vvEPA
             United States
             Environmental Protection
             Agency
             Environmental Monitoring
             Systems Laboratory
             P.O. Box 93478
             Las Vegas NV 89193-3478
EPA/600/4-89/047A
December 1989
             Research and Development
Proximity of Pennsylvania
Sanitary Landfills
to Wetlands and
Deepwater Habitats
             Statewide Results

-------
                                                       600/4-89/047A
                                                    December 1989
PROXIMITY OF PENNSYLVANIA SANITARY LANDFILLS  TO WETLANDS AND
                      DEEPWATER HABITATS
                      Statewide Results
                              by

             Roy C. Herndon and John E. Moerlins
    Center  for  Biomedical and Toxicological Research and
                  Hazardous Waste  Management
                   Florida State University
               Tallahassee, Florida 32306-4016

                       Victor W. Lambou
         Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory
             U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency
                Las  Vegas, Nevada 89193-3478

                             and

                       Robin L. Gebhard
                 National  Wetlands Inventory
                U.S.  Fish and Wildlife Service
                St. Petersburg, Florida 33702
         ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING SYSTEMS LABORATORY
             OFFICE OF  RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
            U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY
                   LAS VEGAS, NEVADA 89114

-------
                           NOTICE
The information  in  this  document has been  funded  wholly or
in part  by the  U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency  under
Grant No. CR-815139010 to  the  Florida  State University.   It
has been subject to  the  Agency's  peer and  administrative
review and  it has been  approved for publication  as an  EPA
document.   Mention of  trade  names  or commercial products
does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.
                           11

-------
                          ABSTRACT
     Sanitary  landfills  can  cause  considerable  harm  to
sensitive  ecosystems  if  they  are  not  properly  located,
designed,  and  managed.   The purpose of  this report  is  to
summarize  the  proximity of  sanitary  landfills  in  the state
of  Pennsylvania  to  wetlands and deepwater  habitats   (i.e.,
rivers,  lakes,  streams,  bays,  etc.);  a companion  report
presents data  on individual landfills.    The  source  of data
used to  determine the  locations of  the  sanitary  landfills
was the computer data file developed by Development Planning
and  Research   Associates,   Inc.   for   use  by   the  U.S.
Environmental  Protection  Agency's Office of  Solid Waste  in
its RCRA  Subtitle  D program.    The sanitary landfills were
identified  on U.S.  Fish  and  Wildlife  Service's  National
Wetlands Inventory  maps.   The nearness or proximity  of the
sanitary  landfills  to  wetlands  and  deepwater  habitats was
determined  by  drawing  three concentric  regions around the
point representing the  location  of each landfill.  The radii
of  the  concentric regions were:  1/4  mile,  1/2 mile,  and 1
mile.  Most  sanitary landfills in the state of Pennsylvania
are located in or are  close to wetlands while  almost half
are close  to deepwater  habitats.  These facilities have the
potential to adversely  affect  sensitive ecosystems,  such  as
wetlands  and  deepwater  habitats,  either  through  habitat
alterations  or through the  migration  of  contaminants from
sanitary landfills.
                            iii

-------
                       CONTENTS
                                                       Page

Abstract	iii
Figures	v
Tables	vi
     Introduction	1
     Conclusions	1
     Materials and Methods	2
     Results and Discussion	5
Literature Cited	7
                           IV

-------
                       FIGURES
Number                                                  Page

1    Hypothetical sanitary landfill showing the point
        (latitude  and  longitude  coordinates)  that
        represents the location  of the landfill,  the
        concentric  regions  used  to  determine  the
        nearness   or   proximity   of  the   sanitary
        landfill to wetlands  and deepwater habitats,
        and  the  boundary  of an  100-acre  sanitary
        landfill  distributed  approximately  evenly
        around   its   point   location   (a   100-acre
        landfill uniformly distributed around a point
        will  have  a  radius  of  approximately  1/4
        mile)-                                              8

2    Proximity of 131 Pennsylvania sanitary landfills
        to wetlands-                                        9

3    Distance of  131  Pennsylvania  sanitary landfills
        to the closest wetland,                           10

4    Proximity of 131 Pennsylvania sanitary landfills
        to deepwater habitats-                            11

5    Distance of  131  Pennsylvania  sanitary landfills
        to the closest deepwater habitat.                  12

6    Proximity of 131 Pennsylvania sanitary landfills
        to  either the closest wetland or  deepwater
        habitat.                                          13

7    Distance of  131  Pennsylvania  sanitary landfills
        to  either the closest wetland or  deepwater
        habitat.                                          14

-------
                        TABLES
Number                                                  Page

1    Definition of wetlands used by the U.S.  Fish and
        Wildlife Service                                  15

2    Definition  of deepwater  habitats used by  the
        U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service                    17

3    Definitions of  the five  major systems used  by
        the  U.S.  Fish  and  Wildlife  Service   in
        classifying wetlands and deepwater  habitats       18

4    Number and  percentage of sanitary landfills  in
        Pennsylvania that are proximate to  wetlands       23

5    Number and  percentage of sanitary landfills  in
        Pennsylvania that  are  proximate to deepwater
        habitats                                          24

6    Number and  percentage of sanitary landfills  in
        Pennsylvania  that   are proximate  to  either
        wetlands or deepwater habitats                    25
                           vi

-------
                        INTRODUCTION

     Sanitary  landfills,   as  typically  defined,   are  waste
management  facilities  regulated under  Subtitle  D of  the
Resource  Conservation  and  Recovery  Act   (RCRA).    These
facilities  are  commonly  referred  to  as   municipal  waste
landfills and  they are primarily used to receive household
refuse and nonhazardous commercial waste.  However, sanitary
landfills also receive other types of  Subtitle D waste, such
as sewage sludge  and industrial wastes.  Sanitary landfills
typically  receive  some  hazardous  waste  in the form  of
household hazardous waste, and hazardous waste  from small
quantity  generators  as  defined  in   40  CFR  Part  261.10
(Definitions).  Depending  upon  the definition of a sanitary
landfill used  by  the  individual states, there  are between
6,500 and 9,300 of these  facilities permitted in the United
States  (U.S. EPA,  1987).

     Sanitary  landfills  can   cause   considerable  harm  to
sensitive  ecosystems  if  they  are not properly located,
designed, and  managed.   These  facilities have the potential
to adversely  affect sensitive  ecosystems,  such  as wetlands
and  deepwater  habitats,  either through habitat  alterations
or  through  the  migration  of  contaminants from sanitary
landfills.   In order to  evaluate  the  seriousness  of this
problem, information is  needed  on  the nearness  of sanitary
landfills to wetlands and surface water  bodies.  The purpose
of  this study is  to document the  proximity of sanitary
landfills  in  the  state  of  Pennsylvania  to wetlands  and
deepwater  habitats  (i.e.,  rivers,  lakes,   streams,  bays,
etc.).   This  report  gives  statewide  summary   results;  a
companion   report,   "Proximity  of   Pennsylvania  Sanitary
Landfills  to  Wetlands  and  Deepwater  Habitats,  Data  on
Individual  Landfills,"  presents  data  on   the   individual
landfills.
                           CONCLUSIONS
1.   Most  sanitary landfills  in  the state  of Pennsylvania
     are  located in or  are  close to wetlands  while almost
     half are close to deepwater habitats.

2.   These facilities have the potential to adversely affect
     sensitive  ecosystems,  such  as  wetlands  and deepwater
     habitats, either through habitat alterations or through
     the migration of contaminants from sanitary landfills.

-------
                    MATERIALS AND METHODS
     The source  of data used to  determine  the  locations of
the sanitary  landfills  was the computer data file developed
by Development Planning  and Research Associates, Inc.  (DPRA)
for use by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office
of Solid Waste  in its RCRA Subtitle D program  (DPRA, 1986).
The DPRA  data file  includes information on  7,683 sanitary
landfills, and  6,849 of these  facilities have  latitude and
longitude  coordinates   in degrees,  minutes,  and  seconds
specified in  the  data file.  Each set of coordinates defines
a  point  which  represents  the-  geographic  location  of   a
sanitary  landfill (Figure 1) .   In addition, the  data file
contains the  names of the landfills and data on the cities
or  counties  in  which   the  landfills  reside.    Individual
states  are  responsible for  permitting sanitary  landfills
under  Subtitle  D  of  RCRA  and,  since DPRA  obtained  the
information  for  the data  file  from state sources,  the site
location  information varies  in terms  of   accuracy  and the
point chosen  to represent  the location  of  each facility.

     Four  types   of errors or  omissions were identified in
the DPRA  data  file.    These errors and omissions include:
missing latitude  and  longitude,  missing state  code,  wrong
state code, and erroneous  latitude/longitude.  The first two
items  relate to  data  that  were omitted  in  the  facility
record.  Facilities that did not have latitude and longitude
coordinates  were  not  used  in  this study  while facilities
that did not  have a state code were assigned an appropriate
state   code   by   comparing   the   latitude  and  longitude
coordinates  for  the  facilities  with maps  of  the  various
states.   The last two items  relate  to errors  in  the data
file.   Facilities with the wrong  state  code  were corrected
and  included  in  the  study.    The  last   item relates  to
erroneous   latitude  and/or   longitude  records.     Where
discovered,  the  erroneous coordinate(s) were corrected,  if
possible.    Errors may  still exist in  the  DPRA  data  file;
however,  it  is   believed that  the  overall  results  and
conclusions   contained   in   this   report    will   not   be
significantly affected,   since the  number  of  errors  is
probably small.

     Wetlands typically  form part of a continuous transition
zone  between  uplands  and  open  water.    Therefore,  the
delineation of the upper and lower boundaries in any wetland
definition is somewhat  arbitrary.   There  are  a  number of
definitions of wetlands  that  have been  developed for use in
classifying natural environments or for regulatory purposes.
While these   definitions  are not  identical,  they are  very
similar.  The selection of a specific definition for use in

-------
this  study was determined  by the availability  of national
wetlands and deepwater habitats geographic data.

     The most  extensive,  consistent source  of wetlands and
deepwater  habitats  geographic  data  is the  U.S.  Fish and
Wildlife Service's National Wetlands Inventory  (NWI).   The
NWI   has   developed   detailed,   large-scale  maps  for  a
significant portion  of the  United States.   To date, wetland
maps have  been developed for approximately 40 percent of the
contiguous  48  states,  10  percent  of  Alaska,  and  all  of
Hawaii.  Large-scale  NWI  maps typically are either 1:24,000
scale  or   1:63,360  scale  U.S. Geological  Survey quadrangle
maps;  however,  most  are  1:24,000  scale.    Wetlands  and
deepwater  habitats are  delineated  on  the NWI  maps.   The
delineation of wetlands and deepwater habitats was  developed
using  remote  sensing  techniques  and  field investigations.
The NWI maps  are developed in accordance  with the National
Map  Accuracy   Standard (NMAS)  (U.S. GS,  1979).   The NWI
1:24,000   scale  maps  used  in  this  study  are   accurate,
according  to   the  NMAS,   to within   40  feet  of  ground
measurements.     These  maps  are  particularly  useful  for
plotting   the   location   of  sanitary   landfills   and  for
determining the proximity  of these facilities  to wetlands
and deepwater habitats.

     The NWI maps use the definitions (contained in Tables 1
and 2) and the  classification system (contained in Table 3)
for wetlands  and  deepwater habitats developed by  the  U.S.
Fish and Wildlife Service (Cowardin et al., 1979).  Wetlands
are defined  as  lands  transitional between  terrestrial and
aquatic systems where  the water table  is usually at or near
the  surface,   or  the  land  is  covered by shallow  water.
Deepwater  habitats  are defined as permanently  flooded lands
lying  below the deepwater boundary  of wetlands.   For  more
expansive  definitions and an explanation of the definitions,
as well  as the  boundary limits,  see Tables  I  and  2; for
further details  see Cowardin  et  al.  (1979) .   The U.S.  Fish
and  Wildlife   Service's  classification  of  wetlands   and
deepwater habitats is hierarchical in nature proceeding from
general to specific (Cowardin et  al.,  1979).   There are  5
systems,  10 subsystems, and 55 classes.   In this study only
the  "system",  i.e,  the  complex  of  wetlands  and deepwater
habitats that  share  the  influence  of  similar  hydrologic,
geomorphologic,  chemical,  or biological factors,  was  used
for classification purposes.  The definitions as well as the
boundary   limits   of  the   five   systems,  i.e.,   Marine,
Estuarine,  Riverine,  Lacustrine,  and Palustrine,  are given
in Table 3; for  further details see  Cowardin et al.  (1979).
The first  four systems,  i.e., Marine,  Estuarine,  Riverine,
and Lacustrine, include both wetlands and deepwater habitats
whereas the Palustrine System includes only wetlands.

-------
     In order  to link the location of sanitary landfills in
the DPRA  data  file to the appropriate NWI maps,  we used the
information on the  T-70 computer tape obtained from the U.S.
Geological Survey  (National Cartographic  Information Center,
1987).   The  NWI large-scale maps  were  developed using U.S.
Geological Survey's quadrangle maps as  base maps.   The T-70
computer  tape  contains  67 fields  of  information  including
latitude  and longitude that  can be used  for identifying the
1:24,000  scale  maps,  the map names,   and  the  state  codes
assigned  to  the maps.   Sanitary  landfill  location  data on
the  DPRA  computer  file  tape  were matched  by  a  computer
program against  location data  on the US Geological Survey T-
70 computer tape in order  to identify the specific maps that
contain  sanitary landfills and/or that would be  needed to
evaluate  the wetlands  and  deepwater habitats that are within
1 mile  of each sanitary landfill.   Sanitary landfills that
were located on  the edge  or  in the corner of a map required
more than one  map  (i.e.,   two  to  four maps)  to complete the
interpretation.  The map  names obtained  from the  computer
matching  were  sorted by state and  compared with inventories
of available NWI maps.

     Each sanitary landfill  included   in   this  study  was
located on NWI  large-scale maps using standard cartographic
techniques.  Nearness  or  proximity of sanitary landfills to
wetlands  and deepwater habitats  was determined by  drawing
three concentric regions  around the  point  representing the
location  of  each   landfill.    The  radii  of  the  concentric
regions  were:  1/4  mile,  1/2  mile,  and  1 mile  (Figure 1) .
The occurrence or nonoccurrence of the wetland and deepwater
habitat systems  in  each concentric region was then recorded.

     Many sanitary landfills  are  typically  of the  order of
100  acres in  size.   For  example,  in the  state  of  Florida
about  35  percent  of  the  active  sanitary landfills  are
between  50 and  150 acres in size,  with the average size
being   110   acres   (Florida   Department   of  Environmental
Regulation, 1987) .   A  landfill that is 100 acres in size and
uniformly distributed  about  its   latitude/longitude  point
designation  will have a  radius  of approximately 1/4 mile
and, therefore,  will approximate  the boundary of  the first
concentric 1/4-mile radius region   (Figure 1).  Undoubtedly,
most of  the  landfills  located in  a  1/4-mile  radius region
containing either  wetlands or deepwater  habitats  should be
considered to be located  in  wetlands or deepwater habitats.
Since landfills vary considerably  in size and shape,  some of
the  landfills   located in the 1/2-mile  radius  and  1-mile
radius  regions  containing wetlands  or  deepwater  habitats
will  probably  also be  located  in  wetlands or  deepwater
habitats.  The  exact geographic boundary of the  landfill is
not  the  critical   consideration   for  determining  adverse
impacts associated  with these  facilities, since contaminants

-------
can  migrate  off-site  to  affect  wetlands  and  deepwater
habitats.
                   RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
     We  obtained  data  on  the  proximity  of  131  sanitary
landfills  in  the  state of  Pennsylvania  to  wetlands  and
deepwater habitats.  There are 135 sanitary landfills in the
DPRA data  file  for  the state of  Pennsylvania and  131  (97
percent)  of these  facilities have  NWI  maps  available  for
site interpretation.   As a  result,  4 (3  percent)  of the 135
sanitary  landfills  in the  state  of  Pennsylvania are  not
included in this  study.

     Approximately 55  percent of the sanitary landfills are
located in  or  within  1/4 mile of wetlands, while  79  and 94
percent are located  in or within 1/2 and 1 mile of wetlands,
respectively (Table  4  and Figure 2).  Only eight (6 percent)
of the  landfills are located more than a mile from any type
of wetland.  Most sanitary landfills  are  located  either in
or are  close  to  Palustrine  wetlands  (approximately  53,  78,
and  92  percent  are  located  in  or  within  1/4, 1/2,   and  1
mile, respectively,  of a Palustrine wetland).  Approximately
half of the sanitary  landfills are  located more  than  1/4
mile from a wetland  (Figure 3) .    Twenty-four,  15,   and  6
percent are located  1/4  to 1/2 mile, 1/2 to I mile, and more
than 1 mile, respectively, from the closest wetland.

     Approximately 18  percent of the sanitary landfills are
located in  or  within  1/4 mile of deepwater habitats,  while
31 and 44 percent are  located in or within 1/2 and 1 mile of
deepwater  habitats,  respectively  (Table 5  and Figure  4) .
Seventy-four (57  percent) of the  landfills are located more
than a mile from  any type of deepwater habitat.  Most of the
facilities  that  are  located  in  or  that  are  close  to
deepwater  habitats  are  in  the  vicinity  of  Riverine  or
Lacustrine deepwater habitats (i.e.,  41  percent are located
in or within  1 mile of  a Riverine  deepwater  habitat  and 11
percent are located in or  within  1  mile  of  a  Lacustrine
deepwater  habitat).     Approximately  57   percent  of  the
sanitary  landfills  are  located  more  than  1 mile  from  the
closest  deepwater  habitat   (Figure  5),  while 13  and  13
percent are located 1/2 to  1  mile  and 1/4  to  1/2  mile,
respectively,   from the closest deepwater habitat.

     Approximately 65  percent of the sanitary landfills  are
located  in  or  within  1/4  mile  of  either  wetlands  or
deepwater habitats,  while 87 and 99 percent  are  located in
or within  1/2  and  1  mile of either wetlands  or  deepwater
habitats,  respectively (Table 6 and  Figure  6).   Only  two (2

-------
percent) of  the landfills are located more than a mile from
either wetlands  or deepwater  habitats.  Most of the sanitary
landfills  are  located either in or  are  close  to Palustrine
or Riverine  habitats  (approximately 53,  78, and 92 percent
are located  in  or within  1/4, 1/2, and 1 mile,  respectively,
of a  Palustrine habitat while approximately 21,  42,  and 60
percent  are  located  in  or  within  1/4,   1/2,  and  1  mile,
respectively,  of a  Riverine  habitat).   Approximately one-
third of the sanitary landfills  are located  more  than 1/4
mile  from  either a  wetland or deepwater habitat  (Figure 7).
Twenty-two,  12  and 2  percent are  located 1/4 to 1/2  mile,
1/2  to   1  mile, and  more than  1  mile,  respectively,  from
either the closest wetland or deepwater habitat.

     Most  sanitary  landfills  included in  this  study in the
state of Pennsylvania are located  either in or are close to
wetlands.  From  this,  we conclude that these facilities have
the potential to adversely affect sensitive ecosystems, such
as wetlands,  either through  habitat alterations  or through
the migration  of contaminants from  sanitary landfills.   In
addition, almost half  of the  sanitary landfills in the state
of Pennsylvania  are  located either in  or close to deepwater
habitats  and they  also  have the  potential  for adversely
affecting these  sensitive ecosystems.

-------
                      LITERATURE CITED

Cowardin,  L.M.,  V.  Carter,  F.C.  Golet,   and  E.T.  LaRoe.
     1979.     Classification  of  wetlands   and   deepwater
     habitats of the United States.  FWS/OBS-79/31.  103 pp.

Development  Planning and  Research  Associates,  Inc.   1986.
     U.S. Environmental Protection Agency  list  of municipal
     waste   landfills.       Computer    data   file,    U.S.
     Environmental Protection Agency.

Florida Department of Environmental  Regulation.   1987.   CMS
     25 data file.   Computer data  file,  Florida  Department
     of Environmental Regulation.

Langbein, W.B.  and K.T.  Iseri.   1960.   General introduction
     and  hydrologic  definitions manual of  hydrology.   Part
     I.   General  surface-water techniques.   US Geol.  Surv.
     Water-Supply Paper 1541-A.  29 pp.

National  Cartographic  Information  Center.    1987.    T-70
     computer  tape.   Computer  data file,  National Mapping
     Division,  U.S. Geological Survey.

U.S. EPA.    1987.    Resource  Conservation and Recovery Act
     Subtitle D report to  Congress.  Final Draft Report, May
     28, 1987.

U.S. GS.    1979.   Maps  for America,  First Edition.   U.S.
     Geological Survey.

-------
        Point Representing
        Location of the
        Landfill
Hypothetical
Landfill
Boundaries
                               Lacustrine Deepwater Habitat
                                   3000C  Cake)
                  Palustrine Wetland
                        (marsh)
Rgure 1.  Hypothetical sanitary landfill showing the point (latitude and longitude coor-
          dinates) that represents the location of the landfill, the concentric regions used
          to determine the nearness or proximity of the sanitary landfill to wetlands and
          deepwater habitats, and the boundary of a 100-acre sanitary landfill distrib-
          uted approximately evenly around its point location (a 100-acre sanitary land-
          fill uniformly distriubted around a point will have a radius of approximately
          1/4 mile).
                                        8

-------
 Palustrine
 Lacustrine
   Riverine
  Estuarine
    Marine
All systems
In or within 1 mile





In or within 1/2 mile




In or within 1/4 mile
                                                                             94
                                          Percent
        Figure 2.  Proximity of 131 Pennsylvania sanitary landfills to wetlands.

-------
     >1 mile ^H 6
  1/2 -1 mile
 1/4 -1/2 mile
    1/4 mile
Figure 3. Distance of 131 Pennsylvania sanitary landfills to the closest wetlands.

-------
                   11
 Lacustrine
   Riverine
  Estuarine
    Marine
All systems
                       17
In or within 1 mile





In or within 1/2 mile




In or within 1/4 mile
                                                                            100
  Figure 4. Proximity of 131  Pennsylvania sanitary landfills to deepwater habitats.

-------
         mile
   1/2  1 mile
  1/4 -1/2 mile
     1/4 mile
Figure 5. Distance of 131 Pennsylvania sanitary landfills to the closest deepwater habitat

-------
    Palustrine
    Lacustrine
      Riverine
     Estuarine
       Marine
   All systems
In or within 1 mite




In or within 1/2 mile



In or within 1/4 mile
                                                                    99
Figure 6. Proximity of 131 Pennsylvania sanitary landfills to either wetland or deepwater habitat.

-------
             1/2  1 mile
            1/4 -1/2 mile
               1/4 mile
Figure 7.  Distance of 131 Pennsylvania sanitary landfills to either the closest wetland or deepwater habitat

-------
  TABLE  1.  DEFINITION OF WETLANDS USED BY THE U.S.  FISH AND
        WILDLIFE SERVICE FROM COWARDIN ET AL.  (1979)
Definition:
               Wetlands   are  lands   transitional  between
               terrestrial  and  aquatic  systems  where  the
               water table  is usually at  or near the surface
               or the land  is covered by  shallow water.  For
               purposes of  this classification wetlands must
               have  one  or  more  of  the following  three
               attributes:  (1)  at  least  periodically,  the
               land  supports  predominantly hydrophytes;  (2)
               the   substrate   is  predominantly  undrained
               hydric soil; and (3) the substrate  is nonsoil
               and  is  saturated  with  water  or covered by
               shallow water at some time  during the growing
               season of each year.

Explanation:
               The term wetland includes  a variety of areas
               that  fall  into one  of  five  categories:   (1)
               areas with hydrophytes and  hydric soils, such
               as those  commonly  known as marshes,  swamps,
               and bogs;  (2)  areas without  hydrophytes but
               with  hydric  soils-for  example,  flats  where
               drastic  fluctuation  in  water   level,  wave
               action,  turbidity,  or high concentration of
               salts may prevent  the  growth of  hydrophytes;
               (3)  areas   with  hydrophytes  but  nonhydric
               soils,  such  as  margins  of impoundments  or
               excavations  where  hydrophytes   have  become
               established  but hydric  soils  have not  yet
               developed;  (4)  areas without  soils but with
               hydrophytes   such   as   the  seaweed-covered
               portion  of  rocky  shores;  and  (5)  wetlands
               without soil and without hydrophytes, such as
               gravel  beaches   or  rocky  shores  without
               vegetation.
                            15

-------
                     TABLE  1.  (continued)
Limits:
               The  upland limit of wetland is designated as
                (1)    the   boundary   between   land   with
               predominantly  hydrophytic  cover and land with
               predominantly  mesophytic or  xerophytic cover;
                (2)   the  boundary  between  soil   that  is
               predominantly   hydric   and  soil   that  is
               predominantly  nonhydric;  or  (3)  in  the case
               of  wetlands without vegetation  or  soil, the
               boundary  between  land  that  is  flooded  or
               saturated at  some  time each year  and land
               that  is  not.   The  boundary between wetland
               and   deepwater  habitat  in  the  Marine  and
               Estuarine   systems   coincides   with   the
               elevation of the extreme  low water of spring
               tide;    permanently   flooded    areas    are
               considered   deepwater   habitats   in   these
               systems.    The boundary between  wetland and
               deepwater   habitat    in     the    Riverine,
               Lacustrine,  and Palustrine systems  lies at a
               depth of  2 m (6.6 feet)  below low  water;
               however,  if emergents,  shrubs,  or trees grow
               beyond  this   depth  at  any   time,   their
               deepwater edge is the boundary.
                            16

-------
 TABLE 2. DEFINITION OF DEEPWATER HABITATS USED BY THE U.S.
    FISH  AND WILDLIFE SERVICE FROM COWARDIN ET AL.  (1979)
Definition:
Explanation:
Limits:
               Deepwater  Habitats  are  permanently  flooded
               lands  lying below the deepwater  boundary of
               wetlands.      Deepwater   habitats   include
               environments where surface water is permanent
               and  often deep,  so  that water,  rather than
               air, is the principal medium within which the
               dominant  organisms live, whether  or not they
               are  attached   to the   substrate.     As  in
               wetlands,    the    dominant    plants    are
               hydrophytes;  however,   the   substrates  are
               considered  nonsoil because the water  is too
               deep to support emergent vegetation.
               Wetlands  and Deepwater Habitats  are defined
               separately  because  traditionally  the  term
               wetland   has   not   included  deep  permanent
               water; however, both must be considered in an
               ecological approach to classification.
               The  boundary between  wetland  and deepwater
               habitat  in the Marine and  Estuarine systems
               coincides  with  the elevation  of  the extreme
               low water  of spring tide; permanently flooded
               areas  are  considered  deepwater  habitats  in
               these  systems.   The  boundary between wetland
               and   deepwater   habitat   in   the  Riverine,
               Lacustrine, and  Palustrine  systems lies at a
               depth  of  2 m  (6.6  feet)  below  low  water;
               however,  if emergents, shrubs,  or trees grow
               beyond   this   depth   at   any  time,   their
               deepwater  edge is the boundary.
                            17

-------
  TABLE 3. DEFINITIONS OF THE FIVE MAJOR  SYSTEMS*  (MARINE,
 ESTUARINE, RIVERINE, LACUSTRINE, AND PALUSTRINE**)  USED BY
 THE U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE  IN CLASSIFYING WETLANDS
     AND DEEPWATER HABITATS FROM COWARDIN ET AL.  (1979)
Marine:

   Definition:
               The Marine  System consists of the open ocean
               overlying   the   continental  shelf  and  its
               associated  high-energy  coastline.    Marine
               habitats   are  exposed  to   the  waves  and
               currents  of  the  open  ocean  and  the water
               regimes  are determined primarily  by the ebb
               and flow of oceanic tides.  Salinities exceed
               30 /00  with  little  or  no  dilution  except
               outside  the  mouths  of  estuaries.    Shallow
               coastal    indentations    or   bays    without
               appreciable   freshwater  inflow,   and  coasts
               with  exposed  rocky islands that provide the
               mainland with little  or  no shelter  from wind
               and  waves,  are  also  considered part  of the
               Marine  System because  they  support  typical
               marine biota.

   Limits:
               The Marine System  extends  from the outer edge
               of the  continental shelf shoreward to one of
               three  lines:  (1)  the  landward limit of tidal
               inundation  (extreme  high water  of  spring
               tides),   including  the   splash  zone  from
               breaking  waves;   (2)   the  seaward  limit  of
               wetland  emergents, trees, or  shrubs;  or (3)
               the  seaward  limit of the Estuarine  System,
               where  this limit is  determined  by  factors
               other than vegetation.
     The  term system  refers  to  a  complex  of wetlands and
     deepwater habitats that shares the influence of similar
     hydrologic,  geomorphologic,  chemical,   or  biological
     factors.

     The  first   four   systems,   i.e.,  Marine,  Estuarine,
     Riverine,  and  Lacustrine,   include   both wetland and
     deepwater   habitats   whereas  the   Palustrine  System
     includes only wetland habitats.
                            18

-------
                    TABLE 3.  (continued)
Estuarine:

   Definition:
               The  Estuarine  System consists  of deepwater
               tidal  habitats  and adjacent  tidal wetlands
               that  are  usually  semienclosed  by  land but
               have  open,  partly  obstructed,   or sporadic
               access  to  the open ocean,  and in which  ocean
               water  is  at  least occasionally  diluted by
               freshwater   runoff  from  the   land.     The
               salinity may be periodically increased  above
               that of the  open  ocean by evaporation.   Along
               some    low-energy   coastlines    there   is
               appreciable  dilution of  sea water.  Offshore
               areas   with   typical  estuarine  plants  and
               animals,  such  as  red mangroves  (Rhizophora
               mangle)  and  eastern  oysters   (Crassostrea
               virginica),   are   also    included  in   the
               Estuarine  System.

   Limits:
               The Estuarine System extends  (1) upstream and
               landward to  where  ocean-derived  salts measure
               less  than   0.5 /00  during  the  period  of
               average annual  low flow;  (2)  to an imaginary
               line  closing the  mouth  of a  river,  bay,  or
               sound;  and   (3)   to the  seaward  limit  of
               wetland emergents,  shrubs,   or   trees   where
               they are not included in (2) .  The Estuarine
               System  also  includes   off-shore  areas  of
               continuously diluted sea water.
                            19

-------
                     TABLE 3.  (continued)
Riverine:
   Definition:
   Limits:
               The Riverine System includes all wetlands and
               deepwater   habitats   contained   within   a
               channel,  with  two  exceptions:  (1)  wetlands
               dominated   by   trees,    shrubs,   persistent
               emergents,  emergent  mosses, or  lichens,  and
                (2)  habitats  with water  containing  ocean-
               derived  salts  in  excess  of  0.5 /00.    A
               channel  is  "an open  conduit either naturally
               or artificially created which periodically or
               continuously contains  moving water,  or which
               forms a  connecting link between two bodies of
               standing water"  (Langbein and Iseri, 1960).
               The   Riverine  System  is   bounded  on  the
               landward  side by  upland,  by the channel bank
                (including  natural and man-made  levees),  or
               by   wetland  dominated   by  trees,  shrubs,
               persistent  emergents,  emergent  mosses,  or
               lichens.   In braided  streams,  the  system is
               bounded by the banks forming the outer limits
               of  the depression within  which the braiding
               occurs.   The  Riverine System  terminates  at
               the  downstream end where  the concentration of
               ocean-derived salts  in the water exceeds 0.5
               /00 during the period of annual average low
               flow,  or  where the channel  enters a lake.  It
               terminates   at   the   upstream  end   where
               tributary streams  originate,   or   where  the
               channel  leaves  a  lake.   Springs discharging
               into a channel  are considered part  of the
               Riverine  System.
                            20

-------
                    TABLE 3.  (continued)
Lacustrine:

   Definition:
   Limits:
               The  Lacustrine  System  includes  wetlands and
               deepwater habitats  with all of the following
               characteristics:     (1)    situated    in   a
               topographic  depression  or  a  dammed   river
               channel;    (2)    lacking    trees,    shrubs,
               persistent  emergents,   emergent  mosses  or
               lichens with greater than 30% areal coverage;
               and  (3)  total area  exceeds  8  ha (20 acres) .
               Similar   wetland   and  deepwater   habitats
               totaling less than  8 ha are also included in
               the  Lacustrine  System  if  an   active   wave-
               formed or bedrock shoreline feature makes up
               all  or part of  the  boundary, or if the  water
               depth  in  the  deepest  part  of  the   basin
               exceeds  2  m  (6.6   feet)  at   low  water.
               Lacustrine waters may be  tidal  or nontidal,
               but  ocean-derived  salinity is  always  less
               than 0.5 /00.
               The Lacustrine System is bounded by upland or
               by  wetland  dominated  by   trees,   shrubs,
               persistent  emergents,  emergent  mosses,  or
               lichens.     Lacustrine  systems   formed  by
               damming  a  river channel  are  bounded   by  a
               contour  approximating  the  normal  spillway
               elevation  or normal  pool elevation,  except
               where Palustrine  wetlands  extend lakeward of
               the boundary.   Where a river  enters  a  lake,
               the  extension  of  the  Lacustrine  shoreline
               forms the Riverine-Lacustrine boundary.
                            21

-------
                     TABLE  3.  (continued)
Palustrine:

   Definition:
               The  Palustrine System  includes all  nontidal
               wetlands    dominated   by   trees,    shrubs,
               persistent   emergents,   emergent  mosses   or
               lichens,  and all  such wetlands that  occur  in
               tidal  areas  where  salinity  due  to  ocean-
               derived  salts  is. below  0.5 /00.    It  also
               includes  wetlands  lacking  such vegetation,
               but   with   all   of   the   following   four
               characteristics:  (1)  area less than  8  ha  (20
               acres);   (2)  active  wave-formed  or  bedrock
               shoreline  features lacking;  (3)  water  depth
               in the deepest  part  of  basin  less than 2 m  at
               low  water;   and  (4)  salinity  due  to  ocean-
               derived salts  less than 0.5 /00.

   Limits:
               The  Palustrine System  is  bounded by  uplands
               or by any of the  other  four systems.
                            22

-------
   TABLE  4.  NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF SANITARY LANDFILLS  IN
        PENNSYLVANIA THAT ARE PROXIMATE TO WETLANDS*
                Number and percentage of sanitary landfills
                  Located in
                   or within
                   1/4 mile
Located in
or within
 1/2  mile
Located in
or within
  1 mile
Wetland system
All systems**
Marine
Estuarine
Riverine
Lacustrine
Palustrine
No.
72
0
0
5
0
70
%
55.0
0.0
0.0
3.8
0.0
53.4
No.
104
0
0
16
0
102
%
79.4
0.0
0.0
12.2
0.0
77.9
No.
123
0
0
29
1
120
%
93.9
0.0
0.0
22.1
0.8
91.6
     There are 135  sanitary  landfills  in the DPRA data file
     for the state of Pennsylvania and 131 (97.0 percent)  of
     these  facilities  have  NWI  maps   available  for  site
     interpretation.   As a  result,  4  (3.0  percent)  of the
     135 sanitary landfills in the state of Pennsylvania are
     not included in this study.
**
     Eight  (6.1  percent)   of  the   131  sanitary  landfills
     included in this study in the state of Pennsylvania are
     located more than a mile from any type of wetland.
                           23

-------
   TABLE  5.  NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE  OF  SANITARY  LANDFILLS  IN
   PENNSYLVANIA THAT ARE PROXIMATE TO DEEPWATER HABITATS*
                Number and percentage of sanitary landfills
                  Located in
                   or within
                   1/4 mile
Located in
 or within
 1/2 mile
Located in
 or  within
  1 mile
Deepwater
habitat system
All systems**
Marine
Estuarine
Riverine
Lacustrine
No.
23
0
0
22
I
%
17.6
0.0
0.0
16.8
0.8
No.
40
0
0
39
7
%
30.5
0.0
0.0
29.8
5.3
No.
57
0
0
53
14
%
43.5
0.0
0.0
40.5
10.7
     There are  135  sanitary  landfills  in  the DPRA data file
     for the state of Pennsylvania and 131 (97.0 percent)  of
     these  facilities  have  NWI  maps  available  for  site
     interpretation.   As a  result,  4  (3.0 percent)  of the
     135 sanitary landfills in the state of Pennsylvania are
     not included in this study.

     Seventy-four   (56.5   percent)   of  the   131   sanitary
     landfills  included  in  this  study  in  the  state  of
     Pennsylvania are located more than a mile from any type
     of deepwater habitats.
                           24

-------
   TABLE  6.  NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF SANITARY LANDFILLS  IN
    PENNSYLVANIA THAT  ARE PROXIMATE TO EITHER WETLANDS OR
                    DEEPWATER HABITATS*
                Number and percentage of sanitary landfills
                  Located in
                   or  within
                   1/4 mile
                            Located in
                             or within
                             1/2 mile
Located in
or within
  1 mile
System
All systems**
Marine
Estuarine
Riverine
Lacustrine
Palustrine***
No.
85
0
0
27
1
70
%
64.9
0.0
0.0
20.6
0.8
53.4
No.
114
0
0
55
7
102
%
87.0
0.0
0.0
42.0
5.3
77.9
No.
129
0
0
78
14
120
%
98.5
0.0
0.0
59.5
10.7
91.6
     There are 135 sanitary  landfills  in the DPRA data file
     for the state of Pennsylvania and 131  (97.0 percent)  of
     these  facilities  have  NWI   maps   available  for  site
     interpretation.    As a  result,  4  {3.0  percent)  of the
     135 sanitary landfills in the state of Pennsylvania are
     not included in this study.
**
***
Two   (1.5  percent)   of   the  131  sanitary  landfills
included in this study in the state of Pennsylvania are
located more  than a  mile  from  any type  of  wetland or
deepwater habitat.

The Palustrine system includes only wetlands.
                           25

-------