ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1991 Budget Estimate

                              Table of Contents

                                                                         Page

SUBJECT INDEX                                                           1

SUMMARY                                                                 1-1

AIR                                                                     2-1

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Air Quality Research	   2-8
      Scientific Assessment  	 .....   2-16
      Monitoring Systems and Quality Assurance  	   2-18
      Health Effects  	   2-20
      Environmental Engineering and Technology  	 	   2-22
      Environmental Processes and Effects ... 	   2-25
      Characterization, Transport and Fate	  .   2-26
      Stratospheric Modification	 	   2-28
ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   Air Quality and Stationary Source Planning and Standards 	   2-32
      Emission Standards and Technology Assessment  	   2-34
      National Pollutant Policies,  Strategies and Rules .   . 	   2-36
      State Program Guidelines and Air Standards Development  ....   2-39
   Mobile Source Air Pollution Control and Fuel Economy 	   2-42
      Emission Standards,  Technical Assessment and Characterization  .   2-44
      Testing, Technical and Administrative Support 	  ....   2-46
      Emissions and Fuel Economy Compliance 	   2-47
   State Programs Resource Assistance 	  ....   2-50
      Control Agency Resource Supplementation (Section 105 Grants)   .   2-51
      Training  .	   2-54
   Air Quality Management Implementation	   2-56
   Trends Monitoring and Progress Assessment  	   2-60
      Ambient Air Quality Monitoring  ............  	  2-61
      Air Quality and Emissions Data Management and Analysis  ....   2-63
ENFORCEMENT
   Stationary Source Enforcement  	   2-66
   Mobile Source Enforcement  ..... 	   2-71


WATER QUALITY                                                           3-1

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Water Quality Research	   3-10 .
      Scientific Assessment	   3-14
      Monitoring Systems and Quality Assurance	't .   .  .   3-15
      Health Effects	'. .  .'.   .  .   3-17

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                              Table of Contents
                                i(Continued)
      Environmental Engineering and Technology   .:  	   3-18
      Environmental Processes and Effects ....  	  .....   3-19
      Great Lakes	   3-20
      Oil Spills	   3-21
ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   Water Quality and Grants Program Management	   3-23
      Water Quality Management	 . :. . .•	  .   3-24
      Great Lakes Program .  . .	  .	   3-26
      Chesapeake Bay Program  	   3-29
   Effluent Standards and Guidelines	   3-31
   Grants Assistance Programs 	   3-35
      Clean Lakes Program	   3-36
      Control Agency Resource Supplementation (Section 106)  .....   3-37
      Water Quality Management Cooperative Agreements	   3-39
   Water Quality Strategies Implementation	   3-41
      Wetlands Protection 	  .......   3-43
      Wetlands Implementation Program	   3-46
      Ocean Disposal Permits	  .   3-47
      Environmental Emergency Response and Prevention .  	   3-49
      Spill Restoration Program	   3-50
      Standards and Regulations	   3-51
      Nonpoint Source Management Grants  . .  .	   3-53
      Nonpoint Source Implementation		   3^5
   Water Quality Monitoring and Analysis	   3-5
      Coastal Environment Management  ......  	   3-58
      Water Quality Monitoring and Analysis  . •.•>.•;„'.'.	   3-61
   Municipal Source Control 	 .....	   3-63
      Municipal Waste Treatment Facility Construction 	   3-64
      Waste Treatment Operations, and Maintenance	   3-66
ENFORCEMENT
   Water Quality Enforcement  	   3-69
   Water Quality Permit Issuance	   3-73
DRINKING WATER                                                          4-1

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Drinking Water Research	   4-7
      Scientific Assessment	   4-11
      Monitoring Systems and Quality Assurance   	   4-12
      Health Effects  .  .	   4-13
      Environmental Engineering and Technology   .	   4-15
      Environmental Processes and Effects  	  	   4-16
ABATEMENT AND CONTROL                          .
   Drinking Water Criteria,  Standards and Guidelines   ...  	   4-18
      Criteria, Standards and Guidelines   .	,	   4-19
      Drinking Water Implementation 	  	   4-21

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                              Table of Contents
                                 (Continued)
   Drinking Water State Program Resource Assistance 	 ...   4-25
      Public Water Systems Supervision Program Grants 	   4-26
      Underground Injection Control Program Grants  	   4-28
      Special Studies and Demonstrations  ..... 	   4-30
   Drinking Water Management  	   4-32
      Public Water Systems Supervision Program Assistance 	   4-33
      Underground Injection Control Program ... 	   4-35
   Ground-Water Protection  ... 	 	   4-38
ENFORCEMENT
   Drinking Water Enforcement 	  .  	   4-42
HAZARDOUS WASTE    "                                                     5-1

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Hazardous Waste Research 	 	   5-7
      Scientific Assessment	   5-14
      Monitoring Systems and Quality Assurance  	   5-15
      Health Effects	   5-17
      Environmental Engineering and Technology  	   5-18
      Environmental Processes and Effects	   5-20
      Technical Information and Liaison 	   5-21
      Integrated Hazardous Waste Research 	   5-22
ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   Waste Management Regulations, Guidelines and Policies  	   5-23
      Regulations, Guidelines and Policies - Hazardous Waste  ....   5-25
      Regulations, Guidelines and Policies - Air and Radiation  ...   5-27
      Regulations, Guidelines and Policies - Water  	   5-28
      Regulations, Guidelines & Policies - Underground Storage Tanks    5-30
   Financial Assistance	'	   5-33
      Hazardous Waste Management Financial Assistance to States ...   5-34
      Underground Storage Tanks State Grants  	   5-36
   Hazardous Waste Management Regulatory Strategies Implementation   .   5-38
   Emergency Planning/Community Right-to-know - Title III 	   5-42
ENFORCEMENT
   Hazardous Waste Enforcement  	   5-45
PESTICIDES                                                              6-1

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Pesticides Research  	  	   6-9
      Scientific Assessment 	   6-15
      Monitoring Systems and Quality Assurance  	   6-16
      Health Effects		   6-17
      Environmental Engineering and Technology  	   6-18
      Environmental Processes and Effects 	   6-19
                                    .  3

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                              Table of Contents
                                 (Continued)
ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   Registration, Special Registration and Tolerances  	   6-21
   Generic Chemical Review  	   6-25
   Pesticides Program Implementation	 .  .	   6-30
      Pesticides Program Implementation 	  .  	   6-31
      Pesticides Program Implementation Grants  .   .	   6-32
ENFORCEMENT
   Pesticides Enforcement	   6-35
      Pesticides Enforcement  .	   6-36
      Pesticides Enforcement Grants ...  	   6-38
RADIATION                                                               7-1

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Radiation Research 	 	   7-6
      Monitoring Systems and Quality Assurance  ... 	   7-8
      Environmental Engineering and Technology  	   7-9
ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   Radiation Criteria, Standards and Guidelines ... 	   7-11
   Radiation Program Implementation	'.	   7-15
   Radiation Environmental Impact Assessment  .... 	   7-18
   Radon Action Program	   7-21
   Radon Action Program Implementation  	   7-25
   Radon State Grant Program	   7-28


MULTIMEDIA                                                              8-1

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Multimedia Research  	   8-4
      Scientific Assessment 	   8-17
      Quality Assurance Management  	   8-18
      Technical Information and Liaison	   8-19
      Health Effects  	   8-21
      Core Research - Health Risk	   8-22
      Human Exposure	   8-23
      Reduction of Uncertainties in Risk Assessment  (RURA)  	   8-24
      Multimedia Activities 	   8-25
      Core Research - Grants and Centers	   8-25
      Exploratory Research  	   8-26
      Core Research - Ecological Risk	   8-28
      Ecological Status and Trends  .  .	   8-29
      Core Research - Risk Reduction	   8-30
      Capital Investments 	  	   8-31

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                              Table of Contents
                                 (Continued)
ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   Environmental Review and Coordination  	 .  .    8-32
   Office of Cooperative Environmental Management 	    8-35
   Multimedia Training Grants	  .    8-38
ENFORCEMENT
   Enforcement Policy and Technical Support 	    8-40
      Enforcement Policy and Operations 	 	    8-42
      Criminal Investigations Program 	 	    8-48
      Technical Support - Office of Enforcement and Compliance
        Monitoring	    8-50
TOXIC SUBSTANCES                                                        9-1

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Toxics Substances Research	   9-9
      Scientific Assessment	   9-17
      Monitoring Systems and Quality Assurance  	   9-17
      Health Effects	   9-19
      Environmental Engineering and Technology  	  .   9-20
      Environmental Processes and Effects 	   9-21
ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   Toxic Substances Financial Assistance  	 	   9-24
      Asbestos-in-Schools Loans and Grants  	   9-25
      Asbestos-in-Schools Program Administration  	   9-26
      Asbestos-in-Schools Contractor and Inspector Certification   .  .   9-26
   Toxic Substances Strategies  	   9-28
      Chemical Testing	   9-30
      Existing Chemical Review  	   9-32
      New Chemical Review	   9-34
      Asbestos-in-Buildings 	   9-36
      Regional Toxics Program 	   9-37
   OPTS Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know  	   9-39
ENFORCEMENT
   Toxic Substances Enforcement 	   9-43
      Toxic Substances Enforcement  	   9-44
      Toxic Substances Enforcement Grants 	  	   9-46
   OPTS Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Enforcement   .   9-47
ENERGY                                                                  10-1

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Multi-Media Energy 	 	   10-3
      Acid Deposition	   10-7
      Environmental Engineering and Technology  	   10-8

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                              Table of Contents
                                 (Continued)
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MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT                                                 11-1

PROGRAM MANAGEMENT
   Program Management 	  11-6
      Program Management - Air and Radiation	11-8
      Program Management - Water  	  11-8
      Program Management - Enforcement and Compliance Monitoring  .   .  11-9
      Program Management - Pesticides and Toxic Substances  ......  11-10
      Program Management - General Counsel  	  11-11
      Program Management - Research and Development 	  11-12
      Program Management - Solid Waste and Emergency Response .  .  .   .  11-12
AGENCY MANAGEMENT
   Office of the Administrator/Executive Offices  	  11-14
      Immediate Office of the Administrator 	  11-17
      Office of Regional Operations and State/Local Relations ....  11-18
      Office of Executive Support 	  11-18
      Administrator's Representation Fund 	  11-19
      Office of Civil Rights  	  11-20
      Science Advisory Board  	  	  11-21
      Office of Administrative Law Judges 	  11-21
      Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization  ....  11-22
      Office of Congressional and Legislative Affairs 	  11-23
      Office of Communications and Public Affairs 	  11-24
   Office of Inspector General  	  	  11-25
      Office of Inspector General 	  11-26
   Office of General Counsel  	  11-29
      General Counsel	11-30
   Office of International Activities 	  11-32
      Office of International Activities  	  11-33
   Office of Federal Activities 	 	  11-35
      Office of Federal Activities  	  11-36
   Office of Policy, Planning and Evaluation  	  11-38
      Program Management - Policy, Planning and Evaluation  	  11-40
      Integrated Environmental Management Program .  .  	  11-41
      Office of Policy Analysis 	  11-42
      Office of Regulatory Management and Evaluation  	  11-44
      Office of Pollution Prevention  	  11-46
      Pollution Prevention Program (Grants) 	  11-48
   Office of Administration and Resources Management  	  11-50
      Program Management-Administration 	  11-52
      Financial Management - Headquarters 	  11-53
      Office of the Comptroller	11-54
      Contracts and Grants Management - Headquarters  	  11-55
      Organization and Health Services  	  11-56
      Facilities and Management Services  	  11-57
      Information Systems and Services  	  11-58
      Human Resources Management  	  11-59

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                                 (Continued)
REGIONAL MANAGEMENT
   Regional Management  	 ....  11-61
      Resource Management - Regions 	  	  11-63
      Financial Management - Regions  ... 	  11-63
      Human Resources Management - Regions  	  11-64
      Administrative Management - Regions  	  11-65
      Regional Management 	  11-66
      Regional Counsel  	  11-66
      Planning, Evaluation and Analysis - Regions 	  11-67
SUPPORT COSTS
   Support Costs  	  11-70
      Professional Training 	  11-71
      Nationwide Support Services . .  .	11-72
      Headquarters Support Services 	  11-72
      Regional Support Services 	  11-73
      Automated Data Processing Support Costs 		  .  11-74
      Lab Support - Research and Development  	  11-75
      Lab Support - Air and Radiation	11-76
      Lab Support - Pesticides and Toxic Substances 	  11-76
BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES                                               12-1

   Buildings and Facilities 	  12-3
      New Facilities  .	12-4
      Repairs and Improvements  	  12-4
CONSTRUCTION GRANTS                                                    13-1

   Construction Grants  	  13-1

SUPERFUND                                                              14-1

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Hazardous Substance Research 	  14-8
      Scientific Assessment 	  14-16
      Monitoring Systems and Quality Assurance  	  14-18
      Health Effects  	  14-20
      Environmental Engineering and Technology  	  14-21
      Environmental Processes and Effects 	  14-23
      Technical Information and Liaison .	  14-24
      Exploratory Research  	  14-25

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                              Table of Contents
                                 (Continued)
HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE RESPONSE
   Hazardous Substance Response 	 ...  14-26
      Hazardous Spill and Site Response 	  14-27
   Hazardous Substance Response - Support 	  14-38
      Hazardous Substance Response - Office of Water  	  14-39
      Hazardous Substance Response - Office of Air and Radiation  .   .  14-41
   Hazardous Substance Response - Interagency 	   .  14-43
      Department of Health and Human Services 	  14-45
      United States Coast Guard .	  14-45
      Department of Justice 	  14-49
      Federal Emergency Management Agency 	  14-50
      National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 	  14-51
      Department of the Interior  .  .  .	14-51
      Occupational Safety and Health Administration .	  14-52
ENFORCEMENT
   Hazardous Substance Response - Enforcement 	  14-54
      Hazardous Substance Technical Enforcement 	  14-56
      Hazardous Substance Legal Enforcement 	  14-58
      Hazardous Substance Criminal Investigations 	   .  14-62
      Hazardous Substance Technical Support - Office of Enforcement
        and Compliance Monitoring 	  14-63

MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT
   Hazardous Substance Management and Support 	  14-66
      Hazardous Substance Financial Management - Headquarters  ....  14-71
      Hazardous Substance Financial Management - Regions  ......  14-72
      Hazardous Substance Administrative Management -  Headquarters   .  14-72
      Hazardous Substance Administrative Management -  Regions  ....  14-73
      Hazardous Substance Contracts and Grants
        Management - Headquarters	14-74
      Hazardous Substance Contracts and Grants
        Management - Regions  	  14-75
      Hazardous Substance Support Services - Headquarters 	  14-76
      Hazardous Substance Support Services - Regions  	  14-76
      Hazardous Substance Computer Services 	  14-77
      Hazardous Substance Legal Services - Headquarters .  	  14-77
      Hazardous Substance Legal Services - Regions  	  14-78
      Hazardous Substance - Office of the Inspector General 	  14-79
      Hazardous Substance - Office of Policy, Planning and Evaluation  14-80
      Hazardous Substance - Office of the Comptroller 	  14-82
      Hazardous Substance - Executive Offices 	  14-83
      Hazardous Substance - Office of Research
        and Development - Management and Support  	  14-84

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                                 (Continued)
LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   LUST Technical Support 	  15-4
      Environmental Engineering and Technology  	  15-6
ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   LUST Guidelines and Implementation 	  15-7
ENFORCEMENT
   LUST Legal Enforcement 	  15-10
MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT
   Management and Support 	  15-12
      Policy and Analysis - Office of Policy, Planning and
        Evaluation	  15-14
      Administrative Management - Headquarters  	  15-15
      Administrative Management - Regions	  .  15-15
      Legal Services - Office of General Counsel  	  15-16
      LUST - Office of the Inspector General	15-17
SPECIAL ANALYSES

EPA ORGANIZATIONAL CHART  	  16-1
EPA REGIONAL OFFICES - LOCATIONS  	  16-2
SUMMARY OF RESOURCES - BY APPROPRIATION 	  16-3
SUMMARY OF RESOURCES - BY MEDIA .....  	  16-6
OBJECT CLASSIFICATION - BY APPROPRIATION  	 	  16-10
PERMANENT POSITIONS BY GRADE - BY APPROPRIATION 	  16-15
AVERAGE GRADE AND SALARY  	  16-21
SUMMARY OF STATE GRANT RESOURCES  	  16-22

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                       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1991 Budget Estimate

                            Subject Index by Media
AIR

Acid Aerosols	   2-10,16,20,26
Acid Deposition	  .   2-36,11,23,24
Air Quality Monitoring  	   2-61
Air Toxics   	   2-4,40,44,52,57,
                                                         63,16,19,22,23
Clean Fuels  	   2-21,22,23,27,28,44
Compliance Monitoring Inspections 	   2-67
Consulting Services - Air	2-5
Enforcement  - Air	2-66
Fuel Economy	2-44,47
Global Climate Change 	   2-36,13,16,29-31
Health Effects Institute - Air  	   2-21,22
Indoor Air   	   2-36,12,15,17,19-23
Inspection and Maintenance Program - Air  	   2-44
In-use Emission Factors 	   2-44,47
Mobile Source Pollutants  	   2-44,11,15,19,21,23
                                                           27
Motor Vehicle Emissions Laboratory  	   2-46
National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)  ....   2-10,15,16,18,20,22,
                                                           25,26,34,51,57,62,
                                                           63,67
Natl. Emission Standards - Haz.  Air Poll. (NESHAPs) .  .   2-11,15,16,19,
                                                         21,23,26,34,67
National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES-III)  ...   2-14,16
New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)	   2-34,67 .
Ozone 	   2-17,20,22,27,28,
                                                           34,41,44,51,63,68
Particulate Matter (PM10)  	   2-17,20,22,34,40,
                                                          51,58,61,63
Prevention of Significant Deterioration  (PSD) 	   2-39,51,58,68
Regional Modeling of Air Pollutants 	   2-57
Selective Enforcement Audits  	   2-72
State Grants - Air	2-51
State Implementation Plans (SIPs) 	   2-10,15,18,23,26
                                                         39,51,57,67
Stationary Source Enforcement 	   2-67
Stratospheric Ozone Depletion 	   2-12,15,28,29,30,31
                                                           36,68
Tampering and Fuel Switching  	   2-43,72
                                      10

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                            Subject Index by Media
                                  (Continued)
WATER QUALITY

Biomonitoring  	  3-62
Chesapeake Bay Program   	  3-29,30
Chesapeake Bay Toxics Reduction Strategy   	  3-29
Clean Lakes	  3-36
Coastal Environment Management  	  3-58,59
Construction Grants Management	3-64,65,66;13-2,3 ,4
Corps of Engineers   	  3-43,45,48
Consulting Services  - Water Quality  	  3-7
Effluent Guidelines  	  3-32,33,34
Emergency Response - Water Quality   	  3-49,50
Enforcement  - Water Quality  	  3-70,71,72
Great Lakes Program  .....  	  3-26,27,28,20
Great Lakes Replacement  Research Vessel  	  3-26,28
Gulf of Mexico Initiative	3-57
Indian Tribes  - Water Quality  	  3-25,37
International Pollution  Control Agreements   	  3-6,48
Marine Outfalls - Section  301(h)   	  3-19
National Estuary Program  	  3-58,59,16
Near Coastal Waters  	  3-58,59,19
New York Bight	3-48,49
Nonpoint Sources  	  3-24,53,54,55,56
NPDES Permits  	  3-37,38,39,74,75,76
Ocean Dumping Fund	  3-47
Oil Spills Research	3-21
Operations and Maintenance   	  3-66,67,68
Operator Training -Water Quality   	  3-66,67,68
Pretreatment-  ....  	  3-37,70
Sludge Management 	  3-32,33,15,16,17,18
State Grants - Water Quality   	  3-24,25,26
State Revolving Funds  	  3-64,65,66;13-2,3,4
Toxic Pollutant Controls  	  3-51,53
Tijuanna, International  Sewage Treatment Plant  	 13-3
Wastewater Treatment Compliance 	  	  3-70,71,72
Water Quality Permit Issuance  	  3-74,75,76
Wetlands (Section 404)   	  3-43,44,45,46,19
DRINKING WATER

Class V Wells	4-3,4,36
Drinking Water Implementation  	  4-21
Enforcement  - Drinking Water   	  4-43
Epidemiology (Coliform, etc.)  	  4-13,27
Ground-Water Activities  	  4-13,15,16,39,44
.Ground-Water Protection Strategies   	  4-4,5
Health Advisories  	  4-14
Health Effects - Drinking Water  	  4-13
                                      11

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                            Subject Index by Media
                                  (Continued)
Indian Tribes -Drinking Water .  .  .	   4-23,27,35
National Primary Drinking Water Regulations 	   4-2,13,44
National Rural Water Association  	   4-30
National Pesticides Survey  	   4-20
Public Water Systems Supervision  	   4-26,33
Rural Community Assistance Programs  	   4-31
Special Studies and Demonstrations  	   4-15
Special Studies and Demonstrations  	   4-30,34
State Grants - Drinking Water 	   4-26,29
Underground Injection Control 	   4-16,17,28,35
Wellhead Protection 	   4-15,16,17,39
HAZARDOUS WASTE

Air Emission Standards (RCRA)	5-27
Chemical Emergency Planning 	   5-43,44
Community Right-to-know 	   5-43,44
Compliance Inspections  	   5-46,47
Consulting Services - Hazardous Waste 	   5-5
Corrective Action (HSWA)  	 	   5-30,31,35,39,47,48
Domestic Sewage Study (RCRA)  	   5-28
Enforcement - Hazardous Waste 	   5-32,35,46,47,48,
Financial Responsibility  	   5-31
Ground Water Monitoring(RCRA) 	   5-16,21,22
Hazardous Waste Research  	   5-8-22
Incineration  	  	   5-17,25
Innovative/Alternatives Technologies  	   5-9,13,18
Land Banning Activities 	   5-46
Land Disposal 	   5-18,26
Listing/Delisting 	   5-25,26
Medical Waste 	   5-25
Mining Waste	5-39
Monitoring Methods	5-16,46
Municipal Waste Incineration  	   5-40
Permitting - Hazardous Waste  	   5-34,39,40
Policy and Guidance - Hazardous Waste .  . 	   5-25-31
Pollution Prevention (RCRA)  	   5-25
POTW Requirements - Hazardous Waste 	   5-28
Quality Assurance - Hazardous Waste 	   5-11,14
Regulations Development -  Hazardous Waste 	   5-25
Reports to Congress - Hazardous Waste 	   5-25,27
Risk Assessment - Hazardous  Waste 	   5-14,21,22,23
Solid Waste (RCRA)  	5-27
Special Wastes (RCRA)	5-2
State Authorizations  	   5-30,35,40
State Grants - Hazardous Waste  	 	   5-34,35
Subtitle D Criteria 	   5-39
Surface Impoundments  	   5-18
Title III.- Hazardous Waste  	   5-43,44


                                      12

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                            Subject Index by Media
                                  (Continued)
Treatment Standards - Hazardous Waste 	   5-26
UIC Requirements (RCRA)	5-28
Underground Storage Tanks - Regulations and Guidelines   5-30,31,32
Underground Storage Tanks Grants  	   5-36,37
Waste Characterization  	   5-15,16
Waste Minimization (RCRA) 	   5-9,25
PESTICIDES

Applicator Training	6-3,5,32
Biotechnology	6-6
Biotechnology Research  	   6-6
Certification and Training  	   6-3,5,31,32,33,34
Consulting Services - Pesticides  	   6-3,6
Data Call-in  	   6-23,22
Disposal  	   6-2,4,22,26,27,28,32,
                                                           34,37,38
Emergency Exemptions  ....  	   6-7,23
Endangered Species  	   6-3,4,5,23,27,28,31,
                                                           32,33,37,38
Experimental Use Permit 	   6-3,7,22,23
Pesticides Protection/Workers Exposed to Pesticides .  .   6-3,4,5,6,23,27,28,31
                                                           32,33,36,37,38,39
Ground Water - Pesticides 	   6-3,4,5,6,22,23,27,28
                                                           31,32,33,34,37,38
National Survey of Pesticides in Drinking Water .  . .  .   6-4,27,28
Nebraska and Colorado Enforcement Program 	   6-5,33,34
Pesticide Program Implementation  	   6-5,31,32,33,34
Reregistration  	  	   6-2,3,4,5,8,23,24,26,
                                                           27,28,36
Registration Fees 	   6-5,23,24
Registration Standards  	 	   6-4,8,26,27,28
Risk Assessment - Pesticides  	   6-2,3,4,6,28
Special Review (RPAR) 	 	   6-4,7,27,28
State Grants - Pesticides 	   6-5,31,33,37,38,39,32
                                                           34
Tolerances  	   6-3,4,7,22,23,24
RADIATION

Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring Sys.  (ERAMS)  7-19
Nevada Nuclear Test Site	7-8
Radioactive Waste Standards 	  7-12
Radiological Emergency Response Plans 	  7-19
Radionuclide NESHAPS  	  7-12,16,19
Radon Action Program	7-21
Radon Mitigation Research 	  7-9
Radon State Grants	7-28
                                      13

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                            Subject Index by Media
                                  (Continued)
MULTIMEDIA

Agencywide Technology Transfer Staff  	  8-36
Case Referrals  	  8-43,45
Center for Environmental Research 	  8-14,22
Core Research - Ecological Risk .  .  .	8-.28
Core Research - Grants and Centers  	  8-11,25
Core Research - Health Risk	8-22
Core Research - Risk Reduction	  8-30
Criminal Investigations 	  8-48
Ecologial Trends  	  8-12,28
Enforcement Policy and Operations 	  8-42
Environmental Review and Coordination 	  8-33
Evidence Audits 	  8-50
Exploratory Research  ... 	  8-26
Federal Agencies Compliance 	 .....  8-33
Health Effects	8-21
Human Exposure Research 	  8-10,23
Indians Programs	  8-33
Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) 	  8-17
Lead Abatement  	  8-17,18
Litigation	8-43
Multimedia Research Activities  	  8-25
Multimedia Training Grants  	  8-39
National Enforcement Investigation Center (NEIC)  .  .   . .8-50
NEPA Compliance Program 	  8-33
Office of Cooperation Environmental Management           8-36
Office of Enforcement and Compliance Monitoring ....  8-42
Pollution Prevention  	  8-13,30
Quality Assurance Management  	  8-7,18
Reducing Uncertainties in Risk Assessment (RURA)  .  .   .  8-10,12,24
Regional Analytic Methods  	  8-8,19
Regulatory Support  	  8-20
Scientific Equipment  	  8-31
Small Business Innovation Research  	  8-11,25
Technical Information . 	  8-19
Technology Transfer 	  8-8,19
Visting Scientists Program  	  8-10,25

TOXIC SUBSTANCES

Adipose Tissue Survey 	  9-33
Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA)  .  .  .   .  9-2,25-27,36-38
Asbestos in Public Buildings  	  9-3,25-27,36-38
Asbestos-in-Schools Loans and Grants  	  9-25-27
Asbestos Research 	  9-12,14,16,21
Asbestos School Hazard Abatement Act (ASHAA)  	  9-2,25,36,37
Asbestos  Accreditation Programs  	  9-25-27,36,37
Biotechnology 	   .  9-34,35
                                      14

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                            Subject Index by Media
                                  (Continued)
Biotechnology Research  	   9-13,16,18,20,21,22
Comprehensive Assessment Information Rule (CAIR)  ...   9-32
Consulting Services - Toxic Substances	   9-6
Enforcement - Toxic Substances  	   9-44-46
EPCRA (Emergency Planning & Community Right
  to Know Act) -Enforcement	9-5,47-50
EPCRA - Research Support  	   9-5,16,17,18,21
EPCRA - Toxic Release Inventory 	   9-4,30-32,40-42,
                                                           48-50
Existing Chemical Review  	   9-32-34
Expedited New Chemical Follow-up  	   9-34-36
Interagency Testing Committee (ITC)  	   9-30,31
Lab/Data Integrity  	   9-44-46
Lead - Based Paint Abatement  	   9-4,32,33
Pollution Prevention  	   9-3,32,41
Polychlorinated Biphenynls (PCBS)  	   9-2-4,32-34,37,38
Premanufacture Notice Fees  	   9-34,35
Regional Toxics Program 	  ....   9-37
Risk Assessment - Toxic Substances  	   9-32-34
SARA Section 110 Toxicological Profiles 	  ...   9-30,31
Significant New Use Rule (SNUR) 	   9-34,35
Test Guidelines 	   9-30,31
Test Rules	9-5,47-50
ENERGY

Acid Deposition 	  10-2,4,5,6,7
Acid Rain	10-2,4,5,6,7
Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB)  	  10-2,5,8
MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORT

Federal Facility Compliance 	   11-36,37
Indian Program  	   11-36,37
International Activities  	   11-32
Legal Advice	11-29
Office of Federal Activities  	  ...   11-36,37
Office of General Counsel 	   11-29
Pollution Prevention - OPPE	11-46
CONSTRUCTION GRANTS

Active Projects - Construction Grants 	   13-2,3,4
Administration's Phaseout - Constructants 	   13-2
Obligation/Outlays - Construction Grants  	   13-2,3,4
Set-Asides - Construction Grants  	   13-2,3,4
State Revolving Funds - Construction GRants 	   13-2,3,4
                                      15

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                            Subject Index by Media
                                  (Continued)
SUPERFUND

Alternative Technologies  	  14-13,22
Consulting Services - Superfund 	  14-5
Cost Recovery - Superfund   	  14-2,56
Criminal Investigations - Superfund 	  14-62
Enforcement - Superfund 	  14-2,56
Environmental Response Team 	  14-3
Health Research - Superfund	 .  	  14-4,44
Interagency - Superfund .	14-4,44
Management - Superfund  	  14-7
Pre-remedial Program  	  14-27
Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study   . .  .  .  ...  14-28
Remedial Design/Remedal Actions 	  14-29
Remedial Support  	  14-34
Removal Support	  14-36
Response Support	14-32
Removal Actions 	 	  14-3,31
Office of Inspector General Superfund  	  14-79
Research and Development - Superfund   	  14-11,15
SITE Program	  .  14-4,32
Support Services - Superfund  	  ...  14-76
University Research Centers 	  14-25
LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK

Consulting Services - LUST  	   15-2,3,8,9
Cooperative Agreements - LUST 	   15-2,8,11
Corrective Action - LUST  	   15-2,8
Cost Recovery - LUST	15-11
Enforcement - LUST	15-10
Guidelines - LUST	15-7
Management - LUST	15-12
Technical Support - LUST	15-4
                                      16

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                        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                           Alphabetic Subject Index

                             1991 Budget Estimate
                                                            Page
Acid Deposition ....................  2-36,11,23,24
Acid Aerosols .....................  2-10,16,20,26
Acid Rain .......................  10-2,4,5,6,7
Acid Deposition .......... .  .........  10-2,4,5,6,7
Active Projects - Construction Grants .........  13-2,3,4
Adipose Tissue Survey .................  9-33
Administration's Phaseout - Constructants .......  13-2
Agencywide Technology Transfer Staff  .........  8-36
Air Toxics  ......................  2-4,40,44,52,57,
                                                           63,16,19,22,23
Air Emission Standards (RCRA) .............  5-27
Air Quality Monitoring  ................  2-61
Alternative Technologies  ......  .........  14-13,22
Applicator Training ................... 6-3,5,32
Asbestos in Public Buildings  .  ............  9-3,25-27,36-38
Asbestos Research ...................  9-12,14,16,21
Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA)  ....  9-2,25-27,36-38
Asbestos School Hazard Abatement Act (ASHAA)  .....  9-2,25,36,37
Asbestos  Accreditation Programs   ...........  9-25-27,36,37
Asbestos -in- Schools Loans and Grants  .........  9-25-27

B

Biomonitoring .....................  3-62
Biotechnology .....................  6-6
Biotechnology .....................  9-34,35
Biotechnology Research  ................  9-13,16,18,20,21,22
Biotechnology Research  ................  6-6
Case Referrals  ....................  8-43,45
Center for Environmental Research ...........  8-14,22
Certification and Training  ..............  6-3,5,31,32,33,34
Chemical Emergency Planning ..............  5-43,44
Chesapeake Bay Program  ................  3-29,30
Chesapeake Bay Toxics Reduction Strategy  .......  3-29
Class V Wells .....................  4-3,4,36
Clean Fuels ......................  2-21,22,23,27,28,44
Clean Lakes ......................  3-36
Coastal Environment Management  ............  3-58,59
Community Right-to-know ................  5-43,44
Compliance Monitoring Inspections ...........  2-67
Compliance Inspections  ................  5-46,47
Comprehensive Assessment Information Rule (CAIR)  .  .   .9-32

                                       17

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                           Alphabetic Subject Index
                                  (Continued)
Construction Grants Management  .	3-64,65,66;13-2 , 3,4
Consulting Services - Superfund 	  .   14-5
Consulting Services - LUST  	   15-2,3,8,9
Consulting Services - Hazardous Waste 	   5-5
Consulting Services - Pesticides  	   6-3,6
Consulting Services - Air	   2-5
Consulting Services - Water Quality 	   3-7
Consulting Services - Toxic Substances  	   9-6
Cooperative Agreements -LUST 	   15-2,8,11
Core Research - Risk Reduction	8-30
Core Research - Ecological Risk	8-28
Core Research - Health Risk	8-22
Core Research - Grants and Centers  	   8-11,25
Corps of Engineers  	   3-43,45,48
Corrective Action (HSWA)  	   5-30,31,35,39,47,48
Corrective Action - LUST  	   15-2,8
Cost Recovery - Superfund   	  ......   14-2,56
Cost Recovery - LUST	15-11
Criminal Investigations - Superfund 	   14-62
Criminal Investigations 	   8-48

2

Data Call-In  	   6-23,22
Disposal  	   6-2,4,22,26,27,28,32,
                                                           34,37,38
Domestic Sewage Study (RCRA)  	   5-28
Drinking Water Implementation 	   4-21

£

Ecologial Trends  	   8-12,28
Effluent Guidelines 	   3-32,33,34
Emergency Response - Water Quality  	   3-49,50
Emergency Exemptions  	   6-7,23
Endangered Species  ... 	   6-3,4,5,23,27,28,31
                                                           32,33,37,38
Enforcement Policy and Operations  	   8-42
Enforcement - Air	2-66
Enforcement - Water Quality 	   3-70,71,72
Enforcement - Hazardous Waste .  .  	   5-32,35,46,47,48,
Enforcement - Drinking Water  	   4-43
Enforcement - LUST	15-10
Enforcement - Toxic Substances	   9-44-46
Enforcement - Superfund 	   14-2,56
Environmental Review and Coordination .	   8-33
Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring Sys.  (ERAMS)   7-19
Environmental Response Team 	   14-3
EPCRA - Toxic Release Inventory 	   9-4,30-32,40-42,
                                                           48-50

                                       18

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                           Alphabetic Subject Index
                                  (Continued)
EPCRA - Research Support  ............  ...   9-5,16,17,18,21
EPCRA (Emergency Planning & Community Right
  to Know Act) -Enforcement ..............   9-5,47-50
Epidemiology (Coliform, etc.)  .............   4-13,27
Evidence Audits ...................  .   8-50
Existing Chemical Review  ...............   9-32-34
Expedited New Chemical Follow-up  ...........   9-34-36
Experimental Use Permit ................   6-3,7,22,23
Exploratory Research   .................   8-26

F

Federal Facility Compliance ..............   11-36,37
Federal Agencies Compliance ..............   8-33
Financial Responsibility  ...............   5-31
Fuel Economy  .....................   2-44,47
Global Climate Change .................   2-36,13,16,29-31
Great Lakes Program ..................   3-26,27,28,20
Great Lakes Replacement Research Vessel ........   3-26,28
Ground Water Monitoring(RCRA) .............   5-16,21,22
Ground Water - Pesticides .  . .  .  ...........   6-3,4,5,6,22,23,27,28
                                                           31,32,33,34,37,38
Ground-Water Protection Strategies  ..... .  .  .  .  .   4-4,5
Ground-Water Activities ................   4-13,15,16,39,44
Guidelines - LUST ........  ...........   15-7
Gulf of Mexico Initiative ...............   3-57

H

Hazardous Waste Research  ...............   5-8-22
Health Research - Superfund ..............   14-4,44
Health Effects  ....................   8-21
Health Advisories. ...................   4-14
Health Effects Institute - Air  ............   2-21,22
Health Effects - Drinking Water ............   4-13
Human Exposure Research ................   8-10,23

I

Incineration  .....................   5-17,25
Indian Tribes - Water Quality .............   3-25,37
Indian Program  ....................   11-36,37
Indian Tribes -Drinking Water .............   4-23,27,35
Indians Programs  ...................   8-33
Indoor Air  ......................   2-36,12,15,17,19-23
Innovative/Alternatives Technologies  .........   5-9,13,18
Inspection and Maintenance Program - Air  .......   2-44

                                       19

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                           Alphabetic Subject Index
                                  (Continued)
                                                            Page

Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) .......   8-17
Interagency - Superfund ...... . .........   14-4,44
Interagency Testing Committee (ITC) ..........   9-30,31
International Activities  ...............   11-32
International Pollution Control Agreements  ......   3-6,48
In-use Emission Factors .... ...........  .   2-44,47

L                                                           .          •

Lab/Data Integrity  ..................   9-44-46
Land Banning Activities ................   5-46
Land Disposal .....................   5-18,26
Lead Abatement  .................. .  .   8-17,18
Lead - Based Paint Abatement  .............   9-4,32,33
Legal Advice  ..... .............  . .  .   11-29
Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB)  .....   10-2,5,8
Listing/Delisting ....... .......... .  .   5-25,26
Litigation  ......................   8-43

M

Management - Superfund  ................   14-7
Management - LUST ...................   15-12
Marine Outfalls - Section 301(h)   ...........   3-19
Medical Waste .............. .......   5-25
Mining Waste  .....................   5-39
Mobile Source Pollutants  ...............   2-44,11,15,19,21,23
                                                           27
Monitoring Methods  ..................   5-16,46
Motor Vehicle Emissions Laboratory  .........  .   2-46
Multimedia Research Activities  ............   8-25
Multimedia Training Grants  ..............   8-39
Municipal Waste Incineration  .............   5-40
National Enforcement Investigation Center (NEIC)  ...   8-50
National Rural Water Association  ...........   4-30
National Estuary Program  ...........  .  .  .  .   3-58,59,16
National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES-III)  ...   2-14,16
National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)  ....   2-10,15,16,18,20,22,
                                                           25,26,34,51,57,62,
                                                           63,67
National Pesticides Survey  .  .............   4-20
National Survey of Pesticides in Drinking Water ....   6-4,27,28
National Primary Drinking Water Regulations ......   4-2,13,44
Natl. Emission Standards - Haz .  Air Poll. (NESHAPs)  .  .   2-11,15,16,19,
                                                           21,23,26,34,67
Near Coastal Waters .........  .........   3-58,59,19
Nebraska and Colorado Enforcement Program .......   6-5,33,34


                                       20

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                           Alphabetic Subject Index
                                  (Continued)
                                                            Page

NEPA Compliance Program	8-33
Nevada Nuclear Test Site	7-8
New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) ........   2-34,67
New York Bight	   3-48,49
Nonpoint Sources	   3-24,53,54,55,56
NPDES Permits	•  •  •   3-37,38,39,74,75,76

0

Obligation/Outlays - Construction Grants  	   13-2,3,4
Ocean Dumping Fund	3-47
Office of Federal Activities  	   11-36,37
Office of Enforcement and Compliance Monitoring  ....   8-42
Office of Cooperation Environmental Management           8-36
Office of Inspector General Superfund  	   14-79
Office of General Counsel 	   11-29
Oil Spills Research	3-21
Operations and Maintenance  .  .	   3-66,67,68
Operator Training -Water Quality  	   3-66,67,68
Ozone 	   2-17,20,22,27,28,
                                                           34,41,44,51,63,68
P

Particulate Matter (PM10)  	   2-17,20,22,34,40,
                                                           51,58,61,63
Permitting - Hazardous Waste  ........ 	   5-34,39,40
Pesticide Program Implementation  	   6-5,31,32,33,34
Pesticides Protection/Workers Exposed to Pesticides .  .   6-3,4,5,6,23,27,28,31
                                                           32,33,36,37,38,39
Policy and Guidance - Hazardous Waste  	   5-25-31
Pollution Prevention (RCRA) 	   5-25
Pollution Prevention - OPPE	11-46
Pollution Prevention  	   8-13,30
Pollution Prevention  	   9-3,32,41
Polychlorinated Biphenynls (PCBS) 	   9-2-4,32-34,37,38
POTW Requirements - Hazardous Waste  	   5-28
Premanufacture Notice Fees  	   9-34,35
Pretreatment  	   3-37,70
Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) 	   2-39,51,58,68
Pre-remedial Program  	   14-27
Public Water Systems Supervision  	 	   4-26,33

Q

Quality Assurance Management  	   8-7,18
Quality Assurance - Hazardous Waste  	   5-11,14
                                       21

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                           Alphabetic Subject Index
                                  (Continued)
Radioactive Waste Standards 	 	   7-12
Radiological Emergency Response Plans 	   7-19
Radionuclide NESHAPS  	   7-12,16,19
Radon State Grants	7-28
Radon Action Program	7-21
Radon Mitigation Research 	 .....   7-9
Reducing Uncertainties in Risk Assessment (RURA)  .  .  .   8-10,12,24
Regional Analytic Methods 	   8-8,19
Regional Modeling of Air Pollutants 	   2-57
Regional Toxics Program 	   9-37
Registration Fees 	  	   6-5,23,24
Registration Standards  	   6-4,8,26,27,28
Regulations Development - Hazardous Waste 	   5-25
Regulatory Support  	   8-20
Remedial Support	14-34
Remedial Design/Remedal Actions 	   14-29
Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study  	   14-28
Removal Support 	   14-36
Removal Actions 	   14-3,31
Reports to Congress - Hazardous Waste 	   5-25,27
Reregistration	6-2 , 3 ,4 , 5 , 8 , 23 , 24 , 2
                                                           27,28,36
Research and Development - Superfund  	   14-11,15
Response Support	14-32
Risk Assessment - Toxic Substances  	   9-32-34
Risk Assessment - Pesticides  	  .  .   6-2,3,4,6,28
Risk Assessment - Hazardous Waste . . 	   5-14,21,22,23
Rural Community Assistance Programs 	   4-31

S

SARA Section 110 Toxicological Profiles 	   9-30,31
Scientific Equipment  	   8-31
Selective Enforcement Audits  	   2-72
Set-Asides - Construction Grants  	   13-2,3,4
Significant New Use Rule (SNUR) 	   9-34,35
SITE Program	14-4,32
Sludge Management	  .   3-32,33,15,16,17,18
Small Business Innovation Research  	   8-11,25
Solid Waste (RCRA)	5-27
Special Studies and Demonstrations  	   4-30,34
Special Review (RPAR)	   6-4,7,27,28
Special Studies and Demonstrations  	   4-15
Special Wastes (RCRA)	5-2
State Revolving Funds 	   3-64,65,66;13-2,3,4
State Implementation Plans (SIPs) 	   2-10,15,18,23,26
                                                           39,51,57,67
State Revolving Funds - Construction GRants  	   13-2,3,4


                                       22

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                           Alphabetic Subject Index
                                  (Continued)
State Grants - Water Quality  .  .  	   3-24,25,26
State Grants - Pesticides 	  .  .   6-5,31,33,37,38,39,32
                                                           34
State Grants - Hazardous Waste  	  .....   5-34,35
State Grants - Air	2-51
State Authorizations  	   5-30,35,40
State Grants - Drinking Water 	  .  .   4-26,29
Stationary Source Enforcement .... 	   2-67
Stratospheric Ozone Depletion	   2-12,15,28,29,30,31
                                                           36,38
Subtitle D Criteria 	   5-39
Support Services - Superfund  	   14-76
Surface Impoundments  	   5-18

1

Tampering and Fuel Switching  .	2-43,72
Technical Information 	   8-19
Technical Support - LUST	   15-4
Technology Transfer 	   8-8,19
Test Guidelines 	   9-30,31
Test Rules  	   9-5,47-50
Tijuanna, International Sewage Treatment Plant 	  13-3
Title III - Hazardous Waste 	   5-43,44
Tolerances  	   6-3,4,7,22,23,24
Toxic Pollutant Controls  	   3-51,53
Treatment Standards - Hazardous Waste .  .  	   5-26

U

UIC Requirements (RCRA) 	   5-28
Underground Injection Control 	   4-16,17,28,35
Underground Storage Tanks - Regulations  and Guidelines   5-30,31,32
Underground Storage Tanks Grants  	   5-36,37
University Research Centers 	   14-25

V

Visting Scientists Program  	 .  	   8-10,25

H

Waste Characterization  	   5-15,16
Waste Minimization (RCRA) 	   5-9,25
Wastewater Treatment Compliance 	  	   3-70,71,72
Water Quality Permit Issuance 	   3-74,75,76
Wellhead Protection 	   4-15,16,17,39
Wetlands (Section 404)  	   3-43,44,45,46,19
                                       23

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1. SUMMARY

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                        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

Justification of Appropriations Estimates for the Committee on Appropriations

                               FISCAL YEAR 1991

                                BUDGET SUMMARY

      The  President's  1991  Budget  request  for  the Environmental  Protection
Agency's totals $5,580,709,000 supported by 16,761 workyears.   These resources
include  $2,127,000,000  and  12,853  workyears  for  the Agency's  environmental
operating programs; $38,709,000 and 350  workyears  for  the Inspector General's
activities;  $1,740,000,000  and  3,467  workyears  for  the Superfund  program;
$75,000,000 and  90  workyears for the Leaking  Underground Storage  Tank (LUST)
program; and,  $1,600,000,000 for the Construction Grants program.  When compared
with the Agency  Total current  estimate,  the  President's  request represents an
overall increase of $48,246,000 and 919  total  workyears.   The following chart
provides a summary of budget authority for EPA'S eight appropriations:

                               Budget Authority
Salaries &
Expenses 	
Office of the
Inspt . General . .
Research &
Development. . .
Abatement,
Control & Compl .
Buildings &
Facilities 	
OPERATING PROGRAMS
Subtotal 	
Hazardous
Substance
Superfund 	
Leaking Under-
ground Storage
Tanks (LUST) 	
Construction
Grants (CG) 	
Subtotal 	
CG rescission of
unobligated bal.
AGENCY TOTAL (NET)
1990
Enacted
$861,027
31,242
237,757
817,076
14.768
1,961,870
1,550,588
74,822
2.018.225
$5,605,505
-47.700
$5,557,805
(dollars in thousands)
1991
1990 President's
Current Estimate Request
$863.998
30,903
229,950
796,915
14.652
1,936,418
1,530,228
74,097
1.991.720
$5,532,463
-43.691 a/
$5,488,772
$999,700
38,709
249,000
865,300
13.000
2,165,709
1,740,000
75,000
1.600.000
$5,580,709
0
$5,580,709
Increase +
Decrease -
1990 vs 1991
+$135,702
+7,806
+19,050
+68,385
-1.652
+229,291
+209,772
+903
-391.720
+$48,246
+43.691
+$91,937
                                      1-1

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                          APPROPRIATIONS HIGHLIGHTS

      The 1991 President's Budget Request will provide the necessary resources
for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to initiate new program activities
while continuing emphasis on accelerating ongoing programs.  The Agency will step
up concentration on  preventing pollution at  its source;  implementation of the
President's  proposed  "Clean  Air  Act  Amendments  of  1989";  realizing  the
President's  goal  of  strengthening environmental  enforcement  and  ensuring
compliance  with new and  existing  statutes;  building  and maintaining  State
capacity and a strong State-Federal partnership that is so crucial for effective
environmental protection;  and, provide for the first time nonpoint source grants
for the implementation  of state nonpoint source pollution prevention and control
strategies.     In  1991   the  Agency  will   continue   implementation   of  the
recommendations of the  1989  Superfund Management Review (SMR), placing emphasis
on an  "enforcement first" approach  to Superfund cleanup  activities  as  well as
increasing response activities as recommended in the SMR.

      The  following  briefly  describes  the  1991 request, the  purpose,  and the
major  changes  from  the  Agency's  1990  estimates  for  each   of  EPA's  eight
appropriations.  In  addition, in  the 1991 request  it  is  proposed  that  we fund
repair and improvement  projects under $75,000 from each of the operating program
accounts except the Office of the Inspector General.

SALARIES AND EXPENSES

      The  Agency's   1991  request of  $999,700,000 represents  an  increase  of
$135,702,000  (16%) over the  1990 current estimate  for Salaries and Expenses.
This appropriation finances all  staff costs  associated with administering the
environmental operating programs within the Agency's Regional and  Headquarters
operations.   The increase  in resources will enable the  Agency to  continue
expanding  the  Administration's  commitment  to protecting human health  and the
environment. These resources incorporates all  costs exclusive of grant programs
and program-specific contractual agreements.

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

      For 1991 EPA is requesting $249,000,000 for the Research and Development
appropriation, an increase of $19,050,000 (8%) over the  1990 current estimate.
This  appropriation  finances  research  contracts,  grants  and  agreements  with
universities and private  industry,  as well  as in-house  activities,  to  produce
the scientific knowledge and technologies necessary for  regulating,  preventing
and abating pollution.  The Agency plans to direct major increases in 1991 toward
strengthening  the Agency's  long-term  research  capabilities,  enhancing global
climate change research, addressing research needs  of  the President's Clean Air
Act legislation, and supporting media  program needs.

ABATEMENT. CONTROL AND COMPLIANCE

      The  Agency is requesting  $865,300,000 for  the Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation,  an increase of $68,385,000 (9%) over the 1990 current
estimate.   This  appropriation  finances  contracts,  grants,   and  cooperative
agreements for pollution abatement, control and compliance activities.  The 1991
request includes resources for a new state grant program that will provide states
with the financing to replace  construction grant set asides until states put in

                                     1-2

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place alternative funding sources.   In  addition,  the  request includes funding
for  implementation  of  the  President's  proposed Clean  Air Act  legislation.
Resources will  be used  for new  activities  including training and technical
support for state and local governments.

BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES

      The Agency  is  requesting  $13,000,000 for  the  Buildings  and Facilities
appropriation.  This represents a decrease  of  $1,652,000 (11%)  below the 1990
current estimate  which  is due to  the  completion of a one-time project.  This
appropriation  finances  the  construction of  new facilities  and   the  repair,
improvement, alteration, and purchase of fixed equipment for facilities which
the Agency currently leases  or  owns.  The requested level  will permit the Agency
to continue to ensure healthy and safe working conditions.

HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE SUPERFUND

      This appropriation finances responses at uncontrolled hazardous waste sites
and emergency  releases  of hazardous substances.  The  President's  1991 Budget
request of $1,740,000,000  for Superfund represents an increase of $209,772 (14%)
over the 1990 current estimate.  This increase represents  a strong and continued
commitment on  the part  of the Agency to meet  its responsibilities to protect
human health  and the environment.   The 1991 President's Budget  continues to
implement the  Superfund Management  Review  (SMR) initiatives of  "enforcement
first", strong cleanup programs,  and effective Federal response.

      Consistent  with the President's  "Building a Better America"  message and
the Agency's  emphasis  on enforcement  efforts,  a significant increase  of $16
million requested to ensure privately-financed response  actions  and vigorous
pursuit of now settling private parties  for cost  recovery.   The Department of
Justice will receive $32.3  million of  this  request  to ensure adequate support
for the increasing Superfund caseload.   In  addition,  the Agency will increase
the Response  program by  $196 million.  This increase will support  the  most
environmentally   significant  projects  first  while  balancing  the  Agency's
statutorily mandated actions and ongoing activities.

LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS  (LUST)

      The Agency is requesting  $75,000,000 in 1991, an  increase of $903,000 (1%)
above the  1990 current estimate.   This appropriation established  a response
program for the prevention and  remediation of releases from leaking underground
petroleum storage tanks.  The  request will maintain  the LUST program's momentum
and the  Agency's strong  commitment to  building  state capacity necessary to
protect human  health and the  environment.   The  1991  President's  Budget will
provide funding for cooperative agreements with states and territories to help
them achieve the response and  enforcement capacity necessary to implement their
own LUST programs.

CONSTRUCTION GRANTS

      Fiscal  Year 1991  is  a  transitional  year  for  the Construction  Grants
program.   This year funds  for this appropriation  will  no  longer be  used to
finance grants to local public agencies for construction of municipal wastewater
treatment facilities. The 1991 request for this appropriation will finance State


                                      1-3

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Revolving  Funds  (SRFs).    Once  Federal  authorization  is  completed  in  1994,
together with the State match, SRFs should be self sufficient.  SRFs will make
loans to local public agencies for construction of municipal wastewater treatment
facilities, thereby  assisting States and localities  in attaining established
water quality  standards.   The  President's  request of  $1,600,000,000  for  the
Construction Grants appropriation in 1991 represents a decrease of $391,720,000
(20%) below the 1990  current estimate.  However,  because  the mix of Construction
Grant and SRF grant change, 1991 will see a $598 million increase (60%) in SRF
funding.

      Finally, the 1991 request contains $15,700,000 for the U.S. share of the
construction costs of an  international wastewater treatment plant in San Diego,
California  to  treat Tijuana,  Mexico wastewater.   These  funds  will  be  made
available once Mexico agrees  to pay all operating and maintenance costs and the
full cost of any subsequent expansion of plant capacity.

OFFICE OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL

      The  Agency  is requesting  $38,709,000 for the  Office of  the  Inspector
General.  Of this  amount,  $25,027,000 is to be  derived  from the  General Fund,
$13,107,000 from the Hazardous Substance Superfund, and $575,000 from the Leaking
Underground Storage Tanks Trust Fund.  This  represents  an increase of $7,806,000
(25%) above the 1990 current  estimate.  With this  appropriation  the Office of
the Inspector  General  will be able to continue its audits  and investigations
relating to EPA programs  and  operations, thereby promoting economy, efficiency,
and effectiveness throughout  the Agency; prevent and detect fraud and abuse and
keep  the Administrator  and   Congress  advised  of  problem  areas and  related
corrective actions as well as review EPA regulations and legislation.

TRANSFER AUTHORITY (Administrative Provision)

      The Agency  is requesting appropriations transfer  authority.  The authority
would be exclusive  of the Trust Funds and Construction Grants appropriations and
would be limited to 7 per centum.  The 7 percent limit would apply to both the
losing and receiving appropriations.  This authority will provide  the Agency the
flexibility it needs to target resources to  meet new and emerging environmental
priorities  and Congressional  mandates.     In  an  Agency as  complex   as  EPA,
situations frequently arise where changes must be made  to priorities established
almost  18 months in  advance  or to methods  needed to  achieve  priorities.   The
ability  to  meet  the  requirements of  the  Agency's programs  will be  greatly
enhanced with the authority.


a/ The amount shown as rescinded unobligated balances does not include $3,986,884
   ordered preserved by  the U.S.  District Court.   The actual  amount available
   for rescission is $47,678,276.
                                     1-4

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                                         ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY

                                           Summary  of Budget Authority,
                                        Obligations, Outlays, and Workyears
                                                By  Appropriation
                                             (dollars in  thousands)
                                Actual
                                 1989
Enacted
 1990
 Current
Estimate
  1990
Request
 1991
Salaries and Expenses

 Budget Authority	    $  815,000.4    $   861,026.6   $   863,998.1    J   999,700.0
 Obligations	       808,774.9       861.026.6      863,998.1       999.700.0
 Outlays	       834.444.0       833.445.0      836,000.0       969.794.0

 Permanent Workyears	        11.114.0        11.889.2       11,368.7        12,540.5
 Total  Workyears	        11,457.6        11,890.2       11,751.2        12.540.5

Research and Development

 Budget Authority	    $  202,500.0    $   237,757.0   $   229,949.9    $   249.000.0
 Obligations	       201,325.0       235,581.6      227,878.0       249,521.0
 Outlays	       182,467.0       222.729.0      219,653.0       240.592.0

Abatement, Control, and
 Compliance

 Budget Authority	    $  719,625.3    $   817,076.0   $   796,914.6    $   865,300.0
 Obligations	       706,387.0       828,249.2      807.943.0       863,659.0
 Outlays	       623,190.0       783,670.0      775,802.0       832,359.0

Buildings and Facilities

 Budget Authority	    $    8.000.0    $    14,768.0   $    14,652.0    $    13,000.0
 Obligations	         6,592.7        24,543.6       24,723.0        13.000.0
 Outlays	        15.118.0        19,453.0       19,436.0        12.942.0

Office of Inspector General

 Budget Authority	    $        0.0    $    31.242.3   $    30,903.3    $    38,709.0
 Obligations	             0.0        31.242.3       30,903.3        38,709.0
 Outlays	             0.0        18.745.0       18,542.0        30,951.0

 Permanent Workyears	             0.0           310.6          310.6           350.4
 Total  Workyears	            0.0           310.6       .   310.6           350.4

Scientific Activities
 Overseas

 Obligations	    $        0.0    $         0.0   $         0.0    $         0.0
 Outlays	            49.0           250.0          250.0           250.0
                                             1-5

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SUBTOTAL,
OPERATING PROGRAMS
Budget Authority 	
Obi i gallons 	
Outlays 	
Permanent Workyears. . . .
Total Workyears 	
Hazardous Substance
Superfund
Budget Authority. 	
Obi igations 	
Outlays 	
Permanent Workyears . .
Total Workyears 	
LUST Trust Fund
Budget Authority 	
Obi i gat i ons
Outlays . ...
Permanent Workyears
Total Workyears 	
Construction Grants
Budget Authority
Obi i gations 	
Outlays
Operations, Research
and Facilities
Obi i gat i ons 	
Outlays 	
Tolerances
Revolving Fund
Obi igations
Outlays 	
Actual
1989

$1,745,125.7
1,723,079.6
1.655,268.0
11,114.0
11,457.6

$1,410,000.0
1,543,719.5
958,195.0
2,424.0
2.796.4

$ 50,000.0
50 875 4
32 859 0
81 0
82.4

$1 950 000 0
2,531,237.0
2 349 827 0

$ 0.0
0 0

$ 806 7
(293.0)
Enacted
1990

$1,961.869.9
1,980,643.3
1,878,292.0
12,199.8
12.200.8

$1,550,588.1
1,598.039.3
1,328,814.0
2,967.2
3,467.2

$ 74.822.1
78 279.6
35,707.0
91.3
91.3

$2 018 225.0
2,305.233.0
2 363 092.0

$ 50.0
250.0

$ 1 000.0
(200.0)
Current
Estimate
1990

$1,936,417.9
1,955,445.4
1,869,683.0
11,679.3
12,061.8

$1.530.228.1
1,578,322.0
1,324.538.0
3,345.7
3,467.2

$ 74,097.0
77.555.0
35.489.0
85.7
91.3

$1,991,720.0
2,305.233.0
2.362,668.0

$ 50.0
250.0

$ 1,000.0
(200.0)
Request
1991

$2,165,709.0
2.164,589.0
2,086,888.0
12,890.9
12,890.9

$1,740,000.0
1,740,000.0
1,520,333.0
3,467.2
3,467.2

$ 75,000.0
75,000.2
49.299.0
90 4
90.4

$1.600.000.0
1.697.930.0
2,338,857.0

$ 50.0
250.0

$ 1,000.0
(200.0)
1-6

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Misc. Contrib. Funds
Obi i gat ions 	
Outlays . . ...
Reregi strati on & Expedited
Processing Revolving Fund
Obi i gat ions 	
Outlays 	
Permanent Workyears . .
Total Workyears 	
Reimbursements - SHE
Obi i gat ions 	
Permanent Workyears 	
Total Workyears 	
Reimbursements-Superfund
Obi i gat ions. ... ....
Reimbursements-R&D
Obi i gat ions 	
Reimbursements-AC&C
Obi i gat ions 	

TOTAL. EPA
Budget Authority
Obi igations . ...
Outlays
Permanent Workyears 	
Total Workyears

Actual
1989

$ 4.3
2.0

$ 5,303.6
(16.040.0)
132 0
33.6

$ 15.751.7
67.0
66.6

$ 6.787.0

$ 3.444.3

$ 0.0


$5 155 125 7
5,881,009.1
4,979,818.0
13,818.0
14,436 6

Enacted
1990

$ 10.0
10.0

$ 33,851.0
(11,000.0)
0 0
0.0

$ 20,000.0
74.0
74.0

$ 30,000 0

$ 5,000.0

$ 0.0


$5 605 505 1
6.052 106 2
5 594 965 0
15,332.3
15 833 3
esssssssssss
Current
Estimate
1990

$ 10.0
10.0

$ 33,851.0
(11.000.0)
148 0
148.0

$ 19,947.0
74.0
74.0

$ 29.815.0

$ 5,000.0

$ 0.0


$5,532 463 0
6,006,228.4
5.581,438.0
15,332.7
15,842.3
SSSSSJfSSSSSS
Request
1991

$ 10.0
10.0

$ 18,000.0
7,100.0
238 5
238.5

$ 20.000.0
74.0
74.0

$ 30 000 0

$ 5,000.0

$ 5.000.0


$5 580 709 0
5,756,579 2
6,002 537 0
16,761.0
16,761 0
============
•1-7

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   Summary of Budget  Authority,
Obligations,  Outlays,  and Workyears
              By Media
       (dollars  in  thousands)

Air
Budget Authority 	
Obi igations 	
Outlays 	
Permanent Workyears. . . .
Total Workyears
Water Quality
Budget Authority
Obi igations 	
Outlays 	
Permanent Workyears....
Total Workyears 	
Drinking Water
Budget Authority
Obi igations 	
Outlays 	
Permanent Workyears....
Total Workyears 	
Hazardous Waste
Budget Authority 	
Obi igations 	
Outlays 	
Permanent Workyears....
Total Workyears.
Pesticides
Budget Authority 	
Obi igations 	
Outlays 	
Permanent Workyears...
Total Workvears 	
Actual
1989
$ 268,368.5 $
267,314.6
268,535.0
1,598 9
1 680 4

$ 289 822 2 $
285,340 7
270,382.5
2.010.7
2 142 8

$ 108 264 3 $
106,809.6
111 414 4
673 8
716 0

$ 267 576 6 $
262,638.4
253 744 5
1 372 2
1 452 3

$ 118,662 1 $
117 961 3
87,286 2
795 7
845.3
Enacted
. 1990
294,000.9
291,008.6
290,932.9
1,756.9
1,756.9

350,292 2
355,063.1
334,643.9
2,283.0
2,284.0

122,399.3
122,356.1
124,177.3
766.7
766.7

273,787.5
277.264.3
264,578.8
1,523.0
1 523 0

106,932.2
106 341 2
94,978.6
853 3
853.3
Current
Estimate
1990
$ 288,924.8
288,796.0
289,614.3
1,704.3
1,739.4

$ 345 339.5
350,177.0
333,127.9
2,125.0
2,215.9

$ 120 796.3
121,059.0
123,615.1
743.9
768.0

$ 269 296.0
273,315.0
263 380.1
1,432.9
1 490 1

$ 104 765.7
104 303 0
94 548.0
957 3
990.9
Request
1991
$ 389,791.0
388,384.0
385,203.0
1,984.6
1,984 6

$ 379 096 5
378,871 0
358,749.0
2,311.8
2,311 8

$ 132 637 3
132,592.0
133,914 3
810 2
810 2

$ 317 144 1
316.795.0
307 477 6
1 634 7
1 634 7

$ 110 072 7
110 118 0
99 856 8
1 091 7
1.091 .7
 1-8

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                                Actual
                                 1989
Enacted
 1990
 Current
Estimate
  1990
Request
 1991
Radiation

 Budget Authority	    $   24,626.9  $   35,862.8    $    35,071.5    $    39,109.7
 Obligations	        24,744.1      35,528.6        34,849.0        38,602.0
 Outlays	        22,383.1      31,472.9        31,330.5        35,040.9

 Permanent Workyears	           184.1         220.2           214.2           240.8
 Total Workyears	           194.0         220.2           216.8           240.8

Noise

 Budget Authority	    $        0.0  $        0.0    $         0.0    $         0.0
 Obligations	             0.0           0.0             0.0       .      0.0
 Outlays	            12.2           0.0             0.0             0.0

Multimedia

 Budget Authority	    $   80,339.0  $  123,625.4    $   126,861.2    $   166,419.4
 Obligations	        79,864.2     122,883.2       122,626.0       166,069.0
 Outlays	        66,049.9     115,606.1       115,082.1       153.027.4

 Permanent Workyears	           597.7         773.0           721.1           841.5
 Total Workyears	           640.9         773.0           742.3           841.5

Toxic Substances

 Budget Authority	    $  144,578.0  $  158,368.6    $   155,862.8    $   113,439.0
 Obligations	       143,120.0     157,537.5       155,212.0       114,439.0
 Outlays	       143,200.2     140,097.6       139,462.9       104,527.4

 Permanent Workyears	           815.9         906.6           865.4           886.2
 Total Workyears	           862.0         906.6           876.1           886.2

Energy

 Budget Authority	    $   54,735.7  $   33,480.8    $    32,171.9    $    14,256.7
 Obligations	        54.478.9      33,555.0        32,822.0        14,730.0
 Outlays	        57,314.6      45,735.0        45,527.6        28,502.8

 Permanent Workyears	            62.8          52.4            51.8            30.4
 Total Workyears	            67.2          52.4            51.8            30.4

Management and Support

 Budget Authority	    $  380,152.4  $  423,427.7    $   418,029.3    $   477,061.2
 Obligations	       374,215.1     429,639.5       422,916.6       477,307.2
 Outlays	       359,827.4     396,256.0       394,460.5       456,922.8

 Permanent Workyears	         2,700.3       2,996.9         2,943.6         3,209.2
 Total Workyears	         2,894.3       2,996.9         3,050.7         3.209.2
                                       1-9

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                                                             Current
                                Actual         Enacted         Estimate          Request
                                 1989           1990             1990             1991
Buildings and Facilities
 Budget Authority	    $    8,000.0  $    14,768.0     $    14,652.0     $    13,000.0
 Obligations	         6,592.7      24,543.6         24,723.0         13,000.0
 Outlays	        15,118.0      19,543.0         19,436.0         12.942.0

Hazardous Substance
 Superfund
 Budget Authority	    $1.410,000.0  $1,560.745.0    $1.540.286.0     $1,753.106.4
 Obligations	     1,543.719.5   1,608.194.3     1.588,379.8      1,753.107.0
 Outlays	       958,195.0   1,334,907.0     1,330.631.0      1,530,711.0

 Permanent Workyears	         2,621.5       3,035.0         3,413.5          3-.552.0
 Total Workyears	         2.799.4       3.535.0         3,535.0          3,552.0

LUST Trust Fund
 Budget Authority	    $   50.000.0  $   74,822.0    $    74.097.0     $    75.575.0
 Obligations	        50.875.4      78.279.6        77.555.0         75.575.0
 Outlays	        32.859.0      35.707.0        35,489.0         49.645.0

 Permanent Workyears	            77.7          91.3            85.7             93.9
 Total Workyears	            82.4          91.3            91.3             93.9

Construction Grants
 Budget Authority	   $1.950,000.0  $2,018,225.0    $1,991,7'20.0    $1,600.000.0
 Obligations	    2,531,237.0   2,305,233.0     2,305.233.0     1.697.930.0
 Outlays	    2,349.827.0   2.363,092.0     2,362,668.0     2,338.857.0

Operations, Research
and Facilities
 Obligations	    $        0.0  $       50.0    $        50.0     $        50.0
 Outlays	             0.0         250.0           250.0            250.0

Tolerances
 Revolving Fund
 Obligations	    $      806.7  $    1,000.0    $     1,000.0     $     1,000.0
 Outlays	          (293.0)        (200.0)          (200.0)          (200.0)

Misc. Contrib. Funds
 Obligations	    $        4.3  $       10.0    $        10.0     $        10.0
 Outlays	             2.0          10.0            10.0             10.0
                                       1-10

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                                                              Current
                                Actual         Enacted         Estimate          Request
                                 1989           1990             1990             1991
Reregistrati on & Expedited
 Processing Revolving Fund
Obi i gat ions ...'....
Outlays 	
Reimbursements - S&E
Obi i gat ions 	
Permanent Workyears . . .
Total Workyears 	 	
Reimbursements-Super fund
Obi igations 	
Reimbursements-R&D
Obligations 	
Reimbursements-AC&C
Obligations 	

TOTAL. EPA
Budget Authority 	
Obi igations 	
Outlays 	
Permanent Workyears 	
Total Workyears

$ 5,303.6
(16,040.0)

$ 15,751.7
64 9
66.6

$ 6,787.0

$ 3,444.3

$ 0.0


$5,155,125.7
5,881 009.1
4,979,818.0
13,576.2
14 443.6

$ 33,851.0
(11,000.0)

$ 20,000.0
74 0 **
74.0 **

$ 30,000.0

$ 5,000.0

$ 0.0


$5.605,505.0 *
6,052,106 2 *
5.594,965.0 *
15,332.3
15 833 3

$ 33,851.0
(11,000.0)

$ 19,947.0
74 0 **
74.0 **

$ 29,815 0

$ 5,000.0

$ 0.0


$5,532.463.0 *
6,006,228 4 *
5.581.438.0 *
15.332.7
15 842 3

$ 18,000 0
7,100.0

$ 20,000 0
74 0 **
74 0 **

$ 30 000 0

$ 5,000.0

$ 5.000 0


$5,580.709 0
5 756 579 2
6.002,537 0
16.761 0
16 761 0

*  Enacted 1990 BA and Obligation totals include $14,767.6 in  undistributed  funds.
   1990 Current Estimate BA and Obligation totals include  $14,589.0  in  undistributed  funds.
   Enacted 1990 Outlays include $14.176.9/1990 Current Estimate outlays include $14.005.0
    in undistributed funds.

**  Includes 12 FTE for Ocean Dumping (  10 in Water Quality and 2  in Multimedia ).
                                      1-11

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2 AIR

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                       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1991 Budget Estimate

                              Table of  Contents


AIR                                                                     2-1

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Air Quality Research 	   2-8
      Scientific Assessment 	   2-16
      Monitoring Systems and Quality Assurance	   2-18
      Health Effects	   2-20
      Environmental Engineering and Technology  	   2-22
      Environmental Processes and Effects 	   2-25
      Characterization,  Transport and Fate  	   2-26
      Stratospheric Modification  	   2-28
ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   Air Quality and Stationary Source Planning and Standards 	   2-32
      Emission Standards and Technology Assessment  	   2-34
      National Pollutant Policies, Strategies and Rules 	   2-36
      State Program Guidelines and Air Standards Development  ....   2-39
   Mobile Source Air Pollution Control and Fuel Economy 	 .   .   2-42
      Emission Standards,  Technical Assessment and Characterization  .   2-44
      Testing, Technical and Administrative Support 	   2-46
      Emissions and Fuel Economy Compliance 	   2-47
   State Programs Resource Assistance 	 	   2-50
      Control Agency Resource Supplementation (Section 105 Grants)   .   2-51
      Training	   2-54
   Air Quality Management Implementation  	   2-56
   Trends Monitoring and Progress Assessment  	   2-60
      Ambient Air Quality Monitoring  	   2-61
      Air Quality and Emissions Data Management and Analysis  ....   2-63
ENFORCEMENT
   Stationary Source Enforcement  	   2-66
   Mobile Source Enforcement  	   2-71

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                                                    AIR
                                ACTUAL    ENACTED     CURRENT      REQUEST    INCREASE  +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE       1991      DECREASE  -
                                                       1990                1991  VS  1990
                                               (DOLLARS  IN  THOUSANDS)
APPROPRIATION
 Salaries & Expenses          $89,690.1   $93.273.1   $92,635.8  $121,175.5    $28,539.7
 Abatement Control and       $135,430.4  $146,552.0  $144,652.4  $204,196.7    $59,544.3
 Compliance
 Research & Development       $42,194.1   $54,175.8   $51,636.6   $64,418.8    $12,782.2

TOTAL, Air                   $267,314.6  $294,000.9  $288,924.8  $389,791.0   $100,866.2


PERMANENT UORKYEARS             1,598.9     1,756.9     1,704.3     1,984.6        280.3
TOTAL WORKYEARS                 1,680.4     1,756.9     1,739.4     1,984.6        245.2
OUTLAYS                      $268,535.0  $290,932.9  $289,614.3  $385,203.0    $95,588.7
AUTHORIZATION LEVELS         Reauthorization for the Clean Air Act  expired
                             September 30,  1981. Reauthorization is  pending.
                                           2-1

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                                     AIR
OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY

      The Clean Air Act authorizes a nationwide program of air quality planning,
regulation, enforcement,  and research to control air pollution.  A revised Clean
Air Act  will be  passed during  1990.   This  budget request  is  based  on the
amendments sent to Congress by President Bush  in July  1989.   In  1991 EPA will
focus on development  of  the  regulations, guidelines, and support infrastructure
needed to  implement  the  expected new legislation and  achieve  six major goals:
(1) achieve National Ambient Air Quality Standards  (NAAQSs)  to protect public
health; (2) implement an acid deposition control program; (3) address the growing
problems of  global change and indoor  air  pollution;   (4) reduce the  risk of
exposure to air toxics;  (5)  increase the capacity and improve the effectiveness
of state and local air quality agencies;  and (6) conduct research to provide a
strong scientific and technical basis for regulatory programs.  In its efforts
to achieve these goals, EPA will place increased emphasis on pollution prevention
activities.

Achieve NAAQSs Nationwide

      Establishing NAAQSs at levels that protect public health and prevent other
adverse effects has been the keystone of the national air quality program.  The
NAAQSs are revised based on  the results  of  regular  assessments of  the most
current scientific data on health and other effects of various air pollutants.
In 1991 EPA plans to  promulgate revised or  reaffirmed NAAQSs for sulfur dioxide
and propose revised or reaffirmed NAAQSs for lead and ozone.

      To   achieve  NAAQSs,  EPA  helps states  complete   and  enforce  State
Implementation  Plans  (SIPs) as  required by the Clean Air Act.   Although air
quality has generally improved as a result of SIP measures,  many SIPs have proven
inadequate for  meeting NAAQSs by statutory deadlines.    Expected revisions to
the Clean Air Act will address this problem.

      The  NAAQSs  for ozone and  carbon monoxide  have proven  to be  the most
difficult  standards to meet.  Currently,  over 135  million people live in areas
that failed  to  meet  the  standards.   As a  result,  EPA  has  asked  the  states to
revise their SIPs in  97 areas that failed to meet the ozone NAAQS and in 54 areas
that failed to meet the carbon  monoxide  NAAQS.  In 1991  EPA will provide guidance
and regulations needed to attain the NAAQSs by the target dates specified  in the
expected  revised Clean  Air Act.   EPA  will  continue to  focus on  ensuring
compliance with SIP calls issued in May 1988 and November 1989.  EPA and state
and local agencies will require significant  resources to implement expanded Clean
Air Act requirements.

      EPA will continue  to develop  control  techniques guidelines (CTGs) for new
source  categories of  volatile  organic  compounds  (VOCs),  which  are  ozone
precursors.  EPA will assess the need for additional federal control measures.
EPA and the states will continue to carry out a  comprehensive enforcement program
aimed at achieving continuous  compliance by stationary  sources, primarily those
emitting VOCs.
                                      2-2

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      Another element of the  strategy  for  attaining  ozone and carbon monoxide
NAAQSs provides for continued  reduction in emissions from in-use motor vehicles.
A substantial amount of the additional ozone precursor reduction required by the
expected revisions to the Clean Air Act will come from continued enforcement of
existing and  new  mobile  source standards and through the  use of clean fuels.
To ensure that vehicles meet  emission  standards  throughout their useful life,
EPA will continue to maintain a comprehensive Federal compliance program.  The
program  includes   preproduction certification  of emission  control  systems;
selective  enforcement audits at  manufacturers'  facilities; and  recalls  of
insufficiently controlled vehicles.  The Agency will continue to work with states
to establish  and  maintain effective vehicle  inspection/maintenance and anti-
tampering programs.

      In 1991 EPA will begin  to implement  expected revisions to the Clean Air
Act for mobile sources.   EPA will continue  to  develop new light-duty and heavy-
duty vehicle emissions standards and begin to evaluate alternative clean fuels
such as  oxygenated blends and  compressed  natural  gas.   The  Agency will also
assess the  effectiveness  of clean technologies to reduce  emissions of carbon
monoxide under cold temperature conditions.

      EPA will continue to help states develop  SIPs  for attaining the revised
NAAQSs for PM-10 and will review SIPs submitted by  states as required under the
Clean Air Act. Approximately  170 areas will not meet,  or have  the potential for
not meeting, the revised PM-10  standards.  Expected revisions to the Clean Air
Act will establish  new attainment  dates  for  PM-10.   In  1991 the PM-10 program
will focus  on developing and reviewing  SIPs, especially for newly identified
nonattainment  areas.    EPA will  develop  mitigation  strategies  for  problems
contributing  to long-term PM-10 nonattainment, including  measures to control
woodstoves  and other nontraditional sources.  EPA  will  continue  to develop
Federal Implementation Plans  (FIPs) consistent with requirements of litigation
and new legislation.

Implement an Acid Deposition  Control Program

      In 1991  EPA  will begin  to implement  expected revisions to the Clean Air
Act that establish new requirements for  control of acid deposition.  The proposed
revisions require reductions of 10  million  tons of  sulfur dioxide and 2 million
tons of nitrogen oxides.   Five million  tons of reduction  are to occur by the end
of-1995 (Phase I).  The proposal also establishes a system of emission allowances
and marketable permits  to allow maximum flexibility  for  utilities to achieve
required reductions in the most efficient and least costly manner.

      In 1991 EPA will focus  on development of guidance and regulations needed
to implement the proposed new requirements.  These include developing regulations
governing:    the   issuance,   trading  and  banking of allowances;  continuous
monitoring  of  emissions; participation of  industrial  sources in the allowance
system;  and  Federally-issued Phase I  permits.   EPA  will  also  develop  an
emissions/allowance tracking  system to facilitate free and open trading.

      EPA will continue to provide advice  and assistance to the Department of
Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program  and  develop energy conservation measures
to reduce and control acid deposition pollutants.
                                       2-3

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Address Growing Problems:  Global Change and Indoor Air Quality

      Global Change.  The Clean Air Act gives the Administrator of EPA authority
to protect the stratosphere.  EPA will continue its role in Federal efforts aimed
at  confronting  ozone   depletion,  climate  change  related  to  stratospheric
alterations, and  other  effects  and emissions caused  by  stratospheric change.
Under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the  Ozone Layer, currently
signed by the United  States and 46 other nations, EPA will implement and enforce
domestic rules,  support  international implementation of rules and policies under
the Protocol, carry out  risk  and economic assessments  to monitor progress under
the Protocol, and share  information on technology development  and alternative
chemicals to curtail  ozone depletion and minimize global warming trends. In 1991
EPA will develop rules on trade with non-participating nations.  EPA will develop
methods  for  inspection of   imported  goods  and   transfer  of  non-CFC  using
technologies  to  lesser developed  countries.     EPA  will   also  emphasize
administration of ozone depleting chemical allocations.

      Indoor Air Quality.  Research completed by EPA and others indicates that
health risks are  caused  by total exposure to  air  pollutants and not just from
ambient exposures.   Elevated  levels of certain  indoor air  pollutants may pose
a substantial threat to  human health.    In 1991  EPA  will  continue to provide
policy direction  to  the  indoor  air  quality  research program;  will disseminate
information to broad  segments  of the public on risks and ways to mitigate indoor
air quality problems; and will coordinate its activities with other EPA programs,
other Federal agencies,  states, and the private sector.  In 1991 EPA will further
examine  the  extent   of  the  "sick  building syndrome,"  will  initiate  the
establishment of an Indoor Air Quality Technical and Non-Technical Clearinghouse,
issue  manuals  on building  investigations,  issue  a physicians handbook,  and
complete  indoor air  quality  training  programs for  state and  local government
officials.

Reduce Risk of Exposure  to Air Toxics

      In 1991 EPA will begin  to implement expected revisions  to the Clean Air
Act to reduce the  risk of exposure to air toxics by  regulating source categories.
The Agency estimates  that 2.7  billion pounds of toxic chemicals are emitted into
the air each year and that these emissions  contribute to a substantial number
of fatal cancers  annually.  Work will  concentrate on  development  of a list of
major source categories  of 191 pollutants and initiation of work on developing
maximum achievable control technology  (MACT) for ten source categories to meet
the two-year requirement of the proposed new legislation.

      In 1991 EPA  will develop regulations for emissions from treatment, storage
and disposal facilities.  EPA  will continue its efforts to control motor vehicle
emissions  and fuels  which  are major components  of  toxic air pollutants.   The
Agency will help states develop and enhance multi-year development plans and will
provide  assistance in  evaluating and  regulating  high risk point  sources and
multi-pollutant urban toxics  problems.

Strengthen State  and Local Programs

      In 1991 EPA will devote substantial effort toward increasing the capacity
of state and local air pollution control agencies  and  leveraging the effects of
its own resources. EPA will provide states with guidance  and regulations needed


                                      2-4

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to implement expected new requirements for operating permits.  These will include
model  permits,  standard  application  forms,  fee  recovery  requirements,  and
monitoring/reporting requirements.

      The Agency will  continue to support state and local air pollution control
programs by providing direct program assistance and training and by facilitating
information exchange.  EPA will share information  through the Control Technology
Center  and clearinghouses that  provide information  on  air  toxics,  emission
factors, control technology,  and risk.  EPA will  also assist states with model
application, data base development,  and model  documentation  to  support ozone,
carbon monoxide, and PM-10 SIP analyses and attainment demonstrations.

Conduct  Research to  Provide  a Strong Scientific  and   Technical  Basis  for
Regulatory Programs

      EPA's air quality research and development program provides the scientific
and  engineering basis for sound regulatory decision-making.   The Office  of
Research and  Development (ORD) provides health  and ecological  effects data,
monitoring  methods  and  support, pollutant  transport models,  assessment  of
emission reduction technologies,  and  quality assurance to help  meet the Agency's
public information needs.

      In 1991 EPA is expanding its research on the causes and transport of ozone,
particularly with respect to  the role of biogenic emissions  and other factors
that may influence ozone formation.   The regional oxidant model (ROM) will be
extended from the Northeast to apply to the Southeast.

      Other areas of research emphasis  in  1991 include global climate change,
indoor  air quality,  clean fuels,  and acid aerosols.   In addition,  ORD will
undertake  an  enhanced emissions inventory program for air toxics  which will
compile  available data  on  a  national basis  and provide improved emissions
information to policy-makers.

Pollution  Prevention Initiatives .

      In 1991 the air program will  undertake  or  participate  in  seven projects
designed to prevent pollution.  These include: working with states to encourage
utility  planning with  consideration of energy  efficiency and conservation;
defining health and environmental  risks associated  with  alternative  consumer
products;  examining options  to limit production and use  of lead and encourage
recycling of lead acid batteries; improving emerging VOC control methods for area
and small sources; promoting  and institutionalizing pollution  prevention in air
permit programs; evaluating methods  to address industrial pollution prevention
through regulation and outreach; and promoting pollution prevention requirements
in enforcement  settlements.    EPA will also incorporate pollution prevention in
its regulations when appropriate.

Consulting Services

      The  Office of Air and Radiation will fund a limited amount of consulting
services in 1991.  Section 117 of the Clean Air Act requires consultation with
appropriate advisory  committees  prior to  publishing any NSPS or  NESHAP.   The
National Air  Pollution  Control Techniques Advisory  Committee is  comprised of
members  from   industry,  environmental  groups,   academia,   and  state/local


                                      2-5

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governments.   The  committee typically meets three  or four times per  year to
review the technical basis of Federal emission standards.

      A few small  management  service contracts will be awarded  in  1991.   The
purpose  of  these   contracts  will  be  to provide  specialized  expertise  in
environmental economics needed to assess  the economic impacts  and benefits of
various NSPS,  NESHAP,  and NAAQS regulatory actions.  The assessment of economic
impacts and benefits is required by Executive Order 12291.
                                     2-6

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                                     AIR
PROGRAM ACTIVITIES             _

National Ambient Air
Quality Standards

Number of Pollutants
  Covered (Cumulative)
Proposals*
Promulgations*  	

New Source Performance Standards

Source Categories
  Covered (Cumulative)
Proposals** 	
Promulgations 	
 ACTUAL
  1989
    6
    1
    0
   59
    0
    3
National Emission Standards
for Hazardous Air Pollutants

Number of Source Categories
  Covered (Cumulative)
Number of Pollutants
  Covered (Cumulative)
Proposals** 	
Promulgations 	
   31

    6
    4
    5
Enforcement Actions - Stationary Sources
Inspections 	
Notices of Violation
Administrative Orders
Civil Litigation  .   .
Criminal Litigation  .
2,445
  296
  262
  103
    6
                                              CURRENT
                                             ESTIMATE
                                               1990
                                               6
                                               0
                                               0
                                              66
                                               3
                                               7
                                              37

                                               7
                                               4
                                               7
                                           1,868
                                             300
                                             225
                                              86
                                              10
ESTIMATE
  1991
                                              45

                                              19
                                              25

                                             520
    6
    2
    1
   68
    0
    1
   37

    7
    6
    0
1,868
  300
  225
   86
   10
                            45

                            19
                            25

                           615
INCREASE (+)
DECREASE (-)
1991 VS 1990
    +2
    +1
     +2
     -3
     -6
     +2
     •7
Enforcement Actions - Mobile Sources

State and Local Tampering/
  Fuel Switching Programs
  (Cumulative)  	        45
Assembly Line Testing
  Test Orders	        21
Recall Investigations .   .        27
Notices of Violation
  Tampering/Fuel Switching      417

*   Revisions or reaffirmations
**  New source categories and revisions.   NESHAPs include air toxic standards
    developed under other regulatory authorities
NOTE:  All outputs are incremental except as indicated.
               +95
                                      2-7

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Research and
Development

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                        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1991 Budget Estimate

                               Table  of  Contents
AIR

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Air Quality Research 	   2-8
      Scientific Assessment .... 	   2-16
      Monitoring Systems and Quality Assurance  	   2-18
      Health Effects	   2-20
      Environmental Engineering and Technology  	   2-22
      Environmental Processes and Effects 	   2-25
      Characterization, Transport and Fate	   2-26
      Stratospheric Modification   	   2-28

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                                                  AIR
                                             Air Research
                                ACTUAL
                               '  1989
                   ENACTED
                    1990
 CURRENT
ESTIMATE
  1990
REQUEST
 1991
  INCREASE +
  DECREASE -
1991  VS 1990
PROGRAM
                                               (DOLLARS  IN THOUSANDS)
Scientific Assessment -
Air
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
Monitoring Systems And
Quality Assurance - Air
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
Health Effects - Air
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
Environmental
Engineering And
Technology - Air
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
Environmental Processes
And Effects - Air
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
Characterization,
Transport And Fate -
Air
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
Stratospheric
Modification Program -
Air
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development

Air Research
$3.079.6
$2,173.0
$5,252.6
$6,290.6
16,322.3
(12,612.9
$7,422.4
$13,424.5
$20,846.9
$3,376.5
$3,035.2
$6,411.7
$745.7
$1,277.1
$2,022.8
$3,733.1
$7,269.9
$11,003.0
$895.9
$8,692.1
$9,588.0
$25,543.8
$42,194.1
$2,948.7
$2,182.6
$5,131.3
$6,246.1
$6,246.7
$12,492.8
$6,688.6
$18,089.0
$24,777.6
$3,965.6
$5,023.6
$8,989.2
$938.4
$1,280.9
$2,219.3
$3,655.9
$8,203.5
$11,859.4
$2,021.7
$13,149.5
$15,171.2
$26,465.0
$54,175.8
$2,929.0
$2.324.2
$5,253.2
$6,049.2
$5,852.9
$11,902.1
$6,544.1
$16,475.3
$23,019.4
$3,669.5
$4,919.6
$8,589.1
$925.9
$1,246.8
$2,172.7
$3,535.3
$7,930.4
$11,465.7
$2,518.6
$12,887.4
$15,406.0
$26.171.6
$51,636.6
$3,531.1
$3,552.5
$7,083.6
$6.466.7
$7.707.0
$14,173.7
$7,193.0
$14,624.5
$21,817.5
$4,180.3
$5,802.2
$9,982.5
$1,253.0
$1,633.3
$2,886.3
$3,962.1
$9,021.8
$12,983.9
$3,922.5
$22,077.5
$26,000.0
$30,508.7
$64,418.8
$602.1
$1,228.3
$1,830.4
$417.5
$1,854.1
$2,271.6
$648.9
-$1,850.8
-$1,201.9
$510.8
$882.6
$1,393.4
$327.1
$386.5
$713.6
$426.8
$1,091.4
$1,518.2
$1,403.9
$9.190.1
$10,594.0
$4,337.1
$12,782.2
TOTAL  $67,737.9  $80,640.8  $77,808.2   $94,927.5   $17,119.3
                                          2-8

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                                                  AIR
                                             Ai r  Research
                                ACTUAL     ENACTED     CURRENT     REQUEST   INCREASE +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE      1991     DECREASE -
                                                       1990               1991 VS 1990
PERMANENT UORKYEARS
Scientific Assessment -
Air

Monitoring Systems And
Quality Assurance - Air

Health Effects - Air

Environmental
Engineering And
Technology - Air

Environmental Processes
And Effects - Air

Characterization,
Transport And Fate -
Air

Stratospheric
Modification Program -
Air

TOTAL PERMANENT UORKYEARS
TOTAL UORKYEARS
Scientific Assessment -
Air

Monitoring Systems And
Quality Assurance - Air

Health Effects - Air

Environmental
Engineering And
Technology - Air

Environmental Processes
And Effects - Air

Characterization,
Transport And Fate -
Air

Stratospheric
Modification Program -
Air

TOTAL WORKYEARS
                                               (DOLLARS  IN THOUSANDS)
 46.1
107.9
 49.1
49.1
102.0      100.5
53.4
          101.5
 99.1      115.0      114.0      113.0

 56.5       57.5       56.4       58.4



 13.2       13.8       13.8       13.8


 54.6       56.5       55.0       57.0



 13.2       30.9       30.9       42.9



390.6      424.8      419.7      440.0
 4.3


 1.0


-1.0

 2.0



 0.0


 2.0



12.0



20.3
 47.9       49.1       49.1        53.4          4.3


109.0      102.0      100.5       101.5          1.0


111.7      115.0      114.0       113.0         -1.0

 56.9       57.5       56.4        58.4          2.0



 14.3       13.8       13.8        13.8          0.0


 54.7       56.5       55.0        57.0          2.0



 13.2       30.9       30.9        42.9         12.0



407.7      424.8      419.7       440.0         20.3
                                         2-9

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                                      AIR


                             Air Quality Research


                         Principal Outputs bv Objective
Objective  1:   Provide  Scientific Support  to Develop  and Review  Primary and
Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS).

1991:  o    External  Review Draft  (ERD)  of  the nitrogen  oxides  Air  Quality
            Criteria Document (AQCD) for CASAC review (Scientific Assessment).

       o    Assessment of the pulmonary health effects of inhaled acid aerosols
            in animals (Health).

       o    Procurement  in  Improved  Methods  for  Measuring Ambient  Aerosols
            (Monitoring).

1990:  o    Prepared  External Review  Drafts (ERD) for  the  nitrogen oxides and
            carbon monoxide  Air  Quality Criteria Documents (AQCD)  (Scientific
            Assessment).

       o    Report on aerosol sources for the Eastern U.S.  (Characterization).

       o    Report on response of the human respiratory tract to acute exposure
            to acid aerosols (Health).

       o    Report on Analysis of Eastern US Visibility Data (Monitoring).

1989:  o    Completed supplement  to the AQCD  for ozone  and other photochemical
            oxidants.  (Scientific Assessment).

       o    Report on the  effects of prolonged exposure  (greater than six hours)
            to ozone at or below current one-hour NAAQS (Health).

       o    Publication of .a comprehensive research plan  to determine the  effects
            of tropospheric  ozone on U.S. forests (Environmental Processes).


Objective  2:    Provide  Scientific  Support  to  Develop  New  Source  Performance
Standards  (NSPS) and State Implementation Plans  (SIPs).
1991:  o    A assessment report  on  the  role  of consumer/commercial solvents in
            ozone non-attainment, including emissions reductions approaches for
            highest volume sources  (Engineering).

       o    Joint Symposium on Stationary Combustion NOx Control (Engineering).

       o    Summary report on  control strategy application of Regional Oxidant
            Model for the Regional Oxidant Modeling Northeast Transport (ROMNET)


                                     2-10

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            program (Monitoring).

1990:  o    Report  on  the   application  of  conventional  particulate  control
            technology in major areas of concern (Engineering).

       o    Evaluation of the Regional Oxidant Model (ROM) using analytical test
            data and new air quality data (Characterization).

       o    Report on area volatile  organic compound  (VOC)  sources and control
            options  to  support the  Agency's  post-1987  ozone  non-attainment
            strategy (Engineering).

1989:  o    Report on  the development  of  an advanced process which  utilizes
            calcium  silicate sorbents  (ADVACATE)  to  control  acid  gases  from
            combustion sources  (Engineering).

       o    Report on recommended modifications to the  Complex Terrain Dispersion
            Model (Characterization).
Objective 3:  Provide Scientific Support to Develop Regulations for Hazardous Air
Pollutants (HAPs).

1991:  o    External Review Draft (ERD) on the diesel risk assessment (Scientific
            Assessment).

       o    Development  of a physiologically based-pharmacokinetic model  for
            predicting dosimetry of volatile organic compounds in humans (Health).

       o    Report on development of a secondary combustion woodstove for reducing
            particulate emissions to or below the 1990 NSPS (Engineering).

       o    Article on  source apportionment of mutagenic activity in fine particle
            organics identified in Boise, Idaho field study (Monitoring).

1990:  o    Report on retrofit technology for  existing woodstoves (Engineering).

       o    Report on Boise field study of woodstove emissions (Engineering).

       o    Assessment  of the  contribution  of wood burning  and  automobile
            emissions  to  the mutagenicity   and  carcinogenicity  of  airborne
            pollutants  (Health).

1989:  o    Assessment  of  the comparative mutagenicity and  carcinogenicity of
            combustion  source emissions (Health).

       o    Report  on  identities  of  HAPs  produced   in   the  atmosphere  from
            ubiquitous  innocuous pollutants (Characterization).


Objective 4:  Provide Scientific Support for the Mobile  Source Regulatory Program.
19.9.1:  o    Studies  on  the  DNA adduct  dosimetry of  the particulate  organic


                                     2-11

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            emissions from mobile sources (Health).

1990:   o    Journal article characterizing tailpipe,  evaporative,  and refueling
            emissions from gasoline fueled automobiles (Characterization).

       o    Assessment of  the  contribution of mobile source emissions  to  the
            genotoxicity of ambient urban aerosol mixtures (Health).

1989:   o    Report on population exposure to mobile  source  pollutants  for  1988
            (Monitoring).

       o    Journal  article  evaluating  emissions from  diesels equipped  with
            advanced emission control technology (Characterization).

       o    Report  on  the  effects  of atmospheric  transformation   on   the
            mutagenicity of gaseous gasoline emissions (Health).


Objective  5:   Provide  Scientific  Data on  the  Sources. Exposures,  and Health
Effects Associated with Indoor Air Pollutants and Evaluate Control Strategies.

1991:   o    Model indoor air risk assessment (Scientific Assessment).

       o    Report on the effects from inhalation of chemical mixtures found in
            indoor environments (Health).

       o    Research report on biocontaminant control by humidity  control systems,
            air cleaners,  and biocides (Engineering).

       o    Report on indoor air pollutant "sinks" (Engineering).

1990:   o    Report assessing the potential carcinogenicity of combustion emissions
            from unvented indoor kerosene heaters (Health).

       o    Research report on low emission materials  and products (Engineering).

       o    Research report on kerosene heater emissions (Engineering)

1989:   o    Report on human clinical  studies assessing the effects of exposure
            to volatile organic compounds found indoors (Health).

       o    Develop personal computer model for  evaluating  indoor air.quality
            control options (Engineering).

       o    Report  on  the  Effectiveness  of  Air   Cleaners  for  IAQ  Control
            (Engineering).


Objective  6:  Provide Scientific Data to Determine the Effects of Stratospheric
Ozone Depletion and Evaluate Control Strategies

1991:   o    Preliminary results of work on the effects of UV-B radiation on human
            immunosuppression (Health).
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       o    Report on status  of  alternatives  to halons as  fire  extinguishants
            (Engineering).

       o    Status report on alternatives for  insulation which do not use CFC's
            (Engineering).

       o    Establish data base for N^O emissions from  a variety of stationary
            combustion  sources  including  the  potential  for  plume  formation
            (Engineering).

       o    Report  on  selected  UV-B  effects  on  wetland  rice  ecosystems
            (Stratospheric Modification).

1990:  o    Report on the  effects  of UV-B radiation on rice yield (Stratospheric
            Modification).

       o    Development of a predictive  UV-B  dose  response  model  for
            commercially important fish (Stratospheric  Modification).

       o    Report on status of alternative refrigerants for home refrigerators
            (Engineering).

1989:  o    Biennial Congressional Report on ozone depletion which is required
            by the Clean Air Act (Stratospheric Modification).

       o    Report on the most important fisheries resources likely to be affected
            by  UV-B radiation,  both  in  terms  of  resource significance  and
            sensitivity (Stratospheric Modification).

       o    Development of a prioritized list  of research projects to evaluate
            the health effects associated with UV-B radiation (Health).

       o    Engineering  evaluations   of  controls  and  technical  support  for
            international  negotiations  on  stratospheric  ozone  modification
            (Engineering).


Objective 7:  Provide Scientific Data  to Determine the Effects of Global Warming
and Evaluate Control Strategies

1991:  o    Report of development of  improved  emission  factors  for methane for
            selected anthropogenic sources (Engineering).

       o    Report on the  sensitivity of forest regions, worldwide,  to global
            change (Stratospheric Modification).

       o    Report on processes that control emissions  of radiatively important
            trace gases from biosphere (Stratospheric Modification).

       o    Report on practical and beneficial techniques for mitigation of trace
            gases emissions (Stratospheric Modification).

1990:  o    Report on estimation of the relative importance of major forest types
            as  sources  and  sink  for  radiatively    important  trace  gases


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            (Stratospheric Modification).

       o    Evaluate feedbacks  from  ecosystem and land-use  changes,  including
            changes in  tropical  forests,  to changes in  climate (Stratospheric
            Modification).

       o    Report on  soil  microbial processes relating  radiatively  important
            trace gas fluxes and water balance (Stratospheric Modification).

       o    Report targeting opportunities for mitigation research (Engineering) .

1989:   o    Interim Assessment  of the  response of  terrestrial ecosystems  to
            changing climactic conditions, with the first estimates of landscape
            sensitivity (Stratospheric Modification).

       o    Evaluation  of  air quality  changes  due  to changes  in  tropospheric
            chemical  reactions  sensitive  to  climate  change  (Stratospheric
            Modification).

       o    Emissions Chapter for ORD Global Climate Change Research Prospectus
            (Stratospheric Modification).


Objective 8:   Provide  Scientific Data  and  Support  to the National  Health and
Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III)

Health Effects Institute

1991:   o    Status report on NHANES-III cooperative  research (Health).

1990:   o    Status report on NHANES-III cooperative  research and evaluation of
            field and laboratory test protocol for spirometry (Health).

1989:   o    Status report on NHANES-III cooperative  research (Health).
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                                      AIR


                              Air  Quality Research

Budget Request

      The  Agency requests  a  total  of  $94,927,500  supported  by 440.0  total
workyears for 1991 an increase of $17,119,300 and 20.3 total workyears from 1990.
Of the request, $30,508,700 will be for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and  $64,418,800 will be for the Research and Development appropriation, increases
of $4,337,100 and $12,782,200, respectively.

Program Objectives

      This research  program provides the research and technical support necessary
to  enable the Agency to  carry  out  its  regulatory  and information  transfer
responsibilities under the  Clean Air Act. The following objectives support these
efforts:

      Objective 1.  Provide Scientific Support to Develop and Review Primary_and
Secondary NAAOS.   This research program provides  the  scientific data needed to
issue and revise  national ambient air quality standards for emissions of criteria
air pollutants.

      Objective 2.   Provide  Scientific  Support to  Develop NSPS  and SIPs.   This
research supports issuance and revision of New Source Performance Standards and
State Implementation Plans through development of models and monitoring techniques
for air pollutants and engineering studies  of control technologies.

      Objective  3.    Provide  Scientific  Support  to Develop   Regulations  for
Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs).  Under this  objective EPA conducts research to
identify and control emissions of air pollutants from a variety of sources that
are hazardous  to human health  but  are  not  already  regulated  as  criteria air
pollutants.

      Objective 4.  Provide Scientific Support for the Mobile Source Regulatory
Program.   This research evaluates    emissions,  exposure patterns,  and health
effects of mobile source pollutants.

       Objective  5.   Provide Scientific  Data Necessary to  Determine  Sources.
Exposures.  Health  Effects,  and  Control   Strategies  Associated  with  Indoor
Pollutants.    Research conducted under this objective  supports  the  Agency's
efforts to inform the public about hazards  associated with indoor air pollutants
and to develop methods  to control air emissions from major household sources.

       Objective  6.  Provide Scientific Data  Necessary to Determine the Effects
of Stratospheric Ozone- Depletion  and  Develop  Control  Strategies.  This  research
program is primarily concerned  with providing necessary  data on the  effects of
stratospheric ozone  depletion and resulting increases  in harmful  (UV-B) radiation
on humans, plants, and ecosystems.  Research will also evaluate the environmental
consequences of  alternative compounds of CFCs and halons, and  technologies to
replace   those   currently   used  for  refrigeration,   insulation,  and   fire
extinguishment.


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       Objective 7.  Provide Scientific Data Necessary to Determine the Effects
of Global  Wanning and  Develop  Control  Strategies.  This  objective addresses
the research needed  to  determine the impact of global  climate  change,  to help
understand the regional  consequences of global climate trends,  and to develop and
test predictive source and sink models  for important trace gases.  Research will
develop and evaluate technologies and mitigation options for greenhouse gases that
produce global warming.

      Objective  8.    Provide  Scientific  Support  to  the  National Health  and
Nutrition  Examination  Survey  (NHANES-III).    Activities  in  support  of  this
objective will provide  national baseline data on  exposure  to pollutants,  body
burdens, and health effects.
SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $7,083,600 supported by 53.4 total workyears
for this  program,  of which  $3,531,100 will be  for the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation  and  $3,552,500  will   be   for   the  Research  and  Development
appropriation.   This  represents  an increase of  $602,100  in  the  Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation and  an  increase  of $1,228,300  in  the   Research and
Development appropriation and 4.3 total workyears.   The increase in the Salaries
and Expenses appropriation reflects  a general enhancement of in-house support for
assessing risks from air pollutants. The increase in the Research and Development
appropriation will  support the development of  risk assessments required by the
Clean Air Act Amendments.

      Provide  Scientific  Support to Develop and Review Primary  and Secondary
NAAQS.   The research  program office will review recent health  studies and  other
new scientific data for several air pollutants to support the Agency's statutory
mandate to revise National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) every five years.
This data will be evaluated  in Air Quality Criteria Documents (AQCD)  which are
the primary source of information used  by EPA  regulatory  decisionmakers  in
establishing or revising NAAQS.  This will include an External Review Draft  (ERD)
of  the  nitrogen oxides AQCD  for  Clean Air  Science  Advisory  Committee (CASAC)
review.  In 1991, the research office will update databases  on particulate matter
(PM) related research  and will continue evaluating  data on  the  health effects of
acid aerosols.

      Provide   Scientific  Support to  Develop Regulations  for Hazardous Air
Pollutants.  To provide the Office of Air and Radiation (OAR) with the information
needed to make regulatory decisions on specific hazardous  air pollutants.   The
research  program office will complete  final  comprehensive  Health  Assessment
Documents  (HADs)  for  three chemicals  and  will prepare External  Review Drafts
(ERDS) for two to four chemicals.   The research program will  implement an External
Review Draft  (ERD) on the diesel risk assessment.   They will also complete Tier
1 screening  documents,  the  initial review of pertinent health effects data on
potential  HAPs,  for one  to  three  chemicals.    Other activities  will include
enhanced  support for:  assessments of  health data  for potential HAPs  by source
category (SCHADS);  technical assistance to Regions and States on air  toxics issues
through  the  Air Risk  Information Support  Center  (Air  RISC); and research  on
inhalation reference doses (RfDs) for air toxics.


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      Provide  Scientific Data Necessary to Determine  Sources. Exposures. Health
Effect and Control Strategies Associated with Indoor Pollutants.  In support of
the Agency's Indoor Air Quality  Implementation Plan, the research program office
will continue risk assessments for multiple and non-cancer indoor air pollutants
and  health assessments  of biocontaminants  found  indoors.    The Agency  will
distribute these assessments, which are based on the results of laboratory studies
and available literature, to other Federal agencies,  State  and local governments,
and the general public.

1990 Program

     In 1990,  the Agency is allocating a  total  of $5,253,200 supported by 49.1
total workyears  for this program, of  which $2,929,000 is  from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation  and  $2,324,200 is  from  the  Research  and  Development
appropriation.

      The  research  program office will  conduct research on NAAQS  assessments
including  the  revision  of the AQCDs for  nitrogen . oxides, carbon  monoxide,
particulate matter (PM^) ,  and 1-hr ozone  (03) ,  and will continue to develop and
evaluate databases on acid aerosols.   This includes  preparing  External Review
Drafts for the nitrogen oxides and carbon  monoxide AQCDs.  This research program
will conduct  air  toxics  research  including technical  assistance to Regions and
States  through  the  Air RISC,  research  on  inhalation  references doses,  and
assessments of health  data for potential hazardous air pollutants  (HAPs) by source
category.  Finally, the  research  program  office will  conduct indoor air health
impact  and risk assessments.   These  efforts will  include   the  development of
assessment  methodology  for  multiple  pollutants  and  non-cancer  endpoints,
assessments of biocontaminants,  and simulation models.

1989 Accomplishments

    In 1989,  the Agency obligated a total of $5,252,600 supported by 47.9 total
workyears for this program, of which $3,079,600 was from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $2,173,000 was from the  Research  and Development appropriation.

      The research program  office worked on revising the AQCDs for carbon monoxide
and nitrogen  oxide  and prepared an issue paper on the health  effects  of acid
aerosols.    ORD  completed a   supplement  to  the  AQCD   for ozone  and  other
photochemical oxidants.  The research program office completed six HADs, two ERDs,
and six Tier  1  screening documents for HAPs identified for  study by the Office
of Air and Radiation (OAR).  The  completed assessments  included those on ammonia,
hydrogen  fluoride,  inorganic   phosphorous,  hospital   waste  incineration,  and
mercuric chloride.  The research office also initiated several inhalation RfDs.
In collaboration with  OAR, the  program developed  and  successfully operated the
Air Risk Information Support  Center  (Air RISC).  The Air RISC provides technical
information to State and local governments on health risks associated with HAPs.
Finally,  as  part of  the  Agency's  implementation of  its indoor air  research
program, the program greatly  expanded  the  indoor air bibliographic data base and
its accessibility to the public.
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MONITORING SYSTEMS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE

1991 Program Request

      The  Agency requests  a  total  of  $14,173,700 supported  by  101.5  total
workyears  for  this  program,  of which  $6,466,700  will  be for the  Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and $7,707,000  will  be  for the  Research  and Development
appropriation.  This represents  an increase of  $417,500 in the  Salaries and
Expenses appropriation,  an increase of $1,854,100 in the Research and Development
appropriation,  and  increase  of 1.0  total  workyears.   The  increases represent
efforts to develop measurement techniques to characterize ambient air levels of
acid aerosols, the development of area  source methods,  the development of indoor
air monitoring methodology, and the development and application of remote sensing
techniques.

      Provide  Scientific  Support  to Develop  and Review Primary  and Secondary
NAAQS.    As State and local  officials  implement  the particulate  matter NAAQS,
improved methods are needed  to  refine  measurements  of particulate  matter in
ambient air.  Erroneous measurement techniques may lead to unnecessarily costly
control strategies or, conversely, failure to address potential health hazards.
In 1991, research will  focus  on  evaluation of  cost-effective methodologies for
measuring  inhalable particulate matter.  This  effort  includes an evaluation of
PM10 continuous monitors and development of  an aerosol classifier for determining
particle size  distributions.   The focus of this  research  program will  be on
measuring  and monitoring ozone  and  acid aerosols.   Based  on  the lack  of an
acceptable, low-cost aerosol measurement method,  the Agency will also emphasize
developing and  improving methods for measuring human exposure to acid aerosols.
Other acid aerosol research will include ambient characterization of acid aerosols
and broader  support of ongoing epidemiological  studies.     In  response  to the
Clean Air Science Advisory Committee (CASAC) recommendations,  the research program
will study up to 6 urban areas for spatial distribution  of acids, source-receptor
relationships,  seasonal patterns,  local  and synoptic  meteorological influence,
and the relationship of personal exposure to indoor and outdoor concentrations.
Also, the research program will evaluate, improve,  and  standardize other ambient
monitoring  systems  for criteria  pollutants.  The  program  office  will  provide
quality assurance, analytical assistance, and data management support to program
offices, other  EPA laboratories,  and international agencies.

      Provide  Scientific  Support  to  Develop  NSPS  and SIPs.    To  ensure the
accuracy and precision of data used for NSPS and SIPS regulatory and enforcement
decisions, the program will develop source measurement  methodologies and quality
assurance  techniques for  a variety  of pollutants  with an emphasis  on fine
particles.   Specifically,  the  program  will  conduct studies  on real-dimensional
data in  real-time intervals  obtained using Light Induced Detection and Ranging
(LIDAR)  techniques  in order  to help  evaluate  control  strategies such as review
effectiveness of State Implementation Plans (SIPs)  and  to ensure that the Agency
keeps abreast with the significant advances  in  remote sensing and attendant data
integration. These techniques are being developed in order to help Regions in non-
attainment for  such pollutants as ozone and particulate matter.   The National
Space and Aeronautics Administration  (NASA) provides some of  the funding for this
research.  These techniques are faster than fixed site monitoring  and will provide
a quick way to make three dimensional  comparisons of pollutants in an area.  Also,
the  research program will  develop source  measurements  and  quality assurance
techniques  for a variety of  pollutants  with  emphasis  on   inhalable  and fine


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particles; provide  quality assurance to  other Agency components,  States,  and
Regions; and, distribute certified reference materials to users.  There will be
a summary report  on the control strategy applications of  the Regional Oxidant
Modeling Northeast Transport (ROMNET) program.

      Provide  Scientific  Support  to  Develop  Regulations  for Hazardous  Air
Pollutants.   Source emission monitoring is needed to set the National Emissions
Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants mandated by  the Clean Air Act (CAA)  and
to determine compliance with these standards.  This research program will focus
on the completion  of methodologies for existing NESHAPS. To  improve the estimates
of exposure  to potential  HAPs,  the  research  program will  conduct  studies to
develop,  evaluate,  and  standardize  monitoring systems  for ambient  air,  and
sources.  The Integrated Air Cancer Project  (IACP), a multidisciplinary research
program  to  quantify exposure to airborne  pollutants,  will emphasize methods
development for both  indoor  and outdoor detection of important HAPs.   New air
toxics  methods will  be developed for  the  implementation of  the  President's
proposed Clean Air Act legislation.   The research office will publish an article
on source apportionment of mutagenic activity in fine particle organics identified
in the Boise, Idaho field study.

     Provide Scientific Support to the Mobile Source  Regulatory Program.   This
research program  will improve the data base on actual human exposure to mobile
source pollutants.  The  program office will extend the  carbon monoxide (CO) human
exposure methodology  to benzene and  other volatile organic pollutants with an
emphasis toward quantifying exposures resulting from the use of alternative fuels
like methanol.  The research  office  will develop,  refine  and field-test human
activity pattern-exposure models.   Also,  statistical  models which predict human
exposures to pollutants while traveling in  vehicles will be evaluated.  All of
these  efforts  will be  coordinated   to  develop a  realistic picture of actual
exposure to mobile source pollutants.

      Provide Scientific Data Necessary to  Determine  Sources. Exposures. Health
Effects, and Control  Strategies  Associated with  Indoor  Pollutants.   Based on
the human exposure research needs identified by the Total Human Exposure Research
Council and to support the Indoor Air Quality Implementation Plan, the focus of
indoor  air  monitoring research will  be  on developing building diagnostic  and
measurement methods like study protocols,  questionnaires,  and instruments to be
used for indoor air studies in complaint buildings and residences.

1990 Program

     In 1990, the  Agency is allocating a total of $11,902,100 supported by 100.5
total workyears for this program, of  which  $6,049,200 is  from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation  and  $5,852,900  is  from the  Research  and  Development
appropriation.

      This  research  program  will evaluate  and  improve:   ambient  and source
monitoring systems; measurement methods  to include in-depth evaluation of  PR,0
samplers; the  development  of methods for  measuring acid  aerosols;  and remote
monitoring techniques such as the airborne UV-DIAL system  for measuring S02 and
ozone.   The Toxic  Air  Monitoring Stations  (TAMS)  program will  conduct  field
evaluations for potential widespread application of methodologies for a variety
of air toxic pollutants.  This research will include a report on the analysis of
Eastern  U.S.  visibility data.   The  Integrated Air  Cancer Project (IACP)  is


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analyzing the results from the air monitoring  field study. The program office is
also developing  quality assurance procedures and materials  for use  in Agency
monitoring programs  and  regulatory activities,  and will conduct evaluations of
the quality of monitoring  data  collected  by Regions,  States,  and other outside
sources.  Indoor monitoring research is focused on developing air samplers, for
use in  quantifying  indoor  air exposures  in important microenvironments, and on
developing methodologies which identify sources contributing to "Sick Building"
syndrome.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989, the Agency obligated a total of $12,612,900 supported by 109 total
workyears for this program, of which $6,290,600 was from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $6,322,300 was from the Research and Development appropriation.

      A comprehensive workshop was conducted to identify the available measurement
techniques to characterize  ambient air  levels  of acid aerosols.   Based on the
results of  the  workshop,  selected methods will be  tested and evaluated under
standard conditions  in order  to make improvements in the measurement techniques
and to allow a comparison of acid aerosol data being obtained in several on-going
epidemiological studies and future acid aerosol characterization studies.  Also,
several commercially available  methods  have been  evaluated  and approved as
equivalent methods for measuring ambient levels of PM10.  A report was completed
on population exposures  to mobile  source pollutants for 1988.
HEALTH EFFECTS

1991 Program Request

      The  Agency  requests  a  total  of  $21,817,500 supported  by  113.0 total
workyears  for  this program, of which  $7,193,000 will  be  for  the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and  $14,624,500 will be for the Research and Development
appropriation.    This  represents  a increase  of $648,900 in  the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation  and  a decrease  of  $1,850,800  in  the  Research  and
Development appropriation and  a 1.0  decrease  in  total  workyears.   The decrease
in Research and Development appropriation reflects a  smaller  investment than the
prior year in equipment for the Chapel  Hill, NC,  inhalation facility.  Also, the
NHANES III resources were transferred to the multi-media budget subactivity.

     Provide Scientific Support to Develop and Review Primary and Secondary NAAQS.
The NAAQS  program  will  focus  on ozone  and acid aerosols.   With confirmation of
the existence of ozone health effects, this research will study acute, subchronic,
and chronic exposure to criteria pollutants  in  response  to  the statutory mandate
for periodic review of  NAAQS  and  the research  needs identified by the CASAC of
the  Agency's  SAB.    Research will  emphasize  species  sensitivity  issues  and
inflammatory  and pulmonary function responses in man.   This  will  include an
assessment of  the pulmonary health effects of  inhaled acid aerosols in animals.
Studies  of exposure  to  criteria  pollutants will shift from  acute  to chronic
effects and will emphasize  the respiratory and immunological effects of 03,  N02,
and sulfuric acid.  The research program will also develop  theoretical models of
respiratory  tract  deposition. Clinical  studies will  clarify  the   risks  to
potentially susceptible subpopulations.  This research will include chronic animal
toxicology studies to  determine the  relationship between long-terra exposure to


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urban patterns of ozone and  the  onset  or  exacerbation of chronic lung disease.
Epidemiology studies will emphasize  chronic  cardiopulmonary effects of ambient
and indoor combinations of pollutants.

     Provide   Scientific   Support to  Develop  Regulations for   Hazardous   Air
Pollutants.   To support development of  regulations for toxic air pollutants,  the
Integrated Air Cancer Project (IACP)  will emphasize pharmacokinetics studies to
clarify the  relationship between exposure and dose.  The  research office will
develop a physiologically-based pharmacokinetics model for predicting dosimetry
of volatile organic compounds in humans.  Also, the program office will conduct
studies which will assess the mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of vapor phase
mixtures, as  well as,  the  non-cancer  effects  of  urban mixtures  (both source
emissions  and  ambient concentrations),  and  dose-response relationships  for
individual  compounds  and complex  mixtures.    Dosimetry  studies will  focus on
pulmonary deposition and dose to genetic materials.   Bioassays will be developed
and validated for use in biomonitoring networks.

     Provide Scientific Support  to the  Mobile  Source  Regulatory Program.   This
research program  provides data  for Agency policymakers on  the  risks to public
health and  welfare  from exposure  to automotive emissions  and  the atmospheric
transformation products of  these emissions.   The  program  office  will conduct
additional research to determine the contribution of motor vehicle emissions to
the mutagenicity of ambient air and to  assess DNA adducts as biomarkers of risk
from mobile source emissions.  This research program will also study the effect
of alternative fuels on the mutagenic activity  of automotive emissions including
analyses of alternative fuel use required under the Alternative Motor Fuels Act
of 1988 which will be  used for a new biannual  Report  to  Congress.   Finally the
program office will study health effects of motor vehicle fuels, additives,  and
alternative fuels (such as methanol).

      Provide Scientific Data Necessary to Determine  Sources. Exposures. Health
Effects and Control  Strategies Associated with Indoor Air  Pollutants.  Indoor air
research will emphasize the health effects of combustion products, "sick building
syndrome," volatile organic  compound mixtures,  and  environmental tobacco smoke
(ETS).   The  research office is proposing to complete  a  report on  the effects from
inhalation of chemical  mixtures found in indoor environments.  Biomarker research
will examine ways  that can be used to  estimate exposures to ETS.   Results of these
studies will be used to develop health risk assessments.  Other new research will
include research on  non-cancer health effects, the genotoxicity of emissions from
various indoor combustion  appliances, and  associated mitigation  strategies.  The
program office will expand  to other  areas including exposure  and  dosimetry of
environmental  tobacco  smoke, including continued  research on  other  exposure
biomarkers.

      Health  Effects  Institute.   The  principal goal  of  the  Health  Effects
Institute (HEI)  is  to  gather information and  conduct  research on  the health
effects of motor vehicle emissions.   Research will focus on human dose-response
characterization,  and  the  quantification  of  human  risk  from mobile  source
pollutants,  including alternative fuels.

1990 Program

      In 1990,  the Agency is allocating a total  of $23,019,400 supported by 114.0
total workyears for this program, of which  $6,544,100  is  from  the  Salaries  and


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Expenses  appropriation  and $16,475,300  is from  the Research  and Development
appropriation.

      This research program will study acute, sub-chronic, and chronic exposures
to ozone,  sulfur dioxide  and  nitrogen dioxide and  other NAAQS  pollutants  to
determine effects on various systems (including respiratory, metabolic, and immune
systems).   This  program office will also  expand  research on acid aerosols  to
include  studies  on host defense  mechanisms  and will  include  a  report  on the
response  of the  human  respiratory tract to acute  exposure to  acid aerosols.
Animal toxicology and human epidemiology studies on N02,  03, S02, and sulfuric acid
will emphasize research on the relationship between exposure, dose, and effects
(including  respiratory  disease).   The  Interdivisional  Air Toxics  Program  is
concerned with the  genotoxic effects associated with exposure  to complex mixtures
and will also study the  impact  of alternative fuels and their emissions on human
health.   An assessment  will be conducted on the  contribution  of mobile source
emissions  to  the genotoxicity of  ambient  urban aerosol mixtures.   Indoor air
research  focuses on the  identification and evaluation  of biomarkers  for the
particulate and vapor phases of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)  and on chamber
studies evaluating indoor VOCs  as it relates to "sick building syndrome."  There
will be an assessment of the contribution of wood burning and automobile emissions
to the mutagenicity and  carcinogenicity  of  airborne pollutants.  There will also
be a report assessing the potential carcinogenicity of combustion  emissions from
unvented indoor kerosene heaters.  Support is also provided for the  Health Effects
Institute  (HEI)  which  is  studying the various  aspects of  criteria pollutant
toxicity  and  the  health  effects  associated  with  mobile  source  pollutants
(including diesel exhaust,  aldehydes, and alternative fuels).

1989 Accomplishments

      In  1989, the Agency  obligated a total of $20,846,900  supported  by 111.7
total workyears  for  this program, of which $7,422,400 was from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation  and $13,424,500 was from  the Research  and Development
appropriation.

      Twenty  reports/articles  were  issued in the  following  research  areas:
scientific support for development and review of primary and secondary NAAQS (one
report  is  on  prolonged  exposure to ozone at or below  current  one-hour NAAQS);
support for development  of  regulations for hazardous  air pollutants; support for
the mobile source regulatory program  (one report is on the effects  of atmospheric
transformation on  the mutagenicity of gaseous  gasoline emissions); and support
for evaluation of effects  associated with  indoor  air pollutants.   There was an
assessment  of the  comparative  mutagenicity  and carcinogenicity  of combustion
source emissions.
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $9,982,500 supported by 58.4 total workyears
for  this  program,  of which  $4,180,300 will be  for the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation  and  $5,802,200  will   be   for   the  Research  and  Development
appropriation.   This  represents  an  increase of  $510,800  in the  Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and an increase of $882,600 in the Research and Development


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appropriation, and an increase of 2.0  total workyears.  The increase in Salary
and Expenses appropriation reflects a general  enhancement of in-house support,
the increase in Research and  Development reflects new work in alternative fuels,
emissions inventory, and indoor air.

      Provide Support to Develop NSPS and SIPs.   Research to support development,
review, and  enforcement of  State Implementation Plans and promulgation  of New
Source Performance  Standards  (NSPS)  includes:   (1) field  demonstration  of the
LIMB/ADVACATE  process  for SOx  and NOx,  and  (2)  the  completion of  the field
demonstration of reburning as a  means  of NOx control  on cyclone burners.  This
research program will conduct an evaluation of selective catalyst reduction (SCR)
for NOx reduction.   There will be a Joint Symposium on stationary combustion NOx
control in 1991.  Also,  the program office will conduct  studies of PM^ control
from  wood stove emissions  and  ozone non-attainment  by controlling  area  VOC
emissions at a reduced rate.   There will  be an assessment report on the role of
consumer/commercial  solvents  in  ozone   non-attainment,  including  emissions
reductions approaches for the highest  volume sources.  New research in this area
will  include  the   development  of  emissions   inventory  methods  for  criteria
pollutants which will support acid deposition,  ozone non-attainment, and  PM10
implementation programs.  The research office will emphasize improved area source
emission estimation  techniques for data handling and  processing procedures and
VOC emission factors.

      Provide  Scientific Support to  Develop  Regulations   for  Hazardous  Air
Pollutants.   The Clean Air Act  directs  EPA to provide  information  on control
techniques for  hazardous air pollutants.   To  implement  this  requirement, this
research program supports the  operation  of the Air Toxics   Control Technology
Center.   The VOC  control program will  develop guidelines  for measuring  the
compliance effectiveness  of  air  toxic regulations  and  an engineering quality
assurance program for permitting.  SARA, Title  III support activities will focus
on the evaluation of process hazards.  An  enhanced emissions inventory program
for air toxics will compile available data on a national basis, develop estimation
methodologies  and  validation techniques,  and  improve  air  toxic  emission  and
speciation factors.  This will include a report on  the development of improved
emission  factors  for  methane for  selected anthropogenic  sources.   Also,  a
Pollution  Prevention  Project  will  begin  that will identify,  develop,  and
demonstrate  prevention  techniques which reduce  emissions of  volatile  organic
compounds  (VOC's)  emitted  from  area  sources   such  as  consumer products  and
industrial solvents.   This will  be a joint EPA, Regional, State,  and industry
effort.   The research  office  is preparing a  report  on the development  of a
secondary combustion woodstove for reducing particulate emissions to or below the
1990  NSPS.    The   research  program  will  also  include  a  report  targeting
opportunities for mitigation research.

       Provide Scientific Support to the Mobile Source Regulatory Program.  This
research program will study the impact  from alternative fuel use  as required under
the Alternative  Motor Fuels Act  of  1988 for  an  biennial Report  to  Congress.
Emissions from the  production,  distribution,  and marketing of alternative fuels
(such  as  methanol,  ethanol,  compressed  and   liquified natural  gas,  and/or
reformulated gasoline/diesel) will be characterized.

      Provide  Scientific Data Necessary to  Determine   Sources. Exposures.  Health
Effects and Control Strategies Associated with  Indoor Pollutants.   In pursuance
of the Indoor Air Quality Implementation Plan, the research program will complete
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methods for testing the performance of air cleaners.  Commercially available units
will be tested for their  effectiveness  in  removing particles and vapors within
indoor environments.   The performance  testing  results  will be used by OAR in
public information documents.  The research office is proposing to complete two
reports on (1) biocontaminant control by humidity control systems, air cleaners,
and biocides, and (2)  on  indoor  pollutant  "sinks."   This  research program will
also test  indoor materials using an  expanded  list  of products,  to increase our
knowledge of which products are low-emitting,  and desirable  for use in buildings
to prevent indoor air quality complaints and exposures to potentially hazardous
chemicals.    The  program  office will  expand  research  into  the methods  and
procedures for investigating indoor air quality (IAQ) problems in buildings.

1990 Program

     In 1990  the  Agency is allocating a total  of  $8,589,100 supported by 56.4
total workyears for  this  program,  of which $3,669,500 is  from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation and  $4,919,600 is  from the  Research and  Development
appropriation.

      In support of  NAAQS compliance,  this research program will study control
technologies for S02 and NOx including the refinement of the process of making the
sorbent for the ADVOCATE process for  SOx and NOx reduction and the evaluation of
selective catalyst reduction (SCR).  The PM10 technical barriers program focuses
on  the  control of  particles  and condensible  organics  from woodstoves.   The
research office  will complete reports  on  kerosene heater  emissions,  retrofit
technology  for existing woodstoves,  the Boise, Idaho field study of woodstove
emissions,  as well   as,  low emission  material  and products.   The  ozone non-
attainment  research  is  concerned with  technical  barriers and options  for
controlling area VOC emissions.  The research program will expand the Air Toxic
Control Technology Center.   The  research program  will develop jointly with OAR
a VOC  control strategy to deal  with  ozone  non-attainment.   Reports  on area
volatile  organic  compound  (VOC) sources  and control  options  to  support the
Agency's post-1987 ozone non-attainment strategy, and application of conventional
particulate control technology in major areas  of concern will be completed.  The
research program  office continues to provide technical support  to  EPA program
offices, Regions,  States,  and localities on prevention of accidental releases and
short-term  toxics emissions.   Indoor air research  focuses  on the evaluation of
air cleaners, chamber studies of organic emissions from indoor sources, and the
modelling and source characterization of indoor pollutants.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989, the Agency obligated a total of $6,411,700 supported by 56.9 total
workyears for this program, of which $3,376,500 was from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $3,035,200 was from the Research and Development appropriation.

      In the indoor air research program, personal  computer models  for evaluating
indoor air quality  control options  were developed.   Reports were  produced on
procedures for measuring  emissions from indoor material and products and on the
effectiveness of air cleaners for IAQ control.  S02 and NOx control technologies
were researched.   A report on  the  development of  an advanced  process which
utilizes  calcium silicate  sorbents   (ADVACATE)  to  control acid  gases  from
combustion sources was completed.  Technical support  for NSPS compliance and new
source  control  evaluation  were  provided  to  Regions and  States.    Control


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assessments and technology development were done for key air toxics sources.


ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES AND EFFECTS

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $2,886,300 supported by 13.8 total workyears
for this  program,  of which  $1,253,000 will be  for the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriations  and  $1,633,300  will  be  for  the  Research  and  Development
appropriation.   This represents an  increase of  $327,100  in the  Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation   and  an  increase  of  $386,500  in  the  Research  and
Development appropriation and no change in total workyears.  The increase in the
Salaries and Expenses appropriation  reflects a  general enhancement of in-house
support for determining the effects of air pollutants on the environment; and the
increase  in  the Research  and  Development  appropriation  for  research  into
alternative fuels.

      Provide Scientific  Support  to  Develop and Review  Primary  and  Secondary
NAAQS.  Data from EPA's  acid  deposition research efforts  and other air pollution
research efforts indicate that  tropospheric  ozone  may have significant adverse
impacts on forests.  Therefore,  the  impact of ozone damage on economically and
ecologically significant  forest species will be  assessed  to determine  if the
damage occurring supports a new ozone standard.  Research on tree responses will
begin to assess  the  risk  from  ozone  on major commercially valuable forest tree
species in areas that are most at risk.  EPA's research program will be closely
coordinated with the Departments of  Agriculture,  Interior, and  Energy,  as well
as private industry research  organizations such as  the  Electrical Power Research
Institute.

1990 Program

      In 1990, the Agency is allocating a total of $2,172,700 supported by 13.8
total workyears  for  this program,  of  which  $925,900  is from the  Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation  and  $1,246,800 is  from the  Research and  Development
appropriation.

      The research program will conduct research to determine the effects of ozone
of  forests  especially  in sensitive  tree   species  with emphasis  on  species of
economic importance.   Selected forest species are being exposed to ozone levels
which are likely to occur in forest regions of the U.S.

1989 Accomplishments

     In 1989, the Agency obligated  a  total of $2,022,800  supported by 14.3 total
workyears for this program, of which  $745,700 was from  the  Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $1,277,100 was from the                          —~
Research and Development appropriation.

      A research plan was completed and peer-reviewed.  Exposure studies on target
tree species were initiated.   A publication of a comprehensive research plan
determine the effects of tropospheric ozone on U.S. forests was  completed.
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CHARACTERIZATION. TRANSPORT. AND FATE

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $12,983,900 supported by 57.0 total workyears
for this  program,  of which  $3,962,100 will be  for the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation  and  $9,021,800  will   be   for   the  Research  and  Development
appropriation.    This represents  an  increase  of $426,800  in  the  Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation,  and  an  increase  of  $1,091,400 in  the   Research and
Development appropriation and 2.0  total workyears.   The increase in the Salaries
and Expenses appropriation reflects a general enhancement of  in-house support for
development of models to predict  the  existence  and movement of air pollutants.
The increases in Research and Development appropriations  reflects an increase in
atmospheric transport and fate research on ozone non-attainment and alternative
fuels.  These increases also represent a transfer of the China studies research
to the multimedia subactivity and  a small transfer of NOAA salaries  to the Office
of Air and Radiation  (OAR).

      Provide Scientific  Support  to  Develop  and Review Primary  and Secondary
NAAQS.  This  research program will focus on the atmospheric formation and fate
of acid aerosols.  Research  will begin on a new  integrated program  to study acid
aerosol formation and neutralization  to enable  the Agency  to understand how to
control or curtail formation of  acid aerosol pollutants  in the atmosphere.  This
research program will apply existing models and  emissions  inventories  to acid
aerosols and related pollutants,  such  as ammonia, and also to use with estimating
regional exposures.  Finally the program office  will modify  simple photochemical
models to include  important  pollutant parameters that  contribute  to visibility
reduction.

      Provide Scientific Support to Develop NSPS and SIPs.    To comply with the
Clean Air Act,  the  States and EPA must have air  quality models  to develop and
review SIPS for urban ozone.  To assist in that regard, the program office will
provide an evaluated  chemical mechanism that  predicts  ozone formations  for use
by State governments in preparing ozone SIPS.  Research will examine the role of
biogenic VOCs and other  factors  in affecting  ozone non-attainment and proposed
control strategies.  The Regional  Oxidant Model (ROM) will be used to determine
the impact of various VOCs, including biogenics and NOx emissions on  ozone control
strategies for the Northeastern States and will expand to be able to  predict  long-
term  (seasonal)  type Regional ozone air quality estimates.

      The research program will use data from the 1988 Acid Deposition field study
to evaluate  the Regional Particulate Model.  The Regional Particulate Model will
be used to assess the Regional or transmitted component of particulate matter that
impacts local urban atmospheres.  Also, source apportionment techniques will be
developed that will be used to assess  the individual contribution of sources to
an air quality problem.

      Provide  Scientific Support to Develop  Regulations   for  Hazardous  Air
Pollutants.    In order to increase the Agency's understanding of  how HAPs are
formed and to estimate their expected  lifetime in  the atmosphere, laboratory and
field studies will be conducted to determine the atmospheric reaction rates and
transformation  products  of  HAPs  under Agency review.   HAP chemistry  will  be
studied under conditions that simulate atmospheric conditions.  Studies will be
conducted to  identify potential HAPs  produced  in air from  innocuous pollutants
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emitted from a variety of sources.   Field measurements will quantify the ambient
concentration variabilities  of HAPs in the  urban atmosphere and  describe the
associated atmospheric  processes and implication  for exposure.   Smog chamber
studies will  measure the  reaction of  air  toxics and  the formation  of other
hazardous  products  from  atmospheric transformation  of  HAPs  and high-volume
manufactured organics.  These studies will describe the formations, removal, and
fate of air toxics in complex atmospheric mixtures.  As part of ORD's Integrated
Air Cancer Project, studies will be  conducted to examine the formation, stability,
and  transformation  of  volatile  and aerosol  bound  organics  and potentially
carcinogenic materials  in  the  atmosphere.   The atmospheric transformation will
be conducted by using bioassay-coupled smog chamber irradiation experiments that
simulate atmospheric conditions.

       Provide Scientific  Support  to the Mobile  Source  Regulatory Program.  To
assess potential  risk to public health and welfare,  and  to  support regulatory
development,  this  research program will evaluate  the impact of  mobile source
control  technologies on  evaporative and  exhaust emissions  with  emphasis  on
alternative fuels.   Characterization will  include both regulated and selected
unregulated emissions and will also determine the significance of "running-loss"
evaporative emissions of the  tailpipe and evaporative hydrocarbons at elevated
ambient temperatures.   A Pollution Prevention Project will be conducted on the
potential use of alternative  fuels  (such as methanol) to reduce pollutant loading
to the atmosphere.   This joint ORD/OPPE study  will include characterization of
the emissions of vehicles powered by alternative fuels  and  air quality assessment
studies.  New studies will  include  analyses required under the Alternative Motor
Fuels Act of 1988 including development of new analytical  methods for measuring
the emissions from vehicles using alternative fuels, characterize combustion and
evaporative emissions products, and atmospheric transformation products and new
sensitive, selective procedures  for monitoring human  and  ecosystem exposure to
the compounds of interest.

1990 Program

      In 1990, the Agency is  allocating  a total of $11,465,700 supported by 55.0
total workyears  for  this program,  of which  $3,535,300 is  from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation  and  $7,930,400  is  from the  Research  and Development
appropriation.

      This research program supports the development and evaluation of secondary
air  quality  standards  for  PM,0.   Ozone  non-attainment research  will  include
chemical models to reduce errors or uncertainties in predicting ozone formation
associated with  precursor  emissions of volatile organic  compounds  (VOCs) and
oxides of nitrogen (NOx) . This research program will evaluate the Regional Oxidant
Model (ROM) against field data to determine the impacts of simulated VOC and NOx
emission controls on ozone  air quality.  Other  ozone research includes a program
to monitor VOCs and NOx to help determine  reasons for ozone non-attainment.  An
improved source apportionment model will  be developed for Regional scale aerosols.
A report  on  aerosol sources  for the  Eastern United States will  be completed.
Special studies will be  conducted to examine  the potential role of biogenic VOCs
and other factors ozone  non-attainment areas.   The research program will conduct
studies of HAP levels in urban  atmospheres and  characterization of mobile source
emissions  from  vehicles   equipped with new  emission  control  devices  using
conventional gasoline fuels or alternative fuels (such as methanol-blended fuels).
An article will be published  characterizing tailpipe, evaporative, and refueling
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emissions from gasoline fueled automobiles.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989,  the Agency obligated a total  of $11,003,000 supported by 54.7 total
workyears for this program, of which $3,733,100 was from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $7,269,900 was from the Research and Development appropriation.

      In 1989,  an improved version of the Regional Oxidant Model (ROM) was used
to demonstrate  the impact of regional VOCs and NOx control strategies with respect
to their impact on Regional ozone air quality.   Also,  studies were initiated in
the Atlanta area to assess the role of biogenic VOC emissions and other factors
in  the  ozone  non-attainment problem  areas.    A  study was  completed on  the
characterization of emissions from  a flexible-fuel  vehicle using both gasoline
and gasoline/methanol blends.  An article was published  that evaluated emissions
from diesels equipped with advanced emission control  technology.   Reports were
completed on  the recommended modifications  to  the Complex  Terrain  Dispersion
Model, and on the identities of HAPs produced in the atmosphere from ubiquitous
innocuous pollutants.


STRATOSPHERIC MODIFICATION

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests  a total  of  $26,000,000  supported by  42.9   total
workyears for  this  program,  of which  $3,922,500 will be  for  the  Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation and $22,077,500 will be for the Research and Development
appropriation.     This  represents   increases   of  $1,403,900  and  $9,190,100
respectively,  and  an increase  of 12.0  total workyears.  The  increase  in both
appropriations represents a substantial  increase in the global warming research
program  in  order  to provide  policymakers with reliable  projections on  the
potential for  global warming  and  its environmental  consequences.   The increase
is also due  to  continued work addressing the scientific uncertainties associated
with ozone depletion.   This  work includes  a multidisciplinary research program
to determine the impacts of increased UV-B radiation on terrestrial and aquatic
ecosystems and on human health,  and to investigate mitigative solutions.

     Provide Scientific Data Necessary to Determine  the  Effects of Stratospheric
Ozone Depletion and  Develop Control Technologies.  Through the Montreal Protocol,
the international community has formally identified depletion of the stratospheric
ozone layer as  one  of  the most important  problems  facing  the  world  today.   To
address the  scientific  uncertainties associated  with ozone  depletion, the Agency
will conduct  a multidisciplinary research program in  terrestrial and aquatic
ecosystems,  human health,  and emissions and mitigative  solutions.  Studies of the
effects of UV-B radiation on terrestrial ecosystems will evaluate the relationship
between UV-B levels  (dose)  and other widespread anthropogenic  factors such as
global climate  change.  This will include reports on the effects of UV-B radiation
on human immunosuppression,  and wetland rice ecosystems.  This will also include
research on UV-B effects  on  the marine  food web and biogeochemical cycling and
on the evaluation of alternate compounds to CFCs  and halons, and technologies to
replace  those  used for  such purposes  as  refrigeration,  insulation,  and fire
extinguishment.  This will  include a report on  alternatives  to  halons as fire
extinguishants and a status  report  on  alternatives  for insulation which do not
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use CFC's.  Important issues under investigation include impacts on wetland rice
ecosystems,  monitoring surface  fluxes of  UV-B  radiation,  effects  on  marine
fisheries,  and  assessment of current  scientific  understanding.   The research
program will concentrate on developing ways to reduce emissions of chemicals that
contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion, including CFCs,  halons,  and N20, and
to transfer technology within the U.S.  and to developing nations.   Finally, the
research program will establish a data base for N20 emissions from a variety of
stationary combustion sources including the potential for plume formation.

      Provide Scientific   Data  Necessary to Determine  the Effects  of  Global
Warming and Develop Control Strategies.  The potential impact of global climate
change  could  pose   the   largest   and  most   significant  long-term  man-made
environmental problem of  the  future.   To  provide policymakers with reliable
projections  on  the  potential   for   global  warming  and  its  environmental
consequences, the current research program will be expanded substantially.  The
EPA has  developed  a  research program  in conjunction with  the  government-wide
research effort coordinated by the Committee on Earth Sciences (CES)  of the White
House Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering,  and  Technology.  The
1991 program will focus on the role of the terrestrial biosphere in atmospheric
trace gas  concentrations  and surface  energy balance, and what  benefits  can be
attained from mitigation technologies and practices.  This will  include a report
on practical and beneficial  techniques  for  mitigation of  trace  gases emissions
and processes that control  emissions of radiatively important trace gases from
the biosphere.   The proposed research,  which has been coordinated with other
Federal agencies  such as  NASA,  NOAA,  and  the  DOE, will  emphasize estimating
potential  changes  in  such major  resources  as forested  ecosystems  and agro-
ecosystems.  This will  include  a report on the sensitivity of  forest regions,
worldwide,  to global  change.  The  program  office  will expand  work to  include
organic trace gas emissions from plant canopies,  as well as  to develop models for
carbon fluxes from terrestrial ecosystems.  This research will model anthropogenic
influences  on  ozone  concentrations in the free  troposphere and  will  develop
regional climatic scenarios.  The  program office  will also conduct statistical
analyses of climatic variability and  regional  consequences of variation,  and
quantification  of   feedback  effects   from  biological  processes  (such  as
evapotranspiration)  and physical conditions (such as albedo changes).  Research
will include  analyses of  the  effects  of climate  change  on forest  growth and
reproduction;  changes  in carbon  sequestration;   semi-arid and  agroecosystem
responses;  climate-biosphere  interaction  effects;  marine  and  near-coastal
ecological  responses; and freshwater biological effects.   Finally,  the  program
office will conduct research to  determine  the ambient measurements and factors
required to understand emissions from biomass burning.

1990 Program

      In 1990, the Agency  is allocating a  total of $15,406,000 supported by 30.9
total workyears for this  program, of which  $2,518,600  is  from the  Salaries and
Expenses appropriation  and  $12,887,400  is from  the Research  and Development
appropriation.

      In response to increasing national and international concern over depletion
of  the  stratospheric  ozone layer  and  the  potential  for  significant  global
temperature  increases  over the next several  decades,  the  Agency  is  expanding
research  on the  ecological and  human  health  effects associated with  these
atmospheric changes.   This research is providing Agency policymakers with the
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data needed  to direct and develop  an integrated national  strategy  to address
these global environmental problems.   The stratospheric ozone depletion research
program is compiling and analyzing data from in-house,  national, and international
sources to produce a scientific assessment on the adverse effects of stratospheric
ozone depletion. Specifically, the research program office, in order to address
the  scientific uncertainties associated with  ozone  depletion,  will  conduct a
multidisciplinary research program that will determine the impacts of increased
UV-B radiation on terrestrial, aquatic ecosystems, and on human health and will
investigate mitigative solutions.  Terrestrial effects studies will emphasize the
impact of UV-B levels (dose) and other widespread anthropogenic factors such as
global  climate  change  and  tropospheric  ozone  on  agricultural  and  forested
ecosystems.   Aquatic effects research will focus on determining UV-B effects on
the marine food  chain and fisheries  production.   This will include development
of a predictive  UV-B dose response  model  for  commercially important fish.   The
program office will complete two reports:  the effects of UV-B radiation on rice
yield,  and   the  status  of  alternative  refrigerants  for home  refrigerators.
Research  results will  be distributed within  the U.S. and  to  other developing
nations.  Increasing national and international concern over  the  potential for
drastic global climate change  resulting from  pollutants  in the  troposphere and
stratosphere,  and EPA's new  responsibilities  resulting from the Global Climate
Protection Act of 1987, required  an expansion of EPA's global climate research
program in 1990.  The 1990 program will focus  on  the  impact of climate change on
key ecosystems (such as boreal forests).   The proposed research, which has been
coordinated with other  Federal agencies  such as NASA, NOAA,  and  the DOE,  will
emphasize estimating potential  changes  in  such major  resources  as  forested
ecosystems.    The research program  will  evaluate feedbacks from  ecosystem and
land-use changes, including  changes in tropical forests,  to changes in climate.
Also, emissions  research  will  develop data  for source/sink relationships for a
variety of  radiatively  important trace gases, and evaluate potential emission
management  techniques.    Two reports  will be  completed  on: the  estimation of
relative  importance of major forest  types as  sources and sinks  for radiatively
important trace gases, and soil microbial processes relating radiatively important
trace gas fluxes and water balance.  Atmospheric  modeling will expand to include
estimates of global consequences of tropospheric air-quality changes.  Possible
climatic conditions resulting  from  global warming will be developed for a wide
variety of  Regional situations.   Finally,  research  will  be initiated  on the
effects of global warming on tropical vegetation,  the possible  consequences of
reforestation  strategies  on  total carbon  and  nitrogen levels,  and some effects
of warming on high-latitude  (taiga/tundra) ecosystems.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989, the Agency  obligated a total of $9,588,000  supported by 13.2 total
workyears for this program, of which $895,900  was  from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $8,692,100  was from the Research and Development appropriation.

       EPA scientists organized and  participated  in an international workshop on
Global Climate Change and Rice at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI)
to begin  to  plan the cooperative research  to be carried out by  EPA and IRRI;
sponsored a  scientific "trilateral" (Federal Republic of Germany, The Netherlands,
and  the United States) workshop  on  the  effects of UV-B radiation; participated
in a NOAA scientific cruise  to the Southeast Pacific  including the Antarctic to
investigate  the  effects   of  enhanced  UV-B  radiation  on photosynthesis  and the
production of radiatively important  trace  gases by open ocean phytoplankton; and
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chaired a session on environmental effects of climate change at the Society for
Environmental Toxicology in Toronto.  The research office completed a report on
the resource significance and sensibility on  the most important fisheries likely
to be affected by UV-B radiation.  The research office developed a strategy that
prioritized  research  projects that  will examine  the  possible health  effects
resulting from increased exposure  to ultraviolet radiation  (UV-B) as a result of
stratospheric ozone depletion.  Experiments addressing the long-term effects of
ambient and enhanced UV-B radiation on a single phytoplankton species demonstrated
that,  compared  to  the  "no-UV"  treatment,  ambient  levels  of UV-B  radiation
decreased growth and  photosynthesis  of  the species investigated.   The research
office used  statistical  models  in an initial effort to  estimate  the potential
effect of a  16%  decline  in  stratospheric ozone  on global fisheries production.

       The program office conducted a review of alternative refrigerants to the
CFCs which, along with computer modeling,  has  lead  to the preliminary conclusion
that a certain class of mixtures called non-azeotropic refrigerant mixtures has
the potential for use  in home refrigeration.   Also, the program office initiated
a program to determine the level of CFC contamination which could be allowed in
recycled refrigerant with the cooperation of the Mobile Air-Conditioning Society,
Motor Vehicle Manufactures Association,  and the Society of Automotive Engineers.
This new program has resulted in several large organizations  agreeing to implement
the use of recycling machines in their operations. Finally, the research office
conducted a review of  the present use of CFCs as propellants  in aerosols and found
many uses which  could immediately utilize alternative  formulations,  as  well as
discovering that  propellant  replacements were not immediately  available but might
be available from the  newer substitutes that are  under development.  The research
office will use conclusions from this work to aid other nations in replacing their
CFC aerosol propellant uses with alternatives as well as further decreasing the
U.S. usage of CFCs as aerosol propellants.

       EPA scientists  conducted research and prepared a  report on the sensitivity
of ecological landscapes  to  climate change. The  report  identified regions in the
Pacific northwest and  the southeastern  U.S.  as  being particularly sensitive to
climate change.  A major report was prepared on methods used to develop climate
scenarios.  In addition,  scientists  within the program made a major contribution
to the Report  to Congress on  the  Potential Effects of  Global Climate Change on
the United States.   This  contribution included support in developing the climate
scenarios used to describe  the  potential effects, as well  as  interpreting the
results.  An Appendix  was prepared by program  scientists on  the potential impacts
of climate change on tropospheric  chemistry.

       The program office organized  and  chaired a session  on the environmental
effects of climate change at the annual  meeting on  the Society for Environmental
Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC).  As a  result of  this session, the society will
emphasize global climate change research  at  the  1990 annual  meeting.   Finally,
over 40 papers were  published,  including 21 in peer reviewed literature of which
one report evaluates air quality changes  due  to changes in tropospheric chemical
reactions sensitive to climate change.
                                     2-31

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Abatement
and Control

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                        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1991 Budget Estimate

                               Table of  Contents
AIR

ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   Air Quality and Stationary Source Planning and Standards 	   2-32
      Emission Standards and Technology Assessment  	  .   .   2-34
      National Pollutant Policies, Strategies and Rules 	   2-36
      State Program Guidelines and Air Standards Development  ....   2-39
   Mobile Source Air Pollution Control and Fuel Economy 	   2-42
      Emission Standards, Technical Assessment and Characterization  .   2-44
      Testing, Technical and Administrative Support ...  	   2-46
      Emissions and Fuel Economy Compliance 	   2-47
   State Programs Resource Assistance 	   2-50
      Control Agency Resource Supplementation (Section 105 Grants)   .   2-51
      Training	   2-54
   Air Quality Management Implementation  	   2-56
   Trends Monitoring and Progress Assessment  	   2-60
      Ambient Air Quality Monitoring  	   2-61
      Air Quality and Emissions Data Management and Analysis  ....   2-63
                                                                           age

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                                                   AIR
                                Air Quality & Stationary Source  Planning  &  Standards

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED     CURRENT      REQUEST   INCREASE  +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE       1991      DECREASE  -
                                                       1990                1991  VS  1990
                                               (DOLLARS  IN  THOUSANDS)

PROGRAM
Emission Standards &
Technology Assessment
 Salaries & Expenses           $5,489.7   $5,440.1    $5,371.4    $8,194.1     $2,822.7
 Abatement Control and         $5,894.3   $8,231.1    $8,126.1   $14,128.7     $6,002.6
 Compliance
                       TOTAL  $11,384.0  $13,671.2   $13,497.5   $22,322.8     $8,825.3

National Pollutant
Policies, Strategies,
and Rules
 Salaries & Expenses           $1,879.9   $2,267.6    $2,524.0    $2,947.5       $423.5
 Abatement Control and         $9,349.4   $9,202.1    $9,074.9    $9,106.3        $31.4
 Compliance
                       TOTAL  $11,229.3  $11,469.7   $11,598.9   $12,053.8       $454.9

State Program Policy
Guide Iines & Air
Standards Development
 Salaries & Expenses           $5,595.9   $5,762.8    $5,411.7    $9,137.3     $3,725.6
 Abatement Control and         $2,851.7   $4,528.6    $4,470.9    $7,971.8     $3,500.9
 Compliance
                       TOTAL   $8,447.6  $10,291.4    $9,882.6   $17,109.1     $7,226.5
TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses          $12,965.5  $13,470.5  $13,307.1   $20,278.9    $6,971.8
 Abatement Control and        $18,095.4  $21,961.8  $21,671.9   $31,206.8    $9,534.9
 Compliance

Air Quality &          TOTAL  $31,060.9  $35,432.3  $34,979.0   $51,485.7   $16,506.7
Stationary Source

Planning & Standards
PERMANENT UORKYEARS
Emission Standards &               90.4       94.7       93.1       125.1         32.0
Technology Assessment

National Pollutant                 29.5       39.3       41.3        45.0          3.7
Policies, Strategies,
and Rules

State Program Policy               95.9      100.3       97.5       139.5         42.0
Guidelines & Air
Standards Development

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS         215.8      234.3      231.9       309.6         77.7
                                         2-32

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                                                 AIR
                                Air  Quality & Stationary Source Planning & Standards

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED     CURRENT     REQUEST   INCREASE +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE      1991     DECREASE -
                                                      1990               1991 VS 1990
TOTAL UORKYEARS
                                               (DOLLARS  IN THOUSANDS)
Emission Standards &
Technology Assessment

National Pollutant
Policies, Strategies,
and Rules

State Program Policy
Guidelines & Air
Standards Development

TOTAL WORKYEARS
 93.6       94.7       93.1       125.1        32.0
 30.3       39.3       41.3        45.0          3.7
 98.0      100.3       97.5       139.5        42.0
221.9      234.3      231.9      309.6         77.7
                                         2-33

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                                     AIR
           Air Quality and Stationary Source Planning and Standards


Budget Request

      The  Agency requests  a  total  of  $51,485,700  supported  by  309.6  total
workyears for 1991,  an increase of $16,506,700 and 77.7 in total workyears from
1990.   Of  the  request,  $20,278,900 will  be  for  the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and $31,206,800  will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.   This  represents  an increase  in  the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation of $6,971,800  and an increase  in the  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation of $9,534,900.


EMISSION STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

1991 Program Request

      The  Agency requests  a  total  of  $22,322,800  supported  by  125.1  total
workyears  for this  program, of which $8,194,100 will be  for  the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and  $14,128,700 will be  for  the  Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation.   This represents an increase of  $2,822,700 for the
Salaries and Expenses appropriation,  an increase of $6,002,600 in the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation, and an increase of  32.0 in  total workyears
from 1990.  The  increases will  support new activities  needed  to implement the
President's  Clean Air  proposal  addressing air toxics  and nonattainment  of
National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQSs).

      A major program emphasis  in 1991 will continue  to be air toxics, including
development of  standards  under National  Emission Standards for Hazardous Air
Pollutants  (NESHAPs)  and  other authorities and regulatory  decisions  for high
priority pollutants and source categories.   Program activities focus primarily
on reducing the more than 1300-1600 cancer deaths per year and high individual
risks that are estimated  to result from toxic air pollutants.   As a result of
anticipated legislative changes,  EPA will  concentrate on  developing a list of
the major source categories of emissions  of 191 pollutants;  initiating work on
developing  maximum  achievable   control  technology  (MACT)  for  these  source
categories; responding to  petitions to add or delete  pollutants on the list; and
developing guidelines for  making alternative compliance determinations.  During
1991 the Agency will  focus  on  ten source categories  in  order  to meet the two-
year requirements  of the  anticipated new  legislation.   The Agency also will
direct  its   efforts   toward   source categories   associated   with  four-year
requirements.

      In  1991  EPA will continue developing new source performance standards
(NSPSs) for two new source categories and control techniques guidelines (CTGs)
for seven  new source  categories  of volatile organic compound  (VOC) emissions.
Pursuant to requirements of the President's Clean Air proposal,  the Agency will
initiate an assessment of the  need for and begin  development  of other federal
measures .for VOC control.   In  addition, the Agency will begin development of an
                                     2-34

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alternative control techniques  (ACTs) document for  sources  of nitrogen oxides
(NOX);  reasonably available control measures (RACMs)  for  PM-10 sources (urban
fugitive dust and residential wood combustion); and a study of the hazards to
public health as a result  of  the  emissions  of  listed  pollutants from electric
utilities.

      The Agency will continue technology transfer to  state and local agencies
on  ozone,  PM-10  and  air  toxics  controls  through the  National Air  Toxics
Information Clearinghouse (NATICH), the Control Technology Center (CTC), the Air
Risk  Information Support  Center  (AirRISC),  and  the  Best Available  Control
Technology/Lowest Achievable Emission Rate (BACT/LAER) Clearinghouse.

1990 Program

      In 1990 the Agency is allocating a  total of $13,497,500 supported by 93.1
total workyears to this  program,  of which $5,371,400  is from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation  and  $8,126,100  is  from  the   Abatement,   Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      In 1990 EPA is continuing NSPS development.  By the end of 1990,  the Agency
will have promulgated  46 NSPSs  from the priority list,  representing about 87
percent fulfillment of  the  1977 Congressional mandate.   The Agency  is continuing
work  on  NSPSs  for  two  source categories,  municipal  waste  combustion  and
landfills, that  have not been added  to  the priority  list.   In addition,  the
Agency is devoting a major  effort to development of standards of performance for
hospital waste incinerators.  The Agency is deferring  development of the final
six NSPSs on the priority  list in order to complete higher priority work.

      The current program is oriented toward regulation of source categories that
emit  ten hazardous  air  pollutants;  development   of  NESHAPs  for  coke  oven
emissions; and refining a ranking approach for developing NESHAPs.  This approach
sets priorities  and assesses source  categories  for  NESHAPs  based  on multi-
pollutant impacts  on human health.   With  the  completion of  EPA's policy for
setting  NESHAPs,  the  Agency  will initiate  major   efforts  towards developing
NESHAPs using this approach.  Outputs in 1990  include promulgation of NESHAPs
for the  remaining source categories of benzene emissions and revisions to the
reporting requirements for the asbestos NESHAPs.

      To  support  efforts  in  the  area of ozone  nonattainment, EPA  has  begun
developing CTGs  for seven source categories of VOC emissions  and an ACT document
for one additional source  category of NOx emissions.

      Consistent with the National Air Toxics Strategy,  the Agency is providing
implementation support  to state air toxics programs through the operation of four
centers  and  clearinghouses and  the publication of  implementation support and
technology transfer documents for air toxics, ozone, and PM-10 control.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989 the Agency obligated a total of $11,384,000 supported by  93.6 total
workyears, of which $5,489,700 was from the  Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and $5,894,300 was from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.
                                    2-35

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      In 1989 the Agency promulgated  three  NSPSs,  proposed rules for chromium
(comfort cooling towers) under the Toxic Substances Control Act, and published
the proposed response  to benzene litigation,  along with proposed benzene NESHAPs
for four source categories.


NATIONAL POLLUTANT POLICIES. STRATEGIES AND RULES

1991 Program Request

      The  Agency requests  a  total  of  $12,053,800  supported  by 45.0  total
workyears  for this program,  of which $2,947,500 will be  for  the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation  and  $9,106,300 will  be for the Abatement,  Control and
Compliance  appropriation.    This  represents  an  increase  of  $423,500  in the
Salaries and Expenses appropriation,  an  increase of  $31,400 in the Abatement,
Control and Compliance  appropriation,  and an  increase  of 3.7  total workyears.
The increases  support increased policy  analysis  for acid  deposition issues,
implementation  of the  Montreal  Protocol for stratospheric  ozone  protection
(including renegotiation and recycling activities),  and  increased  indoor air
pollution activities.

      The President's  Clean Air proposal will provide for an expanded Agency acid
rain program in  1991 that will require significantly revised program development
and implementation activities.  The policy component of the program will continue
to provide support to the Administrator  and Assistant  Administrator for their
participation  on  the  Domestic   Policy Council   (DPC)   (or  its  successor
organization) and the U.S.  Bilateral Advisory and Consultative Group (BACG).
The program will also  initiate a  project  to use existing  governmental and
nongovernmental networks to promote increased use  of energy conservation through
least-cost utility planning and alternative energy supplies.  In addition, the
program will ensure that the ten-year $500 million  interagency National Acid
Precipitation Assessment Program  (NAPAP) for  research  is  responsive to policy
needs.  The program will participate in the development and revision of the final
NAPAP Integrated Assessment.   The program  will  co-chair  the  Acid Deposition
Subcommittee of  the  Air and Radiation Research Committee  to  guide  the acid
deposition  research program.  The  program will also  provide  support  to the
Department of Energy  (DOE)  through  the Innovative  Control Technology Advisory
Panel (ICTAP) and will help  evaluate  the fifth DOE solicitation.  The program
will review, comment on, and resolve controversial air and other environmental
permit  issues  for Clean  Coal Technology (CCT)  and other  non-CCT  innovative
control projects.

      To implement and support the Montreal Protocol in 1991 EPA  will develop
rules on trade with non-participating nations, methods for inspection of imported
goods, rules for discouraging export  of chlorofluorcarbon (CFC) technologies,
and ways to transfer non-CFC technologies to lesser developed countries (LDCs).
The Agency will expand technical assistance  to  LDCs,  such as  India,  Mexico,
China, and Brazil, with  an emphasis towards  energy efficiency.  The CFC domestic
program  will  include administration  of allocations,  collection of charges,
initiation of any new rulemaking required by changes in the Montreal Protocol,
and consideration of a national recycling effort to create a strategic reserve
for existing  uses.    The  Agency will  undertake  further  risk  assessments and
refinements to existing  data.  The Agency will also work with industry  to improve


                                     2-36

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technology for fire fighting, refrigeration,  and refrigeration systems.  These
efforts will focus on development  of better mixtures, expansion of ammonia use,
development of substitutes,  and production  of better foams.  The  Agency will
expand  technical  assistance to  private  sector  and  Department  of  Defense
activities for CFC/halon substitute technology.  The Agency will also continue
evaluations of the safety of alternative chemicals.

      As  part of  its efforts  to address  global warming,  EPA will  explore
technological options and mechanisms  for control  of  methane  emissions from
livestock and will  initiate  evaluation of energy  conservation  measures.   The
Agency will carry out  efforts to develop integrated models.  The Agency will also
develop a data base to inform industry  and help organize responses that enhance
long-term competition in domestic  and  foreign markets.   These activities will
speed development and deployment of technologies to decrease the production of
greenhouse gases.

      In  1991 the  Indoor  Air Program will  provide  Agency  leadership  and
coordination within  the  federal  establishment.  EPA will  maintain and expand
contact  with  appropriate  private sector  organizations  and  state and  local
agencies.  The Agency will  issue reports on multiple chemical sensitivities and
the impact of  indoor air pollution on productivity.  The Agency will also release
a manual for conducting building investigations and a physician's handbook.  In
addition,  the Agency will complete  an initial  report  on the  development  of
protocols  for the  identification and  quantification  of  the  "sick  building
syndrome."

      New activities will focus  on providing training programs through existing
regional training centers and designing and implementing information distribution
mechanisms.  In  1991  EPA will complete a new two-year program to develop basic
Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)  training programs for state and local  governments.  The
training programs will use guidance documents and other publications completed
in  1990.    In   1991  EPA  will   continue  operation  of  an  IAQ  information
clearinghouse. The Agency will also initiate a program to  inform building owners
and employers about  the  significant economic  costs of  indoor air pollution on
the workforce.  In addition,  the Agency will produce information briefs for the
public  on new home   construction  techniques  and  smoking  place policies  for
building occupants.  Finally, the Agency will complete an international inventory
of  IAQ  activities  compiled  under the  aegis of  the North Atlantic  Treaty
Organization (NATO) Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society (CCMS).

1990 Program

      In 1990 the Agency is allocating a total of $11,598,900   supported by 41.3
total workyears  to this program,  of which $2,524,000 is  from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation and  $9,074,900  is  from  the Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      In 1990 the acid rain  policy program will  continue responding to NAPAP,
the ten-year, $500 million,  interagency research program.   The  policy program
will complete coordination of primary  research on the  economic  aspects of the
NAPAP final report.   The program will continue to co-chair the Acid Deposition
Subcommittee  of  the  Air  and Radiation Research  Committee which  guides acid
deposition research.   The program will continue analyses  of acid rain legislative


                                     2-37

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proposals including the Clean Air Act amendments.  The program will also continue
support to the Administrator and Assistant Administrator for their participation
on the DPC and the BACG.   Also, in 1990 EPA will continue to provide advice to
DOE, through the ICTAP, on DOE's five-year,  $2.5 billion CCT Program.  The acid
rain program will continue  to review, comment on, and help resolve controversial
air permit application issues  for  CCT  demonstration projects,  and will assist
DOE in obtaining air, water, and solid waste CCT permits.

      In 1990 EPA will continue many activities started in 1989 and will initiate
new efforts for stratospheric ozone protection.  Domestically,  the Agency will
develop and refine  its stratospheric ozone regulatory program, as well as operate
and enforce  the  program  established in 1989.  The  current  rulemaking will be
revised to charge market  value for  the  privilege of producing or importing CFCs
or halons.  Monitoring of CFCs and halons production will continue with timely
data  review, additional  compliance  monitoring,  technology   reviews,  better
information control, and  overall improved systems performance.   The program will
also be integrally involved  in the coordination  of  domestic and international
efforts to develop alternative technologies.

      The program  will continue to support  the  implementation  of the Montreal
Protocol.    In  1990  EPA  will  participate  in  a  series  of  atmospheric,
environmental,   technological,   and  economic  assessments.    The  Agency  will
participate on the Protocol's working groups and ad hoc groups to negotiate U.S.
technology transfer responsibilities.  In addition,  the Agency  will continue to
participate  in  efforts  to obtain  other nations'  signatory  approval  of  the
Protocol  and will work  with  other  federal  agencies   to  negotiate  further
revisions.  The tropospheric climate warming  element of the global change program
will initiate exploratory analysis  of some point and  non-point source emissions,
including  methane, and their  associated control technologies,  and emissions
impact on existing pollution control decisions.

      In  1990  the indoor  air  program includes policy  analyses;  coordination
within  the  federal establishment;   participation  in a NATO-CCMS  inventory of
indoor air activities;  development  and  issuance of additional fact sheets on key
aspects of IAQ;  and development of guidance on new  home construction, commercial
and public building design, workplace smoking,  and school IAQ management.  The
indoor air  program will  maintain and  expand contact with  appropriate private
sector organizations and  state and local agencies involved  in  IAQ activities.
The program will  initiate training activities and develop additional information
on risk and  economic effects  of indoor air  pollutants.   The program will also
conduct a comprehensive  rural  towns indoor  air  survey  in cooperation with the
Vermont Department of Health.   In addition, the  program will expand its analysis
and conduct field  studies and  surveys to determine the extent of various "sick
building" problems,  including  the  issues of chemical sensitivity and building
diagnostics.  The  indoor  air program will initiate the implementation of an IAQ
information clearinghouse.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989 the Agency obligated a total of $11,229,300 supported by 30.3 total
workyears, of which $1,879,900 was  from the  Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and $9,349,400 was from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.
                                     2-38

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      In 1989 the acid rain program continued to focus on acid rain policy and
implementation issues.  The program provided detailed legislative analysis on
new and potential legislative actions under the Clean Air Act.  The program also
provided technical and environmental assistance to  DOE  on  the CCT Program and
NAPAP initiatives.  The program issued  the final report from the State Acid Rain
(STAR)  project.    The report  addresses  potential  acid rain control  program
implementation issues.  The acid rain program continued  to respond to petitions
calling for additional control on U.S.  sulfur dioxide (S02) and nitrogen oxides
(NOX)  emissions.  The program also continued support  for on-going Administration
discussions with Canada on a possible bilateral accord.

      In 1989 EPA  focused  on implementation  of  the  domestic rule for CFCs and
halons and further analyses of possible follow-up activities to regulatory and
non-regulatory actions.  A  program was established and implemented for enforcing
regulatory levels  on  the production and consumption of  CFCs and halons.   This
involved developing a tracking system for permits, completing and implementing
a reporting and record keeping system,  developing an enforcement strategy, and
assessing the market responses to regulation.   In addition, the program continued
to  perform  Montreal   Protocol  assessments  and  studies  to  support  the United
Nation's  Environmental  Program  in  the  international  implementation of  the
Protocol.  The program expanded international coordination among various groups
and activities concerned with developing alternative technologies and transfer
of technologies to lesser  developing countries in 1989.   The program continued
to assess possible emission sources and other factors  in global climate warming
changes.

      In 1989 the indoor air program continued to provide a framework to address
indoor  air  problems  through  policy  development,  federal coordination,  and
information dissemination.  In 1989 the program completed two  technical documents
initiated in 1988, one on  the mitigation of environmental tobacco smoke and the
other on prevention of building-related problems.  In addition,  in-house staff
carried out an Agency  and Interagency coordination role and developed indoor air
pollution  information and  mitigation  fact  sheets.   The  indoor  air  program
initiated efforts  to  communicate  with  various target groups on possible "sick
building" causes and solutions.  The report to Congress on the long-term federal
role in indoor air quality  was completed and a booklet on indoor air quality was
reprinted and reissued.


STATE PROGRAM GUIDELINES AND AIR STANDARDS DEVELOPMENT

1991 Program Request

      The  Agency  requests  a  total  of $17,109,100  supported by  139.5  total
workyears for  this program,  of which $9,137,300 will be for  the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and $7,971,800  will  be  for  the  Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation.   This represents  an  increase of  $3,725,600  for the
Salaries and Expenses  appropriation, an increase of $3,500,900  in the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation, and an increase of 42.0 in total workyears
from  1990.    The  increase  will  support  activities  that  are  needed  to  begin
implementation of the  President's  Clean Air proposal for  operating permits, acid
deposition, and nonattainment.
                                     2-39

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      In 1991 the Agency will  continue to provide management and assistance for
attainment of NAAQSs  and prevention of significant deterioration  (PSD).   The
regulatory impact analyses (RIAs) for the ozone and lead NAAQSs review will be
completed and a proposal to revise or reaffirm these standards will be published.
Revised or reaffirmed NAAQSs for sulfur  dioxide (S02) will be promulgated.  The
criteria documents for the carbon monoxide (CO)  and nitrogen dioxide (N02) NAAQSs
review will be completed and the staff papers will be reviewed by the Clean Air
Scientific Advisory  Committee  (CASAC).   Exposure  analyses,  RIAs,  and  other
regulatory support activities  will also be underway for CO and N02 NAAQSs review.

      The Agency will develop guidance and regulations needed to implement the
State Implementation  Plan  (SIP)  activities  for ozone,  CO,  and PM-10 under new
legislation.   These will include developing  completeness criteria, revising and
issuing the list  of nonattainment areas,  and establishing ozone transport areas.
The  Agency will  provide  procedures and  techniques for determining required
emission  reductions,  evaluating and  selecting alternative  control measures,
preparing  control  strategy  demonstrations,  and analyzing  transport strategies
in  the  Northeast.    Assistance  in  identifying,   adopting,  and  implementing
nontraditional control  measures that will directly involve  the  public (e.g.,
transportation controls  and consumer solvent  substitution) will  be provided.
Review and regulatory action on SIP submittals from the initial SIP calls will
continue.

      Review and regulatory action on PM-10 SIPs will continue, especially for
newly identified  nonattainment  areas  (Group II areas).   Policy,  guidance, and
assistance in problem definition and development of mitigation strategies will
be provided for a variety of problems contributing to long-term nonattainment.
These include woodstoves,  prescribed burning, agricultural activities, fugitive
source and nontraditional source control measures (e.g., street cleaning), and
secondary particle formation.  Management and review of SIPs submitted by states
will continue. Guidance and assistance to Regional Offices for developing court-
ordered PM-10 Federal Implementation Plans  (FIPs)  will continue.   Regulations
to control sources contributing to visibility  impairment  in  the  Grand Canyon
will be promulgated.   Innovative measures to reduce the  SIP backlog and expedite
processing, including a computerized SIP tracking and information system, will
be fully implemented.

      State  and  local air toxics  programs  will be further enhanced with the
implementation and revision of  multi-year  development plans.   Technical and
program support  to assist  states in evaluating and regulating high-risk point
sources (HRPSs)  and  multi-pollutant urban  toxics  problems  will continue.  The
new source review (NSR)  program will  provide guidance and assistance to Regions
and states that are permitting new sources.  Support to national litigation over
current regulations will be provided.   Rulemaking on  PM-10 increments will be
completed.    New  procedures  for  conducting  state  program audits  will  be
implemented.

      Guidance and regulations  will be  developed  to implement anticipated new
legislation for  operating  permits.   These  include model permits,  standardized
application  forms, fee  recovery requirements, and monitoring and reporting
requirements.  Key elements of phase I of the acid deposition program included
in anticipated legislation will also be developed.   These  include regulations
governing  continuous  emission monitors;  the issuance,  trading,  and banking of


                                     2-40

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allowances; and the participation of industrial sources in the allowance system.
An emissions/allowance tracking system will be developed to facilitate free and
open trading.  Regulations and  a program  for  Federally-issued phase I permits
will also be developed.

1990 Program

      In 1990 the Agency is allocating a total of $9,882,600 supported by 97.5
total workyears to this program, of which $5,411,700  is  from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation and  $4,470,900  is  from  the  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      In 1990 review of the staff paper for the lead NAAQS will be completed by
CASAC and a proposal  to revise  or reaffirm the standard will be prepared.  Work
on  the  next round of reviews  of  the  NAAQSs  for ozone,  CO and N02 will  be
underway.  An evaluation of the need for an acid aerosols and/or fine particle
NAAQS will also be in process.

      In the SIP area, primary emphasis will be on  implementing ongoing programs
for CO and ozone nonattainment  areas  and  developing  and  reviewing PM-10 SIPs.
For ozone and CO, these activities will focus  on  ensuring  compliance with SIP
calls issued in May  1988  and  November 1989,  securing and  reviewing revised
emission inventories, and reviewing SIP clean-up rules. Guidance and assistance
will be provided for  long-term  PM-10 nonattainment areas.  PM-10 SIP submittals
will be reviewed.  PSD  increments will be proposed  for PM-10.   Regulations to
control sources contributing to visibility impairment in the Grand Canyon will
be proposed.  Guidance and assistance to Regional Offices will be provided for
developing court-ordered FIPs for both ozone/CO and PM-10 nonattainment areas.
Policy and regulations to improve NSR programs will be published and workshops
will be held. Guidance and assistance to develop and  implement state air toxics
programs  through multi-year  development  plans  will continue.    Workshops,
emissions factors, inventory procedures, and other support will be provided to
help states evaluate and regulate HRPSs  and multi-pollutant urban toxic problems.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989 the Agency obligated a total of $8,447,600 supported by 98.0 total
workyears, of which $5,595,900  was from the Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and $2,851,700 was from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

      NAAQS review activities in 1989  focused on  lead, ozone, S02 and possible
standards  for  fine  particles and acid aerosols.   Second-round  SIP  calls for
deficient  CO  and ozone  SIPs  were  issued.    PSD  increments  for  N02  were
promulgated. Decisions on attributing visibility impairment in PSD Class  I areas
to specific sources were promulgated in four states and were proposed in three
states.  Revised procedures to improve and expedite SIP processing were publish-
ed.   Guidance  and assistance were  provided  to Regional Offices  in preparing
court-ordered ozone/CO  FIPs  and negotiating  FIP  settlements in  Illinois and
Utah.
                                     2-41

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                                                   AIR
                                Mobile Source Air Pollution Control  &  Fuel  Economy

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED    CURRENT      REQUEST    INCREASE  +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE       1991      DECREASE  -
                                                       1990               1991  VS 1990
PROGRAM
                                               (DOLLARS  IN  THOUSANDS)
Emission Standards,
Technical Assessment &
Characterization
 Salaries & Expenses
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
Testing, Technical &
Administrative Support
 Salaries & Expenses
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
        $4.757.3   $5,080.1    $4,908.0   $7,421.2     $2,513.2
        $4,911.8   $6,174.8    $6,096.1  $11,949.7     $5,853.6
                       TOTAL   $9,669.1   $11,254.9  $11,004.1   $19,370.9    $8,366.8
        $5,243.7   $5,408.3   $5,214.3   $7,434.4     $2,220.1
          $964.8     $837.2     $826.7     $850.2        $23.5
                       TOTAL   $6,208.5   $6,245.5   $6,041.0    $8,284.6    $2,243.6
Emissions & Fuel
Economy Compliance
 Salaries & Expenses
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
        $2,044.3   $1,971.8   $1,900.5   $2,430.1       $529.6
           $32.9      $32.7      $32.4     $133.1       $100.7

TOTAL   $2,077.2   $2,004.5   $1,932.9   $2,563.2       $630.3
TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance

Mobile Source Air
Pollution Control &
Fuel Economy
       $12,045.3  $12,460.2  $12,022.8  $17,285.7    $5,262.9
        $5,909.5   $7,044.7   $6,955.2  $12,933.0    $5,977.8
TOTAL  $17,954.8  $19,504.9  $18,978.0  $30,218.7   $11,240.7
PERMANENT UORKYEARS
Emission Standards,
Technical Assessment &
Characterization

Testing, Technical &
Administrative Support

Emissions & Fuel
Economy Compliance

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS
            74.5       84.8       83.3       113.3         30.0
            92.5       92.9       92.4        94.4          2.0
            30.1        35.1        33.1        37.1          4.0
           197.1       212.8      208.8      244.8        36.0
                                         2-42 .

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                                                 AIR
                                Mobile  Source Air Pollution Control & Fuel Economy

                                ACTUAL     ENACTED     CURRENT     REQUEST   INCREASE +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE      1991     DECREASE -
                                                       1990               1991 VS 1990
TOTAL WORKYEARS
                                               (DOLLARS  IN THOUSANDS)
Emission Standards,
Technical Assessment &
Character izat i on

Testing, Technical &
Administrative Support

Emissions & Fuel
Economy Compliance

TOTAL WORKYEARS
 84.3       84.8       83.3       113.3        30.0
 97.3       92.9       92.4        94.4          2.0
 33.6       35.1        33.1        37.1          4.0
215.2      212.8      208.8      244.8        36.0
                                        2-43

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                                        AIR
                 Mobile Source Air Pollution Control and Fuel Economy
Budget Request
     The  Agency requests  a  total  of  $30,218,700  supported  by 244.8  total
workyears for  1991,  an increase of $11,240,700 and an  increase  of  36.0 total
workyears from 1990.  Of the request, $17,285,700 will be for the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and  $12,933,000 will be  for  the  Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation.   This represents an  increase of $5,262,900  in the
Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation and  an  increase  of  $5,977,800  in  the
Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.


EMISSION STANDARDS. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION

1991 Program Request

     The  Agency requests  a  total  of  $19,370,900  supported  by 113.3  total
workyears for  this  program,  of which $7,421,200 will be  for  the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and  $11,949,700 will be  for  the  Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation.   This  is  an  increase  of $2,513,200  for the Salaries
and Expenses appropriation,  an increase of $5,853,600 for the Abatement, Control
and Compliance appropriation,  and an increase of 30.0 total workyears from 1990.
The increases will  support additional work related to the use of clean fuels and
the implementation of the President's Clean Air Proposal.

     In  1991  the mobile source  standards  program will  continue  to emphasize
control  of  ozone precursors  and air toxics  and  will begin  implementing the
aggressive program outlined  in proposed Clean Air Act amendments.  The emissions
impact of clean fuels, such as oxygenated blends and compressed  natural gas (CNG)
will be investigated.  Regulatory work on clean  fuels will continue.  Work will
begin to develop new light-duty and heavy-duty vehicle emissions standards, as
mandated by  the  expected Clean Air Act amendments.   Revised  light-duty truck
hydrocarbon standards consistent with the expected legislative changes will be
promulgated.   A  study  of cold weather carbon monoxide  (CO) emissions  will be
completed.  Additional  testing of in-use vehicles will assess the effectiveness
of emission control technologies in controlling  carbon monoxide emissions under
cold temperature  conditions.   The  Emissions  Factor Program will  continue to
determine emissions from in-use vehicles.  A pilot  study  will continue to assess
sampling methodologies and  their effectiveness  in closing the gaps  in data on
actual emissions from in-use vehicles.

      Additional work will be done to insure the effectiveness of the enhanced
vehicle  inspection and maintenance programs put into  place  by state and local
jurisdictions.   In  addition, 15  audits  and  follow-ups of  state and local
inspection and maintenance programs will be completed.
                                     2-44

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1990 Program

     In 1990 the Agency is allocating a total of $11,004,100 supported by 83.3
total workyears for this program,  of which $4,908,000 is from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation and  $6,096,100  is  from  the Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

     In 1990 the standards program is continuing to emphasize control of ozone
precursors and air toxics.  Work on clean fuels will expand to include emissions
characterization and technology assessment for fuels such as compressed natural
gas  (CNG),  alcohol, and  propane.    The regulatory program is  continuing  to
concentrate on control  of  excess hydrocarbon emissions, formaldehyde, methanol,
and  particulates,  as  well  as  fuels.    Revised  light-duty  truck  hydrocarbon
standards  are  being proposed.   The  final  rule  for  controlling diesel  fuel
composition consistent  with toxics particulate control will be published.   Also,
the final rule  for heavy-duty emissions banking and trading will be promulgated.
Testing of  in-use vehicles  to develop emission  factors will be  conducted.   A
pilot study to assess alternative sampling methodologies for developing in-use
emission factors will be undertaken.  The objective will be to determine the most
effective way to close gaps in  data  on actual emissions from in-use vehicles.
Support  to  the development of  State Implementation Plans  is  continuing with
emphasis on inspection and maintenance  programs for  in-use  vehicles.   A total
of 15 formal audits  and follow-ups of state and local inspection and maintenance
programs are being completed.

1989 Accomplishments

     In 1989 the Agency obligated a total of $9,669,100 supported by 84.3 total
workyears, of which $4,757,300 was  from the Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and $4,911,800 was from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

     The  program  provided implementation  assistance  and  review  of  State
Implementation Plans, particularly  vehicle inspection and maintenance programs.
In 1989 16 inspection and  maintenance program  audits were carried out to assess
the effectiveness of state and local  efforts.  A total of 40 vehicle inspection
programs now operate in 64 urban areas throughout the country.

     In  support  of the Agency's air toxics  control strategy,  the  regulatory
program  continued work on control  of  formaldehyde  and particulate  matter.
Characterization of emissions  from vehicles powered by  alternative  fuels also
continued,  including  promulgation of  a rule  that  set standards  and  test
procedures  for methanol-fueled vehicles.    With  the  implementation of  lead
phasedown, additional work was directed towards alternatives  to leaded gasoline.
A  systematic   review  of  the  heavy-duty  standards  for hydrocarbons,  carbon
monoxide, and particulate matter continued for potential future revision.
                                     2-45

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TESTING. TECHNICAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT

1991 Program Request

     The Agency requests  a total of $8,284,600 supported by 94.4 total workyears
for this program,  of which $7,434,400 will  be  for the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and  $850,200  will  be for the Abatement, Control  and Compliance
appropriation.  This represents an  increase  of  $2,220,100  in the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation,  an  increase of $23,500 in the Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation and an increase of 2.0  total workyears from 1990.  The
increases will support implementation of the  President's Clean Air proposal and
replacement of obsolete equipment.

     This program  will provide  testing, technical,  and administrative support
to the operating programs of the Office of Mobile Sources at the Motor Vehicle
Emissions Laboratory (MVEL)  located  in Ann Arbor, Michigan.  Approximately 1,000
tests will be performed on prototype vehicles and 1,440 tests  on in-use vehicles
in support of the emissions  factors and recall programs.  In addition, 100 tests
on  new  and  in-use heavy-duty  engines  will  be conducted to  support  the
implementation  and enforcement of  the standards  for these  engines.   General
activities that will be  supported include  recall,  tampering and fuel switching,
standard-setting,  emissions  characterization,   technology  assessment,  fuel
economy,  in-use vehicle emissions  assessment,  and motor  vehicle  emission
certification.   The support that will be provided includes:   automated data
processing (ADP) timesharing services, laboratory data acquisition, and computer
operations; testing  of  motor  vehicles to measure emissions  and  fuel'economy;
quality assurance  and control and  correlation  services  for EPA  and industry
testing  programs;   maintenance  and  engineering  design  of  emission  testing
equipment; and personnel, administrative,  safety,  environmental compliance, and
facilities support services.  Testing and  analysis of approximately 12,000 fuel
samples collected  for enforcement purposes (including volatility control) will
continue.

1990.Program

     In 1990  the Agency  is  allocating a total of  $6,041,000 supported by 92.4
total workyears for this program, of which $5,214,300 is from the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and $826,700 is from the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.

     The 1990 program continues  to focus  on  increasing the  efficiency of the
testing, technical, and administrative support operations while maintaining or
expanding the quality and quantity of outputs.

     Testing support to the certification, fuel economy,  and in-use compliance
and assessment  programs continues with a total of approximately  2,440 tests
scheduled for these programs in 1990.   Testing activities supported at the MVEL
range  from performing  standard,  well-established  engineering  tests  to  the
development and performance of new  test procedures  to accommodate new program
needs or changing  technology.
                                     2-46

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     Routine testing and analysis  of 12,000 fuel samples collected in the field
for enforcing  fuels  regulations  continues.   Correlation programs  to maintain
equivalent  test procedures  between manufacturers  and  EPA  continue.    Test
equipment maintenance,  calibration, and repair services are being provided.  The
adequacy of existing procedures and equipment to test newer technology vehicles
is being evaluated.  If necessary,  new equipment and procedures  will be designed.
In  addition,   personnel,   facility  support   services,   safety,   ADP,   and
administrative management functions are provided at  the MVEL.

1989 Accomplishments

     In 1989 the Agency obligated  a total of $6,208,500 supported by 97.3 total
workyears  for  this program,  of  which  $5,243,700 was  from  the  Salaries  and
Expenses  appropriation  and  $964,800  was  from  the  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

     In 1989 a  total of 850 tests  were conducted for certification, fuel economy
labeling,  and  compliance programs.   The MVEL  performed 1600 tests  on in-use
vehicles in support of the recall, surveillance,  and  tampering/fuel switching
programs;  the  development  of emission  factors;  and the  assessment of  the
effectiveness of new emissions control  technology in  maintaining the emission
standards in use.  Routine testing and analysis  of  12,500 fuel samples collected
in  the field  were  performed  in  1989  to  enforce  vehicle  fuel  regulations,
including the newly implemented fuel volatility standards.

     Basic  personnel  and administrative management functions,   including  ADP
management,  were  provided.   Also,  safety and  facility services,   aimed  at
maintaining a high level of occupational safety and  health,  were provided.


EMISSIONS AND FUEL ECONOMY COMPLIANCE

1991 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total of $2,563,200  supported by 37.1 total workyears
for this  program,  of which $2,430,100 will be for  the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and $133,100 will  be for the Abatement,  Control  and Compliance
appropriation.    This  represents  an increase of $529,600 in  the  Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation,  an increase of  $100,700 in  the Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation, and an increase of 4.0 total  workyears.  The increases
will  support  implementation of  the President's  Clean Air  proposal  and  the
development of mobile source fees.

     The emissions certification  program will  continue  to assess the validity
of  applications for  certification of  approximately  100  original  equipment
manufacturers  of  light-duty  vehicles,  heavy-duty  engines,   and  motorcycles.
Participation in the certification program by  importers  reselling vehicles is
expected to stabilize  in 1991.   Approximately 40 certificate holders will be
bringing non-conforming  imports into compliance.

       In  1991  the  in-use assessment  program  will  continue  to focus  on  the
effectiveness of onboard diagnostic systems in identifying  component failure.
Rules  to standardize such systems will be promulgated.  Work  will continue on
                                     2-47

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suspected problems with manufacturers' alleged use of  defeat  devices and more
testing will be done under non-Federal Test Procedure conditions to assess the
degree to which emission control  devices control emissions only on the standard
test cycle and  do  not  do so in actual on-road use.  Changes  in certification
resulting from volatility controls will be implemented.  The mobile source fee
regulation will be implemented.

     The statutory fuel economy  information program  will be carried out, with
the  provision  of  1,000  labels,  50  Corporate  Average Fuel Economy  (CAFE)
calculations, and data  for the Gas Mileage Guide.  Revised CAFE and fuel economy
labeling  rules  required by  the  Alternative  Motor  Fuels Act (AMFA) will  be
published.  Guidance to manufacturers  on  implementing  the  changes  required by
these revisions  will be provided.

1990 Program

     In 1990 the Agency  is allocating  a total of $1,932,900 supported by 33.1
total workyears for this program, of which $1,900,500 is from the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and $32,400  is from the  Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.

     The emissions certification  program is continuing  to issue certificates of
compliance to approximately 100 original equipment  manufacturers of light-duty
vehicles,  heavy-duty   engines,   and  motorcycles.      Participation  in  the
certification program by importers reselling vehicles will continue.  Streamlined
procedures for handling these new certificate  holders will  be promulgated.  In
1990 the  in-use program  is placing emphasis on assessment  of emission control
diagnostic  systems  and  their  effectiveness   in  isolating  emission  control
component failure.  A rule  to  standardize  these systems will be proposed.  Work
is also focusing on suspected problems with manufacturers' use of defeat devices,
as  well as  on emissions  under  conditions different   from the Federal  Test
Procedure.  This additional  engineering analysis will help assess the degree to
which emission control  devices differ relative  to  the  standard  test cycle versus
actual on-road operational conditions.  Work on a rule  to  implement the mobile
source fees program will begin.

       The statutory fuel economy information program is being  carried out, with
1,000 labels, 50  CAFE  calculations,  and data  for the  Gas Mileage  Guide being
produced.  Revised CAFE  and fuel economy  labeling rules required by AMFA will
be proposed.

1989 Accomplishments

     In 1989 the Agency obligated a total  of $2,077,200 supported by 33.6 total
workyears  for  this  program,  of  which  $2,044,300  was  from  the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation  and $32,900 was from the Abatement, Control and-Compliance
appropriation.

     The emissions certification program  issued certificates  of compliance to
approximately  100 original  equipment manufacturers  of light-duty  vehicles,
heavy-duty engines, and motorcycles. Participation in the certification program
by  importers  reselling vehicles  continued   to  increase.    EPA  issued  26
certificates  of   conformity   to  Independent  Commercial   Importers   (ICI).
                                    2-48

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Certification engineering review continued to deter  the  production of vehicle!
designs incapable of meeting emission standards.   A regulation for aftennarket
parts certification was proposed.  The fuel economy program generated 1,038 fuel
economy labels, verified  41  CAFE calculations,  and compiled data  for the Gas
Mileage Guide.  The in-use  technology assessment program examined the feasibility
and reliability of  onboard diagnostic systems  in  identifying emission control
component failure.
                                     2-49

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                                                   AIR
                                   State Programs  Resource Assistance

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED     CURRENT     REQUEST    INCREASE +
                                 1989      1990       ESTIMATE       1991      DECREASE -
                                                       1990                1991 VS  1990
PROGRAM
                                               (DOLLARS  IN  THOUSANDS)
Control Agency Resource
Supplementation
(Section 105 Grants)
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
      $101,478.5 $100,467.2  $99,181.4 $137,700.0   $38,518.6

TOTAL $101,478.5 $100,467.2  $99,181.4 $137,700.0   $38,518.6
Training
 Salaries & Expenses
                       TOTAL
          $269.0
          $269.0
$255.2
$255.2
$251.8
$251.8
$262.0
$262.0
$10.2
$10.2
TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses             $269.0     $255.2     $251.8     $262.0       $10.2
 Abatement Control and       $101,478.5 $100,467.2   $99,181.4 $137,700.0   $38,518.6
 Compliance

State Programs         TOTAL $101,747.5 $100,722.4   $99,433.2 $137,962.0   $38,528.8
Resource Assistance
PERMANENT WORKYEARS
Training

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS
             4.0

             4.0
   4.0

   4.0
   4.0

   4.0
   4.0

   4.0
  0.0

  0.0
TOTAL WORKYEARS
Training

TOTAL WORKYEARS
             4.2

             4.2
   4.0

   4.0
   4.0

   4.0
   4.0

   4.0
  0.0

  0.0
                                         2-50

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                                     AIR

                      State Programs Resource Assistance
Budget Request
     The Agency requests a total of $137,962,000 supported by 4.0 total workyears
for 1991, an Increase of $38,528,800 and no change  in total workyears from 1990.
Of the request,  $262,000 will be for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and
$137,700,000 will be for the Abatement,  Control and  Compliance  appropriation.
This represents an increase in the  Salaries and Expenses appropriation of $10,200
and  an  increase  the  Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance  appropriation  of
$38,518,600
CONTROL AGENCY RESOURCE SUPPLEMENTATION

1991 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total of $137,700,000 for this program, all of which
will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  This represents
an increase of. $38,518,600 to support the requirements of the President's Clean
Air proposal  for acid deposition,  air  toxics,  operating permits,  and NAAQSs
nonattainment.

     In 1991 states will continue to have major responsibility for implementation
of programs to attain National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQSs) for ozone
and carbon monoxide (CO).  Deficiencies in existing state and local stationary
and mobile source control programs will be corrected,  ongoing programs will be
reviewed for effectiveness, monitoring and compliance programs will be continued,
and State Implementation Plans (SIPs)  will be initiated for"those areas not in
attainment.  To prepare attainment  plans, states must complete their efforts to
develop and update  ozone/CO  emissions  inventories with a  focus  on correcting
deficiencies in baseline inventories and performing quality assurance on the data
prior  to  formal submission.    States  will  also analyze  long-range  transport
issues, evaluate  and select  alternative  control  measures for  stationary and
mobile sources,'and  develop vehicle inspection and maintenance (I/M) strategies.

     The  Agency will  support  the following  expanded  activities needed  to
implement anticipated new Clean  Air legislation:  upgrade, operate, and quality
control monitoring networks for  ozone, CO,  NOX, and nonmethane organic compounds
(NMOCs);  increase  inspection and  enforcement actions  to implement  existing
requirements;   review  program effectiveness and improve  emission inventories;
correct new source review programs; develop and adopt SIPs to include required
provisions such as reasonably available control technology (RACT); I/M from Part
D and enhanced I/M;  Stage II; and reasonable further progress.

     In addition to Group I SIPs for size-specific particulate matter (PM-10),
states will continue  to  develop SIPs  in any Group II or  III areas which show
monitored air  quality violations.  In addition, states will develop SIP revisions
that will replace prevention  of  significant deterioration  (PSD) increments for
                                    2-51

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total suspended particulate (TSP) with increments for PM-10.  Expanded support
will be provided for enforcement of existing requirements, modeling and control
strategy demonstrations, and correction of new source review programs.

     Air toxics control programs will  continue  and additional support will be
provided to enable state and local agencies to implement the  requirements of the
President's Clean Air proposal, particularly alternative compliance exemptions
which can only be issued by state and local agencies having EPA-approved permit
programs.  States will continue to submit sulfur dioxide (S02)  SIP revisions for
individual sources.  State efforts on operating permits will focus on securing
legislative authority  for  permit programs, fees,  or  submission of fees to the
air pollution  program.  Expanded support in the  area  of  acid deposition will
allow all  states having phase  I sources to  interact  with EPA as  the Agency
develops phase  I  requirements.   This will  help  ensure  that these requirements
are consistent  with  state  regulations  and  will  facilitate state assumption of
phase II responsibilities.  The Agency will  continue to issue permits for new
sources and support  air pollution control  activities on Indian lands.  States
will also  conduct  additional  inspections and enforcement  actions for asbestos
demolition and  renovation  (D&R).  State  and  local government efforts to build
their  capacity to  identify and  solve  indoor  air  quality problems  will  be
supported.   Resources will continue  to  be used  to support  the  provision of
specialized training for persons involved in  air pollution control at  the state
and local level.

     In  1991  states will  continue  to carry  out  activities  essential  to the
operation and maintenance  of effective air pollution regulatory programs.  These
include the implementation of source surveillance  and compliance programs aimed
at assuring initial and continuous compliance by stationary sources subject to
SIP requirements, New Source Performance Standards  (NSPSs),  and National Emission
Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants  (NESHAPs).  States will operate  the state
and local  air monitoring  system (SLAMS) networks,  maintain quality  assurance
programs, and provide data on air quality levels, trends, and attainment status.
States will continue  to assume responsibility for the  implementation of newly
promulgated NSPSs  and  for  the  review  and permitting of new sources,  including
those to which  PSD requirements apply.

1990 Program

     In 1990  the  Agency is allocating  a  total of  $99,181,400, all of which is
from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

     In  1990  a major  focus  of  the  control  agency  support program  is  the
implementation  of  post-1987 attainment requirements  for ozone and CO.  States
will continue  efforts  initiated in  1989  for  correcting and modifying existing
regulations, control measures, programs,  and  procedures.   These include efforts
to expand  the  inspection  and  improve  the compliance of Class A and B volatile
organic  compound  (VOC) sources.   A  major  initiative to  prepare base  year
emissions  inventories  for  ozone and  CO nonattainment areas will continue with
emphasis  on quality assurance,  review,  and  revision.   States  are  working on
revisions to their SIPs required by  EPA's May 1988 SIP  calls  and additional SIP
calls of November 1989. States are also  analyzing the  effectiveness of current
VOC control programs in order  to correct these programs if necessary.  Efforts
within the Northeast and Middle Atlantic states to apply the regional  ozone model


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to identify  transport  and assess control  options  over large  areas  continue.
Major efforts are under way to develop other data bases  such as NMOC data needed
for  attainment  demonstration modeling.   Efforts  to  develop  projection  year
inventories will be initiated during 1990.

     State and local agencies are continuing  to  implement various elements of
their multi-year plans  for building  and implementing programs for assessing and
reducing exposure to air  toxics.  States are continuing to prepare required PM-
10 SIPs for Group I areas. In addition, states  are performing necessary analyses
and preparing SIPs  for Group  II areas where  nonattainment problems  have  been
identified.  Programs to  establish the required PM-10 ambient monitoring network
will be  completed.   States  continue to operate  (S02)  monitoring  networks and
inspect major S02 sources.  State PSD and  new  source  review (NSR)  programs are
also continuing.

     States are also carrying  out inspection and  source monitoring programs for
assuring  initial  and continuous compliance by all major stationary sources,
including  timely and appropriate responses  to violations.   Emphasis  continues
on identifying contractors that  violate the asbestos D&R regulations and taking
appropriate  follow-up  action.    In  addition,   states  are  continuing  to fully
operate and monitor the quality of the National Air  Monitoring System  (NAMS) and
SLAMS  networks  and to assume responsibility  for newly promulgated  NSPSs and
NESHAPs.

     Support for three  special projects is continued from 1989.  These projects
are:   (1)  Northeast  ozone  and   visibility  studies  for coordinated air  use
management and continued  interstate  coordination  on ozone nonattainment and air
quality;  (2) an international emissions monitoring study in the El Paso/Juarez
airshed;  and  (3)  the  San Joaquin Valley ozone modeling effort.   In  addition,
support  is being provided for specialized  training of  persons  involved in air
pollution control at the state and local level.

1989 Accomplishments

     In 1989 the Agency obligated a total of $101,478,500, all of which was from
the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

     In  1989 much  of   the   control agency  support  program  focused  on  the
implementation of the post-1987  attainment  requirements for  ozone/CO.  States
worked on revisions to their  SIPs required by  EPA's May 1988 SIP call.  Efforts
initiated  in  1988  for  correcting and modifying  existing RACT  regulations and
other  control measures  for  VOCs  continued.    The preparation  of  base  year
emissions  inventories for ozone and CO nonattainment  areas  commenced in 1989
and  the  collection  of  NMOC  data continued.    States also began to analyze the
effectiveness of current  VOC  control programs  in  order  to determine the need to
modify these programs.  Efforts to expand the Class A and B VOC source inspection
program and the compliance level of these sources continued.  Efforts to identify
multi-day  transport and  assess  control options  over large areas  continued in
the Northeast and Middle Atlantic states.

     States continued to  prepare required  PM-10 SIPs for Group I areas.  States
also performed analyses and prepared SIPs for Group  II areas where nonattainment
problems  were  identified.  Work continued  on establishing the  PM-10 ambient
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monitoring network.   States continued to operate  S02 monitoring  networks and
inspect major  S02  sources.   State  and  local agencies continued  to implement
various  elements  of  their  multi-year  development  plans  for  building  and
implementing programs for assessing and  reducing exposure  to  air toxics.  State
and local agencies worked to  identify and integrate air  toxics considerations
into current regulatory programs for both ozone and PM-10.

     States continued to carry out source  inspection and monitoring programs to
assure  both  initial  and  continuous  compliance  by major  stationary sources.
States  continued  to  identify  contractors  that  violated  the  asbestos  D&R
regulations and  took appropriate  follow-up  actions.   States  also continued to
operate  and  monitor  the  quality  of  NAMS/SLAMS  networks  and  to  assume
responsibility for implementing NSPSs and NESHAPs.

     Resources to support specialized training for state/local  personnel involved
in abatement and control activities were made available in 1989.  In addition,
the following four  special projects were supported in 1989: (1) Northeast ozone
and  visibility  studies for  coordinated  air  use management  and  continued
interstate  coordination  on  ozone  nonattainment   and  air  quality;  (2)  an
international  emissions monitoring  study  in the  El  Paso/Juarez  airshed for
6zone/CO and  PM-10;   (3) application of the urban airshed model  for  the San
Joaquin Valley; and  (4) data analyses of emissions data from the high-altitude
automobile emissions  testing program  in Denver.
TRAINING

1991 Program Request

     The Agency requests a  total  of $262,000 supported by 4.0 total workyears
for  this  program,   all of which  will  be  for  the   Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation.   This represents an  increase of $10,200  for  the  Salaries and
Expenses appropriation, and no change in total workyears  from 1990.

     In 1991 the Agency will continue to manage  its program of training persons
involved in air pollution control at the state and local level.  The  program will
continue  to  develop, update,  and revise short  courses.   In  addition,   self-
instr.uctional training will  be  provided  to persons involved in  abatement and air
pollution  control  at the state  and local  level.   Technical support  will be
provided  to  states  and Regions  which provide funding  for  planning specialty
workshops and training courses.

1990 Program

     In 1990 the Agency is allocating a total of $251,800 supported  by 4.0  total
workyears  to  this program,  all of  which is from  the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation.

     In 1990 the Agency is managing  the development, revision, and delivery of
short  courses and  self-instructional  materials  with  major  emphasis on the
development of training courses in the areas of PM-10, ozone/CO, and permitting.
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The Agency is also providing  technical  support  to  states  and Regions planning
workshops and training courses.  In addition,  existing courses are being updated
as a result of regulatory changes.

1989 Accomplishments

     In 1989  the Agency  obligated  a total of $269,000 supported  by 4.2 total
workyears, all of which was from the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

     In 1989  self-instructional training  to  persons involved in air pollution
control at the  state  and local level was provided and approximately 35 short
courses were  presented throughout  the country.   Existing  courses  were updated
and new courses were developed.
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                                                  AIR
                                  Air Quality Management  Implementation

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED     CURRENT     REQUEST    INCREASE +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE       1991      DECREASE -
                                                       1990               1991 VS 1990
                                               (DOLLARS  IN THOUSANDS)
PROGRAM
Air Quality Management
Implementation
 Salaries & Expenses          (12,556.1   $12,763.8  $13,309.5  $15,861.6    $2,552.1
 Abatement Control and           $368.9    $2,870.8   $2,831.6     $322.9    -$2,508.7
 Compliance
                       TOTAL  $12,925.0   $15,634.6  $16,U1.1  $16,184.5       $43.4
TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses          $12,556.1   $12,763.8  $13,309.5  $15,861.6    $2,552.1
 Abatement Control and           $368.9    $2,870.8   $2,831.6     $322.9    -$2,508.7
 Compliance

Air Quality Management TOTAL  $12,925.0   $15,634.6  $16,141.1  $16,184.5       $43.4
Implementation
PERMANENT WORKYEARS
Air Quality Management            258.2      288.7      272.8      325.7        52.9
Implementation

TOTAL PERMANENT UORKYEARS         258.2      288.7      272.8      325.7        52.9
TOTAL WORKYEARS
Air Quality Management            273.3      288.7      288.0      325.7        37.7
Implementation

TOTAL WORKYEARS                   273.3      288.7      288.0      325.7        37.7
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                                     AIR
                    Air Quality Management Implementation
Budget Request
     The  Agency requests  a total  of  $16,184,500  supported  by 325.7  total
workyears for 1991, an increase of $43,400 and 37.7 total workyears from 1990.
Of the request,  $15,861,600 will be  for  the Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and $322,900 will be  for  the Abatement,  Control and Compliance appropriation.
This  represents an  increase  in  the  Salaries  and  Expenses appropriation of
$2,552,100 and a decrease  in the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation
of $2,508,700.
AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION

1991 Program Request

     The  Agency requests  a  total  of  $16,184,500  supported  by  325.7  total
workyears for this program, of which  $15,861,600 will  be  for the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation  and $322,900  will  be for  the  Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation.   This  represents an increase of  $2,552,100 for the
Salaries and Expenses appropriation,  a decrease of $2,508,700 in the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation,  and an increase of 37.7 in total workyears
from 1990. The increases reflect  support for the requirements of the President's
Clean  Air proposal  for  acid  deposition,   air  toxics,  operating  permits,  and
nonattainment.    The  decrease  in  the  Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance
appropriation represents completion of funding for selected special projects.

     In 1991 the ten EPA Regional Offices  will  continue to implement measures
to attain National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQSs) for ozone and carbon
monoxide  (CO).  The Agency  will provide guidance to  states in a number of areas
including  the  development  of emissions  inventories,  correction  of existing
stationary and mobile source regulations and programs, procedures and techniques
for determining required emission reductions, evaluating and selecting control
measures, and preparing attainment demonstrations.  Ongoing control programs will
be  reviewed  for effectiveness.   State Implementation Plans  (SIPs) will  be
reviewed  as  they  are submitted  and  rulemakings  will be  initiated.   Regional
Offices will  provide expanded guidance and  assistance to  the states for the
following activities:  classification  of   ozone/CO  non-attainment areas,  new
source review  (NSR)  corrections, application of reasonably available control
technology (RACT)  measures, Stage II implementation, and implementation of the
oxygenated fuels program.  Regions will also track  the implementation of SIPs
and support states as they enforce rules  to  limit  the  volatility -of gasoline.
In addition, Regions will  provide coordination of  control  agencies  to  ensure
correction of identified deficiencies  in draft inventories  prior to their formal
submission.  Regions will  expand their efforts to  provide  emission inventory
guidance  to  states  for  volatile organic  compounds  (VOCs)  and  assistance  in
refining  base year  inventories,  tracking  progress  requirements,  and preparing
projection and attainment year inventories.


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     Regions will continue to provide guidance to states on the development and
submission of State Implementation Plans (SIPs) to implement the NAAQSs for size
specific particulate matter  (PM-10).  PM-10 SIPs will  be  reviewed as they are
submitted  and rulemaking  is  initiated.    The Regions will  assist  states  in
developing  SIP   revisions  that  will  replace  prevention   of  significant
deterioration (PSD)  increments for total suspended particulates with increments
for  PM-10.    Efforts  associated  with  the  development  of  PM-10  Federal
Implementation  Plans   (FIPs)  will  continue  consistent with  requirements  of
litigation and new legislation.  Regions will provide expanded support to states
in the development of NSR corrections.

     State and local programs to control air toxics will be supported.   Sulfur
dioxide (S02)  SIP revisions will be reviewed as they are submitted.  A number of
other ongoing air quality management  activities will be  continued including
review and oversight of the air grants process,  implementation of the national
air audit system, support  to litigation activities,  and support to state NSR/PSD
programs.  New efforts  in the Regions in the area of operating permits will focus
on assisting  states without legislative authority  to  secure  such legislative
changes for permit programs,  fees,  or submission of fees  to  the air pollution
program.

1990 Program

     In 1990 the Agency is allocating a  total of $16,141,100 supported by 288.0
total workyears  to this program, of which $13,309,500 is from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation and  $2,831,600  is from  the  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

     A  major  focus of the  Regional air  quality  management  program  is  the
implementation  of the post-1987  requirements   for correcting  ozone   and  CO
nonattainment  problems.   The efforts  to  correct and  improve  inventories and
existing regulations,  control measures,  programs,   and procedures  extend into
1990.   Regions will provide detailed assistance to those areas  with the most
serious problems to complete the required revisions to the SIPs on schedule.
Regions will review state-submitted SIP  revisions and will initiate appropriate
rulemaking.   Considerable effort  will  be expended on development  of court-
mandated FIPs  in the  areas of ozone/CO  and PM-10.   Follow-on  analyses for the
Regional  ozone  model  in  the  Northeast and  Middle Atlantic  states  will  be
undertaken.

     Ongoing  implementation  of  other air  quality management  programs include:
(1) reviewing and taking rulemaking action  on  state-submitted SIP revisions for
PM-10,  (2) assisting state and local agencies in implementing their multi-year
development plans for  improving  and carrying  out air  toxics  control programs,
(3) reviewing and taking rulemaking  action on state-initiated S02 SIP revisions,
and  (4)  performing  other  functions  such  as  managing the air  grants process,
selective implementation of the National Air Audit System, and assisting states
in the implementation  of the programs for PSD,  including development of nitrogen
dioxide (N02) PSD increments and NSR.

     In  1990 support  is  provided  for  the following  special  projects:   (1)
development of  the urban  airshed model  to  support  a FIP for  the Chicago area;
(2) a three-year environmental health study in Louisiana to identify priorities
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for controlling and correcting environmental pollution problems;  (3) a Sacramento
ozone modeling effort in support of a FIP; and (4) an alternative fuels options
demonstration project in the South Coast Air Quality District.

1989 Accomplishments

     In 1989 the Agency obligated a total of $12,925,000 supported by 273.3 total
workyears, of which  $12,556,100 was from the  Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and $368,900 was from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

     In 1989 one of  the  major priorities of the Regional air quality management
program was  implementation of post-1987 requirements  for  correcting ozone and
CO nonattainment area problems.   The Regional Offices continued  to  work with
state and local agencies to  correct and  improve  existing  regulations, control
measures, and overall program effectiveness.  Work on the  regional ozone model
in the Northeast and Middle  Atlantic states continued with  the completion of
monitoring activities and data base development.

     The Regions also reviewed, processed, and took rulemaking actions on state-
submitted SIP revisions for  PM-10  and for S02.   The SIP reform process was
implemented by the Regions and resulted in a  significant number of "backlog" SIP
revisions being processed in 1989.  Assistance was provided to  state and local
agencies for implementing multi-year development plans  for improving air toxics
programs.  The Regions also continued to manage the air programs grant process
and  assist  states   in   the   implementation  of   the   PSD  and  NSR  programs.
Considerable  effort was expended  on development of  court-mandated  FIPs for
ozone/CO nonattainment areas  and negotiation of FIP settlements  in Illinois and
Utah.
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                                                   AIR
                                  Trends Monitoring & Progress Assessment

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED     CURRENT      REQUEST    INCREASE  +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE       1991      DECREASE  -
                                                       1990               1991  VS 1990
                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)

PROGRAM
Ambient Air Quality
Monitoring
 Salaries & Expenses           $3,769.5   $3,978.8   $3,860.9   $4,455.9      $595.0
 Abatement Control and           $301.9     $118.9     $116.5     $122.8        $6.3
 Compliance
                       TOTAL   $4,071.4   $4,097.7   $3,977.4   $4,578.7      $601.3

Air Quality & Emissions
Data Management &
Analysis
 Salaries & Expenses           $4,366.5   $4,401.1   $4,279.8   $6,026.0    $1,746.2
 Abatement Control and         $4,006.7   $6,354.7   $6.273.6  $10,269.4    $3,995.8
 Compliance
                       TOTAL   $8,373.2  $10,755.8  $10,553.4  $16,295.4    $5,742.0


TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses           $8,136.0   $8,379.9   $8,140.7  $10,481.9    $2,341.2
 Abatement Control and         $4,308.6   $6,473.6   $6,390.1  $10,392.2    $4,002.1
 Compliance

Trends Monitoring &    TOTAL  $12,444.6  $14,853.5  $14,530.8  $20,874.1    $6,343.3
Progress Assessment
PERMANENT WORKYEARS
Ambient Air Quality                78.2       86.2       82.4       86.2          3.8
Monitoring

Air Quality & Emissions            79.1       80.5       79.0       92.0         13.0
Data Management &
Ana Iys i s

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS         157.3      166.7      161.4      178.2         16.8
TOTAL WORKYEARS
Ambient Air Quality                83.0       86.2       86.1        86.2           .1
Monitoring

Air Quality & Emissions            81.0       80.5       79.0        92.0         13.0
Data Management &
Analysis

TOTAL WORKYEARS                   164.0      166.7      165.1       178.2         13.1
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                                     AIR
                   Trends Monitoring  and Progress Assessment
Budget Request
     The  Agency requests  a  total  of  $20,874,100  supported  by 178.2  total
workyears for 1991, an increase of $6,343,300 and 13.1 total workyears from 1990.
Of the request, $10,481,900 will be  for  the Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and $10,392,200 will be for the Abatement,  Control and Compliance appropriation.
This  represents an  increase  in  the  Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation of
$2,341,200 and an increase of $4,002,100  in the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.


AMBIENT AIR QUALITY MONITORING

1991 Program Request

     The Agency requests  a  total of $4,578,700 supported by 86.2 total workyears
for  this  program,  of which $4,455,900  will  be for the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation  and  $122,800 will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.  This  represents an increase of $595,000  for  the  Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation,  an increase of $6,300 in the Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation, and an increase of 0.1 in total workyears from 1990.
The  increase in the Salaries and Expenses appropriation will support increased
personnel costs and upgrading the capacity of EPA Regional laboratories.

     In 1991 the ten EPA  Regional Offices will  continue overview and management
of  state  air  monitoring programs  including  grants  review,   coordination of
emission  and air quality data bases, and  validation of data from the National
Air  Monitoring System (NAMS) and the  State  and  Local Air Monitoring System
(SLAMS) data base.  Data analyses including air quality trend information will
be developed as input to the Regional Trend Reports.

     In the area of quality assurance,  significant  resources  will be used for
on-site systems audits of state networks  and monitors.  In addition, the Regional
laboratories will  continue to participate in  the national  air audit program.
Size-specific  particulate  matter  (PM-10)  monitors  established or moved during
1990 will require review  and site visits to  verify compliance with  EPA air
monitoring regulations.  Reviews  of PM-10 ambient  data and sampling frequency
will be performed and will include data critical to classification determinations
and  identification of possible control strategies.

     Regional  Office implementation of the Toxics Air Monitoring System (TAMS)
network will  involve coordinating operational  improvements  with the Office of
Research  and Development and state and local agencies.  Resources will also be
used to provide monitoring/quality  assurance  support and technical assistance
to states in evaluating the source impact  of specific toxic air pollutants from
sources considered for regulation under state control programs.  Support for
state and local toxics efforts in urban areas will continue with management,
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coordination, and  technical  assistance  provided to complete  or  refine toxics
emission  data  bases  and  to   improve  state  and  local  ambient  monitoring
capabilities.

     Technical oversight and support will be provided to state and local programs
developing data bases needed to prepare State Implementation Plans  (SIPs).  This
will include data bases for 101 ozone areas and 44 carbon monoxide (CO) areas,
as  well  as  for additional  areas that  exceed National  Ambient Air  Quality
Standards  (NAAQSs)  in 1989  or  1990.     This effort  will  include  limited
coordination  of the periodic  nonmethane  organic  compounds/nitrogen  oxides
sampling programs.   Oversight of revisions to the CO and ozone ambient networks
will  continue  with emphasis  on  evaluating  networks  for  newly  identified
nonattainment areas and  implementing corrective  actions.   The  Regions  will
continue to  provide quality assurance  support  to  Indian tribal  units  and to
assist in developing ambient monitoring programs.

1990 Program

     In 1990 the Agency is allocating a total  of  $3,977,400 supported by 86.1
total workyears to  this program,  of which $3,860,900  is  from  the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation  and $116,500 is from the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.

     In 1990  TAMS  is being operated at  two  sites  in Boston  and  two  sites in
Houston.    The  Regions  are continuing to  work  with states  in identifying and
eliminating air monitoring sites that have marginal utility and in implementing
changes needed to adequately monitor  all areas  where revised SIPs  for ozone and
CO are being prepared.   To support the development of post-1987 ozone/CO SIPs,
Regional Office efforts to  improve the  quality and timeliness  of ambient and
emission data bases are continuing.

     The Regions are continuing their programs of on-site visits to review and
audit NAMS  monitors and  a  small percentage of SLAMS monitors and  to review
laboratories  for  proper  operating  and  quality  assurance procedures.    The
validation,  management, and coordination of state  and local air quality and
emission data bases before  they are  submitted to EPA's central  data  bank are
continuing.  Quality assurance  activities and  state  audits are  continuing and
participation in the National Air Audit System (NAAS) is also continuing.

     The Regions will continue to have active roles in overseeing State and local
sampling networks  for  PM-10 established  in 1988  and  1989.  As  part  of their
oversight of ongoing PM-10 sampling programs the Regions are active in reviewing
and interpreting ambient data and in coordinating state adjustments to sampling
frequency at sites  that exceed  PM-10 NAAQS.  The  Regions  are  also involved in
preparing  and  validating  ambient data  bases  needed to implement the initial
nonattainment designations required under pending revisions  to the Clean Air Act.
The Regions  will also  continue  to provide quality assurance support to Indian
tribal units and to  assist in developing ambient monitoring programs.
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1989 Accomplishments

     In 1989 the Agency obligated a total of $4,071,400 supported by 83.0 total
workyears,  of which $3,769,500 was from the Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and $301,900 was from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

     In 1989  the Regional  Offices coordinated  the  collection,  validation, and
submission of ambient data necessary to support EPA actions calling for revised
SIPs for ozone and  CO.  In addition, the Regions assisted states in implementing
network plans for ambient monitoring of PM-10 and developing quality assurance
plans necessary to meet EPA requirements.   On-site audits of 300 monitors were
conducted including 45 proposed or newly established PM-10 sites.  The Regions
also assisted 62 state and local agencies in assessing potential  risks from toxic
pollutants  through ambient sampling and  51 agencies  in  developing  emission
inventories.
AIR QUALITY AND EMISSION DATA MANAGEMENT AND ANALYSIS

1991 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total of $16,295,400 supported by 92.0 total workyears
for this  program,  of which $6,026,000 will  be  for the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and $10,269,400 will be  for the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.  This represents an increase of $1,746,200 for the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation, an increase  of $3,995,800  in the Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation,  and an increase of 13.0 workyears from  1990.   The
increases  reflect  support for  the  requirements  of the President's  Clean Air
proposal for air toxics and NAAQSs nonattainment.

     Both of the Aerometric Information Retrieval  System (AIRS) Subsystems will
be maintained  and  guidance will  be provided to users.   A total of  12  to 15
additional states will be provided with access to the Facility Subsystem.  New
software to support high priority reports and analyses will be implemented for
both Subsystems.  Additional AIRS software  to track, summarize, and display air
quality and emission data relating to ozone and CO regulatory programs will be
developed.

     Efforts to develop improved methods for compiling emissions inventories will
continue  as  will  efforts  to  develop and  issue   PM-10  emission  factors  for
significant sources of particulates.   Support of Headquarters, Regional Office,
and state and local modeling of both NAAQS and toxics pollutants will continue
as will on-going efforts to evaluate model accuracy and provide refined models
and guidance.   Implementation of the Agency's toxic  monitoring  strategy will
continue.  Emission testing support  will continue  and  include technical support
to state and.local  agencies.  The program will also continue to prepare analyses
of ambient  and emission trends,  issue  status  and trends  reports  and provide
national oversight of SIP ambient monitoring.

     Technical  support to  the  ozone/CO program will  continue.  New or slightly
expanded support will  be provided in  four  critical areas:   (1)  Development of
a new system for storing,  retrieving,  and analyzing emissions inventory data on
smaller  (area)  sources.    This will  complement  related EPA  capabilities  for
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handling inventory data from large  (point)  sources  and  will  be a major module
of AIRS.   (2) Provision of ambient monitoring guidance and support to facilitate
the correction of deficiencies in current networks,  the establishment of long-
term networks for sampling ozone  precursors,  and the implementation of enhanced
networks in newly identified areas.   (3) Development of technical, guidance for
the  future  application  of  urban  grid models,  provision  of technical  and
operational support to State and local  modeling efforts for  both CO and ozone
areas, and initiation of work on long-term application of regional oxidant models
in three regions.  (4) Initiation of programs for managing, tracking, and quality
assuring  emission  inventory  data   including  data quality   reviews  of  SIP
inventories for national consistency. Also,  efforts will be  initiated to develop
prescriptive requirements for preparing point and area source inventories.

     The Agency will  provide  expanded  air toxics support  in  four  areas:   (1)
Development of emission test methods for maximum achievable control technology
(MACT) standards  to be issued within two and four years of enactment of expected
legislative changes;  (2) Provision of technical support to states on test method
application; (3)  Development of emission factors to support  state implementation
of toxics  programs;  and  (4)  Conduct of dispersion  analyses  for  proposed MACT
standards  and  to  assist  in developing  guidance for demonstrating alternative
compliance.

1990 Program

     In 1990 the Agency is allocating a total of $10,553,400 supported by 79.0
total workyears to this program,  of  which  $4,279,800  is from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation  and  $6,273,600  is  from  the  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

     In 1990 priority is given to four areas:  (1) Providing active support to
the ten EPA  Regional Offices and to  an  expanding  number of state users of the
Air Quality Subsystem of AIRS; (2) Providing training, documentation, and access
to the AIRS  Facility Subsystem to the Regions  and 20-24 states;  (3) Providing
guidance and consultation on techniques required to assess  attainment of the
NAAQSs for PM-10, revising ambient networks and sampling frequencies, applying
models for SIP analyses  and developing and  applying  emission factors to the PM-
10 SIP inventories; and (4) To broadly support Regional Office  and state efforts
relating to  future ozone  and CO  SIP  revisions  including the  review of ambient
networks,  the development of specialized software to summarize and display air
quality and emission data; guidance for preparing, submitting,  and revising draft
emission inventories; assistance  in preparing data bases and applying grid and
statistical  models;  and  completion  of  the  multi-year  project to  assess the
regional transport of ozone and precursors  in the Northeast and Middle Atlantic
states.

     Technical analyses  to support reviews of the NAAQSs for ozone and lead will
continue.   The air  toxics program  includes  continued implementation  of the
ambient monitoring strategy with  oversight of the TAMS network in two cities and
analyses of ambient levels for selected toxic compounds.  Guidance will be issued
to support SIP inventories for PM-10 and ozone/CO including the development of
new  factors for  six PM-10  source  categories.    Reviews  of draft  ozone/CO
inventories will be performed and support will be provided to Regional Offices
for deficiency correction.  Guidance will be furnished to Regions and state and


                                     2-64

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local agencies on applying models  to provide screening estimates of air quality
for  toxic  pollutants.   The  evaluation  and refinement  of dispersion  models
continues  as  does support  and guidance  on model  application for  all  NAAQS
pollutants and for those  pollutants under  assessment  for possible regulation.
Efforts  to develop  improved inventory  methodologies  and  to prepare  design
specifications. for the AIRS Area  Source  Subsystem are  continuing.   Emission
testing  support  will  be  provided to  Headquarters  offices   responsible  for
developing or revising emission standards  and  an information center will be
operated to provide technical support to state  and local agencies in applying
test methods used in SIP compliance and for non-routine tests.  The program is
continuing to analyze ambient and  emission  trends for NAAQS pollutants, prepare
various status and trends  reports, and provide national oversight of SIP ambient
monitoring.

1989 Accomplishments

     In 1989 the  Agency obligated  a total of $8,373,200 supported by 81.0 total
workyears, of which $4,366,500 was from the Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and $4,006,700 was from the Abatement, Control  and Compliance appropriation.

     In 1989 comprehensive user support  and enhanced  software was provided to
over 40 'agencies using the AIRS  Air  Quality System.   Other  significant AIRS
activities included the completion and testing  of the  initial software for the
Facility Subsystem,  the addition of 14 states to the Air Quality Subsystem user
community, and substantial progress in documenting requirements for the new AIRS
Area Source System.   Guidance was  issued and workshops were held to structure
the preparation  of baseline  ozone  and CO  inventories.   Software  was developed
and  issued to  facilitate submission and  quality assurance  of these  draft
inventories.  Other major activities  included:   development of data bases and
simulation of base case strategies for a project to apply  EPA's Regional Oxidant
Model to the Northeast and Middle Atlantic states; publication of the Air Quality
and Emissions Trend Report for 1987; providing technical support to the Regional
Offices  and  states  on application of  emission factors  for  PM-10  and  other
pollutants; application of urban grid models for ozone to five cities; and the
initiation of a  new center  to  provide technical  support to  state  and  local
agencies in applying emission test methods.
                                     2-65

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Enforcement

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                        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1991 Budget Estimate

                               Table of  Contents
                                                                          Page

AIR

ENFORCEMENT
   Stationary Source Enforcement  	   2-66
   Mobile Source Enforcement   	   2-71

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                                                   AIR
                                      Stationary Source Enforcement

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED     CURRENT     REQUEST   INCREASE +
                                  1989      1990      ESTIMATE      1991     DECREASE •
                                                       1990               1991 VS 1990
                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)

 PROGRAM
 Stationary Source
 Compliance
  Salaries  & Expenses          $12,819.5  $13,550.5  $13,722.9  $18,617.0    $4,894.1
  Abatement Control  and         $2,938.4   $4,405.8   $4,349.6   $6,525.7    $2,176.1
  Compliance
                        TOTAL  $15,757.9  $17,956.3  $18,072.5  $25,142.7    $7,070.2
 TOTAL:
  Salaries  &  Expenses          $12,819.5  $13,550.5  $13,722.9  $18,617.0    $4,894.1
  Abatement Control  and          $2,938.4   $4,405.8   $4,349.6   $6,525.7    $2,176.1
  Compliance

 Stationary Source       TOTAL  $15,757.9  $17,956.3  $18,072.5  $25,142.7    $7,070.2
.Enforcement
 PERMANENT  WORKYEARS
 Stationary Source                 280.4      311.8      294.4      362.0        67.6
 Compliance

 TOTAL  PERMANENT  WORKYEARS         280.4      311.8      294.4      362.0        67.6
 TOTAL  WORKYEARS
 Stationary Source                 294.2      311.8      310.6-     362.0        51.4
 Compliance

 TOTAL  WORKYEARS                   294.2      311.8      310.6      362.0        51.4
                                          2-66

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                                     AIR
                         Stationary Source Enforcement
Budget Request
      The  Agency requests  a  total  of  $25,142,700 supported  by  362.0  total
workyears for 1991, an increase of $7,070,200 and 51.4 total workyears from 1990.
Of the request,  $18,617,000 will  be for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and $6,525,700 will be  for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.
This  represents  an  increase  of  $4,894,100  in  the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation  and an  increase  of $2,176,100  in  the  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.


STATIONARY SOURCE ENFORCEMENT

1991 Program Request

      The  Agency requests  a  total  of  $25,142,700 supported  by  362.0  total
workyears for this program, of which $18,617,000 will  be  for the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and $6,525,700 will be for  the Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation.   This  represents an increase of  $4,894,100 for the
Salaries and Expenses appropriation, an increase of $2,176,100 for  the Abatement,
Control and Compliance  appropriation,  and an increase of 51.4 in total workyears
from 1990.  The increase will help initiate implementation of the requirements
of  the  President's Clean  Air  proposal  for  air  toxics,   acid  deposition,  and
administrative enforcement.  The  increase will also help support implementation
of strategies for three National Emission Standards  for Hazardous Air Pollutants
(NESHAPs): benzene, radibnuclides, and asbestos demolition and renovation (D&R) ,
as well as enhancing the program for certification of woodstove production lines.
In addition,  EPA will increase compliance oversight and expand rule applicability
and effectiveness efforts.

      In  1991  the ten EPA Regional Offices will  continue their compliance
monitoring and enforcement efforts, in concert with  states, to ensure compliance
with  State  Implementation Plan  (SIP)  requirements,   new  source  performance
standards (NSPSs), and  NESHAPs.  The Regions will  continue  implementation of the
strategies for the asbestos D&R program and for benzene, as well as initiatives
to enforce the other  NESHAPs. The Regions will conduct asbestos D&R inspections
and  provide  additional   support to  states  in  following   through   on  their
enforcement of D&R activities.   The Regions also will  use additional resources
to support compliance and enforcement of the benzene NESHAPs  through the conduct
of  125  inspections  and  initiation  of  five  enforcement actions  and of  the
radionuclide NESHAPs  through the inspection of 50 sources and initiation of three
enforcement actions.

      The Regions  will  carry out an  expanded rule-effectiveness program that
covers other  source and  pollutant categories.  The  Regions  also  will continue
to implement the compliance monitoring and inspection targeting program to ensure
better use of inspection resources.   In addition,  the Regions will emphasize
building state  capacity  through  an expanded  review ^nd SIP  assistance program
                                    2-67

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for assuring  the  enforceability of new requirements  and  targeting compliance
efforts  toward  significant  environmental  problems.  The  Regions  will  direct
resources toward implementation of a more effective program for reviewing ozone
SIPs and SIP revisions for enforceability.  In addition,  the Regions will review
proposed SIPs for  size-specific  particulate  matter  (PM-10)  for enforceability
and will ensure compliance by sources subject to newly promulgated PM-10 SIPs.
The Regions will  also  continue enforcement  of  continuous  emission monitoring
(GEM) requireme'nts for sulfur dioxide (S02) sources.

      In 1991  the Headquarters enforcement program will provide national program
management  through policy guidance, planning,  and budgeting  activities,  and
through  review  of  selected  Regional  activities  and  program  performance.
Headquarters will also assure the enforceability of proposed Agency regulations
under NSPS,  NESHAPs,  and prevention of significant  deterioration (PSD) programs;
respond  to  formal  inquiries;  manage the  Compliance Data  System  (CDS),  the
National Asbestos  Registry System  (NARS), and  the  compliance portion  of the
Aerometric  Information  Retrieval  System  (AIRS);  manage  the  level  of  effort
contract for case development and other support; and conduct technical studies.
Headquarters  will  continue  to  implement the  technical agenda  by developing
jointly with  the Regions a planned list  of technical  projects  to be initiated
in 1991.  In  addition,  Headquarters will provide national  leadership  to help
assure the successful implementation of the revised asbestos D&R strategy.

      During  1991  EPA Headquarters will help  increase compliance of sources of
volatile  organic   compounds  (VOCs) through  providing technical  and training
support to the Regions and state agencies, issuing policy guidance, monitoring
compliance and enforcement activities, and overviewing the  implementation of the
rule-effectiveness   protocol.     In  addition,   Headquarters   will  continue
implementing the laboratory program for woodstove testing, reviewing applications
for woodstove certification, monitoring  certification  tests,   and certifying
production  lines.   The  woodstove  program will  move into the  second phase of
certification and enforcement.  Additional resources  will support implementation
of the random compliance  audit program.  Approximately 250 woodstove production
lines will be certified during 1991.  .

      In  1991 Headquarters enforcement staff  will  review proposed  PM-10 and
ozone/carbon monoxide (CO) SIPs for national enforceability issues.  Headquarters
will also evaluate the effectiveness of state and  EPA compliance monitoring and
inspection programs.   In addition, Headquarters will continue  to promote the
use of CEM and develop national guidance for  CEM requirements.

      In 1991 EPA  will expand Headquarters and Regional enforcement support to
the stratospheric ozone depletion program for implementing the Montreal Protocol.
The Agency  will increase review of the phaseout of  CFCs and  halons  through
monitoring compliance of manufacturers and importers.    The Agency expects the
number of violators  identified  and enforcement  actions  taken to increase as a
result.  Headquarters will develop and disseminate implementation guidance for
the radionuclides and benzene NESHAPs.  As more regulations are implemented, the
need for consistency increases.  As a result,  the Agency anticipates an increase
in requests for rule applicability determinations  and will develop guidance for
making such determinations.   In addition,  Headquarters  will provide direction
and oversight of air toxics  compliance and enforcement  efforts resulting from
anticipated new  legislative  requirements,  particularly in  those  states where
delegations of authority for both existing and prospective  standards have not


                                     2-68

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been requested.   EPA will also ensure that compliance requirements are reflected
in all new regulations and guidance developed for the anticipated acid deposition
program.  In addition, the Agency will  develop  guidance for implementation of
administrative enforcement requirements  resulting from anticipated legislation.

1990 Program

      In 1990 the Agency is allocating a total of $18,072,500 supported by 310.6
total workyears to this program, of which $13,722,900 is from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation and  $4,349,600  is  from  the Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      In 1990 the Regional air compliance program is continuing to monitor and
ensure the compliance of  the  28,000  largest  stationary  SIP sources,  the 2,600
NSPS sources, and the  1,000 nontransitory NESHAPs sources.   The Regions are also
continuing implementation  of  the NESHAPs program for asbestos  D&R addressing
approximately 5,000 contractors and 60,000 notifications.

      Major 1990 activities include:  continuing the initiative to enhance VOC
source compliance  in  ozone nonattainment areas, implementing  a comprehensive
program  to  determine whether  adopted  VOC  measures   are being  effectively
implemented, and conducting VOC compliance workshops to improve the quality of
inspections. Other activities in 1990 include ensuring that states continue to
enforce  existing total suspended  particulate  (TSP)  requirements during the
development of PM-10 SIPs  and ensuring that  S02 sources meet, where applicable,
CEM requirements.  The Regions are continuing  their efforts to help improve the
technical  capabilities  of state  and local air  pollution agencies.   Federal
enforcement actions, where required, focus on violating sources in nonattainment
areas, with particular emphasis on VOC sources and toxic air pollutant sources.
EPA works closely with the states in this effort through implementation of Agency
guidance on "timely and appropriate" enforcement actions.   The Agency provides
technical support to the ongoing litigation docket including criminal enforcement
activities.

      In 1990 EPA Headquarters continues to provide national program management
and  oversight  of the Regional  programs to ensure nationwide  consistency and
effectiveness.   The oversight  includes  a combination of comprehensive program
reviews  and  reviews  of certain classes of enforcement  actions.   Headquarters
continues to assure the enforceability of proposed EPA regulations; manage the
CDS, including CDS activities related to  the development of the new AIRS Facility
Subsystem, and the NARS;  manage  the  level  of effort  contract support program;
develop  technical and program  guidance; and conduct  planning and  budgeting
activities.

      In 1990 the Agency is implementing  the compliance monitoring and inspection
targeting strategy, a major activity that will allow Regional Offices and state
agencies to better use their compliance resources.   Headquarters is continuing
implementation  of  the NSPS  woodstoves program,  including  the  review  of
applications for woodstoves certification, the  monitoring of certification tests,
and the evaluation of  test results.  Headquarters is also continuing the program
to  improve VOC compliance.   This program includes  oversight and evaluation of
the Regional and  state efforts to implement enhanced VOC compliance monitoring
and inspection activities,  the rule-effectiveness assessments, and  the small VOC
source  strategy.   Also,  Headquarters  is developing a  comprehensive training


                                     2-69

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program  and  compliance determination  guides  for  selected  categories of  VOC
sources.  Work to promote use of CEM requirements,  including support for Regional
and state efforts, also  continues  to be a major activity.   The  CFG phasedown
effort is in its first year  with emphasis  placed on stepped-up compliance  and
enforcement program building.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989 the Agency obligated a total of $15,757,900,  supported by 294.2
total  workyears,  of  which  $12,819,500  was  from  the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and  $2,938,400 was from  the Abatement, Control and  Compliance
appropriation.

      In response to a need to improve the compliance program, EPA Headquarters,
in concert with the Regional Offices,  initiated a systematic review of existing
guidance documents and source targeting procedures.   As a result of this review,
the Agency initiated a series of new guidance  documents which,  when completed,
will  enable the  Regions  and  states  to  better   target  the  most  pressing
environmental compliance problems.   The  Agency continued  its focus  on sources
of toxic air pollutants, especially sources of asbestos.  The Agency completed
NARS, a significant component of the revised asbestos D&R strategy.  This system
allows implementing agencies  to focus  their enforcement efforts on companies with
a history  of violating  the  standards.   The  compliance program advanced  its
efforts in the area of technical assistance and training by accomplishing several
projects  identified   through  the  technical agenda process.   These  projects
included efforts in the  areas of communications, VOCs, asbestos,  and training
and workshops.
                                     2-70

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                                                   AIR
                                        Mobile Source Enforcement

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED     CURRENT      REQUEST    INCREASE  +
                                 1989      1990     ESTIMATE       1991      DECREASE  -
                                                       1990                1991  VS  1990
PROGRAM
                                               (DOLLARS  IN  THOUSANDS)
Mobile Source
Enforcement
 Salaries & Expenses
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
        $5,354.9   $5.928.0   $5,709.4    $7,879.7     $2,170.3
        $2,331.1   $3,328.1   $3,272.6    $5,116.1     $1,843.5

TOTAL   $7,686.0   $9,256.1   $8,982.0   $12,995.8     $4,013.8
TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance

Mobile Source
Enforcement
        $5,354.9   $5,928.0   $5,709.4    $7,879.7    $2,170.3
        $2,331.1   $3,328.1   $3,272.6    $5,116.1     $1,843.5
TOTAL   $7,686.0   $9,256.1    $8,982.0  $12,995.8    $4,013.8
PERMANENT UORKYEARS
Mobile Source
Enforcement

TOTAL PERMANENT UORKYEARS
            95.5      113.8      111.3       120.3
            .95.5      113.8      111.3       120.3
9.0
9.0
TOTAL UORKYEARS
Mobile Source
Enforcement

TOTAL UORKYEARS
            99.9      113.8      111.3       120.3
            99.9      113.8       111.3       120.3
9.0
                                                                                9.0
                                         2-71

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                                     AIR
                           Mobile  Source  Enforcement
Budget Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of  $12,995,800  supported  by  120.3  total
workyears  for this  program,  of which $7,879,700 will be  for  the  Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and  $5,116,100 will be for the  Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation.   This represents  an  increase of $2,170,300  in the
Salaries and Expenses appropriation,  an increase of $1,843,500 in the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation, and an increase of 9.0 total workyears.


MOBILE SOURCE ENFORCEMENT

1991 Program Request

     The  Agency requests  a  total  of  $12,995,800 supported  by  120.3  total
workyears  for this  program,  of which $7,879,700 will be  for  the  Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and  $5,116,100 will be for the  Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation.   This represents  an  increase of $2,170,300  in the
Salaries and Expenses appropriation,  an increase of $1,843,500 in the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation, and  an increase  of 9.0  total workyears.
The increases reflect the additional resources  needed  to implement provisions
of the President's proposed Clean Air Act Amendments.

     In  support of  the  ozone  control policy,  the  EPA  recall program will
investigate  25   suspect  light-duty  vehicle  classes  and  carry   out  related
diagnostic evaluation and  remedy development work.  The  Agency  will continue
investigations of trucks. -In addition,  the Agency will continue investigations
into  the  operations of  importers  of non-conforming vehicles  to  ensure that
certification procedures are adequately  implemented.  The Selective Enforcement
Audit (SEA) program will conduct ten audits of light-duty vehicle manufacturer
facilities,  five  audits  of  heavy-duty  manufacturer  facilities,  and  four
production compliance audits  in  support of the  nonconformance  penalties (NCP)
program to ensure that new  production vehicles  and engines meet emissions and
NCP requirements.

      The  field enforcement  program will consist of  inspections  of  vehicle
fueling  facilities  as well  as the  investigation  of suspected  tampering and
misfueling incidents. Enforcement of Phase II of the  fuel volatility rules will
involve the inspection and sampling of 10,000 refiners, importers, distributors,
and retail outlets  throughout the country.   These  inspections  are expected to
lead to the prosecution of approximately 450 violations of the volatility limits.
The fuels inspection effort will also continue the program of sampling fuels for
alcohol and other fuel additives to ensure that legal limits are not exceeded.
Lead  phasedown  enforcement   (to   ensure   that  refineries,   importers,  and
distributors are complying  with the  lead  phasedown  rules) will  decrease and
involve only five audits of these  fuel facilities.  A  total  of  450 tampering
investigations will result  in approximately 75 notices of violation.  The Agency
will audit the incidence of tampering and fuel switching at 15 sites primarily


                                     2-72

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to gauge the effectiveness of the antl-tampering programs being implemented by
state and local jurisdictions.  EPA will continue to assist with the development
of state and local programs aimed  at preventing tampering and fuel switching.

1990 Program

     In 1990 the Agency is allocating a total of $8,982,000 supported by 111.3
total workyears for this program, of which $5,709,400 is from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation and  $3,272,600  is  from  the Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

     EPA is continuing the recall program with the investigation of 25 suspect
light-duty  classes,  together with related diagnostic  evaluation and  remedy
development work.   The Agency  is  also  continuing  the  implementation  of the
regulatory  revisions  to the  imports program.    The  program is  processing an
estimated 5,000 applications for  importation of nonconforming vehicles.  The SEA
program is conducting 10 audits of light-duty manufacturer facilities and five
audits  of  heavy-duty manufacturer  facilities  to ensure  that new production
vehicles and engines  meet emission requirements.  Four  Production Compliance
Audits will be completed.   The Agency will answer approximately 1,800 consumer
inquiries on emission warranty issues.   The Agency will  also begin enforcement
of Phase II of the fuel volatility rules involving the inspection and sampling
of 10,000 refiners, importers, distributors, and retail  outlets throughout the
country.    These  inspections,  along with  the  anti-tampering and  anti-fuel
switching  enforcement programs,  are expected  to result  in  500 notices  of
violations.  Audits of tampering and fuel switching are being carried out at 15
sites.  EPA is continuing  to  assist with the  implementation and  assessment of
state and local programs aimed at preventing tampering and fuel switching.

1989 Accomplishments

     In 1989 the Agency obligated $7,686,000 supported by 99.9 total workyears
for  this  program,  of which  $5,354,900 was  from the  Salaries   and  Expenses
appropriation and  $2,331,100  was  from  the  Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.

     Under the recall program,  EPA conducted 28 light-duty vehicle investigations
resulting in recalls affecting nearly 5,500,000 vehicles.   The Agency issued two
California waivers.   The  SEA program conducted  fourteen  audits  of light-duty
manufacturer facilities and seven audits of heavy-duty manufacturer facilities
to ensure that new production  vehicles and engines meet emissions requirements.
The  Agency responded  to  inquiries  and applications for  the importation of
nonconforming vehicles, processing 14,000 applications.

     During the first season of fuel volatility enforcement,  EPA  inspected nearly
4,000 refineries, importers,  distributors,  and retail outlets over a period of
three and  a half months.   These inspections  are expected to  result  in 60-75
notices of  violation.   The Agency  continued its  anti-tampering  and anti-fuel
switching enforcement program.   Accomplishments  included  the establishment of
three new programs by states and localities and the issuance of 417 notices of
violation in the tampering and fuels enforcement programs.
                                    2-73

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3. WATER QUALITY

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                        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1991 Budget Estimate

                              Table of  Contents
                                                                          Page

WATER QUALITY                                                           3-1

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Water Quality Research	   3-10
      Scientific Assessment 	   3-14
      Monitoring Systems and Quality Assurance  	 ...   3-15
      Health Effects  	   3-17
      Environmental Engineering and Technology  	   3-18
      Environmental Processes and Effects 	  .   .   3-19
      Great Lakes	   3-20
      Oil Spills	   3-21
ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   Water Quality and Grants Program Management  	   3-23
      Water Quality Management  	   3-24
      Great Lakes Program	   3-26
      Chesapeake Bay Program  	   3-29
   Effluent Standards and Guidelines  	   3-31
   Grants Assistance Programs 	   3-35
      Clean Lakes Program	   3-36
      Control Agency Resource Supplementation (Section 106) 	   3-37
      Water Quality Management Cooperative Agreements 	   3-39
   Water Quality Strategies Implementation  	   3-41
      Wetlands Protection 	   3-43
      Wetlands Implementation Program	   3-46
      Ocean Disposal Permits	   3-47
      Environmental Emergency Response and Prevention 	   3-49
      Spill Restoration Program	   3-50
      Standards and Regulations 	   3-51
      Nonpoint Source Management Grants 	   3-53
      Nonpoint Source Implementation  	   3-55
   Water Quality Monitoring and Analysis  	   3-57
      Coastal Environment Management  	 	   3-58
      Water Quality Monitoring and Analysis 	   3-61
   Municipal Source Control 	   3-63
      Municipal Waste Treatment Facility Construction 	   3-64
      Waste Treatment Operations and Maintenance  	   3-66
ENFORCEMENT
   Water Quality Enforcement  	 3-69
   Water Quality Permit Issuance  	   3-73

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                                                    WATER QUALITY
                                ACTUAL    ENACTED      CURRENT      REQUEST    INCREASE +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE       1991      DECREASE -
                                                       1990                1991 VS  1990
                                               (DOLLARS  IN  THOUSANDS)

APPROPRIATION
 Salaries & Expenses         $107,479.4 $116,565.1  $114.765.1 $127,456.4   $12,691.3
 Abatement Control and       $169,320.6 $222,569.7  $219,595.6 $238.881.3   $19,285.7
 Compliance
 Research & Development        $8,540.7  $11,157.4   $10,978.8  $12,758.8    $1,780.0

TOTAL, Water Quality         $285,340.7 $350,292.2  $345,339.5 $379,096.5   $33,757.0


PERMANENT WORKYEARS             2,012.8    2,293.0     2,135.0     2,311.8        176.8
TOTAL WORKYEARS                 2,145.2    2,294.0     2,225.9     2,311.8        85.9
OUTLAYS                      $270,382.5 $334,643.9  $333,127.9 $358,749.0   $25,621.1
AUTHORIZATION LEVELS         The Water Quality Act  of  1987  reauthorized this  program
                             at a level of $410,270.0  for 1989,  $410,270.0 for  1990.
                             Authorization for the  Clean Water Act  as  amended in  1987
                             expired on September 30,  1989.  Reauthorization  is pending.
                                      3-1  and  2

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                                WATER QUALITY
OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY
      The legislative  basis  for EPA's water  quality programs  is  provided in
the  Clean  Water  Act,  as  amended;  the  Marine  Protection,  Research  and
Sanctuaries Act,  as amended;  and  the Marine  Plastic Pollution  Research and
Control Act of  1987.   These laws  direct  EPA  to take measures  to protect the
nation's waters  in order  to safeguard public  health,  recreational  uses and
aquatic life.

      The Water Quality Act  (WQA)  of 1987,  which  amended  the Clean Water Act,
expanded and strengthened  the  statute through  a number  of changes designed to
enhance water quality and improve the well-defined partnership between EPA and
the  states.   The  amended  Act  ratifies  existing  programs  (e.g.,  technology-
based and water  quality-based  effluent  limits  for point  source dischargers).
It also  provides new tools  to strengthen existing programs  (e.g.,  mandatory
permits to control sewage sludge contamination and administrative penalties to
streamline  enforcement actions)  and establishes  new  approaches to  address
existing water pollution problems  (e.g.,  new programs for control of nonpoint
source  pollution  and  permitting  of stormwater  discharges).    Finally,  the
amended  Act provides  funds  to capitalize state  revolving  loan funds  and
mandates requirements to address existing and emerging problems (e.g., surface
water toxic control programs).   The WQA gives  legislative  recognition to three
programs which  address near coastal  waters problems:  the  National  Estuary,
Chesapeake Bay and Great Lakes Programs.

      The Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA) is designed
to protect the ocean from  unregulated dumping  of  material that would endanger
human health, public welfare,  the  marine environment,  or economic potential.
The  Act authorizes  the Agency to  develop criteria for  ocean  disposal  of
industrial  waste,  municipal  sludges and other  dredged  materials.    EPA  is
authorized to designate  disposal  sites  and is  responsible  for the management
and  monitoring  of  these sites.   EPA is  authorized  to  issue permits  for all
non-dredged materials;  however, the Corps of Engineers  is  responsible  for
issuing permits  for dredged material,  using human  health and  marine  impact
criteria developed by EPA.

      The Ocean Dumping Ban Act, which amended the MPRSA,  sets a December 1991
deadline to end  ocean  dumping  of sewage  sludge and industrial  waste.   EPA is
to  issue dumping  permits  and negotiate agreements  with  the .dumpers  that
include a schedule  for the ending  of ocean dumping and for implementation of
alternative disposal systems.   The  legislation imposes two disposal  fees on
permitted dumpers:  an administrative fee to  cover the costs  of carrying out
the Act and a punitive fee to  be paid by  dumpers  who  cannot end ocean dumping
in 1991.

      The Marine Plastic Pollution Research and Control Act of 1987 implements
Annex V of  the  International Convention  for the Prevention  of Pollution from
Ships (1973) and establishes programs to  identify  and reduce  the effects of
plastic pollution on the marine environment.  Under this law, EPA was required
to submit a report  to  Congress  on  methods to  reduce  plastic pollution;  assist
the  National  Oceanic  and  Atmospheric Administration in  conducting  a  public


                                    3-3

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education program;  prepare a New  York Bight Restoration  Plan;  and  submit  a
report to Congress  on the problems associated with plastic debris  in the New
York Bight.

      Water quality programs in  1991 will  continue  to  focus  on building state
and local capacity to protect high risk, vulnerable ecosystems from pollution;
protecting the nation's  surface  waters from toxic  and  hazardous  point source
discharges;   preventing and  controlling nonpoint  sources of pollution;  and
maintaining  the  progress  made  to date  in cleaning  up  and developing  the
infrastructure to protect  our surface  waters.   EPA  will provide technical and
financial assistance  to states  to carry  out  their increased base workload,
meet new  requirements, and  attempt to offset  the  reduction  of  construction
grant  set-aside  funds  that have  sustained  a major  portion  of  their  base
program activity.

      These water quality  programs will enable  the  nation  to begin addressing
emerging  global  issues and  enhance our ability  to protect  critical aquatic
habitats, including  wetlands and marine and  estuarine environments.   At the
same time,  these programs will  provide  further  improvements  in enforcement
programs, promote  state  capacity  through  local  cooperative  initiatives  and
provide incentives for developing innovative approaches and technology.

Protecting Critical Habitats

      Wetlands loss has  a major  impact on  our  environment,  including adverse
effects on species populations and water quality and the severity of flooding.
In 1991,  EPA  will  implement recommendations of the  Domestic  Policy Council's
Wetlands Task Force.  This is a high priority for the Agency in its efforts to
prevent and  control pollution that poses  risk to  critical  aquatic habitats.
To assist in  attaining no  net loss of  wetlands,  EPA will encourage states and
Indian  tribes to  develop wetland protection programs,  improve  scientific
knowledge about  wetlands  protection,  work  closely with  other  agencies  and
apply stronger enforcement actions to deter and punish polluters who illegally
destroy these natural resources.

      Another effort  to  reduce  risk to  critical  aquatic habitats  in coastal
and marine areas.   EPA is increasing  its  focus on  protection and restoration
of the nation's near  coastal waters and the oceans.   In 1991, the Agency will
continue  support for the  Great Lakes,  Chesapeake Bay  and  Gulf of Mexico
programs, and the National Estuary Program will support 16 projects to develop
and implement management  plans.   Regional strategies for near coastal waters
which assess  pollutant loadings  and establish  necessary pollution control and
pollution prevention  programs to  protect  all  coastal  waters, including  the
Great Lakes,  will be  implemented.  To  help states establish a strong framework
to protect and  restore their coastal  waters,  EPA will accelerate  efforts to
produce  both regulatory  and non-regulatory  tools  to address  site-specific
problems.  This will  include development of ecologically-based salt and fresh-
water  criteria   appropriate  for different  types  of   aquatic  resources  and
development of water quality standards  for pollutants of concern.

      A plan  to regulate  currently unregulated  industries  and pollutants will
be published by 1990, and EPA will accelerate work to produce technology-based
standards  for   several   new    industries,   selected  through   risk-ranking
procedures.    Stormwater  discharger application  rules  for  large  and medium


                                    3-4

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municipalities and industrial activities will be defended and implemented.

      The Agency will oversee implementation of  the  Ocean Dumping Ban Act and
continue work in support of oil spill restoration programs.  EPA will continue
involvement with the  Corps  of Engineers in the  designation  and management of
environmentally  safe dredged material  disposal  sites  and work  to  reduce
illegal dumping of dredged material through improved identification procedures
and surveillance.  The New York Bight  Restoration  Plan will  be  completed, and
the Agency will continue activities  to identify  and  control  plastic pollution
in marine environments.

Improving State Capacity

      Water  quality  programs  will   promote  state  and  local  cooperative
initiatives and provide  incentives for developing innovative and alternative
technology.  Indian tribes will be encouraged to participate as  full and equal
decision makers  in the  protection of  water  resources on  their lands through
the provision of technical assistance.  Through  the  National Estuary Program,
cooperation  and  environmental management  at  the  Regional,  state and  local
level will be advanced as the Agency and its Federal  partners continue to work
with state  and  local agencies to  develop  and implement  management  plans for
their estuary projects.

      Financial assistance will be provided  through  cooperative agreements to
assist states with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)
program approvals  (and help states obtain  this approval);  to meet new complex
tasks such  as issuing new  permits for control  of  combined  sewer  overflows,
sludge  and   stormwater;   to   take  enforcement  action;  to   upgrade  local
pretreatment programs; and to set new water quality  standards  for  salt  water
and wetlands.   Further,  the  Agency  is working  to establish  long-term viable
state  revolving   loan  funds  that  can   provide  financial  assistance  for
construction  of  new  and  upgraded wastewater  treatment facilities needed by
communities to comply with the Clean Water Act, and for other purposes such as
nonpoint source and  ground-water  protection.   Wetlands  implementation grants
will  enable   implementation   of  wetlands   programs  that  leverage  state
activities.

      EPA will assist states  in  refining their  risk management techniques to
more accurately reflect  the  impact of nonpoint  source  pollution on sensitive
aquatic resources  and habitats and in moving toward risk-based management of
nonpoint source pollution.   EPA will  also  assist  the  states in implementing
their approved nonpoint source management programs  by leveraging other Federal
agencies'   resources  and  providing  states  with  grant  funds  to  implement
approved elements  of state nonpoint  source management  programs.   State and
local  initiatives  will  be supported  through  information clearinghouse  and
educational  programs to  identify  problems  (and  potential  solutions)  that
communities face from nonpoint source pollution,  as well as wetlands pollution
and loss.

      Specialized  technical assistance  will  be offered for  the pretreatment,
compliance and enforcement programs, including hands-on aid  to  publicly  owned
treatment  works  (POTWs)  that have  difficulty  developing  local  limits  for
specific categories   of  indirect  industrial  dischargers, difficulty  meeting
their toxicity requirements or have no local pretreatment program-   POTWs that

                                    3-5

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discharge  to  sensitive  aquatic  resources  at  greatest  risk  will  also  be
targeted  for this specialized  assistance.    General  assistance  efforts  will
continue   to   help   communities   deal   with   the   problems   of   sewer
infiltration/exfiltration, infrastructure and treatment and sludge reuse.

      Demonstration  projects  continue  to  be  extremely  useful  in  leveraging
state  and local  funds,  as  well  as  local  interest  and  support  for  water
quality.  EPA will fund demonstration projects in the various coastal areas to
test  solutions  and   support  local  management  decisions  in areas  such  as
nonpoint  source pollution controls,  low cost  technologies  for  combined sewer
overflow  and stormwater  controls, wetlands  restoration techniques,  compliance
assessment projects  and  pollution prevention  activities.   These  projects  seek
to encourage state,  local and private investment in  the  application  of these
problem solutions in other geographic areas in the future.

Enforcing Water Quality Controls

      In  1991,  the  water quality enforcement effort will  be  strengthened by
tightening   controls  on  dischargers,   improving   monitoring   efforts   and
coordinating outreach to  inform  the  public  and regulated community  of  the
consequences of improper or illegal disposal of wastes or filling of wetlands.
This effort  will  also  include taking  stronger enforcement actions through the
use  of administrative  orders,  penalties and referrals  and  a  greater  field
presence  to  detect and address violations.   Continued compliance by POTWs will
be encouraged  by giving  priority  to resolution  of  violations at  POTWs  that
have completed  construction  to  meet  final  effluent  limits and  by  vigorously
enforcing pretreatment requirements.

      In  an  effort to support protection of  coastal  and marine  environments,
permitting and enforcement  activities will  be  targeted  to achieve  maximum
water quality improvement.  In  addition, EPA  will continue to promote further
delegation of  our statutorily  mandated program for  the  National  Pollutant
Discharge Elimination System.

Preventing Pollution

      EPA will  address  the growing global  trend  towards  pollution  prevention
as an  important  means of protecting our  natural  resources.    Efforts  will
include international conferences and  special projects  related to industrial,
municipal  and  agricultural  pollution prevention.    The conferences  augment
continuing efforts  to share  our  industrial  technology-based  guidelines  with
other  nations  through   organizations   such  as  the  World  Bank   and   the
Organization for  Economic Cooperation and Development, and to become  familiar
with pollution prevention  techniques being  successfully  employed by  other
nations.  EPA will also expand support for international activities,  generally
including the London Dumping  Convention, MARPOL,  the  Cartagena Convention and
the Antarctic  Treaty,  and sponsor and  participate  in workshops  and  symposia
for the international  community.   Work will  continue in  conjunction  with  the
wetlands and coastal  protection programs of Canada and Mexico to protect these
shared water resources,  particularly  where efforts coincide  with bi-national
programs  involving the Great  Lakes and the  Gulf of Mexico.

      EPA will  continue to exhibit domestic environmental leadership where  the
Federal  role  is  effectively  targeted  to  address  emerging  environmental

                                    3-6

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problems.   The Agency  will use pollution  prevention and  control  approaches
that  involve  both public  and  private capacities.   In 1991, the Agency will
encourage  pollution prevention  in  its  municipal  pollution control  program
through  technical assistance  to  states  that will  help maintain and  improve
permit compliance.   Likewise,  water use efficiency will be  promoted in order
to  reduce  pressure  for  expanding  waste  treatment  capacities   and  the
construction of costly new, environmentally-damaging impoundments.

Performing Research and Development

      In  1991,   EPA's  research  program  will  provide  increased  focus  on
wetlands, sediment quality and a renewed emphasis on oil spills research.

       With losses of over one half of the nation's wetlands and the increased
recognition of their ecological and  social  value emphasized through  the "no
net  loss"  goal,  research  will  focus efforts  on  the science  of  wetlands
creation  and  restoration.    This  will  include  development  of  scientific
guidelines for operational decisions to achieve "no net losses" and to produce
and validate design  criteria for creation and  restoration  of the  many varying
types of wetlands.

      Most  chemical contaminants  and organic  wastes  in  aquatic  ecosystems
eventually accumulate  in  the  sediments where they adversely  affect  the water
column,  accumulate  in biological   tissues,  and  enter  human  food  chains.
Sediments have become the concern for many state and EPA regulatory activities
because of potential impacts, the long periods of time associated with natural
assimilation  of  many  in-place pollutants  and  the  high  cost of  mitigation
action.   Current  EPA  areas  requiring sediment  quality  assessments  include
ocean  disposal,   NEPA  reviews,  Superfund,  Great  Lakes,  Chesapeake Bay  and
estuary  projects.   Studies  will  be  conducted  to   compare  approaches  for
developing  sediment  quality criteria.   Comparative toxicological data bases
will be used to begin  deriving contaminant-specific  sediment quality criteria
and to recommend minimum test requirements for sediment quality evaluations.

      Oil  spill   technologies  have  not  progressed  over the  past   decade  to
incorporate  scientific advances  such  as  microbial  degradation.   In  1991,
research will  include  bioremediation research at Valdez,  Alaska, designed to
evaluate the feasibility of accelerating the rate of biological degradation of
residues on Prince William Sound's shore lines.   A renewed National  Oil Spills
Program will  focus on  thermal,  chemical and  biological approaches to  spill
prevention and clean-up,  while research  on  the "physical"  clean-up activity
will be carried out by the U.S. Coast Guard.

Consulting Services

      The Agency  uses consulting resources to fulfill  the  requirements  of its
authorizing legislation,  specifically  in  providing  technical  assistance  to
Regions,  states  and   local   governments;  collecting  data  and  monitoring
background  levels as a basis  for  future  regulatory actions; and  conducting
studies and analyses which support new programs.
                                    3-7

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WATER QUALITY

PROGRAM ACTIVITIES
Incremental Outputs
EPA Ocean Dumping Permit Reviews
Ocean Discharge Criteria Eval .
Maj or 	
Minor 	
Construction Grants
Awards 	
Active Construction Grants
Proj ects 	
Construction Projects
Initiating Operations. 	
Permits Issued by EPA:
Municipal
Major 	
Sludge Requirements 	
Minor 	
Non-Municipal
Maj or 	
Minor 	
General 	
Adjudicatory Hearings
Settled 	
Enforcement Actions :
Inspections 	
Admin. Orders (AOs) 	
AOs with Penalties 	
Civil Litigation 	
Criminal Litigation 	
Clean Lakes Projects/Studies/
Assessments 	
Final Water Quality Criteria
Actual
1989
25
12

402
6,095
662
168
168
316
250
631
0
21
2,512
654
220
82
21
98
1
Current
Estimate
1990
25
23
0
339
5,474
438
265
265
0
285
0
5
100
1,900
567
246
59
16
100
7
Estimate
1991
25
23
41
89
4,800
425
285
285
0
265
0
5
100
1,900
474
298
71
20
0
5
Increase +
Decrease -
1991 vs.
1990
--
+41
-250
-674
-13
+20
+20

-20




-93
+52
+12
+4
-100
-2
 3-8

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                                 WATER QUALITY
                                             Current
                                   Actual    Estimate     Estimate
                                    1989       1990         1991
                              Increase +
                              Decrease -
                               1991 vs.
                                 1990
PROGRAM ACTIVITIES

Cumulative Outputs

Operational SRF Programs	

Effluent Guidelines	

Regulations/Support Documents
 for Sludge Reuse/Disposal...

NPDES State Program Approvals

National Estuary Projects....
43

51


 6

39

12
50

51


 6

40

16
50

54


 6

40

16
                                  3-9

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Research and
Development

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                        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1991 Budget Estimate

                               Table of  Contents
WATER QUALITY
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Water Quality Research 	   3-10
      Scientific Assessment	  .   3-14
      Monitoring Systems and Quality Assurance  	   3-15
      Health Effects	  .  ,   3-17
      Environmental Engineering and Technology  	   3-18
      Environmental Processes and Effects 	 	   3-19
      Great Lakes	   3-20
      Oil Spills	   3-21

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                                ACTUAL
                                 1989
                                                  WATER QUALITY
                                              Water Quality Research
      ENACTED
       1990
       CURRENT
      ESTIMATE
        1990
        REQUEST
         1991
       INCREASE +
       DECREASE -
     1991  VS 1990
PROGRAM
                                               (DOLLARS  IN THOUSANDS)
Scientific Assessment -
Water
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
Monitoring Systems And
Quality Assurance -
Water
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
Health Effects - Water
 Salaries & Expenses
                       TOTAL
Environmental
Engineering And
Technology - Water
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
Environmental Processes
And Effects - Water
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
Great Lakes Research -
Water
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
Oil Spills
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
$223.9
$308.2
$532.1
$3.018.5
$929.0
$3,947.5
$559.4
$559.4
$2.146.3
$3,213.8
$5,360.1
$9,142.8
$2,689.0
$11,831.8
$482.5
$1,400.7
$1,883.2

$15,573.4
$8,540.7
$300.4
$311.8
$612.2
$3,331.4
$990.8
$4,322.2
$604.7
$604.7
$2,519.0
$3,428.5
$5,947.5
$8,989.5
$3,967.4
$12,956.9
$738.7
$1,474.4
$2,213.1
$478.9
$984.5
$1,463.4
$16,962.6
$11,157.4
$396.4
S304.3
$700.7
$3,294.3
$919.8
$4,214.1
$506.1
$506.1
$2,402.2
$3,335.1
$5,737.3
$8,645.6
$4,008.0
$12,653.6
$480.0
$1,437.6
$1,917.6
$974.0
$974.0
$15,724.6
$10,978.8
$455.0
$312.5
$767.5
$3,395.4
$995.9
$4,391.3
$362.4
$362.4
$2,476.4
$3,525.6
$6,002.0
$8,937.0
$4,445.1
$13,382.1
$480.0
$1,479.7
$1,959.7
$2,000.0
$2,000.0
$16,106.2
$12,758.8
$58.6
$8.2
$66.8
$101.1
$76.1
$177.2
-$143.7
-$143.7
$74.2
$190.5
$264.7
$291.4
$437.1
$728.5
$42.1
$42.1
$1,026.0
$1,026.0
$381.6
$1,780.0
TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development

Water Quality Research TOTAL  $24,114.1   $28,120.0   $26,703.4  $28,865.0    $2,161.6
PERMANENT WORKYEARS
Scientific Assessment -
Water
3.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
                                              0.0
                                         3-10

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                                                  WATER QUALITY
                                              Water  Quality Research

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED      CURRENT     REQUEST    INCREASE +
                                 1989      1990       ESTIMATE      1991      DECREASE -
                                                       1990               1991 VS 1990
                                               (DOLLARS  IN THOUSANDS)
Monitoring Systems And
Quality Assurance -
Water

Health Effects - Water

Environmental
Engineering And
Technology - Water

Environmental Processes
And Effects - Water

Great Lakes Research -
Water

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS
 48.6       54.4       51.4       52.4



  8.3        9.1        8.7        4.7

 33.8       37.3       35.3       36.7



144.5      152.2      144.4      152.2
  5.2
13.0
 8.0
 8.0
243.4      280.0      252.8      259.0
 1.0



-4.0

 1.4



 7.8


 0.0


 6.2
TOTAL WORKYEARS
Scientific Assessment -
Water

Monitoring Systems And
Quality Assurance -
Water

Health Effects - Water

Environmental
Engineering And
Technology - Water

Environmental Processes
And Effects - Water

Great Lakes Research -
Water

TOTAL WORKYEARS
  4.5


 54.6



  9.1

 34.5
  7.2
 5.0
54.4
13.0
 5.0
51.4
 9.1        8.7

37.3       35.3
 8.0
 5.0


52.4



 4.7

36.7
158.1      152.2      144.4       152.2
 8.0
268.0      280.0      252.8      259.0
 0.0


 1.0



-4.0

 1.4



 7.8


 0.0


 6.2
                                        3-11

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                                WATER QUALITY
                            Water Quality Research
                        Principal Outputs by Objective
Objective 1:      Develop  Scientific  Data to  Support a  Water Quality  Based
                  Approach to Pollution Control

1991:  o     Revise  ambient water  quality criteria  as necessary  (Scientific
            Assessment)
      o     Provide  recommendations  on appropriate  indication of  ecological
            status  and  trends  for  development  of  National  and  Regional
            Biocriteria (Monitoring)
      o     Develop scientific data on predicting effects of disturbance of water
            quality functions on wetlands. (Environmental Processes)

1990:o      Prepare seven  (7) new health advisories and respond to comments on
            65  ambient  water quality  criteria addenda  revisions  (Scientific
            Assessment)
      o     Evaluate monitoring techniques and  a  generic  approach  to measure-
            ments of toxic compounds (Monitoring)
      o     Report  on  validation  of  water   quality  criteria  for  Selenium
            (Environmental Processes)
      o     Report  on  water  quality  functions  of  wetlands  (Environmental
            Processes)

1989:  o     Finalized 65  water quality addenda for water  criteria documents
            (Scientific Assessment)
      o     Finalized 19 health advisories (Scientific Assessment)
      o     Evaluated and standardized methodology for
            quantification of human pathogens (Monitoring)
      o     Report on developing sediment quality criteria from existing water
            quality criteria (Environmental Processes)

                  Develop Scientific Data to Support Environmentally  Sound Ocean
                  Disposal. Estuarine and Great Lakes Programs

            Report on the application of wasteload allocation models to multiple
            discharge sources into estuaries (Environmental Processes)
      o     Report  on  dredge  material  assessment  techniques  (Environmental
            Processes)

1990:  o     Report  of methods  development,  standardization and evaluation of
            toxicity  tests  for  marine,  estuarine and  freshwater  organisms
            (Monitoring)
      o     Verify models used  in  301(h)  to define the zone of initial dilution
            and water quality parameters (Environmental Processes)
      o     Report on the characterization of complex mixtures using a biomarker
            approach (Environmental Processes)
Objective 2:
1991: o
                                    3-12

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1989: o     Develop methods for solid phase bioaccumulation tests (Environmental
            Processes)
      o     Report  on  the effects on  marine  ecosystems from  industrial  con-
            taminants  in  sewage  effluent on marine  ecosystems (Environmental
            Processes)
      o     Report  on  methods for predicting  biological impacts  of in-place
            pollutants   in  the   upper  Great   Lakes  connecting   channels
            (Environmental Processes)

Objective 3:      Evaluate  of New Technologies.  Infrastructure  Protection.
                  Combined Sewer Overflow.  Sludge  Management Alternatives and
                  Toxicitv Reduction Methods and Technology

1991: o     Develop risk assessment methods for surface disposal to
            develop criteria.  Investigate methods to incorporate
            those  individuals highly   exposed  into  assessments  (Scientific
            Assessment)
      o     Develop    guidance   manual   for    EPA   and    State   use    in
            evaluation/certification    of   toxicity    testing   laboratories
            (Monitoring)
      o     Report on survival,  viability and detection of pathogenic
            protozoa in sludge (Monitoring)
      o     Compare fish bioassay with conventional toxicity testing
            (Health)
      o     Develop data base on the kinetics of removal of specific
            toxics by sorption, volatilization,  and biodegradation (Engineering)
      o     Provide assessment of toxicants  in storm water runoff (Engineering)

1990: o     Finalize  risk  assessments  for surface  impoundment  methodology
            (Scientific Assessment)
      o     Maintain discharge monitoring report as support for the
            quality assurance program (Monitoring)
      o     Report  on  the fate  of toxic  organics  during  sludge  treatment
            (Engineering)
      o     Report on pilot-scale treatability studies on the
            pesticides manufacturing wastewater (Engineering)

1989 : o     Drafted pathogen land application methodology (Scientific Assessment)
      o     Standardized   methodology   for  collection,   identification,   and
            enumeration of human pathogenic organisms  in  sludge  and  soil to
            monitor the safety of direct land-application of wastewater and/or
            sludge  (Monitoring)
      o     Report on effectiveness of  available methodology  for reducing toxic
            metals and organic from incineration emissions (Engineering)
                                     3-13
                                   /,

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                                 WATER QUALITY


                            Water Quality Research
Budget Request
      The  Agency requests  a  total  of  $28,865,000  supported  by 259.0  total
workyears for 1991, increases  of  $2,161,600 and  6.2  total  workyears  from 1990.
Of the request, $16,106,200 will be for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and  $12,758,800  will  be  for  the Research and  Development appropriation,  an
increase of $381,600 and of $1,780,000, respectively.

Program Objectives

      The Water Quality research  program provides  the  scientific and technical
data to States and the EPA's Office of  Water in implementing the Clean Water Act
(CWA),   the  Marine Protection,  Research  and Sanctuaries Act  and  the  Plastics
Pollution Research and Control Act of 1987.

Objective 1:  Develop Scientific Data to Support a Water Quality Based Approach
to Pollution Control.   This research  provides the scientific base to help States
develop water  quality standards,  to conduct use-attainability  analyses  and to
provide needed information to implement the Agencies water quality based pollution
control program.

Objective  2:   Develop Scientific Data to  Support Environmentally  Sound Ocean
Disposal. Estuarine. Great Lakes  and Oil Spills Programs. This research provides
the  scientific  base  needed by EPA  for  evaluating  impacts  of  ocean  disposal
practices, understanding the Great Lakes ecosystems,  developing responsive and
scientifically valid  estuarine and  coastal waters  programs and  establishing
national oils spills research efforts focusing on thermal, chemical and biological
remediation.

      Objective  3:    Evaluate New  Technologies.  Infrastructure  Protection.
Stormwater  and  Combined  Sewer Overflow.  Sludge  Management  Alternatives  and
Toxicity  Reduction Methods.    The   wastewater  research program provides  the
technical  information,  engineering  and  monitoring  assistance  needed by  EPA,
municipalities,  and   industry for   the   development   and  implementation  of
regulations,  guidance for  disposal  of sludge,  and  control of  pollution  from
municipal treatment plants  to bring plants into compliance with state discharge
permits,  and to  support  the  National  Pollutant Discharge Elimination  System
(NPDES).
SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT

1991 Program Request

      The Agency  requests  a  total  of $767,500 supported by 5.0 total workyears
for  this program,  of which  $455,000 will  be for  the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and $312,500  will be for the Research and Development appropriation.
This represents an increase of $58,600 in the Salaries and Expenses appropriation,
an increase of  $8,200  in the  Research and Development  appropriation,  and no
                                     3-14

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change in workyears.   The increase in the Salaries  and  Expenses appropriation
reflects a general enhancement of  the  in-house  research  program.   The increase
in the Research and Development appropriation reflects a  general enhancement of
in-house support for the scientific assessment program.

      Develop  Scientific  Data to  Support a  Water  Quality  Based Approach  to
Pollution Control.  This activity,  in support of Post-Best Available Technology
(BAT) requirements,  will continue to provide support to the Agency and the States
for updating,  modification,  and  implementation of health criteria  for ambient
water quality.   This  activity  also develops health advisories in  support  of
effluent regulations for toxics and provides technical support to  the Regions and
States on risk assessments and the theories behind them.

      Evaluate  New  Technologies.  Infrastructure    Protection.   Stormwater  and
Combined Sewer Overflow.  Sludge Management Alternatives  and  Toxicitv Reduction
Methods.  The  Clean Water Act  (CWA) Amendments require  the  Agency to identify
and regulate  toxic  pollutants  in sludge.   This program  will provide technical
support in the development and  implementation  of these regulations including the
development of criteria for  the assessment of hazard and risk from exposure to
pathogens in sludge and surface  impoundments methodology for disposed of municipal
sludge.

1990 Program

      In 1990, the Agency is allocating  a total of $700,700 supported by 5.0 total
workyears for this program, of which $396,AGO is from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $304,300 is from the  Research and Development appropriation.

      The research efforts as in 1991 are:  providing support to the Agency and
States on  health criteria for water quality; developing health  advisories  in
support of effluent regulations; providing  technical support for risk assessments;
and theory;  to the Regions and  States;  and developing criteria for assessment of
hazard  and  risk  from  pathogens  in sludge,  and  methodology  for disposal  of
municipal sludge in surface impoundments.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989, the Agency  obligated a total of $532,100 supported  by total of A. 5
workyears for this program,  of  which $223,900  was from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $308,200 was  from the Research and Development appropriation.

      The program revised  65 ambient  water quality  documents  and  completed 19
health advisories, provided technical support  to eight regions  and numerous States
on criteria, completed a draft pathogen land application  methodology for use in
risk assessments  and initiated a methodology for addressing risk  from surface
sludge impoundments.


MONITORING SYSTEMS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests  a total of $4,391,300 supported  by 52.4 total workyears
for this  program,  of which  $3,395,400 will be for  the  Salaries and Expenses

                                    3-15

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appropriation and $995,900 will be for the Research and Development appropriation.
This  represents    an  increase   of  $101,100  in  the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation,  $76,100  in  the Research  and Development appropriation  and 1.0
workyears.   The  increase in  the  Salaries  and Expenses  appropriation reflects a
general enhancement  of  in-house support  for the monitoring program  while the
increase in Research and Development represents support for the Administrator's
pollution prevention initiatives.

      Develop  Scientific  Data  to  Support  a Water Quality  Based  Approach  to
Pollution Control.   The CWA Amendments place emphasis  on the  development  of
methods to  measure and monitor  water  quality.   In  support of  this  activity,
research will develop and standardize methods and provide field tested protocols
to  assess   ambient  water  quality.    In  addition,  the  program will  evaluate
biological and microbial monitoring techniques and promulgate standardize tests
to measure chronic toxicity.

      Develop Scientific Data  to  Support  Environmentally Sound Ocean Disposal.
Estuarine.  Great Lakes  and Oil Spills  Programs.  This research will be continue
to support Regional needs for methods standardization,  support for the National
Estuarine  Program and  other marine  and estuarine  monitoring  and management
programs.  Research in marine chemical  methods  will be conducted consistent with
the  Agency's  highest priority  needs.    Research will  continue on methods  to
determine the microbial quality in marine systems including the standardization
of methods  to  distinguish human and animal fecal contamination and the development
of protocols  for monitoring  coastal waters,  viruses  in shellfish,  and bacteria
associated with  fish diseases.

     Evaluate New Technologies. Infrastructure Protection. Stormwater and Combined
Sewer Overflow.  Sludge  Management Alternatives and Toxicity Reduction Methods.
This research will conduct semi-annual performance evaluation studies to review
and revise the Agency's  Quality Assurance support.  Performance criteria will be
developed  for NPDES  permit  analysis,  and  investigation of  analytical method
deficiencies, identified by NPDES permitters, will be continued.

1990 Program

     In 1990, the Agency is  allocating a total of $4,214,100 supported by 51.4
total workyears  for  this program, of which  $3,294,300  is from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation  and  $919,800  is  from  the  Research  and  Development
appropriation.

      This  research  program  is  evaluating  chemical   monitoring   methods  and
protocols  to  measure site-specific  aspects of  water  quality.   This research
provides cost-effective monitoring methods  for the measurement of chemical and
biological  parameters required  in the  National Pollutant Discharge Elimination
System  (NPDES)  Program and in  the   assessment of  fresh  water   quality and
quantification of contaminants in sediments and sludge.   Research will also adapt
fresh water methods on analysis of marine water quality.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989, the Agency obligated a total of $3,947,500 supported by  54.6  total
workyears for its monitoring and quality assurance program in water quality,  of
                                     3-16

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which $3,018,500 was from  the  Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation and $929,000
was from the Research and Development appropriation.

       In support of the Clean Water Act and the Marine Protection Research and
Sanctuaries Act,  standardized methodology for the collection, identification, and
enumeration of human pathogenic organisms in  sludge  and  soil  were developed to
monitor the safety of direct land-application  of wastewater or sludge.   Inter-
laboratory comparisons were performed to assess the performance of chemical and
biological methods for  the analysis of contaminants regulated under  NPDES .   A
repository of toxic standards and calibration samples was maintained.
HEALTH EFFECTS

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a  total  of  $362,400  supported  by 4.7 total workyears
for  this  program,   of  which  $362,400 will be  for  the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and no dollars for the Research and Development appropriation.  This
represents an decrease of $143,700 from the Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and a decrease of 4.0 total workyears.   The decrease in the  Salaries and Expenses
appropriation reflects  the reduction in workyears off-set by a general enhancement
of in-house support for health effects program.  The  decrease in workyears reflect
a general realignment of agency priorities.

      Evaluate  New  Technologies.  Infrastructure   Protection.  Stormwntpr  and
Combined Sewer Overflow. Sludge Management Alternatives  and Toxicity Reduction
Methods .     Health   evaluations  on  specific  chemicals  and chemical  mixtures
identified in municipal sludge and  waste water effluents will be initiated using
in-vitro bioassays  to  support the development  and defense of  sludge  disposal
criteria.

1990 Program

      In 1990, the Agency is allocating a total of $506,100 supported by 8 . 7 total
workyears for this  program,  of which  $506,100  is from  the  Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and no dollars from the Research  and Development appropriation.

      This in-house research program  is examining  the relationship between in-
vitro toxicity testing  used to estimate health effects and ecosystem tumor tests.
This research will  continue to strengthen the  data base necessary to support risk
evaluation.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989, the  Agency obligated  a total  of  $559,400  supported by 9 . 1 total
workyears for this  program,  of which  $559,400 was from  the  Salaried and Expenses
appropriation and no dollars from the Research  and Development appropriation.

      Research activities were directed toward  assessing and modifying bioassay
methods used to  assess  the  toxicity of municipal sludge and wastewater effluent.
These assays  were  evaluated  for their ability  to  characterize the toxicity for
treatability and to identify toxicants causing  the toxicity.
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ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests  a total of $6,002,000 supported by 36.7 total workyears
for this  program,  of which  $2,476,400  will be  for  the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation  and  $3,525,600  will  be   for   the   Research   and  Development
appropriation.   This represents  an increase  of $74,200 in  the  Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation, an increase in of $190,500 in the Research and Development
appropriation, and an increase of 1.4 workyears. The  increase in the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation reflects a general enhancement of in-house support for the
engineering  research  program.   The increase  in  the Research and Development
appropriation  reflect support  for  the  Administrator's  pollution  prevention
initiatives.  The  increase  in workyears reflects additional  support  for  small
community needs.

      Evaluate New Wastewater Technologies.  Infrastructure Protection. Stormwater
and Combined Sewer Overflow.  Sludge Management Alternatives and Toxicity Reduction
Methods.    New conveyance and treatment  technologies with promise  of  improved
economies or effectiveness will be evaluated and  the results provided to States,
municipalities,  and  design  professionals.  Technical investigations  will  be
conducted on the infrastructure of   Publicly Owned  Treatment  Works (POTWs)  and
the results will be provided  to the municipalities  to help   realize full  value
of these  investments and properly operate and maintain the facilities.  Technical
assistance will be provided  and research conducted to  support the Agency's  storm
and combined sewer  overflow program mandated  by  the  Clean Water  Act.   Research
and  technical  assistance  will  be continued  to  support  sludge  regulation
implementation  and  updating.    Toxics  treatability  and  toxicity  reduction
evaluations for the pulp and paper  industry will be initiated.

1990 Program

      In 1990, the Agency is allocating a total of $5,737,300 supported by 35.3
total workyears for this  program, of which  $2,402,200 is  from the Salaries  and
Expenses  appropriation  and  $3,335,100  is  from the  Research and  Development
appropriation.

      New wastewater  technologies are being evaluated to  determine and promote
more cost effective treatment processes.  Technical support is being provided to
the Office of Water for development of sludge regulations on permit limitations
for municipal and industrial wastewater.  Toxics  treatability is being assessed.
Toxicity  reduction valuation  procedures  and  removal capabilities are  being
developed for various treatment processes.   Technical support is  being provided
to municipalities to  upgrade  existing plant capabilities  to  achieve compliance
while  minimizing  costs.  Research  is  being  initiated  to  evaluate  the  cost
effectiveness and efficiency of different treatment as a options.  The development
of a pesticide treatability data base is being initiated.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989, the Agency  obligated  a total of $5,360,100 supported by 34.5  total
workyears for this program, of which  $2,146,300  was from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $3,213,800 was from the Research and  Development appropriation.
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      Major accomplishments  included technology  evaluations  on  selected  high
potential Innovative/Alternative candidates,  technical  support  and engineering
assistance    provided  to  the  EPA  regulatory  offices,  Regions,  States  and
municipalities for the  development and  implementation  of  sludge regulation and
permit requirements rules.


ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES AND EFFECTS

1991 Program Request

      The  Agency requests  a  total  of  $13,382,100  supported  by 152.2  total
workyears for  this  program,  of which $8,937,000  will  be for the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation  and $4,445,100 will  be  for the  Research  and Development
appropriation.   This represents an  increase of  $291,400  in the  Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation,   and  an  increase  of  $437,100  in  the  Research  and
Development appropriation.   Total workyears  will  increase by 7.8 workyears.  The
increase in the Salaries and Expenses appropriation reflects a general enhancement
of in-house support  for the processes and  effects research  program,  while the
increases  in  the Research  and Development  appropriation and  total  workyears
reflects additional  research on emerging issues  such  as sediment quality and
implementation of the Agency's "No Net Loss" protection policy for wetlands.

      Develop  Scientific  Data  to  Support  a  Water Quality  Based Approach to
Pollution Control.   As  a follow-up  to the  Post-Best  Available Technology (BAT)
requirements  of  the  CWA Amendments,  this  research  will  develop methods to
determine both water  quality  criteria and sediment quality  criteria  for use in
the  water   quality  based approach  to  permitting.   This approach  integrates
pollutant-specific control methods with toxicity testing procedures and BAT limits
for permitting.  Research will also strengthen  the scientific and  technical data
base and methodologies  to assess water quality functions of wetlands,  to assess
individual and cumulative impacts of wetland conversions,  and evaluate means of
mitigating  wetland  impacts.   Increased  emphasis  will  be  given  to research on
sediment quality.    The data  from  these studies   will  assist  the  States in
developing individual strategies for controlling toxic pollutants  and implementing
"No Net Loss" protection policies for wetlands.

     Develop  Scientific Data to Support Environmentally  Sound  Ocean  Disposal.
Estuarine.  Great Lakes, and  Oil  Spill   Programs.   This research  will  develop
procedures to assess impacts  on oceans from disposal of  wastes  in coastal waters.
These procedures will determine the relative safety of ocean disposal and compare
alternative disposal strategies. Research will also be conducted  to support the
Agency's strategy to reduce  pollution  in  near  coastal  waters.   The  research
program will  focus on recovery of  coastal  ecosystems,  development of biomarker
assessment methods, coastal eutrophication problems and development of wasteload
allocation models for estuarine and coastal waters.

      Evaluate  New  Technologies.   Infrastructure Protection.  Stormwater  and
Combined Sewer Overflow. Sludge Management  Alternatives  and Toxicity Reduction
Methods.  Research will continue to maintain and update the existing library of
gas chromatograph/ mass spectroscopy tapes and develop new analytical data bases
of toxic pollutants  found in  industrial wastewater. The data bases will provide
                                    3-19

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the information on wastewater treatment  technology needed  to  support the NPDES
program.  Research on ecological fate and effects  issues associated with wetlands
constructed for wastewater treatment will continue.

1990 Program

      In 1990, the Agency  is allocating a total of $12,653,600  supported by 144.4
total workyears for this  program, of which  $8,645,600  is  from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation and  $4,008,000   is  from   the  Research and  Development
appropriation.

      Research is being conducted to develop methods to integrate whole effluent
testing procedures with chemical specific control  technology.   Research continues
on methods to assess:  water quality functions and ecological  impacts associated
with wetlands;  the  cumulative loss of  wetlands;  and mitigation  of  impacts on
wetlands.  Research on methods  to better assess  the  impacts  of  ocean disposal
activities is being conducted.  These procedures will be used in risk assessments.
Estuarine and near coastal waters research  is focused on questions of ecosystem
recovery,  eutrophication, wasteload  allocation   and  biomarkers   as  assessment
techniques in coastal waters.

1989 Accomplishments

      In  1989,  the  Agency obligated a total  of  $11,831,800  supported by 158.1
total workyears for this program, of which  $9,142,800 was from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation and  $2,689,000  was  from  the  Research and  Development
appropriation.

      Major accomplishments include  the development of aquatic  life water quality
criteria documents,  water quality advisories, a report on the  ecological effects
of nutrients  verses contaminants  from  Publicly-Owned  Treatment  Works, a report
on the  ecological effects of industrial  contaminants  in  sewage  effluent on the
marine  ecosystem, and  a report  on equilibrium partitioning in sediments useful
in the  development of  sediment quality criteria.
GREAT LAKES

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $1,959,700  supported by 8.0 total workyears
for  this program,  of which.  $480,000 will  be  for  the  Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation  and  $1,479,700   will   be   for  the  Research  and  Development
appropriation.  This   represents  no   change  in  the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation,  an  increase  of  $42,100   in  the  Research  and  Development
appropriation and, no  change  in  total workyears.

      Develop Scientific  Data to Support  Environmentally  Sound Ocean Disposal.
Estuarine. Great Lakes and Oil Spills Programs.  Research will develop and test
methods  to determine  the  sources,  'movement  and effects  of toxic substances in
the  Great Lakes.  Emphasis will  be given to research on in-place pollutants and
mass balance  studies.   This  program will  also provide the Great Lakes National
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Program  Office,  EPA Regions  II, III  and V  the Great  Lakes  states,  and  the
International Joint Commission (under the US/Canada Water Quality Agreement) with
technical support and research data.

1990 Program

      In 1990, the Agency  is  allocating  a total  of $1,917,600  supported by 8.0
total workyears  for  this program,  of  which  $480,000 is from  the  Salaries  and
Expenses  appropriation and  $1,437,600  is  from  the  Research and Development
appropriation.

      The research is focusing on the impact and fate of  toxic materials  in areas
of concern identified by the Great Lakes National Program and the  International
Joint Commission.   Emphasis  is  on  in-place pollutants, chemical  mass balance
research, and evaluation of the effectiveness of confined disposal facilities for
dredged material.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989, the Agency obligated a total of  $1,883,200 supported by 7.2 total
workyears for this program, of which $482,500 was from the Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and $1,400,700 was  from the Research and Development appropriation.

      Among the  many accomplishments  of  the  Great Lakes Research program were:
a report on methods for predicting biological  impacts of in place pollutants in
the upper  Great  Lakes  connecting channels, a  report on methods  for predicting
probability  distribution  of  exposure  for  toxic  substances  in  fresh  water
ecosystems, and technical assistance provided to the Great Lakes National Program
Office,  the  Regions,   International  Joint  Commission,  and  the  cooperating
Universities.
OIL SPILLS

1991 Program Request

       The Agency  requests  a  total  of $2,000,000 supported by no workyenrs for
this  program,  of  which no  resources will  be  for  the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation  and  $2,000,000   will   be   for  the  Research  and  Development
appropriation.    This  represents  no  change  in  the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation,  an  increase  of  $1,026,000   in  the  Research and  Development
appropriation, and no change  in  the total workyears.

    Develop  Scientific  Data  to  Support Environmentally Sound  Ocean Disposal.
.Estuarine. Great Lakes and.Oil Spills  Programs.  Oil spills  technologies have not
progressed  over  the  past  decade to  incorporate scientific  advances,  such as
microbial degradation.  Research will  continue to support bioremediation advances
being studied at Prince William  Sound, and will  initiate a renewed National Oil
Spills  Program in which  EPA will  focus  on  thermal, chemical,  and biological
approaches to prevent and clean-up oil spills.  Research  on  the "physical" clean-
up of oil spills will be the  responsibility of the U.S.  Coast Guard.
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1990 Program

       In 1990, the Agency is allocating a  total of $974,0000 for  this program,
of which none is from the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and $974,000 is from
the Research and Development appropriation.

      In support  of the clean-up of  Prince  William Sound, Agency  research is
continuing  to   evaluate the  effectiveness  of bioremediation as  a  clean-up
technology and  to  determine  if  any  toxic effects are occurring.  The  Agency is
negotiating to  continue the  existing Federal Technology  Transfer Act  (FTTA)
Cooperative Agreement with Exxon to  help support  this activity.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989,  the Office  of Research  and  Development obligated  a  total  of
$1,646,300 for  the Prince  William  Sound  emergency.   In  addition,  $1,601,000
provided by Exxon through a FTTA Cooperative  Agreement,  were obligated.

      In response to the oil  spill  in  Alaska's Prince William  Sound the Agency
conducted on-site pilot research on  bioremediation as an approach to clean-up of
oil spills.  Early results prompted Exxon  to use bioremediation technology on many
tidal beaches as one of its approaches to remediation of the oil spills.
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Abatement and
   Control

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                        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1991 Budget Estimate

                              Table of  Contents
WATER QUALITY

ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   Water Quality and Grants Program Management  	   3-23
      Water Quality Management	   3-24
      Great Lakes Program	   3-26
      Chesapeake Bay Program  	   3-29
   Effluent Standards and Guidelines  	   3-31
   Grants Assistance Programs 	   3-35
      Clean Lakes Program	   3-36
      Control Agency Resource Supplementation (Section 106) 	   3-37
      Water Quality Management Cooperative Agreements 	   3-39
   Water Quality Strategies Implementation  	   3-41
      Wetlands Protection 	   3-43
      Wetlands Implementation Program 	   3-46
      Ocean Disposal Permits	   3-47
      Environmental Emergency Response and Prevention 	   3-49
      Spill Restoration Program	   3-50
      Standards and Regulations 	   3-51
      Nonpoint Source Management Grants 	   3-53
      Nonpoint Source Implementation  	   3-55
   Water Quality Monitoring and Analysis  	   3-57
      Coastal Environment Management  	 ...   3-58
      Water Quality Monitoring and Analysis 	   3-61
   Municipal Source Control 	   3-63
      Municipal Waste Treatment Facility Construction 	   3-64
      Waste Treatment Operations and Maintenance  	   3-66

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                                                   WATER QUALITY
                                    Water Quality And  Grants  Program Management
                                ACTUAL
                                 1989
                   ENACTED
                    1990
 CURRENT
ESTIMATE
  1990
REQUEST
 1991
  INCREASE +
  DECREASE -
1991 VS 1990
PROGRAM
                                               (DOLLARS  IN  THOUSANDS)
Water Quality
Management
 Salaries & Expenses
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
Great Lakes Program
 Salaries & Expenses
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
Chesapeake Bay Program
 Salaries & Expenses
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
        $5,089.9   $5.146.9   $5,422.3    $6,730.0     $1,307.7
        $1,417.6   $1,735.2   $2,174.8    $2,322.0       $147.2
                       TOTAL   $6,507.5   $6,882.1    $7,597.1    $9,052.0     $1,454.9
        $2,259.7   $2,901.9   $2,961.6   $3,214.3       $252.7
        $7,596.1  $10,260.2  $10,129.3   $9,023.7    -$1,105.6

TOTAL   $9,855.8  $13,162.1  $13,090.9  $12,238.0      -$852.9
        $1,509.5   $1,245.3   $1,241.2    $1,486.4       $245.2
       $10,956.3  $11,585.2  $11,421.4   $10,698.8      -$722.6
                       TOTAL  $12,465.8  $12,830.5   $12,662.6  $12,185.2      -$477.4
TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance

Water Quality And
Grants Program
Management
        $8,859.1   $9,294.1    $9,625.1   $11,430.7    $1,805.6
       $19,970.0  $23,580.6   $23,725.5   $22,044.5   -$1,681.0
TOTAL  $28,829.1  $32,874.7  $33,350.6  $33,475.2
                         $124.6
PERMANENT WORKYEARS
Water Quality
Management
Great Lakes Program
Chesapeake Bay Program
TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS
TOTAL WORKYEARS
Water Quality
Management
Great Lakes Program
Chesapeake Bay Program
TOTAL WORKYEARS
93.1
27.5
16.5
137.1

98.6
30.8
17.1
146.5
105.7
44.4
10.0
160.1

105.7
45.4
10.0
161.1
104.8
30.8
9.5
145.1

108.7
35.4
10.0
154.1
122.7
45.4
12.0
180.1

122.7
45.4
12.0
180.1
17.9
14.6
2.5
35.0

14.0
10.0
2.0
26.0
                                         3-23

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                                 WATER QUALITY


                  Water Quality and Grants  Program Management
Budget Request
      The  Agency requests  a total  of $33,475,200  supported by  180.1 total
workyears  for  1991, an  increase of  $124,600  and an  increase of  26.0 total
workyears from 1990.  Of the request, $11,430,700 will be for the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and  $22,044,500 will  be  for the Abatement,  Control and
Compliance, appropriation.   This represents  an  increase of  $1,805,600  in the
Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation  and a decrease  of  $1,681,000  in  the
Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.
WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT

1991 Program Request

      The  Agency requests  a  total  of  $9,052,000 supported  by  122.7  total
workyears  for  this  program,  of which $6,730,000 will be  for  the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation  and  $2,322,000  will be for  the  Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation.  This represents an increase of $1,307,700 in Salaries
and Expenses,  an increase of 14.0 workyears,  and an increase  of  $147,200 in
Abatement, Control and Compliance.  The  increases will support expanded efforts'
in the nonpoint source  (NFS) pollution prevention and control program.

      By 1991,  EPA  will have approved, disapproved or  partially approved all
state Section  319 NFS assessments  and management programs.   EPA will develop
assessments where states  fail  to do  so or where  state  assessments are disap-
proved, and  states  will  implement approved  elements of  their  NFS management
programs.   To  support state implementation efforts, EPA  will  award  grants to
states to  implement approved NFS management programs.  EPA will also prepare
technical NFS guidance documents,  develop protocols to evaluate the effectiveness
of Best Management  Practices  (BMPs)  and document environmental  results,  and
provide limited consultation to the states.  The Agency will also leverage other
Federal agencies'   authorities  and  resources  to  help states   implement  NFS
pollution  prevention  and  control measures,  and  continue  limited  outreach to
educate the  public  and  build  grass-roots  support  for  NFS  initiatives  and
innovative financing solutions.

      Headquarters will help  states use risk-based approaches to address impacts
of NFS pollution  on sensitive  aquatic resources and habitat by refining risk
assessment techniques to  accurately  account  for  NFS  impacts,  training Regions
and states on use of  risk assessment and management techniques  and developing
analytic methodologies  and models  for  NFS pollution.   Headquarters  will also
support Regional/state implementation of the agricultural  elements of approved
state NFS  management programs by  (1)  developing improved techniques to evaluate
state BMPs;  (2) developing technical guidance  on grazing  BMPs;  (3) sponsoring
training on effectively coordinating  the NFS program with  other initiatives to
prevent contamination of surface and ground water  by agricultural chemicals; and
(4) conducting  a multi-agency technology  transfer  campaign on  management of
agricultural chemicals and nutrients  by land owners.   Headquarters and Regions


                                    3-24

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will continue  to coordinate Agency NFS  activities with USDA's  water quality
initiative, taking advantage of USDA's  extensive delivery system.  Headquarters
will assist  Regions V,  VII and X  as they  implement a special agricultural
pollution prevention initiative (agricultural chemical management).

      The Regions will provide  direction  and technical  support to help states
implement  geographically-targeted   agricultural   NFS  management  programs,
emphasizing prevention and control activities in specific watersheds at highest
risk.  Regions will also  provide technical  support to help states adopt risk-
based management approaches to NFS pollution control, with special emphasis on
estuaries, near coastal waters and wetlands at highest risk.   Regions will assist
states in: (1) using analytic methodologies to calculate load allocations; (2)
designing and implementing prevention  and  control programs  for urban runoff not
regulated by stormwater permits; and  (3)  using the antidegradation provisions
of state water  quality standards to prevent NFS pollution in  high quality waters.


      Headquarters  will  oversee Regional  efforts  to manage  funds  to  states
through new cooperative agreements under Section 104(b)(3)  and allocate Section
106 grant funds to states  and qualified Indian tribes,  with  emphasis on building
strong Indian tribal institutions fully capable of managing EPA grants.

1990 Program

      In 1990,  the Agency is allocating a total of $7,597,100 supported by 108.7
total workyears for this program, of which $5,422,300 is from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation and $2,174,800  is   from  the Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      EPA approved 51 state  Section  319 NFS assessment reports and is reviewing
and approving all or portions of state management programs.   EPA is working with
states to upgrade and implement these programs by providing technical support,
guidance and oversight.   EPA is implementing  its five year  action plan to guide
national nonpoint source activities to help states and local  governments overcome
barriers to successful implementation  of  NFS prevention and control measures.
A final EPA report to Congress is being prepared summarizing  the states' progress
in implementing  Section  319 requirements  and recommending  needed programmatic
changes.   Headquarters  is also providing guidance on basic grants management
functions for grants to states under Section 106 and Section 205,  and evaluating
the performance of selected Indian tribes' water quality programs.

      The Regions continue  to  negotiate  state work programs and manage grant
funds  under  Sections  106   and 205(j)(5)   to  203  state/interstate/regional
organizations  and   qualified  Indian  tribes,  ensuring  that   funds  are  used
effectively and  targeted  carefully  to meet critical water  quality needs.   To
accomplish this,  the Regions  are  issuing  guidance  and  funding  targets  for
specific priority activities,  providing  technical and  management assistance,
tracking and evaluating grantee performance and assuring that states meet their
level-of-effort requirements.

      The Agency is providing  management  oversight to 150  existing Clean Lake
projects.   EPA  is   also  reviewing  and   approving state  lake  water  quality
assessments,  preparing reports to Congress on the  status of lake water quality
and progress achieved under  the Section 314(d) Demonstration Program, providing


                                    3-25

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a technical supplement to  the Lake and Reservoir Restoration guidance manual and
continuing efforts to validate various restoration methodologies.

1989 Accomplishments

      In  1989,  the Agency obligated  a  total of $6,507,500  supported by 98.6
total workyears for this program,  of which $5,089,900 was from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation and  $1,417,600  was  from the  Abatement, Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      Headquarters and  the Regions  initiated review•,  revision and approval of
state NFS assessment reports and management programs and prepared  an annual
report to Congress summarizing the states' progress.  Approximately 10 workshops
and  10  consultations were provided to  states on proven technologies for the
design and implementation of watershed-level control systems.  Regions negotiated
and  managed work programs  for Section  205(j)(5)  grants   to  57 states  and
territories to complete development and begin implementation of NFS management
programs.   Program audits were conducted by Headquarters to  assure national
consistency.

      Headquarters allocated  Section  106  grant  funds to Regions,  states  and
qualified Indian  tribes,  provided guidance on basic program issues,  conducted
evaluations of Regional programs and evaluated the performance of selected Indian
tribes.   Regions continued  to  negotiate, award and  manage Sections  106  and
205(j)(l)  grant  funds  to  203 states,   interstate  organizations,  regional
organizations and qualified Indian tribes.
GREAT LAKES PROGRAM

1991 Program Request

      The  Agency requests  a  total  of  $12,238,000 supported  by  45.4  total
workyears  for  this  program,  of which $3,214,300 will be  for  the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation  and  $9,023,700  will be for  the  Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation. This represents an increase of $252,700 in the Salaries
and Expenses appropriation,  a decrease of $1,105,600 in the Abatement, Control
and Compliance appropriation, and an increase of 10.0 in total workyears.  The
increase in Salaries and Expenses supports the increase in total workyears.  The
decrease  in Abatement,  Control  and Compliance  reflects completion  of  major
components  of  the Green Bay Mass  Balance study and  of the  refitting  of the
research vessel,  MARSEA  14.  The increase in workyears reflects  increased support
for the  state/local development and implementation of Remedial Action Plans (RAP)
and the development of the Lakewide Management Plans (LAMP), as required in the
Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA) with Canada.

      Under the Clean Water Act (CWA)  and GLWQA, the Great Lakes National Program
Office  (GLNPO) will  continue to  provide technical  and  management support for
pollution prevention and control activities to protect critical  habitats, surface
water and  ground-water. GLNPO  and Regional  technical  support  will be expanded
for state/local development and implementation of RAPs for 30 United States Areas
of Concern (AOC)  identified by the International Joint  Commission (IJC).   In
1991, 27 of the 30 plans will be completed.   In coordination with GLNPO, Regions
II ai'.d V will continue to develop the LAMPs for Lake Ontario and Lake Michigan

                                   3-26

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to address the problems of critical toxics, and will begin, with Region III, the
work on the LAMP for Lake Erie.

      GLNPO's Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments  (ARCS) program
will continue with pilot field demonstrations of promising technologies to abate
contaminated sediment problems at several locations.   Among the possible sites
are Saginaw  Bay,  Sheboygan  Harbor,  Grand Calumet  River, Ashtabula River, and
Buffalo River.  The  ARCS  projects,  which will be  allocated 40 percent  of the
program's  funding,  will  support RAP  implementation  by determining  feasible
technologies for abatement of the contaminated sediment problems identified in
most of the AOCs.  The Agency's replacement  research vessel, MARSEA 14, will be
operational,  and  outfitting of  the ship with laboratory  modules  for  toxics
monitoring needs will be completed.  The  Green Bay Mass Balance  study will be
completed, including  a joint study with  the National  Oceanic  and Atmospheric
Administration (NOAA) on the Green Bay hydrology and sediment flux.

      GLNPO will continue to coordinate with and provide oversight for Regions
II, III,  and V on  water quality  standards and on  technical  matters  in the
development  and review  of  permits  and  permit compliance  related  to  GLWQA
requirements.  Great  Lakes  monitoring  and  source  assessment activities  will
continue  through  annual  programs for  conventional and toxic pollutants, for
collection, analyses, and reporting on both open lake migratory and near shore
non-migratory  fish,  and  for collection of  precipitation samples  through the
Great Lakes Atmospheric Deposition  (GLAD) network  for  the  analyses of metals,
nutrients, and organic toxics.   Surveillance activities will include continued
open lake limnology and biological sampling,  and continued air monitoring through
the GLAD network.  These  analyses will  be  used  to determine metals and nutrient
loadings to the Great Lakes  as  a basis for the design and operation of pollution
abatement programs.

      GLNPO will continue development of the program's annual progress reports
to Congress on implementation of  the United States commitments under GLWQA.  The
program  office  will  continue  to convene  and participate in bilateral  United
States/Canadian committees and task  forces  as  the  United States  lead on GLWQA
implementation.  The  program will provide  technical support to EPA Headquarters
and to  the  Department of State on official  Canadian  inquiries  concerning the
Great Lakes policies and programs of the United States government.

1990 Program

      The Agency is  allocating a total  of $13,090,900  supported  by 35.4 total
workyears for this program, of which $2,961,600  is from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation  and $10,129,300  is from  the  Abatement,   Control and Compliance
appropriation.

      GLNPO, in cooperation  with Regions  II and V, provides  technical support
to state/local agencies to develop and begin implementation of RAPs, and 25 of
the 30 plans are expected to be complete.  The  initial LAMP development work by
Regions II and V,  with the participation of  GLNPO,  begins with Lake Ontario and
Lake Michigan.  The ARCS program, which is allocated 40 percent of the program's
funding, completes laboratory scale demonstrations of promising technologies and
begins  the preliminary work for the pilot  scale demonstrations  in the  field.
The   technical protocols,  site selection  criteria,   and  procedures for the
demonstrations are also complete.  The refitting of  the  MARSEA 14 to Coast Guard
                                       's
                                    3-27

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specifications is being completed, outfitting the ship with laboratory modules
for  toxics monitoring  begins  and a  Bay  City home  porting  site  is  under
evaluation.  The Green Bay  Mass  Balance  study continues developing predictive
models for identification, transport, and fate  of toxic substances.  GLNPO begins
a joint study with NOAA on the Green Bay hydrology and sediment flux.

      The program office  provides continuing technical support for and tracking
of various state-level nonpoint source  control programs  to implement the United
States phosphorus  reduction plan.   Regions  II  and V begin  implementing the
recommendations of the 1988 Nonpoint Source Reduction Plan Implementation Report
called for under Annex 3 of the GLWQA,  using CWA Section 319 authority.  Great
Lakes  monitoring  and source  assessment activities  continue  through  annual
programs for conventional and toxic pollutants.  Surveillance activities include
continued  open  lake limnology and  biological sampling, and  operation  of air
monitoring stations in the GLAD network.  GLNPO continues work on  the development
of the program's annual progress  reports  to  Congress.  Bi-national coordination
and staff  level working  contacts  on GLWQA implementation  increases.   GLNPO is
to  complete the  negotiation of  agreements,  where  needed,   with  appropriate
Federal, state, local, and tribal agencies, as specified in the CWA.

1989 Accomplishments

      In  1989,  the Agency obligated a total  of $9,855,800 supported by 30.8
total workyears for this  program,  of which $2,259,700 was from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation  and  $7,596,100  was  from the  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      GLNPO  provided direction  and technical  assistance  to  states in  the
development of RAPs,  and RAPs for 15 of  the 30 United  States AOCs were completed.
The preliminary field work  and biological and chemical  studies  were completed
for the ARCS program, which  was allocated 40 percent  of the Great Lakes program
funding. Also, laboratory scale demonstrations of promising remedial technologies
were begun. The specifications and contract bid proposal were developed for the
overhaul and refitting of the MARSEA 14,  which was acquired in December 1988.

      GLNPO continued tracking nonpoint source pollution control practices and
providing  technical  assistance  and monitoring  for the  Great  Lakes  states'
phosphorus  reduction efforts,  including  elements  of the  1986  U.S.  Plan for
Phosphorus Load Reduction to Lake Erie,  Lake  Ontario,  and Saginaw  Bay.  Tributary
monitoring for toxic pollutants was continued.  The expansion of the GLAD network
increased its analytical  and research capabilities.  Work continued on the Green
Bay Mass Balance study and in the area  of toxic source assessment.

      GLNPO continued the negotiation  of agreements  with  appropriate Federal,
state, local,  and tribal agencies, as specified in the CWA.   Work continued on
the preparation of the program's  annual progress reports to Congress.  Specific
cooperative studies were conducted with  NOAA  to  develop a  research inventory.
GLNPO published the  results of the  bi-national  multi-agency Upper  Great Lakes
Connecting Channel study for use  in developing  the  international RAPs for the
St. Marys, St. Clair, and Detroit Rivers.
                                    3-28

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CHESAPEAKE BAY PROGRAM

1991 Program Request

      The  Agency requests  a  total  of  $12,185,200 supported  by  12.0  total
workyears for  this  program,  of which $1,486,400 will be  for the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and $10,698,800 will  be for the  Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation.  This represents an  increase of $245,200 in Salaries
and Expenses, a decrease of $722,600 in Abatement, Control and Compliance, and
an increase of 2.0  in total  workyears. The increases in Salaries and Expenses
and total workyears  reflect  increased  activities related to toxics impacts on
living resources and toxics monitoring.   The  decrease in Abatement, Control and
Compliance reflects completion of nonpoint source control project  grants and of
studies required  for the clean-up program for Rock Creek,  a  small tributary
discharging to Baltimore Harbor, and for the Patuxent River Demonstration Site
in Maryland.

      Under the Clean Water  Act (CWA)  and the Chesapeake Bay Agreement (CBA),
the Chesapeake Bay Liaison Office (CBLO)  will continue to provide  technical and
management support  for pollution prevention  and control  activities to protect
critical habitats,  surface water,  and  ground water.   The Agency will continue
to meet its expanded responsibilities under  the CBA in  concert with the three
States of Pennsylvania, Maryland,  and Virginia, the District of Columbia and the
Chesapeake Bay Commission.  The CBLO will continue  management of state nonpoint
source  control  and  monitoring  grants,  and  will  provide  overall  program
coordination,  computer  services/data  management,  administrative  and  public
information  support.   Also,  technical   advisory  services  to   the  program's
Executive Council, advisory committees, and subgroups established to carry out
the terms of the CBA will be continued.

      A review of the Bay monitoring program  led by the CBLO will be completed.
Program participants  will assist  in defining nutrient  loads and contribute to
reevaluation of the  nutrients reduction goal and reassessment of costs.  The goal
of the basinwide nutrient reduction strategy is to achieve at least a 40 percent
reduction from 1985  levels of nutrients entering the Bay's main stem by the year
2000.  The  CBLO and  the  U.S.  Army Corps of Engineers will  complete  the time
varying model for use in the reevaluation of the 40 percent nutrient reduction
goal.  Toxic studies, expanded  monitoring data,  pesticide management demonstra-
tions  and  use   surveys,  analytical  capabilities  surveys,   toxic  loading
inventories, and the continued  implementation of the  Basinwide Toxics Reduction
Strategy will be  used to refine and redirect the Strategy and improve regulatory
efforts.   The  data  from  a CBLO pesticide survey will be  analyzed and used to
support improvements in the states' pesticide management programs.  The CBLO will
also develop a pesticide  index and registry as a pollution prevention initiative
to assist in reducing the risk of nonpoint source pesticide pollution.

      The program will work with the Agency's Narragansett laboratory to expand
toxics data to include atmospheric deposition data.  Activities to ensure public
involvement in protecting and restoring living resources and water quality will
be continued.  Reports,  fact sheets, and media releases  will also continue to
be produced.  The CBLO will  also  continue  to be a participant  and contributor
to the Agency's ongoing Near Coastal Waters technology transfer activities.
                                    3-29

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1990 Program

      The Agency is allocating a  total  of  $12,662,600  supported by 10.0 total
workyears for this program, of which $1,241,200 is from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and  $11,421,400 is  from  the Abatement,  Control  and Compliance
appropriation.

      One of  the  ongoing priorities of the program is  the  implementation of
nonpoint source (NFS)  nutrient pollution control projects  for targeted drainage
subbasins through annual state implementation grants.  Investigations continue
on nonpoint sources and impacts of toxics, with the concentration on sediments,
the surface microlayer,  and pesticides from land drainage.  The work of the CBLO
on toxics and related  problems includes: development of the Toxics of Concern
List; toxicity  assessments  of living resource habitats,  particularly shallow
nearshore habitats in cooperation with the  Fish and Wildlife Service; estuarine
sediment bioassay development and validation; and research on matters relating
to  ecological  risk  assessment,   in  cooperation with  National  Oceanic  and
Atmospheric Administration.   CBLO  is also  undertaking  a  pesticides use survey
based on the findings of the office's 1988 surface microlayer study, which showed
that pesticides are impacting the microlayer.

      The program redirection continues  in  order  to meet  the CBA commitments of
the Bay states to reduce the level of nutrients in the  Bay by 40 percent by the
year 2000 and to meet the 1987 CWA  requirements to look into problems of toxicity
through  the program's  ongoing monitoring activities.  Under the  expanded CWA
responsibilities and CBA commitments, the  CBLO continues to provide technical
and management  leadership  in nutrient  reduction and the  emerging  problems of
persistent toxics in the Bay basin. The CBLO also continues efforts to control
nonpoint toxic  sources,  with the emphasis  on continued  implementation of the
toxics strategy approved in December 1988.  Efforts to improve compliance of Bay
dischargers under the National Pollutant Discharge  Elimination System continue
through implementation of the Bay Compliance Initiative.  The CBLO has initiated
and in 1990 will complete two required Maryland studies  --  the Rock Creek clean-
up program study and the Patuxent River Demonstration Site study for pollution
management and control.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989,  the  Agency  obligated a  total of  $12,465,800  supported by 17.1
total workyears for this program,  of which  $1,509,500 was  from the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation  and  $10,966,300  was from the  Abatement, Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      The CBLO continued to work with the Bay states to implement the elements
of the CBA.  This included completion of the  development  policies and guidelines,
a wetlands policy,  a fish passage strategy,  fishery management plans, and a plan
to reduce and control toxic materials entering the Bay from point and nonpoint
sources, and a plan to achieve point and nonpoint source reduction from Federal
installations that parallel the states'  load reduction.

      The program support for monitoring the mainstem  of the Bay continued in
concert with the states' focus on monitoring the  major tributaries.   Continued
support was provided  for public  outreach  activities and for maintaining  and
improving the Chesapeake Bay data system.


                                    3-30

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                                                   WATER QUALITY
                                          Effluent  Standards &  Guidelines

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED      CURRENT     REQUEST    INCREASE +
                                 1989      1990       ESTIMATE       1991      DECREASE -
                                                       1990                1991 VS  1990
                                               (DOLLARS  IN  THOUSANDS)

PROGRAM
Effluent Standards &
Guidelines
 Salaries & Expenses           S3,228.6   $3,513.0   S3,126.7  $3,533.0      $406.3
 Abatement Control and         $6,118.2   $6,042.6   $5,965.6  $9,463.6    $3,498.0
 Compliance
                       TOTAL   $9,346.8   $9,555.6   $9,092.3  $12,996.6    $3,904.3


TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses           $3,228.6   $3,513.0   $3,126.7  $3,533.0      $406.3
 Abatement Control and         $6,118.2   $6,042.6   $5,965.6  $9,463.6    $3,498.0
 Compliance

Effluent Standards &   TOTAL   $9,346.8   $9,555.6   $9,092.3  $12,996.6    $3,904.3
Guidelines
PERMANENT WORKYEARS
Effluent Standards &               46.2       45.7       45.7      48.7         3.0
Guidelines

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS          46.2       45.7       45.7      48.7         3.0
TOTAL UORKYEARS
Effluent Standards &               48.9       45.7      45.7       48.7         3.0
Guidelines

TOTAL UORKYEARS                    48.9       45.7      45.7       48.7         3.0
                                         3-31

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                                 WATER QUALITY


                       Effluent Standards  and Guidelines
BudEet Request
      The  Agency requests  a  total  of  $12,996,600 supported  by  48.7  total
workyears  for  1991,  an  increase  of $3,904,300 and an increase  of 3.0 total
workyears  from 1990.   Of the  request,  $3,533,000  will  be for the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and  $9,463,600  will be for  the  Abatement, Control and
Compliance  appropriation.    This  represents  an  increase  of $406,300  in the
Salaries  and Expenses appropriation  and  an  increase  of  $3,498,000  in the
Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

EFFLUENT STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES

1991 Program Request

      In 1991,  the  Agency requests  a  total of $12,996,600  supported by 48.7
total workyears for this program,  of which $3,533,000 will be for the Salaries
and Expenses appropriation  and $9,463,600 will be  for  the Abatement, Control
and  Compliance  appropriation.   This  represents  an increase  of  $406,300  in
Salaries and Expenses,  an increase of 3.0 workyears and an increase of $3,498,000
in Abatement, Control and Compliance.  The  increases reflect  a growing workload
associated with meeting  the  Section  304(m) requirement  to promulgate effluent
guidelines for currently unregulated industries and pollutants.

      The  effluent standards  and  guidelines program will  continue  to develop
controls or guidance for  the unregulated industries and pollutants as identified
in the Domestic  Sewage  Study  (DSS).  The Agency will  propose regulations for the
offshore oil and gas industry and the pesticides manufacturing industry, publish
four draft  technical  guidance studies  (timber, petroleum  refining,  waste oil
recovery and textiles), initiate development of a draft technical  guidance study
for the steam electric  industry and pursue  development of regulations for three
other unregulated  industries  cited  by the  DSS  as  contributing considerable
quantities  of  hazardous and  toxic  wastes  to  publicly owned  treatment works
(POTWs) and  surface  waters  (hazardous waste treaters   (Phase  II),  industrial
laundries and transportation cleaning). .

      As identified in the Section  304(m)  notice,  the  Agency will continue to
develop regulations  for  the following industries;  hazardous waste  treatment,
machinery  manufacturing  and  rebuilding,   pesticides   formulating/packaging,
Pharmaceuticals, coastal oil and  gas,  and  pulp and  paper.   Work will continue
on a proposed  regulation for  the remanded portion of  the  organic  chemicals,
plastics and synthetic fibers regulation (proposal FY 92).  In addition, three
technical guidance documents for the  timber,  textiles, and petroleum industries
will be published.   The remaining eight industrial categories,  identified in
the FY 90 Section 304(m) notice,  will continue to  be evaluated.

      Analytical methods  development will  continue with the Sample  Control Center
providing  analytical   services   (3,000   samples)   required  for  regulatory
development, enforcement activities, hazardous waste  programs  and Superfund
activities.  The Agency will also condu.-t  an analytical methods conference; four


                                    3-32

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comprehensive technical workshops  for regional and state permit writers and POTW
operators;  and an  international  conference,  to  be  co-sponsored  by EPA  and
industry, on  the  application of pollution prevention  practices  in industrial
wastewater treatment in the pesticides industry. As part of the Agency's overall
emphasis on pollution prevention,  the program will, in the process of effluent
guidelines development, fully and effectively address pollution prevention, water
conservation and cross-media impacts.  Technology transfer will be expanded to
promote rapid implementation of pollution prevention concepts and techniques.

1990 Program

      In 1990, the Agency is allocating a  total of  $9,092,300 supported by 45.7
total workyears for this program,  of which $3,126,700 is from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation  and $5,965,600  is  from  the  Abatement,   Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      In FY 90, the Agency  published the  Section  304(m) notice that committed
the Agency  to promulgate new  or  revise  existing  regulations for  nine major
industrial categories.  Schedules  for the  nine  rulemaking actions were included
in the notice.  In addition, the notice  identified eleven industrial categories
the Agency would continue to study.   The Agency published guidance documents or
data    summaries    for    thirteen    industrial    categories    including;
coastal/onshore/stripper  oil and  gas,  drum  reconditioning, hazardous  waste
treatment,  hospitals,   industrial   laundries,  machinery  manufacturing  and
rebuilding,  paint,  pesticides,  pharmaceuticals,   pulp  and  paper,  solvent
recycling, transportation,  and used oil reclamation and re-refining.

      Analytical methods development and validation continues for the analysis
of pesticides,  chemicals reported under Title III  of  the  Superfund Amendment
Reauthorization Act, and toxic  and hazardous  pollutants  subject to the Resource
Conservation and Recovery Act.   The Sample Control Center continues to provide
a wide diversity of analytical capability services to support effluent guidelines
development and other  Agency programs, such as the  Chesapeake  Bay microlayer
sampling, the National  Sewage Sludge Survey,  biomonitoring and bioaccumulation
methods  and  sampling  analyses,  sto'rmwater  survey,   and  toxicity  reduction
evaluation studies  for permitting and  enforcement  activities.   The program is
also publishing the  "List of Lists," which presents an integrated and continually
up-to-date list of  Agency-wide pollutants  of concern and identifies those for
which analytical methods are available.

1989 Accomplishments

      In  1989,  the  Agency  obligated a  total of $9,346,800  supported by 48.9
total workyears for this program,  of  which $3,228,600 was from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation  and $6,118,200 was  from   the  Abatement,   Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      The effluent guidelines program continued regulations  development for four
industrial categories:  pesticide manufacturing,  pesticide formulating/packaging,
pulp and paper manufacturing, and offshore oil and gas extraction.   A Federal
Register notice of data availability was published for the coastal oil and gas
extraction subcategory, as part  of the  program's pre-regulation effort for that
industry.   Headquarters continued to  study and  initiate  the development  of
regulations for the machinery manufacturing and rebuilding industry, hazardous


                                     3-33

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waste  treaters  industry  and Pharmaceuticals  industry.    Data gathering  and
analysis were initiated on one  previously  regulated industry (onshore oil and
gas).

      Headquarters also provided post-promulgation  negotiation and litigation
support for  placer gold mining and  the nonferrous  forming  and manufacturing
phase II regulatory amendments,  and continued support for the organic effluent
limitations published in  1987.  Comprehensive  technical  policy workshops were
conducted covering the  progress of  the pesticides  regulations,  the effluent
limitations  associated  with  the organic  regulations,  findings of analytical
studies and the DSS industries,  and the oil and gas regulatory efforts.
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                                                   WATER  QUALITY
                                            Grants  Assistance  Programs

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED      CURRENT      REQUEST    INCREASE +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE       1991      DECREASE -
                                                       1990                1991  VS  1990
                                               (DOLLARS IN  THOUSANDS)

PROGRAM
Clean Lakes Program
 Abatement Control and         $9,024.4   $8,860.8   $8,747.7              -$8,747.7
 Compliance
                       TOTAL   $9,024.4   $8,860.8   $8,747.7              -$8,747.7

Control Agency Resource
Supplementation
(Section 106)
 Abatement Control and        $67,472.5  $73,540.4  $72,599.1   $81,700.0     $9,100.9
 Compliance
                       TOTAL  $67,472.5  $73,540.4  $72,599.1   $81,700.0     $9,100.9

Water Quality
Management Cooperative
Agreements
 Abatement Control and                                         $16,500.0    $16,500.0
 Compliance
                       TOTAL                                   $16,500.0    $16,500.0
TOTAL:
 Abatement Control and        $76,496.9  $82,401.2  $81,346.8   $98,200.0    $16,853.2
 Compliance

Grants Assistance      TOTAL  $76,496.9  $82,401.2  $81,346.8   $98,200.0    $16,853.2
Programs
                                         3-35

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                                 WATER QUALITY


                          Grants Assistance Programs
Budget Request
      The Agency requests a total of $98,200,000 for  1991.  All of this request
will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation. This represents
an increase of $16,853,200 from 1990.

CLEAN LAKES PROGRAM

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests no funding for this program in 1991, which represents
a decrease of $8,747,700  in the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.
In  past years,  the  Agency  has  developed  and demonstrated  lake  restoration
techniques and assisted states in classifying lakes,  identifying techniques for
restoring  the levels of  water quality  needed  to maintain or enhance uses, and
implemented  cleanup  and  control  projects.   Because the Agency has  provided
guidance to the states on maintaining clean lakes, it believes that the states
are  now  able to  address  lake   restoration  needs,  along  with  other  local
priorities, under their existing water quality management programs.

1990 Program

      In 1990, the Agency is allocating a total  of $8,747,700  for this program,
all of which is from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

      In 1990, the Clean Lakes program supports  state-EPA cooperative agreements
under Section  314 of the Clean Water  Act.   The  agreements  are being used to
support the highest priority Phase I lake diagnostic  feasibility studies, Phase
II implementation activities to restore and protect lake water quality and Phase
III post-restoration monitoring  projects to enhance  the  scientific  basis for
various lake restoration  methodologies.   Approximately 100 projects are being
selected based on an evaluation of the environmental and public benefits of state
Clean Lakes proposals.

1989 Program

      In 1989, the Agency obligated a total  of $9,024,400 for  this program, all
of which was from the Abatement,  Control and Compliance appropriation.

      Under the nationally competitive  Clean Lakes Program, the Agency provided
financial assistance to conduct 40 state and 3 Indian tribal lake water quality
assessments to evaluate the status and trends in lake water quality, establish
a basis for state/tribal programs and Federal assistance needs and provide the
Agency with data to determine future program direction.  Forty-five diagnostic/
feasibility studies  and lake restoration and protection implementation projects
were conducted  to determine causes  and sources  of pollution  to  lakes  and
implement  measures  to  restore and protect lake  water  quality.   Three  post-
restoration monitoring studies were initiated  to advance  the  science  of lake
restoration,  validate methodologies and determine the longevity and effectiveness
                                    3-36

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of restoration/protection measures.

      Under  the  Demonstration  Program,  the Agency  conducted  seven  projects
meeting the  legislative  objectives of Section 314 of the  Act,  and assistance
was provided consistent with the Clean Lakes Regulation (40 CFR, Part 35, subpart
H).
CONTROL AGENCY RESOURCE SUPPLEMENTATION (SECTION 106)

1991 Program Request

     In 1991, the Agency requests a total of $81,700,000 for this program, all
of which will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  This
represents an increase of $9,100,900 from 1990 to partially offset the loss of
grant funding previously available under the construction grant set-asides.

     Section 106 grants will  continue  to  provide funding assistance for water
pollution  control  programs  operated by  63  state,  interstate  and territorial
agencies   and   approximately   30   Indian  tribes.     Grantees  will  complete
implementation  of  Section  304(1) water quality-based controls  for  toxic
discharges in high priority waters, assess water quality conditions and trends
and conduct  comprehensive monitoring  (including  water column,  fish tissue and
sediment)  to identify sites  impacted by toxic  pollutants  and  areas  needing
controls on a high priority basis.  Grantees will continue to administer water
quality standards  programs  that  focus on new standards  for  toxic pollutants
based on EPA water quality criteria and review of standards, as required by the
statute.

     States (and Indian tribes that qualify as states)  will emphasize reissuance
of expiring National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits that
incorporate  toxic/toxicity-based  limits  and  will  modify   other permits  to
incorporate new limits based  on  the findings from earlier analyses.   Grantees
will also  focus on selected,  high priority  permit  modifications for publicly
owned treatment works  (POTWs)  to  address  pretreatment requirements.   In 1991,
grantees will focus permitting, compliance and enforcement activities in waters
at highest risk, particularly  in critical aquatic habitats.

      States  (and  Indian  tribes  that  qualify  as  states)  will  develop  and
implement  ground-water protection activities  that  move  the   states  beyond
protection strategies to comprehensive ground-water protection programs.  States
will also  enhance  their efforts  to incorporate  wellhead protection activities
and pesticide management plans into their  comprehensive ground-water protection
programs.

1990 Program

      In 1990,  the Agency  is allocating a total of $72,599,100 for this program,
all of which is from the Abatement, Control  and Compliance appropriation.

       Section  106 grants continue  to provide  funding assistance  for  water
pollution  control  programs  operated by  63  state,  interstate  and territorial
agencies and approximately 30  Indian tribes.   In  1990,  states continue to review
water  quality  standards  and  adopt  numeric  and/or  narrative   water  quality


                                    3-37

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standards  for toxic  pollutants  and  toxicity,  as  appropriate.    States  are
determining whether "new" or additional waters need to be listed under Section
304(1), and are  completing  assessments  for  rivers,  lakes,  estuaries, wetlands
and marine waters.  Monitoring and assessment data are being used to establish
priorities for needed control measures, to develop wasteload allocations for
permits and to increase sediment contamination information.

     States are  modifying,  issuing or reissuing NPDES  permits to incorporate
limits for toxic pollutants and/or toxicity in water quality-based or technology-
based permits. States are also issuing permits for combined sewer overflows and
sludge  controls,  where  needed.   States  are  being  encouraged   to  assume
pretreatment program delegations, improve reporting where the  state  is the POTW
control authority,  inspect  POTWs to determine compliance  status  and initiate
enforcement actions against inadequate  POTW implementation and/or industrial user
noncompliance.

     To ensure  compliance of  NPDES-permitted facilities,  states  continue  an
effective assessment,  monitoring and enforcement program, focusing on controlling
toxic pollutants  and protecting municipal  infrastructure. Industrial enforcement
actions  and  NPDES  and  pretreatment  inspections  include  toxicity reduction
evaluation  methodologies.    National  Municipal  Policy follow-up  enforcement
actions focus on municipalities that fail to meet their construction schedules.

     Ground-water protection  activities  are receiving a total of $10,885,485
for support of state  efforts  to  develop comprehensive ground-water protection
programs which set priorities  and integrate efforts to  manage and control actual
and potential sources of contamination.   As  part of their programs, state water
agencies are  developing  hydrogeologic aspects of pesticides  management plans,
which provide  protection methods tailored to area-specific differences in ground-
water vulnerability.  In addition,  state  wellhead protection (WHP) programs are
being developed as key components of state comprehensive ground-water protection
programs.  In developing and  implementing WHP programs,  states play an active
role in protecting-a very important sub-set  of  their ground-water resources,
i.e., ground waters that supply drinking water to public water systems.

1989 Accomplishments

     In 1989,  the Agency obligated a total of  $67,472,500 for  this program, all
of which was from the Abatement,  Control and Compliance appropriation.

     Section 106  grants provided  funding assistance for operation of state water
pollution control programs  for 63  state, interstate and territorial agencies,
and  approximately  30  Indian tribes.     States  resolved complex  use/criteria
revision and modification issues,  reviewed antidegradation policies and developed
implementation methods, placing special emphasis on determining priority water
segments requiring  site-specific criteria.   States completed lists of waters
impaired by  toxic discharges and  developed individual control strategies  to
comply with requirements of Section 304(1).

     Expiring NPDES permits were issued/reissued by states  with water quality-
based  limits  to  control toxic  pollutants  and  toxicity  and  to  incorporate
biomonitoring requirements.   A number  of unexpired NPDES permits where Section
304(1) assessments  had been  completed  and  the  need  for  toxic controls  was
determined were also modified.  States  developed sludge programs  and worked with


                                    3-38

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EPA to incorporate sludge limits and/or impose biomonitoring requirements on some
NPDES permits for POTWs and/or other sludge handling facilities.  States assisted
POTWs with approved local pretreatment programs  and  to  develop and modify new
and revised  categorical standards  and local  limits  to control  toxic/hazardous
pollutants.    Audits   were   conducted  to  determine  the  adequacy  of  local
pretreatment programs.

     In the NPDES enforcement program,  states concluded the National Municipal
Policy  effort primarily  by  use  of judicial actions  to  set schedules  for
facilities  that missed  the  July  1,   1988,  deadline   for  compliance.    In
pretreatment  enforcement, states  ensured that industrial  users  complied with
categorical standards and that local control authorities complied with provisions
of their approved programs.  States conducted pretreatment compliance inspections
and ensured that POTWs had adequate control mechanisms in place.  They continued
to conduct both sampling and  non-sampling  inspections and to use penalties to
enforce Best Achievable Technology and water quality-based permit requirements
to address critical water-quality objectives.

     States completed and revised their nonpoint source management programs to
reflect EPA review.  States reviewed and refined their ground-water protection
strategies to determine the measures needed to protect ground-water resources,
particularly  in relationship with the uses of this resource.


WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a  total  of  $16,500,000  for  this program, all of which
will be for the Abatement,  Control  and Compliance appropriation.  This represents
an increase  of $16,500,000  from 1990 to  support  state permitting, enforcement
and water quality management activities.  This funding will  partially offset the
reductions in Federal  grant funds available to  states  under the construction
grant set-asides, which no longer exist after 1990.

      Section 104(b)(3) of the Clean Water Act (CWA)  allows EPA to make grants
to state  water pollution control  agencies  through  cooperative  agreements to
conduct   and  promote   investigations,    experiments,   training   exercises,
demonstrations  and surveys  to  determine  the  causes,  effects  and extent of
pollution.   It also allows EPA to  institute measures to  prevent,  reduce  and
eliminate pollution.

      Although grant funds will be available to states for activities previously
funded under  the set-asides,  funds  will  be targeted  to  states  that  commit to
achieving concrete  results,  with the understanding that the funds will serve as
"seed money" to help states address many of the newer CWA requirements.

      Cooperative agreements will be negotiated  with states  that  have  assumed
full  responsibility  for   administering   the  National   Pollutant  Discharge
Elimination  System  (NPDES)  and/or pretreatment programs.  Funds  will be made
available  for  specific  activities  related  to  permits,  pretreatment  and
enforcement.     Specifically,  eligible  activities   include upgrading  NPDES
permitting and pretreatment programs to ensure consistency with current statutory
and regulatory requirements  and developing and  implementing new  state  sludge


                                    3-39

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management programs.   States  may also finance the development  of new complex
permits with requirements for combined sewer overflows, stormwater discharges,
sludge disposal, pretreatment and pollution prevention.  Activities to upgrade
local  pretreatment  programs  to  ensure   consistency  with  new  regulatory
requirements for  toxics  and hazardous wastes  and to  improve  compliance with
permit limits and requirements are also eligible for funding.  Finally, states
may finance NPDES permit enforcement actions.

      In addition, funds will be available to all states to perform activities
related to control  of  toxic pollutants and protection  of  coastal and wetland
resources.  Specifically, funds will be used by states to adopt new water quality
standards based on EPA  water quality criteria for  toxic pollutants  and  on
criteria  for salt water and wetlands.   Funds may also be used by  states  to
conduct special monitoring  to support water quality-based  controls  for toxic
pollutants and for facilities that discharge into salt waters and wetlands.

1990 Program

     No funds are allocated for this program in 1990.

1989 Accomplishments

     No funds were obligated for this program in 1989.
                                    3-40

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PROGRAM
                                                   WATER QUALITY
                                      Water Quality Strategies Implementation

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED     CURRENT     REQUEST    INCREASE +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE      1991      DECREASE -
                                                       1990               1991  VS 1990
                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
Wetlands Protection
 Salaries & Expenses
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
        $4,681.1   $5,081.0   $5,273.4   $8,434.5     $3,161.1
        $3,035.7   $3,5Z9.0   $3,478.8   $5,413.0     $1,934.2

TOTAL   $7,716.8   $8,610.0   $8,752.2  $13,847.5     $5,095.3
Wetlands Program
Implementation
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
                   $1,230.7   $1,215.0   $5,000.0    $3,785.0

TOTAL              $1,230.7   $1,215.0   $5,000.0    $3,785.0
Ocean Disposal Permits
 Salaries & Expenses
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
        $2,400.6   $3,860.8   $3,367.4   $2,580.6     -$786.8
        $5,865.7   $8,144.8   $7,999.0   $6,906.9   -$1,092.1

TOTAL   $8,266.3  $12,005.6  $11,366.4   $9,487.5   -$1,878.9
Environmental Emergency
Response & Prevention
 Salaries & Expenses
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
        $2,019.2   $1,527.0   $1,763.6   $2,365.0      $601.4
        $1,893.1   $1,164.7   $1,150.0   $4,682.8    $3,532.8

TOTAL   $3,912.3   $2,691.7   $2,913.6   $7,047.8    $4,134.2
Spill Restoration
Program
 Salaries & Expenses
                       TOTAL
Standards & Regulations
 Salaries & Expenses
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
Nonpoint Source
Management Grants
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
                       TOTAL
Nonpoint Source
Implementation
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
                     $883.6
                     $883.6
$871.8
$871.8
-$871.8
-$871.8
        $4,400.4   $4,783.0   $4,604.5   $5,432.1       $827.6
        $3,316.5   $4,666.3   $4,132.8   $4,341.9       $209.1

TOTAL   $7,716.9   $9,449.3   $8,737.3   $9,774.0     $1,036.7
                       TOTAL
                  $37,411.1   $36,933.1   $14,250.0  -$22,683.1

                  $37,411.1   $36,933.1   $14,250.0  -$22,683.1



                   $1,969.1    $1,944.1      $750.0   -$1,194.1

                   $1,969.1    $1,944.1      $750.0   -$1,194.1
TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
       $13,501.3  $16,135.4  $15,880.7  $18,812.2    $2,931.5
       $14,111.0  $58,115.7  $56,852.8  $41,344.6  -$15,508.2
                                        3-41

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                                                  WATER QUALITY
                                      Water Quality  Strategies  Implementation

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED      CURRENT     REQUEST    INCREASE +
                                 1989      1990       ESTIMATE       1991      DECREASE -
                                                       1990                1991 VS  1990
                                               (DOLLARS  IN THOUSANDS)

Water Quality          TOTAL  $27.612.3  $74,251.1   $72.733.5  $60,156.8   -$12.576.7
Strategies
Implementation


PERMANENT WORKYEARS
Wetlands Protection

Ocean Disposal Permits
Ocean Dumping Fund

Environmental Emergency
Response & Prevention

Spill Restoration
Program

Standards & Regulations

TOTAL PERMANENT UORKYEARS
 96.4

 39.7


 36.5
 79.3

251.9
111.6

 65.1


 36.8


 16.0


 94.7

324.2
108.4

 53.3


 35.0
 88.6

285.3
161.6

 50.3
 10.0

 46.8
 98.0

366.7
53.2

-3.0
10.0

11.8
 9.4

81.4
TOTAL WORKYEARS
Wetlands Protection

Ocean Disposal Permits
Ocean Dumping Fund

Environmental Emergency
Response & Prevention

Spill Restoration
Program

Standards & Regulations

TOTAL WORKYEARS
98.8
42.4
111.6
65.1
111.6
55.1
161.6
50.3
10.0
50.0
-4.8
10.0
 39.8
 83.6

264.6
 36.8


 16.0


 94.7

324.2
 36.8
 91.7

295.2
 46.8
 98.0

366.7
10.0
 6.3

71.5
                                           3-42

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                                 WATER QUALITY


                    Water Quality Strategies Implementation
 Budget  Request
       The  Agency  requests  a  total  of  $60,156,800  supported by  366.7  total
 workyears  for 1991, a  decrease  of $12,576,700 and an  increase  of 71.5  total
 workyears  from 1990.  Of the  request,  $18,812,200 will be  for  the  Salaries  and
 Expenses appropriation  and $41,344,600 will be for the Abatement, Control  and
.Compliance appropriation.  This  represents an increase of  $2,931,500 in  the
 Salaries  and  Expenses   appropriation  and  a  decrease  of  $15,508,200  in  the
 Abatement,  Control and  Compliance  appropriation.
 WETLANDS  PROTECTION

 1991  Program Request

       The Agency  requests  a  total  of  $13,847,500  supported by  161.6  total
 workyears for this program, of which  $8,434,500  will  be for the Salaries  and
 Expenses  appropriations  and $5,413,000 will be for the Abatement, Control  and
 Compliance  Appropriation.   This  represents  an  increase  of  $3,161,100  and
 $1,934,200  respectively, and  an increase  of  50.0 workyears.   The  increases
 reflect  the  Agency's  support for achieving  the  President's  goal  of no net loss
 of wetlands  and several other major Presidential  initiatives: state  capacity,
 enforcement,  and protection of critical  habitats.

       The highest  priority of the  wetlands program  will  be to  achieve  the
 President's  goal  of  no net  loss  of  wetlands  through  implementation of  the
 recommendations of the Domestic Policy Council  Wetlands  Task  Force, a stronger
 Section 404 program, and  assisting states to  develop effective wetland protection
 programs.   The  program's  field presence will  be  greatly  strengthened by  the
 increased workyears in  the Regional offices and the availability of  increased
 financial assistance  to  states.

       During 1991,  a major component of a strong Section 404 program will be the
 enhanced  field presence  of the Agency and an increasingly  cooperative  working
 relationship with the Army Corps of Engineers.   The  program will continue  to
 implement the  memoranda  of agreement (MOA) with the Corps on mitigation policy,
 enforcement,  and delineation of jurisdictional wetlands.  EPA will be monitoring
 restoration  activities  occurring  under the   mitigation  MOA.    Section  404
 enforcement  activities will be augmented by an aggressive public  outreach/media
 campaign  to  inform the  public and the  regulated  community of the values  and
 functions of wetlands and the consequences of their destruction or degradation.
 The program  will be working with the Marine  and Estuarine Protection Program to
 implement the  improved test methods and procedural guidance  on sediment criteria
 and disposal of dredged  material in  coastal  waters.  These  efforts will ensure
 that  wetlands, rivers,  lakes  and coastal/marine waters will be  subject  to  the
 same  standards and equal levels of protection.

       Increased funding assistance will be provided for  states to encourage state
 program  assumption and  development of state comprehensive  wetlands protection


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plans.  Other state activities to promote wetlands protection will include the
use of the Section 401 water  quality  certification process and development of
state water quality standards  for wetlands.   EPA will continue to assist in the
development of  local  programs through the Regions and states  and issuance of
information/technology  transfer.     Continued  focus  will   be  placed  upon
anticipatory approaches to wetlands protection including advance identification.
The Agency will implement a.  variety  of projects  aimed at protecting special
wetland ecosystems such as coastal Louisiana and western riparian wetlands.

      The Agency will work with  other Federal and state  agencies on education
and technical  assistance  aimed at abating  the  high loss  of  wetlands through
agricultural uses.  Since EPA has  limited regulatory powers in this area, forming
partnerships with others is a key to success.  EPA will disseminate new technical
tools emerging from the Agency's  research  efforts  in 1989 and 1990 in the areas
of  restoration,  cumulative impact  assessments,  and long  term  monitoring of
wetlands "health."  EPA will play  an increasing role in international activities,
seeking  opportunities to  share  U.S.  experience  and  expertise with  others,
especially developing countries.

1990 Program

      In 1990,  the Agency is allocating a total of  $8,752,200 supported by 111.6
total workyears for this program,  of  which  $5,273,400  is  for  the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation and   $3,478,800  is  for  the  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      In 1990,  the Agency continues to work with the Corps  of Engineers and other
Federal agencies in issuing policies and procedures to clarify or amplify Federal
regulatory requirements  of the  Section 404  program.   Implementation  of the
enforcement and jurisdictional MOA,  the administrative penalty authorities, the
EPA  wetlands  delineation  manual,  the 404(c)  procedural  guidance,  and  the
bottomland hardwood   guidance  is  occurring.   The  program  is  issuing  final
regulations so  that  qualified and approved Indian Tribes may  administer the
Section 404 program.

      The Agency is supporting the work of  the  Domestic  Policy Council's Task
Force on Wetlands to develop a policy for implementing  the President's goal of
"no net  loss"  of Wetlands.    The  Agency continues to work with  other Federal
agencies  on  a  variety  of  Federal  wetlands  protection  issues  including
streamlining  the  Section 404  regulatory   process,  improving  Federal  land
management practices,  and strengthening the knowledge and science of wetlands.
In particular,  EPA  is  participating on the Interagency Floodplain Task Force to
demonstrate the use of integrated  floodplain management  planning for reducing
flood  losses   and   erosion,   protecting   wetlands,  providing  recreational
opportunities,  and improving stream water quality.

      Major activities in  1990 include more  intensive  efforts  aimed  at state
wetlands protection programs,   the use  of  anticipatory approaches for wetlands
protection,  and aggressive enforcement activities.  State interest in wetlands
protection activities  is  increasing  due to  increased public knowledge  of the
importance of wetlands and the availability of a  small amount  of "seed" grant
funding for pilot  state  programs.  The Agency is holding training workshops
involving state personnel on Section  404   regulations  and enforcement,  the
delineation methodology, water demand management, and use of planning/negotiation

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techniques. The Agency  is  working with states as they revise  their 401 water
quality certification processes to reflect wetlands values and functions.

      The Agency is continuing its use of anticipatory approaches for wetlands
protection, particularly in areas where loss rates continue to be unacceptably
high and traditional program tools are not satisfactorily addressing the problem.

      Enforcement activities are expanding in 1990, building upon new directions
and experience gained under a new enforcement memorandum of agreement with the
Army, new  guidance on the  use  of administrative  civil penalties,  an expanding
EPA  criminal  enforcement program, and greater field experience.    The  use of
administrative penalty orders is  increasing  commensurate with these changes and
priorities, and with.the Agency's  enhanced ability to detect violations through
remote sensing, citizen awareness, and improved interagency networks of Federal
and state  field personnel.

      In 1990, the program is working with the Marine and Estuarine Protection
Program  to develop  improved test methods and procedural  guidance on sediment
criteria and disposal of dredged material in coastal waters.   The criteria and
guidance should apply equally to material disposed of in wetlands,  rivers, lakes
and coastal/marine waters.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989,  the Agency obligated a total of $7,716,800 supported by 98.8 total
workyears  for  this program,  of  which  $4,681,100 was from  the  Salaries  and
Expenses  appropriation  and  $3,035,700 was  from the  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      The Agency made major strides in streamlining the Section 404 regulatory
program  during 1989.   It  issued MOA  with the  Army Corps  of  Engineers on
enforcement and on determination of geographic jurisdiction and Section 404(f)
exemptions.  EPA, the Corps, Soil Conservation Service,  and  the  U.S.  Fish and
Wildlife Service also agreed upon common testing protocols in the "Federal Manual
for Identifying and Delineating Jurisdictional Wetlands."  Training for EPA's
Regions and states was  held  on Section 404  enforcement and the Jurisdictional
delineation  methodology.    During  1989,  the  Regional  programs  used  public
outreach/media campaigns on their enforcement activities as very effective tools
in preventing further destruction and degradation of wetlands.

      In 1989,  EPA continued  to place heavy emphasis upon comprehensive planning
and other anticipatory approaches  to wetlands protection.  A total  of 58 advance
identification actions  were  completed,  ongoing,  or planned.    River corridor/
floodplain management activities were  tested at a number  of locations.

      The Agency continued to assist states  as they examined the feasibility of
assuming administration  of the Section  404 program or otherwise develop statewide
wetlands  protection  programs.    EPA  issued  a  "Handbook   on  Section  401
Certification"  to  help  states   use   the   Clean  Water  Act's  water  quality
certification process as a tool  for wetlands protection.   The  Agency assisted
several states to assess vulnerable wetlands  (cumulative impact assessments) and
develop narrative water quality standards for wetlands.   New  regulations were
proposed that would allow Indian tribes to assume administrative responsibility
for the Section 404 program.


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      The Agency supported efforts by the Domestic Policy Council's Task Force
on Wetlands to develop a policy to achieve the President's goal of "no net loss"
of wetlands.
WETLANDS IMPLEMENTATION PROGRAM

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $5,000,000 for this program, all of which
will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation. This represents
an  increase of $3,785,000.   The increase  reflects  the Agency's  support for
achieving  the President's goal of "no  net loss"  of wetlands and several other
major Presidential initiatives: state capacity, enforcement, and protection of
critical habitats.

      The wetlands implementation program will provide increased grant assistance
to states and Indian tribes for research,  investigations, experiments, training,
demonstrations,  surveys,  and  studies  for the  protection  of wetlands  from
pollution under Section 104 of the  Clean Water Act.   One  of the major avenues
to  achieving the  President's  goal  of  "no net loss"  of  wetlands  is  through
increasing the roles and responsibilities of state governments and Indian tribes
in  wetlands  protection.   Grant  assistance  will  allow many  states  and Indian
tribes  to  acquire  basic  information and  data  on  their wetlands resources, the
risks  posed to  these resources,  examine  a  wide variety  of  techniques  for
protection  for  these  critical resources,  and develop  comprehensive  wetlands
protection plans  that may combine watershed,  nonpoint source, river corridor,
estuary/coastal management and other  critical  habitat protection initiatives.
States will undertake  aggressive  public outreach/education campaigns in concert
with local government planning and protection measures.

1990 Program

      In 1990, the Agency is  allocating a total of $1,215,000  for this program,
all of which is for the Abatement, Control and Compliance  appropriation.

      During 1990, grants are being made available to states and Indian tribes
under a  wetlands  implementation  program for the  first time.  In  1989  and in
previous years,  the  Agency's wetlands protection program has  provided small
amounts of  "seed" money to a limited number of states and  one Indian  tribe to
examine the feasibility of assuming administration of the  Section 404  program.
The State of Michigan is the only state that has  assumed the program,  which in
other states is jointly administered by the Corps of Engineers and EPA.  In 1990,
examples of the ways  in which  states  are increasing  their  wetlands protection
activities include:  evaluation of existing statutory and  regulatory programs;
development of narrative  water  quality  standards for wetlands; incorporation of
wetlands protection in the Section 401 water quality certification process; and
identification of wetland resources, their functions,  and  priorities.

1989 Accomplishments

      No resources were provided  to  this  program  in 1989.
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OCEAN DISPOSAL PERMITS

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total $9,487,500 supported by 60.3 total workyears
for this  program,  of which $2,580,600 will  be for the  Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and $6,906,900 will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.  Total workyears will include 50.3 from  the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and 10.0 will be from the Ocean Dumping Fund.  This represents a
decrease  of  $786,800 in  Salaries  and Expenses,  a decrease of  $1,092,100  in
Abatement, Control  and Compliance, a  decrease of  4.8 in total  Salaries  and
Expenses  workyears,  and an increase  of 10.0  total workyears from  the  Ocean
Dumping Fund.  The decreases in  Salaries and  Expenses and workyears reflect the
transfer of funding for workyears provided  for  the  Ocean Dumping Ban Act (ODBA)
from the  Salaries  and Expenses  appropriation to the Ocean Dumping  Fund.   The
decrease  in  Abatement,  Control  and Compliance reflects  the  completion of the
studies needed to develop the Ocean Dumping regulation proposal.   The addition
of workyears  supported by ODF reflects additional Headquarters and Regional site
management,  monitoring,  and surveillance,  and monitoring of  compliance  with
enforcement agreements required under ODBA.

      The Agency will propose revised Ocean Dumping (OD) regulations on disposal
site designation and dredged material disposal, and will initiate a proposal for
regulations  on  disposal  of other materials.    This will  include  Headquarters'
support for  Regional implementation of  the  regulations  through  training and
technical  assistance.   The Regional  role  in disposal  site management  and
monitoring will be expanded to ensure compliance and enforcement of ocean dumping
criteria  and permit  requirements.   Headquarters  will  continue  work to control
marine debris through identification of sources and the  development of reduction
strategies.  Additional support for Region II will be continued for monitoring
of nearshore  waters  to address the continuing problems on the New York-New Jersey
beaches.  Region II will complete the  final New York Bight Restoration Plan and
a draft of the New York Mud Dump Site study.

      The  Agency will meet  the requirements  of  ODBA to  protect  the  marine
environment at the 106 Mile Site  (deepwater municipal sludge  dump site) off the
New Jersey coast.  In support  of  these requirements, Headquarters and Region II
will expand management, monitoring,  and surveillance of the  site in coordination
with the  National  Oceanic and Atmospheric  Administration  (NOAA)  and the  U.S.
Coast Guard (USCG).   These activities will also ensure  that  the remaining sludge
dumpers comply with their enforcement agreements.

      The  Regions  will  have  a  more  intensive  role  in  the  development  of
environmental impact statements  (EIS) for ocean dredged material disposal sites,
and in site management and monitoring.  Ongoing management responsibilities of
the Regions will increase  as more  interim  dredged material disposal sites are
designated as final  sites.  There  will be  further emphasis on data management
as the number of continuing and comprehensive site monitoring programs increases.

      To  implement the goals of the National Coastal and  Marine Policy (NCMP),
the Agency,  in  cooperation with  other Federal  agencies,  will begin to develop
a compliance  and enforcement  improvement  initiative  to  reduce risk  to  human
health and aquatic life.  This program will include guidance, training, public
awareness, and  support from Headquarters  for  Regional permit and  regulatory


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compliance and  enforcement actions.   The Agency  will work with  the  Corps of
Engineers  (COE)  to  develop improved procedures for  identifying illegal ocean
dumping of dredge materials, and  will  work with  NOAA and USCG  on improving
surveillance.   In addressing the  NCMP  goal of international  leadership,  the
Agency will  continue to  participate in activities  under the  London Dumping
Convention,  the  International Convention for  the  Prevention  of Pollution from
Ships (MARPOL),  and the  Cartegena Convention to preserve the coastal and marine
environments.

1990 ProEram

      The  Agency is allocating  a total $11,366,400  supported by  55.1 total
workyears for this program, of which $3,367,400 is from the  Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $7,999,000 is  from the  Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance
appropriation.

      The  Agency continues  to  develop  revised OD  regulations to  respond to
statutory amendments and lawsuits.  Headquarters is developing sediment testing
protocols and a comprehensive, risk-based management strategy to bring the Marine
Protection Research and Sanctuaries Act  Section 103 program and  the Clean Water
Act Section 404 program into harmony.  In addition, Headquarters is developing
a compliance and enforcement strategy for the OD program.

      Technical guidance and training continues to be  provided to support the
Regions'  expanded role  in  the  development  of EISs for the COE and  to support
ongoing site  management and monitoring activities.   The Agency  continues to
support the resolution of concerns on dredging requirements of  the U.S. Navy's
Homeporting  programs.    Region  II  continues  to  develop  the  New  York Bight
Restoration Plan and the New York Mud Dump Site alternative study.  In addition,
Headquarters and Region II,  in  cooperation  with USCG  and  NOAA, are developing
and implementing an expanded monitoring plan for the 106 Mile Site and related
other sites,  as required by ODBA.  Headquarters undertakes work to control marine
debris through   identification  of sources  and  the  development  of reduction
strategies.   The Agency continues to participate  in  international  efforts to
preserve the coastal and marine environments through activities  under the London
Dumping Convention and other international agreements.


1989 Accomplishments

      The  Agency obligated  a  total  of $8,266,300  supported  by  42.4  total
workyears  for  this  program,  of which  $2,400,600 was  from  the  Salaries  and
Expenses  appropriation  and  $5,865,700  was  from  the  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      The Agency  continued development  of  a comprehensive revision to  the OD
regulations  and  development  of program guidance  and technical protocols,  as
required by  statutory  amendments  and  court judgments.   Most  of the  coastal
Regions  completed  negotiations  and began implementation  of memoranda  of
understanding (MOU)  with the appropriate COE District offices to  prepare dredged
material disposal site EISs and site designations.  Headquarters and Region II
began increased monitoring  of the 106 Mile Site in response  to ODBA requirements.
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      Work  continued  in Region  II  on preparation  of  the  New York  Bight
Restoration Plan, and  two  other studies,  one relating to  the  selection of an
alternative disposal site to replace the New York Mud Dump  Site and a second to
determine the  resolution of the problem of plastics disposal  in  the  New York
Bight.  In addition, Headquarters and Region II continued work on a study with
NOAA on the adverse effects of the  improper  disposal of plastic articles on the
marine environment and on methods to reduce the amount of plastic debris.  Also,
they continued a public outreach and education program in cooperation with NOAA
and USCG, on the problems  of plastic debris in  the marine environment and the
need  for  reduction of  such debris.  The Agency  continued  to  participate in
international  efforts  to preserve  the coastal  and  marine  environments through
activities  under  the   London  Dumping  Convention  and  other  international
agreements.

ENVIRONMENTAL  EMERGENCY  RESPONSE AND PREVENTION

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $7,047,800 supported by 46.8 total workyears
for this  program of which  $2,365,000 will  be  for the Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation  and $4,682,800 will be for the Abatement,  Control and Compliance
appropriation.  This reflects an increase of $601,400 in Salaries and Expenses,
an increase of $3,532,800 in Abatement,  Control and Compliance,and an increase
of 10.0 workyears from 1990.

      Additional resources  will be used to improve and  enhance  the  Agency's
ability to prepare for and  respond  to major  inland oil spills, especially those
in or  near environmentally  sensitive areas.   The Agency  will also  use  the
resources  to  complete  the  Phase  I   amendments  to  the  Spill  Prevention,
Countermeasure  and  Control  (SPCC)  regulations, which  will require  facility
operators to have adequate contingency and response plans  if an oil spill were
to breach the preventive measures taken at the site.

      The Agency will  remain on a  24-hour  alert  to receive notifications of
accidental releases of oil  and  other  petroleum  products.   It will continue to
direct and  monitor  removals  at  major oil  incidents.   EPA will  also monitor
removals by potentially responsible parties (PRP) or state and local authorities,
and it will provide  technical assistance to  the U.S. Coast Guard on coastal oil
spills when the Emergency Response Team (ERT)  is activated or when the U.S. Coast
Guard makes a  specific request.

      In addition, the Agency will:   1) develop guidelines and procedures for
targeting inspection and enforcement  efforts on facilities where  spills could
result in  significant or  severe environmental consequences;  and 2)  conduct
inspections and follow-up activities at  100  of these targeted facilities.   The
Agency will implement the recommendations from the recent On-Scene Coordinators'
Readiness Task Force,  which include:   1)  arranging and  conducting a greater
number of response simulations  and  exercises; 2) reviewing selected  state and
local contingency plans; and 3) working  with industrial  personnel  to  pre-stage
oil spill cleanup equipment near environmentally sensitive areas.
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1990 Program                                                        y

      In 1990, the Agency is  allocating a total of $2,913,600 supported by 36.8
total workyears for this program, of which $1,763,600 is from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation  and  $1,150,000  is  from  the  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      The Agency continues to handle and monitor oil spill notifications; direct
response operations at major  inland waterway oil spills where there is no other
governmental  or  private entity  able or  willing  to  respond;  conduct  SPCC
inspections at facilities where there is some indication that problems exist with
the contingency plan  and/or  plan implementation;  and monitor on-scene removal
activities of  PRPs or  state  and  local authorities at major spills.   Moreover,
the Agency updates contingency plans;  provides advice and technical guidance to
state and  local  officials and PRPs involved in spill  response;  organizes and
staffs Regional Response Team meetings; assists  the Federal Emergency Management
Agency (FEMA) at major disasters; participates  in response and safety training
of  state  and  local  staff;  and  maintains  response  equipment  and  facilities.
Resources  support the development of  Phase  II of  the Oil  Spill  Regulations
(initiated  as a  result of  the  Ashland  Oil  Spill).   Phase  II expands  the
regulations to include site specific  contingency plans and prevention of spills
at  larger  facilities  that may affect drinking water  or  sensitive  ecosystems.
The EPA expects this  amendment  to be published as a proposed rule in the Federal
Register by summer of 1990.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989, the Agency obligated $3,912,300 supported by  39.8 total workyears
for  this  program,  of which  $2,019,200  was from the  Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation  and  $1,893,100  was from the Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance
appropriation.

      The program received and screened a total of  7,133  notifications of oil
spill releases, conducted  513  SPCC  inspections, performed on-scene  monitoring
of 542 oil spills, conducted 207  oil  spill responses,  and investigated 66 oil
releases.   Based  on  the recommendations  of the Oil  Spill  Prevention,  Control
and Countermeasures  Program  Task Force  (Task Force), convened  in response to
concerns raised by the Ashland  Oil  Spill, EPA has amended the SPCC regulations.
The amendments to  the  SPCC regulations make most  discretionary aspects of the
regulations mandatory.


SPILL RESTORATION PROGRAM

1991 Program Request

      The Agency  requests  no resources for this  program.   This represents  a
decrease of $871,800 in the Salaries and Expenses  appropriation.   The decrease
reflects the completion of activities undertaken with funds appropriated in 1990.

1990 Program

      The Agency is allocating a total of $871,800 for this program, all of which
is from the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

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      The Agency,  through the Alaska  Restoration Task Force  Office (ARTFO),
supports activities to develop and implement a restoration plan of the Trustee
Agencies -- the Departments of Agriculture,  Commerce,  and the  Interior -- for
the areas impacted  by EXXON VALDEZ oil spill.   The  Agency provides technical
assistance and expertise to designated  task  forces, and to the Trustee Agencies
in the development  of a  restoration plan, a review of damage assessment data,
and  identification  of  data  needs.    The   Regional  office  is  guiding  and
participating in  activities  of  the Regional Response  Team  and in restoration
activities.   The office supports  the State of Alaska  in assessing contamination
and  clean-up  activities  and assists  the  Trustee Agencies  in  sampling  and
monitoring  programs.    The  Agency also  participates  in workshops,  reviews
workplans,  and reviews environmental and water  quality  data.  Agency support is
being provided for  the development of monitoring protocols for toxic pollutant
investigations.


1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989, no funds were obligated for this program.


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $9,774,000 supported by 98.0 total workyears
for  this program,  of which $5,432,100  will be for  the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and $4,341,900 will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.  This  reflects increases of  $827,600  in Salaries and Expenses,
6.3 workyears and $209,100 in Abatement, Control  and  Compliance.  The increases
will support special  criteria and standards  work for critical aquatic resource
protection,  especially coastal and marine waters.

      The program will address pressing needs for guidance  and technical support
for state standards  to protect critical aquatic resources.  To select pollutants
for numeric salt  and  fresh water criteria,  EPA will  use a ranking methodology
to identify pollutants judged to pose  unusually high risk due to toxic effects
and exposure to humans and aquatic life.  EPA will then (1)  issue 5 proposed and
5 final fresh water quality criteria documents,  6 proposed salt water quality
criteria documents,  15 proposed and 15 final  water quality  advisories, and begin
developing additional fresh  and  salt  water   criteria;  (2)  complete  and verify
methodology to  develop sediment  criteria for  organic  pollutants;  (3)  develop
guidance to strengthen numeric  criteria for toxic pollutants;  (4).  promulgate
revisions to  the Water Quality  Standards  (WQS)  regulations;  and (5)  provide
workshops,   training  and  technical assistance  to help  states adopt  numeric
criteria for  toxic  pollutants.    To  assist  states in addressing the  growing
problems in coastal/marine waters, EPA will accelerate development  of salt water
criteria for  toxic  pollutants in  the  water column and in  sediments;  develop
guidance on using salt water values,  sediment criteria and biological criteria
to adopt WQS  for coastal waters;  and  provide  technical  assistance and  five
additional workshops  to strengthen WQS  for coastal waters.
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      Regions will assist states in adopting new provisions in WQS to assess and
protect critical fresh and alst waters  such as esturies, coastal areas or areas
impacted by contaminated sediments.  Regions will continue  to  review and approve
state and  Indian WQS, resolve issues  and provide needed litigation  support.
Regions will complete promulgation of WQS for states failing to meet statutory
requirements to adopt numeric criteria for priority toxic pollutants.   To help
target activities to geographic areas based on ecological and  human health risk,
Regions will  conduct training and work  with  states to use  data  collected in
conjunction with  Sections 305(b), 304(1) and  303(d)  analyses.   Regions will
assist states  in  adopting salt and fresh water  criteria  for newly-identified
toxic pollutants,  in addressing bioaccumulation of toxic pollutants in fish flesh
and in applying antidegradation implementation methods.

      In  targeted coastal  and marine areas,  Regions will  assist states  in
adopting salt water  toxic  criteria, using biological  criteria  to evaluate and
protect  biological   integrity and  applying   antidegradation  policies  and
implementation procedures. In cooperation with states and Indian tribes, Regions
will determine where site-specific criteria are warranted and integrate the site-
specific analyses into review and revision of state WQS  (particularly where water
quality-based  permits  or toxic  pollutants  are  impacting  critical  aquatic
resources).  Regions will provide management oversight to existing Clean Lakes
projects  and  prepare  information  for  the  Report  to   Congress  on  program
accomplishments.

      EPA will promulgate final first-round criteria and regulations for disposal
and use of sewage  sludge based on the National  Sewage Sludge Survey; revise risk
assessment and risk management models based on the Survey; resolve cross-media
issues; and complete the rulemaking package and four companion technical support
documents.  EPA will also conduct  workshops and provide technical assistance to
states and initiate  data  collection and analysis on additional  pollutants,
disposal practices and exposure pathways  for second-round regulations.

1990 Program

      In 1990, the Agency is  allocating a total of $8,737,300 supported by 91.7
total workyears for  this program,  of which $4,604,500 is from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation and  $4,132,800  is  from  the  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      The program continues to emphasize  state adoption of numeric criteria for
toxic pollutants;  initiate promulgation  actions  for states  not complying with
Section 303(c)(2)(B)  of  the  Clean Water Act  (CWA);   and develop  methods  to
implement state antidegradation policies.   Priority objectives for the 1991-1993
WQS triennium are  being established and amendments to incorporate changes in the
1987 CWA amendments are being proposed.  The program is promulgating rules for
qualified Indian tribes and resolving disputes as well as  overseeing expansion
of the WQS program to qualified  Indian  tribes.   Approximately 7  final water
quality criteria documents, 6  proposed criteria  documents and  nearly  15 water
quality advisories  are being  issued.   To ensure  adoption of biological  and
sediment criteria and wetland WQS  by the  states, EPA is developing criteria and
guidance  for  the  1991-1993   triennium.    Outreach  programs  are  providing
information to the states on policies and requirements,  interpretation and use
of water  quality  criteria and advisories and use of sediment and  biological
criteria.
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      EPA is conducting additional sewage sludge modeling activities, evaluating
proposed numerical criteria and completing  its response  to  public comments on
the proposed technical regulations for use  and disposal  of  sewage sludge.   If
appropriate, EPA will publish new information for  public comment on the proposed
technical regulation, and may prepare additional  regulatory options.

1989 Accomplishments                                                         .

      In 1989,  the Agency obligated a  total of $7,716,900 supported by 83.6 total
workyears  for  this  program,  of which  $4,400,400 was from the  Salaries  and
Expenses  appropriation  and  $3,316,500  was  from the  Abatement, Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      The Agency published one proposed  toxic water quality criterion, one salt
water aquatic  criteria document and  a final methodology  for deriving sediment
criteria values  for  nonpolar organic contaminants.   Headquarters  and Regions
reviewed  state  WQS  relating  to  use   attainability,  site-specific  criteria
development, antidegradation and adoption of criteria for toxic pollutants.

      Regions worked with states to examine the adequacy of narrative criteria
for toxics and control methods recommended for toxic discharges and to resolve
complex use/criteria revision and modification issues and differences in state
WQS.  Antidegradation policies were  reviewed  for consistency  with regulatory
requirements and states were assisted.in developing implementation methods.

      EPA examined priority water  segments requiring site-specific criteria and
assisted  states in  collecting  data and  selecting appropriate methods  and
procedures for use attainability  analyses.   Regions  helped  states conduct use
attainability  analyses  and provided  guidance, data and examples  from  other
states.   Regions also provided assistance to  states  to develop assessments of
lake water quality included in Section 305(b) Reports and managed existing grants
to states for lake assessments and restorations.

      EPA  proposed  regulations   identifying  toxic   pollutants  in  sludge,
appropriate management practices and numeric limits for  29 pollutants.  EPA also
prepared  five  technical  support  documents  addressing common  sludge use  and
disposal practices,  and conducted  four public  hearings and  three workshops to
assist Regions and states interpret and apply the sludge technical regulations.
EPA evaluated 634 public comments (5,500 pages)  on the sludge regulations, began
analyzing data from  the National Sewage  Sludge Survey and continued efforts to
generate incinerator emission data.
NONPOINT SOURCE MANAGEMENT GRANTS

1991 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total of $14,250,000 for this program,  all of which
will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  This represents
a decrease of $22,683,100 from 1990, which reflects a reduced need for funding
after initial start-up of implementation efforts.

     The Clean Water Act  (CWA) amendments of 1987 required states to prepare and
submit nonpoint source (NFS)  management  programs that describe how they plan to


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prevent and control NPS pollution and improve water quality.  Under Section 319
of the  CWA,  EPA is authorized  to  make  grants to states  that  demonstrate the
willingness and ability to effectively implement Best Management  Practices (BMPs)
that control particularly difficult or serious NPS pollution problems and/or use
innovative methods  or practices to  prevent  or  control NPS pollution.   Major
sources of NPS pollution to be addressed include  (1) agricultural practices that
result  in  surface  water contamination by soils,  fertilizers,  pesticides, and
animal wastes; (2) resource extraction (mining/oil and gas)  causing serious water
quality impacts; and  (3)  urban  NPS pollution (contaminated urban runoff)  that
results in substantial loadings of toxic and conventional pollutants.

     Projects  selected  for  funding  will  focus on  measures  (regulatory and
nonregulatory)  to  abate  and prevent  NPS pollution  in  targeted  watersheds,
particularly  critical  aquatic  resources and habitats such as  estuaries,  near
coastal waters  and  wetlands.   Each project selected  for  funding  must include
provisions for  (1)  on-site assistance  to ensure effective  implementation of
technical  solutions,  education  and  outreach  to raise  public awareness and
mobilize  public participation,  and  technology  and  information   transfer  to
upstream communities whose cooperation is  essential to the long-term success of
the specific project;  (2) innovative  prevention and control techniques that may
have  wider  applicability;  (3)  state  and  local  regulatory   and  enforcement
mechanisms to complement traditional voluntary efforts,  where appropriate; (4)
environmental/biological  indicators  to  measure  changes  in water  quality and
habitat;  (5)  techniques  to  avoid ground-water  contamination  as  a result  of
reducing  and/or eliminating NPS  pollution  to surface  waters; and  (6)  sound
institutional  and  financial arrangements  that   will  lead to  long-term  water
quality improvements through self-sustaining state and/or local NPS prevention
and control programs.  All activities  selected for funding must achieve discrete,
measurable  results  that  will  reduce  risk  to  human health  and  the  aquatic
environment  and  must  advance  states  toward  effective  implementation  of
comprehensive NPS management programs.

      Grants under Section 319 will also be  used for  activities to build state
institutional capabilities to protect ground-water resources from NPS pollution.
Such activities include (1) ground-water resource assessments  in areas where NPS
pollution is  a  major  concern;  (2)  development of best management  practices to
prevent ground-water  contamination;   (3)  development  of  technical  assistance
documents and training efforts;  (4) establishment of state and local regulatory
and   nonregulatory   capabilities;   (5)    establishment   of   institutional
responsibilities and  coordination  mechanisms;  and (6)  development  of ground-
water monitoring capability, including data  management.


1990 Program

      In 1990, the Agency is allocating a total of $36,933,100 for this program,
all of which is from the Abatement, Control  and Compliance appropriation.

      Nonpoint  source management grants are  available to  states  and qualified
Indian tribes to implement approved elements  of their Section 319 NPS management
programs.   EPA  is developing state-by-state  planning  targets  for  funding based
on interim criteria that  reflect nonpoint source needs; preparing  guidance on
the  award and  management of  grants in  accordance  EPA's  December 1987  NPS
Guidance;  and awarding grants to fund NPS activities that result: in demonstrated


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progress in achieving Congress'  goal  of  preventing and abating NFS pollution.
Priorities for funding  include  (1)  the effectiveness  of a state's performance
to date; (2) programs balanced  to  provide  for both improvement and protection
of water quality in specific watersheds and institutionalization of long-term,
statewide NFS  management programs; (3)  particular NFS activities  of highest
priority to the Agency  (including those articulated in the 1987 NFS Guidance);
and  (4) commitment  to conduct  appropriate  before-and-after  water  quality
monitoring and evaluation activities  to enable  EPA to report  to  Congress on
progress in reducing  NFS pollution and improving water  quality.   Each grant will
contain  a  ground-water  element  to further  state assessment  of  ground-water
resources and  to  establish a basis for  identifying priority protection needs
prior to undertaking any site-specific measures.   If a  state  already has a good
basis  for  determining   its  ground-water priorities,  then  the state  should
implement efforts to address these priorities.

1989 Accomplishments

      No funds were obligated for this program in 1989.

NONPOINT SOURCE IMPLEMENTATION

1991 Program Request

      The Agency  requests a total of $750,000  for this program, all of which will
be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  This represents a
decrease of $1,194,100  from 1990, which is consistent with  reduced grant funding
after initial start-up.

      Based on the long-term  funding policy developed in 1990, Headquarters will
continue to oversee Regional efforts to award and manage funds to states under
Section 319.   EPA will continue to negotiate sound state work  plans for projects
consistent with the  complex  legal  and procedural requirements associated with
grants under Section 319, including program tracking and accounting requirements.
EPA  will also continue activities related  to the approval of complete  NFS
management programs in  each state and to oversee state  implementation, which may
include on-site reviews.

1990 Program

      In 1990,  the Agency is allocating $1,944,100  for this program, all of which
is from the Abatement,   Control and Compliance appropriation.

      Since  1990  is  the  initial  year  of  Section 319 (h)  funding,  start-up
activities  represent a major  program   focus.    Start-up activities  include
developing state-by-state planning targets for funding  based on interim criteria
consistent with direction provided by  Congress, preparing guidance on the award
and management of grants consistent with EPA's 1987 guidance and awarding grants
for NFS activities based on  funding priorities.   A NFS funding policy for use
in 1991 and beyond is also being developed.

      Further, EPA  is  developing  and  implementing  reporting and  oversight
procedures designed  to  ensure  the  integrity  of the grants process  and assure
positive  environmental  results  from  the  projects   selected  for  funding.
Activities include Headquarters  review of selected management programs,  grant


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work programs and watershed plans; participation with Regions in selected reviews
of state programs; and on-site review of Regional  NFS  programs.   Regions will
conduct on-site inspections of selected watershed projects to assure satisfactory
progress.

1989 Accomplishments

      The Agency did not obligate funds  for this program in 1989.
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                                                   WATER  QUALITY
                                        Water Quality Monitoring  &  Analysis

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED     CURRENT     REQUEST    INCREASE  +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE       1991      DECREASE  -
                                                       1990               1991  VS  1990
                                               (DOLLARS IN  THOUSANDS)

PROGRAM
Coastal Environment
Management
 Salaries & Expenses           $4,135.8   $6,315.9   $5,813.4   $7,627.6    $1,814.2
 Abatement Control and        $11,511.3  $15,461.8  $15,239.5  $27,248.9   $12,009.4
 Compliance
                       TOTAL  $15,647.1  $21,777.7  $21,052.9  $34,876.5   $13,823.6

Water Quality
Monitoring & Analysis
 Salaries & Expenses           $8,231.5   $9,091.7   $8,176.0   $8,670.9      $494.9
 Abatement Control and         $6,822.7   $6,603.5   $6,514.4   $6,110.1      $404.3-
 Compliance
                       TOTAL  $15,054.2  $15,695.2  $14,690.4  $14,781.0       $90.6
TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses          $12,367.3  $15,407.6  $13,989.4   $16,298.5     $2,309.1
 Abatement Control and        $18,334.0  $22,065.3  $21,753.9   $33,359.0    $11,605.1
 Compliance

Water Quality          TOTAL  $30,701.3  $37,472.9  $35,743.3   $49,657.5    $13,914.2
Monitoring & Analysis
PERMANENT WORKYEARS
Coastal Environment                79.6      124.0      117.9      146.5         28.6
Management

Water Quality                     156.4      162.5      156.6      156.7           .1
Monitoring & Analysis

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS         236.0      286.5      274.5      303.2         28.7
TOTAL WORKYEARS
Coastal Environment                84.3      124.0      123.9      146.5         22.6
Management

Water Quality                     164.6      162.5      162.1      156.7         -5.4
Monitoring & Analysis

TOTAL WORKYEARS                   248.9      286.5      286.0      303.2         17.2
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                                WATER QUALITY


                    Water Quality Monitoring and Analysis
Budget Request
      The  Agency requests  a  total  of  $49,657,500  supported  by  303.2  total
workyears  for 1991,  an increase of $13,914,200 and  an  increase  of 17.2 total
workyears  from 1990.  Of the request, $16,298,500 will be for the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and  $33,359,000 will be  for the  Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation.   This represents an  increase of  $2,309,100  in the
Salaries  and Expenses  appropriation and  an  increase  of  $11,605,300  in the
Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.
COASTAL ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $34,876,500 and 146.5 total workyears for
this  program,  of  which  $7,627,600  will  be for  the  Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and $27,248,900 will  be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation. This represents increases of $1,814,200 in Salaries and Expenses,
$12,009,400 in Abatement, Control and Compliance, and 22.6 in total workyears.
The  increases  reflect increased Headquarters and  Regional activities  in the
National Estuary Program  (NEP) projects as 9 of the 16 projects enter the complex
environmental characterization and plan development  phases;  implementation of
near coastal waters (NCW) Regional coastal  strategies to address major coastal
pollution problems;  and  implementation of the  Clean Water Act  (CWA)  Section
403(c) program strategy for bringing ocean  discharge permittees into compliance
with 403(c) criteria.

      In 1991,  Headquarters and the coastal  Regions will support  16  estuary
projects in the NEP,  under CWA Section  320.  The Management Conferences for the
Buzzards  Bay,  Narragansett  Bay,  and Puget  Sound  projects  will  complete
Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plans (CCMP) and begin implementation
by state and local governments. The Long Island Sound, Albemarle-Pamlico Sounds,
and San Francisco Bay projects will be  in  the third  phase,  CCMP development.
The New York-New Jersey Harbor, Delaware Bay, Delaware Inland Bays, Sarasota Bay,
Galveston Bay and Santa Monica Bay projects  will be  in the second phase,  problem
definition and resource characterization.   Projects selected in 1990 will enter
the second phase.  The NEP  action  projects to demonstrate  innovative clean-up
strategies will  be completed,  evaluated,  and shared  with other Regions and
states.

      Headquarters and the Regions will seek  to  protect all coastal waters and
the  Great  Lakes, through  the implementation of Regional coastal  strategies
developed with the states.  These strategies will  target geographic areas and/or
specific problems based on  risk.   Emphasis will  be on  the  enhancement  of base
water programs to address problems  and  prevent pollution in NCWs.  NCW Regional
strategies for the Great Lakes will focus  on  implementation activities  related
to the Remedial Action Plans and Lakewide Management Plans.   Another essential
compor.ant of the Regional NCW strategies will be demonstration projects supported


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by Headquarters to test control  and pollution prevention effectiveness.  Grants
will  be  provided  to   state   and   local   governments   for  selected  action
demonstrations identified as national priorities  in  NCW  strategies or through
the NEP projects.

      To  respond to needs  identified  by the  Regions  and  states  through the
Regional NCW strategies,  Headquarters will continue to develop  tools and conduct
training.  A technology transfer initiative will involve base water programs for
permitting  and enforcement,  water quality  criteria, and standards.   In this
initiative,  technical  assistance  will  be provided on request  to  Regional and
state  staffs to  integrate  point  source, nonpoint  source,  and water quality
planning expertise to address identified NCW problems.   Regions IV and VI will
oversee  the  Gulf of Mexico Program  and  assist in development of  a Louisiana
coastal restoration study.

      In  the Section  301(h) programs, Headquarters  will continue  to support
Regions  I,  II,   IX,   and  X  in  the  preparation  of  secondary  equivalency
determinations and  permit  reissuance  activities.    Under  the Section 403(c)
program,  Headquarters  will increase support  to the coastal  Regions  for the
continued implementation of the strategy in the 1989 report  to  Congress. The
goal of the strategy is to bring National  Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
(NPDES) permittees into compliance with Section 403(c) criteria, and the program
includes conducting risk assessments for direct ocean dischargers.

1990 Program

      In  1990,  the  Agency is allocating  a  total of $21,052,900  supported by
123.9 total workyears  for this program,  of which $5,813,400 is  from the Salaries
and Expenses appropriation  and  $15,239,500  is  from  the Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation.  The NEP is also supported by $4,755,000 provided in
the last year of the CWA Section 205(1) set-aside from  the Construction Grants
appropriation.

      Through the NEP,  Headquarters and the coastal Regions will provide support
and oversight  to  twelve  estuary projects,  including  the  six initial projects:
San Francisco Bay, Albemarle-Pamlico Sounds, Narragansett Bay, Long Island Sound,
Puget Sound, and Buzzards Bay.  The Buzzards Bay project  completes  its CCMP by
mid-1990 and begins  the implementation phase  of  the program, while the other five
projects complete the  intensive environmental  characterization and begin CCMP
development.  The six projects selected in 1988 -- New  York-New Jersey Harbor,
Delaware Bay, Delaware Inland Bays, Sarasota Bay, Galveston Bay,  and Santa Monica
Bay -- begin the  intensive characterization phase.  With priority consideration
given to project  sites referenced in a 1987 CWA amendment, new projects, selected
by the Agency on the basis of national significance, are being designated in 1990
to  expand  geographic  coverage,  to develop  further  project expertise,  and to
further test remedial  approaches developed in earlier estuary  projects.

      For NCW initiatives, the Regions continue working with the states  to assess
environmental risks  in NCWs, select and define priority problems, identify needed
enhancements to ongoing programs, and  identify and implement innovative abatement
and control  programs.    The  Headquarters/Regions'  national network  to exchange
information on NCW problems and management  tools  links the  Chesapeake Bay and
Great Lakes programs with the NEP and NCW demonstration projects.   Emphasis is
on  providing technical  assistance  and  training to local  project  managers.
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Regions IV  and  VI  continue support for the Gulf  of  Mexico Program,  including
further development  of  the  program's "Framework  for Action"  and additional
monitoring and data collection to assess environmental health and to establish
a base for policy/regulatory options.

      The Section  301 (h) programs of  Regions  I,  II,  IX,  and X focus  on the
evaluation of monitoring programs  and permit  reissuance,  following completion
of final waiver determinations for the remaining first  round applications.  The
programs include preliminary work for reissuance of permits that expire in 1991
and secondary treatment equivalency determinations, as required.  Headquarters
will support  a  study by  the  National  Academy of Science  on  opportunities to
improve wastewater management by urban coastal  areas.  The  coastal Regions'
Section  403(c)   programs  continue  efforts  to bring NPDES  permittees  into
compliance with Section 403(c) criteria, consistent with the recommendations of
the 1989 report to Congress.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989,  the Agency obligated a total of $15,647,100  supported by 84.3
total workyears for this program,  of which  $4,135,800 was from the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and  $11,511,300 was from  the Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation.   The NEP was also supported by  $4,705,000 provided
through the  Section 205(1) set-aside from the Construction Grants appropriation.

      Through the NEP,  Headquarters and the coastal  Regions  supported twelve
estuary projects in 1989.  Three of the initial projects were developing their
CCMP, and the remaining  three of  the initial projects were  continuing their
environmental resources characterization work.   The six projects added in 1988
began planning initiative activities, following the state governors'  decisions
to convene the project Management Conferences.  There was an increased emphasis
on conducting pollutant load assessments and completion of assessments of status
and  trends.    Priority  demonstration plans  to  implement targeted  clean-up
strategies in selected estuary projects received assistance  using Section 205(1)
set-aside resources.

      In addition to  ongoing estuarine activities,  the Regions  continued the
assessment of NCWs to determine environmental  status and water quality trends,
and to identify NCWs  needing  management attention.  In  a parallel effort, three
ongoing pilot projects  and three new  pilot projects  were  conducted in coastal
and  marine  areas  to  demonstrate  innovative  solutions  for  identified  major
environmental problems.  Region IV and VI also continued to support development
of the "Framework for Action" for the Gulf of  Mexico Program to begin resource
characterization and assessment activities.

      In the Section  301(h) marine discharge programs, Regions  I,  II,  IX, and
X completed most first  round  application waiver decisions  by  the  end of 1989,
and waiver  recipients  began  to implement  required  water quality monitoring
programs.    The  Section  403(c)  program's   report  to  Congress by  Headquarters
included a targeted strategy  for bringing NPDES permittees into compliance with
ocean discharge criteria.  Headquarters also developed a Permit Writer's Guide
for use by  the  coastal Regions and  at the local  level in  conducting Section
403(c)  evaluations and addressing point source discharges  to NCW.
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WATER QUALITY MONITORING AND ANALYSIS

1991 Program Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of $14,781,000  supported by  156.7  total
workyears  for  this  program,  of which $8,670,900 will be  for  the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation  and $6,110,100 will be for  the  Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation.  This represents an increase of  $494,900 for Salaries
and Expenses, a decrease of $404,300 for Abatement, Control and Compliance and
a decrease of  5.4 workyears.   The increase  in Salaries and Expenses supports
efforts  to enhance  EPA and state  water  quality  data systems.   The decreases
reflect completion of initial state 304(1) listing requirements.

      Based on  previous national and state water  quality studies  and reports
(such  as the  Section  304(1)  and  Section 305(b)  reports),   the program will
concentrate on  geographic  areas  where  the presence of contaminated sediments,
toxics in the water column or bioaccumulative toxics pose the greatest risk to
human health  and the aquatic environment.   EPA will conduct studies and encourage
states  to  evaluate water  quality  in  these  areas as well  as  the  sources of
pollutants, and develop needed controls  to minimize the risks to human health
and the aquatic environment.  States will be expected to develop total maximum
daily loads  (TMDLs),  wasteload allocations (WLAs)  and  load allocations  (LAs)
where water quality-based controls are needed  to reduce point and  nonpoint source
discharges.

      Headquarters will develop a final national long-term Monitoring Framework
document  and related  implementation guidance  and  sponsor  a  third  national
monitoring symposium.   Headquarters will  also  sponsor workshops  to  describe
simplified methods  that states  can  use  to identify areas  where contaminated
sediment presents a high-risk,  as well  as  remediation methods  states can use at
specific sites.

      Headquarters will  analyze the 1990 state Section 305(b) reports and prepare
the national  water quality  report to Congress.  Headquarters will also work
closely with  Regions and states to  develop  and implement guidance for preparing
the State 1992 Section 305(b) reports.

      Headquarters and Regions  will continue  to strengthen state assessment and
monitoring programs and further  enhance the  Waterbody System  by linking  it to
state Geographic Information Systems  and to national water quality data systems
operated by other Federal  agencies. The Regions will review state workplans and
specific water quality  assessments  and   will  assist  in environmental  data
management. Audits of state assessment programs will be conducted by the Regions
to identify areas for increased efficiencies  and other needed improvements.

1990 Program

      In 1990,  the  Agency is allocating  a total  of $14,690,400 supported by
162.1 total workyears for this program, of which $8,176,000 is  from the Salaries
and Expenses appropriation  and  $6,514,400 is from  the  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      The  program  continues   a  high  priority  effort  to  assure  effective
implementation of Section 304(1) of  the Clean Water Act,  providing assistance


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and oversight  in  addressing deficiencies in state submissions.   Where states
fail to act,  the Agency is  developing and promulgating lists of waters impaired
by toxics  and  developing WLA's for disapproved  individual  control strategies
(ICSs).

      The  Bioaccumulation  Study  is  being finalized,  which will be used along
with other information to prepare a surface water risk assessment for pulp and
paper companies.   The program is developing several guidance documents on how
to assess and remediate sediment contamination problems where toxic pollutants
are suspected  of  causing adverse impacts on aquatic  life  and bioaccumulation
problems.

      The surface water monitoring program is encouraging states to adopt more
cost-effective  approaches,  such as  rapid biological  assessments and  use  of
citizen volunteer programs,  to enhance  and  augment  state monitoring programs.
A series of national and Regional symposia and workshops is being conducted to
address  nonpoint  source   pollution  monitoring and  assessment,  estuarine
monitoring, sediment  contamination  and  bioaccumulation of pollutants  in fish
tissue.  EPA is also  assisting states to monitor toxic  pollutants and assess
toxicity in the aquatic  environment,  through workshops  and direct involvement
in specific projects.   States are completing their 1990 Section 305(b) reports.
The Agency  continues to strengthen state trend assessment and laboratory analysis
capabilities and improve water quality data management to enable integration with
other data bases.   A  detailed  river network  is  also  being  prepared for use in
STORET and other data bases.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989,   the Agency  obligated a total  of  $15,054,200  supported by 164.6
total workyears for this program, of which $8,231,500 was from the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and  $6,822,700  was  from the  Abatement,   Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      Headquarters  issued  proposed and  final  regulations  that  governed  the
Section 304(1)   listing of  waters impaired by  toxic pollutants.   To facilitate
the development of  the state lists  and  the development  of  ICSs,  Headquarters
performed national assessments of  toxic problems.   Three  reports to Congress
and a study required  by  Sections  308(g), 516,  524 and  525 of  the Clean Water
Act were completed.

      Regions reviewed and  approved or  disapproved state  Section  304(1) lists
and began the public participation process where needed.  Regions  continued to
assist  states   in  conducting  WLAs  and  other  analyses  to  develop ICSs  for
controlling toxics dischargers. Regions continued to participate in the National
Bioaccumulation Study and,  where  bioaccumulation problems  were  discovered,
assisted states in developing  effective control strategies.   A report on the
results  of the National  Bioaccumulation  Study was  drafted.   Two  guidance
documents were prepared on sediment contamination problems: one outlining methods
for assessing  contamination and  the  other  describing  current EPA statutory
authorities and programs for dealing with these  problems.

      The Regions  were responsible for approving  or disapproving TMDLs and WLAs
developed by states under Section 303(d)  and for producing TMDLs/WLAs if states
failed to do so.


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                                                   WATER  QUALITY
                                             Municipal  Source  Control

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED      CURRENT      REQUEST    INCREASE  +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE       1991      DECREASE  -
                                                       1990                1991  VS  1990
                                               (DOLLARS  IN  THOUSANDS)

PROGRAM
Municipal Waste
Treatment Facility
Construction
 Salaries & Expenses          $20,729.4  $21,029.4  $21,032.3  $20,555.0       $477.3-
 Abatement Control and        $24,338.1  $20,626.0  $20,336.9  $20,442.6       $105.7
 Compliance
                       TOTAL  $45,067.5  $41,655.4  $41,369.2  $40,997.6       $371.6-

Waste Treatment
Operations &
Maintenance
 Salaries & Expenses           $1,170.3   $1,521.0   $1,403.2   $1,629.9       $226.7
                       TOTAL   $1,170.3   $1,521.0   $1,403.2   $1,629.9       $226.7
TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses          $21,899.7  $22,550.4  $22,435.5  $22,184.9      $250.6-
 Abatement Control and        $24,338.1  $20,626.0  $20,336.9  $20,442.6      $105.7
 Compliance

Municipal Source       TOTAL  $46,237.8  $43,176.4  $42,772.4  $42,627.5      $144.9-
Control
PERMANENT WORKYEARS
Municipal Waste                   391.8      430.0      401.3      387.6       -13.7
Treatment Facility
Construction

Waste Treatment                    25.5       31.5       30.6       31.5          ,9
Operations &
Maintenance

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS         417.3      461.5      431.9      419.1       -12.8
TOTAL WORKYEARS
Municipal Waste                   422.5      430.0      426.5      387.6       -38.9
Treatment Facility
Construction

Waste Treatment                    26.4       31.5       31.5       31.5
Operations &
Maintenance

TOTAL WORKYEARS                   448.9      461.5      458.0      419.1       -38.9
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                                WATER QUALITY


                           Municipal Source Control
Budget Request
     The  Agency requests  a  total  of  $42,627,500  supported  by 419.1  total
workyears for 1991, a decrease of $144,900 and 38.9 total workyears from 1990.
Of the request,  $22,184,900 will  be  for  the Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and $20,442,600  will be for the Abatement,  Control and Compliance appropriation,
a decrease of $250,600 and an increase of $105,700 respectively.
MUNICIPAL WASTE TREATMENT FACILITY CONSTRUCTION

1991 Program Request

     The  Agency requests  a  total  of  $40,997,600  supported  by 387.6  total
workyears for this program, of which  $20,555,000 will  be  for the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and  $20,442,600  will be  for  the Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation.   This represents a  decrease of 38.9  workyears and
$477,300 and an increase of $105,700 respectively.  The decrease in workyears
reflects reduced workload  for the award of construction  grants  and completed
initial State Revolving  Loan  Fund (SRF) awards for most  of  the states.   The
increase  in  Abatement,  Control  and Compliance  reflects  support  for  major
municipal pollution prevention and water conservation initiatives.

     In 1991,  EPA will  continue,  in cooperation with states,  to  manage the
implementation and oversight of the SRF program.  With 50 SRF programs operating,
a high level  of  effort will be required to provide extensive first round reviews
of annual reports,  as well  as  review  and approval of more complex SRF financing
proposals.   The Agency  will implement  State Funding Study  recommendations by
promoting state use of  alternative   financing  mechanisms and establishing  a
national  clearinghouse  to  collect and  disseminate  information  on state and
municipal financing issues.

     Although funding for  the construction grants  program ended in 1990, the
traditional program management workload of state  oversight responsibilities will
continue.   Regions will  be managing  a  workload of  approximately 4,800 active
grant projects.   Maximum emphasis will be placed on the completion and closeout
of grant projects and resolution of audit problems.   The funds requested for the
Corps of Engineers Interagency Agreement will  purchase  250 workyears of effort
to provide construction management assistance to  EPA and the states.   States will
continue to  manage  delegated  programs to completion although  the  adequacy of
Section 205(g)  fund balances could   begin  to  be  a problem  in some  states.
Projects funded under the  first and  second  cycles of the  Indian  set-aside for
projects on  Indian reservations and  in  Alaska Native Villages will be in the
active stages of design and construction, requiring significant coordination and
negotiation with the Indian Health Service  and tribes.

     In 1991, the  Agency will be  implementing  initiatives in  municipal  water
pollution prevention, water conservation and technology transfer to assure that
the national investment  in wastewater  treatment, infrastructure  is  protected.


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Water pollution prevention strategies and proactive state programs will emphasize
preventive measures and support systems encouraging municipalities to maintain
compliance and prevent future non-compliance.  The Agency will provide $800,000
to support effective on-site operations, maintenance and compliance assistance
to  operators  of  small publicly  owned treatment works (POTWs).    Activities
associated with the management  of the  operator  training program  are described
in the operations and maintenance program element.

      The cooperative  effort of wastewater treatment and drinking water programs
providing financing and technology assistance to small communities will continue.
The  Agency will  be  promoting  and  developing demonstration  projects  with
public/private partnerships to assist municipalities in solving POTW problems.
Regions will  continue to  conduct user  charge  system  reviews  to  assess  the
adequacy of user fees  to  meet costs and ensure permit compliance.  In 1991, the
Agency will  focus on  establishing a national  ethic  of efficient  water use,
promote overall reduction of  the  nation's water use on a per capita basis and
encourage  a  significant  nationwide  increase  in  the reclamation  and  reuse of
wastewater for various applications.

     Headquarters  will continue  to  provide  technical  guidance  and  program
assistance on  sewage  sludge management,  pretreatment  requirements and ground-
water  contamination  from leaky  sewers,  as  well as new technologies  such as
wetlands treatment systems.

1990 Program

     In 1990,  the  Agency is  allocating a total  of $41,369,200  supported by 426.5
total workyears for this  program,  of which $21,032,300  is from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation and $20,336,900 is  from  the  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      EPA is managing dual  wastewater treatment grant programs with emphasis on
the  prompt  completion of active  construction grants  projects, resolution of
audit problems and implementation.oversight of SRF programs. The highest program
priority in the Regions is  to negotiate  and award  initial  SRF grants,  as well
as  conduct first  annual  program  reviews.   Regions  also maintain essential
emphasis  on  traditional  construction  grants  management  activities   and  are
addressing a workload  of approximately 5,500 grant projects.  As a  result of the
first funding cycle,  funding for 18 Indian tribes  and 8 Alaska Native Villages
is provided.  The $15,500,000 allocated for  the  Corps of Engineers Interagency
Agreement  is  supporting  250  workyears  of  effort to provide  construction
management assistance  to EPA and  the  states.  EPA  is  developing a strategy to
deal with  the  completion  of the program including  problems  introduced as the
states deplete 205(g)  program grant  funds.  The strategy will be  based on the
ongoing partnership among EPA (including the  Inspector General and Regions), the
Corps of Engineers and the state agencies, and  will identify the necessary level
and mix of program resources to handle the completion workload.

     In 1990,  EPA is  taking a  new direction  to prevent pollution  and assure
protection of the nation's multi-billion dollar  infrastructure of  major public
health and water quality improvements.  The  Agency is promoting state programs
related  to  municipal water pollution  prevention,  water  conservation  and
technology transfer.    $1,800,000  is targeted for operator training grants to
implement state operator training programs to assist  small communities.  Regions


                                     3-65

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are providing increased information and assistance to help municipalities address
alternative financing methods for  wastewater  treatment needs.   The wastewater
treatment and drinking water  programs are engaged  in a  cooperative  effort to
provide information and assistance on financing and technology to hard-pressed
small communities.  Headquarters is coordinating research, technology transfer
and outreach activities with other agencies and national organizations, including
the Small Flows Clearinghouse.

1989 Accomplishments

     In 1989, the  Agency  obligated a total of  $45,067,500  supported by 422.5
total workyears for  this  program,  of which $20,729,400 was  from the Salaries
and Expenses appropriation and $24,338,100 was from the Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation.

     1989 was a critical year  for the  program with a maximum SRF implementation
effort and significant continuing responsibility for the traditional management
and oversight of  over 6,000  ongoing  construction  grants projects.   Title VI
authorized  states  to  request 1989  funds for  SRFs and  43 states  submitted
capitalization grant applications.  Thirty-five new SRF  programs came on line
in  1989.   With contractor  support,  Regions  and  states   received  SRF program
training, including a series of Letter of Credit seminars to inform the states
and financial community how the payment process works.

     EPA continued to monitor state  delegation status and performed the remaining
nondelegated project management responsibilities.   The  50 delegated states and
Puerto Rico have submitted phase out strategies which describe the work remaining
to  manage  the construction  grants program  to completion  and the  human and
financial resources required to perform the work.   In addition, implementation
of  new construction  grants  provisions,  including grants  to  Indian  tribes,
continued.  EPA initiated an Interagency Agreement with the Indian Health Service
for assistance in implementing the Indian set-aside grants program.  Final Indian
program guidance was issued and the Indian Needs Survey Report to Congress was
also issued.  The $15,300,000 obligated for the Corps  of Engineers Interagency
Agreement purchased 275 workyears to provide construction management assistance
to EPA and the states.  The 1988 Needs Survey was completed and planning for the
1990 Needs Survey was initiated.


WASTE TREATMENT OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE

1991 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total of $1,629,900  supported by 31.5 total workyears
for  this  program,   all  of  which  will  be   for   the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation.  This  represents an increase  of $226,700 in the  Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation  and no  change in  workyears.    The   increase  reflects
increased personnel and support costs.

     In  1991,  a  national pollution  prevention  initiative to  prevent  non-
compliance through technical  assistance  and  training  will be  underway  in the
operations and maintenance (O&M)  program.  The $800,000 in grant funds noted in
the municipal waster treatment facility construction program above will enable
state  and EPA Regional . staff  to  provide on-site  compliance  assistance  and


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operator training at about 270 minor POTWs.  Continued operator training grants
assistance  to  states  with  comprehensive  municipal  compliance  programs  is
resulting in significant compliance  improvements.  As a result of improvements,
EPA will continue to provide  technical and financial management assistance, and
information  and guidance  will  continue  to be disseminated  to promote  more
enhanced O&M and operator training activities in states and small communities.
Headquarters will issue  104(g) annual guidance and continue  to oversee state and
Regional operator training programs to address O&M and manpower problems in small
communities.

     The mission of  state  109(b)  training centers will  be  expanded to include
comprehensive environmental  training.   In  an  Interagency Agreement  with the
Indian Health Service, EPA is developing  a  model  operator  training program in
Region VI.   The model will be extended to  other Regions and  coordinated with
operator training initiatives for drinking water,  furthering our collaborative
efforts with small communities.

     In 1991, awards for  exemplary  performance  in  operations  and maintenance,
beneficial uses of sludge and pretreatment will  continue to be made through the
enhanced National and Regional Wastewater Excellence Awards  program.  Management
of  Quality  Assurance/Quality  Control   (QA/QC)  programs  will  continue  and
recommendations for improvements in  project  performance certification will also
continue.

1990 Program

     The Agency is  allocating a  total  of $1,403,200  supported by  31.5 total
workyears for this program, all of which is from for the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation.

     Stable staffing, together with the resources allocated  to continue operator
training grants under the Municipal  Waste Treatment  Facilities  Construction
program, will contribute to the  development  of effective state O&M and operator
training, programs and support improved minor municipal facilities compliance.

     With the $1,800,000 in grant funds noted in the municipal waste treatment
facility construction program above, state and EPA Regional  staff are continuing
to provide  on-site compliance assistance and  operator training at about 700 minor
POTWs.  Regional/state operations management evaluations and operator training
programs  are a  key component  to  the  municipal  water pollution  prevention
initiative aimed at preventing noncompliance.  In addition to managing operator
training grants, Regions are working  directly with selected minor facilities that
have problems and overseeing  project performance certification reviews.  Annual
guidance  on  the  104(g)  program is  being  issued and  financial  management
instructor guidance is being  implemented.  EPA is promoting improved local user
charge and  financial management systems and identification of  O&M compliance
problems through effective diagnostic evaluation and laboratory QA/QC programs.

     EPA is continuing to recognize  superior facilities through enhancements to
its National and Regional Wastewater Excellence Awards programs.  In addition,
the Agency is providing guidance, information and oversight  to assist the states
and communities to  strengthen local O&M programs  for  improved  sludge,  toxics,
and innovative,  alternative and conventional technologies management.
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1989 Accomplishments

     In 1989, the Agency obligated a total of $1,170,300 supported by 26.4 total
workyears for  this  program,  all of which  was  from the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation.

     Information  and  guidance  were  issued to promote  more  cost-effective O&M
activities funded under Sections 104(g), 106 and 205(g). States and EPA Regions
obligated $1,800,000  to  provide on-site  O&M assistance to  approximately 700
facilities and returned 363 to compliance.  EPA conducted a program to train on-
site  inspectors  to diagnose  and  assist in  resolution of  small  communities'
financial and  user  charge system problems where  these contribute to  O&M and
permit compliance problems.

     EPA continued the National Wastewater Excellence Awards program which was
expanded  to  recognize exemplary pretreatment  programs.   The Agency  made  70
Regional  awards  and 22 national awards.   Staff reviewed  project performance
certifications and implemented minor POTW QA/QC programs.
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Enforcement

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                        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1991 Budget Estimate

                               Table of  Contents
                                                                          Page

WATER QUALITY

ENFORCEMENT
   Water Quality Enforcement   	   3-69
   Water Quality Permit Issuance  	   3-73

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                                                   WATER  QUALITY
                                             Water  Quality Enforcement

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED      CURRENT      REQUEST    INCREASE +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE       1991      DECREASE -
                                                       1990               1991  VS  1990
                                               (DOLLARS  IN  THOUSANDS)

PROGRAM
Water Quality
Enforcement
 Salaries & Expenses          $18,587.7  $18,755.6  $18,989.3   $21,511.4     $2,522.1
 Abatement Control and         $1,875.7   $2,539.9   $2,507.6    $5,979.6     $3,472.0
 Compliance
                       TOTAL  $20,463.4  $21,295.5  $21,496.9   $27,491.0     $5,994.1


TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses          $18,587.7  $18,755.6  $18,989.3   $21,511.4     $2,522.1
 Abatement Control and         $1,875.7   $2,539.9   $2,507.6    $5,979.6     $3,472.0
 Compliance

Water Quality          TOTAL  $20,463.4  $21,295.5  $21,496.9   $27,491.0     $5,994.1
Enforcement
PERMANENT WORKYEARS
Water Quality                     386.6      394.7      37515       402.7        27.2
Enforcement

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS         386.6      394.7      375.5       402.7        27.2
TOTAL WORKYEARS
Water Quality                     407.5      394.7      394.4       402.7         8.3
Enforcement

TOTAL WORKYEARS                   407.5      394.7      394.4       402.7         8.3
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                                WATER QUALITY


                           Water Quality  Enforcement
Budget Request
    The Agency requests a total of $27,491,000 supported by 402.7 total workyears
for 1991, an increase of $5,994,100 from 1990.   Of the request, $21,511,400 will
be for the  Salaries  and Expenses  appropriation and  $5,979,600 will be for the
Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation, an increase of $2,522,100 for
Salaries  and  Expenses,  an increase  of  $3,472,000 for Abatement,  Control and
Compliance, and an increase of 8.3 total workyears.
WATER QUALITY ENFORCEMENT

1991 Program Request

     The  Agency requests  a  total  of  $27,491,000  supported  by 402.7  total
workyears for this program, of which  $21,511,400 will  be  for the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation  and  $5,979,600 will be for the  Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation.   This  represents an increase of  $2,522,100 for the
Salaries and Expenses appropriation, an increase of $3,472,000 for  the Abatement,
Control and  Compliance  appropriation,  and  an  increase  of  8.3 total workyears.
The  increase for Salaries  and Expenses  reflects  funding of personnel costs.
The increase for Abatement,  Control  and Compliance will  support data entry into
Permit  Compliance  System   (PCS).   The  increase  in  workyears  will  support
pretreatment enforcement where EPA is the control  authority.

     Since  all  but 207  municipal  facilities are  expected   to have  completed
construction to meet final effluent limits by the  end of 1990, the Agency will
emphasize municipal compliance with final  effluent limits in 1991.   Municipal
Enforcement  Program  (MEP)  activities will focus  on  quick response  time  to
violations, the  relative effectiveness of enforcement  responses, and a reduction
in significant noncompliance  rates  for  publicly owned  treatment  works (POTWs)
on final effluent limits.  A municipal pollution prevention  program (MPP) will
be implemented which emphasizes pollution prevention through careful screening
of  constructed,  complying  POTWs to  identify  those  that  show  potential  for
violation  in the  near  future.    The MPP  will  include  evaluation  criteria
sufficient to surface potential  problems at POTWs  in time to allow correction
before violations occur.

     In  1991,   the goal of  the  pretreatment  enforcement program  will  be
improvements in all 1,500 approved programs.  Enforcement actions will be taken
based  on the  new definition for  significant  noncompliance.    Pretreatment
compliance inspections will  be conducted where programs  are not audited, annual
reports will be reviewed  and POTW performance  will  be  tracked through  the
Pretreatment Permits and Enforcement Tracking System.  EPA will continue to rely
on states and approved POTWs to ensure the compliance of industrial users with
categorical  standards  and  POTW  sludge limits.    Where there  is no  approved
program,  Regions will  emphasize  the  identification of  categorical  industrial
users and monitor compliance where  such industries  have been identified.
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     In  1991,  the  enforcement  program  will  place   a   high  priority  on
implementation of the Compliance Monitoring and Enforcement Strategy for Toxics
Control.  The strategy will establish criteria for the review of compliance data
related to  toxics  violations.   EPA will also initiate  enforcement  of permits
for combined sewer overflows  and enforcement of sludge requirements in permits.

     The use  of administrative penalty orders  will  increase,  with  about  70
percent  of these orders issued as Class 1.   Nearly all administrative penalty
orders will  be  accompanied by  an administrative compliance order  to require
correction  of the violation.   All  major  and  industrial  permittees will  be
inspected, and a timely  and appropriate  enforcement response will be emphasized
in all cases of significant noncompliance.

1990 Program

     In 1990, the Agency is allocating a total  of $21,496,900 supported by 394.4
total workyears for this program,  of  which $18,989,300 is from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation   and  $2,507,600  is  from  the Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

     EPA is monitoring the compliance with schedules of those municipals which
have not yet completed construction to meet final effluent limits.  The Agency
is taking enforcement action where necessary to force compliance with schedules.
EPA is also  initiating  a systematic  effort to ensure  that  those municipals  on
final effluent  limits consistently  comply  with  those limits.   For  municipals
which have completed construction, EPA  is assessing  reasons for noncompliance
identifying the causes and establishing corrective  action plans.

     EPA  is  monitoring POTWs  to  assure  adequate  implementation   of  their
pretreatment programs and initiating enforcement actions  against  POTWs  that fail
to implement approved programs.  POTWs are receiving guidance on how to determine
the economic benefit industrial users derive from noncompliance for purpose  of
computing penalties,  and workshops are being developed and conducted for POTWs
on how to take effective enforcement actions.

     EPA and  approved states are placing  a  high  priority on  monitoring  and
enforcing toxic  permit  requirements.   The Agency  is using both  chemical  and
biological methods to monitor  compliance  of  toxics.  Enforcement of toxicity
requirements is  focusing on identification of causes and expeditious elimination
of  toxicity  using the  best  available  technical knowledge in  the  scientific
community.

     EPA is  developing  an inspection program for  monitoring compliance  with
sludge permit requirements.  EPA expects to issue a strategy for the monitoring
and enforcement  of sludge requirements which addresses reporting, the definition
of significant noncompliance and specific enforcement issues.


1989 Accomplishments

     In 1989, the  Agency obligated  a total of $20,463,400  supported by 407.5
total workyears  for this  program, of which $18,587,700 was from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation  and  $1,875,700  was  from the Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.


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     In 1989, the Agency continued to  focus  on  completing  unfinished work for
National Municipal Policy (NMP).   As  of October 1,  1989,  76 percent of the NMP
universe had  completed construction  to comply  with final effluent  limits  --
bringing the  overall  compliance  rate  for  major municipal  facilities  to  91
percent.  Only  12  of the original 1,478 major NMP  facilities were  not yet  in
compliance,  on  an enforceable schedule or  referred for judicial  enforcement
action.  Enforceable construction schedules  were established for approximately
67 percent of the 1,269 minor municipal facilities  needing schedules.

     During 1989, EPA conducted a  pretreatment enforcement initiative to ensure
that approved POTWs control industrial discharges of  toxic wastewater into their
sewage treatment systems.  Sixty one  cities  were named in judicial  actions and
administrative orders seeking penalties for violations.  (These actions included
30 EPA administrative penalty orders  and 18  EPA referrals.)  EPA conducted 305
pretreatment compliance inspections and 406 pretreatment inspection at industrial
users and referred a total  of 34 pretreatment judicial actions  to  EPA or the
Department of  Justice.   Additionally,  EPA  issued   286 administrative  orders,
including  68  administrative penalty  orders  for   violation  of  pretreatment
requirements.

     Enforcement of Section 311 oil and hazardous substance spill requirements
included 133  referrals to the U.S. Coast Guard for assessment of civil penalties
and  41 administrative  actions  for  violations  of  Spill  Prevention  Control
Countermeasure plan requirements.
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                                                   WATER  QUALITY
                                           Uater Quality  Permit  Issuance

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED     CURRENT      REQUEST    INCREASE  +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE       1991      DECREASE  -
                                                       1990               1991  VS  1990
                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)

PROGRAM
Permit Issuance
 Salaries & Expenses          $13,462.3  $13,946.4  $14,993.8  $17,579.5    $2.585.7
 Abatement Control and         $8,076.7   $7,198.4   $7,106.5   $8,047.4      $940.9
 Compliance
                       TOTAL  $21,539.0  $21,144.8  $22,100.3  $25,626.9    $3,526.6
TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses          $13,462.3  $13,946.4  $14,993.8  $17,579.5     $2,585.7
 Abatement Control and         $8,076.7   $7,198.4   $7,106.5   $8,047.4       $940.9
 Compliance

Water Quality Permit   TOTAL  $21,539.0  $21,144.8  $22,100.3  $25,626.9     $3,526.6
Issuance
PERMANENT WORKYEARS
Permit Issuance                   292.2      340.3      324.2      342.3        18.1

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS         292.2      340.3      324.2      342.3        18.1


TOTAL WORKYEARS
Permit Issuance                   309.5      340.3      339.7      342.3         2.6

TOTAL WORKYEARS                   309.5      340.3      339.7      342.3         2.6
                                        3-73

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                                WATER QUALITY


                        Water Quality Permit Issuance
Budget Request
      The Agency requests a total of $25,626,900 supported by 342.3 total
workyears for 1991, an increase of $3,526,600 from 1990.  Of the request,
$17,579,500 will be for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and $8,047,400
will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  This
represents an increase of $2,585,700 in Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and an increase of $940,900 in the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation and an increase of 2.6 total workyears.
PERMIT ISSUANCE

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $25,626,900 supported by 342.3 total
workyears for this program, of which $17,579,500 will be for the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and $8,047,400 will be for the Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation. This represents an increase of $2,585,700 in
Salaries and Expenses, an increase of $940,900 in Abatement, Control and
Compliance and  an increase of 2.6 in total workyears.  The increase in
Salaries and Expenses reflects increased personnel and support costs.    The
increase in Abatement, Control and Compliance will provide support for near
coastal waters permitting and pollution prevention efforts.

      EPA will emphasize reissuance of expiring major permits incorporating
toxic/toxicity limits and modification of permits incorporating limits based
on biomonitoring and/or chemical specific testing.  EPA will emphasize
issuance of Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) permits and assist states in
implementing the CSO strategies developed in 1990.  To protect critical
habitats, EPA will strengthen its focus on issuing permits to near coastal
water (NCW) discharges of pollutants of concern,  especially where CSO or
stormwater discharges are problems.

      EPA will focus on pollution prevention through reissuance of major
municipal permits that include requirements for publicly owned treatment works
(POTWs) to assess the need to plan for plant upgrades and expansion.  Training
modules will encourage consideration of innovative approaches to municipal
pollution prevention and assist in developing permit requirements for planning
plant upgrades.   Pollution prevention will also be a significant part of the
NCW activities through increased support of the pretreatment program.

      EPA will continue to conduct detailed POTW pretreatment program reviews,
with appropriate follow-up, to ensure effective implementation.   EPA will
assist POTWs to develop/modify local limits to control toxics/hazardous
pollutants in accordance with revised pretreatment regulations and to ensure
compliance with sludge requirements and water quality-based limits in POTW
permits.
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      EPA will continue to assist states .in issuing/modifying toxic/toxicity
based permits and will work with states to improve their toxic control
programs.  The Agency will continue to review state (and Indian tribe)
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) programs and program
modifications, with emphasis on general permit authority, and encourage state
assumption of sludge permitting programs.

      EPA will promulgate NPDES regulations to implement programmatic and
other Water Quality Act (WQA) related revisions.  EPA will complete the
Section 519 Pretreatment and second stormwater reports to Congress.

      During FY 1991 EPA will work towards implementing a permit fee for water
pollution permits issued to dischargers under the NPDES program.  During
FY 1990 EPA will attempt to develop the necessary regulations to set up the
fee system.


1990 Program

      In 1990, the Agency is allocating a total of $22,100,300 supported by
339.7 total workyears for this program, of which $14,993,800 is from the
Salaries and Expenses appropriation and $7,106,500 is from the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation.

      EPA continues to emphasize control of hazardous and toxic pollutants
from direct dischargers.  EPA gives priority to completing the issuance of
Individual Control Strategies (ICSs) to major and minor dischargers listed as
required by Section 304(1) of the Clean Water Act (CWA),  as amended.
Remaining permits are being issued to include toxicity-based or water
quality-based limits based on human health protection, toxicity reduction
evaluations, revised local pretreatment programs, and/or Best Available
Technology for organic chemicals.

      EPA continues to review NPDES state program and program modification
requests.  EPA assists states to develop sludge programs and strengthen their
toxic control programs in accordance with action plans.

      In 1990, EPA is assisting POTWs to develop/modify local limits to
control toxics and hazardous pollutants in accordance with revised
pretreatment regulations and as required by ICSs and changes in sludge
disposal standards.  EPA continues to audit POTWs to evaluate application of
categorical standards, local limits and issuance of control mechanisms.
Guidance and contract assistance is provided to implement revisions to the
general Pretreatment Regulations based on Pretreatment Implementation Review
Task Force recommendations; to revise/develop local limits to include
additional toxic pollutant limits, including organics; to conduct toxicity
reduction evaluations and assess toxicity related spills; and to apply organic
chemical categorical pretreatment standards.   Workshops and seminars are
provided on toxicity testing, biomonitoring,  and state/POTW pretreatment
implementation.
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      The Agency will promulgate General Pretreatment Regulation revisions
reflecting requirements of the Domestic Sewage Study and stormwater
application regulations.  EPA is completing the first stormwater report to
Congress and is beginning work on stormwater application regulations for
moratorium sources.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989, the Agency obligated a total of $21,539,000 supported by 309.5
total workyears for this program, of which $13,462,300 was from the Salaries
and Expenses appropriation and $ 8,076,700 was from the Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation.

      Contract resources were used to develop ICSs, evaluate state  toxic
control assessments, train Regional and state permit writers,  develop local
limits and water quality-based limits in POTW permits, conduct audits of
approved local and NPDES state pretreatment programs, and develop NPDES
programs and program modifications, especially sludge programs.   Workshops and
seminars were held on pretreatment implementation and various  phases of NPDES
permitting.

      EPA issued a total of 419 major permits, of which 250 were industrial
and 168 were municipal.  Additionally, a total of 947 minor permits were
issued.  EPA continued to review state NPDES program requests  and program
modifications.  No full programs were approved, but two states received
pretreatment program approval and three received general permitting authority.
EPA and pretreatment states performed 356 local pretreatment program audits.

      The Agency promulgated regulations covering state Sludge Management
Programs and Permit Issuance codification of the 1987 Water Quality Act
provisions and CWA Section 304(1); issued a final strategy on  controlling
CSOs;  and proposed rules on stormwater application requirements  and the
pretreatment regulation revisions reflecting the Domestic Sewage Study.
                                     3-76

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4. DRINKING
  WATER

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                       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1991 Budget Estimate

                              Table of  Contents
DRINKING WATER

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Drinking Water Research  	  	    4-7
      Scientific Assessment 	    4-11
      Monitoring Systems and Quality Assurance  	    4-12
      Health Effects	    4-13
      Environmental Engineering and Technology  	    4-15
      Environmental Processes and Effects 	    4-16
ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   Drinking Water Criteria, Standards and Guidelines  	    4-18
      Criteria, Standards and Guidelines  	    4-19
      Drinking Water Implementation 	  ...    4-21
   Drinking Water State Program Resource Assistance 	    4-25
      Public Water Systems Supervision Program Grants 	    4-26
      Underground Injection Control Program Grants  	    4-28
      Special Studies and Demonstrations  	    4-30
   Drinking Water Management  	    4-32
      Public Water Systems Supervision Program Assistance 	    4-33
      Underground Injection Control Program 	    4-35
   Ground-Water Protection  	    4-38
ENFORCEMENT
   Drinking Water Enforcement 	  ...    4-42

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                                                    DRINKING WATER
                                ACTUAL
                                 1989
             ENACTED
              1990
 CURRENT
ESTIMATE
  1990
REQUEST
 1991
  INCREASE +
  DECREASE -
1991 VS 1990
APPROPRIATION
                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
 Salaries & Expenses
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
 Research & Development

TOTAL, Drinking Water
 $34,928.8  $39,217.4  $38,851.3  $45,296.3    $6,445.0
 $60,568.4  $72,314.6  $71,383.5  $76,463.8    $5,080.3

 $11,312.4  $10,867.3  $10,561.5  $10,877.2      $315.7

$106,809.6 $122,399.3 $120,796.3 $132,637.3   $11,841.0
PERMANENT WORKYEARS
TOTAL WORKYEARS
OUTLAYS
AUTHORIZATION LEVELS
     673.8      767.7      743.9      810.2        66.3
     716.0      767.7      768.0      810.2        42.2
$111,414.4 $124,177.3 $123,615.1 $133.914.3   $10,299.2
The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1986 reauthorized this
program at a level of $199,570.0 for 1989,  $199,570.0
for 1990, and $199,570.0 for 1991.
                                           4-1

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                                DRINKING WATER
OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY

      EPA's goal, under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) as amended in 1986,
is to assure that public water supplies are free of contaminants that may cause
unacceptable health risks and protect ground-water resources by preventing the
endangerment of  underground  sources  of  drinking water (USDW).   EPA pursues a
twofold  approach,  protecting  drinking  water  at  the  tap  and  preventing
contamination of ground-water sources of drinking water supplies.

      The 1986 Amendments expand the Federal role in protecting drinking water
at  the  tap,  mandating  sweeping  changes  in  nationwide  safeguards  and  new
responsibility to enforce them in the event of state inaction.   EPA's strategy
is to usher  in  this new, comprehensive  level of  drinking water  protection by
maximizing voluntary compliance through a balance  of enforcement presence, risk
prevention and innovative partnerships.  EPA has established its implementation
priorities  according  to the  degree  of  tangible  human health risk  at  stake,
focusing  on  four  classes  of  contaminants  with  the highest  health  risks
nationwide:  microbiological  pathogens, lead (and  other corrosion by-products),
radionuclides and  disinfection chemical  by-products.   Similarly,  enforcement
priorities, embodied in the definition of PWS Significant Non-Compliance (SNC),
are risk based.

      EPA   is    also   focusing  on   the   prevention   of  contamination   of
valuable/vulnerable ground-water resources by assisting states in developing and
implementing comprehensive ground-water protection strategies.  These strategies
will address both  the  full  range of actual/potential  sources  of ground-water
contamination and provide for wellhead protection activities in the areas around
public water  systems.   In addition, EPA  is targeting specific  activities to
protect drinking water sources from the  harmful effects of injection of wastes
and other fluids;  in particular, EPA is addressing  the vast number of diverse
"miscellaneous," or Class V,  injection wells.

Drinking Water Standard Setting

      EPA defines  its  risk-reduction objectives  for  drinking  water protection
through promulgation of National Primary Drinking Water  Regulations (NPDWRs).
NPDWRs are  developed for  any contaminants  "known or anticipated  to  occur" in
public water systems (PWSs) that may have any adverse human health effects.  The
SDWA Amendments  prescribe a stringent timetable for regulating 83 contaminants
referenced in the law,  a subsequent triennial  cycle for listing and regulating
additional  contaminants,  specific  treatment   technology  requirements  and
monitoring for unregulated contaminants.

      EPA sets standards that entail the full measure of  public health protection
prescribed by Congress; that is, Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) that represent
the level of maximum feasible health protection.  Not  only does  this directly
enhance  protection at   the  tap,  but also  provides a  comprehensive array of
standards  for  use  as   health protection  benchmarks   in  other  environmental
programs.  At the same  time,  EPA will take into account the potential burden of
the wholesale increase  in the number of  regulatory requirements,  building into
the  scandards  themselves both  flexibility  and  streamlined  administrative

                                    4-2

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requirements.   These standards promote the states'  freedom of action within the
bounds  set  by  SDWA  mandates.    The  accompanying  monitoring and  reporting
requirements are  staggered,  giving smaller  systems  more time to  prepare for
monitoring and compliance.

PWS Program Implementation

      EPA's  first priority  is  to support  the  expansion of state  program
capabilities, essential  to implement the  growing  regulatory  framework.   The
critical  factor is state  participation:   under the  Federal-state  framework
established  by  the SDWA,  EPA  relies  on  the  states  to realize  its  program
objectives.  Therefore,  it is essential .for the states  to become agents for
change.  Not only must the states  expand  their commitment to  broad protection
of  drinking water  supplies,  but  they  must  also  invest  in developing new
approaches to interacting with systems and other  interested parties in order to
increase  their  effectiveness.   First,  EPA  is  pioneering  an approach  that
mobilizes all parties with any stake in safe drinking  water (seeking to leverage
scarce EPA/state resources) to seek change at  the  grass-roots  level.   Second,
EPA  is  emphasizing  "marketing"  voluntary  compliance  across the  regulated
community, focusing on the thousands of small Public Water Systems  (PWS)  in the
PWS regulatory  community.  EPA  is  encouraging  states to go beyond the task of
simply reaching so many systems (in order to prevent a  vast number of inadvertent
violations), and address  the primary causes  of system non-compliance  (such as
customer resistance to higher rates, inadequate facilities and poor  training and
expertise).  This requires institutional  innovations and technology transfer.
To this end,  EPA is sponsoring various demonstrations  and initiatives to promote
small-systems viability.

      States have  had notable success  in maintaining  and  increasing systems
compliance through their traditional programs, which themselves reflect a balance
of preventative measures  (regular surveillance  of systems  operations, review of
planned facility changes, operator certification),  technical assistance and an
enforcement  deterrent.    Ultimately,  however,  additional  requirements  mean
increased non-compliance.   In the future,  EPA  will have to  establish enforcement
priorities  on   the  basis  of  health  risk,   focusing  on the  prevalence  of
microbiological, lead, radionuclide and by-product contamination.   As a first
step,  EPA has  defined the  category  of  SNC,  which  now  governs  enforcement
priorities, on the basis of health risk.   In 1990,  EPA is targeting these most
serious NPDWR violations, initiating Federal action  on all  SNC violators that
the states have failed to bring into compliance.   EPA  is also  introducing a
series of  internal reforms and new procedures  for  EPA/state  liaison,  aimed at
improving PWS enforcement programs.

Underground Injection Control

      EPA  and 40  state  primacy programs  will  continue  to maintain regulatory
coverage of 308,000 injection wells.  However,  EPA and the states will begin to
address contamination risks from Class V wells.  This category encompasses a wide
variety of different well  types that resist uniform regulatory treatment.  Class
V  wells  range  from  radioactive waste-disposal  wells,  service   station  and
industrial drainage and disposal  wells, to  irrigation  return wells.  In October
1989, EPA  issued a "Shallow Injection Well Program Strategy" outlining an action
plan  combining traditional  regulatory  controls  (on  the  highest-risk  well
categories)  with  more  innovative approaches  to  foster  voluntary  control

                                    4-3

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practices.  The strategy entails an analytical process employed by EPA and the
states to screen the Class V universe and prescribe appropriate levels or forms
of  control,  based  on  the level  of  potential  endangerment to  ground-water
resources.  In 1991, implementation will also be  guided by the early results of
EPA-funded demonstration projects designed to field test the best approaches to
Class V controls which were funded in 1990.  In 1991 the most intense shallow-
well activities  are likely to be  the  closure  and enforcement of  wells newly
defined to be illegal "Class IV" injection wells, pursuant to the Hazardous Waste
program's redefinition of  the toxicity characteristic for designating waste as
hazardous.  A  critical factor  in  a shallow well's contamination  risk  is its
influence  on USDW,  and wellhead protection areas in particular.   Therefore,
Class V controls play an intrinsic role in the overall ground-water protection
program.

      Addressing the emerging problem of Class V wells complements and reinforces
the Agency's efforts  in regulating the principal classes of injection wells.
Class II (oil and gas production and storage-related injection wells) compliance
evaluations will continue  as  the remaining states  complete their first five-year
cycle of Class  II file reviews.   The program will emphasize both permitting and
ensuring  compliance  with permit  and  statutory  requirements  of other  UIC
categories, particularly  Class I  and  II.   Where a  state  does not  or  cannot
respond  to violations  in  a timely  and  appropriate  manner,  EPA will  take
enforcement action.

Ground-Water Protection

      In  1991,  EPA  will  enhance  assistance  to states  in  developing  and
implementing ground-water  protection activities  that move  beyond protection
strategies to  comprehensive  ground-water protection  programs.   EPA will focus
on expanding the capability of states to develop approaches that protect ground
water from the total  range of actual and  potential  sources  of contamination,
including those that are not Federally regulated.   State ground-water protection
programs will  concentrate  on integrating state protection efforts with Federal
programs  to   assure  compatibility  between  state  and  Federal  activities.
Particular  emphasis will  be  on  working  with  USDA  to promote  ground-water
protection policies  and approaches.  Additionally,  the  Agency's  ground-water
protection program will assist state water  agencies in developing hydrogeologic
aspects of pesticides management plans.  These state plans provide for protection
methods tailored to area-specific differences in ground-water vulnerability.

      EPA will  initiate analysis of major economic sectors in order to identify
and assess high risk sources of ground-water contamination that are not currently
regulated.  The Agency will oversee development and testing of best practices,
e.g. siting criteria,  technical  controls and management practices, to prevent
ground-water contamination from those unregulated  sources found to be of greatest
concern.

      A critical  component of  a  state comprehensive ground-water protection
program includes activities  targeted to high priority ground-water resources.
A primary example of this type of targeting  is the protection of areas and fields
surrounding wells of public water systems, commonly known as wellhead protection.
Thus,  in 1991,  EPA will assist states in developing wellhead protection programs
to incorporate  their comprehensive ground-water protection programs.  The Agency
will continue to provide extensive direct assistance to states  in the delineation

                                    4-4

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of wellhead protection areas and work with states in the assessment of specific
sources of contamination and the development of risk management strategies.  EPA
will also support technical  assistance projects on specific local issues related
to the protection of wellhead areas/wellfields of public water systems.  Special
emphasis will be  given to ensure that priorities  and specific  activities for
controlling high risk  Class V  underground  injection wells  are  targeted  to
wellhead protection areas.

      In 1991, EPA will also assist states in building and strengthening their
capabilities  in  the  area  of ground-water information management.   EPA will
implement a minimum data element .set  to ensure that ground-water data collected
by or on behalf of the Agency is comparable,  compatible  and readily accessible
to regional, state and  local managers of ground-water protection programs,  as
well as to other  Federal agencies.  A directory of ground-water information will
be updated and EPA will  continue  to  facilitate  the dissemination and exchange
of information with the states on innovative practices and programs in ground-
water protection.

Research and Development

      In 1991 the Agency will continue to focus transport and fate research on
ground-water contamination.   Research will emphasize understanding the processes
by which the transport of subsurface  contamination  is facilitated.  Research on
new approaches  to delineate and  manage  ground-water quality within wellhead
protection areas will continue.

      The research program will continue to support methods development to detect
ground-water contaminants, understand and predict their  behavior,  evaluate the
viability  and   cost-effectiveness   of   in-situ  restoration  as   a  clean-up
alternative, and support UIC regulatory efforts.

      The  Agency  will  develop  data  on  the  chemistry  and  toxicology  of
disinfectants used in place of chlorine, primarily ozone and chloramine and their
reaction by-products.   In the near future  many municipalities will need to begin
using ozone and  chloramine as well  as combinations  of  the two  chemicals for
drinking water disinfection.  Currently,  very little is  known about either the
spectrum of their by-products during disinfection or the toxicological properties
of these  chemicals  and/or mixtures  of chemicals.   Research will  continue  to
develop and validate biomarkers to quantify exposure and effects, with particular
emphasis  placed  on the  gastro-intestinal  tract where  the  first  exposure  to
chemicals occurs.

Consulting Services

      Consulting services are used to supplement existing in-house expertise in
the drinking water program.   These services are utilized in the development and
review of regulations, policy and guidance-documents pertaining to drinking water
standards, PWS and UIC program implementation and  the identification of emerging
waterborne environmental or human health  hazards.
                                    4-5

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PROGRAM ACTIVITIES
                          DRINKING WATER
         CURRENT
ACTUAL  ESTIMATE
 1989     1990
          INCREASE*
          DECREASE-
ESTIMATE  1991 VS.
  1991      1990
Incremental Outputs
UIC Permit Determinations
for existing and new
facilities, by primacy
states 	
for existing and new
facilities, by EPA 	
UIC Mechanical Integrity
Testing 	
UIC Compliance Review 	
PWS Primacy Development
Grants to Indian Tribes.
Enforcement Actions - PWS :
Inspections 	
Notices of Violation 	
Administrative Orders. . . .
Civil Litigation (new) . . .
Criminal Litigation 	
Enforcement Actions - UIC:
Inspections 	
Notices of Violation 	
Administrative Orders. . . .
Civil Litigation (new) . . .
Criminal Litigation 	
Cumulative Outputs
PWS Primacy States 	
UIC Primacy States (full
and partial programs) . . .
Designated Sole Source
Aquifers 	


8,352

625

37,475
17,125

1

n/a
*»^ M
237
242
2
0

107,038
n/a
122
1
0

54

33/6

52


5,228

515

28,858
21,558

2

n/a
V
427
186
3
0

72,034
n/a
123
4
0

54

35/5

60


5,228

515

28,858
21,558

4

n/a
/
527
227
3
0

72,034
n/a
123
4
0

55

35/5

68


0

0

0
0

+2


+100
+41
0
0

0

0
0
0

+1

0

+8
                              4-6

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Research and
Development

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                       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1991 Budget Estimate

                              Table of  Contents
DRINKING WATER

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Drinking Water Research  	    4-7
      Scientific Assessment 	  	    4-11
      Monitoring Systems and Quality Assurance  	    4-12
      Health Effects  	    4-13
      Environmental Engineering and Technology  	    4-15
      Environmental Processes and Effects 	    4-16

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                                ACTUAL
                                 1989
                                                   DRINKING  WATER
                                              Drinking Water Research
                   ENACTED
                    1990
          CURRENT
         ESTIMATE
           1990
           REQUEST
            1991
          INCREASE +
          DECREASE -
        1991 VS 1990
PROGRAM
                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
Scientific Assessment -
Drinking Water
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
Monitoring Systems &
Quality Assurance -
Drinking Water
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
Health Effects -
Drinking Water
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
Environmental
Engineering &
Technology - Drinking
Water
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
Environmental Processes
& Effects - Drinking
Water
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
          $404.3
          $266.1
          $670.4
$505.1
$267.6
$772.7
                       TOTAL
        $2,089.4   $2,314.9
        $2,215.8   $1,720.2
        $4,305.2   $4,035.1
        $2,926.0   $3,178.8
        $3,817.8   $3,086.3
        $6,743.8   $6,265.1
        $2,846.0   $3,406.0
        $1,836.6   $1,929.9
        $4,682.6   $5,335.9
        $1,678.2   $1,927.8
        $3,176.1   $3,863.3
        $4,854.3   $5,791.1
$498.4
$261.2
$759.6
$663.0
$268.2
$931.2
         $2,387.8   $2,545.2
         $1,698.1   $1,743.5
         $4,085.9   $4,288.7
         $3,154.7   $3,347.6
         $2,959.1   $2,915.6
         $6,113.8   $6,263.2
         $3,378.8   $3,483.2
         $1,877.3   $2,128.2
         $5,256.1   $5,611.4
         $1,789.3   $1,925.4
         $3,765.8   $3,821.7
         $5,555.1   $5,747.1
$164.6
  $7.0
$171.6
                       $157.4
                        $45.4
                       $202.8
                       $192.9
                       -$43.5
                       $149.4
                       $104.4
                       $250.9
                       $355.3
                       $136.1
                        $55.9
                       $192.0
TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development

Drinking Water
Research
        $9,943.9  $11,332.6  $11,209.0   $11,964.4       $755.4
       $11,312.4  $10,867.3  $10,561.5   $10,877.2       $315.7

TOTAL  $21,256.3  $22,199.9  $21,770.5   $22,841.6     $1,071.1
PERMANENT WORKYEARS
Scientific Assessment
Drinking Water

Monitoring Systems &
Quality Assurance -
Drinking Water

Health Effects -
Drinking Water
             8.2        8.0        8.0         8.0
            35.3       37.8       39.8        38.8
            55.6       58.2        58.2        58.2
                                     0.0~
                                                         -1.0
                                     0.0
                                         4-7

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                                                  DRINKING WATER
                                              Drinking Water Research
                                ACTUAL     ENACTED      CURRENT
                                 1989      1990       ESTIMATE
                                                       1990
                               REQUEST    INCREASE +
                                 1991      DECREASE -
                                        1991 VS  1990
Environmental
Engineering &
Technology - Drinking
Water

Environmental Processes
& Effects - Drinking
Water

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS
 52.0       56.3        55.3       53.3         -2.0
 28.7       29.2        29.2       27.2         -2.0
179.8      189.5       190.5       185.5         -5.0
TOTAL WORKYEARS
Scientific Assessment -
Drinking Water

Monitoring Systems &
Quality Assurance -
Drinking Water

Health Effects -
Drinking Water

Environmental
Engineering &
Technology - Drinking
Water

Environmental Processes
& Effects - Drinking
Water

TOTAL WORKYEARS
  8.4        8.0
8.0
8.0
 35.8       37.8       39.8       38.8
 59.3       58.2        58.2       58.2
 52.9       56.3        55.3       53.3
 29.7       29.2        29.2    .   27.2
                                  186.1       189.5       190.5       185.5
0.0
                      -1.0
                                              0.0
                      -2.0
                      -2.0
                                              -5.0
                                       4-8

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                                DRINKING WATER


                           Drinking Water Research


                        Principal Outputs by Objective
Objective 1:      Develop  Drinking  Water  Standards  Based  on Health  Effects
                  Through Risk Assessment Studies

1991:  o     Revise  criteria documents  on  Phase IV  and V contaminants  and
            incorporate public comments.  (Scientific  Assessment)
      o     Report on carcinogenic and reproductive effects of chloracedic acids
            (Health)
      o     Report on the  feasibility of  conducting  an  epidemiologic study on
            the chronic effects of using ozone as a  disinfectant.  (Health)

1990:  o     Develop final risk assessments and criteria documents  for Phase II
            chemicals. (Scientific Assessment)
      o     Report on the mechanistic approaches to  assess  the interactions of
            drinking water contaminants.  (Health)
      o     Report on cancer risks associated with disinfection of drinking water
            (Health)

1989:  o     Developed health  advisories  and  criteria  documents.  (Scientific
            Assessment)
      o     Report   on   the   carcinogenic   and  reproductive   effects   of
            Disinfectants/by-products.  (Health)
      o     Report on the target  organ toxicity of drinking water contaminants.
            (Health)
      o     Report   on   the   chemistry    and   toxicology   of   chlorinated
            hydroxyfuranones.  (Health)

Objective 2:      Provide  Engineering  Technologies  and Monitoring  Dnta  for
                  Drinking Water Standards

1991:  o     Report  on   alternative  disinfectants/disinfection   by-products.
            (Engineering)
      o     Report  on disinfection  of Legionella and associated bacteria in
            drinking water. (Engineering)

1990:  o     Develop and verify Legionella  inactivation data for public plumbing
            systems.  (Engineering)
      o     Report on inactivation of Crytptosporidium oocysts.  (Engineering)
      o     Report on point-of-entry systems for removal  of radon.  (Engineering)

1989:  o     Report on radiation methods  validation and intercomparison studies
            program for drinking water radiation quality assurance.  (Monitoring)
      o     Systems   performance   procedures   for   on-site  evaluation   and
            certification of drinking water monitoring  laboratories . (Monitoring)
      o     Report on pilot plant disinfection and disinfection by-products with
            ozone combined with chloramines and chlorine. (Engineering)


                                    4-9

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      o     Report on  treatment  techniques to  remove  radon from  small  water
            supplies. (Engineering)
      o     Report on lead leaching from water faucets.  (Engineering)
Objective 3:      Provide Scientific Data and Methods to Protect .of Groundwater
                  Resources

1991:  o     Provide report on the sampling variance caused by well construction,
            materials, and operations.  (Monitoring)
      o     Evaluate and adapt, where possible,  existing oil exploration methods
            for groundwater monitoring.  (Monitoring)

1990:  o     Provide  improved methods  for predicting contaminant  movement and
            transformation. (Monitoring)
      o     Laser-induced fluorescence for monitoring groundwater by fiber optics
            (Monitoring)
      o     Report on the ozonization products  in drinking water (Environmental
            Processes)
1989:  o     Report on sources  of variability affecting groundwater monitoring
            data (Monitoring)
      o     Report .on fiber  optics for  monitoring groundwater  contaminants
            (Monitoring)
      o     Report on impacts of unregulated sources of groundwater contamination
            in wellhead protection areas (Environmental Processes)
                                    4-10

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                                DRINKING WATER
                            Drinking Water Research
Budget Request

      The Agency  requests a  total of  $22,841,600  supported  by  185.5   total
workyears for  1991,  an increase of $1,071,100  and  a decrease of 5.0  in total
workyears from 1990.  Of  the  request,  $11,964,400 will be  for  the  Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and $10,877,200 will be for the Research and Development
appropriation, increases of $755,400 and of $315,700, respectively.


Program Objectives

      The Drinking Water  research program  support  States  and  the Office  of
Drinking Water  (ODW)  in implementing the  Safe  Drinking Water Act  (SDWA).  The
research program consists of the following objectives:

      Objective  1:   Provide  Scientific  Basis   for  Drinking  Water  Standards.
Research provides health  assessment information to support the Office of Drinking
Water in revising regulations  to control drinking water contaminants under SDWA.
The health  research  program  also  assists States  in determining the  cause  of
outbreaks from waterborne infectious diseases and assessing the hazard of humans
exposure to infectious agents through drinking water.

      Objective 2:   Provide   Engineering Technologies and Monitoring.  Data for
Drinking Water  Standards.   Research provides analytical  procedures  to monitor
drinking water contaminants.   Engineering  research evaluates  treatment processes
and costs to support  ODW regulatory decision-making.

      Objective 3:  Provide Scientific Methods and Data for Protection of Ground-
Water Resources.   Research provides the scientific  basis for the protection of
underground drinking water  sources  to implement Section 1421 and 1414 of  the SDWA.
Research  activities  are done in coordination with the Pesticides and Hazardous
Waste Programs.


SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT

1991 Program Request

      The Agency  requests  a total  of  $931,200 supported  by 8.0 total workyears
for  this program,  of which  $663,000  will  be   for  the  Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and $268,200  will be-for the Research and Development appropriation.
This  represents   an   increase   of  $164,600  in  the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation, increase of $7,000  in the Research and Development appropriation
and no change in total workyears. The  increase in Salaries  and Expenses reflects
a  general  enhancement  of the  in-house drinking water  research program.  The
increase   in   the  Research   and   Development  appropriation   represents  an
administrative increase.
                                   4-11

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      Provide Scientific Basis for Drinking Water Standards.   This program will
provide quantitative health  risk assessments,  from exposure  to  drinking water
contaminants,  to  develop  drinking water  standards.    Research  work  includes
responding to public comments on specific Phase IV and Phase V chemicals.  Support
is provided for revising corresponding criteria documents and preparation of final
criteria for defined phase VI chemicals.  Continued assistance will be given for
the promulgation of Phase II & V regulations.

1990 Program

      In 1990, the Agency is allocating a total of $759,600 supported by  8.0 total
workyears for this program, of which $498,400 is from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $261,200 is from the Research and Development appropriation.

      In 1990, this program is finalizing disposition of public comments received
in the Phase  II  chemical  and assisting the final promulgation  of the  Phase II
regulations.  Three  Phase  four  criteria documents  and  two Phase V are being
prepared.  13 chapters quantifying toxicological effects for Phase VI chemicals
are being prepared.   The program is also  continuing to provide technical support
to the regions and states.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989, the Agency  obligated  a total of  $670,400  supported by 8.4 total
workyears for this program, of which  $404,300 was from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $266,100 was from the Research and Development appropriation.

      Major  accomplishments  include  finalization of  documents  on 19  Phase II
chemicals, preparation of external review documents  for three Phase IV chemicals
and  risk  assessment  and  criteria  documents  for  seven Phase  V  chemicals.
Quantification of toxicological effects chapters and criteria  documents for six
specific  Phase VI chemicals were also prepared.


MONITORING SYSTEMS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests  a total of $4,288,700 supported  by 38.8 total workyears
for  this  program,  of  which  $2,545,200 will be  for the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation  and  $1,743,500  will   be   for   the  Research   and  Development
appropriation.   This  represents  an  increase  of $157,400 in  the  Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation, an increase  of $45,400  in  the  Research  and Development
appropriation, and  an reduction  of  1.0 in total workyears.   The  increase in
Salaries and Expenses reflects a general  enhancement of the in-house support for
the monitoring program.  The  decrease in workyears reflect a general realignment
of agency priorities.

      Provide Engineering  Technologies and Monitoring Data for  Drinking Water
Standards.  This request will continue quality  assurance activities supporting
states, regions and  other  user  communities by  providing:  high-purity chemical,
radiochemical  and microbiological  reference  materials,  and  the transfer of
technologies  including analytical methods  and quality assurance  of protocols.
Efforts will continue  to determine microbial quality of drinking water, methods


                                   4-12

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for isolation and detection of Giardia,  Cryptosporidium and Legionella,  and use
of  other  molecular  biological  techniques  to  improve  and validate  microbial
analysis and to reduce the cost of testing.

      Provide Scientific Methods and Data for Protection of Groundwater Resources.
Research  will provide  both  technical  information  and  improved  methods  for
predicting contaminant movement and transformation to better assess human exposure
from groundwater contamination.   Research will  include evaluating,  identifying
and assessing technologies for improving  injection well practices, assessing fluid
movement  from injection wells  and developing  laser induced  fluorescence  for
monitoring  groundwater  by  fiber  optics.  Major  emphases  will be  placed  on
continuous monitoring and sample  extraction devices to improve monitoring in
wellhead protection  areas, development  of database  management  systems,  as well
as,  geophysical surveys for characterization of injection wells.

1990 Program

      In 1990, the Agency is allocating a total of $4,085,900 supported by 39.8
total workyears for  this program,  of which  $2,387,800 is  from  the  Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation  and  $1,698,100  is  from the  Research   and  Development
appropriation.

      In 1990, the monitoring program is  expediting methods validation work to
meet the new drinking water regulations for organic chemical contaminants.  The
program provides  analytical  procedures  to monitor  drinking water  contaminants
including development of procedures for  analysis of radioactive contaminants and
improved coliform analysis methods.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989, the Agency obligated a total of $4,105,200 supported by 35.8 total
workyears for its monitoring and quality assurance program  in drinking water, of
which $2,089,400 was from the  Salaries and Expenses appropriation and $2,015,800
was from the Research and Development appropriation.

      In  support  of  the  revised  National  Primary  Drinking Water  Regulations
(NPDWR), chemical and microbiological methods were developed and/or standardized
for  the  determination  of volatile,  semi-volatile,   and  non  volatile  organic
compounds,  coliform  bacterial  contamination,   radionuclides,  and  groundwater
contamination.    Inter-laboratory comparisons  were  performed to  assess  the
performance  of  chemical microbiological methods  for analysis  of  contaminants
regulated  under  NPDWR  and  laboratories were  certified to  do drinking  water
analysis.   Quality assurance support was provided for EPA,  State,  regional,  and
contract laboratories.
HEALTH EFFECTS

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests  a total of $6,263,200 supported by 58.2 total workyears
for  this  program,  of which  $3,347,600  will be  for  the  Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation  and  $2,915,600  will  be   for   the   Research  and  Development
appropriation.  This represents an increase of $192,900 and a decrease of $43,500
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respectively, and no change in the  total workyears. The increase in Salaries and
Expenses appropriation reflects a  general  enhancement  of the in-house research
program.  The decrease in the  Research and Development appropriation reflects an
administrative adjustment.

      Provide Scientific Basis for Drinking Water Standards.   The health research
program will support the Office of  Drinking Water  (ODW) in its effort to develop
recommended drinking water Maximum Contaminant Level Goals (MCLGs) and MCLs for
twelve disinfectants  and  more  than  eighteen  types  of disinfection by-products.
In response to the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments, research will be conducted
to isolate,  identify, synthesize and  characterize  the  toxicological effects of
major disinfectant by-products  that present  the highest  probable  health risks.

       Research will  focus on  the  effects  of disinfectants  to  be used  as an
alternative  to chlorine,  such as  ozone  and  chloramine,  individually and in
combined mixtures.   Research  will  begin to develop and  validate  biomarkers to
quantify exposure and effects, particularly on the gastrointestinal tract where
the first exposure to chemicals occurs.

       Risk  extrapolation methodology will be developed  for determining human
exposure to chemical mixtures  as they  occur in  source waters  for drinking water.
Epidemiology studies will continue to be conducted to determine the association
between  the  use   of  disinfectants  and  chronic   health effects   (cancer  and
cardiovascular disease).

1990 Program

      In 1990, the Agency is allocating a  total of $6,113,800 supported by 58.2
total workyears for this  program, of  which $3,154,700  is from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation  and  $2,959,100  is  from  the  Research and  Development
appropriation.

       The research program is supporting the Office of Drinking Water's efforts
to develop maximum contaminant levels and health advisories for specific chemicals
found in  drinking water.   Research efforts  are  developing  toxicological  and
epidemiological data to  support maximum contaminant level  goals and fill gaps for
the first  set of  83  contaminants  for  which  regulations  are  required.   This
includes research on  disinfectants, disinfectant by-products and  other organic
and  inorganic contaminants.   Other  research is  being  conducted  to  improve
extrapolation methods used in risk assessment.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989, the Agency  obligated a total  of $6,743,800  supported by 59.3 total
workyears for its  monitoring and quality assurance program in drinking water, of
which $2,926,000 was from the  Salaries and Expenses appropriation and $3,817,800
was from the Research and Development appropriation.

       Major research accomplishments  were:  a  report on target organ toxicities
for chemicals  evaluated  for drinking  water health advisories; a  report  on the
analysis of  non-genotoxic  liver  cancer  from  drinking  water contaminants  and
research determining genotoxic  effects of organic chemicals in drinking water for
incorporation  into  MCLGs; a  report  on  research  that  determined target  organ
                                    4-14

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toxicities of disinfectants  and disinfectant by-products required under the Safe
Drinking Water Act Amendments; and a report on an epidemiological determination
of health hazards associated with low-level occurrence of viruses.
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $5,611,400 supported by 53.3 total workyears
for this  program,  of which  $3,483,200  will be  for  the  Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation  and  $2,128,200  will  be   for   the   Research   and  Development
appropriation.   This  represents an  increase  of $104,400  in  the  Salaries  and
Expenses  appropriation,  with  an  increase of  $250,900  in   the  Research  and
Development appropriation and a decrease of 2.0 in total workyears.  The increase
in Salaries and Expenses reflects a general enhancement of in-house support for
the engineering programs  and  the  increase  in the  Research and  Development
appropriation represents  support  for the  Administrator's pollution  prevention
initiative.   The workyear reduction reflects  a general  realignment  of  agency
priorities.

      Provide Engineering Technologies  and Monitoring Data for  Drinking Water
Standards. This request will evaluate processes for removal  of volatile organic
compounds  (VOCs),   pesticides,  and  radionuclides   for  setting  standards  and
implementing regulations.  Development  of  new  information on  treatment systems
performances and costs analyses of proposed treatment systems will continue.  The
request will support evaluation of disinfectants and their by-products and factors
contributing to microbial deterioration of water quality in distribution systems.
Research  emphasizing  technologies  especially adaptable  to  small  systems  will
continue as a priority.

      The major  emphases supporting  groundwater  research will be  in  continuous
monitoring  and  sample  extraction  devices  and  the  development  of   data  base
management  systems  for  wellhead  protection areas.    In addition,  research  will
continue to evaluate the usefulness of geophysical  surveys  for characterization
of injection wells.

1990 Program

      In 1990, the Agency is allocating a total of  $5,256,100  .supported by 55.3
total  workyears  for this program, of which $3,378,800  is  from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation  and  $1,877,300  is  from the  Research and  Development
appropriation.

      Research  is   evaluating  treatment  processes   and  costs  to  support  ODW
regulatory decision-making.   Cost data ares being compiled for unit processes to
do cost-effectiveness analyses  of proposed treatment  systems.    Factors  which
contribute to deterioration  of water  quality in distribution systems and methods
for control are being investigated.  Research emphasizing technology particularly
adaptable to small systems is also  being performed.
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1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989,  the Agency obligated a total of $4,682.600  supported by 52.9 total
workyears for this program, of which $2,846,000 was from the  Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $1,836,600 was from the Research and Development appropriation.

      Significant engineering research accomplishments available to regulators,
utilities and the community at large,  include:  1) determining the effectiveness
of granular activated carbon treatment technology to remove radon from drinking
water,  2)  report on treatment  techniques to  remove radon  from small  water
supplies,  3)  report  on  lead  leaching  from water  faucets, and  4)   report  on
determining the conditions for maximum  inactivation of the MS2  coliphage virus
which are believed to be the  conditions necessary  for effectively inactivating
other similar bacterial viruses.
ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES AND EFFECTS

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests  a total of $5,751,100 supported by 27.2 total workyears
for  this  program,  of which  $1,925,400  will be  for  the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation  and  $3,821,700  will  be   for   the   Research  and  Development
appropriation.   This  represents an  increase of  $136,100  in the  Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation,  and an increase of $55,900 in the Research and Development
appropriation.  The  total  workyears are decreased by  2 .0 workyears.  The increase
in Salaries and Expenses reflects the  general enhancement of  in-house support of
the Processes and Effects  programs; the  increase  in the Research and Development
appropriation reflects an administrative adjustment.

      Provide  Scientific  Methods  and  Data  for Protection of  Ground  Water
Resources .  This  program will focus on methods development and studies of surface
transport and  fate  processes.   Research studies will be conducted  on in-situ
aquifer restoration  techniques which may  potentially lead to a  more cost-effective
cleanup of aquifers. Coordination with the Hazardous Waste and  Pesticides Programs
occurs in this area of research.

      Research will provide field  evaluation of  movement and transformation of
wastes from  underground injection  wells.    The program will provide technical
assistance for the Wellhead Protection Program, major  technology transfer programs
and support for the Underground Injection  Control (UIC) Program.

1990 Program

      In 1990, the Agency is allocating  a  total of $5,555,100 supported by 29.2
total workyears for this  program,  of  which  $1,789,300  is from  the Salaries  and
Expenses  appropriation  and  $3,765,800  is  from the  Research  and  Development
appropriation.

      Research is focusing on development and improvement methods to measure key
subsurface parameters  that influence contaminant behavior as well as methods the
predict concentrations of contaminants.   The program supports  research on bio-
transformation for aquifer restoration and cost effectiveness of in-situ aquifer
restoration  techniques.   The Underground   Injection  Control  (UIC)   program  is

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studying  the  fate and  transport of  wastes  and mechanical  integrity  of  well
casings.    Research  supporting  wellhead  protection  is  providing  data  on
assimilative capacity of soils around wells and  data necessary to define the area
needing protection around the wellhead.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989,  the Agency obligated a total of $4,854,300 supported by 29.7 total
workyears for this program, of which $1,678,200 was from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $3,176,100 was from the Research and Development appropriation.

      The 1989  accomplishments were:  1) report on facilitated  transport of organic
pollutants with a strong  affinity to water, 2) report on in-place restoration of
contaminated aquifers,  3)  report on methods  for  determining the  mechanical
integrity of wells,  and 4)  a  five  year research plan for wellhead protection (in
collaboration with the Office of Groundwater Protection).
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Abatement
and Control

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                       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1991 Budget Estimate

                              Table of  Contents
DRINKING WATER

ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   Drinking Water Criteria, Standards and Guidelines  	    4-18
      Criteria, Standards and Guidelines  	    4-19
      Drinking Water Implementation 	    4-21
   Drinking Water State Program Resource Assistance 	    4-25
      Public Water Systems Supervision Program Grants 	    4-26
      Underground Injection Control Program Grants	    4-28
      Special Studies and Demonstrations  	    4-30
   Drinking Water Management  	    4-32
      Public Water Systems Supervision Program Assistance 	    4-33
      Underground Injection Control Program	    4-35
   Ground-Water Protection	:  .  .    4-38

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                                                   DRINKING  WATER
                                  Drinking Water Criteria, Standards  &  Guidelines

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED     CURRENT      REQUEST    INCREASE  +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE       1991      DECREASE  -
                                                       1990                1991  VS  1990
                                               (DOLLARS  IN  THOUSANDS)

PROGRAM
Criteria, Standards &
Guidelines
 Salaries & Expenses           $4,567.3   $5,243.2   $4,625.7   $4,688.0        $62.3
 Abatement Control and         $7,578.8   $7,027.5   $6,937.9   $6,578.0      -$359.9
 Compliance
                       TOTAL  $12,146.1  $12,270.7  $11,563.6  $11,266.0      -$297.6

Drinking Water
Implementation
 Salaries & Expenses           $2,680.1   $2,927.9   $2,883.8   $3,085.5       $201.7
 Abatement Control and         $2,914.8   $4,764.4   $4,703.6   $5,639.3       $935.7
 Compliance
                       TOTAL   $5,594.9   $7,692.3   $7,587.4   $8,724.8     $1,137.4
TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses           $7,247.4   $8,171.1    $7,509.5    $7,773.5       $264.0
 Abatement Control and        $10,493.6  $11,791.9   $11,641.5   $12,217.3       $575.8
 Compliance

Drinking Water         TOTAL  $17,741.0  $19,963.0   $19,151.0   $19,990.8       $839.8
Criteria, Standards &
Guidelines
PERMANENT WORKYEARS
Criteria, Standards &              69.5       70.5       70.5        71.0          .5
Guidelines

Drinking Water                     40.2       45.9       45.9        45.9         0.0
Implementation

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS         109.7      116.4      116.4       116.9          .5
TOTAL WORKYEARS
Criteria, Standards &              76.8       70.5       70.5        71.0          .5
Guide Iines

Drinking Water                     41.3       45.9       45.9        45.9         0.0
Implementation

TOTAL WORKYEARS                   118.1      116.4      116.4       116.9          .5
                                        4-1!

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                                DRINKING WATER


              Drinking Water Criteria, Standards and Guidelines

Budget Request

      The  Agency requests  a  total  of  $19,990,800  supported  by  116.9  total
workyears for 1991, an increase of $839,800 and no change in total workyears from
1990.   Of the  request  $7,773,500  will be for  the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and $12,217,300 will be for  the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation, an increase  of $264,000  for  Salaries  and Expenses and $575,800
for  Abatement,  Control  and Compliance.  This  represents  no  change  in  total
workyears from the Salaries and Expenses appropriation, and an increase of 0.5
workyears in the Reregistration and Expedited Processing Revolving Fund.


CRITERIA. STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES

1991 Program Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of  $11,266,000  supported by 71.0  total
workyears  for this program, of  which $4,688,000 will be  for  the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation  and  $6,578,000 will  be for the  Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation.   Total workyears will include 70.0 from the Salaries
and  Expenses appropriation and  1.0 from  the  Reregistration  and  Expedited
Processing Revolving Fund.  This represents  an increase  of  $62,300 for Salaries
and Expenses, a decrease of $359,900 for Abatement, Control and Compliance, no
change in Salaries and Expenses  total workyears and an increase  of 0.5 workyears
from the Reregistration and Expedited Processing Revolving Fund (FIFRA  '88).
The increase in Salaries and Expenses reflects increased personnel and support
costs;  the decrease  in Abatement,  Control  and Compliance reflects completion of
the National Pesticides  Survey fieldwork.  The increase  in  FIFRA workyears will
support the increased volume of pesticide reregistration reviews.

      In 1991, EPA will continue to define  its  risk-reduction objectives for
drinking water  via  development of contaminant  standards.  National  Primary
Drinking  Water   Regulations  (NPDWRs)  promulgated  through 1991  will  reduce
substantial  existing  health   risks  from   pathogenic   organisms,   lead  and
radionuclides.  Maximum  Contaminant  Levels  (MCLs)  for inorganic  and synthetic
organic chemicals will prevent additional risks from emerging into significant
health hazards.   Monitoring  for  unregulated contaminants, along  with  extra-
regulatory scientific-data assessments (resulting in valuable guidance, such as
Health Advisories) complete the  framework for averting future risks.

      Standards for 38  inorganic  and synthetic-organic  compounds (I/SOC) will
be promulgated in 1991.   Standards for radionuclides and the~ remaining 24 toxic
chemical contaminants specified  by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Amendments
will be finalized.   A  standard  for arsenic will be  promulgated  separately to
permit further consideration of the  scientific  evidence about  health effects.
Joint  Maximum  Contaminant Level   Goals   (MCLG)  and   NPDWRs  for   multiple
disinfectants and disinfection by-products will be proposed.  Setting standards
for these set of contaminants will be complex  since  the potential  for chronic
toxicity must be carefully weighed against  the substantial reduction  in risk from

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pathogenic microorganisms.    Standards  will also  be proposed  for  the  other
chemicals on the 1988 Contaminant Priority List.  The second list of regulatory
candidates will be published in 1991 in accordance with the statutory deadline
under the SDWA.

      In  1991  complete  results  of  the National  Pesticides  Survey will  be
presented providing a comprehensive picture of the incidence and extent of a wide
range of pesticides  in drinking water wells.  Further analysis  will focus on
the relations between incidence and potential causal factors. This analysis will
provide guidance  to  the drinking water and  pesticide programs,  in regulatory
considerations. For reregistration activities related to the 1988 Reregistration
and  Expedited  Processing Revolving  Fund,  trust  fund  resources will  provide
drinking water program review of registrant-submitted scientific data that may
effect drinking water standards,  health  advisories and risk assessments.  These
drinking water benchmarks play a crucial role in pesticide use restrictions to
prevent ground-water contamination.  Assistance will be provided to the Regions
and states on implementation of the Lead Contamination Control Act and reducing
risk from radon contamination of drinking water supplies.  A 1991 initiative will
support  the  study  of  drinking  water  issues  at  university-based  pollution
prevention centers.   A complementary initiative  will support programs  on the
prevention of lead contamination within distribution systems.

1990 Program

      In 1990 the Agency is  allocating a total of $11,563,600 supported by 70.5
total workyears for this program, of which  $4,625,700 is  from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation  and  $6,937,900  is   from  the Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.  Total  workyears  include  70.0  from  the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and 0.5 from the  Reregistration and Expedited Processing
Revolving Fund.

      Regulatory  standards  proposed in 1990 include rules for  radionuclides
(including radon) and remaining toxic-chemical  compounds  specified by the SDWA
Amendments.  A revised  MCLG  and  NPDWR for lead and  corrosion  control is being
promulgated to address  the significant  health risks  from the  presence  of lead
in drinking water.   The  Regions  and  states  are being supported  to  reduce lead
in drinking water, with emphasis on lead in school water  supplies,  as mandated
under the Lead Contamination Control Act.

      As  required  by  the   1986  SDWA  Amendments,   the  Agency  is  reviewing
information on  fluoride to  ensure that the MCL  promulgated  in  1986 reflects
current levels of scientific and technical  knowledge.   In addition,  the Agency
is  coordinating  with  other  Federal  agencies   to  ensure  the  appropriate
incorporation of drinking water standards  into  their regulations and policies.
Agency staff are working with  the Department of Housing  and Urban  Development
to  incorporate  the  revised  language and practices  into their  regulation of
Federal Housing Administration (FHA)  mortgages.

      The last samples  for the National Pesticide Survey are  being collected.
Plans for data analysis are being finalized.  Analysis of toxicological data in
support of the' pesticide reregistration process  continues  in  accordance with
the accelerated schedule of the 1988 Amendments  to FIFRA.
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1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989,  the Agency obligated $12,146,100 supported by 76.8 total workyears
for  this  program,  of which  $4,567,300 was  from  the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation  and  $7,578,800 was  from  the Abatement, Control  and Compliance
appropriation.   Total workyears  include 76.7  from the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and 0.1 from the Reregistration and Expedited Processing Revolving
Fund.

      The Agency proposed MCLGs and NPDWRs for  38  I/SOCs  and promulgated the
microbiological NPDWRs and the Surface Water Treatment Rules.   Specifically, the
Surface Water  Treatment  Rules  revise the  interim coliform MCL  and establish
treatment requirements for public  water systems with surface water  sources.  The
National Pesticide Survey sampled 840 public and private drinking water wells,
analyzing for an array of 127 compounds.

      The program conducted a range of activities  in support  of  other legislative
mandates.   A testing protocol to detect the presence of radon was developed in
recognition of the hazards posed  by  radon  contamination  of drinking water.  A
list of drinking water coolers  containing  lead  was distributed and a guidance
document to assist  States  in determining the degree  of  lead  contamination in
school drinking water was developed.  Pesticide  data  review began  in support of
the FIFRA reregistration process.  Priority lists were developed  in support of
FIFRA activities  and coordinated  to correspond to  drinking  water regulatory
activities.
DRINKING WATER IMPLEMENTATION

1991 Program Request

       The  Agency  requests  a  total  of  $8,724,800  supported  by 45.9  total
workyears for this  program,  of which $3,085,500 will be  for  the  Salaries and
Expenses appropriation  and  $5,639,300  will be for the Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation.  This represents  an  increase of $201,700 for Salaries
and Expenses and $935,700 for Abatement, Control and Compliance, and no change
in total workyears.  The  increase  in Salaries and Expenses reflects  increased
personnel and support costs.   The increase  in  Abatement, Control and Compliance
reflects additional efforts  to promote voluntary  compliance  with  wholesale
changes to drinking water regulations.

       The responsibility for meeting the new  challenges of the SDWA Amendments
rests with the states.   A recent survey  shows  that states will need to spend an
additional $184 million  through 1992 for  start-up costs to implement new drinking
water standards and $152 million annually will  be necessary  thereafter to comply
with the regulations.  The Agency will continue its coordinated effort to assist
the  states  in building water  programs "capacity,  including  new demands  for
drinking water protection.    The Agency will  work  with  states  in  developing
funding options such as fees,  dedicated taxes, bonding, and  state revolving funds
to support their drinking water programs.

       EPA will  also  intensify its efforts to resolve the problems  of small-
systems compliance  through its  ongoing  mobilization  initiative.   Mobilization
fosuers action-oriented partnerships with  all parties with any stake  in safe


                                    4-21                           •         .

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drinking water.  The goal is to expand upon state and Federal efforts in order
to realize the  human health benefits expected from  the  1986 SDWA Amendments.
Small systems are the principal implementation hurdle because they typically have
low revenues, high  fees,  poor financial capabilities and  a  lack  of technical
knowledge.  Over 90%  of current violations  are  attributable  to these systems.
EPA will  work  with national  non-profit  and private organizations  to  provide
technical and managerial assistance and training to owners and operators of these
systems.  An important theme within  this  initiative will be  to  facilitate a
public-private  partnership   to   promote  simple  and   affordable   treatment
technologies for use  by  small systems.  A  major task will  be to educate the
public  (especially those  served by small systems)  in drinking water issues to
increase readiness  to pay  for needed quality improvements.  EPA will also target
educational efforts  to local  health  officials who are most  often involved in
local contamination  problems.  Finally,  EPA will work  with state  and local
officials to address  the  broader  issue of  institutional change,  creating new
mechanisms to deal  with small  systems more effectively.  Together,  EPA and other
parties will try new ways to ensure small-system viability, develop strategies
for full-cost pricing and simplify rate increase procedures.

        EPA provides program direction for two  national programs mandated by the
SDWA, Public Water System .Supervision (PWS)  and Underground Injection Control
(UIC).    Priorities will   focus on  facilitating  state adoption of PWS  program
requirements as new drinking water standards are  promulgated and enabling states
to maintain the lead  for  implementation.   In  1991  the  focus  will  be on timely
state incorporation  of the  Surface Water Treatment  and  Total Coliform rules,
development of implementation plans for the lead and copper rules  and adoption
of the  chemical Maximum Contaminant  Levels  (MCL).   EPA  will  issue guidance on
various  implementation issues as  they arise.   In the UIC program,  technical
modifications to existing regulations covering mechanical integrity testing and
reporting requirements for  Class  II  wells  will  be promulgated.    Guidance on
financial responsibility  for abandoned wells will be developed.

        The Agency  will continue  implementation of the  Shallow Injection Well
strategy  which  combines  traditional   regulatory   efforts   with  innovative
approaches.   The program will emphasize integration with the wellhead protection
program  and  with  the Resource Conservation  and Recovery  Act  (RCRA)  program,
whose Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP)  will impact the injection
of hazardous waste.  Outreach for assistance to Indian tribes will continue in
their efforts to qualify for primacy for the public water systems and underground
injection control programs.

1990 Program

        In 1990, the Agency is  allocating a total  of $7,587,400 supported by 45.9
total workyears for  this  program of  which  $2,883,800 is  from the  Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation and  $4,703,600  is  from  the Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

        Following promulgation of  the revised State  primacy  regulations early
this year,  the  Agency is developing guidance that  outlines  the  requirements
states must meet to  maintain primacy.  Guidance on  variances and exemptions,
site-specific  compliance  decisions,   and  public notification are also  being
developed.  Outreach to owners and operators, national organizations and states
continues for the  surface water treatment  and total  coliform rules.   Guidance


                                    4-22

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to support implementation of these specific rules is being developed.  The review
of state program revision requests will be coordinated to ensure an expeditious
and uniform process.  The Agency  has  held workshops  for Regional personnel to
educate them on the technical and implementation issues of these new rules.

       In  1990, the  state program capacity  initiative  is targeting assistance
to ten states  for development of their implementation  strategies  of  the 1986
Amendments.   These  strategies  include  developing  specific funding  options
appropriate for each state and/or developing an effective  communications strategy
to increase public knowledge  of drinking  water  issues.   The Agency is working
with  the   National  Conference  of State  Legislatures   on  these  issues.   As
requested, contact will  be made with individual state  officials.   A book of case
studies detailing successful creative funding solutions is being published and
disseminated.

       In  support of the  needs  of  small systems,  the Agency  is  sponsoring
several pilot projects  designed to serve as possible models.   These  projects
include the formation of a cooperative of 11  mobile  home park owners  to share
services and achieve economies of scale from joint purchasing and a compliance
improvement  project with  state,  county  and  state  rural   water  association
participation.  Six  pilot projects are being funded by the  private sector to
demonstrate affordable effective technologies  appropriate for small systems. In
addition,  outreach activities to establish an  informed and supportive public on
drinking water issues is continuing.  National  Drinking Water Week participation
is being expanded  with increasingly visible corporate  sponsorship and additional
organizations.

       The UIC program  has undertaken a major mid-course evaluation of the key
control provisions for Class  II wells.  Revisions  in process include regulations
to address construction practices for new injection wells;  additional  guidance
to address problem areas such as disposal  practices at commercial  facilities and
procedures for temporarily abandoned wells; and further studies of  problems posed
by abandoned Class II wells.  A regulatory modification  to clarify the 1984 rule
in such areas as mechanical integrity  testing and reporting requirements is being
proposed.   The Agency is  developing and implementing expanded regulatory controls
and guidance for high risk class V wells.

       The Agency is continuing its outreach to Indian tribes; applications for
treatment as States and  for development grants are being evaluated.  A procedures
handbook for both the PWS and UIC programs  is  being developed  to  be  used in
conjunction  with   workshops   to   inform  tribes   of   primacy   requirements  and
determining if becoming a primacy agent is beneficial.

1989 Accomplishments

       In  1989,  the Agency obligated  $5,594,900   supported by  41.3  total
workyears  for  this- program,  of  which $2,680,100 was  from the Salaries  and
Expenses  appropriation  and  $2,914,800  was  from the  Abatement, Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

       Seventeen  state  primacy  revision  requests to  implement the  volatile
organic contaminant regulations were  reviewed and seven were approved by EPA.
Several workshops and conferences on the  surface water  treatment and total
                                    4-23

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coliform rules were  conducted.   A joint  study with the Association  of State
Drinking Water Administrators on the costs of implementing the SDWA amendments
was completed.  As a  result,  the  strategy  to build state capacity was designed.

       In the UIC program,  a  shallow well injection strategy was  issued.  A mid-
course evaluation  of  Class II injection wells and a study  of state financial
responsibility practices were initiated.

       A four state  study  on ensuring  the future  viability of new small water
systems was published.   Publications on public notification,  volatile organic
contaminants, and lead were distributed to states,  organizations  and the general
public. The  first Indian tribe application for treatment as a State was approved
and the first development grant was awarded.

       Self assessment manuals and a  resource  guide were published.  These were
targeted toward mobile home pakrs systems,  homeowner associations, and publicly
owned systems.
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                                                   DRINKING  WATER
                                  Drinking Water  State  Program  Resource Assistance

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED    CURRENT      REQUEST    INCREASE +
                                 1989      1990       ESTIMATE       1991      DECREASE -
                                                       1990                1991 VS 1990
                                               (DOLLARS  IN  THOUSANDS)

PROGRAM
Public Water Systems
Supervision Program
Grants
 Abatement Control and        $33,042.8  $39,822.2   $39,311.5   $47,450.0    $8,138.5
 Compliance
                       TOTAL  $33,042.8  $39,822.2   $39,311.5   $47,450.0    $8,138.5

Underground Injection
Control Program Grants
 Abatement Control and        $10,120.3  $11,322.2   $11,177.8   $10,500.0      -$677.8
 Compliance
                       TOTAL  $10,120.3  $11,322.2   $11,177.8   $10,500.0      -$677.8

Special Studies &
Demonstrations
 Abatement Control and         $3,000.0   $4,430.5    $4,374.1   $1,000.0    -$3,374.1
 Compliance
                       TOTAL   $3,000.0   $4,430.5    $4,374.1   $1,000.0    -$3,374.1
TOTAL:
 Abatement Control and        $46,163.1   $55,574.9   $54,863.4  $58,950.0    $4,086.6
 Compliance

Drinking Water State   TOTAL  $46,163.1   $55,574.9   $54,863.4  $58,950.0    $4,086.6
Program Resource
Assistance
                                         4-25

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                                DRINKING WATER


               Drinking Water State Program Resource Assistance

Budget Request

      The Agency requests a  total   of  $58,950,000  for.  1991,  an  increase  of
$4,086,600 from 1990.   All of the request will be for the Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation.


PUBLIC WATER SYSTEMS SUPERVISION PROGRAM GRANTS

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $47,450,000 for this program, all of which
will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation. This represents
an increase of $8,138,500.   The  increase  reflects additional program activities
resulting from the  requirements  of the Safe Drinking Water Act  (SDWA) Amendments
of 1986. EPA Regions will continue to use allotments from the Abatement, Control
and Compliance appropriation for  direct  implementation  of  the PWS Supervision
program in non-primacy states and on Indian lands,   including travel.

      The Public  Water  System (PWS) program,  at both  the Federal and state level,
will implement expanded drinking water protection requirements.  In order to meet
the new demands,  the EPA and state programs will assume a new role of "marketing"
new requirements to  seek maximum voluntary  compliance.   By  working  with the
drinking water community to  educate  and inform them  about the new requirements,
EPA  and the  states  will  complement  traditional  compliance  programs  (which
themselves reflect a balance of risk-prevention measures,  technical assistance
and enforcement deterrence).  Emphasis will be placed on reaching the vast number
of small community and non-transient systems,   the  most troublesome  PWSs  with
respect to current  compliance and those  least capable of assimilating a multitude
of new requirements.   Discounting any states losing or renouncing PWS primacy,
Wyoming will become the lone non-primacy state when Indiana assumes primacy in
1991.

      Federal support  for state  implementation of national standards will be the
catalyst for even greater state  program expansion.   First,  increased support to
states will leverage greater commitment  from state  authorities in the form of
higher  state  program  budgets,   innovative  program  funding  and/or  greater
regulatory program  productivity.  Second,  these grants will support mobilization
and technology-transfer activities at  the state  level.  An important element of
this effort will be  state-initiated institutional  innovations and  compliance
tools, such as rules  to ensure new systems are financially  viable and measures
to  help existing  systems   find  the  means to become  self-sufficient  (via
consolidation with  larger systems).   Finally,  the grants will assist  states in
maintaining compliance with  existing program requirements  while  enforcing the
new requirements  as they become effective.

      1991 marks  a  turning point for state programs, confronting implementation
of the first major  risk-reduction provisions.  The states will begin to enforce
new  microbiological  monitoring  requirements   affecting  all  200,000   PWSs

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nationwide.  Systems will be responsible for increased monitoring in the event
of coliform detection and for compliance with a new MCL.   Increased monitoring
will reduce the risk of infectious disease by providing a more accurate measure
of systems general microbiological contamination.  However, the immediate effect
will likely be  a larger number of initial violations.  Concurrently, states will
be implementing the first elements of the surface water treatment rule (SwTR).
These include carrying out the  task of reviewing 9200 individual surface-source
systems  and prescribing  treatment  upgrades,  specific treatment  performance
requirements and compliance schedules.   As a result,  the risks of a waterborne
disease outbreaks will be reduced for 83 million people.

      Finally,  as the lead regulation becomes effective in late 1991, states will
be making  the  necessary  changes  to  their regulatory  authorities,  working with
the 3200 largest systems to begin the process of monitoring lead concentrations
in water delivered to consumers  and planning corrective action  (e.g., instituting
corrosion  control   measures).    States  will  continue  to  provide  technical
assistance  and training  to schools,  day  care  centers  and  non-residential
buildings  to  identify  and  remedy lead  contaminated drinking water  coolers.
Outreach and training activities will be conducted by  the  states  on corrosion
control and lead ban requirements.

1990 Program

      In 1990,  the Agency is allocating a total  of $39,311,500 for this program,
all of which is from the Abatement,  Control and Compliance  appropriation.

      The  grant program supports 54 state primacy programs,  three  EPA direct
implementation programs and programs on  Indian lands.  EPA Regions use allotments
for direct implementation of the PWS programs in non-primacy  states  and on Indian
lands, including travel.   States and EPA are. engaged  in implementing new and
revised  standards to  apply and enforce maximum contaminant  levels  (MCLs)  for
microbiological contaminants and the treatment  techniques  for surface  water
systems.  They  are involved in enforcing an array of regulations including eight
volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) and certifying state laboratories for these
and forthcoming contaminants.   Major  activities also  include the elimination of
lead-content plumbing supplies,  remedying  lead  contaminated  drinking  water in
schools and implementation of a  lead/corrosion control regulation.  Indian tribal
authorities  with  certification  for treatment  as  a  state   are  eligible  to
administer  and enforce  substantial  elements  of  a  PWS program  and  are  also
eligible  for PWS  grants to develop  such programs.   Grant  funds are  used to
support EPA direct implementation activities,  including travel.

      Grants provide basic program operation such as laboratory certification,
on-site  evaluations  and technical  assistance,  laboratory analysis,  sanitary
surveys,  and  compliance  and  enforcement actions.    States and  EPA  assist
communities and  systems with  continuing  incidence  of contamination  by  toxic
chemicals and disease outbreaks.   States take action against  PWSs  in violation
of regulations.  Compliance/enforcement activities are targeted at all systems
in violations,  with particular  emphasis  on  eliminating all  significant  non-
compliers.
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1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989,  the Agency obligated a total of $33,042,800  for this program, all
of which was from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

      The PWS  grant program continued  to  support  the primacy programs  of 54
states and territories and EPA direct implementation program activities including
analytical services, sanitary surveys, training, disease surveillance, on-site
technical activities, and data  management.   Funds were also used to support EPA
direct implementation activities for the  drinking water program, including travel
associated with these activities.

      States supervised compliance with drinking water regulations, revised their
legal  authorities   to  accommodate  new  MCLs,   expanded   state   laboratory
certification capability, and  provided  assistance  in monitoring  for regulated
and unregulated contaminants.  States continued the emphasis on system compliance
and took action against violations  of drinking  water standards.   States began
implementing program changes  to accommodate the new  MCLs for  microbiological
contaminants and  their SWTR.   Enforcement efforts continued on  banning lead-
content plumbing materials.  In addition, states  began enforcement of the public
notification requirements and  MCLs  for  VOCs.   Indiana was  awarded  a  start-up
grant to support  the primacy-program development,  with delegation  expected in
early 1991.   The first  Indian tribe to qualify for  treatment  as a state received
a grant to develop a suitable PWS program for primacy designation.


UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM GRANTS

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a  total of $10,500,000 for  this  program, all of which
will be for the Abatement,  Control and Compliance appropriation.  This represents
a decrease of  $677,800 from 1990.   The decrease  reflects no further need to
federally support demonstration  projects  for  control of  Class V  injection
practices.

      Underground Injection  Control (UIC) grants will support  programs to protect
underground  sources  of  drinking  water   (USDW)   from  contamination  through
underground injection  in  all  57 states  and territories,  as well as  on Indian
lands.  Where  states  and  Indian tribal  authorities have  failed  to  assume UIC
primacy,  EPA  will use  grant  allotments to  support  direct  implementation of
Federal UIC requirements,  including travel.

      States and Regions will enhance their  Class IV and V well efforts following
the Agency Shallow Injection Well Strategy.  This  strategy,  combining traditional
regulatory efforts and innovative non-regulatory approaches to protect drinking
water sources and  other critical ground waters, complements  the Agency's Wellhead
Protection efforts.  EPA's Toxic Characteristic  Leaching Procedure  (TCLP) rule
will have a major  impact.   Many  wells that inject  service station,  industrial
process and radioactive  disposal wastes will be reclassified into  the banned
Class IV  category.   States will  initiate  immediate  closure, remediation and
enforcement actions against  these wells.   States  and Regions will assimilate the
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experience of completed and ongoing demonstration projects to promote innovative
state solutions and develop  geographically  tailored  best  management practices
for remaining Class V wells.

      States and EPA Regions will continue  to permit new  Class  I and Class II
wells and repermit Class I wells.  States and Regions continue compliance reviews
to ensure that safeguards on  all  permitted or rule-authorized Class I, II, III,
or permitted  Class V  wells  are comprehensively evaluated on  a  regular basis.
These compliance reviews replace the five-year cycle of file reviews.  EPA and
state programs will implement revisions to existing UIC regulations and programs
for Class II wells based on the 1989-1990 mid-course evaluation.  In addition,
EPA and the states will continue  to observe  on-site mechanical integrity tests,
inspect and review plugged and abandoned wells,  review well records, and track
compliance with regulatory requirements and permit  conditions.

      Administrative orders (AOs) and/or legal actions will be initiated by state
programs against owners and operators in significant violation  of UIC regulatory
requirements.  This will  include  preparing public notification of violation and
intent to issue AOs,  and conducting public hearings.

      The  grant funds will  also support  technical  assistance  to  operators,
maintain well inventory data, and support regulatory  changes to accommodate new
EPA requirements and guidelines.  The Agency will provide grants to Indian tribes
working towards primacy, and will continue  to  implement the  program on Indian
lands and in non-primacy states.  The Agency  may use a portion of  the grant funds
for travel related to direct implementation activities.

1990 Program

      In 1990, the Agency is allocating a total  of $11,177,800  for this program,
all of which is from the Abatement,  Control and Compliance appropriation.

      These funds support 35  full and   five  partial primacy programs to protect
USDWs from  contamination through underground injection.   EPA  uses  grants to
support direct implementation activities for  17 full non-primacy and five partial
non-primacy  states and Indian lands.   A  top  priority for EPA  and  the states
continues to be permitting of new Class II  wells in  order  to  expedite  oil and
gas production and repermitting of hazardous  waste Class I wells.  Under existing
regulations  such as the  Agency's TCLP rule and newly issued  guidance,  EPA is
increasing efforts to bring enforcement and/or regulatory action against Class
IV and V wells which endanger  USDWs serving public water supplies. A one million
dollar  set-aside  is  funding  demonstration  projects  selected  to  provide
information to support Class  V regulatory and guidance development.

      Grants also support surveillance  and compliance activities.  The programs
primary means  of surveillance  is through  field inspections and the  review of
reports submitted by  operators.   One important component is periodic testing of
the mechanical integrity of injection wells  to demonstrate  the absence  of
contamination sources.  Where violations are evident,  appropriate  enforcement
actions are being initiated.
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      During 1990, Indian tribes that are eligible to assume primacy may apply
for  grants  to  establish a  UIC program.   Activities  include conducting  an
inventory to  determine  the  number  and  types of  wells  to  be regulated  and
establishing the framework for the permitting and enforcement programs.
1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989, the Agency obligated a total of $10,120,300  for this program, all
of which was from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

      Grants supported 35 full  and  five  partial  programs.   EPA implemented 22
Federal programs supported in part by  the grants.  The states and EPA completed
8,977 permit determinations  for  new and existing wells and conducted evaluations
to  determine if  permit  requirements  were being  met.    In addition,  37,475
mechanical integrity tests were  conducted to ensure the  integrity of wells.  The
states and  EPA  also focused on compliance activities  through  increased field
inspections and enforcement actions.   Other  activities  included the  review of
monitoring reports and maintenance of inventory data.
SPECIAL STUDIES AND DEMONSTRATIONS

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $1,000,000 for this program, all of which
will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  This represents
a decrease of $3,374,100 from 1990.  This decrease reflects the Agency's effort
to achieve maximum leverage with limited resources and the expectation that the
recipient organizations  will  secure additional  funding  through organizational
dues, training fees and other mechanisms.

      This program  supports rural water training and technical  assistance to
rural water  systems.   Grassroots training and  technical  assistance  will help
owners and operators of  rural water systems  achieve and maintain compliance with
the National  Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWRs)  as mandated by the SDWA
Amendments.  To help ensure the  delivery of clean, safe drinking water by rural
water systems owner/operator training will address the operation and maintenance
of small  water  systems, and wells, distribution and  disinfection procedures,
monitoring and reporting,  record  keeping, and water regulations.   The goal is
to promote system compliance with the NPDWRs by enhancing the system's physical
infrastructure and ability  to generate new revenue sources.

1990 Program

      In 1990, the Agency is allocating a total of $4,374,100 for this program,
all of which is from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

      EPA is funding 35 independent,  non-profit state  associations covering 36
states through an agreement with  the National Rural Water Association (NRWA).
These resources  support  technical assistance to rural water systems in such areas
as operations, maintenance, capitalization and management to promote compliance
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with the NPDWRs.  To be eligible for a grant, state Rural Water Associations must
provide direct training and technical seminars to small systems owner/operators
and provide certification training in cooperation with state primacy programs.

      In 1990, EPA is  also  funding  six  independent rural community assistance
programs through a grant to the NRCAP.  Through site visits to rural communities,
personnel from these organizations will determine technical assistance needs and
develop  appropriate  educational  programs  to  achieve  the  goal of  improved
compliance.

      In addition to supporting the NRWA  and NRCAP programs,  EPA is funding a
pilot program  in which approximately ten  states  are being selected to develop
Drinking Water Compliance  Assurance  Plans.   These comprehensive  plans  will
establish a framework in the state to maximize the effectiveness of all parties
involved with  public water  supply by  developing action-oriented partnerships,
coordinating activities,  and leveraging resources to promote public water system
compliance.   EPA is  continuing funding of state training centers  to provide
drinking water technical assistance training and information directly to state
personnel.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989, the Agency obligated  a total of $3,000,000  for this program, all
of which was from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

      The NRWA and its 35  state affiliates conducted a  total  of 542 technical
assistance and training programs including:  301 technical seminars; 154 technical
training sessions;  50 jointly sponsored specialized training sessions with other
state and Federal agencies;  and 37 problem  solving sessions.  In addition,  NRWA
affiliates provided a total of 13,346 hours of on-site technical assistance to
address individual rural water system problems related to compliance, operations
and maintenance, finance and management.

      In 1989,  EPA supported six RCAP organizations through a grant to the NRCAP.
These organizations helped to improve the management capabilities and financial
management of  60  small community drinking water  systems in 13  states.   RCAP
projects included an assistance program to help  small  systems  apply for loans
and grants, a resource clearinghouse  project to compile a manual  of all available
funds within a state and the development of training information and manuals for
small water systems.
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                                                  DRINKING WATER
                                             Drinking  Uater Management

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED      CURRENT      REQUEST    INCREASE +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE       1991      DECREASE -
                                                       1990                1991 VS  1990
                                               (DOLLARS  IN  THOUSANDS)

PROGRAM
Public Water Systems
Supervision Program
Assistance
 Salaries & Expenses           $5,098.7   $5,847.6    $6,122.4   $8,065.0    $1,942.6
 Abatement Control and             $5.0     $674.5      $665.9      $10.0      -$655.9
 Cornpl iance
                       TOTAL   $5,103.7   $6,522.1    $6,788.3   $8,075.0    $1,286.7

Underground Injection
Control Program
 Salaries & Expenses           $5,482.9   $5,989.7    $5,957.1   $7,260.0    $1,302.9
                       TOTAL   $5,482.9   $5,989.7    $5,957.1   $7,260.0    $1,302.9
TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses          $10,581.6  $11,837.3   $12,079.5   $15,325.0    $3,245.5
 Abatement Control and             $5.0     $674.5      $665.9       $10.0      -$655.9
 Compliance

Drinking Water         TOTAL  $10,586.6  $12,511.8   $12,745.4   $15,335.0    $2,589.6
Management
PERMANENT UORKYEARS
Public Water Systems              108.3      135.3       126.3       161.3         35.0
Supervision Program
Assistance

Underground Injection             128.6      145.2       137.2       145.2         8.0
Control Program

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS         236.9      280.5       263.5       306.5         43.0
TOTAL WORKYEARS
Public Water Systems              117.7      135.3       134.8       161.3         26.5
Supervision Program
Assistance

Underground Injection             137.1      145.2       145.0       145.2           .2
Control Program

TOTAL WORKYEARS                   254.8      280.5       279.8       306.5         26.7
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                                DRINKING WATER


                           Drinking Water  Management

Budget Request

      The  Agency requests  a  total  of  $15,335,000  supported  by  306.3  total
workyears  for  1991,  an increase of $2,589,600  and  26.7  total  workyears from
1990.   Of  the request,  $15,325,000 will be  for the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation  and  $10,000 will be  for  the Abatement, Control  and Compliance
appropriation,  an  increase  of $3,245,000  for   the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation  and  26.7 total  workyears  and  a  decrease  of $655,900  for  the
Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.


PUBLIC WATER SYSTEMS SUPERVISION PROGRAM ASSISTANCE

1991 Program Request

      The  Agency requests  a  total of  $8,075,000  supported  by  161.3  total
workyears  for  this  program,  of which $8,065,000 will be  for  the Salaries  and
Expenses  appropriation and  $10,000 will  be  for  the  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.  This represents an increase of $1,942,600 for Salaries
and Expenses, a decrease of $655,900 for Abatement, Control and Compliance and
an increase of 26.5 total  workyears. The  increase  in Salaries and Expenses and
total  workyears will   ensure  the  successful   delegation  of  new  regulatory
requirements to the states.  The decrease in Abatement,  Control and Compliance
reflects  the completion  of assistance  to  Camden,  New  Jersey  and  Crawford,
Nebraska in response to contamination incidents.

      The  Regions  will continue to  supervise  the states  in  implementing  the
greatly expanded new regulatory framework.   In  1991,  the states will  begin
adopting  inorganic  and synthetic  organic contaminant standards.   Meanwhile,
Regional oversight  of state activities will intensify as the program enters the
effective period established for  the lead/copper rules, filtration/disinfection
requirements for surface water systems and revised microbiological contaminant
standards.  EPA Regions will increase their participation with state counterparts
in implementing these high-impact rules, responding to unavoidable demands for
EPA involvement and technical assistance on a case-by-case basis.  The Regions
will expand their laboratory certification program to encompass the full range
of regulated  and unregulated  toxic chemicals,  radionuclides,  pesticides  and
microbiological parameters  promulgated to date.   Where  Regions  have  direct
implementation responsibility,  including most  Indian lands, they will also assume
expanded duties.

      Some states will  experience difficulty  in adopting the new provisions and
in maintaining primacy  of their drinking water programs.   Special assistance
efforts will be needed  for these  state programs to enhance implementation.  For
example, Regions will be prepared to provide  state assignees or IPAs  to states
that need additional help  in assimilating  the new requirements.  If some states
give  up  primacy,   the Regions  will  need  to  devote  resources  to  direct
implementation programs in those states.
                                    4-33

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      Regions will institute new programs to reach and work with the vast numbers
of small community and non-transient systems which exhibit the highest rates of
noncompliance.  Regions will  engage  not  only state governments but also seek to
reach local government and health officials to  bring  yet another influence to
bear  in  promoting advances  in  drinking water  protection.   The Regions  will
implement training programs for  trainers of state and local personnel, drinking
water associations and drinking water system operators.  The Regions will also
begin to address the potential risks  posed by private wells through this outreach
and information transfer  program,  using the materials and  training to inform
owners of  the risks  of  drinking water  contamination  and offer solutions to
problems  faced  by  well   owners.     Finally,   the  Regional  data  management
responsibility  will  escalate  as  a  result of  increased systems  compliance
requirements which the states must report.

      The Regions will continue to provide states with technical assistance to
identify and remedy lead contaminated drinking water in schools,  day care centers
and  non-residential  buildings.   Pollution prevention  efforts will  include
outreach and  training  activities to  ban lead  content  in  plumbing supplies, to
control corrosion, and educate the public on lead hazards in drinking water.

1990 Program

      In 1990, the Agency  is allocating a total of $6,788,300  supported by 134.8
total workyears for this program, of which $6,122,400 is  from the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and $665,900 is from  the Abatement,  Control and Compliance
appropriation.

      The Regions  seek to  simultaneously implement  a  new,  comprehensive level
of drinking water protection while improving compliance with current standards
and  monitoring/reporting   (M/R)  requirements.   To reach   maximum  voluntary
compliance with requirements, EPA and the  states are  required to assume a new
role of marketing  program  requirements.   Traditional  compliance programs will
continue to reflect a  balance of preventive  technical assistance  and enforcement
deterrent.  In addition, the Agency will  mobilize the support of all parties with
a stake in safe drinking water.   To this end,  the Regions are participating in
initiatives to expand public education,  support state efforts to build program
capacity, and reach and enlist support of local health officials  and groups with
ties to  "non-transient" systems.  In addition,  the  Regions  are promoting both
institutional and  technological  innovations to  deal with the most  intractable
compliance problems, which are among small systems.

      State adoption  of  the  legal  and  administrative  authority to  enforce a
series of new regulations  is essential  to  attaining health  risk reduction for
public water  supplies.    EPA Regions are  working  closely with the  states in
updating a variety of authorities and practices and providing continued oversight
of adopted requirements including fluoride, volatile  organic contaminants (VOCs),
public notification  requirements,  and  prohibitions  of  lead-content  plumbing
materials.  States  are in the  process  of  adopting Maximum  Contaminant Levels
(MCLs)  for  microbiological  contaminants  and  filtration  and  disinfection
requirements for public water systems using surface water  sources.  As community
and "non-transient" water systems take  on  an  extensive monitoring  program for
both regulated and unregulated  contaminants,  the Regions are increasing their
programs for expanded laboratory certification.
                                    4-34

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      In response  to  drinking water contamination in  Crawford,  Nebraska,  and
Camden, New  Jersey,  the  respective EPA Regions  are providing  oversight  and
technical assistance  to clean up  contaminated  drinking water supplies.   The
Regions are reviewing the  first  applications  by Indian tribal authorities  for
program primacy and program development grants.   With  the  passage of the Lead
Contamination Control Act,  the Regions are providing technical  support to states
to test and remedy lead contaminated drinking water in schools.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989,  the Agency obligated a total  of  $5,103,700  supported by 117.7
total workyears for this program of which $5,098,700  was from the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and $5,000 was from the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.

      During  1989,  the  Regions  worked  with  states  to  begin adoption  of  the
surface water treatment  rule and  revised MCLs  for microbiological contaminants.
Regions worked  with  primacy  states  to  incorporate  regulatory and monitoring
requirements needed to enforce the revised MCLs for VOCs and public notification
requirements.  Efforts continued in overseeing the prohibition of lead-content
plumbing materials and enforcing the fluoride treatment rule.

      The program continued to track state compliance monitoring to locate and
assist  with  problem  systems  and  respond  to contamination  of   supplies  and
waterborne disease outbreaks.   The Regions  assisted  states  in  adopting  new
analytical techniques to meet  additional laboratory certification requirements.
The program continued to provide oversight of basic state program operations and
conducted evaluations of state drinking water programs.

      The Regions  laid  the basic  groundwork  for the process by  which Indian
tribes could apply for primacy.   A  procedural  handbook was developed for Indian
tribes interested in  adopting a PWS primacy program.   Significant assistance was
given to the State of Indiana in moving  towards  primacy;  a start-up grant was
awarded to support primacy program development.


UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM

1991 Program Request

      The Agency   requests  a  total  of  $7,260,000  supported  by  145.2  total
workyears for this program, all of which will be for  the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation.  This  represents  an increase of $1,302,900 and an increase of
0.2 in total workyears.  The increase in Salaries and Expenses reflects increased
personnel and support costs.

      In 1991, EPA will continue to implement 22 Federal Underground Injection
Control (UIC) programs  (17 full  and 5 partial)  in states and on Indian lands
which do not have primacy.  Direct implementation activities will include making
permit determinations and ensuring compliance with permit conditions and other
regulatory requirements.   A  key  objective  continues  to  be more  effective
compliance and  enforcement through greater emphasis  on field inspections  and
surveillance.
                                     -35

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      In 1991,  Regions will address Class V wells in accordance with the Shallow
Injection Well  Strategy.   This  comprehensive  strategy provides  a  systematic
approach for screening the diverse Class  V universe and prescribing different
levels of regulatory controls.  Injection into certain high-risk wells will be
banned as  a result of revisions  to  the Hazardous  Waste  Toxic  Characteristic
Leaching Procedure (TCLP).  The remaining well groups will be targeted for action
based on the contamination risk posed by the wells.   Information gained from the
Class V  demonstration projects will  aide  in determining  whether guidance or
regulatory revisions are  the  most effective method  of control. Integration with
other programs, such as Wellhead Protection, and the use of other authorities,
e.g., the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA),  will maximize the total
environmental benefit.

      The Agency will  complete its five-year  schedule  for permitting Class II
wells within non-primacy jurisdictions.   Regions  will  be implementing state-
specific  revisions  to compliance evaluation programs;  these  changes,  derived
from the mid-course evaluation of Class II oil and gas wells, will impact such
areas as the use  of cement records as a valid structural integrity  test,  well
construction practices, and the proper closure of abandoned wells.  Other direct
implementation activities will include management of contracts and grants,  data
management, and permit tracking.

      EPA will be responsible for oversight of 35 full and 5 partial programs.
EPA will  provide  technical  assistance  to  primacy  states  and ensure  that the
programs continue to meet the minimum  regulatory requirements.  The Agency will
continue  to review  state-issued permits  to  ensure  that  Federal  and  state
requirements  are  met.   In  keeping  with  the  Agency's  pollution  prevention
initiative,  the  Regions  will continue  to review  Class I  hazardous  and  non-
hazardous waste well  permits.   Other activities will  include  reviewing state
noncompliance reports, compiling  annual  report data,  preparing  state-specific
guidance documents and administering UIC state grants.

      Regions will  review applications from Indian tribes  to determine their
qualifications for  treatment as  a state  and  their primacy eligibility.   For
those Indian tribes applying for primacy,  the Agency will provide guidance and
grant assistance.

1990 Program

      In 1990,  the Agency is allocating a total  of $5,957,100 supported by 145.0
total workyears for this program, all of which is  from the  Salaries and Expenses
appropriation.

      The Agency continues to implement Federal programs in 22 non-primacy states
(17 full and 5 partial) and on Indian lands.  This work includes making permit
determinations and  ensuring  that well  owners  and operators adhere  to  permit
conditions and other regulatory requirements.  Regions are implementing ambient
monitoring requirements for Class I injection wells, as  required under the SDWA
Amendments of 1986.  Regions  are providing assistance to Indian  tribes working
toward primacy.

      EPA provides oversight  and technical assistance to 35 full and 5 partial
primacy state  programs.   EPA evaluates  state  efforts   to  implement  their UIC
programs and ensure that  the  minimum regulatory requirements are met.   Regions


                                    4-36

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continue to review Class I, II, III, or permitted Class V state-issued permits
to ensure consistency with Federally-approved state programs; these reviews will
help  to  ensure proper  enforcement of  permit conditions.   Regions  are  also
negotiating state grant workplans.   Class V activities such as inspections and
permitting are continued to reduce potential contamination of underground sources
of drinking water.

      During  1990,  the  Agency is completing  its mid-course evaluation  of the
Class II  regulatory provisions  for mechanical integrity  testing  procedures,
monitoring, reporting and permitting requirements.  Regions are overseeing and
implementing compliance review strategies to  ensure that all permitted or rule-
authorized Class  I,  II, III,  or  permitted Class  V wells receive comprehensive
technical/operational evaluations including field inspections on a regular basis.
These compliance reviews replace the five-year cycle of file reviews.  Regions
continue to give permit determinations high priority.   On-site inspections are
being conducted to ensure compliance with permit conditions.   Other activities
include  developing  site-specific  guidance,   maintaining  inventory  data,  and
preparing annual reports.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989,  the  Agency  obligated a total  of  $5,482,900 supported by 137.1
total workyears for this program, all of which was from  the  Salaries and Expenses
appropriation.

      The Agency implemented Federal programs  in  22 states and on Indian lands.
Direct implementation  activities focused on  making permit  determinations and
ensuring  adherence   to  permit conditions  and other  regulatory  requirements.
Regional activities  in primacy states included general oversight and technical
assistance through  the  issuance  of  guidance  documents and on-site  assistance.
Through quarterly reporting data, the Regions reviewed state  progress and took
necessary actions to ensure proper enforcement.

      Regional and  state experience in regulating Class  II oil and gas wells
provided  the   basis  for evaluation by  EPA  of  key  Class II  wells  control
provisions.  Regions reviewed and revised Class V well inventories and assisted
the states in identifying and taking enforcement action against high risk Class
V wells  and banned Class IV wells.  Regions provided assistance to Indian tribes
working toward primacy as authorized by the SDWA Amendments.
                                      -37

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                                                   DRINKING WATER
                                               Ground-Water Protection
                                 ACTUAL
                                  1989
                   ENACTED
                    1990
 CURRENT
ESTIMATE
  1990
REQUEST
 1991
  INCREASE +
  DECREASE -
1991  VS 1990
 PROGRAM
                                                (DOLLARS  IN THOUSANDS)
 Ground-Water Protection
 -  FIFRA Fund
  Salaries & Expenses
  Abatement Control  and
  Compliance
        $3,744.9   $4,342.0   $4,235.7   $5,233.4       $997.7
        $3,906.7   $4,273.3   $4,212.7   $5,286.5     $1,073.8
                        TOTAL    $7,651.6   $8,615.3   $8,448.4  $10,519.9    $2,071.5
 TOTAL:
  Salaries & Expenses
  Abatement Control  and
  Compliance

 Ground-Water
 Protection
        $3,744.9   $4,342.0   $4,235.7   $5,233.4       $997.7
        $3,906.7   $4,273.3   $4,212.7   $5,286.5     $1,073.8
TOTAL   $7,651.6   $8,615.3   $8,448.4   $10,519.9    $2,071.5
 PERMANENT WORKYEARS
 Ground-Water Protection
 -  FIFRA Fund
            72.1       91.3       89.2      101.3
                           12.1
'TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS
                                    72.1        91.3
                                  89.2       101.3
                           12.1
 TOTAL WORKYEARS
 Ground-Water Protection
 -  FIFRA Fund

 TOTAL WORKYEARS
            76.0       91.3       91.3       101.3         10.0
            76.0       91.3        91.3       101.3         10.0
                                          4-38

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                                DRINKING WATER


                            Ground-Water Protection

Budget Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of  $10,519,900  supported  by  101.3  total
workyears for 1991, an increase of $2,071,000 and 10.0 total workyears from 1990.
Of the request,  $5,233,400 will be for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and $5,286,500 will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.
This  represents  an  increase  of  $997,700  in  the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation  and an  increase  of  $1,074,000  in the  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.   The  total  workyear  increase represents an increase
of 0.5 workyears from the Reregistration and Expedited Processing Revolving Fund
and 9.5 workyears from the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.


GROUND-WATER PROTECTION

1991 Program Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of  $10,519,900  supported  by  101.3  total
workyears  for  this program,  of  which $5,233,400 will be  for  the Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation and $5,286,500 will be for  the  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.  This  represents  an increase of $997,700 for Salaries
and Expenses and $1,073,800  for Abatement,  Control and Compliance, an increase
of 9.5 total workyears from  the  Salaries and  Expenses  appropriation and a  0.5
increase in  the Reregistration  and Expedited Processing Revolving  Fund.   The
increases  in Salaries and Expenses and workyears as well as Abatement, Control
and Compliance  reflect the need for additional resources to  assist  states in
their comprehensive ground-water protection program efforts.

      For  1991,  EPA  will  enhance  assistance  to  states  in  developing  and
implementing ground-water  protection activities  that  move  the  states  beyond
protection strategies to  comprehensive  ground-water  protection programs.   The
Agency will assist states in such technical ground-water concerns as mapping of
aquifer  systems,  conducting resource  assessments,  developing  source control
strategies,  and determining vulnerability characteristics.    EPA will  also
institute  measures  to   foster   institutional  capacity  building,   such   as
coordination of state management and control activities with local governments
to engender effective implementation  of comprehensive  ground-water protection
programs.   In  addition,  EPA will  work  with  other Federal  agencies  to  ensure
consistency and  integration  in  Federal  ground-water  policies,  regulations  and
guidance.

      In 1991,  EPA will initiate analyses of major economic sectors in order to
identify and assess high risk sources of ground-water  contamination that are  not
currently  regulated.  Development and testing of best  practices,  e.g.  siting
criteria, technical controls and management practices,  to  prevent ground-water
contamination from those unregulated sources found to be of greatest concern will
receive Agency support and oversight.  Priority for developing and testing best
practices will  focus on those contaminants frequently located in  high risk areas,
such  as  wellhead protection areas  (WHPAs).   Furthermore,  EPA will  provide


                                    4-39

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information and technical expertise  to states and will undertake communications
efforts seeking  adoption of best practices  by institutions in  each  economic
sector.

      The Agency will  continue to assist states  in  their development of wellhead
protection (WHP)  programs established in the 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking
Water Act.   This program,  which addresses the prevention  of contamination of
ground-water serving as public water supplies, is  an essential component of a
state  comprehensive ground-water  protection program.   In addition,  EPA will
enhance  and expand  its  efforts  in  WHP  demonstration projects  which  will
concentrate on local issues related to the protection of wellhead areas.

        During 1991,  EPA will  seek, test and  refine additional  environmental
indicators for ground-water protection.   Other  new  initiatives will include the
establishment of an acquisition system, with the Office of Information Resources
Management, to provide states with  commonly  requested  data currently retained
by other  Federal agencies.   EPA will update both  a  directory  of ground-water
information  systems  and  a catalogue  of data-bases  related  to  ground-water
protection.  In  addition  to expanding  its data collection  efforts,  the Agency
will  strengthen  its  capacity  to  disseminate and  promote the  exchange  of
information through the use of videos,  pamphlets,  workshops and conferences.

      EPA will maintain its efforts in Sole Source Aquifer (SSA)  designations.
The Agency will  also  continue  to  review projects  financially  assisted by the
Federal government on or near designated SSAs.

      For  activities  related  to  the  1988  Federal Insecticide,  Fungicide and
Rodenticide Act  amendments, additional  workyears  will  support  hydrogeological
and related technical assistance in the pesticide  registration  process.

1990 Program

      In 1990,  the Agency is allocating  a total of  $8,448,400 supported by 91.3
workyears for this  program, of which  $4,235,700  is from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation  and  $4,212,700  is  from   the Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance
appropriation.    Total workyears  include 90.8  from the Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and 0.5 from the  Registration and Expedited Processing Revolving
Fund.

      EPA is supporting state  efforts in developing comprehensive ground-water
programs as a mechanism to provide the states  with  a framework to prioritize and
integrate their  efforts  to manage and control  actual and  potential  sources of
contamination.   Working with the Agency's pesticides  program, the ground-water
protection program is  assisting state water agencies in developing hydrogeologic
aspects of  pesticides management  plans  which  provide for  protection methods
tailored  to  area-specific differences  in  ground-water vulnerability.   These
pesticides management  plans are  an important aspect of a comprehensive approach
to the state in managing their  ground-water  resources.

      The  Agency  is  promoting  prevention  of ground-water contamination  by
encouraging states to  develop and  implement wellhead protection (WHP) programs.
Support of WHP programs  is a central  feature  of  EPA  ground-water  protection
activities.  EPA efforts  to support WHP programs include assisting states in the
delineation of wellhead protection  areas (WHPAs)  and enhancing state  capacity
                                    4-40
                                    /'

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to both address specific sources of contamination and develop appropriate risk
management strategies.  Furthermore, EPA is initiating a demonstration program
with  localities  to encourage  creative and  unique  approaches  to  information
management in WHPAs.  The Agency  is also  reviewing,  approving,  commenting on,
and assisting states in revising WHP programs submitted during 1989.

      The Agency is  fully implementing efforts to ensure that EPA-related ground-
water  protection projects  collect a  minimum  set  of data  elements.   Other
information  management  activities include  the  development of  methods  for
translating new and historical  ground-water data  into  an automated form and the
continuation of enhancements to STORET and other  EPA data-bases.  The Agency is
enhancing and promoting the  use of geographic information systems,  particularly
in  identifying  the most critical sources of  contamination  in WHPAs,  and is
providing workshops and  seminars  for state and local officials on the  use of
these data management tools for ground-water protection.

      EPA is  responding to petitions for SSA designation and is reviewing Federal
financially assisted projects on or near a designated SSA.

      EPA is  providing needed expertise and technical assistance in the pesticide
registration process for new chemicals and/or new uses as mandated in the FIFRA
Amendments of 1988.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989,  the Agency obligated a total of $7,651,600 supported by 76.0 total
workyears  for  this program,  of  which  $3,744,900  was  from  the Salaries  and
Expenses  appropriation  and  $3,906,700 was  from the  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      During 1989,  the Agency provide support for states activities in developing
and  adopting ground-water  protection strategies.   The  Agency completed an
assessment of ground-water protection activities carried out by the states and
the extent of progress made nationally  to achieve ground-water protection through
state efforts.   Findings were  presented at an EPA/state  forum  addressing the
states' capacity to undertake protection programs.

      The Agency assisted states in the development of  wellhead protection (WHP)
programs  which  mitigate  the  effects  of  actual   and  potential  sources  of
contamination  of ground-water  resources   serving  as  public water  supplies.
Assistance to states included technical guidance  on the delineation of wellhead
protection areas  (WHPAs),   inventorying contamination sources,  and  providing
technical information on methods for protecting public water wells  from a wide
variety of  sources of contamination.   In  addition,  the  Agency received  and
initiated review and approval processes on some  30 WHP  programs submitted by the
states in accordance with the June 1989 statutory requirements.

      In  1989,  the Agency  took  a major   step  toward improving  ground-water
information by requiring that all programs conducted by EPA  or on  the Agency's
behalf collect a minimum set of data elements when monitoring ground  water.

      The Agency designated additional SSAs in  1989.   The  number of designated
aquifers increased to a total of 52 nationwide  by the end  of the year.
                                    4-41

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Enforcement

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                       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1991 Budget Estimate

                              Table of  Contents
                                                                          Page

DRINKING WATER

ENFORCEMENT
   Drinking Water Enforcement 	    4-42

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                                                  DRINKING WATER
                                             Drinking  Water Enforcement

                                ACTUAL     ENACTED      CURRENT     REQUEST    INCREASE +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE       1991      DECREASE -
                                                       1990                1991 VS  1990
                                               (DOLLARS  IN  THOUSANDS)

PROGRAM
Drinking Water
Enforcement
 Salaries & Expenses           $3,411.0   $3,534.4    $3,817.6   $5,000.0    $1,182.4
                       TOTAL   $3,411.0   $3,534.4    $3,817.6   $5,000.0    $1,182.4
TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses           $3,411.0   $3,534.4    $3,817.6    $5,000.0    $1,182.4

Drinking Water         TOTAL   $3,411.0   $3,534.4    $3,817.6    $5,000.0    $1,182.4
Enforcement
PERMANENT WORKYEARS
Drinking Water                     75.3       90.0       84.3       100.0         15.7
Enforcement

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS          75.3       90.0       84.3       100.0         15.7
TOTAL WORKYEARS
Drinking Water                     81.0       90.0       90.0       100.0         10.0
Enforcement

TOTAL WORKYEARS                    81.0       90.0       90.0       100.0         10.0
                                         4-42

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                                DRINKING  WATER


                          Drinking Water Enforcement

Budget Request

      The  Agency requests  a  total  of  $5,000,000  supported  by  100.0  total
workyears for 1991,  an increase of $1,182,400 and 10.0 workyears from 1990.  All
of  the  request  will  be for  the  Salaries and  Expenses appropriation.   This
represents an increase of $1,182,400.


DRINKING WATER ENFORCEMENT

1991 Program Request

      The  Agency requests  a  total  of  $5,000,000  supported  by  100.0  total
workyears for this program, all of which will be for the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation.   This  represents  an increase  of  $1,182,400  and 10.0  total
workyears.   These  increases will  bolster regional  drinking  water enforcement
efforts  to  limit   the increase  of  new violations  from  new  chemical  and
microbiological  regulatory requirements.

      Effective  enforcement  will  remain the  linchpin  of  EPA's efforts  to
implement a new, comprehensive level of  drinking water protection mandated by
the  Safe  Drinking  Water Act  (SDWA).   The presence of  a  credible enforcement
deterrent will work to secure the utmost level  of  voluntary compliance  among
Public Water Systems (PWSs).  In 1991, enforcement priorities will be transformed
by the advent of  new National Primary Drinking Water  Regulations (NPDWR) for two
"high risk"  contaminants,  namely pathogenic  microorganisms  and  lead.   While
ultimately  reducing substantial  health  risks,  the  immediate  effect of  the
regulatory changes  is likely to be  large numbers of violations.  A larger Federal
enforcement  presence  in 1991,  combined  with vigorous  EPA/state  mobilization
efforts to  "market"  the new  requirements, will  maximize voluntary compliance.
At  the  same time,  1991 enforcement  priorities  will be affected  by  a growing
number  of serious   violations  of  volatile organic  contaminant  standards  and
revised public notice  requirements.   For  the  former,  1991  is the deadline for
60,000  small community  and non-transient systems   to  measure  their  initial
compliance status.

      In  response  to  the  rising  tide of new kinds  of violations,   EPA will
establish enforcement  priorities  on the  basis of maximum health-risk payoff.
In 1991, EPA will apply a new  definition of Significant Non-Compliance (SNC) to
assign enforcement priorities among the mix of new and existing standards.  Based
upon the risk-reduction principles reflected in the current SNC criteria,  EPA's
new priority scheme will expand enforcement priorities by more clearly defining
categories  less  than  "significant"  but  of  serious  concern.   This gives  the
Regions and  PWS  primacy states more flexibility in  defining  priorities,  and
therefore enforcement programs can deal more effectively with the influx of new
violations. Regions will continue  to  conduct Administrative Order (AO)  hearings
and assess penalties for AO noncompliance in conjunction with Regional Counsel.
                                    4-43

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      In the area of Underground Injection Control (UIC) enforcement, EPA will
continue to target  Class  IV and V injection practices  identified  as posing a
substantial threat  to underground sources of drinking water  (USDW).   Class IV
wells that pose a threat  to USDWs, particularly  those which  were reclassified
according to the recent Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) amendments
to the RCRA regulations,  will be the UIC enforcement priority.   In addition,
Regional enforcement  actions against  Class  I  well  operators (waste-disposal
injections) will be initiated if they fail to apply  for  a permit, test for well
mechanical integrity, or provide monitoring reports.

1990 Program

      In 1990, the Agency is allocating a total of $3,817,600 supported by 90.0
total workyears for this program, all of which is  from the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation.

      In 1990, EPA  is  targeting the most serious NPDWR violators, initiating
Federal action on all systems in SNC that the states  have failed to  either bring
into compliance or  to  enforce themselves.   As a follow up to the enforcement
program reviews conducted in 1989, Headquarters is compiling  a national report
summarizing findings  and recommending  across-the-board changes in  EPA's  PWS
enforcement efforts.  Regions are instituting a regular  process of consultation
with all PWS primary states on enforcement activities and the need for Federal
action.  Regions  are  also working with all primacy  states to institute risk-
based enforcement strategies using escalating responses  geared to  the severity
and  recalcitrance  of  the  non-compliance.   EPA will  institute  and  promote
organizational reforms among states to increase the prominence of PWS efforts.
EPA is also currently re-defining its  definition  of high-risk NPDWR violations,
which  in  turn  designates   systems   in SNC.    The  re-definition,  a  joint
Headquarters-Regional effort, will take into account  violations by non-transient
PWSs. The  comprehensive   reviews  of  PWS  enforcement   have  also  highlighted
opportunities for EPA to improve internal data management procedures for faster,
more  accurate tracking  of  priority  non-compliance and EPA/state  response.
Headquarters is developing better guidance on reporting  categories and revised
verification procedures.  Regions will, in turn, devote closer  attention to state
responses to non-compliance.

      UIC  enforcement  focuses  on  injectors'  regular  testing for mechanical
integrity and compliance with permit requirements for Class  II, III  and V wells.
The monitoring of Class I disposal wells continues in order to ensure protection
of USDWs.  Enforcement actions against owners/operators in serious violation will
help reduce some of the most substantial health threats  to human health and the
environment  as well  as   set examples  for  other  well   operators  to  follow.
Continued  emphasis  is  on addressing  and  remedying  Class  IV and  V  injection
practices identified as posing substantial threats to USDWs.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989,  the Agency obligated a total of $3,411,000  supported by 81.0 total
workyears  for  this  program, all of which was  from the  Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation.

      Regions continued to  issue AOs  against violators  of  PWS and  UIC  program
requirements in order to achieve compliance with regulations  and standards  set


                                    4-44

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by the  Agency.   Significant  non-compilers  remained the  enforcement  priority
although other violators were pursued.  Where  state  action failed to  remedy a
violation, EPA issued AOs or  initiated  court action.   EPA implemented the new
AO compliance tracking system designed to provide information on the status of
AOs  and the actions  taken  to  return  violators to  compliance.    The  Regions
assisted Regional Counsels in documenting violations which required new and more
stringent enforcement actions and participated  in  activities  related  to civil
enforcement referral to the Department of Justice.

      Less  than  two  percent of  community water  systems  were  in SNC  with
microbiological  or  turbidity  MCLs  and/or  monitoring  and  reporting  (M/R)
requirements and/or  total  trihalomethane  M/R requirements.   Approximately 18
percent  of  community water  systems  reported some  violations with nearly 78
percent of those being M/R violations.  The remaining  78 percent of community
water systems were  in full compliance.

      The Regions issued 122  final AOs  for UIC  violations and 242 enforcement
actions against PWS violators.
                                    4-45

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5. HAZARDOUS
   WASTE

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                        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1991 Budget Estimate

                               Table of  Contents
                                                                          Page

HAZARDOUS WASTE                                                         5-1

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Hazardous Waste Research 	 	   5-7
      Scientific Assessment 	   5-14
      Monitoring Systems and Quality Assurance  	 .   5-15
      Health Effects  	   5-17
      Environmental Engineering and Technology  	   5-18
      Environmental Processes and Effects 	   5-20
      Technical Information and Liaison 	   5-21
      Integrated Hazardous Waste.Research 	   5-22
ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   Waste Management Regulations, Guidelines and Policies   	   5-23
      Regulations, Guidelines and Policies - Hazardous Waste  ....   5-25
      Regulations, Guidelines and Policies - Air and Radiation  .   . .   5-27
      Regulations, Guidelines and Policies - Water  	   5-28
      Regulations, Guidelines & Policies - Underground Storage Tanks    5-30
   Financial Assistance 	   5-33
      Hazardous Waste Management Financial Assistance to States ...   5-34
      Underground Storage Tanks State Grants  	   5-36
   Hazardous Waste Management Regulatory Strategies Implementation  .   5-38
   Emergency Planning/Community Right-to-know - Title III  	   5-42
ENFORCEMENT
   Hazardous Waste Enforcement  	   5-45

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                                                    HAZARDOUS WASTE
                                ACTUAL    ENACTED     CURRENT     REQUEST   INCREASE +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE      1991      DECREASE -
                                                       1990               1991  VS 1990
                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)


APPROPRIATION
 Salaries & Expenses          $74,619.6  $79,193.2  $78,044.1   $96,203.4   $18,159.3
 Abatement Control and       $159,121.0 $163,389.8 $160,938.2  $194,599.5   $33,661.3
 Compliance
 Research & Development       $28,897.8  $31,204.5  $30,313.7   $26,341.2   -$3,972.5

TOTAL, Hazardous Waste       $262,638.4 $273,787.5 $269,296.0  $317,144.1   $47,848.1


PERMANENT WORKYEARS             1,372.2    1,523.0    1.432.9     1,634.7       201.8
TOTAL WORICYEARS                 1,452.3    1,523.0    1,490.1     1,634.7       144.6
OUTLAYS                      $253.744.5 $264,578.8 $263.380.1  $307,477.6   $44.097.5
AUTHORIZATION LEVELS         The Solid Waste Disposal Act as amended expired on
                             November 8, 1988.  Reauthorization is pending.
                                         5-1

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                                HAZARDOUS WASTE
OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY

      The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976, as revised by
the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments  (HSWA) of 1984,  provides  the legislative
mandate for a nationwide program to protect human health and the environment from
the risks of improper management  of hazardous and  solid wastes.  The goals of
the Act are: to  ensure adequate and safe treatment of hazardous waste through
its management from  generation through disposal; to ensure  adequate and safe
management  and disposal  capacity  for  solid wastes; and  to prevent and detect
leakage from underground storage tanks (USTs).

      The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, Title III of the
Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of  1986,  establishes a framework
for identification of hazardous chemicals present in communities. This program
provides for development of state and local response plans to prevent, protect
and inform  the public in the event of a chemical release emergency.

      The  demands  on  and expectations  for EPA's  waste  management programs
continue  to rise.   During  the  early  1970's,  program  direction emphasized
identifying and  controlling  solid waste.   The late 1970's and  1980's saw the
refinement  and  expansion  of  this  direction  to  include "cradle  to  grave"
management of hazardous wastes and states' implementation of Federally-authorized
national management  standards.   In the  1990's,  the Agency  must increasingly
address problems associated with the expanding universes of wastes produced by
a growing  national economy,   including  municipal solid waste,  medical waste,
special large-volume wastes and industrial  solid  waste.  EPA must also continue
its work to complete the remaining protective mandates of HSWA hazardous waste
requirements, many  of  which may  be  subject to  new deadlines  as  a  result of
citizen suits brought in Federal court.

      The Agency's strategy  to address  these demands  and expectations is to:
(1) strengthen  state relationships by  leveraging permitting and enforcement
resources to improve hazardous waste program implementation;   (2) develop new,
and  revise  existing  regulations to  address   continually  evolving  program
directions;  and   (3) conduct  research,  encourage  technology development and
transfer, and  establish  outreach programs  to  provide the scientific program
foundation, national information  network and public communications capability
necessary to successfully conduct a national waste management program.

Leveraging a National Regulatory Program Through the States

      The Agency recognizes  the essential  role  of the  states  in developing,
implementing and enforcing  a national waste  management program, and is providing
significant  increases  in resources  to assist  the  states  in fulfilling their
growing  responsibilities.    Success  in managing  the  expanding  universe  of
hazardous,  solid,  municipal,  medical  and  special  wastes depends  on a strong
Federal/state partnership.   The  Agency  and the  states will jointly examine
existing state authorities to determine  changes  necessary  to   meet national
                                      5-2

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hazardous waste program  requirements.   EPA Regions will assist  the  states in
upgrading their program capabilities to meet new and modified Federal standards.
The States will continue to develop legislation and regulations to incorporate
HSWA provisions and new and revised requirements into their programs.

      The permitting program  is  the backbone of the  national  hazardous waste
management system,  upon  which depends  our  ultimate success in  achieving the
legislative direction  envisioned  in HSWA -- the protection of our health and
environment from the risks of ill-managed wastes.  The permitting program will
respond to the statutory mandate to issue permits to all operating and closing
hazardous waste management facilities.  The Agency will increase state resources
to make  significant progress  toward meeting  the  1992 storage  and  treatment
facility  permitting deadline  and will  process post-closure permits  for land
disposal facilities.  The Agency and states will continue to modify permits as
necessary to address changing regulations, new corrective action provisions, and
changes to facility design and practices.

      The Agency's  concentration  on meeting the mandated permitting deadlines
and EPA's  recent  use of  corrective  action order authorities, have  created a
rapidly expanding universe of  facilities where corrective  action requirements
have  been  imposed.    The Agency will  encourage  the  states,  through  HSWA
authorization  and  increased  resources targeted  in  cooperative agreements, to
assume the lead for approximately  fifty  percent  of corrective action oversight.
EPA will continue to oversee owner/operators' corrective action activities and
will tailor its facility  oversight to ensure effective owner/operator response.
Community  outreach  activities   will  maintain  continued,   informed  public
involvement in the process of correcting problems at our Nation's hazardous waste
facilities.

      In  1990  the  states  assumed  the  lead in many mandated inspection and
enforcement activities --  conducting inspections of Federal  and  local facilities
and follow-up enforcement,  which better balanced the state/EPA workload.  As new
wastes are brought into the regulatory universe --  mixed waste,  mining waste,
hazardous waste fuel rule, organic toxicity characteristic  --a higher level of
state inspection and enforcement activity will be necessary to ensure continued
industry compliance.  The Agency is increasing  state resources for this higher
level of state enforcement activity.

      Emphasis  on  non-hazardous waste management activities will  continue as
Regions and states work to implement revised municipal waste management criteria,
and to support the  increased national attention to municipal waste recycling and
source reduction.  The Regions will provide project-specific  financial assistance
to develop  a  strong and consistent national effort  to attain municipal waste
management and reduction goals established in the Agency's Agenda for Action.

      In the UST program,  the Agency and states will identify and develop common
solutions to program implementation problems,  which can be applied to improve
performance in many state programs.   The Agency will develop and test processes
for  states'  use  in promoting compliance  with and enforcing  new  UST  leak
detection, corrective  action  and  financial responsibility requirements.   The
Agency will  ensure that  states  incorporate these  new requirements  and will
increase prevention program financial assistance.
                                    5-3

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      As the states and local communities move from developing to implementing
emergency response plans  under  the Title III program,  the  Agency will assist
states  in  developing their capability  to  enforce the  emergency  planning and
chemical storage  and release notification  requirements.   National  guidance,
technical assistance and training will highlight enforcement targeting mechanisms
and development of the case referral process through state legal systems.

Sustaining a Responsive National Regulatory Program

      The hazardous waste regulatory program must  continue its work to complete
the remaining requirements mandated in  HSWA,  responding to  existing statutory
and new court-ordered deadlines.   The national program must also respond to the
concerns of  an increasingly aware  and  informed public, which  expects Agency
action on a growing universe of waste management facilities in such  diverse areas
as municipal solid waste, medical waste and special large volume wastes.

      Implementing the legislative intent to identify and bring under management
those wastes considered hazardous, the Agency will perform preliminary listing
studies and develop regulations to list as hazardous the specific wastes named
in HSWA. Also,  the Agency will develop the double  liner  and the hazardous waste
leak detection  rules  to  address  concerns over the ability  of  hazardous waste
facilities to safely  and  effectively manage the Nation's hazardous waste.  In
this regard,  Headquarters will prepare technical updates  for minimum technology
requirements.  The Agency will begin development of treatment  standards for those
wastes  listed as hazardous  since  the  enactment  of HSWA.    The  Agency will
implement the land disposal restrictions  program by processing treatment capacity
and no migration petitions.  These regulatory efforts will substantially address
major HSWA protective mandates to study, identify, list, restrict disposal and
manage certain wastes as hazardous.

      The Agency will proceed with its efforts to address emerging solid waste
management issues of  national concern by  serving  as  a technical clearinghouse
for municipal solid waste management information,  options and guidelines.  The
Agency  will  continue to  address municipal solid waste source reduction and
recycling programs recommended in the Agenda for Action on solid waste.  These
efforts will include  establishing volume  and  toxicity  reduction goals  as well
as encouraging the initiation of source reduction and  recycling programs to meet
various state and local needs.   Finally,  the  Agency  will expand its municipal
solid waste  program  to  address  methods for  safely  and effectively  managing
municipal waste combustion ash.

      The Agency will  respond to management concerns in its special  waste program
by promulgating rules for oil and gas waste and mining  waste and  will  issue a
regulatory determination on exempt mineral processing wastes.  The Agency will
implement the medical waste rule and will complete  a required  report to Congress
on the medical waste demonstration program.   Also, the Agency will issue mixed
wastes guidance and rules, and conduct a regulatory determination on cement kiln
dust.  In the international arena,  the  Agency will review its  hazardous waste
export program rules to ensure proper disposition of hazardous  waste abroad.

      Prevention of pollution and minimization of hazardous  and solid waste is
a  national priority  into the  1990's.   The  Agency will   promote  pollution
prevention through specific initiatives, such as encouraging the use of re-mining
techniques at  abandoned  or inactive mine  tailing sites.   Significant Agency


                                    5-4

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efforts  will be  devoted  to  enhancing  outreach  and  education programs  for
encouraging industrial source reduction and market-based recycling.  Headquarters
will reexamine its policies, guidances and regulations and will promote pollution
prevention in its permit activities.   The UST program will continue its mission
to prevent pollution of surface and groundwater due to the leaking of underground
storage tanks.

Supporting  the  Regulatory Program Through  Research.  Technology Transfer  and
Public Participation

      The research  program provides  the scientific and technical  information
and data  necessary  to support the development of hazardous waste  regulations
and implementation.   Scientific  information on  the prevention, health risk,
monitoring  and  environmental  processes associated with hazardous  waste,  from
generation  to disposal,  is provided to state  and local  government,  private
industry and other decision-makers.

      The Agency will conduct research in several areas:   alternate technologies,
waste characterization and identification, land disposal, incineration, quality
assurance,  releases,  and municipal   solid  waste.    The  Agency will  provide
technology  transfer of its research  findings  to encourage implementation of
improved  methods  and practices.   Additional  research will  be conducted on
municipal solid waste, specifically in the area of source reduction.  Municipal
Solid  Waste  Research  includes   the  MITE  (Municipal  Innovative  Technology
Evaluation)   program,   which  provides  demonstration  and  evaluation  of  new
technologies.

      Increased resources will be  provided  for on-line  activation  of the RCRA
Information  System  in a number of pilot states.   This  system  will enable  the
Agency, Regions and the states to  better monitor facility progress and identify
national, Regional or  state trends  in hazardous waste management.  This improved
data collection system  will provide  the national basis for evaluation of  the
effectiveness of  waste management regulations  and development of regulatory
improvements.

Utilizing the Private Sector for Essential Consulting Services

      The Agency  requires private consultants to  perform essential  support
services for which it either does not or  is not economically effective to possess
the expert,   specialized personnel  resources, or which  are time-critical.   The
Agency will  utilize the expert advisory, research, analytical and assistance
services of  consultants  for development of regulatory impact analyses, for other
specialized technical  support  in developing highly complex regulations, national
guidance documents, for functionally specialized technical assistance required
for program  implementation, and for the development of comprehensive information
management systems.
                                     5-5

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                               HAZARDOUS WASTE
                                             CURRENT
                                   INCREASE (+)
PROGRAM ACTIVITIES
Regulations
RCRA Standards 	
Effl. Gdlns. Data Summary
Proposals 	
Promulgations 	
UIC Petition Reviews . . .
Implementation
Guidance Documents . . . .
Reports to Congress . . . .
State Authorization (cum.)
Base Program . . . .
HSWA Cluster I . . .
Final Permit Determinations
and Closures (Cumulative) . .
Ongoing Permit Processing
UIC Permit Revisions . . .
Enforcement and
Corrective Actions
Inspections ...
Administrative
Orders 	
Civil Litigation . .
Criminal
Litigation 	
ACTUAL
1989
25
*
14
11
40

25
3
45
4

2,251
355
75


13,182
1,227
187
103
ESTIMATE
1990
43
15
26
17
35

15
5
48
34

2,647
361
75


12,870
1,291
156
104
ESTIMATE
1991
26
3
16
10
40

11
3
52
45

2,797
1,005
75


13,382
1,291
156
132
DECREASE (-)
1991 VS 1990
-17
-12
-10
-7
+5

-4
-2
+4
+11

+150
+644
0


+512
0
0
+28
      Corrective Action
      Facility
      Assessments .  .  .

      Monitoring of
      Corrective Action
      Activities  .  .  .
174
121
107
280
107
402
+122
      POTW Corrective
      Measures  .  .  .
*  Outputs for  the  Office  of Water's Hazardous Waste  regulatory
   activities are not available for 1989.
                                   development
                                    5-6

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Abatement and
   Control

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                        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1991 Budget Estimate

                               Table of  Contents
HAZARDOUS WASTE

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Hazardous Waste Research 	   5-7
      Scientific Assessment 	 	   5-14
      Monitoring Systems and Quality Assurance  	   5-15
      Health Effects		   5-17
      Environmental Engineering and Technology  	   5-18
      Environmental Processes and Effects 	   5-20
      Technical Information and Liaison 	 ....   5-21
      Integrated Hazardous Waste Research 	   5-22

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                                                   HAZARDOUS WASTE
                                              Hazardous Uaste Research
                                ACTUAL
                                 1989
                   ENACTED
                    1990
            CURRENT
           ESTIMATE
             1990
             REQUEST
              1991
            INCREASE +
            DECREASE -
          1991 VS 1990
PROGRAM
                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
Scientific Assessment -
Hazardous Uaste
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
        $1,124.4
        $2,235.9
        $3,360.3
$1,069.6
$1,659.7
$2,729.3
$1,040.9
$1,604.2
$2,645.1
$1,222.1
$1,648.0
$2,870.1
$181.2
 $43.8
$225.0
Monitoring Systems &
Quality Assurance -
Hazardous Uaste
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
        $3,983.1   $3,301.7   $3,257.2   $3,503.6
        $8,044.1   $8,478.0   $8,250.5   $6,784.2
TOTAL  $12,027.2  $11,779.7  $11,507.7  $10,287.8
Health Effects -
Hazardous Uaste
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
          $660.3
          $474.8
        $1,135.1
  $667.6
  $837.0
$1,504.6
  $641.6
  $807.4
$1,449.0
  $960.9
  $829.5
$1,790.4
                                    $246.4
                                 -$1,466.3
                                 -$1.219.9
$319.3
 $22.1
$341.4
Environmental
Engineering &
Technology - Hazardous
Uaste
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
        $5,366.5   $5,315.2   $5,179.9   $5,570.3      $390.4
       $11,222.7  $14,092.8  $13,639.5  $12,426.4   -$1,213.1
TOTAL  $16,589.2  $19,408.0  $18,819.4  $17,996.7     -$822.7
Environmental Processes
& Effects - Hazardous
Uaste
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
Technical Information
and Liaison - Hazardous
Uaste
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
$3,453.0
$4,420.3
$7,873.3
$3,366.5
$3,675.7
$7,042.2
$3,305.0
$3,577.0
$6,882.0
$3,569.4
$3,653.1
$7,222.5
$1,000.0
$1,000.0
                                                       $264.4
                                                        $76.1
                                                       $340.5
                                                     $1,000.0
                                                     $1,000.0
Integrated Hazardous
Uaste Research
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
        $2,500.0
        $2,500.0
$2,461.3
$2,461.3
$2,435.1
$2,435.1
           -$2,435.1
           -$2,435.1
TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development

Hazardous Uaste
Research
       $14,587.3  $13,720.6  $13,424.6  $14,826.3    $1,401.7
       $28,897.8  $31.204.5  $30,313.7  $26,341.2   -$3,972.5

TOTAL  $43,485.1  $44,925.1  $43,738.3  $41,167.5   -$2,570.8
                                         5-7

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                                                   HAZARDOUS WASTE
                                              Hazardous  Waste  Research

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED      CURRENT     REQUEST    INCREASE +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE       1991      DECREASE -
                                                      1990                1991 VS  1990
PERMANENT WORKYEARS
                                               (DOLLARS  IN  THOUSANDS)
Scientific Assessment -
Hazardous Waste

Monitoring Systems &
Quality Assurance -
Hazardous Waste

Health Effects -
Hazardous Waste

Environmental
Engineering &
Technology - Hazardous
Waste

Environmental Processes
& Effects - Hazardous
Waste

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS
 12:6       17.4
           17.1
 48.7
 11.3
 87.9
47.5       47.5
12.0
89.8       83.7
           17.1
           47.5
11.6       11.6
           84.9
 51.5       52.0       51.7       50.0
212.0      218.7      211.6      211.1
 0.0


 0.0



 0.0


 1.2




-1.7



 -.5
TOTAL UORKYEARS
Scientific Assessment -
Hazardous Waste

Monitoring Systems &
Quality Assurance -
Hazardous Waste

Health Effects -
Hazardous Waste

Environmental
Engineering &
Technology - Hazardous
Waste

Environmental Processes
& Effects - Hazardous
Waste

TOTAL WORKYEARS
 14.8       17.4
           17.1
           17.1
 52.4       47.5       47.5       47.5
 11.8       12.0
 93.0
           11.6
89.8       83.7
           11.6
           84.9
 53.3       52.0       51.7       50.0
225.3      218.7      211.6      211.1
 0.0


 0.0



 0.0


 1.2




-1.7



 -.5
                                         5-8

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                                HAZARDOUS WASTE

                           Hazardous Waste Research


                        Principal Outputs by Objective


Objective 1:      Develop Data to Support the Use of Alternate  Technologies

1991: o     Pollution Prevention Case Studies  (Engineering)

      o     Technical Report on Clean Products  Studies  and  Demonstrations
            (Engineering)

1990: o     Waste Minimization Guidance Manuals for Seven Industries (Engineering)

      o     Technical Report  on  the  Summary of Waste  Minimization  Evaluations
            supported by the USEPA (Engineering)

      o     Report to Congress on Pollution Prevention  Research (Engineering)

1989: o     Technical Resource  Document  on the  Minimization  and  Control  of
            Hazardous Waste Combustion By-Products (Engineering)


Objective 2:      Develop and Evaluate Tests and Procedures  for Conducting Risk
                  Assessments

1991:  o    50-60 Health and Environmental Effect Documents  (Sci.  Assessment)

       o    Approximately 30 Subchronic Testing  Protocols for  RCRA Chemicals (Sci.
            Assessment)

       o    Technical Support Documents for 20-30 RCRA Site-Specific Assessments •
            e.g., Petitions,  ACLs,  etc.  (Sci. Assessment)

       o    User's Manual for Two-Dimensional Multiphase Transport Model (Environ.
            Processes)

       o    Report  on  Nitrate  Subsurface  Contamination   Studies  (Environ.
            Processes)

       o    Report on Methods for Handling  Spatial Variability  to Subsurface
            Environments (Environ.  Processes)

1990:  o    Report  on Field  Evaluation  of  Unsaturated  Zone  Model  (Environ.
            Processes)

       o    Report on Site Specific  Multimedia Modeling for Ranking  Closure
            Options at RCRA Land Disposal Operations (Environ.  Processes)       I

       o    Report on Evaluation of Selected Plants as Cover Crops for HW/SF Sites
            (Environ. Processes)
                          '£;
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       o    Beta Test Model of Risk Assistant Expert System (Sci.  Assessment)

       o    Careinogenieity Profiles for Third Portion of Land Disposal Ban (Sci.
            Assessment)

       o    50-60 Health and Environmental Effect Documents (Sci.  Assessment)

       o    Approximately 30 Subchronic Testing Protocols for RCRA Chemicals (Sci.
            Assessment)

       o    Technical Support Documents for 20-30 RCRA Site-Specific Assessments -
            e.g., Petitions, ACLs,  etc. (Sci. Assessment)

1989:   o    Exposure Factors Handbook (Sci. Assessment)

       o    50-60 Health and Environmental Effect Documents (Sci.  Assessment)

       o    Approximately 30 Subchronic Testing Protocols for RCRA Chemicals (Sci.
            Assessment)

       o    Technical Support Documents for 20-30 RCRA Site-Specific Assessments -
            e.g., Petitions, ACLs,  etc.  (Sci. Assessment)

       o    Report on Quantification of Prediction  Uncertainty Associated with
            Surface Water Quality Models (Sci. Assessment)

       o    Test and Update PC Module for Cure Data Base ( Sci. Assessment)

       o    Prototype of Risk Assistant Expert System for Exposure/Risk Assessment
            at Specific  Sites  (Jointly Funded,  Hazardous  Waste and Superfund)
            (Sci. Assessment)

       o    Report on Evaluation of Source Term Initial Conditions for Modeling
            Leachate Migration from Landfills (Environ. Processes)

       o    Report on  Reliability  of Ground-Water  Solute  Transport Models and
            Application of  Stochastic  Theories to  Predict Dispersion (Environ.
            Processes)

       o    Report on Treatability Potential for EPA Listed Hazardous Wastes in
            Soils (Environ. Processes)


Objective 3:      Conduct Assessment and Control Research to Control Dioxin

1990:   o    Report:  Kinetics  and  Toxicity Studies in Monkeys  Exposed  to TCDD
            (Sci. Assessment)

1989:   o    Reports on Soil Ingestion Study,  and Estimation of Soil Ingestion in
            Children and Adults (Scientific Assessment)

       o    Report on Plant Uptake of Dioxin (Envir. Processes)

       o    Photodegradation Evaluation of Dioxin in Soils  (Envir. Processes)

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Objective 4:

1991:  o


1990:  o


1989:  o
      Develop Procedures to Identify and Measure Chemicals in Wastes
Application  of  Borehole  Geophysics   in   Waste  Site  Monitoring
(Monitoring)

Report  on  Research  Statistics,  Geostatistics,  and  Chemometries
(Monitoring)

Development  of  Automated Expert  Systems  for  Determining Location
Standards for Subtitle-D Facilities in Wet Environments (Monitor.)
Objective 5:
      Develop Data  to  Support Implementation of  the  Land Disposal
      Regulations
1990:  o    Guidance Documents  on the  Design and  Operation of  Landfills  and
            Surface Impoundments (Engineering)
Objective 6:


1991:  o

1990:  o
1989:  o
      Develop  Data  to Support  Implementation of  the  Incineration
      Regulations

Report on Pilot-Scale Testing done at the IRF  (Engineering)

Reports  on OSW  Methodology  for  Multi-Media  Risk Assessment  for
Municipal Waste Combustors (Sci. Assessment)

Document Evaluating the Mutagenicity of Particle
Bound Organics found in Incinerator Emissions (Health)

Technical Resource Document on Minimization  and Control of Hazardous
Waste Combustion By-Products (Engineering)

Report  on  EPA/Environment   Canada;   RDF  Combustion  Technology,
Environmental  Characterization Mid-Connecticut  Resource  Recovery
Facility (Engineering)

Report on  Phase  I of Site-Specific Risk  Assessment  at  Rutland, VT
(Sci. Assessment)

Engineering  Assessment  Report on  Hazardous  Waste  Co-Firing in
Industrial Boilers under Nonsteady Operating  Conditions (Engineering)

Municipal Waste Combustion Assessment (Engineering)
Objective 7:

1991:  o
      Provide Quality Assurance Support to the Hazardous Waste Program

Comprehensive Soil Sample  Preparation Manual for Volatile Organics
(Monitoring)
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       o    Annual Report  on Quality  Control  Samples  for  RCRA Appendix  VIII
            Chemicals (monitoring)

1990:  o    Summary Report on Quality Assurance Support Including Development of
            Quality Assurance Materials for Unconventional Matrices (Monitoring)

       o    Annual Report  on Quality  Control  Samples  for  RCRA Appendix  VIII
            Chemicals (Monitoring)

1989:  o    Annual Report  on Quality  Control  Samples  for  RCRA Appendix  VIII
            Chemicals (Monitoring)


Objective 8:      Develop Procedures to Prevent  and  Contain Hazardous Releases

1991:  o    Final Report on Evaluation  of Volumetric Leak Detection for Chemical
            USTs (Engineering)

       o    Final  Report   on   Internal  Inspection   Protocol   and  Validation
            (Engineering)

1990:  o    Guide for Field Screening of Underground Storage Tanks (Monitoring)

       o    Report the  State  of the Art on Internal  Tank  Inspection Equipment
            and Procedures  (Engineering)

       o    Report on Processes Affecting Aquifer Remediation by Pumping (Environ.
            Processes)

1989:  o    Protocol for Evaluating Pipeline Leak Detection Systems (Engineering)

       o    Report on In-Situ Bioremediation of Spills from Underground Storage
            Tanks (Environ. Processes)
Objective 9:      Conduct Research on Municipal Solid Waste

1991:  o    Site-Specific Risk Assessments for Municipal Waste  Combustors (Sci.
            Assessment)

       o    Strategy Document for Research on Pharmokinetic Principles for Solid
            Wastes (Health)

1990:  o    Program existed but outputs were described in other Hazardous Waste
            Research media objection

1989:  o    Program existed but outputs were described in other Hazardous Waste
            Research media objection
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                                HAZARDOUS WASTE

                            Hazardous Waste Research

Budget Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of  $41,167,500  supported  by 211.1  total
workyears for 1991, a decrease of $2,570,800 and a decrease of 0.5 total workyears
from 1990.   Of  the  request, $14,826,300 will be for the  Salaries and Expenses
appropriation  and  $26,341,200  will  be  for  the  Research  and  Development
appropriation.  There is an increase of $1,401,700 in Salaries & Expenses and a
decrease of $3,972,500 in Research & Development.


Program Objectives

      The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) authorizes a regulatory
program to identify and manage  wastes which  pose a substantial hazard to human
health or  the environment.   RCRA  also  requires the promulgation of standards
related to Underground Storage Tank systems for both chemicals  and petroleum
products.  Section 311 of the Clean Water Act also mandates  some of the research
conducted under  this program, specifically the hazardous material release efforts.

      Objective 1:  Develop  Data to Support the Use of Alternative Technologies.
Research supporting implemention of RCRA provisions that require the banning of
highly hazardous  wastes from  land disposal.   The effectiveness  of treatment
alternatives  and  waste altering processes  is  being evaluated  and performance
parameters established.   Development of technologies to  minimize waste  is a
component of this objective.

      Objective 2:  Develop  and  Evaluate Tests and Procedures for Conducting Risk
Assessments.   Research provides more applicable, less expensive, simpler, and more
accurate risk assessment methodologies,  as well  as actual risk assessments for
decision making.

      Objective 3:  Conduct Assessment  and  Control Research to Address Dioxin.
Research evaluated  the potential  for human  health effects from  dioxin  in the
environment.

      Objective  4:   Develop  Procedures to  Characterize Chemicals  in Wastes.
Research develops and validates  the analytical procedures  and techniques required
to characterize wastes for  Sections 3001 and 3013  of RCRA.   These are used for
listing and other regulatory decisions made by the Office of Solid Waste.

      Objective  5:   Develop Data to  Support  the Land  Disposal Regulations.
Research supports permitting of land disposal and land treatment facilities, and
for improvements in operation and design requirements.     -—-

      Objective  6:    Develop  Data to  Support  the Incineration Regulations.
Laboratory,  pilot and  full-scale incineration units are  being investigated to
determine  the performance  of,  and health  effects  associated with,  a range of
thermal treatment devices.   Results are  used  by permitting officials to evaluate
permit  requests  and  to monitor  compliance  with  performance  requirements.
Evaluations of municipal waste  combustion processes are conducted.

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      Objective 7:   Provide  Quality  Assurance Support.   A  quality  assurance
program is being conducted to provide  a scientific data base of known quality to
support  RCRA regulatory  activities.    The program  includes  a repository  of
calibration standards,  reference materials, and on-site evaluations of contractor
laboratories.

      Objective 8:  Develop Procedures to Prevent and Contain Hazardous Releases.
Research addresses requirements established by Section 311 of  the Clean Water Act
(CWA) and  RCRA's Underground Storage  Tank (UST) program.  Research supporting
these  programs assesses  the  most cost-effective  technology  and  scientific
techniques available to prevent and control releases of hazardous substances.

      Objective 9:   Conduct  Research  on Municipal Solid Waste.   The  Municipal
Innovative Technology  Evaluation  (MITE)  program evaluates new  technologies  to
treat and minimize the volume  and  effects  of  municipal  solid waste.   Municipal
waste combustion processes are evaluated.   Health risk from combustion emissions
and residues are investigated.  An expert  system  is being assembled for use in
evaluating Subtitle-D facility locations.

      Objective 10:  Technical Information  and Liaison.   Technological findings
are transferred to State and local governments and private industry.

     Objective 11:   Conduct Research for  Emergency Planning and Community Right-
to -Know.  Research will support the implementation of Title III of the Superfund
Amendments and Reauthorization Act of  1986  (SARA)  on Community  Planning and
Emergency Right-to-Know.  Efforts will  focus on development of process measurement
and monitoring techniques for  prevention of accidental  and chronic releases in
an effort to  help state and local  governments,  planning authorities, industry and
private  citizens  assess  and  respond to  risks posed  by hazardous  substance
releases.
SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $2,870,100 supported by  17.1 total workyears
for  this  program,  of which $1,222,100 will be  for the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation  and  $1,648,000  will   be   for   the  Research  and  Development
appropriation.  This represents an increase from 1990 of $181,200 for the Salaries
and  Expenses  appropriation due  to increased personnel  and  support costs.   The
increase from 1990 in the Research and Development appropriation is $43,800.

      Develop and Evaluate Tests and Procedures for Conducting Risk Assessments.
Health  and environmental  effects  documents,   reference  doses,  carcinogenicity
profiles and technical evaluations will be provided to  support the RCRA listing,
permitting  and  land  disposal  restriction programs.   Work  will continue on
improving microcomputer assisted risk assessment tools.

      Conduct Research  on Municipal Solid Waste.   Risk assessment on specific
waste combustors will be conducted, using the methodology developed in 1990.  A
report  on the  comparative risk  assessment of  municipal  waste  combustors as
compared to other waste treatment technologies will be completed.
1990 Program


                                    5-14

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      In 1990, the Agency is allocating a total of $2,645,100 supported by 17.1
total workyears for this program, of which  $1,040,900  is  from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation and  $1,604,200 is  from the  Research and  Development
appropriation.

      In 1990, the program is emphasizing the development and evaluation of tests
and procedures for conducting risk assessments.  Health  and Environmental Effects
Documents, Reference Doses,  and technical evaluations are provided to support the
RCRA listing, permitting and land disposal restriction programs.  Microcomputer-
assisted risk assessment tools are being further developed.

     To support  the incineration regulations, a comprehensive  risk assessment
methodology  is being  provided to the  Office of Solid Waste  for a multi-media
assessment of risks from municipal waste combustion.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989, the Agency obligated a total of $3,360,300 supported by 14.8 total
workyears for this program, of which $1,124,400 was from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $2,235,900 was from the Research and Development appropriation.

      The  1989 program emphasized the  production  of health  and environmental
effects documents for  the listing/delisting programs, and Reference Doses for the
land disposal restriction program.  Work was completed on the determination of
patterns  of  soil ingestion by children  for use in exposure  assessments.   The
exposure work was completed for  risk assessments of burning contaminated soils
in mobile incinerators.  Phase I of the  site-specific risk assessment at Rutland,
Vt., the model municipal waste combustor, was completed.


MONITORING SYSTEMS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE

1991 Program Request

      The Agency  requests a total of $10,287,800 supported by 47.5  total workyears
for  this  program, of  which $3,503,600 will  be  for the  Salaries and Expenses
appropriation  and  $6,784,200  will   be   for  the  Research  and  Development
appropriation. This represents an increase from 1990 of $246,400 for the Salaries
and  Expense  appropriation for increased personnel and support  costs,  with no
change in total workyears.   The decrease from 1990 of $1,466,300 for the Research
and Development appropriation reflects, in part,  a  shifting of resources for the
technology transfer portion of waste identification into the Technical Information
and Liaison  program element where  it more  appropriately  belongs.  Methods work
on SW846 has been curtailed and resources for this  effort are realigned to other
higher Agency priorities.   To fund other Agency priorities,  reductions in the
Research  and Development appropriation were  also  taken  from quality assurance
support and methods development to monitor underground storage tank releases.

      Develop Procedures to Characterize Chemicals  in  Wastes.   Methods will be
developed to detect highly toxic wastes in  soils  and sediments and for detecting
organics  in  the  ambient air,  near and at  waste treatment disposal facilities.
Validation  and  improvement of  the  methods contained  in  the   Compendium  of
Analytical Methods to Monitor for Solid Waste (SW-846)  continues.  These methods
are used  to  determine the composition of wastes,  detect  trace  levels of toxic


                                    5-15

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constituents, and rapidly screen for hazardous constituents.  Automated methods
for subsurface monitoring will be evaluated for their ability to detect and track
waste plume  migration toward and  into ground water.   Remote sensing  will  be
conducted  to  assist  permit writers   in  verifying  the  contents  of  permit
applications and to assist enforcement in assessing compliance.

      Provide Quality Assurance Support.  Quality assurance research will focus
on  improving quality  control  sample  matrices  and  expanding the universe  of
materials for which quality control samples are available.  Work on the quality
control sampling program which  ensured accuracy of data will be privatized or
reduced.

      Develop Procedures to Prevent and Contain Hazardous Releases. Remote sensing
support is provided to the  Regions  for  monitoring spills and spill threats under
emergency conditions  in support of Section 311  of the  Clean  Water Act.   In
addition, in support  of  leak prevention and  corrective  action,  leak monitoring
methods applicable  to underground  storage  tanks are  under  evaluation.   This
activity  includes  evaluation  of leak monitoring methods  to establish  which
existing instrumentation meet established performance criteria.

      Conduct  Research on Municipal  Solid Waste.   An  expert  system  will  be
assembled for use in evaluating Subtitle-D facility locations in wet environments.

      Conduct  Research for Emergency Planning and Community  Right-to-Know.   A
research plan will be developed on  modeling and monitoring of hazardous chemical
releases.

1990 Program

       In 1990, the  Agency is allocating a total of $11,507,700  supported by
47.5 total workyears for this program,  of which $3,257,200 is  from the  Salaries
and Expenses appropriation and  $8,250,500  is  from the  Research and Development
appropriation.

     Methods for characterizing and detecting wastes and providing criteria for
determining  if  those  wastes  constitute a potential  hazard are being developed.
Methods are tested for application to highly  toxic wastes  in soils and sediments
and for  detection of organics  in  the  ambient  air near and  at  waste treatment
disposal facilities.  An effort to  validate and improve  the methods contained in
the Compendium of Analytical Methods  to Monitor  for  Solid  Waste  (SW-846)  is
underway.  Automated  methods for subsurface  monitoring  are  being developed and
evaluated for their ability to detect and track waste plume migration toward and
into  ground water.    Remote sensing  is conducted  to  assist permit  writers.
Technical information is disseminated  to State and local Governments.

      To ensure that  the data  on which regulations  and enforcement actions are
based are accurate,  quality control  samples and reference materials of wastes are
provided to  EPA contractors,  State,  and local  laboratories.   This will promote
standardized  monitoring methods,  and  quality  control  using RCRA  analytical
techniques.

       Remote  sensing support  is provided  to  the Regions for monitoring spills
and spill threats.   In support  of  leak prevention  and  corrective action, leak
monitoring methods applicable to underground storage tanks are under evaluation.


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1989 Accomplishments

     In 1989, the Agency obligated a total of $12,027,200 supported by 52.4 total
workyears for this program, of which $3,983,100 was from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $8,044,100 was from the Research and Development appropriation.

      During  1989,  research  was  conducted to  support  RCRA requirements  to
determine waste  composition,  to  detect levels of toxic constituents  in ground
water/air, and  to characterize hazardous constituents  through  the evaluation,
validation, development and improvement of methods for SW-846. Monitoring methods
were evaluated and/or developed for use at Subtitle-D landfills.  Remote sensing
was provided to  assist in the assessment and mitigation  of spills from facilities
engaged  in  production,  storage,  processing,  and distribution  of  hazardous
materials.   Performance criteria  for  evaluating leak  monitoring  methods were
established and available techniques for conducting external leak monitoring from
underground storage tanks were evaluated and developed.


HEALTH EFFECTS

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $1,790,400 supported by 11.6 total workyears
for  this program,  of which  $960,900  will  be  for the Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and $829,500 will be for the Research and Development appropriation.
This represents  an  increase from  1990  of $319,300  in  the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $22,100 in the Research and Development appropriation, and no
change  in  total  workyears.     The increase   in  the   Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation reflects  increased personnel  and  support costs.   The increase in
the Research and Development  reflects increased  research on  combustion residues.

      Develop Data  to  Support  the Incineration Regulations.   Health effects
research will evaluate  the comparative potency  approach to assessment of risks
posed by emissions  from hazardous  waste incinerators.   Research  will develop
procedures for determining  the relationship between exposure to emissions and the
actual dose of emissions to a target organ within the body and between target dose
and health effects.

      Conduct Research  on  Municipal Solid Waste.   Health effects  research will
evaluate potential effects of residues and emissions from municipal solid waste
combustion.  The focus  will be  on the  relationship between the matrix in which
agents occur (i.e. soil, chemical mixtures, etc) and health effects.

1990 Program

      In 1990, the Agency is allocating a total of $1,449,000 supported by 11.6
total workyears  for this program,  of  which $641,600  is  from  the  Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation  and   $807,400   is  from  the Research and  Development
appropriation.


       Data are being  developed to support the incineration regulations.  Research
continues to provide methods and health effects data on municipal and hazardous
waste  combustion emissions  and  residual complex  mixtures  to  assist  in the

                                     5-17

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assessment of potential human health risks.  Pollutants from combustion control
technologies are being assessed using biological potency methods to evaluate the
potential hazards associated with waste incineration.

1989 Accomplishments

     In 1989, the Agency obligated a total  of $1,135,100 supported by 11.8 total
workyears for this program,  of which $660,300 was from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $474,800 was from the Research and Development appropriation.

      In 1989, this research  program assessed  the  potential for health effects
from  air  emissions   and residues  from  incinerators  using  various  bioassay
procedures.    Health  endpoints  considered  included  genotoxicity,  pulmonary
toxicity, and other major target organ effects.   A procedure  was proposed for use
in  evaluating  the genotoxic potential  of chlorinated  organic  products  of
incomplete combustion.


ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

1991 Program Request

      In 1991,  the Agency requests a total of $17,996,700 supported by 84.9 total
workyears  for  this program,  of which  $5,570,300 will  be for  the  Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and $12,426,400 will be for the Research and Development
appropriation.  This  represents an increase from 1990 of $39.0,400  in the Salaries
&  Expenses  appropriation which  includes  1.2  additional  total workyears  for
municipal  solid  waste and alternative  technologies and increased personnel and
support costs.   There  is  a decrease of $1,213,100 in the Research and Development
appropriation because of decreased hazardous waste  landfills research; decreased
detection research of leaks from underground storage  tanks; discontinued funding
for the New  Orleans Waste Management Research  Center;  and discontinued funding
of  research  on  using solar  energy  to treat  wastes.   Additional  research on
municipal  solid  waste will be conducted.

      Develop  data to  Support the  Use  of Alternative Technologies.  Research
efforts will evaluate both existing and emerging alternative treatment processes
for wastes likely to be  restricted  from  land  disposal.   A major  focus  of the
research program will  be  on reducing the production of pollutants at their source.
Research will define  assessment techniques  to measure the reduction in quantities
of pollutants produced and to  identify potential areas for pollution prevention
and  risk reduction.    Research on  using  solar energy to  treat waste will be
completed.   The  New  Orleans Management Center  in 1991,  will be self-sustaining
requiring  no further  EPA funds since it will be generating its operating funds
through industrial, state and Federal grants.

      Develop  Data to  Support the  Land  Disposal  Regulations.   Major  issues
associated with disposal  of hazardous waste  to  the  land will be addressed.
Synthetic  and  clay liners will be studied and  the  effectiveness of alternative
closure and monitoring procedures for surface impoundments will be investigated.
Research also characterizes air emissions from hazardous waste treatment, storage,
and disposal facilities (TSDFs) and to assess methods to control them.  Technical
Resource Documents will be updated for use by Regional and state  agencies for
permitting hazardous  waste  facilities and  for  enforcing applicable regulations.


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      Develop Data to Support the Incineration Regulations. Incineration research
will  focus  on four  areas:  1)  characterizing  performance of  existing  thermal
technologies; 2)  developing methods for compliance monitoring of these facilities;
3)  characterizing  products  of  incomplete  combustion  and  their  formation
conditions;  and  4)  developing methods to predict performance  to  avoid process
failure and control  process reliability.  Information is being developed for both
industrial  processes and  incinerators  to  support  regulation of  toxic  metal
emissions, emission of products of incomplete combustion, and for refinement of
the destruction removal efficiency rule.

      Develop Procedures to Prevent and  Contain Hazardous Releases.  Underground
storage  tank (UST)  research   evaluates prevention, detection, and corrective
action technologies  to identify cost-effective,  reliable techniques and equipment
for  USTs.    This research has  and  will  continue  to  produce publications  on
prevention practices, assessment of retrofit techniques for leaking underground
storage  tanks,  and  improvement of  emergency response  and  remedial corrective
action technologies.

      Conduct  Research  on  Municipal Solid  Waste.    The Municipal  Innovative
Technology Evaluation (MITE)  program will continue.  This program is designed to:
1)  provide  data on innovative  equipment  and techniques for managing municipal
waste; 2) accelerate early commercialization of innovative equipment;  3)  provide
support and  credibility to new  techniques  and  equipment being developed at the
bench and  pilot-scale;  and 4)   develop promising techniques  directly  where a
definite need exists.  The initial emphasis  is on demonstration of new or modified
equipment processes  or  techniques at full or  nearly full  scale.   Major issues
associated  with  disposal  of  municipal   solid   waste  to   the   land  will  be
investigated.  Research on municipal solid  waste incinerators will be conducted.
The emphasis will shift from field characterization  to  evaluation  of various air
pollution  control devices and  the  assessment  of ash  utilization and disposal
techniques.

      Conduct  Research for   Emergency  Planning  and  Community  Right-to-Know.
Efforts will focus on developing of process measurement  techniques  for prevention
of accidental and chronic releases to help decisionmakers assess and respond to
risks posed by hazardous substance releases.

1990 Program

      In 1990, the Agency is allocating  a total of $18,819,400  supported by 83.7
total workyears  for  this  program,  of which $5,179,900  is from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation  and  $13,639,500 is from  the Research and Development
appropriation.

      Research  efforts  evaluate  treatment processes  for  wastes  likely  to  be
restricted  from  land  disposal.   New  research  is  being conducted  to  define
assessment  techniques  to  measure  the  reduction in  quantities  of pollutants
produced and to  identify potential areas for pollution reduction at the source.
A new Municipal  Innovative  Technology  Evaluation (MITE) program is underway.
Research begins,  through a cooperative agreement with DOE, on using solar energy
to treat and dispose of waste.  Additionally, a center will be established in New
Orleans  to  provide  an integrated  approach  for  solving  urban waste problems and
to disseminate information.
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      Major issues associated with disposal of municipal and hazardous waste to
the land continue to be addressed.    Research also characterizes air emissions
from hazardous waste facilities (TSDFs).  Technical Resource Documents are being
updated for use by Regional and State agencies.

      Information  is  being   developed  for   both  industrial   processes  and
incinerators  to  support  regulations -.    Research  on  municipal  solid  waste
incinerators is being conducted.

      Underground storage tank (UST)  research  evaluates technologies to identify
cost-effective,  reliable  techniques and  equipment  for  USTs.    Research  on
identification and evaluation of reliable leak detection methods for underground
chemical tanks is being completed and the leak detection facility is being closed.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989, the Agency obligated a total of $16,589,200 supported by 93.0 total
workyears for this program, of which $5,366,500 was from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $11,222,700 was from the Research and Development appropriation.

      Activities  in  1989  included  the  evaluation  of  emerging  alternative
technologies and initiation of a waste minimization/ pollution prevention program.
Emerging technologies for detecting leaks from petroleum and chemical tank systems
were  evaluated.   Major  land disposal  issues  and various  thermal  destruction
systems techniques were investigated.


ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES AND EFFECTS

1991 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total of $7,222,500 supported by  50.0 total workyears
for  this  program,  of which  $3,569,400  will  be  for the  Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation  and   $3,653,100   will be   for  the  Research  and  Development
appropriation.   This represents  increases  from  1990  of $264,400  and $76,100
respectively,  with  a decrease  of 1.7  total  workyears.   The increase  in the
Salaries &  Expense  appropriation is  attributed to rising personnel and support
costs.  The Research and Development appropriation is slightly increased because
of the  impact  of the 1990  reductions taken  for sequestration.   The decrease in
workyears reflects  a reduction  in  several  projects within  transport  and fate
research.

      Develop and Evaluate Procedures for Conducting Risk  Assessments.  Research
on multimedia  site  assessment  models in support of hazardous waste listing and
delisting activities, methods  for risk  characterization of complex wastes, and
methods  and data for  predicting  subsurface  contamination will  be  conducted.
Transport models for predicting waste concentrations in saturated and unsaturated
zones will  be  refined.   Research will be  conducted on bioavailability, uptake,
and metabolism of hazardous chemicals by plants and animals.

      Develop Procedures to Prevent and Contain Hazardous Releases. Research will
focus on improving cost-effective treatment technologies.
                                     5-20

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1990 Program

      In 1990, the Agency is allocating a total of $6,882,000 supported by 51.7
total workyears for this program, of which  $3,305,000  is  from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation and  $3,577,000 is  from the  Research and  Development
appropriation.

      Research  continues  on multimedia  site assessment  models  in  support  of
hazardous   waste   listing   and  delisting  activities,    methods   for   risk
characterization of complex wastes,  and methods and data for predicting subsurface
contamination.  An increased emphasis  is  now placed on ecological assessments.
Transport models for predicting waste concentrations in saturated and unsaturated
zones  in the  subsurface  are  being field  evaluated,  and  a model  describing
speciation of metals is being developed.  Bioavailability,  uptake, and metabolism
of hazardous chemicals by plants and animals are being investigated.

       Procedures are being developed to prevent and contain hazardous releases.
Research and field tests of biological, physical, and chemical methods, previously
tried  at hazardous waste sites,  are conducted  to determine  their  cost and
applicability to cleanup of pollutants from underground storage tanks.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989, the Agency allocated a total of $7,873,300 supported by 53.3 total
workyears for this program, of which $3,453,000  is from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $4,420,300 is from the Research and Development appropriation.

      Research supported the RCRA listing,  delisting,  risk  assessment, siting,
and  land disposal restriction  programs.     Multimedia assessment methods and
evaluation  of waste  management and  treatment  needs,  based on potential  human
health and  environmental  impacts, were developed.   Laboratory experiments were
conducted  to determine plant  uptake of  hazardous  chemicals.  The  multimedia
bioassessment screening protocol used in evaluating damage caused by spills and
potential risk associated with waste  sites  was  revised based on  the  results of
field evaluations. In addition, studies on subsurface characteristics influencing
heavy  metal  contamination  of  ground water,  evaluations  of immiscible  flow
processes controlling  contaminant transport in  ground water,  and  validation of
existing  saturated and unsaturated  zone  contaminant transport models  were
conducted.
TECHNICAL INFORMATION AND LIAISON

1991 Program Request

     Technical Information and Liaison.   The Agency requests $1,000,000 in the
Research and Development appropriation for this activity in 1991.  This represents
an $1,000,000  increase  from 1990 since this program activity did  not exist in
1989.   The  technical  information needs of the Hazardous Waste  Program will be
addressed by providing handbooks and PC expert systems to State and local decision
makers  in  such areas as:   1) disposal  of residues;  2)  selecting appropriate
treatment technologies;  and 3)  source  reduction and recycling.   It  is  a new
funding  category,   formerly included  in  the  Monitoring  Systems  and  Quality
Assurance program element.


                                    5-21

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1990 Program

      The Agency has not allocated any resources to this program activity since
this activity does not exist in 1990.


INTEGRATED HAZARDOUS WASTE RESEARCH

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests no resources for this activity in 1991.  Since the Center
for Environmental Management  at  Tufts University has been funded  by  EPA since
1983,   the  Agency feels  this  Center  is  now fully  established  and can obtain
continued funding on a competitive basis.

1990 Program

      In 1990,  the  Agency  is  allocating a total of  $2,435,100  supported by no
workyears for this  program, all  of which is from  the Research  and Development
appropriation.

      The program is addressing a wide variety of research, education and public
policy environmental issues.   Several on-going  projects will be completed. New
activities related  to  pollution  prevention,  international environmental policy
and environmental health policy and education will be initiated.

1989 Accomplishments

     In 1989, the Agency obligated a total  of  $2,500,000 for this program from
the Research and Development appropriation. These resources were  used to continue
funding research projects on  health effects,  monitoring  systems, alternative
technologies, risk communication and waste minimization.  Major accomplishments
included the development of a model workshop for regional environmental health
policy officials., and  field testing of two  in-situ chemical  sensor measurement
systems.  Others are the development of 28 case  studies  to understand how multi-
national companies implement effective environmental  programs  and development of
biomarker protocols for the rapid  detection of environmental pollutants.
                                    5-22

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Abatement and
   Control

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                        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1991 Budget Estimate

                               Table  of  Contents
HAZARDOUS WASTE

ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   Waste Management Regulations, Guidelines and Policies  	   5-23
      Regulations, Guidelines and Policies - Hazardous Waste  ....   5-25
      Regulations, Guidelines and Policies - Air and Radiation  ...   5-27
      Regulations, Guidelines and Policies - Water  	   5-28
      Regulations, Guidelines & Policies - Underground Storage Tanks    5-30
   Financial Assistance 	   5-33
      Hazardous Waste Management Financial Assistance to States ...   5-34
      Underground Storage Tanks State Grants  	   5-36
   Hazardous Waste Management Regulatory Strategies Implementation   .   5-38
   Emergency Planning/Community Right-to-know - Title III 	   5-42

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                                                   HAZARDOUS WASTE
                                  Waste Management Regulations,  Guidelines  &  Policies

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED     CURRENT    REQUEST    INCREASE  +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE      1991     DECREASE  -
                                                       1990               1991  VS 1990
                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
PROGRAM
Regulations, Guidelines
& Policies - Hazardous
Waste
 Salaries & Expenses          $16,279.9  $18,401.3  $17,943.6  $21,575.0    $3,631.4
 Abatement Control and        $41,743.0  $38,508.2  $38,016.2  $40,429.5    $2,413.3
 Compliance
                       TOTAL  $58,022.9  $56,909.5  $55,959.8  $62,004.5    $6.044.7

Regulations, Guidelines
& Policies - Air and
Radiation
 Salaries & Expenses             $642.8     $663.1     $646.2     $851.5      $205.3
 Abatement Control and         $2,998.9   $3,008.8   $2,937.0   $3,073.3      $136.3
 Compliance
                       TOTAL   $3,641.7   $3,671.9   $3,583.2   $3,924.8      $341.6

Regulations, Guidelines
& Policies - Water
 Salaries & Expenses           $2,453.9   $2,016.6   $2,168.9   $1,965.6     -$203.3
 Abatement Control and         $4,430.7   $4,558.8   $4,467.9   $3,966.5     -$501.4
 Compliance
                       TOTAL   $6,884.6   $6,575.4   $6,636.8   $5,932.1     -$704.7

Regulations, Guidelines
& Policies - UST
 Salaries & Expenses           $2,791.7   $3,681.1   $3,291.6   $4,575.0    $1,283.4
 Abatement Control and         $3,888.0   $4,101.3   $4,049.0   $4,165.8      $116.8
 Compliance
                       TOTAL   $6.679.7   $7,782.4   $7,340.6   $8,740.8    $1,400.2
TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses          $22,168.3  $24,762.1   $24,050.3  $28,967.1     $4,916.8
 Abatement Control and        $53,060.6  $50,177.1   $49,470.1  $51,635.1     $2,165.0
 Compliance

Waste Management       TOTAL  $75,228.9  $74,939.2   $73,520.4  $80,602.2     $7,081.8
Regulations,
Guidelines & Policies
PERMANENT WORKYEARS
Regulations, Guidelines           231.1      257.1       256.8      264.8         8.0
& Policies - Hazardous
Waste

Regulations, Guidelines            10.9       13.0        13.0       13.0         0.0
& Polciies - Air and
Radiation

Regulations, Guidelines            54.4       48.7        47.9       38.7        -9.2
& Policies - Water
                                         5-23

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                                                   HAZARDOUS WASTE
                                  Waste Management  Regulations, Guidelines & Policies

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED      CURRENT     REQUEST   INCREASE +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE       1991     DECREASE -
                                                       1990               1991 VS  1990
                                               (DOLLARS  IN  THOUSANDS)
Regulations, Guidelines
& Policies - UST

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS
 52.0
68.2
65.6
68.2
348.4      387.0      383.3      384.7
2.6
                                   1.4
TOTAL WORKYEARS
Regulations, Guidelines
& Policies - Hazardous
Waste
238.3      257.1      256.8      264.8
                                   8.0
Regulations, Guidelines
& Policies - Air and
Radiation

Regulations, Guidelines
& Policies - Water
 11.3       13.0       13.0       13.0
                                   0.0
 59.4       48.7       48.7       38.7       -10.0
Regulations, Guidelines
& Policies - UST
 56.1       68.2       68.2       68.2
                                   0.0
TOTAL WORKYEARS
365.1      387.0      386.7      384.7
                                  -2.0
                                         5-24

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                                HAZARDOUS WASTE


            Waste Management Regulations,  Guidelines,  and Policies

Budget Request

      The Agency requests a total of $80,602,200 and 384.7 total workyears for
1991, an increase of $7,081,800 and a decrease of 2 total workyears from 1990.
Of the request, $28,967,100 will be  for  the Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and $51,635,100 will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.
This  represents  an  increase   of  $4,916,800  in  the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation,  and  an increase  of  $2,165,000  in  the  Abatement,  Control and
Compliance  appropriation.    The increase  in Salaries  and  Expenses  reflects
increased personnel and  support costs.  The increase Abatement,  Control and
Compliance  reflects  expanded pollution prevention activities  and additional
program  management  support.    The  decrease  in  workyears reflects  completed
regulatory activities in the water program.


REGULATIONS. GUIDELINES.  AND POLICIES -- HAZARDOUS WASTE

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $62,004,500 and 264.8 total workyears for
this  program,  of which  $21,575,000  will  be  for the  Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and $40,429,500 will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.   This  represents an increase of  $3,631,400  for  Salaries and
Expenses, an increase of $2,413,300 for Abatement, Control and Compliance, and
an increase of 8.0 total  workyears from  the 1990 levels.  The increase in total
workyears and  Abatement,  Control,  and  Compliance  reflects expanded pollution
prevention activities and additional program management support.  The increase
in Salaries and Expenses reflects increased personnel and support costs.

      The  Agency will  continue the development  and promulgation of major
regulations, including the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) mandated
waste listings, representing a significant step  in  fulfilling the Agency's HSWA
requirements.  In addition, the Agency will propose guidelines for mixed waste
and management standards  for mining wastes.   The Agency will address the growing
national concern over waste combustion by finalizing a rule for burning hazardous
waste, issuing waste combustion guidance, and developing standards for managing
municipal waste combustion ash.

      The Agency will increase pollution prevention efforts by  coordinating waste
minimization activities,  providing technical assistance, conducting a recycling
campaign for public media, and producing  a waste minimization report to Congress.
The  Agency  will continue  its  medical waste efforts,  completing a  report to
Congress, and providing technical support, training, and outreach assistance to
states involved with the medical waste tracking demonstration program.
                                    5-25

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      The Agency will expand efforts  to  address  non-hazardous  waste issues by
serving  as  a  technical  clearinghouse  for  non-hazardous  waste  management
information, options, and guidelines.   The Agency will assist states to develop
solid waste management plans,  and will produce non-hazardous waste guidelines.
EPA will provide assistance to  states  and Regions in working with Indian Tribes
on non-hazardous waste issues.

      The Agency will continue  to develop and disseminate to Regional and state
permit writers technical guidance on new  regulations, including new procurement
guidelines, tire guidelines for states, corrective action guidelines, and mixed
waste guidelines.

1990 Program

      The Agency is allocating  a total of $55,959,800 and 256.8 total workyears
for  this program,  of which $17,943,600 is  from  the  Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and  $38,016,200  is from  the  Abatement,  Control  and Compliance
appropriation.

      The  Agency  is  continuing  to  develop and  promulgate major  regulations
required by HSWA.  EPA is proposing regulations requiring corrective action at
solid waste management units and revisions to hazardous waste facility location
standards.   The Agency  is completing  the  treatment standards  for  the  land
disposal  restrictions   schedule  and is   finalizing   the  Organic  Toxicity
Characteristic,  increasing the  number  of  wastes regulated as hazardous.  EPA is
also  finalizing regulations to  list  primary  treatment sludge  from petroleum
refining processes.

      The  Agency  serves  as   a  source  for  non-hazardous  waste  management
information,  options,  and guidelines.   Activities  include  developing  and
disseminating technical and general guidance  to assist states, local governments,
and citizens in  implementing recycling and source reduction programs. The Agency
is developing large  volume waste management strategies and programs.   Mining
waste management standards are  being developed,  along with reports to Congress
on mineral processing and state oil  and gas  programs.

      The Agency continues to  process state HSWA authorization  packages,  and
develop and disseminate to Regional  and state permit writers technical guidance
on new regulations,  including  guidance  on the  land disposal  restrictions,
hazardous and solid waste incineration, and  corrective action provisions.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989,  the Agency  obligated a total of $58,022,900 supported by 238.3
total workyears  for this  program, of which $16,279,900 was  from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation  and $41,743,000  was from the  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      The Agency addressed important  HSWA  and non-HSWA  regulatory revisions.
The Agency  completed treatment standards for  the  second Third  of the wastes
scheduled for the land disposal  restrictions  program, and began work on the third
Third requirements.   EPA promulgated  Federal procurement  guidelines for tires
and insulation.   The Agency amended the universe  of wastes subject to Subtitle
C management standards by proposing listings  of wood preserving wastes and methyl


                                    5-26

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bromide, and by clarifying the  status  of mineral processing wastes.  The Agency
promulgated the delay of  closure rule  for hazardous  waste  facilities that are
capable of safely receiving non-hazardous wastes.

      The  Agency continued  to  develop  a  nationwide  program  for  the  safe
management of non-hazardous  (Subtitle  D) wastes.   In support of the  pollution
prevention  objectives,  the  Agency  provided  assistance  and  information  to
government, industry, and consumers  to foster increased recycling and source
reduction.  The Agency issued the Agenda for Action, which outlined options and
preferred practices to help states and municipalities develop integrated solid
waste management programs.   In addition, the  Agency  produced three  reports to
Congress:   Solid Waste Disposal in  the  United States. Municipal Solid Waste
Strategy, and Management of Hazardous Wastes from Educational Institutions.
REGULATIONS. GUIDELINES. AND POLICIES --  AIR AND RADIATION

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $3,924,800 supported by 13.0 total workyears
for  this  program,  of  which $851,500 will  be for  the Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and $3,073,300 will be for the .Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.   This  represents an  increase of $205,300  for  the  Salaries and
Expenses appropriation, an  increase  of  $136,300  in  the Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation,  and no change in total workyears from 1990.

      In  1991  the  program will  continue  to  support  the  promulgation  of
regulations for  volatile organic compound  (VOC)  emissions from  seven  types of
treatment,  storage,   and  disposal   facility  (TSDF)  area  sources:   surface
impoundments,  landfills, wastewater treatment tanks,  waste  piles, land treatment
facilities, pretreatment facilities, and transfer operations.   The Agency has
estimated that these sources emit 2.0 million tons per year of VOC and toxic air
pollutants that have been associated with up  to 140 cancer deaths  per year.  Some
sources will  require  additional regulations to control emissions  of  specific
toxic constituents that will not be  covered  by  the  1991 rule.   Resources will
be  provided for data  collection to  promulgate regulations  for  these  toxic
pollutants in a  future year.  This program will also provide technical support
for states and EPA Regions in implementing the TSDF regulations.

1990 Program

      In 1990 the Agency is allocating a total of $3,583,200 supported by 13.0
total workyears  to  this program, of which  $646,200 is from  the  Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation and $2,937,000  is   from  the  Abatement,   Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      In 1990  EPA is continuing  to develop standards  for the seven types of TSDF
area sources listed above.   EPA has  promulgated  standards for equipment leaks
at these facilities and has  proposed standards  for  other  sources.   The Agency
will propose additional regulations  in  late  1990.  In addition, the Agency will
promulgate  an  accelerated rule covering  a subset  of  TSDF area  source  types
including fugitive emissions and waste solvents.
                                    5-27

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1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989 the Agency obligated a total of $3,641,700 supported by 11.3 total
workyears, of which  $642,800 was from  the Salaries  and Expenses appropriation
and $2,998,900  was  from the Abatement, Control  and Compliance appropriation.
In 1989 EPA continued work on the development of interim TSDF rules.
REGULATIONS. GUIDELINES. AND POLICIES -- WATER

1991 Program Request

      In 1991,  the Agency requests a total of $5,932,100  supported by 38.7 total
workyears for  this program,  of which $1,965,600 will be  for  the  Salaries and
Expenses appropriation  and  $3,966,500  will be for the  Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation.  This  represents  a decrease of $203,300 in Salaries
and Expenses,  a decrease of  $501,400 in Abatement,  Control and Compliance and
a decrease of  10.0 workyears.  The decreases reflect a reduction in the number
of publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) requiring corrective action, completion
of the double-liner waiver assessment and  a decline  in  the level  of oversight
needed to review facility exemption petitions.

       In 1991, one  of  the  Agency's major  pollution prevention activities is
improving  the  pretreatment  program  for  controlling   hazardous  wastes  from
industrial users  of POTWs.    Information  gathering  and sampling  of  specific
Domestic Sewage Study (DSS)  industries will continue.  The Agency will continue
to  develop  effluent  limitations,  guidelines  and standards  for   several  DSS
industries, including machinery  manufacturing and rebuilding,  hazardous waste
treatment and Pharmaceuticals manufacturing.  EPA will issue technical guidance
and provide assistance on additional local limits, particularly in relation to
new sludge technical regulations and on POTW enforcement response  plans.

      Regions  and states will  continue  to  revise  POTW  permits to  include
requirements for spill prevention plans,  sewage sludge, whole effluent toxicity
screening or testing and modification of pretreatment program implementation.
EPA and states will continue pretreatment  audits  and inspections  of POTWs and
review and approval of new local  limits  for  controlling hazardous pollutants in
discharges  and sludges.    EPA will complete issuance  of  rider permits  to
incorporate follow-up actions where necessary and will issue additional.permits
as  POTWs  are  identified as  needing  corrective  actions.    EPA  will  assess
compliance and  take enforcement action to ensure reporting requirements and other
RCRA permit-by-rule requirements are satisfied. Work will continue in completing
ongoing RCRA facility assessments and remedial investigations.

      The Agency will continue to review "no migration"  petitions to  continue
injecting  banned   wastes.     Underground   Injection   Control  (UIC)   permit
modifications required to implement the  land ban  provisions will  be reviewed.
The Agency will continue to provide training for modeling applied to Class I well
petition work.  In addition, EPA will initiate a study to determine whether some
Class I hazardous waste regulations  should be applied to all Class I wells.  A
corrective action program will  continue  to be implemented for Class I hazardous
                                   5-28

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waste injection wells,  including assessments of prior or continuing releases and
proposals for clean-up.  The Regions will prepare assessments/site investigations
of wells where a previous or  continuing release has been identified.  Proposals
for clean-up will be developed and incorporated into the UIC permits.

1990 Program

      In 1990,  the Agency is  allocating a total of $6,636,800 supported by 48.7
total workyears for this program, of which $2,168,900 is from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation  and  $4,467,900  is from  the  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      The Agency  is continuing  information-gathering and sampling of specific
DSS  industries  -- wastewaters are being screened and analyzed  for hazardous
constituents.  EPA will  publish data  summaries for  15 industries in 1990.  The
Agency  will continue  development  of  effluent  limitations,  guidelines  and
standards for several DSS industries (hazardous waste  treatment, Pharmaceuticals
manufacturing,   etc.).    The  Agency  is  formulating  guidance  and  tracking,
overseeing  and  assisting  states  in  implementing  the new  specific  discharge
prohibitions, including  ignitability/explosivity and reactivity/fume toxicity.
The Agency is establishing hazardous waste discharge notification improvements,
numerical discharge limits  or other controls to protect worker health and safety.

      EPA is continuing to implement corrective action requirements for a small
number  of POTWs  and  continues  to focus  on  control  of hazardous  and toxic
pollutants through implementation  of recommendations from the DSS.  Pretreatment
audits and  inspections continue to focus on  identification of POTW corrective
action requirements and  appropriate follow-up assessments and investigations.

      Headquarters continues to develop guidance and provide  technical advice
and assistance for Regions and states in  implementing hazardous waste disposal
restrictions, in reviewing facility  petitions and  in enforcing the  loss of
facility interim  status.

      Due to the planned promulgation of  the  remaining  schedule of hazardous
wastes regulated  under RCRA  Section  3004(g),   EPA expects  to  review up to 40
petitions and revise or  modify up to 75 hazardous waste injection well permits
from operators of hazardous waste injection wells  seeking exemptions from the
injection ban.    The  Agency  will  provide technical  assistance  in  developing
geologic  data;  modeling of  waste fate  and  transport is  under development.
Regional UIC permit writers are  conducting corrective action investigations for
Class I hazardous waste wells, giving priority  to wells with permits issued after
November  1984  without a schedule for  corrective  action.   Regions  will  also
continue to review petitions from operators of hazardous waste injection wells
seeking exemptions from  the injection ban under Part 148.

1989 Accomplishments

      In  1989,  the Agency obligated  a total  of $6,884,600 supported by 59.4
total workyears,  of  which $2,453,900  was from the  Salaries  and Expenses  and
$4,430,700 was from the  Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriations.
                                    5-29

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      EPA continued development  of  regulations  for Pharmaceuticals, machinery
manufacturing  and  rebuilding,  hazardous   waste   treatment  and  pesticides
formulating/packaging industries.   Sludge use and  disposal screening for RCRA
constituents continued.   The Regions and POTWs developed  new  local limits to
address hazardous pollutants and increased the number of spill prevention plans
initiated.   The  Agency  also  proposed  changes to  the general  pretreatment
regulations based on recommendations from the DSS.

      EPA and states continued  to implement the corrective action requirement
for POTWs that accept hazardous waste. The Regions undertook or oversaw facility
assessments, conducted  visual  site or  sampling  inspections  and implemented
remedial investigations and  corrective measures at appropriate POTWs.   Imple-
mentation of RCRA and pretreatment requirements, based on the DSS, continued.
Approximately 40 no-migration petitions  were received  and  review began during
1989.  Regional UIC permit  writers  conducted corrective action investigations
for Class 1 hazardous waste wells.
REGULATIONS. GUIDELINES. AND POLICIES -- UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS CUST)

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $8,740,800 supported by 68.2 total workyears
for this program of which $4,575,000 is for Salaries and Expense appropriation
and $4,165,800 will be for Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  This
represents  increases  of $1,283,400 in  Salaries  and Expenses and  $116,800 in
Abatement, Control and Compliance and no increase of workyears.   The increases
support increased personnel  costs  and  additional implementation assistance to
states and Indian tribes.

      The Agency will implement a national underground storage tank (UST) program
to prevent  pollution caused by leaking USTs.   EPA  will ensure  that states
continue work to meet the conditions for Federal approval of their UST programs.
The number of state program approvals will  increase as many states complete the
legislative and regulatory changes required to ensure their programs are no less
stringent  than   the  Federal program,  including the  development of  adequate
enforcement authorities and capacities.  For states not applying for approval,
the Agency will  continue to encourage and assist these  states  in the development
and implementation of their UST programs.

      The Agency will increase  outreach efforts  to  tribal leaders  and owners/
operators of tanks on Indian lands.  The Agency will also provide Indian tribes
with compliance  and enforcement assistance.  The UST program on Indian lands will
expand to  include monitoring compliance with  all UST  regulations,  providing
compliance assistance to Indian tank owners/operators, and continuing outreach
to tribal leaders.  The Agency will utilize outreach efforts to promote voluntary
compliance with the leak detection  deadline for tanks  installed before 1974 and
will seek to educate the public and the regulated community.

1990 Program

      The Agency  is allocating  a total of $7,340,600 supported  by  68.2 total
workyears of which $3,291,600 is from  Salaries  and  Expenses  and $4,049,000 is
from Abatement,  Control and Compliance appropriation.


                                    5-30

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      The basic  approach  to accomplishing the environmental  goals  of the UST
program is to develop, support and improve, state and local programs.  Efforts
in this area include helping the  states develop more streamlined processes, and
better  technical  and management  tools.    As  technical  and leak detection
regulations are phased-in, the Agency  will assist the tank owners' efforts to
assess compliance  with the first phase-in group  of USTs 25  years  of age and
older.  The  Agency is developing standard test procedures  for leak detection
equipment that  will  allow  tank  owners to choose equipment  that  meet Agency
requirements.   The Agency  is conducting  a  nationwide marketing  campaign to
promote  resource  efficient  methods  for states  to  monitor  owner/operator
compliance and to  take enforcement  actions against violators where necessary.
One pilot state has used these methods to achieve a 90 percent compliance rate
without resorting to the use of resource-intensive formal enforcement orders in
their first compliance group.  The Agency will continue to promote these methods
in  other  states  throughout the  year.    The  Agency  has  completed  videos on
installation  and tank closures,  and is  preparing  a video on  conducting UST
inspections.   The Agency  has  also completed  a  Spanish language  brochure
describing the UST regulations.

      The Agency is continuing to provide technical support  for state regulatory
development  and  is encouraging states to  apply for Federal program approval.
The Agency is also helping states manage their increasing workloads by providing
technical support on  their data management information systems.

      The Agency is working with owners/operators and municipalities to meet the
Federal financial responsibility requirements by  finalizing the financial test
allowing municipalities to  self-insure.   In  addition,  the  Agency is assisting
states in developing state  assurance programs and loan funds.  The loan programs
would be used by   owners/operators to upgrade  or replace their  tanks, preventing
many leaks from ever occurring. The assurance programs will help owners/operators
to meet their financial responsibility requirements.   The  Agency is reviewing
proposed state trust  funds as they are submitted.

1989 Accomplishments

      In  1989,  the Agency obligated  a  total of  $6,679,700  supported by 56.1
workyears, of which $2,791,700 was from the Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and $3,888,000 was from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

      The Agency issued final regulations  on corrective action, leak detection,
and technical performance  standards  for  new and existing  tanks  that contain
petroleum products and hazardous  substances.   In addition, the Agency finalized
regulations  governing  financial  responsibility  requirements,  and developed
supplemental  policies and  guidance  on the process  and requirements for state
regulatory program authorization.

      The Agency  negotiated UST  grants with  all states and provided technical
assistance  and   guidance  for  implementation  and  enforcement.   These  grants
provided seed money for state UST programs.

      The Agency finalized and distributed a number of useful  tools such as
videos demonstrating correct procedures for tank installations and closure.  In
addition, the Agency also developed  several brochures,  including Oh No and Leak
Detection, which  describes  technical standards  in plain English,  and produced


                                    5-31

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a handbook on building state compliance programs.  The Agency distributed these
tools to the regulated community and to those responsible for ensuring compliance
with UST standards and guidelines.

      The  Agency provided  support and  services  to  states through  routine,
continuous communications  and  reviews.   The  Agency  assisted  the states  in
improving performance in areas such as tank inspections, closures, enforcement,
administrative procedures  and  in developing communication  strategies.   The
Agency's compliance strategy  emphasized  and  promoted  innovative techniques to
achieve voluntary compliance and to enforce when necessary.
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                                                   HAZARDOUS WASTE
                                                Financial  Assistance

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED     CURRENT    REQUEST    INCREASE  +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE   .   1991      DECREASE  -
                                                       1990               1991  VS  1990
PROGRAM
                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
Hazardous Waste
Management Financial
Assistance To States
 Abatement Control and        (66,753.0  $68,914.3  $68,031.7  $88,000.0   $19,968.3
 Compliance
                       TOTAL  $66,753.0  $68,914.3  $68,031.7  $88,000.0   $19,968.3
Underground Storage
Tanks State Grants
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
        $9,178.7   $8,860.6   $8,747.4   $9,000.0      $252.6

TOTAL   $9,178.7   $8,860.6   $8,747.4   $9,000.0      $252.6
TOTAL:
 Abatement Control and        $75,931.7  $77,774.9  $76,779.1   $97,000.0    $20,220.9
 Compliance

Financial Assistance   TOTAL  $75,931.7  $77,774.9  $76,779.1   $97,000.0    $20,220.9
                                         5-33

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                               HAZARDOUS WASTE


                             Financial Assistance

Budget Request

      The Agency  requests a total of  $97,000,000 for  this  program  for  the
Abatement,  Control and  Compliance appropriation.    This  is  an  increase  of
$20,220,900 from the level provided in 1990.


HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE TO STATES

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $88,000,000 for this program, all of which
will be for  the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  This represents
an  increase of  $19,968,300  to  enhance  state capability through  increased
permitting,  enforcement, and information management efforts.

      In 1991,  the Agency will assist the states in their continued efforts to
develop  legislation  and regulations to  achieve  equivalence with  the  Federal
hazardous waste management program.  Almost all states  will  be authorized for
the base Resource  Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)  program,  and these states
will be developing the capability to adopt corrective action and  other provisions
of Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA).

      The permitting  program will continue  the  shift, begun in 1990,  from
permitting operating incinerators to other mandated permitting  activities.  The
Agency will increase  resources  for processing post-closure permits  for land
disposal  facilities  to  address  an  additional 300  of   these  environmentally
significant facilities.  EPA will also accelerate the permitting of storage and
treatment facilities to meet the November 1992 statutory deadline.   By the end
of 1991, approximately 75% of the facilities subject to  the deadline will have
permits  or  permits being processed.    The  states will  continue  to  process
modifications to operating permits  as required.  In  addition,  the  states will
continue to review and approve  closure  plans  for  incinerators  and  storage and
treatment facilities, and will process appeals to permit decisions, as necessary.

      The states  will  ensure that non-compliance  is  identified  and  addressed
through timely and appropriate enforcement actions and that handlers are returned
to compliance.   Compliance monitoring of generators and  transporters will be a
priority activity, especially for compliance  with  land  disposal  restrictions.
The  states  will   conclude  enforcement  actions  against  facilities,  oversee
adherence to compliance schedules, and take enforcement  actions for violations
of approved closure  plans.   The states will  annually  inspect  critical land
disposal and incineration facilities and conduct mandated inspections at Federal
and local government  facilities and at  a  targeted portion of generators  and
transporters. The  states will also inspect one-half of all storage and treatment
facilities  and other land disposal facilities.  In addition,  the  states will
conduct  inspections to  support  the processing of  permit applications  and  to
ensure compliance  with permit provisions or  existing administrative and judicial
actions.  New facilities biought into regulation by wood preserving,  hazardous

                                    5-34

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waste fuel,  organic toxicity and mining waste regulations will  increase the
number of  facilities  where state inspections and enforcement  actions  will be
necessary.

      The  states  will  conduct oversight  of  owner/operator  RCRA  facility
inspections/corrective measure studies (RFI/CMS) at permitted and environmentally
significant closed  facilities.   These  facilities  will  be prioritized based on
risk, with the most environmentally significant closures addressed first.  The
states will  ensure that corrective action  initiated in prior years  is fully
supported through  determination and implementation  of  the appropriate remedy.
The owner/operators will initiate corrective measures through corrective action
orders or as a result  of a schedule of compliance in the permit.   States will
monitor   corrective   action   progress   with  thorough   oversight   of  the
owner/operators' RFI/CMS and  implementation of  the  remedy to ensure that work
is performed correctly.  The  states will initiate new  facility assessments at
storage and  treatment  facilities seeking permits.   States will  also initiate
judicial actions when  a permit  schedule or  administrative order  is considered
insufficient to require the owner/operator to undertake  corrective measures that
would protect human health and the environment.

      The Agency will  increase  resources to fund  national implementation of a
hazardous waste data management system that  will greatly  expand the states' and
EPA's ability to input and retrieve information critical to successful program
management.

1990 Program

      In 1990,  the Agency is allocating a total of  $68,031,700 for this program,
all of which is from the Abatement,  Control and Compliance appropriation.

      The  Agency  requires  states to  amend  their  programs to  incorporate the
provisions of RCRA and HSWA.  The states are  proposing legislation and upgrading
regulations to achieve equivalence with  the Federal hazardous waste management
program, and are applying  to EPA for authorization to administer the program.

      States are  directing permitting  efforts toward successfully meeting the
November  1989  deadline for issuing permits to all  operating  hazardous waste
incineration facilities; toward permitting environmentally significant storage
and  treatment  facilities;  and  toward  processing  modifications  to  existing
permits.   The states  are  emphasizing  compliance monitoring  and enforcement
efforts to  ensure adequate environmental safeguards covering  the generation,
transportation, and disposal of hazardous waste.  The states are investigating
releases  at  facilities  to determine  the need  for  corrective action  and,  as
releases  are  identified,   are  ensuring  that  owner/operators  address  the
contamination.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989,  the Agency obligated a total of $66,753,000 for this program, all
of which was from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.
                                    5-35

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      In 1989, the  states  continued to develop legislation and regulations to
achieve equivalence with the  Federal hazardous waste management program.   EPA
granted the  states  authority to  administer important HSWA  regulations.   The
states and Regions worked jointly on processing permits for those HSWA provisions
for which states were not authorized, particularly corrective action.

      The  states   successfully  processed  land  disposal   facility  permit
applications to meet the November 1988 HSWA deadline.  The Agency and states gave
the processing of  incinerator permit applications a high  priority due to the
November 1989 deadline.

      The states  performed mandated inspections and took appropriate enforcement
actions.  In addition,  the states performed RCRA Facility  Assessments  to support
the permitting program and to prioritize sites for corrective action.
UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS STATE GRANTS

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $9,000,000 for this program, all of which
will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  This represents
an  increase  of $252,600  from 1990.   This increase will  be used  to provide
additional support and to leverage state funds.

      This request  will provide  states  with a  resource  base to  develop and
implement state  underground storage tanks  (UST)  programs.  States  that have
attained the necessary legislative and regulatory capacities will apply for state
program approval.  Some states will develop capabilities for administering the
entire Federal program, while others will continue to develop and update their
legislative  and regulatory  authorities.     These  authorities  will include
technical, leak detection,  financial  responsibility,  and  corrective  action
standards.  States will also continue to  work towards achieving compliance with
adequate  tank  closure and pressurized piping requirements  and building their
enforcement programs.

      The leak detection and financial  responsibility regulations will continue
to  increase  the  states'  workload as USTs  that are unable  to  meet applicable
requirements must be either upgraded or closed.  The states will process and/or
review all upgrades and closures.


1990 Program

      The Agency is allocating a  total of  $8,747,400 all  of which is from the
Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

      The states  have been  using grant funds  as the  core of  their program
development efforts,  primarily on prevention programs  including notification,
data systems  to track  UST facilities, new tank installation,  leak detection, and
tank closure.  Additionally, the states are currently implementing portions of
the Federal regulations.
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      Some states are currently developing independent funding sources for their
UST programs  from tank  fees,  state taxes, and  gasoline taxes.   These state
contributions are essential to the success of the states' prevention programs.
The UST state grants provide "seed money"  of about $162,000 per state for these
efforts.

      The  phasing-in  of  the  financial   responsibility and leak  detection
regulations are generating additional workload for the states.   These regulations
are leading  to an increased  number  of tank closures and  tank  upgrades,  that
require the states to review and process these actions.


1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989,  the Agency obligated  $9,178,700  for  this program,  all of which
was from Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

      UST grant funds were used primarily  to stimulate the development of state
UST programs.   Most states  have  initiated legislative  and regulatory changes
necessary  for  the  state program  to be  no  less stringent   than  the  Federal
standards.  States also  commenced building capabilities for administering the
Federal UST program in its entirety.
                                    5-37

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                                                   HAZARDOUS  WASTE
                                Waste Management  Regulatory Strategies  Implementation

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED     CURRENT    REQUEST    INCREASE +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE      1991      DECREASE -
                                                       1990               1991  VS  1990
                                               (DOLLARS  IN  THOUSANDS)


PROGRAM
Hazardous Waste
Management Regulatory
Strategies
Implementation
 Salaries & Expenses          $15,769.9  (16,546.6  $16.516.0  $20,710.0     $4,194.0
 Abatement Control and         $8,333.6   $9,973.6   $9,779.7  $11,599.7     $1,820.0
 Compliance
                       TOTAL  $24,103.5  $26,520.2  $26,295.7  $32,309.7     $6,014.0
TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses          $15,769.9  $16,546.6  $16,516.0  $20,710.0     $4,194.0
 Abatement Control and         $8,333.6   $9,973.6   $9,779.7  $11,599.7     $1,820.0
 Compliance

Waste Management       TOTAL  $24,103.5  $26,520.2  $26,295.7  $32,309.7     $6,014.0
Strategies
Implementation
PERMANENT WORKYEARS
Hazardous Waste                   348.8      379.8      353.9     426.2         72.3
Management Regulatory
Strategies
Implementation

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS         348.8      379.8      353.9     426.2         72.3
TOTAL WORKYEARS
Hazardous Waste                   373.4      379.8      379.0      426.2         47.2
Management Regulatory
Strategies
Implementation

TOTAL WORKYEARS                   373.4      379.8      379.0      426.2         47.2
                                         5-38

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                                HAZARDOUS WASTE


        Hazardous  Waste  Management Regulatory  Strategies  Implementation

Budget Request

      The Agency  requests  a  total  of  $32,309,700 supported  by 426.2  total
workyears for 1991, an increase of $6,014,000 and 47.2 total workyears from 1990.
Of the request,  $20,710,000 will be  for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and $11,599,700 will be  for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.
This  represents  an  increase  of  $4,194,000  in  the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and an increase  of  $1,820,000 in  the  Abatement, Control  and
Compliance appropriation.


HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT REGULATORY STRATEGIES IMPLEMENTATION

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $32,309,700 and 426.2 total workyears for
this  program,  of  which $20,710,000  will  be  for  the  Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and $11,599,700 will be for the  Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.   This represents an increase of $4,194,000 for Salaries  and
Expenses, $1,820,000 for Abatement,  Control and Compliance,  and an increase of
47.2 total workyears.  The  increase  in Salaries and Expenses reflects increases
in  personnel and  support  costs.    The  increase  in  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance and workyears will support additional permitting efforts.

      The largest  area  of  growth will be in  the Agency's permitting efforts,
conducted in cooperation with the states.  The permitting program will continue
the shift, begun in 1990, from permitting operating incinerators to processing
post-closure  permits  for  land  disposal  facilities.    Storage  and  treatment
facility permitting,  which  is subject to the  1992  statutory deadline,  will be
accelerated.  By  the end of 1991, approximately  75%  of the  facilities subject
to the deadline will  have permits or permits being processed.  The Regions will
continue  to  process  modifications  to operating permits,  which will  require
revisions due to  changes in facility processes, facility expansions,  and the
need  to incorporate corrective  action provisions  as remediation  activities
progress.   The  Regions  will continue to  review and approve  adequate  closure
plans, and will process appeals to  permit decisions as necessary.

      The Regions will  conduct municipal  non-hazardous waste (Subtitle  D)
activities.   The Regions will provide technical and financial support to states
and other eligible organizations, such as municipalities and universities, that
are interested in pursuing unique projects that will support the recycling and
source reduction goals  of the Agency's Agenda  for Action.  The Agenda calls for
a  national  program  to   increase recycling of  municipal refuse and  greater
attention to reducing the  generation  of solid wastes.  The  Agency  will assist
states  as  they revise  statutes and  regulations  in  accordance with  the  new
national Subtitle D criteria,  and will review state program revision packages.
EPA will address large volume waste  through  targeted cooperative agreements with
states to fund investigations of state mining waste programs.
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      Information management resources will  fund implementation of a national
data management system  that will  greatly expand EPA's and the states' ability
to enter  and retrieve information critical  to  successful program management.
The Regions will increase technical assistance to states to develop and maintain
Federally-equivalent hazardous waste  management programs.  This  support from
the Regions, along with funding available to the states through the Hazardous
Waste Management  Financial Assistance program,  is designed  to  develop state
capability to effectively  manage  hazardous waste programs.   Almost all states
will be  authorized for the  pre-Hazardous and  Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA)
program and these states will be working toward authorization for HSWA provisions
such as corrective action.

1990 Program

      In 1990, the Agency  is allocating a total of $26,295,700 and 379.0 total
workyears for this program, of which $9,779,700 is from the Abatement, Control
and Compliance appropriation and $16,516,000 is from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation.

      Permitting efforts are focused on completing determinations on incineration
permit applications by the  November 1989  deadline,  continuing  the processing of
environmentally  significant  storage  and  treatment  facility  permits,  and
increasing emphasis on issuing permits to ensure adequate post-closure care of
land disposal facilities.  The Regions are completing the review and approval
of land disposal facility closure plans in 1990.

      The Regions  are  working jointly with  the states on all aspects of the
hazardous waste program.  The Regions are processing those portions of permits
for which states are not yet authorized,  and are providing technical oversight
of state  activities.    The Regions  are   supporting  the enhancement  of state
capability  by  providing   assistance  with state  regulatory  and  legislative
development.  This Federal/state relationship provides a framework for ensuring
national  program  consistency  and will  ultimately  allow states  to  run  the
hazardous waste program independently. The Regions are working with states and
other organizations, through technical and financial assistance,  to implement
the recommendations of the Agency's solid waste Agenda for Action.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989,  the Agency  obligated a total  of  $24,103,500 supported by 373.4
total workyears for this program, of which $15,769,900 was  from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation and  $8,333,600  was  from the  Abatement Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      In 1989, the Regions  supported the  states  in the development of hazardous
waste management programs  equivalent  to  the  Federal program.  With 45 states
authorized  for the  pre-HSWA program,  the  Agency focused  on  oversight  and
technical support activities.  The Regions provided technical  assistance to the
states  as  they developed  legislation  and  regulations  consistent with  the
provisions of HSWA and with regulatory revisions to the Federal  base program.
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      The Regions  and states worked  together  to process  permit  applications
containing HSWA provisions for which the states were not yet authorized.   High
priorities included processing the remainder of land disposal facility permit
applications by  the  November 1988 deadline and processing a  large  number of
incineration facility permits to work toward the November 1989 deadline.
                                    5-U

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                                                   HAZARDOUS  WASTE
                                Emergency Planning Community  Right  To  Know  -  Title  III

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED      CURRENT    REQUEST    INCREASE  +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE      1991     DECREASE  -
                                                       1990               1991  VS 1990
                                               (DOLLARS IN  THOUSANDS)

PROGRAM
Emergency Planning
Community Right To Know
 Salaries & Expenses           $2,087.3   $2,913.3   $2,628.3    $2,540.0       -$88.3
 Abatement Control and         $1,923.7   $4,369.3   $4,313.5    $2,938.0    -$1,375.5
 Compliance
                       TOTAL   $4,011.0   $7,282.6   $6,941.8    $5,478.0    -$1,463.8
TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses           $2,087.3   $2,913.3   $2,628.3    $2,540.0       -$88.3
 Abatement Control and         $1,923.7   $4,369.3   $4,313.5    $2,938.0    -$1,375.5
 Compliance

Emergency Planning     TOTAL   $4,011.0   $7,282.6   $6,941.8    $5,478.0    -$1,463.8
Community Right To
Know
PERMANENT WORKYEARS
Emergency Planning                 26.6       48.0       30.7       37.0          6.3
Community Right To Know

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS          26.6       48.0       30.7       37.0          6.3
TOTAL WORKYEARS
Emergency Planning                 28.9       48.0       32.0       37.0          5.0
Community Right To Know

TOTAL WORKYEARS                    28.9       48.0       32.0       37.0          5.0
                                         5-42

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                                HAZARDOUS WASTE


          Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know --  Title  III

Budget Request

      The Agency requests a total of $5,478,000 supported by 37.0 total workyears
for 1991.   Of the request,  $2,540,000  will  be for the  Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and $2,938,000 will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.   These  levels represent a total decrease  of $1,463,800 and an
increase of 5.0 workyears from 1990.


EMERGENCY PLANNING AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW --  TITLE III

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $5,478,000 supported by 37.0 total workyears
for 1991.   Of the request,  $2,540,000  will  be for the  Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and $2,938,000 will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.  This represents  a decrease of $88,300 for Salaries and Expenses,
a decrease of $1,375,500 for Abatement, Control and Compliance and an increase
of 5 total workyears from 1990.   The  increase in workyears will be allocated to
enforcement.  This will enable the  Agency to assist state and local governments
as they  incorporate  Title  III enforcement  into  their  institutional structure.
Fewer dollar  resources  are needed due to completion of national  training and
technical assistance support.

      The increase in enforcement resources will enable the Agency to begin to
address noncompliance with the emergency planning provisions  and release and
inventory notification requirements of Sections 302, 303, 304, 311, and 312 of
the Emergency Planning and  Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986.  The Agency will
initiate, and conduct with the states wherever practical, a targeted number of
routine facility inspections  to assess  compliance.   The Agency will increase
its emphasis on developing inspection targeting mechanisms, formalizing EPA/State
enforcement agreements,  and  developing  selected  administrative  and  judicial
penalty  cases against  violators  identified  through  inspections,  tips,  and
complaints to support compliance verification activities.

      The program will continue to assist state and local governments in updating
and improving their emergency response plans.  The Agency will update emergency
planning guidance,  review and modify  instructor training programs for state and
local groups,  develop and present workshops on chemical hazard assessment, and
develop  simulation exercises to test the  plans.    EPA will  develop  guidance
materials to assist states and localities in interpreting community right-to-know
reporting information,  and will continue to provide assistance to Indian tribes
as they  implement  Title III programs on Indian lands.  The Agency  will also
continue to evaluate chemicals against the extremely hazardous substances list,
issue guidance on communicating risk,  and manage information generated by Title
III Sections  311/312/313 reporting thresholds.  Finally,  EPA will continue to
receive, process, and evaluate Title III trade secrecy claims.
                                    5-43

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1990 Program

      The Agency  is  allocating a total of $6,941,800 supported  by 32.0 total
workyears,  of which $2,628,300 is from the Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and $4,313,500 is from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

      In 1990, the Agency  is  providing support  to  state and local governments
in both emergency response planning and implementation activities.  Since most
of  the  Local Emergency  Planning Committees responded  to the  1989  statutory
deadline to  complete their  initial  emergency  response  plans,   the  Agency is
providing  states  and  priority  area   communities  with  guidance,  technical
assistance, and training to review, test, and update their plans.   EPA  is working
with communities  that do not  yet  have  approved  emergency  response plans.

      The  Agency  is  beginning  to  conduct  compliance  inspections,  field
investigations, and cooperative enforcement projects with states.  The Agency
is identifying violators through these processes and is developing administrative
enforcement cases to address the identified violations.  EPA expects that Regions
may handle thirty to fifty cases nationwide in 1990.

      The Agency continues to  evaluate chemicals  against  the additional criteria
for the extremely hazardous substances list and is beginning a rulemaking action
related to physical  hazards  that will continue  into 1991.   EPA is evaluating
Title III Section 311/312  (community right-to-know) reporting thresholds,  and
will issue final regulations establishing threshold quantities.   The Agency is
also continuing to receive, process, and evaluate Title III  trade secrecy claims.
EPA is completing the final rules  for implementing the Title III  Indian policy.
Finally, the  Agency  is  planning  a number of risk communication projects  and
activities to assist state,  local, and  tribal governments  in interpreting Title
III information.   These projects will better enable the  public  to understand
the risks involved with hazardous chemicals.

1989 Program                                                          '

      In 1989,  the  Agency obligated  a  total  of $4,011,000  and 28.9  total
workyears  for this program,  of which  $2,087,300  was  from  the  Salaries  and
Expenses appropriation  and  $1,923,700 was  from  the  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      The Agency proposed regulations for implementing various  sections of Title
III,  including  rules for  implementing Title  III on  Indian lands;  two rules
concerning the designation of  extremely hazardous substances as CERCLA hazardous
substances and  adjusting their  reportable  quantities;  and  a proposed rule,
followed by  an interim final  rule,  on the community  right-to-know  threshold
requirements.

      In addition, EPA assisted state  and local authorities in planning emergency
response programs.  The  Agency published guidance on flammables and explosives,
developed and presented  training on the Technical Guidance for Hazards Analysis
and distributed a publication  highlighting Title  III success stories.  A program
was also initiated to involve the medical community in the Title III  emergency
planning process.
                                      5-44

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Enforcement

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                        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1991 Budget Estimate

                               Table of  Contents
                                                                          Page

HAZARDOUS WASTE

ENFORCEMENT
   Hazardous Waste Enforcement  	   5-45

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                                                   HAZARDOUS WASTE
                                             Hazardous Waste Enforcement

                                ACTUAL     ENACTED     CURRENT     REQUEST    INCREASE +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE       1991      DECREASE -
                                                      1990                1991 VS  1990
                                               (DOLLARS  IN THOUSANDS)
PROGRAM
Hazardous Waste
Enforcement
 Salaries & Expenses          $20,006.8  $21,250.6   $21,424.9  $29,160.0    $7,735.1
 Abatement Control and        $19,871.4  $21,094.9   $20,595.8  $31.426.7   $10,830.9
 Compliance
                       TOTAL  $39,878.2  $42,345.5   $42,020.7  $60,586.7   $18,566.0


TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses          $20,006.8  $21,250.6   $21,424.9  $29,160.0    $7,735.1
 Abatement Control and        $19,871.4  $21,094.9   $20,595.8  $31,426.7   $10,830.9
 Compliance

Hazardous Waste        TOTAL  $39,878.2  $42,345.5   $42,020.7  $60,586.7   $18,566.0
Enforcement
PERMANENT UORKYEARS
Hazardous Waste                   436.4      489.5      453.4      575.7        122.3
Enforcement

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS         436.4      489.5      453.4      575.7        122.3
TOTAL WORKYEARS
Hazardous Waste                   459.6      489.5      480.8      575.7        94.9
Enforcement

TOTAL WORKYEARS                   459.6      489.5      480.8      575.7        94.9
                                         5-45

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                               HAZARDOUS WASTE


                         Hazardous Waste Enforcement
BudEet Request
      The  Agency requests  a total  of $60,586,700  supported by  575.7  total
workyears  for  1991,  an increase of $18,566,000 and  94.9  total workyears from
1990.   Of  the request,  $29,160,000 will be  for the  Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and $31,426,700 will be for the  Abatement, Control, and Compliance
appropriation.  This represents an increase of $7,735,100 for the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and an increase of $10,830,900 for the Abatement, Control,
and Compliance appropriation.
HAZARDOUS WASTE ENFORCEMENT

1991 Program Request

      The  Agency  requests  a total  of $60,586,700  supported  by  575.7  total
workyears for 1991, of which $29,160,000 will be for the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $31,426,700 will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.   This represents  an increase of  $7,735,100 for  Salaries  and
Expenses, an increase of $10,830,900 for Abatement, Control and Compliance,  and
an  increase  of 94.9 total  workyears from the  1990  levels.   The  increase in
dollars and total workyears will support the expanded workload associated with
corrective action.

      The  level of  corrective action activities will continue  to grow at
operating  and  environmentally   significant   closing  facilities   as   more
owner/operators initiate  facility investigations, study possible  remedies to
releases and  initiate  interim or  remedial measures  to reduce the  risk.   The
Agency will ensure that facilities requiring corrective action will be addressed
on a risk-based priority  system.   Once facilities are selected for corrective
action, appropriate  methods for  addressing  these facilities will  be chosen.
These methods will generally include the permit/post-closure process or issuance
of an  administrative order.   The  Agency will oversee  owners and operators to
facilitate remedy selection and successful  implementation.   Headquarters will
continue to offer  training,  including evaluation criteria to  the Regions and the
states in the selection of remedy process and in negotiation strategies.

      The Agency will place  increased emphasis on implementation of the land ban
restrictions by increasing the number of inspections and oversight activity of
small quantity generators.  The Agency will develop policies to guide Regional
and state inspections of newly regulated waste such as those covered under the
organic toxicity characteristics rule and the hazardous waste  fuel rule, as well
as mixed waste, mining waste, and the wood preserving listings.

      EPA will continue  to institutionalize enforcement  and inspection training
and workshops.  Through  the  use of interactive computer  training and satellite-
based  training  classes, the  Resource  Conservation and Recovery  Act (RCRA)
                                    5^46

-------
Inspector Training  Institute will  continue  to provide  training to  ensure
consistent inspection program.  The inspectors' role in pollution prevention wil
be  studied  to  determine if  this  function  should be  expanded  to  providin
technical assistance to the regulated community.

      The Agency will  coordinate  closely with the states  to  achieve a smoot
implementation of the RCRA Information System (RCRIS) ,  which emphasizes automate
data transfer, wide accessibility, and standardized formats among the Regions
states,  and Headquarters.

1990 Program

      In 1990, the Agency is allocating a  total of $42,020,700 supported by 480.
total workyears,  of  which  $21,424,900   is  from  the  Salaries   and  Expense
appropriation  and  $20,595,800 is  from the Abatement, Control  and Complianc
appropriation.

      The Agency is developing  inspection guidance and enforcement strategic
for  implementation  of multi-media  measures  for disposal  of  hazardous waste
Guidance on the enforcement of new regulations on land disposal  of  the prohibite
wastes as well as  guidance for the detection of  illegal  disposal and specia
waste is being revised.

      Increasingly, the  Agency  is focusing its  corrective action resources t
ensure that owner/operators are conducting facility investigations in complianc
with  the  terms of  permits and orders.    The Agency  is  also monitoring  th
development of corrective measures plans to assure environmentally sound measure
are  proposed  and  implemented.    EPA is  giving  priority for   new  facilit
investigations to environmentally significant closing and closed  facilities a
well as to permitted facilities.

      The Agency is ensuring that  state inspections are conducted  biennially a
all operating land disposal facilities and at closed land disposal  and treatmen
and  storage  facilities,  as   required  by  policy  and  the  expanding  land  ba
regulations.   Increased emphasis  is being placed on grant guidelines to ensur
a nationally consistent and effective state enforcement program,  especially i
the area of corrective action.  The Agency is conducting annual inspections o
state owned or operated  treatment, storage, and disposal facilities as well a
incinerator facilities.  Facilities under an administrative order  are receivin
a  follow-up  inspection  to ensure  a  return  to  compliance.    The Agency  i
conducting additional inspections at commercial  facilities  to  ensure that thes
facilities  are managing  off-site  Superfund wastes in an  environmentally saf
manner.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989,  the Agency obligated a  total  of $39,878,200 supported by 459.
total workyears,  of  which  $20,006,800  was  from the  Salaries  and Expense
appropriation, and $19,871,400  was  from  the  Abatement,  Control and Complianc
appropriation.

      Compliance monitoring and enforcement actions were taken against handler
that presented the  greatest  threat to human health  and the environment.   Th
facilities  that had the  greatest problems with releases or were in significan


                                    5-47

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non-compliance were addressed by administrative and judicial enforcement actions.
Inspections  and follow-up  enforcement  actions  for  the surface  impoundment
retrofit deadline of November 1988 continued to take place.  The states and EPA
conducted 13,182 inspections of Federal,  state and local facilities that store,
treat or dispose of hazardous waste, and inspections of commercial land disposal
and treatment facilities were conducted twice a year to ensure compliance with
the Superfund Off-Site Policy.   Through technical enforcement support and state
program  evaluations,   the  Agency  ensured  that  the  states  took  timely  and
appropriate enforcement  actions,  and in some instances,  the  Agency initiated
enforcement actions,  for  a combined total of 1,227 administrative orders issued.
The Agency also  brought  enforcement  actions for violations  of HSWA provisions
for which states were not authorized.

      Corrective action  resources supported initial assessments,  studies,  and
corrective action oversight of permitted  or permit track facilities, as well as
facilities that had been issued an administrative  order.  Facility assessments
were conducted at  174  treatment and  storage facilities  that were scheduled to
be permitted in 1990.

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6. PESTICIDES

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                        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1991 Budget Estimate

                               Table of  Contents


PESTICIDES                                                              6-1

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Pesticides Research	 .    6-9
      Scientific Assessment 	    6-15
      Monitoring Systems and Quality Assurance  	    6-16
      Health Effects	    6-17
      Environmental Engineering and Technology  	    6-18
      Environmental Processes and Effects 	    6-19
ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   Registration, Special Registration and Tolerances  	    6-21
   Generic Chemical Review  	    6-25
   Pesticides Program Implementation  	    6-30
      Pesticides Program Implementation 	    6-31
      Pesticides Program Implementation Grants  	    6-32
ENFORCEMENT
   Pesticides Enforcement 	    6-35
      Pesticides Enforcement   	    6-36
      Pesticides Enforcement Grants 	    6-38

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                                ACTUAL
                                 1989
             ENACTED
              1990
                                                    PESTICIDES
 CURRENT
ESTIMATE
  1990
REQUEST
 1991
  INCREASE +
  DECREASE -
1991 VS 1990
APPROPRIATION
                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
 Salaries & Expenses
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
 Research & Development

TOTAL, Pesticides
 $41,938.7  $46,630.1  $45,366.7  $51,448.4    $6,081.7
 $68,668.6  $53,577.5  $52,851.4  $50,538.7   -$2,312.7

  $7,354.0   $6,724.6   $6,547.6   $8,085.6    $1,538.0

$117,961.3 $106,932.2 $104,765.7 $110,072.7    $5,307.0
PERMANENT UORKYEARS
TOTAL UORKYEARS
OUTLAYS
AUTHORIZATION LEVELS
     796.4      993.3      957.3    1,091.7       134.4
     846.0      993.3      990.9    1,091.7       100.8
 $87,286.2  $94,978.6  $97,548.0  $99,856.8    $5,308.8
Authorization for the Federal Insecticide,  Fungicide and
Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Amendments of 1988 reauthorized
this program at a level of $83,000.0 for 1989,  $95,000
for 1990 and $95,000 for 1991.
                                           6-1

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                                  PESTICIDES
OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY

      Pesticides can be  both beneficial and hazardous  substances.   Pesticide
products provide benefits to society, contributing to agricultural productivity
and controlling human diseases, yet they are inherently hazardous  since they are
specifically  formulated  to  be   injurious   to  living  target  organisms  and
deliberately introduced into the environment for that purpose.

      EPA's authority to regulate pesticides is  set forth in two statutes.  The
Federal Insecticide,  Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) governs the licensing
or registration of pesticide products.  Sections  408 and 409 of  the Federal Food,
Drug and Cosmetic Act  (FFDCA) regulate  the  level  of  pesticide residues in raw
and processed agricultural commodities.

      FIFRA. Under FIFRA, all pesticides must be registered with EPA before they
may  be sold  or distributed in  commerce.    EPA  operates under  an  overall
risk/benefit standard for pesticide registration.  Pesticides must perform their
intended  function  when  used according  to   label  directions, without  posing
unreasonable risks of  adverse effects  on human  health or  the  environment.   In
making pesticide registration decisions, EPA is required  to  take into account
the economic,  social,  and environmental costs  and benefits of pesticide use.
This is  a task  of  enormous  scope  and complexity.    Three billion  pounds  of
pesticide active ingredients are used annually in this  country,  representing over
1,000 different active ingredients and 26,000 products.

      Recent legislation has substantially amended FIFRA.  The FIFRA Amendments
of 1988 (signed into law on October 25, 1988)  strengthened the Agency's authority
in the following areas:

o     The 1988 amendments accelerate the reregistration process for previously
      registered pesticides by  requiring  completion  of this  task  within nine
      years.  Pesticide registrants  are responsible for supplying complete test
      data bases necessary for EPA to make pesticide  reregistration decisions.
      Both industry and EPA must act within specific  deadlines.

o     Under the expedited  registration  provisions, which  have short statutory
      deadlines,  EPA  is   required  to  give   accelerated  consideration  to
      applications  for  initial  or amended registration of products  which  are
      similar to pesticides already registered with EPA.

o     The  law  authorizes  the collection  of fees to  support  reregistration
      activities.    Two kinds  of  fees  are being   collected:    a  one-time
      reregistration fee  for each  active  ingredient,  and  an annual  fee  for
      registration maintenance to be paid for each registered product.   These
      fees finance  the FIFRA revolving fund which provides funding support for
      both staff and contractor personnel.

o     EPA's responsibilities and  funding requirements are substantially revised
      in the areas of storage and disposal of pesticides whose registrations have
      been suspended and cancelled.   The law  also  places limitations  on  the
      availability  of  funding to  indemnify  certain owners  of  pesticides whose


                                    6-2

-------
      registrations have been suspended and cancelled.

      FFDCA.   Under  the  FFDCA,  EPA sets tolerances, or  maximum legal limits,
for pesticide  residues on  food commodities marketed  in the  U.S.    Before  a
pesticide can be registered  under FIFRA for use on a food  or feed crop, EPA must
either establish a  tolerance  or,  if appropriate, grant  an exemption from the
tolerance requirement.

      In cooperation with other EPA offices, the pesticide  program will undertake
initiatives to  address pollution  prevention and the growing  concern for food
safety.  The Agency will also augment the 1990 initiative to build Regional/state
capabilities  to protect  ground  water,  workers  exposed  to  pesticides,  and
endangered species,  and  implement revised  Certification  and  Training  (C&T)
regulations.

      In addition, EPA will continue  to  place  high priorities on implementing
the 1988 FIFRA  amendments,  continuing a commitment to ensure that regulatory
decisions are based on the best  available science, and continuing programs that
emphasize risk reduction and safer pesticides.

      The Agency's  1991  pesticide regulation  program includes  the following
elements: 1)  registration of new products and control of pesticide residues in
the  food  chain,  2)  review  and reregistration  of  existing products,  3)
encouragement of correct  uses of pesticides, 4) the enforcement of pesticide
regulations,  5) research  and  development to  support and  improve EPA's ability
to evaluate the risks and benefits of pesticides,  and  6) consulting services.

1.  Registration Activities

      FIFRA and FFDCA authorize  EPA to set the terms and conditions of pesticide
registration, marketing,  and use.  Under the registration  program, new pesticide
products are registered on the basis of data  reviewed by Agency scientists, and
current  registrations  are  amended to add new  uses and/or new formulations.
Manufacturers are required to conduct a full range of health and environmental
testing before marketing  their  new products.   This testing uses sophisticated
methodology and techniques,  enabling the Agency to more  accurately determine the
potential for ground-water contamination, residues on food or feed, worker and
applicator exposure, environmental risks, and chronic and acute health hazards.
In order to reduce the level of  risk associated with use of approved chemicals,
EPA may restrict the use of these chemicals to trained, certified applicators;
and prescribe label precautions, special packaging requirements,  and application
directions, including prescribed  intervals between application and harvest or
worker reentry into the fields.

      The registration program also includes special registration and tolerance-
setting activities.  The  special  registration  program  continues to perform an
auxiliary  function  by permitting  certain  uses  of unregistered pesticide for
experimental purposes and emergency pest situations.  It also provides oversight
and guidance to state registration and experimental use permit functions.  The
tolerance program establishes safe and enforceable maximum permissible residue
levels (or, in some instances, exemptions from tolerance  requirements) for both
active and inert pesticide ingredients in or on  raw agricultural  commodities and
processed foods.
                                     6-3

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      Special emphases for 1991 include (1) giving high priority to implementing
the  FIFRA  amendments of  1988,  which  requires expedited  consideration  of
applications  for  registrations of  products  which  are  similar  to  pesticides
already registered,  (2) continuing to give priority consideration to newer, safer
chemicals and  uses  which may replace  more hazardous chemicals  and  uses,  (3)
giving special attention  to biochemical and microbial agents, and  (4) evaluating
impacts on  ground water, workers, and endangered species  during registration
reviews.

2.  Generic Chemical Review (including Reregistration)

      The registrations  of  the majority  of  existing pesticide  chemicals  are
supported by data bases which the Agency believes should be updated to today's
more advanced  scientific standards  to  support  the required determination that
"no unreasonable adverse effects" are  presented  by  a specific  pesticide.   The
Generic Chemical Review program is designed to remedy this problem by requiring
the upgrading  of the  scientific data base supporting registrations,  reviewing
available  data about each  chemical,   and formulating  scientifically  based
regulatory positions to guide  the  modification, cancellation, or reregistration
of existing  products  and the  registration of new  products.   The  1988  FIFRA
amendments contain provisions for a greatly accelerated five-phase reregistration
program, expedited processing of certain types of registration applications,  a
system for collecting and administering fees,  and significant revisions to the
indemnification and disposal  program  for pesticides suspended  and  cancelled
after enactment of the 1988 amendments.  The  fees mandated by these amendments
are to be used to supplement appropriated  funds to carry out reregistration and
expedited processing.

      The Generic Chemical Review  program contributes to the safety of the food
supply,  through the  reregistration program  and  special  reviews,  in  which
pesticides suspected of causing unreasonable  adverse effects undergo intensive
risk/benefit analysis, which may result in changes to the terms and conditions
of their use or cancellation of their registration.

      Highlights of the 1991 program include:

o     The Food Safety Initiative,  begun in 1990,  will be continued in 1991.  It
      will include  developing better scientific  data on  special tolerance and
      residue  issues,  conveying scientific information on  risks  to  the public
      in understandable terms, and using improved risk information in regulatory
      decisions. This initiative will strengthen EPA's ability to  make decisions
      on pesticides  based on scientific risk assessments, and educate the public
      on the reasons for these decisions.

o     The completion of  the National Pesticide Survey will  provide  data to be
      used to refine the  Agricultural Chemicals in Ground-Water Strategy.   The
      Strategy will be used to evaluate  approaches  to protecting ground water
      at the state  and Regional level.

o     The disposal  program will  continue safe  storage  of  stocks  of  2,4,5-
      T/Silvex.  Disposal will be initiated after a facility is  permitted and
      available to  the EPA to  accept pesticide stocks for incineration.
                                      6-4

-------
o     The Agency is also proposing legislation to reinstate collecting fees for
      Pesticides Registration of the start of FY 1991.

o     Five pollution prevention projects will  be funded as part of the EPA wide
      program.   They will address ground-water contamination  in corn growing
      areas, inert ingredients in pesticides, a hazard index for the Chesapeake
      Bay  watershed, a  decision  support  system  applicable   to  ground-water
      problems, and bioregulation.

o     EPA will  continue to give high  priority  to implementation of  the 1988
      FIFRA  amendments,  including  the  accelerated  reregistration  program,
      expedited  processing of certain  types  of  registration  applications,
      collecting fees and administering the revolving fund.

3.   Pesticides Program Implementation

      Under this program EPA promotes the correct uses of pesticides.  To achieve
this goal EPA sets  up cooperative agreements with State Lead Agencies to certify
applicators to use  Restricted Use Pesticides.  EPA provides grants to the states
to  support  this activity.   Certification grants  help  support  53  applicator
certification programs  in participating  states and territories  and Federally
administered programs in Colorado and Nebraska.  EPA also  has  an  interagency
agreement with  USDA to  provide  training  to pesticide  applicators  by working
through State Cooperative Extension Services (SCES).

      After publication  of revised C&T Regulations, which will strengthen the
C&T program in the  areas of record keeping, training,  continuing education, and
supervision of applicators, states will begin implementation.

      In 1991, the Agency will continue the initiative begun in 1990,  to place
emphasis  on building Regional/state  capabilities to  address  the areas  of
protecting ground water,'workers occupationally exposed to pesticides, endangered
species, and strengthened C&T programs.  States, with the  guidance and assistance
of  the  Regional  offices, will  develop  and  implement  management  strategies
tailored  to the particular  circumstances  in  the states.    Elements  of the
management  strategies include:   outreach,  monitoring, development  of training
materials, and coordination with the C&T Program.

4.   Pesticides Enforcement

     The enforcement provisions of FIFRA are carried out primarily through the
cooperative  efforts  of  the   states  and  territories,  under  a  program  of
Federal-state   cooperative  enforcement   agreements   established   with  EPA.
Participating   states  and  territories   conduct  use   inspections,   inspect
pesticide-producing  establishments,  maintain  marketplace  surveillance,  and
inspect dealers  and  users  of  restricted-use pesticides.   In most instances in
which violations are detected,  the states and territories develop and prosecute
enforcement  cases  as appropriate.   In limited  numbers of cases,  states and
territories may refer cases to EPA for  action. The Agency encourages the states
and territories to design and  operate their enforcement programs so as to place
greatest emphasis  upon  compliance with the  use  provisions of  FIFRA,  thereby
producing  the  greatest  environmental  benefit.   The  Agency  will continue  to
support and manage these cooperative efforts in 1991.


                                     6-5

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     The Agency conducts Federal pesticides  compliance  monitoring programs in
cases  in which  states  or  territories  are  unable  or  unwilling to  support
comprehensive compliance monitoring programs  of their own,  Federal programs in
such instances include use investigations, import and export surveillance, and
the preparation and prosecution of enforcement cases.  Other activities that are
exclusively the responsibility  of  the Agency  include providing technical and
compliance assistance to the states, the regulated community and the public, and
operating an  automated data  system which maintains information on compliance
inspections, enforcement actions, and pesticide production. In  1991, the Agency
will  also  emphasize  such  areas  as  ground-water  contamination,  farmworker
protection,  development of state  enforcement  response  policies under  FIFRA
Sections 26 and 27,  and tracking and enforcement of compliance with pesticide
registration requirements.

5.   Research and Development

      The FY 1991 Office of Research and Development (ORD)  request for pesticides
research  and  development will  continue  to  support the Office  of  Pesticides
Programs (OPP) by performing research  in  the areas of  test  method development
and validation; biomarkers, dosimetry  and extrapolation;  exposure monitoring;
environmental engineering and technology;  ecology (both fate and transport and
risk assessment);  and biotechnology.  In addition, ORD will continue to provide
technical support to OPP in exposure  assessment and monitoring procedures and
risk assessment methodologies for  oncogenicity,  mutagenicity and reproductive
and developmental  toxicity.   New research will be  performed  in  the  areas of
ecological risk, pollution prevention and biotechnology.

6.   Consulting Services

      Consulting services are utilized by the Agency to support the Scientific
Advisory  Panel  which,  in  accordance  with  section 25(d)  of  FIFRA,  provides
comments, evaluations  and recommendations on actions and regulations  proposed
by the Agency.  By using these services, which  are funded from  the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation,  the Agency can  ensure that  its regulatory  program
continues to be based on sound science.
                                    6-6

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                                  PESTICIDES
                                             Current
                                   Actual    Estimate     Estimate
                                    1989       1990         1991
                                  Increase+
                                  Decrease-
                                   1991 vs.
                                     1990
PROGRAM ACTIVITIES

Incremental Outputs

Special Review Decisions	

New Chemical and Biochemical/
 Microbial Agent Reviews....
Old Chemical Reviews.

Amended Registration
 Reviews	
New Use Reviews,
Emergency Exemption
 Reviews	
Experimental Use Permit
 Reviews	
24(c) State Registration
 Reviews	
Temporary Tolerance
 Petition Reviews...
Tolerance Petition
 Reviews	
Inert Ingredient
 Reviews	
Producer Establishment
 Inspections a/	
Use/Reentry and Experimental
 Use Observations a/	

Marketplace
 Investigations a/	
    77
   444
Import Inspections a/.
 1,594


12,843


 5,947

   433
                13
   150


   475


    60


 2,509


18,829


 4,035

   475
                13

5
8




321
,290
,828
335
404
309
890
330
3,850
4,560
300
250
400
475
330
3,850
4,560
300
250
400
475
   150


   475


    60


 2,779


19,369


 4,305

 4,975
  +270


  +540


  +270

+4,500
                                    6-7

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                             PESTICIDES  (continued)


Actual
1989

Current
Estimate
1990


Estimate
1991
Increase-f
Decrease-
1991 vs.
1990
PROGRAM ACTIVITIES




Incremental Outputs




State Applicator License
State Dealer
Record Inspections 	
State Disposal, Storage,
Transportation, and Recall
Inspections 	
Federal Laboratory
Inspections 	
Test Study Audits 	
Registration Standard
Guidance Packages
Established 	
Rereeistration Standards 	
3,981 4,450

47 80
219 437
14
9 10
4,600
5,000
80
412

50
                                                                         +250
                                                                         +150
                                                                       +5,000
                                                                          -25
                                                                          +40
a/ Includes both Federal and State enforcement activities
                                    6-8

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 Research and
. Development

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                        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1991 Budget Estimate

                               Table  of  Contents
PESTICIDES

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Pesticides Research  	   6-9
      Scientific Assessment	  .   6-15
      Monitoring Systems and Quality Assurance  	   6-16
      Health Effects  	   6-17
      Environmental Engineering and Technology  	   6-18
      Environmental Processes and Effects 	   6-19

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                                ACTUAL
                                 1989
                                                   PESTICIDES
                                              Pesticides  Research
           ENACTED
            1990
          CURRENT
         ESTIMATE
           1990
           REQUEST
            1991
          INCREASE +
          DECREASE -
        1991 VS 1990
PROGRAM
                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
Scientific Assessment -
Pesticides
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
Monitoring Systems &
Quality Assurance
Pesticides
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
Health Effects -
Pesticides
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
Environmental
Engineering And
Technology - Pesticides
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
Environmental Processes
& Effects - Pesticides
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
  $129.8     $144.3
    $1.2
  $131.0     $144.3
  $370.4     $349.1
  $918.8     $942.4
$1,289.2   $1,291.5
$2,140.7   $2,295.4
$1,620.9   $1,789.8
$3,761.6   $4,085.2
  $153.8
$1,988.5
$2,142.3
$114.0
$406.7
$520.7
                       TOTAL
$3,113.7   $3,802.0
$2,824.6   $3,585.7
$5,938.3   $7,387.7
           $142.4

           $142.4
$124.6
$384.3
$508.9
           $296.5

           $296.5
           $344.5     $480.5
           $916.5     $961.3
         $1,261.0   $1,441.8
         $2,210.2   $2,577.2
         $1,729.1   $1,976.3
         $3,939.3   $4,553.5
$204.9
$138.0
$342.9
         $3,242.4   $3,761.4
         $3,517.7   $5,010.0
         $6,760.1   $8,771.4
            $154.1

            $154.1
                       $136.0
                        $44.8
                       $180.8
                       $367.0
                       $247.2
                       $614.2
  $80.3
-$246.3
-$166.0
                       $519.0
                     $1,492.3
                     $2,011.3
TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
$5,908.4   $6,704.8   $6,064.1    $7,320.5    $1,256.4
$7,354.0   $6,724.6   $6,547.6   $8,085.6    $1,538.0
Pesticides Research    TOTAL  $13,262.4  $13,429.4  $12,611.7  $15,406.1     $2,794.4
PERMANENT WORKYEARS
Scientific Assessment
Pesticides

Monitoring Systems &
Quality Assurance
Pesticides

Health Effects -
Pesticides
     1.4
   1.5
   1.5
   1.5
     5.8        5.7        5.7        5.2
    32.6       39.5       39.5       39.5
    0.0
                                     -.5
                                     0.0
                                         6-9

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                                ACTUAL
                                 1989
                 PESTICIDES
            Pesticides Research

        ENACTED     CURRENT
         1990      ESTIMATE
                     1990
                     REQUEST    INCREASE  +
                      1991      DECREASE  -
                             1991  VS  1990
                                               (DOLLARS  IN  THOUSANDS)
Environmental
Engineering And
Technology - Pesticides

Environmental Processes
& Effects - Pesticides

TOTAL PERMANENT UORKYEARS
  2.3
 54.9
 97.0
  2.0
 62.7
111.4
  2.0
 60.7
109.4
  1.1
 62.7
110.0
-.9
2.0
                                                .6
TOTAL UORKYEARS
Scientific Assessment -
Pesticides

Monitoring Systems &
Quality Assurance
Pesticides

Health Effects -
Pesticides

Environmental
Engineering And
Technology - Pesticides

Environmental Processes
& Effects - Pesticides

TOTAL WORKYEARS
  1.4
  6.0
  2.7
  1.5
  5.7
  2.0
  1.5
  5.7
  2.0
  1.5
  5.2
 38.8       39.5       39.5        39.5
  1.1
 59.6       62.7       60.7       62.7
108.5      111.4      109.4       110.0
0.0


-.5



0.0


-.9



2.0


 .6
                                         6-10

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                                   PESTICIDES


                              Pesticides Research


                         Principal  Outputs by Objective


Objective 1:  Develop and Validate Test Methods for FIFRA Studies

1991:  o    Develop in-vitro neurotoxicology test methods for the identification
            and characterization of neurotoxic pollutants (Health).

       o    Report on  teratogenic  responses in Menidia berryllina  embryos for
            environmental assessment:  Estuarine, freshwater and hazardous waste
            sites (Environmental Processes).

1990:  o    Report on the immunotoxicology methods  development and validation in
            the rat (Health).

1989:  o    Assessment  of neurotoxicity in workers occupationally  exposed to
            organophosphorus pesticides: A neurobehavioral and biochemical study
            (Health).


Objective  2:    Perform Health  Research on Biological  Markers.  Dosimetrv and
Extrapolation

1991:  o    Development of neurobehavioral  testing  strategy for use in Pesticide
            Guidelines  (Health).

       o    Report on  biomarkers  and dosimetry research activity for exposure
            monitoring  (Monitoring).


Objective  3:   Perform Ecological Research Including Transport.  Fate and Field
Validation

1991:  o    Role of estuarine  sediments in  the biodegradation of anthropogenic
            chemicals  (Environmental Processes).

       o    Validation  of pesticide effects on fish growth under field exposure
            conditions  (Environmental Processes).

1990:  o    Report on  field censusing  techniques  for  large scale  avian field
            studies (Environmental Processes).                   —

       o    Fish   reproductive  success   studies   for  littoral   enclosures
            (Environmental Processes).

       o    Report on  sorption of  water soluble ionic  pesticides  to soils and
            sediments  (Environmental Processes).
                                     6-11

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1989:   o    Final Doughtery Plain report including pesticide groundwater threat
            assessment method (Environmental Processes).
Objective 4:  Perform Engineering Research in Support of FIFRA

1991:  o    Summary report of assistance activities  to  OPP  for the pesticides:
            EDB, Dinoseb and Silvex (Engineering).

       o    Guidance manual  for  selecting protective clothing for agriculture
            pesticide operations (Engineering).

1990:  o    Report  on  the effects  of co-firing chlorinated wastes with high
            nitrogen compounds on NOx emissions (Engineering).

       o    A review of peer-reviewed literature/data for  the treatability of
            pesticides from water,  wastewater, and soils (Engineering).

       o    Release of a protective-clothing training video visibly showing the
            dermal exposure possible when proper protective  clothing is not used
            during outdoor handling/use operations (Engineering).

1989:  o    Report  on  the performance results of  a pilot-scale trial  burn of
            Dinoseb pesticide formulations (Engineering).

       o    Report on performance results  of full-scale incineration operations
            of EDB inventory disposal (Engineering).

       o    Report  providing  data  on greenhouse-applicator  worker exposure to
            several pesticides and the penetration resistance of their protective
            clothing to these compounds (Engineering).


Objective 5:  Perform Exposure Monitoring  Research

1991:  o    Pesticides  exposure  to urban and suburban pesticides  in  children
            (Monitoring)


Objective 6: Perform Research on Biotechnology and Microblal  and Biochemical Pest
Control Agents

1991:  o    Report  on  efficacy of  enclosed multi-species  test  systems  in
            determining effects of microbial  pest  control agents  in non-target
            species (Environmental Processes).

       o    Report on exposure of  field applications of biological agents used
            as agricultural pesticides (Monitoring).

1990:  o    Synthesis report on test  methods  for BCAs  to  avians (Environmental
            Processes).

       o    Laboratory  methods  for appraising the  safety  of  a microbial pest
            control agent in freshwater systems (Environmental Processes).


                                     6-12

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1989:  o    Report  on   dispersal  of  BCAs   released  into   the   atmosphere
            (Environmental Processes).

       o    Report on protocols for exposing  freshwater  fish and invertebrates
            to a fungal pest control agent (Environmental Processes).

       o    Report on the evaluation of mammalian cell culture test protocols for
            viral pesticide agents (Health).


Objective  7:   Perform  Studies  on Ecotoxicitv  and Develop  Environmental  Risk
Assessment Protocols

1990:  o    Users manual for updated TEAM Model (Environmental Processes).

       o    Final  report on resistance  and  resilience  of pond ecosystems  to
            toxicant stress (Environmental Processes).

1989:  o    Final  report  on  biological  data   base  for   risk   assessment
            (Environmental Processes).

       o    Report on effects of xenobiotics on  the macroinvertebrates  in a
            seagrass community ecosystem (Environmental Processes).


Objective 8:  Provide Support Services for FIFRA Activities

1991:  o    Annual report on the Pesticides and Industrial Chemicals Repository
            (Monitoring).

1990:  o    Annual report on the Pesticides and Industrial Chemicals Repository
            (Monitoring).
                                     6-13

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                                   PESTICIDES
                              Pesticides Research
Budget Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of  $15,406,100  supported  by 110.0  total
workyears for 1991,  an increase  of $2,794,400 and 0.6 total workyears from 1990.
Of the request,  $7,320,500 will be for  the  Salaries  and Expenses appropriation
and $8,085,600 will be for the Research and Development appropriation, an increase
of $1,256,400 and $1,538,000, respectively.

Program Objectives

      The  Federal  Insecticide,  Fungicide and  Rodenticide  Act  (FIFRA)  and the
Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act  (FFDCA) require the regulation of pesticide
use to avoid unreasonable adverse effects to public health and the environment.
The research program improves our understanding of how pesticides interact with
human activities and the environment, to assure that their use minimizes damage
from  pests,  while  maximizing  the protection of  man's food,  health  and the
environment.

      Objective  1:  Develop  and Validate  Test  Methods  for  FIFRA Studies.   This
research develops and validates  environmental  and health test methods for use by
industry  to  assist  them in meeting pesticide  registration requirements and
enforcement responsibilities under Sections 3 and 26 of FIFRA.

      Objective 2:   Perform Health Research on Biological Markers. Dosimetry. and
Extrapolation.  This research develops methods for extrapolating  from high to low
doses between mammalian species, evaluates dermal penetration of pesticides and
examines  chemical  structure activity  relationships.   Biological markers are
evaluated  and  tested to determine their  potential use in  exposure  monitoring
studies.   This  information  is  used  by the  Agency to  evaluate  pesticide  data
submitted by industry as part of the registration and re-registration process.

      Objective  3:   Perform Ecological Research Including  Transport.  Fate and
Field Validation.   This research  validates laboratory studies  by quantifying
pesticide  effects  through  field testing   in order   to  evaluate  mortality,
reproduction and recovery  potential  of fishes, invertebrates,  birds  and other
organisms. This approach allows comparison between laboratory  studies and actual
field results.  This  research  also investigates the movement of pesticides through
the environment  in order to  determine the eventual disposition of pesticides in
the environment.

      Objective  4:   Perform Engineering  Research in  Support of  FIFRA.   This
research  provides  worker-safety  and  disposal information  for  the  handling,
application,  and disposal of pesticides,  and  to provide the technical basis to
support the Office of Pesticides Programs' (OPP)  regulatory needs under FIFRA.

      Objective 5:   Perform Exposure Monitoring Research. This research develops
equipment  and  specialized  monitoring protocols and procedures  for total human
exposure monitoring, pesticide  exposure  to  characterize sources,  and routes of


                                     6-14

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exposure for national pesticide monitoring efforts.

      Objective  6:    Perform  Research on  Biotechnology  and  Microbial  and
Biochemical Pest Control Agents.  This research evaluates the effects of microbial
and biochemical  pest  control  agents (MBPCAs) and  products  of biotechnology on
humans and the environment to support registration activities of OPP.

      Objective 7:  Perform Studies on Ecotoxicitv and Develop Environmental Risk
Assessment Protocols.  This  research  provides the means  to determine  the risk
posed to actual  ecosystems by environmental  pollutants by determining critical
endpoints and  devising mathematical models in order to predict  impacts.   This
research will  provide  risk  assessment protocols  and guidelines  for use  in
determining potential effects to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

      Objective  8:  Provide Support Services  for FIFRA Studies.   This activity
provides support to risk and exposure assessments by providing quality assurance
materials and reference compounds for pesticide residue analyses.


SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $296,500 supported by 1.5 total workyears
for this program, all of which will be in the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.
This represents  an increase of $154,100 which reflects increased personnel and
support costs.    There is no change in total workyears.

      Provide Support Services for FIFRA Activities.  The Scientific Assessment
program  will  continue  to  prepare  and  review  health  risk assessments  for
careinogenieity, mutagenicity,  adverse  reproductive/ developmental  effects and
exposure  to support  OPP  implementation  of  FIFRA  Section  3 provisions  for
evaluating risk from pesticides use. Support will also be provided for laboratory
data audits.

1990 Program

     In 1990, the Agency  is allocating a total of $142,400  supported by 1.5 total
workyears  for  this program,  all of which is from  the  Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation.

      This  research  program will  continue to prepare  and review health risk
assessments and  provide support for laboratory data audits.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989,  the Agency obl-igated a  total  of $131,000 supported by 1.4 total
workyears for this program,  of which $129,800 was from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and  $1,200 was from the Research and Development appropriation.

      In 1989,  major activities included  support for  laboratory data audits,
consultation and review of EBDC/ETU assessments and data reviews on bromoxynil,
propargate, larvadex, and melesystox.
                                    6-15

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MONITORING SYSTEMS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $1,441,800 supported by 5.2 total workyears
for  this program,  of which  $480,500 will  be  in the  Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and $961,300 will be in the Research and Development appropriation.
This represents an increase of $136,000 in the Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and $44,800 in the Research and Development appropriation.   There is a decrease
of  0.5  total  workyears.    The  increase   in   the  Research  and  Development
appropriation  is due  to  new pollution prevention  research  on ground  water
contamination, establishing a pesticide index and  registry for the Chesapeake Bay,
and the reduction of pesticide applications through bioregulation.  The increase
in  the  Salaries  and Expenses appropriation  reflects  increased personnel  and
support  costs.    The decrease  in  total workyears reflects  a  realignment  of
resources to support higher priorities within the Agency.

      Develop and Validate  Test  Methods  for  FIFRA  Studies.   Monitoring methods
and  strategies  will be  developed for determining the effect of  agricultural
pesticide usage on the quality of surface  and ground water systems.  Research will
focus on identifying factors for ground water susceptibility.

      Perform Health Research  on Biological  Markers. Dosimetrv and Extrapolation.
Biological  markers   will be  evaluated   as  sensitive  indicators of  exposure.
Candidate biological markers will be selected.  Laboratory studies will estimate
the capability of these  techniques to serve as indicators of exposure.

      Perform Exposure Monitoring Research.   This research  will utilize  total
human exposure  monitoring of  pesticides to assess exposure  of lawn and garden
pesticides.  Emphasis will be on exposure to toddlers and children.

      Perform Research On Biotechnology and Microbial and Biochemical  Pest Control
Agents.     Protocols  for  use   in  regulatory  decision-making   concerning
identification, fate and  survival of biological agents,  including recombinant DNA
will be developed.

      Provide Support Services for FIFRA Activities. Quality assurance in sample
collection and analysis procedures will be provided. This will include oversight
of the Pesticides Repository, research on  the selection of representative samples,
and how to optimize  instrument settings for data analysis.

1990 Program

      In 1990,  the Agency is  allocating  a  total  of $1,261,000 supported by 5.7
total workyears  for  this program, of which $344,500   is from the  Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation  and  $916,500 is  from  the  Research  and  Development
appropriation.

      In 1990,  a coordinated  research effort will  identify  and test biological
markers of exposure  to priority pesticide chemicals. Protocols and methodologies
for total human  exposure monitoring for  pesticides will be  provided.   Research
will emphasize  dermal exposure in children.   Efforts will  focus  on privatizing
the Pesticide Repository.
                                     6-16

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1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989, the Agency obligated a total of $1,289,200 supported by 6.0 total
workyears for this program,  of which $370,400 was from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $918,800 was from the Research and Development appropriation.

      In 1989, the final portion of the Non-Occupational Pesticide Exposure Study
(NOPES) on  exposure to common household  pesticides was completed.   Candidate
biological markers were selected for  further study.   Efforts were initiated to
privatize the Pesticide Repository.


HEALTH EFFECTS

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a  total of $4,553,500 supported by  39.5 total workyears
for  this  program, of which $2,577,200 will be  for the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation  and  $1,976,300  will   be  for   the  Research  and  Development
appropriation.   This  represents an increase of $367,000  in the  Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and $247,200 in the Research and Development appropriation.
There is no change in total workyears.  The Salaries and Expenses appropriation
increases reflect increased personnel and support  costs.   The  increase in the
Research and Development appropriation will be used to fund expanded research in
biotechnology.

      Develop  and Validate  Test  Methods for  FIFRA  Studies.   Health  effects
research  will  develop   and  refine  bioassays  for  the  detection  of  adverse
developmental, reproductive, mutagenic, carcinogenic, neurotoxic and immunotoxic
effects for use by industry as part of FIFRA Section 3 evaluation of risks.

      Perform Health Research on Biological Markers. Dosimetry and Extrapolation.
Research will develop models to assess health risk  assessment predictability and
will focus on methods development  for extrapolating results of animal toxicity
studies into risk estimates for humans.  Studies will include the comparison of
in-vivo and in-vitro methods for estimating pesticide dermal absorption, metabolic
differences between species, and  investigating the  relationship between maternal
health and fetal susceptibility to teratogenic outcome.  These models will assist
in the evaluation of pesticides  data submitted  as  part  of  the registration and
re - registration process.

      Perform Research on Biotechnology and Microbial and Biochemical Pest Control
Agents.  To support microbial pesticide registration, testing protocols will be
developed for detecting, identifying, and monitoring microbial agents in mammalian
cells.  Research will evaluate FIFRA  Subdivision  M infectivity guidelines for
microbial  agents, and detecting  health effects from exposure  to  genetically
engineered pesticides.

1990 Program

      In 1990, the Agency is  allocating a total of $3,939,300 supported by 39.5
total workyears  for this  program,  of which  $2,210,200 is  from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation  and $1,729,100 is  from the  Research  and  Development
appropriation.


                                     6-17

-------
      In 1990,  data  on the effects  of  mlcrobial and biochemical  pest control
agents and genetically engineered pesticides will be provided.  Methods to detect
adverse alterations in the reproductive processes  in  animals  to allow for more
accurate evaluations of reproductive development and function are being developed.
Research to develop animal models  to assess health risks caused by pesticides is
being performed.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989, the Agency  obligated a total of $3,761,600 supported by 38.8 total
workyears for this program, of which $2,140,700 was from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $1,620,900 was from the Research and Development appropriation.

      In 1989,  activities the included assessment of neurotoxicity  in workers
occupationally  exposed to organophosphorus  pesticides,   and  an evaluation of
mammalian cell test protocols for viral pesticide agents.


ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

1991 Program Request

      The Agency  requests a total  of $342,900  supported by  1.1  total workyears
for  this program,  of which  $204,900 will  be  in the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and $138,000 will be in the Research and Development appropriation.
This represents an increase of $80,300 in the Salaries and Expenses appropriation,
a  decrease  of  $246,300  in the  Research  and  Development appropriation  and a
decrease of  0.9  total workyears.   The decreases  reflect the completion  of a
significant  portion  of research  on the destruction/disposal technologies for
indemnified pesticides and the evaluation of protective clothing for agricultural
workers.  The Salaries and Expenses  appropriation  increases  reflect increased
personnel and support costs.

      Perform Engineering Research in Support of FIFRA. States and other Federal
agencies will be assisted  in evaluating proposed pesticide  disposal and treatment
methods.   To support  FIFRA-mandated container  recycling programs,  field-test
methods  for  demonstrating adequate clean-up will be developed.  A database to
support  pesticide  treatment  is  being updated.   Protective  glove-selection
protocols based on permeation data  and field-use effectiveness of  protective
clothing for agricultural workers will be published.

1990 Program

      In 1990, the Agency  is allocating a total of $508,900 supported by  2.0 total
workyears for this program, of which $124,600 is from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $384,300 is from the  Research  and Development appropriation.

      In 1990, guidance on the use of protective  apparel for commercial users of
agricultural  pesticides  will be  completed.   Research on disposal/destruction
technologies including container re-use capability continues.
                                    6-18

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1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989,  the Agency obligated a total of $2,142,300 supported by 2.7 total
workyears for this program,  of which $153,800 was from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $1,988,500 was from the Research and Development appropriation.

      In 1989, a report on greenhouse workers exposure to several of their most
used pesticides and the penetration resistance of their protective clothing was
published.


ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES AND EFFECTS

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a  total of $8,771,400 supported by 62.7 total workyears
for this  program,  of which $3,761,400 will be  for the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation  and  $5,010,000  will   be  for   the   Research  and  Development
appropriation.     This   represents  increases  of   $519,000  and  $1,492,300,
respectively,  and  an increase  of 2.0  total  workyears.  The increase  in the
Salaries  and Expenses appropriation reflects  increased personnel  and support
costs.  The increase in the  Research and Development appropriation and workyears
will  support new  research  in pollution  prevention,  eco-risk assessments and
additional biotechnology research.

      Develop and Validate  Test Methods for  FIFRA  Studies.   Ecological effects
studies will develop  and revise test methods according to the margin of error
attributed to environmental influences.  Methods will be devised to investigate
chemical, toxicological and teratogenic properties.   This research will provide
standardized testing or monitoring protocols  and a variety of test organisms and
life stages as bioindicators for testing pesticide hazard and risk.

      Perform Ecological Research  Including Transport. Fate and Field Validation.
Ecological  field and laboratory  studies  will  be  developed  and  validated for
standardized testing  and monitoring protocols  to predict pesticide transport,
degradation, exposure, and fate in marine  organisms.  Studies include life cycle
tests and physiological measurements to predict toxicity, and to determine factors
controlling chronic and acute testing results.

      Perform Research on Biotechnology and Microbial and Biochemical Pest Control
Agents.  Research will develop and improve bioassays for determining effects of
microbial pest control agents on non-target organisms.  Parameters  such as routes
of exposure, detection methods,  identification schemes, virulence, toxicity, and
infectivity  are  evaluated through bioassays.   To fully characterize potential
environmental consequences of altered microbial pest control  agents (MFCAs) and
genetically  altered biological  control  agents  (BCAs),  research  needs  to  be
conducted  to better understand the movement,   survival  and  mode of  action on
receptor  organisms.   Research  results will  support modifications  of testing
protocols for Subpart M guidelines used by industry to provide registration data.

      Perform  Studies on Ecotoxicity and  Develop  Environmental  Risk Assessment
Protocols.  Mathematical models,  support data bases, and protocols for assessing
ecosystem exposure and hazards will be  arranged in  a database structure.   This
will accelerate  completion  of  ecological  risk  assessments.   Pesticide release,


                                    6-19

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transport, and transformation parameters will be adapted to dependent ecological
models.  Standardized descriptors for use  in risk assessment will be developed
for biotic effects of pesticides on populations,  communities, and ecosystems.
1990 Program

      In 1990, the Agency is allocating a total of $6,760,100 supported by 60.7
total workyears for this program, of which $3,242,400  is  from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation  and  $3,517,700  is  from   the  Research  and Development
appropriation.

      In 1990,  this  research program includes development of  test  methods in
support of  FIFRA guidelines, performs  research   on  transport,  fate  and field
validation,   the  effects of  biological  pest control  agents, and  develop risk
assessment techniques.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989, the Agency obligated a total of $5,938,300 supported by 59.6 total
workyears for this program, of which $3,113,700 was from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $2,824,600 was from the Research  and Development appropriation.

      In 1989, the final Doughtery Plains report including pesticide groundwater
threat assessment methodology was completed.
                                     6-20

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Abatement
and Control

-------
                        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1991 Budget Estimate

                               Table of  Contents
PESTICIDES

ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   Registration, Special Registration and Tolerances  	 ...   6-21
   Generic Chemical Review  	   6-25
   Pesticides Program Implementation  	   6-30
      Pesticides Program Implementation 	   6-31
      Pesticides Program Implementation Grants  	   6-32

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                                                   PESTICIDES
                                  Registration,  Special  Registration & Tolerances

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED     CURRENT     REQUEST    INCREASE  +
                                 1989      1990       ESTIMATE      1991     DECREASE  -
                                                       1990               1991  VS  1990
                                               (DOLLARS IN  THOUSANDS)

PROGRAM
Registration, Special
Registration, and
Tolerances
 Salaries & Expenses          $13,199.5  $13,967.5  $13,640.6  $14,900.8    $1,260.2
 Abatement Control and         $2,980.2   $2,970.0   $2,932.1   $3,016.7       $84.6
 Compliance
                       TOTAL  $16,179.7  $16,937.5  $16,572.7  $17,917.5    $1,344.8


TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses          $13,199.5  $13,967.5  $13,640.6  $14,900.8    $1,260.2
 Abatement Control and         $2,980.2   $2,970.0   $2,932.1   $3,016.7       $84.6
 Compliance

Registration, Special  TOTAL  $16,179.7  $16,937.5  $16,572.7  $17,917.5    $1,344.8
Registration &
Tolerances
PERMANENT WORKYEARS
Registration, Special             247.3      265.9      254.5      265.9        11.4
Registration, and
Tolerances

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS         247.3      265.9      254.5      265.9        11.4
TOTAL WORKYEARS
Registration, Special             264.1      265.9      265.9      265.9         0.0
Registration, and
Tolerances

TOTAL WORKYEARS                   264.1      265.9      265.9      265.9         0.0
                                         6-21

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                                  PESTICIDES


              Registration,  Special  Registration,  and Tolerances

Budget Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of $17,917,500  supported by  265.9  total
workyears for 1991, an increase of $1,344,800 and no change in total workyears
from 1990.  Of  the  request,  $14,900,800 will be for the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $3,016,700 will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.   This represents an  increase  of $1,260,200 in the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and an increase  of  $84,600  in the Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation.


REGISTRATION. SPECIAL REGISTRATION.  AND TOLERANCES

1991 Program Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of $17,917,500  supported by  265.9  total
workyears for this  program,  of which $14,900,800  will be  for the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and  $3,016,700  will be  for  the  Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation.   This  represents  an increase of  $1,260,200  in the
Salaries and  Expenses appropriation, an increase  of $84,600 in the Abatement
Control and Compliance appropriation,  and no change  in total workyears.
increase in the  Salaries and Expenses appropriation reflects  increased personnel
and  support  costs.   The increase  in  the Abatement,  Control and Compliance
appropriation reflects  increased emphasis  on  new  chemicals  and  groundwater
protection.

      In 1991,  the  Agency expects to conduct 330  reviews  of new chemicals and
biochemical/microbial agents,  3,850 reviews  of old chemicals,  4,560 amended
registration  reviews,   300  new  use  reviews,  and  475  tolerance  petition
reviews.    The  emphasis  on  processing  new  chemicals  and  new  uses will  be
continued in 1991.   This  will permit more  rapid entry of newer, safer chemicals
into the market.

      The  Agency  will  continue  to  give special   emphasis   to  ground-water
protection including  registrant-performed monitoring,  more extensive use  of
environmental fate  test data,  geographical   restrictions  and restricted  use
classifications.  These measures will help prevent future environmental clean-
up problems.

      Regional  liaison will  be  enhanced by working  closely with the Regional
pesticide  experts   and other Regional  staff  to  improve  Regional and  state
understanding of national regulatory activities,  and by obtaining their input
on policies and reviews  affecting  their  mission.   This  liaison will improve
oversight of section 18 experimental  use permit reviews and  section 24(c) special
local need programs. Certain problems and Regional and state issues,  includi
container disposal  and  ground-water contamination,  will  be  addressed at  t
Regional level.
                                    6-22

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      To prevent circumvention of section 3 registration requirements, stringent
criteria for granting section 18 exemptions will continue to be applied.  These
criteria include consideration  of  progress towards  permanent registration and
clarification of "emergency"  and "significant economic loss."  Headquarters will
continue to  work  closely  with the  Regions  and  states  to  monitor emergency
exemptions and special local  needs.  Special emphasis will continue to be placed
on the regulatory  implications  of  genetically  engineered  microbial pesticides
(GEMP's) and necessary interagency coordination.

      The Agency will continue to ensure that tolerances reflect the most current
regulatory status of each active ingredient, including revocation of tolerances
on  cancelled  pesticides  and  tolerance  reassessments  in  conjunction  with
Reregistration reviews.  The automated Tolerance  Assessment  System (TAS) will
be used  to  determine estimates of  dietary exposure  to  pesticide residues.
Tolerance fees will  increase to reflect increases in the General Schedule pay-
scale.

      The Agency is also proposing  legislation  to  reinstate collecting fees for
pesticides Registration at the start of FY 1991.

1990 Program

      In 1990,  the  Agency is allocating a total of $16,572,700  supported by 265.9
total workyears for this program, of  which $13,640,600 is from the  Salaries and
Expenses appropriation  and  $2,932,100  is from  the Abatement,   Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      In 1990, registration  reviews  are continuing  to emphasize new chemicals
and new  uses to facilitate  the rapid availability of new,  potentially safer
chemicals which may replace older,  more hazardous ones still in use. An ongoing
productivity initiative, planned to  reduce the cost and  time needed to review
old chemicals and  amendments while ensuring quality reviews,  has been expanded
to address the  expedited processing provisions of  the 1988  FIFRA amendments.
Registration reviews continue-to emphasize protection of ground-water, workers,
and endangered species.

      In 1990,  state participation  in the Emergency  Exemption, Experimental Use
Permit, and  Special  Local  Needs programs is continuing to  be enhanced through
EPA guidance and close Federal/state cooperation.      Continued special attention
is being given to biochemical/microbial  agents.   The Agency  is  revising the
section 5 experimental use permit  regulations  to  provide  sufficient oversight
of the  early  testing of genetically  engineered  and nonindigenous microbial
pesticides.

      The TAS  is  operational  for  estimating  dietary  exposure  to pesticide
residues and continues to be updated and refined.   Inerts  of toxicological
concern are  listed on pesticide labels"and will  undergo data  call-ins.   Crop
group tolerances continue to be used where applicable to reduce data  requirements
and efficiently deal with minor uses.
                                    6-23

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1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989, the Agency obligated  a  total  of $16,179,700 supported by 264.1
total workyears for this program, of which $13,199,500 was  from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation and  $2,980,200 was  from the  Abatement, Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

      Through a productivity  initiative  begun in 1988, the  Old Chemicals and
Amendments review process was  evaluated in an effort to reduce the cost and time
needed to accomplish these activities  while ensuring adequate quality of required
reviews.  This productivity initiative was expanded  to address the expedited
processing provisions of the 1988 FIFRA Amendments.

      Under the authority of the 1988  FIFRA amendments, a new system of user fees
was  put into place,  establishing a separate  reregistration fee  system  and
suspending collection of the registration fee.  The new system, which provides
revenue for the FIFRA  revolving  fund,  is composed of separate maintenance and
reregistration fees.

      The continually  updated,  computer-based TAS was  used  for  determining
estimates of  dietary  exposure  to  pesticide  residues.  Crop  group  tolerances
continued to be used where  applicable  to reduce data requirements and effectively
deal with minor uses.
                                    6-24

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                                                   PESTICIDES
                                            Generic Chemical Review

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED      CURRENT      REQUEST    INCREASE +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE      1991      DECREASE -
                                                       1990                1991 VS  1990
                                               (DOLLARS  IN  THOUSANDS)

PROGRAM
Generic Chemical Review
 Salaries & Expenses          $16,793.7  $18,646.9  $18,115.6  $19,891.6    $1,776.0
 Abatement Control and        $52,384.6  $25,593.2  $24,778.5  $15,418.0   -$9,360.5
 Compliance
                       TOTAL  $69,178.3  $44,240.1  $42,894.1  $35,309.6   -$7,584.5
TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses          $16,793.7  $18,646.9  $18.115.6  $19,891.6    $1,776.0
 Abatement Control and        $52,384.6  $25,593.2  $24,778.5  $15,418.0   -$9,360.5
 Compliance

Generic Chemical       TOTAL  $69,178.3  $44,240.1  $42,894.1  $35,309.6   -$7,584.5
Review
PERMANENT UORKYEARS
Generic Chemical Review           327.5      439.3      425.7      504.3         78.6

TOTAL PERMANENT UORKYEARS         327.5      439.3      425.7      504.3         78.6


TOTAL UORKYEARS
Generic Chemical Review           338.2      439.3      439.3      504.3         65.0


TOTAL UORKYEARS                   338.2      439.3      439.3      504.3         65.0
                                         6-25

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                                  PESTICIDES


                           Generic Chemical Review

Budget Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of $35,309,600  supported by  504.3 total
workyears  for 1991,  a decrease  of $7,584,500  from 1990.   Of  the request,
$19,891,600 will be for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation, and $15,418,000
will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation. This represents
increase of $1,776,000 in the Salaries and Expenses appropriation and a decrease
of  $9,360,500 in the  Abatement,  Control  and Compliance  appropriation.   This
represents an increase of  65.0 total  workyears from the  Reregistration and
Expedited  Processing  Revolving  Fund and no increase  in  Salaries  and Expenses
workyears.


GENERIC CHEMICAL REVIEW

1991 Program Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of $35,309,600  supported by  504.3 total
workyears  for this  program,  of  which $19,891,600 will be for the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation, and $15,418,000 will be  for the Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation.  Total workyears will  include 314.3  from the Salaries
and  Expenses  appropriation  and 190.0  from  the Reregistration  and  Expedited
Processing Revolving  Fund.   This represents an  increase  of $1,776,000 in the
Salaries and Expenses appropriation, a decrease  of $9,360,500  in the Abatement,
Control, and Compliance appropriation,  no  change in total  Salaries and Expenses
workyears, and an increase of 65.0 total workyears from the Reregistration and
Expedited  Processing  Revolving  Fund.   The increase  in  Salaries  and Expenses
reflects increased  personnel and support  costs.  The decrease  in Abatement,
Control, and Compliance reflects a reduction in the need to fund transportation,
storage and disposal of remaining stocks of cancelled and suspended pesticides
due to significant  progress  that  will  be  achieved using  funds appropriated in
1990.

      For  reregistration activities  related to the  1988 FIFRA  Amendments,
resources will support 50 Reregistration Standards  (RRS's), which represents an
increase of 40 standards over the projected 1990 output.   Additional workyears
will be funded by  the  Reregistration and  Expedited Processing Revolving Fund,
created by the 1988 FIFRA Amendments.

      Of  the  resources  requested  in  1991  for  the  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation,  $4,000,000  will fund transportation,  storage  and
disposal of cancelled and suspended  pesticides.   The Agency's responsibility to
indemnify holders  and bear the costs  of  disposal of  cancelled  and  suspended
pesticides will continue in 1991  for  chemicals which were suspended and cancelled
prior to the 1988 FIFRA Amendments.   These  funds  will ensure the continued safe
storage of national  2,4,5-T/Silvex  stocks.     Disposal  of these stocks  may
commence in 1991 once  a  facility  is  permitted and available to the Agency for
incineration of 2,4,5-T/Silvex.
                                    6-26

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      As part of an Agency-wide  program,  the  pesticide program will undertake
five pollution prevention projects.   The purposes of these projects will be to:
(1) reduce surface and ground-water  contamination and human health risks due to
application of  herbicides in major  corn-producing  states;  (2) work  with the
Office of Research and Development (ORD) to develop a pesticides inerts strategy
which formally addresses air pollution problems associated with volatile organic
compounds; (3) work with  ORD  and Region 3 to  develop  and test the reliability
of a pesticide hazard index to reduce the risk of pesticides in the Chesapeake
Bay watershed; (4) work with ORD, the Regions,  and states to develop a decision
support system that will help states and local  governments protect ground water
from pesticides; and  (5)  support the ORD  in developing information that would
lead  to  a  reduction  in  pesticide applications  through  the management  of
biological degradation processes.

      Detailed follow-up studies  of the National Pesticide Survey (NFS)  data base
will be initiated, following issuance of the December 1990 report.  Other  funds
will support special ground-water projects.

1990 Program

      In 1990, the  Agency  is allocating a total of $42,894,100 supported by  439.3
total workyears for this  program, of which $18,115,600  is from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation and  $24,778,500  is  from the  Abatement,   Control and
Compliance appropriation.  Total workyears include 314.3 from the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and 125.0 from the Reregistration and Expedited Processing
Revolving Fund.

      The  1988 FIFRA Amendments require   a  large  increase  in the number  of
submissions from registrants.  In 1990, registrants are responding to the four
lists of active ingredients subject  to  reregistration  (Phase I).  In Phases II
and III, EPA begins evaluation of preliminary  data to identify data gaps.  Much
of this workload occurs in 1990.  The  substantial hiring and training program
initiated  as   part of the implementation of the  1988  FIFRA Amendments  is
continuing in  1990.   It   is supported by  maintenance  and reregistration  fees.
Measures to upgrade and integrate current  tracking systems are continuing, and
additional ADP changes and improved  capabilities are planned.

      The Agency expects that 10 Reregistration Standards to be  completed as work
pertaining  to the  1988   FIFRA  Amendments  continues.    Funds  from both  base
appropriations and the FIFRA revolving fund are utilized  to  accomplish  these
tasks.  Thirteen Special  Reviews are projected for 1990.   Automated decision
support systems, for assessing dietary  exposure,  are being enhanced to support
this work.

      Pesticide  disposal  program funds  are  being  utilized  for  disposal  of
national dinoseb stocks and  storage of 2,4,5-T/Silvex, pending the permitting
of  an  incinerator for  2,4,5-T/Silvex disposal  and  the  award   of  disposal
contracts.

      In 1990, the Agency  is launching a major new program to build Regional and
state capabilities to deal with problems of  ground-water  pollution, protect
endangered  species  from   pesticides,   and  promote   the  safety  of  pesticide
applicators and agricultural workers.   Resources for the Headquarters national
program development and liaison  function  for  this  initiative  are  contained in


                                     6-27 -

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the Generic Chemical Review program.   EPA continues its long-term collaborative
effort with the states and Federal agencies to integrate ground-water management
programs,  including  addressing  ground-water  concerns   in  registration  and
reregistration actions.  Worker Protection Standards for Agricultural Pesticides
(40 CFR  170)  governing pesticide-treated  field reentry  intervals, protective
clothing, and label warnings, are scheduled to be published as a  final regulation
in 1990.

      In 1990, resources are being redirected to a new food safety initiative,
which addresses broader food safety concerns.   This initiative will strengthen
the Agency's  ability to make  decisions  on  pesticides  based on scientific risk
assessments,  and educate the public on the basis for these decisions.

      The National Pesticide  Survey  (NPS)  is scheduled  for completion in 1990
and the final report is  scheduled for December 1990. Results of the NPS will be
used to refine the Agency's Agricultural Chemicals  in Ground Water Strategy and
to evaluate further regulatory and state-specific approaches to  protect drinking
water from pesticide pollution.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989, the Agency  obligated  a total  of $69,178,300 supported by 338.2
total workyears for this program, of which $16,983,600 was from  the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation  and $52,194,700  was   from  the Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation.   Total workyears  included 306.8 from  the Salaries and
Expenses Appropriation and  31.4 from the Reregistration and Expedited Processing
Revolving Fund.

      The FIFRA Amendments of 1988 accelerate  the reregistration process for
previously  registered  pesticides   and  require  EPA   to  give  accelerated
consideration to applications  for  initial  or amended registration of products
which are similar  to  pesticides already registered with EPA.   The 1988 FIFRA
Amendments require a  large increase in the  number of registrant submissions.
A major hiring and training program was initiated in 1989  in order to meet the
increased workloads posed by the amendments.

      In 1989,  14  Registration Standards and  9 Reregistration Standards were
established,  and 9 Special  Review  decisions  were reached.   In addition, FIFRA
Phase I-IV activities were begun in accordance with the  1988 FIFRA Amendments.

      Work continued  in  1989 on  implementation of the  Agency's  October 1988
response to the National Academy of  Sciences'  (NAS)  food additive study.  The
new policy modifies  the  "zero-risk"  standard for pesticides  that increase in
concentration during  food  processing,  by  implementing a  "negligible  risk"
standard, treating older pesticides by the same risk standards as new pesticides.

      Comments of  state, private and public  interest  groups were incorporated
into the Agency's  proposed Endangered  Species Protection Program  (ESPP)  and
efforts toward development of Worker Protection Standards continued.

      The  major 1989  activity  in  the  pesticide  disposal program was  the
preparation for disposal of nation-wide dinoseb stocks.  A Dinoseb demonstration
burn was conducted in August  and September of 1989.   All remaining stocks  of
ethylene dibromide (EDB)  were incinerated in 1989.

                                    6-28

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      Laboratory audits were conducted by the Agency or cooperatively with other
agencies to ensure the development of high-quality test data and environmental
effects  of pesticides.    In  addition,   use of  Integrated  Pest  Management
alternatives was encouraged in order to reduce levels of human and environmental
exposure, typical of conventional pesticide use  practices.
                                    6-29

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                                                   PESTICIDES
                                       Pesticides Program Implementation

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED     CURRENT      REQUEST    INCREASE  +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE       1991      DECREASE  -
                                                       1990               1991  VS  1990
                                               (DOLLARS IN  THOUSANDS)

PROGRAM
Pesticides Program
Implementation
 Salaries & Expenses             $987.0   $1,935.7   $1,994.6   $2,661.6      $667.0
                       TOTAL     $987.0   $1,935.7   $1,994.6   $2,661.6      $667.0

Pesticides Program
Implementation - Grants
 Abatement Control and         $3,978.1  $12,306.3  $12,149.0  $14,500.0    $2,351.0
 Compliance
                       TOTAL   $3,978.1  $12,306.3  $12,149.0  $14.500.0    $2,351.0


TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses             $987.0   $1,935.7   $1,994.6   $2,661.6      $667.0
 Abatement Control and         $3,978.1  $12,306.3  $12,149.0  $14,500.0    $2,351.0
 Compliance

Pesticides Program     TOTAL   $4,965.1  $14,242.0  $14,143.6  $17,161.6    $3,018.0
Implementation
PERMANENT WORKYEARS
Pesticides Program                 20.0       44.4       40.6       54.2         13.6
Implementation

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS          20.0       44.4       40.6       54.2         13.6


TOTAL WORKYEARS
Pesticides Program                 22.0       44.4        44.1        54.2         10.1
Implementation

TOTAL WORKYEARS                    22.0       44.4        44.1        54.2         10.1
                                        6-30

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                                  PESTICIDES


                       Pesticides Program Implementation

Budget Request

      The  Agency requests  a  total  of  $17,161,600 supported  by  54.2  total
workyears for 1991,  an increase of $3,018,000 and 10.1 workyears  from 1990.  Of
the request, $2,661,600 will be for the Salaries  and Expenses appropriation and
$14,500,000 will be  for the Abatement,  Control,  and Compliance appropriation,
This  represents  an  increase  of  $667,000  in  the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation  and  an  increase of $2,351,000 in  the  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation from 1990.


PESTICIDES PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $2,661,600 supported by 54.2 total workyears
for this program (formerly  the Certification and Training (C&T)  program),  all
of which will be for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.  This represents
an increase of $667,000 for Salaries  and  Expenses and an increase of 10.1 total
workyears.  The increase in Salaries and Expenses  reflects  costs associated with
the increase in workyears as well as increased personnel costs.

      The 1991 request expands  an initiative begun in 1990  to address increasing
concerns about  the  pesticide threat  to  ground water,  endangered species,  and
workers occupationally  exposed to pesticides.   Problems  in these areas have
necessitated a fundamental shift in the pesticide program from its traditional,
primary   focus   on  national   licensing  activities   to  a  more  balanced
Headquarters/field effort.  Further, local variations in state pesticide programs
and in the  severity  of problems in these areas  require a strong but flexible
Regional  and state  presence.    Emphasis  is placed  on using  non-regulatory
approaches and  the  Certification and Training program.   The  increase  of 10.1
workyears  in the Regional   offices  will provide  guidance to  states in  the
development  of their  programs,  develop coordination  mechanisms  with  state
agencies, review state grant applications, provide oversight to state grants and,
upon state request,  provide additional technical assistance to state programs.
In addition,  in 1991,  Regional offices  will help  implement the  revised  C&T
regulations.

1990 Program

      In 1990, the Agency is allocating a total of $1,994,600 supported by 44.1
total workyears for  this program, all of which is  from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation.

      Headquarters  staff is directing the development  of training materials in
the areas  of ground water,  endangered   species,   and  worker  safety.   Updated
national training materials are being developed in cooperation with the United
States Department of Agriculture  (USDA).   A major effort to revise  the  C&T
regulations is  being  completed.   It  requires states to improve  their  record-

                                    6-31

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keeping and examination requirements. Further, the revisions require applicators
to renew their certifications periodically.  Training requirements for initial
certification are being strengthened.

      In 1990,  emphasis  is also being  placed on oversight of  the  process to
remedy  deficiencies  in  state  pesticide  management  plans identified through
Regional evaluations and negotiations.   The program is also implementing rules
governing  the  sale  of  restricted  use pesticides  to non-certified persons.
Regional staff, in conjunction with USDA,  are completing in-depth evaluations
of State Cooperative  Extension Services' (SCES) training programs for applicator
certification and training, and are working with USDA and  the SCES to strengthen
existing programs.   Regional staff  are also continuing  to provide technical
expertise on specific issues relating to the  use and application of pesticides.

      Regional office staff are implementing  the  Regional-state capabilities
initiative in the areas  of protection  of ground water, workers occupationally
exposed to pesticides, and endangered species.

      In 1990,  the program is also continuing to implement the  EPA/state FIFRA
Issues Research and Evaluation Group (EPA/SFIREG) recommendations with emphasis
on revising and implementing certification regulations.  Initiatives to implement
Federally administered state C&T programs are being completed.

 1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989,  the Agency obligated a total of  $987,000 supported by 22.0 total
workyears  for  this  program, all of  which was from the  Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation.

      In 1989,  the major  focus  was to  implement  the recommendations  of the
EPA/SFIREG C&T  Task Force  to  upgrade  C&T  materials.   EPA  and USDA jointly
reviewed all state private  applicator  training programs.   One tribal plan was
approved and five  were under  review.  A certification  workshop  for. tribal
officials was held.

      EPA Regional pesticide experts provided technical expertise on pesticide
issues  such  as  certification and training,  application  techniques,  toxicity,
pesticide  disposal,  restricted  use pesticides, and  other topical  pesticide
issues.
PESTICIDES PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION GRANTS

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of  $14,500,000  for this program, all of which
will  be  for  the  Abatement,   Control,  and  Compliance  appropriation.    This
represents an  increase of $2,351,000  from  1990,  which  reflects  an increased
emphasis  on  addressing  ground-water,   endangered  species  and worker  safety
concerns.

      The 1991 request augments an initiative begun in 1990 to address increasing
concerns  about  the  pesticide  threat to ground water,  endangered  species,  and
workers occupationally  exposed to pesticides.    Problems in these  areas  have


                                     6-32

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necessitated a fundamental shift in the pesticide program from its traditional,
primary   focus   on  national   licensing  activities   to   a  more   balanced
Headquarters/field effort.  Further, local variations in state pesticide programs
and in  the  severity  of problems in these areas require a  strong but flexible
Regional and state presence.  This initiative will strengthen state capabilities
to address the problem of protecting ground water, workers occupationally exposed
to pesticides, and species endangered from  pesticides.  Emphasis is  placed on
using non-regulatory approaches and the  C&T program. For  example,  resources
requested for  state grants  will be used  to expand  efforts  to  assess  state
vulnerabilities,  develop  state programs  and grant  applications,  implement
programs using outreach, training and education programs, conduct workshops and
special  projects,  and  develop  and  implement  public  and  private  sector
initiatives.   State efforts  must be coordinated among concerned state agencies
(e.g., agriculture, health, water, and environment).  The 1991 increase will be
used to implement the revised C&T regulations, and expand worker protection and
endangered species programs.

      The Agency  will  continue  to promote the correct use  of  pesticides.   To
achieve this  goal,  EPA will  continue  cooperative  agreements with state lead
agencies  to  certify  applicators to use  restricted  use pesticides.   EPA will
continue to  provide grants to the states to support this activity.  Certification
grants will  continue to help support 53 applicator certification programs in
participating states and territories and  Federally administered  programs in
Colorado and Nebraska.   EPA will continue an  interagency agreement with USDA to
provide training  to pesticide applicators by working through the SCES.

1990 Program

      In 1990, the Agency is  allocating a total of $12,149,000, all of which is
from  the  Abatement,  Control, and  Compliance appropriation.   These  resources
support the  certification and training program, as well as the program initiated
in 1990 to  strengthen  state  capabilities to  address problems  in protection of
ground  water,  workers  occupationally  exposed to  pesticides,  and  endangered
species.

      Funding  for   certification   agreements  helps   support   53  applicator
certification programs in participating states and  territories  and in  the
Federally conducted  programs  in Colorado and Nebraska.  EPA is continuing its
interagency agreement with USDA to provide training to pesticide applicators by
working through the SCES.  A grant to the  USDA/SCES helps support the applicator
training programs.

      Regional educational packages and special initiatives  to meet national and
Regional  pesticide  issues  and critical  information gaps are being developed.
Resources are also being used to develop training programs for non-agricultural
applicators  to whom training expertise  is not currently available.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989, the Agency obligated a total of $3,978,100  for this program all
of which was from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

      This funding was  used to help support 53 delegated certification programs,
53 delegated training programs,  and the  Federally conducted programs in Colorado

                                    6-33

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and Nebraska.   The  states updated their programs to  address  newly restricted
pesticides, changes in technology and new information  on the use and effects of
pesticides.  The program supported C&T special initiatives to address Regional
issues and non-agricultural training needs  (including proper use of restricted
use pesticides  in lawn care and within permanent structures,  buildings,  and
relating to ground  water  and disposal procedures).    A steering committee was
established to identify and make accessible  appropriate private sector resources
that are currently not being used in C&T.
                                    6-34

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Enforcement

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                       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1991 Budget Estimate

                              Table of  Contents
                                                                          Page

PESTICIDES

ENFORCEMENT
   Pesticides Enforcement 	  	   6-35
      Pesticides Enforcement  	   6-36
      Pesticides Enforcement Grants 	  	   6-38

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                                                   PESTICIDES
                                             Pesticides Enforcement
                                ACTUAL
                                 1989
                   ENACTED
                    1990
         CURRENT
        ESTIMATE
          1990
          REQUEST
           1991
         INCREASE «•
         DECREASE -
       1991  VS 1990
PROGRAM
                                               (DOLLARS IN  THOUSANDS)
Pesticides Enforcement
 Salaries & Expenses
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
        $5,050.1   $5,375.2   $5,551.8   $6,673.9    $1,122.1
          $397.7     $103.0     $547.8   $1,800.6    $1,252.8

TOTAL   $5,447.8   $5,478.2   $6,099.6   $8,474.5    $2,374.9
Pesticides Enforcement
Grants
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
        $8,928.0  $12,605.0  $12,444.0  $15,803.4     $3,359.4

TOTAL   $8,928.0  $12,605.0  $12,444.0  $15,803.4     $3,359.4
TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
        $5,050.1   $5,375.2   $5,551.8   $6,673.9    $1,122.1
        $9,325.7  $12,708.0  $12,991.8  $17,604.0    $4,612.2
Pesticides Enforcement TOTAL  $14,375.8  $18,083.2  $18,543.6  $24,277.9    $5,734.3
PERMANENT WORKYEARS
Pesticides Enforcement

TOTAL PERMANENT UORKYEARS
           103.9

           103.9
132.3

132.3
127.1

127.1
157.3

157.3
30.2

30.2
TOTAL UORKYEARS
Pesticides Enforcement

TOTAL WORKYEARS
           112.5

           112.5
132.3

132.3
132.2

132.2
157.3

157.3
25.1

25.1
                                         6-35

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                                  PESTICIDES


                            Pesticides Enforcement
Budget Request
     The  Agency requests  a  total  of  $24,277,900 supported  by  157.3  total
workyears  for  1991,  an increase  of  $5,734,300 and 25.1  total workyears from
1990.  Of  the   request,  $6,673,900  will be  for  the  Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and $17,604,000 will for  the  Abatement, Control, and Compliance
appropriation.  This represents an increase of $1,122,100 in the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation, an increase of $4,612,200  in the Abatement, Control and
Compliance appropriation, an  increase of 12.1  total workyears in the Salaries
and  Expenses  appropriation  and an increase of 13.0  total  workyears  from the
Reregistration  and Expedited Processing Revolving Fund.

PESTICIDES ENFORCEMENT

1991 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total of $8,474,500 supported by 157.3 total workyears
for  this  program of which  $6,673,900 will be  for the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and $1,800,600 will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.  Total workyears will include  129.3 from the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and 28.0 from the Reregistration and Expedited Processing Revolving
Fund. This represents an  increase of $1,122,100 for Salaries and Expenses, an
increase of $1,252,800 for  Abatement, Control,  and Compliance, an increase of
12.1 in total Salaries and Expenses workyears,  and an  increase  of 13.0 in total
Reregistration and Expedited Processing  Revolving  Fund workyears.  The increase
in the Salaries and Expenses  appropriation  reflects  increased personnel costs
as well  as the increase in total workyears.   The increase  in the Abatement,
Control,   and  Compliance appropriation  will allow upgrading  of Regional  ADP
systems to better track pesticide exports/imports and will  support activities
to enforce the non-reregistration provisions of the 1988 Amendments to FIFRA.

      For  reregistration  enforcement  activities  related to  the  1988  FIFRA
Amendments, the additional 13.0 total workyears will support increased laboratory
inspections and data audits and will  expand 1988  FIFRA Amendments  enforcement
activities in the Regions.

     In 1991, the Pesticides  Enforcement program  will continue to  concentrate
on state  delegation, under cooperative enforcement agreements,  in the nationwide
pesticide compliance monitoring program.  The  Agency  will emphasize  achieving
compliance with rules governing pesticide use, and place less  emphasis on product
surveillance  in the  marketplace.    Tracking  and enforcement of  pesticide
registration requirements  will be  a major component of  the pesticide enforcement
program.  The  states  will be  responsible for  enforcing  notices of  intent to
suspend product registrations  issued under this compliance  program.  The Federal
role at the Regional level  will involve overseeing and managing state cooperative
agreement programs and supporting enforcement of new Agency initiatives in worker
protection from pesticides contamination by  overseeing the development of state
enforcement response  policies  under Sections  26 and  27,   and tracking  and
compliance followup. for Section 3(c)(2)(B) cancellations.


                                    6-36

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      An increase of 8.1 total workyears will allow Regional offices to expand
the Federal compliance activities in support of the worker protection regulations
begun in FY 1990.  The increase will also allow  for implementation of compliance
programs  for  container  disposal  and  ground-water  and  endangered  species
protection strategies.   The Regions will develop  specific strategies to address
unique local conditions and problems, develop state inspector training materials,
and conduct training workshops to train state inspectors in enforcement of the
Agency's pesticides in ground water strategy,  the worker  protection rule, and
requirements for endangered species protection.  Regional personnel will also
conduct inspections and develop cases in support of the new initiatives and will
evaluate state grant activities associated with the  new initiatives.

      An  increase  of  $250,000   in the  Abatement,   Control,  and  Compliance
appropriation will  allow for upgrading  of  Regional ADP  systems  with special
emphasis on tracking pesticides exports and imports.

     Headquarters will provide overall program guidance and management, assist
in developing new  and  revised regulations, and  develop compliance  monitoring
strategies and enforcement response policies for all such rules.   Headquarters
staff will also  provide guidance  and  general  oversight  of  the  Federal/state
cooperative enforcement  agreement program, and  technical and analytical support
for  Regional  activities.   Both  Headquarters   and  the Regional offices  are
responsible for quality  assurance  and  quality  control of  all enforcement data
collected  by  EPA.    Headquarters will  also direct  the  OPTS  laboratory data
integrity  program,  which inspects  private  testing  laboratories  to determine
compliance with Good Laboratory  Practices regulations, audits in process and
scientific accuracy of completed test studies.

      Increases of 4.0 workyears and $1,002,800 in the Abatement, Control, and
Compliance  appropriation  will   support  program response to  the  increased
enforcement requirements of the 1988 Amendments to FIFRA in areas of voluntary
suspension/cancellation of pesticides and associated disposal activities.  These
activities cannot be financed through the Revolving Fund.

1990 Program

     In 1990,  the Agency is allocating  a total  of $6,099,600 supported by 132.2
total workyears for this program, of which $5,551,800 is from the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and $547,800 is from the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.   Total workyears  include 117.2  from the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and 15.0 from the Reregistration and Expedited Processing Revolving
Fund.

     In  1990,  the Agency  is  continuing  to  emphasize state  participation  in
pesticide compliance monitoring and enforcement activities through cooperative
enforcement agreements.   There are  55  cooperative enforcement agreements with
states and territories and eleven additional agreements with Indian Tribes and
tribal organizations.   Federal  compliance  monitoring activities continue  in
states without cooperative agreements.   Other Federal responsibilities include
import and export surveillance,  technical and compliance assistance to the states
and  the  regulated  community,  and  operation  of a computer system maintaining
pesticide  producer establishment  and  production  records and other  related
enforcement data. Tracking and enforcement of pesticide  registration requirements


                                    6-37

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continue to be  a vital component of the Federal  compliance  program.   Regions
are beginning  in support of  worker  protection enforcement  activities  in the
states.

1989 Accomplishments

     In  1989,  the Agency obligated  a  total of $5,447,800 supported  by 112.5
total workyears  for  this  program.  Total  dollars  included $5,050,100 from the
Salaries and Expenses  appropriation  and $397,700 from  the  Abatement, Control
and Compliance appropriation. Total workyears included 111.0 from the Salaries
and  Expenses  appropriation  and  1.5  from  the Reregistration and  Expedited
Processing Revolving Fund.

     In  1989,   the   Federal  compliance  monitoring  program  accomplished  the
following: 106  inspections of pesticide producing establishments,  204 use and
re-entry inspections, 160 import inspections at ports of entry, 285 marketplace
inspections, and 47 laboratory inspections.

     A total of 55 cooperative enforcement agreements were in place with states
and territories,  plus  another eight  agreements with Indian  Tribes  and tribal
organizations in 1989.  As part of the cooperative  agreement program, the Agency
provided training for state inspectors, chemists and case development staff.


PESTICIDES ENFORCEMENT GRANTS

1991 Program Request

     The Agency requests  a total of $15,803,400 for  this program,  all of which
will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  This represents
an  increase of  $3,359,400.    The   increase  will  allow states  to  increase
enforcement activities in support of the new worker protection regulations and
begin compliance programs in support  of new  ground-water and endangered species
protection programs.   Also,  the  increase will  allow states to provide 9,500
inspections  to   determine  compliance  with   the  new  disposal,   storage,
transportation,  and recall regulations  required by the 1988 Amendments  to FIFRA,
as well as new  pesticide  compliance  initiatives aimed  at regulating pesticide
imports and exports.

     The Agency will continue to  expand the number  of  cooperative enforcement
agreements with  participating states  and  territories  to a  total of  57,  and
increase the number of agreements with Indian Nations  to 14.   The cooperative
enforcement agreement program continues  to  be the primary means  for ensuring
public  and  environmental safety  from hazardous  pesticides  by enforcing  the
requirements of FIFRA.   The program is designed to permit participating states
and territories to determine  their program priorities and utilize the resources
provided to act upon these priorities.

      State activities  will include use and re-entry investigations,  pesticide
producer establishment and marketplace inspections, applicator license and record
inspections, and dealer record inspections.
                                      6-38

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1990 Program

     In 1990, the Agency is  allocating a total of $12,444,000 for this program,
all of which is from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

     In 1990,  the Agency is continuing 55  cooperative  enforcement agreements
with states and territories, and eleven additional agreements with Indian Tribes
and tribal organizations.  These agreements emphasize user  compliance with label
directions for proper use and  application, as well as manufacturer adherence to
product  formulation  requirements  under  FIFRA.     Inspections  also  address
applicator  licenses  and  records,  producer  establishments, marketplaces,  and
pesticide dealers.

      In this  fiscal  year,  a  program in support of  the new worker protection
regulations  has begun.    States  are ensuring  coordination with all  agencies
responsible  for the  safety of workers  occupationally exposed  to  pesticides,
notifying  prospective  constituents  of the provisions  of the final  worker
protection rule, and  conducting worker protection-related inspections, incident
investigations, and legal action.   The inspections ensure that product labeling
includes  the new worker  protection statements  and  focus on new  use-related
requirements under the revised regulations.

1989 Accomplishments

     In 1989, the Agency obligated a total of $8,928,000 for this program, all
of which was from the Abatement,  Control and Compliance appropriation.

     Under   the  terms   of  their  cooperative  enforcement   agreements,   55
participating states and territories, plus eight Indian Nations, conducted 12,639
use,  reentry   and  experimental   use   inspections,  1,488   inspections   of
pesticide-producing  establishments,  7,130  applicator   license   and  record
inspections, 3,981 dealer record  inspections, 5,662 marketplace inspections and
273 import inspections.
                                      6-39

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7. RADIATION

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                        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1991 Budget Estimate

                               Table of  Contents


RADIATION                                                               7-1

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Radiation Research 	 	   7-6
      Monitoring Systems and Quality Assurance  ... 	   7-8
      Environmental Engineering and Technology  	   7-9
ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   Radiation Criteria, Standards and Guidelines .  .  .	   7-11
   Radiation Program Implementation 	   7-15
   Radiation Environmental Impact Assessment  	   7-18
   Radon Action Program	   7-21
   Radon Action Program Implementation  .... 	   7-25
   Radon State Grant Program	   7-28

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                                ACTUAL
                                 1989
             ENACTED
              1990
                                                    RADIATION
 CURRENT
ESTIMATE
  1990
REQUEST
 1991
  INCREASE +
  DECREASE -
1991 VS 1990
APPROPRIATION
                                               (DOLLARS  IN  THOUSANDS)
 Salaries & Expenses
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
 Research & Development

TOTAL, Radiation
 $11,862.7  $12,914.6  $12,464.2  $14,977.5    $2,513.3
 $10,710.7  $20,623.3  $20,349.2  $21,612.7    $1,263.5

  $2,170.7   $2.324.9   $2,258.1   $2,519.5      $261.4

 $24,744.1  $35,862.8  $35,071.5  $39,109.7    $4,038.2
PERMANENT WORKYEARS
TOTAL WORKYEARS
OUTLAYS
AUTHORIZATION LEVELS
     241.7      281.2      275.2      301.8        26.6
     253.0      281.2      277.8      301.8        24.0
$22,383.1  $31,472.9  $31.330.5  $35,040.9    $3,710.4
The "Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988" authorizes
$45 million over 1989,  1990, and 1991.  All other
authorization except for Research and Development is by
virtue of the Appropriation Act.  The Environmental
Research, Development and Demonstration Act expired
September 30, 1981.  Reauthorization is pending.
                                          7-1

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                                  RADIATION
OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY

      EPA's mandate to protect the public health  and environment from adverse
effects of  radiation  exposure is derived from several statutes:   the Atomic
Energy Act, the Clean Air Act, the Resource  Conservation and Recovery Act, the
Uranium Mill  Tailings  Radiation Control Act,  the Indoor Radon  Abatement Act
(IRAA) of  1988,  and the Superfund Amendments  and Reauthorization Act (SARA).
Other authorities are  contained  in the Nuclear Waste  Policy  Act;  the Federal
Water Pollution Control Act;  the Marine  Protection,  Research, and Sanctuaries
Act; the Safe Drinking Water Act;  the Public Health Service Act; and the National
Environmental Policy Act.

      The statutes prescribe EPA's role in assessing the environment, evaluating
technology, setting standards,  issuing  policy and  guidance, and  conducting
research.   In some cases, the statutes vest enforcement responsibilities  in other
agencies,  notably the Nuclear  Regulatory  Commission (NRC).  In these instances,
EPA performs  some oversight  functions to  ensure  compliance  with establl-sbed
standards and guidance.

      EPA's radiation  program has four  major  objectives:  (1)  reduce health
effects and environmental impacts;  (2) assess emerging radiation problems; (3)
maintain a capability  to respond to emergencies;  and (4)  carry out supporting
research.

Reduce Adverse Health Effects and Environmental Impact from Radiation Exposure
through a Program of Standards and Guides

      Under the Clean Air Act, EPA assesses and regulates source categories that
emit airborne  radionuclides.   The Agency promulgates  and implements National
Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs).  In 1991 the Agency
will implement final NESHAPs rules issued  in calendar year 1989, as well  as begin
to carry out new requirements included in anticipated changes to the Clean Air
Act.   EPA will  provide implementation  guidance   to  states   and  EPA Regional
Offices,  and  will  work  with  states  to   transfer  NESHAPs  implementation
responsibility to them.  The Agency will  also develop model state guidance for
the control of radionuclides,  establish training programs  for  implementation at
the Regional  and state levels, maintain a  national  data base related to the
implementation program, and provide technical assistance to inspection teams.

      EPA  evaluates and regulates various  classes of radioactive  wastes and
disposal options through a program designed to ensure environmentally  sound waste
disposal practices that limit exposure to radiation.   As part of the effort to
address the problem of radioactive waste disposal, EPA will promulgate final low-
level and high-level radioactive waste standards.  The Agency will also begin
to develop guidance for the clean-up of residual radioactivity.
                                      7-2

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Assess and Quantify Existing and Emerging Radiation Problems and their Potential
Impact

      The increasing use of radioactive materials has been accompanied by more
widespread knowledge about radiation exposure and the potential for contamination
of environmental pathways.  As a  consequence,  requests  for  assistance in site
assessments and radiochemical analyses of environmental samples have increased
substantially, particularly from the Federal sector.

      One of the most  significant  radiation  problems identified in recent years
is indoor radon.  Radon,  a naturally occurring  radioactive gas, is estimated to
cause about  20,000 lung  cancer fatalities annually.  In  response  to elevated
indoor radon  levels found across  the  country,  the Congress  enacted the Indoor
Radon Abatement Act (IRAA) in 1988.  The Act includes a mandate to set a long-
term national goal of  reducing indoor radon concentrations  to ambient levels.

      The radon  program  consists  of four objectives:   assessing the problem,
carrying  out  mitigation  and prevention  research  and  applications,  developing
state and private  sector capability,  and developing  and  disseminating public
information and education materials. The activities , which  incorporate functions
mandated  under  IRAA, the Superfund Amendments  and Reauthorization Act (SARA),
and other statutory authority,  are part of an integrated program that relies on
a voluntary partnership  among the Federal, state, and private sectors.

      In  1991 EPA  will continue  its Radon  state  grant program  to  help states
develop and implement  programs to assess and mitigate radon.  The Agency will
conduct data analysis  for the National Survey of Radon in Residences and issue
a final report.   In addition, the Agency will complete the design of the National
Survey of Radon  in Schools  and will initiate a survey.  EPA will also provide
assistance to states and Indian nations  in  the design and execution of state-
wide radon surveys.  The national Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) program will
continue  to evaluate the capability of mitigation firms and  the national Radon
Measurement Proficiency  (RMP)  program  will assess  the  capability of measurement
firms.  EPA will continue to  provide  radon  mitigation and prevention training
through regional training centers; the House Evaluation Programs (HEPs), which
provide hands-on radon measurement, mitigation,  and prevention training to state
personnel, private contractors,  and home builders;  and the Radon Diagnostic and
Mitigation Training Course.  The Agency will promulgate user fee regulations and
begin collecting fees  for its radon training and proficiency programs.

Maintain  a  Capability to Respond to  Emergencies  and to  Aid Development  and
Testing of State. Local, and Federal Plans for Emergency Response

      The Agency maintains the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System
(ERAMS) to  provide a  mechanism for tracking and  measuring  large  atmospheric
releases  of radioactive materials  across the country.  The system also provides
continuous information on radiation levels in environmental pathways.  The Agency
maintains two emergency response  teams in a  state  of readiness so that they can
be flown  to sites where  significant radiation releases have occurred or appear
imminent.   In 1991 EPA will extend the  number of staff trained  to  respond to
radiation emergencies  and  evaluate  the  mobile  radiation  laboratories  for
equipment refitting or replacement.   The Agency  will  also participate in full
field exercises scheduled by the Federal  Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and
continue  to monitor rocket launches in which radioactive materials are involved.
                                      7-3

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As part of its nuclear accident response efforts,  EPA will  issue a draft interim
protective action guide (PAG)  for ingestion  (food and water) pathways, initiate
development  of  a  training program  for  implementing  the ingestion  PAG,  and
complete  training programs for  early phase  (evaluation  and sheltering)  and
relocation PAGs.

Conduct Supporting Research

      The EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) performs two key functions
in support of the Agency's radiation  goals.  First, ORD provides data needed to
support  the  Agency's  Radon Action  Program.   In  1991 ORD  will  continue  to
demonstrate radon mitigation techniques in a variety of residential structures,
in coordination with the  Agency's HEP,  and will  use  the results  to publish
updated handbooks  and  technical  manuals  that  detail mitigation  techniques for
homeowners and  builders.   ORD will also  continue its mitigation demonstration
program to address schools with elevated levels of radon.

      Second, to  assist  laboratories  that measure  radionuclide  emissions, ORD
provides monitoring and  quality  assurance support, including inter-laboratory
comparison studies.   Under  an  interagency agreement  with the Department  of
Energy, ORD  also provides support in the  form of  off-site  monitoring around
nuclear test sites.  This support includes  long-term hydrological monitoring,
a human surveillance investigation program,  and maintenance of a radiation data
base.

Consulting Services

      The Office of Air and Radiation will fund a limited amount of consulting
services in 1991.  These  will  be  limited  to  obtaining specialized expertise for
radiochemical analyses, nuclear emergency response training, and the development
of computer models.
                                      7-4

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                                  RADIATION
PROGRAM ACTIVITIES

Cumulative Outputs

Regulations

Proposals . 	

Negative Determinations  .

Promulgations 	
             ACTUAL
              1989
                9

                3
 CURRENT
ESTIMATE  ESTIMATE
  1990      1991
INCREASE (+)
DECREASE (-)
1991 VS 1990
  3

  3

 10
     -2

     -3

     -7
Key for Cumulative Outputs:
      1989:
      1990:
      1991:
Radionuclide NESHAPs proposed for 9 source categories
Negative determination proposed for 3 source categories

Radionuclide NESHAPs promulgated for 9 source categories
Negative determinations final for 3 source categories
1 final Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act standard
   promulgated
1 low-level waste standard proposed
1 high level waste standard proposed
Proposed amendment of Prevention of Significant
Deterioration    (PSD) standards to include radionuclides.

1 low level waste standard promulgated
1 high level waste standard promulgated
Promulgate amendment of PSD standards
Radionuclide NESHAPs proposed for 1 source category
                                      7-5

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Research and
Development

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                        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1991 Budget Estimate

                               Table of  Contents
                                                                          Page

RADIATION

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Radiation Research 	   7-6
      Monitoring Systems and Quality Assurance  	   7-8
      Environmental Engineering and Technology  	   7-9

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                                                   RADIATION
                                              Radiation Research
                                ACTUAL
                                 1989
                   ENACTED
                    1990
          CURRENT
         ESTIMATE
           1990
           REQUEST
            1991
          INCREASE +
          DECREASE -
        1991 VS 1990
PROGRAM
                                               (DOLLARS  IN  THOUSANDS)
Monitoring Systems &
Quality Assurance -
Radiation
 Salaries & Expenses
                       TOTAL
          $163.8
          $163.8
$287.8
$287.8
$284.0
$284.0
$292.3
$292.3
$8.3
$8.3
Environmental
Engineering and
Technology - Radiation
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
        $1,160.5   $1,365.0   $1,134.1    $1,298.9      $164.8
        $2,170.7   $2,324.9   $2,258.1    $2,519.5      $261.4
TOTAL   $3,331.2   $3,689.9   $3,392.2    $3,818.4      $426.2
TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development

Radiation Research
        $1,324.3   $1,652.8   $1,418.1    $1,591.2
        $2,170.7   $2.324.9   $2,258.1    $2,519.5
TOTAL   $3,495.0   $3,977.7   $3,676.2   $4,110.7
                                  $173.1
                                  $261.4

                                  $434.5
PERMANENT UORKYEARS
Monitoring Systems &
Quality Assurance -
Radiation

Environmental
Engineering and
Technology - Radiation

TOTAL PERMANENT UORKYEARS
             3.5        4.7
              4.7
              4.7
            18.6       17.9       17.7       17.7
            22.1        22.6       22.4        22.4
               0.0
                                     0.0
                                                                                 0.0
TOTAL UORKYEARS
Monitoring Systems &
Quality Assurance -
Radiation

Environmental
Engineering and
Technology - Radiation

TOTAL UORKYEARS
             3.7        4.7        4.7        4.7
            18.7       17.9       17.7       17.7
            22.4       22.6       22.4        22.4
                                     0.0
                                     0.0
                                                                                 0.0
                                           7-6

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                                   RADIATION

                              Radiation Research

                         Principal  Outputs by Oblective
Objective 1:      Provide Monitoring and Quality Assurance  Support to Federal.
                  State, and Local Laboratories

1991:  o    Annual report for Calendar Year 1991 on off-site surveillance around
            the Nevada Test Site (Monitoring).

1990:  o    Annual report for Calendar Year 1990 on off-site surveillance around
            the Nevada Test Site (Monitoring).

       o    Annual  report on  laboratory  radionuclide  intercomparison  studies
            (Monitoring).

1989:  o    Annual report for Calendar Year 1989 on off-site  surveillance  around
            the Nevada Test Site (Monitoring).


Objective 2:      Provide Scientific Data to Support the Radon Action Program

1991:  o    Update on "Application of Radon Reduction Methods" (Engineering).

       o    Study  of  radon  and  radon  progeny air  cleaners,   novel  mitigation
            concepts,  and approaches for radon-resistant new school construction
            (Engineering).

       o    Guidance  Manual on  Radon  Resistant  New  Construction  in  Schools
            (Engineering).

1990:  o    Second annual international symposium on  Radon  and Radon Reduction
            Technology (Engineering).

       o    Updated   guidance   to  mitigation  professionals,   do-it-yourself
            homeowners,  and  State officials  on radon  mitigation techniques for
            existing homes (Engineering).

       o    Report on initial school mitigation studies (Engineering).

1989:  o    Updated guidance manual "Radon Resistant Residential New Construction"
            (Engineering).

       o    First Edition of the Technical Guidance  Document on Radon Reduction
            in Schools (Engineering).
                                      7-7

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                                   RADIATION


                              Radiation Research

Budget Request

      The Agency requests  a total of $4,110,700 supported by 22.4 total workyears
for 1991, an  increase  of  $434,500 from 1990 and no change  in total workyears.
Of the request,  $1,591,200 will be  for the  Salaries  and Expenses appropriation
and $2,519,500 will be for the Research and Development appropriation, an increase
of $173,100 and $261,400 respectively.

Program Objectives

      This research program provides the  Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) and
other EPA, Federal, Regional, State and local officials with the scientific data,
methods, assessments  and mitigative techniques necessary to determine and control
public exposure to radon and other radioactive materials in the environment.  The
following objectives support these goals:

      Objective 1.  Provide Monitoring and Quality Assurance Support to Federal.
State, and Local Laboratories.   This program provides comprehensive radiological
monitoring and surveillance  services to meet specific Department of Energy (DOE)
requirements for its nuclear testing programs, especially at the Nevada Test Site.
This work is conducted under a reimbursable arrangement with DOE.  EPA conducts
a  radiochemical analytical  quality  assurance  program which  supports  Federal,
State, and local laboratories making radioactivity measurements.

      Objective  2.  Provide  Scientific Data  to Support the Radon  Action Plan.
Under this program, the Office of Research and Development (ORD) conducts research
on, demonstrates  and evaluates  techniques to prevent and mitigate exposure to
radon gas in new and existing homes, and in school buildings.


MONITORING SYSTEMS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total  of $292,300  supported by  4.7  total workyears
for  this  program,   all  of  which  will  be  for  the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation.   This  represents  a minor  increase  in  support for  increased
personnel and support costs, and no change in total workyears.

      Provide Monitoring  and  Quality Assurance Support to  Federal.  State,  and
Local Laboratories.   This research program will provide the data needed by policy-
makers to make decisions regarding the control  of public exposure to radioactive
materials.  Monitoring  support  for DOE at the Nevada Test  Site  and other test
locations will  be provided.   An  annual  report for Calendar  Year  1991  will be
completed on the off-site  surveillance around the Nevada Test Site.  This support
consists  of a  radiation  safety monitoring  program;  a  long-term  hydrological
monitoring program;  a human  radiation monitoring program;  and  maintenance of the
radiation  data  base.   Technical  expertise  and guidance will  be  provided to
Regional,  State, and  contractor  laboratories for  radiochemical   analyses  of


                                     7-8

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environmental samples.  Inter-laboratory comparison studies will be conducted to
provide data on the precision and accuracy of radioactivity measurements in milk,
drinking water, and air.

1990 Program

      In 1990,  the Agency is allocating a total of $284,000 supported by 4.7 total
workyears  for  this program,  all of which  is from  the Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation.

      Monitoring support,  including routine monitoring in off-site areas  .and
support during nuclear tests  is being provided to the  Department of  Energy at the
Nevada Test  Site and  other  installations.   This will include reports  on  the
laboratory  radionuclide intercomparision studies,  and  the  anuual  report  for
surveillance around the Nevada Test Site for Calendar  Year  1990.   Support will
also be provided to  the site characterization studies  of Yucca  Mountain under
consideration  as a potential site  for the  disposal of high-level radioactive
waste.  Activities  there will include both baseline studies and monitoring during
facility construction.  In addition, the Agency is conducting a quality assurance
program  for Regional, State,  and  contractor  laboratories  involved  in  the
radiochemical analyses of radionuclides in environmental samples.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989,  the Agency obligated a  total of $163,800 supported by 3.7 total
workyears  for  this program, all  of which  was  from  the Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation.

      The  research program  office published the annual  report on  the  off-site
surveillance program for Calendar Year 1989.


ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $3,818,400 supported by 17.7 total workyears
for  this  program,  of  which  $1,298,900 will be  for  the Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation   and  $2,519,500  will   be for   the   Research   and  Development
appropriation.   This  represents  increases of $164,800 and $261,400 respectively,
and  no  change  in total workyears.   The  increase in funding  will be  used  for
increased  personnel   and  support  costs,   and  school mitigation  research,
respectively.

      Provide  Scientific Data  to Support the  Radon  Action Plan.   Exposure to
indoor radon gas poses a significant risk to  public health.  To address the risks
associated with radon  and to respond to growing  public concern,  the "Radon Gas
and  Indoor Air  Quality Research  Act of 1986"  (SARA,  Title IV) and the "Indoor
Radon Abatement Act of 1988" were enacted.  These Acts authorize  EPA to conduct
a  variety of  applied  research  on indoor  radon  including  demonstrations  of
techniques to reduce  exposures.   The primary objective of  the  radon mitigation
program is  to  develop and demonstrate technology  that achieves an  indoor  air
quality that is as free of radon as the ambient air outside.    The  1991 radon
research program will  carry out this responsibility three ways: (1) demonstrating
                                     7-9

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and evaluating mitigation techniques in existing homes;  (2) evaluating preventive
measures for homes under construction; and (3) evaluating mitigation techniques
for school  buildings.   The  School  Mitigation Research program  will emphasize
demonstrations of the effectiveness of sub-slab suction systems in a variety of
geological and climatic conditions around the  country.  Also this program will
assess whether radon mitigation techniques presently used in houses are effective
in schools.   The school mitigation program  will provide the  results  from the
research to  State agencies and local school districts.   The research program will
update the  "Application of Radon Reduction Methods."   The  research office will
also  do  a  study on  radon  and radon progeny air  cleaners,  novel  mitigation
concepts, and approaches  for  radon-resistant new school  construction.    The
research office will produce a guidance manual on radon resistant new construction
in schools.

1990 Program

      In 1990, the Agency is allocating a total of $3,392,200 supported by 17.7
total workyears  for this program, of  which $1,134,100  is  from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation and  $2,258,100  is from  the  Research and  Development
appropriation.

      Radiation   mitigation  research  will   emphasize  the  development  and
demonstration of radon mitigation  technologies which will reduce indoor  radon
levels to 4 pCi/L in both new and existing homes  and in schools.   This research
will  develop  techniques appropriate  for a sample  of home construction types,
geological characteristics,  geographic variations and initial radon levels.  The
School Mitigation Research program will  develop and demonstrate radon mitigation
techniques for schools and will assist the Office of Air and Radiation (OAR) in
providing technical assistance  to Regions, States, and local  school authorities.
This will include a report on the initial school  mitigation studies.  There will
be an updated guidance to mitigation  professionals,  do-it-yourself homeowners,
and  State  officials  on  radon  mitigation  techniques  for  existing  homes.
Specifically,  the Agency will  examine  and  issue  a study   on the  structural,
architectural, and ventilation differences between homes and schools to determine
if the unique characteristics  of school  buildings  alter the  effectiveness of
previously  examined mitigation techniques.    The  second annual  international
symposium on radon and radon reduction technology will held  in 1990.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989, the Agency obligated a total of $3,331,200 supported by 18.7 total
workyears for this program, of which  $1,160,500 was from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $2,170,700 was from the Research and Development appropriation.

      Demonstrations of radon  mitigation  techniques were conducted  in  new and
existing homes, and in schools.  Technical guidance documents were produced for
both of  these dwellings.   The  brochure "Radon Reduction Methods:  A Homeowners
Guide" continued to be  reprinted and widely circulated throughout the nation. The
results of research in new homes was  used  to update the manual entitled "Radon
Resistant Residential  New Construction."   In addition, Agency  staff  provided
technical  information  to  community  leaders  and  participating  homeowners  at
demonstration sites.   The first edition of the "Technical  Guidance Document on
Radon Reduction  in Schools"  was published.
                                     7-10

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Abatement and
   Control

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                        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1991 Budget Estimate

                               Table of  Contents
                                                                          Page

RADIATION

ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   Radiation Criteria, Standards and Guidelines 	   7-11
   Radiation Program Implementation 	   7-15
   Radiation Environmental Impact Assessment  	   7-18
   Radon Action Program	   7-21
   Radon Action Program Implementation  	   7-25
   Radon State Grant Program   	   7-28

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                                                   RADIATION
                                  Radiation Criteria,  Standards &.Guidelines

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED     CURRENT      REQUEST    INCREASE  +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE       1991      DECREASE  -
                                                       1990               1991  VS 1990
                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)

PROGRAM
Radiation Criteria,
Standards & Guidelines
 Salaries & Expenses           $3,364.2   $3,469.6   $3,422.9   $4,034.8      $611.9
 Abatement Control and         $1,939.1   $1,766.8   $1,744.3   $2,194.4      $450.1
 Compliance
                       TOTAL   $5,303.3   $5,236.4   $5,167.2   $6,229.2    $1,062.0
TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses           $3,364.2   $3,469.6   $3,422.9   $4,034.8      $611.9
 Abatement Control and         $1,939.1   $1,766.8   $1,744.3   $2,194.4      $450.1
 Compliance

Radiation Criteria,    TOTAL   $5,303.3   $5,236.4   $5,167.2   $6,229.2    $1,062.0
Standards & Guidelines
PERMANENT UORKYEARS
Radiation Criteria,                56.7       57.6       57.6     '  61.6         4.0
Standards & Guidelines

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS          56.7       57.6       57.6       61.6         4.0
TOTAL WORKYEARS
Radiation Criteria,                58.4       57.6       57.6       61.6         4.0
Standards & Guidelines

TOTAL WORKYEARS                    58.4       57.6       57.6       61.6         4.0
                                           7-11

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                                  RADIATION


                Radiation  Criteria, Standards, and Guidelines

Budget Request

     The Agency requests  a  total of $6,229,200 supported by 61.6 total workyears
for 1991.   Of the request, $4,034,800 will  be for the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and $2,194,400 will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.  This  represents an increase  of  $611,900  in the  Salaries and
Expenses appropriation, an increase of $450,100  in the Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation, and an increase of 4.0 workyears from 1990.


RADIATION CRITERIA. STANDARDS. AND GUIDELINES

1991 Program Request

     The Agency requests  a  total of $6,229,200 supported by 61.6 total workyears
for this  program,  of which $4,034,800 will  be for the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and $2,194,400 will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.  This  represents an increase  of  $611,900  in the  Salaries and
Expenses appropriation, an increase of $450,100  in the Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation, and an increase of  4.0 workyears from 1990.  EPA will
use the increases  to develop  guidance for state permit programs under the final
National  Emission  Standards  for Hazardous  Air Pollutants  (NESHAPs)  covering
airborne radionuclides.

     In 1991  EPA  will continue  to  concentrate on three major  program areas:
addressing airborne radionuclides, establishing standards for radioactive waste
management, and developing Federal guidance.  The airborne radionuclides effort
will focus on implementing  the final NESHAPs rules issued in calendar year 1989.
The Agency will continue  to  promote the transfer  of NESHAPs  implementation.
responsibilities to the  states.   This  effort will include  the  development of
guidance and criteria  for  state  permit programs  for  the  radionuclide NESHAPs.
The Agency will also develop model  state guidance for  the  control of airborne
radionuclides, establish training programs for implementing these standards at
the Regional  and  state levels,  maintain a  national  data base  related to the
implementation program, and provide technical assistance to enforcement efforts.

      EPA will promulgate final standards  for  the disposal of low-level and high-
level radioactive  wastes.   The Agency will also begin  to develop guidance on the
clean-up of residual radioactivity.  Over 20,000 sites  (including Department of
Energy facilities and over 100 nuclear power reactors)  exist where radioactive
materials are used.  Many of these will be candidates for decommissioning over
the next several decades.  Without controls,  lifetime health risks could be as
high as 1  in 100.  Billions of dollars potentially could be wasted by inadequate
clean-up efforts.

     As part  of its nuclear accident response efforts,  EPA will  issue draft
interim protective action guides  (PAGs) for ingestion  (food and water) pathways,
initiate development of a draft interim PAG for  accident contamination recovery,
initiate  development  of  a training program  for  implementing these  PAGs,  and

                       "\
                                     7-12

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complete training programs for the early phase (evaluation and sheltering) and
relocation PAGs.

1990 Program

     In 1990 the Agency is allocating a  total  of $5,167,200 supported by 57.6
total workyears for this program, of which $3,422,900 is from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation and  $1,744,300  is  from  the Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.

     In 1990  EPA is  concentrating on three  major program  areas:  addressing
airborne radionuclides, establishing standards for radioactive waste management,
and  developing  Federal guidance.   The Agency  is focusing  the  1990 airborne
radionuclides effort on implementing the  final NESHAPs rules  issued in calendar
year 1989. The Agency is initiating a program to promote  the transfer  of NESHAPs
implementation responsibilities to the states and is providing guidance to those
states seeking delegation of authority.  EPA is also conducting pilot Regional
and state  training programs and providing  guidance  to the  Regions on implementing
the regulations.  In addition,  the Agency is developing  a national data base on
radionuclide emissions for the implementation program.   Finally,  the Agency is
reviewing requests for construction, waivers,  or alternative standards.

      The courts have stayed the portion of the NESHAPs  rules that governs air
emissions of radionuclides from facilities regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory
Commission (NRC), pending  reconsideration of this portion of the rule. EPA will
determine the result of this reconsideration in 1990.

      As part of the effort to address the problem of radioactive waste disposal,
EPA is continuing its efforts to publish  a notice  of proposed rulemaking (NPRM)
for  the  land  disposal of  low-level radioactive waste,   including  naturally
occurring and  accelerator produced materials.   In order  to provide required
implementation assistance to the  Regions and  states,  the  Agency is  developing
site  evaluation guidance  and a  site evaluation model  as  well as  other user-
friendly  computer models.   In addition,   following the  completion  of both the
background information document  and  the  economic assessment, EPA will conduct
public hearings and receive and consider  comments  for the low-level waste final
rule.

      EPA is  also  developing new high-level waste standards as  required by a
court remand.   The Agency will complete  a background information document and
an  economic  assessment,  issue a  NPRM, and  hold public  hearings in  1990.   In
addition, the Agency will  augment existing standards for inactive mill tailings
sites  under  the  Uranium  Mill  Tailings  Radiation  Control  Act  with  the
repromulgation of standards for ground water protection at these sites.

     The Agency is maintaining its radiofrequency measurement capabilities and
conducting limited  field  studies  for  electromagnetic  fields.    The  Agency is
developing a public information document  and is  continuing  to provide technical
advice, assistance, and oversight.

      As part of its nuclear accident response efforts,  EPA will issue in 1990
revised draft  interim PAGs for  early  phase and  relocation  and  is  initiating
development  of draft  interim  PAGs for  ingestion pathway's.    The  Agency is
                                      7-13

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conducting a training program  to help ensure the uniform  application of PAGs
nationwide in emergency situations.

1989 Accomplishments

     In 1989 the Agency obligated $5,303,300 and 58.4 total workyears for this
program, of which $3,364,200 was  from  the  Salaries  and Expenses appropriation
and $1,939,100 was from the Abatement,  Control and Compliance appropriation.

     In 1989 EPA worked to  revise the  radionuclide  NESHAPs in accordance with
the court remand  of established standards.  The Agency published  a notice of
proposed rulemaking,  conducted public hearings,  and received  and considered
comments.  The Agency made modifications, as necessary, to respond to the court
decision that limits the  use of cost  factors  in establishing required levels.
EPA reviewed all standards previously promulgated for compliance with the court
order,  and  reexamined source categories that  were  determined not  to require
regulation to determine the propriety of those decisions.

     EPA continued efforts  to publish  the  NPRM for  land disposal of low-level
radioactive waste and to repropose the high-level waste  standard remanded by the
court.   In  support  of these efforts,   EPA  continued development of background
information documents and economic assessments for both standards.   The Agency
phased down the development of residual radioactivity guidance after completing
a risk  assessment and a sensitivity analysis of the on-site pathway code.   In
addition, the Agency initiated an inventory of contaminated sites.

     EPA completed a study of electromagnetic radiation emitted from the Voice
of America radio  tower and issued a report of  the  findings.  The  Agency also
developed PAGs  for  early  phase and for  relocation  in  the event of a nuclear
incident.  The  Agency incorporated the PAGs  for relocation into the Manual of
Protective Actions,  used  in Federal,  state, and local  emergency preparedness
plans in the  event  of a  domestic or  foreign radiation incident.   The Agency
initiated work on revised draft interim PAGs for early phase and relocation.
                                      7-14

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                                                   RADIATION
                                       Radiation Program Implementation

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED     CURRENT     REQUEST    INCREASE +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE       1991      DECREASE -
                                                       1990                1991 VS  1990
PROGRAM
                                               (DOLLARS  IN  THOUSANDS)
Radiation Program
Implementation
 Salaries & Expenses             $445.1      $364.2     $363.2     $827.9      $464.7
                       TOTAL     $445.1      $364.2     $363.2     $827.9      $464.7
TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses

Radiation Program
Implementation
TOTAL
          $445.1

          $445.1
$364.2

$364.2
$363.2

$363.2
$827.9

$827.9
$464.7

$464.7
PERMANENT WORKYEARS
Radiation Program
Implementation

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS
             7.2
             7.2
   7.0
   7.0
   5.5
   5.5
  17.0
  17.0
  11.5
  11.5
TOTAL WORKYEARS
Radiation Program
Implementation

TOTAL WORKYEARS
             9.0
             9.0
   7.0
   7.0
   7.0       17.0
   7.0       17.0
                                                         10.0
                                                                                10.0
                                          7-15

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                                  RADIATION


                       Radiation Program Implementation

Budget Request

     The Agency requests a total of $827,900 supported by 17.0 total workyears
for 1991,  all of which will be for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.  This
represents an increase of  $464,700  in  the  Salaries  and Expenses appropriation
and an increase of 10.0 total workyears from 1990.


RADIATION PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION

1991 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total of $827,900 supported by 17.0 total workyears
for  this  program,   all  of  which  will be  for the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation.    This represents an increase  of $464,700 in  the  Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and an increase of 10.0 total workyears from 1990.  The
Agency will use  the increase to implement,  at the Regional  level,  the final
National  Emission  Standards  for Hazardous  Air Pollutants  (NESHAPs)  covering
airborne radionuclides.

     In  1991   the   Regions will  participate  fully  in all  aspects  of  the
radionuclide NESHAPs implementation program.   Currently, many state radiation
programs  are not adequate  to assume delegated  authority for  implementing the
radionuclide NESHAPs.  Consequently, the Agency must bear primary responsibility
for implementing the program.  Much  of this  task  will fall on  the  Regional
offices.  They will  perform many of the initial permitting  functions  while at
the same  time work  to  strengthen state radiation programs  to  accept delegated
authority for  implementing the radionuclide  NESHAPs.   The Regions will also
review  applications  from  regulated  facilities  for  construction  permits,
modifications to facilities, and waivers and  exemptions.   Regional staff will
also  provide  technical   assistance   for   radionuclide  NESHAPs  enforcement
activities.

      The testing and evaluation of state emergency response plans will continue
to be  an  important element of  Regional operations,  along with  the  review of
updated plans.   EPA will continue to  assist states  in  the  development of
radiological emergency response  plans and will formally review  these plans along
with other Federal  agencies.   Also,  the Regions  will remain involved with state
agencies and the public in presenting  and  interpreting Agency information and
guidance regarding radiation problems in their area.

    The Regions will continue to participate in the identification and assessment
of hazardous waste sites that are contaminated with radioactivity, and will serve
as coordination  points for remedial action  programs  for such  sites  in their
Regions.  This effort supports both the EPA Headquarters hazardous waste programs
and the requests from the states.   The Regions will continue to be the primary
reviewers of environmental impact statements for radiation facilities, such as
commercial nuclear power plants, uranium mines and mills, and radioactive waste
                                     7-16

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disposal facilities.  They will also respond to special problems involving actual
or potential radiation releases or exposures.

1990 Program

     In 1990 the Agency is allocating a total of $363,200  supported by 7.0 total
workyears for  this program,  all  of  which is  from the  Salaries and Expenses
appropriation.

     In 1990 the Regions  are participating in all aspects of the implementation
program  for emission  sources within their  geographic boundaries  covered by
NESHAPs for airborne radionuclides.   Implementation includes reviewing requests
to construct or modify facilities  subject  to  radionuclide NESHAPs.  The Regions
are also providing coordination necessary where the national program is directly
involved in implementation of the  radionuclide  NESHAPs  in areas such as waivers
and alternate requirements.

      In addition,  the Regional  radiation program is  continuing to  focus on
emergency   preparedness   and  technical   assistance  to   states,   including
participating in Regional Assistance Committees, testing and evaluating emergency
response plans, and reviewing updated state and local emergency response plans.
Regional programs also  continue  to  be  involved  in the characterization of
hazardous waste sites subject to possible  remedial  action.  This includes staff
participation as on-site radiation consultants in addressing problems at sites
that are on the  Superfund National Priority  List.   The Regions are continuing
as  the  primary  reviewer  of  environmental  impact  statements  for  radiation
facilities,  such as uranium  mills and  mines,  and radioactive  waste disposal
facilities.

1989 Accomplishments

     In  1989  the Agency  obligated a total of  $445,100  supported by 9.0 total
workyears for  this program,  all  of  which was from  the  Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation.

     In 1989 emergency preparedness and technical assistance to the states and
other EPA Regional programs remained a central focus of the Regional radiation
program.  The Regions also reviewed requests to construct or modify facilities
and  requests for exemptions  for  facilities  covered by  airborne  radionuclide
NESHAPs.  They continued  to review environmental impact  statements for radiation
facilities,  such as uranium  mills and  mines,  and radioactive  waste disposal
sites.  They also continued to be  involved in the characterization of hazardous
waste  sites,  and  provided  technical assistance  and advice to  the Superfund
program on  actual or possible  remedial actions.
                                      7-17

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                                                   RADIATION
                                   Radiation Environmental  Impact  Assessment

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED     CURRENT      REQUEST    INCREASE  +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE       1991     DECREASE  -
                                                       1990               1991  VS 1990
                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)

PROGRAM
Radiation Environmental
Impact Assessment
 Salaries & Expenses           $3,271.2   $3,151.2   $3,092.8   $3,340.5       $247.7
 Abatement Control and            $29.0      $29.9      $29.6      $30.3          $.7
 Compliance  .
                       TOTAL   $3,300.2   $3.181.1   $3,122.4   $3.370.8       $248.4
TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses           $3,271.2   $3,151.2   $3,092.8    $3,340.5       $247.7
 Abatement Control and            $29.0      $29.9      $29.6       $30.3          $.7
 Compliance

Radiation              TOTAL   $3,300.2   $3,181.1   $3,122.4    $3,370.8       $248.4
Environmental Impact
Assessment
PERMANENT UORKYEARS
Radiation Environmental            44.4       51.0       51.0        51.0          0.0
Impact Assessment

TOTAL PERMANENT UORKYEARS          44.4       51.0       51.0        51.0          0.0
TOTAL UORKYEARS
Radiation Environmental            48.6       51.0       51.0        51.0          0.0
Impact Assessment

TOTAL WORKYEARS                    48.6       51.0       51.0        51.0          0.0
                                          7-18

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                                  RADIATION


                  Radiation Environmental Impact Assessment

Budget Request

     The Agency requests a total of $3,370,800 supported by 51.0 total workyears
for 1991.   Of the request, $3,340,500 will  be for the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and $30,300  will be  for  the  Abatement, Control  and Compliance
appropriation.  This  represents  an increase of $247,700 for  the  Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation,  an increase  of $700  in  the  Abatement,   Control  and
Compliance appropriation,  and no change total workyears.


RADIATION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT

1991 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total of $3,370,800 supported by 51.0 total workyears
of which  $3,340,500  will  be for  the  Salaries and Expenses  appropriation and
$30,300 will  be for  Abatement,  Control and Compliance  appropriation.   This
represents an increase of $247,700 in the Salaries and Expenses appropriation,
an increase of $700  in the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation, and
no change  in  total  workyears.   The increase reflects  increased personnel and
support costs.

     In 1991  the Agency will continue  to support development, implementation,
and enforcement of standards under the Clean Air Act,  the Atomic Energy Act, and
other statutory authorities.  This will include laboratory support to be provided
to the Regions and states for air sampling in conjunction with the implementation
effort for airborne radionuclide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air
Pollutants (NESHAPs).

      The Agency will continue work to enhance its ability to respond to nuclear
accidents.  This effort will once  again  include training  additional radiation
staff beyond  those  who routinely participate in emergency  response  tests and
exercises.  In 1991 EPA will also evaluate the mobile radiation laboratories for
equipment  refitting  or replacement.  EPA will continue  to maintain  its base
emergency response capabilities at two field locations and Headquarters, and will
participate in  field exercises scheduled by the Federal  Emergency Management
Agency  (FEMA).   The  Agency will continue to monitor  rocket  launches  in which
radioactive materials are involved.   The 268  stations  of  the  Environmental
Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS), which collect and analyze samples
of air, precipitation, and milk to help determine ambient radiation  levels, will
continue in full operation.

      The  Agency will continue  technical  analyses  and  associated  quality
assurance  programs  in support of  regulatory  development and  implementation
efforts.  EPA  will continue to provide limited support to states, Indian nations,
other  Federal agencies,  and other parts of  EPA in the form  of radiochemical
analyses,  technical  assistance,  and participation in  targeted  conferences to
address unique radiation problems.
                                      7-19
 A

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1990 Program

     In 1990 the Agency is allocating a  total  of $3,122,400 supported by 51.0
total workyears for this program, of which $3,092,800 is from the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and $29,600 is from the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.

     In 1990 EPA is continuing to support the development, implementation, and
enforcement of standards and guidance.   This includes support for implementing
NESHAPs for airborne radionuclides and collecting and analyzing air samples from
facilities to verify compliance with existing standards.

     EPA continues  to maintain  emergency  response  capabilities at  two field
locations and Headquarters and to participate  in field exercises scheduled by
FEMA.   In  calendar  year 1989  EPA participated  in  the  response   to  three
potentially uncontrolled  releases of radiological contamination --  discharges
at the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons plant near Denver,  Colorado; abandoned stores
of radium at the Radium Chemical warehouse in New York City, and the launch of
the Atlantic Space Shuttle carrying  the nuclear powered satellite, Galileo.  In
1990 EPA is extending training for nuclear accident responses to the radiation
staff beyond the core group who normally participate in tests and exercises of
the  existing Federal  emergency  response plans.    Other  activities  include
coordinating EPA Regional review and testing of state emergency response plans;
participating in contingency planning for the space  shuttle  launch carrying the
nuclear powered satellite, Ulysses,  in the Autumn of 1990; assisting other EPA
offices and state radiological programs;  and operating ERAMS.

     EPA also provides limited support to  states, other Federal agencies, and
other parts of EPA in the  form of radiochemical analyses, technical assistance,
and participation in the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors.  The
Agency is making available reports of radiation levels in naval harbors surveyed
at the request of the Navy.

1989 Accomplishments

     In 1989 the Agency obligated a  total of $3,300,200 supported by 48.6 total
workyears for this program of which $3,271,200 was from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation  and $29,000  was  from  the  Abatement,  Control  and  Compliance
appropriation.

     In 1989 EPA continued laboratory and technical support for regulation and
guidance  development.    The Agency  continued   to  develop  risk  assessment
methodology  in  support  of  regulations   for  residual   radioactivity  at
decommissioned  nuclear facilities.   The Agency  also  conducted environmental
assessments in harbors servicing nuclear-powered  vessels,  in accordance with an
Interagency Agreement  with  the  Navy.   A similar  arrangement with the Federal
Communications Commission provides for measurement of radiofrequency levels in
specific locations of interest or concern.

      Program activities also included  the maintenance of an emergency response
capability, coordination  of EPA Regional review and testing of state emergency
response plans, participation in the Defense Nuclear Agency-sponsored Distinct
Action  exercise,  assistance  to  other  EPA  offices  and to  state radiological
programs, and operation of ERAMS.


                                     7-20

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                                                   RADIATION
                                              Radon Action Program

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED      CURRENT      REQUEST    INCREASE +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE       1991      DECREASE -
                                                       1990               1991 VS  1990
                                               (DOLLARS  IN  THOUSANDS)

PROGRAM
Radon Action Program
 Salaries & Expenses           $2,662.1    $3,096.5    $2,756.7   $3,547.1      $590.4
 Abatement Control and         $8,742.6   $17,842.0    $9.603.2 $10,388.0      $784.8
 Compliance
                       TOTAL  $11,404.7   $20,938.5   $12,359.9 $13,735.1    $1,375.2
TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses           $2,662.1    $3,096.5   $2,756.7   $3,347.1       $590.4
 Abatement Control and         $8,742.6   $17,842.0   $9,603.2  $10,388.0       $784.8
 Compliance

Radon Action       TOTAL      $11,404.7   $20,938.5  $12,359.9  $13,735.1     $1,375.2
Program
PERMANENT WORKYEARS
Radon Action Program               38.5       54.7       49.5        51.1          1.6

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS          38.5       54.7       49.5        51.1          1.6


TOTAL WORKYEARS
Radon Action Program               39.4       54.7       49.5        51.1          1.6

TOTAL WORKYEARS                    39.4       54.7       49.5        51.1          1.6
                                          7-21

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                                  RADIATION


                             Radon Action Program

Budget Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of  $13,735,100  supported  by 51.1  total
workyears for 1991,  an increase of $1,375,200 and 1.6 total workyears from 1990.
Of the request, $3,347,100 will be for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and $10,388,000 will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.
This  represents  an  increase  of  $590,400  in  the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation, an increase of $784,800 in the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation, and an increase of 1.6 total workyears.


RADON ACTION PROGRAM

1991 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total of $13,735,100 supported by 51.1 total workyears
for this  program,  of which  $3,347,100 will  be for the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and $10,388,000 will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.   This  represents an  increase  of $590,400  in  the  Salaries and
Expenses appropriation,  an increase  of $784,800 in the Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation,  and an increase of 1.6 total workyears.  The increases
reflect an increase in personnel  and support  costs,  increased measurement and
mitigation training and technical assistance to schools, and initiation of the
National Survey of Radon in Schools.

     In 1991 EPA will continue to conduct a comprehensive  Radon Action Program
through partnerships with  states to minimize the health  risks of radon exposure.
The Agency will continue to assess  the nation's radon problems in homes, schools,
and other  public buildings.   The Agency will complete data  analysis  for the
national survey  of  radon  in  residences and issue a final report.   The Agency
will also complete design of the national  survey  of radon in schools and initiate
the survey.  This survey  will target high-risk areas,  characterize the nature
and extent of radon  contamination  in the nation's  school  buildings,  and be
complemented by the transfer  of  more  detailed  information about measurement and
mitigation techniques to schools throughout the  country.  EPA will also provide
assistance to  three to  five  states  in the design  and  execution of state-wide
radon surveys, as well as to two Indian nations.

      The national Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP)  Program will continue to
evaluate the capability of mitigation firms and make  the information available
to  the  states  and public.   EPA will provide radon mitigation  and prevention
training through regional training centers;  the House Evaluation Programs (HEPs) ,
which provide  hands-on radon measurement,  mitigation,  and prevention training
to  state  personnel,  private  contractors,  and home builders;  the  transfer of
measurement and mitigation  information  to school officials  through hands-on
training and workshops; and the Radon Diagnostic and Mitigation Training Course.
 The Agency will complete  national model  building standards and release them to
the public. The Agency will also work with building code organizations and local
governments to promote the adoption of these standards.


                                      7-22

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      The  Agency will  continue  to  operate  the  national  Radon  Measurement
Proficiency (RMP) Program and provide information to the states and the public
on the proficiency of measurement firms.   EPA will also provide assistance to
states in dealing with critical  radon problems and will continue to develop the
capabilities of  state  programs  through oversight of the  state grant program.
The Agency will develop a national radon database and begin to operate a national
radon  information clearinghouse.  The Agency will  also promulgate user fee
regulations and  expects  to begin collecting fees  for its radon  training and
proficiency programs at the beginning of FY 1991.

      EPA will issue the  revised edition of the public information brochure, "A
Citizen's Guide  to  Radon."   The updated brochure  will  include information on
health risks to special populations,  costs  and feasibility of radon mitigation,
and a series of recommended action levels.  The Agency will continue the national
media campaign in cooperation with the Advertising Council  and will develop a
cooperative agreement  with the  American  Lung Association  to  conduct public
eduction  and  information programs.   Other public  information  activities will
include developing information and audiovisual materials for target audiences,
co-sponsoring  regional  meetings with  selected national organizations,  and
sponsoring a national radon symposium.

1990 Program

     In 1990 the Agency is allocating a total of $12,359,900 supported by 49.5
total workyears  for this program, of which $2,756,700 is from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation  and  $9,603,200 is from the Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation.

     In 1990 EPA is  continuing to implement a comprehensive Radon Action Program
to address and reduce  the health  impacts of radon exposure.  Specific activities
include completing the field operation  and data collection phase of the national
survey of radon  in  residences,  completing the design of  a  national survey of
radon in schools, developing protocols for measuring radon in schools, initiating
development of  measurement protocols  for workplaces,  and assisting  Federal
agencies  with workplace  studies.  EPA  is  also  continuing to assist individual
states and Indian nations in the design and execution of surveys, including the
collection of screening measurements in homes and the presentation of analyses
of potentially high-risk radon areas to the public.

     The  Agency  is  also initiating  the national RCP Program  to  evaluate the
capability of firms  to mitigate radon.  EPA is assisting Federal  agencies through
mitigation training and  continuing the transfer  of measurement and mitigation
information to school officials through hands-on  training and workshops.  Other
radon mitigation and prevention activities  include continuing the HEP, developing
national  model building  standards, and offering  three  to five  sessions of the
Radon Diagnostic and Mitigation  Training Course to augment the regional training
center program.

     EPA  is also continuing the national RMP Program to  assure  consumers of the
ability  of firms to accurately measure radon levels.   In addition, Agency is
continuing  efforts  to develop  the capabilities  of  state and  local personnel
through three regional training  centers.  In 1990 EPA will select at least one
additional  regional training center and  establish  it  through  a cooperative
agreement.  The  Agency is  also  designing  a national indoor radon database and
                                      7-23

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a national radon information clearinghouse to collect and disseminate information
on the radon problem.

      EPA is developing technical and public  information materials and making
them available  for distribution to state  and Federal officials,  the private
sector, and homeowners.  The Agency is continuing data evaluation and analysis
to revise "A Citizen's Guide to Radon"  and preparing  a draft of the document.
EPA will conduct a national media campaign in cooperation with the Advertising
Council and continue regional meetings for health professionals with the American
Medical Association (AMA).   EPA/AMA are jointly developing a brochure on radon
health effects for distribution this year.   Finally, the Agency will propose a
rule to establish user  fees for services provided through the  radon training and
proficiency programs.

1989 Accomplishments

     In 1989 the Agency obligated a total of $11,404,700 supported  by 39.4 total
workyears, of which $2,662,100  was from  the Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and $8,742,600 was from the Abatement,  Control and Compliance appropriation.

      EPA continued to  implement the Radon Action Program to minimize the health
risks of  radon.   Specific  activities  included continuing field work and data
collection efforts associated with the national survey of radon in residences.
The Agency also  provided interim protocols for measuring and mitigating radon
in schools and prepared for a national survey of radon  in schools.  EPA provided
direct technical assistance to states,  including assisting eight states in the
design and conduct of intensive state-wide surveys.

     In 1989 EPA  continued to  conduct the  national RHP Program.  In addition,
the Agency developed the national RCP Program to evaluate  radon mitigation firms
and provide information to  the  public on the capability of firms working in the
radon mitigation  field.  EPA also initiated  the development of national model
building standards for radon reduction in new construction.

      The Agency established three regional training centers through cooperative
agreements in 1989.  EPA incorporated new technology into the  HEP and evaluated
and designed  mitigation  schemes for 20 homes in  that program,  through which
nearly 200 state and private sector personnel were provided hands-on measurement
and mitigation training.  EPA also initiated similar training on a  limited basis
for school  facility  directors.  The Agency  updated the Radon Diagnostic and
Mitigation Training Course and conducted seven sessions of the course in 1989.

      The Agency developed technical and public information materials and made
them available  for distribution to state  and Federal officials,  the private
sector, and homeowners.  EPA also began data evaluation and analysis to revise
"A Citizen's Guide to Radon."  EPA and the AMA continued regional meetings for
health professionals and initiated development of  a joint EPA/AMA brochure on
radon health effects.
                                      7-24

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                                                   RADIATION
                                       Radon Action Program  Implementation

                                ACTUAL     ENACTED      CURRENT     REQUEST    INCREASE +
                                 1989      1990       ESTIMATE       1991      DECREASE -
                                                       1990               1991 VS  1990
PROGRAM
                                               (DOLLARS  IN THOUSANDS)
Radon Action Program
Implementation
 Salaries & Expenses
                       TOTAL
          $795.8   $1,180.3   $1,410.5    $1,836.0      $425.5
          $795.8   $1,180.3   $1,410.5    $1,836.0      $425.5
TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses

Radiation Program
Implementation
TOTAL
$795.8   $1,180.3.   $1,410.5   $1,836.0      $425.5

$795.8   $1,180.3   $1,410.5   $1,836.0      $425.5
PERMANENT UORKYEARS
Radon Action Program
Implementation

TOTAL PERMANENT UORKYEARS
            15.2
            15.2
             27.3
             27.3
28.2
28.2
37.7
37.7
9.5
9.5
TOTAL WORKYEARS
Radon Action Program
Implementation

TOTAL UORKYEARS
            16.2
            16.2
             27.3
             27.3
29.3
29.3
37.7
37.7
                                                         8.4
                                                                                8.4
                                          7-25

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                                  RADIATION


                     Radon Action Program Implementation

Budget Request

     The Agency requests a total of $1,836,000 supported by 37.7 total workyears
for 1990, an increase $425,500 and 8.4  total  workyears from 1990.   All of the
request will be for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.


RADON ACTION PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION

1991 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total of $1,836,000 supported by 37.7 total workyears
for  this  program,   all  of  which  will be   for   the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation.    This represents an increase  of  $425,500 in the  Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and an increase  of 8.4 total workyears  from 1990.   The
increases reflect oversight required for the  state grant  and regional training
center programs.

     In 1991 Regional staff will continue to work through partnerships developed
with states to  implement the Agency's Radon Action  Program.   Regional staff will
work with states to conduct EPA-assisted statewide  surveys, and will help states
that have completed their surveys to interpret the results and design effective
follow-up programs.  Three to five states and two Indian nations will conduct
surveys  in  1991, measuring radon levels in  7,000 to 10,000 homes.   This  will
bring the  number of Agency-assisted state surveys  to approximately  35.   The
Regions  will  also continue  to  participate  in the House Evaluation Programs
(HEPs).

      The Regions will be the focal point for  implementation of the radon state
grant program  in 1991.   Regions will review  state grant  applications against
established criteria and will ensure that grant funds are used effectively.

      The Regions will work with the Headquarters program,  the states,  and local
governments  in the  design  and implementation of surveys  in  schools  and in
workplaces, especially in Federal buildings, to further identify elevated radon
levels.   The  Regions will provide direct oversight  to the regional training
centers, which  also conduct testing for the national Radon Contractor Proficiency
(RCP) Program.   The Regions will also work with states and local governments for
the adoption of radon building standards and will provide advice and assistance
to states that  want to  establish additional consumer protection functions,  such
as licensing measurement and mitigation contractors.

      The Regions will continue  to provide information  to states and members of
the public. They will participate in or  conduct educational programs, symposia,
and workshops for state and local officials,  contractors,  and the public.

1990 Program
                                      7-26

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     In 1990 the Agency is allocating a  total  of  $1,410,500 supported by 29.3
total workyears for this program, all of which is from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation.

     In 1990 the Regional Offices are continuing  to  support implementation of
the Radon Action Program by supporting the development of state and local radon
capabilities and by coordinating radon activities  at the state and local level.
Regions are  overseeing implementation of the  Agency's  new radon  state grant
program,  including  assisting  states in their  development  of  applications for
Federal assistance, negotiating the grants,  and reviewing states' use of grant
funds.  Additionally,  EPA  is assisting eight  states in the design and execution
of.  state-wide  radon  surveys.   Through  these surveys,  states will  collect
screening measurements in 15,000 to  20,000 homes and the Regions will assist in
making the results available to the public.

      The Regions oversee  the operation of regional training centers and arrange
presentations of the Radon Diagnostic and Mitigation Training Course at selected
locations.  In 1990 the Regions are also assisting the states in their efforts
to conduct the course  independently. The Regions  are participating in the HEP.
The Regions are providing support to the states to help them address the most
critical radon problems as they are discovered.  This support is geared toward
promoting  state self-sufficiency.   The Regions  are  also  assisting  in the
distribution of EPA's  public information materials  and participating in numerous
public awareness activities.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989 the Agency obligated a total of $795,800 supported by 16.2 total
workyears, all of which was from the Salaries and Expenses appropriation.

     In 1989 Regional  Offices  continued  to coordinate activities  to support the
implementation of  the radon program by  providing  direct support to the states
in the development  of  state capabilities.  This included assistance in developing
state survey designs,  review  of state plans  for participation in the national
assessment  of   indoor radon,   assistance in  the  development  of state radon
capabilities, participation in  the HEP,  and technical advice and assistance to
state and local governments.

      The  Regions  assisted in the  selection  of  sites  for  regional training
centers and provided  assistance to states in their development of applications
to the state grant program which is issuing grants for the first time in 1990.
The Regions also participated in the presentation of the Radon Diagnostic and
Mitigation Training Course.  The Regions provided support to states to deal with
critical  radon  problems.    The  Regions  also  continued  to  assist   in  the
distribution of public information materials, conduct outreach programs to the
public and local agencies  as part of a continuing radon educational program, and
participate in radon  public awareness activities.
                                      7-27

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                                                  RADIATION
                                           Radon State Grants Program

                                ACTUAL     ENACTED     CURRENT     REQUEST   INCREASE +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE      1991     DECREASE -
                                                      1990               1991 VS 1990
PROGRAM
                                               (DOLLARS  IN THOUSANDS)
Radon State Grants
Program
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
                       TOTAL
$984.6   $8,972.1   $9,000.0       $27.9

$984.6   $8,972.1   $9,000.0       $27.9
TOTAL:
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance

Radon State Grants     TOTAL
Program
$984.6   $8,972.1    $9,000.0       $27.9
$984.6   $8,972.1    $9,000.0       $27.9
                                          7-28

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                                  RADIATION

                          Radon  State Grant Program

Budget Request

     The Agency requests a total  of  $9,000,000 for 1991, an increase of $27,900
from 1990.   All  of the request will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance
appropriation.


RADON STATE GRANT PROGRAM

1991 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total  of $9,000,000  for  this  program,  all of which
will be for  the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.  This represents
an increase of  $27,900  in the  Abatement,  Control and Compliance appropriation
from 1990.   The increases are to provide additional direct funding to states.

      In 1991  EPA  will  continue  to issue grants to  states  to assist  in the
development and implementation of programs to assess and mitigate radon.  State
programs funded through these Federal grants will continue  to include activities
such as carrying out radon surveys;  establishing radon assessment, mitigation,
and  control programs;  developing public  information  and  education materials;
developing  data storage  and management  systems;  operating radon hotlines; and
purchasing  analytical equipment.  In 1991,  the  second year of program,  states
must provide a 40 percent match to Federal funding.

      Headquarters, in cooperation  with  the Regions,  will continue to develop
criteria used to evaluate states'  use of grant funds.   In 1991 this will include
criteria for assessing state efforts  to  ensure  the  adoption  of model building
standards as directed  in Section 306 of the Indoor Radon Abatement  Act.   The
Agency will continue to provide national oversight of the grant program.

1990 Program

      In 1990 the Agency is obligating a total of $8,972,100 for this program,
all of which is from the Abatement,  Control and Compliance appropriation.

      In 1990,  for the first time, EPA is  issuing grants to states to assist them
in the development and implementation of- programs to assess and mitigate radon.
State programs  funded through  these Federal grants  include activities such as
carrying out  radon surveys;  establishing  radon assessment, mitigation,  and
control  programs;  developing  public information  and educational  materials;
developing  data storage  and management  systems;  operating radon hotlines; and
purchasing analytical  equipment.  Headquarters, in cooperation with the Regions,
is developing the specific criteria used to evaluate  state grant applications
and will oversee administration and evaluation of the national program.

1989 Accomplishments

      This  grant program is being initiated in 1990.
                                      7-29

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8. MULTIMEDIA

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                       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1991 Budget  Estimate

                              Table of Contents

                                                                        Page


MULTIMEDIA                                                              8-1

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Multimedia Research  	   8-4
      Scientific Assessment  	   8-17
      Quality Assurance Management  	 	   8-18
      Technical Information and Liaison  	   8-19
      Health Effects	   8-21
      Core Research - Health Risk	   8-22
      Human Exposure	   8-23
      Reduction of Uncertainties in Risk Assessment (RURA)  	   8-24
      Multimedia Activities  .... 	   8-25
      Core Research - Grants and Centers  .	   8-25
      Exploratory Research   	   8-26
      Core Research - Ecological Risk	   8-28
      Ecological Status and Trends  	   8-29
      Core Research - Risk Reduction	   8-30
      Capital Investments 	   8-31
ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   Environmental Review and Coordination  	   8-32
   Office of Cooperative Environmental Management 	   8-35
   Multimedia Training Grants 	   8-38
ENFORCEMENT
   Enforcement Policy and Technical Support 	   8-40
      Enforcement Policy and Operations  	   8-42
      Criminal Investigations Program 	   8-48
      Technical Support - Office of Enforcement and Compliance
        Monitoring	   8-50

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                                ACTUAL
                                 1989
            ENACTED
             1990
                                                    MULTIMEDIA
 CURRENT
ESTIMATE
  1990
REQUEST
 1991
  INCREASE +
  DECREASE -
1991 VS 1990
APPROPRIATION
                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
 Salaries & Expenses
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
 Research & Development

TOTAL, Multimedia
$36,040.9  $41,702.9  $42,029.9  $54,146.6   $12,116.7
 $9,698.2  $12,149.3  $11,918.4  $16,641.7    $4,723.3

$34,125.1  $69,773.2  $72,912.9  $95,631.1   $22,718.2

$79,864.2 $123,625.4 $126,861.2 $166,419.4   $39,558.2
PERMANENT WORKYEARS
TOTAL WORKYEARS
OUTLAYS
AUTHORIZATION LEVELS
    598.2      776.0      723.1      841.5       118.4
    641.4      776.0      744.3      841.5        97.2
$66,049.9 $115,606.1 $115,082.1 $153,027.4   $37,945.3
All authorization except for Research and Development
is by virtue of the Appropriation Act.  The Environmental
Research, Development and Demonstration Act expired
September 30, 1981.  Reauthorization is pending.
                                         8-1

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                                 MULTIMEDIA
OVERVIEW AND STRATEGY

     The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Multimedia program is composed
of activities that provide support to all media programs.  Such support addresses
environmental concerns that affect several media.  This includes the multimedia
research program, Federal agency environmental compliance program, the National
Environmental Policy Act  (NEPA)  compliance program, and the  legal  support and
criminal program of the Agency's enforcement activities.

Multimedia Research

     The Multimedia Research Program consists of two major components:  long-term
"core" research and other multimedia research activities.

      The Core Research program consist of four major research areas of focus in
which  the  Agency  is   strengthening   its  long-term   environmental  research
capabilities.  These are:

      1.    Ecological risk,
      2.    Health risk,
      3.    Risk reduction,  and
      4.    Exploratory research grants and academic research centers.

These areas are designed to: increase our  knowledge  and understanding of system-
wide environmental problems; determine  what  impacts ecological  changes have on
human health, and improve our ability to anticipate and prevent pollution;

      Specifically, the  Ecological Risk area will  define  indicators  to assess
ecological health, collect statistics and other relevant data to define ecological
quality trends and report on them periodically.  The Health Risk area will develop
dose-response and  exposure  models  for estimating  the  effects of environmental
pollution  on humans.   The Risk Reduction  area  will  develop  new  tools  and
strategies  for  pollution  prevention  involving  industry,  state  and  local
governments, communities, and individuals.  The Exploratory Research Grants and
Academic Centers area will provide support  for long term  exploratory environmental
research through grants and academic research centers.

      Other multimedia research activities will continue to:  develop uniform risk
assessment  guidelines  and  coordinate  with   other  agencies  through  the  Risk
Assessment  Forum;  provide production and transfer  of  technical  and scientific
information products; provide centralized guidance and management for the Agency's
Quality Assurance efforts; promote the Visiting Scientist and  the Small Business
Innovative  Research  programs;  support  national and international  cooperative
efforts to understand pollutant exposures  and human health effects and; ensuring
that the Agency acquires state-of-the-art scientific instrumentation to produce
quality research and attract and retain the  highest quality researchers.
                                    8-2

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Abatement. Control, and Compliance

     This Multimedia Program consist of two major activities to ensure multimedia
environmental compliance by Federal organizations and related groups and promote
transfer of technical information to organization outside EPA.

     The  Environmental  Review and Coordination  Program  accomplishes statutory
objectives of three  authorities:  the  National  Environmental  Policy Act (NEPA);
Clean Air Act, Section 309; and Executive Order 12088 - Federal Compliance with
Pollution Control Standards.  This program also  includes four program activities
to support Regional multimedia projects and EPA technology transfer activities.
The NEPA compliance program assures EPA's actions comply with  the intent of NEPA.
This includes reviews  of Agency programs that  are not specifically covered by
NEPA.  The Federal  facilities compliance program oversees Federal compliance with
all Federal statutory environmental requirements, and specifically with Executive
Order 12088.  The  Indians  program develops and implements policies for dealing
with environmental problems on Indian lands.  Regional multimedia projects enable
rapid response to unique environmental problems.

      EPA's  overall technology  transfer  activities  are  intended  to  improve
efficiency and performance in  environmental programs through technology transfer
and information exchange.

Enforcement

     The Enforcement Legal  Support Program provides consistent direction to EPA
enforcement activities  for  all  non-Superfund and noh-LUST media  to ensure that
all media enforcement programs contribute  to  the protection  of  environmental
quality  in the  most effective manner possible.  To accomplish  this goal, this
program establishes compliance monitoring and enforcement priorities, policies,
and procedural guidelines so that enforcement actions are properly selected and
prepared and establishes measures  to ensure policies and procedures are correctly
implemented by the media enforcement  programs and Regional offices.   It conducts
all legal  case development, litigation, and adjudicatory hearing activities for
media enforcement programs,  including oversight of evidence gathering, preparation
and management of cases, and referral of cases to the Department of Justice for
litigation.

     In  addition,  this  program contains  the Agency's criminal  investigations
effort  which  investigates,  prepares,   and refers  cases  involving  criminal
violations of environmental  statutes.   Investigators and attorneys provide support
to the Department of Justice during subsequent  investigations and litigation of
these cases.

     The National Enforcement Investigations Center (NEIC) provides  specialized
technical  expertise  in  support  of EPA enforcement  case preparation  activities.
NEIC serves  as  a point  of  coordination and support  for  complex investigations
which have a national impact on environmental enforcement.

Consulting Services

     Consulting services are used on an intermittent basis  to supplement technical
expertise  in the Multimedia Research Program.
                                     8-3

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Research and
Development

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                       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1991  Budget  Estimate

                              Table of Contents
MULTIMEDIA

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
   Multimedia Research  	   8-4
      Scientific Assessment 	   8-17
      Quality Assurance Management  	   8-18
      Technical Information and Liaison 	   8-19
      Health Effects  	   8-21
      Core Research - Health Risk	   8-22
      Human Exposure	   8-23
      Reduction of Uncertainties in Risk Assessment (RURA)  	   8-24
      Multimedia Activities 	  ....   8-25
      Core Research - Grants and Centers	   8-25
      Exploratory Research  	   8-26
      Core Research - Ecological Risk	   8-28
      Ecological Status and Trends  	   8-29
      Core Research - Risk Reduction	   8-30
      Capital Investments 	   8-31

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                                                   MULTIMEDIA
                                              Multimedia  Research
                                ACTUAL
                                 1989
ENACTED
 1990
 CURRENT
ESTIMATE
  1990
REQUEST
 1991
  INCREASE +
  DECREASE -
1991 VS 1990
PROGRAM
                                               (DOLLARS  IN  THOUSANDS)
Scientific Assessment
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
Quality Assurance
Management
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
Technical Information &
Liaison
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
Health Effects
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
Core Research -
Health Risk
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
Human Exposure
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
Reducing Uncertainties
in Risk Assessments
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
Multimedia Activities
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
Core Research -
Grants and Centers
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
$2,357.2
$2.014.1
$4,371.3
$826.3
$845.5
$1,671.8
$4,856.3
$4,929.7
$9,786.0


$122.8
$198.9
$321.7
$294.2
$9,943.6
$10,237.8


$2,614.2
$4,769.7
$7,383.9
$887.9
$821.0
$1,708.9
$5,395.2
$3,031.7
$8,426.9


$845.3
$3,209.3
$4,054.6
$274.0
$9,845.0
$10,119.0


$2,585.0
$4,718.9
$7,303.9
$875.9
$812.3
$1,688.2
$5,365.6
$4,882.7
$10,248.3


$933.9
$3,175.1
$4,109.0
$270.4
$9,740.2
$10,010.6


$2,712.8
$1,844.8
$4,557.6
$951.9
$1,808.9
$2,760.8
$6,020.0
$5,352.7
$11,372.7
$482.5
$1,115.8
$1,598.3
$1,745.0
$12,209.8
$13,954.8


$410.9
$2,695.0
$3,105.9
$1,437.6
$32,839.9
$34,277.5
$127.8
-$2,874.1
-$2,746.3
$76.0
$996.6
$1,072.6
$654.4
$470.0
$1.124.4
$482.5
$1,115.8
$1,598.3
$1,745.0
$12,209.8
$13,954.8
-$933.9
-$3,175.1
-$4,109.0
-$270.4
-$9,740.2
-$10,010.6
$410.9
$2,695.0
$3,105.9
$1,437.6
$32,839.9
$34,277.5

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                                                   MULTIMEDIA
                                              Multimedia  Research

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED     CURRENT      REQUEST    INCREASE +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE       1991      DECREASE -
                                                       1990                1991  VS  1990
                                               (DOLLARS IN  THOUSANDS)
Exploratory Research
 Salaries & Expenses             $946.0   $1,135.7   $1,155.1
 Research & Development      -$16,193.3  $24,257.6  $23,998.6
                       TOTAL  $17,139.3  $25,393.3  $25,153.7

Core Research -
Ecological Risk
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
Ecological Status And
Trends
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
Core Research -
Risk Reduction
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
              $784.1   $1,023.5
           $16,947.4  $16,766.9
           $17,731.5  $17,790.4
              $212.9     $210.1
            $2,953.5   $2,922.1
            $3,166.4   $3,132.2
                                             -$1,155.1
                                            -$23,998.6
                                            -$25,153.7
                                  $1,572.3    $1,572.3
                                 $25,114.2   $25,114.2
                                 $26,686.5   $26,686.5
           -$1,023.5
          -$16,766.9
          -$17,790.4
  $425.0
$4,200.0
$4,625.0
  $214.9
$1,277.9
$1.492.8
Capital Investments
 Research & Development
                       TOTAL
            $3,938.0   $5,896.1    $8,450.0    $2,553.9
            $3,938.0   $5,896.1    $8,450.0    $2,553.9
TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses
 Research & Development
 $9,402.8  $12,149.3  $12,419.5  $15,758.0    $3,338.5
$34,125.1  $69,773.2  $72,912.9  $95,631.1   $22,718.2
Multimedia Research    TOTAL  $43,527.9  $81,922.5  $85,332.4 $111,389.1    $26,056.7
PERMANENT UORKYEARS
Scientific Assessment 35.2 44.1
Quality Assurance 11.6 14.5
Management
Technical Information & 54.3 72.0
Liaison
Core Research - Health Risk
Human Exposure .7 13.0
Reducing Uncertainties 1.7 4.0
in Risk Assessments
Multimedia Activities
Core Research - Grants and Centers
39.0 40.1
14.5 14.5
72.0 72.0
19.0
13.0
4.0
4.0
12.0
1.1
0.0
0.0
19.0
-13.0
-4.0
4.0
12.0
                                         8-5

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         MULTIMEDIA
    Multimedia Research
ACTUAL
1989

Exploratory Research 13.9
Core Research - Ecological Risk
Ecological Status And
Trends
Core Research - Risk Reduction
TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS 117.4
TOTAL WORKYEARS
Scientific Assessment 39.1
Quality Assurance 11.9
Management
Technical Information & 58.8
Liaison
Core Research - Health Risk
Human Exposure .7
Reducing Uncertainties 2.9
in Risk Assessments
Multimedia Activities
Core Research - Grants and Centers
Exploratory Research 14.0
Core Research - Ecological Risk
Ecological Status And
Trends
Core Research - Risk Reduction
TOTAL WORKYEARS 127.4
ENACTED CURRENT REQUEST INCREASE +
1990 ESTIMATE 1991 DECREASE -
1990 1991 VS 1990
(DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)
15.0 15.0 -15.0
14.0 14.0
12.0 12.0 -12.0
4.0 5.0 5.0
178.6 169.5 180.6 11.1

44.1 39.0 40.1 1.1
14.5 14.5 14.5 0.0
72.0 72.0 72.0 0.0
19.0 19.0
13.0 13.0 -13.0
4.0 4.0 -4.0
4.0 4.0
12.0 12.0
15.0 15.0 -15.0
14.0 14.0
12.0 12.0 -12.0
4.0 5.0 5.0
178.6 169.5 180.6 11.1
8-6

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                                  MULTIMEDIA

                              Multimedia Research


                         Principal Outputs by Objective
Objective 1:  Uniform Risk Assessments

1991:  o  '  Final guidelines for neurotoxicity and final guidance for non-cancer
            health effects and cancer.

       o    Initial guidelines on pharmacokinetics and ecotoxicity.

       o    Agency-wide implementation/training  program  for the  enhanced IRIS
            delivery system.

1990:  o    Final guidelines for exposure measurements and  for male and female
            reproductive effects.

       o    Final amendments for guidelines on developmental toxicity.

       o    Proposed guidelines for neurotoxicity, quantitative guidance for non-
            cancer health effects and amendments to the cancer guidelines.

       o    Risk Assessment Forum analyses of specific risk assessment  issues.

       o    Additional EPCRA right-to-know chemicals to IRIS.

1989:  o    Proposed amendments to current guidelines for exposure measurements
            and for developmental toxicity.

       o    Inhalation reference doses added to IRIS.

       o    Risk Assessment analyses of specific risk assessment issues.


Objective 2:  Lead Abatement

1990:  o    Lead exposure abatement planning document.

       o    Progress report on  the  status  of  projects to  reduce lead and human
            exposure.

1989:  o    No program in 1989.


Objective 3:  Quality Assurance Program

1991:  o    Supplementary guidance on Data Quality Objectives.

       o    Two QA  Management  Systems Reviews of major EPA environmental data
            operations.


                                     8-7

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       o    25 QA Program Plans reviewed.

       o    Three QA training courses developed.

       o    Preliminary report on Audit of Data Quality protocols.

1990:   o    Two QA Management  Systems  Reviews of major EPA  environmental data
            operations.

       o    25 QA Program Plans reviewed.

       o    Three QA training courses developed.

       o    Final version of glossary of QA terminology.

       o    Pilot of alternative procedures for QC  optimization in a chemistry
            laboratory.

1989:   o    Management Systems Review of a major EPA  environmental data operation

       o    25 QA Program Plans reviewed.

       o    Two QA training courses developed.

       o    Draft version of glossary of QA terminology.

       o    Alternative  procedures   for   QC  optimization   in   a   chemistry
            laboratory.


Objective 4:  Regional Analytical Methods

1991:   o    Report to the Environmental Monitoring Management  Council on Regional
            methods activities.

       o    Regional Action Plan: Research needs and priorities.

       o    Work Plan for Regional Methods Program.

1990:   o    No program in 1990.


Objective 5:  Technology Transfer

1991:   o    Series  of industry-specific  clean  technology  application  guides
            providing information and  research results  on clean technology and
            waste reduction applications.

       o    Handbook on Municipal Sludge Landfills.

       o    Handbook  presenting  Best Available  Control  Technology   (BACT)
            information  on  air  pollutants harmful to  human  health but  not
            regulated.


                                     8-8

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1990:  o    Seminar  series  on  the  statistical  procedures  used  to  detect
            groundwater contamination at hazardous waste facilities.

       o    Workshops on the use of the expert system for evaluating and improving
            POTW performance.

       o    Handbook  on  toxic  air  pollutant  risk  assessment  and  control
            alternatives.

1989:  o    Seminar series on  innovative  technologies  for municipal wastewater
            treatment facilities.

       o    Handbook on  sampling and analysis  methods  for toxic emissions from
            incinerators.

       o    Seminar series and publication on how to conduct sanitary surveys of
            small drinking water treatment facilities.


Objective 8:   Task Force on Environmental Cancer and Heart and Lung Disease

1991:  o    Proceedings of the Second National Conference on Risk Communications.

1990:  o    Workshop Report on exposure to pesticides.

       o    Proceedings of the workshop on environmental and occupational asthma.

1989:  o    Workshop proceedings on effective risk communications:  Governmental
            and non-governmental roles.


Objective 9:  Harvard Study

1989:  o    Variations in susceptibility to inhaled pollutants: Identification,
            mechanisms, and policy implications.


Objective 10:  China Program

1991:  o    Report on lung cancer risk due to indoor air pollution in Xuan-Wei,
            China.

1990:  o    Interim report on chemical indoor air pollution constituents
            associated with lung cancer in Xuan-Wei, China.


Objective 11:  NHANES-III

1991:  o    Annaul Status Report on NHANES-III Cooperative Research

1990:  o    Annaul Status Report on NHANES-III Cooperative Research

1989:  o    Annaul Status Report on NHANES-III Cooperative Research
                                     8-9

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Objective 12:  Human Exposure

1991:  o    Final report on TEAM Study of particles and metals.

       o    Report on breath analysis in high exposure sources.

1990:  o    Completion of continuous personal monitor for N02.

1989:  o    Final report on NOPES Study of exposure to household pesticides.

       o    Final report on TEAM Studies of VOCs in Los Angeles, Baltimore, and
            New Jersey.


Objective 13:  Reducing Uncertainties In Risk Assessments (RURA-Health)

1991:  o    Annual Report on the RIHRA research program.

1990:  o    Research Program Strategy to Improve Health Risk Assessments.

       o    Initial  research in  the areas  of human  exposure  assessment and
            characterization of uncertainties in health risk assessment.

1989:  o    Integrated approach to evaluate/characterize the uncertainties in risk
            assessments.

       o    Research Plan  to Improve Health Risk  Assessments  program Research
            Plan.


Objective 14:  Epidemiology Research Center

1991:  o    Cooperative Agreement for epidemiology research center.

1990:  o    No program in 1990.


Objective 15:  Visiting Scientists Program

1991:  o    Solicitation  and selection  of scientists  and engineers  for 1991
            Visiting Scientists and Engineers Program.

       o    Solicitation  and selection  of candidates  for  1991 Environmental
            Science and Engineering Fellows Program.

1990:  o    Solicitation  and selection  of scientists  and engineers  for 1990
            Visiting Scientists and Engineers Program.

       o    Solicitation  and selection  of candidates  for  1990 Environmental
            Science and Engineering Fellows Program.
                                     8-10

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1989:  o    4 visitors under the Visiting Scientists and Engineers Program.

       o    10 science  or  engineering fellows under  the  Environmental Science
            and Engineering Fellows Program.

       o    Annual Report on Visiting Scientist Program.


Objective 16;   Small Business Innovative Research Program

1991:  o    Solicitation of proposals.

       o    Summary of Phase I and Phase II abstracts.

1990:  o    Solicitation of proposals.

       o    Summary of Phase I and Phase II abstracts.

1989:  o    Award  of  27 Phase  I (feasibility) and  12 Phase  II  (development)
            contracts.

       o    Published summary of abstracts.


Objective 17:  Exploratory Research Grants

1991:  o    Solicitation of 1991 research grants proposals.

       o    Annual report on Exploratory Research Grants Program.

       o    Bibliography of research grant articles published.

1990:  o    Solicitation of 1990 research grants proposals.

       o    Annual report on Exploratory Research Grants Program.

       o    Bibliography of research grant articles published.

1989:  o    Awarded 64 new Exploratory Research Grants.

       o    Published over 100 technical articles in journals.

       o    Annual report on Exploratory Research Grants Program.


Objective 18:  Academic Research Centers


1991:  o    Selection of new Academic Research Centers.

       o    Annual report on Academic Research Centers Program.

1990:  o    Prepare solicitation for new centers.
                                    8-11

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       o    Annual report on Academic Research Centers  Program.

1989:  o    Annual report on Academic Research Centers  Program.


Objective 19:  Ecological Monitoring and Assessment

1991:  o    Final Program Plan For Gulf Of Mexico Project.

       o    Draft Report On The Gulf Of Mexico Project  Implementation  Plan for
            Forest Monitoring and Assessment.

       o    Implementation Plan for Agroecosystem Monitoring and Assessment.

       o    Implementation Plan for Desert, Grassland,  and Rangeland Monitoring
            and Assessment.

       o    Annual Report On Forest Pilot Project in the Northeastern U.S.

1990:  o    Assessment of Surface Water Ecosystem Condition.

       o    Draft Program Plan for the Gulf of Mexico Project.

       o    Final Research Plan For EMAP Near-Coastal Monitoring and Assessment
            Program.

       o    Quality Assurance Program Plan for EMAP.

       o    Assessment for Forest Ecosystems.

       o    Assessment for Desert, Rangeland,  and Grassland Ecosystems.

1989:  o    Preliminary evaluation of ecosystem classification schemes.

       o    Research plan for evaluating condition of ecosystems.

       o    Development  of an integrated  approach  to  reduce uncertainties  in
            ecological risk assessment.


Objective 20:  Reducing Uncertainties in Risk Assessments (RURA-Ecological)

1991:  o    Final  Report  On The  Near-Coastal  Demonstration   Project in  the
            Virginian Province.

       o    Integrated Research Plan for The Development Of Assessment   And
            Management  Tools  To   Reduce   Uncertainties   In  Ecological  Risk
            Assessment.
1990:
Demonstration Assessment for Near-Coastal Systems  in  the  Virginian
Province.

Final Sampling Plan For The Near Coastal Demonstration Project.
                                     8-12

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1989:
            Data management system for near coastal  demonstration  project.

            Implementation Plan For Near Coastal Demonstration Project.

            Final  Research Plan:  Reducing Uncertainties  in  Ecological  Risk
            Assessment.

            Conceptual Overview for the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
            Program.

            Draft  Research Plan:  Reducing Uncertainties  In  Ecological  Risk
            Assessment.  (RUERA)
Objective 21:  Pollution Prevention

1991:  o
            Study on environmental impacts of consumer products to determine if
            labelling can be used to identify clean products.

       o    Study on promoting pollution  prevention  and  environmental eduction
            in secondary schools.

       o    Study on alternatives for some ozone depleting chemicals to determine
            if recycling and/or substitutes are  available.

1990:  o    Expanded Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse including the
            hardcopy repository,  telephone  hotline and  electronic  information
            exchange system.

       o    Measurement  methodology   for  hazardous/non-hazardous   pollution
            prevention.

       o    Product specific projects  initiated on preventing indoor air quality
            problems from building materials and household products.

1989:  o    No program in 1989.


Objective 22:  Information and Communications

1991:  o    Cooperative Agreements.

1990:  o    Research Plan for Information and Communications Program.

       o    Solicitation for 1991 research and development projects.

1989:  o    No program in 1989.
                                    8-13

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                                  MULTIMEDIA

                              Multimedia Research
Budget Request

      The Agency requests  a total  of  $111,389,100  supported  by  180.6  total
workyears for the Multimedia (formerly  the  Interdisciplinary)  Research program
in  1991.  This  is  an  increase  of $26,056,700  and an  increase of  11.1  total
workyears from 1990.  Of the total request,  $15,758,000 will be for the Salaries
and  Expenses  appropriation  and   $95,631,100  will  be  for  the  Research  and
Development appropriation, an increase of $3,338,500 in the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and  an increase of $22,718,200  in the Research  and Development
appropriation.


Program Objectives

      The Multimedia Research budget subactivity consists  of research programs
which provide support  to  all program medias.   These research programs include:
Uniform Risk Assessments,  Quality Assurance Management,  Technical Information,
Health  Effects, Core  Research  Program  (Ecological  Risk,  Health  Risk,  Risk
Reduction, and Grants and Centers),  and Capital Investments.

      In 1991,  EPA proposes  a major reorganization within the Multimedia research
program  to  better  define  research  activities  that  are related  to  general
multimedia support  (e.g.  Uniform  Risk Assessments,  Technology  Transfer,  Health
Effects) and the new multimedia  long-term research program (e.g. Core Research).

      Objective  1:  Uniform Risk  Assessments.   This research activity provides
Agency-wide guidance to perform exposure and risk assessments.  These guidelines
are  intended  to ensure  uniform  assessments   that  rely  on sound  scientific
principles and  information.

      Objective 2:   Lead Abatement.   This new research supports understanding and
abatement techniques for  lead primarily in paint, soils and drinking water.

      Objective  3:   Quality  Assurance  Program.  This  program  provides  policy
direction, management guidance and oversight for  the Agency's quality assurance
program for environmental data operations.

      Objective 4:   Regional Analytical  Methods.  This new research program will
evaluate, standardize  and further develop analytical technologies that support
Regional  programs,  while  avoiding  duplication  and  being consistent  with the
Agency's overall approach toward  method development.

      Objective  5:    Technology  Transfer.   This program supports  activities
authorized under the Technology Transfer Act of  1986 (P.L. 99-502).  This activity
supports the development and delivery of technical information tools  to Regions,
States, counties, municipalities,  Indian tribes,  and media program offices.

      Objective  6:    Technical  Information  Product  Management.   This program
provides overall management and coordination of technology transfer and technical


                                     8-14

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information activities related to research.  This program facilitates the use of
EPA  research products  and  services and  ensures  the  integration  of  Agency
scientific and technical priorities among research offices and laboratories.

      Objective 7:  Regulatory Support.  This  research activity is responsible
for ensuring the scientific quality of the Agency's regulations is scientifically
sound.  This  is  conducted through ORD participation in  Agency  regulatory work
groups, review of alternative regulatory approaches, and continual analysis of
regulatory requirements so that research programs are responsive to program and
Regional office needs.

      Objective 8:  Task Force on  Environmental Cancer and Heart and Lung Disease.
This  interagency  task force was  established  by the Clean  Air  Act of  1977  to
promote  coordination and  recommend  research  to  determine and quantify  the
relationship between environmental factors  and human diseases.

      Objective 9:  Harvard Study.  This research activity supports the Harvard
School of  Public Health's Interdisciplinary  Programs  in Health.   The  primary
objective  of  this program is  to enlist scholars  from the natural  and social
sciences to direct their energies toward finding new and better ways to address
the most critical environmental problems facing society.

      Objective 10:  China Program.  This research activity supports the United
States' policy  of scientific and technological cooperation with  the  People's
Republic of China (PRC)  as reflected  in the 1980 US-PRC Environmental Protection
Protocol.

      Objective 11;   National Health and Nutrition Examination  Survey (NHANES-
III).  The third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey  is  one of a
series of  studies conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)
as a joint Federal effort to  obtain health and nutrition data on a statistically
representative sample of Americans.

      Objective 12:  Human Exposure.  This research activity provides the methods,
monitoring approaches and models  to determine  and predict the exposures of human
populations to environmental pollutants with known precision.

      Objective  13:   Reducing Uncertainties In Health  Risk Assessments (RURA-
Health).   This  research activity, also called  Research  to  Improve Health Risk
Assessments  (RIHRA),  supports an integrated effort  to  reduce  the uncertainties
in and improve health risk assessment approaches.

      Objective 14:   Center  for  Environmental  Epidemiology  Research.   This new
research center provides comprehensive and systematic research to  define, improve,
and apply  environmental epidemiology to improve regulatory decision making.

      Objective 15:  Visiting Scientists Program.  This research activity develops
and  implements programs  to enhance the quality and  reputation  of  the Agency's
research by attracting outside researchers  to  EPA facilities to collaborate with
Agency researchers.   It currently has two major elements:  a Visiting Scientists
and Engineers Program (VSEP) and an Environmental Science and Engineering Fellows
Program  (ESEFP).   The major differences between  the two are in the  length of
assignment and in the level of relevant experience required of participants.
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      Objective 16:   Small  Business Innovation Research  (SBIR)  Program.   This
program is mandated by the  Small  Business  Innovation Development Act (P.L.  97-
219) which requires EPA to  set aside  1.25  percent  of the Agency's Research and
Development Appropriation to support small businesses  engaged  in  developing
equipment  for  pollution  abatement  and  control   and  instrumentation  for
environmental monitoring.

      Objective  17:    Exploratory  Research  Grants.    This  research  program
supplements the fundamental scientific knowledge base crucial  to sound applied
environmental  research.     This  is  done  by  funding  investigator-initiated
environmental  research  proposals selected through  a competitive peer  review
process.   Support is provided  in  five  general  areas:   environmental health,
ecology and environmental biology, environmental engineering,  air chemistry and
physics, and water chemistry and physics.

      Objective 18:  Academic Research Centers.   EPA Academic  Research Centers
provide multi-year research  in defined areas of interest to the Agency.  Research
is carried out in a university setting.

      Objective 19:  Ecological Monitoring and Assessment.  This research activity
provides basic research, monitoring,  and data gathering and manipulation to report
periodically on the  status, changes, trends and  relationships  among pollutant
exposures and indicators of ecological conditions in the nation's ecosystems.

      Objective 20:  Reducing Uncertainties In Ecological Risk Assessments  (RURA-
Eco).  This research activity supports an integrated approach to  develop a better
understanding of the structure  and function of ecosystems in an  effort to reduce
the uncertainties associated with ecological risk assessments.

      Objective 21:  Pollution Prevention.   This research program  supports EPA's
multimedia pollution prevention program.   To  develop the necessary information
for  implementation  of effective  national/ international  pollution  prevention
programs,  activities  will be supported  in six major  areas: product research,
process research, recycling and reuse research, socioeconomic and institutional
research, anticipatory research, and technology transfer and technical assistance.

      Objective  22:   Information and Communications  Program.    This research
activity  provides  information on alternative  approaches  to control pollution
problems.  The current regulatory approach  (traditional command and control) is
not appropriate for several  of  the emerging environmental problems (i.e., radon,
global  climate  change, non-point  source).   Research  will  be conducted in five
major areas: risk communication,  incentives and disincentives,  new technologies
for information dissemination,  technology commercialization and  utilization, and
education/training.

      Objective 23:  Capital Investments Program.  This program activity provides
EPA  research  laboratories   with scientific  equipment  necessary  to  conduct
investigations  and  analyses in a safe and timely  manner with   state-of-the-art
research  instrumentation  and components  available.   This equipment enables ORD
to recruit and nurture the  highest  quality scientists and engineers to conduct
EPA's research activities.
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SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT

1991 Program Request

       The  Agency requests  a total  of $4,557,600   supported  by 40.1  total
workyears for  this  program,  of which  $2,712,800  will be for  the  Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and $1,844,800  will be  for the Research and Development
appropriation.   This  represents  an  increase  of  $127,800 and  a  decrease  of
$2,874,100 respectively with an increase of 1.1 workyears.  The increase in the
Salaries  and  Expenses  appropriation  reflects   additional  support  for  Risk
Assessment  Forum activities.   The decrease  in  the  Research and Development
appropriation reflects no further funding requested for lead abatement research
until the Agency's lead abatement plan is developed in 1990.

      Uniform Risk Assessments.  Risk  assessment guidelines proposed during 1990
(e.g., neurotoxicity, quantitative guidance for non-^cancer  health effects, and
cancer)  will  be   issued  as  final  guidance.    New   guidance   related  to
pharmacokinetics and ecotoxicity will  be developed.   The Risk Assessment Forum
will undertake projects designed to resolve difficult issues  raised during the
guidelines  review.   Reports that result  will serve  as supplements  to  these
guidelines.

      Emphasis  in the  Integrated  Risk  Information  System (IRIS)  will be  on
providing an Agency-wide  implementation/training  program for  the enhanced IRIS
delivery system.  This will  include communicating mixture  toxicity and expanding
the data base.  An additional 160 chemical  assessments will be  added to the data
base.  Emphasis  will be placed  on  comparison/validation of exposure assessment
techniques.   Continued development  of  the Compact Disk-Read Only Memory (CD-ROM)
will contribute  to  this  goal by establishing  a comprehensive  and conveniently
searched and used data base  for exposure assessment.

      Lead Abatement.  Research will continue research activities begun in 1990
on:  lead  based  paint  abatement;  lead  exposure  analysis;  biochemical  and
physiological  indicators;  toxicological and epidemiological  studies;  drinking
water  exposure;  and the  movement  of  lead  through industrial processes.   The
Agency's Task Force on Lead Abatement will review this research and help define
what future research is needed on lead abatement exposure reduction and related
health effects.

1990 Program

       In 1990, the Agency has allocated a  total of $7,303,900  supported by 39.0
total workyears  for this  program, of  which  $2,585,000 is from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation and  $4,718,900 is  from  the  Research and Development
appropriation.

      For uniform risk  assessments,   new  final  guidelines  are published for
exposure measurements, male  and female reproductive effects, and amendments for
the  1986  developmental toxicity guidelines.   New guidelines  are  proposed for
neurotoxicity, quantitative guidance for non-cancer health effects, and amendments
to the cancer guidelines  issued  in 1986.  Forum reports on risk  assessment issues
(e.g.,  use  of human  evidence in  carcinogen risk  assessment,  acceptability and
interpretation  of  dermal developmental  toxicity studies,  and  one  vs.  two-
generation reproductive effects studies) are to be issued as final documents.


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      For  lead  abatement,  research  projects  have  been selected  to  better
understand the risks from and controls  for  lead  in the environment.  Research is
being conducted on: new technologies for controlling exposure to lead based paint;
relationships of paint to dust; disposal alternatives for paint abatement debris;
bioavailability of lead in paint and soil;  lead exposure through soil;  prenatal
transplacental  transfer of  lead;  proteins  that bind  lead; bone  biokinetics of
lead; movement  of  lead  through groundwater; and lead particulates  in  drinking
water.  These research efforts are  multi-year in scope and will continue through
1991.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989, the  Agency obligated a total of $4,371,300 supported by 39.1 total
workyears for this program, of which $2,357,200 was from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $2,014,100 was from the Research and Development appropriation.
Guidelines for exposure measurements and for amendments of  the 1986 developmental
toxicity guidelines were prepared.  The Risk Assessment Forum issued a workshop
report on EPA guidelines for  carcinogen  risk  assessment  and interim procedures
for estimating risks associated with exposures to mixtures of chlorinated dibenzo-
p-dioxins and dibenzofurans.   Inhalation  reference doses were  added  to  the
Integrated Risk Information System data base.  A program to begin the evaluation
of exposure uncertainties was begun.


QUALITY ASSURANCE MANAGEMENT

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $2,760,800 supported by 14.5 total workyears
for  this  program,   of which  $951,900  will be  for  the  Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation   and  $1,808,900  will   be   for   the   Research  and  Development
appropriation.  This represents an increase of $76,000 and $996,600 respectively
with  no  increase  in  workyears.   The  increase in  the  Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation reflects an enhancement of inhouse  support for the Quality Assurance
Program.  The increase  in the Research  and Development  appropriation  reflects
initiation of a systematic program  to assist the  Regions in developing analytical
methods.

      Quality Assurance Program.  The mandatory Agency-wide Quality Assurance  (QA)
program will provide policy guidance,  technical  support, and oversight to assure
that  environmental  data  provided to Agency decision  makers  are  of  the quality
needed and claimed.   The Quality Assurance Management Staff will assist 50 EPA
organizations which carry out  environmental data operations, to assure that these
operations produce data of the type and quality which Agency managers need to make
decisions.

      Specific activities will include: development  of supplementary guidance on
Data Quality Objectives; support to EPA organizations pursuing the Data Quality
Objectives process; initial development on a protocol for audits of data quality;
QA Management Systems Reviews focusing on major EPA data operations;  reviews of
25 QA Program Plans submitted by EPA offices and laboratories; development of QA
training courses; continuing development of guidance on QA common practices; and
preparation of a report to senior management on the status of the Agency's Quality
Assurance Program.


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      Regional Analytical  Methods.   An  action plan will  be developed  by the
Regions which will  identify  their highest  priority analytical methods research
needs.  The Office of Research and Development (ORD) will respond with a work plan
to meet  these needs.    This  process will  be  institutionalized as  part  of the
activities of the Agency-wide Environmental Monitoring Management Council  (EMMC).
Emphasis  will be placed on  needs  currently  hampering  the  implementation or
monitoring of regulatory programs.  This effort will evaluate both laboratory and
field methods to determine their applicability.

1990 Program

      In 1990, the Agency allocated a total of $1,688,200  supported by  14.5 total
workyears for this program, of which $875,900 is from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $812,300 is  from  the Research and Development appropriation.
Quality assurance activities involve the implementation and evaluation of programs
to support the development of Agency data which are adequate for internal use.

      The 1990 program goal is to institutionalize  within the Agency three basic
quality  assurance  tools: (1)  Data  Quality Objectives;  (2)  Management  Systems
Reviews;  and  (3) QA Program Plans.   The Quality Assurance  Management Staff is
pursuing  this goal by means of a variety of ongoing programs involving guidance
development,  training,  and technical support.   Specific  activities and outputs
are comparable to those planned for 1991.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989, the Agency obligated a total of $1,671,800  supported by  11.9 total
workyears for this  program,  of which $826,300 was from  the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $845,500 was from the Research and Development appropriation.
Accomplishments in 1989 included: the review of 25  QA Program Plans; performance
of QA Management Systems Reviews;  support  to Agency organizations implementing
the Data Quality Objectives process;  documentation  of alternative procedures for
measurement method validation and laboratory quality control; quality assurance
training  program  development;   drafting  a  glossary  of  QA  terminology;  and
preparing a status report to senior EPA management.


TECHNICAL INFORMATION AND LIAISON

1991 Program Request

      The  Agency  requests  a  total  of  $11,372,700  supported  by  72.0   total
workyears, of which  $6,020,000 will be for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and $5,352,700  will be  for  the  Research and  Development  appropriation.  This
represents an increase  of  $654,400  and $470,000 respectively with no change in
workyears.   Both  of these  increases  represent an expansion  of the  technology
transfer  and Regional  liaison activities  to enhance  scientific  and technical
knowledge of  environmental protection.

      Technology Transfer.   Technology transfer is a process which responds to
the  scientific  and  technological   information needs  of the  Regions,   States,
counties, municipalities, American  Indian tribal governments,  and client program
offices.  Available technology and  technical data will  be disseminated to States
and localities to enable them to meet their regulatory,  enforcement and pollution

                                     8-19

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prevention responsibilities.  Products and services include:  user guides; design
manuals;  handbooks;  training seminars;  and workshops.   Also the  ORD Regional
Scientist Program which will  continue to provide "on-site" assistance to Regions
in identifying and addressing  the  applied  research and technical support needs
of the enforcement and regulatory community.  The Regional Applied Research Effort
(RARE) will  accelerate  ORD's response to more  immediate high priority applied
research needs in the Regions.

      Technical  Information  Product  Management.    The  overall management  of
technical  information  and technology transfer, is an  ongoing  responsibility.
Therefore, in  1991,  this program  will  continue  to  facilitate  the use  of ORD
products and services by promoting  the timely transfer of appropriate technology
and technical information to other Federal, State and local users.   The program
will  continue  to  ensure the  integration  of Agency  scientific and  technical
priorities across the ORD offices and laboratories.  the Center for Environmental
Research Information (CERI) will continue to perform the many functions that it
has in previous years  (e.g.  processing  and distributing ORD reports;  producing
project  summaries;  and  coordination with NTIS).   The National Environmental
Technology Application  Corporation  (NETAC) will  expand its  solicitations and
review of candidate technologies.    Optimal  use   of  NETAC  facilities  will  be
promoted. The hazardous  materials  handling and  testing facilities  offer unique
features  to  potential  commercial-scale  technology developers  and  will become
available in 1991.   An  increased number of environmental  technologies will be
brought to commercialization and "venture capital" will be secured.

      Two activities will be  initiated in 1991 to  support the Agency's Pollution
Prevention Program. The first activity will deliver required pollution prevention
information  and   technology  to  small   and  medium  sized  industries  and
municipalities.  The second activity is designed  to assist in the establishment
of pollution prevention  centers at universities across the nation.

      Regulatory Support.  This program will continue to ensure that  EPA research
focuses on the most  critical scientific  and engineering issues associated with
the Agency's regulatory  development  process,  and  that scientific uncertainties
are fully documented for use by Agency policy makers.

1990  Program

      In 1990,  the Agency is  allocating  a total  of $10,248,300 supported by 72.0
total workyears for  this program,  of which $5,365,600 is  from the  Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation  and  $4,882,700  is  from  the  Research  and Development
appropriation.    The  program  continues  to  provide   overall  management  and
coordination of ORD technology transfer and technical information activities to
promote  positive  interactions  among ORD  offices  and laboratories  and ORD's
clients.   This  program supports the  development  and  delivery of ORD products,
services and information tools.  Ongoing activities in the regulatory support area
focus on participation in Agency regulatory workgroups  and continual analysis of
Agency regulatory scientific requirements.

1989  Accomplishments

      In 1989,  the Agency obligated a total of $9,786,000 supported  by  58.8 total
workyears for this program, of which $4,856,300 was from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $4,929,700  was from the Research and Development appropriation.


                                     8-20

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      The Regional Scientist program provided Regional  Offices  with senior ORD
liaisons who serve as science advisors  and  "gateways"  to  the broad spectrum of
available ORD resources.  NETAC continued to develop  solicitations to attract top
candidates for commercialization of environmental technologies.   The regulatory
support  program  helped  to  ensure  technically  sound development  of  Agency
regulations.   Over  1,000  ORD documents  and reports  to ORD  clients and the
production of over 350 project summaries were tracked, processed and distributed.
The Center for Environmental Research Information (CERI)  responded to over 30,000
requests for information.


THE NEXT FOUR (4)  PROGRAM ELEMENTS HAVE BEEN REORGANIZED IN 1991 TO BETTER MANAGE
MULTIMEDIA HEALTH RESEARCH ACTIVITIES WITH THE NEW "CORE RESEARCH" PROGRAM.
HEALTH EFFECTS

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $1,598,300 supported by no   workyears for
this new program,  of which  $482,500  will be  for  the  Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation  and  $1,115,800  will  be   for   the  Research  and  Development
appropriation. This activity reflects the transfer of similar Multimedia research
activities from the "Exploratory Research" program element.

      Task Force on Environmental Cancer and Heart and Lung Disease.  This Task
Force will continue to evaluate  the  link between environmental factors and human
diseases.  Research recommendations will  be provided by the Task  Force  to the
Agency  based on  research needs  identified by  scientists.   A national  risk
communications conference will be held in 1991.

      Harvard Study.   This research study  will  continue  to identify and select
post-doctoral research fellows  and visiting scientists   to work  with Harvard
faculty members  on research projects that address critical environmental problems
that face society.

      China Program.  This program, conducted under the 1980  US-PRC Environmental
Protection Protocol, will begin to shift research from the  study of lung cancer
and  indoor  coal  smoke pollution  in a rural setting (Xuan-Wei) to a study of
children's respiratory health across a wide gradient of  particulate,  acid, and
sulfur oxide exposures in several Chinese cities.   The focus in 1991 will be on
a multi-city study of children's lung function and respiratory health.  Efforts
will continue in the area of  environmental  processes  and effects of pollution on
freshwater organisms,  water pollution fate and transport modeling, and groundwater
pollution processes.

1990 Program

      The program activities in 1990 are described in other program elements as
follows:

1.    Task Force on Environmental Cancer and Heart  and Lung  Disease is described
      in the "Exploratory Research" program element of this Multimedia research
      program.


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2.    Harvard Study is  described in the Drinking Water and Toxics Research media.

3.    China Program, is  described  in Water Quality, Drinking Water  and the Air
      Research media.

1989 Accomplishment

      1989 accomplishments for these program activities are  described in the same
program elements in 1989 as in 1990.


CORE RESEARCH-HEALTH RISK

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total of $13,954,800 for this new program supported
by  19.0  total work  years,  of which  $1,745,000 will be  for the  Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and $12,209,800 will be for the Research and Development
appropriation.

      NHANES-III.  This multi-year and multi-agency survey will continue.  Efforts
will focus  on  estimating the prevalence of disease  and functional impairment,
providing accurate  data on the distribution of health  characteristics such as
growth and  development,  monitoring  secular  changes  in disease,  and identifying
new risk factors for disease.   EPA participation will help develop baseline data
on measures of pulmonary function and neurobehavioral parameters.  These  data will
be linked to various biological measures  of exposure and questionnaire responses
will allow  an analysis  of  relationships between these functions  and  possible
environmental factors.

      Human Exposure. The Human Exposure  program will complete the total exposure
assessment  methodology (TEAM) study  of  exposure  to  inhalable particles  in a
California  city.   Field work  on  the major survey to determine  exposure-related
activity patterns of the population  will  also be completed.  Measurement methods
for determining exposure to polar organics, ozone, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and
other  pollutants will be  developed.   New  microenvironments will  be  studied.
Breath analysis  and other biomarkers of exposure will be investigated.

      Reducing Uncertainties  in Health Risk Assessments (RIHRA).   This program
will continue to conduct research  to improve health risk assessments  in  the areas
of   assessing   uncertainty,   exposure   assessment,   physiologically   based
pharmacokinetic  modeling and  biologically based dose response  modeling.   First
research results are expected  in a number of these topics in 1991.

      Center for Environmental Epidemiology Research.   This center responds to
a major  recommendation of the EPA  Science Advisory  Board  which  indicated that
the  agency  should initiate a  program of epidemiologic research.   The new EPA
Center for  Environmental Epidemiology will be established to develop, validate,
and apply epidemiologic methods to assess  the status of public health,  to identify
potential and emerging problems,  and  to evaluate the efficacy of risk reduction
measures.
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1990 Program

      The program activities in 1990 are described in other program elements as
follows:

1.    NHANES-III is described in the Air Research media.

2.    Human Exposure is described in the  "Human Exposure" program element within
      this Multimedia research program.

3.    Reduction of Uncertainties  in Risk Assessment (RIHRA)  - Health is described
      in the  "Reduction of Uncertainties  in Risk Assessment"  program element
      within this Multimedia research program.

1989 Accomplishments

      1989 accomplishments for these program activities are  described in the same
program elements in 1989 as in 1990.


HUMAN EXPOSURE

1991 Program Request

      No resources  are  requested in 1991 for activity in  this  program element
since this activity is  being reorganized into the new "Core  Research -  Health
Risk" program element within this Multimedia research program.

1990 Program

      The Agency  is allocating a total  of $4,109,000 supported by  13.0 total
workyears for this  program.   Of this total,  $933,900  is from the  Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation and  $3,175,100  is  from  the  Research  and  Development
appropriation.

      This program focuses  on  research  and evaluation of  human exposure to
environmental pollutants  from all  sources.   In  1990, research activity will
include  a  major survey to determine  the  activity patterns  of  the  population
including lifestyles  and  use of consumer products.  Also  included  are several
studies  on  microenvironments (home,  work,  transportation) of  human  exposure.
Methods  for  evaluating exposures  to volatile  organics  associated with major
sources  will  be  instituted.   The  existing TEAM  (Total  Exposure  Assessment
Methodology) Program will  continue to provide direct measures  of human exposures
to make real life estimates of exposures.  Data from each component of the program
will  be   used  to   develop  models  of human exposure  that  can be   used  for
extrapolation to entire populations at risk.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989, the Agency obligated at total of $321,700 supported by 0.7 total
workyears in this program  activity.  Of this total $122,800  was from the Salaries
and Expenses  appropriation,  and  $198,900 was from the Research and Development
appropriation.  Field work was  completed on three studies  of human exposure to
Volatile Organic  Compounds (VOC's)   in Los  Angeles,  Baltimore  and New Jersey.


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Final work was  also  completed on the first study of human  exposure  to a broad
spectrum of  pesticides used  in  the household. In  1989,  the majority  of this
program is described in the Air Research media.


REDUCING UNCERTAINTIES IN RISK ASSESSMENT  (RURA)

1991 Program Request

      No resources are requested in 1991 for  activity  in  this  program element
since this  activity is being reorganized into the following  two new program
elements within this Multimedia research program as follows:

1.    Reducing Uncertainties in Health Risk Assessments (RIHRA)  program element
      is described in  the new "Core Research - Health Risk" program element and

2.    Reducing  Uncertainties  in  Ecological  Risk  Assessments  (RUERA)  program
      element is described in the new "Core Research - Ecological Risk" program
      element.

1990 Program

      The Agency  is  allocating a  total  of $10,010,600 supported by  4.0 total
workyears for this program, of which $270,400  is from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $9,740,200 is from the  Research and Development appropriation.

      Research to Improve Health Risk Assessments  (RIHRA) continues in the areas
of   assessing   uncertainty,    exposure    assessment,   physiologically   based
pharmacokinetic (PB-PK) modeling, and biologically based dose response modeling.

      Research to Reduce Uncertainties in Ecological Risk Assessments (RUERA) will
address uncertainties  associated with the structure and function of ecosystems,
the identification,  measurement,  and interpretation of endpoints of ecological
change, and the assessment of hazards associated with ecosystems  stress.  Initial
emphasis will be placed on the characterization of the condition of near-coastal
estuarine systems  in the  mid-Atlantic  region  and their exposure  to  stress.   A
demonstration project  will identify  indicators of estuarine ecosystem condition
(in cooperation with the  status and  trends program) and then quantify them on a
regional basis.   These  data  will  be  used to assess  the  status of ecosystem
condition  in these  systems  and will be used as  the  basis  for  more detailed
research in  1991.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989, the Agency obligated a total of $10,237,800 supported by 2.9 total
workyears for this program, of which $294,200  was  from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $9,943,600 was  from the Research  and Development appropriation.

      Research projects were initiated in all topics of the RIHRA Program. A work
shop was held to identify the  framework for research on  the  topic of uncertainty
analysis and a number  of  areas of research focus were identified.  Research was
initiated   in  the  topics  of   exposure  assessment,   physiologically  based
phamacokinetic parameters in risk assessment, and biologically-based dose response
models.


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      In reducing uncertainties in ecological risk assessments, preliminary work
was performed on  ecosystem  classification, monitoring  network design,  database
management,  and  environmental   statistics  culminating   in   a  research  and
implementation plan for the ecological trends program.


THE NEXT THREE (3) PROGRAM ELEMENTS HAVE BEEN REORGANIZED IN 1991 TO BETTER MANAGE
GENERAL SCIENTIFIC MULTIMEDIA  RESEARCH ACTIVITIES WITH THE NEW "CORE"  RESEARCH
PROGRAM.
MULTIMEDIA ACTIVITIES

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a total  of  $3,105,900 supported by 4.0 total workyears
for this  new  program of which  $410,900  will  be  for the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation  and   $2,695,000  will  be  for the  Research  and  Development
appropriation.

      Visiting Scientists  Program.   This activity  sponsors two unique programs
to bring  research scientist outside of  EPA into the Agency  to  collaborate on
environmental research  projects and exchange their  scientific understandings.
Under the Visiting Scientists and  Engineers Program,  applicants will be selected
to conduct research  at  EPA facilities  in collaboration with Agency researchers
on advanced environmental research topics identified  by  EPA laboratories.  Under
the Environmental Science  and  Engineering Fellows  Program, in cooperation with
the American Association for the Advancement of Science,  10  research fellows will
be placed in EPA organizations to conduct policy studies  on  various high-priority
issues identified by the Agency.

      Small Business  Innovation Research Program.    This program will solicit,
review  and select  proposals for  Phase  I  and  II awards.   About  25  Phase I
feasibility studies will be  supported while about  13 Phase II projects will be
awarded.

1990 Program

      The program activities  in 1990 are described in the  Exploratory Research
program element within  this Multimedia research program.

1989 Accomplishments

      1989 accomplishments for these program activities are  described in the same
program elements in 1989 as in  1990.


CORE RESEARCH - GRANTS  AND CENTERS

1991 Program Request

      The  Agency requests  a  total  of  $34,277,500  supported by. 12.0   total
workyears for this new program, of which  $1,437,600 will be for the Salaries  and


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Expenses appropriation and $32,839,900 will be for the Research and Development
appropriation.

      Exploratory Research Grants Program.  Under a general solicitation, support
will be  granted  to about 150 new  projects while 130 ongoing  projects  will be
granted continuation support.  This program will emphasize: continued improvement
in quality of research; coordination with the Agency's  research planning process;
dissemination  of results from  completed  grants;  and coordination with other
Federal agencies. Seminars and workshops  featuring the completed work of grantees
will continue in Agency laboratories and at other locations around the country.

      Academic Research Centers  Program.  The Agency's Academic Research Centers
Program  supports  environmental  studies of high priority to  the  Agency  such as
groundwater and  hazardous waste control  technologies.   Management attention in
the centers will  focus on new trends and discoveries coming from ongoing research
studies.  An annual report will summarize the activities and accomplishments of
these centers.   Symposia,  workshops and publications in journals,  ensure that
information learned from center studies is shared.  New academic research centers
will begin operation in 1991 since 1990 will be the final year of operation for
seven centers and 1991 will be the final year for the eighth center.

1990 Program

      The program activities in  1990 are  described  in  the "Exploratory Research"
program element within this Multimedia research program.

1989 Accomplishments

      1989 accomplishments for these program activities are  described in the same
program elements  in 1989 as in 1990.


EXPLORATORY RESEARCH

1991 Program Request

      No resources  are  requested  in 1991  for activity  in  this program element
since this  activity is being reorganized into  the following two new  program
elements within  this Multimedia research program as follows:

      1.    Grants  and  Centers  program element is  described in  the new  "Core
            Research -Grants & Centers" program element,

      2.    Task Force on Environmental Cancer and Heart and Lung  Disease program
            element is described in the new "Health Effects"  program element, and

      3.    Visiting  Scientist  program  element  and  Small  Business  Innovative
            Research program•element is described in the new "Interdisciplinary
            Activities" program element.

1990 Program

      The Agency is allocating  a total of $25,153,700  supported by  15.0 total
workyears for this program.  Of this total,  $1,155,100 is from the Salaries and


                                     8-26

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Expenses  appropriation  and $23,998,600  is from  the  Research  and  Development
appropriation.

      The Task  Force on  Environmental Cancer  and Heart  and Lung  Disease  is
planning to convene a workshop  on environmental education and risk communication
and is developing a revised inventory of environmental exposure databases. This
activity is identified in the  "Health Effects" program element in 1991.

      The Visiting Scientists and Engineers Program expects to approve  the support
of five to ten prominent outside scientists or engineers at EPA laboratories to
collaborate  with  Agency  researchers on priority  research  projects.    The
Environmental  Science  and  Engineering  Fellows  Program  is  supporting  ten
professionals at EPA organizations to investigate environmental policy issues.

      The Small Business Innovation Research Program has allocated 1.25  % of the
extramural research budget to support projects for the development of equipment
and instrumentation for pollution control  and environmental monitoring.  Thirty-
six such projects are supported.

      The Exploratory Research Grants Program is supporting about 110 new projects
and 42 ongoing projects.   Seminars  and workshops featuring the completed work of
grantees  continue in Agency  laboratories and  at other  locations  around the
country.

      The Academic Research Centers Program supports environmental studies of high
priority  to  the  Agency  such as  groundwater   and  hazardous  waste  control
technologies.  In 1990,  the eight  (8)  EPA  academic research centers and research
focus are as follows:
      1.    Louisiana State University - Hazardous Waste Research,
      2.    Illinois  Institute of  Technology -  Industrial  Waste  Elimination
            Research,
      3.    University  of Illinois  (Urbana)  -  Advanced  Environmental  Control
            Technology Research,
      4.    Rice,  University  of   Oklahoma,  and  Oklahoma  State  University  -
            Groundwater Research.
      5.    University of Rhode Island - Marine Sciences Research,
      6.    University  of  California  (Los  Angeles)  -  Intermedia  Transport
            Research,
      7.    Cornell University - Ecosystems Research,  and
      8.    University of Pittsburgh  - Environmental Epidemiology,

      Since 1990 is the final year of operation for seven centers,  applications
will be  solicited and a competition will be held to  select seven  new academic
research centers to begin in 1991.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989, the Agency obligated a total of $17,139,300 supported by 14.0  total
workyears for this program, of  which $946,000 was  from the Salaries and Expenses
appropriation and $16,193,300 was from the Research and Development appropriation
                                     8-27

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      The Task Force on Environmental Cancer and Heart and Lung Disease supported
a workshop on  environmental  and  occupational  asthma, completed the proceedings
on a workshop on the  roles of government and non-government organizations in risk
communications, and continued work on the proceedings of workshops on evaluation
of risk communications and the effects of pesticides exposure.

      The  Visiting  Scientists  Program approved  the appointment  of  four  (4)
visitors  under the  Visiting  Scientists   and Engineers  Program.    Under  the
Environmental  Science and  Engineering Fellows Program,  ten  (10) visitors were
assigned to EPA organizations to conduct policy studies.

      A total  of  39  awards were made to small high-technology  firms under the
Small Business  Innovation Research Program: 27  Phase I  feasibility studies and
12 Phase II development projects.

      The Exploratory Research Grants Program  awarded 50 new grants and provided
continuation support for 12 ongoing  projects.   In addition,  14 projects were
awarded under a Request for Applications (RFA) solicitation.

      The  Academic Research Centers  Program  provided continuation support for
projects conducted at the eight university-based research centers.


THE NEXT TWO (2) PROGRAM ELEMENTS HAVE BEEN REORGANIZED IN 1991 TO BETTER MANAGE
MULTIMEDIA ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH ACTIVITIES WITH THE NEW "CORE" RESEARCH PROGRAM.
CORE RESEARCH-ECOLOGICAL RISK

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a  total  of  $26,686,500  for this program supported by
14.0  total  work years  of which  $1,572,300 is for  the  Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation  and  $25,114,200  will  be  for  the  Research  and  Development
appropriation.

Core Research - Ecological Risk

      The "core" research program  in ecological risk will progress from, program
planning  and development into  the first phase of implementation.   This will
involve demonstration and pilot research projects in various ecosystems.  Research
activities on developing ecological indicators and landscape characterization will
continue.  The experience gained during the NOAA/EPA near-coastal demonstration
monitoring project in the mid-Atlantic region will be used to implement monitoring
in the Gulf of Mexico.  A forest monitoring project, conducted by EPA and the U.S.
Forest Service  in  the northeastern U.S., will move  into  a second phase  in the
southeastern  U.S.   Demonstration projects  will be also  be initiated in inland
surface waters and agricultural systems. Emphasis  on identifying and developing
biological  indicators of ecological  condition will  be  marine,  estuarine  and
freshwater systems.
                                     8-28

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      The Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) will further develop
landscape  characterizations  and  data  to develop  sampling  frames  for  field
monitoring projects.  Results of several simulated assessments will be available
and will provide the basis for developing long-term assessment protocols.


Reducing Uncertainties in Risk Assessment (RURA) - Ecological

      Research  in  1991  will emphasize  selecting representative  near-coastal
estuaries for determining the causes of adverse conditions observed in the 1990
near-coastal demonstration  monitoring project within  the  mid-Atlantic region.
Research will focus on the diagnosis  of  observed conditions and developing tools
and protocols  for quantifying and predicting pollutant  exposure and ecosystem
responses.  The goal  of  this research will be  to  develop a systems approach to
ecological risk assessments by modeling responses from representative estuaries
in the mid-Atlantic region from alternative risk management options.

1990 Program

      The program activities in 1990  are described in the "Ecological Status and
Trends" program element and the "Reducing the Uncertainties in Risk Assessment"
program element within this Multimedia research program.

1989 Accomplishments

      1989 accomplishments for these program activities are described in the same
program elements in 1989 as in 1990.


ECOLOGICAL STATUS AND TRENDS

1991 Program Request

      No resources  are  requested  in  1991 for activity in  this  program element
since this activity is being reorganized into the new "Core Research  - Ecological
Risk" program element within this  Multimedia research program.

1990 Program

      The Agency has allocated a total of $17,790,400 for this program supported
by 12.0  total  work years.  Of  this  total,  $1,023,500 is for the  Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation  and  $16,766,900  is  for the  Research  and  Development
appropriation.

      1990 is the  first year  for  this program  designed to estimate the current
status, changes, and  trends  in  the condition of ecosystems  to better determine
the  relationships  between human-  induced  stresses   and adverse  changes  in
ecosystems.   The  initial  emphasis   is  on  developing  and  testing  ecosystem
monitoring indicators of surface waters,  wetlands, forests, deserts, rangelands,
grasslands  and agricultural  lands.    From  these indicators,   national  scale
monitoring programs  is planned  to be designed.  Assessments  to evaluate these
designs will later be preformed using existing and simulated data.   Research on
characterizing land  use  patterns  and landscape ecology on a  regional scale is
being initiated.   The  near coastal  demonstration project,  started under the RURA-
                                                     "\
                                      8-29

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Eco Program in 1989, is being expanded to the Gulf of Mexico.  A joint EPA/USFS
monitoring and demonstration project in forest ecosystems is also being initiated.
Finally, EPA is also investigating,based upon the 1990 Appropriations Conference
Report, the necessity of establishing a national environmental  sciences institute,
through an open and competitive  process, which  could provide  a coordinated focus
for basic long-term ecological research.

1989 Accomplishments

      This program did not exist in 1989.


CORE RESEARCH-RISK REDUCTION

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests a  total of  $ 4,625,000  for this program supported by
5.0  total work  years  of  which  $425,000  is  from the  Salaries  and  Expenses
appropriation and $4,200,000 is  from the Research and Development appropriation.
This represents increases of $214,900 and $1,277 ,900 respectively with an increase
of  5.0 workyears.   The increase  in   the  Salaries and  Expenses appropriation
reflects support for conducting research on pollution prevention.  The increase
in  the Research and  Development appropriation reflects  more support  for the
pollution prevention research.

      Pollution Prevention.  During 1991, emphasis will be on product research,
technology transfer and technical assistance.  In the area of product research,
standard  methods  for  evaluating  pollution  impacts  from  products  will  be
established.  Several cost-effective and environmentally preferable  products will
be  demonstrated.   A  standardized pollution prevention  opportunity assessment
procedure will be developed and assessments conducted with selected industries.
The  program  will  also  involve research on identifying  opportunities  for
incorporating  pollution  prevention  practices into   the  nation's  industrial
infrastructure.  Emerging  technologies and patterns  of the use and disposal of
resources  will  be  identified.    Potential   changes  to  reduce  releases  of
contaminants  into  the environment  will  be  investigated.    These  pollution
prevention research activities complement those described in  the Hazardous Waste
Research media request  for 1991.

       Information and Communications.  The selection and implementation of viable,
cost-effective risk reduction approaches are  influenced  by a variety of legal,
scientific, economic and political factors.  The traditional  command and control
approach is limited to environmental problems which  can be solved with the current
regulatory program.  However, many of  the recent environmental problems (radon,
global  climate change,  non-point sources,  etc.) are not  amenable  to the usual
command and control approach.   Instead, a variety of alternative approaches for
pollution  abatement,   which  we  call   information  and  communication,  must  be
developed.  Accordingly, research will  be conducted in the following areas:  risk
communication; incentives and disincentives; technical information dissemination;
commercialization and  utilization;  and education  and training.   EPA's research
will be closely linked to its research products and integrated with  Environmental
Implementation Research Program being coordinated by EPA's Office  of Policy,
Planning and Evaluation.
                                     8-30

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1990 Program

      The Agency has allocated a total of $3,132,200 for this program supported
by no workyears of which $210,100 is from the  Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and $2,922,100 is from the Research and Development appropriation.

      During  1990,  this  program is  building on  the  on-going effort  in waste
minimization being  conducted  as  part of the Hazardous  Waste Research program.
Specifically, the on-going activities  in innovative  technology evaluations are
underway to make them applicable  across all media programs.  Several evaluations
are being undertaken to prevent pollution, especially those emitting discharges
to the air.  Industry-specific pollution prevention assessment manuals are being
revised to make  them applicable  to identify  pollution prevention opportunities
in all media. '

1989 Accomplishments

      This program did not exist in 1989.


CAPITAL INVESTMENTS

1991 Program Request

       The Agency requests a total  of $8,450,000 in the Research and Development
appropriation supported by no workyears for scientific research equipment.  This
represents  an  .increase   of  $2,553,900  in  the  Research  and  Development
appropriation.  This increase will  allow EPA: (a) partially replace old research
equipment  more  than seven years  old  and  (b)  procure new  scientific research
equipment to upgrade the current inventory at EPA research laboratories to more
state-of-the-art.

1990 Program

      The  Agency has  allocated  $5,896,100  of  the  Research and  Development
appropriation with no workyears for replacement of aging and procurement of new
scientific research equipment at EPA research laboratories.

1989 Accomplishments

      The  Agency  was  authorized  $2,000,000  from  within   the  Research  and
Development appropriation for replacement of scientific research equipment.  This
authority was used, but obligations were made in other media research programs,
therefore, no obligations are identified in this program element in 1989.
                                    \
                                    8-31

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Abatement and
   Control

-------
                        ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1991 Budget Estimate

                               Table  of  Contents
MULTIMEDIA

ABATEMENT AND CONTROL
   Environmental Review and Coordination  	   8-32
   Office of Cooperative Environmental Management 	   8-35
   Multimedia Training Grants	  .	   8-38

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                                                   MULTIMEDIA
                                     Environmental  Review and Coordination

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED     CURRENT     REQUEST    INCREASE  +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE      1991      DECREASE  -
                                                       1990               1991  VS 1990
                                               (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS)

PROGRAM
Environmental Review
and Coordination
 Salaries & Expenses           $4,616.9   $5,333.7   $5,490.5    $5,410.3      -$80.2
 Abatement Control and         $4,973.2   $6,920.9   $6,761.4    $9,900.0    $3,138.6
 Compliance
                       TOTAL   $9,590.1  $12,254.6  $12,251.9   $15,310.3    $3,058.4
TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses           $4,616.9   $5,333.7   $5,490.5    $5,410.3      -$80.2
 Abatement Control and         $4,973.2   $6,920.9   $6,761.4    $9,900.0    $3,138.6
 Compliance

Environmental Review   TOTAL   $9,590.1  $12,254.6  $12,251.9   $15,310.3    $3,058.4
and Coordination
PERMANENT UORKYEARS
Environmental Review               99.4      124.9      108.0      114.9         6.9
and Coordination

TOTAL PERMANENT UORKYEARS          99.4      124.9      108.0      114.9         6.9
TOTAL UORKYEARS
Environmental Review              106.2      124.9      114.8      114.9          .1
and Coordination

TOTAL UORKYEARS                   106.2      124.9      114.8      114.9          .1
                                          8-32

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                     ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW AND  COORDINATION
Budget Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of  $15,310,300 supported  by  114.9  total
workyears  for  1991,  an  increase  of $3,058,400 and an increase of  0.1  total
workyears  from 1990.  Of the request, $5,410,300  will  be  for the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation  and  $9,900,000 will be for the Abatement,  Control and
Compliance appropriation. This represents a decrease of $80,200  in  the Salaries
and Expenses  appropriation, and an  increase  of $3,138,600  in  the Abatement,
Control and Compliance appropriation.

1991 Program Request

      The  Agency requests  a total  of  $15,310,300 supported  by  114.9  total
workyears, of which 5,410,300 will be for the Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and $9,900,000 will be for the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.
This represents a decrease of $80,200 for Salaries and Expenses, an increase of
$3,138,600 for Abatement, Control and Compliance,  and an increase  of 0.1 total
workyears.

       The  decrease  in  Salaries  and Expenses  reflects  lower  costs  in 1991
compared  to  one-time costs  experienced  in 1990.  The  workyear  increase will
support the Federal Facility Compliance component of this program by improving
identification,  tracking and compliance  monitoring of the  Federal Facilities
universe,  increased coordination  with  States  through State/EPA  enforcement
agreements, the development  of model compliance agreements  for RCRA/CERCLA sites
and an improved and more systematic approach to technical/program assistance to
Federal agencies at both Headquarters and Regional levels.  The  increase   in
Abatement, Control and Compliance  will provide additional technical support and
consultation to  Indian  Tribal governments, with an  emphasis on developing and
implementing technical and institutional solutions to environmental problems on
Tribal lands.

      In 1991, Abatement, Control  and Compliance  (AC&C)  resources  will fund a
select number of pilot projects for the development and demonstration of self-
sufficient Tribal environmental programs.  EPA is undertaking a major initiative
to provide technical assistance and guidance to Federal agencies   establishing
environmental auditing programs  to ensure compliance.  AC&C  resources will also
support Agency-wide multimedia environmental projects to enable rapid Regional
response to significant or unique problems.

1990 Program

      In 1990, the Agency is allocating a total of $12,251,900 and 114.8 total
workyears, of which $5,490,500 is from the Salaries and Expenses appropriation
and $6,761,400 is from the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation.

      In 1990,  the  Environmental  Review and Coordination  (ER&C) program will
begin a more aggressive effort to  identify  Federal facilities out of compliance
with Federal environmental requirements and bring them into compliance.  EPA will
review and provide environmental design information on approximately 300 draft
Environmental  Impact  Statements  (EISs)  for major projects and will  conduct


                                     8-33

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approximately 1,500  environmental assessment reviews  involving hydroelectric
dams, modifications and flood control/water resource projects.  The ER&C program
will follow-up over  100 of these projects to resolve  environmental problems.
This program will identify, as early as possible, the environmental impacts of
these proposed  major  Federal  actions,  and  ensure  correction of  any adverse
environmental impacts.   EPA will provide  continuing environmental assessment
support for the  municipal wastewater treatment construction grants program, the
National  Pollutant Discharge  Elimination  System  (NPDES)  new  source permits
program, and the research and development program of  the Office of Research and
Development.  In addition,  this  program provides for the  review,  approval and
oversight of State environmental review programs  required as a prerequisite for
participation  in  the  State  Revolving  Fund  (SRF)  program.    Environmental
assessment  support includes  technical  assistance  to  States in  establishing
National Environmental  Policy Act  (NEPA) oriented  programs  for  the SRF and to
support  successful discharge  of their delegated  responsibilities under the
Construction Grants program.  The  program  will  also assist  EPA  regional media
program  offices  in  their  efforts  to comply  with  other environmental  laws
affecting these programs.

      Technical assistance and funding will continue  to be provided to selected
Indian Tribes.  In 1990, the focus of the Indian Program will be:   improved
communication with Indian  tribes,  identification  of priority  environmental
problems on reservation lands, and the development of Tribal programs to address
these problems in lieu of direct Federal implementation.

1989 Accomplishments

      In  1989, the Agency obligated a total of  $9,590,100  supported by 106.2
total  workyears,   of  which  $4,616,900 was  from  the Salaries and  Expenses
appropriation and  $4,973,200 was  from  the Abatement, Control  and Compliance
appropriation.

      In  1989,   the  NEPA  program  provided assistance  to  delegated  state
construction grants programs, ensured that EPA issued NPDES new source permits
were in compliance with NEPA,  assisted EPA's  Office of Research and Development
and  laboratories  in  meeting  NEPA  requirements  for research and  development
projects and assisted EPA  Regional  program offices in their efforts to comply
with other environmental laws and to carry  out reviews equivalent to NEPA.  The
Agency continued to assist Federal agencies  in  identifying  facilities needing
pollution controls,  determined the most cost effective control,  and resolved
disputes at facilities which were out of compliance through use of the new EPA
Federal Facilities Compliance Strategy.  Emphasis was placed on hazardous waste
problems on Federal installations.   In addition,  guidance was issued for Federal
agencies  to  assist them in designing  and  implementing environmental auditing
programs.   The  Agency  also continued  to  work on  the  review  of environmental
impacts of proposed projects,  regulations, and  other major  Federal actions as
required  by  both NEPA and  Section  309.   The major  objective to  minimize the
adverse  environmental  impact  of Federal  proposals  was  accomplished  by:  (1)
effective  liaison with  other Federal agencies,  (2) early  identification of
significant environmental  issues, and (3)  timely review of major actions.  The
Agency  strengthened  its Indian programs and provided  technical assistance on
priority environmental problems on  Indian lands.
                                     8-34

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                                                   MULTIMEDIA
                                  Office Of  Cooperative  Environmental Management

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED      CURRENT      REQUEST    INCREASE +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE       1991      DECREASE -
                                                      1990                1991 VS  1990
                                               (DOLLARS  IN  THOUSANDS)

PROGRAM
Office Of Cooperative
Environmental
Management
 Salaries & Expenses             $919.6     $728.6     $587.3     $740.1      $152.8
 Abatement Control and         $1.552.0   $1,680.5   $1,657.3   $2,058.2      $400.9
 Compliance
                       TOTAL   $2,471.6   $2,409.1   $2,244.6   $2,798.3      $553.7
TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses             $919.6     $728.6     $587.3     $740.1      $152.8
 Abatement Control and         $1,552.0   $1,680.5   $1,657.3   $2,058.2      $400.9
 Compliance

Office Of Cooperative  TOTAL   $2,471.6   $2,409.1   $2,244.6   $2,798.3      $553.7
Environmental
Mangement
PERMANENT WORKYEARS
Office Of Cooperative              11.8       16.0        16.0        16.0         0.0
Environmental
Management

TOTAL PERMANENT UORKYEARS          11.8       16.0        16.0        16.0         0.0
TOTAL UORKYEARS
Office Of Cooperative              12.3       16.0        16.0        16.0         0.0
Environmental
Management

TOTAL UORKYEARS                    12.3       16.0        16.0        16.0         0.0
                                          8-35

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                                  MULTIMEDIA
                Office of Cooperative Environmental Management
Budget Request
     The Agency requests a total of $2,798,300 supported by 16.0 total workyears
in  1991.   This  represents an  increase of  $553,800 and no change  in total
workyears from 1990.   Of this request, $740,100 will be for the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation and  $2,058,200 will  be for  Abatement,   Control,  and
Compliance appropriation.   This  represents  an increase of $152,800  in the
Salaries and Expenses and an increase of $400,900 in the Abatement, Control, and
Compliance appropriation.

OFFICE OF COOPERATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

1991 Program Request

     The Agency requests a total of $2,798,300 supported by 16.0 total workyears
for  this  program, of  which  $740,100  will  be  for  the Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and $2,058,200  will  be  for the Abatement, Control, and Compliance
appropriation.   This represents an  increase  of $152,800 in  the  Salaries and
Expenses appropriation, an increase of $400,900 in the Abatement, Control, and
Compliance appropriation,  and no  change  in  total  workyears from 1990.   The
increase in Salaries  and Expenses reflects increased personnel and support costs.
The increase  in the Abatement,  Control,  and Compliance appropriation will provide
funds to support Senior Environmental Employees (SEE) personnel.   This program
will continue  to develop a national program that  identifies, documents, and
disseminates selective exemplary environmental practices;  establishes  a national
network of environmental technical experts; expands EPA's academic and vocational
infrastructure through  environmental management institutes;  assures- continued
growth in the management of EPA's  National- Network for Environmental Management
Studies  (NNEMS);  staffs the  Administrator's  National  Advisory Council  on
Environmental Technology Transfer  (NACETT) and its four committees, and oversees
the response to those of its  recommendations accepted by the Administrator; and
identifies and promotes  the  development and use of  needed  new and innovative
environmental  technologies   through   appropriate   cooperative  efforts  with
organizations and  institutions  outside EPA and by  identifying and initiating
efforts to remedy administrative and other barriers to the development and use
of needed new environmental technology.  In addition, this program will seek and
assess new and  existing environmental technologies outside  of the Agency for
possible use by  the  Agency or by  others and will  do so with the  assistance of
experts in academia, and among technological leaders in business and industry,
and in other Federal, State,  and local agencies.

1990 Program

     In 1990, the Agency is allocating a total of $2,244,600 supported by 16.0
total workyears  for this program of which $587,300  is  for  the  Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation  and   $1,657,300  is  for  the Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.   The program is developing  a national  program to
identify, document,  and disseminate selected environmental "best practices" that


                                     8-36

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constitute model  approaches worthy  of replication;  establishing a  national
network of environmental experts and communication focal points at the Federal
and  State levels  of  government;  expanding  EPA's  academic  and  vocational
infrastructure ties  through the  development  of regionally  based cooperative
environmental management institutes; assuring continued growth in the management
of EPA's  National  Network  for  Environmental  Management Studies  (NNEMS);  and
creating  and  staffing  the Administrator's  National  Advisory  Council  for
Environmental Technology Transfer  (NACETT) to  address  issue  areas of national
concern.  In cooperation with Program and Regional Offices, and state and local
agencies,  this program  will  identify  and  promote  innovative  environmental
management and  implementation  strategies  through ongoing  program development
activities and demonstrations.   In cooperation with the Office of Research and
Development (ORD) ,  it will promote and support activities required by the Federal
Technology Transfer Act of 1986 (FTTA) and President's Executive Order 12591 to
accelerate the development and commercialization of needed new (environmental)
technology.  Finally, this program will manage the Administrator's National Small
Community Regulatory Outreach program.

1989 Accomplishments

     In 1989, the Agency obligated a total  of $2,471,600 supported by 12.3 total
workyears, of which $919,600 was  from  the  Salaries  and Expenses appropriation
and $1,552,000 was from  the Abatement,  Control, and Compliance appropriation.
During 1989,  the following  accomplishments were achieved:   implemented within
the Agency the Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986 and Executive Order 12591;
supported a wide array of new program-specific, Region-specific and Agency-wide
initiatives  to  improve  the implementation of  EPA  programs through  improved
information sharing within  and  outside  the Agency; promoted  and supported the
development of university-led consortia to assess the efficacy of newly developed
environmental  technologies  and   promoted   the   commercialization   of  those
technologies  found to be  needed and efficacious;  developed and initiated a
program  to  disseminate  case  studies   of  environmental best  practices;  and
established a network of technology transfer focal points in each Headquarters
and Regional Office and in each state.
                                     8-37

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                                                  MULTIMEDIA
                                           Multimedia Training Grants

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED     CURRENT     REQUEST   INCREASE +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE       1991     DECREASE -
                                                       1990               1991 VS 1990
                                               (DOLLARS  IN THOUSANDS)

PROGRAM
Multimedia
Training Grants
 Abatement Control and           $768.1      $492.3     $486.0                -$486.0
 Compliance
                       TOTAL     $768.1      $492.3     $486.0                -$486.0
TOTAL:
 Abatement Control and           $768.1      $492.3     $486.0                 -$486.0
 Compliance

Interdisciplinary      TOTAL     $768.1      $492.3     $486.0                 -$486.0
Training Grants
                                         8-38

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                                  MULTIMEDIA

                           Multimedia  Training  Grants
Budget Request
      The Agency requests no resources for this activity in 1991.  This represents
a decrease  of  $486,000 in the Abatement, Control  and Compliance appropriation
from 1990.
MULTIMEDIA TRAINING GRANTS

1991 ProEram Request

      The Agency requests no resources for this activity in 1991.

1990 Program

      In 1990, the Agency is allocation $486,000 from the Abatement, Control and
Compliance  appropriation for  this  program to  develop  course materials  for
state/local technical staff training through community colleges.

1989 Accomplishments

      In 1989,  the Agency  obligated  $768,100  for this program which provided
academic and professional training to State  and local environmental personnel in
the areas of pollution control and environmental engineering.  The program also
provided economic support, through fellowships and training grants, to minority
students allowing them to receive academic training in the environmental field.
Support was provided  to  community colleges to link secondary  schools and post
secondary institutions into a more rounded environmental career education program.
                                   8-39

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Enforcement

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                        ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION AGENCY

                             1991 Budget Estimate

                              Table of  Contents
MULTIMEDIA

ENFORCEMENT
   Enforcement Policy and Technical Support 	   8-40
      Enforcement Policy and Operations 	   8-42
      Criminal Investigations Program 	   8-48
      Technical Support - Office of Enforcement and Compliance
        Monitoring	   8-50
                                                                          /.

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                                                   MULTIMEDIA
                                     Enforcement Policy & Technical  Support

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED     CURRENT      REQUEST    INCREASE  +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE       1991      DECREASE  -
                                                       1990               1991  VS  1990
PROGRAM
                                               (DOLLARS IN  THOUSANDS)
Enforcement Policy &
Operations
Dumping Fund
 Salaries & Expenses
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
       $15,320.4  $16,724.0  $16,948.0  $22,693.4    $5,745.4
          $319.4   $1.501.6   $1,481.0   $2,117.0      $636.0
                       TOTAL  $15,639.8  $18,225.6  $18,429.0  $24,810.4    $6,381.4
Criminal Investigation
Program
 Salaries & Expenses
        $2,591.9   $3,359.4   $3,264.8   $4,857.7    $1,592.9
TOTAL   $2,591.9   $3,359.4   $3,264.8   $4,857.7    $1,592.9
Technical Support
Office of Enforcement
And Compliance
Monitoring
 Salaries & Expenses
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
        $3,189.3   $3,407.9   $3,319.8   $4,687.1     $1,367.3
        $2,085.5   $1,554.0   $1,532.7   $2,566.5     $1,033.8
                       TOTAL   $5,274.8   $4,961.9   $4,852.5    $7,253.6    $2,401.1
TOTAL:
 Salaries & Expenses
 Abatement Control and
 Compliance
       $21,101.6  $23,491.3  $23,532.6  $32,238.2    $8,705.6
        $2,404.9   $3,055.6   $3,013.7   $4,683.5    $1,669.8
Enforcement Policy &   TOTAL  $23,506.5  $26,546.9  $26,546.3  $36,921.7   $10,375.4
Technical Support
PERMANENT WORKYEARS
Enforcement Policy &
Operations
Dumping Fund

Criminal Investigation
Program

Technical Support
Office of Enforcement
And Compliance
Monitoring

TOTAL PERMANENT WORKYEARS
           275.7      335.8      310.2       395.6         85.4
            37.9       57.4       56.9       64.7         7.8
            55.5       63.3       62.5        69.7         7.2
           369.1       456.5       429.6      530.0        100.4
                                         8-40

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                                                   MULTIMEDIA
                                     Enforcement  Policy &  Technical  Support

                                ACTUAL    ENACTED     CURRENT     REQUEST    INCREASE +
                                 1989      1990      ESTIMATE      1991      DECREASE -
                                                       1990                1991 VS  1990
TOTAL UORKYEARS
                                               (DOLLARS  IN  THOUSANDS)
Enforcement Policy &
Operations
Dumping Fund

Criminal Investigation
Program

Technical Support
Office of Enforcement
And Compliance
Monitoring

TOTAL UORKYEARS
298.3      335.8      324.6      395.6        71.0
 38.1       57.4       56.9       64.7         7.8
 58.6       63.3       62.5       69.7         7.2
395.0      456.5      444.0      530.0        86.0
                                         8-U

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       MULTI-MEDIA  PROGRAMS
Enforcement Policy & Technical Support


Enforcement Actions
Administrative Orders
EPA
States (Third Quarter Data)
New Judicial Referrals
EPA Civil
EPA Criminal
State Civil (Third Quarter
Civil Judicial Cases, Ongoing
Cases Start of Year
Cases Concluded
Active Consent Decrees
Criminal Investigations
New
Start of Year
Defendants Charged
Contractor Listing
Delisting and Discretionary
Listings
Permit Support
RCRA
NDPES
UIC
Penalties Assessed
Administrative & Civil
Criminal
* Future year projections are not


ACTUAL
1989


3,016
3,033

203
62
Data) 392
620
193
588
118
150
95
31
272
419
625

$34,156,000
$8,634,900
made for this data
"\
CURRENT
ESTIMATE
1990


3,520
*

214
71
*
630
134
*
130
184
*
63
126
371
515

*
*
element .

INCREASE +
ESTIMATE DECREASE -
1991 1990


4,132 +612
* *

273 +59
88 +17
* *
710 +81
177 +43
* *
149 +19
* *
* *
73 +10
90 +36
371 0
515 0

* *
* *


                 8-41.1
             /-.

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                                  ENFORCEMENT

                   Enforcement Policy and Technical Support
Budget Request
      The  Agency requests  a total  of  $36,921,700  supported  by  532.0  total
workyears  for  1991,  an increase of $10,375,400 and  88.0  total workyears from
1990.   Of  the request,  $32,238,200 will be  for the  Salaries  and Expenses
appropriation and $4,683,500 will be for the Abatement,  Control and Compliance
appropriation.   This represents increases of  $8,705,600 in the  Salaries and
Expenses appropriation and $1,669,800 in the Abatement,  Control and Compliance
appropriation.   This represents an increase of 82.0  total  workyears from the
Salaries and Expenses appropriation,  an increase of 4.0 total workyears from the
Reregistration and Expected  Processing Revolving  Fund and 2.0  total workyears
from the Ocean Dumping Fund.


ENFORCEMENT POLICY AND OPERATIONS

1991 Program Request

      The Agency requests $24,810,400 supported by  397.6 total workyears for this
program, of which $22,693,400 will be for the Salaries  and Expenses appropriation
and $2,117,000 will be for the Abatement, Control  and Compliance appropriation.
Total workyears will include  390.6 from the Salaries and Expenses appropriation,
5.0 from the Reregistration and Expedited Processing Revolving Fund, and 2.0 from
the  Ocean  Dumping  Fund.  This  represents  an increase of:  $5,745,400  for the
Salaries and  Expenses appropriation; $636,000 for the  Abatement,  Control and
Compliance  appropriation,  67.0  in  Salaries  and  Expenses  workyears,  4.0  in
workyears  from the Reregistration and Expedited Processing Revolving Fund, and
2.0 in workyears from the Ocean Dumping Revolving Fund. The increase in Salaries
and  Expenses  appropriation reflects  costs  associated  with   the additional
workyears requested and increased personnel and support  costs.  The increase in
the Abatement, Control and Compliance appropriation reflects  several initiatives
related  to improving enforcement actions, enhancing  capacity  building  in the
Regions  and States,  and initiatives  for  pollution prevention  projects.   The
workyear increases are related to higher enforcement actions projected,  timely
follow through on enforcement actions begun in prior years, legal support to the
enforcement provisions of the Administration's  Clean Air Act (CAA)  legislation,
and  improved RCRA enforcement.

      The goal of this program is to respond to  instances of non-compliance with
environmental  statutes with consistent,  timely, and  effective  enforcement
actions. Resources requested by Headquarters and the Regions  reflect anticipated
workload for projected administrative enforcement actions, new and ongoing civil
and criminal judicial litigation and a number of enforcement  initiatives related
to improving  the effectiveness  of national environmental enforcement efforts.
In  1991,  7.0  additional  workyears at Headquarters  will implement or  expand
approaches to improve the effectiveness of the legal enforcement program.  These
workyears  will ensure the building  of Regional  and State  capacity within an
integrated framework  for consistent and equitable enforcement.   Development of
training materials  and management of training to cost-effectively reach a larger


                                     8-42

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audience will expand upon 1990 efforts.  An increase of 1.5 workyears will focus
on training in RCRA-specific case preparation techniques.  Program efforts will
emphasize enhancing  Headquarter's  role  in working with Regions  and  states to
better target  and prosecute  violators posing the  greatest  environmental risk.
Two workyears will coordinate this effort.

      A  total  of 3.5 additional workyears  will ensure the  enforceability of
Agency regulations and enforcement guidance development,  as well as case support
for wetlands protection,  drinking water  and hazardous waste.  Areas of emphasis
for 1991 will include enforcement of sludge permits; failure to seek storm water
permits;  revisions to the pretreatment enforcement strategy, requirements for
Safe Drinking  Water Act  (SDWA)  Class  V  wells  regarding high risk  injection
practices;  enforcement of PCB disposal deadlines;   the water toxics enforcement
strategy;  implementation of  the National Wetlands  Policy Forum recommendations;
Emergency  Planning  and   Community Right-to-Know Act  (EPCRA)  data  quality
requirements; and hazardous waste permit  compliance.  An additional 2 .5 workyears
is requested to develop policy and regulations to implement the Administration's
Clean Air Act Amendments.

      An increase in Abatement, Control and Compliance of $636,000 in 1991 will:
1) enhance Resource  Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)  enforcement training
for emerging areas, land ban and corrective actions; 2)  implement new enforcement
provisions under Federal Insecticide,  Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA 88)
will; 3) foster linkage of compliance reporting systems via a data integration
effort; 4) establish a more efficient analytic capability and management focus
for  targeting  inspection and enforcement resources; and 5)  support  pollution
prevention  initiatives.   Support  of  $138,000  is related  to new  enforcement
requirements under the Clean Air Act Amendments.   These include  targeting and
data integration support.

      The Regions will be responsible for initiating new  enforcement actions
based upon statutory, regulatory, and programmatic directives.  Increased levels
of administrative orders, civil judicial referrals and litigation will require
substantially  increased  legal support.   Regional  legal  resources  will. also
respond  to  growth in the numbers  of criminal  investigations,  referrals,  and
indictments  expected to  occur as  a result of  the expansion in the criminal
investigation program.

      Regional legal resources will also press vigorously for successful closure
of cases  active on  the  Agency's growing judicial docket,  as well as careful
oversight and follow-through on active consent decrees with conditions still not
met.  These needs coupled with a growing  imperative to follow through on cases
filed  in  prior years forms  the basis of  a request  for  50  added  workyears for
Regional legal support in 1991.

      An additional 8.5 workyears are requested  based upon the Administration's
proposed Clean Air Act to begin implementing strengthened enforcement provisions
in  Title  VI  of the Act.    Establishment of  a permit  program,   expanded
administrative penalty provisions,  new  compliance certification requirements,
and  the statutory presumption of continuous violation will significantly alter
the  CAA enforcement program and will require added Regional legal workyears.
                                     8-43

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      Pollution prevention initiatives for 1991 will focus on two areas.  First,
the use  of environmental auditing among  local governments will  be  expanded.
EPA will  assist local  governments  in  establishing audit  programs,  document
successful  techniques  and  organizational   approaches,   conduct  multimedia
information exchange on a cross-governmental basis, and analyze unique compliance
problems of municipalities in this area.  Second, EPA will build upon enforcement
settlements by promoting the use  of pollution prevention requirements as part
of a violator's ameliorative  efforts.  A policy to include pollution prevention
requirements in enforcement settlements will help reduce or eliminate root causes
of noncompliance by committing the violator (via  enforceable  agreements)  to
undertake appropriate source reduction or recycling activities.  This policy will
be implemented in 1991 after a pilot testing of the draft policy in 1990.  The
pilot testing will  analyze the  effectiveness  of this approach as an enforcement
tool.

      In  1991,  Headquarters  and  Regional legal  resources will  have primary
responsibility  for implementation  of  enforcement  activities  resulting from
reregistration requirements of FIFRA 88  legislation.  Not only will the volume
of pesticides  administrative actions increase,  but the new regulations will
increase  the  scope  of  enforcement actions to areas not previously regulated.
These include regulations governing container design  and handling procedures,
as well as transportation, storage and disposal of pesticides.

      In 1991, Regional  Counsel staff will also provide legal support to follow-
up enforcement actions begun in 1990 related to Ocean Dumping legislation.

1990 Program

      In 1990, the Agency is allocating a total of $18,429,000 supported by 323.6
total workyears for this program,  of which $16,948,000  is from the Salaries and
Expenses  appropriation,  and  $1,481,000  is  from the  Abatement,  Control  and
Compliance appropriation.  Total workyears include 323.6 from the Salaries and
Expenses appropriation,  and 1.0 workyear from the Reregistration and Expedited
Processing Revolving Fund.

      The 1990  enforcement program is characterized by a continued aggressive
enforcement  presence.   Legal  enforcement support  will address  critical  and
emerging areas which include by statute  the following:

      o     Clean Air Act  (CAA):  Enforcement of National Emissions Standards
            for  Hazardous  Air  Pollutants  (NESHAPs)  for  volatile  organic
            compounds,  enforcement against sources  of pollution in ozone non-
            attainment areas, and  enforcement of Pft,0 standard and sulfur dioxide
            continuous emission monitoring requirements.

     o      The  Clean  Water Act  (CWA)  and  Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA):
            Enforcement of requirements on wetlands protection,  protection of
            near coastal waters,  pretreatment requirements for  publicly owned
            treatment works  (POTWs), enforcement  of coliform  requirements and
            other  maximum  contaminant  levels  (including  lead) applicable  to
            public water systems, control of high  risk injection  practices in
            injection wells  affecting  groundwater,  and  implementation  of new
            citizen suit provisions.
                                     8^4

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      o       Ocean Dumping Ban and Shore Protection Act:   Enforcement of revised
             dumping  requirements and phase out plans.

      o       RCRA:   Land ban violations, storage and treatment violations, and
             corrective  action violations .

      o       Emergency Preparedness and Community Right-to-Know  Act (EPCRA) :
             Enforcement against facilities that fail to report emergency releases
             or  fail to submit an  accurate annual Toxics Release Inventory  to
             their community or EPA.

      o       TSCA/FIFRA:  PCB disposal,  Premanufacture Notices, compliance with
             the Asbestos  Hazard Emergency  Response Act  (AHERA) ,   farmworker
             protection   requirements   regarding  pesticide   use,    pesticide