&EPA
             United States
             Environmental Protection
             Agency
             Environmental Monitoring
             Systems Laboratory
             P.O. Box 93478
             Las Vegas NV 89193-3478
EPA/600/4-89/041 A
November 1989
             Research and Development
Proximity of Florida
Sanitary Landfills
to Wetlands and
Deepwater Habitats
             Statewide  Results

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                                               EPA 600/4-89/041A
                                               November 1989
PROXIMITY OF FLORIDA SANITARY  LANDFILLS  TO  WETLANDS  AND
                   DEEPWATER HABITATS
                   Statewide Results
                           by

          Roy C. Herndon and  John E.  Moerlins
  Center for Biomedical and Toxicological Research and
               Hazardous Waste Management
                Florida State University
            Tallahassee, Florida 32306-4016

                    Victor W.  Lambou
      Environmental Monitoring  Systems  Laboratory
          U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency
              Las Vegas,  Nevada 89193-3478

                          and

                    Robin L. Gebhard
              National Wetlands Inventory
             U.S. Fish and Wildlife  Service
             St. Petersburg,  Florida  33702
      ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING SYSTEMS LABORATORY
          OFFICE  OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
         U.S.  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                LAS VEGAS, NEVADA 89114

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                           NOTICE
The information  in  this document has been  funded  wholly or
in part  by the  U.S.  Environmental Protection  Agency under
Grant No. CR-815139010  to  the Florida  State University.   It
has been subject to  the  Agency's  peer  and administrative
review and  it has been  approved for publication  as  an  EPA
document.   Mention of trade  names  or  commercial products
does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.
                            ii

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                          ABSTRACT
     Sanitary . landfills  can  cause  considerable  harm  to
sensitive  ecosystems  if  they  are not  properly  located,
designed,  and  managed.   The purpose of  this report  is to
summarize  the  proximity of sanitary landfills  in the state
of Florida to wetlands and deepwater habitats (i.e., rivers,
lakes,  streams,  bays,  etc.);  a  companion  report  presents
data  on  individual landfills.    The source of data  used to
determine  the  locations of  the  sanitary  landfills  was  the
computer  data  file  developed  by  Development Planning  and
Research Associates,  Inc.  for  use  by the U.S. Environmental
Protection  Agency's  Office of  Solid  Waste in  its  RCRA
Subtitle D program.   The sanitary landfills were identified
on  U.S.  Fish  and  Wildlife  Service's  National  Wetlands
Inventory  maps.   The nearness  or proximity  of  the sanitary
landfills  to wetlands  and  deepwater habitats was determined
by  drawing  three  concentric  regions   around  the  point
representing the  location of  each  landfill.  The  radii of
the concentric regions were: 1/4 mile,  1/2 mile, and 1 mile.
Most sanitary  landfills  in  the state of Florida are located
in  or are close  to  wetlands  while approximately  half  are
close  to  deepwater  habitats.    These  facilities have  the
potential  to adversely  affect  sensitive  ecosystems,  such as
wetlands  and  deepwater  habitats,   either   through  habitat
alterations  or through  the  migration of  contaminants from
sanitary landfills.
                           iii

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                       CONTENTS
                                                       Page

Abstract	iii
Figures	v
Tables	vi
     Introduction	1
     Conclusions	1
     Materials and Methods	2
     Results and Discussion	5
Literature Cited	7
                           iv

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                       FIGURES
Number                                                  Page

1    Hypothetical sanitary landfill showing the point
         (latitude  and  longitude  coordinates)  that
        represents the  location  of the landfill,  the
        concentric  regions  used  to  determine  the
        nearness   or   proximity   of   the   sanitary
        landfill to  wetlands  and deepwater habitats,
        and  the  boundary  of an  100-acre  sanitary
        landfill  distributed  approximately  evenly
        around   its   point   location   (a   100-acre
        landfill uniformly distributed around a point
        will  have  a   radius  of  approximately  1/4
        mile).                                              8

2    Proximity  of  122  Florida sanitary landfills to
        wetlands-                                          9

3    Distance  of 122 Florida sanitary  landfills to
        the closest wetland.                               10

4    Proximity  of  122  Florida sanitary landfills to
        deepwater habitats-                               11

5    Distance  of 122 Florida sanitary  landfills to
        the closest deepwater habitat.                     12

6    Proximity  of  122 Florida sanitary  landfills to
        either  the   closest   wetland  or  deepwater
        habitat-                                          13

7    Distance  of 122 Florida sanitary  landfills  to
        either  the   closest   wetland  or  deepwater
        habitat.                                          14

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                        TABLES
Number                                                  Page

1    Definition of wetlands used by the U.S. Fish and
        Wildlife Service                                  15

2    Definition  of deepwater  habitats  used by  the
        U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service                    17

3    Definitions of  the  five  major systems used  by
        the  U.S.   Fish  and  Wildlife   Service   in
        classifying wetlands and deepwater habitats       18

4    Number and  percentage of sanitary  landfills  in
        Florida that are proximate to wetlands             23

5    Number and  percentage of sanitary  landfills  in
        Florida  that   are   proximate   to  deepwater
        habitats                                          24

6    Number and  percentage of sanitary  landfills  in
        Florida that are proximate to either wetlands
        or deepwater habitats                             25
                           VI

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                        INTRODUCTION

     Sanitary  landfills,   as  typically  defined,  are  waste
management  facilities  regulated under  Subtitle D  of  the
Resource  Conservation  and  Recovery  Act   (RCRA).     These
facilities  are  commonly  referred  to  as   municipal  waste
landfills and  they are primarily used to receive household
refuse and nonhazardous commercial waste.  However,  sanitary
landfills also receive other types of  Subtitle D waste, such
as sewage sludge  and industrial  wastes.   Sanitary landfills
typically  receive  some  hazardous   waste  in  the  form  of
household hazardous  waste, and  hazardous waste  from  small
quantity  generators  as  defined  in  40  CFR  Part  261.10
(Definitions).  Depending  upon the  definition  of a  sanitary
landfill used  by  the  individual states, there  are  between
6,500 and 9,300 of these  facilities permitted  in the United
States (U.S. EPA,   1987).

     Sanitary  landfills  can  cause  considerable  harm  to
sensitive  ecosystems  if  they   are not properly  located,
designed, and managed.  These  facilities have  the potential
to adversely  affect  sensitive ecosystems,  such  as  wetlands
and deepwater  habitats,  either  through  habitat  alterations
or  through  the  migration of   contaminants from  sanitary
landfills.    In order  to  evaluate  the  seriousness  of this
problem,  information  is  needed on the  nearness  of  sanitary
landfills to wetlands and surface water bodies.  The purpose
of  this  study  is to document  the proximity of  sanitary
landfills in the  state  of  Florida  to wetlands  and deepwater
habitats (i.e., rivers,  lakes,  streams, bays,  etc.).   This
report gives statewide summary results;  a companion report,
"Proximity  of  Florida  Sanitary  Landfills  to  Wetlands  and
Deepwater Habitats,  Data on Individual Landfills,"  presents
data on the individual landfills.
                           CONCLUSIONS
1.   Most  sanitary landfills  in  the  state  of Florida  are
     located close to wetlands while  approximately half are
     close to deepwater habitats.

2.   These facilities have the potential to adversely affect
     sensitive  ecosystems,  such as  wetlands  and  deepwater
     habitats, either through habitat alterations or through
     the migration of contaminants  from sanitary landfills.

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                    MATERIALS AND METHODS
     The source  of data used to  determine the locations of
the sanitary  landfills  was the computer data file developed
by Development Planning and Research Associates, Inc.  (DPRA)
for use by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office
of Solid Waste  in its RCRA Subtitle D program  (DPRA, 1986).
The DPRA  data  file  includes information  on  7,683 sanitary
landfills, and  6,849 of these  facilities  have latitude and
longitude  coordinates  in degrees,  minutes,  and  seconds
specified in the  data file.  Each set of coordinates defines
a  point  which  represents  the  geographic  location  of  a
sanitary  landfill (Figure 1) .   In addition,  the  data file
contains the  names of the landfills  and  data on the cities
or  counties  in  which  the  landfills  reside.    Individual
states  are  responsible for  permitting  sanitary  landfills
under  Subtitle  D  of  RCRA  and,  since  DPRA  obtained  the
information  for  the data  file  from  state  sources,  the site
location  information varies  in terms  of  accuracy  and the
point chosen to represent  the location  of each facility.

     Four  types  of errors or  omissions were  identified in
the DPRA  data  file.    These  errors  and  omissions include:
missing latitude  and longitude,  missing  state  code,  wrong
state code, and erroneous  latitude/longitude.  The first two
items  relate to   data  that  were omitted in  the  facility
record.  Facilities that did not have latitude and longitude
coordinates  were  not used in  this study while  facilities
that did not  have a state code were assigned an appropriate
state   code   by   comparing   the   latitude  and   longitude
coordinates  for  the  facilities  with maps of the  various
states.   The last two  items  relate  to errors in  the data
file.    Facilities with  the wrong state  code  were corrected
and  included  in  the  study.    The  last   item relates  to
erroneous   latitude  and/or   longitude   records.     Where
discovered,  the  erroneous coordinate(s) were  corrected,  if
possible.    Errors may  still exist  in  the DPRA  data  file;
however,  it  is   believed that  the  overall  results  and
conclusions   contained   in   this   report   will   not   be
significantly  affected,   since the  number  of  errors  is
probably small.

     Wetlands typically form part of a continuous transition
zone  between  uplands  and  open  water.    Therefore,  the
delineation of the upper and lower boundaries in any wetland
definition  is somewhat  arbitrary.    There are a  number of
definitions of wetlands  that  have been developed for use in
classifying natural environments or for regulatory purposes.
While  these  definitions  are not  identical,  they  are  very
similar.   The selection of a specific definition for use in

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this  study was determined  by the  availability  of national
wetlands and deepwater habitats geographic data.

     The most  extensive, consistent source  of wetlands and
deepwater  habitats  geographic  data  is the  U.S.  Fish and
Wildlife Service's National Wetlands  Inventory  (NWI).   The
NWI   has   developed   detailed,   large-scale  maps   for  a
significant portion  of the  United States.   To date, wetland
maps have been developed for approximately 40 percent of the
contiguous  48  states,   10  percent  of Alaska,  and  all  of
Hawaii.  Large-scale  NWI maps typically are either 1:24,000
scale  or  1:63,360  scale U.S. Geological  Survey quadrangle
maps;  however,  most  are  1:24,000 scale.    Wetlands  and
deepwater  habitats are  delineated  on the  NWI  maps.   The
delineation of wetlands  and deepwater  habitats was developed
using  remote  sensing  techniques  and  field investigations.
The NWI maps  are developed in accordance  with the National
Map  Accuracy   Standard  (NMAS)  (U.S.  GS,  1979).   The NWI
1:24,000  scale  maps  used  in  this  study  are  accurate,
according  to   the  NMAS,   to  within   40  feet  of  ground
measurements.     These   maps  are  particularly  useful  for
plotting   the   location  of  sanitary  landfills  and  for
determining the proximity  of these facilities  to wetlands
and deepwater habitats.

     The NWI maps  use the definitions  (contained in Tables 1
and 2) and the  classification system  (contained in Table 3)
for wetlands  and  deepwater  habitats developed by  the U.S.
Fish and Wildlife  Service  (Cowardin  et al.,  1979).  Wetlands
are  defined  as  lands transitional  between  terrestrial and
aquatic systems where the water  table  is usually at or near
the  surface,   or  the  land  is  covered  by shallow  water.
Deepwater habitats  are defined  as permanently flooded  lands
lying  below  the deepwater  boundary of wetlands.   For more
expansive definitions and an explanation of the definitions,
as  well  as the boundary  limits,  see  Tables  1 and  2; for
further details  see Cowardin et al.  (1979).   The U.S. Fish
and  Wildlife   Service's  classification  of  wetlands  and
deepwater habitats is hierarchical in  nature proceeding from
general to  specific  (Cowardin et  al., 1979).   There  are 5
systems, 10 subsystems,  and  55  classes.  In this study only
the  "system",  i.e,  the complex  of wetlands  and deepwater
habitats that share  the influence  of  similar  hydrologic,
geomorphologic,  chemical,  or biological factors,  was used
for classification purposes.  The definitions as well as the
boundary   limits   of   the   five  systems,   i.e.,   Marine,
Estuarine,  Riverine,  Lacustrine,  and  Palustrine,  are given
in Table 3; for  further details  see Cowardin et al. (1979).
The first  four systems,  i.e., Marine,  Estuarine, Riverine,
and Lacustrine, include  both wetlands  and deepwater habitats
whereas the Palustrine System includes only wetlands.

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     In order  to  link  the location of sanitary landfills in
the DPRA data  file  to  the appropriate NWI maps, we used the
information on the T-70 computer tape obtained  from the U.S.
Geological Survey (National Cartographic Information Center,
1987).   The  NWI large-scale maps  were  developed using U.S.
Geological Survey's quadrangle  maps  as  base maps.  The T-70
computer tape  contains  67  fields of  information including
latitude and longitude  that  can be used for identifying the
1:24,000 scale maps,  the map  names,   and  the  state  codes
assigned to  the maps.   Sanitary  landfill  location  data on
the  DPRA  computer  file  tape  were  matched  by  a  computer
program against location data on the US Geological Survey T-
70 computer tape in order to identify the specific maps that
contain  sanitary  landfills and/or that would  be needed to
evaluate the wetlands and deepwater habitats that are within
1 mile  of  each sanitary landfill.   Sanitary landfills that
were located on the edge  or  in  the corner of a map required
more than  one  map (i.e./ two to  four maps)  to complete the
interpretation.. The map  names  obtained  from  the  computer
matching were  sorted by state and compared with  inventories
of available NWI maps.

     Each  sanitary  landfill  included  in   this  study  was
located on NWI large-scale maps using standard cartographic
techniques.  Nearness  or  proximity of sanitary landfills to
wetlands and deepwater  habitats  was determined  by  drawing
three concentric  regions around the  point  representing the
location of  each  landfill.    The radii  of the  concentric
regions were:  1/4 mile,  1/2  mile,  and 1 mile  (Figure 1)  .
The occurrence or nonoccurrence of the wetland  and deepwater
habitat systems in each concentric region was then recorded.

     Many  sanitary  landfills  are typically  of  the  order of
100 acres  in  size.   For example,  in the  state  of  Florida
about  35  percent  of  the  active  sanitary  landfills  are
between  50 and  150  acres in size,  with the  average  size
being   110   acres  (Florida  Department   of   Environmental
Regulation, 1987).  A landfill that is 100 acres  in size and
uniformly  distributed  about  its  latitude/longitude  point
designation  will  have  a radius  of  approximately 1/4  mile
and, therefore,  will  approximate the boundary  of the  first
concentric 1/4-mile radius region  (Figure  1) .   Undoubtedly,
most of the  landfills  located  in a  1/4-mile  radius region
containing either wetlands  or deepwater habitats should be
considered to  be located  in  wetlands or deepwater habitats.
Since landfills vary considerably  in size and shape,  some of
the  landfills   located  in the  1/2-mile  radius  and  1-mile
radius  regions containing  wetlands  or deepwater  habitats
will  probably  also  be  located  in  wetlands   or deepwater
habitats.  The exact geographic boundary  of the  landfill is
not  the  critical  consideration  for  determining  adverse
impacts associated with these facilities,  since contaminants

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can  migrate  off-site  to  affect  wetlands  and  deepwater
habitats.
                   RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
     We  obtained  data  on the  proximity  of  122  sanitary
landfills  in  the state of Florida to wetlands and deepwater
habitats.  There are  126  sanitary landfills in the DPRA data
file for the  state of Florida and 122  (97 percent)  of these
facilities have  NWI  maps available  for site  interpretation.
As a result,  4  (3 percent) of the 126 sanitary landfills in
the state  of  Florida  are  not  included in this study.

     Approximately 82 percent of the sanitary landfills are
located in or within  1/4  mile of wetlands,  while 92 and 98
percent are located  in or within 1/2 and 1 mile of wetlands,
respectively  (Table  4 and Figure 2).  Only three  (3 percent)
of the  landfills are located more than a mile from any type
of wetland.   Most sanitary landfills  are  located either in
or are  close to Palustrine  wetlands (approximately 76,  87,
and  95  percent  are   located  in  or  within  1/4,  1/2,  and  1
mile, respectively,  of a Palustrine wetland).  Few sanitary
landfills  are located more  than  1/4  mile  from a wetland
(Figure 3) .   Only 10,  6, and 3 percent are  located 1/4 to
1/2 mile,  1/2 to 1 mile,  and  more than  1 mile, respectively,
from the closest wetland.

     Approximately 15 percent of the sanitary landfills are
located in or within  1/4  mile of  deepwater habitats,  while
30 and 49 percent  are located in or within 1/2 and 1 mile of
deepwater  habitats,   respectively  (Table 5  and  Figure  4) .
Sixty-two  (51 percent)  of the  landfills  are  located more
than a mile from any  type of  deepwater habitat.  Most of the
facilities  that  are located  in  or  that  are  close  to
deepwater  habitats  are   in  the  vicinity  of Lacustrine  or
Riverine deepwater habitats  (i.e., 25 percent are located in
or within  1  mile  of  a Lacustrine deepwater  habitat  and 23
percent are   located  in  or  within  1 mile  of an  Riverine
deepwater  habitat).     Approximately   51   percent   of  the
sanitary landfills are  located  more than  1 mile  from  the
closest  deepwater  habitat   (Figure  5),  while   19  and  16
percent are   located  1/2  to  1 mile  and 1/4  to 1/2  mile,
respectively,  from the closest deepwater habitat.

     Approximately 84 percent of  the sanitary landfills  are
located  in   or  within   1/4  mile  of  either  wetlands  or
deepwater habitats,  while 93 and 98 percent  are  located in
or within  1/2 and  1  mile  of either wetlands  or deepwater
habitats,  respectively (Table 6  and Figure 6) .   Only three
(3 percent)  of the  landfills are  located more than  a mile

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from  either wetlands  or  deepwater habitats.   Most  of the
sanitary  landfills are located either  in  or are  close to
Palustrine  or  Riverine habitats  (approximately  76,  87, and
95 percent  are located in  or within 1/4,  1/2,  and 1 mile,
respectively, of a Palustrine habitat while approximately 9,
20, and 36  percent are located in or within 1/4, 1/2, and 1
mile,  respectively,  of a  Riverine habitat) .   Few sanitary
landfills  are  located more  than  1/4  mile  from  either  a
wetland or  deepwater  habitat  (Figure 7).   Only  8,  5, and 3
percent are located 1/4 to  1/2 mile, 1/2 to 1 mile, and more
than  1  mile,  respectively, from  either the closest wetland
or deepwater habitat.

     Most sanitary landfills included  in this  study  in the
state of  Florida  are  located close to wetlands.   From this,
we  conclude that  these  facilities have  the potential  to
adversely  affect  sensitive ecosystems,  such as  wetlands,
either through  habitat alterations or through the migration
of  contaminants  from  sanitary  landfills.   In  addition,
approximately  half of the  sanitary  landfills  included in
this study  in  the  state of Florida are located either in or
close to deepwater habitats and they also have the potential
for adversely affecting these sensitive ecosystems.

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                      LITERATURE CITED

Cowardin,  L.M.,   V.   Carter,  F.C.  Golet,   and E.T.  LaRoe.
     1979.     Classification  of  wetlands   and  deepwater
     habitats of the  United States.  FWS/OBS-79/31.  103 pp.

Development  Planning and  Research Associates, Inc.   1986.
     U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency  list of municipal
     waste   landfills.       Computer   data   file,   U.S.
     Environmental Protection Agency.

Florida Department of Environmental  Regulation.   1987.   CMS
     25 data file.    Computer data file,  Florida Department
     of Environmental Regulation.

Langbein, W.B. and K.T.  Iseri.   1960.  General introduction
     and  hydrologic  definitions  manual of  hydrology.   Part
     I.   General  surface-water techniques.   US  Geol.  Surv.
     Water-Supply Paper  1541-A.  29 pp.

National  Cartographic  Information  Center.    1987.    T-70
     computer  tape.   Computer  data  file,  National  Mapping
     Division, U.S. Geological Survey.

U.S. EPA.    1987.    Resource  Conservation and Recovery  Act
     Subtitle D report to Congress.  Final Draft Report,  May
     28, 1987.

U.S. GS.    1979.   Maps  for America,  First Edition.   U.S.
     Geological Survey.

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        Point Representing
        Location of the
        Landfill
Hypothetical
Landfill
Boundaries
                       Lacustrine Deepwater Habitat
                                        -  (lake)
                  Palustrine Wetland
                       (marsh)
Rgure 1.  Hypothetical sanitary landfill showing the point (latitude and longitude coor-
          dinates) that represents the location of the landfill, the concentric regions used
          to determine the nearness or proximity of the sanitary landfill to wetlands and
          deepwater habitats, and the boundary of a 100-acre sanitary landfill distrib-
          uted approximately evenly around its point location (a 100-acre sanitary land-
          fill uniformly distriubted around a point will have a radius of approximately
          1/4 mile).
                                       8

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 Palustrine
 Lacustrine
   Riverine
  Estuarine
    Marine
All systems
In or within 1 mile





In or within 1/2 mile
                                                                 100
        Figure 2. Proximity of 122 Florida sanitary landfills to wetlands.

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     >imie
 1/2 to 1 mite  6
1/4 to 1/2 mile
        mile
 Figure 3. Distance of 122 Florida sanitary landfills to the closest wetlands.

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 Lacustrine g^p 14
                 8
   Riverine
  Estuarine Egg 6
    Marine
All systems
In or within 1 mile

In or within 1/2 mite

In or within 1/4 mile
                                                                      100
  Figure 4. Proximity of 122 Florida sanitary landfills to deepwater habitats.

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            mile
     1/2 to 1 mile
    1/4 to 1/2 mile
        1/4 mile
Figure 5. Distance of 122 Florida sanitary landfills to the closest deepwater habitat.

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U)
                     Palustrine
                     Lacustrine
                       Riverine
                      Estuarine
                        Marine
                    All systems
In or within 1 mte





In or within 1/2 mite




In or within 1/4 mite
                                                                                      98
                                                                          80
          100
                                                       Percent
        Figure 6. Proximity of 122 Florida sanitary landfills to either the closest wetland or deepwater habitat.

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                 mile  3
           1/2 to 1 mile  5
         1/4 to 1/2 mile
             1/4 mile
Figure 7. Distance of 122 Florida sanitary landfills to either the closest wetland or deepwater habitat.

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  TABLE 1.  DEFINITION OF WETLANDS USED BY THE U.S.  FISH AND
        WILDLIFE SERVICE FROM COWARDIN  ET AL.  (1979)
Definition:
               Wetlands   are   lands   transitional  between
               terrestrial  and  aquatic  systems  where  the
               water table  is  usually  at  or near the surface
               or the  land  is  covered  by  shallow water.  For
               purposes of  this  classification wetlands must
               have  one  or  more  of  the  following  three
               attributes:  (1)  at least  periodically,  the
               land  supports  predominantly hydrophytes;  (2)
               the   substrate   is  predominantly  undrained
               hydric  soil; and  (3) the substrate  is nonsoil
               and  is saturated with  water  or  covered by
               shallow water-at  some time  during the growing
               season  of each  year.

Explanation:
               The term wetland includes  a variety of areas
               that  fall  into  one of  five  categories:   (1)
               areas with hydrophytes  and  hydric soils, such
               as  those  commonly  known  as marshes,  swamps,
               and bogs;  (2)   areas  without  hydrophytes but
               with  hydric  soils-for  example,  flats  where
               drastic fluctuation  in  water   level,  wave
               action, turbidity,  or  high concentration of
               salts may  prevent the growth of  hydrophytes;
                (3)  areas   with  hydrophytes  but  nonhydric
               soils,  such  as  margins  of  impoundments  or
               excavations  where  hydrophytes   have  become
               established  but  hydric soils  have  not  yet
               developed;  (4)  areas without  soils but with
               hydrophytes   such  as   the  seaweed-covered
               portion of  rocky  shores;  and  (5)  wetlands
               without soil and  without hydrophytes, such as
               gravel  beaches  or  rocky  shores  without
               vegetation.
                            15

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                    TABLE 1.  (continued)
Limits:
               The upland  limit  of  wetland is designated as
                (1)    the    boundary   between   land   with
               predominantly hydrophytic cover and land with
               predominantly mesophytic or xerophytic cover;
                (2)   the   boundary  between   soil   that  is
               predominantly   hydric  and  soil   that   is
               predominantly nonhydric;  or  (3)  in  the case
               of  wetlands without  vegetation or  soil,  the
               boundary  between  land that   is  flooded  or
               saturated  at some  time each year  and land
               that  is not.   The  boundary  between wetland
               and   deepwater  habitat  in   the  Marine  and
               Estuarine    systems    coincides   with   the
               elevation of the  extreme  low  water of spring
               tide;   permanently    flooded    areas   are
               considered   deepwater  habitats   in   these
               systems.    The  boundary between  wetland and
               deepwater    habitat    in    the    Riverine,
               Lacustrine,  and Palustrine  systems  lies at a
               depth of   2 m  (6.6  feet)  below low  water;
               however, if emergents,  shrubs,  or trees grow
               beyond this   depth   at    any  time,   their
               deepwater edge  is the boundary.
                            16

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 TABLE 2. DEFINITION OF DEEPWATER HABITATS USED BY THE U.S.
    FISH  AND  WILDLIFE  SERVICE FROM COWARDIN ET AL.  (1979)
Definition:
               Deepwater  Habitats  are  permanently  flooded
               lands  lying below the  deepwater boundary of
               wetlands.      Deepwater   habitats   include
               environments where surface water is permanent
               and  often  deep,  so  that water,  rather than
               air, is the principal medium within which the
               dominant organisms live,  whether or not they
               are  attached   to the   substrate.     As  in
               wetlands,    the    dominant    plants    are
               hydrophytes;  however,   the  substrates  are
               considered  nonsoil  because the  water  is too
               deep to support emergent  vegetation.

Explanation:
               Wetlands and  Deepwater Habitats  are  defined
               separately  because  traditionally  the  term
               wetland  has  not  included  deep  permanent
               water; however,  both must be considered in an
               ecological approach to classification.

Limits:
               The  boundary  between  wetland  and  deepwater
               habitat  in  the  Marine  and  Estuarine  systems
               coincides with  the elevation  of the  extreme
               low water of spring tide; permanently flooded
               areas  are   considered  deepwater habitats  in
               these  systems.   The  boundary between  wetland
               and  deepwater   habitat  in   the   Riverine,
               Lacustrine,  and Palustrine  systems  lies at a
               depth  of 2  m  (6.6  feet)  below low  water;
               however, if emergents,  shrubs,  or  trees grow
               beyond   this   depth  at   any   time,   their
               deepwater edge is the boundary.
                            17

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  TABLE 3. DEFINITIONS OF  THE  FIVE MAJOR  SYSTEMS   (MARINE,
 ESTUARINE, RIVERINE,  LACUSTRINE, AND PALUSTRINE**) USED BY
 THE U.S. FISH AND  WILDLIFE  SERVICE  IN CLASSIFYING WETLANDS
     AND DEEPWATER  HABITATS  FROM COWARDIN ET AL.  (1979)
Marine:
   Definition:
   Limits:
                The  Marine System consists of the open  ocean
                overlying  the  continental  shelf  and  its
                associated  high-energy   coastline.    Marine
                habitats  are  exposed   to   the  waves   and
                currents  of  the  open  ocean  and  the  water
                regimes are determined primarily  by the  ebb
                and  flow of oceanic  tides.   Salinities exceed
                30 /00  with  little or  no  dilution  except
                outside  the  mouths   of  estuaries.    Shallow
                coastal   indentations    or   bays    without
                appreciable  freshwater   inflow,   and  coasts
                with exposed  rocky  islands  that provide  the
                mainland with little or no shelter  from wind
                and  waves,  are  also considered part  of  the
                Marine  System  because  they  support  typical
                marine biota.
                The Marine System extends  from  the  outer edge
                of the continental shelf shoreward to one  of
                three lines:  (1)  the landward  limit of tidal
                inundation  (extreme high  water   of  spring
                tides),   including  the   splash  zone  from
                breaking  waves;   (2)  the  seaward  limit   of
                wetland emergents, trees,  or  shrubs;  or  (3)
                the seaward  limit of the Estuarine  System,
                where this  limit  is  determined  by  factors
                other than vegetation.
     The  term system refers to  a complex  of wetlands and
     deepwater habitats  that shares the influence of similar
     hydrologic,   geomorphologic,  chemical,   or  biological
     factors.
**
     The   first   four  systems,  i.e.,  Marine,  Estuarine,
     Riverine,  and  Lacustrine,  include  both  wetland  and
     deepwater   habitats  whereas   the   Palustrine  System
     includes only wetland habitats.
                            18

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                    TABLE 3.  (continued)
Estuarine:

   Definition:
               The  Estuarine  System consists  of deepwater
               tidal  habitats  and  adjacent  tidal wetlands
               that  are  usually  semienclosed  by  land but
               have  open,  partly  obstructed,  or sporadic
               access to  the  open ocean,  and in which  ocean
               water  is  at  least  occasionally  diluted by
               freshwater   runoff  from  the   land.     The
               salinity may  be periodically increased  above
               that of the open ocean by evaporation.   Along
               some    low-energy    coastlines    there   is
               appreciable dilution  of  sea water.  Offshore
               areas  with   typical  estuarine  plants  and
               animals,  such  as  red mangroves  (Rhizophora
               mangle)  and   eastern  oysters  (Crassostrea
               virginica) ,   are   also    included  in   the
               Estuarine  System.

   Limits:
               The Estuarine System extends  (1) upstream and
               landward to where  ocean-derived  salts measure
               less  than  0.5  /00  during  the  period  of
               average annual  low flow;  (2)  to an imaginary
               line closing  the  mouth  of a  river,  bay,  or
               sound;  and   (3)   to  the  seaward  limit  of
               wetland  emergents,  shrubs,   or  trees   where
               they are not  included in (2) .  The Estuarine
               System  also   includes   off-shore   areas  of
               continuously diluted sea water.
                            19

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                    TABLE 3.  (continued)
Riverine:

   Definition:
   Limits:
               The Riverine  System  includes all wetlands and
               deepwater   habitats    contained   within   a
               channel,  with  two exceptions:  (1)  wetlands
               dominated   by   trees,   shrubs,   persistent
               emergents,  emergent  mosses, or  lichens, and
                (2)  habitats  with  water  containing  ocean-
               derived  salts  in  excess  of  0.5 /00.    A
               channel is  "an open  conduit either naturally
               or artificially created which periodically or
               continuously  contains  moving water,  or which
               forms  a connecting link between two bodies of
               standing water"  (Langbein and Iseri, 1960).
               The   Riverine  System   is   bounded  on  the
               landward  side by  upland, by the channel bank
                (including  natural and  man-made  levees),  or
               by   wetland  dominated   by  trees,  shrubs,
               persistent  emergents,   emergent  mosses,  or
               lichens.   In braided  streams,  the system is
               bounded by the banks forming the outer limits
               of  the depression within which the braiding
               occurs.   The Riverine  System  terminates  at
               the  downstream end where the concentration of
               ocean-derived salts  in the water exceeds 0.5
               /00 during the period of annual average low
               flow,  or  where the channel  enters a lake.  It
               terminates    at   the   upstream   end   where
               tributary streams  originate,   or   where  the
               channel  leaves a  lake.   Springs discharging
               into a channel  are considered part  of  the
               Riverine  System.
                            20

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                    TABLE 3.  (continued)
Lacustrine:

   Definition:
               The  Lacustrine  System includes  wetlands and
               deepwater habitats  with  all of the following
               characteristics:    (1)     situated    in   a
               topographic  depression  or  a.  dammed   river
               channel;    (2)    lacking    trees,    shrubs,
               persistent  emergents,   emergent   mosses  or
               lichens with greater than 30% areal coverage;
               and  (3)  total  area exceeds  8  ha  (20 acres).
               Similar   wetland   and   deepwater   habitats
               totaling less than  8  ha  are also included in
               the  Lacustrine  System   if  an  active   wave-
               formed or bedrock  shoreline feature makes up
               all  or part of  the boundary, or if the  water
               depth  in  the  deepest  part  of  the   basin
               exceeds  2  m   (6.6  feet)  at   low  water.
               Lacustrine waters  may be  tidal  or nontidal,
               but  ocean-derived  salinity is  always  less
               than 0.5 /
                          00.

   Limits:
               The Lacustrine System is bounded by upland or
               by  wetland   dominated  by   trees,   shrubs,
               persistent  emergents,  emergent  mosses,  or
               lichens.     Lacustrine  systems   formed  by
               damming  a river channel  are  bounded  by  a
               contour  approximating  the  normal  spillway
               elevation  or normal  pool  elevation,  except
               where Palustrine  wetlands  extend lakeward of
               the boundary.   Where a river  enters  a  lake,
               the  extension  of  the  Lacustrine  shoreline
               forms the Riverine-Lacustrine boundary.
                            21

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                     TABLE  3.  (continued)
Palustrine:

   Definition:
               The  Palustrine System  includes  all nontidal
               wetlands    dominated   by   trees,   shrubs,
               persistent   emergents,   emergent  mosses  or
               lichens,  and all  such wetlands that occur in
               tidal  areas  where  salinity  due  to  ocean-
               derived  salts  is below  0.5 /00.    It  also
               includes  wetlands  lacking  such vegetation,
               but   with   all   of   the   following   four
               characteristics:  (1)  area less than 8 ha  (20
               acres);   (2)  active  wave-formed  or  bedrock
               shoreline  features lacking;  (3)  water depth
               in the deepest  part  of  basin  less than 2 m at
               low  water;   and  (4)  salinity due  to  ocean-
               derived salts  less  than 0.5 /00.

   Limits:
               The  Palustrine System  is  bounded by uplands
               or by any of the  other  four systems.
                            22

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  TABLE  4. NUMBER AND  PERCENTAGE OF SANITARY LANDFILLS  IN
          FLORIDA THAT ARE PROXIMATE TO WETLANDS*
                Number and percentage of sanitary landfills
                  Located in     Located in      Located in
                   or within       or within        or  within
                   1/4 mile       1/2 mile         1 mile
Wetland svstem
All systems**
Marine
Estuarine
Riverine
Lacustrine
Palustrine
No.
100
0
6
5
4
93
%
82.0
0.0
4.9
4.1
3.3
76.2
No.
112
0
6
8
7
106
%
91.8
0.0
4.9
6.6
5.7
86.9
No.
119
0
11
18
12
116
%
97.5
0.0
9.0
14.8
9.8
95.1
     There are 126 sanitary  landfills  in  the DPRA data file
     for  the  state  of Florida  and 122  (96.8 percent)  of
     these  facilities  have  NWI maps  available  for  site
     interpretation.    As  a  result,  4  (3.2 percent)  of the
     126 sanitary landfills  in the  state  of Florida are not
     included in this study.

**   Three  (2.5  percent)   of the   122  sanitary  landfills
     included  in  this  study in  the state  of Florida  are
     located more than a mile from any type of wetland.
                           23

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   TABLE 5.  NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF SANITARY LANDFILLS IN
      FLORIDA THAT ARE PROXIMATE TO DEEPWATER HABITATS*
                Number and percentage of  sanitary landfills
                  Located in
                   or within
                   1/4 mile
                            Located in
                             or within
                             1/2 mile
Located in
 or within
  1 mile
Deepwater
habitat system
All systems**
Marine
Estuarine
Riverine
Lacustrine
No.
18
0
4
6
9
%
14.8
0.0
3.3
4.9
7.4
No.
37
0
7
16
17
%
30.3
0.0
5.7
13.1
13.9
No.
60
0
10
28
30
%
49.2
0.0
8.2
23.0
24.6
**
There are 126  sanitary  landfills in the DPRA data file
for  the  state  of Florida  and  122   (96.8  percent)  of
these  facilities  have  NWI  maps  available  for  site
interpretation.   As a  result,  4  (3.2  percent)  of the
126 sanitary landfills  in the state of Florida are not
included in this study.

Sixty-two (50.8 percent)  of the  122 sanitary landfills
included in this study  in the state of  Florida are
located more than a mile  from any type  of deepwater
habitats.
                            24

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   TABLE  6.  NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF SANITARY LANDFILLS IN
 FLORIDA THAT ARE PROXIMATE TO EITHER WETLANDS OR DEEPWATER
                          HABITATS*
                Number and percentage of sanitary landfills
                  Located in
                   or within
                   1/4 mile
                            Located in
                             or within
                             1/2 mile
Located in
 or  within
  1 mile
System
All systems**
Marine
Estuarine
Riverine
Lacustrine
Palustrine***
No.
103
0
6
11
12
93
%
84.4
0.0
4.9
9.0
9.8
76.2
No.
113
0
7
24
17
106
%
92.6
0.0
5.7
19.7
13.9
86.9
No.
119
0
12
44
32
116
%
97.5
0.0
9.8
36.1
26.2
95.1
     There are  126  sanitary landfills in the DPRA data file
     for  the state  of  Florida  and  122  (96.8  percent)  of
     these  facilities  have  NWI  maps  available  for  site
     interpretation.   As a  result,  4  (3.2  percent)  of the
     126 sanitary landfills  in  the state of Florida are not
     included in this study.
**
***
Three  (2.5  percent)  of  the  122  sanitary  landfills
included  in this  study in  the state  of Florida  are
located more  than a mile  from  any type of  wetland or
deepwater habitat.

The Palustrine system includes only wetlands.
                            25

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