PESTICIDAL ASPECTS OF CHLORDANE AND HEPTACHLOR
   IN RELATION TO MAN AND THE ENVIRONMENT -
         A FURTHER REVIEW, 1972 - 1975
       Criteria and Evaluation Division
         Office of Pesticide Programs
     U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
           Washington, D.C.  20460
               EPA-540/4-76-005
                  August 1976

-------
I BIB
JSH!
BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATA
SHEET
1. Report No.
   EPA-540/4-76-005
                                                     2.
I 3. P.ecipiem'." Accrsjt>n No.
                                                                    i
 ,. Title and Subtitle
                Chlordane  and Heptachlor  In Relation  to  Man And
  The  Environment             A Further Pesticide Review 1972-197:
                                                                    i y U..-ro.-r !'
                                                                      August
                                                                      6.
 7. Author(s)
           Dr.  Homer E.  Fairchild, et  al.
                                                                     8. Performing Orf'unir.atiorr'Rept.
                                                                       No.
 9. Performing Organization Name and Address

  Chlordane and Heptachlor Scientific  Review Team
                                                                     10. Project/Task/Worlc Unit No.
                                                                      11. Conrract/Gram No.
 12. Sponsoring Organization Name and Address
  Criteria and Evaluation Division
  Office of Pesticide  Programs
  U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency
  Washington, D.C.  20450
                                                                     13. Type of Repon & Period
                                                                        Covered
                                                                     14.-
 15. Supplementary Notes
 16. Abstracts  This report  presents an  additional review of both chlordane and heptachlor,
  which is  intended  to  present selected papers appearing in the  literature from  1972-
  1975,  The review indicates new and  significant  literature in the areas of fish,  wild-
  life,  distribution in the environment ( air, soil,  water), residues in crops.and food
  items,  and toxicology and epidemiology.  The chemistry information for 1972-1975  was
  published as a part of a 1975 amendment to the  1972 reviews. This review summarizes
  rather  than interprets scientific data jtudies  in the process  of updating the  earlier
  reviews of chlordane  and heptachlor,  It is not  intended to correlate data from different
  sources of present opinions on contradictory findings,  The review covers all  uses of
  the  pesticides in  the United States and should  be applicable to future needs in  the
  Agency. The review was researched and prepared  by the criteria and Evaluation  Division,
  Office of Pesticide Programs, EPA.
 17. Key Words and Document Analysis.
  Chlordane
  Heptachlor
  pesticides
  use patterns
  impact on environment
  alternative uses
  toxicity
  fate  in environment
  residues  in crops  and food
  toxicology
 17b. Identifiers/Open-Ended Terms
                              17o. Descriptors
                                epidemiology
                                chemistry
 17e. COSATI Field/Group
 18. Availability Statement
                                                          19..Security Class (This
                                                             Report)
                                                               UNCLASSIFIED
                                                          (21. No. of Pages
                                                           20. Security Class (This
                                                             Page
                                                           	UNCLASSIFIED
 FORM NTIS-33 (REV. 10-73)
                     ENDORSED BY ANSI AND UNESCO.
                                                    THIS FORM MAY BE REPRODUCED
                                                                                 USCOMM-DC

-------
PESTICIDAL ASPECTS OF CHLORDANE AND HEPTACHLOR
   IN RELATION TO MAN AND THE ENVIRONMENT -
         A FURTHER REVIEW, 1972 - 1975
       Criteria and Evaluation Division
         Office of Pesticide Programs
     U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
           Washington, D.C.  20460
               EPA-540/4-76-005
                  August 1976

-------
Mention of trade names or commercial
products does not constitute endorse-
ment or recommendation for use.
               ii

-------
                                PREFACE


Because of the Environmental Protection Agency's statutory mandate to protect
the public health and well being of its citizenry through control of economic
poisons, a comprehensive effort intended to insure intensive and regular re-
view of all economic poisons was initiated March 18, 1971, to identify those
pesticides which could represent potential unreasonable adverse effects on ,i?-r
and his environment.  Since that date comprehensive "internal reviews" have
been conducted on a number of pesticides by the staff of the Office of Pesti-
cide Programs.                        '    .

Chlordane and heptachlor were initially reviewed in 1971 - 1972 by the Office
of. Pesticide Programs.  The reviews, available from the Environmental Protection
Agency, are entitled:  Pesticidal Aspects of Chlordane in Relation to Man and the
Environment, 1972 and Heptachlor - A Review of Its Uses, Chemistry, Environmen-
tal Hazards, and Toxicology, 1972.  ;

This report presents an additional review of both chlordane and heptachlor,
which is intended to present selected papers appearing in the literature
from 1972-1975.  The review indicates new and significant literature in the
areas of fish, wildlife, distribution in  the environment (air, soil, water),
residues in crops and food items, and toxicology and epidemiology.  The chem-
istry information for 1972-1975 was published as a part of a 1975 amendment to
the 1972 reviews.

This review summarizes rather than interprets scientific data studies in the
process of updating the earlier reviews of chlordane and heptachlor.  It is
not intended to correlate data from different sources or present opinions on
contradictory findings.                                 .

The review covers all uses of the pesticides in the United States and should be
applicable to future needs in the Agency.  The review was researched and pre-
pared by the Criteria and Evaluation Division, Office of Pesticide Programs,
EPA.                                                            .
                                     iii

-------
                                ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Chlordane and Heptachlor Scientific Review Team:

Homer E. Fairchild, PH.D., Coordinator
Lawrence J. Baer
Kyle R. Barbehenn, Ph.D.
George J. Beusch
Robert L. Caswell
Frederick J. Hageman
Merle H. Markley
0. E. Paynter, Ph.D.
Kathy K. Smith
Rosemary Spencer
                                      iv

-------
                                   CONTENTS
Page No.
                  Summary                                             1

Chapter I.         Current Chlordane and Heptachlor Pesticide
                  Uses With Their Impact on the Environment
                  and Alternatives                                    3

Chapter II.        Toxicity, Fate and Implications of Chlordane
                  and Heptachlor in the Environment                  33

Chapter III.       Residues of Chlordane in Crops and Food Items      56

Chapter IV.        Residues of Heptachlor in Crops and Food Items     63

Chapter V.         Toxicology and Epidemiology of Chlordane           75

Chapter VI.        Toxicology and Epidemiology of Heptachlor          78

-------
                                     SUMMARY
Chlordane and heptachlor were initially reviewed  by the Office of Pesticide
Programs, Environmental Protection Agency.   The present review primarily
presents selected significant papers which have appeared in the literature lix-n
1972-1975.  The amounts of chlordane and heptachlor used in the United State-
have continued to increase since 1972.   It is estimated that the use-
distribution of chlordane in the United States during 1974 was as follows:
68% for termite control; 10% for home and garden uses; and, 22% for agricultur-
al uses.  The use-distribution of heptachlor in the United States during 1974
has been estimated as follows:  50% for agricultural uses, primarily on corn;
34% for termite control; and, 16% for home and garden pests.

The recent development of a high purity technical chlordane (less than 1%
heptachlor content) presents a new pesticide product which is being evaluated
for efficacy and hazard in the environment.

Studies of chlordane in the soil have demonstrated that alpha and gamma
chlordane are the major components of the pesticide found in soil.  Heptachlor
has been reported to be a minor component of this soil residue.  Chlordane
has been confirmed to be relatively immobile in soil.

Data show that chlordane will translocate to certain  crops, primarily the  root
crops.   It has been suggested that the atmosphere is  a transport route for
chlordane from site of  soil application to the oceans.  Studies suggest organo
chlorine pesticides reside in the atmosphere either as vapors or are included
on dust  particles.  The pesticides are then "scrubbed out" by rain and snow.

Studies have indicated  that normal agricultural pesticide applications did
not appear to endanger most farmstead water supplies.

Heptachlor is rapidly metabolized in flooded soil whereas its metabolite,
heptachlor epoxide, was not detected in the flooded soil.  Previous studies
have shown that heptachlor epoxide would be formed from heptachlor in aerobic
non-flooded soil.  Chlordane remains stable under both these conditions for
three months.  Residues of chlordane and heptachlor have been found in sedi-
ments at levels much higher than the associated water residues.

Low levels of chlordane and heptachlor have been shown to be  toxic to aquatic
life.   The effects have been studied with oysters and several species of  fish.
Recent  studies have established levels of maximum acceptable  toxicant concen-
tration (MATC) for chlordane and heptachlor through use of chronic exposure
tests with several species of aquatic animals.  Chlordane, heptachlor and
heptachlor epoxide residues are widespread.

Residues of heptachlor  epoxide are relatively widespread  in wildife, but  at
generally low levels.   In recent years, dramatic wildlife kills have not  been
attributed to the major uses of chlordane and heptachlor  in the United States.
A recommendation was made that the heptachlor use as  a seed dressing  for
cereal  grains be suspended as of January 1, 1974 in Canada.

-------
Early market basket surveys conducted by the Food and Drug Administration
demonstrate that chlordane is only infrequently found in total diet studies.
However, the Food and Drug Administration did report finding chlordane in
processed foods examined in fiscal year 1973 at a 5% relative frequency.  The
USDA did find chlordane in 17.7% of fat tissues analyzed from livestock in
1974.

Market basket surveys for FY 1973 and .1974 indicate heptachlor epoxide occurs
commonly in dairy products and meat, fish and poultry.

Carcinogenic studies for chlordane and heptachlor are currently underway at
the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Health and the U.S.
Department of Health, Education and Welfare.  A preliminary report is avail-
able at this time.

Oxychlordane, a metabolite of chlordane is stored in rat adipose tissue.  Trans-
chlordane resulted in greater oxychlordane storage than cis-chlordane in both
sexes of rats with lower accompanying parent isomer storage.

Studies of human tissues from various areas of the world indicate widespread
distribution of heptachlor epoxide.  Certain studies indicate the ability of
heptachlor epoxide to cross the placental barrier.

-------
                                 CHAPTER I

                  Current Chlordane and Heptachlor Uses With
              Their Impact On the Environment and Alternatives


This review of chlordane and heptachlor uses is intended to update the
information presented in the Reviews of 1972.

Of the total United States consumption of heptachlor in 1974, it is estimated
that the use-distribution was as follows:  50% agriculture, primarily corn;
34% termite control; and 16% home and garden and miscellaneous uses.

The United States use-distribution of chlordane in 1974 has been estimated as
follows:  22% agriculture; 68% termite control; and 10% home and garden and
miscellaneous uses.

Of the heptachlor uses currently registered, only those for snap beans,
cabbage, lettuce and rutabagas have established tolerances of 0.1 ppm.  The
remainder of the registered heptachlor uses have had registrations extended
to allow gathering of data to support proposed tolerances (Code of Federal
Regulations, Section 180.104).

Interim tolerances have been set for blackberries, blueberries, boysenberries,
dewberries, raspberries at 0.01 ppm, tomatoes at 0.02 ppm and peppers at 0.1
ppm (Code of Federal Regulations, Section 180.319).

In 1960, zero heptachlor tolerances were established for barley, corn, oats,
pineapples, wheat and rye.  Registration for these latter uses has been
extended until sufficient data to support a finite tolerance are submitted.

The majority of crops for which chlordane has a registered use have a tolerance
of 0.3 ppm (Code of Federal Regulations, Section 180.122).  This tolerance has
been reaffirmed for most crops in a Federal Register notice of September
21, 1973.  The registrations have been extended to allow time to gather data
supporting proposed tolerances.

Interim tolerances for extended registrations are as follows:  Asparagas,
mustard greens, pumpkins and spinach at 0.1 ppm, parsnips, at 0.2 ppm and
bananas at 0.03 ppm (Code of Federal Regulations, Section 180.319).

-------
Seed treatment applications of chlordane utilize 2 oz of actual chlordane
per bushel of seed.  Recent reports indicate this treatment is effective in
preventing seed-feeding damage by seed-corn beetles, seed-corn maggots, and
wireworms, except where resistance of the three pests is either confirmed or
suspected.                                             ,

This chapter presents the currently registered uses of chlordane and heptachlor,
according to current use patterns, along with an update of the known regis-
tered alternative pesticides (see I.A. and I.E.). ,

-------
I.A.   Summary of Registered Chlordane Uses and Alternatives
     Animals

          Brown Dog Tick - Naled,  Carbaryl.

          Demodectic Mange Mites - Lindane.

          Fleas - Allethrins, Lindane, Benzobenzoate, Methoxychlor,  Naled,
                  Coumaphos, Dioxthion, Baygon, Carbaryl, Malathion, Diazinon.,
                  Trichlorofon, Ronnel, Chlorpyrifos, Cythioate, Pyrethrins,
                  Rotenone, Rabon, DDVP, Compound 4072, Resmethrin.

          Flies - Lindane, Methoxychlor, Ciodrin, Pyrethrins, DDVP.

          Lice - Lindane, Benzobenzoate, Coumaphos, Methoxychlor, Dioxthion,
                 Carbaryl, Malathion, Ronnel, Pyrethrins, Rotenone,  DDVP,
                 Lethane 384, Ciodrin, Toxaphene.

          Mites - Ronnel, Pyrethrins.

          Psoroptic Mange Mites - Lindane.

          Ticks - Allethrins, Lindane, Methoxychlor, Naled, Coumaphos,
                  Dioxthion, Baygon, Carbaryl, Malathion, Diazinon,  Dylox,
                  Ronnel, Pyrethrins, Rabon, DDVP, Compound 4072, Ciodrin,
                  Toxaphene.                   :

     Field Crops                                                -

     Corn

          Ants - Carbaryl.

          Armyworm - Methoxychlor, Methyl parathion, Carbaryl, Malathion,
                     Diazinon, Toxaphene.

          Climbing Cutworms - Methyl parathion, Toxaphene.

          Corn Rootworms - Methyl parathion, Phorate, Malathion, Diazinon,
                           Disulfaton, Bux, Dasanit, Furadan, Dyfonate, Mocap.

          Crickets - Carbaryl, Trichlorofon, Toxaphene.

          Cutworms - Methyl parathion, Carbaryl, Diazinon, Trichlorofon,
                     Toxaphene, Dylox.

          Earwigs - Carbaryl.

          Flea Beetles - Methoxychlor, Methyl parathion, Carbaryl, Malathion,
                         Diazinon, OMPA, Toxaphene.

-------
Corn (continued)

     Grasshoppers - Mevlnphos, Methoxychlor, Methyl parathlon, Carbaryl,
                    Malathion, Diazlnon, Endosulfan, Toxaphene.

     Japanese Beetle - Methoxychlor, Carbaryl, Malathion, OMPA, Toxaphene.

     June Beetles - Carbaryl.

     Mole Crickets - Diazinon,.

     Root Maggots - Diazinon.

     Rose Chafer - Methoxychlor.

     Slugs - Metaldehyde.

     Snails - Metaldehyde.

     Sowbugs - Carbaryl.

     Wireworms - Lindane, D-D Mixture, Diazinon, EDB, Dasanit, Dyfonate,
                 Furadan, Mocap.
Cotton
     Ants - Carbaryl.

     Aphids - Phosphamidon, Perthane, Disulfaton, Naled, Dimethoate,
              Bidrin, EPN, Methyl parathlon, Carbaryl, Phorate, Demeton,
              Malathion, Diazinon, Guthion, Ethion, Metasystox-R, Endo-
              sulfan, Toxaphene, Monitor, Endrin.

     Beet Army-worm - EPN, Methyl parathion, Trichlorofon, Guthion,
                    . Azodrin, Toxaphene, Monitor.

     Boll Weevil - Naled, Bidrin, EPN, Methyl parathion, Carbaryl,
                   Malathion, Guthion, Endosulfan, Toxaphene, Endrin.

     Bollwortn - Naled, EPN, Methyl parathion, Carbaryl, Malathion,
                Guthion, Chlordioneform, Chlordionefonn Hydrochloride,
                Endosulfan, Toxaphene, Methyl bromide, Endrin.

     Cabbage Looper - Bacillus Thuringiensis, Naled, Endrin, EPN,
                      Methyl parathion, Carbaryl, Malathion, Guthion,
                      Endosulfan, Toxaphene, Monitor.

     Cotton Fleahopper - Naled, Bidrin, Endrin, EPN, Methyl parathion,
                         Carbaryl, Malathion, Trichlorofon, Guthion,
                         Carbophenothion, Endosulfan, Toxaphene.

-------
Cotton (continued)

     Cotton Leafworm - Naled,  Endrin,  EPN,  Methyl parathion,  Carbaryl,
                       Malathion, Diazinon, Trichlorofon,  Guthion,  Car-
                       bophenothion, Ethion, Endosulfan,  Toxaphene.

     Crickets - Carbaryl, Trichlorofon, Toxaphene.

     Cutworms - Endrin, Methyl parathion, Carbaryl, Malathion,
                Trichlorofon,  Guthion, Toxaphene.

     Darkling Beetles - Carbaryl.

     Fall Armyworm - Naled, Endrin, EPN, Methyl parathion, Carbaryl,
                     Malathion, Guthion, Toxaphene.

     Flea Beetles - Phosphamidon, Naled, Methyl parathion, Carbaryl,
                    Endosulfan, Toxaphene.

     Fleahoppers - Phosphamidon, Perthane,  Naled, Dimethoate, Endrin, EPN,
                   Methyl parathion, Carbaryl, Malathion, Trichlorofon,
                   Guthion, Endosulfan, Toxaphene.

     Garden Webworm - Perthane, Endrin, EPN, Methyl parathion, Malathion,
                      Diazinon, Guthion, Toxaphene.

     Grasshoppers - Naled, Dimethoate, Bidrin, Endrin, EPN, Methyl
                    parathion, Carbaryl, Malathion, Guthion, Toxaphene.

     Lygus Bugs - Phosphamidon, Naled, Dimethoate, Bidrin, Endrin, EPN,
                  Methyl parathion, Carbaryl, Malathion, Diazinon, Dylox,
                  Guthion, Ethion, Azodrin, Endosulfan, Toxaphene.

     Stink Bugs - Endrin, Methyl parathion, Carbaryl, Malathion,
                  . Diazinon, Trichlorofon, Guthion, Endosulfan, Toxaphene.

     Tarnished Plant Bug - Endrin  EPN, Methyl parathion, Carbaryl,
                           Guthion, Toxaphene.

     Thrips - Phosphamidon, Disulfaton, Naled, Dimethoate, Bidrin, Endrin,
              EPN, Methyl parathion,  Carbaryl, Phorate, Demeton, Malathion,
              Guthion, Azodrin,  Endosulfan, Toxaphene, Monitor.

     Wireworms -  Lindane D-D Mixture,  EDB.

 Soybeans

     Crickets - Dylox, Toxaphene.

     Grasshoppers - Naled, Methyl  parathion,  Carbaryl, Malathion, OMPA,
                    Toxaphene.

-------
Soybeans (continued)

     Stink bugs - Naled, EPN, Methyl parathion, Carbaryl, Malathion,
                  Dylox, Guthion, OMPA, Endosulfan, Toxaphene.

     Wirewonns - Lindane, D-D Mixture, Diazinon.

Tobacco

     Ants - Carbaryl.

     Cutworms - Lindane, Methyl parathion, Carbaryl, Malathion, Diazinon,
                Trichlorofon, Endosulfan, Toxaphene.

     Grasshoppers - Naled, Methyl parathion, Carbaryl, Malathion,
                    Diazinon, Guthion, Endosulfan.

     Green June Beetle - Methyl parathion, Trichlorofon.

     Hornworms - Naled, Methyl parathion, Carbaryl, Malathion,
                 Trichlorofon, Guthion, Endosulfan.

     Mole Crickets - Diazinon.

     White Grubs - Methyl Bromide, Chloropicrin.

     Wireworms - Chloropicrin, Lindane, D-D Mixture, Diazinon, Dyfonate,
                 EDB, Methyl bromide, Mocap.

     Field Crops Other Than Corn, Cotton, Soybeans and Tobacco

     Alfalfa Weevil - Mevinphos, Methoxychlor, Dimethoate, Methyl
                      parathion, Carbaryl, Malathion, Guthion, Imidan,
                      Toxaphene.

     Ants - Carbaryl.

     Armyworm - Methyl parathion, Carbaryl, Malathion, Toxaphene.

     Corn Rootworms - Phorate, Diazinon.

     Crickets - Carbaryl, Trichlorofon.

     Cutworms - Trichlorofon, Carbaryl, Diazinon, Toxaphene, Endrin.

     Darkling Beetles - Carbaryl.

     Flea Beetles - Methoxychlor, Carbaryl.

-------
Other field crops (continued)

     Grasshoppers - Mevinphos, Methoxychlor,  Naled, Dimethoate,
                    Methyl parathion, Carbaryl, Malathion, Diazinon,
                    OMPA, Toxaphene, Cabofuran, Endosulfan.

     Lygus Bugs - Mevinphos, Methoxychlor, Naled, Dimethoate,
                  Methyl parathion, Carbaryl, Malathion, Diazinon,
                  Trichlorofon, Guthion, Metasystox-R, Toxaphene,
                  Methomyl, Carbofuran.

     Mole Crickets - Trichlorofon.

     Rice Leaf Miner - Methyl parathion, Malathion.

     Wireworms - D-D Mixture, EDB, Lindane, Diazinon, Dyfonate, Phorate.

Fruits (Excluding Small Fruits)

     Ants - Carbaryl, Malathion.

     Aphids - Lindane, Mevinphos, Perthane, Methoxychlor, Dimethoate,
              Methyl parathion Nicotine sulfate, Carbaryl, Demeton,
              Malathion, Diazinon, Guthion, Carbophenothion, Metasystox-R,
              Endosulfan, TEPP, Phoslon, Ethion.

     Bagworm - Methoxychlor, Carbaryl, Malathion, OMPA.

     Catfacing Insects - Endosulfan, Methyl parathion, Malathion,
                         Lindane, Carbaryl, Diazinon.

     Codling Moth - Phosphamidon, Methoxychlor, Perthane, Dioxithion,
                    EPN, Methyl parathion, Morestan, Carbaryl, Malathion,
                    Diazinon, Guthion, Carbophenothion, Ethion, OMPA,
                    Imidan,  Gardona, Chlordimeform, Chlordimeform
                    hydrochloride, Endosulfan, Methomyl,  Phosalone.

     Cutworms -  Carbaryl.

     Flea Beetles - Lindane, Methoxychlor, Malathion, Diazinon.

     Grasshoppers - Lindane, Mevinphos, Perthane,  Dimethoate,  Carbaryl,.
                    Malathion, Toxaphene, Naled.

     Green  June  Beetle - Carbaryl.

     Oriental Fruit Moth -  Methoxychlor, Methyl  parathion, Carbaryl,
                            Malathion,  Toxaphene.

-------
Fruits (Excluding Small Fruits) (continued)

     Plum Curculio - Lindane, Perthane, Methoxychlor, EPN, Methyl
                     parathion, Morestan, Carbaryl, Malathlon, Diazinon,
                     Guthion, OMPA, Imidan, Gardona, Phosalone, Toxaphene,
                     Endosulfan.

     Rose Chafer - Methoxychlor, Carbaryl, Malathion.

     Spider Mites - Kelthane, Mevinphos, Kelthane, Malathion,
                    Carbophenothlon, Diazinon.

     Thrips - Lindane, Methoxychlor, Dimethoate, Malathion, Diazinon,
              TEPP, Toxaphene, Guthion, Naled, Carbaryl.

     White Grubs - Chloropicrin.

     Wireworms - D-D Mixture, EDB, Chloropicrin.

Ornamentals

     Ants - Metasystox, Metasystox-R, Tetradlfon, Toxaphene, Allethrin,
            Chloropyrifos, Fenthlon, Diazinon, Lindane, Di-Syston,
            Carbaryl, Carbophenothion, Disulfoton, Malathion, Ovex,
            Methoxychlor, Naled.

     Aphids - Phorates, Ovex, DDVP, Metasystox, Rotenone, Endosulfan,
              Acephate, Perthane, Methyl parathion, Nicotine, Dichlone,
              Lindane, Disulfoton, Methoxychlor, Carbaryl, Malathion,
              Trichlorofon, Metasystox-R, Toxaphene, Naled, Dimethoate,
              Mexacarbate, Demeton, Diazinon, OMPA, Resmethrin, Allethrin.

     Armyworm - Mexacarbate, Methoxychlor, Carbaryl, Malathion,
                Chloropyrifos, Toxaphene, Metasystox-R.

     Bagworm - Methychlor, Carbaryl, Malathion, Diazinon, Trichlorofon,
               OMPA, Metasystox-R, Toxaphene, Acephate, Lindane,
               Chloropyrifos, Carbophenothion, Ovex, Bacillus,
               Thuringiensls.

     Billbugs - Diazinon.

     Birch Leafminer - Diazinon, Disulfoton, Malathion, Carbaryl,
                       Demeton.

     Blister Beetles - Methoxychlor, Lindane, OMPA, Malathion, Carbaryl,
                       Metasystox-R.

     Boxelder Bug - Methoxychlor, Carbaryl, Malathion, Chloropyrifos.
                                   10

-------
Ornamentals (continued)

     Brown Dog Tick - Chloropyrifos.

     Cabbage Looper - Methyl parathion.

     Carnation Bud Mite - Diazinon.

     Carnation Shoot Mite - Diazinon.

     Centipedes - Carbaryl, Malathion.

     Chinch Bug - Ethion, Chloropyrif as, Aspon.

     Climbing Cutworms - Allethrin, Dichlone, Methoxychlor, Carbaryl,
                         Malathion, Trichlorofon, Metasystox-R, Lindane,
                         Toxaphene.

     Clover Mite - Karathane, Mexacarbate, Lindane, Kelthane.

     Crickets - Diazinon, Chloropyrifos, Carbaryl, Malathion, Trichlorofon.

     Cutworms - Mexacarbate, Diazinon,  Chloropyrifos, Malathion, Endrin,
                Lindane, Carbaryl, Toxaphene, Perthane, Methoxychlor,
                Metasystox-R, Naled, Trichlorofon, Metasystox.

     Cyclamen Mite - Kelthane, Diazinon.

     Digger Wasps - Diazinon.

     Dipterous Leafminers - Trichlorofon, Metasystox-R.

     Earwigs - Diazinon, Chloropyrifos, Malathion, Carbaryl, Lindane,
               Naled,  Carbophenothion,  Toxaphene, Sodium  fluosilicate,
               Tetradifon, Metasystox,  Metasystox-R.

     Elm Leaf Beetle - Carbaryl,  OMPA,  Naled,  Toxaphene,  Methoxychlor,
                       Malathion,  Metasystox-R.

     European Chafer - Chloropyrifos,  Diazinon.

     European Pine Shoot Moth -  Mexacarbate, Lindane,  Carbaryl,  Phorate,
                                 Malathion.

     European Red Mite - Kelthane, Dioxathion, Demeton, Diazinon.

     Fall Armyworm - Carbaryl, Tetradifon,  Toxaphene.

     Fall Webworm - Bacillus Thuringiensis.
                                    11

-------
Ornamentals (continued)

     Fiery Skipper - Lindane, Ethlene dichloride, Toxaphene.

     Flea Beetles - Lindane, Methoxychlor, Carbaryl, Malathion,
                    Toxaphene, Diazinon, OMPA, Dichlone, Rotenone,
                    Trichlorofon.

     Fleas - Malathion, Carbophenothion, Ethion, Lindane, Carbaryl,
             Diazinon, Chloropyrifos, Toxaphene, Naled, Tetradifon,
             Disulfoton, EDC, Ronnel, DDVP.

     Flies - Methoxychlor, Malathion,, Diazinon.

     Gnats - Methoxychlor, Malathion.

     Grasshoppers - Methoxychlor, Malathion, Chloropyrifos, Toxaphene,
                    Lindane, Diazinon,  Carbophenothion, Ethion, Carbaryl.

     Holly Bud Moth - Diazinon.

     Holly Leafminer - Diazinon.

     Japanese Beetle - Carbaryl, Malathion, Methoxychlor, OMPA, Chloropy-
                       rifos, Resmethrin, Allethrin, Lindane, Metasystox-R,
                       Metasystox, Ovex, Diazinon, Rotenone.

     June Beetles - Carbaryl.

     Lace Bugs - Demeton, Phorate, Metasystox-R, Carbaryl, Malathion,
                 Diazinon, Resmethrin,  OMPA, Lindane, Methoxychlor,
                 Toxaphene, Disulfoton, Dimethoate, Acephate, Allethrin,
                 Ovex, Dichlone, Nicotine sulfate, Rotenone.

     Leaf Beetles - Carbaryl.

     Leafhoppers - Phorate, Dichlone, Ovex, Nicotine sulfate, Lindane,
                   Disulfoton, Methoxychlor, Chloropyrifos, Carbaryl,
                   Malathion, Trichlorofon, Metasystox-R, Toxaphene,
                   Mexacarbate, Naled,  Demeton, Diazinon, OMPA,
                   Resmethrin, Allethrin, Bacillus Thuringiensis,
                   Rotenone, Carbophenothion, Tetradifon, DDVP,
                   Metasystox, Dimethoate.

     Leafminers - Metasystox-R, Carbaryl, Metasystox, Mexacarbate,
                  Lindane, Methoxychlor, Naled, Dimethoate, Diazinon,
                  Acephate, Malathion.

     Leafrollers - Carbaryl, OMPA, Lindane, Ovex, Malathion, Naled.
                                   12

-------
Ornamentals (continued)

     Loopers - Mexacarbate,  Naled.

     Lygus Bugs - Trichlorofon,  Metasystox-R,  Malathion,  Methoxychlor,
                  Diazinon,  Acephate,  Allethrin,  Resmethrin,  Ovex,
                  Methoxychlor,  Perthane.

     Millipedes - Lindane, Mexacarbate, Carbaryl, Diazinon, Toxaphene,  EDC,
                  Malathion, Carbophenothion,  Tetradifon.

     Mites - Chloropyrifos,  DDVP, Rynadin, Karathane, Dinsulfoton,  Diazinon,
             Trichlorofon, Metasystox-R.

     Mole Crickets - Lindane, Diazinon, Carbophenothion,  Ethion,
                     Chloropyrifos, Toxaphene.

     Mosquitoes - Carbaryl, Lindane, Methoxychlor, Malathion, Diazinon,
                  Chloropyrifos, Tetradifon, Allethrin, DDVP.

     Oak Kermes - Lindane, Carbaryl, Phorate,  Malathion.

     Plant Bugs - Lindane, Disulfoton, Methoxychlor, Carbaryl, Malathion,
                  Toxaphene, OMPA, Resmethrin, Allethrin, Dichlone,
                  Metasystox-R.

     Privet Mite - Toxaphene, Kelthane.             .-'...

     Psyllids - Carbaryl, Lindane, Metasystox-R.

     Rhododendron Borer - Lindane.

     Rose Chafer - Carbaryl, Lindane, Methoxychlor, Malathion, Disulfoton,
                   Endosulfan, Perthane.

     Scales - Carbaryl, Dimethoate.

     Scorpions - Diazinon.

     Scurfy Scale - Lindane, Carbaryl,  Phorate, Malathion.

     Slugs - Mexacarbate, Metaldehyde,  Carbaryl, Mesurol.

     Snails - Mexacarbate, Metaldehyde, Carbaryl, Mesurol.

     Sod webworms - Diazinon, Carbaryl, Tetradifon,  Chloropyrifos.

     Sowbugs - Mexacarbate,  Carbaryl, Diazinon,  Chloropyrifos, Lindane, Naled..
               Malathion, Metasystox-R, Carbophenothion, Ethion, Toxaphene.
                                        13

-------
Ornamentals (continued)

     Spider Mites - Disulfoton, Malathion, Nicotine sulfate,  Phorate,
                    Kelthane,  Naled, Karathane, Demeton,  DDVP.

     Spiders - Malathion, Diazinon.

     Spittlebugs - Resmethrin, Endrin, Chloropyriphos,  Lindane,  Allethrin,
                   Toxaphene.

     Stink Bugs - Dylox, Lindane, Carbaryl.

     Tarnished Plant Bugs - Malathion, Chloropyrifos,  Carbaryl,  Methoxychlor
                            Dylox, Metasystox-R.

     Tent Caterpillars - Methoxychlor, Carbaryl, Malathion, Lindane,
                         Mexacarbate, Diazinon, Ovex,  Naled,  Toxaphene,
                         Metasystox-R.

    .Thrips - Dimethoate, Dichlone,  Endrin, Nicotine sulfate, Lindane,
              Disulfoton, Methoxychlor, Rotenone, Carbaryl, Malathion,
              Trichlorofon, Phorate, Metasystox-R, Toxaphene, Naled,
              Mexacarbate, Demeton,  Diazinon, Metasystox, OMPA,  Resmethrin,
              Allethrin, DDVP.

     Ticks - Diazinon, Carbaryl, Lindane, Methoxychlor, Naled,  Dioxathon,
             Malathion, Carbophenothion, Ethion, Metasystox-R,  Chloropyrifos,
             Toxaphene, DDVP.

     Webworms - Trichlorofon,  Metasystox-R, Metasystox, Carbaryl, Diazinon,
                Methoxychlor.

     Whiteflies - Mexacarbate, Methoxychlor, Malathion, Chloropyrifos,
                  Disulfoton,  Dylox, Metasystox-R, Allethrin, Lindane,
                  Perthane, Naled, Carbaryl, Demeton,  Diazinon,  Metasystox,
                  DDVP, Resmethrin.

     White Grubs - Diazinon, Lindane, Toxaphene, Methyl bromide, Chloropicrin,
                   Methoxychlor, Naled, EDC, Trichlorofon, Carbophenothion,
                   Ethion, Metasystox-R.

     Willow Leaf Beetles - Carbaryl, Malathion, Methoxychlor.

     Wireworms - Chloropicrin, Lindane, Methoxychlor,  Naled, Diazinon,
                 Metasystox-R, Methyl bromide, D-D Mixture.

Premises (Indoor)

     Ants - Lindane, Methoxychlor, Lethane, Malathion, Ronnel, DDVP,
            Pyrethrins, Baygon, Diazinon.

-------
Premises (Indoor) (continued)

     Bees - Pyrethrins.

     Brown Dog Tick - Naled, DDVP, Baygon, Carbaryl, Malathion,  Diazinon,
                      Chloropyrifos, DDVP.

     Cadelle - Methoxychlor, Ethylenedichloride, Pyrethrins, EDB, Methyl  br:ii <:<',

     Cockroaches - Diazinon, Ronnel, DDVP, Baygon, Lindane, Fenthion,
                   Malathion, Trichlorofon, Pyrethrins, Chloropyrifos.

     Crickets - Baygon, Ronnel, Pyrethrins.

     Fleas - Thanite, Diazinon, Chloropyrifos, Ronnel, Rotenone, DDVP,
             Compound 4072, Pyrethrins, Naled, Dioxathion, Carbaryl, Resmethi'lr.,
             Lindane, Lethane, Methoxychlor, Baygon, Malathion.

     Flies - Lindane, Malathion, Trichlorofon, Ronnel, DDVP, Pyrethrins,
             Lethane 384, Methoxychlor, Carbaryl, Diazinon, Fenthion,
             Resmethrin.

     Gnats - Pyrethrins, DDVP, Methoxychlor, Malathion, Resmethrin.

     Granary Weevil - Lindane, Methoxychlor, Malathion, Pyrethrins,
                      Ethylene dichloride, Methyl bromide.

     Hornets - Pyrethrins, DDVP, Resmethrin.

     Mosquitoes - Lindane, Malathion, Ronnel, DDVP, Pyrethrins,  Lethane 384,
                  Methoxychlor, Carbaryl, Fenthion, Diazinon, Resmethrin.

     Rice Weevil - Lindane, Methoxychlor, Malathion, Pyrethrins, EDB,
                   Ethylene dichloride, Methyl bromide, Trichlorethylene.

     Silverfish - Ronnel, DDVP, Pyrethrins, Baygon, Lindane, Methoxychlor,
                  Malathion, Diazinon.

     Spiders - Lethane  384, Methoxychlor, Malathion, Ronnel, DDVP, Baygon,
               Pyrethrins.

     Ticks - Naled, Dioxithon, Carbaryl,  Baygon, Malathion, Compound  4072,
             Lindane, Methoxychlor, Pyrethrins, DDVP.

     Wasps - Ronnel, Pyrethrins, DDVP, Fenthion, Resmethrin.

Premises  (Outdoor)

     Ants - Carbaryl, Malathion, Diazinon,  Ronnel,  Pyrethrins,  DDVP,
            Resmethrin, Lindane, Lethane  384, Methoxychlor, Toxaphene.
                                         15

-------
Premises (Outdoor) (continued)

     Brown Dog Tick - DDVP.

     Cockroaches - Malathion, Diazinon, Toxaphene,  DDVP,  Dylox,  Pyrethrins.

     Fleas - Lindane, Lethane 384, Methoxychlor,  Malathion, Ronnel,
             Pyrethrins, Toxaphene, DDVP.

     Flies - Lindane, Lethane 384, Methoxychlor,  Naled, Baygon,  Malathion,
             Ronnel, Pyrethrins, Toxaphene, DDVP, Resmethrin, Thanite,
             Trichlorofon.

     Gnats - Lindane, Malathion, Pyrethrins, Toxaphene, DDVP, Lethane 384,
             Naled, Thanite, Ciodrin.

     Grasshoppers - Carbaryl, Diazinon, Toxaphene.

     Mosquitoes - Lindane, Lethane 384, Methoxychlor, Malathion, Ronnel,
                  Pyrethrins, Toxaphene, DDVP, Resmethrin, Naled, Thanite,
                  Ciodrin.

     Powderpost Beetles - Pentachlorophenol.

     Silverfish - Ronnel, Pyrethrins, DDVP.

     Spiders - Lethane 384, Methoxychlor, Malathion, Ronnel, Pyrethrins, DDVP.

     Termites (Wood) - Chromic Acid, Copper Naphthanate,  Pentachlorophenol,
                       Zinc Naphthanate, Copper sulfate,  Pentahydrate,
                       Creosote.

     Wood Boring Insects - Copper Naphthanate, Creosote,  Pentachlorophenol.

Seed Treatment

     Wireworms - Lindane, Diazinon.

Small Fruits

     Ants - Carbaryl, Methyl bromide, Chloropicrin.

     Cabbage Looper - Mevinphos, Carbaryl, Malathion.

     Climbing Cutworms - Toxaphene.

     Crickets - Lindane, Methoxychlor, Carbaryl,  Malathion, Toxaphene.

     Cutworms - Carbaryl, Malathion, Lindane, Toxaphene.

     Darkling Beetles - Carbaryl.


                                        16

-------
Small Fruits (continued)

     Earwigs - Carbaryl,  Lindane.

     False Chinch Bug - Methyl parathion.

     Field Crickets - Methoxychlor, Carbaryl, Malathion, Endosulfan.

     Flea Beetles - Methoxychlor,  Carbaryl, Malathion, Diazinon.

     Fuller Rose Beetle - Guthion.

     Grasshoppers - Lindane, Mevinpho's, Naled, Endrin, Carbaryl,  Toxaphene.

     Japanese Beetle - Methoxychlor, Carbaryl, Malathion.

     Leaf Miners - Diazinon.

     Lygus Bugs - Endosulfan, Mevinphos, Methoxychlor, Carbaryl,  Malathion.

     Mole Crickets - Diazinon.

     Pill Bugs - Lindane, Methoxychlor, Naled, Carbaryl, Malathion, Diazinon,
                 Endosulfan.         

     Rose Chafer - Methoxychlor, Carbaryl.

     Slugs - Metaldehyde, Carbaryl.

     Snails - Metaldehyde.

     Stink Bugs - Mevinphos, Carbaryl, Guthion.

     Strawberry Crown  Borer - Toxaphene.

     Strawberry Root Weevil - Malathion, Methoxychlor,  Endosulfan.

     Strawberry Weevil - Lindane,  Perthane, Methoxychlor, Naled, Carbaryl,
                         Malathion,  Toxaphene.

     Thrips - Endosulfan, Naled, Methyl parathion, Carbaryl, Malathion, Guthion
              Mevinphos, Methoxychlor, Diazinon.

     White Grubs - Chloropicrin, Lindane,  Methyl bromide.

     Wireworms - D-D Mixture, Chloropicrin,  EDB, Methyl bromide.

 Small  Grains

     Armyworms - Endrin, Methyl parathion, Malathion,  Toxaphene.
                                         17

-------
     -iV i>
Small Grains (continued)

     Crickets - Trichlorofon.

     Grasshoppers - Methyl parathion, Carbaryl, Malathion, Toxaphene, Phorate.

     Wireworms - Lindane, D-D Mixture.

Vegetables

     Ants - Allethrin, Carbaryl, Malathion, Pyrethrum, Methyl bromide,
            Chloropicrin.

     Armyworm - Carbaryl, Malathion, Endosulfan, Toxaphene, Mevinphos,
                Methoxychlor, Methyl parathion, Naled, Diazinon, Ethion,
                Monuron, Lindane.

     Asparagus Beetle - Lindane, Methoxychlor, Carbaryl, Malathion, Ethion,
                        OMPA, Rotenone, Mevinphos, Methyl parathion, Diazinon,
                        Pyrethrum, Dylox, Endosulfan, Toxaphene.

     Bean Leaf Beetle - Methoxychlor, Carbaryl, Ethion, Rotenone, Endosulfan,
                        Toxaphene.

     Bean Leafroller - Toxaphene.

     Beet Armyworm - Malathion, Rotenone.

     Blister Beetles - Methoxychlor, Carbaryl, Rotenone, Methyl parathion,
                       Malathion, Naled, Endosulfan, Toxaphene, Diazinon,
                       Rotenone.

     Cabbage Looper - Bacillus Thruingiensis, Methyl parathion, Carbaryl,
                      Malathion, Rotenone, Mevinphos, Endrin, Methoxychlor,
                      Naled, Methylene chloride, Carbophenothion, Endosulfan,
                      Toxaphene, Methomyl, Monitor.

     Cabbage Maggot - Lindane, Guthion.

     Carrot Rust Fly - Rotenone.

     Centipedes - Diazinon.

     Climbing Cutworms - EPN, Toxaphene, Mevinphos, Endrin, Naled,
                         Methyl parathion, Carbaryl, Endosulfan, Malathion,
                         Pyrethrum, Lindane, Dylox, Methoxychlor.

     Colorado Potato Beetle - Perthane, Phorate, Imidan, Methoxychlor, Carbaryl,
                              Malathion, Rotenone, Naled, Carbofuran, Mevinphos,
                              Ethion, OMPA, Guthion, Monitor, Pyrethrum,
                              Toxaphene, Endosulfan, Methyl parathion,
                              Diazinon, Phosphamidon, Disulfoton.

                                        18

-------
Vegetables (continued)

     Corn Earworm - Mevinphoe, Naled, Carbaryl, Malathion, Carbophenothi.cn.

     Crickets - Carbaryl, Toxaphene, Malathion, Trichlorofon, Lindane,  Naled,
                Endosulfan.

     Cross-striped Cabbageworm - Mevinphos, Methyl parathion, Malathion,
                                 Endosulfan, Pyrethrum.

     Cucumber Beetles - Methoxychlor, Methyl parathion, Carbaryl, Malathior,
                        Diazinon, Ethion, OMPA, Rotenone, Endosulfan, Toxaphen*
                        Pyrethrum, Lindane, Phosphamidon, Naled, DDVP,  Monurci.
                        Mevinphos.

     Cutworms - Carbaryl, Malathion, Diazinon, Toxaphene, Lindane, Mevinphos,
                Endosulfan, Dylox, Naled, Methyl parathion, Gardona.

     Darkling Beetle - Carbaryl.

     Earwigs -.Carbaryl, Malathion, Lindane.

     Fall Armyworm - Methoxychlor, Carbaryl, Malathion, Naled, Methyl parathicr
                     Diazinon, Endosulfan.

     Flea Beetles - Carbophenothion, DDVP, Mevinphos, Methoxychlor, Methyl
                    parathion, Carbaryl, Malathion, Guthion, Ethion, OMPA,
                    Rotenone, Toxaphene, Endosulfan, Diazinon, Naled, Lindane,
                    Disulfoton,  Phorate, Pyrethrum, Phosphamidon, Metasystox-R,
                    Monitor,  EPN.

     Garden Webworm - Malathion.

     Grasshoppers - Lindane,  Carbaryl, Mevinphos, Dimethoate, Endrin,
                    Malathion, Diazinon, Toxaphene, Naled,  Endosulfan,
                    Perthane, Guthion.

     Green Stink Bug - Sabadilla, Malathion, Endosulfan,  Mevinphos,  Naled,
                       Carbaryl,  Pyrethrum, Ethion, Diazinon, Guthion.

     Harlequin Bug - DDVP,  Endosulfan, Toxaphene, Diazinon, Pyrethrum,
                      Sabadilla,  Carbaryl,  OMPA, Malathion,  Mevinphos,  Naled,
                     Monuron, Methyl parathion, Rotenone.

     Hornworms - Mevinphos, Phosphamidon,  Methoxychlor,  Naled,  Methyl  paratbi"
                 Carbaryl,  Malathion, Guthion,  Endosulfan,  Toxaphene,  Gardow .

     Imported Cabbage Worm -  Malathion,  Carbophenothion,  Pyrethrum,  Rotenone,
                              Carbaryl, OMPA, Endosulfan,  Bacillus Thuringier:'.
                              Phosphamidon,  Toxaphene,  Methoxychlor,  Naled,
                              Methomyl, Methyl  parathion,  Ronnel, Diazinon,
                              Dylox,  Monitor, Guthion.

                                         19

-------
Vegetables (continued)

     Japanese Beetle - Methoxychlor, Carbaryl, Malathion, OMPA, Rotenone,
                       Endosulfan, Toxaphene.

     June Beetle - Carbaryl.

     Leafhoppers - Mevinphos, Disulfoton, DDVP, Methoxychlor, Naled,  Dimethoate,
                   Endrin, EDC, Methyl parathion, Carbaryl, Phorate,  Malathion,
                   Diazinon, Guthion, Carbophenothion, Ethion, OMPA,  Pyrethrujn,
                   Rotenone, Ryanodine, Endosulfan, Toxaphene, Phosphamidon,
                   Sabadilla, Nicotine sulfate, Bacillus Thruingiensis,  Demeton,
                   Metasystox-R, Perthane.

     Leafminers - Naled, Dimethoate, Methyl parathion, Malathion, Diazinon,
                  Guthion, Ethion, Endosulfan, Lindane, Phosphamidon, Ethylene
                  Dichloride, Guthion, Disulfoton, Carbaryl, Phorate, Toxaphene,.

     Leafrollers - Malathion, Naled, Methyl parathion.

     Lygus Bugs - Sabadilla, Mevinphos, Naled, Dimethoate, Methyl parathion,
                  Carbaryl, Phorate, Malathion Carbophenothion, Ethion,
                  Rotenone, Ryanodine, Toxaphene, Endosulfan, Methoxychlor,
                  Trichlorofon, Ronnel, Lindane.

     Melonworm - Lindane, Methyl parathion, Carbaryl, Malathion, Ethion, OMPA,
                 Pyrethrum, Rotenone, Endosulfan, DDVP.

     Mexican Bean Beetle - Sabadilla, Mevinphos, Methoxychlor, Naled, Monuron,
                           Endrin, EPN, Methyl parathion, Carbaryl, Phorate,
                           Malathion, Diazinon, Guthion, Ethion, OMPA, Rotenone,
                           Endosulfan, Toxaphene.

     Mole Crickets - Diazinon, Dylox.

     Onion Maggot - Diazinon, Lindane, Dasanit, Malathion, Carbophenothion,
                    Rotenone.

     Onion Thrips - Naled, Methyl parathion, Carbaryl, Phorate, Malathion,
                    Diazinon.

     Pea Weevil - Methoxychlor, Malathion, Rotenone, Toxaphene, Methyl para-
                  thion, Carbaryl, Pyrethrum,  Endosulfan.

     Pepper Weevil - Methoxychlor, Toxaphene.

     Plant Bugs - Mevinphos, Carbaryl, Methyl parathion, Endosulfan,  Lindane,
                  Toxaphene, Malathion.
                                        20

-------
Vegetables (continued)

     Potato Flea Beetle - Methoxychlor, Methyl parathion, Carbaryl, Ma lath ::.,'>,
                          Diazinon, Imidan, Endosulfan, Carbofuran, Monitor-

     Potato Leafhopper - Methoxychlor, Methyl parathion, Carbaryl, Malathi or.
                         Diazinon, Imidan, Endosulfan, Carbofuran, Monitor

     Potato Psyllid - Disulfoton, Methoxychlor, Methyl parathion, Phorate:..
                      Malathion, Endosulfan, Carbophenothion.

     Root Aphids - Disulfoton, Phorate.

     Root Maggots -- Diazinon.                      i

     Rose Chafer - Methoxychlor, Carbaryl, Malathion, Rotenone, Pyrethrum.

     Serpentine Leafmiher - EPN, Carbaryl, Toxaphene, Carbophenothion, Diar.lv
                            Ethion, Dylox, Endosulfan, Methyl parathion.

     Slugs - Carbaryl, Metaldehyde.

     Snails - Carbaryl, Metaldehyde.

     Sowbugs - Carbaryl.

     Spotted Cucumber Beetle - Lindane, Methoxychlor, Carbaryl, Malathion,
                               Guthion, Pyrethrum, Rotenone.

     Squash Bug - Sabadilla, Lindane, Methoxychlor, Methyl parathion, Carbaryl,
                  Malathion, Ethion,  OMPA, Pyrethrum, Endosulfan,  Rotenone,
                  Dylox.

     Squash Vine Borer - Methoxychlor, Malathion,  Diazinon,  Ethion,  Pyrethrum,
                         Rotenone, Endosulfan, Carbaryl, Lindane.

     Stink Bug - Mevinphos, Naled, Monuron, Methyl parathion, Carbaryl,
                 Malathion, Guthion,  OMPA, Rotenone,  Endosulfan,  Bacillus
                 Thuringiensis,  Ryanodine, Methoxychlor, Lindane,  Phosphamidon.

     Striped Cucumber Beetle - Rotenone,  Pyrethrum,  Sabadilla, Lindane,
                               Methoxychlor,  Carbaryl,  Malathion,  Guthion.

     Thrips - Lindane, Mevinphos,  Disulfoton,  Methoxychlor,  Naled,  Dimethoate.
              EPN, Methyl parathion,  Carbaryl, Phorate,  Malathion,  Diazinon,
              Carbophenothion, Ethion, Rotenone, Ryanodine,  Endosulfan,  Toxa-
              phene,  Pyrethrum,  Trichlorofon,  Ronnel,  DDVP,  Nicotine sulfate,
              Guthion.
                                         21

-------
Vegetables (continued)

     Tomato Hornworm - Carbaryl, Rotenone, Methoxychlor, Naled, Malathion,
                       Ethion, Endosulfan, Bacillus Thuringiensis, Toxaphene,
                       EPN, Methyl parathion.

     White Grubs - Lindane, Chloropicrin, Methyl bromide.

     Wireworms - EDB, D-D Mixture, Diazinon, Lindane, Chloropicrin, Phorate,
                 Dyfonate, Methyl bromide.
                                        22

-------
T. B.   Summary of_ Registered Heptachlor  Uses  and  Alternnilves

Field Crops

Corn

     Ants - Carbaryl.

     Billbug - Toxaphene.         .

     Cutworms - Carbaryl,  Dylox,  Diazinon, Methyl parathion,  Trichlorofon,
                Toxaphene.

     Rootworms - Bux,  Dasanit, Furadan, Diazinon, Dyfonate, Mocap,  Methyl
                 parathion, Phorate, Malathion,  Disulfoton.

     Wireworms - Dyfonate, Dasanit, Diazinon, Furadan,  Mocap, Lindane,
                 D-D Mixture, EDB.

Cotton

     Boll weevil - Naled,  Bidrin, Endrin, EPN, Methyl parathion,  Carbaryl,
                   Malathion, Endosulfan, Toxaphene, Guthion.

     Cotton Fleahopper - Naled, Bidrin, Endrin,  EPN, Methyl parathion,
                         Carbaryl,  Malathion, Trichlorofon, Guthion,
                         Carbophenothion, Endosulfan, Toxaphene.

     Cutworms - Endrin, Guthion,  Malathion,  Methyl parathion, Carbaryl,
                Trichlorofon, Toxaphene.

     Fleahopper - Phosphamidon, Perthane, Dimethoate, Naled,  Bidrin, Endrin,
                  EPN, Methyl parathion, Carbaryl, Malathion, Trichlorofon,
                  Guthion, Carbophenothion,  Endosulfan, Toxaphene.

     Tarnished Plant Bug - Endrin,  EPN, Methyl parathion, Carbaryl, Guthion,
                           Toxaphene.

     Thrips - Azodrin, Phosphamidon, Endosulfan, Disulfoton,  Naled, Toxaphene,
              Dimethoate,  Bidrin, Monitor, Endrin, EPN, Methyl parathion,
              Carbaryl, Phorate, Demeton, Malathion, Guthion.

 Soybeans

     Wireworms - Lindane,  D-D Mixture, Diazinon.

 Tobacco

     Cutworms - Lindane, Malathion, Endosulfan,  Carbaryl, Methyl parathion,
                Diazinon,  Trichlorofon, Toxaphene.
                                        23

-------
Field Crops (continued)

Tobacco (continued)

     White Grubs - Methyl bromide, Chloropicrin.

     Wireworms - Lindane, Dyfonate, EDB, Methyl bromide,  Diazinon,  Chloropicrin,
                 D-D Mixture, Mocap.

Ornamentals

     Ants - Carbaryl, Metasystox, Lindane,  Diazinon,  Malathion,  Resmethrin,
            Metoxychlor, Chloropyrifos,  Naled, Di-Syston, Metasystox-R,
            Toxaphene, Allethrin, Fenthion, Tetradifon,  Carbophenothion,
            Disulfoton, Ovex.

     Aphids - Methoxychlor, Carbaryl, Malathion,  Resmethrin,  DDVP,  Allethrin,
              Lindane, Diazinon, Trichlorofon, Metasystox-R,  Toxaphene,
              Mexacarbate, Disulfoton, Phorate, Ovex, Metasystox, Rotenone,
              Endosulfan, Acephate, Perthane, Methyl  parathion,  Nicotine,
              Dichlone, Naled, Dimethoate,  Demeton, OMPA.

     Armyworms - Malathion, Toxaphene, Mexacarbate, Methoxychlor, Carbaryl,
                 Chloropyrifos, Metasystox-R.

     Asiatic Garden Beetle

     Black Vine Weevil

     Crickets - Trichlorofon, Chloropyrifos, Diazinon, Carbaryl, Malathion.

     Cutworms - Lindane, Mexacarbate, Carbaryl, Diazinon, Chlorpyrifos,
                Toxaphene, Methoxychlor, Naled, Trichlorofon, Malathion,  Endrin,
                Perthane, Metasystox-R.

     Earwigs - Carbaryl, Diazinon, Lindane, Naled, Malathion, Toxaphene,
               Chloropyrifos, Carbophenothion, Sodium Fluosilicate, Tetradifon,
               Metasystox, Metasystox-R.

     Fleas - Chloropyrifos, Lindane, Ronnel, Naled, Toxaphene, DDVP, Diazinon,
             Carbaryl, Malathion, Carbophenothion, Ethion, Tetradifon,
             Disulfoton, EDC.

     Grasshoppers - Chlorpyrifos, Carbaryl, Methoxychlor, Malathion, Toxaphene,
                    Lindane, Diazinon, Carbophenothion,  Ethion.

     Japanese Beetle - Methoxychlor, Carbaryl, Malathion, Chlorpyrifos,
                       Resmethrin, Allethrin, Lindane, Toxaphene, OMPA,
                       Metasystox-R, Metasystox,  Ovex, Diazinon, Rotenone.
                                        24

-------
Field Crops (Continued)

Ornamentals

     June Beetles - Carbaryl.

     Mole Crickets - Lindane,  Dlazinon,  Chlorpyrifos,  Toxaphene,  Carbophen  .'. >-
                     Ethion.

     Slugs - Mexacarbate, Metaldehyde,  Carbaryl,  Mesurol.

     Snails - Mexacarbate, Carbaryl,'Metaldehyde, Mesurol.

     Sod webworms - Carbaryl,  Diazinon,  Cblorpyrifos,  Tetradifon.

     Sowbugs - Mexacarbate, Carbaryl, Diazinon, Chlorpyrifos, Malathion,
               Lindane, Naled, Metasystox-R, Carbophenothion, Ethion, Toxapher:

     Spider mites - Kelthane,  Malathion, Nicotine sulphate, Disulfoton, Phorar.e
                    Naled, Karathane, Demeton, DDVP.

     Ticks - Lindane, Methoxychlor, Naled, Dioxathion, Carbaryl,  Malathion,
             Diazinon, Chlorpyrifos, Toxaphene, DDVP,  Carbophenothion, Ethion,
             Metasystox-R.

     White grubs - Lindane, Diazinon, Toxaphene,  Chloropicrin, Methoxychlor,
                   Naled, Methyl bromide, EDC, Trichlorofon, Carbophenothion,
                   Ethion, Metasystox-R.

     Wireworms - Lindane, Chloropicrin, Methoxychlor,  Naled, Diazinon, Methyl
                 bromide, D-D Mixture, Metasystox-R.

     Mosquitoes - Pyrethrins, Carbaryl, Diazinon, Lindane,  Methoxychlor,
                  Malathion, Chlorpyrifos, Tetradifon, Allethrin, DDVP.

     Narcissus Bulb Fly - Ronnel, Trichlorofon.

Premises  (Domestic Dwellings - Indoors)

     Ants - Pyrethrins, Lindane, Methoxychlor, Lethane, Malathion, Ronnel,
            DDVP, Baygon, Diazinon.

     Cockroaches - Pyrethrins, Diazinon, Ronnel, DDVP, Baygon, Lindane,
                   Fenthion, Malathion, Trichlorofon, Chlorpyrifos.

     Flies - DDVP, Lindane, Malathion, Trichlorofon, Ronnel, Pyrethrins,
             Lethane  384, Methoxychlor, Carbaryl, Diazinon, Fenthion,
             Resmethrin.

     Silverfish - Pyrethrins, Ronnel, DDVP, Baygon, Lindane, Methoxychlor
                  Malathion, Diazinon.
                                        25

-------
Field Crops (continued)

Premises (Domestic Dwellings - Indoors) (continued)

     Silverfish - Pyrethrins, Ronnel, DDVP, Baygon, Lindane, Methoxychlor
                  Malathion, Diazinon.

Seed Treatment

     Wireworms - Lindane, Diazinon.

Small Fruits

     Strawberry Root Weevil - Malathion, Methoxychlor, Endosulfan.

Small Grains

     Cutworms - Endrin, Methyl parathion, Toxaphene.

Vegetables

     Cabbage Maggot - Lindane, Guthion.      *"'"

     Cutworms - Lindane, Carbaryl, Mevinphos, Methyl parathion, Diazinon,
                Toxaphene, Gardona, Malathion, Endosulfan, Dylox, Naled.

     Root Maggots - Diazinon.

     White Grubs - Lindane, Chloropicrin, Methyl bromide.

     Wireworms - Lindane, D-D Mixture, EDB, Diazinon, Chloropicrin,
                 Phorate, Dyfonate, Methyl bromide.
                                        26

-------
I.C.  Discussion f Chlordane and Heptachlor Usage Patterns and Alternative
Chemicals - in 1972, the EPA Special Pesticide Review Group studied the cox>
cological hazard to man and the environment associated with the use of
dane as a pesticide in the United States.  In making this study, the Group
consulted pesticide experts in EPA and other Federal agencies and evaluated
the information received in response to the Federal Register notice on chirr
dane and heptachlor (36 FR 6606).  In this study, the Group used a questiorr.--
prepared by the Office of Pesticide Programs of EPA and sent by the U.S.
Department of Agriculture to state extension directors and directors of sv..  '
agricultural experiment stations, to enable both agencies to better assess :
impact of cancellation of chlordane and heptachlor on American agriculture 

The questionnaire related to projected state recommendations for these
insecticides in 1975.  Although these are recommendations only and may not be
followed by all users, their advocacy does represent the thinking of state
entomologists as to the most efficacious treatments.  We must presume that \:hf
majority of users ahere to these recommendations.  Some measure of usage pat-
terns of chlordane and heptachlor may thus be derived from state recommendat .j 

Table 1 was derived from this USDA/EPA questionnaire and lists  those states
responding to our inquiry, the state estimates of total pounds  actual of chl.vr
dane and heptachlor used in 1974, and whether they will or will not recommeiu,
these insecticides in 1975 for other than structural use against termites or
the dipping of nursery stock.

I.C.I.  Discussion of Chlordane and Heptachlor Uses Being Recommended - Table ..
presents a brief summary of the recommendation plans of the various states  for
chlordane and heptachlor.  This section  is intended to highlight comments which
are very significant to a review of the  two pesticides.

I.C.I. a.  Soil Applications - This is by far the most extensive agricultural
use of chlordane and heptachlor.  The comments indicated that  the  principal
soil application recommendations for 1975 will be corn, strawberries, and
potatoes.  Many states advocate soil treatment of ornamentals  including
flowers and trees.

I.C.l.b.  Foliar Applications - The only foliar  applications of chlordane which
will be recommended in 1975 are insect pests on  strawberries in Missouri  and
cotton pests in Arkansas.  It is possible that other foliar  recommendations
were not clearly identified as such.  Missouri has  indicated that  failure to
have chlordane for both soil and foliar  application on strawberries would havt
a  serious effect on production.  Several states  are recommending  foliar appH.
cations for pests such as boxelder bug,  rhododendron borer, willow tree bore:r
adult blackvine weevils and magnolia leaf miner.
                                         27

-------
I.C.I.e.  Seed Treatments - Most of the recommendations were for corn, other
grains, sorghum, and soybeans.  The principal insects for which chlordane and
heptachlor seed treatments would be recommended include seed corn beetles, seed
corn maggots, wireworms and false wireworms.  Sorghum seed is also treated to
control the kaffir ant.

I.C.l.d.  Lawns and Turf - None of the responding states have indicated that
they will recommend chlordane as a preemergence herbicide for control of crab-
grass on lawns in 1975.

Many states indicated the need for chlordane to control common turf pests,
especially white grubs.  Such treatments are recommended for home lawns, golf
courses, cemeteries, ornamental ground cover, and for use by commercial sod
producers.

I.C.I.e.  Aquatic Uses - Recommendation of chlordane for mosquito control is
limited.

I.C.l.f.  Indoor and Outdoor Uses for the Home and Commercial Establishments -
The indicated recommendations for this area of chlordane use were many and
varied.

I.C.l.g.  Structural and Wood Products, Including Termite Control - The pest
control industry has estimated that 7,000 firms are engaged in termite control
in the United States.  A further estimate indicates that 30% of structural
pest control revenue is derived from termite control which employs 9,000 direct
workers and 4,800 support people who produce $180,000,000 in annual revenue.

Chlordane and/or heptachlor will be recommended in 1975 by most states for
termite control.  Chlordane was suggested by some states for control of other
woodboring insects.  Alternative insecticides suggested for control of certain
woodboring insects included diazinon, baygon and pentachlorophenol.  Several
of the states indicated that pentachlorphenol is considered too hazardous and
odoriferous for use.
                                        28

-------
             TABLE 1.   Chlordane/Heptachlor Usage by State.
  State or
Planned recommendations
in 1975 for uses
other than termites    Total poundage used in 1974 (if a
and dipping of nur-    ence exists in amounts used in 1973 and
Territory  l.>   sery stock
                       1974 the trend is indicated 2)  3)
Chlordane Heptachlor Chlordane
Alabama X
Alaska X
Arizona X
Arkansas X
California X
Colorado
Connecticut X
Delaware X
Florida X
Georgia X
Guam X
Hawaii
X 1,000,000 Ib
X 50- Ib
X 150,000 Ib
(down from 1973)
X no estimate
no estimate
40 Ib
(down from 1973)
no estimate
no estimate
X 1,124,193 Ib
(1973 estimate - Ib
sold)
no estimate
no estimate
126,000 Ib
(1973)
Heptachlor
250,000 Ib

4,000 Ib
no estimate
no estimate
120 Ib
(down from 1973)
no estimate
no estimate
260,367 Ib
(1973 estimate - Ib
sold)
no estimate
no estimate
no estimate
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
                          313,000  Ib
                         (up  from  1973)

                          715,708  Ib
                         (down from  1973)

                          300,000  Ib
                       (plus  termite  and
                       small  package  use)
                                                                no estimate
  270,645 Ib
(down from 1973)

  300,000 Ib
(plus termite and
small package use.;
                                         29

-------
                           TABLE 1.   (continued)
  State or
Planned recommendations
in 1975 for uses
other than termites    Total poundage used in 1974  (if a differ-
and dipping of nur-    ence exists in amounts used  in 1973 and
Territory  1)   sery stock
                       1974 the trend is indicated  2)  3)  4).
               Chlordane  Heptachlor
                            Chlordane
                          Heptachlor
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
X
X
X
X
X
X -75,000 Ib
(up from 1973)
no estimate
1,000 Ib
(down from 1973)
no estimate
slightly more than
500
no
no
no
low -
,000 Ib
estimate
estimate
estimate
no specific
Maryland
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
     X
     X
                           2,700 Ib
                         (up from 1973)

                         770,000 Ib
                       (70% for termites)
                        (down from 1973)

                          no estimate
   160,000 Ib
    (1973 use)
(does not include use
by PCOs for homeowners,
    or use on turf)

   448,520 Ib
  (up from 1973)
                                                                 estimate
                          61,000 Ib
                        (down from 1973)
    231.3 Ib
   (1973 use)

 20,000 Ib
258,960 Ib
(up from 1973)
Missouri
Nebraska
Nevada
X
X
X
X
X
X
no estimate
100,000 Ib
8,758 gal.
(1973 use)
no estimate
25,000 Ib
1,601 gal.
(1973 use)
New Hampshire
                           no  estimate
                                                                 none used
                                         30

-------
                           TABLE 1.  (continued)
  State or
Territory p
Planned recommendations
in 1975 for uses
other than termites
and dipping of nur-
sery stock
Total poundage used in 1974 (if a difft:
ence exists in amounts used in 1973 a;..i
1974 the trend is indicated 2) 3) 4),

New Mexico
New York
N. Carolina
N. Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Puerto Rico
S. Carolina
S. Dakota
Tennessee
Utah
Vermont
Chlordane
X
X
(ant only)
X
X
X
X
' X

X
X
X
X
X
X
Heptachlor Chlordane
X 5,000 Ib
no estimate
restricted use
1,750,000 Ib
(up from 1973)
(1,000,000 Ibs of this
total used on termites)
X 79,600 Ib
(up from 1973)
no estimate
X no estimate
no estimate
no estimate
X no estimate
no estimate
X no estimate
X no estimate
5,000 Ib
used by per- 1,600 Ib
Heptachlor
. 500 Ib
no estimate -
used by N.Y. State-
Dept. Agr. to con
trol alfalfa snou'.
beetle
75,000 Ib
(down from 197 "
1,900 Ib
(down from 1973}
no estimate
no estimate
no estimate
no estimate
no estimate
no estimate
no estimate
no estimate
1,000 Ib
0
                           mit  only -    (licensed applicators only
                           no permits    - does not include fonnu-
                           issued in     lations under 10% sold by
                           1973 or 1974.  outlets with no records of
                                         sale)  (up from 1973)
                                         31

-------
                           TABLE 1.  (continued)
  State or
Territory 1)
Planned recommendations
in 1975 for uses
other than termites    Total poundage used in 1974 (if a differ-
and dipping of nur-    ence exists in amounts used in 1973 and
sery stock	1974 the trend is indicated 2) 3) A).
               Chlordane  Heptachlor
                            Chlordane
                         Heptachlor
Virginia


Washington
W. Virginia

Wisconsin

Wyoming
     X

     X

     X
    no estimate


    340,700 Ib
(Ib   sold " up more
 than tenfold from
       1973)

    no estimate

    no estimate

    no estimate
                                                     48 Ib
                                                   (1973 use)

                                                no estimate
no estimate

no estimate

no estimate
(1  As of the date of issuance of this report, replies had not been received
from:  California, Kansas, Massachusetts, Montana, Rhode Island, Texas.

The state of California, however, has entered as an intervenor in the public
hearing to be held on continued registration of heptachlor and chlordane pro-
ducts.  In connection with the filing of objections to the cancellation, the
California State Department of Agriculture listed a number of sites and pests
foe which they requested the retention of chlordane.  It has therefore been
presumed that these compounds will be recommended in 1975,  and this has been
noted In Table 1.  The state of Kansas submitted a list of probable 1975
recommendations In response to a telephone inquiry from this office, and this
Information has also been included.

2)  Many of those responding Indicated that data were lacking to support
substantive estimates of actual poundages used in their states.  Several state
representatives stated that estimates were imprecise.  States requiring permits
for chlordane and heptachlor use would likely have accurate records of
amounts sold.

3)  Usage of these chemicals may increase in the wake of the manufacturing
suspension of aldrin and dieldrin.

4)  There is the possibility that several states showing high poundages used
or sold in their state have listed pounds of formulated insecticide rather
than pounds of actual insecticide.
                                      32

-------
                                   Chapter II

                       Toxicity, Fate and Implications of
                   Chlordane and Heptachlor in the Environment

II.A.  The Fate of Chlordane in Soil - Stewart and Chisholm (1971) found
alpha and gamma chlordane to be the major components of the pesticide residue
in Nova Scotia sandy loam soil.  Heptachlor was reported to be a minor com-
ponent of this residue.  The last application was made 15 yr previously ,"
a rate of 5 ppm for 15.2 cm depth per hectare per year (equivalent to abciK
12.5 Ib active ingredient/acre) for 3 yr.  The amount of residue remaining
was estimated to be 16% based on a standard said to be similar in composition
to the pesticide originally applied.

The residue from high-purity chlordane (Velsicol HCS-3260) was studied by
Wilson and Oloffs (1973) for 16 months following applications to British
Columbia soils at rates of 5.6 and 11.2 kg active ingredient per hectare
(equivalent to 5 and 10 Ib  active ingredient/acre).  Metabolites and minor
components of HCS-3260 occurred at very low concentrations in both moist and
dry soil conditions.  In addition to alpha- and gamma-chlordane, these were;
heptachlor, gamma-chlordane, Compound K, photo-alpha-chlordane, heptachlor
epoxide and oxychlordane, amounting to 2.7 - 2.9% of the sum of alpha- plus
gamma-chlordane initially, under dry soil conditions, which over a period of
3 months, increased to 6.6%.  This increase resulted from the formation of
photo-alpha-chlordane which alone accounted for 60% of the total metabolites
and minor components after that interval.  The total number of metabolites
and minor components decreased during this same interval under moist soil
conditions.  Oxychlordane was not detected under dry soil conditions, although
the aerial tissue of alfalfa grown in that soil contained oxychlordane (and
photo-alpha-chlordane).                                 .

II.A.1'.  Build-up and Persistence of Chlordane in Soil - Additional investi-
gations on the duration and extent of soil contamination under either experi-
mental or field conditions have been made.

Indicative of the residues in soil are the data tabulated below.  Table 1 is
from Edwards  (1973) with more recent data given as Table 1 (Addenda).

Chlordane is  still commonly found in soil.  Its persistence and relative
persistence remain essentially as indicated previously in this section of
the  report.   The view that chlordane is relatively immobile in soil is con-
firmed.  (Stewart and Chisholm, 1971; Wilson and Oloffs, 1973).

The specialized use of chlordane for termite control includes high rates of
application and often some degree of protection from the weather.  Thus, it
is not surprising to find a report of persistence, such as that of Bennett
et al. (1974), in which 15% of the original post-construction application
remained 21 yr after treatment  (with 4 gal/5 linear ft of a 2% chlordane
emulsion).  Under the ambient conditions of use in this study, the horizontal
and vertical  movements were so restrictive that the authors considered
environmental contamination not to be a problem.
                                         33

-------
J
Location
US
US

no. or bites
or Samples
30
227

Cropping
Orchard fruits
City garden
products,
Residue
Mav
A AOA .
37.60

and turf 120.0
US
US
Canada
Canada
US
US
US
US
US
+ Residues
41
27
11
3
12
5
92
1729
71
Vegetables
Soybeans
Vegetables
Vegetables
Corn
Forage
Sweet potatoes
Mixed
Onions
3.91
1.11
0.86
0.11
0.02
0.05
5.07
6.30
23.84
(ppm)
\f
Mean
0.10+
0.81

1.51
0.12
0.24
0.12
0.04
0.02
0.03
0.28
0.04
1.63
found at only one site
                                                                Reference

                                                              Stevens et al.(1970)

                                                              Fahey et al.(1965)



                                                              Saha and Sumner(1971)

                                                              USDA (1968)

                                                              Duffy and Wong(1967)

                                                              Harris and Sans(1969)

                                                              Gish  (1970)

                                                             Mullins  et al.  (1971)

                                                             Sand et  al. (1972)

                                                             Wiersma  et al.(1972b)

                                                             Wiersma  et al.(1972a)
Reprinted from Persistent pesticides in the environment, 2nd ed., by C. A.
Edwards by permission of CRC Press, Cleveland, Ohio (1973).
                                       34

-------
                              Addendum to Table 1
          No. Times Detected/
Location

US

US

Canada
Total Samples
36/399
6/20
18/48
Cropping
Corn
Pasture
Mixed
Max.
4.30
0.076*
0.63**
                               Residue (ppm)
                                         Mean
                               Reference
US

US



US
 13/242

142/399



162/1506
Mixed

Garden
crops and
lawns

Mixed
 0.02
20.48
13.34
   0.05   Carey  et  al.(19 7

   ND*    McLane et _al

   0.16** Harris and  Sai'
              (1971)

   0.01   Wiersma et  al.(:

ca 0.7    Wiersma et  al.
              (1972c)


   0.08   Crockett  et al.
              (1974)
 *  Alpha-chlordane
**  Gamma-chlordane
ND  None detectable
II.A.2.  Translocation into Plants - Data presented  previously  indicate  that
when chlordane is applied  to soil it will translocate  to  certain crops,  pri-
marily the root crops.  Further, it has been  indicated that  the relationship
of the residue in soil to  that  in the  crop  is neither  consistent nor predict-
able.

Gutenmann et al. (1972) showed  that low levels  of  chlordane  are not translo-
cated into field corn from silt loam soils  in central  New York  State.

II.B.  Chlordane in  the Atmosphere - It has been suggested that a  major
transport route of organochlorine insecticides  to  the  oceans involves  the
atmosphere.  Abbott  et al.  (1965) suggested that these pesticides  reside in
the atmosphere as vapors or are occluded on dust particles,  and, according
to Bevenue et al. (1972),  "scrubbed out" by rain and snow.   There  is  support
for these views in reports of  the presence  of these  substances  in  air, rain--
water and dust, although there  are few such reports  for chlordane. Data on
these reports have been tabulated by Edwards  (1973)  in part  of  his Table 6,
reproduced here as Table 2.
                                         35

-------
                      TABLE 2.  Chlordane in the Atmosphere
Location

US

US

Hawaii

US
No. of
 Sites

  6

  1

 11

  1
Medium

Air

Air

Rainwater

Dust deposited   NA
by a trace of
precipitation
                                      Residue (ppt)
Max.
0.006
0.03
3.0
NA'
Mean
0.002
0.016
1.0
500,000
Reference

Tabor (1966)

Tabor (1966)

Revenue et al. (1972)

Weibel et al. (1966)
Reprinted from Persistent pesticides in the environment, 2nd ed.,
by C.A. Edwards by permission of CRC Press, Cleveland, Ohio (1973).

Data not previously discussed in the report include a study by Bevenue et al.
(1972) on organochlorine pesticides found in rainwater falling on Oahu in
1971-1972.  The levels for chlordane ranged from N.D. (none detectable) to
3 ppt.

Bidleman and Olney (1974) reported on the presence of chlordane in marine
air from Bermuda, at sea en route from Bermuda to Narragansett, R.I.,
and in continental air from Providence, R.I.  The levels were:  <0.005-0.012
ng/m3  (Bermuda), 0.039-0.17 ng/m3 (at sea), and 0.25 ng/m3 (Providence).

In this study a glass fiber filter was found to trap 98% of the particles
of chlordane with radii greater than 0.15 ym.  However, most of the  chlordane
was found trapped in a polyurethane foam filter, which traps smaller particles
of vapor.  Thus, it is suggested that chlordane and chlorinated insecticides
reside in the atmosphere as vapors or that they volatilize from particulate
matter.

II.C.  Chlordane in Surface Water - The behavior and distribution  of persistent
chlorinated insecticides in the marine environment is such that these  sub-
stanceg accumulate in the oceans after having been transported there from the
points of application.  With modifications this applies to chlordane.

The routes of entry to oceans are considered to be:   (1) volatilization  of
these substances into the atmosphere and "scrubbing out" by rain and snow
into the oceans; and, (2) by surface runoff, sewage outfalls and rivers  to
the oceans.
                                        36

-------
Oloffs et al.  (1972) performed a series of experiments with natural i'.rJv 
Columbia waters treated with 0.025 ppm alpha- or gamma-chlordane.  The watei
were incubated for up to 12 weeks at the temperatures recorded when water
samples were taken (7, 9 and 16C).   These investigations indicated thar.
large proportions of both isomers are transported into the atmosphere.
Heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane and photocis-chlordane were
sought, but not found.  While the solubilities of the isomers are not known,
it was suggested that if these isomers occur in natural water at less thai;
their solubilities, they will be evenly distributed and their rate of trar.-
port from water will be lower and about proportional to the evaporation r.v'---
of water, for example, they will codistill.  However, when the isomers occ--.
in natural water at or above maximum solubility, they appear to accumulate .-'
the water-air interface from which they may evaporate into the atmosphere.
Surfactants will counteract evaporation as well.  The ready escape into the
atmosphere of highly insoluble and chemically stable chlorinated hydrocarbon
compounds is said not only to explain their global distribution, but also to
indicate that the accumulation which has resulted from their extensive use is
unlikely to be reduced so long as their use is curtailed only in some parts  of
the world and continued or increased in others.

Oloffs et al. (1973) performed a second series of experiments with natural
British Columbia waters in the presence of their natural bottom sediments.
Waters were treated with 0.025 ppm alpha- or gamma-chlordane and then incu-
bated for up to 12 weeks at 13C. . These investigations indicate that all
detectable residues will move from the water into the underlying sediment
after 6 and 12 weeks, and demonstrate the influence of bottom sediments on
the fate and behavior of these isomers in natural waters.  The authors con-
cluded that:  "The results of this investigation suggest that 
-------
                  TABLE 3   Chlordane Concentrations in Water
Location
US
Hawaii
No. of Sites
 or Samples

     109
     101
   Types of
    Water

Major rivers
 Residue (ppt)
Max.       Mean
75.0
River and
drinking water   13.0
0.1
                                                        7.0
   Reference

Green et al.
   (1966)
                                                   Bevenue et al.
                                                      (1971)
Reprinted from Persistent Pesticides in the Environment,
2nd ed., by C.A. Edwards by permission of CRC Press, Cleveland, Ohio (1973)
                              Addendum to TABLE 3
Location
Sargasso Sea
Hawaii
Canada
   ^o. of Sites
   or Samples

        8
       45

        3
*  Gamma-chlordane
  Types of
   Water

Surface and
subsurface water

Nonpotable
Potable

River
  Residue (ppt)
 Max.       Mean
 17.6


  5.0

 21*
                                              9.1
                                                          1.0
           Reference

        Bidleman and
        Olney (1974)

        Bevenue et al.
         (1972)
        Miles and
        Harris (1973)
Schulze et al. (1973) presented data from a U.S. Geological Survey program
for monitoring pesticides in the streams of the Western United States for the
period October 1968 to September 1971.  There was one occurrence of chlordane
during the period.

The termite use of chlordane was implicated in two incidents involving con-
tamination by chlordane of farmstead water supplies (Jones, 1973).  Both
of these incidents were associated with poor well construction.  Preliminary
                                      38

-------
results of the project "Pesticides in Farmstead Water Supplies in the
Northeast" indicated that normal agricultural pesticide applications did
not appear to endanger most farmstead water supplies.  Pesticides were found
in low concentrations ranging from approximately one-tenth of the maximum
limits of United States Public Health Service drinking water recommendation-.-
for long-term ingestion (3 ug/1) to the lower limit of detection of about
0.01 ppb.  The extreme variations at the lower concentrations were attributed
to atmospheric contamination during sampling.

II.D.  The Fate of Heptachlor in Soil - Sethunathan  (1973) observed that
until recently, attention has usually been given to the fate of organic
pesticides in nonflooded soils under, aerobic and temperate environments.
On this basis, heptachlor has been designated persistent.  He recommends that.
consideration should also be given to flooded soils since such soils are usec'.
in the cultivation of rice, a staple food of much of the world's population.
Under these circumstances the rate and mechanism of degradation of the insec-
ticide may differ.  Heptachlor is rapidly metabolized in flooded soil.  Its
metabolite, heptachlor epoxide, was not detected.  Previous studies had shown
that heptachlor epoxide would be formed from heptachlor in aerobic nonfloodeo
soil.  Chlordane is stable under both these conditions for three months.
(Castro and Yoshida, 1971).

II.D.I.  Build-up and Persistence of Heptachlor in Soil - Indicative of the
heptachlor or heptachlor epoxide residues in soil are the data tabulated by
Edwards  (1973).  See a portion of his Table 2, reproduced here as Table 4.
More recent data are given as Table 4   (Addenda).

II.D.2.  Translocation of Heptachlor to Plants - Additional data confirming
the absorption and translocation of heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide in
plants from soils are given by Dorough and Pass (1972), Gutemann et al. (1972),
and Polizu et al. (1971) for corn; Turner et al. (1972) for soybeans; and,
Kawahara and Nakamura (1972) for turnips.

II.E.  Heptachlor and Heptachlor Epoxide in the Atmosphere -  Indicative of
the residues which may occur are the data tabulated  by Edwards  (1973).  See
portion  of his Table 6, reproduced as Table 5.

II.F.  Heptachlor and Heptachlor Epoxide in Surface  Water - Indicative  of
the residues which may occur in surface water are  the data tabulated by
Edwards  (1973).  See portions of his Table 8, reproduced here as Table  6.
More recent data are given as Table 6   (Addenda).

II.G.  Residues and Effects in Aquatic  Systems

II.G.I.  Residues of Chlordane and Heptachlor in Sediments -  Levels  of
chlordane and heptachlor much higher than water residue concentrations  have
frequently been reported.  Sediment concentrations of up to 30,000 pptn
chlordane and 1090 ppm heptachlor have been recorded in Tennessee.
                                          39

-------

Location

Canada
US
US

us

us

us
Canada

Canada

Canada

US
US
US

No. of Sites
or Samples

6
227
6

41

19

27
11

3

11

12
3
5
Heptachlor
Cropping
Orchard
fruits
	 ..i_f wuv.IIJ.WA. dllU
Epoxide in Soil
Residues (ppm)
Max. Mean
0.02 T
City garden 1.23 0.03
products and
turf
Vegetables

Vegetables

Carrots

Soybeans
Vegetables

Vegetables

Vegetables

Corn
Rice
Forapp
T T

0.34 0.03

0.26 0.16

0.16 0.02
1.39 0.16

0.17 0.06

0.20 0.02

0.03 0.004
0.02
n m n nr

Reference
Duffy and Wong
(1967)
Fahey et al.
(1965)
Mullins et al.
(1971)
Saha and Sumner
(1971)
Seal et al.
(1967)
USDA (1968)
Duffy and Wong
(1967)
Harris and Sans
(1969)
Harris et al.
(1966)
Gish (1970)
Gish (1970)

us
us
us
                 11
                10
                92
                              Grain
                             Mixed
                             Sweet
                              potatoes
0.39
                    Mullins  et  al.
                       (1971)

            0.02-*-   Mullins  et  al.
                       (1971)

             T      Mullins  et  al.
                       (1971)
                                                        0.02    Sand  et al.
                                                               '  (1972)
                                        40

-------
                      TABLE 4.   Residues  of Heptachlor  and
Location
US
US
US
No. of Sites
or Samples
25
Al
1729
Heptachlor
Cropping
Potatoes
Mixed
Mixed '
Epoxide in Soil (coi
Residues
Max.
0.10
0.01
1.08
(ppm)
Mean
0.08
T
0.01
US
71
Onions
2.24
          Reference

0.08   Seal et al.
          (1967)

       Trautmann  (I'y

0.01   Wiersma et al.
          (1972b)

0.09   Wiersma et al.
          (1972a)
   Residues found at only one site.
Reprinted from persistent pesticides in the environment, 2nd ed., by
C. A. Edwards by permission of CRC Press, Cleveland, Ohio (1973).
Addendum to Table 4.
Location
US
US
Canada
US
US
No. Times
Detected/
Total Samples Cropping
6/20 Pasture
58/399 Corn
19/48 Mixed
245/1506 Mixed
Combined
Residues (ppm)
Max . Mean
,0.118*
1.15
0.50
1.06
2.05
ND*
0.03
0.16
0.06
0.02
Reference
McLane et al. (1971)
Carey et al. (1973)
Harris and Sans (1971)
Wiersma et al. (1972c)
Crockett et al. (1974)
  *  Heptachlor  epoxide only
ND  None detectable
  T  Trace
                                        41

-------
                   TABLE 5.  Heptachlor and Heptachlor Epoxide
                        Residues in Air. Rainwater, and Dust
           No. of Sites
Location    or Samples
                       Concentration (ppt)
                      Max.             Mean
                                Reference
US

US
9  Air (cities)

1  Dust (deposited
   by a trace of
   precipitation)
     0.019
       Stanley et al. (1971)

40,000 Weibel et al. (1966)
Reprinted from persistent pesticides in the environment, 2nd ed., by
C. A. Edwards by permission of CRC Press, Cleveland, Ohio  (1973).
                   TABLE 6.  Concentrations of Heptachlor and
                         Heptachlor Epoxide in Water
Location
W. Germany
US
US
JS
  NO. of Sites
   or Samples

       51
       10
       13
                  99
     Types of
      Water

Major Rivers
Mississippi River
California Rivers
                 California Bays
                            Calif. Agr. Drains
                  Major River
                    Basins
Concentration (ppt)
Max.           Mean   Reference
2000.0
  10.0
   0.15
                         0.15
                                         0.04
                       155.0
39.4
 2.0
              6.3
Herzel
  (1970)

USDA,
ARS-81-
13 (1966)
 0.017   Bailey
         and
         Hannum
            (1967)

 0.016   Bailey
         and
         Hannum
            (1967)

 0.008   Bailey
         and
         Hannum
            (1967)
         Breidenbach
         et  al.
            (1967)
                                        42

-------
                   TABLE 6.  Concentrations of Heptaehlor and
                    Heptachlor Epoxide in Water  (continued)
          No. of Sites  Types of
Location  or Samples    Water
                               Concentration (ppt)
                               Max.	Mean  Reference
US
US
us
us
us
 11
109
 82
 20
 48
Major Rivers
  (west)
Major Rivers
90.0
19.0
Calif. Water Areas    T*


Streams  (west)      60.0



Water Areas      15,800.0
2.6  Brown and
     Nishioka
        (1.967)

0.1  Green
     et al.
        (1966)

 T*  Keith and
     Hunt (1969)

1.4 ' Manigold
     and Schulze
          (1969)

     Weatherholt
     et al.   (196"
*T = Trace
Reprinted  from persistent  pesticides in the environment, 2nd ed.,  by
C. A. Edwards  by  permission of CRC Press,  Cleveland, Ohio (1973).
Location
Hawaii
West Germany
Netherlands
US
No. of Sites
or Samples
45
28
-
16
Addendum to Table 6
Concentration (ppt)
Max. Mean
ND* -
205
60 10
200
Reference
Be venue et al. (1972)
Herzel (1972)
Greve (1972)
Bradshaw e^al. (1972";
 *ND = None dectectable
                                       43

-------
(Barthel et al., 1969).  Chlordane was found in 92% of the sediments taken
from tributaries of San Francisco Bay with a maximum concentration reported
at 800 ppb (Law and Goerlitz, 1974).

Marsh sediments in Rhode Island have been found to contain 363 ppb chlordane.
A concentration of 480 ppb chlordane has been recorded for sediments of the
Pawtuxent River in the same state (Olney, 1972).

Chlordane residues have been reported in the sediments of nonpotable waters
in Oahu, Hawaii with the maximum reported level being 720 ppb  (Bevenue et al.
1972^1.

II.G.2.  Effects on Aquatic Life - Both chlordane and heptachlor have been
shown to be toxic to aquatic life at low concentrations (Table 7).

Levels of maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) for chlordane and
heptachlor have been determined from chronic exposure tests with several
species of aquatic animals (Table 8) (Cardwell et al., in press; and Macek
et al., in press).

Low levels of both of these compounds (0.01 ppm) have been shown to inhibit
oyster growth  (Butler et al., 1960).  A 1.0 ppm solution of heptachlor'caused
the barbels of catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) to curl,, with death occurring
after 44 hr (Konar, 1969).  Exposure of bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) to this
same concentration of heptachlor (1.0 ppm) resulted in severe hemorrhaging in
the pelvic and pectoral fins (Phelps et al., 1964).  Rainbow trout gill micro-
somal ATPase activity was inhibited by 4 ppm chlordane (77%) and by 4 ppm
heptachlor (67%) (Davis, 1972).

The photoproduct of heptachlor, photo-heptachlor, has been shown to be more
toxic to minnows (Georgakis and Kahn, 1971) than to Daphnia, amphipods, and
isopods (Khan et al., 1973).  Photochlordene is less toxic to Daphnia and
bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus) than is the parent chlordene (Khan et al.,
1973).

II.G.3.   Residues in Natural Environments - Chlordane, heptachlor and
heptachlor epoxide residues are widespread in fish.  Residues of 8.33
ppm heptachlor in white perch (Morone americanus), 6.93 ppm heptachlor
epoxide in large mouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and 2.24 ppm chlor-
dane in the pumkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus), have been found during the
National Pesticide Monitoring Program.  Heptachlor and/or heptachlor
epoxide were found in 32% of the samples while chlordane was reported
22% of the time (Henderson et al., 1969).  Residues of 1.55 ppm hepta-
chlor and 0.56 ppm heptachlor epoxide have been reported in the muscle
of winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Smith and Cole, 1970).
Heptachlor and chlordane residues have been reported in excess of 0.01
ppm in fish from Canadian rivers (Miles and Harris, 1973).

-------
      TABLE 7.   Toxtcity of Chlordane and
Heptachlor to Aquatic Animals
Species
Chinook salmon
(Oncorhynchus tshavytacha)
Bluegill
(Lepomis macrochirus) .
Sheepshead minnow
(Cyprinodon variegatus)
Pinfish
(Lagodon rhomboides)
Fathead minnow
(Pimephales promo la 3)
Scud
(Gammarus fasctatus)
Glass shrimp
(Palaemonetes kadiakensis)
Crayfish
(Orconectes nais)
Concentration
Chlordane
57.0
16.5
24.5
6.4
52.0
40
10
'
(ppb)
Heptachlor
-
-
3.68
3.77
78.0
56
1.80
7.8
Test
96-hr. LCso
96-hr. LC5Q
96-hr. LC50
96- hr. LC5Q
96-hr. LC50
96-hr. LC5Q
96-hr. LC5o
96-hr. l5Q
Source
Car dwell et al. ,
Cardwell et al.,

pers. com.
Gulf Breeze NERC
pers. com.
Gulf Breeze NERC
Henderson et al.
Sanders (1972)
Sanders (1972)
Sanders (1972)

in press
in press
(1974)
(1974)
(1959)



Pink shrimp
(Peneus duoraruro)
0.4
0.1
96-hr.
pers. com. 
Gulf Breeze NERC (1974)

-------
    TABLE 8.  Chronic Toxicity of Chlordane and Heptachlor to Aquatic Animals
                           Maximum Acceptable Toxicant Concentration (ppb)
Species                              Chlordane             Heptachlor

Bluegill                             0.54-1.22
(Lepomis macrochirus)

Fathead minnow                       0.75-1.38                1.2
(Pimephales promelas)

Brook trout                          0.36
(Salvelinus fontinalis)

Chironomus 51                        0.7

Daphnia magna                        12-25                   12.5
Source:  Cardwell et al.  (in press) and Macek et al..  (in press).


A metabolite of heptachlor, 1-hydroxychlordane, has been found with residue
concentrations greater than 0.01 ppm in at least eight species of fish in Iowa
(Bondeman and Slaqh, 1972).  In this same study residues of heptachlor and
heptachlor epoxide were frequently noted.

The ability of chlordane and heptachlor epoxide to pass from gravid female fish
to their eggs was documented by Johnson and Morris (1974).  Eggs taken from
gravid channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and northern pike (Esox lucius)
contained up to 350 ppb chlordane.  Eggs taken from channel catfish, northern
pike, walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum), and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)
had from 5 to 93 ppb heptachlor epoxide.

In sampling fish from ponds and rivers in Rhode Island, Olney (1972) frequently
found chlordane residues, with some greater than 200 ppb.  Hydroxychlordane
residues were also reported.

Godsil and Johnson (1968) analyzed water, vascular plants, algae, chubs (Siphateles
spp.), clams, and largemouth bass taken from the Tule Lake National Wildlife
Refuge.  With water concentrations in the 10's of ppt chlordane range, the
plants and animals were found to have accumulated chlordane residues in the 10's
of parts per billion range.  Hannon et al. (1970) reported heptachlor - heptachlor
epoxide residues in the Lake Poinsett, South Dakata ecosystem.  Average values
(ppb) were:  water, .006; bottom sediment, 0.8; crayfish, 1.0; plankton-algae, 1.1;
fish, 8.0; and aquatic insects, 312.

-------
These residues found in organisms where the water concentrations of chlordatn-
and heptachlor are extremely minute indicate that biological concentration cf
these pesticides is an area of environmental interest.

II.H.  Toxicity and Effects on Wildlife

II.H.I.  Acute Toxicity to Birds - The relative dietary toxicities of 89
pesticides to four species of birds (bob-white, Japanese quail, pheasant and
mallard) have been determined by Heath et al. (1972), using dieldrin as a
standard.  The LC5Q for chlordane ranged from 331 to 858 ppm in 5-day feed:'.nj/,
tests while that for heptachlor was 92-480 ppm.  Roughly, dieldrin was from
2  to 4 times more toxic than heptachlor and  from 4.to 8 times more toxic than
chlordane.

II.H.2.  Residues in Wildlife - Recent analyses indicate that oxychlordane,
a  metabolite of chlordane, occurs frequently in starlings (Paul R. Nickerson,
personal communication, February 19, 1975) and bald eagles  (William L. Reiche.1,
personal communication, February 19, 1975).  Residues of heptachlor epoxide
are  relatively widespread in wildlife but at generally low  levels.  Maximum
levels reported from wide surveys are 7.9 ppm lipid basis for breast muscle
in mourning doves (Kreitzer, 1974), 0.16 ppm in eggs  of black duck (Longcore
and  Mulhern, 1973), 8.67 ppm for breast muscle  (lipid basis) in woodcock  (ClsrV
and  McLane, 1974), and 0.97 ppm in starling  pools  (Martin and Nickerson,  1972),
For  mallard and black duck wings: "Heptachlor epoxide was detected in most
pools  and  in every state except Vermont.  Few pools contained levels exceeding
0.02 ppm  ..."   (Heath and Hill, 1974).  Specific reasons for occasional high
levels are not known but in starlings relatively high levels (0.1 ppm or
greater) were consistently associated with the  corn belt and the southern
states from Louisiana to the Florida panhandle.

Other  surveys have been more local in scope.  Three years after discontinuing
aerial treatment with heptachlor for fire ant  "eradication" in Louisiana,
heptachlor epoxide residues in woodcock averaged 0.15 ppm wet weight and
ranged up  to 0.62 ppm  (McLane et al., 1971).  Greenberg and Edwards  (1970)
found  maximum levels of 0.40 ppm heptachlor  epoxide  in eggs of wild  pheasants
in Illinois in  1966.   In 4  of 25 clutches  the mean was 0.1  ppm  or  greater.
Anderson  et al.  (1970)  found heptachlor epoxide in 75% of 147 pheasants  col-
lected in  Illinois with the highest value  for  subcutaneous  fat  being 4.76 ppm.
Eggs of  the little blue heron in southeast Missouri  contained up  to  0.15  ppm
heptachlor epoxide with a mean  of  0.011 ppm  in  1967  but none detected  in  1968
 (Greenberg and Hege, 1971).  Johnson  (1974)  found  up  to 0.012 ppm heptachlor
epoxide  in composite samples of  fat  from mallards  and from  0.011  to  0.019 ppm
 in similar samples of  other species of migrating ducks in  Iowa.   Verier  and
Reynolds  (1970)  found  up  to 0.9  ppm heptachlor  epoxide in mallard eggs
                                         47

-------
(composite sample of 10) in the prairie provinces of Canada while values for
other aquatic birds ranged from maximum of 0.246 ppm in ring-billed gulls to
a maximum of 0.023 ppm in the white pelican.  They suggested that specific
differences in residue values were related to food habits.

Twenty of 35 mink collected in Iowa had detectable residues of heptachlor
epoxide ranging up to 0.2 ppm in the adipose tissue but no residues were de-
tected in liver and brain (Franson et al., 1974).  Boddicker et al. (1971)
reported an average of 0.12 ppm heptachlor epoxide in the renal fat of mountain
goats in South Dakota.  This exceeded levels previously found in deer and
pronghorn antelope, and the contrast was unexpected because of the more remote
habitats of the goats.  Twenty-five of 45 pronghorns had heptachlor epoxide
residues at or above the level of detection (0.03 ppm) and the highest value
was 0.12 ppm (Moore et al., 1968).  Robel et al. (1972) found relatively low
heptachlor epoxide residues (0.001-0.02 ppm) in rodents associated with an
experimental area treated with about 0.5 lb heptachlor/acre but the extent
to which the rodents actually fed in the treated area was unknown.

II.H.3.  Mortality in the Field - In recent years, dramatic wildlife kills
have not been attributed to the major uses of these pesticides in the United
States.  Past reports of kills have been associated primarily with the use of'
heptachlor in eradication programs for insects such as the fire ant.  Such
special uses, however, attract the attention of biologists and more common
uses, such as for seed dressing, bear investigation.

When heptachlor, aldrin and dieldrin were used as seed dressings on spring-
sown cereal grains in the United Kingdom, casualties among granivorous birds
occurred on a large scale.  This led to a voluntary ban on such uses (Papworth,
1971).  Similarly, an official ban on the use of aldrin, dieldrin and hepta-
chlor for spring-sown grains in the Netherlands (January 1, 1968) was extended
to include fall-sown seed following a widespread mortality of raptors in the
winter of 1968-1969.  Dieldrin residues then declined by about an order of
magnitude in certain raptors over the next two years (Fuchs, 1972).  In
North America, the use of aldrin and heptachlor as seed dressings for cereal
grains in the prairie provinces of Canada was directly linked to highly signi-
ficant increases in residues found in seed eating birds and mammals.  These
prey species were considered to be the major sources of residues found in
prairie falcon (heptachlor epoxide max = 7.04 ppm) and merlin eggs (heptachlor
epoxide max =4.63 ppm) and led to the recommendation that these uses of
aldrin and heptachlor be suspended as of January 1, 1974 (Fyfe, 1973).  Except
for the use of aldrin on rice seed (Flickinger and King, 1972) , comparable
information appears to be lacking for the United States.
                                         48

-------
II.H.4.  Effects on Raptors - From the viewpoint of hazards to wildlife,   .
the possible effects on certain raptors is of greatest concern.  Analyses
of 169 golden eagles found dead or incapacitated from 1964-1971 yielded
generally low values in 32 specimens positive for heptachlor epoxide in
fat (2.4 ppm maximum) (Reidinger and Crabtree, 1974).  One of seven brain
positives was 2.3 ppm, which approaches the range where acute effects can
be suspected.  Bald eagles, similarly collected in 1969 and 1970 had a
prevalence of residues (31 of 39) but values were relatively low (Trace anicc.  .
to 0.41 ppm heptachlor epoxide in carcass)  (Belisle et al., 1972).  Heptnr"
epoxide was also found in the eggs of bald eagles in 1969-1970, with the hig: 
est value (0.17 ppm) being from Minnesota (Wiemeyer et al., 1972).   Effects,
if any, of these residues cannot be determined because they are generally as-
sociated with much higher levels of dieldrin and DDT-type compounds.  The same
can be said for other birds of prey, such as the red-tailed hawk and the great
horned owl (Seidensticker and Reynolds, 1971).

II.H.5.  Effects on Reproduction - The chronic effects of chlordane and
heptachlor on wildlife have not received adequate study.  Unpublished results
from Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (R.G. Heath, personal communication)
indicate no measurable effects on reproduction in bobwhite and mallards.
Grolleau and Froux  (1973), however, found an increased mortality in Japanese
quail  chicks when the hen was given 1 mg heptachlor/day.  The  effect was not
satistically significant at lower doses,but a trend may be present.  Similar
results were obtained from the partridge, Perdix perdix, but the increased
mortality of chicks was not statistically significant  (Havet,  1973).  Such
results from studies of precocial birds hatched in incubators  provide no in-
formation concerning possible effects on the behavior.of. the adult  in caring
for  the eggs and young and on the ability of precocial young to forage suc-
cessfully in the field.
                                          49

-------
                                   CHAPTER II

                                 Bibliography
Abbott, D. C., Harrison, R. B. , Tatton, J. O'G. and Thompson, J.
     Nature (208): 1317  (1965).

Anderson, W. L. , Greenberg, R. E., Duzan, R. E., Kjos, M. A.
     Concentrations and distributions of DDE, dieldrin, and heptachlor
     epoxide in pheasants in east-central Illinois.  Trans . 111. State
     Acad. Sci. 6M4) : 373- 382 (1970).

Bailey, T. E. and Hannum, J. R.  Distribution of pesticides in California.
     _J. Sanit. Eng. Div. Proc. Am. Soc. Civ. Eng. 3:27 (1967).

Barthel, W. F. , Hawthorne, J. C. , Ford, J. H., Bolton, G. C. , McDowell,
     L. L., Grissinger, E. H. and Parsons, D. A.  Pesticide residues in
     sediments of the lower Mississippi River and its tributaries.
     Pestic. Monit. _J. jJU):8-34 (1969).

Belisle, A. A., Reichel, W. L., Locke, L. N. , Lament, T. G. , Mulhern,
     B. M. , Prouty, R. M. , DeWolf, R. B. and Cromartie, E.  Residues of
     organochlorine pesticides, poly chlorinated biphenyls, and mercury
     and autopsy data for bald eagles, 1969 and 1970.  Pestic. Monit.
     J.. j>Q): 133-138 (1972).

Bennett, G. W. , Bailee, D. L. , Hall, R. C. , Fahey, J. E., Butts, W. L.
     and Osmun, J. V.  Persistence and distribution of chlordane and
     dieldrin applied as termiticides.  Bull. Environ . Con tarn, toxicol.
          : 64-69 (1974).
Bevenue, A., Hylin, J. W. , Kawano, Y. and Kelley, T. W.  Organochlorine
     pesticide residues in water, sediment, algae, and fish, Hawaii -
     1970-1971.  Pestic. Monit. j;. (1) : 56-64  (1972).

Bevenue, A., Hylin, J. W. , Kelley, T. W.  Pesticide residues in our waters.
     Agr. Progr. Quart. 2Q(3): (1971).

Bevenue, A. , Ogata, J. N. and Hylin J. W.  Organochlorine pesticides in
     rainwater, Oahu, Hawaii, 1971-72.  Bull.  Environ . Con tarn. Toxicol.
     ji(4): 238-241' (1972).

Bidleman, T. F. and Olney, C. E.  Chlorinated  hydrocarbons in the Sargasso
     Sea atmosphere and surface water.  Science 183:516-518  (1974).

Boddicker, M. L. , Hugghins, E. J. and Richardson, A. H.  Parasites and
     pesticides residues of mountain goats in  South Dakota.  J^. Wildl.
     Manag. JI5_U) :94-103 (1971).

Bondeman, D. P. and Slach, E.  Appearance of 1-hydroxychlordene in soil,
     crops, and fish.  J. Agr. Food Chem. 29_(2) :328-331  (1972).

                                       50

-------
Bradshaw, J. S., Loveridge, K. P., Rippee, K. P., Peterson, J. L.,
     White, D. A., Barton, J. R. and Fuhriman, D. K.  Seasonal variations
     in residues of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides in the water of
     the Utah lake drainage system, 1970 and 1971.  Pestic. Monit. J_.
     (6(2): 166-170 (1972).

Breidenbach, W. W., Gunnerson, C. G., Kawahara, F. K., Lichtenberg, J. J.
     and Green, R. S.  Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides in major riv&r
     basins 1957-65.  Publ. Health Kept. Wash. 82/139 (1967).

Brown, E. and Nishioka, Y. A.  Pesticides  in selected western streams -
     A contribution to the National Program.  Pestic. Monit. J^.  1(2) :
     38  (1967).

Butler,  P. A., Wilson, A. J., Jr. and Rick, A. J.  Effect of pesticides
     on  oysters.  Proc. Nat. Shellfisheries Assoc. 51:23-32  (1960).

Cardwell, R. D., Foreman, D. G., Payne, T. R. and Wilbur, D. J.   Acute
     and chronic toxicity of chlordane  to  fish and invertebrates.  EPA
     Ecological Research Series,   (in press).

Carey, A. E., Wiersma, G. B., Tai, H. and  Mitchell, W.  G.   Organochlorine
     pesticide residues in soils and crops of the corn  belt  region,  United
     States - 1970.  Pestic. Monit. ^J.  6/4_):369-376  (1973).

Castro,  T. F. and Yoshida, T.  Degradation of organochlorine insecticides
     in  flooded soils  in the Phillipines.  J_. Agr. Food Chem.  19(6) ;1168-
     1170  (1971).

Clark, D. R., Jr. and McLane, M. A. R.  Chlorinated hydrocarbon and  mer-
     cury residues  in woodcock in  the United  States,  1970-71.   Pestic.
     Monit. J.  8(1) i 15-22  (1974).

Crockett, A. B., Wiersma, G. B., Tai, H.,  Mitchell, W.  G.,  Sand, P.  F.  and
     Carey, A.  E.   Pestic. Monit. _J- <8(2J:69-97  (1974).

Davis, P. W., Friedhoff, J. M. and Wedemeyer, G.  A.   Organochlorine  insecticide,
     herbicide  and  polychlorinated biphenyl  (PCB)  inhibition of NaK-ATPase  in
     rainbow  trout.  Bull. Environ. Contain.  Toxicol.  8_(2):69-72 (1972).

Dorough, H. W.  and  Pass, B.  C.   Residues  in  corn and  soils  treated with tech-
     nical  chlordane and high-purity chlordane  (HCS  3260).   J^.  Econ. Entomol.
     65(4_):976  (1972).

Duffy, J. R.  and Wong, N.  Residues of  organo-chlorine  insecticides  and their
     metabolites  in soils  in the Atlantic  provinces  of  Canada.   J_. Agr.  Food
     Chem. ISO):457-464  (1967).

Edwards,  C. A.  Persistent pesticides  in  the environment,  2nd edition,
     CRC Press, Cleveland, Ohio  (1973).
                                         51

-------
Environmental Protection Agency.  Notice of intent to cancel registrations.
     Pesticide products containing heptachlor or chlordane.  FR 39  (229)
     41298-41300 (Nov. 26, 1974).

Fahey, J. E. , Butcher, J. W. and Murphy, R. T.  Chlorinated hydrocarbon
     insecticide residues in soils of urban areas, Battle Creek, Michigan.
     J_. Econ. Entomol. _58(_5) ; 1026-1027  (1965).

Flickinger, E. L. and King, K. A.  Some effects of aldrin-treated rice on
     Gulf Coast wildlife.  J_. Wildl. Manag. 36 O) : 706-727 (1972).

Franson, J. C. , Dahm, P. A. and Wing, L. D.  Chlorinated hydrocarbon insec-
     ticide residues in adipose, liver, and brain samples from Iowa mink.
     Bull. Environ. Contain. Toxicol. .1H4) : 379- 385 (1974).

Fuchs, P., Rooth, J. and DeVos, R. H.  Residue levels of persistent chemicals
     in birds of prey and owls in the Netherlands in the period from 1965-1971.
     p. 532-541.  In J.H. Koeman (ed.)  Side effects of persistent  pesticides
     and other chemicals on birds and mammals in the Netherlands.   Report by
     the Vtojking Group on Birds , and Mammals of the* Committee TND for Research
     on Side Effects on Pesticides and Related Compounds.  27 TND-nieuws 1972
     (Oct.).

Fyfe, R. W.  Dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide in Alberta and Saskatchewan
     wildlife:  A report to the Western Committee on crop pesticides,
     Saskatoon, 25 October, 1971, amended  July, 1973.  Pesticide section,
     Canadian Wildlife Service, Manuscript Reports No. 27 3 pp. & V. (1973).

Georgakis, E. and Khan, M. A. Q.  Toxicity of the photoisomers of cyclo-
     diene insecticides to freshwater animals.  Nature 223; 120-21 (1971).

Gish, C. D.  Organochlorine insecticide residues in soils and soil  inver-
     tebrates from agricultural lands.  Pestic. Monit. J. ^3(4_):241  (1970).

Godsil, P. J. and Johnson, W. C.  Pesticide monitoring of the aquatic biota
     at the Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge.  Pestic. Monit. J_.  U4) :
     21-26 (1968).

Green, R. S., Gunnerson, G. C. and Lichtenberg, J. J.  Pesticides in our
     national waters.  AAAS Symposium Agriculture and the Quality of our
     Environment (Dec. 27, 1966).

Greenberg, R. E. and Edwards, W. R.  Insecticide residue levels in  eggs of
     wild pheasants in Illinois.  Trans. 111. State Acad. Sci. 63(2); 136-
     147 (1970).

Greenberg, R. E. and Hege, P. L.  Insecticide residues in Little Blue
     Herons.  Wilson Bull. jtt(l) :95-97  (1971).
   iw. r  A.  rwucuuxeixiy hazardous substances in surface waters.  Part  I.
     Pesticides in the River Rhine.  Sci. Total Environ. JL:173-180  (1972).
                                        52

-------
Grolleau, G. and Froux, Y. [Effect of heptachlor on the reproduction of
     quail Couturnix couturnix japonica.J Ann. Zool. Ecol. Anitn. 5^(2) '.
     261-270 (1973).

Gutenmann, W. H., Greenwood, R. A., Gryrisco, G. G. and Little,  R.  J.   Studis
     of aldrin and  chlordane in silt loam soils and their  possible  translof.f
     tion in field  corn in New York.  Jf. Econ. Entomol. 65(3):842-44 (1972. ,

Hannon, M. R., Greichus, Y. A., Applegate, R. L. and Fox,  A. C.  Ecolo-
     gical distribution of pesticides in Lake Poinsett, South Dakota.
     Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. ^9_(_3) :496-500 (1970).

Harris, C. R. and Sans, W. W.  Vertical distribution of residues of
     organochlorine insecticides in soils collected from six farms  in
     Southwestern Ontario.  Proc. Entomol. Soc. Ontario 100;156  (1969).

Harris, C. R. and Sans, W. W.  Insecticide residues in soil on 16  farms
     in Southwestern Ontario-1964, 1966, 1969.  Pestic. Monit. J[. _5_O) :
     259-266 (1971).

Harris, C. R., Sans, W. W. and Miles, J. R. W.  Exploratory studies in
     occurrence of  organochlorine residues in agricultural soils in S.  W.
     Ontario.  J_. Agr. Food Chem. _14_(4.) : 398-403 (1966).

Havet, P.  Effets de 1'heptachlore sur  la reproduction de  la Perdix rouge
     Alectoris rufa L. et de la Perdix  grise Perdix perdix L. Trans. X  Int.
     Congr. Game Biol. May 1971 p. 175-183.  Paris.  (1973).

Heath, R. G. and Hill, Si A.  Nationwide organochlorine and mercury resi-
     dues in wings  of adult mallards and black ducks during the  1969-70
     hunting season.  Pestic. Monit. J. 7^:153-164  (1974).

Heath, R. G., Spann, J. W., Hill, E. F. and Kreitzer, J. F.  Comparative
     dietary toxicities of pesticides to birds.  USDA Fish & Wildlife
     Service Spl. Scientific Rpt. - Wildlife No. 152  Washington,  D. C.
     iv & 57 pp. (1972).

Henderson, C. , Pickering, Q. H. and Tarzwell, C. M.  Relative  toxicity
     of ten chlorinated insecticides to four species of fish.  Trans.  Am.
     Fish. Ser. 88 U): 23-32  (1959).

Henderson, C., Johnson, W. L. and Inglis, A.  Organochlorine insecticide
     residues in fish  (National Pesticide Monitoring Program).   Pestic.
     Monit. J_. _3(3): 145-171  (1969).

Herzel, F.  Studies of surface waters for insecticides.  Bundesgesund-
     heitsblatt. _13(4_):49  (1970).

Herzel, F.  Organochlorine insecticides in surface waters  in Germany 1970
     and  1971.  Pestic. Monit. J_. 6XJ3) :179-187  (1972).
                                         53

-------
Johnson, L. G. and Morris, Robert L.  Pesticide and mercury levels in
     migrating duck populations.  Bull. Environ . Contam. & Toxicol. 11(6) :
     503-510 (1974).

Jones, E. E. , Jr.  Well construction helps determine water quality.  ._J.
     Environ. Health 35(5) ; 443-450  (1973).

Kawahara, T. and Nakamura, T.  Absorption of chlorinated hydrocarbons
     by turnips planted in pots, and their translocation in the plant.
     (Summary).  Bull. Agr. Chem. Inspect. Stn. 12: 52-56 (1972).

Keith, J. 0., and Hunt, E. G. Levels of insecticide residues in fish and
     wildlife in California.  Trans . 31st North Am. Wildl. Res. Conf .
     150 (1966).

Khan, M. A. Q. , Stanton, R. H. , Sutherland, D. J., Rosen, J. D. and Maitra, N.
     Toxicity - metabolism relationship of the photoisomers of certain
     chlorinated cyclodiene insecticide chemicals.  Arch. Environ. Contam.
     Toxicol. 1(2): 159-169 (1973).

Konar, S. K.  Effects of heptachlor and nicotine on the barbels of a catfish
     (Heteropneustes fossils).  Prog. Fish. Cult.  31(l):62-63  (1969).

Kreitzer, J. F.  Residues of organochlorine pesticide, mercury and PCB's
     in mourning doves from eastern United States  - 1970-71.  Pestic.
     Monit. J_- ^:195-199  (1974).

Law, L. M. and Goerlitz, D. F.  Selected chlorinated hydrocarbons in
     bottom material from streams tributary to San Francisco Bay.  Pestic.
     Monit. J. 8(1): 33-36 (1974).

Longcore, J. R. and Mulhern, B. M.  Organochlorine pesticides  and poly-
     chlorinated biphenyls in black duck eggs from the United  States and
     Canada - 1971.  Pestic. Monit. J. ^(1). -62-66  (1973).
Macek, K. J., Lindbergh, M. A., Sauter, S., Buxton, J. S. and Costa, P. A.
     Chronic toxicity of acrolein, heptachlor, endosulfan, and  trifluralin
     to Paphnia magna and the fathead minnow  (Pimephales promelas) .  EPA
     Ecological Research Series (in press) .

Macek, K. J. , Lindbergh, M. A., Sauter, S., Buxton, J. S. and Costa, P. A.
     Chronic toxicity of acrolein, heptachlor, endosulfan, and  trifluralin
     to Daphnia magna and the fatViead minnow  (Pimephales promelas) .  EPA
     Ecological Research Series (in press) .

Martin, W. E. and Nickerson, P. R.  Organochlorine residues  in  starlings  -
     1970.  Pestic. Monit. -J. 6/1): 33-40  (1972).

McLane, M. A. R. , Stickel, L. F. and Newsom,  J. D.  Organochlorine pesti-
     cide residues in woodcock, soils, and earthworms  in Louisiana,  1965.
     Pestic. Monit. J. JK3): 248-250 (1971).


                                         54

-------
Miles, J. R. W. and Harris, C. R.  Organochlorine insecticide  residues  in
     streams draining agricultural, urban-agricultural, and  resort  areas
     of Ontario, Canada - 1971.  Pestic. Monit.  J_.  <6(4_): 363-368  (1973).

Moore, G. L., Greichus, Y. A. and Hugghins,  E.  J.   Insecticide residues
     in pronghorn antelope of South Dakota.   Bull.  Environ.  Con tarn.  (^
     Toxicol. _3(.5):269-273 (1968).

Mullins, D.  E., Johnsen, R. E. and Starr, R.  I.  Persistence of  organo-
     chlorine insecticide residues in  agricultural  soils  of  Colorado.
     Pestic. Monit. J. _5(_3): 268  (1971).

Olney, C. E.  Transfer of pesticides through water,  sediments  and aquatic
     life.   Wat. Res. Proj. A-038-RI.   11 pp.  (1972).

Manigold, D. B., and J.  A. Schulze.  Pesticides in  selected  western streams-
     A progress report.  Pest. Monit.  J. _3(.2) : 124-135  (1969).

Oloffs, P.  C. , Albright, L. J. and Szeto, S.  Y.  Fate  and behavior of
     five chlorinated hydrocarbons in  three  natural waters.   Can. J_.
     Microbio. 16(9) :1393-1398 (1972).

Oloffs, P.  C., Albright, L. J.,  Szeto,  S. Y.  and Lau,  J.   Factors affecting
     the behavior of five chlorinated  hydrocarbons  in  two natural waters
     and their sediments.  J^. Fish. Res. Board  Canada  30(11): 1619-1623 (1973)

Papworth, D. S.  Pesticides and  ecology.  Bull.  Entomol.  Soc.  Araer. 17(1):
     9-14  (1971).

Phelps, J.  M., Jr., Hastings, J. R. and Gammon,  J.  R.   The effect of
     pesticides on  the bluegill  (Lepomis macrochirus)  in.a northern
     Indiana lake.  Proc. Indiana Acad.  Sci.  74^379-385 (1964).

Polizu, A.,  Floru,  Stefania and  Paulian, F.   Translocation and distribu-
     tion of heptachlor, aldrin  and dieldrin in the corn  plant.   Oual.
     Plant.  Mater.  Veg_.  _20(_4): 329-339  (1971).

Reidinger,  R.  F., Jr.  and Crabtree, D.  G.   Organochlorine residues in
     golden eagles, United States - March,  1964 -  July, 1971.   Pestic.
     Monit.  J;. JBU): 37-43  (1974).

Robel, R. J.,  Stalling,  C. D., Westfahl, M.  E.  and Kadoum, A.  M.  Effects
     of  insecticides on  populations of rodents in  Kansas  - 1965-69.  Pestic.
     Monit.  J. j>(2): 115-121  (1972).

Saha, J. G.  and Sumner,  A. K.  Organochlorine insecticide residues in
     soil  from vegetable farms in  Saskatchewan.  Pestic.  Monit. J^. j5(3j:
     28  (1971).

Sand, P. F., Wiersma,  G.  B.  and  Landry, J.  L.  Pesticide residues in sweet
     potatoes  and soil - 1969.   Pestic. Monit.  J..  _5(4_) :342-344  (1972).


                                         55

-------
Sanders, H. 0.  Toxicity of some  insecticides  to  four  species  of mala-
     costracean crustaceans.   Tech. Papers. Bur.  Spt.  Fish  Wildlife  No.  66.
     19 pp. (1972).

Schulze, J. A., Manigold, D. B. and Andrews, F. L.  Pesticides in  selected
     western streams - 1968-71.   Pestic. Monit. .  7_(1):73-84  (1973).

Seal, W. L., Dowsey, L. H. and Gavin, G. E.  Pesticides  in soil.   Monitoring
     for chlorinated hydrocarbon  pesticides  in soil and  root crops in the
     Eastern States in 1965.  Pestic. Monit. J. Ul):22  (1967).

Seidensticker, J. C. and Reynolds, H. V,  The  nesting,  reproductive per-
     formance, and chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in  the red-tailed
     hawk and great horned owl in south-central Montana.  Wilson Bull.
     3(.4):408-418 (1971).

Sethunathan, N.  Microbial degradation of insecticides  on flooded  soil
     and in anaerobic cultures.   Res. Rev. 47:143-165  (1973).

Smith, R. M. and Cole, C. F.  Chlorinated hydrocarbon  insecticide
     residues in winter flounder,  Pseudopleuronectes americanus, from the
     Weweantic River Estuary, Massachusetts.   J_.  Fish.  Res.  Bd. Can.  27;
     2374-2380 (1970).

Stanley, C. W., Barney, J. E., Helton, M. R. and  Yobs,  A. R.   Measurement
     of atmospheric levels of pesticides.  Environ. Sci. Technol.  _5:430
     (1971).

Stevens, L. J., Collier, C. W. and Woodham,  D. W.  Monitoring  pesticides
     in soils from areas of regular, limited,  and no pesticide use.
     Pestic. Monit. J. 4_O):145 (1970).

Stewart, D. K. R. and Chisholm, D.  Long-term  persistence of BHC,  DDT
     and chlordane in a sandy loam soil.  Can. J^.  Soil  Sci.  51(3);379-
     383 (October 1971).

Tabor, E. C.  Contamination of urban air through  the use of  insecticides.
     Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci. Ser.  2, 2jK5):569 (1966).

Trautmann, W.  L.  Organochlorine  insecticide composition of  randomly
     selected soils from nine states - 1967.   Pestic. Monit. J^. 2(2) :93
     (1968).

Turner, B. C., Taylor, A. W. and  Edwards, W. M.   Dieldrin and  heptachlor
     residues in soybeans.  Agronomy J. 64_(2.) :237-239  (1972).

USDA Monitoring agricultural pesticide residues,  USDA,  publication
     ARS-81-13, Washington, D. C.  (1966).

USDA Monitoring for chlorinated hydrocarbon  insecticide  residues in
     soybeans - 1966.  Pestic. Monit. J. 2(1):58  (1968).
                                         56

-------
Verier, K. and Reynolds, L. M.  Organochlorine residues in aquatic
     birds in the Canadian prairie provinces.  Canadian Field Naturalist
          : 117-130 (1970).
Weatherholtz, W. M. , Cornell, G. W. , Young, R. W. and Webb, R. E.  Dis-
     tribution of heptachlor residues in pond ecosystems in S.W. Virginia.
     J_. Agr. Food Chem. JL5/.667 (1967).

Weibel, S. R. , Weidner, R. B., Cohen, J. M. and Christiansen, A. G.
     Pesticides and other contaminants in rainfall and runoff.  Am. Water
     Works Assoc. _58:1075 (1966).

Wiemeyer, S. N. , Mulhern, B. M. , Ligas, F. J., Hensel, R. J. , Mathisen,
     J. E. , Robards, F. D. and Postupalsky, S. Residues of organochlorine
     pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and mercury in bald eagle eggs
     and changes in shell thickness  1969 and 1970.  Pestic. Monit . J_.
         : 50-55  (1972).
Wiersma, G. B., Mitchell, W. G. and Stanford, C. L.  Pesticide  residues
     in onions and soil - 1969.  Pestic. Monit . J. M4_):345-347 (1972a).

Wiersma, G. B., Sand, P. F. and Shutzman, R. L.  National  soils monitoring
     program - six states; 1967.  Pestic. Monit . _J. _5(2^:223  (1971).

Wiersma, G. B., Tai, H. and Sand, P. F.  National  soils monitoring  program
     for pesticide residues for year 1969.  U.S. Environmental  Protection
     Agency,  Washington, D.C.  (1972b) .

Wiersma, G. B., Tai, H. and Sand, P. F.  Pesticide residues  in  soil from
     eight  cities - 1969.  Pestic. Monit . J. j>(_2) : 126-129  (1972c).

Wilson. D.  M. and Oloffs, P. C.  Persistence and movement  of    - and
      0 - chlordane in soils following  treatment with high-purity chlordane.
      (Velsicol HCS-3260).  Can. J. Soil  Sci. 53(4) :465-472 (1973).
                                         57

-------
                                   CHAPTER III

                  Residues of Chlordane in Crops and Food Items
III.A.  Tolerances - The existing tolerances for residues of chlordane in or
on raw agricultural commodities are listed in 40 CFR 180.122.

The interim tolerances listed in 40 CFR 180.319 are also in effect until
action is completed on certain petitions (PP No. 1F1041 and FAP Nos. 1H2600
and 3H5026) submitted by the Velsicol Chemical Corporation.

Copies of these sections of the regulations are reproduced here in Exhibit 1.

The Food and Drug Administration, HEW, and the Animal and Plant Health
Inspection Service, USDA, maintain action levels for residues of chlordane.

III.B.I.  Residues in Vegetable Crops - Additional published data on the amount
:rops is shown
in Table
TABLE 1. Residues of
Source
of Residue
soil
soil
soil
soil
soil
soil
soil
soil
;d treatment
Source
0.25
0.053
ca 0.18
ca 0.17
ca 0.17
0.020
1.233
0.28
44.0
1.
Chlordane in Crops.
Residue (ppm)
Crop
75.60+ Do
<0.008* Gu
0.034**+ Do
<0.008**+ DC
0.020**+ Do
<0.0001 Me
0.224 On;
0.001 Sai
0.003 Bu
Crop

Alfalfa

Corn

Corn (silage stage)

Corn (gnain, cob)

Corn (stalk)

Soybeans

Sugar beets

Sweet potatoes
   * As gamraa-chlordane
  ** As alpha-plus gamma-chlordane
   + High-purity chlordane  (HCS-3260) used.
   Reference

Dorough et al. (1972)

Guntemann et al. (1972)

Dorough et al. (1972)

Dcrough et al. (1972)

Dorough et al. (1972)

McCaskill et al. (1970)

Onsager et al. (1970)

Sand et al. (1972)

Burrage and Sana (1967)
Source:  Reprinted from Persistent Pesticides in the Environment, 2nd ed., by
         C. A. Edwards by permission of CRC Press, Cleveland, Ohio (1973).
                                         58

-------
                 180.122  Chlordane  tolerances  for
                   residues.

                 A tolerance  of  0.3 part  per million  is
               established for residues of  the insecticide
               chlordane  (1,2,4,5,6,7,8,8-octachloro-2, 3, -
               3a,4,7,7a-hexahydro-4,7-methanoindene, con-
               taining not more  than 1 percent of  the inter-
               mediate compound  hexachlorocyclopentadiene)
               in or on each  of  the following  raw  agricul-
               tural commodities:   Apples,  apricots,  beans,
               beets (with or without  tops) or beet greens
               alone, blackberries, blueberries (huckle-
               berries),  boysenberries, broccoli,  brussels
               sprouts, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, celery,
               cherries,  citrus  fruits, collards,  corn,  cu-
               cumbers, dewberries, eggplants, grapes, kale,
               kohlrabi,  lettuce,  loganberries, melons,  nec-
               tarines, okra, onions,  papayas, peaches,  pea-
               nuts, pears, peas,  peppers,  pineapples, plums
               (fresh prunes), potatoes,  quinces,  radishes
               (with or without  tops)  or  radish tops, rasp-
               berries, rutabagas (with  or without tops)  or
               rutabaga tops, squash,  strawberries, summer
               squash, sweetpotatoes,  tomatoes, turnips,
               (with or without  tops)  or  turnip greens,  young-
               berries.
                180.319  Interim tolerances.

                   While petitions for tolerances for negli-
               gible residues are pending and until action is
               completed on these petitions, interim tolerances
               are established for residues of the listed pesti-
               cide chemicals in or on raw agricultural commo-
               dities as follows:
Chlordane 	.0.2 ppm	Parsnips
                             0.1 ppm	 Asparagus, mustard greens,
                                               pumpkins, spinach and
                                               Swiss chard
                             0.03 ppm	 Bananas
                               EXHIBIT I
                                   59

-------
Despite differences in the residues of alpha- and gamma-chlordane in the soil,
residues of these isomers were comparable in corn (silage stage, grain, cob
and stalk) for chlordane and for high-purity chlordane (HCS-3260) (Dorough
and Pass, 1972).

The amount of residue in many crops is uniformly low, i.e. about 0.1 or 0.2
ppm, from good agricultural practice.  Chlordane tends to concentrate in the
crude oils of oil seed crops to levels above those in the original seed, and
in the oil seed meal.  After refining these levels are lowered'(Duggan, 1968).

III.B.2.  Residues in Feeds - Chlordane is not used on forage crops.  However,
it is used on certain crops, parts of,which may contain residues, and may be
used as forage or fodder and/or derived by-product feed items.  In addition,
there is the possibility of residues in crops planted subsequently to a crop
treated with chlordane as indicated in Section III.B.I.

It may not always be possible to establish tolerances or to impose practical
feeding restrictions or otherwise preclude the feeding of residue-bearing
forage to livestock.  These items therefore are a potentially troublesome
source of residues in meat, milk, poultry and eggs.

III.B.3.  Residues in Meats, Milk, Poultry, and Eggs - Boyd (1970) conducted
tests to determine how much chlordane can be fed to cows to maintain residues
in milk below a 0.3 ppm (fat basis) action level.  In one study, cows were
fed 12 weeks on hay containing an average of 3.5 ppm technical chlordane; the
residues reported as heptachlor epoxide, were erratic (0.18 to 1.34 ppm)
averaging 0.551 ppm.  These residues were not further confirmed, but Boyd (1971)
later published a statement that these consisted of only 10% heptachlor epoxide
and 90% of a degradation product of chlordane, subsequently identified as
oxychlordane.

High-purity chlordane (HCS-3260) was fed to Holstein cows at 1,  10 and 100 ppm
once daily for 60 days by Dorcugh and Hemken (1973).  The total HCS-3260 resi-
dues in milk fat rose rapidly at the 1 ppm feeding level, total residues level-
ed off at 0.5 ppm after 10 days.  At the 10 and 100 ppm levels,  approximately
35 and 45 days were required for a plateau at 2.5 and 5.0 ppm respectively.
The major component of the residue in milk fat was identified as oxychlordane,
accounting for 70 to 75% of the total residue while the animals were being
treated.  It accounted for essentially 100% of the total residue in milk fat
after HCS-3260 had been removed from the feed for 10 days.

III.C.   Pesticide Monitoring

III.C.I.  Market Basket Surveys - Surveys conducted by the Food and Drug
Administration continue to demonstrate that chlordane is only infrequently
found in total diet studies and not at all in the latest available study
for the period 1970-71.  (Corneliussen 1970, 1972) (Manske and Corneliussen,
1974).
                                        60

-------
III.C.2.  Other Residue Surveys - Chlordane was not among the most frequently
detected residues in 4,836 domestic survey samples examined during FY 73 on a
national basis by the Food and Drug Administration, particularly for domestic
raw agricultural commodities, manufactured dairy products (cheese, butter, etc
eggs and egg products, processed animal feeds and whole fluid milk.  However,
chlordane was detected in processed foods (with a relative frequency of 5%) a>u
fish and marine products (with a relative frequency of 2%).

The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (and its predecessor, the
Consumer and Marketing Service), USDA, found residues of chlorinated hydro-
carbon insecticides, including chlordane in samples of fat tissues of livestoc,
and poultry.  Occurrences of residues are tabulated in Table 2.
          TABLE 2.  Occurrences of Residues of Chlordane in Fat Tissue*

               No. Sam-    % Sam-               Residue Range (ppm)
        No.    pies with   pies with
Year  Samples  Residues    Residues
1967

1968

1969

1970

1971

1972

1973
2785

2698

3169

3500

2403

 819

1070
1974   2256
1967

1968

1969

1970
2659

2199

2972
                  All Livestock
11

 5

 2

 2

 1

 0
          398
 0.4

 0.2

 0.06

 0.06

 0.04

 0

 0.7



17.7
All Poultry

  No reports

 2         0.08

 0         0

 0         0
0.







0.

0.
01-0.10
2
0
1
0
0
0
4
01-0.30
393
01-0.10
0.11-0.50
8
4
1
0
0
0
2
0.31-1.00
2
0.11-0.50
0.51-1.50
0
1
0
2
0
0
1
1.01-1.50
1
0.51-1.50
>1.50
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
>1.50
2
>1.50
0
0
0
1
0
0
I
0
0
0
0
0
                                        61

-------
Year
1970
1971
1972
1973

No.
Samples
2972
1804
417
1142

No. Sam-
ples with
Residues
0
0
0
7

% Sam-
ples with
Residues
0
0
0
0.6
'
Residue Range (ppm)
0.01-0.10
0
0
0
0
0.01-0.30
0.11-0.50
0
0
0
7
0.31-1.00
0.51-1.50
0
0
0
0
1.01-1.50
1.50
0
0
0
0
1.50
1974
1916
38
2.0
38
0
0
0
*  Data calculated in whole or in part from reports made available by Animal,
Plant, Health Inspection Service, USDA.

Reinke et al. (1972) found organochlorine pesticide residues in commercially
caught fish from a total of 78 locations in 68 central Canadian lakes and
rivers.  Trace amounts of chlordane and heptachlor epoxide were found in some
samples.

Although not considered a food, tobacco was also reviewed.  Gibson
et al. (1972) conducted a study of the levels of chlorinated insecticides
(including chlordane) in Kentucky Burley tobacco produced during the period
1968-1972 but still available for sale.  The only residue reported for
chlordane was 0.27 ppm, an average for all samples collected during the year
1971.  Chlordane appears to be one.of the lesser contaminants of Kentucky
Burley tobacco.
                                        62

-------
                                    CHAPTER III

                                   Bibliography

Boyd, J.C.   Field  study  of  a  chlordane residue problem in milk.  Bull.
     Environ.  Contam.  Toxicol. _5(A.): 292-299 (1970).

Boyd, J.  C.   Field study of a chlordane residue problem:  soil and plant
     relationships.   Bull.  Environ.  Contain. Toxicol.  6_(2) :177-182 (1971).

Burrage,  R.  H.  and Saha, J. G.   insecticide residues in spring wheat plants
     grown  in the  field  from  seed treated with aldrin or heptachlor.
     Can, j;.  Plant Sci.  47:114 (1967).'

Code of Federal Regulations,  Title  40,  Chapter 1,  Subchapter E, Subpart C,
     Sections  180.122, 180.319.

Corneliussen,  P. E.   Pesticide residues in total diet samples (V).
     Pestic.  Monit.  J. 4/3.):89-105  (1970).

Corneliussen, P. E.  Pesticide residues in total diet samples (VI).
     Pestic. Monit.  -J. M4) :313-330  (1972).

Dorough, H.  W. and Hemken,  R.  W.  Chlordane residues  in .milk and fat of cows
     fed HCS-3260  (high  purity chlordane)  in the diet.   Bull.  Environ.
     Contam. Toxicol.  10 (_4 ): 208-216  (1973).

Dorough, H.  W. and Pass, B. C.  Residues  in corn and  soils  treated with
     technical chlordane and  high-purity  chlordane (HCS-3260).   J^ Econ.
     Entomol.  65(4):976-979 (1972).

Dorough, H.  W., Skrentny, R.  F. and  Pass,  B.  C.   Residues in alfalfa and
     soils following treatment with  technical chlordane and high-purity
     chlordane  (HCS-3260) for alfalfa  weevil control.  J_.  Agr.  Food Chem.
     20(JL):42-47 (1972).

Duggan, R. E.  Pesticide residues  in vegetable oil seeds,' oils and
     by-products.  Pestic.  Monit.  J^. .1(4):2-7 (1968).

Edwards, C.  A.  Persistent  Pesticides  in the Environment,  2nd Ed.,
     CRC Press  (1973).

Food and Drug  Administration, DREW  FY  1973 Pesticide/PCB in Foods Program,
     Evaluation Report.

Gibson, J. R., Jones,  G. A.,  Dorough,  H.  W.,  Lusk, C. I. and Thurston, R.
     Chlorinated insecticide  residues  in Kentucky Burley tobacco:  Crop
     years 1962-1972.  Pestic. Monit.  J.-  J_(3/4.): 205-213 (1972).

Gutemann, W. H., Greenwood, R. A.,  Gyrisco, G. G., Little,  R. J.  Studies
     of aldrin and chlordane  in silt loam soils and  their possible trans-
     location  in field corn in New  York.   J_.  Econ. Entomol. 65(3) :842-
     844  (1972).
                                        63

-------
Manske, D. D. and Corneliussen, P. E.  Pesticide residues  in  total  diet
     samples (VII).  Pestic. Monit. J. JK2J:110-124  (1974).

McCaskill, W. R., Phillips, B. H., Jr. and  Thomas, C. A.   Residues  of
     chlorinated hydrocarbons in  soybean seed and surface  soils  from
     selected counties of South Carolina.   Pestic. Monit.  J_.  _4:42  (1970).

Onsager, J. A., Rusk, H. U. and Butler, L.  I.  Residues of aldrin,  dieldrin,
     chlordane and DDT in soil and sugar beets.  J_.  Econ.  Entomol.  63:
     8143  (1970).

Reinke, J., Uthe, J. F. and Jamieson, D.  Organochlorine pesticide
     residues in commercially caught fish in Canada  - 1970.   Pestic.
     Monit. J. 6(1):43-49 (1972).

Sand, P. F., Wiersma, G. B. and Landry, J.  L.  Pesticide residues  in
     sweet potatoes and soil - 1969.  Pestic. Monit. J_. _5(4J:342 (1972).
                                        64

-------
                                   CHAPTER IV

                 Residues of Heptachlor in Crops and Food Items
iV.A.  Tolerances - The existing tolerances for residues of heptachlor and
heptachlor epoxide in or on raw agricultural commodities are listed in 40
CFR 180.104.  The list includes a number of zero tolerances whose present
status is moot.

The interim tolerances listed in 40 CFR 180.319 are also in effect until 
action is completed on certain petitions (PP No. OF0935 and FAP No. OH2520)
submitted by the Ve.lsicol Chemical Corporation.
                                                       'l      .
Copies of these sections of the regulations are reproduced here in Exhibit 1.

A request is pending for an interim tolerance of 0.1 ppm for unavoidable
residues in or on pumpkins from the previous use of heptachlor (PP No. 4E1455).

The Food and Drug Administration, HEW, and the Animal and Plant Health
Inspection Service, USDA, Maintain action levels for residues of heptachlor
and heptachlor epoxide.  Data from Table 1 is indicative of the residues whicl>
may occur in crops.

IV.B.2.  Residues in Feeds - Heptachlor is not used on forage crops.  However,
it is used on certain crops, parts of which may contain residues and may be
used as forage or fodder and/or derived by-products which may be used as feed.
In addition, there is the possibility of residues in crops planted in the
same field after a crop treated with chlordane, as indicated in Section IV A.

It may not always be possible to establish tolerances or to impose practical
restrictions on feed or otherwise preclude the furnishing of feed to livestock.
These items are a potentially troublesome source of residues in meat,' milk,
poultry and eggs.

Residue data indicate that residues do not concentrate except in oil from oil
seeds and soapstock.

IV.B.3.  Residue in Meat, Milk, Poultry and Eggs - A number of studies are
available to indicate the carry over of residues into meat,.milk, poultry and
eggs (Huber and Bishop, 1962) (Williams et al., 1964, Cummings et al., 1966,
1967).  These studies were conducted at low .levels comparable to those which
may be ingested by livestock and include a plateau.  In general, these studies
indicate a consistent concentration factor for the deposition of residues in
body fat, in butterfat, and in the fat of eggs.  This represents a 10 to 15
fold increase over residues ingested in the dry diet or ration.
                                        65

-------
Amount
Crop
Alfalfa foliage

Alfalfa foliage
Alfalfa roots
Alfalfa
Carrot roots
Carrot roots
Carrot
Carrot
Cucumber fruit
Lettuce
Oat seed

Potato tubers
Rutabaga roots
Soybeans

Soybeans

Sugar beet roots
Source of
Insecticide
soil

soil
soil
soil
silt loam soil
soil
sandy soil
muck soil
soil
silt loam soil
soil

soil
soil
soil

soil

silt loam soil
Sweet potato tubers soil
Turnips silt loam soil
	 ..- miiuunt (jonc. or
in source in plant dilution
(pp 106)* (pp 106)* factor** Reference
o
\J
0.234
0.234
0.78
1.33
0.49
0.44
1.40
3.8
2.5
1.0

0.49
0.320
n
\J

1 0
JL  \J
2.5
0.02
2.5
Wheat foliage treated soil 543.0
Wheat
Wheat
* mg/kg
** concentration
soil
soil

1.94
0.74

Of\ i
.91
0.67
0.41
0.028
0.98
0.36
0.039
0.004
0.091
0.04
0.02

0.05
0.024
Of\f\f\ C
.0005
01 i
. 11
0.14
0.0004
0.09
0.015
0.11
0.44


Dorough et al.
(1972)
2.863 King et al. (1966)
1.752 King et al. (1966)
0.036 Lichtenstein &
Schulz (1965)
0.737 Lichtenstein
et al. (1965)
0.735 Lichtenstein
et al. (1965)
0.089 Oloffs et al.
(1971)
0.003 Oloffs et al.
(1971)
0.721 Lichtenstein &
Schulz (1965)
0.016 Lichtenstein &
Schulz (1965)
0.02 Bruce et al.
(1966)
0.102 Lichtenstein
et al. (1968)
0.075 Saha and Stewart
(1967)
McCaskill et al.
(1970)
0.11 Bruce et al.
(1966)
0.056 Lichtenstein &
Schulz (1965)
0.02 Sand et al. (1972)
0.036 Lichtenstein &
Schulz (1965)
0.00003 Burrage and Saha
(1967)
0.057 Wingo (1966)
0.045 Wingo (1966)

of dilution factor = amount in plant
   amount in soil
   66

-------
               180.104  Heptachlor and Heptachlor
                  epoxide,  tolerances for residues.

                  Tolerances for total residues of the
               insecticide heptachlor (1,4,5,6,7,8,8-hep-
               tachloro-3a,4,7,7a-tetrahydro-4,7-meth-
               anoindene) and its oxidation product hep-
               tachlor epoxide (1,4,5,6,7,8,8-hepta-
               chloro-2,3-epoxy-2, 3,3a,4,7,7a-hexahydro-
               4,7-methanoindene) from application of
               heptachlor in or on raw agricultural com-
               modities are established as follows:
                  0.1 part per million'in or on cabbage,
               lettuce, rutabagas, snap beans.
                  Zero in or on alfalfa, apples, barley,
               beets (including sugar beets), black-eyed
               peas, brussels sprouts, carrots, cauli-
               flower, cherries, clover, corn, cottonseed,
               cowpeas, grain sorghum (milo), grapes, grass
               (pasture and range), kohlrabi, lima beans,
               meat, milk, oats, onions, peaches, peanuts,
               peas, pineapples, potatoes, radishes, rye,
               sugarcane, sweet clover, sweetpotatoes,
               tomatoes,  turnips, (including tops), wheat.

                180.319  Interim tolerances.

                  While petitions for tolerances for neg-
               ligible residues are pending and until
               action is completed on these petitions,
               interim tolerances are established for resi-
               dues of the listed pesticide chemicals in
               or on raw agricultural commodities as follows:

Heptachlor	0.1 ppm	 Peppers
                                  0.2 ppm	 Tomatoes
                                  0.01 ppm	 Blackberries, blue-
                                                        berries , boysen-
                                                        berries, dewberries
                                                        and raspberries.

                               Exhibit I
                                 67

-------
           Table 2.  Heptachlor Epoxide Residues In Total Diet Samples
                     (Residues in ppm whole commodity basis)
Year                1968-69      1969-70      1970-71      1971-72

I.  Dairy Products

    Averages         0.003        0.002        trace        trace
    Maxima           0.005        0.005        0.002        0.004
II. Meat, Fish and Poultry
    Averages
    Maxima
0,005
0.016
0.006
0.020
0.002
0.011
trace
0.003
The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (and its predecessor, the
Consumer and Marketing Service), USDA, found residues of chlorinated hydro-
carbon insecticides, including heptachlor (and heptachlor epoxide) in samples
of fat tissues of livestock and poultry.  Occurrences of residues are tabulat-
ed below.

IV.C.   Pesticide Monitoring

IV.C.I.  Market Basket Surveys - Residues of heptachlor epoxide occurred
commonly in the two food classes, dairy products and meat, fish and poultry,
and infrequently in the other ten classes.  Heptachlor per se was rarely, if
ever,  found.  The data from the latest period and for two previous periods
were tabulated below for the two forementioned sensitive food classes.  This
tabulation also includes data obtained verbally from the Food and Drug
Administration for the period 1971-72.  Because of a change in the manner of
reporting data, it was necessary to recalculate the residue values from the
previously used fat basis to a whole commodity basis for the periods 1968-69
and 1969-70.

IV.C.2.  Other Residue Surveys - Heptachlor epoxide was frequently detected
by the Food and Drug Administration in 4,836 domestic survey samples examined
during FY 73 on a national basis.  (Heptachlor itself was infrequently detect-
ed).  The frequency of residues was greatest for manufactured dairy products
(with a relative frequency of 10%) and whole fluid milk (with a relative fre-
quency of 4%); and least of all for agricultural commodities, eggs and egg
products, fish and marine animals, processed animal feeds and processed foods
(Food and Drug Administration, 1973).
                                         68

-------
IV.D.  Removal of Residues - The effects of cooking and heating on residues
of chlorinated hydrocarbons, including, heptachlor in poultry were invest!g<-<;.
by Ritchey et_ jil. (1972).  rieptachlor was fed to broilers at 10 ppm for 8
weeks, which when slaughtered contained 28.1 ppm.  (All values are in term?
of heptachlor epoxide in dry tissue, and because of variations, are reported
as means).  Baking reduced the residue to 22.5 ppm; steaming to 22.1 ppm;
frying, not at all.  Heating in a closed container at 350F for 30, 60 and
90 min reduced the residue to 16.0-19.5 ppm, with no losses after 30 min.

The elimination of chlorinated.hydrocarbon residues, including heptachlor,
studied by Vioque et al. (1973).  Using virgin olive oil fortified with 1 ppr
heptachlor, these workers observed that deodorization by passing steam througl
the oil at 180C for 3 hr resulted in partial removal of the heptachlor; at
210C for 3 hr, more, extensive removal and at 240C for 3 hr, complete removal
Neutralization and decolorization were ineffective for heptachlor.
                                       69

-------

        No.
Year  Samples
No. Sam-  % Sara-
pies w/    pies w/
 .1.

1967
1968
1969

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974


1967
1968

1969

1970
1971
1972
1973

1974
* Data


2785
2698
3169

3500
2403
819
1070
2114



2659

2199

2972
1804
417
1142

1916
claculat


829
746
752

997
259
45
206
540


No
803

313

865
271
39
123

250
led in i.ih
Plant Health Insnprn
i residues 0.01-0.10 0.11 0 5l
All Livestock
29-8 759 65
27.8 ' 628 1Q9
23-8 637 114
j..m
28.6 887 107
10.8 237 21
5.5 43 2
19.3 188 18
2^.0 536 3
0.01-0.10 0.11-n sn
All Poultrv
reports
30.1 687 1;n
J-J-,5
14.2 276 Q<:
/0 36
29.2 728 133
15.0 248 22
9'4 39 o
10.8 115 g
0.01-0.30 0.31-1.00
13.1 249 !
- ,
ole or in part from reports made t
r\ o**i i c   
^ U. 51-1. 5 ]_c;n
2 3
J
8 1
i.
0 i
2 i
JL
1 0
0 0
\J
0 0
w
0 1
0.51-1.50 l.sn



3 o

1 0
4 1
1 0
0 o
V
0 0
1.01-1.50 l.sn
0 0

Jvailable hi/ Ar,-f_
                     70

-------
                                   CHAPTER IV

                                  Bibliography

Bruce, W. N., Decker, G. C. and Wilson, J. G.  The relationship of  the.  leveis
     of insecticide contamination of crop seeds to the fat content  and  soli
     concentration of aldrin, heptachlor, and their epoxides.  J_. EC on.  ;<-
     ,59:179 (1966).

Burrage, R. H. and Saha, J. G.  Insecticide residues in spring.wheat plants
     grown in the field from seed treated with aldrin or heptachlor.  Can. Ji.
     Plant Sci. ^7:114  (1967).       ,

Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Chapter 1, Subchapter E, Subpart C,
     Sections 180.104,  180.319.

Corneliussen, P. E.  Pesticide residues in total diet samples  (v).  Pestic.
     Monit. J_. _4(_3): 89-105  (1970).

Corneliussen, P. E.  Pesticide residues in total diet samples  (vi).  Pestic.
     Monit. J. _5(4): 313-330  (1972).

Cummings, J. G., Eidelman, M., Turner, V., Reed, D., Zee, K. T. and Cook,  R.  F,
     Residues in poultry tissues  from  low level feeding of five chlorinated
     hydrocarbon insecticides to  hens.  J^. Assoc. Official Anal.  Chemists
     _50U):418-425  (1967).

Cummings, J. G., Zee, K. T., Turner, V. and Quinn, F.  Residues in  eggs from
     low level  feeding  of  five chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides to  hens.
     J_. Assoc.  Official Anal. Chemists 49(2): 354-364  (1966).

Borough, H. W., Skentry, R.  F. and Pass, B. C.  Residues  in  alfalfa and soils
     following  treatment with technical chlordane and high purity chlordane
     (HCS-3260) for alfalfa  weevil control,   j;. Agr. Food Chem. 2iO_a):42-47
     (1972).

Edwards, C. A.  Persistent pesticides  in  the  environment, 2nd  edition,  CRC
     Press, Cleveland,  Ohio  (1973).

Food and Drug Administration, DHEW,  FY 1973 Pesticide/PCB in Foods  Program,
     Evaluation Report  (1973).

Huber,  J.  T.  and Bishop, J.  L.   Secretion of  heptachlor  epoxide  in  the  milk
     of cows  fed field-cured hay  from  soils  treated with  heptachlor.   J_. Dairy
     Sci.  45;79-81  (1962).

King, R. L. ,  Clark, N.  A.  and Hemken,  R. W.   Distribution, movement,  and per-
     sistence  of heptachlor and  its  epoxide  in  alfalfa plants  and soil.  J_.
     Agr.  Food  Chem.  1.4:62-65  (1966).
                                         71

-------
Liechtenstein, E. P., Fuhremann, T. W. and Schulz, K. R.  Use  of  carbon  to
     reduce the uptake of insecticidal soil residues by  crop  plants.  J.. Agr.
     Food Chem. 1.6(2.)-.348-355  (1968).

Lichtenstein, E. P., Myrdal, G, R, and Schulz, K. R.  Absorption of  insec-
     ticidal residues from contaminated soils into  five  carrot varieties.
     i- Agr. Food Chem. U02) :126-131 (1965).

Lichtenstein, E. P. and Schulz, K. R.  Residues of  aldrin  and heptachlor in
     soils and their translocation into various crops.   J_.  Agr.  Food  Chem.
     1.3(3.) :57-63 (1965).

Manske, D. D. and Corneliussen, P. E.  Pesticide residues  in  total diet
     samples (VII).  Pestic. Monit. J.- 1(1): 110-124 (1974).

McCaskill, W. R., Phillips, B. H., Jr. and Thomas,  C. A.   Residues of
     chlorinated hydrocarbons  in  soybean seed and surface  soils  from  selected
     counties of South Carolina.  Pestic. Monit. J_.  4^42  (1970).

Oloffs, P. C. , Szeto, S. Y. and Webster, J. M.  Translocation of the  organo-
     chlorine pesticide residues  from soils into carrots.   Can.  J_. Plant Sci.
     5^(6):547 (1971).

Ritchey, S. J., Young, R. W.,  Essary, E. 0.  Effects of  heating  and  cooking
     method of chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in  chicken tissue.   J^.  Agr.
     Food Chem. ^0(12) -.291-293  (1972).

Saha, J. G. and Stewart, W. W. A.  Heptachlor, heptachlor  epoxide and gamma
     chlordane residues in soil and rutabaga after  soil  and surface  treatment
     with heptachlor.  Can. J_. Plant Sci. ^7_:79 (1967).

Sand, P. E., Wiersma, G. B. and Landry, J. L.  Pesticide residues in  sweet
     potatoes and soil - 1969.  Pestic. Monit. J. J5(4_):342 (1972).

Williams, S., Mills, P. A. and McDowell, R. E.  Residues in milk of  cows  fed
     rations containing low concentrations of five  chlorinated hydrocarbon
     pesticides.  2- Assoc. Official Anal. Chemists 47(6);1124-8 (1964).

Vioque, A., Albi, T. and Nosti, M.  Pesticide residues  in  edible fats.   II:
     Elimination of chlorinated insects during refining.   Grasas Aceitas
     24.01):20-26 (1973) (in Spanish).

Wingo, C. W.  Persistence and  degradation of dieldrin and  heptachlor  in soil
     and effects on plants.  Univ. Missouri Agr. Exp. S tat. Res.  Bull.  914:27
     (1966).                                                  ~
                                         72

-------
                                    CHAPTER V

                    Toxicology and Epidemiology of Chlordane


7.A.  Introduction - A survey of the literature available on chlordane since?
the Review of 1972 has revealed some new information relative to its carcin-
ogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, metabolic and enzyme effects.

V.B.  Carcinogenic Studies - No carcinogenic studies, per se, were reported
in the 1972 review of chlordane.  However, chlordane was not reported at the
time to be tumorigenic in long-term studies in rats or dogs.

In an 18-month feeding study, male and female Charles River CD~1 mice were
fed chlordane in the diet at dosage levels of 5, 25, and 50 ppm.  For those
mice which were sacrificed after 18 months or which died during study, a
large number of compound-related liver masses and nodules were observed in the
25 and 50 ppm chlordane feeding groups.  Microscopically, hepatocytomegaly was
observed in livers from mice of the three chlordane feeding groups, and a
statistically significant increase in hepatic nodular hyperplasia occurred at
the 25 and 50 ppm levels.  Mice at the 25 ppm chlordane feeding level had a
greater number of hepatomas than occurred in the untreated controls (Wazeter
e al. (1973)

The National Cancer Institute has issued a preliminary report covering car-
cinogenicity testing of AG chlordane using both sexes of Osborne - Mendel rats
and B6C3F1 mice.  The AG chlordane was composed of approximately 65 percent
alpha chlordane and 35 percent  gamma chlordane.  The AG chlordane was adminis-
tered in the diets for a period of 80 weeks with sacrifice at approximately 90
weeks for the mouse and 110 weeks for the rat.  The dose levels for AG chlor-
dane in the diet were:  29.9 ppm  (low), 30.1 ppm (low), 56.2 ppm (high), and
63.8 ppm (high) for the mice; and, 120.8 ppm (low), 203.5 ppm (low),  241.5 ppm
(high), and 407.0 ppm (high) for  the rats.  The AG chlordane was found to be
carcinogenic in the mouse with  a high incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas.
With the rats, the predominant  lesions were hepatic nodules  and hyperplasia of
the liver.  Also, an increase of  thyroid/parathyroid tumors  occurred  in the
male rats receiving AG chlordane.  A complete histopathological report and
final document is expected to follow this prelimary report.  (National Cancer
Institute, 1975).
                                        73

-------
V.C.  Mutagenic and Teratogenic Studies - Brubaker et al. (1970) examined the
effects of gamma chlordane on cell division and DNA synthesis utilizing syn-
chronized mouse leukemia cells (L5178Y) grown in suspension culture.  The
cells were treated with 4 yg/ml gamma chlordane.  Few treated cells reentered
mitosis; instead they were arrested somewhere between the G-l and G-2 phases
of the cell cycle.  The treated cells were as competent in DNA replication as
control cells.  However, 25-30% of the total DNA persisted as light density
material.  The authors concluded that the effect of gamma chlordane on cell
division was not related directly to interference with DNA synthesis or the
cleavage of mitotic cells, but may arrest the cells during the G-2 period.

V.D.  Metabolic Studies - In the 1972 Review it was reported that a metabolite,
oxychlordane, was recently found in mammalian fat, milk and cheese.  It was
reported to be an epoxide derivative of chlordane formed from both alpha and
gamma chlordane.

Street and Blau (1972) reported oxychlordane storage in rat adipose tissue.
Male and female rats were fed pure cis-and trans-chlordane or technical chlor-
dane at levels from 50 to 200 ppm fori 15 days.  Trans-chlordarie resulted in
greater oxychlordane storage than cis-chlordane in both sexes with lower ac-
companying parent isomer storage.  Males fed either isomer stored less oxy-
chlordane than females.  At 100 ppm in the diet, storage ratios of oxychlordane
to chlordane for male and females respectively were:  trans-chlordane, 4.3:1
and 20:1; cis-chlordane, 3.4:1 and 9.1:1.  Oxychlordane storage during simul-
taneous administration of both chlordane isomers, or of technical chlordane
itself, showed additivity of oxychlordane formation with no interaction ap-
parent.  The authors believe that results of incubating chlordane isomers with
rat liver homogenate indicated that oxychlordane formation proceeds via a de-
hydrogenated Intermediate, dichlorochlordene.

V.E.  Effects of Chlordane on Enzymes - Ample evidence of enzyme induction by
chlordane is presented in early papers reviewed.  The following papers add to
evidence for induction and suppression of enzyme systems.

Wiess et al. (1970) found that chlordane fed to rats at 10 or 50 ppm for vary-
ing times up to 12 months significantly decreased hexobarbital leeping time at
one month.  After 12 months, treated rats showed a trend toward decreased pen-
tylenetitrazal and hexaflourodiethyl ether convulsive thresholds.  Hepatic
enzyme induction was postulated as the result of chlordane administration.

Kinoshita and Kempf (1970) fed various levels of chlordane, gamma chlordane,
heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide to male and female rats for 13 weeks.  Three
hepatic microsomal enzymes, phosphorothioate detoxification, 0-demethylase,
and N-demethylase, were induced in a dose-related manner.  Elevated enzyme
                                        74

-------
activity was maintained throughout the feeding period.  The more persistent
induction occurred with heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide.  The "no effect"
dietary levels for enzyme induction by the administered pesticides were ap-
proximately 1 ppm.  The reported descending order of potency for the chlordaae
and heptachlor materials as hepatic microsomal enzyme inducers were: heptachlc-r
epoxide, heptachlor, chlordane and gamma chlordane.

Rats treated with a single dose (100 mg/kg) of chlordane (Lechner and Pousada.
1971) showed significantly increased capacities of oxidative drug metabolism
24 hr after administration, and even more strongly at 48 hr, while RNase
activity was reduced to less than 50% of normal at 10 hr.

Pardini et al. (1971) reported that heptachlor and chlordane depressed the
mitochondrial succinoxidase system to 5.8  and 21.5% of  the  uninhibited controls.
Both compounds also depressed mitochondiral NADH-oxidase  activity to 8.6 and
10.1%, respectively, of the controls.  The authors speculate that since hepta-
chlor and chlordane did not interact after cytochrome C,  the site of inhibition
interaction may be either at complex III or at complexes  I  and  II.

Kacew and Singhal  (1973) reported that daily  intramuscular  injections of alpha
chlordane (5 mg/kg) for 45 days significantly stimulated  the activities of  py-
ruvate carboxylase, phos-phoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose-1,  6-diphos-
phatase and glucose-6-phosphatase in liver and kidney cortex of male rats.
Exposure for 45 days at 25 mg/kg also elevated the concentration of  serum urea.

V.E.I.  Miscellaneous Effects - Santolucito and  Whitcomb  (1971) studies the
mechanical  response characteristic of the  soleus muscle,  in situ,  in rats oral-
ly dosed with 260  mg/kg chlordane.  Characteristics  of  performance  measured
were the stimulation  frequency required and  tension  developed  for complete  ti-
tanus; frequency of stimulation required and  tension developed for  maximum
tension; time constants for  tetanic contraction  and  relaxation; and, single
contraction tension and duration.  Chlordane  did not alter  any of the respon-
ses  characteristic of  the  soleus muscle at the dose  studies.
                                         75

-------
                                     CHAPTER V

                                   Bibliography

 Brubaker,  P.  E. ,  Flamm,  W.  G.  and Bernhein,  N.  J.   "Effect  of gamma chlordane
      on synchronized lytnphoma  cells and inhibition of cell  division."  Nature
      ^26:548-549  (1970).

 Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40,  Chapter 1,  Subchapter E,  Subpart C,
      Sections 180.122,  180.319.

.Kacew,  S.  and Singhal,  R.  L.   Metabolic,alterations after chronic exposure
      to alpha-chlordane.   Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. U_:539-544 (1973).

 Kinoshita, F.  K.  and Kempf, C. K.  Quantitative measurement of hepatic  micro-
      somal enzyme induction after dietary intake of chlorinated  hydrocarbon
      insecticides.   Abstract:   Ninth Annual Meeting,  Toxicol. Appl. Pharm.  17(1):
      288 (1970).

 Lechner, M.  C.  and Pousada, C. R.  A possible role of liver microsomal  alkaline
      ribonuclease in the stimulation of oxidative drug metabolism by phenobar-
      bital,  chlordane and chlorophenothane (DDT).   Biochem. Pharm. 20:3021-3028
      (1971).

 National Cancer  Institute,  Division of  Cancer Cause and Prevention.  Preliminary
      report of the carcinogenesis bioassay of chlordane and heptachlor  - further
      pathology evaluation pending - draft document.  January 22,  1975.   (1975). ;

 Pardini, R.  S. , Heidker, J. C. and Payne, B.  The effect of some cyclodiene
      pesticides,  Benzenehexachloride and Toxaphene on mitochondrial electron
      transport.   Bull.  Environ.  Con tarn, and Toxicol.  6/_5) :436-444 (1971).

 Santolucito,  J. A.  and Whitcomb, E.  Mechanical response of skeletal muscle
      following oral administration of pesticides.   Toxicol. and Appl. Pharm.
      20:66-72 (1971).

 Street, J. C.  and Blau,  S.  E.   Oxychlordane:  accumulation  in rat adipose tissue
      on feeding  chlordane isomers or technical chlordane isomers or technical
      chlordane.   J_-  Agr.  Food  Chem. 20(2):395-397 (1972).

 Wazeter, F.  X., Goldenthal, E. I.,'and  Geil, R. G.  Chlordane and 2-
      Acetamidoflourene:   Eighteen month oral carcinogenic study in mice.
      Unpublished  report for Velsicol Chemical Corporation,  103-163 (December 14,
      1973).

 Wiess,  L.  R.,  Brodie, R.,  Reilly, J. F. and Krop, S.   Some  observations on  the
      comparative  toxicity of four organochlorine pesticides after short and pro-
      longed oral  administration in rats.  Abstract:  Ninth  Annual Meeting,
      Toxicol.  Appl.  Pharm.  17(1):278 (1970).
                                         76

-------
                                   CHAPTER VI

                    Toxicology and Epidemiology of Heptachlor


VI.A.  Introduction - A review of literature available on heptachlor since
1972 has revealed new information on subacute oral toxicity, effects on repro-
duction, carcinogenicity, metabolism, enzyme induction, and human epidemiology.

VLB.  Subacute Oral Toxicity - The toxicity of heptachlor was studied by Webb
and Miranda (1973) in male weanling rats fed different types (gluten or casein)
protein for 10 days at two levels of protein intake.  With a dietary protein
level of 10%, heptachlor was less acutely toxic in rats fed an unsupplemented
gluten diet than in animals pair-fed diets containing gluten plus amino acids
or casein plus 0.2% DL-methionine.  When the level of dietary protein was raised
to 18%, heptachlor was twice as toxic to rats pair-fed casein diets as the rats
fed unsupplemented gluten.  The clinical syndrome of intoxication was not af-
 fected by  the quality  of dietary  protein  fed.  Animals  fed  casein diets ad_
 libitum were  less susceptible  to  heptachlor  intoxication  than were  rats fed  the
 same diets  at a  restricted  level  of  intake.  The  authors  speculated  that  the  dif-
 ferences in heptachlor toxicity with variations in  the  quality of the dietary pro-
 tein may be due  to differences in rate  of  activation of heptachlor  in vivo and
 that impairment  of the conversion of heptachlor to  its  epoxide probably occurs
 in rats fed poor quality protein.

VI.C.  Effects on  Reproduction - The results of reproductive effects of hepta-
chlor epoxide on  the hatchability of white leghorn eggs in  the 1972  review of
heptachlor  is supported  by one additional study.  Smith et  al. (1970) studied
several chlorinated pesticides, including heptachlor, by  injecting  them via a
corn oil carrier  into  fertile  hen eggs.  A 1.5 mg injection of heptachlor re-
sulted  in a 12% reduction in hatchability.  All test chicks appeared normal.
The  authors concluded  that quite  substantial amounts of chlorinated  hydrocar-
bon  pesticides must be injected to observe a sharp decline  in hatchability.

VI.D.   Carcinogenicity - Since 1972, additional studies have been completed.
Cabral  et al.  (1972) administered 10 rag/kg heptachlor,  in grain  oil, to rats
from birth  to 10  days  of age.  Twenty-nine rats were killed at 60 weeks to
detect  early  changes.   Changes in histopathology were absent.  Growth and sur-
vival  rates were  similar in the experimental and  control  groups.  No liver
tumors  were observed in  either sex.  Incidence of tumors  among males was  sub-
stantially  the same  in the  treated and  control groups.  Among females surviv-
ing  80  weeks,  9  of 28  heptachlor  treated animals  developed  a total  of 12  tumors
 (5 of  them  mammary), while  in  the controls,  A out of 27 developed a total of
4  tumors (2 of them mammary).  Tumor incidence associated with the  thyroid,
the  adrenals,  and pituitary in the treated and control  groups was comparable.
The  authors concluded  that  the administration of  heptachlor to rats, in oral
doses  of 50 mg/kg during the suckling period, showed no carcinogenic effect.
                                         77

-------
In an 18-month feeding study, male and female Charles River CD-I mice were
fed a mixture of 75 percent heptachlor epoxide - 25 percent heptachlor in the
diet at dosage levels of 1, 5 and 10 ppm.  For those mice which were sacri-
ficed after 18 months or which died during the study, a large number of
compound-related liver masses were observed in the groups which received 5
or 10 ppm of heptachlor epoxide/heptachlor.  Microscopically, the livers of
male mice from the 1, 5 and 10 ppm levels of heptachlor epoxide/heptachlor
feeding and the livers of females from the 5 and 10 ppm levels of heptachlor
epoxide/heptachlor had compound-related hepatocytomegaly.  Liver weights of
female mice on 1, 5 and 10 ppm of heptachlor epoxide/heptachlor were signif-
icantly increased.  Mice from the 5 and 10 ppm feeding levels of heptachlor
epoxide/heptachlor had nodular hyperplasia of the liver.  These lesions,
which occurred with a dosage-related incidence and severity, were considered
compound-related (Wazeter et al. 1973)

The National Cancer Institute has issued a preliminary report covering carcin-
ogenicity testing of technical grade heptachlor using both sexes of Osborne-
Mendel rats and B6C3F1 mice.  The technical grade heptachlor was composed of
74 percent heptachlor with the remainder being essentially alpha chlordane.
The technical grade heptachlor was administered in the diets for a period of
80 weeks with sacrifice at approximately 90 weeks for the mouse and 110 weeks
for the rat.  The dose levels for technical grade heptachlor in the diet were:
6.1 ppm (low), 9.0 ppm (low), 13.8 ppm (high), and. 18.0 ppm (high) for the
mice; and, 18.9 ppm (low), 38.9 ppm (low), 37.8 ppm  (high), and 77.9 ppm (high)
for the rats.  The technical grade heptachlor was found to be carcinogenic in
the mouse with a high incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas.  With the rats,
the predominant lesions were hepatic nodules and hyperplasia of the liver.  A
complete histopathological report and final document will follow this prelimin-
ary report.  (National Cancer Institute, 1975).

VI.E.  Metabolism - Mizyukova and Kurchatov (1970) gave female rats a single
dose (120 mg/kg) of heptachlor and found that the compound reaches all organs
and tissues within the first hour after dosing.  It  is rapidly metabolized to
form the epoxide which accumulates in the fatty tissue.  The concentration of
heptachlor in all organs and tissue falls at the same time as its concentration
in the fatty tissue falls, and the epoxide reaches its maximum accumulation in
fatty tissue with scarcely any of it excreted.

 latsumura and Nelson (1971) fed heptachlor epoxide (99%) to 4 male rats at 10
 pm for 30 days.  The rats excreted 950 ug of a fecal metabolite and 66 ug of
 jptachlor epoxide in the feces.  The evidence indicated that the structure of
  e metabolite is as follows:
                            Cl
,r
I'A
k1
~-.
-^
                                        78

-------
De Vos et al. (1972) fed several pesticides, including heptachlor, to day-old
broiler chicks at levels of 0.05, 0.14 and 0.30 ppm for a period of 7 weeks.
Heptachlor epoxide residue levels in fat were 13 times the level in feed.

Dobson et al. (1972) reported that hogs pasturing on corn stover accumulated
measurable residues of heptachlor epoxide in fat, 0.032 to 0.071 ppm.  Remova:L
of the animals to concrete slabs for further fattening and varying periods of
time reduced but did not eliminate these residues.

VI.F.  Enzyme Induction - Kinoshita and Kempf (1970) fed various levels of
chlordane, gamma chlordane, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide to male and fe-
male rats for 31 weeks.  Three hepatic microsomal enzymes, phosphorothioate
detoxification, 0-demethylase, and N-demethylase, were induced in a dose re-
lated manner.  Elevated enzyme activity was maintained throughout the feeding
period.  The more persistent induction occurred with heptachlor and heptachlor
epoxide.  The "no effect" dietary level for enzyme induction was approximately
1 ppm.  The reported descending order of potency for hepatic microsomal enzyme
induction was:  heptachlor epoxide, heptachlor, chlordane and gamma chlordane.

Pardini et al. (1971) reported that heptachlor and chlordane depressed the
mitochondrial succinoxidase system to 5.8% and 21% of the uninhibited controls.
Both compounds also depressed mitochondrial NADA-oxidase activity to 8.6 and
10% respectively of the controls at 1 u mole/flask.  The authors speculate
that since heptachlor and chlordane did not interact after cytochrome C, the
site of inhibition  interaction may be either at complex III or at complex I
and III.

Krampl  (1971) intubated female Wistar rats with 60 mg/kg of heptachlor (single
dose),  and other groups received 7 or 12 mg/kg daily for 28 days.  At 2 hr
after a single dose, activity of glutamic pyruvic transaminase in liver signif-
icantly increased, but at 72 hr it decreased below normal.  The decreases
were significant on the 7th day  for the 7 mg/kg dosage and on the 7th and 14th
day  for the  12 mg/kg dosage.  The terminal values were approximately at base
value for both groups by  the 28th day.  Changes  in aldolase activity in  liver
and  serum for both  groups  (single and multiple dose) showed similar  effects
over time.

VI.G.   Epidemiological Studies - Hunter (1968) tabulated data for four pesti-
cides in adipose  tissue from Australia, India, Israel, Italy, the U.K. and  the
U.S.A.  He related  the data to maximum human  tissue  concentrations found with
and  without  intoxication  (male adults).  From  this  information,  the  respective
adipose tissue and  whole  blood values of 0.5 mg/g and  3.5 mg/1 for heptachlor
epoxide were proposed  as  allowable.
                                        79

-------
Casarett and Fryer (1968) analyzed as many as 12 tissues from 44 autopsies in
Hawaii for some common organochlorine pesticides.  Subjects ranged from 28
weeks gestation to 88 yr old.  The levels of heptachlor eppxide in the 12
types of tissue ranged from 0.01 ppm in brain to 0.09 ppm in liver.  In general,
the organochlorine pesticide levels corresponded with the extractible lipid
content of the tissue, except in the brain.

Zavon et al. (1969) collected and analyzed skin, fat and attached subcutaneous
tissue of 68 neonates from 13 U.S. cities.  Fifty-six of the specimens were
from stillborn infants who died within one week of birth.  The average of
results based on total weight of samples was 0.060 ppm heptachlor epoxide.
Differences in levels by sex were considered inconsequential.

Data for heptachlor epoxide in maternal blood and placental tissues from 53
women spontaneously delivered in a Louisiana parish in 1966-67 were reported by
Selby et al. (1969).  Heptachlor was detected in the blood of 15 individuals
(mean 0.13 ppb, range 0.1-0.2 ppb).  Heptachlor epoxide was detected in the
blood of 42 individuals (mean 0.21 ppb, range 0.1-0.6 ppb).  The mean for
heptachlor in the placental tissue of 3 individuals was 6.23 ppb, and the
range was 2.0-52.0 ppb.  The mean placental tissue value for heptachlor epoxide
in 11 individuals was 1.21 ppb, and the range was 0.1-6.5 ppb.

Heydrickx and Maes (1969) investigated several chlorinated hydrocarbon insecti-
cides in the lipid fraction of human milk.  Four samples out of 20 contained
heptachlor epoxide, ranging from 0.001 to 0.003 ppm.  The authors also reported
that heptachlor transferred from pregnant guinea pigs to the fetus via the
placenta.

Curley et al. (1969) reported the following ppm levels of heptachlor epoxide in
tissue from 10 autopsies of stillborns.

Tissue                   Mean           SE+            Range

Adipose                  0.32           0.10           0.07-0.51
Spinal Cord               -              -
Brain                    0.13
Adrenals                 0.73           0.27           0.46-1.00
Lungs                    0.17           0.07           0.08-0.31
Heart                    0.80           0.30           0.30-1.56
Liver                    0.68           0.50           0.03-1.67
Kidney                   0.70           0.28           0.19-1.14
Spleen                   0.35           0.08           0.10-0.52
Pancreas                  -              -

In a study of 1000 serum samples from people in southern Idaho, Watson et al.
(1970) found heptachlor epoxide in 2.2% of the samples.  Levels ranged from
0-5 ppb.
                                        80

-------
Mshimoto et al. (1970) analyzed 74 human adipose tissue samples for heptachlo-i
epoxide.  The subjects were over 24 years of age.  The compound was found at.
an arithmetic mean of 0.01 ppm and a range of 0 to 0.09 ppm.

In thirty-one samples of omentum fat (biopsy) from the Province of Trento,
Italy, Prati and Del Dot (1971) did not find heptachlor.  Heptachlor epoxide
was found in 19.4% of the samples with a geometric mean of 0.010 ppm.

Doguchi et al.  (1971) analyzed 21 samples of human abdominal fat tissues ft  .,
females residing in metropolitan Tokyo.  Gas chromatography detected heptachl."
epoxide levels  ranging from 0 to 0.14 ppm with a mean of 0.04 ppm.

Paired samples  of serum and adipose tissue from patients undergoing abdominal
surgery were analyzed to determine residue levels of several chlorinated hydro-
carbon pesticides pby Wyllie et al; (1972).  Blood and adipose tissue were ob-
tained from 141 female and 61 male Caucasians.  Heptachlor epoxide was found ir<
18% of the serum samples (0-2 ppb range, mean 0.1 ppb) arid 97% of the adipose
samples (0-1.3  ppm, range, mean 0.1 ppm).

Wassermann et al. (1972) used gas chromatographic methods to analyze 268 adi-
pose tissues collected during the autopsy of Nigerians who had no occupational
exposure to organochlorine insecticides.  Heptachlor epoxide was found in all
tissues examined.  In stillborn, heptachlor epoxide was present at 0.006 ppm.
Heptachlor epoxide was found as follows:  0-11 months children, 0.012 ppm;
1-4 years old,  0.006 ppm; 5-24 years old, 0.004 ppm; and, 45-4- years of age,
0.02 ppm.

Similar analyses were performed by Wassermann et al.  (1974) on adipose tissues
from  307 autopsies of Israelis.  Concentrations of heptachlor epoxide in adi-
pose  tissues of stillborns averaged below 0.01 ppm, indicating, according to
the authors, accumulation during;fetal  life and  the ability of the compound  to
cross  the placental barrier.  The mean  concentrations in  the tissues of various
age groups were:

Age Groups                                   ppm

Stillborn                               0.0030 +  0.0028
0-11  months                             0.0007 +  0.0025
5-24  yr.                                0.0211 +  0.0412
25-44 yr.                               0.0205 +0.0316
45-63 yr.                               0.0251 +  0.0192
70+ yr.                                 0.0102 +  0.0027

In the United Kingdom  during  the period 1969-71, samples  of human  fat were
taken during routine necropsies of  201  subjects  over  5  years of age  and of  20
stillborn by Abbott  et al.  (1972).  In  subjects  under 5 yr  old, heptachlor
                                         81

-------
epoxlde levels were reported as:  arithmetic mean, 0.03 mg/kg; range, 0-0.14
mg/kg.  The number of positive samples was not given nor were values for still-
born separated from the values of those under 5 yr.

Pratl et al. (1972) analyzed tissue of autopsy and biopsy subjects from
Ferrara Province, Italy for heptachlor epoxide and found the following percent-
positive samples:  52 autopsy fat, 69.2%; 33 biopsy fat, 54.5%; 23 liver, 34.8%;
15 kidney, 0%; 15 brain, 0%; and 13 spleen, 7.7%.  The mean levels and ranges
were:  autopsy fat, 0.51 ppm, 0-1.58 ppm; biopsy fat, 0.24 ppm, 0-1.02 ppm;
liver, 0.07 ppm, 0-0.34 ppm; and spleen, only one positive sample, 0.19 ppm.

Burns (1974) reported on residues in adipose tissue from elective surgery sub-
jects in the Rio Grande Valley, Texas.  Heptachlor epoxide levels ranged from
0.08+0.07 to 0.14+0.13 ppm for the years 1969-72.

Kutz et al. (1974) reported a survey of human adipose tissue residues for
several pesticides.  The survey for 1970 covered 32 cities in four census
regions of the contiguous 48 states.  Heptachlor epoxide was detected in 76%
of 1,412 samples.  The levels ranged from 0 to 10.62 ppm on a percent lipid
basis.  The median, geometric and arithmetic means were:  0.08; 0.09; and,
0.17 ppm, respectively.

Heptachlor epoxide has been detected in human milk.  .Larsen et al. (1971) found
two positive samples in 31 analyses in British Columbia.  The levels were 0.052
and 0.013 ppm.  Fifty samples of human milk from mothers (18-32 years) living
in Leiden, Netherlands were analyzed by Tuinstra (1971) during the last three
months of 1969.  Heptachlor epoxide was detected in all samples, median 0.06 -
0.028 ppm, range - 0.13-0.15 ppm.  The author states that the WHO/FAO average
daily intake for heptachlor epoxide is 0.5 g/kg/day, and that babies would
consume 0.19 g/kg/day.  From November 1971 to March 1972, Hayashi (1972) analyz-
ed 398 samples of milk from mothers in all 336 Japanese prefectures.  Heptachlor
epoxide was present at 0.0011 ppm (arithmetic mean) or 0.007 ppm (geometric
mean).  Savage et al. (1973) reported on 40 human milk samples from rural
Colorado.  Twenty-five percent of the samples contained heptachlor epoxide
at levels ranging from a trace to 5 ppb.
                                        82

-------
                                  CHAPTER VI

                                 Bibliography

Abbott, D. C., Collins, G. B. and Goulding, R.  Organochlorine pesticide
     residues in human fat in the United Kingdom.  1969-71.  Brit. Med.  J.
     553-556 (1972).

Burns, J. E.  Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl residues
     in biopaied human adipose tissue - Texas 1969-72.  Pestle. Monit. J^ 7^:
     122-126 (1974).

Cabral, J. R. , Testa, M. C. and Terracini, B.  Lack of long term effects from
     heptachlor administration to suckling rats.  Tumorl 58(l);49-53 (1972).

Casarett, L. J. and Fryer, G. C.  Organochlorine pesticide residues in human
     tissue - Hawaii.  'Arch. Environ. Health  17:306-311  (1968).

Curley, A., Copeland, M. F. and Kimbrough, R. D.  Chlorinated hydrocarbon
     insecticides  in organs of stillborn and  blood of newborn babies.  Arch.
     Environ. Health 19(5);628-632  (1969).

de Vos, R. H. , Bouwman, J. and Engel, A. B.   Residues of Organochlorine
     pesticides in broilers  from  feed fortified with known levels  of these
     compounds.  Pestle.  Sci. 3.4:421-432. (1972).

Dobson, R. C., Fahey,  J.  E., Bailee, D. L.  and Bough, E. R.  Dieldrin and
     heptachlor epoxide residues  in fat  from  hogs foraging on  corn stover in
     insecticidally  treated  fields. Bull.  Environ.  Contain. and:Tbxlcol. 7(5);
     311-320  (1972).

Doguchi,  M., Ushio,  F., Niwayama, K. and Nishida, K.  Pesticide  content of
     human female  fat  in  metropolitan  area.   Ann. Report Tokyo Metro. Res.
     Lab. Pub. Health.  No.  22:131-133  (1971).

Hayashi,  M.   Pollution of mothers'  milk by Organochlorine pesticides.   Jap.
     J.  Pub.  Health.  19 (9) :437-441 (abstract only)  (1972).

Heydrickx, A.  and  Maes,  R.   The excretion of  chlorinated hydrocarbon  insecti-
      cides in human mother milk.   J.  Phann.  Belg.  9-10:459-563 .(1969).

Hunter,  C. G.   Allowable human body concentrations  of Organochlorine  pesti-
      cides.   Med.  Lavoro. 59(10) -.577-583 (1968).

Kinoshita, F.  K.  and Kempf, C.  K.  Quantitative measurement of hepatic  micro-
      somal enzyme indication after dietary intake of chlorinated hydrocarbon
      insecticides.  Abstract:   Ninth Annual Meeting, Tox.  Appl.  Pharm.  17(1):
      288 (1970).
                                            83

-------
Krampl, V.  Relationship between serum enzymes and histological changes in
     liver after administration of heptachlor in the rat*   Bull.  Environ.
     Contam. Toxicol. 5(6):529-536 (1971).

Kutz, F. W., Yobs, A. R. , Johnson, W.  G.  and Wiersma, G.  B.   Pesticide resi-
     dues in adipose tissue of the general population of  the United States,
     FY 1970 Survey.  Bull. Soc. Pharro. Environ. Path^ 11(3) '-4-10 (1774).

Larsen, A. A., Robinson, J. M., Schmitt,  N. and Hole, L.  W.   Pesticide
     residues in mothers' milk and human fat from intensive use of soil
     insecticides, HSMHA Health Reports,,   86(5):477-48l (1971).

Matsumura, F. and Nelson, J. 0.  Identification of the major metabolic product
     of heptachlor epoxide in rat feces.   Bull. Environ.  Contam.  Toxicol.
     _5(6):489-492 (1971).
        i
Mizyukova, I. G. and Kurchatov, G. V.   Metabolism of heptachlor.   Russian
     Pharm. Toxicol. 33(4):212-215 (1970).

National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Cause and Prevention.
     Preliminary report of the carcinogenesis bioassay of chlordane and
     heptachlor - further pathology evaluation pending - draft document.
     January 22, 1975 (1975).

Nlshlmoto, T., Masahiko, U. and Sakae, T.  Bio-accumulation of organochloride
     pesticides in human fat tissues.   Igaku no Ayumi. 73(6):275-277 (1970).

Pardini, R. S., Heidker, J. C. and Payne, B.  The effect of some cyclodiene
     pesticides.  Benzenehexachloride and toxaphene on mitochondrial electron
     transport.  Bull.  Environ. Contam. and Toxicol. 6(5):436-444 (1971).

Prati, L. and Del Dot, M.  Ricerca sui livelli di accumulo di pesticide
     clorurati organic! di sintesi in tessuti adiposi umani nella Provincia
     ti Trento.* L'Igiene Moderna 64(1/6):36:44 (1971).

Prati, L. Pavanella, R. and Ghezzo, F.  Storage of chlorinated pesticides in
     human organs and tissues in Ferrara Province, Italy.  Bull. Wld. Health
     Org. 46(3):363-369  (1972).

Savage, E. P., Tessari, J. D., Malberg, J. W., Wheeler, H. W. and Bagby, J. R.
     Organochlorine  pesticides residues and polychlorinated biphenyls in human
     milk, Colorado  - 1971-1972.  Pestic. Monit. J. 7(l):l-5 (1973).

Selby, L. A., Newell, K. W., Hauser, G. A. and Junker, G.  Comparison of
     chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides in maternal blood and placental
     tissues.  Environ. Res. 2(4);247-255  (1969).
                                         84

-------
Smith, S. I., Weber, C. W. and Reid, B. L.  The effects of injection of
     chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides on hatchability of eggs.  ToxieoJL^
     Appl. Phartn. 16:179-185 (1970).

Tuinfltra, L. G. M.  Organochlorine insecticide residues in human milk  in  the
     Leiden region.  Neth. Milk Dairy J. 25(1);24-32  (1971).

Wassermann, M., Sofoluwe, G. 0., Tomatis, L., Day, N. E., Wassermann,  D.  and
     Lazarovici. S.  Storage of organochlorine insecticides in people  of
     Nigeria.  Environ. Physil. Biochem. 2(2):59-67  (1972).

Wassermann, M., Tomatis, L., Wassermann D., Day, N.  E., Groner, Y.,
     Lazarovici, S. and Rosenfeld, D.  Epidemiology  of organochlorine
     insecticides in the adipose tissue of Israelis.  Pestic. Monit. J. 8(1):
     1-6  (1974).

Watson, M., Benson, W. W. and Gabica, J.  Serum organochlorine pesticide
     levels in people  in southern Idaho.  Pestic. Monit.  J. 4(2);47-50 (1970).

Wazeter,  F.X., Goldenthai, E.I., and Geil, R.G.  75  percent heptachlor
     epoxide - 25 percent heptachlor and 2-Acetamidofluorene.  Eighteen month
     oral carcinogenic study in mice.  Unpublished report for Velsicol Chemi-
     cal  Corporation (Unpublished report, September  26, 1973).

Webb, R.  E. and Miranda, C. L.  Effects of the quality of dietary  protein on
     heptachlor toxicity.  Fd. Cosmet. Toxicol.  (1973).

Wyllie, J., Gabica, J. and Benson, W. W.  Comparative orgarochlorine pesticide
     residues in serum and biopsied lipid tissue:  A survey of 200 persons  in
     Southern Idaho -  1970.  Pestic. Monit. J. 6(.2):84-88 (1972).

Zavon, M. R., Tye, R.  and Latorre, L.  Chlorinated hydrocarbon content of the
     neonate.  Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 160(1):196-200  (1969).
                                       S3          US. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1976 0-42S/f.7S 1

-------