January 1978
Environmental Health Effects Research Series
                      WORKSHOP  ON HEALTH EFFECTS OF

                                            Health Effects Research Laboratory
                                           Office of Research and Development
                                          U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                                    Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711


Research reports of the Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency, have been grouped into nine series. These nine broad cate-
gories were established to facilitate further development and application of en-
vironmental technology.  Elimination of traditional grouping  was  consciously
planned to foster technology transfer and a maximum interface in related fields.
The nine series are:

      1.  Environmental  Health Effects Research
      2.  Environmental  Protection Technology
      3.  Ecological Research
      4.  Environmental  Monitoring
      5.  Socioeconomic Environmental  Studies
      6.  Scientific and Technical Assessment Reports (STAR)
      7.  Interagency Energy-Environment Research and Development
      8.  "Special" Reports
      9.  Miscellaneous Reports
This report has been assigned to the ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH EFFECTS RE-
SEARCH series. This series describes projects and studies relating to the toler-
ances of man for unhealthful substances or conditions. This work is generally
assessed from a medical viewpoint, including physiological or psychological
studies. In addition to toxicology and other medical specialities, study areas in-
clude biomedical instrumentation and health research techniques  utilizing ani-
mals — but always with  intended application to human health measures.
 This document is available to the public through the National Technical Informa-
 tion Service, Springfield, Virginia 22161.

                                 January 1978

     Sheraton-Crabtree Motor Inn
       Raleigh, North Carolina
          June 15-16, 1977
            Sponsored by
    Department of Transportation
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency


     This report has been reviewed by the Health Effects Research
Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and approved for
publication.  Mention of trade names or commercial products does not
constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.


     The many benefits of our modern, developing, industrial  society are
accompanied by certain hazards.  Careful  assessment of the relative risk of
existing and new man-made environmental hazards is necessary for the estab-
lishment of sound regulatory policy.  These regulations serve to enhance
the quality of our environment in order to promote the public health and
welfare and the productive capacity of our Nation's population.

     The Health Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park,
conducts a coordinated environmental health research program in toxicology,
epidemiology, and clinical studies using human volunteer subjects.  These
studies address problems in air pollution, non-ionizing radiation, environ-
mental carcinogenesis and the toxicology of pesticides as well as other
chemical pollutants.  The Laboratory develops and revises air quality
criteria documents on pollutants for which national ambient air quality
standards exist or are proposed, provides the data for registration of new
pesticides or proposed suspension of those already in use, conducts research
on hazardous and toxic materials, and is preparing the health basis for
non-ionizing radiation standards.  Direct support to the regulatory function
of the Agency is provided in the form of expert testimony and preparation of
affidavits as well as expert advice to the Administrator to assure the
adequacy of health care and surveillance of persons having suffered imminent
and substantial endangerment of their health.

     The Department of Transportation, recognizing the need for further
health effects research data in assessing the environmental implication of
its policies over the next several years, called upon the Environmental
Protection Agency's health effects group to bring together key experts in
the field to address both DOT's and EPA's research needs and to evaluate
resources available.  Both the conclusions regarding priorities and the
supporting rationale are included in this report.
                                      John H. Kne'Tson, M.D.
                               Health Effects Research Laboratory

     This report is a brief summary of the presentations  and conclusions  of
the DOT-EPA sponsored Workshop on Health Effects  of Transportation-Related
Pollutants held at the Sheraton-Crabtree Motor Inn, Raleigh, North  Carolina,
on June 15-16, 1977.  This report is, in part, interpretive  and intended  to
supply a synopsis and not a verbatum transcript of the proceedings.

     The initiative for this conference was provided by Dr. Richard
Strombotne, Director, Office of Energy and Environment, Office of the
Secretary, Department of Transportation.  Dr.  Strombotne's recognition
of the need for such a session was translated into action by Mr.
Samuel Coroniti, of his staff, who made the contacts with appropriate
EPA staff and thereafter coordinated the joint effort of bringing
together key experts to address the objectives of EPA and DOT.

     In addition, we would like to express our appreciation to Dr. Daniel
B. Menzel, Duke University Medical Center, for serving as reporter at the
workshop and for the numerous hours spent in preparation of this document.

                             TABLE OF CONTENTS
Foreword	iii
Abstract	1v
Acknowledgment   	    v
  I.  Executive Summary of Conference Objectives and Conclusions  ...    1
      A. General Issues  	    1
      B. Specific Objectives Recommended for the DOT Health
         Effects Program 	    2
         1. Primary Needs  	    3
         2. Secondary Needs  	    5
         3. Tertiary Needs 	    5
      C. Supporting and Ancillary Research Needs	.-	    5
 II.  Conference Summary 	    7
      A. Introduction and DOT Objectives
         Conference Discussant - Mr. S. Coroniti 	    7
      B. Overview of Ongoing Research on Automotive-Related
         Pollutants  	    7
         1. Overall Review
            Conference Discussant - Dr. D. E. Gardner   	    7
         2. Research Within EPA's Catalyst Research Program
            Conference Discussants - Dr. R. E. Lee and
            Dr. W. Moore	    9
      C. Future Development, Trends Related to Automotive  Power
         Plants, Fuels and Control Devices
         Conference Discussant - Dr. R. Bradow	10
      D. Atmospheric Chemistry:  Transport and Transformation of
         Primary and Secondary Pollutants  	   11
         1. Conference Discussant - Dr. A. P. Altshuller	11
         2. Conference Discussant - Dr. J. Pitts	12

                     TABLE OF CONTENTS - continued
      E.  Research Strategies 	  14

         1.  Toxicological  Studies
            Conference Discussant - Dr.  D. L. Coffin 	  14

         2.  Epidemiological  Studies
            Conference Discussant - Dr.  R. Morton  	  15

      F.  Specific Problem Areas  	 ....  16

         1.  Hydrocarbons (Straight Chain and Aromatics)
            Conference Discussant - Dr.  R. Suskind 	  16

         2.  Complex Organics (S, N, 0, and Other)
            Conference Discussant - Dr.  $. Rowlands  	  17
         3.  Particulate, Especially Tire Dust
            Conference Discussant - Dr.  A. Zarkoyrer	17

         4.  NO  and Other Automotive Emissions
            Conference Discussant - Dr.  R. Ehrlich 	  19

III.  Agenda	  23

 IV.  List of Participants  	  25

                      OBJECTIVES AND CONCLUSIONS
     A.   General Issues:  The following general  issues were discussed
and recommended by the workshop.

          1.   The complexity of the transportat1on-:associated air  ,
pollutants is such that a complete evaluation of the presently recognized
health hazards to man is not achievable in less than 10 years.  Short-
term goals which have importance and relevance to present health hazards,
however, can be achieved.

          2.   Present facilities and personnel for the study of air
pollutants are inadequate to evaluate the presently known pollutants.
Development of a stable cadre of scientists and physical facilities to
meet the added objectives of the DOT program are recommended.

          3.   Research strategies presently being applied to the general
study of air pollutants may be applicable to the gap areas in transportation-
related air pollutants identified by this workshop.  A detailed study of
most effective strategies for future studies is needed.  Formation of ap
expert multidisciplinary advisory study group to develop such strategies
for DOT is needed and is recommended.             '

     Examples of methods and strategies of research identified by this
workshop as applicable to the DOT program are listed below.  IŁ is the
opinion of the workshop participants that there aris insufficient data to
warrant more than preliminary human experimentation research without
detailed animal studies.  Medical-legal consideration prevents the
exposure of volunteers to many of the pollutants identified by the group
without first collecting toxicological data in animals.  Carcinogenesis
is a potential problem area which can only be conducted in experimental
animals.  Epidemiological studies are needed but are difficult to define
since sensitive indicators of biological damage which can be applied to
man are only now being developed in animal models.  Further constraints
on epidemiological studies are the time and complexity of design and
collection of appropriate monitoring data.  None of these considerations,
however, should be taken to infer that human experimentation or epidemir
ological data are considered inappropriate or of low priority; rather,
these studies are considered urgent, first priority projects whenever

     Specific methods of procedure discussed and considered to be applicable
strategies for implementing research in the areas identified are as

     1.   Epidemioldgical studies directed to specific transportation-
associated pollutants, including those segments of the population likely
to be at greatest risk either geographically, medically, or physiologically;

     2.   Human clinical studies;

     3.   Infectivity mortality studies in small animals with both
bacterial and viral pathogens;

     4.   Perfused isolated animal lungs and human lung fragments, as
means of studying metabolism, physiology, and pharmacology;

     5.   Chronic animal exposures followed with conventional and inno-
vative morphological measurements;

     6.   Isolated cell and organ culture systems;

     7.   Bacterial and microbial cell systems for mutagenesis and
carcinogenesis testing;

     8.   Whole animal carcinogenesis testing;

     9.   Teratogenesis testing in whole animals and some limited organ
culture systems;

    10.   Immunobiological systems, especially those systems dealing
with cellular mechanisms of immunity;

    11.   Neurobiological and behavioral evaluation; and

    12.   Hormonal alterations that might lead to pathophysiology.

     Application of these methods of procedure to the specific objectives
listed below will depend upon the nature of the problem and is deserving
of detailed study and recommendation by the expert interdisciplinary
advisory group.

     B.   Specific Objectives Recommended for the DOT Health Effects
Program:  Specific areas were identified by~the workThop as in need of
investigation.  These areas were selected on the basis of their immediate
relevance to transportation in its broadest sense, including air and
ground transportation.  Air pollution remains the principle concern and
focus relevant to transportation.  Since EPA, NIH and others are supporting
programs relating to the general problem of air pollution, the areas
listed below were considered by the workshop as those areas that were in
need of immediate support, but were not included in existing programs.

As the workshop participants came from a broad background, their knowledge
of planned as well as on-going research was drawn upon to formulate the
objectives listed below.  It 1s the clear Intention of the workshop that
these objectives were not Intended as a comprehensive statement of the
general problem of transportation air pollution, but represents the
expert opinion of the group as to the minimum program which might be
added on to existing programs through DOT support.  While these are
specialized programs related to transportation in particular, they are
still part of the overall problem of air pollution.  There is no way in
which pollution related to transportation systems can be divorced from
the more general problem of air pollution.

     Specific objectives were divided into three priorities of immediate,
near-term needs, secondary objectives, and long-term objectives.  Within
these categories no priorities were assigned.

          1.   Primary Needs;

               a.   Coordination with Changing Technology;  Biological
studies must keep pace with the projected changes in power plants used
in transportation systems and the consequent changes in exhaust emissions.
An example of an important immediate gap 1s the evaluation of the bio-
logical effects of changes from gasoline to diesel power plants.  Inter-
action between transportation technologists and biologists must be
assured in all future programs to avoid recurring gaps and to allow
sufficient lead time.

               b.   Human Clinical Studies:  Because of the rapidly
evolving information on the toxicology of air pollutants, a constant
review of the applicability of methods developed from animal and jn[
vitro studies to man is recommended.  Human experimentation is recom-
mended in all those areas where it is safe and reasonable.

               c.   Epideirn'oloqical Studies;  Support of epidemiological
studies is recommended using the same criteria as above for human experi-
mentation.  Epidemiological studies should be planned carefully with a
detailed evaluation of the pollution monitoring methods prior to implement-
ation.  Since epidemiological studies require long time periods for
completion, stable support for these studies is recommended.  Specific
projects for both epidemiological and human experimentation should be
evaluated by an expert advisory group.

               d.   Exhaust Particulates Including Ultrafine Aerosols;
Particles arising from auto exhaust and from conversion of exhaust
components in the atmosphere is a clearly identified area deserving
greater study.  An important area is the inhalation toxicology of res-
plrable particles Including ultrafine aerosols in general.  Knowledge of

the toxicology of ultra-fine particles is particularly lacking.  The role
of particles as carrier of toxicants likewise needs investigation.  A
critical issue is the sorption of emission products or secondary pollu-
tants on carbon particles of a variety of sizes.  These studies are
directly related to the biological effects of diesel emissions.

               e.   Dose-Response Relationships;  Dose-response relation-
ships, including the number of exposures, concentration of toxicant,
duration of exposure and frequency of exposure, are very important
aspects of the toxicity of transportation-associated pollutants.  Detailed
studies of dose-response relationships are needed for these air pollutants
(ozone, N02, sulfuric acid and sulfate aerosols, and organic particulates).
These data bear directly on estimates of health impacts and modeling of
the effects of alternative control strategies.

               f.   Potentiation of Toxic Effects of Mixtures of Air
Pollutants;  Since most studies o7~the toxicity of air pollutants asso-
ciated with automotive exhaust have been conducted on single air pollutants
alone, potentiation of the toxic effects of combinations of air pollutants
has not been fully evaluated.  Some data indicates a greater toxicity
resulting from sulfuric acid and ozone combinations than from these
toxicants alone, depending upon the sequence of exposure.  Auto exhaust
is a mixture of both different chemical compounds and different physical
states (particles and gases).  Evaluation of the toxicity of gaseous
pollutants in the presence of particulate pollutants, especially carbon
particles and respirable particles generated as secondary pollutants in
the atmosphere, is needed.  Specific combinations of pollutants related
to transportation that should be evaluated are particulates and oxidants
(ozone and nitrogen dioxide), sulfuric acid aerosols and carcinogens,
carbon particles and oxidants, and sulfate aerosols and oxidants.
Studies on carbon particles as carriers are particularly important to
diesel exhaust emission evaluations.

               g.   Hydrocarbons and Oxygenated Hydrocarbons Emitted
into the Atmosphere;  Hydrocarbon and oxygenated hydrocarbon species are
emitted into the atmosphere from mobile vehicle exhausts.  Atmospheric
transformation of these compounds may be the most critical step in
determining the biological activity of these compounds.  Changes in
fuel, power plant and emission control devices will effect the chemical
composition of these compounds inhaled by man.  These compounds may be
potential carcinogens or modifiers of the neoplastic process and, there-
fore, of immediate importance.  Detailed data have not appeared identifying
these hydrocarbon species (polynuclear aromatic and otherwise) or their
oxygenated forms so that biological estimates of their toxicity are
difficult.  Further study of both the chemical nature and biological
action is needed.

               h.   Toxicology of NO  Mixtures:   Mixtures of pollutants,
particularly NO , may result indifferent chemical  species depending
upon the relative humidity.  Nitrous acid may result, for example, from
NO  at high relative humidity to provide concentrations of this compound
adequate for interaction with cellular components on inhalation.  Nitrous
acid may be important in the direct formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines
in situ.  The presence and reactivity of nitrous acid, nitric acid and
similar species depending upon the relative humidity deserves further
study and toxicological evaluation.

          2.   Secondary Needs:

               a.   Tolerance Mechanisms:  Verification and elucidation
of the "tolerance" mechanism to air pollutants is a basic concern to the
interpretation of human health effects of air pollutants.  Studies in
man and animals deserve support.

          3.   Tertiary Needs:

               a.   Hetero-Organic Compounds:  Our knowledge of the
complex organic compounds containing S, N, and 0 originating from exhausts
or from atmospheric conversion is insufficient to predict their potential
health effects or to provide adequate direction for health effects
experiments at present.  An evaluation of the biological impact of these
compounds should continue with a limited number of compounds selected
for biological evaluation based on the likelihood of toxicity from
chemical structural similarities with known toxicants.

               b.   Aircraft and Roadside Deposition;  The deposition of
particulate materials from aircraft and motor vehicles on foodstuffs,
soil, plants, and other means of translocation of these particles to man
is also of concern.

               c.   Particles from Roadway and Vehicle Wear:  Inhalation
particles arising directly from the roadway are potentially hazardous.
The size distribution and the nature of the particles generated from the
roadway should be determined since the preliminary data on the composition
of the mineral content of some roadways suggests that particles of the
respirable range may be highly damaging.  While tire wear does not
appear to be a health hazard since it does not produce particles of a
respirable size, other products of vehicle degradation may deserve

     C.   Supporting and Ancillary Research Needs;  Despite considerable
effort in inhalation toxicology and air pollution research there still
exist supporting and ancillary research needs that are presently unmet.

          1.   Further characterization of emission products and their
transformation in the atmosphere is needed.

          2.   Further development of mathematical models of the deposition
of inhaled toxicants in the human and animal lung which can allow a more
sound extrapolation from animal exposures to human exposures is needed.
A model for human and animal lungs for ozone and other soluble gases has
been developed.  Improvement of the model for particle deposition is
needed.  Development of a model for liquid and soluble aerosols is

          3.   Development of animal models of human diseases which may
place the diseased person at greater risk is needed.

                             II.   CONFERENCE SUMMARY
     A.   Introduction and DOT Objectives (Conference Discussant - Mr.
S. CoronitTf:The Department of Transportation has an immediate and
continuing concern for the health effects of transportation.   Legisla-
tive mandates to this end are contained in the DOT Act, Clean Air Act,
NEP Act, Airport and Airway Development Act, Urban Mass Transportation
Act, and the ERDA Act amongst others.  Autos and other mobile vehicles
contribute a significant proportion of the emissions entering the at-
mosphere resulting in air pollution.  The impact of transportation
systems on the degradation of the air quality is a challenge which DOT
must meet to fulfill its public obligations in the planning and execu-
tion of transportation systems for the nation.  Through its review and
assistance DOT also has a direct impact upon state and local  plans for
the development of new transportation modes.  State and local govern-
ments have turned to DOT for guidance and help in devising strategies
designed to reduce the air pollution impact of transportation.  To
assist in the planning of transportation systems at all levels, DOT is
seeking the assessment of this workshop of the areas of concern and the
action needed to contend with present day and future health effects.
Since the primary route of entry of these pollutants is through inhala-
tion, the workshop objectives have been restricted to air pollutant
effects.  Other groups will be considering effects on transportation-
related pollutants on the remainder of the environment independent of
this workshop.

     B.   Overview of Ongoing Research on Automotive-Related Pollutants:

          1.   Overall Review (Conference Discussant  Dr. D.  E. Gardner):
The present ongoing research aimed at studying the health effects of
automotive-related air pollutants within EPA are set out in Tables 1-3.
Both in vivo and in vitro testing methods are being used.  A major
effort is directecFtoward the use of the highly sensitive infectivity
model of the toxic effect of air pollutants.  Both primary and secondary
pollutants are being studied.  The effects of these pollutants on the
microbial deposition, clearance, and invasion of the test organism are
being investigated.  Alterations in specific defense systems being
studied include the pulmonary macrophage, the cellular immune system,
and mucociliary clearance.  The dose-response relationship for both
ozone and nitrogen dioxide are being investigated to determine if the
concentration of the pollutant is more important than the time of ex-
posure in determining the effect on the animal.  Such studies are highly
important to both short- and long-term standards.  Whole animal studies
also include alterations in pulmonary function, blood chemistry, specific
tissue burdens of inhaled heavy metals and potential carcinogenesis or
modification of carcinogens.

     A number of model systems are being used to predict effects on man
from long-term exposure.  These include studies of the uptake and removal
of secondary pollutants such as sulfate salts, sulfuric acid, and heavy
metals in perfused lungs.  The effects of a large number of pollutants
on the pulmonary bacterial defense system are being assessed by measure-
ments in vitro of the effect of these pollutants on the death of pulmonary
macropfiages, release of marker enzymes from the cell, inhibition of the
ability of the macrophage to engulf particles (phagocytosis), alterations
in the genetic system (DNA and RNA synthesis), metabolic repair (protein
synthesis), and morphology.  Combination studies of exposure of whole
animals and subsequent isolation of organs or cells for study are being
undertaken to eliminate complications associated with whole animal
studies and to improve the sensitivity of the system.  For example, the
effects on important recognition systems using the immune system are
being studied using the pulmonary macrophage isolated from exposed

     The nature of interactions between pollutants and the other factors
in the environment were demonstrated by Dr. Gardner.  The toxicity of
oxidizing pollutants is influenced by the length of exposure to the
pollutant, the concentration of the pollutant, the temperature, predis-
posing disease, other pollutants present (for example, sulfuric acid and
ozone), length of time between exposures and physiological state of the
animal.  Exposure regimens within the program are designed to mimic the
cyclic nature of photochemical pollutants observed over major cities.
On long-term exposure, continuous and intermittent nitrogen dioxide
exposures appear to be equivalent at the same concentration of nitrogen
dioxide.  Exercise, similar to heavy work, increases pollutant toxicities.
Combination exposures of nitrogen dioxide and ozone, similar to the
combination exposures of photochemical smog, appear to be additive and
not synergistic.  On the other hand, sequential exposure to ozone
followed by sulfuric acid mists appear to potentiate the toxicity of the

     The discussion following Dr. Gardner's presentation centered around
the appropriateness of the models currently being used by EPA.  It was
generally agreed that the program was well founded upon scientifically
accepted principles and represented the present state-of-the-art in the
measurement of pollutant effects.  A need was cited for more detailed
information on the lifetime effects of low levels of pollutants.  Esti-
mation of "threshold" or no effect levels of pollutants is therefore
difficult.  Pressure for immediate assessment of pollutant hazards, only
short-term fiscal support mechanisms, and limited personnel and exposure
facilities have hampered long-term studies.

     A need for combination studies of pollutants was clearly illustrated
by Dr. Gardner's data.  Most studies, because of the shortages cited

above, are single pollutant studies, while the polluted air actually
contains large numbers of pollutants mixed in variable ratios.   The
sulfuric acid-ozone data emphasizes the need for studies of combinations
of pollutants.

          2.   Research Within EPA's Catalyst Research Program (Conference
Discussants - Dr. R. E. Lee and Dr. W. Moore):  Dr. Lee and Dr. Moore
described the research being performed within EPA's Catalyst Research
Program.  The strategy of this program is to identify automotive emissions,
to determine emission factors, and to estimate the consequences of human
exposure to these emissions.  Participating laboratories include ESRL,
which is in charge of emission characterization and atmospheric chemistry;
EMSL, which collects and analyzes fuel and also monitors roadside emissions;
HERL - Cincinnati, which studies health consequences of whole exhaust;
and HERL - Research Triangle Park, which performs inhalation toxicology,
human studies, and ir[ vivo and in_ vitro testing.

     Work performed at ESRL has demonstrated that the oxidizing catalyst
reduces CO, hydrocarbons, phenols, aldehydes, polynuclear aromatic
hydrocarbons, and organic particuiate emissions and that there is negligible
platinum and palladium emitted from the catalyst.  The sulfuric acid
emitted is in the ultrafine particle size range (0.01 - 0.10 micron) and
sulfuric acid monitoring in this particle size range is difficult to
perform.  EMSL is presently surveying fuel for sulfur content and has
monitored sulfate levels during its L.A. Freeway study.  Ongoing studies
at HERL - Cincinnati include exposure of rats to metallic sulfate
aerosols, manganese compounds such as MMT, and diesel exhaust emissions.

     HERL - Research Triangle Park is presently investigating the effects
of platinum and palladium, ultrafine sulfuric acid aerosol exposures,
and toxicity associated with sulfuric acid and sulfate salts.  Clinical
studies are now beginning exposing healthy volunteers to 100 yg/m
sulfuric acid aerosols (0.3 microns) for short times.

     Discussion brought out the need for a better chemical characterization
of the actual atmospheric sulfate particles since the biological effects
of sulfate aerosols are highly dependent on the chemical composition of
the sulfate salt.  The deposition, availability, and biological effect
of ultrafine aerosols is unknown since the detection, measurement, and
production of these submicron particles have only just evolved as a new
technology.  The study of these aerosols in animals and further character-
ization of the toxic effects of sulfate and sulfuric acid aerosols in
animals is needed to speed the human exposure experiments with safety to
the participants.  In turn, these studies are needed for further epi-
demiological studies of the population as a whole.  Since diesel exhaust
emissions represent an entirely new area of pollutant toxicity, and
since diesel emissions are of small particle size, future studies in
animals in this area were thought justified.

     C.   Future Development, Trends Related to Automotive Power Plants,
Fuels, and Control Devices (Conference Discussant - Dr. R. BradowjiDrT
Bradow discussed the future development and trends related to automotive
power plants, fuels, and control devices as well as the characterization
of primary and secondary pollutants associated with mobile sources.
Presently NO  emissions are decreased by recirculating exhaust gas back
to the combustion chambers.  In the future, reducing catalysts will be
used to convert nitrogen dioxide to nitrogen, but ammonia production
could also occur.  At first, the solution seemed to be a dual bed con-
figuration for the catalyst, the first being a reducing catalyst to
convert NO  to nitrogen, then an oxidizing bed.  If ammonia is produced,
however, tnis second catalyst would oxidize the ammonia to NO  again.  A
ruthenium catalyst selectively forms nitrogen, but also forms ruthenium
oxide which is extremely volatile.  A rhodium reducing catalyst is non-
selective so the design would have to incorporate an air flow controller
to favor stoichiometrically nitrogen formation.  However, to control the
air flow the oxygen concentration in the converter must be monitored.
Volvo and Saab have fitted zirconium oxide sensors in the 1977 California
cars for this purpose.  The reliability of oxygen sensors will determine
the converter efficiency.

     Alternative power plants to the gasoline internal combustion plants
are in various stages of development.  Diesel combustion engines emit
low amounts of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, but, due to their low
operating temperatures, the use of catalytic converters as an exhaust
control device would seem technically difficult.  They also emit increased
levels of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons.  Gas turbines release 1 to
1.5 g/mile NO  and can burn a variety of fuels.  The Sterling cycle
engine is also insensitive to fuel, but prototypes are nonexistent.  An
engine that is gaining increasing popularity is the stratified-charged
engine, which uses a pre-combustion chamber to allow combustion of lean
fuel mixtures.

     Secondary products that have been identified in converted auto
exhaust include hydrocarbons (HC), ammonia (NhU), nitrous oxide (N20),
methylamine, and hydroxylamine.  Cobalt and nickel oxides have been
detected in exhaust and probably are derived from the alumina support of
the three-way catalyst.

     Dr. Bradow suggested that there may be major changes in the power
plant composition of the automotive fleet in the near future.  Diesel
power plants, the stratified-charge engine, and power plants less sensi-
tive to fuel requirements will increase due to economic demands for more
efficient plants and restrictions on fuel availability through oil

     A considerable discussion followed emphasizing the need for rapid
dissemination of the host of technical  information being developed by
emission scientists.  The chemical complexities of exhausts and the
differences between raw, converted, and multiple bed converted exhausts
make estimation of the health effects of such transitions in technology
difficult to predict.  The dissimilarities between gasoline internal
combustion and diesel exhaust will require added study of the effects of
diesel exhausts themselves.  The list of chemical compounds found as
primary emission seems endless and priorities will have to be determined
for health assessment.  Resources are insufficient to test each compound
individually in either in vitro or in vivo systems.  On the other hand,
studies of whole exhaust may be equaTly misleading because interaction
between pollutants may mask important effects of a particularly hazardous
pollutant present in low concentrations.  Dr. Bradow pointed out the
need for continued study of converters as they are functioning in the
field since maintenance, tampering, and reliability of control devices
will have major effects upon the pollutants emitted.  A sentiment was
expressed for the need for a closer coupling of the development of
control technologies and health effects assessment.  Workshops such as
the present conference were favored as filling the need for rapid dis-
tribution of information and interaction between health and physical

     D.   Atmospheric Chemistry:  Transport and Transformation of_ Primary
and Secondary Pollutants:

          1.   Conference Discussant - Dr. A. P. Altshuller:  Atmospheric
chemistry, the transport and transformation of primary and secondary
pollutants, was discussed by Dr. Altshuller.  Particles are known to
grow rapidly and physical growth will alter the properties of primary
emissions.  Initial exhaust aerosols of sulfuric acid are 0.01 to 0.10
microns in size, but during aging (approximately 20 seconds) grow to
0.2-0.3 microns in size, for example.  Ammonia, present in the atmosphere
will react with sulfuric acid to form ammonium sulfate.  Nitric oxide,
present in roadways approaching 1 ppm will react with ozone to form
nitrogen dioxide, but the degree to which this occurs has not been
quantitated.  On the urban scale, the automobile contributes appreciably
to the atmospheric hydrocarbon burden.  High sulfate and nitrate concen-
trations are associated with stagnating high pressure anticyclones,
which occur with the highest frequency just west of the Appalachians.

     Sampling problems exist for nitrates.  Chemical alteration on glass
filters produces artifacts and makes detection of the chemical species
of oxides of nitrogen difficult.  Quartz and Teflon filters lead to
fewer artifacts.  Much of the nitrate in the air is present as nitric
acid, but particulate nitrate and peroxyacetyl nitrates (PAN) are present
in appreciable amounts, also.

     Dr. Altshuller, like Dr. Bradow, emphasized the recent advances in
atmospheric chemistry that have led to greater detailed knowledge of the
specific chemical species present in the atmosphere.  As a consequence,
a great list of compounds has been prepared that outstrips present
resources for health effects evaluation.  Automotive exhaust, while a
major contributor to air pollution, becomes mixed and reacts with other
pollutants in air from non-automotive sources.  As a result, once emitted
into the air, automotive exhausts must be considered an integral  part of
the overall general problem of air pollution and not as a separate

     2.   (Conference Discussant - Dr. J. Pitts):  Dr. Pitts stated that
it was his view that one could not pinpoint the most important atmospheric
reactions due to transportation-related pollutants without accurate and
detailed inventories for a variety of transportation systems in different
types of air basins.  Furthermore, one can not generate a reliable
chemical, physical, and/or biological model capable of predicting the
air quality impact of a given type of transportation without detailed
emission inventories for all concurrent sources of air pollution.  Thus,
similar needs for accurate inventories apply to exhaust and evaporative
losses, etc., from other transportation systems (aircraft, older cars,
diesel engines, etc.) as well as, of course, to emissions from stationary

     As an example of the difficulties in establishing such information,
knowledge only of the carbon monoxide and non-methane hydrocarbon emissions
from light-duty motor vehicles (LDMV) equipped with new catalyst systems
is clearly insufficient.  It is most important to know what happens to
emissions as LDMV catalysts age.  The amount and chemical composition of
a number of organic oxygenates (alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, acids, and
other simple and complex oxygenated nitrogenous compounds, such as
polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and their oxygenated products)  might
change as the catalyst ages.  Quantitative data are needed.  Similar
data are needed for the stratified charge engines, diesel, and fuel
Injection systems.

     As a methodological approach, Dr. Pitts advocated the mass balance
method.  That is to say:

                                             C, H, 0, N, S, Pb, Mn, etc.
               C, H, 0, N, S, Pb, Mn,        atoms coming out (exhaust,
               etc. atoms into car      =    evaporative emissions, etc.
               (i.e. engine and gas          or left over as engine or
               tank)                         exhaust deposits

     Specific atmospheric reactions related to transportation-generated
pollutants include reactions of oxides of nitrogen.   NO and N0n are
ubiquitous products of all combustion processes, yet a detailed under-
standing of the rates and mechanisms of a number of the atmospheric
reactions is lacking.  The photolysis of nitrous acid (HONO) is a driving
force in initiating photochemical  smog since it produces hydroxyl (-OH)
free radical, a key intermediary in the chemistry of the lower and upper
atmosphere.  A number of measurements for the equilibrium reaction of NO
and N02 to form HONO have been reported but the relative importance of
homogenous vs. heterogenous pathways has not been determined.  The
nitrous acid concentration in the air is still undetermined also.

     Nitric acid (HN03) has been identified recently at the University
of California Riversiae Laboratory by the use of Fourier transformed
infrared spectroscopy.  The reactions leading to nitric acid from NO,
N02, and water are not known.  Ammonium nitrate aerosols are also found
in the air and may have biological importance.  A new species, peroxyl-
nitric acid (HO^NO,) has been identified as the dominant product from
the reaction of hyaroperoxyl radical with nitrogen dioxide.

     Finally, in dealing with the oxides and oxyacids of nitrogen, it is
important to recognize that they possibly are the atmospheric precursors
of a wide spectrum of secondary pollutants which may represent more
toxic hazards to man.  Other atmospheric reactions of importance include
those between irradiated aromatic hydrocarbons and NO , homogenous vs.
heterogenous reactions of amines in the presence of NO  and water vapor,
and the oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  Each of these
reactions may lead to more potent biologically active compounds than the
parent starting materials.  In each case there is a clear need for
pressure and temperature dependence kinetic data upon which to build
mathematical models of specific climatic conditions and regional areas.
Such studies form the basis for projection of environmental effects of
different strategies and the resulting impact of specific transportation

     While the approaches to atmospheric chemistry advocated by Drs.
Altshuller and Pitts were dissimilar, their conclusions were remarkably
similar.  Both concluded that knowledge of the chemistry of oxides of
nitrogen was imperative to future decisions on the impact of alternative
transportation systems.  The need for a sustained research effort on
the fundamental mechanisms of the formation of more complex products
from the primary pollutants such as NO  was apparent.  Since atmospheric
chemistry is a rapidly developing fiela which is uncovering a more
complex inventory of air pollutants that, like auto exhaust chemistry,
promises to outstrip the resources available for toxicological evaluation,
a close interaction with health scientists is imperative.  Priorities
for toxicological and epidemiological studies can be drawn from such
discussions which will reduce duplicative effort and speed the early
recognition of potential health hazards.


     E.   Research Strategies;

          1.   lexicological Studies (Conference Discussant - Dr. D. L.
Coffin):  The research strategies for toxicological  studies in animals
and man were discussed by Dr. Coffin.  It is important to distinguish
between human and animal experiments as it is not always possible to
provide direct experimental evidence for toxicity in man.  For studies
of air pollutant toxicity to occur, a detailed chemical  identification
of the air pollutant must first have been made and the air pollutant
produced for exposure systems in a chemically and physically similar
manner to that in air.  To date, studies have been restricted to gases,
vapors, and conventional aerosols of pure single pollutants or a very
few combinations of these pollutants.  The question of toxicity is
extremely complex and there are no simplistic answers now, or in the
future, likely to become available.  In particular, interactions between
pollutants are very difficult to predict.

     Clinical studies in human volunteers are restricted to the very
lowest concentrations of pollutants likely to provoke a response.  Only
the simplest non-invasive methods are ethically possible.  Pulmonary
mechanical changes are most commonly used and may be inadequate for
measurement of subtle effects.  Ozone inhalation results in changes in
pulmonary function, as does SO  particulate and NO*.  There is, however,
no clear relationship between pulmonary mechanical changes in man with
short-term ozone exposure and obstructive lung disease which occurs in
animals chronically exposed to ozone.  Chronic obstructive lung disease
in man9 however,, appears to be associated with ozone pollution by epi-
demiological studies.  The advantages of human studies are obvious in
that there is no need to extrapolate the results to man from another
species, no need to assure that the species selected is unduly sensitive
or that basic physiological difference might exist.   These needs must be
dealt with in all animal experiments.

     Specific toxicological models applicable to air pollutant studies
include infectivity studies which are sensitive to near ambient levels
of nitrogen dioxide and ozone, but relatively insensitive to metals and
sulfate particulates.  Bacterial pneumonias in man are not prevalent
and, therefore, these models may be more representative of the role of
air pollutants in obstructive bronchitis.

     Long-term, low-level exposures of rats and mice in the absence of
airborne pathogens are being used to study the development of emphysema.
There is a need to translate these observations of pathological changes
resulting in emphysema into mechanistic ones, such that early indicators
applicable to human studies can be discovered.  This is especially true
for studies of interaction such as ozone and sulfuric acid mists.
Biochemistry and pharmacology are the major tools for these investigations.

     A major concern 1s the mutagenlc and carcinogenic properties of
vapor phase organic compounds.  Using bacterial mutagenlc test systems,
such as the Ames Salmonella test, either directly or Indirectly, through
an Intermediary host, such as a mouse, mutagenic activity has been
detected in the air.  As referred to previously, a host of complex
organic compounds are present in auto exhaust and in air as secondary
products from auto exhaust.  These systems are reliable as first screens
for positive compounds and for screens to aid in purification of mutagens,
but negative results provide little assurance of safety in man.  Co-
carcinogenesis or promoters present as air pollutants are a major potential
problem.  There is a 20% excess in the incidence of cancer in man due to
urban factors other than smoking and these may include air pollutants
among the possible factors.

     The immune system has been shown to be depressed by nitrogen dioxide.
The uptake of biogenic amines by the lung and the formation of prostaglandin
hormones by the lung have also been shown to be depressed by both ozone
and nitrogen dioxide.  An important variable is the diet of man and
animals which has been shown to increase the sensitivity to oxidizing
air pollutants during vitamin E deficiency.

          2.   Epidenrioloqical Studies (Conference Discussant - Dr. R. Norton):
Epidemiological Studies, like toxicological studies, are dependent upon
the unequivocal identification of the air pollutant and the precise
determination of the level of the pollutant to which a given population
is exposed.  To this end, carbon monoxide is an example of a transportation-
related air pollutant for which exposure data has been satisfactorily
obtained.  As a gaseous pollutant, distributive model systems have been
developed which predict with accuracy the carbon monoxide exposure of
the population.  Particulate pollutants such as lead are less well
studied.  Large particles of lead settle out of the atmosphere and are
difficult to sample.  Within the respirable particle size range, a close
correlation exists between the blood lead level and the atmospheric lead
level.  Epidemiologists must provide for adequate sampling to estimate
the atmospheric level of a pollutant and the pollutant exposure of the
population.  Occupational and personal habits tend to cause unequal
exposures of specific individuals within the population; thus stratifi-
cation of sampling must be undertaken to correct for unusually high
exposures.  For example, workers in and around highway tunnels are
exposed to higher lead levels than the general population.  Taxi drivers
may be exposed to levels as high as 9 yg/m.  Selection of specific
subpopulations may lead to the selection of homogenous population with
regard to their exposure history.  When,further studies are undertaken
on other substances originating from transportation sources it would be
useful for the investigators to review work done on carbon monoxide and
lead from a methodological point of view.  Some methods were useful,
some were not.

     To cope with these difficulties, specialized air monitoring systems
sited according to the nature of the epidemiological study, rather than
meteorological considerations, may be necessary to determine the pollutant
exposure history of that specialized sub-population.  Methods of assess-
ment of toxicity are generally restricted to non-invasive methods as
discussed above for clinical studies or statistical evaluations of
excess mortalities.

     Inference from an association between exposure and the measured
effect in the population under study depends upon the establishment of a
cause and effect relationship in experimental animals.  Epidemiological
studies are an outgrowth of the more basic studies in experimental
animals and clinical studies.  Since trends such as excess mortality are
demonstrable only over long time periods and since populations must be
followed over several climatic cycles, epidemiological studies require a
sustained commitment and are expensive.  The effort involved in epidemi-
ological studies, and especially in monitoring systems designed to
estimate exposures, suggests that baseline studies of air pollutant
levels should be maintained whenever feasible.  Some markers such as
acetylene used as a measure of vapor phase auto emission exposure are
disappearing because of the abolition of ethylene from auto exhausts by
the catalytic converter.  Overlapping data between old and new monitoring
systems is needed.

     F.   Specific Problem Areas:

          1.   Hydrocarbons (Straight Chain and Aromatics) (Conference
Discussant - Dr. R. Suskind):  Discussion of specific problem areas
began with a consideration of atmospheric hydrocarbons by Dr. Suskind.
The characteristics and effects of the hydrocarbons emitted pre-catalyst
are well documented.  More research is required on the characterization
and health effects of the hydrocarbons emitted from diesel engines and
the catalytic converter.  Combination studies are lacking with regard to
vapor phase and particulate hydrocarbons.

     Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and their oxidative products,
including peroxides, hydroperoxides and endoperoxides, need to be
scrutinized in biological systems for possible toxicity.  Possible
teratogenicity could be studied using mouse limbs in culture.  The
effects of organics on biogenic amine levels in vivo may be an early
marker of toxicity.

     It must be recognized that time is necessary to perform quality
studies.  For these to occur, long-term commitments from DOT and EPA are

          2.   Complex Organics (S, N, 0, and Other) (Conference Discussant -
Dr. J. Rowlands):  While many complex organic compounds have been identified
in the atmosphere from air pollution, little, if any, information on the
toxicity of these compounds is available.  An example is peroxyacetylnitrate
(PAN) which has been identified as the major cause of lacrimation in
photochemical smog.  PAN is also a potent oxidizing compound, but no
long-term low-level studies of PAN's effects on the lung or other mam-
malian systems have been undertaken.  The potential importance of these
compounds in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis suggests that this area is
in need of review and reorientation in priorities.  Since little hard
data on biological effects exists, substantive recommendations can not
be made at this time.

          3.   Particulate, Especially Tire Dust (Conference Discussant -
Dr. A. ZarkowerJ":Atmospheric participates as a transportation-related
pollutant, especially tire dust, were discussed by Dr. Zarkower.  The
components of tire dust include stearic acid, zinc oxides, antioxidants,
paraffinic waxes, alkyl tin compounds, and possible cadmium.  Extender
oils account for 20% of tire rubber.  They are highly volatile and
benzo(a)pyrene is thought to be present.  Examples of other rubber
additives are:  organic sulfur compounds, such as thiram, a skin sensi-
tizer; carbon black, a possible source of benzo(a)pyrene; volcanizer
amines; and carbamates, potent pharmacological agents.
     Roadside particulate levels can be as-high as 160 yg/m .  The major
constituents are:  carbonaceous (87.5 ygXm ), quartz (23.1 yg/w ),
limestone (34.6 yg/m ), oil soot (3 uq/m ), iron oxide (3 yg/m ), tire
wear (8 yg/m ), and selenium (3 yg/m ).  The carbonaceous component
associated with the tire is not respirable, and is in that way similar
to the other roadside particulate.

     Health effects due to the compounding of rubber are well documented.
Thirty percent of rubber workers suffer from various forms of contact
dermatitis.  There is an increased trend toward bladder cancer in rubber
workers.  Recycled tires used in shoes lead to an increased incidence of
dermatitis.  The active agents might be the thiurams, diphenyl guanidine
or the mono benzyl ether of hydroquinone.

     While there are definitive adverse health effects associated with
tire and rubber manufacture, tire dust does not appear to be a major
transportation-related health hazard since little of the degradation
product appears as respirable dust.  As a consequence, Dr. Zarkower
presented his views on additional research strategies for approaches to
the general problem of airborne particulates as primary and secondary
air pollutants.

     Research strategies in regard to participates which were recommended
by Dr. Zarkower include:

     (1)  Inhalation toxicology using whole animals

          (A)  Acute studies at high levels to demonstrate possible

          (B)  Chronic exposures at ambient levels

          (C)  Study alveolar macrophage inactivation and lung fibresis

          (D)  Gastrointestinal effects due to swallowing

     (2)  Reticuloendothelial system

     (3)  In vitro alveolar macrophage studies

     In the discussion it was generally agreed that tire degradation
products are substantial contributors to transportation-related pollution,
but because of the large particle size dominating, tire degradation
products have little direct impact on human health.  The workshop agreed
that it would be prudent to review the subject at periodic intervals to
ensure that technological alterations in tire production or use did not
alter future trends.  (Editorial Note:  Subsequent to the workshop R. L.
Williams and S. H. Cadie (Characterization of Tire Emissions Using an
Indoor Test Facility, G. M. Research Laboratories Publication GMR-2483,
1977) reported little production of respirable particles during tire
degradation.  Straight-ahead, high-speed driving resulted in the smallest
particle distribution and highest tire degradation rate, yet these
conditions are not likely to present a significant respirable particle
burden.  The observation by these authors of measurable amounts of
extender oil vaporization and some technical limits on detection of
particle size distribution verifies the workshop's conclusion that
continued surveillance is needed.)

     The discussion of Dr. Zarkower's general remarks concerning approaches
to the assessment of respirable particles concluded that studies of the
reticuloendothelial system might merit more detailed consideration.
This conclusion is covered in the general recommendations of the workshop.
Discussion was provoked  over the aerosols generated by aircraft, especially
jet aircraft.  Little hard data were brought up to either substantiate
or negate a potential role for jet engine emissions as a source of
either secondary or primary particulate emissions.  The role of aircraft
can not be assessed at this time.

          4.   NO  and_ other Automotive Emissions (Conference Discussant -
R. Ehrlich):  Drv^hrlich presented data on the use of the infectivity
model for the detection of toxicity of low concentrations of nitrogen
dioxide, ozone and several sulfates.  This animal model system, which
measures the effect of inhalation of air pollutants on the resistance to
bacterial or viral respiratory infections, appears to be highly sensitive
and reproducible.  The parameters used to assess the health effects
include, mortality and survival rates, retention of inhaled bacteria in
the lungs, conventional and scanning electron microscopy of the respira-
tory tract, activity of alveolar macrophages and a variety of immuno-
logical responses.  Details of experimental results were reported indicating
an additive effect of a single short-term (3 hr) exposure to low concentra-
tions of nitrogen dioxide and ozone mixtures, and an apparent synergistic
effect upon repeated daily acute exposures to mixtures of the same
pollutants.  Additional information was presented on the effects of
short-term exposures to zinc sulfate, zinc ammonium sulfate and ammonium
sulfate alone, in combinations, or in presence of other pollutants such
as nitrogen dioxide and ozone on the resistance to bacterial pneumonia.
The impairment of defense against respiratory infections by exposure to
the various pollutants underscores Dr. Gardner's suggestion that the
primary site of injury may be the pulmonary macrophage.

     During the discussion, points were raised to support the extended
use of morphological and biochemical studies in the infective model.
There was general agreement that both types of studies are needed to
draw better clinical correlates with human disease.  This is particularly
true in the case of heavy metals and sulfate particulates.  Failure to
detect injury by the infectivity model does not mean that there is no
human effect.  Much of the work to date has been limited to the very
pressing problem of setting standards and criteria.  Underlying principles
leading to the disease state have been studied only to a limited extent
and general principles have not been drawn to provide a guide for future
toxicants.  A general conclusion of the workshop was a need for investi-
gations of mechanism of action of pollutants.  Classical mortality
studies, likewise, were considered essential.  A real need was felt for
studies of ultrafine aerosols of sulfuric acid and sulfate alone or in
mixtures with other pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide, heavy metals,
and carcinogens.  Such work depends upon the availability of an ultra-
fine aerosol generating and sampling facility.  EPA plans to have one
such exposure system operating during 1977, but the volume of work will
exceed the available time on this chamber.  An additional facility is

                                 Table 1

          Summary of Transportation-Related Pollutant Research
                   at EPA Using Whole Animal Systems*
N02 * 03
H2S04 .
H23o4 »
so2 ..
- V

e a,c

c a
C d
                                        Table 2
Summary of Transportation-Related Pollutant Research at EPA Using Whole Animal'Systems
NO2 + O3
H2S04 +
H2S04 +

Mil Salts
Pt Salts
Pd S^lts
Pb Salts
i a,c
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of Blood

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Free Cell

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Immune System
i.e c

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i.e a
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                                                             Table 3

                                      Summary of Transportation-Related Pollutant Research

                                              at EPA Using In Vitro.Testing Systems
                                 IN VITRO
Mn Salts
\:1 ., O
Pt Salts
Pd Salts
Pb Salts
Ni Salts
i a
i a
1 3
i a
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Uptake of Precursors for Synthesis of

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                                  III.  AGENDA
Wednesday, June 15

  9:00   9:30       1.   Objectives of DOT
  9:30  11:30
  12:00 -  1:00
   1:00 -  1:45
    1:45 -  2:30
   2:30 -

   3:00 -

   5:30 -  6:30

   6:30 -  7:30

   7:30 -
         2.    Overview of Ongoing Research
              on Automotive-Related Pollutants

              A.  Overall
                         B.  Within EPA's Catalyst
                             Research Program
  11:30 - 12:00     3.   Summary
4.   Future Development, Trends
     Related to Automotive Power
     Plants, Fuels, and Control Devices

5.   Characterization of Primary and
     Secondary Pollutants Associated
     with Mobile Sources


6.   Atmospheric Chemistry:  Transport
     and Transformation of Primary and
     Secondary Pollutants
   4:30 -  5:00     7.   Proposed Charges of Conference
         Social Hour


         Informal Discussion Period
                                                    Mr.  Samuel Coroniti
                                                    DOT, Washington, D.C.
                                                               Dr. Donald Gardner
                                                               EPA, RTP
                                                    Dr. Robert Lee
                                                    EPA, RTP

                                                    Dr. Wellington Moore
                                                    EPA, Cincinnati

                                                    Dr. Gordon Hueter
                                                    EPA, RTP
                                                    Discussion Leader

                                                    Dr. Ronald Bradow
                                                    EPA, RTP
                                                    Dr. Ronald Bradow
                                                    EPA, RTP
Dr. A. Paul Altshuller

Dr. James Pitts
Univ. of California
 at Riverside

Dr. Gordon Hueter

Thursday, June 16
                                                               Discussion Leader
   9:00 -  9:15     1.   Review of Charges

                    2.   Research Strategy

                         A.  Toxicology
  10:15 - 10:45

  10:45 - 11:00

  11:00 - 11:30

  11:30 - 12:00
  12:00 -

   1:00 -

   1:30 -  2:00
   2:00 -

   2:15 -

     B.  Epidemiology


3.   Specific Problem Areas

     A.  Hydrocarbons (straight-
         chain and aromatics)

     B.  Complex Organics
         (S, N, 0, and Other)


     C.  Particulates (especially
         tire dust)

     D.  NO  and Other Automotive


4.   Priorities and Procedures
                                                    Dr. Gordon Hueter
                                                    EPA, RTP
                                                    Dr. David Coffin
                                                    EPA, RTP

                                                    Dr. Robert Horton
                                                    EPA, RTP
   3:00 -  4:00     5.   Recommendations (discussion
                         and adoption)
                                                    Dr. Ray Suskind
                                                    Univ. of Cincinnati

                                                    Dr. John Rowlands
                                                    Southwest Foundation
                                                      for Res. and Education
Dr. Arian Zarkower
Penn. State Univ.

Dr. Richard Ehrlich
IIT Research Inst.
Dr. Gordon Hueter

Dr. Daniel Menzel
Duke Univ.

                       IV.  LIST OF PARTICIPANTS
Dr. A. Paul AHshuller
Director, Environmental Sciences Research Laboratory
EPA, MD-59
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina   27711

Mr. Stanley M. Blacker
Office of Health and Ecological Effects, ORD
EPA, RD-683
401 M. Street, S.W.
Washington, D.C. 20460

Dr. Joe Blair
Federal Energy Administration
Washington, D.C.  20461

Dr. Ronald Bradow
Environmental Sciences Research Laboratory
EPA, MD-46
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina   27711

Dr. Joe Burkhardt
Health Effects Research Laboratory
Cincinnati, Ohio  45268

Dr. Richard Carrigan
Division of Advanced Environmental Research and
  Technology, Room 1129
National Science Foundation
Washington, D.C.  20550

Dr. Jeffrey Charles
Health Effects Research Laboratory
EPA, MD-67
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina  27711

Dr. David Coffin
Senior Science Advisor, Health Effects
  Research Laboratory
EPA, MD-51
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina   27711

Mr. Samuel Coroniti
Deputy Manager, Climatic Impact
  Assessment Program, T-46
Office of the Secretary
Department of Transportation
2100 2nd Street, S.W.
Washington, D.C.  20590

Dr. Robert Drew
Medical Department
Brookhaven National Laboratories
Upton, New York  11973

Ms. Vandy Duffield
Catalyst Research Program
Health Effects Research Laboratory
EPA, MD-83
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina  27711

Dr. Richard Ehrlich
Director, Life Science Division
IIT Research Institute
10 W. 35th Street
Chicago, Illinois   60616

Dr. Edward Ferrand
Asst. Commissioner for Science and Technology
Department of Air Resources
City of New York
51 Astor Place
New York, New York   10003

Dr. Donald Gardner
Chief, Biomedical Research Branch
Clinical Studies Division, Health Effects
  Research Laboratory
EPA, MD-82
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina   27711

Dr. Robert Horton
Health Effects Research Laboratory
EPA, MD-52
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina  27711

Dr. Joellen Huisingh
Health Effects Research Laboratory
EPA, MD-67
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina   27711

Dr. F. Gordon Hueter
Associate Director, Health Effects Research Laboratory
EPA, MD-51
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina   27711

Mr. Robert Jungers
Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory
EPA, MD-78
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina  27711

Dr. Emanuel Landau
American Public Health Association
1015 18th Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C.  20036


Dr. Robert E. Lee
Catalyst Research Coordinator and Deputy Director,
  Health Effects Research Laboratory
EPA, MD-51
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina  27711

Dr. Fred Marmo
Transportation Systems Center
U. S. Department of Transportation
Kendall Square
Cambridge, Massachusetts  02142

Dr. Daniel Menzel
Associate Professor of Pharmacology and Medicine
Department of Pharmacology
P. 0. Box 3813
Duke University Medical Center
Durham, North Carolina   27710

Dr. Wellington Moore
Health Effects Research Laboratory
Cincinnati, Ohio  45268

Dr. James Pitts
Professor of Chemistry and Director, University
  of California Statewide Air Pollution Research Center
University of California at Riverside
Riverside, California  92521

Dr. John Rowlands
Director, Environmental Sciences
Southwest Foundation for Research and Education
P. 0. Box 28147
San Antonio, Texas  78284

Dr. Ray Suskind
Director, Department of Environmental Health,
  Kettering Laboratories
University of Cincinnati
Cincinnati, Ohio  45267

Dr. Walter Tyler
California Primate Research Center
University of California
Davis, California  96516

Dr. William Wiley
Chairman, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories
Richland, Washington  99352

Dr. Arian Zarkower
Associate Professor of Veterinary Science
Pennsylvania State University
115 Animal Industries Building
University Park, Pennsylvania  16802


                                   TECHNICAL REPORT DATA
                            (Please read Instructions on the reverse before completing)

                                                           3. RECIPIENT'S ACCESSION-NO.
             5. REPORT DATE

               January 1978

   Frances  P. Duffield and  Robert E. Lee, Jr.
                                                           8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NO.
   Catalyst Research Program, CSSO
   Health Effects Research  Laboratory
   Office of Research  and Development
   Research Triangle Park.  N.C.  27711
             10. PROGRAM ELEMENT NO.

             11. CONTRACT/GRANT NO.
   as  above, co-sponsored  with:
   U.S. Department of Transportation
   Office of Energy and  Environment
   Washington. D.C. 20590	
                                                            13. TYPE OF REPORT AND PERIOD COVERED
                EPA 600/11
        The Department  of Transportation, recognizing the need for  further
   health effects  research data in assessing  the environmental implication of
   Its. policies over  the next several years,  called upon the Environmental
   Protection Agency's  health effects group to bring together key experts in
   the field to address both DOT's and EPA's  research needs and  to  evaluate
   resources available.

        This report is  a brief summary of the presentations and  conclusions of
   the DOT-EPA sponsored Workshop on Health Effects of Transportation-Related
   Pollutants held at the Sheraton-Crabtree Motor Inn, Raleigh,  North Carolina,
  . on June 15-16,  1977.  This report is, in part, interpretive and  intended to
   supply a synopsis  and not a verbatum transcript of the proceedings.
                                KEY WORDS AND DOCUMENT ANALYSIS
   air pollution
   automotive  industry
   exhaust systems
                             13 F, B
                             06 T, F
                                              19. SECURITY CLASS (ThisReport)

                                                 IINCI A.SSTFTFD	
                           21. NO. OF PAGES

                                              20. SECURITY CLASS (Thispage)
                                                                         22. PRICE
EPA Form 2220-1 (9-73)