DRAFT REPORT

                                . Noaylphenol


                              September 17. 1945

This document is a preliminary draft and has not beeu formally peer and admin-
istratively reviewed within the Office of Toxic Substances. Office of Pesti-
cides and Toxic Substances, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA).
This draft report has been prepared under contract to USEPA by the staff of
Oak Ridge National .Laboratory to provide information to assist the Agency in
its decision making, and should not be construed to represent Agency policy.
ifcration of trade names or commercial -products does mot constitute Agency endor-
sement or recommendation for or against use.

*A Chemical Hazard Information Profile (CHIP) is part of the first stage in
the assessment of risk by the Office of Toxic Substances (OTS) of chemicals ia
the 1977 TS£A Chemical Substance Inventory, and enables OTS to decide on a
disposition for the subject -chemical regarding level of concern and the aeed
lor further asaessment.  The Of IP contains a summary of readily available
health, environmental effects, and exposure data.  In general, little or ao ia
depth critical evaluation or validation of the data is performed.  Several
levels of management and technical review have been performed on this CHIP
within the Existing Chemical Assessment Division of OTS.

                                 DRAFT REPORT

                      CHEMICAL msAan  INFORMATION PROFILE

 Subject?   Nonylpnenolj  4-Nonylpnenol; 2-Nonylphenol
                             Prepared  by:  Elizabeth L. Etnier
                                           Chemical  Effects  Information Group
                                           Information Be search  and Analysis
                                           Oak Jtidge National laboratory
 Chemical  Name:  Nonylphennl  (adzed  isonexs)
                 (CAS No. 25154-52-3)
                4-Nony 1 phenol
                 (CAS  No. 104-40-5)
                .2-Nonyl phenol
                 (CAS No. 136-83-4)
 September 17. 1985
Rationale for  Select ion:  La* LCso values  reported for aquatic
                          invertebrates  and  fish  (Table 9); very
                          high  concentrations  of  nonylphenol
                          found  in sewage  sludge  (Giger et al. 1984);
                          high production  Tolame.
     A.  Exposure

     Technical  grade nonylphenol  is a mixture of monoalkyl phenols, predom-
 inantly para—substituted.  The  side chains are isomeric branched nonyl groups.
 The  i some*, or mixtures xited In the literature axe not always specified.

     Recent  production figures  fox nonylphenol indicate Otat 140 million
 pounds were  produced in  the United States in 1982, and consumption will
 increase to  165 million  pounds  by 1987.  Nonylphenol is currently produced by
 10 companies, at 13 aites, with no importation occurring.

      Industrial manufacture of nonylphenol is by liquid-phase alkylation of
 phenol with sized isomeric nonenes in the presence of an acid catalyst.  Fol-
 lowing production, nonylphenol is stored in dims for latex shipment in 55
 gallon dnsis ox tank cars.  Nonylphenol is rarely -used alone as an end pro-
 duet.  However, it is used extensively in the production of nonionic ethoxyla—
 ted surfactants, and to * lesser extent in the mansfacture of phosphate
 antioxidants, oil additives, synthetic lubricants, and corrosion inhibitors.

      One of the 13 production sites reports no worker exposures to nonylphenol
 during 10 years of production and use.  No data are available regarding worker
 exposure to nonylphenol ox its isomers at the other 12 prodnction sites,
 although it is estimated that up to 4 workers/site are dentally exposed during
 sampling and drumming. - Inhalation exposures are expected to be low.

      Occupational -exposure to -nonylphenol during the prtd-actioir of nonylphenol
 exhoxylates and phosphite antioxidants will be similar, although the latter
 will be produced at only three sites.  Potential exposure may occur while
 undrnsuBing and charging the nonylphenol to a reactor, and during sampling
 activities.  It is estimated that up to 4 worker a/site would be exposed for
 less than 1 hr/day during these activities, for about 330 days/year. Dermal
 exposure to nonylphenol would remain low if protective gloves are worn.
 Inhalation exposure -would again be negligible.

      Here ia no information available on consumer exposure to nonylphenol.
 Consumer exposure to products that may contain nonylphenol can occur during
 the -use of cosmetics, detergents, pesticides, etc.  One study detected  low
 levels of nonylphenol in two office buildings, but the source(s) of the nonyl-
 phenol was not identified.

      A few measurements of nonylphenol in wastewaters have been reported in
 the literature,., and range from 0.002 to 4 :ng/L (4-nony 1 phenol).  It ias been
 estimated that only 30 kg/yr will be released during the manufacture of nonyl-
 phenol.  High levels of 4-nonylphenol were found in stabilized sewage sludge
 containing surfactants, suggesting origination from anaerobic degradation of
 alkylphenol ethoxylatea.   Ximited studies indicate that nonylphenol itself Is
 slowly biodegradable.

      Although the log P (octanol—water) for nonylphenol is relatively high
 (4.10), bioconcentration factors in the saltwater mussel,  Mytilus edulis were
 low, ranging from 1*4-13..  Studies .measuring downstream effluent wastes indi-
 cate that nonylphenol is dispersed by the water body and-does not accumulate
 in sediments.

      B.  Health Effects

      A phsAaeokinetics study in rats following oral and istraperitoneal
 administration of ^C-nonylpheuol showed the animals excreted the label in
 urine (19%) and feces (701). but not as exhaled C02.  Ion exchange ehromato-
 graphy indicated that 22% of the urinary metabolites were neutrals, and that
: the.remainder were mainly glnonronie acid conjugates of nonylphenol.

      The reported oral ID50 for rats ranges from 580 to 1537 mg/kg a-nd  the
 dermal IDfO-fox xabbits xanges f ron 2031 to <3160 .Kg/day.   Mixed nonylphenol

 caused moderate necrosis (graded  6 on a scale of 1-10) when applied  at a
 strength of  10 mg/24 hr to rabbit skin.  It caused  severe corneal damage (gra-
 ded  10 oa a  acale of 1-10) as a 1* solution applied  to rabbit eyes.

     No  information was found on  the testing of  nonylphenol  for oncogenicity,
 genotoxicitjr,  or teratofeaicity/reproductive -effects.

      C.   JEnvironsiental  Effects

     Nonylpheaol was found to be  -very toxic to all  aquatic organisms studied,
 with EC-, and  LC_0 values ranging from 0.13 to 5.0 mg/L.   The two bivalves
 studied,  a nonmocile alga, and the freshwater ide appear to be the most resis-
 tant to  nonylphenol toxicity, with all other organisms tested exhibiting LQso
 values below 1.0 mg/L.   Adverse behavioral  effects and swollen bodies with
 hemorrhaged  areas .have  been observed in fish undergoing acute toxicity tes-

     The uptake and excretion of  4-nonylpnenol and nonylphenol were  studied  in
 two  saltwater  species.   Tae uptake of 4-nonylphenol  in Salao salar increased
 rapidly  for  the first two days of exposure  (mean nonequilibrinm bioconcentra-
 tion factor  about 200), and then  decreased  by one order  of magnitude after 4
 days.  Excretion was almost complete four days following  exposure. „  In the
 mussel,  ifvtilus edulis. maximum concentrations were  found to occur at 0.4
 days, with an  estimated half-time for clearance  of 0.3 days.   No .other data  on
 metabolism in  aquatic organisms was fonnd.

     Nonylphenol was found to depress the growth rate of  cultures of Chlorella
 ovrenoidosa  at 0.025 Bg/mL,  and to kill 100% of  the  cells at 25 ug/mL.   In the
 same study,  nonylphenol was found to produce ultrastructural  changes in the
 cell walls,  and distort the flagellae of Chlamvdomonas reinhardii.

                             TABLE OF CONTENTS

                    Chemical Hazard Information Profile


 3,  SummaTy of Available Data ...........................................   1

 A.  Chemical Identity	M..^.	.........,._..«	   1
 B.  Physics! and Chtaical Properties ....................................   1
 C.  Exposure	   1
     1.  Worker Exposure	   1
     2.  Consumer Exposure	  10
     3.  Environmental Exposure	  10
J>.  Health Effects	...			  18

     1.  Metsbolisa .....			,..._	  18
     2.  Lethality			  18
     3.  Oncogen!city	  18
     4.  Genotoxicity	.	  18
     5.  Teratogenicity/Reproductive Effects ...	  18
     6.  Other Effects	  18
     7.  Case Reports and Epidemiologies! Studies	  20
 E.  Environmental Effects	  20
     1.  Metabolism	..-		.		  20
     2.  Lethality	...	  20
     3.  Reproduction	  22
     4.  Behavior and Growth	  22
     5.  Population Effect*	„..	  23
     6.  Other Effects			  24
     7.  Abiotic Effects	  24
 P.  Existing Standards. Regulations, and Recommendations ..............  24

II.  Iteferenoes	~»..	  23
 A.  Literature Cited	  25
 B.  Supplemental Information ..........................................  32
 C.  Secondary Sources Searched ........................................  34
     1.  Books	^			  34
     2.  Data Bases	  39
     3.  Search Strategy	  39
 D,  Chemical Specific Sources Searched .................................  40

I.  Summary of Avail abl e D a ta

     Technical -grade nonylphenol  is a mixture  of-monoalkyl phenol*, predom-
inantly para-substituted  (Hawley 1981).  He substitutions occur vita various
iaoaexic branched—chain nonyl groups (Seed 1978).  Hie  iaomer or mixture used
ia stsdie* reported in the literature is not always specified.  In this
report, nonylphenol (sized isosers) and the unidentified isomers will be dis-
cussed as nonylphenol, and when identified as  such in the literature, the par-
ticular isoner (4- or 2—nonylphenol) will be Indicated.

A.  Chemical Identity

     He chemical identities of nonyl phenol (-adzed isomers).,'4-nonylpheaal.
and 2-nonylphenol are listed in Table 1.

S.  Physical sad Cheaiical Properties

     Nonylphenol is a viscous liquid, pale yellow la color, with a slightly
phenolic odor  (Hawley 1981).  Dietz and Traad  (1978) list an odor threshold of
1000 ug/L for p-nonylphenol.  The physical and chemical properties of nonyl-
phenol (aiized isomers), 4-nonylphenol, and'2-nonylphenol are listed in
Table 1.

C. . Exposure

     1.  Worker Exposure

     a.  Production/Importation

     Estimated production of nonylphenol for 1982 was 140 million pounds (SKI
1984, as reported ia USEPA 1985a).  Consumption is expected to increase to 165
million pounds *y 1987 (Maansrille 1982, as reported in USEPA 1985a).

     A review of the production range (includes importation volumes) statis-
tics for 4-aonylphenol (CAS No. 104-40-5) and nonylphenol, aiized isomers (CAS
No. 25154-52-3) which are listed in the initial TSCA Inventory (USEPA 1983),
has shown that between 3 and 30 million pounds of 4-nonylphenol and between 11
and 60 million pounds of agnylphenol (sized isomers) were reported as
prod need /imported in 1977.  SCI (1985) reports that approximately 18 million
pounds of 4-nonylphenol were manufactured ia 1984 for sale aad internal use.
     A review of the production range (includes importation-volumes) statis-
tics for 2-nonylphenol (CAS No. 136-83-4) which are listed ia the initial TSCA
Inventory (USEPA 1983). has shown that no 1977 production/importation was
reported or that all of tlie .production range data reported were claimed as
  * This prod-notion range information de«s aot include any
    l>rcdnction/importation data claimed aa confidential by the person(s)
    reporting for the TSCA Inventory, nor does it include any information
    •which would compromise Confidential Business Information.  The data
    submitted for the TSCA Inventory, including production range information,
    are subject to the limitations contained in the Inventory .Reporting
    Regulations (40 CFR 710).

                                        eaiMl  Idtatlty



4.  IttMttrti
    Moitctlar toravlti
i.  MftJMl Bttt*:

I.  MMtU| Poist (*C):
4.  MoiIi«B Polit (*C):
jl.  Mobilities in
    (1) lit.*
I. DUIociitloB tok«ti»t:
). Pitiltioo CokffieUat  (lo| P)
I.  teBiity (|/o«3):

i. Volttlllty:

     l. »o«yl- (IC1X9C1)
                                                  i•<)••*•)i NoByl-
                                      Pr*rostl*l  VoB-100|
                                              ipt?lpk»Mi (e

                              Civtn  •t»**-eolor«d vitooc*
                              5 M/L it 20-2S*C';
                              8H|ktly solokle  in
                              dilnt* tqoeottl N«0fle

                              Soluble !• btniene, «bl or luted »ol-
                              v«Bt».  tall in*, tiepttne,
                              •Icokoll.  etbylen*
                              Net FotMd



                                    prexore -
                                                                                   - (90)
                                                                            220. S
                                               tolnble U mot or
                                      cold ••t«t «*d iqMOK* alkali
                                      Not Fotmd
                                                                                                                   Ke.ol,  o-.o^l-  (ICJ)«
                                                                            220. S
                                      Not Pooad
                                      23 M

                                            T«bl> 1. (Contlntud) Miyaical j Chemical Proper11e» .of Nonylphtnol
10. Otner
•efraetive indat (oJfi)t
Vapor dantity:  a* reported in ttann and Jenton 1974
WlBdholt at al. 1983
ifeitt 1980
Jttitco 19851

 confidential by ^h* manufactured s)  and/or importers and  cannot be disclosed
 (Section 14U)  of  the ISCA. TJ.S.C 2fii3(a)).

      h.  Prod ueexa/ Importers

     Domestic producers of 4—nonylphenol  and  nonylphenol  < mixed isaners)  fox
 1977,  their addresses,  end the reported "production,  as liated  in the public,
 non-confidential poxtion of  the TSCA Inventory,  axe  given in Table 2 and  3,
 respectively.   One unidentified manufacturer  fox 2-nonylphenol  is  listed  in
 USEPA (1983), with the plant site not on file, and production -volume not
 reported fox 1977.

      Nonylphenol ia cvxxently masnfactnxed by 10 .companies  at 13 sites In the
United States,  with limited  ox no importation of nonylphenol occurring.   Leas
 •than 101 of -the cnxrent market is exported (SRI  1984,  as  xeported  in USEPA
 1985a),  Table 4 liats the location  and production capacity of  each  of the
 plants.  Listed capacity ia  principally that  of  nonylphenol and dodecylphenol,
 although other  alkylphenols  axe generally produced with the same equipment
 (TJSEPA 1985a).  SCI (1985) xepoxta that they  manufactured approximately 18
 million  pounds  of  nonylphenol in 1984 fox sale and internal use.

      e.  .Pxodnction Methods

      Industrial manufacture  of nonylphenol is by liquid-phase  alkylation  of
 phenol with nixed  isoaeric nonenes (propylene trimez)  in  the presence of  an
 acid  catalyst.  This  catalyst may be snlfnxio acid,  aluminum trichloride,  or
 boron triflnoride.  Material  requirements for a  yield  of  one metric  ton of 4-
 nonylphenol are 620 kg phenol* 450 kg nonene, and a  small amount of  catalyst.
 Premised phenol and nonene are fed to an  agitated, jacketed tank reactor  where
 they xeact at 50 to 100° C fox 30 to 120  min, and yield a mixture  of isomers,
 mostly para—, with some ortho- and 2,4-dinonyl substitution (Lowenheim and
 Koran 1975).  The  crude prod-net is washed several times and heated under
 vacuum to remove traces of reactants and  water.   In  the final  step,  nonyl-
 phenol is sepaxated by vacuum distillation at 10 to  20 mm fig.   Nonylphenol is
 recovered at the top  of the distillation  column,  stored,  ox shipped  in 55 gal-
 lon drums ox tank  caxa.  Oinonylphenols are recovered  as  bottoms (USEPA
 19B5a).  The yield of nonylphenol is about 75-80%, and the  yield of dinonyl-
 phenol ia about 10-20% (Lowenheim and Jfoxan 1975).

     d.  Industrial/Occupational Uses

     The pxineiple -use of -nonylphenol ia  as an intermediate in the production
 of  nonionic ethoxylated surfactants.   About 70%  of the nonylphenol produced is
 used  in  this fashion  (Lowenheim and  Jfoxan 1975), and nonylphenol ethoxylate is
 the dominant alkylphenol ethoxylate  surfactant (USEPA  1985a).   However, this
 use is not expected to expand im the United States aa  nonylphenol-derived
 detergents have poor  biodegradability, and axe not used in  household  clean-
 sers.  In Europe they -axe still used im cleansers (Lowenheim and Koran 1975).
  .* The data  submitted for "the ISCA Inventory  including production-range
    information, are  subject  to  the limitations contained in the Inventory
    fiepoxting ftegnlatioms (40 CFB 710).

Table 2.  1977 Product ion of 4-Noorylphenol

        Company              Production*

Perro Corp.                     KEb
  Pzodsctol  Chem. JHv,
  10051 fioaandel Ave.
  Scuta Pe Springs,  CA
TJni royal. Inc.                 1-10
  Bni royal Chem. Div.
  Elm Street
  Nangatnck* CT
£ch«nectadjr  Cham,. lac.        1-10
  Honte 5S
  fiotterda Jet, TO
Sohmectady Chea., Inc.
  P.O. Box 2830
  Treeport, TZ
GAP Corporation    ~*            NR
  P.O. Box 12
  Linden, NT
GAP Corporation                 NS
  P.O. Box 37
  Cmlvert City, XY

•Million* of -pounds.

**Not reported.

 Source:  USEPA 1983 a.

T«ble3.  1977 Production of Nonylphenol (JLLzed Isoaers)
 Union Carbide Corp.
   iiver Road
   "Boand Brook, NT

 Borg-Wmrner Chen.
   P.O. Box 816
   Morgantovn, W

 Montedison USA*
   1114 Are. of tie A« ericas
   Nev Ibrk, NT

 -RoJun ? Haas
   5000 Eiehaond St.
   Philadelphia,. PA

 Robm f Haa«
   P.O. Box 672
   Deer Paxk, TX
 Continental Oil Co.
   191 Dorenns Ave.
   Newark,  NT

 Benlry ^ Co., Inc.c
   750 third Ave.
   Nev Xork. NT

 Filo Chem. Corp.c
   347 Madison Ave.
   New Tork, NY
 Monsanto Company
   Pennsylvania Are.
   Eearny,  NT

 Kalaaa Chen., Inc.
   1296 N.Y. 3rd St.
   Ealaaa,  WA
 Jefferson Chen. Co.
   P.O. Box 847
   Port Necaes. IX
 Ferro Corp.
   Productol Che. Div.
   10051 Ronandel Ave.
   Santa Fe Springs, CA
-AMjLllions of.'.ponnds.

 *Not reported.
  Source:  USEPA 1983 a.

Table 4.  Plant Capacity for U.S. Producers of Nonylphenola,b,c
Standard Oil
of CA
*ok» f Haa*
Rohm «• Haas
Uni royal
-Belle Chaste, LA

Oystex Creek. 13
Koxgantown, W
Eeamy. NT
Sayvay. NT
Deer Park, IX
Philadelphia. PA
Port Neches.TX
lotterdaa Jet. NI
Linden. NT
Kalana, WA
Calvext City. KT
Navgatucl. CT
Onillion Ib)

 «HSEPA 1P85.
 bA§ of January 1983.
 cIncludes production of dodecylphenol and other alkylphenols.
 ^Captive use.

     In producing these surfactants;  nonylphenol  is  reacted,  generally  in a
batch process, with ethylene oxide in the presence of a basic catalyst, to
yield ethoxylates of various polyethylene oxide chain lengths (USEPA 1985a).
By changing the Jttles of ethylene oxide, the ase  and solubility of the  surfac-
tant changes  (the water solubility increases as chain.length  increases).
Earalsifiers for grease and oil axe produced with 4 to € sales of ethylene
oxide per molecule of nonylphenol, laundry detergents with 7  to 11 soles.
emnlsifiers for solvents and pesticides with 13 to 15 moles,  and emulsion
polymerization of latex is achieved with 30 to 40 moles of ethylene oxide
(USEPA 1985a).  He 8 and 9 mole ethoxylates fora the basis of high perfor-
mance detergents, particularly for textile scouring, but they have been repla-
ced by straight chain C.--C,. alcohol ethoxylates in household detergents
(feed 1978).           "  **

   -.  Pif teem vompaniee produce -these  alky lphenol-«xhoxy late surfaetaats, -using
about 97.5 to 112.5 million pounds of nonylphenol. for use priaarily as indus-
trial or agricultural cleansers (USEPA 198Sa).  One to their  lack of sudsing
ability, these surfactants are rarely used as laundry detergents or as  con-
sumer products, however, an increase  in its use has appeared  in private label
asd generic household cleaning prod-nets (USEPA 1985a).

     Alyklphenol exhoxylate .surfactants are produced by GAT.  ttomsanto,  Bohsi 1
Baas, Texaco. Union Carbide. BASF. Diamond Shamrock. ICI Americas. Mil liken,
Millmaster Onyx, Jf f T Chemicals, National Distillers, Stephan, Thomp.son-
Hayward. and Vitco (SRI 1983. as reported in USEPA 1985a).

     Ihe second largest -use of nonylphenol is in  the plastics and rubber
industry, where it is used as an intermediate in  the manufacture of phosphite
antioxidant s.  Approximately 15% of the nonylphenol produced  was used for this
purpose in 1975 (Lowenheim and Noran  1975).  The principle use of nonylphenol
as a phosphite antioxidant is in the form of tris-4-nonylphenol. phosphite
(TNPP), produced by Borg-ffagner. GAP, said 01 in Corporation (SRI 1983, as
reported in USEPA 1985m).  The TNPP is produced through esterification  of
nonylphenol in the presence of phosphoric acid, stored, then drummed in 55
gallon drums.  Estimated production volume is 14 million pounds at the  three
sites (USEPA 1985a).  TNPP is used principally as a liquid stabilizer system
for polyvinyl chloride resins, and secondly as an antistaining antioxidant for
other plastics and elastomers.  Phosphites have been approved for indirect
food use (SH 1983. as reported in USEPA 1985a).

     About 10% of thejnonylphenol produced is reacted with formaldehyde to
form compound a -useful as oil additives and synthetic lubricants.  The
remaining use of nonylphenol (5%) is  as an intermediate in the manufacture of
polyvinyl chloride plasticizers. in Pharmaceuticals, and as corrosion inhibi-
tors (Lowenheim and Koran 1975).

     Nonylphenol by itself does mot appear to nave any direct «nd -uses  (Seed
1978; SCI 1985) although one significant application is in an admixture with
diisobutyl phthalate for marking fuel oil for taxation purposes (Reed 1978).
Nonylphenol is labelled as a major inert component (50.5%. acting as a  surfac-
tant) of the pesticide, Matacil  1.8-fi, nsed in control 1 ing - spruce budworm in
eastern Canada (Snndaram et «1. 1980).  Although not confirmed by other
reference sources, Weinberger, and -Re* (1982) state that nonylphenol is a

widely used  constituent  of paints,  inks,  and  shampoos, and fiantuccio et al.
 (1984) note  lhat nonylphenol la used  in cosmetic*.

     e.  Detection Method*

     Nonylphenols  are Jiot detectable  by tie -standard -methods n*ed fox the col-
 lective determination of nonionic  surfactant* (Giger et al. 1981).  High reso-
 lution gaj chromatography has been successfully used to separate technical
 grade 4-nonylphenol  into nine major peaks identified as para-substituted com-
 pounds as well  a*  a minor amount of ortho-substituted  compounds.  Nonylphenols
 can also be  identified by their fragmentation patterns with mass spectreaietry.

     Anstern et al.  (1975) de-vised  a  method of detecting low levels of nonyl-
phenol in wastewater.  This method  includes extraction with freon, concentra-
 tion of the  extract ±m a EM eras-Danish apparatus, ami gas chromatography -with
.a hydrogen flame detector.  Recovery  from spiked raw and txeated wastewaters
•was 99.9 ± 3,5%. with the minimum detectable quantity  being 2.2 ng.

    . f.  Woxker Exposure

     No data are available regarding  worker exposure to nonylphenol during its
sunuf acture.  However, worker exposure scenarios have  been developed, based on
models presented by USEPA (1984, as reported  in TJSEPA  1985a), utilizing
parameters such as vapor pressure*  form of the material, and concentration of
 the material.  Since the preparation  of nonylphenol takes place in a closed
reactor system, there is not likely to be any occupational exposure during
 this step in its manufacture.  There  is,  however, a potential for exposure to
 nonylphenol  during the activities of  sampling and loading the product (Mon-
 santo 1985a).  The USEPA (1985a) estimates that np to 4 workers/site could be
 exposed in this fashion  for np to 4 hr/day for 250 days/year.  If the workers
wear gloves, dermal  exposure would  be low.  Due to. the low vapor pressure of
nonylphenol, inhalation  exposure*- are expected to be negligible (TJSEPA 1985a).

     Occupational  exposure during  the production of nonylphenol ethoxylates
and phosphite antioxidant* will be  similar, although the latter will be produ-
ced at only  three  sites.  Potential exposure may occur while nndrnmming and
 charging the nonylphenol to the reactor,  and during sampling activities.
USEPA  <1985a) estimate* that up to 4  workers/site would be exposed for less
 than 1 hr/day during these activities, for about 330 days/year, dermal expo-
 sure would remain  low if protective gloves axe worn, but would be similar to
'that during  manufacture  if gloves  are not worn.  Inhalation exposure would
again be negligible  (USEPA 1985m).

     SCI (1985) state that in 10 years of making, handling, and -using nonyl-
phenol, no employee  exposure problems attributable to  nonylphenol have been

     Ikeda et al.  (1970) suggest the  possibility that  a certain-portion of
•nonylphenol  used to produce nonionic  surfactant* used  in detergents might
remain nnreacted,  and appear as a  contaminant in the final detergent product.
They also suggest  the possibility  that the polyoxyethylene alkylphenylethers
 used in the  detergents may decompose  to yield free aUcylphenol.

     2.   Consumex Exposure

      Consumers might be exposed  to nonylphenol daring the handling and use of
 various  products to which it is  reportedly added.  These  include  cosmetics
 (Rantnccio et al.  1984, Weinbnrger and Rea 1982),  the pesticide Matacil   (Sna-
 dazam  et al.  1980), .amd paints and inks  (Weinburgex and Rea 1982).

     Only one study was found which measured  consumer exposure to nonylphenol
 isomers  (Weschler 1984).  Indoor-outdoor measurements of  noapolar organic con-
 stituents of  aerosol particles were made in two  office buildings* Average
 indoor concentrations of nonylphenol isomers  were 15  and  30 ng/m  , whereas
 associated outdoor measurements  of nonylphenol were not detected.  The author
 could  not identify the actual source of  the isomexs in eithex of  the offices

     3.   Environmental Exposure

     a.   Environmental Release

     .Limited  information on  environmental  -releases of noaylphenol during
 manufacture or use was located.  Table 5 lists levels of  nonylphenol which
 have been measured in wastewater effluents or untreated waste from various
 manufacturing facilities.  Garrison and  Hill  (1972) reported concentrations of
 p-nonylphenol in wastes and  receiving waters  from a carpet yarn mill (Table
 5).  The authors found an eighty-fold increase in the concentration of 4-
 nonylphenol between the treatment  pond influent  and effluent, which they
 attributed to the possible anaerobic bi(degradation of a  nonionic surfactant
 used in  the-washing and drying processes.   Shackelford et al. (1983) detected
 4  nonylphenol in'.li water samples  associated -with various industrial sources
 (Table 6), at concentrations ranging from  2 to 1,620  fig/L.

     Borg-Warner (1985) reports  jig/L levels for 4-nonylphenol in  effluent
 discharges into  the Monongahela  River.   However, since the effluent is
 discharged into  the river at a rate of 200 to 450 gal/min. with river flow
 averaging 4390 ft^/sec, Borg-Warner (1985)  indicate that  the effluent is sub-
 stantially diluted.  Several other studies have  identified noaylphenol in
 secondary effluents from municipal treatment  plants (Ellis et al. 1982), or in
 rivers receiving wastewatera from  various  chemical industries (Moore and
Harasak  1984)-  Quantitative determinations were not  made in these studies.

     Releases of nonylphenol to  the environment during the manufacture of
 nonionic surfactants will probably occur during  the disposal of used noayl-
 phenol drums, and  the cleaning of  equipment fDSEPA 1985a).  Used  nonylphenol
 drams-will probably be landfilled  or incinerated.  There  are no estimates of
 the  quantities of  noaylphenol .that might be released  during these processes
 (USEPA 19&5a).

                  table 5.  Levele of Nonylpheftol  in Waate*ater Effluent*
                  So we*
10-35 ua/L
0.05 «|/L


4.0 »a/L
Smug* tt«at*«nt platttt
Specialty oheaical
Carpet jratn aiill
tire ttanofaotof ittf
tar pet jam Hill
AWT* Municipal sewage
Secondary effluent
faiterator efflvent

Untreated »a»te
ffaetewater effluent

treatment pond
Lin et al. 1981
Stephaaon and Oiger 1982
ttitea et al. 1979

Oarrllod and Hill 1972
          et al. 1976
Oarriaon and Hill 1972
•Approtieiate concentration.
b Aft « Adrahoed waate treatatent water.


Table 6.  Occurrence of 4-Nonylphe«ol  in EnviroaBental  Saaples (fig/L)
NonfeTTons metals
Paint -and -Ink
Organic* and Plastics
Inorganic diemicals
Knbber processing
Ante and other
Organic -eheBicals
treatnent -votis
.Industry unknown
. 1
. 1
•NA « not available.
Source: Shaclelford et al. 1983,

      Bel cases of nonylphenol during the manuf acture of -phosphite antioxidant
 intermediates are expected  to  be  low..  Loases that night occur fxoa storage
drums or equipment cleaning would be to landfill (DSEPA  1985).

      b,  Jtavironmental fttte

           i.   Persistence

               {*)  Biodegradstion

      Fischer  et ml. (1974.  ms  reported  la IBEMFA3E 1985)  studied  the bifidegre-
 tion of  nonylphenol in a closed bottle  test  for BCD.   Iwo ppm  nonylphenol was
 tested at 20*C with sampling at 0,  5, 15,  and 30 days.  Zero to 3% BO) removal
-was observed,  indicating little ear no degradation.

      6af.fney  (1976) -reported no degrade-tie*-of 1 mgAL nonylphenol after 135  hr
 in doneatic wastewater.  or  after  24 hr  in industrial  wastewater,  bat he found
 45% degradation of the nonylphenol  after 135 hr incubation  in  the industrial

      Sundaram aid Szeto  (1981) studied  the dissipation of nonylphenol  in
 stream and pond water when  incubated in open and closed  flasks.   Hey  found  no
 transformation -products  after  open incubation,  but an unidentified transforma-
 tion product(s) was detected via  EFLC in both pond  water  after 3
days incubation in the closed  system.   Photo-oxidation or aicrobial  hydroxyla-
 tion were  suggested as the  possible mechanism of transformation.  In the same
 study the  authors found  that nonylphenol was rapidly dissipated from poad
water in the  presence of sediment,  with about 50%  of  the  nonylphenol appearing
 in sediment after 10  days,  and the  remainder undetected  in water  or  sediment.
 About 60%  of  the nonylphenol translocated to the sediment was  degraded in 70
days,  with no degradation occurring in  autoclaved water and sediment samples.

      4-Alkylphenol polyethoxylate surfactants are  bicdegraded  during aerobic
 treatment  of  wastewater  by  activated sludge  to yield  4—alkylphenol mono- and
diethoxylates.   Giger et al. (1984)  postulate that high levels of 4-
 oonylphenol measured  in  stabilized  sewage sludge originate from the  alkyl-
 phenol ethoxylates.   Giger  et al.  (1984)  suggest that the 4-alkylphenol mono-
 aad diethoxylates formed during microbial anaerobic degradation of the alkyl—
 phenol polyethoxylate surfactants are less biodegradable, and  less •water-
 soluble,  and  are partially  removed from wastewater by sorption to lipophilio
 floes of sludge.   To  test their hypothesis that anaerobic environments favor
 the accumulation of 4—nonylphenol,  Giger et  al.  (1984) conducted  controlled
 batch experiments with raw  and anaerobically stabilized sludge and observed  a
4- to 8-fold  increase in the concentration of 4—nonylphenol in the stabilized
 sludge relative to that  originally present in the raw sludge.  Batch exper-
 iments involving aerobic incubation resulted  in increases in 4—nonylnhenol
 concentration by only a :f actor of -two.

               (b) . Photode gradation

     No iarformation regarding the photcdegradation of nonylpienol and its
isomers was found.

               (e)  Bydxolysi*

     No information regarding tie hydrolysis of nonyl;ienol and its isoaers
was f ound.

               (d)  Other route* of degradation

     No other  inforstation regarding tie environmental fate of nonylpienol
its isomers was found.

               (e)  Bioaccamla tioa

     Although  tie lof P of nonylphenol (4.10) suggests that bioaccaaulation
may occur, tie study of McLeese et al. (1980*) indicates a low bioaccumulation
of nonylphenol in tie saltwater musael, Mvtilus ednlis.  Mussel* with valve
leagtis of about 5.0 en were exposed fox four days in static tests at 15°C to
nonylpienol at nominal concentrations of 0.1 and 1*13 mgJL.  Nonylpienol in
the «a**els reached a vazivan concentration between one. and two days, and
decreased by four days.  Estimated bioconcentration factors (BCF) ranged from
1.4-13.  The anthors conclade that due to the low calculated bioooncentration
coefficient (nptake/ezcretion). jionylphenol concentrations in aeawater of leas
than 0.01 ttg/L are not likely to reanlt in significant accumulation in

     Kawasaki  (1980) report* a bioconcentration factor of about 100 for nonyl-
phenol isomers, while Sasaki (1978) listed it as a chemical known to have
little or no bioaccnmnlation.

          ii.  Transport

               (a)  Air

     No .data were found.

               (b)  Water

     Bite* et al; (1979) measured levels of nonylphenol in treated waatewater
from a specialty chemicals plant which manufactured many products, including
surfactants.   Samples were also taken at various stations up- and downstream
from the point where the wastestream entered a river, end in river sediment.
Level* of 0,05 ppm nonylpheuol were measured in the wastewater, bat no nonyl-
phenol waa detected la .either river water or aedimeat aamplea.

     Table 7 list* measurement* of nonylphenol in receiving water* downstream
from a carpet yarn mill (Garrison and Hill 1972).  The rapid dissolution of
aonylpheaol as it moved downstream from the discharge point indicates dilution
by the water body.

Table 7.  -Concentration of 4—Nonylpnenol in Textile Waste
             and Receiving Waters

Sample Location                     Concentration (mg/L)
Plant total untreated waste
Treatment pond effluent
Saiall creek
(1 mi) «
Small river
(1.5 mi)«
Small river
(4.5 »i)«
Savannan River
(6 mi)a
*Distance belov pond discharge.
Source:  Garrison and Hill 1972.

      In order to  study "the fate  and persistence  of  nonyphenol  under field  con-
ditions,  Snndarsm et al.  (1980)  applied  0.47  L nosy 1 phenol/ha  (equivalent  to
the  seasonal  allowable •axiom of  Matacil  formulations containing nonyl-
phenol) aerially  to a mixed  coniferous forest.   Jtanyl phenol was detected in
water frest a  treated streasi  immediately  following application,  sad persisted
for  5 days. .The  .highest  concentration of  nonylphenol detected  was 9.1 ppb one
hour after spraying, which decreased  to  <2.0  ppb in tf hr, and was not detected
at 24 hr.  Under  the field conditions tested,  the estimated half-life of
nonylphenol was about  2.5 hr.  The authors assume that  the rapid  dissipation
of nonylphenol residues in streasi  water  was due  to  dilution by  water flow.
Other factors which could have contributed to dissipation were  suggested as
-surface evaporation, .and  codistillation.   Nonylphenol WAS detected in only one
streasi  sediaient sample  (less than  0.10 ppm) four hours  following  application,
indicating to the authors that diffusion of nonylphenol downward, in'the water
col nan 'would  be minimal.

      East et al.  (1980)  fonad sunny Iphennl to disappear rapidly frost aqueous
solution  in open  tanks, with up  to a  90% loss occurring within  48 hr.  The
apparent  correlation of nonylphenol disappearance with  surface  area/volume
ratios, aeration,  and  stirring,  suggests that volatilization is the primary
route of dissipation.

      Sundaram and Szeto (1981) studied the behavior of nonylphenol  in static
aquatic environments using open  and closed systems.  They found that nonyl-
phenol dissipated  in spiked  samples of both pond and stream water in open
flasks-with a half-life of 2.5 days.  Persistence in closed systems was
longer, with  a half-life  of  16.5 and  16.3  days estimated for stream and pond
water, respectively.  The authors  feel that these findings support the con-
clusion that dissipation  of  nonylphenol  in aqnatic  systems results from sur-
face volatilization and redistillation.

               (c)  Soil

     Ilngsbary et al.  (1981)  applied  nonylphenol to terrestrial ecosystems  at
a rate  equivalent  to the  quantity  of  nonylphenol applied in allowable maxismm
seasonal  sprayings of Hatacil  .  They were unable to detect nonylphenol in
soil  samples from  a study plot well exposed to the  aerial deposition of nonyl-
phenol.  They  suggest that nonylphenol .disappears very rapidly  from soil via
physical, chemical* or biological  processes.

              (d)  Biota

      In the study by Sundaram et al.  (1980) nonylphenol residue in -white
spruce foliage reached its highest concentration (18.9 ppm) one hour  after
spraying with nonylphenol.   Residues declined steadily, and were  node testable
after 62 days, with a Aall-life of 2.8 -hr.  Quantities of nonylphenol on the
forest floor, if present,  were below  the levels of detection, indicating a
filtering affect from the foliage  (Snadaram et al. 1980).

      c.  .Environmental Occurrence
     A few measurements of nonylphenol in rivers or tributaries; exist -in the
literature, and these are smomarized in Table 8.  .Measured values range fa

                            Table 6.  Environmental Levels of Nonylphenoi
1-2 ppb (winter)
323 ppb
0.5-2.0 ug/La

1.0 ftf/L
0.04-i ppb (stta*er)   Onknowtl
10 iranicipil
ttettaent piAnti
Wool toooring
Delnrtre It.,
Philadelphia. PA
Delaware ft. •
Philadelphia, PA
Lover Tennessee ft.,
below divert City, tt
Olatt ft.,
Savannah ft. ttibtttarjr
Kites et al. 1979
                                            Bites at al. 1979
Ooodley and Gordon 1976* as reported
ifl CBEKFATfc 1983
Ahel at al« 1983
Gustafson 1970, as reported
in Garrisok and Kill 1972
•Approximate concentration

 40 ng/L to 1 mg/L.  Holies and Xlngsbury (1980* is -reported in Moody et al.
 1983) found levels of nonylphenol op to 1.1 ppm in stagnant -water following
 operational pesticide spray program in Ontario.
D.  Heal-th ^Effects
      1.  Metabolism

      One pha-rmsBoH ue tics study exists (Ebaak «t ml. 1966) describing the
• excretion of   G-nonylphenol when administered orally or intraperitoneally to
 150 f male rats (Farms-Elias stock).  Daily urine and fecal samples were col-
 lected and analyzed for a period of 7 days* and 002 samples were collected and
 analyzed for 4 days.  By day 4 of the 7-day sampling period, the majority of
 the labelled nonylphenol -was excreted in urine (19%), and feces (70ft).  No
 radiolahelled  00, -was detected,  identical results were obtained -with both
 methods of administration.  First-day urine samples were analyzed with ion
 exchange chromatography. and 25% of the urinary metabolites of   C-nonylphenol
 chromatographed as neutrals.  The remaining   C chromatographed as acids after
 the neutrals,  and were believed to be mainly glncuronic acid conjugates (75%)
 of nonylphenol.

      2.  Lethality
      Smyth et al.  (1962, 1969) -report for the mixed isomers an oral ID-0
      of 1.62 mL/kg (1537 ag/kg based on a density of 0.949 g/cn) «nd ad
rats of 1.62 mL/kg (1537 ag/kg based on a density of 0.949 g/cnf) and a~der»al
ID5Q for rabbits of 2.14 mL/kg (2031 mg/kg based on a density of 0.949 g/cm ).
They list 4 hr as the maximum time to death for rats inhaling a concentrated
vapor.  Texaco (1985*) and Monsanto  (1985b) list an oral ID., for rats of 0.58
g/kg, and 1300 mg/kg, respectively.  Monsanto  (1985b) lists a dermal ID_n for
rabbits of X200« mj/kg and" <3160 mg/kj.

     3.  Oncogenicity

     No information.

     4.  Genotaxicity

     No information.

     5 .  Teratogeni ci ty/fieprcdnctiTe Effect a

     Mo information.

     6.  Other £ffecta

     a.  Skin -and -Eye Effects

     Nonylphenol caused necrosis (graded 6 on a scale of Jr-10) -when applied at
a strength of 10 mg/24 hr to shaved rabbit skin.  It caused severe corneal
damage (graded 10 on a scale of 1—10) as a 1%  solution applied (0.5 mL) to
rabbit eyes (Smyth et al. 1962. 1969).  Nonylphenol produced moderate

irritation when 500 ag was applied to -rabbit xkin  (UCD8 1959,  as reported in
Sax 1984).

     Bantuocio et al. (1984) s tidied the irritant potential of nonylphenol
when passaged into shaved rabbit akin daily for 30 days.  A 10% solution of
nonylphenol in water  (0.5 aL/day) iraa found .to give rise to increased layers
of epidermal cells and increased cells in the superficial deraiis.  The abso-
lute f ibroblast count was raised 52ft although the  relative count was not
raised.  The basement ateabrane was unaltered and the fibers of the den is
showed no gross changes*  Elastic fibers had alaiost disappeared.  Although
nonylphenol induced changes in the form of increased numbers of epithelial
cell layers* and dermal cell count* the anthors note the difficulty in evalua-
ting the reanlta, and in extrapolating them to .human tissues.
     Texaco (19B5b) applied 0.3 j& nonylphenol directly to tie .shared akin of
one male and one female rabbit.  The material /remained in contact with the
akin for 4 hr. and akin necroaia waa visible In both rabbits at 48 Jtr after
the application.  Texaco  (1985a) and Xonsanto (1985b) list a akin irritation
index (based on the Draize Method) for nonylpnenol of 8.0/8.0 and an eye irri-
tation index of 57/110 and 58/110, respectively, for rabbits.   Nonylphenol is
listed as a corrosive agent which nay cause burns and blistering to the akin.
It is axtreaely irritating to the eyes, and may cause permanent eye injnry
(Texaco 1985a).

     The acute toxicity of 20 conpound a used by the Air Force was studied to
establish safe handling guidelines (Gaworaki et al. 1979, as reported in
MDLARS II [TQXBACK76] 1985).  Nonylphenol was reported to canse a skin sensi-
tization reaction in 18 of 20 animals dosed (level of dosing and type of
animals tested not given  in abstract)..

     Texaco (1985c) tested nonylphenol for akin sensitization using ten male
albino guinea pigs and a modified Jfaehler test method.  Under the conditions
of the study, no skin sensitization was observed.

     Weiss (1980) states  that nonylphenol causes -smarting of the akin and
first-degree burns on short exposure, and aay canse secondary burns on pro
longed exposure.  The -vapors .cause a alight, temporary, smarting of the eyes
or respiratory ay stem if preaent in high concentrations.

     Cell in et al. (1779) tested tie depigm rating rapacity of -various phenols,
including nonylphenol, using black guinea piga and black adult mice (strains
not given).  They report  that irritation was observed with all phenols, but
that nonylphenol did not  induce depigmenxation.

     b.  .Biochemical Effects

    .; The partitioning: ami interfaclal interaction of  fi-adenosine -triphosphate
to various amphiphilea (lipophilic groups attached to amino acid residues) haa
been studied by Eideshima et al. (1977).  It was found that 4-nonylphenol did
not directly react with nude otides. probably due to electrostatic repulsion.
In the presence of Ca  , interaction did occur, although Mg   did not enhance
nacleotide .interaction with nonylphenol.

     T.   Ctse Seports and "Epidemiological  Studies

     In  • case -report.  Sherman (1985) describes multiple birth defects in a
3-week old male  infant.  Hie mother was exposed to a. polymeric material
applied  with • aonylphenolic ethoxylated surfactant.dnrinf tie early part of
her pregnancy.

     Xkeda et al.  (1970) reported  two cases  of  lencoderma  in women engaged in
degreasing metal parts with synthetic detergents containing polyoxyethylene  (3
to 16) nonyl- or octylphenylether.   Analysis of the detergents rerealed con-
tamination with  free  alkylphenol, possibly nonylphenol  or  octylphenol,  aid the
authors  suspected  that the  1 encoderat was  caused by the free alkylphenols.
They hypothesized  that either  a  certain portion of  the  alkylphenols added  as a
starting material  to  fora the  detergents remained vnreacted. or decomposition
of the detergents daring their nee yielded free alkylphenols.   No posit ire
correlation  between the cases  of 1 encodetma  and nonyl-  or  octylphenol  were
made.  No other  case report* or  epidemic!ogical studies were fonnd  specifi-
cally dealing with nonylphenol.

JL.  Environmental Effects

     1.  Metabolism

     Uptake  (Kl) and  excretion (C2)  rate constants,  time to maximum concentra-
tion* and  half—time for clearance  of nonylphenol in the saltwater mussel.
Mytilus  edulis. were  estimated by  McLeese  et al.  (1980a).   MasseIs  were
exposed  for  four days  in static  tests at 15°C to nonyphenol  concentrations of
0.1 and  1.13 mg/L  of  sea water.  Maximum concentrations occurred at 0.4 days,
with a II  of 23/day. a 12 of 2.3/day. and a  half-time for  clearance of  0.3

     In  a  static test.  McLeese et al. (1981) studied  the uptake and excretion
of p-nonylphenol in Atlantic salmon  (Salmo salar) that  were  placed  for  four
days in water containing p-nonylphenol  and then transferred  to clean water.
On the first day of exposure,  the  concentration of  nonylphenol  in the water
was 0.31 mg/L and  the  average  tisane concentration  (uptake) for two fish was
72.7 ftg/g  of tissue (wet weight).  On day 4, the concentrations had dropped to
0.17 mg/L  in the water and  12.7 ng/g of  tissue  in the fish.  Hie excretion of
p-nonylphenol. evaluated on the basis of tissue measurements that were made
after the  fish had  been placed in clean water,   was  almost  complete  by four
days.  At  that time; the average tissue  concentration of nonylphenol had drop-
ped to 0.48  flg/g.   No  other data on  metabolism  in aquatic organisms were

     2.  Lethality

     Lethality data for freshwater and  saltwater species are listed in
Table 9.   It can be seen that  nonylphenol is very toxic to all  organisms stu-
died, with a range  of LC_Q  values from  0.13  to 5.0 mg/L.  The  two bivalves
studied  (Anodonta and  Mvai  were  relatively nonylphenol  toxicity.
Bringsann  and Kuhn  (1982) report an  ECJO value  (based on immobilization) of
0.18 «f/L  ftff n«ylm4«  ma ana.   In contrast to. this. Monsanto  (19&5a)  lists a

              Table 9.  lethality of Jfonylphenol  in Environmental  Species
Dose (ag/L)   Conditions   Reference
Fathead ainaow
(Piaephales trromelas)
Rainbow trout
(Salmo «airdneri)

Brown trout
(Salve linns fontinalis)
(Leuciscns idns)
Freshwater claa
(Anodonta cataractae)
Water flea
(Daphnia magna)

(P. pulex)
Nonmotile alga
96 hr
96 hr
96 hr«
96 hr«
24 hi*
96 ire


144 hr

24 hr
48 hr
48 hr
24 hr







Hoi combe et al. 1984
Monsanto 1985b
McLeese et al. 198 Ob
Ernst et al. 1980
Ernst et al. 1980
McLeese et al. 198 Ob

Knie et «1. 1983
McLeese et al. 198 Ob

Monsanto 1985a
Monsanto 1985a
Ernst et al. 1980
Weinberger and Rea 1982
  (Chlorella -pyrenoidosa)
Atlantic salaon
  (Salmo salar)
Sand shrimp
  (Crangon seDteasoinosa)
  (Hoaarus aaericanns)
Soft-shelled clam
  (Mva arenaria)
96 hrf
96 hr
96 hr
96 hr
360 Jcr   >1.0
FT       McLeese et al. 1981
S        McLeese et al. 198Ob
S        McLeese et al. 1981
S        McLeese et al. 198Ob
S        McLeese et al. 198Ob
                           McLee*e et al. 198Ob
•FT = flow through tests.
*>NA* not avail able.
dS = static testa.

     3.  Byproduct!OB

     No data were found.

     4.  Behavior and Growth

     Weinberger and fea 119U) studied the -ultrastructural effects of nonyl-
phenol on * no tile flagellate, Chlamvdomouas reinhardii.  Chi aired omonas was
exposed for 1 hr to 0.5 to 0.7 ppm nonylphenol added to the nutrient medium.
Nonylphenol was found to distort the flagellae asd to disrupt the.ultrastruc-
tnzal architecture of the cell vails of treated cells.

     Matacil  1.8D is a pesticide consisting of the carbaaate aminocarb formn-
lated with nonylphenol asd a fnel oil distillate. 585 diluent oil.  Weinberger
and Eea (1981. 1982) exposed Chlorella populations to concentrations of amiuo-
carb as high as 10 ngAmL and recorded growth stimulation, while the sane con-
centration of femulated aaiinocarb in Matacil  1.8D proved lethal to
Chlorella.  Nonylphenol -was added to Chlorella culture* at concentrations of
0, 0.025, 0.25. 2.5. 7.5* or 25 fig/at.  The average exponential growth rate
was depressed at the fonr lower concentrations, while at 25 ug/aL, 100% kill
was achieved.  Frost these experiments a 24 hr LC.Q of 1.5 ug/mL was estimated.
Exposure of populations of Chlorella to diluent 585 oil concentrations as high
as 15 ug/aL resulted in no population growth effects.  The authors conclude
that nonylphenol in the f omul a ted pesticide, Matacil  1.8D, is responsible
for the toxic affects seen in their algal growth studies.

     Using the flnorcaietric determination of algal photosynthetic activity,
nonylphenol was tested for its ability to inhibit photosynthesis in the green
alga, Chlamvdomona reinhardii after 1 hr of treatment (Moody et al. 1983).
Inhibition of photosynthesis was 54.7% at 0.5 ppn nouyphenol, and 100% at 0.75
and 1.0 ppn.  Equivalent concentrations of nonylphenol in the pesticide Mata-
cil  1.8-D produced very similar results, while the carbaaate Matacil . and
diluent 585 oil alone required concentrations of MOO and 30 ppm, respec-
tively, to produce 100% inhibition of photosynthesis.

     Six guppi-es and six snails (scientific names not given) were housed in
natural lake water to -which 0.5 ppm nonylphenol was added (Weinberger and £ea
1981). He behavior of the fish and snails was visually monitored.  Ihe gup-
pies reacted immediately to the nonylphenol. showing an initial startle reac-
tion, and later some slight disorientation. accompanied by less vigorous
feeding.  Iwo of the six gnppies died within 24 hr, and the others recovered
after 36 hr.  The snails dropped from the inner surface of the tank and did
not emerge for 8 hr.  Following .this, 5 of the snails returned to normal
feeding behavior.

     Hoicombe et al. (1984) conducted flow-through acute toxicity tests with
Pimeahales oromelas.  .Adverse behavioral effects-were fowmd in fish exposed to
concentrations of nonylphenol greater than the LC_Q (0.135 mg/L).  At a con-
centration of 0.187 mg/L, surviving fish were lethargic, although still reac-
ted to outside stimuli such as tapping the tank.  At concentrations as low as
0.098 ag nonylphenol/L, some loss of equilibrium was observed in the fish.

     Nonylphenol was found to significantly decrease  (significant at the 1%
level) percent seed gemination in Jack pine  (Finns banksiana) and white birch
(Betula nanvrifera) at 100 ppm, and increase percent  seed germination  (signi-
ficant at the 1% level) in white birch at 20 ppm  (Weinberger and Vladut 1981).
latex uptake was significantly reduced (significant at  the 1% level) In Jack
pine by 20 and 100 ppm nonylphenol (50 and 78% reduction, respectively).
I^ngj-fr of sprouts of Jack -pine seeds were decreased by 201 when treated with
100 ppm nonylphenol, and treated seeds gave rise  to dwarfed seedlings.  A
five-fold reduction (81% decrease) in length of sprouts of white birch
occurred following treatment with 20 ppm nonylphenol  (the only level tested).

     Axenically cvltnred fronds of Lemna minor were exposed to "ecologically
relevant" concentrations of nonylphenol* aainocarb, 585 diluent oil, and the
Matacil  1.8D foramlation containing all three constitnents (Weinberger and
lyengar 1983, as reported in Jffl)LARS II [MEDLINE] 198JK  Frond growth., fresh
and dry weight, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis,  and total A1P content
were significantly (level not reported) decreased by  exposure to the Matacil
1.8D formulation, but not to aainooarb or 585 oil alone.  The anthers arttribu—
ted the toxic effects to nonylphenol.

     Inie et al. (1983) studied the effect of 4-nonylphenol on oxygen consamp-
tion in bacterial populations, and report an EC., of  >10 ag/JL

     Lewis and Jnrd (1972) studied the sporostatic activity of various
phenolic conpounds, including 4-nonylphenol, on Bacillus meaateriua ATCC
10778.  4-Nonylphenol inhibited germination of B. meaaterium in nutrient broth
(99% inhibition at 2 hr) at 32 |ig/-mL, and prevented outgrowth at 10 jig/aL.  A
saturated solution of nonylphenol proved ineffective  in inhibiting sporostatic
activity after 24 hr incubation.  Sporostasis was reversed by washing.  Non-
physiological (by-pass) germination was not inhibited.  With 4-nonylphenol at
32 |ig/mL, the lysis of 30 to 90% of the spores stopped with a phase-grey
appearance,  and the rest of. the spore* remained phase-bright.   Based on the
complete inhibition of Sporostasis under good germination conditions at low
concentrations, and the failure to block nonphysiological germination, the
authors suggest that the sporostats studied reversibly. render some proteins
involved in physiological germination nonfunctional.

     Term, and Itxkovitch (1976) studied the effects  of nonylphenol on the
oxygen uptake of the bacteria Thiobaeillus ferrooridans used in biohydrometal—
lurgical treatment for metal recovery from low-grade  sulfide-bearing materi-
als.  Surfactants may be adsorbed on the mineral  surface during treatment,
wetting the bacteria* and -preventing intimate contact of the bacterium with
the metal surface.  They may also influence nutritive oz growth processes by
being adsorbed on the bacterial envelope or by changing the growth environ-
ment.  Nonylphenol was found to reduce the surface tension of the reactive
medium and the rate of oxygen consumption of J. farro^MMi^ %y approximately

     5.  Population Effects

     lingsbury et al. (1981) applied nonylphenol to terrestrial ecosystems at
a rate equivalent to the quantity of nonylphenol  applied in allowable maximum
seasonal spraying* of Jfatacil .  Ihey found that nonylphenol did not have any

significant (level of significance not specified) effect on insect popula-
tions, forest songbiad populations* ox the ability of songbirds to defend
their breeding territories.

     «.  Drier Iffects

     Borg-^Taraer (1985) studied the factor* affecting mortality in fathead
minnows (PJae-ohales uromelas) during 48-hr LC.Q teats.  Grab samples of
effluent containing ug/L concentrations of phenol* 4-nonylphenol and other
nonylated isevers, tert-butylphenol, and amiti-bntylated phenols were used fox
the tests.  The wastewater effluent tested is discharged into the Hbnongahela
     Liver tissues from surviving fathead minnows exposed to either L(LQ or
LC^Q levels of diluted effluent (the actual concentrations tested are not
given) were studied using transmission electron microscopy.  An increase in
lipid droplets and nuclear aberrations was observed.  Pathological observa-
tions included expanded rough endoplasmic reticnlum, increased vacuolar and
lysosomal population, and nuclear evagination and distortion.  Increased con-
centrations of effluent resulted in increased cellular changes,, indicating a
dose-response relationship.  Byperplasia of gill tissue was also observed in
surviving fathead minnows.  Because the effluent consisted of .a mixture of
chemicals, the effects observed could not he attributed to any specific agent.

     Hoi combe et al. (1984) noticed hemorrhaged areas and bodies swollen with
fluid in Pimenhales uromelas treated with 0.187 mg nonylphenol/L in' acute
flow-through tests.

     Dizer et al. (1984) studied the effect of pollutants -remaining in secon-
dary and tertiary treatment waters on adsorption of viruses to sand, an excel-
lent material, for the adsorption of pathogenic -viruses from, contaminated
waters.  Experiments in the presence of nonylphenol seem to indicate that
nonylphenol substantially diminished the adsorption of viruses by disrupting
the hydrophobic bonds between the viruses and the substrate.

     7.  Abiotic Effects

     lib data were found.
F.  Existing Standards, Regulations, and Recommendations

     Proposed guidelines exist which limit nonylphenol effluent discharges
into publicly owned treatment works (POIW) (USEPA 1985b).  No other regula-
tions regarding occupational, public, or aquatic exposure to nonylphenol or
its isomers were found in the literature.  A taste threshold of 0.001 sig/L for
nonylphenol is given in Daw son et Al. (1970, as reported in Anstern et al.

     A red DOT shipping label is required -for drums, tank ears and tank trucks
containing nonylphenol (Lowenheim and Koran 1975).

U,   References

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Note:  Section 8(e) or TYI  (Fox Tour Information) submissions cited  in this
       draft siay be obtained  by writing  to "USEPA, Freed on  of Inf on* t ion,
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xepoxted IA Gey ex «t ml. 1982)

   B.   Supplemental  Information

      The followinj  organizations responded  to the Agency's request for information
 on nonylphenol for  this Chemical Hazard Information Profile:

 Submitter Dame:  Borg-Warner Chemicals. Inc.
 EPA Document Control Number:  FYI-OTS-0885-0438  INIT  (Sequence A)
.Information Types:   Results of studies observing factors  affecting the
                     mortality of fish  during  acute  static
                     LC10 *ad LCjQ.-testing.

 Submitter Name:  Occupational Physician
 EPA Document Control Number:  FYI-OTS-0585-0402  FLWP  (Sequence V)
 Information Types:   Possible cause-effect relationship between product
                     containing nonylphenol  and .multiple birth defects.

 Submitter Name:  National Institute  for Occupational  Safety and Health
 EPA Document Control Number:  FYI-OTS-0585-0402  FLWP  (Sequence C)
 Information Types:   No information in  the NIOSH  Current Research File

 Submitter Name:  national Toxicology Program
 EPA Document Control Number:  FYI-OTS-0585-0402  FLWP  (Sequence D)
 Information Types:   None of the nonylphenols  tested or selected for testing
                     by the NIP.

 Submitter Name:  Borg-Warner Chemicals, Inc.
 EPA Document Control Number:  FYI-OTS-0685-0402  FLWP  (Sequence E)
 Information Types:   Uses of nonylphenol

 Submitter Name:  Schenectady Chemicals, Inc.
 EPA Document Control Number:  FYI-OTS-0685-0402  FLWP  (Sequence F)
 Information Types:   Production volume, uses,  manufacture, and exposure to

 Submitter Name:  Xonsanto Industrial Chemicals Co.
 EPA Document Control Number:  171-015-0685-0402  FLWP  (Sequence G)
 Information Types:   Product description, environmental effects, worker and
                     environmental exposure, JCDS for  nonylphenol

 Submitter Name:  Monsanto Industrial Chemicals Co.
 EPA Document Control Number:  FYI-OTS-0685-0402  FLWP  (Sequence H)
 Information Types:   Production volume data  claimed as confidential

 Submitter Name;  Texaco Chemical Co.
 EPA Document Control Number:  PYI-OTB-0685-0402  FLWP  (Sequence I)
 Information Types:   Dermal toxieity data

 Submitter Name:  Occupational Physician
 EPA Document Control Number:  FYI-OTS-0885-0402 TLWP  (Sequence J)
 Information Types:   Clinical report describing multiple birth defects

                    in diild Trhose -mother was  exposed  to a chenical
                    containing ethylen*  oxide; bibliography included

SnhBitter Nane: . Office of Pesticides Programs. U.S. -Environmental
                 Protection Agency
-Information Types:  The OPP reports that polymeric aaterials containing
                    nosylphenol are used as inert ingredients in
                    pesticide femulations; no other inforaation
                    available on nonylphenol

He following costpaaie* stated, in response to theTJSEPA reqvest. that they
had no unpublished technical bulletins or reports on nonylphenol:

Celanese Corporation, New Tori* NT
E. I. Dn Pont Je Neaonrs 4 Co.. Wilmington. D£


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     2.  Data Dares

     Nosylphenol (aized isoners);
     4—Nonylphenol; 2—Nonylphenol


       T03L1NE 79-
       BACKS 0


       BIOSIS PREVIEWS 69-76
       BIOSIS PREVIEWS 77-80
       CHE1L EXP. 74-
       CONG. KEC. ABSTR.  76-
       FH>. SBB. ABSIR. 77-
       FH). RES. FROG. 82-
       NTIS 64-
Np«ber of References   Pate of Search
April 1. 1935
     3.  Seardi Strategy
         databases listed above vere searched using CAS Registry ttmbez.  ch
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of the searches on the Cheat Abstr files which were limited to non-patent
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  D.  Chemical  Specific Sources Searched
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