United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Office of Air Quality
Planning and Standards
Research Triangle Park NC 27711
EMB Report 78-NMM-7
March 1979
Air
Clay

Emission  Test Report
Thiele Kaolin
Sandersonville,  Georgia

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12/78
                      FUGITIVE  EMISSIONS TEST  REPORT




                         THIELE  KAOLIN COMPANY

                         Sandersvi1le, Georgia
                                          ROY  F.  WESTON,  INC.

                                                   4-.
                                          Barry L.~ Jackson
                                          Supervisor Air Testing
                                          Charles  J.  Dobrosk.i.."
                                          Assistant Project Scientist
                        RFW Report  No.  0300-81-08
                        Contract  No.  68-02-2816
                        Work Assignment No.  7

                              Prepared  by:
                           ROY F. WESTON,  INC.

                   ENVIRONMENTAL  CONSULTANTS-DESIGNERS
                               Weston Way
                    West Chester, Pennsylvania  19380
                             (215)  692-3030

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                                              TABLE OF CONTENTS





                                                           Page







List of Tables and Figures                                   ii




Summary                                                       1




Introduction                                                  2




Discussion of Loading Procedure                               3




Test Procedure                                                5




Test Results                                                  6




Discussion of Results                                         9






Appendix A - Raw Test Data




Appendix B - Project Participants

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                                     LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES

                                                                  Page
TABLE NO.
              Summary of Results of Fugitive Emission
              Tests
FIGURE

     1         Schematic of Bulk Loading Operation


     2        Comparison of Rates of Emission for Three

              Rail Car Loadings
                                     i i

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SUMMARY

The Emission Measurement Branch of the U. S. Environmental Protection
Agency contracted Roy F. Weston, Inc. to conduct a fugitive emission
testing program at the Thiele Kaolin Company's clay processing facility
in Sandersvi11e,  Georgia.  The objective of the testing program was to
measure fugitive emissions resulting from the rail car bulk loading
operation.  Three complete rail car  loadings were evaluated for fugitive
emissions in accordance with EPA Method 22 test procedures.

All tests were conducted during the period 6-7 December 1978 by Weston
employees.

A detailed summary of test data and test results  is presented in Table 1
of this report.  Figure 2 shows a comparison of the emission rates
observed at the point of fill during each of the three tests.

Comparison of the test results suggests relatively consistent rates of
emissions for rectangular hatch rail cars.  Mean emission frequencies
during loading of these cars during Tests 1 and 2 are 9-3% and 7-0%,
respectively.

Mean emission frequency for the "rake-back" rail car loading operations is
decidely greater (16.0%) than that observed for the other rail cars.
This fact results from the difference in loading processes.

The primary source of emissions for all  cars tested  is  the topping of each
compartment wi th  product and the subsequent repositioning of the feed hose
in the next compartment.

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INTRODUCTION

The Emission Measurement Branch of the U. S. Environmental Protection
Agency contracted Roy F. Weston, Inc. to conduct a fugitive emission
testing program (EPA Method 22) at the Thiele Kaolin Company's clay
processing facility in Sandersvi1le, George.  The objective of the
testing program was to measure fugitive emissions resulting from the
rail car bulk loading.

Three fugitive emission tests were conducted in loading port #1 which
contained two loading sites that will be designated as site A  (area
nearest processing facility) and site B  (area furthest from processing
faci1i ty) .

The location of each test and the type of car loaded are  listed below:
     Test #1             1.   Loading port #1
                         2.   Loading site A
                         3-   Rectangular hatch rail car

     Test #2             1.   Loading port #1
                         2.   Loading site B
                         3.   Rectangular hatch rail car
     Test #3             1.   Loading port #1
                         2.   Loading si te A
                         3.   "rake-back" rail car

All tests were conducted during the period 6-7 December 1978 by Weston
personnel.

A detailed summary of test data and test results is presented  in Table  1
and Figure 2 of this report. Raw test data and a list of  project participants
are provided in Appendices A and B, respectively.
                                   - 2 -

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Discussion of Loading Procedure

Rail cars with the holding capacity of 100 - 3 tons of kaolin product
are filled by means of an overhead hose which carries the product from
the processing facility to the rail cars (Figure 1).  During actual
loading operations the feed hose is placed into either  a rectangular
or circular hatch within which is a filtering basket. The remaining area
of the opened hatch is covered with tarpaulin to diminish any dust
emission.  In addition, a vacuum system is positioned in the vicinity of
the feed hose to remove airborne particulates resulting from the loading
operation.  After filling one compartment, the rail car is drifted down
the track so that the next section to be filled is beneath the feed line.
The hose is then placed in this compartment and the hatch on the previous
section closed.   It should be noted that the topping of a compartment and
the subsequent repositioning of the hose appears to be the primary
source of fugitive emissions. This is found to be particularly true of
the "rake-back" operation in which the product is manually pushed into
the reaches of the compartment.  The time required to fill an individual
rail car is dependent on the type of rail car and the feed rate:  Mean
loading time for the rail cars observed, was approximately 3 hours.
                                   -  3  -

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                          Thiele Kaolin Company
                          Sandersvi1le, Georgia

                    SCHEMATIC OF BULK LOADING OPERATION
West
                        Product
                         i n
Ai r to
Baghouse
                        East
                    oo
    OQ
                      Areas A,  B and C Denote Areas  Which
                      Were Inspected for Fugitive  Emissions

                      According to  EPA Method 22.
                                 Figure 1

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Test Procedures

Three complete rail car loadings were evaluated for fugitive emissions
in accordance with EPA Method 22 test procedures.

Fugitive emissions were examined at both ends of the loading shed
(east and west) and at the actual  point of fill into the railroad car
(Figure 1).

The approximate time periods (2k hr clock) for which each test was made
are presented below:

Test #1                    6 December 1978               1640-2114
Test #2                    7 December 1978               0815-1034,
Test #3                    7 December 1978               1315-1659

During each test, observations were made for 20 minute intervals followed
by a 10 minute break.
                                - 5 -

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Test Results

Total accumulated observation time (AOT) and total accumulated emission
time  (AET) for each inspection location and for three fugitive emission
tests are summarized in Table 1.   Also presented in this table are the
emission frequencies for each location (AET/AOT x 100) and the mean
emission frequencies for each test.

Figure 2 compares the rates of emission at the point of fill for the
three separate rail  car loadings.
                                 -  6 -

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                             THIELE KAOLIN COMPANY

                             Sandersvi1le, Georgia


                                   TABLE I

      Summary of Results of Fugitive Emission Tests performed
              on three separate rail car loadings
Observat ion
    Area
 Accumulated
 Observation
 Period  (min:sec)
Accumulated
Emiss ion
Time (min:sec)
                                                                   % Emission
                                                                   (AOP/AET x 100)
                                   Test #1
     A

     6

     C
     A

     B

     C
 144:32

 144:32

 144:32
A
B
C
99:45
99:45
99:45
 ISA:20

 154:20

, ISA:20
                                   Test #2
                                   Test #3
22:42

17:30

 0:00
                                               18:50

                                                2:06

                                                0.00
63:42

 0:20

 9:21
    15.7

    12.1

       0
 x = 9.3
                                              18.9

                                               2.1

                                                 0
                                           * = 7.0
    A1.3

      .2

     6.1

* = 15.9
1.  Designation of observation positions
         (Figure 1)
                          A.  Loading  hose
                          B.  West end of shed
                          C.  East end of shed
                                   - 7 -

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                        COMPARISON OF RATES OF EMISSIONS OBSERVED AT THE
                        POINT OF  FILL FOR THREE SEPARATE RAIL CAR LOADINGS
       60
                                         rake-back rail  car
                                                (Test #3)
       50

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Discussion of Results
From Table 1, it was apparent that the primary source of fugitive emissions
in the bulk loading area was in the immediate vicinity of the fill   area
(Figure 1, Area A).  By comparison and with the exception of Test #1, an
insubstantial amount of particulate emissions was observed at either end
of the loading shed.

During Test #1, however, emissions at the west end of the shed (Area B)
were relatively similar to those observed at the filling area.  Observa-
tions of particulate transport from the source area to the outside of the
shed were undoubtedly influenced by such factors as local wind conditions,
particle density, relative humidity,  proximity of fill area to end of shed,
vis ibi1i ty, etc.

Comparison of test results from Tests #1 and #2 suggested relatively con-
sistent rates of emission for rectangular hatch rail cars.  In neither of
these tests, were mean emission frequencies greater than 10.0%.  However,
fugutive emissions observed at the source (area A) during the loading of
the "rake-back" rai 1 car (Test #3) were decidedly greater than similar
observations made for the other rail  cars (Figure 2).  Mean emission
frequency for Test #3 was 16.0%.

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