72-MM-I6
                             (REPORT NUMBER)
AIR POLLUTION  EMISSION TEST
                  DELTA AND PINE LAND COMPANY
                        SCOTT, MISSISSIPPI
                         (PLANT ADDRESS)
          U. S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
               Office of Air and Water Programs
            Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards
            Emission Standards and Engineering Division
                 Emission Measurement Branch
              Research Triangle Park, N. C. 27711

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     PARTICIPATE EMISSION MEASUREMENTS

              FROM COTTON GINS
                Plant Tested



        Delta and Pine Land Company

             Scott, Mississippi

               November 1974


      EMB Project Report No. 72-MM-16




                Prepared for

      Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards
       Emission Measurement Branch
         Research Triangle Park
          North Carolina 27711

                    by               

             W.  R.  Feairheller
               D.  L.  Harris
               M.  T,  Thalman
       MONSANTO RESEARCH CORPORATION
             DAYTON LABORATORY
             1515 Nicholas Road
            Dayton, Ohio  45407
     Report Reviewed by John W. Snyder


    Contract No. 68-02-0226, Task No. 6

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                 TABLE OF CONTENTS           ;

                                                      PAGE
  I.   INTRODUCTION                                     1
 II.   SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OP RESULTS                6
III.   PROCESS DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION               23
 IV.   SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES,              30
       A.   LOCATION OF SAMPLING POINTS                30
       B.   SAMPLING PROCEDURES                        37
       C.   ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES                      38

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                      LIST OF TABLES

No..   .                                                 Page

 1,  Summary of Sample Point Numbers, Control
     Devices, and Emission Source                        4

 2.  Summary of Emission Measurements Made at the
     Delta and Pine Land Company, Scott, Mississ-ippi    11

 3.  Summary of Velocity and Estimated Emissions of
     Un'gampled Stacks at Delta and Pine Land Company,
     Scott, Mississippi                                 12
 4.  Total Calculated Emissions for Sampled
     Operational Systems                                14

 5.  Analysis of Seed Cotton and Trash                  16

 6.  Summary of Results - Outlet of the Heater
     No. 1, Tower Dryer, Inclined Cleaner -
     Point No. 1C                                       17

 7.  Summary of Results - Outlet of the Unloading
     Separator - Point No. 8                            18

 8.  Summary of Results - Outlet of the Lint
     Cleaner, Lint Cleaner Condenser, Gin Stand
     No. 3 - Point No. 12                               19
 9.  Summary of Results - Outlet of the Lint
     Cleaner, Lint Cleaner Condenser, Gin Stand
     No. 2 - Point No. 12                               20

10.  Summary of Results - Outlet of the Lint
     Cleaner, Lint Cleaner Condenser, Gin Stand
     No. 1 - Point No. 13                               21

11.  Summary of Results - Outlet of the Battery
     Condenser - Point No. 14                           22

12.  Dimensions at Cyclone Sites                        34
                           ii

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                      LIST OF FIGURE
No.                                                     Page
 1.  Schematic Diagram of Cotton Gin Control
     Devices                                              3
 2.  Plant Plow Diagram                        .          24
 3.  Location of Emission Control Devices                25
 4.  Schematic Diagram of the In-line Filters and
     Sampling Ducts for Sites 11, 12, and 13             32
 5.  Schematic Deagram of the Battery Condenser,
     In-line Filter, and Sampling Ducts - Site 14        33
 6.  Schematic Diagram of the Cyclone Units and
     Sampling Ducts                                      35
 7.  Diagram of Straightening Vane          .             36
                          iii

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                             SECTION I
                           INTRODUCTION

 The  test  is  part  of  the  Cotton  Ginning  Industry  Study,  a
 project of the  Industrial  Survey  Section,  Industrial  Studies
 Branch, Emission  Standards and  Engineering Division,  Office
 of Air Quality  Planning  and  Standards,  Environmental  Pro-
 tection Agency.   The field test work was directed  by  Joseph
 Bazes and John  Snyder of the Field  Testing Section, Emis-
 sion Measurement  Branch.   The sampling  was performed  by
 Monsanto  Research Corporation (MRC).  The  Cotton Ginning
 Industry  Study  is being  conducted by William  0.  Herring,
 Industrial Survey Section.

 Under the Clean Air  Act  of 1970,  the Environmental Protec-
 tion Agency  is  given the responsibility of establishing
 performance  standards for  new installations or modifications
 to existing  installations  in stationary source categories.
 As a contractor,  Monsanto  Research  Corporation,  under the
 Environmental Protection Agency's "Field Sampling  of  Atmos-
 pheric Emissions" Program, was  asked to provide  emission
 data from the Delta  and  Pine Land Company, Scott,  Mississippi,
The cotton gin selected and studied  was  equipped  with  the
best  types of pollution control  equipment  currently available.

This  report  tabulates the data  collected at the  Delta  and
Pine  Land Company  during the  periods from  October 25 to
October  27,  1972,  and from November  6 to November 17,  1972.
In this  cotton gin, vacuum is used to remove the  field picked
cotton  from the  cotton wagons and  then  the  material inside

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 the gin is moved from one operation to  the  next  by  a  moving
 air system.   Air moves the material to  the  ginning  machines
 for removal of dirt,  plant material, the  cotton  seeds,  and
 fine lint, and finally to the  battery condenser  and the
 press or baling machine.   The  air from  the  unloader,  feeder,
 dryer, and lint cleaners  is exhausted from  the building into
 a group of twenty-six cyclones,  while the air from  the  lint
 cleaner condenser and battery  condenser is  exhausted  through
 rotary screen in-line filters.   The trash,  including  plant
 debris and dirt, is .directed to  two cyclones mounted  on a
 tepee burner.  A schematic diagram of the control devices
 with respect to the building and indicating which of  the
 devices were sampled  is shown  in Figure 1.  The  description
 of the device and the designation of the  sample  point num-
 bers and source of emissions are given  in Table  1.

 The  major  emphasis  of  the  study  was  to  obtain accurate  data
 on  the particulate  emissions.  Outlets  to the atmosphere
 were measured for particulate concentrations using  Method 5,
 "Determination of Particulate Emissions from Stationary
 Sources."  Other procedures  that were required during the
 study included Method  1,  "Sample and Velocity Traverses  for
 Stationary Sources;" Method  2, "Determination of Stack  Gas
 Velocity and Volumetric Flow Rate (Type S Pitot Tube);"
 Method 3,  "Gas Analysis for  Carbon Dioxide, Excess  Air  and
 Dry  Molecular Weight;"  and Method 4,  "Determination of  Mois-
 ture in Stack Gases."
Samples of unprocessed seed cotton and trash were obtained
from three different locations  within the  cotton process-
ing  system.  The samples were analyzed at  the  EPA Pesticides
Monitoring Laboratory in Bay St.  Louis,  Mississippi, for
pesticide  content.  High concentrations  of both p,p''-rDDT
 (up to 59 ppm) and Toxaphene (up to 135  ppm) were found.

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            1    1
                                                Tepee Burner
A A 13 A 7
r- -1 A| 	 1_ A.
I I n n n
L J 14 M LJ
42" IB

In-line
Filter Size 11,12
14
Cyclone Size 1,
5,6,7
2,3





2 * 11
-, A. 	 ,
n n n
U U LJ
^4'uJI

,13 30"
42"
32"
,8,9,10 34"
36"






IT
9l(S/

19" 8B8C
8A8 ^*
15"
7A@ 7
19" 6B(S)(o)6C
19" 5B@5C
5A@ 5
24" 4B@4C
4A@ 4
13" 3A(5)3
15" 2A(o)(S)2
19" 1B  1C
1A<)  1 ~~*
Figure 1.  SCHEMATIC  DIAGRAM OP  COTTON GIN CONTROL DEVICES



                ARROW HEADS  INDICATE SAMPLED DEVICES

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    Table  1.   SUMMARY OF SAMPLE POINT NUMBERS,

            CONTROL DEVICES,  AND EMISSION SOURCE
Sample
Point
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
8
9, 10
s
Control Device
Cyclone (4)
Cyclone (2)
Cyclone (2)
Cyclone (4.)
Cyclone (4)
Cyclone (4)
Cyclones (2)
Cyclones (4)
Cyclone (1 ea)
Size of
Device
(in.)
32
36
36
32
34
. 34
34
34
34
Source of Emissions
t
Heater No. 1, Tower
Dryer, Inclined Cleaner
Overflow Separator
Extractor Feeder
Inclined Cleaner
Condenser, Unit-Saw,
Lint Cleaner
Condenser, Unit-Saw,
Lint Cleaner
Trash Line from Filters
Unloading Separator
Trash Lines from All
11     Filter (1)
12     Filter (1)
13     Filter (1)
                   30
                   30
                   30
        Cyclones,  Dryer Cleaner

        Gin Stand  No.  3, Lint
        Cleaner,  Lint  Cleaner
        Condenser

        Gin Stand  No.  2, Lint
        Cleaner,  Lint  Cleaner
        Condenser

        Gin Stand  No.  1, Lint
        Cleaner,  Lint  Cleaner
        Condenser
14
Filter (1)
30
Battery Condenser

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Extensive modifications were required o'n the control devices
at the cotton gin prior to sampling.  All twenty-six cyclones
were prepared for sampling by replacing the rain cap with a
duct of the same diameter as the cyclone outlets.  The duct,
resembling a candy cane, consisted of a large radius 180
bend, a straightening vane, and a long length of straight
pipe.  With this device, the flow was directed downward to-
ward the ground.  The straightening vane reduced or elimi-
nated the cyclonic flow pattern, and the long length of
duct provided relatively stable flow at the sampling points.
The in-line filters controlling emissions from the three
gin stands and the battery condenser were modified by re-
placing the rain shields with a 90 bend and a sufficient
length of pipe to meet required sampling criteria.  As the
air flow from the filters is directed out of both sides of
the unit, both outlets were provided with ducting.  Details
of the modifications are given in Section IV.

The following sections of this report include the summaries
of data, conclusions, and process description.  The appen-
dicies provide complete data summaries, field and analytical
data sheets, production data, and sampling logs.

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                       SECTION II

           SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OP RESULTS
The emission control devices at the "Green Gin" of the
Delta and Pine Land Company consist of twenty-eight small
diameter cyclones and four in-line filters.  Twenty-six of
the cyclones are arranged in two rows and are grouped in
two to four units for each of the eight ducts from the
plant.  Two cyclones are located on the trash incinerator
(a tepee burner) to separate the bulk trash from fine par-
ticulate.  Each in-line filter has two inlet ducts.  The
filter, consisting of a rotating screen, removes large par-
ticulate from the air stream which is then emitted from
both sides of the unit into the atmosphere.

A summary of the emission sources and the control devices
by site designation is given in Table 1.  A diagram show-
ing the physical layout of the devices in relation to the
gin building was shown in Figure 1.

The sampling program at this gin was planned to include all
of the listed control devices.  The large number of emission
points, wet weather, the fact that the subcontractor hired
to install ducts did not finish on time, and the necessity
of sampling at another gin during this year's ginning sea-
son required that a number of points be deleted from the
plan.  The wet weather contributed delays in several ways.
When the fields were very wet, cotton could not be picked

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by the mechanical pickers.   During this time,  only the dry
areas were picked.  In general, if cotton was  available for
ginning during the rain periods, the emissions were sampled.

Referring to Figure 1 and Table 1, emission data were col-
lected at points 1, 8, 11,  12, 13, and 14.  These points
represent all of the low pressure system and the first two
stages of the high pressure system of the plant.  These
systems and the operational scheme of the plant will be ex-
plained in more detail in Section III of this  report.

The "Green Gin" is representative of modern cotton ginning
plants and is quite well controlled by the present concepts.
The plant was constructed in 1966 and employs  established
ginning and control equipment.  At the normal  production
rate of 20 bales per hour,  there is considerable evidence
of emission from all outlets.  In addition, during ginning,
the tepee burner operates to burn trash, including material
from the bottom of all cyclones and plant debris.  The
smoke from the tepee burner has a yellowish white color and
has a quite acrid, very characteristic odor.

Considerable additional duct work was required at the gin
before sampling could begin.  Delta Sheet Metal of Green-
ville, Mississippi, was hired as a subcontractor to provide
the needed modifications.

The in-line filters have two outlets venting directly from
the sides of the filter into the outside air.   Each outlet
is covered with a rain cap.  These rain shields were re-
moved and replaced with a 90 bend and a long straight run
of duct work.  Identical units were installed  on each side
of the filter.  The ducts were of 30 inch I.D. on the small
filters at sites 11, 12, and 13 and 42 inch I.D. on the
battery condenser filter, site 14.,  In general, a minimum
                           7

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duct length of three diameters upstream and one diameter
downstream from the sampling points were available on all
of these units.  In each case, one side of the unit was sam-
pled for particulate loading, and the other side was tra-
versed for velocity and temperature data.

The exhaust from the other systems (unloading separator,
inclined cleaner, extractor feeders, gin stands, and trash
lines) were directed to cyclones, which were grouped in
banks of 2 or 4 from each inlet line.  The cyclones were
capped with a rain shield, adjusted by the gin builder to
yield a back pressure that would provide good separation
efficiency.  Such a system, however, is not suitable for
testing from two points of view.  First, no suitable loca-
tion is available in the exhaust from the cyclone, due to
the short length of outlet pipe, and second, the flow from
these devices is cyclonic and thus, would require a device
to eliminate the spiral flow pattern.  The sampling modifi-
cations for these devices were required to provide a sam-
pling location consistent with good sampling practice and
also include straightening varies.

The approach considered and finally adopted was to remove
the rain cap and replace it with a large radius 180 bend,
a straightening vane, and a long straight length of pipe.
The duct additions resembled a large "candy cane."  Each
cyclone in a bank was provided with the same type of device
so that changes in back pressure would not change the pro-
portion of air to each cyclone in the bank.

Some preliminary tests were conducted at the gin to deter-
mine the effect of the duct modification on cyclone opera-
tion.  A sample port for static pressure measurements
was cut in the inlet of cyclone site number 8.  The test
data given below indicates that while there is a different

                           8

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pressure with the bend and straightening vane than in nor-
mal operation, the pressure difference is less than the
normal variation in static pressure.
       Condition            Date    Inlet Pressure In.
Normal
Duct Work in Place
Simulated Vane
Normal
Duct/Straightening Vane
9/27/72
9/27/72
9/27/72
9/28/72
9/28/72
1.55
1.45
1.20
1.55
0.0,




.75, 1.40, 1.20
The readings taken with the duct in place on September 28,
1972, over a 1.5 hour period, showed considerable variation.
These variations typically exceeded 0.2 inches of water and,
at the extreme, ranged from 0.0 to 1.6 inches of water.

As the tests were not conclusive, calculations were made of
the expected pressure drop due to the added duct work.  Con-
sidering a 17 inch duct, the 180 bend would be equal to 43
feet of straight duct.  (Industrial Ventilation Manual,
Section 6, Figures 6-10, 1955)  Based on data from the Air
Conditioning Handbook, 100 feet of 17 inch duct causes a
pressure equal to about 0.25 inches of water.  Thus, the
elbow and length of duct is equivalent to 43 feet (180
elbow) plus 12 feet (straight duct).  The total length of
55 feet should show a back pressure of 0.14 inches of water.
The value is very close to the 0.15 inches of water differ-
ence in pressure obtained at another cotton gin with and
without the complete "candy cane" (Test Report 72-MM-23).
As a result of these tests, we believe that while there is
a difference in pressure caused by the additional duct work,
it is not sufficient to cause a serious  deviation in the
test results.

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A summary of the emission data on all sampled outlets is
given in Table 2.  Three isokinetic (90-1105?). sampling runs
were conducted at each site.  Each run was verified in the
field for isokinetic conditions before acceptance.  Samples
were collected from sites 1, 8, 11, 12, 13, and 14A, for a
total of eighteen runs.

At each site, any unsampled outlets were traversed for ve-
locity and temperature data during the sampling of the out-
lets given in Table 2.  The summary of the data on unsam-
pled ducts is given in Table 3-  During sampling run 1 on
site 1, outlets 1A, IB, and 1C were traversed.  Thus, the
data in Table 3 labeled 1A-1, 1B-1,. 1C-1 were collected
during sampling of duct 1-1, 1A-2, IB-2, 1C-2 during 1-2,
etc.  After completion of the analytical results, the emis-
sion rate in grains per DSCF was calculated for each sam-
pled run.  This value was then assumed to be the emission
rate in all ducts of the same bank.  The Ib/hour data was
then calculated from the grains/DSCP and the calculated
air flow rate at each individual outlet.  The pounds of
emission per ton of cotton produced was calculated from
the pounds/hour figure.

Table 4 summarizes the data for each group of outlet con-
trol devices with a single outlet.  This data, based on
front-half loading (from the probe tip to filter, and not
the contents of the impinger section), provides the com-
bined total emission rate in Ibs/hr (Kg/M ton) and the
emission factors in Ib/ton (Kg/M ton) for all outlets in
a bank.

In general, the emission rate and emission factors for the
cyclones are about half of the corresponding figures for
the in-line filters.  However, point 11, the filter con-
trolling emissions from the third gin stand and associated
                           10

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                  Table 2.. SUMMARY OF EMISSION MEASUREMENTS MADE AT DELTA AND PINE LAND COMPANY, SCOTT, MISSISSIPPI
Date
1972
10/25
10/25
11/6
11/6
11/7
11/8
11/8
11/10
11/10
h-1
I1 11/10
11/10
'11/10
11/10
11/10
11/17
11/17
11/17
11/17
11/17
Test
No.
1C1
1C2
1C 4
8-1
14A2
8-4
14A4
8-5
14A5
13-1
12-1
13-2
12-2
11-1
12-3
13-3
11-2
11-3
Teat Site
Cyclone - Heate No. 1,
Inclined Cleane
Cyclone - Heate No. 1,
Inclined Cleane
Cyclone - Heate No. 1,
Inclined Cleane
Cyclone - Unloading
Separator
Filter - Battery
Condenser
Cyclone - Unloading
Separator
Filter - Battery
Condenser
Cyclone - Unloading
Separator
Filter - Battery
Condenser
Filter - Gin Stand 1,
Lint Cleaner
Filter - Gin Stand 2,
Lint Cleaner
Filter - Gin Stand 1,
Lint Cleaner
Filter - Gin Stand 2,
Lint Cleaner
Filter - Gin Stand 3,
Lint Cleaner
Filter - Gin Stand 2,
Lint Cleaner
Filter - Oln Stand : ,
Lint Cleaner
Filter - Gin Stand 3,
Lint Cleaner
Filter - Gin Stand 3,
Average
Ft/Sec
1560
1680
1550
1670
1520
1800
1470
1800
1450
1580
1470
1560
1370
1570
1410
1220
1570
1550
Velocity
(m/Sec)
(475)
(512)
(472)
(509)
(463)
(549)
(448)
(549)
(442)
(482)
(448)
(475)
(418)
(479)
(130)
(372)
(479)
(172)
Average Stack
Temperature
0 F
130
134
119
77
83
76
76
66
79
74
68
70
59
69
63
61
67
61
0
(51
(56
(48
(25
(28
(24
(21
(18
(26
(23
(20
(21
(15
(20
(17
(17
(19
(17
C
.1)
.7)
.3)
.0)
.3)
.1)
.1)
.9)
.1)
.3)
.0)
.1)
.0)
.6)
.2)
.8)
.4)
.8)
Emission Rate
(Front )
Lba/Hr
0.682
0.340
0.666
0:459
2.30
0.481
2.05
0.694
2.67
3.24
2.77
5.56
4.37
1.30
1.59
2.03
1.74
1.58
(Kg/Hr)
(0.309)
(0.154)
(0.302)
(0.208)
(1.04)
(0.218)
(0.930)
(0.315)
(1.21)
(1.47)
(1.26)
(2.52)
(1.98)
(0.590)
(0.721)
(0.921)
(0.789)
(0.717)
Emission Rate
(Total)
Lbs/Hr
2.32
0.616
0.920
1.55
3.19
0.556
. 2.53
0.852
3.01
1.10
3.15
6.22
5.09
1.56 
2.21
- 2.50
2.05
2.20
(1.05)
(0.279)
(0.117)
(0.703)
(1.58)
(0.252)
(1.15)
(0.386)
(1.37)
(1.86)
(1.13)
(2.82)
(2.31)
(0.708)
(1.00)
(1.13)
(0.930)
(0.998)
Emission Factor
(Front)
Lb/Ton
0.115
0.0685
0.127
0.109
0.701
0.186
0.487
0.158
0.562
0.684
0.546
1.05
0.812
0.304
0.371
. 0.474
0^363
0.363
(Kg/M Ton)
(0.0725)
(0.0342)
(0.0547)
(0.0546)
(0.349)
(0.0932)
(0.243)
(0.0793)
(0.281)
(0.342)
(0.274)
(0.522)
(0.406)
(0.152)
(0.186)
(0.325)
(0.181)
(0.181)
Emission Factor^
(Total)
Lb/Ton
0.494
0.124
0.176
0.369
1.06
0.216
0.601
0.195
0.634
0.865
0.621
1.17
0.946
0.364
0.516
0.581
0.127
0.506
(Kfly
(0
(0
(0
(0
(0
(0
(0
(0
(0
(0
(0
(0
(0.
(0.
(0.
(0.
(0.
(0.
'M Ton)
246)
0620)
0755)
185)
530)
108)
301)
0972)
318)
433)
311)
584)
473)
182)
258)
399)
214)
253)
t H20
1.76
1.80
5.37
2.58
1.25
1.32
1.20
1.30
1.23
3.21
0.02
3.31
0.00
0.55
1.11
1.03
1.42
0.00
Lint Cleaner

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Table 3.  SUMMARY OP VELOCITY AND ESTIMATED EMISSIONS OP UNSAMPLED STACKS AT DELTA AND PINE LAND COMPANY, SCOTT, MISSISSIPPI
Site
Test
No*
1-1
1A-1
1B-1
1-2
1A-2
1B-2
1-1
1A-4
IB- 4
8A-1
8B-1
8C-1
SA-4
8B-4
80-1
8A-5
8B--5
8C-5
Sampled
Site No*
1C-1
1C-1
10-1
1C-2
1C-2
1C- 2
1C-4
1C-4
1C-4
8-1
8-1
8-1
8-4
8-4
8-4
8-5
8-5
8-5-

Test Sits
Cyclone - Heater No. 1,
Inclined Cleaner
Cyclone - Heater No, 1,
Inclined Cleaner
Cyclone - Heater No. 1,
Inclined Cleaner
Cyclone - Heater No. 1,
Inclined Cleaner
Cyclone - Heater No. 1,
Inclined Cleaner
Cyclone - Heater No. 1,
Inclined Cleaner
Cyclone - Heater No. 1,
Inclined Cleaner
Cyclone - Heater No. 1,
Inclined Cleaner
Cyclone - Heater No. 1,
Inclined Cleaner
Cyclone - Unloading
Separator
Cyclone - Unloading
Separator
Cyclone - Unloading
Separator
Cyclone - Unloading
Separator
Cyclone - Unloading
Separator
Cyclone - Unloading
Separator
Cyclone - Unloading
Separator
Cyclone - Unloading
Separator
Cyclone - Unloading
Separator
Average Stack
Temperature
129
123
127
129
126
126
142
139
141
82.0
81.0
78.0
83.0
83.0
81.0
85.0
81.0
73-0
(53-9)
(50. 6}
(52.8)
(53-9)
(52.2)
(52.2)
(61.1)
(59.4)
(60.6)
(27.8)
(27.2)
(25-6)
(28.3)
(28.3)
(27.2)
(29.4)
(27-2)
(22.8)
Average Stack
Gas Velocity
Pt/Min i" /IUM i-^
1470
1370
1350
1570
1380
1380
1420
1280
1230
1230
1540
1400
1380
966
1750
1220
1260
1470
(448)
(418)
(.411)
(479)
(421)
(421)
(433)
(390)
(375)
(375)
(469)
(427)
.(121)
(294)
(533)
(372)
(384)
(448)
Stack Plow Rate
1850
1740
1700
1970
1740
1740
1670
1520
1450
1870
2310
2146
2140
1500
2720
i860
1940
 2300
(0.873)
(0.821)
(0.802)
(0.930)
(0.821)
(0.821)
(0.788)
(0.717)
(0.684)
(0.883)
(1.10)
(1.01)
{1.01)
(0.708)
(1.28)
(0.878)
(0.916)
(1.09)
Particulate Emission
(Sampled Site)
GR/DSCP '" '" T
0.0406
0.0406
0.0406
0.0190
0.0190
0.0190
0.0409
0.0409
0.0409
0.0209
0.0209
0.0209
0.0199
0.0199
0.0199
0.0287
0.0287
0.0287
{FiK/Nm* )
(92.9)
(92.9)
(92.9)
(43.5)
(43.5)
(43.5)
(93.6)
(93.6)
(93.6)
(47.8)
(47.8)
(47.8)
(45.5)
(45-5)
(45.5)
(65.7)
(65.7)
(65.7)
Estimated
Emission Rate
Lb/Hr
0.644
0.605
0.592
0.321
0.283
0.283
0.585
0.533
0.508
0.335
0.419
0 . 383
0.365
0.256
0.464
0.457
0.477
0.566
(0.292)
(0.274)
(0.269)
(0.146)
(0.128)
(0.128)
(0.265)
(0.242)
(0.230)
(0.152)
(0.190)
(0.1Y4)
(0.166)
(0.116)
(0.210)
(0.207)
(0.216)
(0.257)
Emission Factor
Lb/Ton
0.137
0.129
0.126
0.0647
0.0571
0.0571
0.112
0.102
0.0969
0.0798
0.0998
0.0912
0.141
0.0992
0.180
0.104
0.109
0.129
(Kg/ n Ton)
(0.0685)
(0.0643)
(0.0631)
(0.0324)
(0.0284)
(0.0284)
(0.0480)
(0.0438)
(0.0417)
(0.0399)
(0.0499)
(0.0457)
(0.0709)
(0.0496)
(0.0897)
(0.0521)
(0.0544)
(0.0647)

-------
Table 3.   (.Continued)
Site
Test
No.
11A-1
11A-2
11A-3
12A-1
12A-2
12A-3
13A-1
13A-2
13A-3
11-2
11-1
11-5
Note:
Sampled
Site No.
11-1
11-2
11-3
12-1
12-2
12-3
13-1
13-2
13-3
11A-2
11A-1
11A-5
Test Site
Filter - Gin Stand 3,
Lint Cleaner
Filter - Oin Stnad 3,
Lint Cleaner
Filter - Gin Stand 3,
Lint Cleaner
Filter - Gin Stand 2,
Lint Cleaner
Filter - Gin Stand 2,
Lint Cleaner
Filter - Gin Stand 2,
Lint Cleaner
Filter - Gin Stand 1,
Lint Cleaner
Filter - Gin Stand 1,
Lint Cleaner
Filter - Gin Stand 1,
Lint Cleaner
Filter - Battery
Condenser
Filter - Battery
Condenser
Filter - Battery
Condenser
The particulate emissions, particulE
Average Stack
Temperature
0 F ( C)
68.0 (20.0)
65.0 (18.3)
65.0 (18.3)
77.0 (25.0)
75.0 (23.9)
65.0 (18.3)
71.0 (23.3)
70.0 (21.1)
65.0 (18.3)
79.0 (26.1)
78.0 (25.6)
80.0 (26.7)
ite emissions rate,
Average stack
Gas Velocity
Ft/Mln (m/Mln)
1130 (136)
1530
1190
1310
1100
1310
1290
1210
1100
1130
1110
1390
and emiss
(166)
(151)
(399)
(335)
(399)
(393)
(369)
(335)
(136)
(139)
(121)
lion factors
Stack Flow Rate
DSCFM (
7130
7590
7510
6130
5130
6510
6150
5810
5190
13600
13600
13100
are based
NmVSec)
(3.37)
(3.58)
(3.5D
(3.03X
(2,56)
(3.09)
(2.90)
(2.7D
(2.59)
(6.12)
(6.12)
(6.18)
Particulate Emission Estimated
(Sampled Site) Emission Rate
QR/DSCF
0.0195
0.0262
0.0235
0.0111
0.0731
0.0263
0.0502
0.0865
0.0389
0.0186
0.0171
0.0227
(11.6)
(60.0)
(53.8)
(101)
(167)
(60.2).
(115)
(198)
(89.0)
(12.6)
(39.1)
(51.9)
Lb/Hl
1.19
1.70
1.51
2.13
3.10
1.17
2.65
1.31
1.83
2.17
1.99
2.55
 (Kg/Hr)
(0.510)
(0.771)
(0.685)
(1.10)
(1.51).
(0.667)
(1.20)
(1.95)
(0.830)
(0.981)
(0.903)
(1.16)
Emission Factor
Lb/Ton
0.278
0.351
0.317
0.179
0.632
0.313
0.559
0.810
0.128
0.662
0.607
0.777
(Kg/ M Ton)
(0.139)
(0.177)
(0.173)
(0.239)
(0.316V
(0.172)
(0.279)
.(0.101)
(0.211)
(0.330)
(0.303)
(0.389)
on "front-half" loading only .

-------
Table 4.   TOTAL CALCULATED EMISSIONS FOR SAMPLED OPERATIONAL SYSTEMS
             (Based on "Front-half"  Particulate Loading)
                          Total Particulate
System
Heater No. 1, Tower
Dryer, Inclined Cleaner

Unloading Separator


Gin Stand No. 3, Lint
Cleaner, Lint Cleaner
Condenser

Gin Stand No. 2, Lint
Cleaner, Lint Cleaner
Condenser

Gin Stand No. 1, Lint
Cleaner, Lint Cleaner
Condenser

Battery . Condenser


Site
No.
1
1
1
8
8
8
11
11
11
12
12
12
13
13
13
14
14
14
Run
No.
1
2
4
1
4
5
1
2
3
1
2
3
1 '
2
3
2
4
5
Emissions
GR/DSCF
0.0406
0.0190
0.0409
0.0209
0.0199
0.0287
0.0195
0.0262
0.0235
0.0441
0.0731.
0.0263
0.0502
0.0865
0.038.9
0.0186
0.0171
0.0227
(Mg/Nir^)
(92.9)
(43.5)
(93.6)
(47.8)
(45.5)
(65.7)
(44.6)
(60.0)
(53.8)
(101)
(167)
(60.2)
(115)
(198)
(89.0)
(42.6)
(39.1)
(51.9)
Emission Rate
Lb/Hr
2.52
1.23
2.29
1.60
1,57
2.19
2.49
3.44
3.09
5.20
7.77
3.06
5.89
9.87
3-86
4.47
4.04
5.22
(Kg/Hr)
(1.14)
(0.558)
(1.04)
(0.726)
(0.712)
(0.993)
(1.13)
(1.56)
(1.40)
(2.36)
(3.52)
(1.39)
(2.67)
(4.48)
(1.75)
(2.03)
(1.83)
(2.37)
Emission Factors
Lb/Ton
0.537
0.247
0.438
0.380
0.606
0.500
0.582
0.717
0.710
1.03
1.44
0.714
1.24
1.86
0.902
1.36
1.09
1.34
(Kg/M Ton)
(0.269)
(0.124)
(0.219)
(0.190)
(0.303)
(0.250)
(0.291)
(0.359)
(0.355)
(0.515)
(0.720)
(0.357)
(0.620)
(0.930)
(0.451)
(0.680)
(0.545)
(0.670)

-------
lint cleaner and lint cleaning condenser has lower emissions
than the other filters on similar systems.   It is possible
that this gin stand was not in use as much as the other two
gin stands, but we cannot be certain of this with the avail-
able information.

Based on average results of the six systems that were tested
at this plant, the emissions are estimated to be about 5.2
pounds of particulate per ton of cotton produced.  If all
possible emission points except the smoke from the tepee
burner were considered, the value could be easily double
this figure or about 10 pounds of particulate per ton of
cotton produced.

Samples of seed cotton and trash from the cotton gin were
submitted for analysis to Dr. Han Tai at the EPA Pesticides
Monitoring Laboratory in Bay St. Louis, Mississippi.  The
results of these analyses are shown in Table 5-

Complete data for the tests conducted at each site is given
in Tables 6 through 11.
                          15

-------
                        Table  5-   ANALYSIS OF  SEED  COTTON  AND  TRASH

                                      Test No.  72-MM-16
                       Seed Cotton (Unprocessed)
Trash
Source
Sample No.*
p,p'-DDT(ppm)
o,p-DDT(ppm)
p,p'-TDE(ppm)
p,p'-DDE(ppm)
Toxaphene (ppm)
DEF(ppm)
Methyl
Raw
Material
653
3.97
0.47
0.27
0.56
9.10
0.05
N.D.
Raw
Material
654
2.40
0.37
N.D.**
0.28
6.8
N.D.
N.D.
Raw
Material
655
7.82
0.70
N.D.
0.16
4.12
0.17
N.D.
Greenleaf and
Stock Extractor
656
10.1
1.0
0.21
0.45
25.9
0.17
0.17
Gin Stand
Mote Chamber
657
17.2
2.0
0.78
r.o
27-9
0.17
0.06
Gravity
Cleaner
658
53.0
5.94
2.60
3-91
136.0
0.07
0.10
 *A11 sample numbers contained the  prefix  72-004.   The  complete  numbers  were  72-004-653  to
  72-004-658.

**N.D.  - not detected.   Minimum detection  limit: p,p'-DDT;  o,p-DDT;  p,p'-TDE;  and  p,p'-DDE is
  0.01  ppm., Toxaphene  0.1 ppm,  DEF and  Methyl  Parathion  0.05 ppm.

-------
                                          Table  6.   SUMMARY  OP RESULTS

          OUTLET  OP THE HEATER NO.  1  TOWER  DRYER,  INCLINED  CLEANER  -  POINT NO,
                                                          1C
Run Number:

Date:

Method Type:

Volume of gas sampled-DSCFl-(Nm3)'*
Percent Moisture by Volume
Average Stack Temperature-F-(C)
Stack Volumetric Plow Rate-DSCPM2-(Nm3/sec)
Stack Volumetric Flow Rate-ACFM3-(m3/sec)
Percent Isokinetlc
Product Rate-ton lint cotton/hr-(M ton/hr)5
Duration of run - minutes

Partleulates  - probe, cyclone
               and filter catch
mg
grains/DSCF6-(mg/Nm3)
lb/hr-(Kg/hr)
Ib/ton of lint cotton produced
(kg/M ton of  lint cotton produced)
Partleulates  - total catch
mg
grains/DSCF6-(mg/Nm3)
lb/hr-(Kg/hr)
Ib/ton of lint cotton produced
(Kg/M ton of  lint cotton produced)
percent implnger catch
                                                           1C1
                                                                             .102
                                                                                                 101
                                                                                                                  Average
    10/25/72
      71.8
0.0106  (92.9)
0.682    (0.309)
0.115    (0.0725)
      225
0.138   (316)
2.32    (1.05)
0.491   (0.246)
                       10/25/72
                                         11/6/72

28.1

130
I960
2180

1.70

EPA-5
(0.801)
1.76
(51.4)
(0.925)
(1.03)
101
(1.26)
60.0

30.0

131
2090
2310

1.96

EPA-5
(0.850)
1.80
(56.7)
(0.986)
(1.10)
102
(4.50)
60.0

28.2

119
1900
2160

5.24

EPA-5
(0.799)
5.37
(18.3)
(0.897)
(1.02)
107
(5.52)
60.0

28.9

128
1980
2230

1.97


(0.818)
2.98
(53.1)
(0.936)
(1.05)
104
(1.76)
60.0
      37.1
0.0190  (43.5)
0.310    (0.151)
0.0685  (0.0342)
      67.0
0.0344  (78.7)
0.616    (0.279)
0.124    (0.0620)

      44.6
      74.9
0.0409  (93.6)
0.666    (0.302)
0.127    (0.0547)
      104
0.0565  (129)
0.920    (0.417)
0.176    (0.0755)

      28.0
      62.3
0.0335  (76.7)
0.563   (0.255)
0.114   (0.0538)
      132
0.0763  (175)
1.29    (0.582)
0.265   (0.128)

      46.5
TDrY~Standard  Cubic Feet  70F,  29.92  in Hg
2Dry Standard  Cubic Feet per Minute  % 70F, 29-92 in Hg
3Actual Cubic  Feed per Minute - Stack Conditions
'Normal Cubic  Meters at 21.1C, 760  mm  Hg
5Metrlc Tons per Hour (1 metric ton  = 1000 Kg)
6Grains per Dry Standard Cubic Feet

-------
                                          Table 7.   SUMMARY  OP RESULTS

                           OUTLET OP  THE UNLOADING  SEPARATOR  -  POINT  NO.   8
Run Number:

Date:

Method Type:

Volume of gas  sampled-DSCF'-CNm3)1*
Percent Moisture by Volume
Average Stack  Temperature-F-(C)
Stack Volumetric Flow Rate-DSCFM2-(Nm3/sec)
Stack Volumetric Flow Rate-ACFM3-(mVsec)
Percent Isoklnetic
Product Rate-ton lint cotton/hr-(M ton/hr)5
Duration of run - minutes

Particulates - probe, cyclone
              and filter catch
mg
gralns/DSCF6-(mg/Nm3)
lb/hr-(Kg/hr)
Ib/tbn of lint cotton produced
(kg/M ton of lint cotton produced)

Partlculates - total catch
mg
grains/DSCF6-(mg/Nm3)
lb/hr-(Kg/hr)
Ib/ton of lint cotton produced
(Kg/M ton of lint cotton produced)
percent implnger catch


801


11/6-7/72
EPA-5
32

77
.1

.0
2560
2630

1.


0.
0.
0.

0.
1.
0.

20


0209
459
109

0707
55
369
(0.
2.58
(25
(1.
(1.
101
(3.
60,. 0
13.6
(17
(0.
(0.
147
909)

.0)
21)
21)

81)


.8)
208)
0546)

(162)
(0.
(0.
703)
185)
36

76

804

11/8/72
EPA-5
.4

.0
2820
2830

2.


0.
0.
0.

0.
0.
0.

58


0199
481
186

0230
556
216
(1.
1.32
(24
(1.
(1.
104
(2.
60.0
47.1
(45
(0.
(0.
54.3
(52
(0.
(0.
03)

.4)
33)
34)

34)


.5)
218)
0932)

.6)
252)
108)
                                37.5

                                66.0
                                2850
                                2840

                                4.38
                   805
                 11/10/72
                  EPA-5
                     (1.06)
                   1.30
                     (18.9)
                     (1.35)
                     (1.34)
                   106
                     (3.97)
                   60.0
                                                                                                                   Average
70.3
13.3
                                      69.2
                                0.0284  (65.0)
                                0.694   (0.315)
                                0.158   (0.0793)
                                      85.1
                                 0.0349  (79.9)
                                 0.852   (0.386)
                                 0.195   (0.0972)

                                      18.7
35.3

73.0
2740
2770

3.72
  (1.00)
1.73
  (22.8)
  (1.30)
  (1.3D
104
  (3.37)
60.0
                                   -  53.3
                                 0.0231  (52.8-)
                                 0.545   (0.247)
                                 0.151   (0.0757)
      95.5
0.0429  (98.2)
0.986   (0.447)
0.260   (0.130)

      34.1
'Dry Standard Cubic Feet @ 70F, 29-92  In Hg
2Dry Standard Cubic Feet per Minute % 70F, 29.9? in Hg
3Actual Cubic Feed per Minute - Stack Conditions
Normal Cubic Meters at 21.1C, 760 mm  Hg
5Metric Tons  per Hour (1 metric ton = 1000 Kg)
6Grains per Dry Standard Cubic Feet

-------
                                        Table  8.    SUMMARY  OP RESULTS

OUTLET  OP'THE  LINT  CLEANER,  LINT  CLEANER  CONDENSER,  GIN STAND  NO.  3  -  POINT NO.  11
Run Number:

Date:

Method Type:

Volume of gas sampled-DSCF^CNm3)11
Percent Moisture by Volume
Average Stack Temperature-F-(C)
Stack  Volumetric Plow Rate-DSCFM2-(Nm3/sec)
Stack  Volumetric Flow Rate-ACFM3-(m3/sec)
Percent Isokinetlc
Product Rate-ton lint cotton/hr-(M ton/hr)5
Duration of run - minutes

Particulates - probe, cyclone
              and filter catch

mg
grains/DSCF6-(mg/Nm3)
lb/hr-(Kg/hr)
Ib/tbn of lint cotton produced
(kg/M  ton of lint cotton produced)

Partleulates - total catch
mg
gralns/DSCF6-(mg/Nm3)
lb/hr-(Kg/hr)
Ib/ton of lint cotton produced
(Kg/M  ton of lint cotton produced)
percent impinger catch
1101
11/17/72
EPA-5
29. 8 (0.
0.55
69.0 (20
7800 (3.
7700 (3.
95.4
4.28 (3.
60.0
37.
0.0195
1.30
0.304
45.
0.0234
1.56
0.364
7
(44
(0.
(0.
844)
.6)
68)
63)
88)
.6)
590)
152)
3
(53.5)
(0.708)
(0.182)
1102
11/17/72
EPA-5
29.7
1.
67.0
7760
7700
96
4.80
60
0.
1.
0.
0.
2.
0.
50
0262
74
363
59
0309
05
427
(0.
42
(19
(3.
(3.
.4
(4.
.0
.5
(60
(0.
(0.
841)
.4)
66)
63)
35)
.0)
789)
181)
.6
(70.7)
(0.930)
(0.214)
1103
Average
11/17/72
EPA-5
32.9 (0.932)
0.00
64.0 (17.8)
7840 (3-70)
7610 (3.59)
106
4.35 (3.95)
60.0
50.
0.0235
1.58
0.363
69.
0.0327
2.20
0.506
(53.8)
(0.717)
(0.181)
8
(71.8)
(0.998)
(0.253)
30.8 (0.872)
0.657
66.7 (19.3)
7800 (3.68)
7670 (3.62)
99.3
4.48 (4.06)
60.0
0.
1.
0.
0.
1.
0.
- 46,
0231
54
343
58.
0290
94
432
(52.8)
(0.699)
(0.171)
(66.3)
(0.879)
(0.216)
16.8
15.3
                                  28.2
                                                   20.1
'Dry Standard Cubic Feet @ 70F, 29.92 in Hg
2Dry Standard Cubic Feet per Minute  @ 70F, 29.92 in Hg
3Actual  Cubic Feed per Minute - Stack Conditions
"Normal  Cubic Meters at 21.1C, 760  mm Hg
5Metrlc  Tons per Hour (1 metric ton  = 1000 Kg)
6Grains  per Dry Standard Cubic Feet

-------
                                               Table  9.   SUMMARY  OP  RESULTS

          OUTLET  OP  THE  LINT  CLEANER,  LINT  CLEANER CONDENSER,  GIN  STAND  NO.   2 -  POINT  NO.  12
IV)
o
Run Number:

Date:

Method Type:

Volume of gas sampled-DSCFMNm3)"
Percent Moisture by Volume
Average Stack Temperature-F-(C)
Stack  Volumetric Plow Rate-DSCFM2-(Nm3/sec)
Stack  Volumetric Flow Rate-ACFM3-(m3/sec)
Percent Isokinetlo
Product Rate-ton lint cotton/hr-(M ton/hr)5
Duration of run - minutes

Partlculates - probe, cyclone
              and filter catch
mg
grains/DSCF6-(mg/Nm3)
lb/hr-(Kg/hr)
Ib/tbn of lint cotton produced
(kg/M  ton of lint cotton produced)
Partlculates - total catch
mg
grains/DSCF6-(mg/Nm3)
lb/hr-(Kg/hr)
Ib/ton of lint cotton produced
(Kg/M  ton of lint cotton produced)
percent implnger catch
1201
11/10/72
EPA-5
30.6 (0.867)
0.02
68.0 (20.0)
7310 (3.46)
7220 (3.11)
105
5.07 (1.60)
60.0
87.6
0.0441 (101
2.77 (1.26)
0.546 (0.274)'
99.5
0.0501 (115)
3.15 (1.43)
0.621 (0.311)
1202
11/10/72
EPA-5
27.7 (0.784)
0.00
59.0 (15.0)
' 6970 (3.29)
6720 (3-17)
100
5.38 (4.88)
60.0
131
.0.0731. (167) .
4.37 (1.98)
0.812 (0.406)
153
0.0852 (195)
5.09 (2.3D
0.946 (0.473)
1203
11/17/72
EPA-5
29.7 (0.841)
1.11
63.0 (17.2)
7060 (3.33)
6920 (3.27)
106
4.28 (3.88)
60.0
50.8
0.0263 (60.2)
1.59 (0.721)
0.371 (0.186)
70.3
0.0365 (83.5)
2.21 (1.00)
0.516 (0.258)
                                                                                                                      Average
                                                                                                                  29.3

                                                                                                                  63.3
                                                                                                                  7120
                                                                                                                  6950

                                                                                                                  4.91
                     (0.531)
                  0.377
                     (17.4)
                     (3-36)
                     (3.28)
                  104
                     (4.45)
                  60.0
                                                                  12.0
                                                                                    14.4
27-7
                                                                                                                       89.8
                                                                                                                   0.0478  (109)
                                                                                                                   2.91    (1.32)
                                                                                                                   0.576   (0.289)
                                                                                                                       108
                                                                                                                   0.0573  (13D
                                                                                                                   3.48    (1.58)
                                                                                                                   0.694   (0.347)

                                                                                                                       18.0
       'Dry Standard Cubic Feet  @ 70F, 29-92 in Hg
       2Dry Standard Cubic Feet  per Minute  7"0F, 29-92 in Hg
       3Actual  Cubic Feed per Minute - Stack Conditions
       ^Normal  Cubic Meters at 21.1C, 760 mm Hg
       5Metric  Tons per Hour (1  metric ton = 1000 Kg)
       6Grains  per Dry Standard  Cubic Feet

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                                              Table  10.    SUMMARY  OF RESULTS

        OUTLET OP THE  LINT  CLEANER,  LINT  CLEANER CONDENSER,  GIN STAND  NO.   1 -  POINT  NO.  13
ro
Run Number:

Date:

Method Type:

Volume of gas sampled-DSCP^CNm3)"
Percent Moisture by Volume
Average Stack Temperature-F-(C)
Stack Volumetric Flow Rate-DSCFM2-(Nm3/sec)
Stack Volumetric Flow Rate-ACFM3-(m3/sec)
Percent Isokinetic
Product Rate-ton lint cotton/hr-(M ton/hr)5
Duration of run - minutes

Partlculates - probe, cyclone
              and filter catch
mg
grains/DSCF6-(mg/Nm3)
lb/hr-(Kg/hr)
Ib/ton of lint cotton produced
(kg/M ton of lint cotton produced)

Partlculates. - total catch
mg
grains/DSCF6-(mg/Nm3)
lb/hr-(Kg/hr)
Ib/ton of lint cotton produced
(Kg/M ton of lint cotton produced)
percent implnger catch
1301
11/10/72
EPA-5
30.8 (0.872)
3.21
74.0 (23.3)
7540 (3.56)
7750 (3.66)
102
4.74 (4.30)
60.0
100
0.0502 (115)
3.24 (1.47)
0.684 (0.342)
127
0.0634 (145)
4.10 (1.86)
0.865 (0.433)
. 1302
11/10/72
EPA-5
29.8 (0.844)
3.31
70.0 (21.1)
7500 (3-54)
7660 (3.62)
100
5.32 (4.83)
60.0
167
0.0865 (198)
5.56 (2.52)
1.05 (0.522)
187
0.0968 (222)
6.22 (2.82)
1.17 (0.584)
1303
11/17/72
EPA-5
27.0 (0.765)
1.03
64.0 (17.8)
6100 (2.88)
5990 (2.83)
111
4.28 (3.88)
60.0
68.2
0.0389 (89.0)
2.03 (0.921)
0.474 (0.325)
83-9
0.0479 (HO)
2.50 (1.13)
0.584 (0.399)
Average


29.2 (0.827)
2.52
69.3 (20.7)
7050 (3.33)
7130 (3.37)
104
4.78 (4.34)
60.0
112
0.0585 (134)
3.61 (1.64)
0.736 (0.396)
133
0.0694 (159)
4.27 (1.94)
0.873 (0.472)
                                                                  21.3
                                                                                   10.7
                                                                                                    18.7
16.9
        'Dry Standard Cubic Feet @ 70F, 29.92 in Hg
        2Dry Standard Cubic Feet per Minute @ 70F, 29-92 in Hg
        3Actual Cubic Feed per Minute - Stack Conditions
        Normal Cubic Meters at 21.1C, 760 mm Hg
        5Metric Tons per Hour (1 metric ton = 1000 Kg)
        6Grains per Dry Standard Cubic Feet

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                                              Table  11.   SUMMARY  OF RESULTS

                                 OUTLET  OF  THE  BATTERY CONDENSER  -  POINT  NO.  l4A
ro
Run Number:

Date:                                 -

Method Type:

Volume of gas sampled-DSCF^Nm3)1*
Percent Moisture by Volume         -
Average Stack Temperature-0F-( C)
Stack Volumetric Flow Rate-DSCFM2-(Nm3/sec)
Stack Volumetric Flow Rate-ACFM3-(m3/sec)
Percent Isoklnetic
Product Rate-ton lint cotton/hr-(M  ton/hr)5
Duration of run - minutes

Partlculates - probe, cyclone
              and filter catch

mg
gralns/DSCF6-(mg/Nm3)
lb/hr-(Kg/hr)
Ib/ton of lint cotton produced
(kg/M ton of lint cotton produced)
Partlculates - total catch

mg
grains/DSCF6-(mg/Nm3)
lb/hr-(Kg/hr)
Ib/ton of lint cotton produced
(Kg/M ton of lint cotton produced)
percent Implnger catch
14A2
11/8/72
EPA- 5
31.1 (0.881)
1.25
83.0 (28.3)
14400 (6.80)
14600 (6.89)
107
3.28 (2.98)
60.0 .
37.5
0.0186 (42.6)
2.30 (1.04)
0.701 (0.349)
57.2
0.0283 (61.8).
3.49 '(1.58)
1.06 (0.530)
.14A4
11/10/72
EPA-5
30.5 (0.864)
1.20
76.0 (24.4)
14000 (6.61)
14200 (6.70)
108
4.21 (3.82)
60.0
33.9
0.0171 (39.1)
2.05 (0.930)
0.487 (0.243)
41.8
0.0211 (48.3)
2.53 (1.15)
0.601 (0.301)
14A5
11/10/72
EPA-5
30.0 (0.850)
1.23
79.0 (26.1)
13700 (6.47)
14000 (6.61)
108
4.75 (4.31)
60.0
44.3
0.0227 (51.9)
2.67 (1.21)
0.562 .(0.281)
49.8
0.0256 (58.6)
3-01 (1.37)
0.634 (0.318)
                                                                                                                       Average
                                                                                                                   30.5    (0.865)
                                                                                                                        1.23
                                                                                                                   79.3    (26.3)
                                                                                                                   14000   (6.63)
                                                                                                                   14300   (6.73)
                                                                                                                        108
                                                                                                                   4.08    (3.70)
                                                                                                                        60.0
                                                                                                                        38.6
                                                                                                                   0.0195  (44.5)
                                                                                                                   2.34    (1.06)
                                                                                                                   0.583   (0.291)
                                                                                                                        49,
                                                                                                                   0.0250
                                                                                                                   3.01
                                                                                                                   0.765
6
(57.2)
(1.37)
(0.383)
                                                                  34.4
                                                                                                     11.0
                                                                                                                        21.4
      'Dry Standard  Cubic Feet @ 70F,  29-92 In Hg
      2Dry Standard  Cubic Feet per Minute  @ 70F, 29.92 In Hg
      3Actual Cubic  Feed per Minute - Stack Conditions
      ^Normal Cubic  Meters at 21.1C, 760  mm Hg
      5Metrlc Tons per Hour (1.metric ton  = 1000 Kg)
      6Grains per Dry Standard Cubic Feet

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                      SECTION III

           PROCESS DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION
INTRODUCTION

This process description shows the process equipment and
materials from which all emissions are derived and identi-
fies each of those sources with the specific device being
used to control emissions therefrom.

Reference is made to the attached drawings showing the
plant flow diagram (Figure 2) and location of each emission
control device (Figure 3).  Details on the individual items
of process equipment, mentioned in this process description,
may be found in the Handbook for Cotton Ginners, Agricul-
ture Handbook No. 260 (USDA), 1964.
SEED COTTON UNLOADING

Seed cotton is unloaded from trailers by means of telescop-
ing suction tubes.  The resulting air stream, containing
seed cotton, passes through ductwork to a rock trap, where
heavy impurities such as rocks and green bolls are removed,
then to the unloading separator, where air and seed cotton
are separated.  The air from the unloading separator (con-
taining impurities such as dust derived from the seed
                           23

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ro
                                               Cyclone
                                                Set8
                             Cyclone
                            SeUFan
              Unloading at Trailers
             (Telescope Suction Tube)
                                                                                                                         Incinerator  / incinerator
                                                                                                                        Nx^Y^X   Cyclone Set

                                                                                                 DRIER-CLEANER COMBINATION
                                                                                                                                 From Cyclone Sets
                                                                                                                                     1 thru 8
                                                                                                                                 c-5crew Conveyor
                             Screen
                               Box"
(M
o'r>
t ^




Dis
Screw J
tributor\
.
r*

Extra
Feec
J<

8                                                                        Cyclone
                                                                         Set?
                                                                          Cyclone
                                                                           Set?
                                                                           QD
                                                                               3 SYSTEMS INPARALLa
                                                                                                             Ducts from Ijnt
                                                                                                             cleaners behind:
                                                                                                             Gin Stand No.3
                                                                                                             Gin Stand No 2
                                                	-O-
                    ABREVIATIONS:
                   A -  Air
                   SC - Seed Cotton
                   LC- Lint Cotton
                   S -  Seed
                   T -  Trash
                   NG - Natural Gas
                                               Screw Conveyor
                                             with Dropper & Blower
                                                                Gin Stand
                                                                          _U nit-Air
                                                                          Lint Cleaner
                                                                           A.LC
Condenser-U nit-Saw-
  Lint Cleaners (2)
                                                                                                            ' Gin Stand No 1
                                                                                                            Batteryjtondenser
                                                                                                                    A/U  1 i.
                                                                                                                      Fan
                                                               Screw Conveyor
    Pan     Screw Conveyor
 do
Cyclone
 Set 3
                                                                             Dropper

                                                                     Inline
                                                                     Filters
                                                                   A.f Nos.
                                                                   Al
                                                                                                                                         Fan
                  >Fan
         do
        Cyclone  Cyclone
         Set 5  . Set 6
LC Bales
(500Ib)
              Figure  2.    PLANT  FLOW  DIAGRAM -  COTTON  GINNING  PLANT,  TEST No..72-MM-16

-------
ro
ui
      1
      Q.
      O
|8
To
      Ol
                Inline Filters (A)
               (numbered as shown)
                          Door
                                          13
                                            f< < 11 w< <
                                         11
                              Cotton Ginning
                               Plant Bldg.
                                                           i
                                                                    TTT*
                                                                  Fans (2 shown)
                                                                                              Incinerator
                                                                                              Cyclones (2)
              Unloading of SC Raw Material f rom Trailers

      Pigure 3.   LOCATION  OF EMISSION  CONTROL DEVICES
                                                                                              _ Cycl one Sets
                                                                                            (numbered as shown)
                                                                            Screw Conveyor
                                                                          (receivingtrash from
                                                                          cyclone sets 1 thru 8)
                                                           -  COTTON  GINNING PLANT,  TEST No.  72-MM-16

-------
cotton) is drawn through the unloading fan to cyclone bank
8 while the seed cotton flows into the feed control unit.
SEED COTTON DRYING AND CLEANING

A stream of hot gases is formed as a fan draws ambient air
from inside the plant and forces it through heater No. 1
where natural gas is burned and the resulting combustion
products mix with the air stream.   The hot gas mixture thus
formed flows through a duct to the seed cotton outlet of
the feed control unit, where the seed cotton is entrained
and carried through a tower dryer to an inclined cleaner.
Gases, containing trash, are separated from the seed cotton
in the inclined cleaner and are drawn through a fan to
cyclone bank 1.

A stream of hot gases formed in heater No. 2, similar to
that formed in heater No. 1, flows through a duct to the
seed cotton outlet of the inclined cleaner where the seed
cotton is entrained and carried through the cleaner-dryer
combination (a dryer with two green-leaf-and-stick removers
attached).  Trash from the two green-leaf-and-stick remov-
ers, of the dryer-cleaner combination, flows through vacuum
droppers to a duct having a vacuum, induced by a fan,
wherein it is carried in an air stream to the incinerator
cyclones.  The same vacuum line receives trash from other
sources which are shown in Figure 3, and which will be
noted in the following paragraphs.

The seed cotton from the dryer-cleaner combination is
drawn through ducts to two inclined cleaners, in parallel.
Air and trash from the two parallel inclined cleaners is
drawn through a fan to cyclone bank 4.  The seed cotton
from those two cleaners flows (by gravity) into one gravity

                          26

-------
cleaner each.  Trash from these two gravity cleaners flows
into a screw conveyor (which also receives trash from the
unit-air lint cleaner, discussed in a following paragraph),
thence through a dropper into the vacuum line leading to
the incinerator cyclones.  The seed cotton from the gravity
cleaners flows (again by gravity) into the screw distribu-
tor, which carries it into the ginning system.
GINNING AND LINT CLEANING

The screw distributor distributes seed cotton to three ex-
tractor feeders which, in turn, feed it to one gin stand
each, at rates controlled to the gin stand capacity.  When
the flow of seed cotton from the screw distributor exceeds
the total of the intake rates of the extractor feeders, the
excess seed cotton flows into the overflow hopper, from
which it is again picked up, at a suitable time, by suction
applied within the hopper and routed through the overflow
separator back to the screw distributor.  Air from the
overflow separator (containing trash) is exhausted through
a fan to cyclone bank 2.

Trash from the three extractor feeders and gin stands is
carried by a screw conveyor, then a dropper, into the vac-
uum line leading to the incinerator cyclones.

Within the gin stands, lint cotton is separated from seed.
The seed is removed to an elevated seed house by means of
a screw conveyor with dropper and blower.  The lint cotton
is carried in air streams through the unit-air cleaners
(one for each gin stand), then through the condenser-unit-
saw lint cleaners (two in parallel for each gin stand),
then to the battery condenser.
                           27

-------
Trash from the three unit-air lint cleaners is carried by
screw conveyor (with trash from the gravity cleaners)
through a dropper into the vacuum line to the incinerator
cyclones.  Air from the upper (condenser) sections of the
six condenser-unit-saw lint cleaners (containing trash)
flows through one fan each, to in-line filters 11, 12, and
13.  (The air-and-trash streams from the condensers of
lint cleaners behind gin stands 1, 2, and 3 flow to in-line
filters 13, 12, and 11 respectively.)

Air streams (containing trash and motes) from the saw units
of the three condenser-and-unit-saw lint cleaners nearer
to the gin stands flow through fans to cyclone bank 5.  The
corresponding air streams from the saw units of the three
condenser-and-unit-saw lint cleaners further from the gin
stands flow through fans to cyclone bank 6.

Air from the battery condenser flows into the baling press
where the products, bales of lint cotton, are formed.

The air-and-trash streams exhausted from in-line filters
Nos. 11 through 14 flow through a fan to cyclone bank 7.

Trash from cyclone banks 1 through 8 flows into a screw
conveyor under those cyclones.  It is then moved through
a dropper and duct, under positive pressure from a blower,
into the air-and-trash line to the incinerator cyclone set.

Thus, the total trash from the emission control system is
carried into the tepee burner incinerator where it is
burned, the smoke from that incinerator forming an addi-
tional emission point.
                          28

-------
Typical process operation  at  the  "Green Gin"  can  be  sum-



marized as  follows:







     Normal  plant operating schedule:



               20 hrs/day (2 shifts)



               6 days/week



               6 weeks/year, plus  spasmodic periods to process remnants.



               Prom October to  January (ginning season).





     Average plant operating capacity:



               525,000 Ibs of seed cotton/day (processed)



               175,000 Ibs of lint cotton/day (produced)



               280,000 Ibs of seed/day (produced)





     Peak plant operating capacity:



               600,000 Ibs of seed cotton/day (processed)



               200,000 Ibs of lint cotton/day (produced)



               320,000 Ibs of seed/day (produced)
                                  29

-------
                       SECTION IV

          SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES
LOCATION OP SAMPLING POINTS

There are two types of emission control devices at the
Delta and Pine Land Company cotton gin; in-line filters
controlling emissions from the battery condenser and the
lint cleaner condensers and cyclones controlling emissions
from the overflow separators, lint cleaners, unloading
separator, dryer cleaners, extractor feeders, and trash
hopper.

The in-line filters from the gin stands, lint cleaners,
and lint cleaner condensers had 30 inch outlets; the bat-
tery condenser, 42 inch outlets.  The rain shields were
removed and replaced with a short adaptor, a 90 elbow and
a straight length of pipe, each the same diameter as the
outlet.  To simplify sampling, the ducts were directed
downward.  As a result the ducts were sampled with two hor-
izontal traverses rather than one horizontal and one ver-
tical traverse.

The sample ports on the lint cleaner condensers were lo-
cated 125 inches (4.2 Dia.) from the 90 elbows, and 25
inches (0.83 Dia.) from the outside air.  The bottom of
the ducts was approximately 42 inches above the ground.  A
diagram of the duct design and sample port location is
                          30

-------
shown in Figure 4.  Only one section of scaffolding was
required to reach the sample ports on these three units.

The battery condenser sampling ports were 156 inches (3.7
Dia.) below the elbow and 36 inches (0.86 Dia.)  above the
outside air.  The bottom of the duct was about  48 inches
above the ground.  The battery condenser ducts  and sample
ports are shown in Figure 5.  The ports were reached with
scaffolding two sections high.

Each of the cyclones at the gin was equipped with a sam-
pling duct in place of the rain cap.  The duct  was fitted
to the short exhaust duct on the top of the cyclone and
consisted of a large radius 180 bend, a straightening
vane, and a long length of straight pipe.  The  "candy
cane" sampling ducts were built in three inside  diameters;
16, 17, and 18 inches as required; to fit the cyclone ex-
haust duct.  A schematic diagram of the sampling ducts in
place on a cyclone set: is shown in Figure 6.  Table 12. lists
the cyclone sites and the important dimensions  at each
location.  Figure 7 shows the construction of the straight-
ening vanes.

Each cyclone duct was provided with an inspection port in
the l80 bend directly above the straightening  vane.  This
port, which was closed with a sheet metal band  during sam-
pling, provided access to the straightening vane.  The
vane was cleaned prior to each test so that the  flow would
not be restricted, and thus, divert the air stream to an-
other outlet.

Continuous rows of scaffolding were set up on both sides
of the sampling ducts to provide access.  All samples were
collected on ducts farthest from the building.   All sampling
                          31

-------
IX)
                        Sample
                         Site
                        11, 12,
                          13
                                         Rain Shield (removed)
 Traverse
  Site
1.1 A, 12A,
  13A
                                                         125"
                                                        (4.2 D)
  25"
(0.83 D)
                                                          42"
             Figure 4.   SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF  THE IN-LINE FILTERS  AND SAMPLING DUCTS

                                             FOR  SITES  11, 12,  AND  13

-------
                                       Rain Shield (removed)
OJ
uo
                                                         36"
                                                       (0.86 D)
            Figure 5.   SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OP THE  BATTERY CONDENSER IN-LINE  FILTER

                                        AND SAMPLING  DUCTS - SITE  14

-------
                                 Table 12.   DIMENSIONS AT  CYCLONE SITES
                                                            Sampling Port Location
U)
Cyclone
Site Diameter
No. Inches
1 32
2 36
3 36
4 32
5 34
6 ' 34
7 34
8 34
Cyclone
Outlet
Inches
16
18
18
16
17
17
17
17
Duct
I. D.
Inches
16
18
18
16
17
17
17
17
Total Duct
Length In.
(Dia.)
192
192
192
'192
192
192
192
192
(12.0)
(10.7)
(10.7)
(12.0)
(11.3)
(11.3)
(11.3)
(11.3)
Upstream
Distance
In. (Dia.)
120
119
119
120
120
120
120
120
(7.5)
(6.6)
(6.5)
(7.5)
(7.0)
(7.0)
(7.0)
(7.0)
Downstream
Distance
In. (Dia.)
72
73
73
72
72
72
72
72
(4.5)
(4.1)
(4.1)
(4.5)
(4.2)
(4.2)
(4.2)
(4.2)
No. of
Traverse
Points
12
16
16
12
12
12
12
12
Radius of
180 Bend
(inches)
40
45
45
40
42.
42.
42.
42.



5
5
5
5
        Note:   Port  locations apply to  both sampled and unsampled sites.

               All straightening vanes  were honeycombed with  2.5 inch squares,  7-5 inches long, and with
               a diameter of 16, 17, or 18 inches.

-------
                                   180 DEGREE BENDS
         STRAIGHTENING
             VANES
UJ
                                                                             BUILDING
                Figure 6.  SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF THE CYCLONE .UNITS AND SAMPLING  DUCTS
                                  (Table 12 lists the dimensions for the
                                     ducts and sample port locations)

-------
             *-
-+6-18
                                        ~r
                                             7.5
Figure 7.  DIAGRAM OP STRAIGHTENING VANE CONSTRUCTION

-------
ports were readily accessible, and-equipment could be easily
moved from one location to another.

No other modifications were required at this gin.   Ample
electrical capacity was available for all testing in the
fan room adjacent to the cyclone banks.
SAMPLING PROCEDURES

The outlets from all of the control devices at the cotton
gin were sampled generally in accordance with the methods
given in the August 17, 19713 Federal Register.  One excep-
tion was the use of the wet bulb-dry bulb technique to ob-
tain initial moisture levels, rather than Method 4, "Deter-
mination of Moisture in Stack Gases."  The low moisture
levels (0-5.4$) and low stack temperatures (below 212F)
permitted the use of this deviation.

Method 5 of the Federal Register Methods was used to obtain
the emission rate of all sampled outlets.  During these
sample runs, any unsampled outlets in the same cyclone bank
or connected to the same control device were traversed to
obtain the velocity profile and stack temperature follow-
ing Method 2.  If it is assumed that the loading in grains/
standard cubic foot is the same at all outlets of the con-
trol devices in one unit, the emission rate in Ib/hr would
be a function of the differences in velocity at the out-
lets.  The loading in grains/cubic foot were obtained from
the Method 5 data, and from the velocity traverse of the
unsampled ducts, the emission rate in Ib/hr can be calcu-
lated for each individual outlet.

No conditions were encountered during this sampling program
that were beyond the normal operating parameters of the
                          37

-------
Method 5 sampling apparatus.  The sampling runs were stopped,
however, when portions of the gin ceased operation or if
unusual conditions occurred in the gin.  The runs were re-
started when normal operation resumed.

While sampling was in process, production data was recorded
by Mr. William Herring of EPA.  The information obtained
included the number and weight of finished cotton bales
produced during the entire length of each run.  The data
was used to calculate the emission rate in terms of cotton
produced.
ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES

Samples from the Method 5 sampling trains were recovered
as outlined in the August 17, 1-971, Federal Register.
After removal of the filter, all sample exposed surfaces
were washed with reagent grade acetone or distilled water
as specified.  All sample bottles for liquid samples were
obtained from Wheaton Scientific, Catalogue No. 219630.
Each of these bottles and the petri dishes for sample fil-
ters were acid soaked with a 1:1 HNOs for one day, rinsed
with distilled water and soaked with distilled water for
one day.

Sample recovered from the High Volume sampler included re-
moval of the filter and placing it in a large mouth bottle,
removal of the cyclone bottle and sealing it, and washing
of all exposed surfaces of the train with acetone.  Ace-
tone washings were placed in acid washed Wheaton bottles.

Analytical procedures for the Method 5 samples follow the
Federal Register guidelines, with one exception.  Container
No. 3 as indicated in the method contains water from the
                          38.

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 impingers  and washing of the glassware of the train.  The
-solution was extracted with chloroform and ether, and then
 the  extracted portion was dried to constant weight, as
 specified.  In  addition, the remaining water after extrac-
 tion was evaporated to dryness at 212P to constant weight.
 Both weights were  included in the total mass of particulate,

 Sample weight from the Method 5 samplers were reported as
 "front half"  (probe washings and filter collection weights)
 and  "total" (front half plus water, chloroform-ether ex-
 tract, and impinger acetone washing weights).

 All  particulate mass analyses with the exception of that
 of the impinger acetone washings were preformed at Monsanto
 Research Corporation, Dayton Laboratory.  The sample for
 each run was analyzed at the EPA laboratories, and the data
 was  supplied to MRC for inclusion in this report.
                           39

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