By Kenneth W. Brown and Donald D. Smith, DV]
      .Ljioenvironmental Research Program
  Southwestern Radiological Health Laboratory
           TT   "  Public Health Service
                Health,  Education,  and Welfare
              Las Vegas, Nevada
 boutnwe stern
Department of

               December 22,  1966
                   for the

                         LEGAL NOTICE
This report was prepared as an account of Government sponsored work.
Neither the United States, nor the Atomic Energy Commission,  nor any
person acting on behalf of the Commission:

A.  Makes any warranty or representation, expressed or implied,  with
respect to the accuracy,  completeness, or usefullness of the information
contained in this report,  or that the use of any information, apparatus,
method,  or process disclosed in this report may not infringe privately
owned rights; or

B.  Assumes any liabilities with respect to the use of, or for damages
resulting from the use of any information, apparatus, method,  or pro-
cess disclosed in this report.

As used  in the above, "person acting on behalf of the Commission" in-
cludes any employee or contractor of the Commission, or employee of
such contractor, to the extent that  such employee or contractor  of the
Commission,  or employee of such  contractor prepares,  disseminates,
or provides access to, any information pursuant to his employment or
contract with the Commission, or his  employment with such contractor.



By Kenneth W.  Brown and Donald D.  Smith, DVM
                     of the
      Bioenvironmental Research Program
  Southwestern Radiological Health Laboratory
          U. S. Public Health Service
  Department of Health, Education,  and Welfare
               Las Vegas, Nevada
              December 22,  1966
                     for the

Chapter 2 CHENOPODIACEAE (Pigweed Family)
(Four Wing Saltbush)
2.1.1 Description
2. 1. 2 Distribution and Habitat
2.1.3 Poisonous Principle
2.1.4 Symptomatology and Pathology
2.1.5 Treatment
2.1.6 Prevention
2. 2 ATRIPLEX ROSEA L. (Redscale)
2/2.. '1 Description
2. 2. 2 Distribution and Habitat
2. 2. 3 Poisonous Principle
2. 2.4 Symptomatology and Pathology
2. 2. 5 Treatment
2. 2. 6 Prevention
2. 3. 1 Description
2. 3. 2 Distribution and Habitat
2. 3. 3 Poisonous Principle
2. 3.4 Symptomatology and Pathology
2. 3. 5 Treatment
2.3.6 Prevention
2.4.1 Description
2.4. 2 Distribution and Habitat
2.4.3 Poisonous Principle
2.4.4 Symptomatology and Pathology
2.4. 5 Treatment
2.4.6 Prevention

Table of Contents (continued)

Chapter3  COMPOSITAE (Sunflower Family)            .         11

                 (Wild Marigold)                                 11

                 3.1.1  Description                  ,           11
                 3.1.2  Distribution and Habitat                  11
                 3.1.3  Poisonous Principle                     11
                 3.1.4  Symptomatology and Pathology           11
                 3. 1. 5  Treatment                               12
                 3.1.6  Prevention                              12

                 BRITTON (Rabbitbrush)                         12
                 3.2.1  Description                             12
                 3.2.2  Distribution and Habitat                  13
                 3. 2. 3  Poisonous Principle                     13
                 3.2.4  Symptomatology and Pathology           13
                 3.2.5  Treatment                               13
               .  3.2.6  Prevention                              13

                 (Broomweed)                                   13

                 3.3.1  Description                             13
                 3.3.2  Distribution and Habitat                  13
                 3.3.3  Poisonous Principle                     14
                 3.3.4  Symptomatology and Pathology           1.4
                 3. 3. 5  Treatment         ,                      14
                 3.3.6  Prevention                              14

                 AND RUSBY (Snakeweed)                        15

                 3.4.1  Description                             15
                 3.4.2  Distribution and Habitat                  15
                 3.4.3  Poisonous Principle '<                    15
                 3.4.4  Symptomatology and Pathology           15
                 3.4.5  Treatment       .      .                  15
                 3.4.6  Prevention                              15

Table of Contents (continued)
                 (Paper Flower)                                 16

                 3.5.1  Description                             16
                 3.5.2  Distribution and Habitat                 16
                 3.5.3  Poisonous Principle                     16
                 3.5.4  Symptomatology and Pathology           16
                 3.5.5  Treatment                              17
                 3.5.6  Prevention                              17

           3.6   SENECIO INTEGERRIMUS (NUTT.) (Groundsel) 17

                 3.6.1  Description                             17
                 3.6.2  Distribution and Habitat                 17
                 3.6.3  Poisonous Principle                     17
                 3.6.4  Symptomatology and Pathology           18
                 3.6.5  Treatment                              18
                 3.6.6  Prevention                              18

           3.7   SENECIO SPARTIOIDES T.AND  G.  (Broom
                 Groundsel)                                     19

                 3.7.1  Description                             19
                 3.7.2  Distribution and Habitat                 19
                 3.7.3  Poisonous Principle                     19
                 3.7.4  Symptomatology and Pathology           19
                 3.7.5  Treatment                              19
                 3.7.6  Prevention                              19

           3.8   TETRADYMIA CANESCENS (DC.) (Spineless
                 Horsebrush)                                   19
                 3.8.1  Description                             19
                 3. 8. 2  Distribution and Habitat                 19
                 3.8.3  Poisonous Principle                     20
                 3.8.4  Symptomatology and Pathology           20
                 3.8.5  Treatment                              20
                 3.8.6  Prevention                              21

           3.9   TETRADYMIA GLABRATA GRAY (Little-Leaf
                 Horsebrush)                                   21
                 3.9.1  Description                             21
                 3.9.2  Distribution and Habitat                 21
                 3.9.3  Poisonous Principle                     21
                 3.9.4  Symptomatology and Pathology           22
                 3.9.5  Treatment                              22
                 3.9-6  Prevention                              22

Table of Contents (continued)
                  (Horsebrush)                                   22

                  3. 10. 1  Description                            22
                  3. 10. 2  Distribution and Habitat                22
                  3. 10. 3  Poisonous Principle                   22
                  3. 10.4  Symptomatology and Pathology         22
                  3. 10. 5  Treatment                             22
                  3.10.6  Prevention                            23
Chapter 4   CRUCIFERAE (Mustard Family)                      24

                 (Yellow Tansy Mustard)                         24
                 4.1.1   Description                            24
                 4.1.2   Distribution and Habitat                24
                 4.1.3   Poisonous Principle                    24
                 4. 1.4   Symptomatology and Pathology         24
                 4.1.5   Treatment                             25
                 4.1.6   Prevention                            25

                 (Desert Plume)                                 25

                 4. 2. 1   Description                            25
                 4. 2. 2   Distribution and Habitat                25
                 4. 2. 3   Poisonous Principle                    26
                 4. 2.4   Symptomatology and Pathology         26
                 4. 2. 5   Treatment                             26
                 5. 2. 6   Prevention                            26
Chapter 5   FAGACEAE (Beech Family)                           27
            5.1   QUERCUS GAMBELII NUTT.  (Gambel's Oak)    27

                 5.1.1    Description                 .           27
                 5.1.2    Distribution and Habitat                27
                 5.1.3    Poisonous  Principle                    27
                 5. 1.4    Symptomatology and Pathology         27
                 5. 1. 5    Treatment                             28
                 5.1.6    Prevention                            28

Table of Contents (continued)

Chapter 6  FUMARIACEAE (Fumitory Family)                   29

           6.1   CORYDALIS AUREA WILLD. (Fitweed)          29

                 6.1.1   Description                            29
                 6.1.2   Distribution and Habitat                29
                 6.1.3   Poisonous Principle                   29
                 6. 1.4   Symptomatology and Pathology          29
                 6.1.5   Treatment                             30
                 6.1.6   Prevention                            30

Chapter 7  LEGUMINOSAE (Pea Family)                         31

                 (Spotted Loco Weed)                            31

                 7.1.1   Description                            31
                 7.1.2   Distribution and Habitat                31
                 7.1.3   Poisonous Principle                   31
                 7.1.4   Symptomatology and Pathology          32
                 7.1.5   Treatment                             32
                 7.1.6   Prevention                            32

           7.2   LUPINUS CAUDATUS KELL. (Kellogg's
                 Spurred Lupine)                                33
                 7.2.1   Description                            33
                 7.2.2   Distribution and Habitat                33
                 7. 2. 3   Poisonous Principle                   33
                 7. 2.4   Symptomatology and Pathology          33
                 7.2.5   Treatment                             34
                 7.2.6   Prevention                            34

           7.3   PROSOPIS  JULIFLORA (SW.) (DC.)
                 (Mesquite)                                      34
                 7. 3. 1   Description                            34
                 7.3.2   Distribution and Habitat                34
                 7.3.3   Poisonous Principle                   34
                 7.3.4   Symptomatology and Pathology          35
                 7.3.5   Treatment                             35
                 7.3.6   Prevention                            35

Table of Contents (continued)

Chapter 8   LILIACEAE (Lily Family)                             36

            8.1   ZYGADENUS VENENOSUS WATS. (Deathcamas)  36

                 8. 1. 1    Description                            36
                 8.1.2    Distribution and Habitat                 36
                 8.1.3    Poisonous Principle                    36
                 8. 1.4    Symptomatology and Pathology          36
                 8.1.5    Treatment                             37
                 8.1.6    Prevention                             37

Chapter 9   POLYGONACEAE  (Buckwheat Family)                 38

            9.1   RUMEX CRISPUS L. (Rhubarb)                  38

                 9.1.1    Description                            38
                 9.1.2    Distribution and Habitat                 38
                 9.1.3    Poisonous Principle                    38
                 9. 1.4    Symptomatology and Pathology          38
                 9.1.5    Treatment                             38
                 9.1.6    Prevention                             38

Chapter 10  RANUNCULACEAE (Crowfoot Family)                 39

            10.1  DELPHINIUM PARISHII GRAY (Larkspur)        39

                 10.1.1   Description                            39
                 10. 1. 2   Distribution and Habitat                 39
                 10.1.3   Poisonous Principle                    39
                 10. 1.4   Symptomatology and Pathology          40
                 10.1.5   Treatment                             40
                 10.1.6   Prevention                             40

Chapter 11  SOLANACEAE (Nightshade Family)                    42

            11.1  DATURA METELOIDES DUNAL.  (Western
                 Jimson Weed)                                   42

                 11.1.1   Description                            42
                 11.1.2   Distribution and Habitat                 42
                 11.1.3   Poisonous Principle                    42
                 11.1.4   Symptomatology and Pathology          43
                 11.1.5   Treatment                             43
                 11.1.6   Prevention                             43


Table of Contents (continued)
            11.2 NICOTIANA ATTENUATA TORR. (Wild
                 Tobacco)                                       44

                 11.2.1  Description                           44
                 11.2.2  Distribution and Habitat                44
                 11.2.3  Poisonous Principle                   44
                 11. 2.4  Symptomatology and Pathology         44
                 11.2.5  Treatment                            45
                 11.2.6  Prevention                            45

                 (Desert Tobacco)                               45

                 11.3.1  Description                           45
                 11.3.2  Distribution and Habitat                45
                 11.3.3  Poisonous Principle                   45
                 11.3.4  Symptomatology and Pathology         45
                 11.3.5  Treatment                            46
                 11.3.6  Prevention                     '       46

Chapter 12  TYPHACEAE (Cattail Family)                        47

            12.1 TYPHA LATIFOLIA L. (Cattail)                47

                 12. 1. 1  Description                           47
                 12. 1. 2  Distribution and Habitat                47
                 12.1.3  Poisonous Principle                   47
                 12. 1.4  Symptomatology and Pathology         47
                 12.1.5  Treatment                            47
                 12. 1. 6  Prevention                            47

Chapter 13  UMBELLIFERAE (Carrot Family)                    48

            13.1 BERULA ERECTA (HUPS.) COV. (Water
                 Parsnip)                                       48

                 13.1.1  Description                           48
                 13. 1. 2  Distribution and Habitat                48
                 13.1.3  Poisonous Principle                   48
                 13. 1.4  Symptomatology and Pathology         48
                 13.1.5  Treatment                            48
                 13.1.6  Prevention                            48

Table of Contents (continued)

Chapter  14  ZYGOPHYLLACEAE (Caltrop Family)                49

            14.1  TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS L.  (Puncture Vine)    49
                  14.1.1  Description                             49
                  14. 1. 2  Distribution and Habitat                 49
                  14.1.3  Poisonous Principle                     49
                  14. 1.4  Symptomatology and Pathology           49
                  14. 1. 5  Treatment                              50
                  14.1.6  Prevention                             50

APPENDIX      TABLES I - VI                                  51




                             Chapter 1


     This  report is a reference for identification of poisonous plants

found on the Atomic Energy Commission's (AEC) Nevada Test Site.

It was compiled for the Farm Support Section and the Animal Investiga-

tion Program of the Bioenvironmental  Research Program,  Southwestern

Radiological Health Laboratory, as an aid in determining range sites

for the AEC beef herd which grazes on the Nevada Test Site and as an

aid in the investigation of off-site livestock losses.

     Plant species which are included in this  report have wide distribu-

tion throughout the southwestern United States.  Many are commonly

distributed in the warm deserts of California, Nevada, and Arizona,

also, many are distributed throughout  the Great Basin of northern

Nevada and southern Utah.   Only those plants commonly found on the

Nevada Test Site are included in this report.

     Identification of plants by various  physical characteristics are:

included in the appendix to  aid those individuals who are unfamiliar

with the various plant species.  Various  other tables, included are

types of poisonous  principles, symptomatology, and species of animals

affected.  Because the user of this report may not be familiar with all

terms used in the report,  a glossary is also  incorporated.

     The scope of this report is limited to brief,  concise, and pertinent

details of the physical description,  distribution, habitat and poisonous

principle  of the plant and symptomatology, pathology,  and treatment

of the affected animal.

                            Chapter 2

      2. 1. 1  Description.   Four Wing Saltbush is a grayish-white,
                                scurfy perennial, occasionally
                                reaching a height of 6 to 10 feet.
                                The leaves  are alternate and
                                somewhat clustered, stalkless
                                and narrow (about 3/8 inch wide
                                and 2 inches long).  The male
                                and female  flowers are  usually
                                borne on separate plants near the
                                end of the branches.   The fruit is
                                one-celled and has four conspic-
                                uous wings  or bracts.

      2.1.2  Distribution and Habitat.  It is most commonly found
growing in sandy soils on dry hillsides and in desert washes.   This
species is most prevalent in the Larrea-Franseria and the Coleoeyne
plant  communities between 3000 and 6000 ft. elevation.  It is
common in all basins and is the dominant shrub in South French-
man's Flat.

      2. 1. 3  Poisonous Principle.   This shrub is a secondary or
facultative selenium absorber thus accumulating selenium when
growing in seleniferous soils.       It is especially preferred as a
grazing plant during its flower and fruiting stages.  Animals most
likely affected would be cattle and horses during the summer and
spring months.

      2.1.4  Symptomatology and Pathology.   Sel'enium toxicity may
be manifested as one of three syndromes, depending upon the level
of selenium in the diet.  An acute and two chronic forms of poisoning
have been recognized.  Because levels of selenium accumulated by
Atriplex are usually insufficient to cause acute selenium toxicity,
only the two  chronic forms are  observed.  "Alkali Disease", one of
the chronic forms, usually appears in animals grazing for a month
or longer upon plants containing 5-40 ppm selenium.    "Blind
Staggers", another chronic form, appears after a week or more
of grazing on plants containing less than 200 ppm selenium but
more than 100 ppm.

      Symptoms of "Alkali Disease" are inappetence, emaciation,
lack of vitality,  anemia, stiffness and severe lameness.   Cattle and
horses show early loss of long hair from the base of the tail and
switch being called "Bob-tailed disease" in horses.       Hoof de-
formaties cause severe lameness.  Cracks appear at the coronary
band and a band of dead tissue results.  As new coronary growth
occurs, this  break moves downward and the old portion of the hoof
may separate or slough off or it may result in ragged deformed
hoofs 6-7 inches  long which are turned up at the  ends.  Congenital
hoof deformaties may occur in the newborn if the dam has  received
a diet containing an excess of selenium  during gestation.

      The "Alkali  Disease" type of selenium poisoning is not common
•    -u     25
in sheep.

      The "Blind Staggers" syndrome is manifested in three clinical
stages.   In the first stage, the animal tends to wander from the
herd as vision is impaired to such an extent that the animal may
disregard objects  in its path or stumble over them.  Although
temperature  and respiration are normal,  the animal shows inappe-
tence.   During the second stage the afflicted animal will circle

aimlessly trying to walk over or through objects in its path.   Front
leg lameness and further impairment of the vision becomes evident.
Respiration and temperature remain normal but the inappetence
disappears and a desire to ingest abnormal objects is observed.
      Clinical signs during the terminal or third stage are increasing
paralysis,  especially of the tongue and the muscles responsible for
swallowing, increased rate and labored respiration, subnormal tem-
perature and acute abdominal pain.   The animal becomes almost
completely blind because of swollen eyelids and cloudy corneas.
Death from respiratory failure occurs a few hours  after the onset
of the third stage.
      Necropsy  reveals the following lesions in "alkali disease":
Atrophy and dilatation of the heart,  cirrhosis and atrophy of the
liver, glomerulonephritis, mild  gastro-enteritis,  erosion of the
epiphyses of the long bones,  and hoof lesions as described above.   '
      Lesions of "Blind Staggers" are acute congestion and diffuse
hemorrhage of the lungs, impacted rumen, hyperemia and necrosis
of the epithelium of the abomasum and small intestine,  parenchymal
degeneration and focal necrosis of the liver, greatly enlarged gall
bladder,  nephritis, cystitis and acute congestion of the  spleen.   '
      2. 1. 5 Treatment.  Stiffness of "alkali disease" has been
relieved by oral administration of naphthalene at the rate of 4-5 gms
daily for five days and repeated at a five day interval.
      Treatment for "blind staggers" is only successful if instituted
prior to the third stage.   Strychnine  sulfate (4-6 mg/600-800  Ibs)
should be  given  at three hour intervals for a total of three doses.
The animal should be drenched with up to 3 gallons of tepid water
every 2-3 hours for 1-2 days.  Neostigmine (1-2 ing/100  Ibs I. M. )

given concurrently with daily intravenous glucose for at least 3-4
days has given favorable  results.
      2.1.6  Prevention.   Removal of animals from the range is
the best preventive measure.  If this is not possible, the addition
of 1. 9 gm of sodium arsenite/100 Ibs  of salt which is fed free choice,
is helpful.        A high protein diet has a general protective effect
and should be given along with the additive.

2.2   ATRIPLEX ROSEA L.  (Redscale)
      2.2.1  Description.   Redscale is an annual having many branches
                                and spreading stems which are coated
                                with a silvery scurf.  The leaves are
                                alternate, densely scurfy,  often turn
                                red and are ovate,  coarsely-toothed
                                or wavy margined.  The seeds  are
                                flattened having  convex sides, yel-
                                lowish brown in  color and wrinkled.
                                2. 2. 2 Distribution  and Habitat.
                                This  species  is found growing in
                                alkaline soils, along roadsides and
                                where the soil has been disturbed.
It has been reported in Frenchman's  Flat    and should be found in
all lower basins  3000  to 4000 ft. in elevation  as part of the Atriplex
and the Larrea-Franseria plant communities.
      2.2.3  Poisonous Principle.   Atriplex rosea is a secondary
or facultative selenium absorber, thus accumulating selenium when
growing in seleniferous soils.      It is probably most harmful
during its growing season, which is May through June.  Animals

most likely to be affected would be ruminants  such as cattle and
      2.2.4  Symptomatology and Pathology.   Symptoms and lesions
observed are the same as those listed under section 2. 1.4.
      2. 2. 5  Treatment.  Treatment is the same as listed under
section 2.1.5.
      2. 2. 6  Prevention.   Preventive measures are the same as
listed under  2. 1. 6.

      2. 3. 1  Description.   Halogeton is a bush similar to Russian
                               thistle, Salsola kali.  The young
                               leaf is  generally greenish purple,
                               smooth, shiny, fleshy, and sausage-
                               shaped. The mature leaf is from
                               1/4 to 3/4 inches long, somewhat
                               inflated toward the blunt  tip;  a
                               solitary hair  about 1/8 inch long,
                               bristle-like,  and somewhat curved,
                               grows out of the  extreme  leaf tip.
                                    Color of  the stem is usually
                               dark red to light purple.   As the
plant matures, the  stem color fades and becomes  straw-colored.
      Halogeton reaches the flowering and fruiting stage by late
summer.   The flower,  being small, can scarcely be seen without
magnification.   The fruit is  often thought to be the flower.  What
appear to be petals are actually bracts of the black winged seeds.
These  are  small, about 1/25 inch diameter, borne at the  bottom of

the tube-like structure formed by bases of the five seed wings.

Another type of seed is found on Halogeton that is  larger, wingless,

dark brown in color, and apparently has delayed germination.

      In Nevada a mature Halogeton plant  varies from a few inches

to two feet in height.  Less growth is  attained on dry sites or
where the plant is growing in competition  with other vegetation.

      2. 3. 2  Distribution and Habitat.  The plant  is characteristic

of salty, bare and disturbed soils of the western desert ranges.

Range lands in Nevada infested with Halogeton are usually below

7, 500 feet in elevation.  Between 5, 500 feet and 7, 500 feet ranges

are generally grazed during spring and fall, while ranges below
5, 500 feet are  ordinarily winter grazed.    Halogeton has  been

found growing on disturbed sites in the vicinity of  the Frenchman's

                             4 5
Playa on the Nevada Test Site.  '

      2.3.3  Poisonous Principle.  Oxalate which is the poisonous

principle in the plant is mostly in the  form of a soluble sodium

salt although small amounts of potassium  and calcium oxalate may

also be present.  Soluble oxalates are built up to very high con-

centrations  during the peak growth of  the plant; the maxima having

been observed from September  to February.  The green  leaves

and fruiting structures contain the  greatest concentration. With

maturity, a  reduction in oxalate concentration is brought about

by three mechanisms:  -1- loss of leaves,  -2- leaching by rain

or snow, and  -3- transformation of  soluble  to insoluble oxalates.

Levels of soluble oxalates as high as 34. 5 percent of the total

plant  composition on  a dry-weight  basis, have  been detected.

However, the average is usually within 18 to 28 percent.

      The plant is poisonous in all stages of growth; the amount of
oxalate varies with season, locality and part of plant.  However,  the
plant is usually so unpalatable that only under unusual circumstances
will animals consume enough to produce poisoning.

      2.3.4  Symptomatology and Pathology.   Under normal range
conditions only sheep are affected,  since it is unlikely that cattle will
eat enough to be poisoned unless feed is  scanty.  Twelve to eighteen
ounces of the green plant will cause acute poisoning of mature sheep.
Symptoms which appear 2-6 hours after  ingestion of a lethal dose are
due to the absorption of the soluble  oxalates into the blood stream
causing a drop in serum calcium levels.  These include dullness,
colic, depression, dyspnea, prostration and  coma.  Death occurs
about 10 hours after  ingestion.
      Post mortem findings include pulmonary hyperemia and emphy-
sema, diffuse and petechial hemorrhages throughout  the digestive
tract and pericardium, as cites, and pleural effusion.  An outstanding
lesion is usually noted in the  kidneys which are dark red in color.
The cortex and medulla are clearly separated by an accumulation
of oxalate crystals.

      2. 3. 5  Treatment.   No specific treatment for affected animals
is recommended. Calcium gluconate I.  V. has a temporary bene-
ficial affect.  Palliative treatment of animals should  include ample
fluids to decrease the precipitation of oxalate crystals in the urinary

      2.3.6  Prevention.   If other  desirable forage is available and
if animals select their own feed, they will seldom eat toxic amounts
of the plant.   Grazing management that maintains native plants in

vigorous condition or reseeding of infected areas with native grasses,
prevents heavy infestation of halogeton.  2,4-D at the rate of 2 Ibs/
acre will kill over 90% of the current season's plants.
      Supplemental feeding of 1/4-1/2 Ib of alfalfa per day will
prevent the animal from  eating toxic amounts of the plant.  Dical-
cium phosphate fed free choice is given as a  prophylactic.  Salt
should be available at all times.

      2.4.  1  Description.  This species is a perennial spiny plant
                                usually reaching a height of three
                                to five feet,  although individual
                                plants of eight feet  are often encoun-
                                tered.  The  leaves  are bright green,
                                narrow, and fleshy being almost
                                round in cross  section.   There are
                                two kinds of flowers, male and
                                female.   The male  flowers are small
                                and have somewhat of a cone-like
                                appearance; the female flowers are
                                single and become wing-like and much
                                enlarged in fruit.
      2.4.2  Distribution and Habitat.   Greasewood is commonly
found in the Western United States.  It grows  principally in the heavy
saline to saline-alkaline soils of semi-arid regions.  It is found on
flood plains, along dry washes and gullies, in areas where the  soil
is sufficiently moist and on and near Groom Playa on the  Nevada Test
Site,  at an elevation of about  4, 500 feet.

      2.4. 3  Poisonous Principle.  Toxicity is due to the high content

of sodium and potassium oxalates.  Analyses indicate that the total

oxalate content of greasewood leaves varies between 10 and 22 per-

cent on a dry weight basis, and exists mostly as  soluble salts.

Oxalate content is greatest in the leaves compared with other parts

of the plant and increases  with maturity, reaching a maximum in

August and September. The amount of plant necessary to  produce

poisoning varies  with its soluble oxalate content, time period of

ingestion,  size of animal (sheep seem to be affected more than

cattle) and presence or absence of other material in the digestive


      In the spring,  trail grazing sheep in heavily infested areas of

grease-wood may  result in tremendous losses.    Two pounds of the

green leaves and fine stems,  if consumed in a short period of time

and without other types of forage, will result in death.

      2.4.4  Symptomatology and Pathology.  Symptoms  and lesions

are the same as listed in section 2.3.4.

      2.4. 5  Treatment.   Treatment is listed under section 2. 3. 5.

      2. 4. 6  Prevention.  Poisoning is likely to  occur only in the

spring, as the young tender foliage  is quite  palatable. During this

season sheep should be kept out of greasewood ranges, or be sup-

plied with supplemental feeding such as grain or  alfalfa hay pellets

containing at least 10% dicalcium phosphate.

      Annual treatments of the range with 2,4-D  will control the

shrub.  Eradication is probably not desirable as  it is  a valuable

forage plant for cattle and sheep during the  winter months. Salt

should be available at all times.

                            Chapter 3



      3.1.1  Description.  Wild  marigold is a low growing plant densely

covered with short hairs which give it a -woolly appearance.  It has

                            numerous, alternate,  toothed leaves on

                            numerous basal branches.  The prominent

                            yellow-flowered heads on elongated stems

                            are present from spring until late fall.

                                3.1.2  Distribution and Habitat. This

                            species is commonly found on sandy soils

                            in the Larrea Franseria plant community.

                            It has been observed on disturbed sites

                            and dry slopes at 3000 to 4000 feet ele-

                            vation.  It is commonly found in all of

                            the lower basins and along the roads

                            throughout the Nevada Test Site.

      3.1.3  Poisonous Principle.  The toxic principle is unknown,

however,  the plant is known to be toxic to sheep and goats  during all

stages of  plant growth. There have been no proven cases of poisoning

in cattle and horses.   An animal must ingest large quantities of the

plant over a relatively long period  of time.  It was reported that 41 Ibs.

(green weight basis) within a 25 day period produced death in sheep.

      3.1.4  Symptomatology and Pathology.  Initial symptoms are

excessive salivation (frothy green in color), depression and anorexia.

Affected animals become sluggish and appear weak. When forced to

move they exhibit incoordination, muscular trembling and a rapid heart
beat which is audible for several feet.    Hemoglobinuria and pneumonia
have been reported in some afflicted animals.  Death occurs several
days to weeks after onset of the initial  symptoms.  Autopsy reveals
widespread petechial hemorrhages and edema.  Occasionally there are
subepicardial hemorrhages with degenerative changes in the liver and/or
kidney.  Albuminuria may result from  hyalin in the renal tubules.
Gastroenteritis and as cites are commonly found.
      3. 1.5  Treatment.  There is no specific treatment.  Animals
should be removed from the range and  supplemented with good hay.
Most animals will slowly recover if treated symptomatic ally and given
good nourishment.
      3.1.6  Prevention.  Since  animals eat Baileya only when range
forage is lacking, provision of supplemental feed or movement to better
pastures will usually prevent  poisoning.  Proper  management to main-
tain desirable range forage should eliminate the problem.  2,4-D spray-
ing of the range is effective if done following  rains.

                                3. 2. 1  Description.  This species is a
                             perennial shrub growing to a height of
                             6 feet,  having many branched and often
                             ill-smelling fibrous-barked main stems
                             from the  base.  The leafy twigs are clothed
                             with a persistent felt-like, gray,  white or
                             greenish tomentum.  The leaves are linear
                             filiform to narrowly linear-oblanceolate
                             measuring 2 to  7 cm long and 0. 5 mm
                             wide.  The flowers  are usually yellow.

      3. 2. 2  Distribution and Habitat.  It is most often seen in lower
desert washes from 3000 to 4500ft. in elevation and occasionally higher.
It grows in sandy to alkaline soils and is  commonly found in the Larrea-
Franseria and Coleogyne plant communities.  This species is fairly
common in most of the low  elevation desert drainages throughout the
Nevada Test Site.
      3. 2. 3  Poisonous Principle.  Preliminary feeding experiments
showed that this species is toxic to all livestock.  However, the toxic
principle is unknown at this time.      The spring and summer months
are regarded as the most dangerous seasons.
      3. 2.4  Symptomatology and Pathology.  A search of the literature
has not revealed any information concerning symptoms  or pathology.
      3. 2. 5  Treatment.  No specific treatment is known.
      3. 2. 6  Prevention. Since the plant is unpalatable it may be as-
sumed that with proper range management there should not be any

                               3.  3. 1  Description. This species is  a
                             densely branched  perennial resinous shrub,
                             usually growing to two feet in height.  The
                             main stems are woody, bearing numerous
                             herbaceous leafy branches on which the
                             lower leaves are shed at maturity.  The
                             leaves are numerous, alternate, linear,
                             reflexed from the stem and range from
                             3/4 to 2 inches long.
                               3.  3. 2  Distribution and Habitat.  Broom-
                             weed is commonly found growing in sandy

to semi-sandy soils usually in areas of improper range practices.  It
is common in Coleogyne, Artemisia,  Artemisia - Pinon - Juniper  plant
communities of Forty-mile Canyon, washes of Southwest Frenchman,
and in the vicinity of Cane Springs.
      3. 3. 3  Poisonous Principle.  Extracts from this plant yield saponin
which is most toxic in the stage of leaf formation.  Sheep and cattle are
especially susceptible under range conditions.
      3. 3.4  Symptomatology and Pathology.  The most common result
of poisoning is abortion although death may result in acute cases.  Cows
may abort in various stages or produce weak underweight calves.  Re-
tained placenta is a sequel to the birth or abortion.   Cows that do not
abort may exhibit periodic vulvar swelling and premature preparturient
udder development.
      Symptoms in severely poisoned  sheep  and cattle include listlessness,
anorexia, rough coat and hematuria.  Cattle may also have  a desquam-
mating muzzle accompanied by a nasal discharge.  Sheep occasionally
show generalized icterus.
      Autopsy reveals degenerative  changes  in the liver and kidneys and
gastroenteritis.  The subcutaneous fat and connective tissue may show
icterus.  The uterus is edematous and hydrops may be observed in the
fetal membrane.
      3. 3. 5  Treatment.  No specific treatment is known.   Animals
should be removed from the range and given supplemental feed.
      3.3.6  Prevention.  Other forms of dry feed should be given  to
animals grazing on broomweed infested ranges.   The herbicide 2,4-5-T
has been used to decrease the population of the plants with favorable

      3.4. 1  Description.  This species is a low, erect perennial that
grows to a height of 18 inches.  The leaves are alternate,  simple,  long
and thread-like.  The yellow flowers are found clustered in small bunches.
                               3.4.2  Distribution and Habitat. It grows
                            in sandy soils and usually is  seen along
                            roadsides and on disturbed sites.   It  is
                            common in the Larrea-Franseria  plant
                            community and has been found growing
                            in the Forty-mile Canyon basin.      This
                            species is fairly common throughout  the
                            Nevada Test Site at 3000  to 4500ft. in
                               3.4.3  Poisonous Principle.  Snakeweed
                            is a secondary or facultative  selenium ab-
sorber, thus accumulating selenium when growing in seleniferous soils,
being most dangerous during the period of first growth during the spring
and summer months.
 , .   ,    18
this plant.
Cattle,  sheep and goats have been poisoned by
      3.4.4  Symptomatology and Pathology.  Symptoms and lesions are
the same as listed under section 2. 1.4.
      3.4. 5  Treatment.  Treatment is the same as listed for section
      3.4.6  Prevention.  Preventive measures are the same  as listed
for 2. 1.6.


      3.5.1  Description.   This  species is somewhat openly branched

at the base.  It is one to six inches high and 1-1/3 times as broad.

                            The leaves are scurfy-pubescent and

                            fanshaped.  The flowers are yellow to

                                 i  •         13
                            purple in color.

                                3.5.2 Distribution and Habitat.   It is

                            found in dry,  sandy and often alkaline soils,

                            especially creek beds and dry washes.  It

                            has been reported on disturbed sites-in

                            Rock Valley,  Jackass, Frenchman and
                            Yucca Flats.      Plants are  common in

                            the L/arrea-Franseria and Coleogyne plant

                            communities at elevations 3000  to 6000ft.

However, it has been found at higher elevations.

      3.5.3  Poisonous Principle. The poisonous principle is unknown.

Experimental feedings of 1% body weight have proved that single doses

are lethal to  sheep in less than 24 hours.  The plant may be eaten by

cattle under adverse  range conditions, but no natural cases of poisoning

have been reported.      The species is most toxic during the  spring and

summer months.

      3.5.4  Symptomatology and Pathology. Sheep,  following toxic

doses, exhibit signs -which include general weakness, incoordination,

and depression followed by coma and death.  If  sheep are fed sublethal

doses daily,  icterus develops.

      On autopsy, the liver is swollen, friable and has a nutmeg appearance.

On microscopic examination bile ducts are distended and few normal

hepatic  cells are found.

      3. 5. 5  Treatment.  There is no specific treatment for this


      3.5.6  Prevention.  Good range management is the best pre-

ventive measure,  as animals will not eat this plant if more palatable

grasses and forbs are available.


      3. 6. 1  Description.  This species is a perennial that grows to a

height of 3 feet. The lower leaves  are mostly ovate or obovate, entire

to dentate.  The relatively few composite heads are in terminal flat-

                             topped open clusters and are yellow to a

                                      V.-4.   16
                             creamy white.

                                 3.6.2 Distribution and Habitat.  It

                             has been reported to be in the Artemisia-

                             Pinon-Juniper plant communities ,

                             being rare to occasional at levels from

                             5000 to 6500 feet elevation.

                                 3.6.3 Poisonous Principle.  Senecio

                             alkaloids belong to a single group, the

                             pyrrolizidine alkaloids. On hydrolysis

                             these alkaline esters  break apart to yield

a nitrogen-containing fraction called necine.   Necine in  sufficient quantity

may produce death in sheep,  goats, cattle, hogs, and horses.  The

plant is not preterentially grazed,  but is utilized when more desirable

forage plants are not available.    It is most toxic  during the spring

and summer  months.

      3.6.4  Symptomatology and Pathology.  Doses of 1 to 5% of an
animal's weight fed at one time or over a few days will cause acute
poisoning. Ingestion of small daily doses over a period of several
weeks will result in chronic poisoning.    Cattle and horses  are
equally sensitive to the toxic effects but sheep are more resistant
and require roughly twice as large a dose for the same effect.
      Symptoms appear abruptly and usually terminate in death within
a week.  There is icterus of mucous membranes, a  peculiar sweetish
unpleasant odor from the skin and milk, weakness,  uneasiness, ab-
dominal pain, emaciation and depraved appetite.  Animals may die
quietly  or restlessness may increase.  The  animal may wander aim-
lessly,  stagger, have  a staring expression and run into fences or other
objects.  They may lean or push against these objects and become
hyperexcitable. A prolapsed rectum may be present as a result of
tenesmus associated with diarrhea.
      Lesions are almost entirely the result of specific hepatic injury
produced  by the Senecio alkaloids.  There is hepatic cirrhosis, edema
of the visceral peritoneum and distention of the gall  bladder.  There
may be  degenerative changes in the kidneys  of cattle.

      3.6. 5  Treatment.  Treatment is of uncertain  value but provision
of high  intake of carbohydrates by forced oral or intravenous feeding
may help  the animal during the period  of severe liver dysfunction.
Treatment of race horses with crystalline methionine has proven

      3.6.6  Prevention.  Good range  management that provides ade-
quate grasses and forbs will prevent a  toxicity problem from arising
as groundsel is not very palatable.  The herbicide 2,4-D in its ester
form is effective for destroying the plant in  pasture  land.


3.7   SENECIO SPARTOIDES  T AND G (Broom Groundsel)
      3.7. 1  Description.  This  species is a coarse and bushy perennial
that is scurfy throughout.  It is 6 inches to two feet tall.  The leaves
are mostly entire, narrowly linear and up to 3 inches long.  The flowers
are mostly yellow.

                                3.7.2 Distribution and Habitat.  It is
                            common in the Artemisia  - Pinon-Juniper
                            plant communities  in Silent Canyon and on
                            Pahute Mesa.     It may be found in areas
                            from 5000 to 6500 ft. elevation and in soil
                            types classified as stony sandy loam.

                                3.7.3 Poisonous Principle.  The poisonous
                            principle,  necine,is identical to  that found
                            in Senecio integerrimus.

      3.7.4  Symptomatology and Pathology. Senecio spartoides is
slightly more toxic than Senecio  integerrimus.  Symptoms and lesions
are the same as those listed under 3.6.4.

      3. 7. 5  Treatment. Statements made in  section 3. 6. 5 apply here.

      3.7.6  Prevention.  See comments listed under section 3. 6. 6.

3. 8   TETRADYMIA CANESCENS (D. C.) (Spineless Horsebrush)
                                3.8. 1  Description.  The stems  and
                            leaves  of this perennial are  covered with
                            dense,  persistent woolly hair which im-
                            parts a whitish cast.  The leaves are alter-
                            nate, single, linear and about one inch
                            i     16

                                3. 8. 2 Distribution and Habitat.
                             Tetradymia  canescens  is  common

on. sandy and rocky hillsides and plains 4000' to 7000' elevation in the

southwestern deserts.   It is commonly found in the Artemisia-Pinon-

Juniper plant community on the Nevada Test Site. It has been found on

Rainier Mesa and in Forty-mile Canyon basin.

      3. 8. 3  Poisonous  Principle.  The poisonous principle is unknown.

Feeding experiments have shown that it is toxic to sheep especially

during the spring to fall months.

      3.8.4  Symptomatology and Pathology.  Symptoms will  either be

those of acute toxicity or those of photosensitization called "Bighead".

In acute toxicity, symptoms begin 16 to 24 hours after consumption of

the plant.  Affected sheep  lag behind the flock and show anorexia, de-

pression, muscle twitching, incoordination, extreme weakness,  prostra-

tion,  convulsions, coma and death.  If animals  survive longer than 3

days, they usually develop signs of photosensitization.  There is redness

and swelling of the skin  of the face,  lips, ears and submandibular space,

itching and uneasiness.  The ears hang down due to increased weight,

serum oozes from the swollen areas dries and results in a mass of

scabs.  Eyes become intensely inflamed and blindness may result.

      Animals that die of acute toxicity show a markedly enlarged and

engorged liver.   Occasionally the capsule has ruptured due to the ex-

tensive hemorrhage.  There are marked degenerate changes in the liver

on histopathology. No icterus  is observed.  The gall bladder  is distended,

kidney shows low grade nephritis, and there may be petichial  hemorrhages

in the subcutis.   Necropsy examination of "Bighead" presents  a similar

picture except the liver shows  more advanced fatty degeneration  and may

be smaller than normal.

      3. 8. 5  Treatment.   Affected sheep must  be removed from the

range and sunlight, kept in the shade, treated with antihistamine and

allowed to graze only at  night.


      3. 8. 6  Prevention.  Tetradymia is not palatable to sheep and is
relatively non-toxic when mature.  Therefore, poisoning usually occurs
while trailing the sheep from winter range to summer ranges.  Herders
can prevent losses by avoiding spineless horsebrush ranges while
trailing sheep and by not permitting the animals to graze in the infested
areas immediately after watering.  Supplemental feeding at this time
will prevent ingestion of the plant.  Practical methods of eradication
have not been developed.

3.9   TETRADYMIA GLABRATA (GRAY) (Little-Leaf Horsebrush)
      3.9. 1  Description.   This shrub has leaves  of two types; the
primary leaves are sharply pointed and slightly less than 1/2 inch long
and the secondary leaves are clustered in angles of shed primary leaves,
fleshy,  blunt-typed, and slightly less than  1/2 inch long. The flowers
      n    •     i    16
are yellow in color.

                                3.9.2  Distribution and Habitat.  Tetradymia
                             glabrata has been reported in Mid Valley,
                             Yucca and Forty-mile Canyon in the Grayia
                             lycium, Coleogyne, and Artemisia plant

                                3.9.3  Poisonous Principle.  The poison-
                             ous principle is unknown.  However, feeding
                             experiments have shown that it is toxic to
                             sheep at about 0. 5 percent of the animal's
                             weight,  whether given in one feeding or in
                             lesser amounts repeatedly over a longer
                             period of time.  Attempts to poison  cattle
experimentally have not been successful.     The species is most toxic
during the spring to fall months.

      3.9-4  Symptomatology and Pathology.  Symptoms and lesions

are identical to those described under section 3.8.4.

      3.9- 5  Treatment.  Treatment is the same as described under

section 3.8.5

      3.9.6  Prevention.  Preventive measures are identical to those

described under section 3.8.6.

3.10  TETRADYMIA AXILL.ARIS  A. NELS.  (Horsebrush)

      3. 10. 1 Description.  This is a shrub that grows up to three feet

in height.  The leaves are about one cm long.  Conspicuous straight

spines on the stems are at least 1. 5 cm long  and occasionally longer.

                               3. 10. 2  Distribution and Habitat.
                             Tetradymia axillaris has been reported

                             as being occasional in the Grayia-lycium,

                             Cqlepgyne, Artemisia and sometimes in
                             the Larrea-Franseria plant communities.

                             It usually grows in a sandy to a sandy loam

                             type of soil from 3000 to 4500 ft. in elevation.

                               3. 10. 3   Poisonous Principle.  The

                             poisonous principle of this species is

                             unknown, however, feeding experiments

have shown that it has the capacity for producing photosensitization in

sheep.     The plant is especially toxic during the spring and summer


      3. 10.4 Symptomatology and Pathology.  Symptoms and lesions are

identical to those described under section  3.8.4.

      3. 10. 5 Treatment.  Treatment is the same as described under

section 3. 8. 5.

      3. 10.6 Prevention.  Preventive measures are the same as described

under section 3.8.6.

                            Chapter 4

      4. 1. 1  Description.  Yellow tansy mustard is an annual that grows
up to two  feet tall.   The stems and leaves are covered with a fine pubes-
cence -which gives the  plant a whitish appearance.  The flowers  are small
with four  spreading yellow to yellowish-green to white petals.
                               4. 1. 2 Distribution and Habitat. The
                             plant is widely distributed throughout the
                             southwestern United States, forming heavy
                             stands on dry sandy soils in arid regions.
                             It is much more abundant during the summers
                             that follow moderate winter rains. This
                             species is fairly common in the lower basins
                             throughout the Nevada Test Site, especially
                             in the Larrea Franseria plant community
                             at elevations from 3000 to 4000 feet.
      4. 1. 3  Poisonous Principle.  The poisonous principle is unknown.
Despite similarity  of the  symptoms with those produced in one type of
selenium  poisoning, selenium content found in the plant is insufficient
to produce the disease.      Poisoning usually occurs in cattle  on range
lands in the southwest where  the diet consists almost entirely of this
      4. 1.4  Symptomatology and Pathology.   Symptoms of tansy mustard
poisoning, referred to as "paralyzed tongue", are similar to those ob-
served in the  "Blind Staggers".  There is a partial or total  blindness
accompanied by inability to use the tongue or to swallow. Animals wander

aimlessly or push against objects.  They may stand by water but are

unable to eat or drink.  Animals gradually become emaciated, weakened

and eventually die if not treated.

      4. 1. 5  Treatment.   Treatment is simple and effective.  Animals

are removed from the range, given water and nutrients twice daily via

stomach tube.  As the digestive system starts to function, symptoms

gradually disappear.

      4. 1. 6  Prevention.  Because toxicity only appears when the diet

is predominantly that of tansy mustard, careful range management and

herbicide application will prevent a heavy infestation and  therefore pre-

vent any occurrence of poisonings.


      4.2.1  Description. This species is  a native, perennial, half-

shrub having a woody crown and several stout spreading stems that may

reach a height of two feet.  Its leaves are large,  pale-green and some-

                             what thickened, fleshy, and  located mostly

                             on the lower half of the stem.  Brilliant

                             plumes of yellow flowers on the upper

                             part of the main stems produce a number

                             of narrow twisted seed-pods.

                                 4. 2. 2 Distribution and  Habitat.  This

                             species is principally found  in  sandy washes,

                             though not confined to them,  at elevations

                             from 3000 to  4500 ft.  A moderate number

                             of plants are  found growing  on the cattle

range area of the Nevada Test Site.  It is also abundant with Atriplex

canescens on and near Frenchman's Flat.

      4. 2. 3  Poisonous Principle.  The poisonous principle is selenium.
The presence of the plant is perhaps the best indicator of selenium in
the soil because selenium is always present where this species grows.
All grazing animals are in danger from this species, especially during
the spring and summer months.

      4.2.4  Symptomatology and Pathology. Ingestion of sufficient
amounts of the plant may cause the  same symptoms  as listed in  section
2. 1.4.  Under forced feeding conditions acute selenium toxicity  may
result.  Symptoms of acute toxicity are uncertain gait, labored respira-
tion with froth at the mouth, dilated pupils, and prostration.  Death is
due to respiratory failure occuring  in a few hours.  Lesions -would  be
those associated -with respiratory failure,  e.g. ,  pulmonary edema,
congestion and endocardial  hemorrhages.

      4. 2. 5  Treatment.  No satisfactory treatment is available for acute
selenium poisoning.  However, the  treatments  listed in section 2. 1. 5
should be attempted,  if feasible.

      4. 2. 6  Prevention.  This plant is not palatable and will not be
eaten if the range is in good condition.  Grubbing of plants  and spraying
with one tablespoon of 2,4-D/qt.  of water will prevent growth.

                            Chapter 5


5.1   QUERCUS GAMBELII (NUTT) (Gambel's Oak)

      5. 1. 1  Description.  This species is a native perennial, woody

shrub or small tree that may reach a height of 15 feet and is sometimes

referred to as scrub oak.  It has the characteristic oak leaf and acorns

like those of  other oaks that have nuts partly enclosed in a rough cup.

                               5.1.2  Distribution and Habitat.  Scrub
oak grows on foothills and low mountain

ranges of the southwestern United States.

It is most common in the Pinon-Juniper

woodland and Chaparral range types.
                               Oak is noted to be common in the Pinon-

                            Juniper communities on the Nevada Test

                            Site,  growing between 5000 to 6000 ft. in


      5.1.3  Poisonous Principle.   Toxicity of oak is attributed to its

tannin content.     Sheep and cattle losses usually occur in the spring

of the year when the oaks are showing young green leaves, buds and


      5. 1.4  Symptomatology and Pathology.  More than 50% of the diet

must  consist of immature oak parts in order for poisoning to occur.

      Poisoned animals are gaunt,  weakened and show a tucked up  abdomen.

They  tend to remain near water and in the shade as the animals have

excessive thirst and frequent urinations.  There is severe constipation

with terminal diahrrea, the feces being dark, mucoid and bloody.  Death

occurs 3 to 10 days after  symptoms occur.

      Lesions are principally those of hemorrhagic gastroenteritis and
nephritis.  The kidney is swollen and pale with some petechial hemorrhage.
Subcutaneous edema is common and large amounts of fluid are found in
the body cavities.
      5. 1. 5  Treatment.  There is no specific antidote.  The animals
should be removed from pasture, given liberal amounts of water and
magnesium sulphate via stomach tube and provided with easily digestible
      5. 1.6  Prevention.  Supplemental feeding of alfalfa during the
danger period will  prevent poisoning as relatively large amounts of
oak must be ingested for toxicity to occur.  Excessive  oak growth may
be controlled by chemical methods.

                            Chapter 6
6. 1   CORYDALIS AUREA (WILLD) (Fitweed)
      6. 1. 1  Description. This winter annual is 4 to 16 inches in height
and branches from the base.  The flowers are golden yellow 12 to 15 mm
long.  The spur is about half as long as the petals.
                                6.1.2 Distribution and Habitat.  It has
                             been found on Bald Mountain and on Groom
                             Lake , growing in a sandy to sandy loam
                             type of soil.  The elevational range and
                             the vegetation types seem to be quite variable.

                              6. 1. 3  Poisonous Principle.  The  poison-
                             ous principles are isoquinoline-structured
                             alkaloids.  Plants containing these  alka-
                             loids have been suspected of causing losses
                             in sheep and cattle especially during the
                             late winter and early  spring months.

      6.1.4  Symptomatology and Pathology.   Feeding experiments show
consumption of 2% of the  body weight of the plant will produce acute
toxicity and 5% will cause death.    Principla symptoms are depression,
accelerated pulse and respiration,  twitching  of the  facial muscles, aim-
less movement, staggering, convulsions,  prostration and death.   Sharp
stimulation during the convulsion immediately results in muscular
rigidity.  A characteristic symptom is the chewing of any foreign object
within reach.  Lesions are  not specific and consist chiefly of congestion
and irritation of the gastrointestinal tract.

      6.1.5  Treatment.  No specific antidote is known.  Supplemental
feeding and removal from range are the only recommendations that can
be given.

      6.1.6  Prevention.  Spraying with herbicide, mechanical grubbing
and good range management will keep the greater majority of growth
to a minimum.  Because the  plants are quite palatable, shaded areas
where it grows should be fenced.

                            Chapter 7
7. 1   ASTRAGALUS LENTIGINOSUS (DOUGL.)  (Spotted Loco Weed)
      7.1.1  Description.  This species is a perennial, about one foot
tall having branches radiating from the base. The stems are sparsely
hairy or smooth, and have leaves that are 1 to 2-1/2 inches long.  The
                            flower bearing stems are shorter than the
                            leaves.  The flowers are densely crowded
                            and white or purplish in color.  The pods
                            are broadly ovate,  2-celled, about 1/2 to
                            2/3 inch long,  straw colored or purple -
                            mottled, rather shiny and more or less
                            grooved  on each side.
                               7.1.2  Distribution and Habitat. There
                            are over 100 species of Astragalus found
                            throughout the west.  The plants are more
                            widely distributed and more abundant than
any other species of range plant.  This particular species grows from
3500 to 7000 ft.  elevation on plains and mesas, usually in sandy soil,
and is  common in nearly all vegetation types and in most of the basins
throughout the Nevada Test Site.

      7.1.3  Poisonous Principle.  The toxic principle is unknown.  An
isolated substance gave a positive test with many of the standard alka-
loidal reagents but did not meet all the characteristics of an alkaloid.
The substance was named "locoine".  Not all species are poisonous;
however,  as a genus, loco weeds are probably as dangerous a group

of poisonous plants as occurs in the West.  Some authorities rank them

as the most destructive of all poisonous plants because they are poison-

ous to all species of livestock especially during the spring months.

      7. 1.4  Symptomatology and Pathology. Symptoms in sheep and

cattle appear after ingestion of  approximately 90% of the animal's body

weight over a period of 2 months.  Death will result from ingestion of

320% of the body weight over 3 months.  Horses are much more suscep-

tible than either  sheep or cattle.    Symptoms are emaciation, loco-

motor ataxia, nervousness, loss of sense of direction,  weakness,

muscualr tremor, withdrawal from other animals and  often a violent

reaction when disturbed.  Hyperexcitability is more common in cows

and horses and depression in sheep.  Final stages are characterized

by inability to eat or drink.  Abortion is common.

      Lesions are non-specific.  There may be ulceration of the aboma-

sum in the region of the pyloric orifice and generalized edema.  Exten-

sive edema of fetal membranes  has been observed.

      7. 1. 5  Treatment.  There is no specific treatment.  Removal of

animals from the range to prevent addiction to the plant is necessary.

If animals are prevented from feeding on this plant,  they will usually

slowly recover.  The feeding of laxative feeds is  of some value.

      7.1.6  Prevention.   As with most poisonous plants,  range manage-

ment so conducted as to insure an adequate supply of good forage is the

most productive preventive measure.  The growth is controlled by

spraying the actively growing or budding plants  with 2,4-D.

1' 2   LUPINUS CAUDATUS (KELL)  (Kellogg1 s Spurred Lupine)
      7. 2. 1  Description.  Range species are mostly low perennial
shrubs.  Leaves are alternate, palmately compound.  The leaflets
number 5 to 17 being mostly oblanceloate.   The flower cluster is ter-
minal,  often showy, flowers are violet-blue to white in color and the
fruit is a several-seeded, flattened legume  pod.
                                7.2.2 Distribution and  Habitat.  Lupines
                             thrive under a variety of conditions, but
                             they are especially abundant on sandy foot-
                             hills,  and pastures.  This  species  has
                             been found  in the Artemisia - Pinon-Juniper
                             plant communities on Rainier and Pahute
                             Mesas,  and also near  Topopah Springs.
                                7.2.3 Poisonous Principle.  Many
                             alkaloids have been isolated from the
                             various species of Lupinus.   The quino-
                             lizidine alkaloids are most commonly
found, but some  piperidine and other types of alkaloids may be found.
      Sheep are most commonly affected under range conditions; how-
ever, cattle, horses, goats, swine and deer have been known to  be
      7.2.4  Symptomatology and Pathology.  Signs of poisoning appear
shortly after ingestion  of the plant.    There is extreme cerebral dis-
turbance, incoordination and muscle spasms.  The affected  animal
may become frenzied,  run aimlessly or throw itself violently about.
It may butt other animals or stand with its head pressing against a tree
or other solid object.  Respiratory distress, depression and prostration
precede death.  Temperature remains normal throughout the course of
toxicity.  No pathognomonic lesions are found at autopsy.

      7. 2. 5  Treatment.  There is no successful treatment known at
 this time.
      7. 2. 6  Prevention. Animals will seldom eat enough to produce
 poisoning if other forage is available.   They should be kept away
 from patches in late summer when the plant is highly toxic and from
 dense plant stands at all times.  Supplemental feed is  required when
 passing through lupine ranges.  Actively growing plants should be
 sprayed with 2,4-D or 2,4, 5-T before they bloom.

 7.3  PROSOPIS JULIFLORA (SW.) (D.C.) (Mesquite)
      7.3.1  Description.  Mesquite is a many-branched shrub or small
 tree, 15 to 20 feet tall. It is sometimes so largely buried under the
 sand of dunes that only 2 to 3 feet  of the brownish branch tips protrude.
 Its long roots may penetrate 50 to 60 feet to moisture,  and it flowers
 from April to June.
                                7.3.2 Distribution and Habitat.  Mesquite
                             is found in sandy dry ranges, •washes, and
                             in draws at low elevations,  especially along
                             streams and where the water table is high.
                             It is fairly common in the Larrea Franseria
                             plant community between 3000  to 4000 ft. in
                             elevation and at Cane Springs on the Nevada
                             Test Site.
                                7.3.3  Poisonous Principle.  The poison-
                             ous principle is unknown.  However,  it is
                             believed that the high sucrose content of the
beans alter rumen bacteria flora to such an extent that cellulose cannot
be synthesized.   Animals most likely affected would be cattle during
the spring and summer months.

      7.3.4  Symptomatology and Pathology.   Ingestion over an extended

period of time results in rumen stasis and impaction with associated

symptoms and death.  Symptoms characteristic of malnutrition are

emaciation, excessive salivation, sublingual and submaxillary edema.

Terminal stages may be characterized by nervousness and muscular

twitching, especially about the head.

      On autopsy,  the rumen is found to  be full of mesquite pods and

seeds.  There is a severe anemia.  The liver  and  kidneys show marked

degenerate changes.

      7. 3. 5  Treatment.  There is no  specific treatment.   The animals

should be removed from range and given rumen stimulants and laxatives.

      7.3.6  Prevention. The best preventive measure is to provide

desirable forage.

                            Chapter 8

8.1   ZYGADENUS VENENOSUS (WATS)  (Deathcamas)
      8. 1. 1  Description.  The leaves are V-shaped in cross section
and originate in a bulb, 4 to 6 inches underground.  Late in May, the
plant sends up a single 6 to 12 inch stalk, which terminates in a close
cluster of very small cream-colored flowers.   The grass-like leaves
wither after blossoming.
                               8.1.2  Distribution and Habitat.  Death-
                            camas comes up in early May or June with
                            the first grass, growing in meadows and
                            foothills at  elevations above 5000 ft.  This
                            species is occasional to common on the
                            Nevada Test Site in the Artemisia-Pinon-
                            Juniper plant communities.
                               8.1.3  Poisonous Principle.  Toxicity
                            of this plant is due to alkaloids that are
                            classified as steroid alkaloids of the
veratrum group. More sheep are lost  on early spring ranges from the
ingestion of this species than from any other poisonous plant. In general,
the losses from deathcamas  results from too early use of over use of
spring ranges.  Cattle and horses are occasionally poisoned under such
range conditions.

      8.1.4  Symptomatology and Pathology.  The average minimum
toxic doses expressed as  percent of the animal's weight of green plant
that will result in mild transient symptoms and death are 0.4% and 2%

respectively.  Excessive salivation is the first symptom noted,  which
is usually followed by increased respiration, nausea, vomiting, weak-
ness and staggering.  Animals develop convulsions followed by coma
terminating in death.  Cattle and horses show the same symptoms as
do sheep.
      There are no significant lesions on autopsy.

      8.1.5  Treatment. Subcutaneous injection of 2mg atropine sulphate
and 8mg picrotoxin in 5cc of water per 100 Ibs. of weight  should
be given every 8 hours until recovery.

      8. 1. 6  Prevention.  Because it is not feasible to eradicate the
plant, herding away from plant areas and/or  grazing the range late in
the season are the most  practical solutions.

                            Chapter 9


9.1   RUMEX CRISPUS L.  (Rhubarb)

      9.1.1  Description.  This plant is an herb that has alternate,

mostly entire leaves, and petioles sheathing the stem.  Flowers are

small, numerous, and greenish in color.  The fruit is an achene -with

a papery, three-winged covering.

                               9.1.2  Distribution and Habitat. Rhubarb

                            is a common plant of acid or sterile,

                            gravelly soils of pastures and meadows

                            at elevations up to 6500 ft.    This species

                            has  been found growing  in moist to wet

                            sites at Cane Springs and Whiterock Springs

                            on the Nevada Test Site.
                                9.1.3 Poisonous Principle.  Rhubarb

                             toxicity is produced by soluable oxalates

                             and is usually observed in the spring and

summer months.  Several cases of poisoning in sheep have occurred

during this period in which species of Rumex were suspected.

      9. 1.4  Symptomatology and Pathology. Symptoms and lesions of

affected animals are identical to those described under section 2. 3.4.

      9.1.5  Treatment.  Comments made in section 2. 3. 5 apply to this


      9.1.6  Prevention.  Comments made in section 2. 3. 6 also apply.

                            Chapter 10



      10. 1. 1  Description. This species is about one to two feet high.

The blue flowers have a characteristic prominent spur.    The leaves

appear ragged because they are made up of irregular divisions radiating

                              from the center.  The plant germinates

                              very early in the  spring and first appears

                              as little green clumps of leaves.  Later

                              in the spring the deep-blue flowers shoot

                              up above the leaves in one or more spikes
                              from 12 to 18 inches high.

                                10.1.2  Distribution  and Habitat.

                              It grows on open hillsides, benches and

                              sagebrush deserts   in  sandy to sandy

                              loam soils.  It is most prevalent during

the spring and summer months at elevations between 4500 and 6000 ft.

This species is listed as being occasional to common in the Larrea,

Grayia Lycium, Coleogyne and Artemisia plant communities in all

basins throughout the Nevada Test Site.

      10.1.3  Poisonous  Principle.  The poisonous principles are

complex diterpenoid alkaloids.  Larkspur is dangerous from the time

the plants are sufficiently large to be  grazed until they turn brown and

begin to wither.  It appears to be a little more poisonous before bloom-

ing than after it is in full  bloom. Feeding tests show that leaves,

stems, flowers,  and pods are poisonous,  but that under range con-

ditions, roots are not dangerous.

      In an experimental feeding test where large quantities of larkspur

were placed before cattle,  it was observed that the plant is much more

attractive to some cattle than to others. Some animals would readily

and quickly eat a quantity of it sufficient to produce death while others,

after days of starvation, would eat only small quantities.  These tests

indicate that on the range,  the danger from larkspur  poisoning does not

depend entirely upon abundance of the plant,  but also upon the physical

condition of the cattle, their  appetite for the plant, and the condition

of the range.

      10.1.4  Symptomatology and Pathology.  Sheep are much less

susceptible to larkspur poisoning than cattle. In cattle,  consumption

of half a pound of the plant  per  100 Ibs.  of body weight will cause

poisoning.  Affected animals  show excessive salivation, frequent

swallowing,  depressed heart  rate, struggling,  sudden falling, and

tetaniform seizures.  Constipation is a  constant symptom.  Death is

caused by respiratory paralysis or by asphyxiation which may follow

the aspiration of rumen contents.

      Lesions are not specific consisting of wide-spread  venous conges-

tion and gastrointestinal inflammation.

      10. 1. 5   Treatment.  Treatment is generally ineffective because

of the high degree of toxicity. Sixty  milligrams of physostigmine

salicylate and 120 mg of pilocarpine  hydrochloride and  20cc of water

given subcutaneously is  sufficient for a  500 Ib.  animal.

      10. 1. 6   Prevention.  The use of larkspur range for sheep during

the spring and  summer is a good management practice  as larkspur

ranges that have been cleaned out by sheep may be later grazed by

cattle.  Control in small areas  can be done by mechanical grubbing


and spraying of herbicides.  Supplementing the animal's diet with high
protein feed will aid in decreasing the hunger for succulent green plants,
thereby indirectly preventing the ingestion of toxic amounts  of larkspur.

                            Chapter 11

11.1  DATURA METELOIDES DUNAL (Western Jimson Weed)
      11.1.1  Description.  Western Jimson Weed is a large conspic-
uous grayish green perennial forming spreading clumps.  The coarse
grayish stems are erect but spreading, branched from the base 2 to
3 feet high.   The large ovate leaves are alternate,  on stout grayish
                              stocks 1 to 5 inches long.  The large
                              showy flowers are white or pale lavender,
                              short stocked and very fragrant.  They
                              are broadly funnel-shaped, 6 to 10 inches
                              long and 3 to 6 inches across, with 5
                              slender teeth 1/2 to 3/4 inch long.

                                 11. 1.2  Distribution and Habitat.
                              It is commonly found growing at eleva-
                              tions from 1000 to 7000 ft. in sandy
                              soils.  Plants are usually found along
roadsides, washes, arroyos and on gentle slopes.  This particular
species grows in Forty-mile Canyon on the Nevada Test Site.

      11.1.3  Poisonous Principle.  Toxicity is due to several sola-
naceous alkaloids of the tropane configuration, which include atropine,
hyoscyamine and hyoscine.  Total alkaloid content is high, varying
between 0. 25 and 0. 7 percent of the plant. All parts of the plant are
poisonous; the seeds being the most toxic. Losses have been reported
in all classes of livestock during the spring and summer  months.

      11. 1.4   Symptomatology and Pathology.  Ten to 14 ounces of the
green plants (0. 06 to 0. 09 percent of the animal's weight)  are usually
lethal to cattle.    However, the amount of green plants necessary to
produce toxicity may vary with climatic and seasonal factors.  Symptoms
of poisoning are essentially those observed following an overdose of
atropine.  There is dryness of the oral mucous membrane,  increased
thirst,  nausea, and disturbed vision.  Effects on the central nervous
system result  in muscular twitching, incoordination,  vertigo, hallucin-
ations and mania.  There is increased respiration and the heart beat
is rapid and weak.  During the final stages, the respiration becomes
slow, weak, and irregular.   Convulsions and  coma precede death which
results  from asphyxiation.
      Lesions  of Datura toxicity are not specific.  The alkaloids can
be detected in  the urine of a poisoned animal by placing a drop of the
urine in the eye of a laboratory animal.  If the alkaloids are present,
the pupil will be dilated.

      11.1.5   Treatment.  The first step in treatment is the removal of
the ingesta by  gastric lavage. Oral administration of tannic acid or
potassium iodide will precipitate the alkaloids.  Symptomatic relief
may be  given by the administration of cardiac and respiratory stimu-
lants.  If dyspnea is present, the use of oxygen is quite helpful.

      11. 1.6   Prevention.   Under normal range conditions, this plant
will cause  little trouble as animals will not  eat it unless forced to
through starvation and confinement within heavily infested pastures
or corrals. In small areas  the plant may be easily controlled by

11.2  NICOTIANA ATTENUATA (TORR.) (Wild Tobacco)
      11.2. 1 Description.  This is an erect, branching herbaceous
annual.  The steins are hairy,  sticky, and grow to a height of four feet.
The leaves are alternate 1-1/2  to 4 inches long.  Flowers are long-
tubular,  five parted and white in color.
                               11.2.2 Distribution and Habitat.   This
                            species is found in dry sandy stream beds
                            up to 5500 ft. in elevation. On the Nevada
                            Test Site, it is commonly seen on disturbed
                            sites in the Artemisia - Pinon-Juniper
                            plant communities.   Small populations are
                            occasionally seen in moist areas at lower
                               11.2.3 Poisonous Principle.  The alka-
                            loid nicotine has  been demonstrated,  and it
is generally assumed that nicotine is the poisonous principle.   Poisoning
has been reported in all classes of livestock during the spring and  sum-
mer months.
      11. 2.4 Symptomatology and Pathology.  The minimal lethal dose
on a green weight basis, has been found to be approximately 2% of  the
animal's weight.   Symptoms are neurogenic in origin.  Immediately
after ingestion there is salivation, nausea, vomiting,  diahrrea and
abdominal pains, muscular weakness, convulsions, tetanic spasms,
muscle twitching, collapse and  loss of reflexes.  The pulse is feeble,
extremities are cold and there is  an increase in respiratory rate.
Death may occur quickly.
      No specific lesions other  than those usually associated with anoxia
are found. There may be aspirated ingesta in the trachea and lungs.

      11. 2. 5 Treatment.  There is no specific treatment.  Respiratory
stimulants  and artificial respiration should be given.  Oral dosing with
tannic acid  may precipitate the alkaloid and retard further  absorption.
      11. 2. 6 Prevention.  This plant is relatively unpalatable.  Proper
range management should prevent its  becoming a problem.  Herbicide
application  and grubbing of plant concentrations will aid in  control of
the plant.

      11. 3. 1 Description.  This is a slender, erect,  herbaceous annual.
The stems are hairy,  sticky and grow to a height of three feet.  The
leaves are alternate two to five inches long.  The flowers are white to
yellowish and open during the day time.
                                11.3.2 Distribution and Habitat.  It is
                             found in dry desert soils usually below
                             4500 ft. in elevation and is common
                             in the Larrea-Franseria plant community
                             and throughout the lower basins of the
                             Nevada Test Site.
                                11.3.3 Poisonous Principle.   Nicotine
                             has been demonstrated and is  assumed to
                            'be responsible for the toxic effects.
                             Poisoning has been, reported in all classes
of livestock during the spring and summer months. •
      11. 3.4 Symptomatology and Pathology.  Nicotiana trigonophylla
is more toxic than Nicotiana attenuata.  Symptoms and lesions are the
same as described in section 11.2.4.

      11. 3. 5 Treatment.  Comments made in section 11. 2. 5 apply to
this plant.
      11. 3. 6 Prevention.  Comments made in section 11. 2. 6 apply here.

                            Chapter 12

12.1  TYPHA LATIFOLIA L. (Cattail)
      12. 1. 1 Description.   Common cattail is a perennial marsh herb
having erect,  unjointed pithy stems and grows from 4 to 7 feet high.
It has alternate grass-like leaves, which terminate in dense flower
                                12.1.2 Distribution  and Habitat.  It is
                            found in moist soils, marshes and ponds.
                            On the Nevada Test Site, this  species was
                            noted at Whiterock Springs at  an elevation
                            of about 5000 ft.
                                12.1.3 Poisonous Principle.  The toxic
                            principle is unknown. It has been suspected
                            of being toxic to horses.    This species
                            is toxic during all seasons of the year.
      12. 1.4 Symptomatology  and Pathology.   Cattails are reported poi-
sonous to stock when eaten in large quantities.  Symptoms include stiff-
ness, disinclination to move, profuse perspiration and muscular trembling.
      There are no specific lesions.  Presence of large amounts of the
plant in the rumen or stomach content should make one suspicious of
this  plant.
      12. 1. 5 Treatment.  There is no specific treatment.
      12. 1.6 Prevention.  No specific preventive measures are recom-
mended.  Livestock should be  supplied with water sources that are not
infested with cattails or  areas  of infestation should be fenced.

                            Chapter 13

13.1  BERULA ERECTA (HUPS.) COV. (Water Parsnip)
      13. 1. 1  Description.  This plant is an erect branching shrub 1/2
to 2 feet high.  The leaflets are ovate to oblong and are 1 to 2-1/2 inches
long.   The flower is white in color.
                                 13.1.2  Distribution and Habitat.
                              Water parsnip is usually found along water-
                              ways and in wet habitats.   It grows in
                              shallow water at Cane Spring pond ,
                              which is at an elevation of about 4000 ft.
                                 13.1.3  Poisonous Principle.   This
                              species was circumstantially incriminated
                              in losses of cattle in Canada, and on the
                              basis of this report  it must be regarded
                              as a minor problem to the livestock
industry.  The poisonous principle has not been isolated.

      13. 1.4  Symptomatology and Pathology.  There is no information
in the literature as to symptoms, lesions,  treatment or  prevention.

      13. 1.5  Treatment. Refer to statement in section 13. 1.4.

      13. 1.6  Prevention.  Refer to statement in section 13. 1.4.

                            Chapter 14
                       Z YGOPHYLLACEAE
14. 1  TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS L.  (Puncture Vine)
      14. 1. 1  Description.  This is a prostrate, trailing vine extending
out as much as six feet.    The hairy branches radiate from a slender
taproot.  When support is available,  the plant readily becomes a
scrambler or climber.  The leaves are mostly opposite and compound.
The flowers are produced singly on long stalks arising from the axils
                              of the leaves.  This  plant is readily
                              recognized by the two horned fruit which
                              is very abundant in infested areas.

                                 14.1.2  Distribution and Habitat.  It
                              is commonly seen on sandy dry soils
                              along  roadsides and  where the  soil has
                              been disturbed. It is part of the Larrea-
                              Franseria plant community at 2000 to
                              4000 ft. elevation.
      14. 1. 3  Poisonous Principle.  Steroidal saponins are the cause
of this species' toxicity.    Grazing animals affected are cattle and
sheep especially during the spring and summer months.  Morbidity
averages 10 to 30% although mortality may be as high as 90% in the
affected animals.

      14. 1.4  Symptomatology and Pathology.  This plant causes photo-
sensitization and resulting "Bighead" in sheep.  Symptoms appear 48 to
72 hours after consumption of the plant.  The animal shows the  same

symptoms as listed in section 3.8.4 as well as icteric discoloration in
the mucous membranes and skin. Keratitis may develop followed by
opacity and rupture of the cornea.
      Lesions found include subcutaneous edematous swelling of the head
which contain yellow serum.  The liver  is enlarged, yellow,  and shows
fatty degeneration. Kidneys are olive green in color and show fatty
degeneration.  Fatty changes are also seen in the myocardium.

      14. 1. 5  Treatment. Animals should be removed from the range
and kept in the shade.  Antihistamines will aid in reducing the  severity
of the symptoms.

      14. 1.6  Prevention. The  best preventive measure is proper range
management  so that more palatable plants are available.  Herbicide
applications may be of value on  some ranges.

                          TABLES I-VI

    The following tables^provide additional information concerning
poisonous plants.  The tables are keyed to the text for  easy reference;
the decimal numbers in the columns refer to the numbered paragraph
or section where the plant is described.


Below 12"     12"-24"       24"^36"       36"-48"       48"-60"       60"-72"       Above 72"
14. 1

3. 1
3. 3
4. 1
7. 1
8. 1
10. 1
13. 1
2.2 3.10 2.1 12.1
3.6 9.1 2.4
3.8 11.2 3.2
11. 1

5. 1
7. 3


11. 1
2.1 2.3 2.3 12.1
3.1 3.8 6.1
3.2 3.9
3.3 6.1
3.4 7.2
3. 10
10. 1


Selenium  Locoine   Alkaloids    Saponin   Oxalates   Nicotine   Tannin   Unknown
2.1 7.1 3.6 3.3 2.3
2.2 3.7 14.1 2.4
3.4 6.1 9.1
4.2 7.2
8. 1
10. 1
11. 1

11.2 5.1 3.1
11.3 3.2
3. 10
4. 1
7. 3
12. 1
13. 1

14. 1

3.1 7.2
3.3 12.1
3. 10 ;
5. 1
6. 1
7. 2
14. 1

3.1 7.2 2.1
3.4 2.2
7.2 2.3
7. 1
8. 1
11. 2

8.1 "

2. 1

tion and
3. 10
10. 1
11. 2
Aimless Wander-
ing and Hyper -


11. 1



TT n Frothy Emaciation
Hemoglo- } , AT .
, . . Green and Mai-?
Slobber nutrition

3.1 3.6.4
2. 1
12. 1
Hoof Deform-
. . , Photosen-* Consti-
ities and ...
TT . T sitization nation
Hair Loss

3.8 5. 1
3.9 10.. 1

7. 1

Achene	one seeded fruit
Albuminuria........  presence of albumin in the urine
Alternate.	  located singly at a node, as leaves on a stem
Anemia	a deficiency of red blood corpuscles
Annual	plant that completes its life cycle in one year
Anorexia	  loss of appetite
Artemisia.	genus name of sagebrush,  sunflower family
Ascites	,	serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity
Aspiration.	to draw in or out as by suction
Atrophy	wasting due to lack of nutrition
Bracts .............  modified leaf subtending a  flower
Chaparral	  evergreen shrub type
Cirrhosis ..........  an  interstitial inflammation with connective tissue
                         deposition, i.e., scar formation
Coleogyne ..........  genus name of blackbrush, rose family
Compound	leaves composed of two or more parts
Congenital.	occurring during fetal life, not hereditary
Cystitis ............  inflammation of the urinary bladder
Desquamation	scaling of the skin or cuticle
Diffuse	  spread, scattered
Dysfunction	  abnormality or impairment of function
Dyspnea.	  labored or  difficult breathing
Edema	condition where the body tissues contain an exces-
                         sive amount of fluid
Emaciation	  state of being extremely lean
Emphysema	distention of tissues by gas or air
Enteritis	inflammation of the intestines
Filiform ...........  threadlike
Franseria	genus name of bunobush, sunflower family
Friable	  easily broken
Gastroenteritis	inflammation of the stomach and bowels
Gestation	  period of development from conception to birth
Glomerulonephritis. .  inflammation of the kidneys, primarily of the
Hematuria	blood  in the urine
Hemorrhagic	 .  marked by  hemorrhage  (escape  of blood from the
Hepatic .."..	  pertaining to the liver
Herbaceous.........  non woody  :
Histopathology......  study  of diseased tissues
Hydrops.	dropsy or edema

Hyperemia.	unusual amount of blood with distention of blood
Hyperexcitability . ... excessive excitement
Inappetence	loss of appetite or desire
Ingesta .............food or drink
Keratitis	...... inflammation of the cornea
Larrea ............. genus  name of  creosote bush, caltrop family
Mania.............. a mental disorder distinguished by excessive
                        excitement or enthusiasm; violent desire or
Mydriatic........... pertaining to dilation of the pupil of the eye
Necropsy «.	 examination of a dead body
Necrosis ........... death of tissue or bone
Nephritis	inflammation of the kidney
Neurogenic	 of nervous origin, stimulated by the nervous
Opacity............. lack of transparency
Opposite............ leaves in pairs one on either side of the node
Pathognomonic ...... characteristic  symptom of a disease,  distinguish^
                        ing it from other diseases
Perennial.	plant that continues to live year after year
Pericardium........ fibroserous sac enclosing the heart
Petechial........... presence of small hemorrhage on a surface  such
                        as the skin
Prophylaxis	 observance of rules necessary to prevent disease
Pubescence ......... covered with hairs
Scurfy. .........»*.. covered with minute scales
Spike. .............. elongated inflorescence of sessile or subsessile
Subcutaneous........ beneath the skin, hypodermic
Syndrome........... a group of symptoms  which, when considered
                        together,  characterize a disease or lesion
Tenesmus .......... spasmodic contraction of anal or vesical sphincter
Tepid	..•«*...*.« slightly warm, lukewarm
Tetaniform  ......... resembling tetanus
Tomentum ........«» a covering of woolly matted hairs
Vertigo. ............ a whirling around
Vulvar ............. pertaining to the external female genitalia

1.  Abrams,  Leroy
    (1944) Illustrated Flora of the Pacific States Washington, Oregon
           and California, Buckwheats to Kramerias-Vol. II, Stanford
           University Press,  Stanford,  California

2.  Abrams,  Leroy and Roxana Stinchfield Ferris
    (I960) Illustrated Flora of the Pacific States Washington, Oregon
           and California, Bignonias to Sunflowers-Vol. IV, Stanford
           University Press,  Stanford,  California

3.  Arizona Ranch, Farm, and Garden Weeds
    (1958) Agricultural Extension Service Circular 265, University of
           Arizona,  Tucson,  Arizona

4.  Beatley,  Janice C.
    (1963) Vascular Plants of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission,
           Nevada Test Site,  Nye County,  Nevada,  July University
           of California,  Los Angeles UCLA-508

5.  Beatley,  Janice C.
    (1965) Ecology of the Nevada Test Site I Geographic and Ecological
           Distributions of the Vascular Flora, April  University of
           California,  Los Angeles  UCLA-12-553

6.  Blood, D.C. and J.A.  Handerson
    (1963) Veterinary Medicine  Second Edition; The Williams and
           Wilkins Company,  Baltimore

7.  Burge,  Lee M.  and John L. O'Hara DVM
    (1952) Halogeton in Nevada - Animal Poisoning and Control Studies
           Nevada State Department of Agriculture; Bulletin No. 4

8.  Fleming,  C.E.,  M.R. Miller andL.R. Vawter
    (1923) The Low Larkspur University of Nevada, Reno,  Nevada,

9.  Fenley, John M.
    (1952) How to  Live with Halogeton by Limiting its  Spread Agri-
           cultural Extension Service, University  of Nevada,

10. Gibbons,  Walter J.
    (1963) Diseases of Cattle American Veterinary Publications,  Inc.,
           Santa Barbara, California

11. Holmgren, Arthur H.
    (1958) Weeds of Utah Special Report No. 12 Agricultural Experi-
           ment Station, Logan, Utah,  September

12. Jaeger, Edmund C.
    (1958) Desert Wild  Flowers Stanford University Press, Stanford,

13. Jepson, Willis Linn
    (1951) A  Manual of  the Flowering Plants of California University
           of California  Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles

14. Judd, Ira B.
    (1962) Principal Forage Plants of Southwestern Ranges Station
           Paper No. 69, September; Rocky Mountarn Forest and Range
           Experiment Station, Fort Collins, Colorado

15. Kearney,  Thomas H.  and Robert H. Peebles
    (I960) Arizona Flora University of California Press, Berkeley
           and Los  Angeles

16. Kingsbury,  John M.
    (1964) Poisonous Plants of the United States and Canada December
           Prentice-Hall, Inc.

17. Marsh, Hadleigh DVM
    (1965) Newson's Sheep Diseases Third Edition;  The Williams and
           Wilkins  Company, Baltimore

18. Poisonous Grassland Plants
    (1959) Section four of a series, Phillips Petroleum Company

19. Radeleff, R.D.  DVM
    (1964) Veterinary Toxicology Lea and Febiger Philadalphia

20. Range Plants  Poisonous to Livestock in Montana
    (1952) Circular 197; Agricultural Experiment Station,  Bozeman,
           Montana, January

21. Robbins,  W.W., M. K. Bellue and W. S.  Ball
    (1951) Weeds of California  California State Department of Agriculture

22. Stoddart,  Laurence A.  and Arthur D.  Smith
    (1955) Range Management Second Edition;  McGraw-Hill Book
           Company,  Inc.

23. Stoddart,  L.A., A.H. Holmgren and C. W. Cook
    (1949) Important Poisonous  Plants of Utah, Special Report No. 2
           Agricultural Experiment Station, Utah State Agricultural
           College, Logan,  Utah

24. Texas Range Plants Poisonous to  Livestock
    (1955) Texas Agricultural Experiment Station - Texas Agricul-
           tural Extension Service, College Station,  Texas, February

25. The Merck Veterinary Manual
    (1961) Second Edition, Merck and Company, Inc., Rahway, N. J.

26. 16 Plants  Poisonous to Livestock  in the Western States
    (1964) Farmer's Bulletin No.  2106, U.S. Department of Agriculture


           The authors gratefully acknowledge the great amount of help.and

       assistance rendered by many people.  We are especially indebted to

       Dr. Ronald E. Engel for painstaking review and assembly of the manu-
       script; to  Miss Linda Watkins for her  drawing of Datura meteloides;

       to K. W. Hill for the permission to  use the illustration of Halogeton

       glomeratus in special report No. 2 "Important Poisonous  Plants of Utah",

       June 1949, Utah Agricultural Experiment Station;, for the use of the

       illustrations Prosopis juliflora and Quercus gambelii  in Station Paper

       No. 69, "Principle Forage Plants of Southwestern Ranges" by Ira Judd,

       September 1962; and Tetradymia axillaris in miscellaneous  publication

       No. 101 "Important Western Browse Plants" by William A.  Dayton,
       1931; and  to Mrs.  Grace Strahm for the permission to use the following


       OREGON, AND CALIFORNIA,  BY Leroy Abrams,
       VOLUME  I, Ferns to Birthworts, 1940.  Stanford University Press.
       Copyright 1923 and 1940 by  the Board  of Trustees of the Leland Stanford
       Junior  University.
       Figure 165, p. 80     Typha latifolia.   Broad-leaved Cattail.
              923, p. 377    Zygadenus venenosus.  Deadly Zygadene or Death-

Ibid.   VOLUME  II,  Buckwheats to Kramerias, 1944.  Stanford University
       Press.  Copyright 1944 by the Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford
       Junior  University.
       Figure 1433, p. 52    Rumex crispus.  Curley=leaved or Yellow Dock.
              1506, p. 80    Atriplex rosea.   Red Orache or Saltbush.
              1535, p. 88    Atriplex canescens.  Hoary Saltbush.
              1549, p. 93    Sarcobatus vermiculatus.  Greasewood.
              1798, p. 192   Delphinium parishii.  Parish's Larkspur.
              1916, p. 237   Corydalis aurea.  Golden Corydalis.
              1921, p. 241   Stanleya pinnata.  Golden Prince's Plume,  Desert
                  .  ,          Plume
              2005, p. 272   Descurainia pinnata subsp Menziesii.   Western
                  .  ,          Tansy Mustard.

       Figure 2591, p. 501
              2878, p.604
Lupinus caudatus.  Kellogg's Spurred Lupine.
Astragalus lentiginosus.  Mottled Rattleweed.
Ibid.   VOLUME III, Geraniums to Figworts, 1951.  Stanford University Press.
       Copyright 1951 by the Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior

       Figure 3003, p. 15    Tribulus terrestris.  Land Caltrop of Puncture
              3502, p. 232   Berula erecta.  Cut-leaved Water Parsnip.
              4512, p. 679   Nicotiana trigonophylla. Desert Tobacco.
              4513, p. 685   Nicotiana attenuata.  Coyote  Tobacco.

       OREGON, AND CALIFORNIA,  BY Leroy Abrams and Roxana Stinchfield
       Ferris, VOLUME IV, Bignonias to Sunflowers,  I960.  Stanford Univer-
       sity Press.  Copyright I960 by the  Board of Trustees of the Leland
       Stanford Junior University.                          \
       Figure 5317, p. 197
              5430, p.261

              5431, p.261

              5511, p. 302
              5745, p. 435
              5752, p. 437

              5796, p.457
              5805, p. 463
              5806, p.463
Baileya multiradiata.  Wild Marigold.
Gutierrezia sarothrae.  Common Matchweed or
Gutierrezia microcephala.  Small-headed Match-
Chrysothamnus nauseosus.  Common Rabbitbrush.
Senecio spartiodes.  Narrow-leaved Butterweed.
Senecio integerrimus var. exaltatus.  Single-
   stemmed Butterweed.
Psathyrotes annua.  Mealy Rosettes .
Tetradymia canescens.  Spineless Horsebrush.
Tetradymia glabrata.  Little-leaf Horsebrush.


1-15   SWRHL, Las Vegas,. Nevada
   16   James E. Reeves, Manager,. NVOO/AEC, Las  Vegas, Nevada
   17   Robert H.  Thalgott, NVOO/AEC, Las Vegas, Nevada
   18   Chief, NOB, DASA, NVOO/AEC, Las Vegas, Nevada
   19   D.  H. Edwards,  Safety Evaluation Div. ,  NVOO/AEC, Las Vegas,  Nev.
   20   R.  C. Emens, NTS Support Office, AEC,  Mercury, Nevada
   21   Martin B.  Biles,  DOS, USAEC,  Washington,  D. C.
   22   John S. Kelly, DPNE, USAEC,  Washington,  D. C.
   23   J.  C.  Pales,  ARFRO, ESSA, NVOO/AEC, Las Vegas, Nevada
   24   G.  D. Ferber, ARL, ESSA,  Washington,  D. C.
   25   Ernest C.  Anderson, NCRH,  PHS,  Rockville,  Maryland
   26   James G. Terrill, Jr. , Director, NCRH,  PHS,  Rockville, Maryland
   27   Donald J. Nelson,  NCRH,  PHS,  Rockville, Maryland
   28   Bernd Kahn,  NCRH, RATSEC, Cincinnati, Ohio
   29   Arve H.  Dahl, NCRH, PHS,  Rockville, Maryland
   30   R.  T. Moore,  PHS, Region VII, Dallas,  Texas
   31   Northeastern Radiological Health Lab. ,  Winchester, Mass.
   32   Southeastern Radiological  Health Lab. , Montgomery,  Alabama
   33   William  C.  King, LRL,  Mercury,  Nevada
   34   John W.  Gofman, LRL,  Livermore, California
   35   William  E.  Ogle, LASL, Los Alamos,  New Mexico
   36   Ed Fleming, LRL, Livermore, California
   37   Harry S. Jordan, LASL, Los Alamos,  New Mexico
   38   Robert H.  Goeckermann, LRL, Livermore,  California
   39   Victor M.  Milligan, REECo. ,  Mercury,  Nevada
   40   Clinton S.  Maupin, REECo. ,  Mercury, Nevada
   41   Brig. Gen.  D.  L. -Crowson, DMA,  USAEC, Washington, D.  C.
   42   D.  W. Hendricks,  Safety Evaluation Div. , NVOO/AEC,  Las Vegas,  Nev.
   43   Howard L.  McMartin, SAB,  NCRH, USPHS, Rockville,  Maryland
   44   Arthur Wolff,  Research Branch, NCRH,  USPHS,  Rockville, Maryland

Distribution (continued)

45  Mail & Records, NVOO/AEC,  Las Vegas, Nevada
46  Paul T. Tueller, University of Nevada,  Reno, Nevada

47  Glenn  Bradley,  University of Nevada, Las Vegas,  Nevada

48  Nelson Williams, University of Nevada, Las Vegas,  Nevada

49  Charles Hanson, U S Fish and  Wildlife Service,  Las  Vegas, Nev. ,
50  Robert Lynch,  DVM, U S Dept. of Agriculture, State Bldg. ,
          Las Vegas, Nevada

51  V.  R.  Bohman, University of Nevada, Reno,  Nevada

52  Bruce  Browning, California Fish &  Game Dept. ,  Food Habit
          Laboratory, Sacramento, California

53  H.  M.  Kilpatrick, University of  Nevada, Reno, Nevada

54  Dudley Zoller, Nevada State Dept. of Agriculture, State Bldg.,
          Las Vegas, Nevada

55'  George Welsh, Arizona Fish and Game Dept. , Kingman,  Arizona

56  Al Jonez, U S Bureau of Reclamation, Boulder.City,  Nevada

57  Fred Isbell,  U S Forest Service,  Las Vegas,  Nevada
58  Dave Anderson, Pahranagat Valley High School,  Nevada
59  Grace  Struhm, Stanford University, California
60  K.  W.  Hill, Utah State University, Logan, Utah
61  District Supervisor,  Nevada Fish & Game Commission, Las Vegas, Nev.
62  Director, Nevada Fish &  Game Commission,  Reno, Nevada
63  Director, National Park Service, Boulder City,  Nevada
64  District Manager, U S Bureau  of Land Management,  Las Vegas, Nev.

65  District Manager,. U S Fish and Wildlife Service, Las Vegas, Nevada
66  University of Nevada Library,  Reno and Las Vegas,  Nevada