.01
2.50
1.66
2.24
3.30
6.20
1.07
5.20
2.20
1.89
Na
3.47
0.42
0.50
0.25
0.20
0.81
0.82
0.00
3.16
1.08
1.08
2.63
4.52
0.58
1.53
0.63
3.94
K
0.98
0.14
0.33
0.14
0.12
0.26
0.26
0.00
0.85
0.36
0.35
0.67
2.30
0.26
0.50
0.26
0.46
(continued)
Footnotes at end of table.

-------
                                       TABLE 4.  (Continued)
Lake IDb
1C1-081
1C1-091
1C1-105
1C1-108
1C1-114
1C2-071
1C2-071
1C2-071
1C3-011
1C3-012
1C3-013
1C3-014
1C3-017
1C3-021
1C3-U59
1C3-065
1C3-072
so42'
0.53
4.73
6.99
5.34
3.72
5.45
5.46
0.08
3.28
4.77
10.31
8.04
2.28
4.14
6.30
7.30
6.62
N03-Nd
0.00
0.00
0.04
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
Total
P
0.006
0.014
0.005
0.010
0.009
0.000
0.006
0.000
0.018
0.011
0.000
0.006
0.066
0.010
0.018
0.005
0.000
DICe
12.6
1.1
2.4
1.2
1.2
1.4
1.4
0.5
10.2
7.2
7.2
15.9
24.9
8.5
13.0
9.9
0.1
DOCf
3.00
3.70
2.22
3.40
4.40
4.30
4.20
0.10
4.00
3.50
2.2
5.7
5.8
10.3
3.7
3.2
0.3
Si02
3.69
0.37
2.59
0.39
0.86
4.03
3.97
0.02
0.40
1.34
1.48
2.44
5.95
0.35
1.24
0.66
1.37
Fe
0.029
0.160
0.490
0.038
0.190
0.017
0.016
0.002
0.160
0.450
0.030
0.020
0.500
0.150
0.270
0.034
0.027
Mn
0.010
0.020
0.085
0.024
0.020
0.016
0.015
0.001
0.026
0.044
0.069
0.009
0.260
0.004
0.190
0.073
0.082
Total
0.0501
0.0288
0.0270
0.0244
0.0188
0.0417
0.0400
0.0000
0.0488
0.0365
0.0322
0.0466
0.0520
0.0298
0.0412
0.0287
0.0240
aUnless specified, units for each analyte are in mg/L.  Analyses performed by  each  laboratory  are
 listed in Table 1.
DLake identification numbers (Lake IDs) correspond to those used in  the  Eastern  Lake  Survey -  Phase  I
 data set published in Kanciruk et al.  (1986).
cAlthough acid-neutralizing capacity was measured in mg/L CaCO-j, data  were converted  to  ueq/L  for this
 report.
^Nitrogen as nitrate.
^Dissolved inorganic carbon.
^Dissolved organic carbon.

-------
                  TABLE 5.  DATA FROM THE NORWEGIAN INSTITUTE FOR WATER RESEARCH
Lake IDb
3A3-066
3A3-004
3A3-056
3A1-008
3A3-006
3A1-008
3A2-001
3A3-092
3A2-001
3A2-OD1
3A3-001
3A3-087
3A2-066
3A1-006
3A2-065
3A3-102
3A2-004
3A2-045
3A2-044
3A2-044
3A2-017
3A2-018
3A2-044
3A2-047
3A2-046
3A3-014
3A2-049
3A2-048

pH
(pH Units)
6.85
7.09
7.14
5.60
6.67
7.24
7.26
7.63
7.25
5.63
7.22
7.47
6.84
7.14
6.78
6.95
6.98
6.80
6.80
5.66
6.84
6.76
6.83
7.05
6.94
7.05
7.12
7.18

Acid-
Neutral-
izing
Capacity
(ueq/L)
133.3
237.8
313.2
0.0
62.9
329.5
358.0
1229.4
360.1
0.0
585.4
783.9
103.4
258.2
89.9
213.2
234.7
98.2
85.8
0.0
120.9
120.9
84.7
326.5
145.6
217.3
208.1
322.4

Extract-
able
Al
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.04
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.07
0.02
0.07
0.09
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.07
0.00
0.00
0.01

Conduc-
tance
(uS/cm)
22.4
46.3
70.5
1.4
15.9
46.2
48.8
177.0
49.2
1.3
78.8
110.0
18.1
40.2
20.5
29.4
57.8
16.7
14.6
2.0
17.6
17.7
14.9
45.2
23.5
27.7
28.5
39.1

cr
0.3
2.7
6.7
0.0
0.1
1.9
1.0
7.2
1.1
0.0
3.1
3.5
0.2
1.6
0.7
0.3
6.0
0.4
0.4
0.0
0.2
0.2
0.4
1.6
1.2
0.6
1.0
0.8

Ca
1.72
2.42
3.04
0.04
1.05
3.15
4.10
17.00
4.15
0.03
7.90
9.60
1.31
2.81
1.69
3.10
4.36
1.00
0.76
0.02
1.28
1.20
0.76
3.88
1.24
1.84
1.68
2.94

Mg
0.51
1.19
1.11
0.00
0.34
1.74
1.85
6.70
1.86
0.00
2.01
4.20
0.45
1.09
0.37
0.42
1.13
0.40
0.44
0.00
0.47
0.45
0.44
0.96
0.59
0.92
0.76
0.84

Na
1.31
4.10
8.00
0.02
0.87
2.50
1.87
5.90
1.88
0.00
3.00
4.10
1.09
2.40
1.14
1.60
3.90
1.13
1.00
0.02
1.05
0.98
1.09
2.80
1.77
1.80
2.70
3.20

K
0.72
0.97
1.36
0.00
0.44
1.61
0.91
2.12
0.94
0.00
1.92
1.54
0.55
1.33
0.44
0.59
0.96
0.63
0.52
0.02
0.51
0.52
0.51
1.12
0.83
0.92
1.10
1.08

V
1.7
4.0
4.5
0.0
1.6
1.5
2.5
1.0
2.6
0.0
3.1
6.8
0.9
1.9
1.4
1.0
2.3
0.8
0.6
0.0
0.7
0.7
0.6
1.9
0.7
0.6
0.9
0.4

N03~
0.00000
0.23028
0.59786
0.00000
0.22143
0.04428
0.09300
0.97428
0.09743
0.00000
0.19486
1.61643
0.25243
0.27457
0.51371
0.03543
1.79357
0.18600
0.00000
0.00000
0.01771
0.06200
0.00000
0.06643
0.25243
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
(continued)
Footnotes at end of table.

-------
                                               TABLE  5.   (Continued)
00
Lake IDb
3A2-015
3A2-023
3A2-019
3A2-014
3A2-022
3A2-057
3A2-058
3A2-026
3A2-028
3A2-027
3A2-029
3A2-030
3A3-009
3A3-011
3A3-065
3A3-072
3A3-011
3A3-084
3A3-070
3A2-031
3A2-033
3A3-104
3A3-104
3A1-015
3A1-014
3A2-053
3A2-038
3A2-032

PH
(pH Units)
7.04
6.85
6.91
6.67
6.80
6.60
7.10
6.66
6.57
6.83
7.14
6.98
6.90
6.93
6.97
7.03
5.59
6.97
6.89
6.67
6.42
6.74
6.72
6.56
6.79
6.68
6.58
6.61

Acid-
Neutral-
izing
Capacity
(ueq/L)
209.1
93.0
174.3
75.4
172.3
79.6
294.9
118.8
66.0
119.9
278.6
218.3
235.7
197.9
255.1
288.8
0.0
243.9
178.4
74.4
35.7
74.4
75.4
65.0
117.8
71.2
57.7
64.0

Extract-
able
Al
0.03
0.00
0.00
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.01
0.03
0.07
0.07
0.01
0.01
0.05
0.03
0.03
0.00
0.04
0.02
0.02
0.06
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.13
0.02
0.12
0.030

Conduc-
tance
(uS/cm)
32.8
22.0
30.7
17.0
26.8
15.8
41.1
20.7
13.6
21.9
37.9
33.2
32.7
36.7
40.0
40.7
1.3
36.4
35.6
14.8
11.8
13.1
13.1
15.5
34.8
16.4
21.1
13.4

cr
0.6
2.1
0.6
0.3
0.6
0.4
1.1
0.7
0.4
0.8
1.1
1.0
0.7
2.3
2.2
2.0
0.0
1.7
2.9
0.2
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.4
4.0
0.7
1.6
0.1

Ca
3.02
1.48
2.51
1.56
2.06
0.80
3.43
1.24
0.57
1.30
2.41
2.28
2.09
2.27
2.49
2.62
0.03
2.43
1.94
0.90
0.66
0.79
0.79
1.00
1.91
1.03
1.32
0.76

Mg
0.88
0.50
0.79
0.39
0.63
0.36
1.08
0.49
0.35
0.53
0.94
0.87
0.86
1.20
1.07
1.13
0.00
1.29
0.96
0.30
0.26
0.27
0.27
0.24
0.45
0.30
0.37
0.28

Na
1.34
1.32
1.34
0.57
1.42
1.13
2.09
1.11
0.98
1.33
3.10
2.50
2.40
1.80
2.40
2.60
0.01
1.82
2.40
0.99
0.80
0.96
0.95
1.21
3.20
1.10
1.46
0.95

K
0.75
0.62
0.97
0.48
0.85
0.66
1.27
0.90
0.66
1.00
1. 2 5
0.89
0.86
1.57
1.70
1.12
0.00
1.25
1.64
0.48
0.40
0.48
0.48
0.45
1.24
0.44
0.55
0.46

v-
2.0
0.8
2.2
1.4
1.2
0.6
1.5
0.7
0.3
0.7
1.2
1.3
1.3
1.9
2.0
1.3
0.0
1.4
1.8
0.9
1.4
0.6
0.8
1.4
1.4
1.1
1.9
0.9

N03-
0.26571
0.05757
0.67757
0.00000
0.00886
0.00443
0.09743
0.00886
0.16386
0.41628
0.00886
0.37200
0.00443
0.95214
0.42071
0.12400
0.00000
0.27457
0.13728
0.14171
0.09743
0.04428
0.04428
0.11957
0.20814
0.09300
0.62886
0.09743
(continued)
    Footnotes  at end  of  table.

-------
                                           TABLE 5.   (Continued)
Lake IDb
3A2-061
3A3-052
3A3-057
3A3-044
3A3-046
3A3-046
3A3-061
3A3-036
3A3-078
3A3-073
3A3-035
3A2-064
3A3-017
3A3-099
3A3-095
3A2-020
3A2-021
3A3-063
3A3-068
3A3-068
3A3-026
3A3-026
3A3-086
3A3-064
3A3-021
3A3-045
3A3-053
3A3-050

PH
(pH Units)
6.46
7.36
7.30
7.53
5.67
7.05
7.10
7.20
7.25
7.00
7.13
6.99
7.27
7.28
6.98
6.90
7.07
7.04
7.35
7.41
6.67
6.67
6.89
6.63
6.73
6.65
6.98
6.51

Acid-
Neutral-
izing
Capacity
(ueq/L)
53.5
482.0
365.1
616.8
o.n
246.9
229.6
353.9
345.8
183.5
291.8
145.6
474.9
385.5
173.3
124.0
188.7
369.2
417.0
420.0
176.4
175.3
216.3
252.0
234.7
527.6
177.4
139.4

Extract-
able
Al
0.080
0.000
0.000
0.010
0.000
0.010
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.010
0.010
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.010
0.110
0.070
0.011
0.010
0.000
0.013
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.103

Conduc-
tance
(uS/cm)
27.9
57.5
57.0
133.0
1.4
42.6
40.0
63.9
89.6
58.9
51.1
24.4
63.2
52.9
31.5
20.4
27.7
54.8
69.9
69.9
43.1
43.2
33.2
31.6
45.7
65.5
28.2
35.2

cr
3.0
2.2
3.5
11.9
0.0
3.4
2.9
3.5
7.0
3.1
3.8
1.2
2.8
2.2
1.7
1.0
1.1
3.0
2.8
2.8
4.4
4.4
3.0
1.5
3.9
2.8
1.4
5.0

Ca
1.96
4.79
4.24
5.02
0.02
2.11
2.33
5.08
6.70
4.80
3.27
1.60
4.68
3.90
1.94
1.34
2.42
4.29
5.90
5.80
2.21
2.21
1.56
1.78
2.12
5.00
1.70
1.82

Mg
0.63
1.79
1.45
1.51
0.00
1.10
1.14
0.84
1.36
0.96
1.02
0.76
1.74
1.52
0.81
0.54
0.62
1.30
1.95
1.95
0.70
0.70
0.61
1.00
0.70
1.97
0.68
1.12

Na
1.26
3.90
3.70
17.30
0.02
3.20
2.80
5.00
5.90
3.40
3.60
1.35
3.60
3.30
1.90
1.23
1.52
3.20
3.00
2.90
3.46
3.50
3.82
1.78
4.01
4.50
2.21
2.13

K
0.97
1.63
1.75
2.86
0.02
2.28
1.77
2.38
3.06
1.97
2.09
0.76
2.60
2.02
1.29
0.75
0.88
1.92
2.62
2.60
2.31
2.29
0.77
1.44
2.46
1.47
0.89
0.83

S°42-
3.0
1.3
2.9
12.0
0.0
0.9
1.7
5.2
11.0
11.0
2.1
0.8
1.2
1.3
2.2
0.9
1.3
2.2
6.5
6.7
3.4
3.5
0.7
0.7
1.7
2.5
2.1
0.7

N03-
0.06200
0.01771
0.07971
0.50486
0.00000
0.31886
0.18157
0.19486
0.59786
0.03543
0.12843
0.51371
0.97428
1.24000
0.18600
0.11957
0.04428
0.18600
0.63328
0.62886
0.00000
0.00000
0.03100
0.00000
1.81571
0.00000
0.08857
0.16386
(continued)
Footnotes at end of table.

-------
                                              TABLE 5.   (Continued)
IV
c
Lake IDb
3A3-038
3A3-060
3A3-053
3A3-027
3A3-022
3A1-012
3A2-036
3A1-019
3A2-039
3A2-063
3A1-012
3A2-043
3A2-042
3A3-058
3A3-058
3A3-103
3A2-003
3A2-002
3A3-082
3A2-035
3A3-074
3A3-012
3A2-008
3A2-006
3A1-010
3A2-009
pH
(pH Units)
6.86
7.15
5.79
6.74
6.63
5.68
6.76
5.88
6.91
5.83
6.53
6.77
6.96
7.14
7.22
7.40
6.78
6.62
7.02
6.93
7.49
6.62
7.19
7.26
6.39
6.83
Acid-
Neutral-
izing
Capacity
(peq/L)
680.6
762.6
1.6
253.1
185.6
0.0
202.0
19.7
119.9
14.2
65.0
160.0
149.7
500.2
496.2
499.2
94.1
70.2
250.0
112.7
907.3
48.3
227.5
694.8
22.9
82.7
Extract-
able
Al
0.017
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.088
0.000
0.143
0.014
0.067
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.040
0.020
0.010
0.000
0.000
0.150
0.100
0.000
Conduc-
tance
(uS/cm)
82.8
90.0
1.1
39.3
30.8
1.3
29.1
9.2
18.9
9.5
12.2
21.6
22.8
80.2
80.3
76.4
23.1
13.9
43.7
17.8
232.0
15.5
29.5
470.0
15.3
14.6
CT
3.6
3.5
0.0
2.7
2.1
0.0
l.l
0.6
0.8
0.6
0.6
0.9
0.9
2.4
2.5
2.5
2.6
0.7
2.4
0.9
27.0
0.9
0.6
110.0
0.6
0.6
Ca
6.04
7.48
0.02
2.03
1.54
0.02
2.12
0.39
1.19
0.31
0.84
1.25
1.31
7.20
7.10
6.70
1.14
0.67
2.74
1.00
5.50
0.62
3.23
24.60
0.90
1.04
Mg
2.09
2.30
0.00
1.01
0.69
0.00
0.78
0.24
0.42
0.13
0.25
0.38
0.61
3.30
3.20
3.00
0.59
0.44
0.94
0.31
1.44
0.43
0.72
2.05
0.36
0.42
Na
5.57
7.20
0.00
2.42
2.13
0.00
1.58
0.51
1.28
0.80
0.65
1.95
1.88
2.20
2.30
2.50
1.58
0.91
3.60
1.60
39.00
0.99
1.13
59.00
0.67
0.79
K
2.60
2.54
0.00
2.27
1.68
0.00
0.68
0.30
0.56
0.25
0.32
0.86
0.62
1.30
1.29
1.28
0.52
0.34
1.52
0.71
3.90
0.64
0.59
3.66
0.60
0.37
SO,?'
0.8
1.0
0.0
0.8
1.3
0.0
1.1
1.1
1.3
1.4
0.9
0.8
1.3
6.6
6.9
6.0
0.6
0.9
2.4
0.4
15.0
1.8
1.4
34.0
2.0
1.4
N03-
0.18157
0.00000
0.00000
0.25243
0.17714
0.00000
0.34543
0.01328
0.07528
0.04871
0.03543
0.00000
0.00000
3.05571
3.03357
2.08143
0.13286
0.00443
1.24000
0.01771
9.74286
0.00000
0.14614
2.50214
0.69971
0.03100
   aUnless  specified, units  for
   DLake  identification numbers
    data  set published in Kanci
 each analyte are in mg/L.
 (Lake IDs)  correspond to
ruk et al.  (1986).
those used in the Eastern Lake  Survey  -  Phase  I

-------
                                   SECTION 5

                                   REFERENCES

Best, M. D., S. K. Drouse', L. W. Creelman, and D.  T.  Chaloud.   1986.   National
     Surface Water Survey Eastern Lake Survey (Phase  I  -  Synoptic  Chemistry)
     Quality Assurance Report.  EPA 600/X-AG-210.   U.S. Environmental  Protection
     Agency, Las Vegas, Nevada.

Drouse', S. K., D. C. Hi 11 man, L. W. Creelman, and  S.  J. Simon.   1986.   National
     Surface Water Survey Eastern Lake Survey (Phase  I  -  Synoptic  Chemistry)
     Quality Assurance Plan.  EPA 600/4-86-008. U.S.  Environmental Protection
     Agency, Las Vegas, Nevada.
Environment Canada.  1979.  Analytical  Methods Manual.
     torate, Water Quality'Branch, Ottawa, Ontario.
           Inland Waters  Direc-
Henriksen, A.  1982.  Alkalinity and precipitation research.   Vatten  38:83-85.

Henriksen, A. and I. M. Bergmann-Paulsen.   1975.   An  automatic  method for
     determining aluminum in natural waters.   Vatten  31:339-342.

Henriksen, A. and I. M. Bergmann-Paulsen.   1974.   An  automatic  method for
     determining sulfate in natural  soft water and precipitation.   Vatten  30:
     187-192.

Hillman, D. C., J. F. Potter, and S. J. Simon.  1986.   National  Surface  Water
     Survey Eastern Lake Survey (Phase I - Synoptic Chemistry)  Analytical
     Methods Manual.  EPA 600/4-86-009.  U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency,
     Las Vegas, Nevada.

Kanciruk, P., J. M. Eilers, R. A. McCord,  D.  H. Landers,  D.  F.  Brakke, and
     R. A. Linthurst.  1986.  Characteristics of Lakes  in the  Eastern United
     States.  Volume III.  Data Compendium of Site Characteristics  and Chemical
     Variables.  EPA 600/4-86-U07c.   U.S.  Environmental  Protection  Agency,
     Corvallis, Oregon.

Linthurst, R. A., D. H. Landers, J.  M. Eilers, D. F.   Brakke,  W.  S. Overton,
     E. P. Meier, and R. E. Crowe.  1986.   Characteristics of  LaKes in the
     Eastern United States.  Volume  I:  Population Descriptions and Physico-
     Chemical Relationships.  EPA 600/4-86-007a.   U.S.  Environmental  Protection
     Agency, Corvallis, Oregon.
Ontario Ministry of the Environment.  1983.
     Environmental Samples.  Vols. I and II.
Handbook of Analytical  Methods  for
                                       21

-------
Rtfgeberg, E.J.S. and A. Henriksen.  1985.  An automatic method for fraction-
     ation and determination of aluminum species in fresh  water.   Yatten 41:
     48-53.

Stapanian, M. A., T. E. Lewis, M. D.  Best,  C. E. Mericas,  and D.  C.  Hillman.
     A comparative study of water quality analyses from Canada,  Norway, and
     the United States,  (in preparation).

Sullivan, T. J., I. P. Muniz, and H.  M.  Seip.  1986.   A comparison of  frequently.
     used methods for the determination  of  aqueous aluminum.   International
     Journal of Environmental and Analytical  Chemistry (in press).

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  1983.   Methods for  Chemical Analysis of
     Water and Wastes.  EPA-600/4-79-020.  Revised March 1983.  Environmental
     Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio.
                                       22

-------