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Pacific North
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This is the fourth annual report to the people of the Pacific Northwest on the status of our
environment. The infprmation presented in this report has been compiled by the
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in cooperation with the States of Alaska, Idaho,
Oregon, and Washington. Valuable contributions have also been made by numerous
individuals as well as other institutions.

While the Northwest United States is viewed as being relatively environmentally "clean" in
comparison with other parts of the Nation, there are many problems to be solved. Most
importantly, however, the Northwest is growing—more industry attracts more people—and the
results of that growth are not always environmentally beneficial. The people of the Northwest
consequently face a challenge: accommodating increased growth while retaining one of our
greatest resources, a healthful and beautiful environment.

During May and June 1980, when Mount St. Helens erupted, this report was nearing
completion. With the exception of the presentation on Mount St. Helens, environmental data
used in the report consist of data collected in 1979 and do not reflect the impact of the
volcanic eruption.

Space precludes a complete discussion of the many complex technical and economic issues
associated with environmental protection. Therefore, the interested reader is  invited to contact
the Region 10 Office of EPA in Seattle for other publications and additional information. Also,
we encourage suggestions on how future issues of this publication can be made more useful.
Donald P. Dubois
Regional Administrator, Region 10
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Seattle, Washington 98101

December, 1980

                           Mount St. Helens
        The 1980 series of Mount St. Helens eruptions
     created troubling uncertainties for environmental
    and public health officials in the Pacific Northwest.
     The surge of mud, fallen timber and other debris,
       plus the heavy fallout of  volcanic ash into many
        areas of the region, raised questions about the
        quality of drinking water, the ability of sewage
     treatment plants to withstand the ash flushed into
     sewer systems, and the possible health effects on
           people from inhaling potentially dangerous
         quantities of volcanic  dust. Many fears about
    serious environmental consequences were quickly
     dispelled, but no immediate answers are available
         for questions about long-term health effects.

   5         Solid Waste and Hazardous
     Problems with traditional methods of solid waste
  disposal and the need to conserve natural resources
           and energy have prompted the use of new
   approaches in Region  10 solid waste management.
        In particular, communities are recycling more
        recoverable materials and considering energy
                    recovery from municipal waste.
          Production,  use, and disposal of hazardous
         substances is a  major concern in Region 10.
    However, stringent  regulatory programs, including
         new hazardous waste regulations, are being
      implemented to better manage these materials.
     EPA requires monitoring of radioactive materials
     and pesticides, although the states have primary
            enforcement duties for controlling these
   9                              Air Quality
      In 1979, most areas in Region 10 met air quality
           standards. Standards for total suspended
   particulates were exceeded in 16 areas as well as a
   number of others where fugitive dust is a problem.
      Sulfur dioxide standards are being exceeded in
    three areas of Idaho and one area of Washington.
        Carbon monoxide levels in all four states are
   expected to be controlled by various transportation
      management strategies. Ozone standards were
  exceeded in both the Portland and Seattle areas. To
  attain standards, controls on point sources and area
sources either have been implemented or are planned.
 18                            River Water
   Portions of many of the Region's major rivers have
    marginal water quality with respect to the Federal
  water quality goals, and the overall 7-year trend has
      shown little improvement. Much o1 the existing
  degradation is due to a variety of non-point sources
  which should eventually be controlled by area-wide
        wastewater management programs. Some is
     contributed by point sources, such as industries,
      which are controlled through state and Federal
      pollution permits. Natural occurrences are also
     responsible for some of the problems. The water
    quality criteria most often exceeded are those for
      temperature, bacteria, nutrient levels, turbidity,
                         solids, and heavy metals.
 Many of the Region's major recreational lakes have
 water quality and other problems which impair their
 recreational use—principally algae and aquatic
 weed growths and excessive sedimentation. Primary
 sources of these problems are stormwater runoff
 from urban and agricultural lands, sewage and
 septic discharges from residential areas and
 recreational facilities, and irrigation return flows. A
 variety of measures have been taken to restore the
 water quality in some of the lakes.
Marine Water
About one-third of the Region's classified
commercial shellfish growing areas are closed
during at least part of the year. These closures are
primarily due to fecal bacteria contamination
caused by inadequate sewage treatment. Others
may be due to seasonal runoff from agricultural and
forestry activities, and industrial point sources, such
as pulp mills. Naturally occurring outbreaks of "red
tide" also necessitate the closure of some areas on
a seasonal basis.
Drinking Water                       44
Drinking water in the Northwest and Alaska is
generally considered to be safe, but five waterborne
disease outbreaks have occurred within the past
year, and others are suspected but unconfirmed.
Water system compliance with the bacteriological
standards has remained fairly constant from Fiscal
Year 78 to Fiscal Year 79; however, improvements
have been made in achieving compliance with the
bacteriological monitoring requirements.
Improvements in compliance with both
bacteriological monitoring and standards are
expected to occur in Fiscal Year 80.

Noise                                   46
The Federal Noise Control Act of 1972 gives EPA
authority to set standards for cars, trucks, interstate
railroads, aircraft, etc. However, the primary
responsibility for noise control rests with state and
local governments. With technical assistance from
EPA as required, each community develops the
programs that meet their unique requirements.

Summary of
Environmental Indicators
Air Quality
River Water
Lake Water
Marine Water
Water Quality
Number of areas
exceeding standards
Percentage of monitoring
stations meeting water
quality goals (based on
worst 3 months)
Percentage of major
recreational lakes with
little or no use impairment
Percentage of classified
shellfish harvesting
waters open
Percentage of population
served by water supplies
5 Little
30% Slight
57% Little

64% Improving
2 Little
10% Insufficent
87% Little
43% Improving
                in compliance with
                regulations for bacterial

                Percentage of community
                water supplies in
                compliance with
                regulations for bacterial

   Noise         Percentage of population
                covered by enforcement
                of state/local  noise

   Solid Waste   Number of recycling
   Disposal      centers in operation

                Number of hazardous
                waste handling facilities
                in operation
58%  Improving   17%  Improving   63%  Improving   18%  Improving
50%  Improving   50%  Improving
300+  Improving

 3    Improving
300+  Improving

 4    Improving
                   5%  Little        35%  Improving
20    Improving     2    Improving

 2    Little         0

 Mount  St.   Helens
 The eruption of Mount St. Helens occurred
 last spring just as this report neared
 completion. Consequently, the fallout from
 the volcano suddenly threw into question
 many of EPA's conclusions regarding the
 condition of the environment in the Pacific

 Data EPA had collected on levels of turbidity
 and solids in the surface waters of
 southwestern Washington were made
 obsolete by the movement of tons of mud,
 fallen timber, and other debris into rivers and
 lakes in the immediate vicinity of Mount St.
 Helens (see Figure 1). Over a wider area, the
 turbidity created in dozens of drinking water
 supplies in Washington, Idaho, and Oregon
 cast doubt on EPA's assessments of the
 drinking water quality in those systems most
 affected by mudflows and ash fallout. For a
 few days, it was uncertain whether the
 turbidity would interfere with the disinfection
 needed to assure safe drinking water.

 Emissions of ash and various gases produced
 what will undoubtedly be long-standing
 problems related to attainment of national
ambient air quality standards for particulate
 matter throughout the Region. In addition,
serious questions were raised about the
volcano's contributing significantly to acid
rain formation well beyond the borders of the
Pacific Northwest.

The potential for far-reaching effects became
apparent by early July when an English
scientist claimed that ash from Mount St.
 Helens was responsible for the unseasonably
 cold summer temperatures in Great Britain
 and for the rains that drenched the
 Wimbledon tennis tournament.

 The concerns of the English  scientist seem
 frivolous when compared with those of people
 living in Washington, Idaho, and Oregon in
 the aftermath of Mount St. Helens' May, June,
 and July eruptions. For people who had to dig
 their way out of mudflows or heavy ash
 fallout, it was a matter of personal health, and
 some very important questions arose. Was it
 safe to handle the ash? Was their water fit to
 drink? Was the air safe to breathe?

 These were the three chief questions facing
 EPA and state environmental and health
 agencies in the wake of the volcano's
 eruptions—in particular the one of May 18.
 Within hours of this explosion that blasted
 more than 1,000 feet off the top of the
 mountain,  EPA sent a specially equipped
 aircraft over areas of central Washington
 downwind from the volcano to measure
 radioactivity. No radioactivity above normal
 background levels was discovered in the
Figure  1.
Stream Areas Affected  by
Ml. St. Helens Mudflows
 aerial measurements, which was confirmed
 through analyses of ground ash samples
 taken the same day.

 It was also promptly determined that the ash
 was highly conductive. Upon contact with
 moisture, deposits of ash on transformers and
 other electrical equipment could cause power
 outages. Utility operators took the precaution
 of using emergency crews to blow ash from
 substation transformers before rainfall could
 produce interruptions in electrical service.

 Rumors that ground-level ash fallout was
 highly acidic were rapidly dispelled.  U-2
 flights discovered high acid content  of
 particles in the atmosphere, but fears that the
 ash might etch painted surfaces of cars or,
 worse yet, produce acids under face masks
 being used for protection, were alleviated
 when tests of ground ash showed almost no
 acidity. Also, there were no toxic properties in
 the ash. This was established by EPA
 personnel who, in the scramble to obtain all
available information about ash
characteristics, acted as a clearinghouse for
analyses quickly performed by state, Federal,
               AFFECTED BY MUD FLOWS

and private laboratories'throughout the
Northwest. The ash did'consist of minute
fractions of cobalt and other inert heavy
metals, but in quantities so small that by
May 21 EPA was able to determine that they
presented no danger to people inhaling
airborne ash or drinking water containing ash

Of greater concern was the threat to drinking
water posed by the high levels of turbidity in
surface streams and reservoirs receiving
heavy deposits of ash or mud (see Figure 2).
(In  the first few days after the May 18
eruption, some drinking water supplies in
southwestern Washington had so much mud
they were facetiously described  as "too wet to
plow and too thick  to run.") Fortunately, in
those cases where  mud clogged drinking
water intakes, system operators  were able to
draw water from alternate sources; operators
at other systems with high turbidity levels
adjusted the amount of chemicals used in
flocculation and, by keeping a close  watch on
filtration equipment, managed to provide
water that was safe to drink.

Many systems came dangerously close to
running out of water because of the heavy use
of domestic supplies to flush away the
accumulations of ash that paralyzed  their
communities. Several systems rationed water
usage, but no community anywhere  in the
Northwest ever completely ran out.

The accumulations of ash that were sluiced
into storm drains and sanitary sewers created
problems for the operators of municipal
sewage treatment plants. At one point in
Spokane, a city hit hard by the May 18 fallout,
it was reported that no less than 30 percent of
the  influent entering the city's sewer  system
consisted of solids. Mechanical equipment
was threatened by the load, making it
necessary to temporarily bypass treatment
facilities.  Spokane,  like other cities, reduced
treatment levels from secondary to primary to
avoid expensive damage to their equipment.
Managers of local sewerage authorities
correctly preferred to tolerate increased
discharges' of oxygen-demanding materials
from their outfall lines for a few days rather
than risk  permanent damage to their systems
that might leave downstream waterways
without any treatment at all for what could
have been months to come.
Water quality standards were undoubtedly
violated in a few areas of the Pacific
Northwest, but EPA and state and local health
officials were more worried about the effects
of violations of national ambient air quality
standards for total suspended particulates

Local air pollution control agencies
throughout the Pacific Northwest recorded
TSP levels far in excess of the standard set to
protect human health. Figure 2  shows the
dispersion pattern from the May 18 eruption
and Figure 3 shows the highest 24-hour
concentrations of particulates observed after
the Mount St. Helens eruptions of last May
and June. Monitors  in Yakima, for example,
recorded levels of particulates reaching 30,000
micrograms per cubic meter of  air.
Historically, the Pacific  Northwest has rarely
experienced air pollution episodes in which
TSP levels even remotely approached the
1000-microgram level, and Figure 3 shows the
normal average 24-hour levels of TSP during

Figure 2.
Ash  Deposits  Following
Mt. St.  Helens  Eruption
The standard set by EPA to protect human
health is 260 micrograms per cubic meter of
air over a 24-hour period. When that standard
is exceeded and weather forecasts indicate
conditions are likely to get worse, air pollution
control agencies begin to consider preventive
actions to protect public health. If TSP levels
reach 375 micrograms for a 24-hour period,
air pollution control agencies issue alerts to
advise susceptible people about dangers to
their health. At 625 micrograms of TSP,
warnings are issued that advise stronger
precautions. At 900 micrograms, the
"emergency" stage is reached and local
governments are empowered to impose
restrictions on personal and commercial
activities that would send TSP concentrations
above 1000 micrograms, at which level there
is significant harm to human health.

At this writing, it is still too early to tell just
how long people living in heavy fallout areas
can expect  exposure to TSP concentrations
dramatically above levels that prevailed before
the  eruption. Even though local efforts to
   Mt. St. Helens^    \
          A     ^  • Mt. Adams
                                            ASHFALL DISTRIBUTION, generalized
                                             isopachs of thickness (ash depth
                                              on surface)
                                            ERUPTED IN 1800's

                                            ACTIVE CASCADE VOLCANOES
                           1 mm = ,04 in.
                           5 mm = 1/4 in.
                          10mm = 1/2 in.
                          25 mm = 1 in.
                          50 mm = 2 in.
                         100 mm = 4 in.

remove ground ash in many communities
bordered on the heroic, enough ash
remained for several weeks after the initial
cleanup to send TSP concentrations soaring
above 1000 micrograms. As one example,
Spokane—despite a successful cleanup of the
ash from the May 18 fallout—experienced
winds on June 1 (a full 2 weeks later) that
caused monitoring equipment to record TSP
in concentrations of more than 2300
micrograms during one 8-hour period.

So much volcanic dust lay on the ground in
many fallout areas that it was subject to
redistribution every time a stiff wind came up.

Figure 3.
Total Suspended  Paniculate  Levels
Since  the  Eruption
This worried public health officials who were
trying to accurately assess the risk to public
health. Their job was made difficult by their
inability to predict how long people could
expect to encounter heavy, prolonged
exposure to ash already on the ground. In
addition, they had no way to measure
exposure from the volcano's unpredictable
future eruptions.

Early reports from the Center for Disease
Control (CDC), based on information
collected by epidemiologists about hospital
emergency room  visits and  hospital
admissions in fallout areas,  were not
conclusive about the seriousness of short-
term health effects. While the preliminary
results of CDC's investigations suggested
significant increases in hospital admissions
for a variety of respiratory ailments, CDC had
not—as this article was being prepared—
performed the follow-up studies that would
precisely determine the short- or long-term
risks to human health.

                    200   300    400    500   600    700    800   900  1000   1100
                                                                           1200   1300
 i Longview
o  Yakima
The Dalles
                    Primary    Alert
                    Standard   Level
                                                                                               MAXIMUM 24-HOUR AMBIENT TOTAL SUSPENDED
                                                                                               PARTICULATE LEVELS SINCE THE ERUPTION
                                                 NORMAL AVERAGE 1979. 24-HOUR AMBIENT TOTAL
                                                 SUSPENDED PARTICULATE LEVELS

                                                 AMBIENT AIR QUALITY LEVELS REQUIRING ACTION

Of special concern to CDC was the potential
for people in fallout areas to develop silicosis,
an emphysema-like illness produced by heavy
exposure to crystalline silica, a known
component of volcanic ash. Occupational
standards designed to protect workers from
crystalline silica exist for the workplace, but
none have been devised for ambient air.
Direct correlations have been established
between the development of silicosis and the
exposure of workers engaged for several
years in hazardous occupations, but no such
correlation exists for exposure of the general
population. CDC, in trying to establish  that
relationship  (if, in fact, any such relationship
exists) was relying on ambient monitoring
data furnished by sampling stations operated
t>y state environmental agencies and local air
pollution authorities in cooperation with EPA.

The state and local agencies had long
maintained monitorirvg stations to collect
information about total suspended
particulates and other air pollutants. With the
eruptions of Mount St. Helens, added
monitoring capability was needed to measure
ambient levels of TSP. State and local
agencies promptly responded to the
challenge. New sampling sites were set up,
new equipment was deployed, and the
frequency of monitoring was increased in
Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. The
monitoring stations used to collect the  TSP
data are shown in Figure 4.

At as many sites as possible, equipment was
installed that enabled state and local agencies
to make two kinds of measurements. Not only
would "Hi Vol" samplers be used to measure
TSP, but other equipment ("Dichot"
(Dichotomous) and "IP" (Inhalable
Particulates)] was added to measure that
fraction of total particulates so small as to be
inhalable. Relatively coarse particules (i.e.,
larger than 15 microns) cannot be inhaled;
they usually are trapped in the nose or  throat
and can easily be expelled. Particles smaller
than 15 microns, on the other hand, can be
inhaled. And those smaller than 2-1/2 microns
are considered respirable, so tiny they can be
drawn deep into the lungs. Respirable
particles tend to remain lodged in the lungs
for long periods of time and possibly can alter
the body's physiological defense systems.
Data from the monitoring network is
immediately relayed, as soon as available, to
epidemiologists at CDC. This monitoring data
will be used by CDC to make correlations
between ambient exposures and data
collected by CDC's own in-depth
investigations of persons exposed to
potentially dangerous levels of volcanic ash.

Other monitoring data being collected will
help gauge whether emissions from Mount St.
Helens will  contribute significantly to the
formation of acid rain, which is a product of
sulfur and nitrogen oxides reacting with  water
vapor in the upper atmosphere to cause
drops of sulfuric  acid and nitric acid to return
to earth. Although it is well-established that
sulfur oxides can be carried by prevailing
winds for hundreds of miles, not much is
known about the exact process by which acid
Figure 4.
Region  10  Volcano Participate Network
                      rain is formed or precisely how it is
                      transported in the atmosphere. Mount St.
                      Helens' emission of hundreds to thousands of
                      tons of sulfur dioxide per day was cause for
                      concern by EPA researchers who had already
                      been trying to determine the environmental
                      effects of acid rain.

                      While there are still  many unanswered
                      questions about the long-term effects of the
                      Mount St. Helens eruptions on people and the
                      environment, one fact has clearly been
                      affirmed: man and his environment can all too
                      easily become the victims of changes that
                      upset the fragile balance of our global
                      ecology. Mankind is vulnerable to
                      innumerable environmental stresses, some of
                      which are the result of natural, uncontrollable
                                                            HIGH VOLUME AIR SAMPLER

                                                            OICHOTOMOUS SAMPLER

                                                            INHALABLE PARTICULATE SAMPLER



       • Moses Lake
             Olympia       H Yakima
                      Mt. St. Helens

Solid  Waste  and  Hazardous  Substances
 In general, Region 10 has escaped the
 environmental problems found in other parts
 of the U.S. No major scale problems from
 improper disposal of hazardous substances
 have been discovered as yet. The problems
 that have surfaced are being dealt with and
 remedies are being developed. Open burning
 of wastes has been virtually eliminated from
 Region 10, but many environmental problems
 related to improper disposal of municipal
 waste remain, with water pollution being a
 major concern. Scarcity of land for solid
 waste disposal, concern about limited
 resources, and serious health hazards arising
 from improper disposal of hazardous wastes
 prompted Congress to pass the Resource
 Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in
 1976. In addition, other forms of hazardous
 substances are regulated by EPA under
 authorities of TSCA (Toxic Substances
 Control Act) and FIFRA (Federal  Insecticide,
 Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act). In this
 increasingly complex area, Region 10 feels
they are moving in a positive direction toward
 protecting human health. The following
section summarizes the solid waste and
 hazardous substances problems addressed in
the Pacific Northwest, as well as hazards dealt
with by other means.
 Solid Waste Disposal
 The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
 requires that Federal criteria be established
 for evaluating land disposal operations
 nationwide. In the past, municipal landfills
 could often be described as open dumps.
 These criteria have now been developed and
 the states in Region 10 have started an
 inventory to classify disposal sites. Those sites
 failing the criteria will be designated as open
 dumps and placed on a state-established
 compliance schedule for upgrading or

 Rainwater draining over the surface of a fill,
 and filtering into the ground through the
 wastes, can dissolve (leach) such undesirable
 substances as chemicals and bacteria into
 streams and groundwater. Because of the
 higher rainfall and greater population west of
 the Cascade Mountains, leachate problems
 there have been more numerous and serious
 than in more arid parts of Region 10. Landfills
 such as those constructed in Lane County,
 Oregon and Snohomish County, Washington
 have been engineered for leachate collection
 and treatment. Older landfills which had
 serious leachate problems, such as the Cedar
 Hills landfill in King County, Washington, have
 installed collection systems that pump
 leachate into the sewage treatment system.
Other  landfills may have to close altogether if
they cannot be effectively upgraded.
 There are other problems related to waste
 disposal. For example, when garbage
 decomposes, methane gas is produced as a
 by-product. Methane is toxic to vegetation
 and is explosive in certain concentrations.
 Decomposition can also produce odors.
 Household wastes, in particular, may attract
 disease-carrying rodents and insects. Proper
 disposal with daily cover and proper
 compaction will reduce many of these
 problems. Sewage sludge disposal is an
 increasing problem as water pollution
 regulations become more strict and landfill
 space becomes scarce. Alternatives, such as
 incineration and the use of sludge on farm
 and forest lands, are being tried. In addition,
 certain areas have special disposal problems,
 such as in Alaska where severe cold makes
 disposal difficult.

 Resource Recovery
 RCRA provides financial assistance to state
 solid waste management authorities to
 develop and implement comprehensive solid
 waste plans, including environmentally sound
disposal methods and recovery and
conservation programs. In addition, the
 President's Urban Grant program has
 provided funding to Seattle and Portland for
 development of recycling and energy recovery
systems. Some municipal wastes, such as
glass, metal, and newspaper, can be recycled,
and much of the rest can be converted to
"refuse-derived fuel" (RDF) or burned to

Figure 5.
Location of Hazardous Waste and
Resource  Recovery Facilities in  Region  10
                                                         CHEMICAL/WASTE OIL PROCESSORS

                                                         OPERATING CHEMICAL LAND FILLS

                                                         PROPOSED CHEMICAL LAND FILLS

                                                         CONSTRUCTED RDF PLANTS

                                                         ENERGY RECOVERY PLANT FEASIBILITY
                                                         STUDY UNDERWAY

                                                         WASTE EXCHANGES

                                                         LOCALITY WHERE RECYCLING FACILITY
                                                         AVAILABLE (MORE THAN ONE TYPE
                                                         HOUSEHOLD WASTE-GLASS. PAPER.
                                                         ALUMINUM. ETC.)
                              NOTE: State of Alaska is represented at
                              approximately 30% of true scale.
 create steam or electricity. Lane County,
 Oregon and Tacoma, Washington are testing
 RDF plants. Portland and Roseburg, Oregon
 and Cowlitz County, Snohomish County, and
 King County, Washington and Boise, Idaho
 are also studying the feasibility of converting
 waste to energy (Figure 5). The economics of
 recycled materials are typically very good in
 the Portland and Puget Sound areas, but
 recycling programs in Idaho and Alaska suffer
 from higher transportation costs and smaller

 Other wastes with a potential for recovery
 include tires, lubricating oil, and wood waste,
 which simultaneously present serious disposal
 problems. Discarded tires gradually work to
 the surface in a landfill, where they trap water,
 become a breeding place for  mosquitoes, and
 pose a fire hazard. Recently, however,
 shredded tires were used as a fuel  in boilers at
 the Georgia-Pacific plywood mill in Toledo,
 Oregon. Waste lubricating oil is used on roads
 as a dust suppressant, but can contaminate
 air and water, plus lead in the oil makes
 indiscriminate burning or disposal
 undesirable. Oregon has  passed a  Used  Oil
 Collection Act that provides for designated
 collection centers, which  will encourage re-
 refining of waste oil. Wood waste, which can
 pollute water resources and consume
significant space in landfills, is presently  being
 used to produce steam in several Northwest
timber  mills  and utilities, and may also be
used in combination with refuse-derived  fuel.

Hazardous Substances
The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
mandates government control of hazardous
waste from its generation to ultimate disposal,
including a manifest tracking system for
transporting and a permit system for
treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. In
May of 1980 regulations were promulgated
which will implement the Act. Compared to
other parts  of the country, there are fewer
industrial sources of hazardous waste in
Region 10.  Most of it is created by
manufacturers of chemicals, pesticides, and
metals, petroleum refineries, and
electroplating operations. These sources are
concentrated around  Puget Sound and in the
Willamette Valley.

For RCRA to be effective, acceptable
hazardous waste disposal sites must be made
available. Presently, there are two state-
licensed chemical landfills in Region 10—one
at Arlington, Oregon,  and the other at Grand
View, Idaho, and a third has been proposed
on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford
Reservation in Washington. The availability of
such landfills, coupled with the active
involvement of Region 10 states in hazardous
waste management, has helped prevent
serious incidents involving hazardous wastes
in the Region. Nevertheless, there has been
opposition to using these landfills to dispose
of wastes from out-of-state. In addition, RCRA
does not address the problem  of abandoned
facilities which have posed serious  health
hazards elsewhere in the country. A national
 trust fund for cleanup of abandoned sites has
 been proposed, and an inventory of such sites
 is being conducted.

 Besides landfills, several other approaches to
 hazardous waste management in the
 Northwest have been taken. Waste exchanges
 in Portland and Seattle assist parties
 throughout the Northwest wishing to dispose
 of a hazardous by-product in locating a
 second party that can use or recycle the
 material, thereby eliminating a need for
 disposal. The second party may  be a chemical
 processor that uses the waste as feedstock for
 another product. Regulations determine how
 some substances are used; for instance,
 labeling and disposal procedures have been
 established for the  more than 800 facilities in
 Region 10 using or storing polychlorinated
 biphenyl (PCS), a toxic substance used in
 electrical transformers and capacitors. Some
 efforts nave also been made to rectify past
 uses of hazardous substances. Each state in
 Region 10 will  participate in a voluntary
 national program to reduce the exposure of
 school children to asbestos fiber found in
 some school buildings. In addition to long-
 term management plans, emergency response
 plans have been developed. Units within
 several fire departments, including Seattle and
 Tukwila, Washington, have been  trained to
 deal with incidents  involving hazardous
Figure 6.
Hazardous  Waste Disposal
 Uncontrolled Hazardous Waste
 Unsafe hazardous waste disposal practices
 become uncontrolled hazardous waste sites,
 and release of chemicals from these sites can
 threaten public health or environmental
 values. (The Love Canal Chemical Dump in
 New York is a prime example. A school and
 scores of homes were built close to the dump
 and, beginning in 1978, a number of startling
 disclosures about birth defects and serious
 illness were attributed to the buried

 Past hazardous waste disposal practices  in
 the Northwest have been surveyed, and
 Figure 6 presents the results. Northwest states
 generate only 1 percent of the hazardous
 waste nationally,  and since 1940, all but
 approximately 5 percent of these wastes have
 been accounted for. Over 250 hazardous
 waste generators and disposal sites have been
 investigated, and no major problems on the
 scale of Love Canal have been discovered.

 These findings are attributed to the following:
 hazardous waste  generation is minimal;
 population densities in the Northwest are low,
 industry is young compared to other areas of
the country; and adequate (according to state
requirements) hazardous waste disposal sites
 have been available for several years.
                                                    General  On-Site  Disposal
                                                    Sewered, Recycle
                                                    Private Off-Site  Disposal
                                                    Unknown,  Burning

                                             37.0%  On-Site  Storage

As Figure 7 shows, every person is exposed to
radiation from naturally occurring,
inescapable sources such as cosmic rays and
soil. Normally, less than half a person's
radiation exposure is man-made. The data in
Figure 7 are based on national statistics, but
are representative for Region 10 as well.

Because the genetic and cancer-causing
effects of radiation are thought to be additive
or cumulative, the radiation dose to
individuals must be kept to the lowest
practicable level.  EPA limits the radiation dose
to individuals and to the total population by
monitoring radiation and by setting and
enforcing regulations on radioactivity in the
air, drinking water, surface water, and waste
materials, and from nuclear power plants.

Pesticides are substances used to prevent,
destroy, repel, or mitigate any pest, such as
insects, rodents, weeds, and fungi, as well as
substances used as plant regulators and
defoliants. Improperly used, they can harm
other organisms besides their target, causing
illness or death. The regulation of pesticides
poses some complex policy and technical
issues. Conventional chemical pesticides, by
their very nature,  are hazardous; but  they are
widely viewed as  necessary to maintain
agricultural productivity. In addition,  the
hazards of pesticides, especially the long-term
effects, are difficult to assess.

The law giving EPA authority to regulate
pesticides is the Federal Insecticide,
Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). It
requires that all pesticide producers and all
pesticides to be sold in the U.S. (including
imported products) be registered with EPA.
The pesticide producers must provide
scientific studies to support the registered use
patterns, and must provide proper container
labeling for their products. In addition, they
must maintain detailed records of their
production and distribution.

The EPA and state agencies work together to
regulate the manufacture and use of
pesticides. As of this year, EPA has
 established funded cooperative enforcement
 agreements with the Idaho, Oregon, and
 Washington State Departments of Agriculture,
 and a non-funded cooperative enforcement
 agreement with the Alaska Department of
 Environmental Conservation: This means that
 primary enforcement responsibilities covering
 pesticide use rests with the states, but EPA
 can take further action if warranted.

 The major thrust of the FIFRA program is
 directed toward pesticide users. Since 1976,
 EPA has worked with the states in developing
 training and certification programs.
 Applicators of restricted use pesticides
Figure 7.
Average  Amount of Exposure to Radiation
Per  Person Per Year
      AVERAGE U.S.
     PRODUCTS. 025
       FALL-OUT 2
        COSMIC 45
 (pesticides with greater potential for causing
 adverse effects) must be certified to ensure
 that they are competent in the use of those
 pesticides. EPA and the states combine efforts
 to see that pesticides are being used
 according to label directions.

 After pesticides are used, the Food and Drug
 Administration is  responsible for verifying that
 pesticide residues on raw agricultural
 commodities are within required  limits.

 Environmental monitoring for pesticides is
 conducted by  certain state health
 departments through EPA grants. Region 10
 has two epidemiological study groups, one in
 Wenatchee, Washington and the  other in
 Boise, Idaho.

 Pesticide registration and resulting  use can be
 discontinued at any time EPA determines that
 unreasonable adverse effects on the
 environment outweigh the benefit from
 continued use of the pesticide. If  further
 restricting use of the pesticide cannot correct
 the problems,  ultimately the product can be
 cancelled or suspended. For example, EPA
 took emergency action to suspend products
containing 2,4,5-T and Silvex. Cancellation
 hearings are in progress and a final
determination  will be made regarding the
future of these pesticides.

     ir  Quality
Air quality in the Northwest is relatively
clean as most areas of the Region comply
with the National Ambient Air Quality
Standards. However, air quality problems
do exist in the more densely populated areas
of the four states; but pollution abatement
controls on point and area sources should
alleviate these problems in the future.
Implementation of these controls continues
to be a cooperative effort among Federal,
state, and local environmental agencies,
industry, and a concerned, informed  public.
However, much remains to be done, and this
section  gives some insight into the types of
air quality problems faced by the citizens of
Region  10.
Air Quality Standards —
History and Definition
The Clean Air Act of 1970 directed EPA to
establish National Ambient Air Quality
Standards ("ambient" refers to outside or
environmental conditions, rather than indoor
quality), and in 1977, amendments to the Act
required that all standards be met as soon as
possible and practical. In the case of primary
(health-related) standards, the new deadline
is December 31, 1982.  Under certain
conditions an extension to December 31,
1987 can be granted for carbon monoxide
and ozone.

The more highly concentrated a pollutant,
the worse its effect on humans and their
                                            environment. Because some pollutants have
                                            both chronic and acute  effects on health,
                                            standards are based on their average
                                            concentration over various lengths of time
                                            with a margin of safety included. Pollutants
                                            that exceed secondary standards have
                                            detrimental impacts on the public welfare
                                            and result in deterioration of many
                                            consumer products.  Exceeding primary
                                            standards poses a threat to public health. If
                                            the pollutant concentration reaches the alert
                                            Table 1.
                                            Effects  of Major Air Pollutants on
                                            Health and Property
                                            level, individuals, industry, and government
                                            should take immediate action to protect
                                            human health by curtailing outdoor
                                            activities, use of automobiles, and certain
                                            industrial operations.

                                            Federal standards have been set for six
                                            major pollutants. Table 1 lists the effects on
                                            health and property that are the normal
                                            result of exceeding those standards.
                                                              HEALTH EFFECTS
                                                                                                PROPERTY EFFECTS

Sulfur Dioxide
Carbon Monoxide
Nitrogen Dioxide
 Correlated with increased
 bronchial and respiratory disease,
 especially in young and elderly.

 Upper respiratory irritation at low
 concentrations; more difficult
 breathing at moderate
 concentrations (3000 ug/rn^),
 correlated with increased cardio-
 respiratory disease; acute lung
 damage at high concentrations.

 Physiological stress in heart
 patients;  impairment of psycho-
 motor functions; dizziness and
 headaches at lower concentra-
tions; death when  exposed to
 1000 ppm for several hours.

 Irritates eyes, nose, throat-
deactivates respiratory defense
 mechanisms; damages lungs.

Combines with hydrocarbons in the
presence of sunlight to form photo-
chemical smog; irritates eyes, nose,
throat; damages lungs.

Primary concern with young
children.  Most pronounced effects
on nervous system (damage may
occur at low levels), kidney
system, and blood forming system
(high  levels may have severe and
sometimes fatal consequences
such as brain disease, palsy, and
anemia).  Blood levels >30mg/
deciliter are associated with an
impairment in cell  function.
 Corrodes metals and concrete;
 discolors surfaces; soils exposed
 materials; decreases visibility.

 Corrodes and deteriorates steel,
 marble, copper, nickel, aluminum,
 and building materials; causes
 brittleness in paper and loss of
 strength in leather; deteriorates
 natural and synthetic fibers; "burns"
 sensitive crops.

 Corrodes limestone and concrete
Deteriorates rubber and fabrics;
corrodes metals; damages

Corrodes metal surfaces;
deteriorates rubber, fabrics, and

Injures plants through absorption
of soil. Affects nervous system of
grazing animals.

 How Air Quality is Measured
 Air quality data are collected at monitoring
 stations located throughout each of the four
 states, primarily in concentrated population
 or industrial centers—the most likely
 sources of air pollution. Monitoring sites are
 designated in this report as
 commercial/industrial, residential, or rural.
 However, air pollution can originate away
 from the monitoring site. High pollutant
 levels in a residential area, for example, do
 not necessarily indicate the source is  located
 in that area. Not all pollutants are monitored
 continuously at all stations, and monitors are
 not located in all counties, primarily because
 of the high cost of installation and operation,
 but monitors are located in large
 metropolitan areas. EPA has estimated the
 percentage of days during which
 concentrations of the various pollutants
 exceeded the standards throughout Region
 10 during 1979.

 Geographical areas wrthin Region 10  where
 source emissions, in combination with
 influencing weather conditions, cause air
 quality standards to be exceeded have been
 designated as non-attainment. Currently, 22
 areas in Region 10 fall in this category. All
 other areas are classified as attainment. The
 original determination of non-attainment
 was based on data for 1975 through 1977;
 therefore, areas that are presently classified
 as attainment may have exceeded the
 standards during calendar year 1979 and are
 illustrated in this report.

The Regional Air Quality Outlook
 Region 10 has relatively few heavily
 populated urban centers; in the four states
 there are only 6.5 million residents. While air
 pollution is not confined to urban areas, it is
 most severe where human activity, especially
 vehicular activity, is heavily concentrated.
 Some violations of National Ambient Air
 Quality Standards occur in every state of
 Region 10.

During 1979, four of the major pollutants
exceeded standards in Washington, while
three standards were exceeded in both
Idaho and Oregon. Only carbon monoxide
standards were exceeded in Alaska.
Total Suspended Participates
Suspended particulaies are solid or liquid
particles of different sizes having health
effects that vary with particle size and
composition. Particulates can aggravate
asthma and chronic lung diseases; they
increase coughing and chest discomfort.
Some particulates can be toxic or cancer-
causing (lead or asbestos particles, for
example). Particulate pollution may interfere
with visibility, injure vegetation, and
increase cleaning and maintenance costs in
numerous sectors of the economy.

Suspended particulate matter is a
widespread problem throughout the
Northwest. Some particulate emissions
come from so-called point sources, which
are easily identified stationary industrial
sources of emissions, such as smokestacks.
The rest, which cannot be pinpointed to a
specific source, are termed area sources,
such as space heating (resident and
commercial heating units) and fugitive dust.
Fugitive dust can be created by certain
industrial and agricultural operations, and by
vehicles on paved as well as unpaved roads.
In areas with little major industrial
development and low population density,
fugitive dust is composed mostly of natural
soil particles and is believed to be less
harmful to the health. For this reason, many
areas are considered to be attaining air
quality standards even though particulate
standards are exceeded.
Also included under area sources are motor
vehicle tailpipe emissions which we have
classified separately as mobile sources (see
Figure 16, page 17). Figure 8 shows the three
states that exceeded suspended particulate
standards; i.e., at least one monitoring site in
the county exceeded one or more of the
standards for total suspended particulates
(TSP) in  1979. Aside from areas where rural
fugitive dust accounts for exceeding TSP
standards, most violations are focused in 16
areas. Data from these areas are charted on
Figure 9, showing the  percentage of samples
that exceeded standards based upon
number of days monitored. (Note that
particulate samples are routinely collected
once every 6 days.)

In Idaho, the Pocatello and Conda-Soda
Springs areas' major point sources of total
suspended particulates are fertilizer and
industrial chemical processors.  In the latter
area, fugitive dust from roads and fields also
contributes to TSP levels in excess of the
standards. In Lewiston, the wood products
industry and a kraft pulp mill are the chief
point sources, while in the Kellogg area, the
Bunker Hill Company's smelting operation is
a major source of TSP.

In Oregon's Portland area, motor vehicles
directly or indirectly account for
approximately half the area's suspended
particulates;  natural sources, vegetative
burning, and industrial sources  contribute
the rest. Wood products, rock products, and
metallurgical industries are the major point
sources, but all have applied reasonable
controls on their emissions. The wood
products industry is also the major point
source in the Medford-Ashland  area.
Although the Grants Pass area exceeded
TSP standards, more data will be needed to
assess potential problems there. In the
Eugene-Springfield and Lebanon areas,
burning of slash, field stubble, and other
vegetation, and airborne dust from roads
and fields contribute to particulate levels.
Emissions from the wood  products, paper,
and rock  products industries also contribute
to the Eugene-Springfield particulate

In Washington's Seattle, Tacoma, and
Spokane areas, fugitive dust from paved and
unpaved roads and construction sites, and
point source industrial emissions caused
TSP standards to be exceeded. The main
source of participates in the Vancouver area
has been traced to the Carborundum
Company, a processor of inorganic
minerals. In the Port Angeles and Longview
areas, suspended particulate levels are
largely due to  fugitive dust from log yards

Figure 8.
Air Quality Status  —
Total Suspended  Particulates
and emissions from the forest products
industry. The Clarkston area's major source
of pollution is pulp mill operations in
Lewiston, Idaho.

Particulate control devices such as
baghouses, electrostatic precipitators, and
scrubbers have been installed on many
industrial sources, and some plants are
scheduled to further reduce emissions in the
future. As existing plants are modified and
new facilities are constructed, the best
technology available to control suspended
particulates will be required. Control of
fugitive dust is more difficult to achieve.
Paving roads and parking areas can  help, as
well as improved "housekeeping" in
industrial areas (such as covering hoppers
or conveyor belts or other equipment
transporting raw materials). Construction
sites can be wetted down to reduce dust.
However, it is expected that reduction of
fugitive dust will be very gradual due to the
high cost of control.
•                                                                                              STANDARD ATTAINED OR CONSIDERED TO
                                                                                              ATTAIN STANDARD

                                                                                           | SECONDARY STANDARD  EXCEEDED

                                                                                           ~^ PRIMARY STANDARD EXCEEDED

                                                                                           I ALERT LEVEL EXCEEDED

D                                                                                              STANDARD EXCEEDED OR CONSIDERED TO
                                                                                              EXCEED STANDARD DUE TO FUGITIVE DUST

Figure 9.
Percent of Observed Days Total Suspended
Participates Exceeded  Standards
    20         40        60
Kellogg c/l
Lewiston c/i
Pocatello c/l
Conda- c/i
Soda Springs r
Lebanon c/l
Ashland R
Grants Pass
Port Angeles c/i
Seattle c/l
_ C/l
Longview c/i
Vancouver c/i
Clarkston c/i





i i




— I


— 1


i i





| (36/56)
NOTE: Number in parentheses represents total number of
days exceeding standards per number of observation days.

'May not be representative of total problem. Less than 75%
of observation days reported.
 Alaska is not illustrated in Figures 8 and 9
 since violations in the state are attributed to
 fugitive dust. However, the Fairbanks, Alaska
 area has a unique pollution problem called
 "ice fog" which forms spontaneously at
 -40° F when supersaturated water vapor cools
 and can no longer hold moisture, forming
 ice crystals. At warmer temperatures, -20° F,
 ice fog can form around condensation nuclei
 such  as particulate matter. Deeper layers of
 ice fog have been forming more frequently
 at warmer temperatures as the population
 has increased, with heavy ice fog occurring
 approximately 15 days per year. There is no
 Federal air quality standard pertaining to ice
 fog even though it severely decreases
 visibility. Economical control techniques are
 presently being researched and evaluated to
 help reduce this problem.

 To date, the concern in Region 10 has been
 to reduce emissions from point sources.
 Although most of the industries that produce
 significant amounts of particulates have
 installed the required control devices,
 particulate problems, especially those
 resulting from area sources, still remain in
 the urban areas.

 Sulfur Dioxide
 Sulfur dioxide is formed when coal or oil
 containing sulfur is burned, or when sulfur is
 burned in an industrial process. Breathing
 air containing sulfur dioxide can produce
 adverse health effects similar to those
 described above for suspended particulates.
 When sulfur dioxide combines with moisture
 in the air to form acidic mist and rain, it can
 pose an increased health hazard. In
 addition, it corrodes buildings,  is harmful to
 vegetation, and can deteriorate the water
 quality of lakes and streams far from the
 source of the pollutant.

 Figure 10 shows the air quality status of
 sulfur dioxide in Region 10 and Figure 11
 compares those areas that exceeded




standards. In Idaho, the principal cause of
sulfur dioxide pollution is the smelting of
nonferrous ores (lead and zinc) and the
manufacture of phosphate fertilizer.

In Kellogg, where the Bunker Hill Company
smelts and refines lead and zinc, the rugged
terrain of the Silver Valley  inhibits adequate
dispersion of sulfur dioxide, although the
plant's two 700-foot stacks have improved
the situation. However, during frequent
thermal inversions, the plant must follow a
set of procedures to reduce or discontinue
production to keep sulfur dioxide levels
within the standards. The Bunker Hill
Company will conduct further studies to
determine where maximum sulfur dioxide
concentrations occur. The results of these
studies will provide the information
necessary to improve  Bunker Hill's
dispersion program to meet ambient
standards until additional controls are

The major source of sulfur dioxide in the
Pocatello area is J.R. Simplot, which
produces fertilizers and industrial chemicals.
The company is  installing additional controls
that should further reduce their emissions by
25 percent. The Beker Industries phosphate
fertilizer plant near Soda Springs is the
major source of sulfur dioxide in that area;
primary sources  are two sulfuric acid plants,
both of which operate in compliance with
applicable emission regulations when their
control equipment is functioning properly.


Over 80 percent of Washington's sulfur
dioxide pollution comes from industrial
sources and power plants. About half the
emissions in the state are from ASARCO's
Tacoma smelting and refining operations;
however, violations of standards have not
occurred in Tacoma since December 1976.
ASARCO relies on dispersion techniques to

Figure 10.
Air Quality Status — Sulfur Dioxide
meet national ambient air quality standards
by reducing operations when weather
conditions (such as thermal inversions)
prevent adequate mixing. As in the case of
the Bunker Hill smelter, this may only be a
temporary solution until the need for better,
constant control has been established and
equipment installed.
The major sulfur dioxide sources in the Port
Angeles area are ITT Rayonier and Crown
Zellerbach. Based on meteorological
conditions, emission rates, and the
geography of the area, ITT appears to have
the dominant effect on ambient sulfur
dioxide levels.

The pulp mills in southeastern Alaska, major
point sources of sulfur dioxide, comply with
the state's SC>2 air quality regulations. In
1979, the sulfur dioxide standards were not
exceeded. Additional data are needed to
assess potential future sulfur dioxide
problems that could arise from operation of
the pipeline terminal and proposed
construction of a petrochemical plant in

Oregon complies with the National Ambient
Air Quality Standards for sulfur dioxide and
there are no known potential problems in
that state.
                                                                                                         STANDARD ATTAINED OR
                                                                                                         CONSIDERED TO ATTAIN STANDARD
                                                                                                         SECONDARY STANDARD EXCEEDED

                                                                                                         PRIMARY STANDARD EXCEEDED
                  , curki

     wm> writa•

Figure 11.
Percent of Observed  Days
Sulfur Dioxide Exceeded Standards
                    OBSERVED DAYS EXCEEDED (%)
Kellogg R
Soda Springs c/
Pocatello c/i
Port Angeles c/i





              R RESIDENTIAL

              r RURAL

NOTE: Number in parentheses represents total number of
days exceeding standards per number of observation days.

'May not be representative of total problem. Less than 75%
of observation days reported.

Figure  12.
Air Quality  Status —  Carbon  Monoxide

                                                            waii.w.ii.«             f    f

 Carbon Monoxide
 Carbon monoxide is a colorless, odorless
 gas—high concentrations can cause
 unconsciousness or even death. At
 concentrations above the primary standard,
 this pollutant can interfere with  mental
 alertness and physical activity, especially for
 persons with heart or lung disorders.
 Carbon monoxide is a by-product of fossil
 fuels combustion. Its major source is motor
 vehicles, and the most severe violations of
 standards are recorded where automobiles
 are concentrated—in urban areas. Figure 12
 illustrates the extent of the carbon monoxide
 problem in Region 10, and Figure 13
 compares the areas not meeting the carbon
 monoxide standard.

 Motor vehicles are responsible for about 90
 percent of carbon monoxide emissions;
 therefore, plans for reducing such emissions
 center on improvements to individual
 automobiles and to the transportation
 system as a whole. As older cars are
 replaced by models with up-to-date pollution
 control equipment, carbon monoxide levels
 should decline. In addition, regular vehicle
 inspection and maintenance will ensure that
 emission control devices are functioning
 effectively. Other measures for mitigating the
 carbon monoxide problem are based upon
 reducing vehicle miles traveled and include
 traffic flow improvements, transit
 improvements, carpooling, bike  lanes, and
 parking management.

 The majority of the carbon monoxide
 problems in Region 10 are compounded by
 adverse climate conditions. During the
 winter months, extreme stable inversions
 develop in many parts of the Region which
 severely inhibit the dispersion characteristics
 of pollutants resulting in high pollutant
 concentrations. Also, it is  difficult to
 maintain efficient combustion processes in
 cold weather. For example, automobiles in
 Alaska take longer to warm up and emit
 substantially more air pollutants than at
 warmer ambient temperatures; carbon
 monoxide emissions  during engine warm-up
 may account for up to 65  percent of the total
vehicle emissions produced, depending
 upon the size of the engine. Therefore,
 maintaining a warm engine or reducing
average engine size may be effective in
 reducing cold-start emissions. These
 emissions are currently uncontrolled, and
 the proposed low-temperature emission
 standard for automobiles should be effective
 in helping to achieve the 90% reduction
 mandated by the Clean Air Act through the
 Federal Motor Vehicle Control Program.

 Through transportation controls previously
 identified, EPA is working closely with the
 Region 10 states to control emissions from
 vehicles and to reduce the number of vehicle
 miles traveled in urban centers with high
 carbon monoxide levels.

 Figure  13.
 Percent of Observed  Days
 Carbon Monoxide Exceeded Standards
                   OBSERVED DAYS EXCEEDED (%)
                    10      20      30
 Anchorage c/i

  Fairbanks c/i

      Boise c/i

   Portland c/i

     Salem c/i

   Medford- c
     Seattle c/i

   Tacoma c/i


    Yakima c/i

 Vancouver c/i










            R RESIDENTIAL

NOTE: Number in parentheses represents total number of
days exceeding standards per number of observation days.

'May not be representative of total problem. Less than 75%of
observation days reported.

 Unlike other air pollutants discussed in this
 report, photochemical oxidants are not
 emitted by industries or automobiles; rather,
 they are the product of a  chemical reaction
 that occurs in the atmosphere when two
 other pollutants are present—oxides of
 nitrogen (which are discussed below) and
 hydrocarbons. The chief sources of
 hydrocarbons include automobile exhaust
 and volatile organic compounds (VOC) such
 as solvents and gasoline.  Besides oxides of
 nitrogen and hydrocarbons, sunlight is
 necessary for the reaction. When all three
 are present, a class of chemicals known as
 photochemical oxidants is produced, the
 most common of which is the gas, ozone.
 Air quality standards refer to ozone, and
 only ozone is measured by monitoring

 Ozone irritates the eyes and respiratory
 system, aggravates asthma and chronic lung
 diseases, and reduces lung and heart
 capacity. It also probably  causes more
 damage to plants in the United  States than
 any other pollutant. Ozone concentrations
 greater than the health standard have
 occurred in the Portland, Oregon, and
 Seattle, Washington, areas, (see Figures 14
 and 15) and future monitoring may identify
 other areas. Because significant quantities of
 the substances that give rise to ozone come
 from automobiles, measures taken to
 reduce other automobile emissions, such as
carbon monoxide, are also effective in
controlling ozone. Also, measures that
control VOC indirectly lower ozone levels.
 (An example is the floating roof for oil
storage tanks that reduces evaporative

 Figure  14.
Percent of  Observed  Days
Ozone  Exceeded Standards
                  OBSERVED  DAYS EXCEEDED  ('".)
Portland <
Seattle ,


NOTE: Number in parentheses represents total number of
days exceeding standards per number of observation days

 Figure 15.
 Air Quality Status  — Ozone

                                                 STANDARD ATTAINED OR
                                                 CONSIDERED TO ATTAIN STANDARD
                                                 PRIMARY STANDARD EXCEEDED
 Nitrogen Dioxide
 Oxides of nitrogen are gases formed mainly
 by combustion. Sources include
 automobiles and power plants. Besides
 irritating the eyes and respiratory tract and
 damaging metal, rubber, fabric, and dyes,
 oxides of nitrogen contribute to
 photochemical oxidants, as described above.

 During  1979, the nitrogen dioxide standard
 was not exceeded in any of the Region 10

 In 1978, EPA established an air quality
 standard for lead, which is to be achieved by
 November, 1982. At this time, the states, in
 cooperation with EPA, are gathering data to
 identify areas where the standard is being
 exceeded. Violations of the lead standard
 have occurred in the Kellogg, Idaho, area
 where the major sources are the Bunker Hill
 Company's lead smelter and general
 areawide contamination resulting from 60
 years of milling and smelting operations.
 Lead violations have also been  found in the
 Seattle,  Washington, area—Harbor Island
 due to RSR/Quemetco and along Interstate
 5 from Northgate to Spokane Street. The
 Puget Sound Air Pollution  Control Agency is
 developing a plan to clean  up the Seattle

 Other Hazardous Materials
 In addition to the six major air pollutants
 discussed above, other hazardous materials
 emitted  to the air include asbestos,
 beryllium, and mercury. EPA is analyzing
 other potentially hazardous pollutants, and
 standards for these will be developed in the
future, if necessary.

                                              Figure 16.
                                              Air  Quality Trends
Trends in Air Quality
Trends in air quality indicate whether air
pollution control activities have been
effective. Figure 16 shows the urban areas in
Region 10 in which air quality standards
were exceeded in 1979. A trend was
established for designated monitoring sites
obtaining data for the 6-year period from
1974 through 1979. Air quality has improved
in some Region 10 areas over the past few
years; however, those improvements may
not be shown in Figure 16 because long-
term trend data is lacking. Also, new sites
have been added within the last year to  state
networks, and trends for these areas will be
available in the future.











     Lewiston   c



      Conda-   c/i
Soda  Springs     ,




                                                                    SHORT TERM
                   TSP  SO,  CO   O,

  Grants  Pass

 Port  Angeles

                                                 Vancouver   c/l

                                                  Clarkston   c
                                                    Yakima   c
                                        TSP  SO2 NO2

 Mobile  & Area  Sources
 Mobile  & Area  Sources

 Mobile  & Area  Sources
 Mobile  & Area  Sources

 Point Sources
 Point Sources
 Point & Area Sources
 Mobile  & Area  Sources

 Point & Area Sources
 Point & Area Sources

 Point & Area Sources
 Point & Area Sources

 Mobile,  Area & Point Source
 Mobile  & Area  Sources
 Mobile  Sources

 Mobile  Sources

Area Sources
Area Sources
Mobile,  Area &  Point Sources
Mobile & Point  Sources
Mobile & Point  Sources
Area  Sources
Area  Sources
Area  Sources

Point  & Area  Sources
Mobile, Area &  Point Sources
Mobile & Area Sources
Mobile Sources
Mobile, Area &  Point Sources
Mobile &  Area Sources

Point  & Area  Sources

Mobile & Point  Sources

Mobile, Area &  Point Sources
Mobile &  Area Sources
Area  & Point Sources
Mobile Sources


River  Water  Quality
Water quality in Pacific Northwest and
Alaskan rivers is generally good; however,
portions of many Region 10 major rivers
have marginal quality with respect to Federal
water quality goals. This degradation is the
result of both point and non-point sources of
pollution with some problems attributed to
natural causes. Criteria most often exceeded
are those for temperature, bacteria, nutrient
levels, and heavy metals. To attain the  water
quality goals, wastewater treatment
programs for point sources and best
management practices for non-point
sources either have been implemented or
are planned.

How  River Water Quality is
When Congress enacted amendments to the
Federal Water Pollution Control Act in 1972,
a national goal was set—"fishable, swim-
mable" waters by 1983 and the states in
Region 10 have adopted that goal. The
purpose of the Act is to protect the quality of
our Nation's waters for a variety of uses,
including public water supply, wildlife, fish
and shellfish, recreation, navigation,
agriculture, and industry. Each water use
depends on certain characteristics, such as
temperature, concentration of dissolved
oxygen, or  absence of bacteria, which  can
be measured and used to evaluate water
quality. They vary with the chemistry of the
stream being measured, the season, and
other factors.
                                            Region 10 states have specified a limited
                                            number of criteria for water quality
                                            parameters and incorporated them into
                                            water quality standards. In addition, to
                                            reliably compare water quality on a regional
                                            scale, EPA  Region 10 developed a
                                            standardized set of parameters and
                                            associated criteria and segregated them into
                                            ten related groups (Table 2). These criteria
                                            are a synthesis of state water quality
                                            standards, National EPA water quality
                                            criteria, information in technical literature,
                                            and professional judgment. Like the state
                                            water quality standards, this more

                                            Table 2.
                                            Criteria Categories for the
                                            Water Quality Index
                                           comprehensive set of criteria is intended to
                                           define water quality levels necessary to
                                           protect human and aquatic life and the
                                           desired recreational uses of river and stream
                                           waters, and thus represent EPA Region 10
                                           water quality goals. More than one criteria
                                           value based on  water use may be associated
                                           with certain parameters. For example, most
                                           of the Region's  streams are managed to
                                           support cold water game fish species such
                                           as trout and salmon; however, some are
                                           managed as warm water fisheries,
                                           supporting bass, bullhead, etc., which
                                           require less stringent criteria. The water
                                            CRITERIA CATEGORY

Dissolved Oxygen






Trophic (Nutrient

Organic Toxicity

Inorganic Toxicity
Water temperature influences the type of fish and other aquatic life that
can survive in a river. Excessively high temperatures are detrimental to
aquatic life.
To survive, fish and aquatic life must have certain levels of oxygen in the
water. Low oxygen levels can be detrimental to these organisms.
pH is the measure of acidity or alkalinity of water. Extreme levels of either
can imperil fish and aquatic life.
Refers to oil, grease, and turbidity which are visually unpleasant. For the
Index, this group is mostly represented by the turbidity parameter, which
is a measure of the clarity of the water, because it is much more widely
measured than any of the others within the group.
Dissolved mineral and suspended material such as mud or silt. Excess
dissolved minerals (hard water) interfere with agricultural, industrial, and
domestic use. Excess suspended solids adversely affect fish feeding and
May be in water as a result of radioactive waste discharges or fallout.
Excess levels can harm aquatic and other life forms.
Bacteria indicate probable presence of disease-related organisms and
viruses not natural to water  (i.e. from human sewage or animal waste).
Indicates the extent of algae or nutrients in water. Nutrients promote
algae growth. When algae (one-celled water plants) flourish they make
the water murky, and the growths make swimming and fishing
unpleasant. Decomposition  of dead algae can decrease dissolved oxygen
concentrations to levels harmful to fish.
Includes pesticides and other organic poisons having same effects and
persistence as pesticides.
Heavy metals and other elements; excess concentrations are poisonous
to aquatic and other life forms. Also includes percent saturations of
dissolved gases in water which can affect the metabolism of aquatic life.
                                            'Approximately 80 parameters were evaluated and condensed to the 10 categories shown here. More
                                            detailed information is available on request.

quality of an individual stream or stream
portion may be determined at a monitoring
station by measuring each parameter and
comparing it to the criteria. But to compare
one stream  to another, or to compare
segments within a particular stream, a single
inclusive number is useful. Consequently, a
Water Quality Index (WQI) has been
formulated by EPA Region 10 based upon
the aforementioned criteria.

Sources and Control of Water
Pollutants that reach the Region's streams
have two general origins: point source
pollution, such as wastewater from
industries, sewage treatment plants, and the
like, that enters streams at an easily
identified  location; and less easily identified
non-point source pollution, that consists of
stormwater from urban areas, irrigation
water, and runoff from farm, forest, and
mining lands.

Industries that discharge waste effluent to
streams must have a permit issued by EPA
under the National Pollution Discharge
Elimination System (NPDES) or by states
that have assumed this responsibility.
Through this means, EPA can require that
point source pollutants be removed before
wastewater reaches the river. Since non-
point sources cannot be so easily treated,
"best management practices" are required.
For example, agricultural best management
practices might include waste storage areas
to keep organic wastes from reaching
nearby streams, or contour plowing to
prevent erosion of soil into rivers.

The responsibility for developing methods to
control non-point source pollution has been
given to local and state agencies assigned to
develop water quality management plans as
provided by the Federal Water Pollution
Control Act.
  Water Quality Index
  In this report, the Water Quality Index compares water quality data measured, primarily, from
  October 1977 through September 1979 with the recommended Federal criteria. (Water management
  agencies usually operate on a "water year," i.e., October-September, rather than on a calendar year
  basis.) This data is collected by various Federal, state, and local agencies and stored in EPA's
  computer systems. The final Index number for each station takes Into account the 10 water quality
  criteria categories shown in Table 2, adjusted to reflect the severity by which the criteria are
  exceeded. Two types of Index numbers are generated: one represents the average annual water
  quality, the other shows the worst 3 consecutive months status, which provides a better indication of
  the severity of those water quality problems occurring on a seasonal basis. The Index  numbers span
  a scale from 0 (no measured evidence of pollution) to 100 (severe pollution at all times). In this
  report, the scale is divided into three color ranges:
  Blue represents streams with Index numbers between 0 and 20. These streams either have no
  pollution or are minimally polluted and therefore meet the goals of the Federal Water Pollution
  Control Act.
  Light brown represents streams with Index numbers between 20 and 60. Such streams are
  Intermittently and/or moderately polluted and are considered marginal with respect to meeting the
  goals of the Act.
  Dark brown represents streams with an Index number greater than 60. These streams  are severely
  polluted and do not meet the goals of the Act.
  The color gray is used in the graphs when the water quality status is unknown because of inadequate
Figure 17.
Water  Quality  Index Values for
Principal  Region 10 River  Basins
Middle Snake
Lower Columbia
Lower Snake
Upper Snake
Oregon Coast
Upper Columbia
Clark Fork/Pend Oreille
Puget Sound
Washington Coast


• ,

• 1
• _ •
• •

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                    D WORST 3 CONSECUTIVE MONTHS


                    Lack of data precludes calculation of WQI values for Alaska basins.

The Regional Overview
The Water Quality Index is used in Figure 17
to compare the major river basins, which
include the principal rivers and tributaries
within Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. (Lack
of data precludes the calculation of WQI
values to represent entire Alaska basins.)
Figure 18 depicts the relative extent of water
quality degradation within each river basin,
and Figure 19 shows similar information on a
regional map. Only three major river basins
(Figure 17) seem to clearly meet the Federal
water quality goals, with both Index numbers
less than 20. Another six generally meet the
goals, except during certain times of the year.
The remaining six basins only marginally
meet the Federal goals, and the majority of
these drain arid portions of the Region that
receive significant non-point source waste
contributions from agricultural and livestock

Most of the criteria exceeded are those for
temperature, bacteria, trophic, aesthetics,
solids, and inorganic toxicants categories.
Natural conditions such as hot summer
temperatures, low streamflows, and easily
erodable soils also contribute, particularly in
the more arid portions of the Region. In the
Spokane River Basin, high heavy metals
contributions from past and present mining
activities on the South  Fork Coeur d'Alene
River drainage in Idaho are primarily
responsible for elevated Index values.
Elevated heavy metals  concentrations of
unknown origins also appear in portions of
the Lower Columbia and Lower Snake Basins.
 Figure  18.
 Miles Within  Principal Region 10
 River Basins  Meeting Water  Quality Criteria
                                RIVER MILES


        Middle Snake

     Lower Columbia

        Lower Snake



        Upper Snake


       Oregon Coast

     Upper Columbia


        Puget Sound

Clark Fork/Pend Oreille

    Washington Coast


        Lower Yukon



  Northwestern Alaska

        Arctic Slope


          Bristol Bay

        Upper Yukon

                                                                                                BASED UPON THE AVERAGE ANNUAL WOI:

                                                                                                UNACCEPTABLE - SEVERE POLLUTION
                                                  MARGINAL — INTERMITTENT, OR MODERATE
                                                                                              I ACCEPTABLE — MINIMAL, OR NO POLLUTION

                                                                                              I STATUS UNKNOWN
                                                                                           Only the principal river and tributary mileages are shown tor
                                                                                           each basin.

Figure 19.
Water Quality Status of Principal  Rivers in
Region  10 (Based Upon the Average
Annual  WQI)
  Figure  20.
  Water Quality Trends in Region  10
                              NOTE State of Alaska is represented at
                              approximately 30% of true scale
                 PERCENT OF STATIONS
                     40      60       80
                                                                                            Based upon the water quality status during the worst
                                                                                            3 consecutive months per station at 89 monitoring and
                                                                                            stations within Region 10. (Alaska stations, organic and
                                                                                            inorganic toxicant pollution categories not included.)

                                                                                              I  UNACCEPTABLE - SEVERE POLLUTION

n                                                                                                 MARGINAL - INTERMITTENT. OR MODERATE
                                                                                                 ACCEPTABLE — MINIMAL, OR NO POLLUTION

                                                                                                 STATUS UNKNOWN
 Data on organic toxicants is lacking for most
 streams. Programs are underway, however, to
 better define their extent and to develop
 realistic criteria for these compounds.

 Most of the criteria exceedances indicated in
 Alaska are due to natural conditions, such as
 glacial activity and spring runoff. Past and
 present mining operations may be
 contributing to the higher solids and metals
 values in some of these rivers.

 Regional water quality trends were analyzed
 by comparing data from 89 representative
 monitoring stations over a 7-year period
 (Figure 20). There has been little significant
 change at these stations since  1973. Due to
 inadequate data, Alaska rivers could not be
 included in the analysis, nor were  organic or
 inorganic toxicants included, since there have
 been significant changes in analytical
 techniques and  reporting procedures over the
 time period considered. Although  point
 source controls have made many
 improvements in Regional  water quality,
further plans to identify and control non-point
 sources are needed to improve water quality
 in those stream segments still not  fully
 meeting water quality goals.

The Quality of Oregon's
Principal Rivers
Figures 21  and 22 show that none of Oregon's
principal rivers and streams are severely
polluted all year. The Snake  River above
Brownlee Dam (Middle Snake) experiences
severe degradation during some months of
the year. Portions of the Owyhee and Malheur
Rivers are seasonally polluted to almost as
great a degree. Half of the principal rivers
have only marginal water quality on an annual
average basis, and more are  similarly affected
at least part of the year. Most of the lesser
quality streams are located in the eastern and
southern parts of the state, and are impacted
by non-point source wastes from irrigation,
agricultural, and livestock activities.

Figure 23 shows the worst 3-month status of
certain Oregon river and stream reaches with
respect to each of the 10 WQI categories.
Some of the man-caused  sources of criteria
exceedances are also indicated. Criteria most
frequently exceeded are temperature,
bacteria, trophies, solids, and inorganic
toxicants (basically, heavy metals).

Temperatures exceeding the criteria
contribute to the impairment of cold water fish
species. This condition is  somewhat mitigated
by the ability of the fish to migrate to cooler
tributary streams during the warmest periods,
and to partially adapt to the warmer
temperatures. The hot, dry climate in eastern
and southern Oregon with attendant low
streamflows is mostly responsible for these
exceedances. In some streams, however,
these climatic conditions may be aggravated
by irrigation diversions and return flows,
dams, and the destruction of streambank
vegetation. The portions of the Malheur,
Owyhee, Umatilla, and Klamath that are
represented were evaluated against warm
water fishery criteria and subsequently do not
indicate temperature exceedances.

Dissolved oxygen levels occasionally failed to
meet the criteria in the Snake River
immediately below Hell's Canyon Dam and in
the Klamath River near Keno. This is due to
the introduction of nutrients from agricultural,
livestock, and natural sources, which stimulate
algal and aquatic weed growth during the
spring and summer months. The subsequent
decay of these growths and other organic

Figure  21.
Water Quality Status of  Oregon's
Principal Rivers
                                                                                        debris introduced by irrigation wastewater
                                                                                        consumes quantities of dissolved oxygen
                                                                                        sufficient to cause the remaining oxygen
                                                                                        levels to fall short of the criteria. In the lower
                                                                                        South Umpqua, low dissolved oxygen levels
                                                                                        appear to be caused  by municipal point
                                                                                        sources combined with seasonally low
                                                                                        streamflows during the summer.

                                                                                        The lower John Day and Middle Snake Rivers
                                                                                        show pH values in excess of the criteria.
                                                                                        Natural soil conditions may be the primary
                                                                                        reason in the former case, and agricultural
                                                                                        runoff in the latter.

                                                                                        Over half of the stream segments  shown
                                                                                        exceed criteria levels for bacteria and
                                                                                        nutrients. Much of this degradation may be
                                                                                        attributed to runoff from grazing lands,
                                               ACCEPTABLE - MINIMAL. OR NO POLLUTION

                                               STATUS UNKNOWN

croplands, and animal confinement areas.
Municipal point sources also contribute to
these problems in certain areas.

In Region 10, the aesthetics and solids
categories are mostly represented by the
turbidity and suspended solids parameters,
respectively, and are therefore closely related.
High turbidity levels usually indicate similar
levels of suspended solids,  which are caused
by the erosion of soil into the rivers and
streams. Both conditions are aesthetically
offensive. Most of those Oregon streams
exceeding the turbidity criteria are impacted
by agricultural runoff during late spring and
summer. The other streams are affected to a
lesser extent during winter  and spring due to

Figure 22.
Water  Quality  Index  Values
for  Oregon's  Principal Rivers
            Middle Snake


John Day, Incl. N. & S. Forks

   Bear Creek (Jackson Co.)

     Grande Ronde/Wallowa



            Lower Snake

           Lower Nehalem

  Mainstem, N. & S. Umpqua

           Lower Siuslaw



        Lower Clackamas

  Mainstem, N. & S. Santiam

The WQI values presented are derived from averaging
WQI values from those river portions with adequate data.
Except  where indicated, river portions included  are
located  only on the main river named.

'Portions of these streams were evaluated using
 criteria  designed to protect warm water aquatic
 species, only.
                                              rainfall and snowmelt runoff. Again, although
                                              many of these conditions are probably natural
                                              in origin, man's agricultural, livestock, and
                                              forestry activities across the state may be
                                              responsible for some of the degradation.

                                              There is a significant lack of data on organic
                                              toxicants in Oregon streams, even though
                                              pesticides and herbicides are widely used in
                                              both agricultural and forestry activities
                                              throughout the state. Regular monitoring for a
                                              relatively small number of these chemicals
                                              has been performed in only a few of Oregon's
                                              streams  in recent years. Except for the
                                              Klamath River, where concentrations of the
                                              pesticide Lindane were found in excess of the
                                              EPA criteria for aquatic life in 1976, this




 limited monitoring program has not detected
 significant levels of organic toxicants to date.
 More widespread sampling for a much larger
 number of organic toxicants is being
 undertaken to better assess the extent of
 these compounds.
 The inorganic toxicants category is primarily
 represented by the heavy metal parameters
 except for the South Umpqua, where only
 ammonia data is available. Seasonally low
 streamflows combined with sewage treatment
 plant effluent probably account for the
 elevated ammonia values. The highest levels
 of heavy metals occur in the Columbia River
 from unknown sources.

 EPA stream monitoring for  radiation in or near
 Oregon occurs quarterly on the Columbia
 River near Richland,  Washington and Astoria,
 Oregon. Although there is insufficient criteria
 data available to calculate Index numbers for
 this category, observed radiation values at
 these sites are less than 5 percent of the EPA
 drinking water standard.

 River Water Quality Trends
 Figure 24 compares the year-to-year water
 quality at 22 monitoring stations within or
 bordering upon Oregon over the past 7 years.
 Although improvements due to point source
 controls have been documented, no
 significant improvement trends in statewide
 water quality are seen because of the
 influence of continuing natural and man-
 caused non-point source degradation at these

 Looking at the individual water quality
 categories and stream segments (Figure 24), it
 appears that conditions are  deteriorating
 somewhat in several  of the most degraded
 segments, while conditions  in the Willamette
 River and its tributaries seem to be improving.
The limited amount of data  available for
analysis makes it difficult to provide a more
 complete evaluation of Oregon water quality
trends at this time.

The Outlook for Oregon
 Many existing water quality problems in
 Oregon are due to non-point sources of
 pollution, especially agricultural sources. To
 address this problem, the Oregon Department
 of Environmental Quality (DEQ) has assessed
 the state's non-point source pollution and is
 now developing and  beginning to apply best

 Figure 23.                 i
 River Water Quality Categories
 Current Status  and  Trends  in  Oregon
                                                                                           Figure 24.
                                                                                           Water Quality  Trends  in  Oregon

        Middle Snake

       Lower Owyhee

       Lower Malheur

     Lower John  Day


    Lower Bear Creek
        (Jackson  Co.)
      Columbia above
        Willamette R.
      Columbia below
        Willamette R.
       South Umpqua
       near Roseburg
 Middle Grande  Ronde

       Lower Tualatin

      Middle Umatilla

        Lower Snake

      Lower Nehalem

       Main Umpqua

        Willamette at
      Willamette near
        Willamette at
       Lower Siuslaw

        Lower Rogue

    Lower Deschutes

        Santiam near
 The colors depict the worst three-month status
 of each category during the water year 1978/1979
 period.  The arrows depict category  trends as
 determined by  a  non-parametric statistical test
 of water year 1973 through  1979 data
 The Quality of Washington's
 Principal Rivers
 Figure 25 shows the location and extent of
 water quality within Washington's principal
 rivers and streams, and Figure 26 compares
 their water quality in WQI terms.

 On an average annual basis, the majority of
 streams generally meet the Federal water
 quality goals. The South Fork of the Palouse
 currently appears to be the most degraded
 Washington stream and does not meet
 Federal goals. During their worst 3-month
 conditions, over half of the streams may be
 considered marginal with respect to the goals.

 The marginal rating for the Puyallup/White
 system and the Upper Nisqually is primarily
 due to criteria exceeded in the aesthetics and
 solids categories, caused by glacial meltwater.
 In the Lower Columbia, this rating is due to
 elevated heavy metals levels from unknown

 Many of the state's water quality problems are
 found in the lower portions of the Yakima,
 Crab Creek, Walla Walla/Touchet, and
 Palouse drainages, where the effects of
 climatically induced low streamflows and  high
summer temperatures are aggravated by
 man's activities. Problems typically
encountered include high levels of bacteria,
turbidity, suspended solids, and nutrients, as
well as elevated summer water temperatures.
 Most of these problems are attributed to
agricultural and livestock-related non-point
                                             sources, such as irrigation return flows,
                                             erosion from cultivated dryland areas, and
                                             runoff from grazing areas and feedlots.

                                             Figure 27 shows the status of various
                                             segments of Washington's principal streams
                                             with respect to the 10 WQI categories.
                                             Summer stream temperatures exceed
                                             recommended criteria in the lower portions of
                                             many of the eastern Washington streams. As
                                             in Oregon,  natural causes are probably the
                                             major contributors, but human activities
                                             compound the problem. Dissolved oxygen
                                             levels in the Spokane River immediately below
                                             Long Lake  Dam fail to meet the minimum
                                             criteria during the late summer and fall. This
                                             condition is caused by the oxygen-consuming
 Figure 25.
 Water Quality Status of Washington's
 Principal  Rivers

decay of algae and other organic material
within Long Lake, which are either
contributed to or stimulated by upstream
sources. Excessive bacterial levels are mostly
found in the lower portions of eastern
Washington's streams, with irrigation,
precipitation, and snowmelt runoff from
grazing and animal confinement areas the
probable causes. However, sewage treatment
Figure 26.
Water  Quality  Index Values
for Washington's  Principal Rivers
wastes may be primarily responsible for
exceedances in the South Fork Palouse and
Duwamish Rivers.

The most severe exceedances ol the
aesthetics and solids criteria generally occur
in the more intensely farmed areas of
southern and eastern Washington, particularly
during periods of rainfall and snowmelt runoff.
                  Crab Creek

           Walla Walla/Touchet

             "Palouse, Incl. S.F.


              Lower Columbia



              Lower Nooksack




              Upper Columbia


                 Pend Oreille

    Stillaguamish, Incl.  N.F. &S.F.






             Lewis, Incl. E. Fork

                                        WOI VALUE

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• f
• •
• m
• mm
• •
• mm
• mm
<^t n
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n n


Recent monitoring of the lower Spokane,
Elwha, and Yakima Rivers for organic
toxicants indicates no significant levels of
these compounds. More widespread sampling
for a much larger number of organic toxicants
is being undertaken to better assess their
extent in Washington's streams.

Inorganic toxicants include the heavy metals
zinc, lead, and cadmium, which can harm fish
and persons who eat contaminated fish. A
number of Washington rivers appear not to
meet recently refined Federal criteria.
However, for most of these streams, it is not
clear at this time whether there is a genuine
problem with inorganic toxicants or simply a
problem with insufficiently sensitive analytical
and monitoring techniques. Past and present
mining and smelting activities in Idaho's
South Fork Coeur d'Alene River drainage are
responsible for excessive inorganic toxicant
levels in the Spokane River.

EPA stream monitoring for radiation  in or near
Washington occurs quarterly on the Columbia
River near the Canadian border, Richland, and
Astoria, Oregon. Although insufficient criteria
data is available to calculate Index numbers
for this category, observed radiation values at
these sites are less than 3 percent of the EPA
drinking water standard.

River Water Quality Trends
Figure 28 compares the year-to-year water
quality at 39 monitoring stations within, or
bordering upon, the state over the past 7
years. As in Oregon, improvements due to
point source controls have been documented.
No significant improving trends in the overall
water quality status are seen, however,  due to
the influence of continuing natural and human
related non-point source degradation at these
stations. Incomplete data from some of the
monitoring stations and variations in the
climate and sampling times combine to add
difficulties to the attempt to analyze water
quality trends.


 'Evaluated using criteria designed to
 protect warm water aquatic species only.


The WQI values presented are derived from averaging
WQI values from those river portions with adequate data.
Except where indicated, river portions included are
located only on the main  river named.

 Figure 27.
 River Water Quality  Categories
 Current  Status and Trends  in Washington
     Crab Creek above
          Moses Lake
          Crab Creek
          near mouth
          Walla Walla
          near mouth
          near mouth
          near mouth
         S.F. Palouse
          at Pullman
          near mouth
      Lower Columbia
       above Portland
      Lower Columbia
       below Portland
            Snake at
          Spokane at
   Wash./Idaho border
  Spokane at Riverside
          State Park
       Spokane below
      Long Lake Darn
      Nooksack above
        below Lynden
          at Oroville
          near mouth
         Yakima near
          Union Gap
        Yakima below
           at mouth
   Upper Columbia at
     Canadian border
         Willapa near
       Pend Oreille at
   Idaho/Wash, border
       Pend Oreille at
     Canadian border
         near mouth
        Sagkit  above
       Sedro Woolley
        Skagit below
       Sedro Woolley
          near Porter
        Green above
     Duwamish below
Renton treatment plant
         near mouth
          Bwha near
        Wenatchee at
        Lewis below
        Merwin Dam
        Snohomish at

Agriculture, animal wastes

Agriculture, animal wastes

Agriculture, animal wastes

Agriculture, animal wastes


Agriculture, point sources

Animal wastes, glacial silt

Point & non-point sources
on tributaries
Point & non-point sources
on tributaries

Upstream  agric. waste sources

Upstream  mining activities
                   Animal wastes
                   Streambank erosion

                   Animal wastes, agriculture,
                   point sources

                   Agriculture, animal wastes
                   Renton Treatment Plant,
                   urban runoff, animal wastes





The colors depict  the worst three-month status of
each category during the water year  1978/1979
period.  The arrows depict  category trends as
determined by a non-parametric statistical test
of water year 1973 through  1979 data.
                                                 Figure  28
                                                 Water Quality  Trends in Washington
                                                                  PERCENT OF STATIONS
                                                                      40      60
                              Data based upon the worst 3 consecutive months status
                              of  39 monitoring  stations within, and bordering upon,
                              Washington. Organic and inorganic toxicant categories
                              not included.
                              Figure 27 indicates some improvement in
                              certain categories in the most-degraded
                              stream segments in eastern Washington,
                              particularly with respect to trophic conditions.
                              In fact, where data is available, it appears that
                              nutrient levels are declining in many stream
                              segments across the state. Because limited
                              data is available for trends analysis, it is
                              difficult to more completely evaluate water
                              quality trends within the state at this time.

                              The Outlook for Washington
                              The NPDES permit system and
                              implementation of areawide wastewater
                              management plans being developed should
                              correct many of the pollution problems
                              discussed above. New and improved sewage
                              treatment plants, improved operation of
                              existing plants, and best management
                              practices in agricultural and livestock
                              operations should most noticeably improve
                              bacteria,  nutrients, and solids levels. The
                              effect of forest practices on erosion and
                              temperature levels is being controlled through
                              the Forest Practices Act.

                              Programs are underway to determine the
                             extent of  organic toxicants. If significant levels
                              are found, they are likely to be in metropolitan
                             areas  where the impact  of both municipal and
                              industrial waste discharges are the greatest.
                              Elevated  levels may also be found in streams
                             that drain agricultural areas with high
                              pesticide usage.


• . <•;
                                 •  *
                         >  <-
Figure 29.
Water Quality Status of Idaho's
Principal Rivers
•    -;
 The Quality of Idaho's
 Principal Rivers
 Figure 29 shows the location of the major
 Idaho streams and the general extent of
 water quality degradation within their
 reaches based upon the average annual
 WQI. Figure 30 compares'their average
 annual and worst
 3-month WQI values.

 Much of the South Fork Coeur d'Alene River
 is affected by wastes from past and present
 mining and ore-producing activities within
 its basin. Pollution from these activities also
 causes the Spokane and main Coeur
 d'Alene Rivers to be rated marginal. The
 lower Portneuf River has been degraded by
 a combination of municipal, industrial,
 agricultural, and natural sources. Since the
 summer of 1980, however, much of the
 municipal and industrial wastewater has
 been diverted from the river. Rock  Creek,
 which flows through Twin Falls, is  heavily
 impacted  by irrigation wastewater  entering
 its lower reaches.

 Most of the other principal streams
 monitored in  Idaho only marginally meet
 Federal water quality goals during  their
 worst 3-month periods; many of their
 problems are attributed to agricultural non-
 point sources, particularly in Southern
 Idaho. Some stream reaches are affected by
 point source discharges from sewage
treatment  and industrial plants, for example,
the Boise River and  Milner Reservoir, located
 on the Snake River. High heavy metals levels
 from unknown sources are primarily
 responsible for the Lower Salmon and
 Clearwater Rivers' marginal ratings. The
 remaining streams are located in more
 remote areas of the state, lack significant
 agricultural, urban, and industrial activities,
 and generally meet  Federal goals.

 Figure 31 shows the worst 3-month status of
 various Idaho river and stream reaches with
 respect to each of the water quality
 categories evaluated by the WQI. Many
 stream reaches exceeded the temperature
 criteria, particularly in the more arid portions
 of the state. The  low dissolved oxygen levels
 below Hell's Canyon Dam on the Snake
 River are discussed  under Oregon River
 Water Quality.

 Excessive bacterial levels occur in some of
 Idaho's southern streams, due primarily to
 runoff from grazing and animal confinement
areas. Over half of the stream segments
evaluated experience excessive levels of
                                     BASED UPON THE AVERAGE ANNUAL WQI:

                                  I  UNACCEPTABLE — SEVERE POLLUTION

D                                     MARGINAL - INTERMITTENT, OR MODERATE

                                  I  ACCEPTABLE - MINIMAL, OR NO POLLUTION

                                  I  STATUS UNKNOWN

 nutrients (trophic category) during at least
 part of the year. These are mostly over-
 enriched by runoff from irrigated and
 dryland agriculture, although  secondary
 treated sewage may be contributing  to these
 problems in some streams, such as the
 Boise River.

 The highest suspended solids levels
 observed in the state were found in the lower
 portions of Rock Creek, Bruneau River,
 Portneuf River, and in  the Bear River near
 the Wyoming border. Irrigation return flows
 are mostly responsible for these levels in
 Rock Creek, while rainfall and snowmelt
 runoff from  dryland agricultural areas
 account for the high solids levels in the other
 three streams.

 Figure  30.
 Water Quality Index Values
 for Idaho's  Principal  Rivers
Limited monitoring for organic toxicants in
the water on the Snake,  Bear, Kootenai, and
Salmon Rivers has not revealed significant
levels of contamination in recent years. Fish
tissue samples taken at 19 trend stations in
Idaho indicated that no criteria levels were
exceeded for 22 pesticides and other
organics. However, 26 percent and 30
percent of the total DDT and PCS samples,
respectively, exceeded recommended
concentrations for the protection of fish-
eating birds and mammals. Large amounts
of RGB's were released to the Upper Snake
River following the flooding caused by the
failure of the Teton Dam.

High levels of heavy metals from the
aforementioned mining and smelting
20 40 60 80 10
Lower Portneuf
Lower Bruneau
S.F. Coeur D'Alene
Lower Boise
Rock Creek (Twin Falls Co.)
Middle Snake
Spokane/Coeur D'Alene
Little Wood
Lower Snake
Clearwater & Significant Tribs.
St. Joe
Upper Snake
Clark Fork/Pend Oreille
Big Wood
Henry's Fork
Payette. Incl. N. & S. Forks



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D 	 n
— n


The WQI values presented are derived from averaging
WQI values from those river portions with adequate data.
Except where indicated, river portions included are
located only on the main river named.

 sources are causing criteria exceedances in
 parts of the Spokane/Coeur d'Alene River

 Insufficient criteria exist to allow formulation
 of Index numbers for the radiation category.
 Compared to the Idaho regulations for
 public drinking water systems, however,
 recent data shows that a few stream
 segments exceeded these criteria. These are
 believed to be caused by naturally occurring
 uranium in the soils.

 River Water Quality Trends
 The general water quality picture in Idaho,
 as represented by the 28 monitoring stations
 evaluated in Figure 32,  has exhibited little
 apparent change  over the past 7 years for
 the same reasons explained in the Oregon
 and  Washington discussions.

 Trends within individual categories (Figure
 31) indicate improvement in the aesthetics
 and  solids categories in many of the stream
 segments. Segments exhibiting
 improvements in the greatest number of
 categories are the Kootenai River near the
 Canadian border and the Snake River near
 Mountain Home.

The Outlook for Idaho
 Reductions in point source pollution in
 Idaho are being achieved by means of
 NPDES permits and earlier cooperative
 state, industry, and municipal efforts.
 Problems still exist, however, with sewage
treatment, including inadequate treatment
levels, overloading of facilities  from
infiltration/inflow,  and insufficient dilution of
sewage effluent due to low streamflows.
 Food processing industries and mining and
ore processing facilities are other major
point sources requiring  improvements.

Agriculture continues to be one of the most
significant non-point sources of water
pollution in Idaho. A Statewide Agricultural



Figure 31.
River Water Quality  Categories
Current  Status and  Trends  in Idaho
                               Figure 32.
                               Water  Quality Trends  in  Idaho

           at mouth
         near mouth
    South Fork Coeur
    d' Alene at mouth
         near mouth
            Boise at
     Lucky  Peak Dam
       Rock Creek at
           Twin Falls
   Middle Snake near
      Mountain Home
        Middle Snake
         near  Weiser
Coeur d' Alene above
      the South Fork
Coeur d' Alene below
      the South Fork
   Spokane at  Wash,/
        Idaho  border
         Little Wood
         near  mouth
      Lower Snake at
  Hell's Canyon Dam
        Lower Snake
       near Lewiston
             Bear at
     Wyoming  border
            Bear at
        Utah  border
         near  mouth
         near  mouth
       Kootenai near
  US./Canada  border
             St. Joe
         near  mouth
           at  mouth
  Upper Snake above
         Idaho Falls
        Upper  Snake
        near  Burley
      Pend Oreille  at
   Washington  border
           Big Wood
        near  mouth
        near  mouth
        Henry's Fork
        near  mouth
        near  mouth
                                                                                                                      PERCENT OF STATIONS

Point & non-point sources

Agriculture, animal wastes

Point & non-point sources

Agriculture, point sources,
animal wastes
Agriculture,  animal wastes

Agriculture,  animal wastes


Upstream mining sources

Upstream mining sources

Upstream waste  sources

Upstream waste  sources

Non-point sources in
Wyoming & Utah
Agriculture,   animal  wastes

Point sources, agriculture,
Agriculture, animal  wastes


Point sources, agriculture



Agriculture, animal  wastes
                     The colors depict  the worst three-month  status
                     of each  category during  the water year 1978/1979
                     period.   The arrows depict category  trends as
                     determined by a non-parametric  statistical test
                     of water year 1973 through  1979 data.
 Based upon the water quality status during the  worst
 3 months at 28 monitoring stations within and bordering
 upon Idaho.  Organic and inorganic toxicity parameter
 groups  not included.







Pollution Abatement Plan was completed in
1979. This voluntary program is being
implemented on a statewide basis, and
specifically using 208 projects in four high-
priority areas: Rock Creek and Cedar Draw
in Twin Falls County,  Paradise Creek-South
Fork Palouse River in Latah County, and
Marsh Creek in Bannock County.

Mining activities are another major non-
point source of pollution. Significant
improvement in water quality would result if
discharges from the Bunker Hill Company in
Kellogg were to meet EPA guidelines;
however, runoff from abandoned and
inactive mining operations, which is difficult
and expensive  to control, would still create
problems in the South Fork  and main Coeur
d'Alene Rivers. State plans to rehabilitate the
South Fork have been hampered by lack of

                                                Figure 33.
                                                Water Quality Status of Alaska's
                                                Principal Rivers
                                                                                                              UNACCEPTABLE  - SEVERE

                                                                                                              MARGINAL  - INTERMITTENT
                                                                                                              OR MODERATE POLLUTION

                                                                                                              ACCEPTABLE - MINIMAL
                                                                                                              OR NO POLLUTION
 The Quality of Alaska's
 Principal Rivers
 Because most of Alaska is remote and
 inaccessible, water quality information is
 scattered, as well as difficult and expensive
 to obtain; therefore half of the state's
 principal streams cannot be evaluated.
 Available data from October 1977 through
 September 1979 were used to indicate the
 general status of the principal Alaska rivers.
 Where insufficient data existed for that
 period, data from October 1972 through
 September 1979 were used. Figure 33 shows
 the location and water quality status of these
 streams, and Figure 34 compares the Index
 values from the single stations that represent
 each river.

 None of  the rivers with data appear to be
 severely  degraded. River segments rated
 marginal are primarily exceeding turbidity
 (aesthetics), suspended solids, and heavy
 metals (inorganic toxicants) criteria on an
 intermittent basis.  The high levels of the first
 two are primarily due to natural occurrences,
 such as ice breakup and runoff from the
 snowpack and glaciers. Human activities,
 such as placer mining and construction,  may
 be partially responsible, particularly in some
 of the smaller  tributary streams.  Metals
criteria exceedances may be due to a
combination of factors, such as mining
activities, natural geological processes, and
the criteria/reporting problem discussed
 Figure 34.
 Water  Quality  Index Values
 for  Alaska's  Principal Rivers
20 40 60 80 10
Lower Tanana
Lower Yukon
Lower Susitna
Lower Copper
Lower Kuskokwim
Upper Yukon

• r
• r

r\ n
U LJ •
r\ i— i
J LJ *
r\ n •
LJ •


'All  marginal rivers exceed sediment criteria which may
be due to natural causes, such as glacial flows.
NOTE: Due to insufficient data, Index numbers could
not  be  calculated for some  rivers.   Those  values
presented are calculated from only one monitoring
station on each river.



                                               Figure 35.
                                               River Water  Quality  Categories
                                               Current Status in Alaska
Figure 35 shows the current status of river
water quality categories in Alaska. The
bacterial problem indicated in the Tanana
River is based upon 1973 and 1974idata and
was due to sewage discharges from the
Fairbanks area into the Chena River, a
tributary to the Tanana. Since late 1976,
these wastes have been diverted from the
Chena River and treated by a new sewage
treatment plant, which discharges to the
Tanana River. Recent data indicate that the
Chena at Fairbanks, once severely polluted
by these discharges, now has acceptable
bacterial levels. This will  improve water
quality in the Tanana, although no post-
treatment data are available at this time.

Low dissolved oxygen levels  in the Yukon
and Kuskokwim River segments occur in  the
winter months due to the ice cover. Low pH
values are occasionally observed in the
Nushagak River for unknown reasons. The
marginal organic toxicant rating for the
Yukon River is due to one 2,4-D sample in
excess of the criteria.

The Outlook for Alaska
The challenge for the future in1 Alaska will be
to preserve the high level of environmental
quality. Greater use of the vast natural
resources of the state and increased
population could result in significant
deterioration of water quality.

Alaska's wastewater treatment program for
municipal and industrial  discharges is well-
advanced but not yet complete; therefore
continued emphasis on this program will  be
necessary to maintain water quality. Untreated
domestic sewage discharges have been
reduced in areas such as the Chena River
near Fairbanks; however, many other interior
and coastal communities still have inadequate
sewage treatment facilities. Pulp mills are
presently increasing their treatment levels. As
additional industrial treatment needs are met,
water quality in  localized areas should

Urban center growth, resulting in increased
discharges and urban runoff  as well as
increased recreational  pressures on  lakes and
streams, will continue to cause problems in
large communities such as Anchorage,
Fairbanks, and Juneau. Various state and
        Tanana at
        'Yukon at
      Pilot Station
 "Talkeetna R. near
      'Stikine near
       "Susitna at
     Susitna Stain.
     'Copper near
      'Kobuk near
     "Nushagak at
     'Kuparuk near
       Gulkana at
    'Kuskokwim at
    Crooked Creek
      Chena near
       North Pole
         Chena at
         Yukon at
       Koyukuk at
      Colville near








      Karluk near
       Larsen Bay
                                                                                                          #  £
                Natural causes,
                possibly mining
                Natural causes, possibly
                mining, ice cover
                Natural causes, possibly
                mining, ice cover
                Natural causes

                Natural causes,
                possibly mining
                Natural causes.
                possibly mining
                Spring run-off

                Spring run-off

                Spring run-off

                Spring run-off

                Ice, natural causes,
                possibly mining
                Spring run-off



                 "October 1977 - September 1979 data. Evaluations of the
                 remaining stations based upon data from October 1972 -
                 September 1979. Insufficient data available for category
                 trends analysis.
local management agencies are presently
identifying urban problems and developing
prevention programs.

Water quality degradation resulting from
placer mining activities will be difficult to
control. Because of the remoteness of these
areas, technical evaluation of mining effects
and control programs have not advanced. It is
doubtful that mitigation of the effects of placer
mining will be possible in the next few years.

Timber harvesting as a non-point pollution
source will become more significant in the
future. Logging and the road construction that
accompanies it add to the sediment load in a
stream through accelerated erosion,
particularly if the streambank vegetation is
removed in the process. In the past, Alaska's
timber industry existed on publicly owned
timber land. Timber harvesting practices were
rigidly established in lease and contract
stipulations, although contract enforcement
was frequently deficient. Such Federal
controls would not apply to the millions of
acres of land being conveyed into state and
private ownership as a result of the Statehood
Act, Alaska Native Claims Act, and state land
disposal programs.

Construction in general, especially for roads,
railroads, and pipelines also causes increased
erosion and sediment loads. Conditions
unique to Alaska, including permafrost,
unstable stream channels, extreme
temperature ranges, and glacial action
accentuate the problem. Many of these
situations are still being studied.  The state is
developing a manual of best management
practices for transportation corridors.

 Lake  Water  Quality
Inland lakes and waterways constitute one of
the Region's most important recreational and
commercial resources. It is generally felt that
the lake water quality in the Pacific Northwest
is among the best in the Nation. Only a few of
the major recreational lakes have significant
water quality problems that impair their
recreational use.

How Lake Water Quality is
A numerical water quality index has not been
developed for lakes, as it has been for rivers.
Instead, the water quality of the Region's lakes
is evaluated based on ecological conditions
(trophic status) and their impact on
recreational use of the lakes. For comparison
purposes, and to help analyze the extent to
which recreational uses are impaired in any
given  lake, the measurement criteria shown in
Table 3 were applied.
Factors Affecting Recreational
Uses of Lakes
If a lake is undisturbed by human activities, it
undergoes a natural process of aging known
as eutrophication. Man's activities, however,
may accelerate this process by introducing
nutrients to lake waters through improper
land use and waste disposal practices. Land
use practices on farm  land, forests, and
construction sites often result in erosion of
nutrient-rich soils into streams feeding lakes.
Significant quantities of nutrients are also
discharged by sewage treatment and certain
industrial plants and urban, pasture, and
feedlot runoff.

Water quality agencies are concerned with the
trophic status of the Region's lakes because
their many uses depend on their ecological
conditions. Highly eutrophic lakes are
characterized by dense algal blooms, floating
mats of vegetation, and a murky appearance.
Algae are found naturally in every body of
water, but when stimulated by abundant
nutrients, sunlight, and warm temperatures,
they rapidly multiply to become a nuisance to
recreational users while seriously affecting
water quality for other uses. These plant
nuisances may curtail  or even eliminate
recreational activities (such as swimming,
boating, and fishing), impart tastes and odors
to water supplies, and  cause toxic conditions
which adversely affect other aquatic life in the
lakes. For example, when sufficient quantities
of these growths die, the decaying process
may consume quantities of dissolved oxygen
sufficient to kill fish and other aquatic life. The
recreational use of  lakes  in itself can affect
water quality. Power boats create waves that
erode banks, contributing to sediment,
nutrients, and muddy water; they also release
mixtures of oil and  gasoline and associated
contaminants to the water. Removal of
vegetation along shorelines to enhance public
access can also lead to erosion.

 Table 3.
 Criteria  for  Evaluating  Impairment
 of  Lakes
 Swimming      Very low bacteria levels
               (Fecal coliforms geometric
               mean less than 50 per
               100 ml)
 Fishing        No adverse conditions.
               Healthy  fish population.
 Boating        Less than  10% of surface
               area  affected by aquatic
 Aesthetics      Objects  visible in water to
               depth of 10 feet or more
               and low phosphorus
               (Seechi  Disc*  at 10 feet;
               total  phosphorus of less
	than  10  ug/l")	
(No uses  impaired)



Mcxli'i.ilr h.irtrn.-i liwh. (T7]
(Fecal coliforms 50 to
200 per 100 ml)>
Slightly adverse condi- f2~]
tions. Slight reduction in
fish population.
10% to 30% affected \2\
Objects visible from 1 .5 to [2]
10 feet and moderate
phosphorus level (Secchi
Disc at 1.5 to 10 feet;
total phosphorus 10 to
20 ug/l)
uses moderately impaired) |5-8|
Swimming      Unhealthy bacteria levels
               (Fecal coliforms greater
               than 200 per 100  ml)
Fishing         Adverse conditons. Signi-
               ficant reduction in fish
Boating        More than 30% affected
Aesthetics      Objects not visible beyond
               1.5 feet or high
               phosphorus level (Secchi
               Disc at less than 1.5 feet;
               total phosphorus greater
	than 20 ug/l)	
SCORE   (All  uses significantly impaired) |
                          The Regional Overview
                          The principal recreational lakes within the
                          Region are of good quality, with relatively few
                          impairments related to human activities.
                          Figure 36 compares the percentage of lakes
                          impaired for recreational use in each state.
                          Figure  37 shows the location and impairment
                          status of each lake on regional maps.
                          Approximately half of the lakes assessed in
                          Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, and most of
                          the Alaskan lakes for which there is
                          information, have little or no recreational
                          impairment. However, some of these lakes are
                          approaching a level of eutrophication that
                          interferes with their desired uses.

                          The EPA Clean Lakes Program provides
                          Federal grants to state water quality agencies
                          to improve lake quality. In Washington, this
                                              Figure  36.
                                              Impairment Status of  Recreational Lakes
                                              in Region 10
                                                                PERCENT OF LAKES IMPAIRED
                                                                20     40      60     80    100
                                              Based upon evaluation of 145 Region 10 lakes
                              LITTLE OR NO IMPAIRMENT

                              MODERATE IMPAIRMENT

                              SIGNIFICANT IMPAIRMENT

                              STATUS UNKNOWN
                          'A Secchi Disc is a round black and white plate
                          suspended on a chain and used to determine water
                         "ug/l = micrograms per liter, a measurement used
                          for low concentrations of dissolved substances.
program is supplemented by a state lake
restoration program which provides matching
funds to local agencies. Some measures
being implemented to improve lake water
quality include dredging to remove nutrient-
containing sediments and decomposing plant
material that consumes oxygen, flushing,
bank erosion control, aeration, physically
removing aquatic plants, and both chemical
and biological controls to  prevent
eutrophication. Through these programs,
many of the high-use recreational lakes in the
Region  are being restored and preserved for
future generations.

Figure  37.
Water Quality of  Principal
Recreational   Lakes  in  Region  10.



                                        Big Lake
                                            Lake Balfmgei
                                             Lake Washington
                                             Lake Sammamish
                                              Pine Lake
                                               Lake Meridian
                                               Fcviwirk Lake
                                                   Kachess Lake
                                             T.l|i|>-  *"<-!.• I linn I :ikr
                                       jato Lake
                                   Long Lake
                                 i  in !•.-M i .it-.'
                                                                                   McKay Creek Res

                                                                                          Lake Wallowa
                                                                                                         Hells Canyon Res
                                                                                                         Losl Valley Res
                                                                                                       • Upper Payette Lake
                                                                                                      ^Payette Lake
                 Green Peler Res
                   Foster Res
              Fern Ridge Res
            Cleawnx Lake
            Siltcoos Lake Dorena Res  Waldo
            Tahkemtch   •
            Lake      •Collage
                                        ok Lake
                            ®Suttle Lake
                     Blue River Res         ©Ochoco Res
                      ; KM* MI i i"
                                  • Paulina Lake
                               Cultus Lake
                                                  Pratrie Res
                                            Wickiup Res.
                                            Davis Lake
                                            Odell Lake
                                            Crescent Lake
                                            Hills Creek Res
        Grove Res
N Tenmile Lake
S Tenmile Lake

 Oregon Lake Water Quality
 Figure 38 shows the extent and majpr causes
 of use impairment for the principal
 recreational lakes in Oregon. Seventeen of
 these lakes are moderately impaired, mostly
 due to aesthetic conditions (algae blooms)
 and aquatic weed growths. Nutrients that
 support the weed and algal growths are, in
 some cases, supplied by bottom muds
 accumulated from soil erosion, and in others
 are due to septic drainage from recreational
 and residential development.

 The quality of a few of these lakes has been at
 least partially restored. Commonwealth Lake
 near Portland, for example, which suffered
 from algae blooms and proliferation of aquatic
 weeds, was successfully restored by dredging
 and flushing with water diverted from  a
 nearby creek.  Riprap, bulkheads, and  a
 perimeter walkway reduced siltation in the
 lake. In Diamond  Lake, Douglas County,
 nutrients from sewage had accelerated
 eutrophication. Sewage was diverted from the
 lake drainage, and fish-cleaning  and trailer-
 dumping stations were installed  to further limit
 nutrients reaching the lake. Other lakes still
 have problems. Blue  Lake near Portland, for
 example, has high recreational potential, but it
 is highly eutrophic with summer blooms of
 algae. This is due in part to a nutrient-rich
 water supply. On the coast, Devil's Lake
 experiences rapid siltation due to stormwater
 runoff. Feasibility studies  have been initiated
 under the Clean Lakes Program  for the
 restoration of Devil's  Lake, Klamath Lake,
 Fern Ridge Reservoir, Sturgeon Lake,  and
 Mirror Pond.
Figure 38.
The  Recreational Impairment and  Trophic
Status of  Principal  Recreational  Lakes in
                    NAME  (ACRES)
       Willow Creek Res.  1,000
      North  Tenmile Lake  1,000
      South  Tenmile Lake  1,400
            Klamath Lake  59,000
  Devil's Lake/Lincoln Co.    600
Blue Lake/Multnomah Co.     65
           Emigrant Res.
            Siltcoos Lake
       McKay Creek Res.
            Ochoco Res.
            Owyhee Res.
             Suttle Lake
          Cleawox Lake
         Tahkenitch Lake
         Hills Creek Res.
         Fern Ridge Res.
          Diamond Lake
          Chinook Lake
          Prineville Res.
       Crane Prairie Res.
              Davis Lake
            Wickiup Res.
      Lake of the Woods
       Henry Hagg Lake
        Green Peter Res.
          Timothy Lake
            Lake Paulina
              Odell  Lake
             Waldo Lake
             Crater Lake
          Crescent Lake
          Lake Wallowa
             Cultus Res.
             Olallie Lake
             Detroit Res.
         Blue River Res.
      Cottage Grove Res.
            Dorena Res.
             Foster Res.
            Cougar Res.
Irrigation withdrawals,
nutrients in sediments
Introduced Nuisance Weeds
Introduced Nuisance Weeds
Nutrients in Sediments
Nutrients in Sediments
Nutrients in Sediments
Irrigation Withdrawals
Introduced Nuisance Weeds
Introduced Nuisance Weeds
Irrigation Withdrawals
Nutrients in Sediments
Nutrients in Sediments
Stream-Fed Nutrients
Septic Tanks
Introduced Nuisance Weeds
Shallow Depth
                                                                                                         I NON-EUTROPHIC

                                                                                                         1 MODERATELY EUTROPHIC

                                                                                                         I EUTROPHIC

                                                                                                         I LITTLE OR NO IMPAIRMENT

                                                                                                         1 MODERATE IMPAIRMENT

                                                                                                         | SIGNIFICANT IMPAIRMENT

                                                                                                         I STATUS UNKNOWN

Washington Lake Water Quality
Figure 39 shows the extent and major causes
of use impairment for the principal
recreational lakes in Washington. Vancouver
Lake, Moses Lake, and Silver Lake are
considered significantly impaired in two or
more respects. Another 17 lakes are
moderately impaired, mostly due to aesthetic
conditions. Most of the lakes with water
quality problems receive stormwater runoff
and septic tank seepage from lakeside
residential areas. The large lakes and
reservoirs of eastern Washington receive
irrigation return flows and runoff from
agricultural lands that contain fertilizers and
animal wastes which accelerates the
eutrophication processes.

Some measures are being implemented
through the state and Federal programs to
restore recreational amenities. For example,
Medical Lake was treated with alum to
precipitate excess phosphorous to the lake
bottom, to form a layer over the sediments.
This treatment resulted in a 90% reduction in
phosphorous and substantially reduced the
algal growths. Spada-Chaplain Lake had high
levels of turbidity which were reduced by re-
routing stream channels and stream beds to
reduce erosion of clay into the lake and by
revegetating the banks of the lake. Plans to
improve water quality in Vancouver Lake and
Lake Sacajawea include dredging, dilution,
and control of polluting urban and agricultural
 Figure 39.
 The  Recreational Impairment and Trophic
 Status of the  Principal  Recreational Lakes
 in  Washington
       Vancouver  Lake
           Moses  Lake
            Silver  Lake
  Long Lake/Kitsap Co.
Long Lake/ThurstonCo.
        Patterson Lake
        Lake Ballinger
             Pine lake
       Lake Sacajawea
          Capitol Lake
         Fenwick Lake
         Wapato Lake
          Liberty Lake
           Green Lake
    Potholes Reservoir
            Park Lake
     Lake Sammamish
           Banks Lake
         Medical Lake
        Lake Meridian
             Big Lake
           Hicks Lake
           Deep Lake
        Lake Quinault
       Lake Cushman
        Crescent Lake
       Lake Whatcom
          Lake Ozette
         Lake Merwin
          Lake Tapps
     Lake Washington
           Ross Lake
         Lake Chelan
     Lake Wenatchee
        Kachess Lake
       Cle Elum Lake
          Baker Lake
       Osoyoos Lake
       Lake Roosevelt
         Lake Wallula
Stream-fed nutrients
Agricultural runoff/erosion
Forest practices
Storm water/possible septic tanks
Stormwater/possible septic tanks
Stormwater/Septic tanks
Stormwater/Stream-fed nutrients
Strmwtr/Septic  tanks/Solid waste
Agricultural runoff

Agricultural runoff
Nutrients in sediments







 Idaho Lake Water Quality
 Figure 40 shows the extent and major causes
 of use impairment for the principal lakes in
 Idaho. Most impairments appear to be due to
 algal blooms stimulated by nutrients from
 agricultural runoff and septic tanks. Runoff
 from agricultural non-point sources entering
 the Snake River upstream of Oxbow and
 Brownlee Reservoirs has degraded these two
 lakes. Lake Lowell, an off-stream reservoir
 near Boise, receives heavy recreational usage
 by residents of the Boise Valley. Excessive
 algal growth in the summer impairs such use.
 The photosynthetic activity and eventual
 decomposition of the algae reduce the
 dissolved  oxygen levels, which may be
 adversely  affecting the fishery resource of the
 reservoir. These conditions are primarily due
 to the nutrient enrichment of summer inflows
 by agricultural non-point sources.

 The water quality of American Falls Reservoir
 is affected by nutrients from dryland and
 irrigated agriculture, winter discharges of
 treated sewage effluent from Pocatello,
 phosphate deposits in the soils,  and from
 many springs in the area.

 Measures  are being considered  to restore a
 few of these lakes. Studies have been
 performed to better define sources of
 nutrients and the other water quality problems
 in Lake Lowell. No restoration program has
 been initiated,  however. The wastewater from
 the Simplot Plant at Pocatello and summer
 discharges from the Pocatello sewage
 treatment  plant have been removed from the
 Portneuf River, which flows into the American
 Falls Reservoir. This, plus the eventual
 application of best management practices to
 agriculture, should reduce this reservoir's
 problems considerably.
Figure 40.
The  Recreational  Impairment and Trophic
Status of the Principal Recreational Lakes
in Idaho
                    NAME   (ACRES)
           Brownlee Res.  15,000
     American Falls Res.  56,000

             Wilson Lake    600
            Lake Walcott  12,000
           Portneuf Res.   1,500
  Williams Lk./Lemhi Co.    200
       Crane Creek Res.   1,000
             Lake Lowell   9,600
      Lower  Granite Res.   8,900
             Oxbow Res.   1,500
      Hell's Canyon Res.   2,500
     Paddock Valley Res.   1,000
             Fernan Lake    300
          Chatcolet Lake    600
           Cascade Res.  30,000
            Henry's Lake   2,500
         Island Park Res.   7,000
              Magic Res.   1,800
Twin Lakes/Kootenai Co.    850
          Cocolalla Lake    800
   Salmon Falls Cr. Res.   1,500
   Lower Goose Cr. Res.   1,000
            Fish Cr. Res.    250
         Lost Valley Res.    800
           Palisades Res.  16,000
       Upper Payette Lk.    500
          Dworshak Res.  17,000
          Sage Hen Res.    300
   Anderson Ranch Res.   4,000
             Alturas Lake   1,200
         Lucky Peak Res.   2,800
          Arrowrock Res.   4,000
              Priest Lake  24,000
       Lake  Pend Oreille  94,000
      Lake Coeur  d'Alene  30,000
            Hayden Lake   4,000
            Payette Lake   1,000
          Deadwood Res.   3,000
            Redfish Lake   1,500
               Bear Lake  25,000
              Spirit Lake   1,300
       Upper Priest Lake   5,000
           Bulltrout Lake    900
       Mackay Reservoir   1,000
       Little Camas Res.   1,000
         Little Wood Res.    600
Upstream Sources
Natural/Agric. Nonpoint/
Municipal/Industrial R. Sources
Upstream Sources
Upstream Sources
Agricultural Runoff
Recreational Impacts
Natural/Agric. Runoff
Agricultural Runoff
Upstream Sources
Upstream Sources
Upstream Sources
Natural/Agric. Runoff
Septic Tanks/Agric. Runoff
Agricultural Runoff
Agric. Runoff/Munic. R. Source
Recreational Impacts
Septic Tanks/Natural Runoff
Agric. Runoff/Munic. R. Sources
Septic Tanks/Agric. Runoff
Agric. Runoff/Recr. Impacts







Alaska Lake Water Quality
Little is known about most Alaska lakes.
Several of the more readily accessible lakes
near Anchorage are exhibiting signs of
advancing eutrophication and recreational use
impairment as shown in Figure 41.

Recently the state studied certain lakes in the
Palmer-Wasilla area, a fertile farming region
near Anchorage which is experiencing rapid
residential development. The population has
grown  by 15 to 20 percent a year over the past
3 years. The Alaska Department of Fish and
Game has found 36 of .over 100 lakes with low
dissolved oxygen in the winter, although the
cause is unknown.  For many lakes, it may be
a natural  condition; however, human activities
may be a contributing factor.

The trophic conditions of four lakes near
Wasilla (Lucille, Wasilla, Cottonwood, and
Finger) were studied more intensely. All are
heavily used for recreation, and the public has
expressed some concern about water quality.
Of the four, Lucille is the most shallow, with a
mean depth of 1.7 meters, and also the most
eutrophic. In winter dissolved oxygen levels
drop to almost zero, and the lake has a history
of fish kills. There is considerable algae
growth in the summer, though not yet to the
extent that it interferes with boating. The lake
is not used much for swimming since it is so
shallow. The other  three lakes are deeper and
are only moderately eutrophic, with some
algae growth in isolated portions of the lakes.

Alaska  is  becoming involved in the Clean
Lakes Program and other problem lakes are
being identified.
 Figure  41.
 The Recreational  Impairment and Trophic
 Status  of the Principal Recreational  Lakes
 in Alaska





Septic  Tanks

Sewage overflow and
stormwater runoff
                       I  NON-EUTROPHIC

                       J  MODERATELY EUTROPHIC

                       I  EUTROPHIC

                       I  LITTLE OR NO IMPAIRMENT

                       J  MODERATE IMPAIRMENT

                       I  SIGNIFICANT IMPAIRMENT

                       I  STATUS UNKNOWN

 Marine  Water  Quality
 Coastal and estuarine waters contribute
 greatly to the commercial and recreational
 assets of the Northwest. While the majority of
 these waters are relatively free of pollution,
 there is some generally localized
 contamination from municipal sewage
 discharge and from agricultural and logging
 operations carried to estuaries by some rivers.

 How Marine Water Quality is
 Since sampling and analysis of marine water
 is complex and expensive, the amount of
 available data is limited, and a marine water
 index has not been devised. The quality of
 certain saltwater areas, however, can be
 inferred from the condition of shellfish.
 Shellfish concentrate disease-causing
 bacteria, viruses, toxic chemicals, and other
 contaminants from the water in which they
 live. Consequently, shellfish indicate the
 degree of pollution in  marine waters and
 provide an indirect way of assessing the
 success of pollution control efforts.

 In this report, marine water quality
 determinations are based upon criteria
 designed for human consumption of shellfish,
 which are established by the U.S. Food and
 Drug Administration for the National Shellfish
 Sanitation Program. Waters that are free from
 fecal contamination (bacteria from sewage),
 industrial wastes, radioactive elements, and
 biotoxins (certain naturally produced poisons)
 are classified as "approved for commercial
 shellfish harvesting." "Conditionally approved"
 waters may be closed when seasonal
 increases in population, freshwater runoff
 containing contaminants at certain times of
 the year, or temporary malfunctioning of
 wastewater treatment plants result in failure to
 meet the criteria. Waters found to be
 contaminated or suspected of being
 contaminated,  which would produce shellfish
 unsafe for human consumption, are classified
 as "closed."

 The Regional Overview
 A total of 349,000 acres  has been classified as
 commercial shellfish growing area in Region
 10 (see Figure  42). This  represents
 approximately  2 percent of the classified
 growing waters in the Nation. Of the regional
 growing area, 72 percent is classified as
 approved, 9 percent conditionally approved,
 and  19 percent closed. Regionally,
 Washington contains the largest percentage
 of the total classified area (65 percent or
 228,900 acres), followed by Alaska (27 percent
 or 92,400 acres), and Oregon (8 percent or
 28,100 acres).

 Information on the quality of many marine
 waters used for swimming and recreational
 shellfish harvesting is quite limited. Until more

 Figure 42.
 Status of Classified Shellfish Growing Areas
 in Region 10
                                       is obtained, it is generally not recommended
                                       that these pursuits be undertaken near
                                       sewage treatment plant discharges, in areas
                                       subject to septic tank drainage, or in areas
                                       known to receive agricultural, livestock, or
                                       industrial wastes. When in doubt about the
                                       status of a swimming beach or "sports"
                                       shellfish area, individuals should contact their
                                       county or state health agency for current
                                       information about the quality of the waters in
                   THOUSANDS OF ACRES
                   50       100





Regional Summary:
Percentage of the Region's
active shellfish areas that are
open for harvesting.


Oregon's Marine Waters
Of the 28,100 acres of classified commercial
shellfish growing waters in Oregon, about 25
percent are currently approved for
commercial harvesting and 25 percent are
conditionally approved, depending on specific
conditions that are monitored throughout the
year. Ten  percent have recently been
reclassified from closed to "restricted—for
depuration only" (see below). The remaining
40 percent are classified as closed and cannot
be used to produce shellfish for human
consumption. Figure 43 shows the location of
the classified waters in Oregon.

Figure 44  indicates that almost one-third of
Coos  Bay is closed  to commercial shellfishing
because of bacterial pollution from sewage
Figure 44.
Status of Classified  Shellfish  Growing
Areas in Oregon
 treatment plant discharges, although the
 South Slough of Coos Bay is approved for
 commercial shellfish harvesting. The state has
 recently reclassified the inner portions of
 Coos Bay from closed to "restricted—for
 depuration only." (Depuration is a process
 shellfish can be subjected to which reduces
 bacterial contamination to acceptable levels
 by utilizing their natural purification abilities.)
 Commercially grown shellfish from this area
 must be so treated before they are harvested
 for sale to the public.

 Potential treatment plant failures as well as a
 number of non-point sources of fecal
 pollution have made it  necessary to close or
 only conditionally approve Tillamook Bay for
 shellfish harvest. Areas of Yaquina Bay are
 either closed or conditionally approved  due to
 non-point source and industrial pollution
 problems. The Nehalem River also has
 problems related to non-point source
 pollution and increasing population density.
 Netarts Bay, although not a major commercial
 shellfish growing area,  is considered to  have
 good water quality suitable for oyster culture.

 Several measures are being taken to restore
 Oregon's marine waters for shellfish harvest.
 Sewage treatment improvements planned for
 the cities of Coos Bay and North Bend should
 reduce bacterial pollution in Coos  Bay. The
 City of Tillamook is constructing a new
 sewage treatment plant, and an  EPA-funded
 project is underway to identify non-point
sources of pollution around Tillamook Bay,
after which a pollution control plan will be
                                           THOUSANDS OF ACRES
    Coos Bay

Tillamook Bay

  Yaquina Bay

   Netarts Bay

Nehalem River
                                                                                          Figure  43.
                                                                                          Water Quality Map of Oregon's Commercial
                                                                                          Shellfish  Growing  Areas
                                                                                                             • Wheeler
                                                                                                             NEHALEM BAY
                                                                                                             .TILLAMOOK BAY

                                                                                                              > Tillamook
                                                                                                            NETARTS BAY
                                                                                                      • Coos Bay
                                                                                                  ' COOS BAY
                                              I APPROVED FOR COMMERCIAL SHELLFISH HARVESTING

                                              I RESTRICTED - DEPURATION ONLY

D                                                CONDITIONALLY APPROVED FOR COMMERCIAL
                                                SHELLFISH HARVESTING

                                              I CLOSED TO COMMERCIAL  SHELLFISH HARVESTING

                                              1 UNCLASSIFIED AREAS

Washington's Marine Waters
Of the 228,900 acres of classified commercial
shellfish growing waters in Washington, about
68 percent are currently approved for
commercial harvesting and 11 percent are
conditionally approved, depending on specific
conditions that are monitored throughout the
year. The remaining 21 percent are closed
and  cannot be used to produce shellfish for
human consumption. Figure 45 shows the
location of classified waters in Washington.

The extent of closures in the various
commercial shellfish areas is shown in Figure
46. The approved areas include most of
Willapa Bay, northern and southern Puget
Sound, the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and all of

Figure  46.
Status of Classified Shellfish Areas
in Washington
Hood Canal and the Pacific Ocean beaches.
Central Puget Sound is mostly closed, due to
potential pollution arising from the urban-
industrial areas of Seattle, Tacoma, and
Bremerton. Municipal sewage treatment plant
discharges and septic tank problems also
contribute to closures. In Burley Lagoon, for
instance, 135 acres of oyster-growing area
were closed when the lagoon was polluted
with fecal material from domestic septic tanks
and nearby pastures. Industrial waste
discharges along the Tacoma waterfront have
occasionally degraded water quality and
caused fish kills.

On occasion, harvesting has had to be
restricted in  northern and central Puget
Sound because of increased levels of paralytic
shellfish poison. This is a naturally occurring
substance commonly known as "red tide."
Some water quality improvements have been
noted in Everett and Bellingham due to
reduced effluents from the pulp mills in the
area, but additional improvements are needed.

Less than half of the available shellfish
growing area of Grays Harbor is approved for
use. Major point source contributors are pulp
mills and inadequate sewage treatment,
although improved waste treatment programs
have reduced their contributions. Agricultural
activities, coupled with seasonal fluctuations
in freshwater runoff also contribute to water
quality problems. In Willapa Bay, discharges
from municipal sewage treatment plants in the
vicinity of South Bend and Raymond are
                                                                                        Figure  45.
                                                                                        Water Quality  Map  of Washington's
                                                                                        Classified  Commercial Shellfish
                                                                                        Growing Areas
                                   THOUSAND OF ACRES
                                   20            40
            Willapa Bay

          Grays Harbor

 Northern Puget Sound
& Strait of Juan de Fuca
   Central Puget Sound

 Southern Puget Sound

            Hood Canal

        Pacific Beaches  (65 acres approved)
                                                                                        / ^^^^kHoquiam
                                                                                        / ^M^iwJ  -Aberdeen
                                                                                         "CBpay City
                                                                                          \ ™

"1^-—->-^ V\Poil Tuwnsffl
Port Angeles   I • V-""ji
         Sequtm •  '^^.

          I  *  J




 primarily responsible for the closure of a small
 part of the bay to oyster harvesting.

 Because of wastewater treatment programs,
 marine water quality in Washington has
 improved in recent years. For example,
 improved water treatment programs at Grays
 Harbor pulp mills have reduced the
 contribution of these sources and should
 reduce them further in the future. However,
 further reductions in contamination from
 sewage treatment plants and industrial
 discharges will be required to restore those
 waters conditionally approved or closed to
 shellfish  harvesting. At the same time, care
 must be  taken to maintain high quality areas.
 The Pierce County Commissioners have
 passed a resolution establishing  Burley
 Lagoon and three other shellfish growing
 areas in  Pierce County as "environmentally
 sensitive" areas. Population growth along
 Hood Canal, for instance, could create
 problems in the future.

 Alaska's Marine Waters
 Of the 92,400 acres of commercial shellfish
 growing  area that have been classified in
 Alaska (see Figure 47), all are open to the
 harvest of shellfish (razor clams only). The
 remaining areas are unclassified  because they
 have not been surveyed or monitored for the
 presence of paralytic shellfish poison. Alaska's
 33,904-mile shoreline encompasses vast
 amounts of estuarine and freshwater wetlands
 that provide important  habitat for aquatic
 species.  EPA and the State of Alaska are
 taking an active role in  regulating dredging,
 filling, and draining, and other activites that
 reduce wetland habitat.

 Although no Alaskan coastal waters are
closed to shellfish harvesting, the state has a
potential  problem with  chronic, low-level oil
pollution  in certain areas, such as upper  Cook
 Inlet and  Port Valdez. This oil comes from
such sources as urban  runoff, ballast
discharges, and disposal of "formation water"
(wastewater from oil production platforms and
onshore wells discharging into coastal
waters). Oil terminal facilities, tanker traffic,
and petroleum production also generate
potentials for large oil spills. In  1976, the
Alaska State Legislature enacted  legislation
which includes a comprehensive  oil spill
prevention program. Timely implementation
of this program, together with the
contingency plan which has recently been
developed to deal with oil spills, will help the
state address problems associated with
petroleum industries.

Alaska Lumber and Pulp Company and
Louisiana-Pacific have submitted water quality
data to the state that reveal depressed
dissolved oxygen and pH levels and some
high sulfite waste liquor concentrations in
Silver Bay near Sitka and Ward Cove near
Ketchikan, where the two plants are located.
Seafood processing also contributes
significant levels of nutrients to marine waters.
 EPA and the State of Alaska recently
conducted studies at Petersburg, Juneau,
Ketchikan, Akutan, Cordova, and Dutch

Figure 47.
Status of Classified Shellfish Growing
Areas  in Alaska
Harbor to determine the environmental impact
of seafood processors' waste disposal
practices. In Dutch Harbor, these wastes
covered the bottom more rapidly than they
could be dissipated, resulting in areas of
oxygen depletion and hydrogen sulfide gas
production. Processors operating at other
locations do not seem to be causing
persistent pollution problems.

Most seafood processors and pulp mills are
presently increasing their treatment levels. As
additional industrial treatment needs are met,
water quality in localized areas should
improve.  In other areas, however, increasing
environmental pressures will be experienced
due to the expanding commercial fishing
                              THOUSANDS OF ACRES
                              10          20
 Cordova Sector I

Cordova Sector IV


       Polly Creek
Areas depicted represent only those portions of the total
estuarine and coastal areas mat have been classified by
the Alaska  State Department of Health and Social

 Drinking  Water  Quality
                                          Figure 48.
                                          a. Regional Summary Based on Percentage
                                          of Community Water Systems
                                         b. Regional  Summary Based on Population
                                         Served  by Community Water Systems
 The drinking water supplied to most residents
 of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska is
 considered safe; however, waterborne disease
 outbreaks occasionally occur. In April 1980,
 over 200 persons in a Washington community
 became ill from a waterborne disease
 (suspected to be giardiasis), and during the
 fall of 1979, 4 communities in Oregon
 experienced waterborne outbreaks of
 giardiasis and gastroenteritis affecting over
 150 persons.  In addition to acute problems
 such as giardiasis, long-term or chronic
 disease may result from ingesting water
 containing certain inorganic or organic
 chemicals, as well as radioactive materials.
 Few water systems, however, are expected to
 exceed chemical or radiochemical standards;
 therefore few, if any, cases of chronic
 diseases are expected.

 Public Water System Program
 The Safe Drinking Water Act, passed in 1974,
 gave EPA primary responsibility for
 establishing drinking water standards and
 assuring national program consistency, but
 intended that the states implement programs
 ensuring public water systems'  compliance
 with standards.

 In Region 10, Alaska, Idaho, and Washington
 have assumed primary responsibility for
 working with public water systems to
 implement drinking water standards. Oregon
has chosen not to assume primary
responsibility. Consequently, since July 1977,
EPA has worked directly with Oregon's public
Rgure 49.
Compliance with EPA Drinking Water

a. Community Water Systems
                 300      600     900     1200    1500
                                                      1800     2100    2400    2700
b.  Persons Served by
   Community Water Systems
                  500     1000     1500     2000
                                                      3000     3500    4000    4500




 water systems to implement the provisions of
 the Safe Drinking Water Act. More recently,
 EPA and the Oregon State Health Division
 (DSHD) joined forces to take advantage of an
 existing working relationship whereby OSHD
 agreed to cover the drinking water program at
 facilities for which it issues food services or
 similar licenses. Thus both EPA and OSHD
 work with public water systems. Emphasis has
 been placed on voluntary compliance with the
 National Interim Primary Drinking Water
 Regulations, but when voluntary efforts fail,
 EPA  has been  pursuing more formal
 enforcement procedures.

 The national drinking water standards address
 finished water quality characteristics, as
 measured in periodic tests. EPA recognizes
 that these are minimum standards and are not
 adequate in themselves to protect public
 health. Therefore, EPA encourages states to
 implement comprehensive programs that go
 beyond just addressing  finished water quality.

 The primary means to assure safe drinking
 water is for public water systems to have
 properly operated, well-maintained, adequate
 facilities. A major part of a state's program,
 therefore, is evaluation of facility design and
 inspection of water systems to determine
 facility deficiencies which may present health
 hazards. Two Region 10 states, Alaska and
 Washington, have state funding  programs that
 provide financial assistance to municipally
 owned water systems for facility
 improvements.  To ensure proper operation
 and maintenance, Alaska and Washington
 also have mandatory operator certification
 programs. Idaho and Oregon have voluntary
 certification  programs. All four states, to
 varying degrees, sponsor or assist in operator
 training activities. Also, to help ensure proper
 water system operation and maintenance in
 Washington, the state is  implementing a
 satellite support system program whereby
 operation of small systems is provided by a
 highly qualified regional support organization.

 Fiscal year 1979 represented the second full
 year of implementation of the national
 drinking water standards. The bacteriological
data from FY79 are presented in  Figures 48
and 49. While a significant percentage (50%)
of Region 10's 4,800 community  water
systems are not yet conducting adequate
bacteriological water quality monitoring, the
 total population served by these systems is
 relatively small (16%), indicating that these
 systems serve predominantly small numbers
 of people.

 Seventeen percent of the Region's water
 systems, which serve approximately 16
 percent of the population, experienced either
 major or minor bacteriological standard
 violations during FY79. While many causes of
 these violations have been corrected, the
 number of standards violations actually noted
 may increase over the next few years as more
 systems conduct required monitoring.

 Chemical monitoring data are not yet
 available for many of Region 10's public water
 systems; however, information presently
 available indicates that very few systems will
 fail to meet chemical standards. Public water
 systems using surface water sources are also
 required to monitor for turbidity. Current data
 indicate that many systems will be unable to
 continuously comply with the turbidity
 standard. These systems will require
 development of a ground water source,
 installation of filtration for the surface water
 source, or interconnection with a  system
 presently meeting standards for safe drinking

 Ground  Water Protection
 The Safe Drinking Water Act also established
 a program to protect underground sources of
 drinking water (ground water). EPA's role is to
 develop national Underground Injection
 Control (UIC) regulations, provide oversight,
 and ensure national program consistency.
 Congress intended for the states to implement
 the UIC Program and that EPA would list,
 over a period of time, the states needing the
 program. Washington and Oregon were listed
 in  June 1979. Idaho, although not initially
 listed, petitioned on July 30,1979, to be
 included in the initial UIC listing. Alaska was
 listed in March 1980.

The UIC Program in Region 10 was initiated
by the awarding of EPA grants to  Idaho and
Washington during December 1979. Alaska
and Oregon have chosen not to participate.
 Idaho and Washington are using their
developmental grant funds to collect
background data on aquifers, inventory
injection wells, and evaluate the adequacy of
state laws and regulations for primary
 surveillance and enforcement authority. EPA,
 in conjunction with the U.S. Geological
 Survey and Oregon State University, is
 collecting background information for EPA
 implementation of a UIC Program in Oregon.
 For the State of Alaska, EPA has a similar
 agreement with the University of Alaska. EPA
 will also be responsible for UIC activities on
 Indian lands throughout the Region. The UIC
 Program will  provide additional protection  for
 the Region's ground water resources from  the
 practices of well injection of fluids.

 The Region's surface impoundment
 assessment (pits, ponds, and lagoons) has
 been completed. Approximately 1,200 sites,
 accounting for over 2,500 individual
 impoundments, were inventoried.  While the
 study indicates there is a high potential for the
 impoundments to contaminate ground water,
 to date few actual cases of ground water
 contamination have been documented.

 "Sole source aquifer designation"  is  another
 feature of the national ground water
 protection program. In 1979, the Region
 entered into its first full year of implementing
 protective activities within the Spokane  Valley-
 Rathdrum  Prairie Aquifer. This aquifer, first
 designated a sole source aquifer in 1978,
 provides drinking water for about 40,000
 Idaho residents and 300,000 Washington
 residents in the Coeur d'Alene and Spokane
areas. The designation prohibits any Federal
agency from financially assisting any project
which EPA determines may contaminate this
important aquifer.

  Only during the past few years has noise been
  recognized as a major environmental issue. In
  Region 10, noise is not a major problem as
  compared to other highly urbanized areas.
  Noise control throughout Region 10 is being
  addressed by state and local agencies, with
  the assistance of EPA, through studies,
  establishment of standards, rules, and
  regulations. The problem is not limited to
  acute situations such as occupational noise
  that causes hearing loss, but also includes
  chronic community noise, which affects us
  physically and mentally by causing
  nervousness, tension, and loss of sleep.
  Transportation noise dominates the
  problem—airplanes, trucks, passenger
  vehicles, motorcycles, motorboats, and
  snowmobiles are all contributors.

  The Federal Noise Control Act of 1972
  authorizes EPA to set noise standards for
  cars, trucks, interstate railroads, aircraft, etc.
  However, primary responsibility for control of
  noise rests with state and local governments.
  EPA has assisted Oregon and Washington in
  developing noise regulations, has helped
  Anchorage, Seattle, and Portland develop
  noise control  ordinances, and has assisted
  with monitoring of noise levels from railroad
  locomotives, ferries, and auto and motorcycle

• No state agency has statutory responsibility
 for noise control in Alaska, and few local
 governments have noise abatement
 ordinances. In December 1978, the City of
 Anchorage adopted a comprehensive noise
 control ordinance covering land use and
 motor vehicle noise. Law enforcement
 personnel are trained to enforce the motor
 vehicle standards. Fairbanks is being assisted
 through an EPA grant and the University of
 Washington Regional Noise Technical
 Assistance Center, to conduct a physical
 noise survey that will identify major noise

 Idaho has no state noise control program for
 stationary or motor vehicle noise sources that
 is actively enforced. The Lewiston City
 Council recently directed the Mayor to
 appoint a citizens' committee to study noise
 control and they expect a proposed
 comprehensive noise ordinance by November
 1980. Other than the current efforts  in
 Lewiston, the only local ordinances  that exist
 deal with nuisance-type noises.

 Oregon's Department of Environmental
 Quality (DEQ.) has developed and enforced
 noise control rules since 1974. Rules setting
 noise emission limits for new motor vehicles,
 including cars, trucks, buses, motorcycles,
 snowmobiles, and motorboats, require
 manufacturers and Oregon dealers to  meet
 applicable rules and standards. In-use
 operational standards have been established
for motor vehicles to ensure noise control
equipment has neither deteriorated nor been
 modified to significantly increase noise
emissions. Such in-use motor vehicle
standards are being implemented by
appropriate enforcement jurisdictions
throughout the state. Through ambient noise
 standards, residential and other noise
 sensitive property is protected from excessive
 noise emissions by industrial and commercial
 activities. These standards are primarily
 enforced upon verification of a citizen
 complaint. New industrial and commercial
 sources are subject to ambient limits as well
 as nondegradation standards. Airport noise is
 controlled under rules that require airport
 proprietors to develop an airport noise
 abatement program, with land use controls as
 well as airport operational controls. Presently,
 over 40 technical staff people on a part-time
 basis are trained and involved in the
 implementation of the DEQ noise control

 In addition, DEQ is assisting in development
 and implementation of city and county noise
 control programs. Often noise is a local
 problem needing local resolution; therefore,
 DEQ is providing the technical assistance
 needed by communities to identify their noise
 sources and develop a control program.
 Once established, the local program becomes
 self-sustaining with assistance from DEQ as

 Already two Oregon cities, Portland and
 Eugene,  are actively enforcing noise control
 ordinances. Portland's noise control staff
 responds to complaints and enforces sound
 level standards for environmental land use
 and nuisance noises. In Eugene, a  police
 officer team enforces motor vehicle noise

 The Washington Noise Control Act of 1974
 gave the Washington State Department of
 Ecology  (DOE) authority to establish
 standards for stationary noise sources, such
 as commerce and industry, as  well as for
 motor vehicles and watercraft.  DOE is
 authorized to enforce standards related to
 land use, while the State Patrol and local law
 enforcement agencies enforce standards for
 motor vehicles. DOE is assisting the
 development and implementation of city and
 county noise control programs. Again, noise
 is often a local problem needing local
 resolution; therefore, DOE is providing the
technical assistance needed by communities
to identify their noise sources and develop a
control program. Once established, the local
program  becomes self-sustaining with
assistance from DOE as needed.