xvEPA
             United States
             Environmental Protection
             Agency
             Environmental Monitoring
             Systems Laboratory
             P.O. Box 93478
             Las Vegas NV 89193-3478
EPA/600/4-89/040A
November 1989
             Research and Development
Proximity of New Jersey
Sanitary Landfills
to Wetlands and
Deepwater  Habitats
             Statewide Results

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                                              EPA 600/4-89/040A
                                              November 1989
PROXIMITY OF NEW JERSEY  SANITARY  LANDFILLS  TO WETLANDS AND
                    DEEPWATER HABITATS
                     Statewide Results
                            by

            Roy C. Herndon and John E. Moerlins
   Center for Biomedical  and  Toxicological  Research and
                Hazardous Waste Management
                  Florida  State University
              Tallahassee, Florida 32306-4016

                     Victor W. Lambou
        Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory
           U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
               Las Vegas,  Nevada  89193-3478

                            and

                     Robin L. Gebhard
                National Wetlands Inventory
              U.S. Fish and Wildlife  Service
               St. Petersburg, Florida 33702
        ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING SYSTEMS LABORATORY
            OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
           U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                  LAS VEGAS,  NEVADA 89114

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                           NOTICE
The information  in  this  document has been  funded  wholly or
in part  by the  U.S.  Environmental Protection  Agency  under
Grant No. CR-815139010 to  the  Florida State University.   It
has been subject to  the  Agency's peer  and administrative
review and  it has been  approved for publication  as  an  EPA
document.   Mention of  trade  names  or  commercial products
does not constitute endorsement or recommendation  for use.
                           ii

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                          ABSTRACT
     Sanitary  landfills  can  cause  considerable  harm  to
sensitive  ecosystems  if  they  are  not  properly  located,
designed,  and  managed.   The purpose  of  this report  is  to
summarize  the  proximity of  sanitary  landfills in  the state
of  New  Jersey to  wetlands and  deepwater habitats   (i.e.,
rivers,  lakes,  streams,  bays,  etc.);  a companion  report
presents data  on individual landfills.   The  source  of data
used to  determine  the  locations of  the  sanitary  landfills
was the computer data file developed by Development Planning
and  Research   Associates,   Inc.   for  use  by   the  U.S.
Environmental  Protection  Agency's Office of  Solid Waste  in
its RCRA  Subtitle  D program.    The sanitary  landfills were
identified  on  U.S. Fish  and  Wildlife   Service's  National
Wetlands Inventory  maps.   The nearness or proximity  of the
sanitary  landfills  to  wetlands  and deepwater habitats was
determined  by  drawing  three concentric  regions around the
point representing  the location of each landfill.   The radii
of the  concentric   regions were:  1/4  mile,  1/2 mile,  and 1
mile.   All of the  sanitary landfills  in the state  of New
Jersey are located close to wetlands while  more  than half
are close  to deepwater  habitats.   These facilities have the
potential to adversely  affect  sensitive  ecosystems,  such  as
wetlands  and  deepwater  habitats,  either  through  habitat
alterations  or through the  migration of  contaminants from
sanitary landfills.
                            iii

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                       CONTENTS
Abstract	iii
Figures	v
Tables	vi
     Introduction	1
     Conclusions	1
     Materials and Methods	2
     Results and Discussion	5
Literature Cited	7
                           IV

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                       FIGURES
Number                                                  Page

1    Hypothetical sanitary landfill showing the point
         (latitude  and  longitude  coordinates)  that
        represents the  location  of the landfill,  the
        concentric  regions  used  to  determine  the
        nearness   or   proximity   of  the   sanitary
        landfill to  wetlands  and deepwater habitats,
        and  the  boundary  of an  100-acre  sanitary
        landfill  distributed  approximately  evenly
        around   its   point   location   (a   100-acre
        landfill uniformly distributed around a point
        will  have  a  radius  of  approximately  1/4
        mile).                                              8

2    Proximity of 68 New Jersey sanitary landfills to
        wetlands.                                          9

3    Distance of 68 New Jersey  sanitary  landfills to
        the closest wetland.                              10

4    Proximity of 68 New Jersey sanitary landfills to
        deepwater habitats.                                11

5    Distance of 68 New Jersey  sanitary  landfills to
        the closest deepwater habitat.                    12

6    Proximity of 68 New Jersey sanitary landfills to
        either  the  closest  wetland  or  deepwater
        habitat.                                          13

7    Distance of 68 New Jersey  sanitary  landfills to
        either  the  closest  wetland  or  deepwater
        habitat.                                          14

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                        TABLES
Number                                                  Page

1    Definition of wetlands used by the U.S.  Fish and
        Wildlife Service                                  15

2    Definition  of deepwater  habitats  used by  the
        U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service                    17

3    Definitions  of  the five  major systems used by
        the  U.S.   Fish  and  Wildlife   Service   in
        classifying wetlands and deepwater habitats       18

4    Number  and  percentage of sanitary  landfills in
        New Jersey that are proximate to wetlands         23

5    Number  and  percentage of sanitary  landfills in
        New  Jersey that are  proximate  to  deepwater
        habitats                                          24

6    Number  and  percentage of sanitary  landfills in
        New  Jersey  that  are  proximate  to  either
        wetlands or deepwater habitats                    25
                           vi

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                        INTRODUCTION

     Sanitary  landfills,   as  typically  defined,  are  waste
management  facilities  regulated under  Subtitle D  of  the
Resource  Conservation  and  Recovery  Act   (RCRA).     These
facilities  are  commonly  referred  to  as   municipal  waste
landfills and  they are primarily used to receive household
refuse and nonhazardous commercial waste.  However,  sanitary
landfills also receive other types of  Subtitle D waste, such
as sewage sludge  and industrial wastes.  Sanitary landfills
typically  receive  some  hazardous  waste  in the  form  of
household hazardous waste, and hazardous waste  from small
quantity  generators  as   defined  in   40  CFR  Part  261.10
 (Definitions).  Depending  upon  the definition of a sanitary
landfill  used  by  the  individual states, there  are  between
6,500 and 9,300 of these  facilities permitted in the United
States  (U.S. EPA,  1987).

     Sanitary  landfills   can   cause   considerable  harm  to
sensitive  ecosystems  if  they  are not properly  located,
designed, and  managed.   These facilities have the potential
to adversely affect sensitive  ecosystems,  such  as  wetlands
and  deepwater  habitats, either through habitat  alterations
or  through  the  migration  of  contaminants from  sanitary
landfills.   In order to  evaluate  the  seriousness  of this
problem,  information is needed  on  the nearness  of sanitary
landfills to wetlands and  surface water  bodies.  The purpose
of  this  study is  to  document the  proximity  of  sanitary
landfills  in  the  state   of  New   Jersey to wetlands  and
deepwater  habitats  (i.e.,  rivers,  lakes,   streams,  bays,
etc.) .    This  report  gives  statewide  summary   results;  a
companion   report,  "Proximity  of   New   Jersey  Sanitary
Landfills  to  Wetlands  and  Deepwater  Habitats,  Data  on
Individual  Landfills,"  presents  data  on   the  individual
landfills.
                           CONCLUSIONS
1.   All  of  the  sanitary  landfills  in  the  state of  New
     Jersey  are  located close  to wetlands while  more  than
     half are close to deepwater habitats.

2.   These facilities have the potential to adversely affect
     sensitive ecosystems,  such  as  wetlands  and  deepwater
     habitats, either through habitat alterations or through
     the migration of contaminants from sanitary landfills.

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                    MATERIALS AND METHODS
     The  source  of data used to  determine  the locations of
the  sanitary  landfills was the computer data file developed
by Development Planning and Research Associates, Inc.  (DPRA)
for  use by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office
of Solid  Waste  in its RCRA Subtitle D program  (DPRA, 1986).
The  DPRA data file  includes information on  7,683 sanitary
landfills,  and  6,849  of these  facilities have latitude and
longitude  coordinates  in degrees,  minutes,  and  seconds
specified in  the  data  file.  Each set of coordinates defines
a  point  which  represents  the  geographic  location  of  a
sanitary  landfill (Figure 1) .   In addition,  the  data file
contains  the  names of  the landfills  and data on the cities
or  counties  in  which  the  landfills  reside.    Individual
states  are  responsible for  permitting sanitary  landfills
under  Subtitle  D  of  RCRA  and,  since DPRA  obtained  the
information  for  the data  file  from state sources,  the site
location  information  varies  in terms  of   accuracy  and the
point chosen  to represent  the location  of  each facility.

     Four  types   of errors or  omissions were identified in
the  DPRA data  file.    These  errors  and  omissions include:
missing  latitude  and  longitude,  missing state  code,  wrong
state code, and erroneous  latitude/longitude.  The first two
items  relate to   data that  were omitted  in  the  facility
record.  Facilities that did not have latitude and longitude
coordinates  were  not  used in  this   study  while facilities
that did  not  have a state code were assigned an appropriate
state   code  by   comparing   the  latitude  and  longitude
coordinates  for  the   facilities  with maps  of  the  various
states.   The last two items  relate  to errors  in  the data
file.   Facilities with the wrong state  code  were corrected
and  included  in  the  study.    The  last   item relates  to
erroneous   latitude   and/or   longitude  records.     Where
discovered,  the  erroneous coordinate(s) were corrected,  if
possible.   Errors may still  exist in  the  DPRA  data  file;
however,  it  is   believed that  the  overall  results  and
conclusions   contained   in   this   report    will   not   be
significantly  affected,   since  the  number  of  errors  is
probably small.

     Wetlands typically form part of a continuous transition
zone  between  uplands and  open  water.    Therefore,  the
delineation of the upper and lower boundaries in any wetland
definition  is somewhat  arbitrary.    There  are a  number of
definitions of wetlands that  have been  developed for use in
classifying natural environments or for regulatory purposes.
While these definitions  are  not identical,  they are  very
similar.  The selection of a specific definition for use in

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this  study was determined  by the  availability of national
wetlands and deepwater habitats geographic data.

     The most  extensive, consistent  source  of wetlands and
deepwater  habitats  geographic  data  is the  U.S.  Fish and
Wildlife Service's National Wetlands  Inventory (NWI).   The
NWI   has   developed   detailed,   large-scale   maps  for  a
significant portion  of the  United States.   To  date, wetland
maps have been developed for approximately 40 percent of the
contiguous  48  states,   10  percent  of Alaska,  and  all  of
Hawaii.  Large-scale  NWI maps typically are either 1:24,000
scale  or  1:63,360  scale U.S. Geological  Survey quadrangle
maps;  however,  most  are  1:24,000  scale.     Wetlands  and
deepwater  habitats are  delineated  on the NWI maps.   The
delineation of wetlands  and deepwater  habitats  was  developed
using  remote  sensing  techniques  and  field investigations.
The NWI maps  are  developed in accordance  with the National
Map  Accuracy  Standard  (NMAS)  (U.S.  GS,  1979).   The NWI
1:24,000  scale  maps  used  in  this   study  are   accurate,
according  to   the  NMAS,   to  within  40  feet  of  ground
measurements.    These   maps  are  particularly useful  for
plotting   the   location  of  sanitary  landfills  and  for
determining the proximity  of these  facilities to wetlands
and deepwater habitats.

     The NWI maps use the definitions  (contained in Tables 1
and 2) and the  classification system  (contained in Table 3)
for wetlands  and deepwater habitats developed  by  the U.S.
Fish and Wildlife Service (Cowardin et  al., 1979).  Wetlands
are defined  as lands  transitional between  terrestrial and
aquatic systems where  the water table is usually at or near
the  surface,   or   the  land  is  covered by shallow  water.
Deepwater habitats are defined  as permanently  flooded lands
lying  below  the deepwater  boundary of wetlands.   For more
expansive definitions and an explanation of the definitions,
as  well  as the  boundary limits,  see  Tables  1 and  2; for
further details see  Cowardin  et al.  (1979).   The U.S. Fish
and  Wildlife   Service's classification  of  wetlands  and
deepwater habitats is hierarchical in  nature proceeding from
general to  specific (Cowardin et  al., 1979).    There  are 5
systems, 10 subsystems,  and 55  classes.  In this study only
the  "system",  i.e,  the  complex  of wetlands  and deepwater
habitats that  share  the influence  of  similar hydrologic,
geomorphologic, chemical,  or biological factors,  was  used
for classification purposes.  The definitions as well as the
boundary   limits   of  the   five    systems,   i.e.,   Marine,
Estuarine,  Riverine,  Lacustrine,  and  Palustrine,  are given
in Table 3; for further  details  see Cowardin et al.  (1979).
The first  four systems,   i.e., Marine,  Estuarine, Riverine,
and Lacustrine, include both wetlands  and deepwater habitats
whereas the Palustrine System includes  only wetlands.

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     In  order  to link the location of sanitary landfills in
the DPRA data  file to the appropriate NWI maps, we used the
information on the  T-70  computer tape obtained  from the U.S.
Geological Survey  (National  Cartographic  Information Center,
1987) .   The  NWI large-scale maps  were  developed using U.S.
Geological Survey's quadrangle maps as  base maps.  The T-70
computer  tape  contains  67  fields  of  information including
latitude  and longitude that can be used  for identifying the
1:24,000  scale  maps,  the  map names,   and  the  state  codes
assigned  to  the maps.   Sanitary  landfill  location  data on
the  DPRA  computer  file tape  were matched  by  a  computer
program  against  location data  on the US Geological Survey T-
70 computer tape in order  to identify the specific maps that
contain  sanitary landfills  and/or that  would  be needed to
evaluate  the wetlands  and  deepwater habitats that are within
1 mile  of each  sanitary landfill.   Sanitary landfills that
were located on  the edge or in the corner of a map required
more than one  map  (i.e.,  two  to  four maps)  to complete the
interpretation.  The  map names  obtained  from  the  computer
matching  were  sorted by state and  compared with  inventories
of available NWI maps.

     Each sanitary landfill  included  in   this  study  was
located  on NWI  large-scale maps using standard cartographic
techniques.  Nearness or proximity of sanitary landfills to
wetlands  and deepwater  habitats was determined  by drawing
three concentric regions  around the  point  representing the
location  of each   landfill.   The  radii  of  the  concentric
regions  were:  1/4  mile, 1/2  mile,  and  1 mile  (Figure 1) .
The occurrence or nonoccurrence of the wetland  and deepwater
habitat  systems  in  each  concentric region was then recorded.

     Many sanitary landfills  are  typically  of  the  order of
100  acres in  size.  For  example,  in the  state  of Florida
about  35  percent  of  the  active  sanitary landfills  are
between  50 and  150  acres in size,  with the  average size
being   110   acres   (Florida  Department   of   Environmental
Regulation, 1987) .   A landfill that is 100 acres  in size and
uniformly distributed   about  its   latitude/longitude  point
designation  will have  a  radius  of approximately  1/4 mile
and, therefore,  will approximate  the boundary  of the first
concentric 1/4-mile radius region   (Figure 1).   Undoubtedly,
most of  the landfills  located in  a  1/4-mile  radius region
containing either  wetlands  or deepwater  habitats should be
considered to be located in wetlands or  deepwater habitats.
Since landfills  vary considerably  in size and shape, some of
the  landfills   located  in  the 1/2-mile  radius  and  1-mile
radius  regions  containing  wetlands  or  deepwater  habitats
will  probably  also  be  located  in  wetlands   or deepwater
habitats.  The  exact geographic boundary  of the landfill is
not  the  critical   consideration   for  determining  adverse
impacts associated  with  these  facilities,  since contaminants

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can  migrate  off-site  to  affect  wetlands  and  deepwater
habitats.
                   RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
     We  obtained  data  on  the  proximity   of  68  sanitary
landfills  in  the  state  of New  Jersey  to  wetlands  and
deepwater habitats.   There are  73 sanitary landfills in the
DPRA  data  file  for  the  state  of  New Jersey  and  68  (93
percent)  of these  facilities  have  NWI maps available  for
site interpretation.   As a result,  5  (7 percent)  of the 73
sanitary  landfills  in  the state  of  New  Jersey are  not
included in this study.

     Approximately 77  percent of  the sanitary landfills are
located in  or  within  1/4 mile  of  wetlands,  while 93 and 100
percent are located in or within  1/2 and 1 mile of wetlands,
respectively  (Table 4  and Figure  2).  None of the landfills
are located more than a mile from any type of wetland.  Most
sanitary  landfills  are  located either in  or are  close to
Palustrine  or  Estuarine  wetlands  (approximately  71,  90,  and
100 percent  are  located in or within  1/4,  1/2,  and 1 mile,
respectively,  of a Palustrine wetland,  while 21  percent are
located   within   1   mile  of   an   Estuarine   wetland).
Approximately  one-quarter  of   the  sanitary landfills  are
located more than  1/4  mile from a wetland  (Figure 3).  Only
16,  and 7  percent  are  located  1/4 to 1/2  mile, 1/2  to   1
mile,  from  the  closest  wetland.    None   of the  sanitary
landfills are  located more  than 1 mile  from a wetland.

     Approximately 21  percent of  the sanitary landfills are
located in  or  within  1/4 mile  of deepwater  habitats, while
27 and 59 percent are  located in  or within 1/2 and 1 mile of
deepwater  habitats,  respectively  (Table  5  and  Figure  4) .
Twenty-eight  (41 percent)  of the  landfills  are  located more
than a mile from any type of deepwater habitat.   Most of the
facilities  that  are  located  in  or  that  are  close  to
deepwater  habitats   are  in  the  vicinity  of  Estuarine,
Riverine,  or  Lacustrine  deepwater  habitats  (i.e.,  16,  31,
and 21 percent are located  in or within 1 mile of Estuarine,
Riverine,  and  Lacustrine  deepwater  habitats respectively).
Approximately  41  percent  of   the  sanitary landfills  are
located more than  1 mile from  the closest  deepwater habitat
(Figure 5), while 32 and 6 percent are located 1/2 to 1 mile
and  1/4  to   1/2  mile,   respectively,   from  the  closest
deepwater habitat.

     Approximately 78 percent of  the sanitary landfills are
located  in  or  within  1/4  mile  of  either  wetlands  or
deepwater habitats, while  94 and  100 percent are  located in

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or within  1/2  and  1 mile  of either wetlands  or  deepwater
habitats, respectively  (Table 6  and Figure 6).   None of the
landfills are  located more  than  a mile from either wetlands
or deepwater  habitats.   Most of  the  sanitary  landfills are
located  either  in  or  are  close  to  Palustrine  habitats
(approximately  71,   90,  and  100  percent  are located  in or
within 1/4,  1/2,  and 1 mile,  respectively,  of  a Palustrine
habitat).     Approximately   one-quarter   of  the   sanitary
landfills  are  located  more  than  1/4  mile  from  either  a
wetland  or  deepwater habitat (Figure 7) .   Only 16,  and  6
percent  are located 1/4  to  1/2  mile,  and  1/2 to  1  mile,
respectively,  from  either the closest wetland  or  deepwater
habitat.   None of  the  sanitary  landfills are  located more
than  1  mile  from either the closest wetland  or  deepwater
habitat.

     All of the sanitary landfills included in this study in
the state  of New Jersey are  located  either  in  or  are close
to wetlands.   From  this, we  conclude that these facilities
have the potential to adversely affect sensitive ecosystems,
such  as  wetlands,   either  through  habitat  alterations  or
through  the  migration   of  contaminants   from   sanitary
landfills.    In  addition,   more  than half of  the  sanitary
landfills included  in this  study in the  state of New Jersey
are located either  in  or  close  to  deepwater  habitats and
they also  have the  potential for adversely  affecting these
sensitive ecosystems.

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                      LITERATURE CITED

Cowardin,  L.M.,  V.   Carter,  F.C.  Golet,   and E.T.  LaRoe.
     1979.     Classification  of  wetlands   and  deepwater
     habitats of the  United States.  FWS/OBS-79/31.  103 pp.

Development  Planning and  Research  Associates, Inc.   1986.
     U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency  list of municipal
     waste   landfills.       Computer    data   file,    U.S.
     Environmental Protection Agency.

Florida Department of Environmental  Regulation.   1987.   CMS
     25 data file.    Computer data file,  Florida Department
     of Environmental Regulation.

Langbein, W.B.  and K.T.  Iseri.   1960.   General introduction
     and hydrologic  definitions  manual of hydrology.   Part
     I.   General  surface-water techniques.   US  Geol.  Surv.
     Water-Supply Paper  1541-A.  29 pp.

National  Cartographic  Information  Center.    1987.    T-70
     computer  tape.   Computer  data  file, National  Mapping
     Division, U.S. Geological Survey.

U.S. EPA.    1987.    Resource  Conservation and Recovery  Act
     Subtitle D report to Congress.  Final Draft Report,  May
     28, 1987.

U.S. GS.    1979.   Maps  for America,  First  Edition.   U.S.
     Geological Survey.

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        Point Representing
        Location of the
        Landfill
Hypothetical
Landfill
Boundaries
                  Palustrine Wetland
                        (marsh)
Rgure 1.  Hypothetical sanitary landfill showing the point (latitude and longitude coor-
          dinates) that represents the location of the landfill, the concentric regions used
          to determine the nearness or proximity of the sanitary landfill to wetlands and
          deepwater habitats, and the boundary of a 100-acre sanitary landfill distrib-
          uted approximately evenly around its point location (a 100-acre sanitary land-
          fill uniformly distriubted around a point will have a radius of approximately
          1/4 mile).
                                        8

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 Palustrine
 Lacustrine
   Riverine
  Estuarine
    Marine
All systems
                                                              100
In or within 1 mile





In or within 1/2 mile




In or within 1/4 mile
                                                              100
                    20        40       60       80        100      120
                                     Percent
     Figure 2. Proximity of 68 New Jersey sanitary landfills to wetlands.

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 1/2 to 1 mile
1/4 to 1/2 mile
    1/4 mile
                                      Percent
Figure 3. Distance of 68 New Jersey sanitary landfills to the closest wetlands.

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                         21
 Lacustrine
   Riverine
  Estuarine
    Marine
All systems
                                                        In or within 1 mile





                                                        In or within 1/2 mile
                                                        In or within 1/4 mile
Figure 4. Proximity of 68 New Jersey sanitary landfills to deepwater habitats.

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                         mile
                  1/2 to 1 mile
                 1/4 to 1/2 mile
ro
                     1/4 mile
                             0         20         40        60         80        100




                                                    Percent
               Figure 5. Distance of 68 New Jersey sanitary landfills to the closest deepwater habitat.

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                                                            100
 Palustrine
 Lacustrine
   Riverine
  Estuarine
    Marine
All systems
In or within 1 mile


In or within 1/2 mile


In or within 1/4 mile
                                                          100      120
 Figure 6. Proximity of 68 New Jersey sanitary landfills to either the closest
            wetland or deepwater habitat.

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 1/2 to 1 mile  6
1/4 to 1/2 mile
    
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  TABLE  1.  DEFINITION OF WETLANDS USED BY THE U.S.  FISH AND
        WILDLIFE SERVICE FROM COWARDIN ET AL.  (1979)
Definition:
               Wetlands   are  lands   transitional  between
               terrestrial  and  aquatic  systems  where  the
               water table is usually at or near the surface
               or the land is covered by shallow water.  For
               purposes of this classification wetlands must
               have  one  or  more  of  the following  three
               attributes:  (1)  at  least  periodically,  the
               land  supports  predominantly hydrophytes;  (2)
               the   substrate  is  predominantly  undrained
               hydric soil; and (3) the substrate  is nonsoil
               and  is  saturated  with  water  or  covered by
               shallow water  at some time  during the growing
               season of each year.

Explanation:
               The term wetland includes  a variety of areas
               that  fall  into  one  of  five  categories:  (1)
               areas with hydrophytes and  hydric soils, such
               as  those  commonly known  as marshes,  swamps,
               and bogs;  (2) areas  without  hydrophytes but
               with  hydric  soils-for  example,  flats  where
               drastic  fluctuation  in  water   level,  wave
               action, turbidity,  or high concentration of
               salts may  prevent  the growth of hydrophytes;
                (3)  areas  with  hydrophytes  but  nonhydric
               soils,  such  as  margins  of impoundments  or
               excavations  where  hydrophytes  have  become
               established  but hydric  soils  have  not  yet
               developed;  (4)  areas without  soils but with
               hydrophytes   such   as   the  seaweed-covered
               portion  of  rocky  shores;  and  (5)  wetlands
               without soil and without hydrophytes, such as
               gravel  beaches   or  rocky  shores  without
               vegetation.
                            15

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                     TABLE  1.  (continued)
Limits:
               The  upland limit of wetland is designated  as
                (1)    the   boundary   between   land   with
               predominantly  hydrophytic cover and  land with
               predominantly  mesophytic or xerophytic  cover;
                (2)   the  boundary  between   soil   that   is
               predominantly   hydric   and  soil   that   is
               predominantly  nonhydric;  or  (3)  in  the case
               of  wetlands without vegetation  or  soil, the
               boundary  between  land  that  is  flooded   or
               saturated at  some  time each year  and land
               that is  not.   The  boundary  between wetland
               and   deepwater  habitat  in   the  Marine  and
               Estuarine   systems   coincides   with   the
               elevation of the extreme low water of  spring
               tide;    permanently   flooded    areas   are
               considered  deepwater   habitats   in   these
               systems.    The boundary between  wetland and
               deepwater   habitat    in     the    Riverine,
               Lacustrine,  and Palustrine  systems  lies at a
               depth of  2 m (6.6 feet)  below low   water;
               however,  if emergents,  shrubs,  or trees grow
               beyond  this   depth   at  any   time,   their
               deepwater edge is the boundary.
                            16

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 TABLE 2. DEFINITION OF DEEPWATER HABITATS USED BY THE U.S.
    FISH  AND WILDLIFE SERVICE FROM COWARDIN ET AL.  (1979)
Definition:
               Deepwater  Habitats  are  permanently  flooded
               lands  lying below the  deepwater boundary of
               wetlands.      Deepwater   habitats   include
               environments where surface water is permanent
               and  often deep,  so  that water,  rather than
               air, is the principal medium within which the
               dominant  organisms live,  whether or not they
               are  attached   to the   substrate.     As  in
               wetlands,    the    dominant    plants    are
               hydrophytes;   however,   the  substrates  are
               considered  nonsoil  because the  water  is too
               deep to support emergent  vegetation.

Explanation:
               Wetlands  and  Deepwater Habitats  are defined
               separately  because  traditionally  the  term
               wetland   has   not  included  deep  permanent
               water; however, both must be considered in an
               ecological approach to  classification.

Limits:
               The  boundary   between  wetland  and  deepwater
               habitat  in  the Marine  and  Estuarine systems
               coincides with the elevation  of the extreme
               low water of spring tide; permanently flooded
               areas  are  considered  deepwater habitats  in
               these  systems.   The  boundary between wetland
               and  deepwater  habitat  in   the   Riverine,
               Lacustrine,  and  Palustrine  systems  lies at a
               depth  of 2  m  (6.6  feet)  below low  water;
               however,  if emergents,  shrubs,  or  trees grow
               beyond   this   depth  at   any   time,   their
               deepwater edge is the boundary.
                            17

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  TABLE 3. DEFINITIONS  OF  THE FIVE MAJOR SYSTEMS   (MARINE,
 ESTUARINE, RIVERINE, LACUSTRINE, AND PALUSTRINE**) USED BY
 THE U.S. FISH AND  WILDLIFE  SERVICE  IN CLASSIFYING WETLANDS
     AND DEEPWATER  HABITATS  FROM COWARDIN ET AL.  (1979)
Marine:
   Definition:
   Limits:
                30  
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                    TABLE 3.  (continued)
Estuarine:

   Definition:
               The  Estuarine  System  consists  of deepwater
               tidal  habitats  and  adjacent  tidal wetlands
               that  are  usually  semienclosed  by  land but
               have  open,  partly  obstructed,   or sporadic
               access to  the  open ocean,  and in which  ocean
               water  is  at  least  occasionally  diluted by
               freshwater   runoff  from  the   land.     The
               salinity may  be periodically increased  above
               that of the open ocean by evaporation.   Along
               some    low-energy    coastlines    there   is
               appreciable dilution of  sea  water.  Offshore
               areas  with   typical  estuarine  plants  and
               animals,  such  as  red mangroves  (Rhizophora
               mangle)  and   eastern   oysters   (Crassostrea
               virginica) ,   are   also    included  in   the
               Estuarine  System.

   Limits:
               The Estuarine System extends  (1) upstream and
               landward to where ocean-derived  salts measure
               less  than  0.5  /00  during  the  period  of
               average annual  low flow;  (2)  to an imaginary
               line closing  the mouth  of a  river,  bay, or
               sound;  and   (3)  to  the  seaward  limit  of
               wetland  emergents,  shrubs,   or  trees   where
               they are not  included  in (2) .  The Estuarine
               System  also   includes   off-shore  areas  of
               continuously diluted sea water.
                            19

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                     TABLE  3.  (continued)
Riverine:

   Definition:
   Limits:
               The  Riverine  System includes  all wetlands  and
               deepwater   habitats   contained   within    a
               channel,  with  two  exceptions:  (1)  wetlands
               dominated   by   trees,   shrubs,   persistent
               emergents,  emergent mosses,  or lichens,  and
                (2)  habitats  with  water  containing  ocean-
               derived salts   in  excess  of  0.5 /00.     A
               channel is "an open conduit  either naturally
               or artificially  created which periodically or
               continuously  contains  moving water,  or which
               forms  a connecting link between two bodies of
               standing water"  (Langbein and Iseri, 1960).
                The   Riverine  System   is   bounded  on  the
                landward side by upland, by the channel bank
                (including  natural and  man-made  levees),   or
                by   wetland  dominated   by  trees,  shrubs,
                persistent   emergents,   emergent  mosses,   or
                lichens.   In braided  streams,  the  system  is
                bounded by the  banks forming the outer  limits
                of  the depression  within which the braiding
                occurs.   The Riverine  System  terminates   at
                the  downstream  end where the concentration  of
                ocean-derived salts in the water exceeds 0.5
                /00 during  the period of annual average low
                flow,  or where  the channel  enters a lake.   It
                terminates    at   the   upstream  end   where
                tributary streams  originate,   or   where  the
                channel  leaves a  lake.   Springs discharging
                into a  channel are considered part  of  the
                Riverine System.
                            20

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                    TABLE 3.  (continued)
Lacustrine:

   Definition:
               The  Lacustrine  System includes  wetlands and
               deepwater habitats with  all of the following
               characteristics:    (1)     situated    in   a
               topographic  depression  or  a  dammed   river
               channel;    (2)    lacking    trees,    shrubs,
               persistent  emergents,   emergent  mosses  or
               lichens with greater than 30% areal coverage;
               and  (3)  total  area exceeds  8  ha (20 acres) .
               Similar   wetland  and   deepwater   habitats
               totaling less than 8  ha  are also included in
               the  Lacustrine  System   if  an  active   wave-
               formed or bedrock  shoreline feature makes up
               all  or part of  the boundary, or if the  water
               depth  in  the  deepest  part  of  the   basin
               exceeds  2  m   (6.6  feet)   at   low  water.
               Lacustrine waters  may be  tidal  or nontidal,
               but  ocean-derived  salinity  is  always  less
               than 0.5 /,
                          00.

   Limits:
               The Lacustrine System is bounded by upland or
               by  wetland  dominated  by   trees,   shrubs,
               persistent  emergents,  emergent  mosses,  or
               lichens.     Lacustrine  systems   formed  by
               damming  a  river channel  are  bounded  by  a
               contour  approximating  the  normal  spillway
               elevation  or normal  pool  elevation,  except
               where Palustrine  wetlands  extend lakeward of
               the boundary.   Where a river  enters  a  lake,
               the  extension  of  the  Lacustrine  shoreline
               forms the Riverine-Lacustrine boundary.
                            21

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                     TABLE  3.  (continued)
Palustrine:

   Definition:
               The  Palustrine System  includes  all nontidal
               wetlands    dominated   by   trees,   shrubs,
               persistent   emergents,   emergent  mosses  or
               lichens,  and all  such wetlands that occur in
               tidal  areas  where  salinity  due  to  ocean-
               derived  salts  is below  0.5 /00.    It  also
               includes  wetlands  lacking  such vegetation,
               but   with   all   of   the   following   four
               characteristics:  (1)  area less than 8 ha  (20
               acres);   (2)  active  wave-formed  or  bedrock
               shoreline  features lacking;  (3)  water depth
               in the deepest  part of basin  less than 2 m at
               low  water;   and  (4)  salinity due  to ocean-
               derived salts  less  than 0.5 /00.

   Limits:
               The  Palustrine System is  bounded by uplands
               or by any of the  other four systems.
                            22

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 TABLE  4.  NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE  OF  SANITARY  LANDFILLS  IN NEW
           JERSEY THAT ARE PROXIMATE TO WETLANDS*
                Number and percentage of sanitary landfills
                  Located in
                   or within
                   1/4 mile
Located in
or within
 1/2 mile
Located in
or within
  1 mile
Wetland system
All systems**
Marine
Estuarine
Riverine
Lacustrine
Palustrine
No.
52
0
6
1
0
48
%
76.5
0.0
8.8
1.5
0.0
70.6
No.
63
0
9
1
1
61
%
92.6
0.0
13.2
1.5
1.5
89.7
No.
68
1
14
3
4
68
%
100.0
1.5
20.6
4.4
5.9
100.0
     There are  73  sanitary landfills in the DPRA data file
     for the  state of New  Jersey  and 68  (93.2  percent)  of
     these  facilities  have  NWI   maps  available  for  site
     interpretation.  As a result,  5  (6.8 percent) of the 73
     sanitary landfills  in  the  state of New Jersey  are not
     included in this study.
* *
     None  of the  68  sanitary  landfills  included in  this
     study in the state  of  New  Jersey  are located more than
     a mile from any type of wetland.
                           23

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 TABLE 5.  NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF SANITARY LANDFILLS  IN NEW
      JERSEY THAT ARE PROXIMATE TO DEEPWATER HABITATS*
                Number and percentage of sanitary landfills
                  Located in
                   or within
                   1/4 mile
                            Located in
                             or within
                             1/2 mile
Located in
 or within
  I mile
Deepwater
habitat system
All systems**
Marine
Estuarine
Riverine
Lacustrine
No.
14
0
7
7
1
%
20.6
0.0
10.3
10.3
1.5
No.
18
0
7
9
3
%
26.5
0.0
10.3
13.2
4.4
No.
40
0
11
21
14
%
58.8
0.0
16.2
30.9
20.6
* *
There are  73 sanitary landfills in the  DPRA data file
for the  state of New Jersey and 68  (93.2  percent)  of
these  facilities  have  NWI  maps   available for  site
interpretation.  As a result, 5  (6.8 percent) of the 93
sanitary landfills  in the state of New  Jersey  are not
included in this study.

Twenty-eight   (41.2  percent)   of   the   68  sanitary
landfills  included  in this  study  in the  state  of New
Jersey are located  more  than  a mile from  any  type  of
deepwater  habitat.
                            24

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 TABLE  6.  NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF SANITARY LANDFILLS  IN NEW
  JERSEY THAT ARE PROXIMATE TO EITHER WETLANDS OR DEEPWATER
                          HABITATS*
                Number and percentage of sanitary landfills
                  Located in
                   or within
                   1/4 mile
Located in
 or within
 1/2 mile
Located in
 or within
  1 mile
Svstem
All systems**
Marine
Estuarine
Riverine
Lacustrine
Palustrine***
No.
53
0
7
7
1
48
%
77.9
0.0
10.3
10.3
1.5
70.6
No.
64
0
9
9
4
61
%
94.1
0.0
13.2
13.2
5.9
89.7
No.
68
1
16
21
16
68
%
100.0
1.5
23.5
30.9
23.5
100.0
     There are  73 sanitary landfills in the  DPRA data file
     for the  state of New Jersey  and 68  (93.2  percent)  of
     these  facilities  have  NWI  maps  available  for  site
     interpretation.  As a result,  5  (6.8 percent) of the 73
     sanitary landfills  in the state of New  Jersey  are not
     included in this study.

     None  of  the  68  sanitary  landfills  included  in  this
     study in the  state  of New Jersey are  located more than
     a mile from any type of wetland or deepwater habitat.
***
     The Palustrine system includes only wetlands.
                            25

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