VOLUME  I

The Water Pollution Control Research Series describes
the results and progress in the control and abatement
of pollution in our Nation's waters.  They provide a
central source of information on the research ,  develop-
ment, and demonstration activities in the Water  Quality
Office, Environmental Protection Agency, through inhouse
research and grants and contracts with Federal,  State,
and local agencies, research institutions, and industrial

Inquiries pertaining to Water Pollution Control  Research
Reports should be directed to the Head, Project  Reports
System, Office of Research and Development, Water Quality
Office, Environmental Protection Agency, Room 1108,
Washington, D. C.  20242.


                           'Volume I
                    Oregon  State University
                    Corvallis,  Oregon  97331
                             for the

                    WATER QUALITY OFFICE

                     Grant No.   16070  EOK

                          July,, 1971
          For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office.
                      Washington, D.0.20402 - Price $6.24
                         Stock Number 6M1-0140

            EPA Review Notice
This report has been reviewed by the Water
Quality Office, EPA, and approved for publication.
Approval does not signify that the contents
necessarily reflect the views and policies of
the Environmental Protection Agency, nor does
mention of trade names or commercial products
constitute endorsement or recommendation for

This study is limited to the coastal zone of the Pacific Northwest
from high tide to ten kilometers from shore, and does not include
estuaries and bays.  The literature has been reviewed in  21 chapters
including chapters on geology, hydrology, winds, temperature
and salinity, heat budget, waves, coastal currents, carbon  dioxide
and pH,  oxygen, nutrients,  and biology.  Special chapters deal
with field studies on thermal discharges, heat  dispersion models,
pulp and paper industrial wastes, trace metals,  radiochemistry,
pesticides and'chlorine,  thermal ecology, and  biology of 20 selected
species.  A  summary  chapter is entitled "The  nearshore  coastal
ecosystem:  an overview. "  The bibliography contains  more than
3100 entries, most from the open literature, but some from
unpublished  reports.

A  separate volume includes the following appendices:   1.  Wind
Data;  2.  Temperature  and Salinity Data;  3.   Wave Data;  4.  Trace
Metals (including trace metal toxicities);  5.  Pesticide Toxicities;
6.   Oxygen,  Nutrient,  and pH Data;  7-  Radionuclides; and 8.  An
Annotated Checklist of Plants and Animals (including more than
4400 species).

This report was submitted in fulfillment of Grant No.  16070EOK
under  the sponsorship of  the Water Quality Office, Environmental
Protection Agency.

                    TABLE OF CONTENTS


Chapter 1.  INTRODUCTION                                  1


            NORTHWEST COAST                             7
Chapter 3.  GEOLOGY                                      13
   Geology and Geomorphology                              13
   Sediments                                                14
   Sediment Motion                                          14
   Seismology                                              16
   Sources of Information                                   20
   Nearshore Topography                                   20
Chapter 4.  HYDROLOGY                                   25
Chapter 5.  WINDS                                          29
   General                                                  29
   Winds  Measured  from Shore Stations                      31
   Offshore Wind Observations                              34
   Corrected Geostrophic Winds                             38
Chapter 6.  TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY                 47
   Shore Station and Lightship Observations                  47
   Offshore Temperature and Salinity Observations           55
   Sea Surface Temperature from  Infrared Surveys           58
   Conclusions                                              59
Chapter 7.  HEAT BUDGET                                 64
   Introduction                                              64
   Empirical Methods                                       64
   Discussion of Results                                     67
   Direct Measurements                                     70
   Summary                                                73
Chapter 8.  WAVES                                         74
   Introduction                                              74
   Measured or Observed Waves                             75
   Hindcasted Waves                                        79
   Wave Steepness                                          84
Chapter 9.  COASTAL CURRENTS                          87
   Introduction                                              87
   Main Ocean Currents                                     87
   Total Currents at Pacific Northwest Lightships            88

               TABLE OF CONTENTS continued


   Grays Harbor,  Washington                               89
   Depoe Bay,  Oregon                                      91
   Newport,  Oregon                                        95
   Coos Bay, Oregon                                       97
   Trinidad Head to Eel River, California                   97
   Bottom Currents                                        98
   Current Flow under the Influence of Coastal Upwelling     99
   Analytical Approach to Tidal Currents                   103
   Longshore Currents                                    109
             DISTRIBUTION   ,                            119
   Introduction                                            119
   Environmental Effects                                   120
   Analytical Models                                       122
   Parti.  Initial Dilution                                  123
   Part II.   Surface Dispersion and Interface Exchange      127
   Part III.  Dye Diffusion Studies                 '         133


Chapter 12.   CARBON DIOXIDE AND pH                    137
   Conclusions                                            138
Chapter 13.   OXYGEN AND NUTRIENTS                    139
   Generalized Features                                   139
Chapter 14.   PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY WASTES.       143
   Kraft Process                                          143
   Sulfite Process                                         145
   Groundwood Process                                    150
   Fates of  Pulp and Paper Mill Effluents                   150
   Summary                                              151
             MARINE  ENVIRONMENT                     152
   Chemical Form                                        152
   Natural Inputs                                          156
   Industrial Inputs                                        167
   Removal Processes                                     167
   Advective Removal                                      168
   Biological Removal                                     168

                TABLE OF CONTENTS continued


   Geochemical Removal                                         169
   Allowable Residual Level                                      175
   Summary                                                    183
   MERCURY                                                   184
      Summary                                                  186
   COPPER                                                     187
      Summary                                                  188
   LEAD                                                        189
      Summary                                                  189
   ZINC                                                        190
      Summary                                                  190
Chapter 16.  RADIOCHEMISTR Y                                 191
   A.  Naturally-occur ring radionuclides                          191
   B.  Fission product radionuclides from weapons tests           195
   C.  Neutron-induced radionuclides                             200
   Future Radioactivity Levels in Coastal Waters                  209
   Summary                                                    212
Chapter 17.  OTHER POLLUTANTS                              213
   PESTICIDES                                                  213
      Introduction                                               213
      Pesticide Residues in the  Pacific Northwest                 213
      Toxicities of Pesticides to Marine Organisms               214
      Behavior of  Chlorinated Hydrocarbon  Pesticides
          in the Marine Environment                             216
      Summary                                                 . 217
   CHLORINE                                                   218
      Summary                                                  219

PAR Till.  BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS                               221

   Taxonomic Studies                                            225
   Bibliographies                                                226
             SPECIES                                           228
   Temperature                                                  228
   Other Factors                                                 245

               TABLE OF CONTENTS continued


             SPECIES OR SPECIES GROUPS                 246
   Phytoplankton                                            247
   Clupea harengus pallasi (Pacific herring)                  251
   Cymatogaster aggregata (Shiner perch)                    253
   Cancer magister (Dungeness crab)                        255
   Engraulis mordax (Northern anchovy)                     259
   Eopsetta jordani (Petrale sole,  brill)                      262
   Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)                  263
   Macrocystis spp. (Giant kelps)                            266
   Merluccius productus (Pacific hake)                      269
   Microstomus pacificus  (Dover sole)                       272
   Mytilus calif or nianus (Sea mussel)                        273
   Oncorhynchus spp.  (Pacific salmon, five species)         277
   Ophiodon elongatus (Ling cod)                             283
   Parophrys vetulus (English sole)                          285
   Pandalus jordani (Pink shrimp)                            288
   Sardinops sagax (Pacific sardine)                         291
   Sebastodes alutus (Pacific ocean perch)                   294
   Siliqua pa tula (Razor clam)                               296
   Thallichthys pacificus (Columbia River  smelt)             300
   Trachurus symmetricus (Jack mackerel)                  301

PART IV.  INTEGRATED ECOLOGY                         305

             AN OVERVIEW                                 307

BIBLIOGRAPHY                                             319

                       LIST OF FIGURES

Figure                                                      Page

 1-1         Map of the Study Area                             3
 2-1         Pacific Northwest Coast.   Cape Flattery,
               Washington, to Cape Perpetua, Ore.             9
 2-2         Pacific Northwest Coast.   Heceta Head,
               Ore. to Pt.  Delgada, Calif.                     10
 3-1         Surface distribution of sediment types            11
 3-2         Sediment overburden                             11
 3-3         Sedimentary facies of the Oregon continental
               shelf                                           15
 3-4         Movement of bottom sand due  to waves           17
 3-5         Relationship between grain size and foreshore
               slope                                           18
 3-6         Map of tectonic flux for the Western United
               States.  Log flux indices  represent combined
               intensity and frequency of quakes               19
 3-7         Bottom profiles and beach  slopes for various
               locations in  Washington and northern
               Oregon.  Water depth is indicated at 1/2,
               1 1/2, and 3 miles offshore                     21
 3-8         Bottom profiles and beach  slopes for various
               locations in  southern Oregon and  northern
               California.  Water depth  is indicated at 1/2,
               1 1/2, and 3 miles offshore                     22
 4-1         Mean monthly flow  of  the Columbia River
               extrapolated to the river  mouth for  1953-
               1967                                           26
 4-2         Combined mean flow of the Chehalis , Satsop,
               and Wynoochee Rivers measured  at the
               lowest gaging station on each river  for  the
               period 1960-1968                               27
 4-3         Average streamflow of Pacific Northwest
               coastal rivers versus river basin drainage
               area                                           28
 5-1         Wind roses  for winter and  summer conditions
               for western  Oregon                             33
 5-2         Location of lightships  off the Pacific
               Northwest coast                                36
 5-3         Average direction and velocity of monthly
              winds  for 1961-1963                             39

                  LIST OF FIGURES continued

Figure                                                    Page

 5-4         Average direction and velocity of
              January winds for 1961-1963                  40
 5-5         Average direction and velocity of
              February winds  for 1961-1963                40
 5-6         Average direction and velocity of
              March winds for 1961-1963                   41
 5-7         Average direction and velocity of
              April winds for  1961-1963                     41
 5-8         Average direction and velocity of
              May winds  for 1961-1963                      42
 5-9         Average direction and velocity of
              June winds for 1961-1963                     42
 5-10        Average direction and velocity of
              July winds  for 1961-1963                      43
 5-11        Average direction and velocity of
              August winds for 1961-1963                   43
 5-12        Average direction and velocity of
              September  winds for 1961-1963                44
 5-13        Average direction and velocity of
              October winds for 1961-1963                  44
 5-14        Average direction and velocity of
              November winds for 1961-1963                45
 5-15        Average direction and velocity of
              December winds for 1961-1963                45
 6-1         Location of shore stations and lightships
              along the Pacific Northwest coast             46
 6-2         Mean monthly surface temperatures recorded
              at three lightships along the Pacific
              Northwest coast                              53
 6-3         Mean monthly surface temperatures recorded
              at four northern Oregon shore stations         53
 6-4         Mean monthly surface temperatures
              measured at shore stations in Coos Bay area  54
 6-5         Mean monthly surface temperatures
              measured at shore stations south of Cape
              Blanco                                       54
 6-6         Example of a typical infrared survey conducted
              by the Tiburon Marine Laboratory of the
              Bureau of Sport  Fisheries  and Wildlife         60

                  LIST OF FIGURES continued

Figure                                                     Page

 6-7         Temperature contours from a typical infrared
              survey conducted by Oregon State University's
              Sea Grant project "Albacore Central"          61
 6-8         Segment of a typical infrared  survey conducted
              by Oregon State University's Sea Grant
              project, "Albacore  Central" (July 1969)        62
 7-1         Variation of annual heat exchange from
              1953 to 1962 for  the region 40  to 50 N. Lat.
              and from the coastline to 130 W. Long.        68
 7-2         Monthly mean values of net heat transferred
              across the air-sea interface for the area from
              the Oregon coastline to 60 nautical  miles
              offshore                                      69
 7-3         Monthly mean values of net solar radiation
              incident upon the area from  the Oregon
              coastline to 60 nautical miles  offshore         71
 7-4         Monthly mean values of net back radiation
              for the area from the  Oregon coastline to
              60 nautical miles offshore                     71
 7-5         Monthly mean values of evaporative flux for
              the area from the Oregon coastline to 60
              nautical miles offshore                       72
 7-6         Monthly mean values of sensible heat conducted
              across the air-sea interface for the area
              from the Oregon coastline to 60 nautical
              miles  offshore                                72
 8-1         Location of deep -water  hindcast stations         80
 8-2         Relative frequency and  direction of deep-
              water  waves with steepness  value of
              H0/L0 = 0. 015 to 0. 025                       86
 9-1         Progressive vector diagrams of currents,
              Depoe Bay array, 15 August-24 September
              1966                                          92
 9-2         Histograms of current  speed, direction, and
              velocity components measured 5 miles off
              Depoe Bay at 20  meters depth                 93
 9-3      ,   Histograms of current  speed, direction, and
              velocity components measured 5 miles off
              Depoe Bay at 60  meters depth                 94

                  LIST OF FIGURES continued

Figure                                                    Page

 9-4         Vertical profiles of current speed 5,  10,
              and 15 miles off Depoe Bay,  23-24 September
              1966                                          96
 9-5         The mean current of the frontal zone in the
              coastal upwelling region off central
              Oregon                                      100
 9-6         Inferred onshore-offshore flow over the
              continental shelf off Depoe Bay,  Oregon
              during the summer upwelling  season          102
 9-7         Relationship of V^t/U versus D for various
              angles 9                                     1 06
 9-8         Sketch  of tidal prism defining terms used
              in equation 9-6                               1 08
 10-1        General pattern of infrared survey flight
              tracks                                       112
 10-2        Off-shore temperatures                        113
 10-3        Isothermal map of surface water produced
              by computer conversion of electrical signal
              from  scanner                                115
 10-4        San Onofre sea surface isotherms,
              21 February 1969                             117
 10-5        Temperature-depth  cross sections,
              21 February 1969                             118
 11-1        Schematic representation of jet mixing          119
 11-2        Effects of environmental conditions             121
 11-3        Zone configurations of a jet for the case of
              a stagnant, homogeneous environment         123
 11-4        Relationship of temperature rise ratio to
              non-dimensional surface area ratio for
              selected values of  3 , a dimensionless
              coefficient governing the rate of heat
              decay at the surface                          130
 13-1        Study area, showing sections from which
              dissolved oxygen,  nutrient, and pH data
              were taken                                   140
 13-2        Data for Section 3, Newport, Oregon, to
              the Columbia River.                          141
 15-1        Schematic of a simple two-reservoir system    171
 15-2        Nomograph representing approximate
              partitioning  of a metal between  dissolved
              and suspended particulate reservoirs          174


                  LIST OF FIGURES continued

Figure                                                     Page

 15-3        Median mortality-time versus concentration
               of metal expressed in toxic units for young
               salmon                                      181
 16-1        Atmospheric  nuclear tests prior to the 1963
               moratorium                                 197
 16-2        Operations  of nuclear reactors at the Hanford
               Atomic Products, Washington                204

                       LIST OF TABLES

Table                                                       Page

 4-1         River discharge data for the Pacific
              Northwest                                     24
 5-1         Monthly averages of wind direction and
              scalar speed (mph)  at  selected shore
              stations                                        30
 5-2         Frequency and velocity  of winds at three
              stations  on the Washington-Oregon coast       32
 5-3         Resultant wind speed (knots) and direction
              by month measured from  lightships off the
              Pacific Northwest coast.                       37
 6-1         List of Shore  Stations and Lightships in
              Geographical Order                            48
 6-2         Average monthly temperature  (C) and
              salinity (%o)  of the surf measured at
              selected sites on the Pacific  Northwest
              c oa s t                                          49
 6-3         Average monthly surface temperature (C)
              and salinity  (%0)  from three lightships  off
              the Pacific Northwest  coast                    52
 6-4         Mean monthly surface temperatures (C)
              and salinities (%0) for selected offshore
              areas (1-10  km from the coast)                 57
 7-1         Ten-year  average monthly  values  (langleys)
              for the major heat budget terms  for a  region
              where coastal .upwelling is seasonally present  65
 8-1         Dimensions and periods of  waves observed
              at Columbia River Light Vessel                76
 8-2         Observed wave direction                        76
 8-3         Monthly wave averages,  Newport,  Oregon,
              September 1968-August 1969                   78
 8-4         Hindcast deep water wave heights  (Ho) for
              the Oregon and Washington coast              82
 8-5         Hindcast wave periods (T0) for the Oregon
              and Washington coast                          83
 8-6         Relative frequency of waves with  given
              steepness  (H /LQ) values from various
              directions                                     85

                  LIST OF TABLES continued

Table                                                     Page

 9-1         Average speed of current due to winds of
              various strength                             90
 9-2         Average deviation of current to Right or Left
              of wind direction                             90
 9-3         Mean current measured off Depoe Bay,
              15 August-24 September,  1966 based on
              a 10-minute sampling rate                    91
 9-4         Summary of observations of surface current
              direction for January-June , 1959-1961,
              between Trinidad Head  and Cape Mendocino    97
 9-5         Effective eddy viscosity coefficient as a
              function of wind speed                       104
 9-6         Time of higher high water (HHW) and tidal
              height for four  periods  in 1969 for Farallon
              Island, California and Cape Alava,
              Washington                                 105
 9-7         Average net tidal currents  for the Pacific
              North-west  Coastline computed from tidal
              prism analysis                              108
14-1         Pulp and paper mills in our area with
              marine outfalls                              144
14-2         Kraft pulp mill effluents                       144
14-3         Toxicity of KME to marine organisms          146
14-4         The  toxicity  of spent sulfite liquor to marine
              organisms                                   148
15-1         Predominant physico-chemical forms of
              trace elements in sea water compiled from
              the literature                                153
15-2         Direct comparisons of nearshore  and oceanic
              values for trace metals                      158
15-3         Probable values of trace metals in oceanic
              and nearshore  waters                        159
15-4         Concentration of trace metals by plankton      163
15-5         Comparison  of trace element concentrations
              in rivers and in sea water                    165
15-6         Response of  marine organisms of the Pacific
              Northwest to various concentrations of
              trace elements                              176

                 LIST OF TABLES continued

Table                                                     Page

19-1        Summary of Physical Data on Phytoplankton
               and Algae                                   230
19-2        Physical Data on Invertebrates                  234
19-3        Summary of Physical Data on Fish              242


 1.   The coast of the Pacific  Northwest may be characterized as
     a series  of steep,  often unstable cliffs interspersed between
     broad sandy beaches.  Rocky headlands and outcroppings
     are common,  but the surface sediments of the nearshore
     zone are primarily sand.  The shelf off Washington slopes
     more  gently than that off Oregon and Northern California.
     No canyons  or troughs extend into the nearshore  zone
     and there is. relatively little seismic activity compared to
     the remainder of the Pacific coast.

 2.  Maximum runoff from the  major rivers of the area (excluding
     the Columbia) occurs in  winter and  spring as a result of
     heavy seasonal rainfall.   Discharge of the Columbia River
     is greatest in  June  coinciding with runoff of snowmelt in
     Canada.  Only the Columbia River appears to appreciably
     modify Pacific Ocean coastal waters.

 3.   Coastal winds are largely determined by the geographic
     position and intensity of  the North Pacific high and the
     Aleutian  low pressure areas.   In the winter high  velocity
     winds resulting from gales  usually blow from the south or
     southwest.   More often the  winter winds prevail from the
     east.  In spring the winds shift clockwise and by  summer are
     predominantly from the northwest and west.  In all seasons
     the coastal mountains tend to deflect the winds along the
     trend  of the  coast.

4.   With few exceptions time series of temperature-salinity
     data are  available  only from intertidal stations  or from
     lightships.   Few measurements have been made in the area
     from shore to 1 0 km offshore.  Surface temperatures range
     from an average summer high  of 17. 7 C to  an average winter
     low of 7.  6C.  Summer temperatures, which are influenced by
     upwelling, average about 5C warmer than winter values.
     The Columbia  River plume  reduces  surface  salinity in near-
     shore  waters off Washington in the winter.   Upwelling tends
     to increase the salinities  of nearshore waters in  summer.

5.  A heat budget may be used to describe  the exchange of energy
    between the  ocean and the atmosphere.  Net heat  exchanged
                                xvi i

     from year to year may vary considerably as the result of
     fluctuations in cloud cover,  sea surface temperature,
     upwelling, and evaporation.

 6.   The wave climate of the Pacific Northwest coastal region
     has largely been determined by hindcasting based on climatological
     data.   The predominant wave direction throughout the year
     is from the west to northwest.  Waves with greatest heights
     and longest periods occur in the winter. Highest waves
     come from the southsoutheast to southwest sector.  Periods
     of calms occur about equally in all seasons.

 7.   Coastal surface currents respond primarily to the local
     wind regime and thus  can be expected to flow northward in
     winter and southward  in summer.  However, headlands,
     reefs, and irregularities in bottom contours  produce complex
     series of interacting eddies which have received virtually
     no attention in the near shore zone.  Despite  the lack of
     current measurements in this  area, it is the near shore
     surface circulation which will determine the distributions of
     contaminants released into the  region.

 8.   Field studies of condenser cooling discharges from coastal
     power generating plants indicate  that the physical effects
     are localized.   The thermal plume usually takes the form
     of a surface lens about 2 to 4 m thick.  The  maximum distance
     warmed water has been observed from a coastal outfall is
     roughly 4 km.

 9.   Numerical  models describing the dispersion of  heated
     effluents from surface and subsurface outfalls may be useful
     in predicting the distributions of contaminants in the nearshore
     region.  Although a number  of  simplifying assumptions are
     necessary and large capacity computers are required, such
     models offer promise for the solution of complex dispersion
     problems.  Hydraulic models also may prove invaluable  in
     the solution of various difficult problems.
10.   Carbon dioxide concentrations  and pH in sea-water are closely
     related.   High concentrations of  CC>2 (to 5Z5 parts per million)
     in the nearshore zone may result from upwelling.   Uptake  of
     CC>2 by photosynthetic organisms may reduce its concentration
     to as low as 155 parts per million.  Surface pH values are generally
     near 8. 1.

11.   Dissolved oxygen concentrations in the nearshore zone from
     surface to 20 m is usually homogeneous from October to
     April.  During  May to September dissolved oxygen values at
     20 m are more strongly influenced by upwelling than at the
     surface.  In the absence of upwelling, representative nutrient
     concentrations  in surface waters are:  PCs. . . 0. 7 (j.g-atom/1;
     NO3. . . 5  (Jig-atom/l; SiO . . .  10 fig-atom/I.

12.   Pulp and paper mill effluents introduced into Pacific Northwest
     coastal waters  may differ  widely in their chemical characteristics.
     For this  reason,  the ecological effect of each outfall must
     be individually evaluated.

13.   Relatively few measurements of the concentrations of toxic
     metals have been carried  out in nearshore waters.  Even
     less is known regarding physical and chemical forms of the
     metals.   Apart from planktonic organisms,  which may
     concentrate them greatly,  metals may be lost from seawater
     by sorption, flocculation,  ion exchange, precipitation, and

14.   Radionuclides in Pacific Northwest marine waters may be
     naturally-occurring, fission fragments  from fallout of
     nuclear weapons tests, or neutron induced from weapons  or
     from the Hanford plutonium production reactors on the
     Columbia River.  Radioactivity from Hanford has drastically
     decreased in recent years with  the serial shutdown of the
     plutonium production reactors.   Atmospheric nuclear  tests
     by France and  Mainland China continue  to cause fallout
     radioactivity in the coastal zone.

15.   Concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons, used in forestry
     and agriculture in the  Pacific Northwest, are generally low
     in marine organisms.   Chlorine, which is sometimes  used in
     water cooling  systems as an antifouling agent, may have
     harmful short-term effects on planktonic organisms.    i

16.   By far,  the largest body of information on plants and animals
     of the outer coastal region is  taxonomic. Relatively little
     is known regarding the ecological requirements of most species.

17.  Some temperature data are available for 129 species of the
     more than four thousand organisms known from the Pacific
     Northwest coast.  For most this amounts to a. single temperature
     recorded at the  time of collection.  Temperature optima,
     ranges,  and lethal limits are seldom known for more than
     one or a few life history stages, usually the adult.

18.  Detailed biological information, such as life history, feeding
     habits,  predators, and population dynamics, is most often
     available for fishes and invertebrates of direct commercial
     value to man.  Comprehensive  summaries of biological
     data for twenty selected species (or  species groups) are
     included in Chapter 20.  In addition, an annotated checklist
     including more than 750 plant species and 3,600  animal species
     is appended.

19.  To begin to understand the nearshore coastal region it  is
     necessary to view it as a system of interacting physical,
     chemical, and biological components.  Contaminants,  such
     as toxic chemicals or heated water,  can be thought of as
     added environmental stresses which may alter the ecosystem

This study was made possible by a demonstration grant from the
Federal Water Quality Administration (Grant No.  16070EOK) and
administered by the Regional Office  of that organization in Portland,
Oregon.  Special thanks goes to Dr.  Robert W.  Zeller,  FWQA,  who
served  as project officer for this grant.

We wish to thank Dr.  John V.  Byrne and our colleagues in the
Department of Oceanography at Oregon State University for their
cooperation and advice;  especially Drs. June G.  Pattullo, William
H.  Quinn, and Norman Cutshall who read portions of the manuscript.

Thanks also  to the  Oregon State University Library staff for
providing space and countless hours of assistance, and to the
librarian of the Federal Water Quality Administration, Pacific
Northwest Water Laboratory.

We also thank the many colleagues from other departments on
this campus,  from other colleges and universities,  and from
federal and state agencies who gave freely of their time and
contributed significantly to the project.

A number of students  helped with this research  and their names have
been included as  authors in  the sections where they contributed.

Finally our special thanks to Mrs. Suelynn Williams who typed
the entire report.

                  Chapter 1.  INTRODUCTION
The major problem facing mankind today is control of his rapidly
increasing number and his  rapidly increasing appetite for energy
and raw materials.   Since no politically or socially acceptable
solutions have yet been found, it behooves us to prepare for
expected population growth in a way which will  compromise neither
the quality of human life nor the quality of our environment.

One of the critical problems stemming from a population growth
rate of greater than  one percent per year is the unprecedented
demand  for electrical power.  Power consumption is  increasing
by  ten percent annually.  The demands of the Pacific  Northwest
are presently met by a hydroelectric system which has already
been developed to approximately one-half of its ultimate capacity.
Expansion of the hydro-power system is essentially limited to the
addition of generators to existing powerhouses.  Future power
demands will be met by the  addition of thermal power plants
to the hydroelectric  system and are expected in 30 years to replace
the latter as the source of basic power. The large number of
projected power plants (approximately 30 of 1,000 megawatts or
more capacity) carries with it the inherent threat of thermal
additions to  the environment.

The new thermal plants will either  be  fossil fueled or nuclear fueled.
Initially, several of  the new thermal plants may be fossil fueled,
but the general lack  of coal, oil, and gas in the Pacific Northwest
and the expense  of transporting fuels from other regions will limit
their expansion.  In addition to fuel limitations, there are the
problems of air  quality protection involving sulfur dioxide and
particulate matter.   Since these problems are seldom critical
with nuclear fueled plants,  it appears  that nuclear powered steam
electric  plants will be the most probable source of new power for
the Pacific Northwest.

The location of future power plants will be determined by both
economic and environmental factors.  Thermal power plants
inherently waste large amounts of heat to the environment.
Inland  siting is  often hampered by a lack of economically feasible

sites for cooling ponds or lakes.  Placement on rivers -will decrease
out of consideration of the important cold water fisheries in the
Pacific Northwest and a lack of rivers with large year-round
discharges.  The biological importance of most estuaries and their
limited flushing characteristics makes them undesirable sites.
In addition, water quality in estuaries is highly variable.
However, open coastal sites have the advantage of  access to large
volumes of water for cooling and dispersion, resulting in a
potentially greater capacity for assimilation of industrial effluent
without significant environmental damage.  Coastal sites have
therefore been earmarked as probable locations for a significant
portion of the future power expansion in the Pacific Northwest.
The advantages that make coastal siting of power plants favorable
also pertain to other potential uses such as discharges of municipal
and industrial wastes, pulp mill effluents, and offshore mining
residues.  The ocean, however, cannot be considered as an
inexhaustible sink into which man can continuously dump his -wastes.
A balance must be achieved between the input of waste material
and the ability of the ocean to assimilate it.  Irreparable damage
may result if this balance is not achieved.

To answer the environmental questions posed by use of the nearshore
area for industrial outfalls, a coastal pollution group was formed
within the Departments  of Oceanography and Civil Engineering,
Oregon State University.  Supported by a grant from the Federal
Water Quality Administration, this group has been charged to
collect, organize, and analyze all oceanographic data which would
aid in the evaluation of sites for industrial outfalls on the open
coast of the  Pacific Northwest.  As a first step, a  survey of the
literature was needed to determine our present knowledge of this
region  and to help establish priorities for future research.

The area of concern in this  literature survey is the nearshore  coastal
zone extending seaward 10 kilometers from the shoreline from
Cape Mendocino in Northern California to Cape Flattery,  Washington
(Figure 1 -1).  Data relevant to the physical oceanography, geology,
meteorology, chemistry, radioecology,  and biology of this area were
sought.  Primary sources  of data  were the published literature,
university theses, and unpublished data obtained directly from research
laboratories.  Detailed  information concerning sources of data is
presented in each chapter.  Subject areas not researched are also
indicated,  as are data which,  upon critical analysis, were found to
be unsuitable for inclusion.

                        , GRAYS

                       JASTORIA  ^

                        TILLAMOOK \
                          HEAD  \

                       i TILLAMOOK
                      COOS BAY

                   CAPE BLANCO
                       T. ST. GEORGE
                      (EUREKA   I

                   \CAPE MENDOCINO
21	I
    Figure 1 -1  Map of the Study Area


This report, the final product of the project,  represents the
intensive cooperative efforts of physical oceanographers , chemists,
geologists,  biologists, and ocean engineers.  The large volume of
information collected has made it necessary to assemble the data
in two volumes.  Volume 1  is an analysis and detailed discussion
of the  collected information and contains a comprehensive
bibliography of the literature pertaining to the nearshore regions
of the  Pacific Northwest.  References are listed by author and
bibliographic number.  Part I of Volume 1 presents a discussion
of the  physical and geological factors which are known for  the
region of study.  Part II summarizes the knowledge of the  chemistry
and radiochemistry of the region, and Part III considers the  biological
aspects with emphasis on temperature relations and attempts to
establish some preliminary priorities.   Part IV is an attempt to
describe the coastal ecosystem by integrating the physical, chemical,
geological,  and biological information into a general overview.  Volume 2
contains the appendices.  Most of the physical and chemical data
were suitable for inclusion in Volume 1 , while it was necessary
to include much of the biological information in  the  species checklist
in the  appendices.

The  senior  authors assume responsibility for the entire work,  but
since many individuals cooperated in this review, the names of the
persons who worked on each section are included as chapter  or
subchapter  authors.  Without their able and conscientious assistance
this  task could not have been completed.

This report, then, is primarily a reference from which available
information for this region can be abstracted on a regional or
site basis.  Information can also be  obtained on physical parameters
or on biological or chemical species or on any combination thereof.
Perhaps more  important than the  presentation and summary of the
available information is the indication of what information  is
not known or is not available.



                  COAST by Burton W.  Adams                      7

Chapter 3.  GEOLOGY by Robert H.  Bourke, J.  Paul Dauphine,
                  and Burton W. Adams                           13

Chapter 4.  HYDROLOGY by Bard  Glenne and Burton W.  Adams      25

Chapter 5.  WINDS by Robert H. Bourke  and Bard Glenne           29

Chapter 6.  TEMPERATURE AND  SALINITY by Robert H. Bourke
                  and Bard Glenne                                47

Chapter 7.  HEAT BUDGET by Robert H.  Bourke                   64

Chapter 8.  WAVES by Robert H. Bourke                           74

Chapter 9.  COASTAL CURRENTS by Robert H.  Bourke and
                  and Bard Glenne                                87

                  Robert H. Bourke  and Burton W. Adams         111

                  BUTION by Robert H.  Bourke and  Bard Glenne  119

              Chapter 2.  NAUTICAL CHARTS OF THE
                   PACIFIC NORTHWEST COAST
                        by Burton W. Adams

The following Coast and  Geodetic  Survey Charts pertain to the area
covered by this report.  They may be purchased from the Director,
Coast and Geodetic Survey, Environmental Services Admininstration,
Rockville,  Maryland 20852 or Officer in Charge U.S. Naval Ocean-
ographic Distribution Office,  Clearfield, Utah. These charts are listed
in two  general catalogs:  (1) Nautical Chart Catalog No. 2(1211) of the
U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey,  and (2) Catalog of Nautical  Charts
and Publications,  No.  1-N Region 0 (1216). Locations of  regions described
in this report are  indicated on Figures 2-1 and 2-2.
             AREA                                   CHARTS #
A.  San Francisco to Cape Flattery
    1.  Monterey Bay to Coos Bay
       a.  Pt.  Arena to Trinidad Head
            (1)  Cape Mendocino & Vicinity
            (2) Humbolt Bay
            (3) Trinidad Harbor

       b.  Trinidad Head to Cape Blanco
            (1)  St. George Reef & Cresent City
            (2) Pyramid Pt.  to Cape Sebastian
            (3) Cape Sebastian to Humbug Mt.
            (4) Port Orford to Cape Blanco

    2.  Cape Blanco to Cape  Flattery

       a.  Cape  Blanco to Yaquina Head
            (1)  Coquille River Entrance
            (2) Coos Bay
            (3) Umpqua River to  Reeds port
            (4) Siuslaw River
            (5) Yaquina Bay  &t River
            (6) Approachs to Yaquina Bay

       b.   Yaquina Head to Columbia River
            (1)  Tillamook Bay
            (2) Nehalem River
            (3) Columbia River to Harrington Pt.
C. &G. S.





         AREA                               CHARTS #

c.  Columbia River to Destruction Island      C. &G. S.  6002
    (1)  Willapa Bay                             "     6185
    (2)  Grays Harbor                           "     6195

d.  Destruction Island to Amphitrite Pt.
   (Vancouver Is. )                               "     6102
    (1)  Cape Flattery                           "     6265

                                              runXrrrTI 1 nrr^ITI r in_l_q I T 1.LL1 n I pn 1J-L' '^] rrn
Figure 2-1.  Pacific Northwest Coast.  Cape Flattery, Wash,  to Cape Perpetua,. Ore.

L.   \

Figure 3-2.  Sediment overburden.  Numbers in circles
              idicate exact sediment thickness
measurable f
in fathoms
                                0-50 foot interval.
                                 (from Kulm, 1730).
Figure 3-1.  Surface distribution of sediment types.
             Sediment classification according to
             Shepard  (1954).   Contours in fathoms
             (from Kulm,  1730).

                     Chapter 3.  GEOLOGY
 by Robert H.  Bourke,  J. Paul Daunhine ,  and Burton W.  Adams
Geology and Ge omorphology

The geology of the nearshore region of the Pacific Northwest has not
been studied in much detail.  Inference  must be drawn from the
larger volume of geologic data gathered along coasts and beaches
and from the marine surveys which have generally been conducted
farther offshore than 2 to 3 miles.  The geology of the Pacific
Coast was discussed by Palmer (1741 ); the west coast of North
America by Menard (1734); selected areas of the Pacific Northwest
by Byrne (1714); and the  coastal sand dunes of Oregon and Washington
by Cooper (1716).  A continuing  study of the  continental margin
off Oregon is  being  conducted by the Department of Oceanography
at Oregon State University.   A detailed report for the southern
Oregon coast  has been compiled by Kulm (1730) and for  the entire
Oregon coast  by Kulm and Fowler (1768).  Major bathymetric
features off the coasts  of Oregon and "Washington have been
described by McManus (1765).  Humboldt State College (1140) has
documented the nearshore geology of the northern California region
between Trinidad Head and the Eel River.

The coastal region of the Pacific Northwest may be described as
erosional tectonic with uplifted submarine  banks and coastal terraces.
Numerous steep and often unstable cliffs are interspersed between
sandy beaches. Rock outcrops are frequent  in the vicinity of head-
lands and some river mouths (Figures 3-1 and 3-2).  In southern
Oregon typical areas of rock exposure are Cape Blanco, Cape Arago,
and off the mouths  of the Umpqua, Coquille and Rogue Rivers.   Off
the Washington coast, extensive gravel deposits have been found
off Grays Harbor,  the Quinault River,  Ozette Lake, and Cape
Flattery (Venkatarathnam, 1769).  Site investigations for
structures located  on headlands  or other cliff-like  areas should
consider possible slumping or slope failures (North and Byrne,
1739).   General geologic features  are shown and described on
geological maps for Washington, Oregon,  and California. Examples
of these are:
(a)  Geologic map of Oregon west of the 121st meridian  (Peck,  1742)
(b)  Geologic map of Washington (Huntting, e_t al_. ,  1724) and
(c)  Geology of Northern  California (Bailey,  1759).


Surface sediments of the nearshore zone are primarily sands consisting
of detrital quartz and feldspar.   This sand zone extends from the
shoreline out to a water depth of approximately 50 fathoms (300 feet)
off the northern and central Oregon coast (Figure 3-3). South of
the Umpqua River the  sand forms a narrow belt along the  coast in
generally shallower water (30 fathoms  or less) (Figure 3-1).   Off
the Washington coast the sand zone extends at least to  a depth  of
30 fathoms (1769).   Off southern Oregon  sediment thickness varies
between zero and 90 feet (MacKay, 1733) (Figure 3-2).  The
onshore-offshore transport rate  of sand is greatest during winter
where, in areas subject to high wave attack,  beaches may lose
from 5 to 15 feet of sediment thickness.  The longshore seasonal
transport is generally to the north in winter and to the  south in
summer.  Net longshore transport is believed to be north, but may
vary with location (Kulm, e_t al. , 1761).  Ripples in the bottom
sediment have been found at water depths of 80 meters in  winter and
30 meters in summer  (Neudeck,  1762).   The transport and distribution
of sediments from the Columbia  River  has been investigated by
Ballard (1707) and Gross  and Nelson (1722).

Sediment Motion

When a progressive wave advances into shoaling water, a depth is
reached where the oscillatory fluid motion on the bottom is of
sufficient magnitude to initiate sediment  motion.  This sediment
motion may be significant to construction in the nearshore region.

Observations indicate  that offshore gravity forces  dominate over
onshore hydrodynamic forces during the winter.   Therefore, in the
winter, beach sand is  generally transported offshore.  Under summer
wave conditions the  net onshore hydrodynamic force is greater than
the offshore gravity force and the sand moves onshore.

Few observations have been made in the  oceans to determine at
what depth significant  sand motion is initiated (see Inman, 1227)
although considerable  work has been done in laboratory wave tanks
(Ippen, 1144).  At present,  the correlation between laboratory
work and ocean  observations is uncertain.





     Figure 3-3.  Sedimentary facies of the Oregon continental shelf
                 (from Kulm and Fowler, 1768).

Inman (1Z27) indicated that the alignment of characteristic sediments
parallel to the  shoreline is caused by onshore/off shore sand move-
ment,  not littoral drift.  Ippen and Eagle son (1144) have shown that
the depth of established equilibrium motion (the deepest depth a
characteristic  sand particle remains in motion through a complete
wave cycle) can be calculated for a characteristic beach slope,
sand size,  and wave.  Figure 3-4 depicts depths of equilibrium
motion for a beach with a  slope of 0. 015 and a sand diameter of
0. 24 mm (D   ) for varying wave conditions.

A second approach to determine the depth at which sand movement
is initiated for given wave conditions is to use small  amplitude wave
theory and Hjulstrom's curve (Figure 2. 2 in 1121) for threshold
velocities for different sand sizes.  Figure 3-4  also  shows solutions
to the  equation for threshold particle velocity on the  bottom due to
various wave conditions for a sand size of  0. 24  mm (Glenne,  1228).
The 0. 24 mm sand size and 0. 015 beach slope are representative
of the  Oregon coast.

Sorting of sediment sizes  on the foreshore  slope of a beach (landward
of the  breaker) is shown in Figure 3-5 from C. E. R. C. TR -4 (1121).
The larger sized grains are associated with steeper  beaches  (a
result of the higher orbital velocity of the water particles), but
this relationship is also influenced by water level variability,
wave exposure, and ground water level. Median grain size has
been shown to be a satisfactory parameter  for generally evaluating
the transportability of littoral material.


The coastal area of the Pacific  Northwest is relatively aseismic
compared to the remainder of the Pacific Coast. Hence, it may
be considered a preferential siting area.  The lack of major
seismic activity is seen in the plot of tectonic flux (Figure 3-6)--
an integration of earthquake intensity and number of  quakes.   Shear
zones have been postulated through Cape Blanco and  at Coquille
Point, but these have not been active  since post-Miocene (Dott, 1760).

Byerly (1710) and Menard (1734) have discussed earthquakes  and
faulting, respectively, along the Pacific Coast.   Ryall, e_t al. (1770)
have studied the seismicity, tectonism, and surface  faulting  of the
Western United States.   A discussion of Oregon earthquakes  may be






3   14





                  Depth of established equilibrium motion for 050 = 0. 24 mm

                  Bottom depths  at which mean threshold velocities
                  occur for DI;O - 0. 24 mm
                                                   Sand Diameter (D^Q) = 0. 24 mm

                                                   Beach  Slope = 0. 015

                                                   S. G. = 2.65
                       I	I
                                       I	L
                           46          8         10        12

                              DEEP WATER WAVE HEIGHT (FT)
                      Figure 3-4.  Movement of bottom sand due to waves.

                                                          0 ---- -   Median  Diameter  Lake Michigan
                                                           -   Median  Diameter Atlantic Coast (compiled U.S.C-E.  data)
                                                                     Median  Diameter Pacific  Coast
Foreshore  Slope
             Figure  3-5.  Relationship between grain size and foreshore slope (from C. E. R. C. ,  TR-4,  1121).

                   />,---   -- -J?.-Q-	I	:_.J-4-L-.

[~[ 9.0-9.9

[~] 8.0-8.9
Figure 3-6.   Map of tectonic flux for  the Western  United States
              (from Ryall, e_t aL , 1770).   Log flux indices represent
              combined intensity and frequency of quakes.

found in Berg and Baker (1708).  Faults and shear zones of
the continental  shelf off Washington have been investigated by
Grim and Bennett (1771).

Sources of Information

The following list of departments and bureaus are the major
repositories  of geologic  data and information.  These sources  should
be investigated for pertinent available data before commencing
geologic surveys.

(a) State
    1.  Department of Geology and Mineral Industries, State
        of Oregon
    2.  Washington Department of Conservation, Division of
        Water  Resources
    3.  Washington Department of Conservation, Division of
        Mines  and Geology
    4.  California Division of  Mines and Geology

    1.  U. S. Geological Survey
    2.  U. S. Bureau of Mines
    3.  U. S. Bureau of Reclamation
    4.  U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey
    5.  U. S. Army Corps of Engineers

Nearshore Topography

The nearshore  topography of the study area can be illustrated by
profiles of the  bottom contour  constructed at  selected intervals along
the coast  from the shoreline out to a distance of three  miles.
Profiles or transects were drawn parallel to  latitude lines and
were  located with reference to significant estuaries, population
centers, broad flat beaches, headlands, and  other coastal features.

The profiles  shown in Figures  3-7  and 3-8  are  of transects three
nautical miles  in length and are subdivided into three increments--
shoreline  to 0.  5 mile, 0. 5 to 1. 5 miles, and  1.5 to 3. 0 miles.  The
average bottom slope for each  increment and the depth of water at
0.5, 1.5,  and 3 miles offshore are shown.


                                        T:IX\CAPE FLATTERY
                                                  GRAYS HARBOR
Figure 3-7-
Bottom profiles and beach slopes for various locations
in Washington and northern Oregon.   Water depth is
indicated at 1/2,  1  1/2,  and 3 miles offshore.

                                                     ALSEA BAY
                                                   UMPOUA RIVEti
                                                 'ROGUE RIVER
                                              <  I".  
                                                     KLAMATH RIVER
                                                  HUMBOLT BAY
                                                CAPE MENDOCINO
Figure 3-8.  Bottom profiles and beach slopes for various locations
              in southern Oregon and northern California.  Water
              depth is indicated at 1/2, 1 1 /2,  and 3 miles offshore.

The bottom slope of the first half mile increment is significantly
greater than the  slope farther offshore.  From Cape Mendocino
northward to Tillamook Head the slope is relatively steep ranging
from 1:35  to 1:100 (1. 75  to 0. 5); farther northward the slope is
less, ranging from 1:100 to 1:200.  At distances greater than
one-half mile the slope is generally less, varying between 1:100
to 1:600 with the steeper slopes  occurring south of Tillamook Head.

At a distance  of one-half mile offshore the depth of water varies
between 15 feet and 40  feet with  a mean depth slightly greater than
30 feet.  Three miles offshore in the  northern portion the water
depth rarely exceeds 100 feet.  From Tillamook Head to the  southern
boundary the depth of water varies from 100 feet to 300 feet.

Several exceptions to the above mean conditions exist, notably
around headlands.  Here,  offshore reefs and haystack rocks
abound and bottom contours become quite irregular.   In many
of these cases high cliffs terminate abruptly at the water's edge
eliminating the formation  of any beach.

At Newport,  Oregon, from Yaquina Head to approximately a  mile
south of the entrance jetties a submerged reef runs  parallel to
the coastline about a  mile offshore.   This reef alters  the nearshore
surface circulation pattern creating eddies of variable strength
and direction.  Similar situations will also exist in the proximity of
other offshore rocky areas.

There are no known canyons or troughs that extend to within  three
miles of the coast.  The heads of the  Astoria  and Eel River canyons
terminate  farther offshore,  15 miles  and five mile s, respectively.

                                        Table 4-1.  River discharge data for the Pacific Northwest.
Drainage area
for total basin -(mi2)
Drainage area -(mi )
Percent of total basin gaged
Observation period
Avg. monthly flow CFS OCT
Mean streamflow (cfs)
Avg. min. daily flow (cfs)
Avg. max. daily flow (cfs)
140, 000
192, 000
246, 000
266, 000
279, 000
390, 000
266, 000
1, 172
3, 300
11, 200
15, 900
19, 800
13, 000
10, 700
6, 700
3, 300
1, 800
1, 100
7, 600
65, 000
4, 560
16, 600
18, 300
16, 100
9, 700
7, 300
4, 000
1, 700
8, 200
1 Rogue
5, 160
2, 600
6, 600
16, 200
15, 600
12, 300
10, 600
8, 000
5, 000
1, 300
1, 200
7, 800
1 Klamath
15, 800
12, 100
11, 100
24, 500
25, 900
30, 600
2-1, 600
26, 100
19, 700
4, 000
2, 900
17, 200
2, 400
165, 000
3, 630
3, 113
1, 400
5, 000
18, 000
19, 500
12, 700
10, 300
1, 100
7, 100
164, 000
2, 400
4, 500
5, 300
5, 500
4, 000
2, 100
1, 200
2, 200
3, 550
6, 600
8, 050
8, 250
6, 050
3, 150
1, 800
3, 300
1 Siuslaw

- h "O
S R ^
n o bo
il  P. S3

3, 150
             *Data extrapolated to river mouth.

                    Chapter 4.  HYDROLOGY

              by Bard Glenne and Burton W. Adams

 Although the  hydrology may effect  many factors in the environment
 the discussion  in this chapter will  be limited to  streamflow data.
 The effects of  streamflow on  temperature and  salinity will be
 dealt with in Chapter  6  and on sediment transport  in  Chapters
 3,  15,  and 21.

Streamflow data for the nine major rivers discharging between
 Cape  Flattery and Cape Mendocino are shown in Table 4-1.   The
data were taken from the records of  the lowest gaging station on each
river with the exception of the Siuslaw River which was estimated
from  precipitation records (1167) since no gaging stations were
installed until 1967.  Streamflow data for the Columbia,  Rogue, Coos,
and Coquille rivers  have been extrapolated to the mouths of the rivers.

Streamflow data are available from the annual "Water Resources Data,"
published for  each state by the U.  S. Geological Survey (1213, 1214,
 1215).  The Northwest Water Resources  Data Center  (1163) publishes
weekly and monthly  streamflow summaries for selected  stations in the
 Pacific Northwest.  The Oregon State Water Resources Board has
published river basin  studies for the coastal basins of which the
Rogue River (1165), North Coast (1223),  Mid-Coast (11 67),  and South
 Coast (1168) basin studies were used.

 The Columbia and Klamath Rivers show an annual bimodal flow
discharge.  This is  a result of heavy autumn and winter precipitation
west  of the Cascade Range and spring snowmelt waters.   Figure 4-1
 shows the average monthly flow for the Columbia River showing the
winter rainfall peak and the spring snowmelt peak.

The streamflow for  the other rivers  shows single peaks in winter
due to heavy precipitation on  the Coast Range during this season.
Figure 4-2 depicts the streamflow for the Chehalis  River which is
representative of the flow pattern of  these coastal rivers.  A log-log
plot of average  coastal river  streamflows versus river basin drainage
area (Figure 4-3) permits estimation of streamflow for similar type
rivers based upon a knowledge of the river drainage area.

To summarize, the  discharge patterns of the coastal  rivers emptying
into the Pacific Ocean from Northern California, Oregon, and Washington
show  broad peaks during the winter and spring months.  During summer
and fall the discharge  rates of these  streams are much below their
annual average (80 to 96 percent less).

 Figure 4-1.
Mean monthly flow of the Columbia River  extrapolated to the
 river mouth for 1953-1967. ( CFS x 105)


                                                   I JUL
                                                         AUG SEP
     Figure 4-2.  Combined mean flow of the Chehalis, Satsop,  and
                 Wynoochee Bivers  measured at the lowest gaging
                 station on each river for the period 1960-1968.
                 (CFS x 103)








                                                        5     6     7    8  9  10
                       AVERAGE STREAMFLOW - (1000 cfs)

 Figure 4-3.  Average  streamflow of Pacific Northwest coastal rivers versus river

              basin drainage area.

                        Chapter  5.  WINDS

               by Robert H.  Bourke and Bard Glenne

The Washington, Oregon,  and Northern California coasts  are
located approximately in the  center of the zone of prevailing  wester-
lies with local winds varying from northwest  to southwest throughout
most of the year.

The seasonal cycle  ofwinds on the Pacific Northwest Coast is largely
determined by the circulation about the North Pacific high pressure
area and the Aleutian low pressure area.  During summer the
North Pacific high reaches its greatest development (approximately
1025 millibars) and is centered about 30-40N and 150W; the
Aleutian low is weak during this period (Budinger, et al. , 1113).
The interaction of these pressure zones favors the development of
summer winds generally from northwest to north over the nearshore
and coastal areas of Oregon and Washington.

During  winter  the North Pacific high weakens and its center shifts
about 10 southward while the Aleutian low intensifies (1113).
The resulting winds, frequently of gale force, approach the Wash-
ington-Oregon coast from the southwest.

Extra-tropical cyclones occur most frequently in winter and
generally approach  the coast from a westerly direction (National
Marine Consultants, 1159).   Depending upon the location of the storm
center as it impinges on the coast,  the winds  may be from northwest
to southwest.  These winds generate most of the large waves that
reach the coast.

The barrier  presented by the mountains of the Coast Range influence
the general wind pattern, deflecting the winds so that they tend to
align with the trend of the coast (Cooper,  1124).  In regions where
the mountains are low the deflecting effect is  minimal and normal
oceanic wind conditions prevail.

                                          Table 5-1.      Monthly averages of wind direction i

                                                    Period of Record                       Jan.
     a.  Source of Data
     b.  Bibliographic Reference No.

Quillayute, Washington
     a.  Weather Bureau
     b.  (IZ07)

Modi pa, Washington
     a.  Weather Bureau
     b.  (1155]
                                                                     Average Direction    SE
                                                                     Avg.  Scalar Speed     8. 4
                                                       1937-19-47     Average Direction     E
                                                                                  ind >calar ipeed (mph) at ielected chore eUttons.

                                                                                   Fgb.    Mar.    Ap^.     Maj     June     July
                                                                                   SE      SSE     S      SW      WSW     W
                                                                                    7.3     7.7     7. S     6.8      6.3      6.3
                                                                                                                          NW     NW
                                                                                                                                                  Aug.    Sept.
                                                                                             W     SSW     S
                                                                                             6. Z     5.6     7.1
                                                                                                                                                   NW      NW
                                                                                                                                                                           Nov.    Dec.
Hoquiam. Washington
      a.  Weather Bureau
      b.  (I ISM

Lone Tree,  Pt.  Brown, Washington
      a.  Weather Bureau
      b.  (1193) and (1219)

North Head. Cape Disappointment,
      a.  Weather Bureau
      b.  (1193) and (1218)

Astoria.  Oregon
      a.  Weather Bureau
      b.  (1206)
 Tillamiook, Oregon
      ,  Weather Bureau
      b.  (1155)

 Newport, Orepon
      a.  Weather Bureau
      b.  {J1 5 5)

 Cap Arago Light Station, Oregon
      a.  U.S. Army Corps of Engr*.
      b.  (1197) and (IZ19)

 North Bend, Oregon
      a.  Weather  Bureau
      b.  (1155)

Brooklngs, Oregon
     a.  Weather  Bureau
     b,  (1155)
                                                       1953-1958      Average Direction    ESE
                                                                     Avg. Scalar Speed    11.4
                                                       12 years       Average Direction    SE
44 years       Average Direction     E
               Avg. Scalar Speed    15.9
                                                      11 years       Average Direction    E
                                                                     Avg. Scalar Speed    8.9
                                           ESE    ESE      W       W       W       W
                                           11.4    11.2     10.3      9.6     9.5     9.1
                                                                                                          NW     NW     NW     NW     NW
SK      SE      NW     NW      NW       N
14.6    14.1    13.8    13.2     12.8     12.0
                                           ESE    SE     WNW    NW     NW     NW
                                            8.7     8.7     8.5      8.2      8.2     8.5
                                                  W      ESE    ESE
                                                  8.3     8.0     9.4
                                                                                            11.2    11.7     12.8
                                                                                                                                                             ESE    ESE
                                                                                                                                                             1 0. 9    11.8
                                                      1943-1945      Average Direction    S      SSW     NW     SSW     NW     NW     NW
                                                      1935-1942      Average Direction     E
                                                                                                                          NNW    NNW    NNW    NNW    NNW
                                                      1915-1925      Average Direction    SE     SW      SW     NW     NW     NW
                                                                                                                                                   NW      NW
                                                                     Average Direction    SE
                                                                     Avg. Scalar Speed     9.4
                                                                                   SE      SE      NNW   NNW    NNW    NNW
                                                                                    8.4     9.0     9.2    10.0      9.7     11.7
                                                                     Average Direction    NE      NE      NE      NW     NW     NW
                                                                                            NNW    NNW    SE
                                                                                             9.8     7.7      6.8
                                                                                                                                                           NW      N
                                                                                                                                                             SE       E
                                                                                                                                                             15.5     16.2
SE      ESE
 8.5     8.8.
                                                                         SE     SE
                                                                          7.2      8.3
                                                                                                                                                                           NE     NE
              Eureka, California
                   a.  Weather Bureau
                   b.  (1140)
                                                      Average Direction    SE
                                                      Avg. Scalar Speed     7. 0
                                                                                  SE       N       N       N       N      NW
                                                                                   7.2      7.6      8.0     7.9     7.4     6.8
                                                          N      N
                                                          5.5     S. 6
                                                                                                                                                             SE      SE
                                                                                                                                                              5.9     6.4

Winds Measured from Shore Stations

Wind speed and direction have long been measured at various
locations along the coast (prior to 1900 at some of the larger towns).
However,  very little of the data has been analyzed or published.
For  example, weather stations are found in most of  the coastal
towns, but data from only two locations are published;  at Quillayute
in northern Washington (U. S. Department of Commerce, 1207), and
at Astoria,  Oregon (U.S. Department of Commerce,  1208).  For
these two  stations the resultant wind speed and direction (vector  sum
of all observations taken each month)  and the mean scalar  speed for
each month have been published since 1967.  Prior to 1967 the data
listed were the prevailing wind direction,  frequency, and the mean
scalar speed.

At each of the U. S.  Coast Guard Stations the climatological data
are recorded every four hours.  Only the immediate past year's
and present year's logs  are kept at the stations; the  records for
previous years are sent to the Coast Guard Archives, Washington,
D.C.  These records have not been machine punched nor analyzed
and have not been used in this report.

In addition to the above two sources of wind data,  the U.S.  Army
Corps of Engineers has  completed wind analyses  for several
harbors and bays in the  study area (1196 - 1 201).  Most of these
reports are from data taken prior to 1930.

In March  1969  the Weather Facility at the Marine Science Center
in Newport, Oregon, installed a recording anemometer on the end
of the south jetty of Yaquina Bay.   Data from this source should
prove quite reliable since the location of the anemometer provides
data relatively free of land effects.

Average wind conditions  as measured at various  coastal sites within
the study  area are presented in Tables 5-1 and 5-2.   Wind roses
for winter and summer conditions (January and July, respectively)
for Oregon are  shown in Figure 5-1.

Winds have been monitored at the Quillayute weather station since
July 1966.  Prior to July 1966 all meteorological observations -were
made at the weather station on Tatoosh Island. The wind pattern
for the northern Washington coast differs from that along the southern
Washington, Oregon, and northern California coasts in that at
Quallayute summer winds are from the west,  whereas, for the
latter areas summer winds are consistently from the north or


Table 5-2.
Frequency and velocity of winds at three stations on the
Washington-Oregon coast

                  July and January

North Head, Washington
Lot. 4618'
4 iit.p.h.
and over
J6 m.p.h.
and over
New par.
, Oregon La!. 443S'
4 m.p.h.
and over
}6 ni.p.h.
and over
North Bctii, Oregon 4325'
4 m.p.h.
and ova'
16 m.p.h.
and over














                         (from Cooper,  1124)

                BEND (!)
                          ..     PORTLAND (2)

  SZ-T   III   -4  (SI   S4-4J
                                                                                           \  SEXTON SUMMIT (I)
                                            MEDFORD (2)

                                                                                -}&. BROOKIN6S (I)


                               Figure 5-1.  Wind roses for winter and summer conditions for western Oregon.
                                             a.   Wind roses for January.
                                             b.   Wind roses for July.
                               (from U.  S.  Dept. of Commerce-Weather Bureau, 1210)

For the three stations near the Columbia River--Lone Tree,  North
Head,  and Astoria--summer winds are predominantly from the N-NW
quadrant paralleling the coast; the highest velocity winds are also
from this sector (Table 5-2).  During winter the winds are pre-
dominantly offshore  from east or southeast.  These winds are,
however,  of moderate speed.  The higher velocity winds (16 mph
or more,  Table 5-2)  arrive from the south or southwest, but do not
occur as frequently as the moderate easterly winds.  High velocity
winds from the east also occur in this region during the winter as a
result  of the  concentration of the wind stream in the Columbia River
gorge (1124).  In general,  wind speeds are greater in winter  than
summer with the exception of the high velocity summer winds from
the north.

Winds  measured at Newport and Coos Bay,  Oregon, and at Eureka,
California, exhibit the  similar pattern of north or northwest winds
in summer and southeast winds in winter.  The winds here tend to
follow  the general trend of the coastline.  Spring and fall are  transi-
tion seasons  during which the wind swings from south to north and
vice versa; the weather during these periods is usually clear.

Offshore Wind Observations
Observations of offshore winds taken near the vicinity of a marine
outfall are one of the necessary parameters required to describe
the distribution pattern of a surface pollutant.  The winds not only
blow the pollutant along  the ocean surface, but create wind-driven
currents which carry the "body" of the pollutant away from the source.
Wind speeds measured at shore stations, e.g. , Weather Bureau and Coast
Guard Stations, are generally not representative of conditions
found one-half to five miles offshore due to the varying topography
along the coast.  Unfortunately, observations made one to five miles
offshore are very few and widely scattered.

Wind speed and direction measured aboard merchant,  naval, and
research vessels in transit are deposited in the National Oceanographic
Data Center (NODC).  Analysis of these data to obtain average monthly
wind conditions showed that the few observations taken within the
study area were too widely distributed in space and time to be of any
statistical value.

The geostrophic wind can be computed from twice-daily atmospheric
pressure charts prepared by the U. S. Weather Bureau. Corrections

can be applied to the geostrophic wind to obtain the approximate
surface wind condition for a height of 10 meters above the sea surface.
An analysis of offshore wind conditions  using this  method is described
in a technical report of the Department  of Oceanography of the
University of Washington  (Duxbury, et_ aL , 1128).

Perhaps the most reliable and representative of actual surface wind
conditions recorded are those measured from lightships stationed
about five miles offshore.  These data are stored  at the National
Weather Records  Center in Asheville, N. C.   If specifically requested,
the data are machine punched and put on magnetic tape for future

On a broader scale, the Climatological  and  Oceanographic Atlas for
Mariners, Volume II, North Pacific Ocean (U. S.  Dept. of Commerce,
1209) shows monthly wind roses for  a point  located at 4100'N,
126 00'W.  Only general seasonal trends can be elicited from this

In the future,  valuable wind information will be provided by  telemetry
from buoys such as Oregon State University's Totem.  These
buoys should provide long and continuous records  allowing statistical
analysis of short-term fluctuations  as well as long-term averages.

Since the early 1950's wind observations have been recorded every
six hours from the three lightships  located in the project area.
These are the Blunts Reef Lightship off Cape Mendocino in northern
California,  the Columbia River Lightship,  and the Umatilla  Lightship
off Cape Alava in  northern Washington (Figure 5-2).  The  data
analysis to obtain average monthly wind conditions was performed
for  this project by the National Weather Records Center.  Table 5-3
lists by month the average resultant wind direction and speed, the
average scalar speed and the number of observations during the
period of record for each lightship.  In  addition,   Appendix  1  is a
listing of the above information for  each year within the period of

Offshore winds in the northern  section of the area (Umatilla Lightship
data)  shift from SSE in fall and winter to W  in early summer and then
reverse the cycle.  This same pattern is observed in the central
and southern sections except that during summer  the winds continue
their  clockwise swing and arrive from the NW  and N,  respectively.
This annual wind  shift is also verified by Figure 5-3  which was
derived from geostrophic calculations.   These winds, measured

         Columbia  River
     46.    Lightship
                             TILLAMOOK \
                             >  HEAD   V^

                          ^COOS BAY

                        I CAPE BLANCO
                          [ft ST. GEORGE
         Blunts  Reef



Figure 5-2.  Locatibn of lightships off the Pacific
            Northwest coast.

Table 5-3.  Resultant wind speed (knots) and direction by month
            measured from, lightships off the Pacific Northwest coast.
Blunts Reef Lightship
1954-1966 (13 yrs)


Columbia River Lightship
1953-1966 (14 yrs)


Umatilla Lightship
196l-1965'(5 yrs)

' 8

5 miles off the coast, show that even at this distance offshore the
influence of the continental topography is still marked.

Corrected Geostrophic Winds

Duxbury, Morse, and McGary (1128) have computed the resultant
surface wind from atmospheric pressure charts for eight grid points
shown in Figure 5-3. The geostrophic wind velocity aloft was
determined  and then corrected by rotating the wind vector 15 to
the left of its downwind direction and reducing the speed by 30% to
obtain a surface wind applicable to a standard height of 10 meters
above the sea surface.  These winds were then averaged by month
for the period 1961-1963 for three offshore grid areas (Figure 5-3).
Seasonal trends and latitudinal variations are readily apparent.
Winter winds are predominantly from the southwest, while summer
winds are northwest in the northern areas and from the north in the
southern part.  The wind direction changes quite smoothly over a
180 arc between summer  and winter and back to summer.  Resultant
wind  speeds during the autumn and spring transition periods are
relatively low due to the wide variability in wind direction during
these seasons.

Wind roses  for each month,  centered at the midpoint of the grid
from which the wind values were determined, are shown in Figures
5-4 to 5-15. The percentage of each month the wind came from the
direction indicated is represented by the length  of the bar.  The
concentric circles indicate both 5-knot speed increments and
monthly frequency of occurrence in 5% intervals.  The  small numbers
indicate the frequency of occurrence within each 5-knot increment;
the sum over any particular direction indicates the frequency with
which the wind came from the direction shown.  The bar graph
associated with each rose shows the monthly frequency of wind
speed in 5-knot increments without regard to direction. The increase
in wind strength during winter followed by the decrease in strength
in summer  is readily observed for the northern and central areas.
Winds in the southern area remain relatively strong in both summer
and winter.   The close agreement  of the "corrected geostrophic
winds" with those winds  observed at the lightships  substantiates
earlier reports that geostrophic winds may be used in areas where
actual wind  observations are meager.


            GRID POINTS

           I	I	I
Figure 5-3.  Average direction and velocity of monthly winds for 1961-1963.

(from Duxbury,  et al. , 1128)


Fig. 5-4. Average direction and velocity  of
          January winds  for 1961-1963.
(from Duxbury,  et aJU ,  1128)
Fig. 5-5.   Average direction and velocity of
            February winds for 1961-1963.

Fig. 5-6.  Average direction and velocity  of
           March winds for 1961-1963.
(from Duxbury,  et  al. ,  1128)
Fig. 5-7. Average  direction and velocity of
          April winds  for 1961-1963.

Fig. 5-8. Average direction and velocity of
          May winds for 1961-1963.
(from Duxbury,  et al. ,  1128)
Fig. 5-9. Average direction  and velocity  of
          June winds  for  1961-1963.

                                                        18 -1
                                                              0 10 20 30 40 50

                                                              WIND SPEED, KT
                                                              0 10 20 30 40 50

                                                              WIND SPEED, KT

                                                              -1 ~^^^^^^M~r~m
                                                              0 10 20 3010 50
                                                              WIND SPEED, KT
Fig. 5-10.  Average  direction  and velocity of

            July winds for 1961-1963.

(from Duxbury,  et_ al. ,  1128)
Fig. 5-11. Average  direction  and velocity of

           August winds for 1961-1963.

Fig. 5-12.  Average direction and velocity of
           September winds for 1961-1963.
(from Duxbury, jet^ at. ,  11Z8)
Fig. 5-13.  Average direction and velocity of
           October winds for 1961-1963.

        Fig.5-14, Average direction and velocity of
                   November winds for 1961-1963.

         (from Duxbury, ei_ aL ,  1128)
Fig.5-15.  Average  direction  and velocity  of
          December winds  for 1961-1963.

             U ma I ill a
        "^ytt-.-W) ^Y-v-
       .y^C""1*-    /-s--.
             Long Beach
           Columbia River ;^p%;^
           Lightship    ~~~~~~
             Blunts Reef '3
|	Dcpoe Bay
    Marine Science Center


    -.Port Or ford
   Figure 6-1.  Location of shore stations and  light-
               ships along the Pacific Northwest coast.

              Chapter 6.  TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY
                 by Robert H.  Bourke and Bard Glenne

 Shore Station and Lightship Observations

 Temperature and salinity observations are limited to mostly
 surface observations.  Only data from the National Oceanographic
 Data Center contained subsurface observations and these were
 extremely limited.  Hence,  the emphasis of  this chapter must be
 on the surface temperature and salinity of the area.

Observations  of surface temperature and salinity have been made
at selected  shore stations and from three lightships along the Pacific
Northwest Coast.  Daily observations have been reported from the
Blunts Reef Lightship off Cape Mendocino since 1923  and from
Crescent  City, California since 1934 (U. S. Dept. of Commerce,
1205).  The Department of Oceanography at Oregon State University
began reporting weekly observations from shore stations along the
Oregon Coast in 1961  (OSU,  Dept. of Ocean., 1169).   Since 1964
all observations from reporting stations have been made daily (OSU,
Dept.  of Ocean. , 1170).  Data from the Umatilla Lightship are
listed in a similar publication of the Scripps  Institute of Oceanog-
raphy,  (1187). The location of each reporting station is shown in
Figure 6-1  and Table  6-1.

Additional temperature and salinity samples  have  been collected from
other sites  along the Pacific Northwest Coast.  Some of these data
have been published (Burt, et_al_. , 1115; Conor, 1135; Neal,  et al. ,
1160; Pearson and Holt, 1175; Skeesick, 1189)  and some exist as-
unpublished laboratory reports (Frolander,  1133;  Snow, 1190).
The majority of these observations were taken during a  single
season or month in conjunction with research concerning the  ecology
of organisms  living  in the surf zone.  These  records  were not con-
sidered sufficiently  long to establish annual trends and were not
included in  the analyses to follow.

 Tables 6-2  and 6-3  list by month the average mean,  average maxi-
mum,  and average minimum  surface temperature and salinity and
the total number of observations for each reporting station computed
over the period of record.  Salinities were determined from hydrome-
ter readings;  the few stations  reporting salinities  in excess of 34.5%o
are probably in error (1170).

Figures 6-2 through 6-5 are graphs of the monthly mean temperatures
for the three lightship stations and for  several shore stations along
the Oregon-California coastline.  At all locations  there  is a  4 to


                        Table 6-1.   List of Shore Stations and Lightships in Geographical Order
           Station Name


    Umatilla Lightship

    Long Beach


    Columoia River Lightship

    Seaside Aquarium

    Arch Cape

    Depoe Bay Aquar-urn.

    Newport Marine '-jcieuce Center


    Cape Arago Light Station

    Port Orford


    Crescent City

    Blunts Reef Lightship

4810. O'N, 12450.0'W

4623. O'N, 12404. O'W

4611. 2'N, 12411. O'W

4559.7'N, 12355. 6'W

4548. O'N, 12358.0'W

4449.4'N, 12404. O'W

44-37. 2'N, 12401. 5'W

43"21. O'N, 12419.0'W

4320.3'N, 12422. 5'W

4244. 6'N, 12430. 6'W
                                               41 44.6'N, 124-11.7'W

                                               4026. O'N, 12430. O'W

Off Cape Alava

In surf on sand beach, 10th Street approach

Mouth of Columbia River

At pump outlet into Aquarium settling tank from
surf inlet pipe

In surf on a sand beach

At pump outlet into Aquarium settling tank from
surf inlet pipe

At pump outlet into Laboratory from bottom of
Yaquina  Bay

From surface of bay

Off the rocks below the Light Station

Off east side  of Port Orford River
                                USCGS Tide Guage Station, Crescent City

                                Off Cape Mendocino

      Station and
   Period of Record

Long Beach, Washington
Seaside Aquarium
Arch Cape

     (1961 dominates
     salinity data)
                                    Table 6-2. Average monthly temperature (C) and salinity (%o) of the surf measured at
                                               selected sites on the Pacific Northwest coast.  Salinities enclosed by ( )
                                               indicate average computed from fewer observations than listed in total.



Monthly Avgs. !t
Total No. Obs.
Avg. Mean
Avg. Maximum
Avg. Minimum
Total No. O',,s.
Avg. Mean
Avg. Maximum
Avg. Minimum
Tot*: No. Obs.
Avg. Mean
Avg. Maximum
Avg. Minimum
Total No. Obs.
Avg. Mean
Avg. Maximum
Avg. Minimum.
Total No. Obs.
Avg. Mean
Avg. Maximum
Avg. Minimum
Total No. Obs.
Avg, Mean
Avg. Maximum
Avg, Minimum
Total No. Obs.

28. 14
26. 09
9. 35
8. 11

9. 85
30. 51
30. 00

10. 55
27. 65
25. 58
11. 05
12. 03
28. 52
24. 67
10. 55
29. 12
12. 50
25. 07
12. 32
10. 59
29. 11
12. 29
10. 62
26. 52
14. 30
30. 62
29. 23
15. 04
12. 80
10. 19
31. 30
13. 61
25. 65
1 5. 08
17. 68
12. 14
14. 18
17. 56
15. 06
17. 07
33. 08
14. 63
12. 17
31. 19
28. 54
30. 00
15. 26
16. 12
31. 64
12. 15
15. 10
30. 62
11. 84
9. 15
30. 14
30. 15
30. 52
28. 25
10. 57
25. 58
10. 82
31. 57

                                                                      Table 6. 2.   continued
          Depoe Bay Aquarium

              (July and August
              salinity averages
              based on one year
          Newport Marine Science
         Cape Arago Light Station



Total No. Obs.







No. Obs.
No. Obs.
No. Obs.
No. Obs.
No. Obs.
No. Obs.
No. Obs.
29. 53
10. 27
8. 55
10. 54
32. 61
9. 28
32. 11
30. 06
9. 89
11. 28
31. 56
10. 20
33. 58
31. 04
10. 32
30. 00
10. 64
12. 04
30. 20
'32. 17
(33. 20)
9. 50
31. 05
10. 27
11. 21
30. 65
31. '79
11. '98
32. 05
33. 10
13. 61
9. 68
33. 59
11. 60
13. 10
15. 14
32. 08
13. 39
13. 82
33. 16
13. 05
11. 57
32. 19
12. 06
12. 60
9. 57
10. 54
32. 57
15. 04
>34. 00
32. 10
28. 28
32. 51
32. 83
13. 29
16. 08
33. 53
>34. 00
13. 05
10. 63
1 5. 70
32. 58
33. 51
13. 00
15. 13
>34. 00
                                                                                                                                Oct.   Nov.   Dec.
12. 26
10. 06
32.82   32.38   31.51
33.83   33.19   33.00
31.91   31.70   30.16
  40       58      85
11.53   11.96   10.94
13.54   13.75   11.97
10.76   10.85    9.63
  43       68      70

32.59   31.27   29.54
33.15   32.48   31.41
31.73   29.75   26.07
  65       70      70
 12.41   11.20   10.26
 14.62   12.68   11.50
 10.74    9.47    9.06
  64      41       63

 31.58   30.56   29.91
 32.90   32.75   32.07
 30.27   27.54   27.05
  57      41       63
 12.75    12.34   10.96
 14.02    13.44   12.72
 11.32    11.20    9.00
  84      67      52

 32.84    32.53   31.78
(33.55)  (32.96)  32.98
 32.14    31.35   29.59
  84      67      52

                                                      Table  6-2.   continued
Port Orford
Crescent City, California

Avg. Mean
Avg. Maximum
Avg. Minimum
Total No. Obs.
Avg. Mean
Avg. Maximum
Avg. Minimum
Total No. Obs.
Avg. Mean
Avg. Maximum
Avg. Minimum
Avg. Mean
Avg. Maximum
Avg. Minimum
Total No. Obs.
32. 68
8. 1
10. 24
11. 2
23. 05
32. 08
(33. 10)
10. 2
8. 62
12. 2
9. 5
28. 84
11. 29
32. 20
10. 0
25. 00
>34. 00
12. 5
10. 6
29. 08
9. 14
>34. 00
33. 02
13. 5
32. 54
11. 58
14. 10
>34. 00
14. 2
33. 08
12. 35
10. 43
33. 30
32. 83
13. 5
15. 2
33. 62
31. 56
32. 20
12. 1
32. 60
33. 27
11. 1
12. 5
9. 5
31. 20
32. 20
30. 02

                     Table 6-3.  Average monthly surface temperature (C) and salinity (%o)  from three
                                 lightships off the Pacific Northwest coast.   Salinities enclosed by ( )
                                 indicate average computed from fewer observations than listed in total.
     Station and
   Period of Record

Umatilla'Reef Lightship
Columbia River Lightship
Blunts Reef Lightship
Monthly Avgs. 8t
Total No. Obs.
Avg. Mean
Avg. Maximum
Avg. Minimum
Total No. Obs.
No data.
Avg. Mean
Avg. Maximum
Avg. Minimum
Total No. Obs.
Avg. Mean
Avg. Maximum
Avg. Minimum
Total No. Obs.
Avg. Mean
Avg. Maximum
Avg. Minimum
Avg. Mean
Avg. Maximum
Avg. Minimum
Total No. Obs.

12. 1

9. 11

33. 52
31 . 39
11. 68

(33. .-4)
32. 10
1 0. 29
13. 07

11. 50
12. 0
> 34. 00
15. 50

12. 2
> 34. 00
12. 67
14. 60
11. 22

14. 56
16. 50
> 34. 00
12. 56
14. 58
10. 18

17. 07
33. 59
> 34. 00

31. 15

15. 17
1 0.97
12. 04
9. 53

12. 14
10. 56
24. 12

13. 18

Figure 6-2.
                   Mean monthly surface temperatures recorded at three
                   lightships along the Pacific Northwest Coast.  Monthly
                   means were computed from daily observations taken
                   over the periods listed in Table 6-3.  Note that the annual
                   range for the southernmost lightship is much less than
                   that of the more northerly stations.
     Figure 6-3.  Mean monthly surface temperatures recorded at four
                  northern Oregon shore stations.  Monthly means were
                  computed from daily observations taken over the periods
                  listed in Table 6-2.  The  high summer temperatures
                  reflect the influx of the warm  Columbia River discharge.

                M    A     M    J
J     A    S     0     N    D
      Figure 6-4.  Mean monthly surface temperatures measured at shore
                  stations  in Coos Bay area.  Monthly means were  com-
                  puted from daily observations over a four year period
                  (Table 6-2).
K  12

b  10
                                       J	L
                M     A    M    J
J    A     S     0     N    D
      Figure 6-5.  Mean monthly surface temperatures measured at shore
                  stations south of Cape Blanco.  Monthly means were com-
                  puted from daily observations taken over the periods
                  listed in Table 6-2.  Note that the intense upwelling
                  characteristic  of the Cape Blanco area is  reflected in
                  the low summer temperatures at Port Orford.

 5 C  increase in temperature during the summer months.  The
 northern stations  experience a larger range in annual temperatures
 than  do the southern stations (Tables  6-2 and 6-3).  Maximum tem-
 peratures are usually achieved during August or September.  The
 surface waters are coldest from December through March.

 The range between average  maximum and minimum monthly tem-
 peratures is larger during summer than winter.  Summer tempera-
 tures can be expected to fluctuate  approximately 2. 5 to 3.0 C
 about the monthly mean temperature; during winter this fluctuation
 is approximately  0. 5 to 1. 0 C .

 The surface temperatures observed during  summer from the
 Columbia River Lightship, 5 miles offshore,  are influenced by the
 river discharge temperature as indicated by the anomalously high
 average mean and average maximum temperatures of 14. 9C and
 17. 1 C, respectively.  The  three northerly stations on the Oregon
 Coast also had average maximum  temperatures in excess of 17C;
 at the southerly stations maximum temperatures were usually 14 to
 15 C. The high summer temperature of the Columbia River discharge
 undoubtedly caused the higher temperatures observed at  these north-
 ern stations.  This corroborates the findings of Pattullo  and Denner
 (1173) based on a shorter observation period.

 The temperature  patterns observed from the  Blunts Reef Lightship
 off Cape Mendocino and at Port Orford just south  of Cape Blanco are
 unlike those observed at other stations.  These stations are located
 in regions of extremely active upwelling.  During periods of upwelling
 (June-September) the near surface waters of these regions can be
 expected to be relatively cool and  quite saline.  Average minimum
 temperatures  are low, 8 to 9 C, and surface salinities often exceed
 34%o. The increase in summer temperatures observed at the other
 stations does not  occur.   Maximum temperatures occur in  October
 and November, two months  after the  other stations have  reached their
 maximums.  The range in temperature at these two stations is
 small, approximately 1 C in winter  and 2 C in summer.

 Off shore Temperature and Salinity Observations

 Temperature and salinity observations from vessels at sea are on
 file at the National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC).  These
 data are filed  by  10 Marsden square numbers (Schuyler,  1225);
 number 157 encompasses the region of the study area.  Data from
^one degree squares 40to 48N latitude and 124 to 125W longitude
 within Marsden square 157 were obtained from NODC.  Since this  report


 is concerned with the data observed within 10 miles (18  km) of the coast
 (the distance between 124 W and 1Z5W longitude is about 48 miles),
 a computer program was written to exclude all data observed more
 than 10 miles from shore.  About 25 percent of the original data was
 found shoreward of this 10-mile boundary.  After arranging the data
 by month and latitude,  it was apparent that an extreme paucity of
 data existed and that most observations were clustered about the
 major coastal towns  or off prominent headlands.   More  than 50 percent
 of the observations were from the vicinity of the  Columbia River

 Monthly means  of temperature and salinity, maximum and minimum
 values,  and number of observations have been computed for the
 standard depths of 0,  10, 20, 30, and 50 meters  for the  clustered
 data areas.  Table 6-4 is a listing of average surface conditions.
 Similar  statistics for the remaining depths are listed in  Appendix 2
 of Volume II.

 Care should be  exercised when using the data in Table 6-4 since:

     1.   Very few  observations were available to  compute a mean-
 ingful average.  Frequently only 1 to 3 observations were used to
 compute the monthly averages.

     2.   The observations for a given month are not necessarily from
 the same year,  but may have been taken over a span of 10 years.

     3.   The data represent average surface conditions over an area
 about 5 miles wide.  Airborne infrared surveys have shown tem-
 peratures to increase with distance from the coast in this 5-mile
 wide zone.

 With the above in mind, the following observations seem significant
 regarding the offshore  temperature  and salinity distribution:

 1.  a.  For the Coos Bay, Brcokings,  and Trinidad Head offshore
 areas, coldest  temperatures (7-9 C) occur in June.  Salinities are
 also high in June (>33.6%0) indicating strong upwelling.

    b.  Maximum temperatures at the  above three offshore stations
 are reached in September and October  (12-13C). Salinities remain
high throughout the summer (>33. 0%o).

Table 6-4.  Mean monthly surface temperatures ( C) and salinities (%o) for
              selected offshore areas (1-10 km from the coast).   Data are
              from that on file at NODC.  Note the very few number of
              observations available for computation  of monthly averages.
                         Jan.   Feb.  Mar.   Apr.
                                                Juno  July
                                                         Aug.  Sept.   Oct.  Nov.
40-49' to 40-51 '

Trinidad Head Area
41 -03' to 41 -04'


43-20' to 43-21 '
Yaquina Head Area
4438' to 44-41 '

Tillamook Bay Area
45-30' to 45-46'

45-58' to 46-05'

Columbia River Mouth Area
46-07' to 46-22'

Long Beach to Ocean Park Area
46-22' to 46-36'

Pacific Beach Area
47-00' to 4719'

No. of Obs. 10 3 5 6
M Sail it 3? 76 3n 16 In 1 n
No. of Obs. 10 3 5 6
Mean Temp -* 	 1 0 93
No. of Obs. 1
No. of Obs. 1
No. of Obs. 1
No. of Obs.
No. of Obs. 1 7 1
Mean Salinity 32 36 31 95 30 93
No. of Obs. 1 7 1
Mean Temp. 9.68 9.45 10.55 10.52
No. of Obs. 6747
Mean Salinity 32.17 31.03 31.13 31.03
No. of Obs. 6 47
Mean Temp. 10. 26 816 10 29 9 42
No. of Obs. 1111
Mean Salinity 32 00 27 41 31 08 25 84
No. of Obs. 1111
No. of Obs. 352
Mean Salinity 	 24 76 27 74 27 36
No. of Obs. 352
Mean Temp. 8.93 7.61 8.94 9.67
No. of Obs. 5. 37 28 11
Mean Salinity 27.74 20.16 24.30 22.09
No. of Obs. 4 37 27 11
Mean Temp. 8.17 8.00 8.85 9.18
No. of Obs. 3686
Mean Salinity 27.92 26.29 27.37 27.40
No. of Obs. 3686
Mean Temp. 9.28 8.24 9.26 9.49
No. of Obs.  1 2 3 1
Mean Salinity 28.26 27.67 27.23 25.65
No. of Obs. 123-1
11. It. !.! !.ou
3 13 3

3 12 3
9 47 ! 3 66
3 10
33 93 33 3 5
1 1 66 6 50 11 08
5 1 1
5 1 1
1 1 3
32.17 33.58 33.23
1 1 3
10.75 11.47 9.65
6 7 11
32.05 32.13 33.06
6 7 11
1325 1201 8 44
4 6 1
3018 30 06 33 16
3 6 1
1 11 1
1 11 1
12.02 13.62 14.68
10 110 2
21.65 16.57 25.40
9 117 2
12.97 13.49 	
3 15
30.24 21.87 	
3 15
	 13.99 10.30
4 1
	 27. 19 33.43
4 1
33 33 33 65 33 32
1 2 63 1332 12 42
2 8 1
33 56 33 35
8 1
1 1 48 ' 2 66 I 1 05
1 1 1
3385 33 53 33 00
1 1 1
1 1 05 ' 3 24 f 3 46
33.46 33.02 32.83
11. 80 12.97 1 2. 15
33.14 32.71 32.53
1276 1418 1533
31 76 31 87 31 82
1456 14 86 1 5 88
28 80 27 35 31 38
14.41 13.84 14.24
51 155 10
25.21 27.80 28.08
51 156 10
13.58 13.90 14.91
30.71 29.80 29.37
	 15.00 M.70
3 1
	 30.97 30.09
3 1
30 67

1 0 79 1 0 44
2 3
32.68 31.67
2 3
11.94 10.41
9 7
32.14 31.66
10 7
	 11 71
1 0 41
10.26 9.84
9 5
29.21 25.86
9 6
10.60 8.84
5 2
30.64 26.10
5 2

      c.  For the Yaquina Head and Tillamook Bay offshore areas,
low temperatures  (8-9C) and high salinities (>33.0%0) are observed
in July.  Upwelling is dominant during July.   Maximum tempera-
tures (13-15 C) occur in September and October after the cessation
of upwelling.

      d.  Maximum temperatures  at shore stations in these 5 areas
occur two months  earlier--in August  and September.

2.    a.  At Seaside and for the Long Beach-Ocean Park areas,  sur-
face temperatures  remain relatively high throughout the summer
(14-15 C).  Salinities rarely exceed 30. 00%o.   In June,  the Columbia
River flood is reflected in extremely  low surface  salinities (21-24%<
      b.  Upwelling then, as measured by low temperatures and
high salinities,  does not appear to be a dominant factor in these two

3.    a.  Examination of subsurface temperatures (Appendix 2 )
indicates that isothermal conditions (constant temperature with
increasing depth)  exist from November through March-April.  This
may permit surface temperatures to be inferred from subsurface
temperature recorders during the winter months when it may be
difficult  to obtain  continuous surface temperatures. A weak thermocline
less than 2C) exists during the summer at a depth of less than 20 meters
Continuous temperature measurements are available  from thermo-
graph records made 3 to 10 miles off the  central Oregon coast near
Depoe Bay and Yaquina Head.   Observational periods  include May
and June, 1967; April through September,  1968; and July through
September,  1969.  Analysis of the  1967-1968 data is completed and
will be published  (Pillsbury e_t al. , 1177).

Sea Surface Temperature from Infrared Surveys

The airborne infrared radiometer (radiation thermometer) has
proven useful for  mapping mesoscale distributions  of sea surface
temperature.  Large scale features such as upwelling fronts or the
plume from the Columbia River are readily apparent.

Since August 1963 the Tiburon Marine Laboratory of the Bureau
of Sport  Fisheries and Wildlife, Department of the Interior;  in

cooperation with the U. S. Coast Guard has conducted monthly infrared
radiometer surveys for three Pacific coast areas.  The recently modi-
fied northern flight pattern (the only area within the limits of this-
study)  extends from Cape Elizabeth, Washington, to Newport,  Oregon,
and offshore to the 6000 foot (1000 fathoms) contour (approximately
60 miles offshore).  Figure 6-6 is an example of the monthly tempera-
ture pattern constructed from one  such survey.

During the summer of 1969 the Department of Oceanography, Oregon
State University in conjunction with OSU's Sea Grant project, "Albacore
Central, " conducted daily infrared radiometer  surveys, along  the
Oregon Coast to approximately 30  miles offshore.  Temperature
contours from a typical flight are  shown in Figure 6-7.

Temperature profiles  constructed  from airborne infrared surveys
within  5 miles of the coast are quite subjective.  Figure 6-8 shows
profiles from a  segment of a typical survey conducted by OSU.  The
horizontal temperature gradient  changes rapidly  and unpredictably
within  the first 5 to 10 miles off  the  coast.  Discontinuities  marking
temperature fronts are present and can be corroborated by abrupt
changes in water color.  In order to construct representative sea
surface temperature contours with some degree of  confidence, closer
spacing of the flight track is required than that shown in Figure 6-8.


     1.  An abundant  source  of surface temperature  and salinity data
is available from coastal shore stations and the three  offshore light-
ships.   Few measurements have been made, however,  inside of this
five mile wide zone.

     2.  Surface temperatures range from an average high of 17.7C
to an average low of 7. 6C.  More variability is  observed in summer
than in winter.   Summer  temperatures fluctuate within a 4  to 6 C  band
while winter temperatures are constrained within a 1 to 2 C band.

     3.  Summer temperatures  are about 5 C warmer than winter
temperatures.  Mean summer temperatures peak in August and September
(12 to  14 C); average maximum temperatures, however, peak in July
and August (15. 5 to 17. 5C).   Winter mean temperatures are uniformly
low (about 9. 5C) during  the period December through March.  Average
minimum temperatures (7. 5 to 8. 3C) generally occur in January.

                                                             from lo'rared Radiation Thermometer
                                                                  SURVEY FOR
                                                                 AUGUST 1967
                                                            FLIGHT 8-3-67   1013 - 1513 POT
                                                             PACIFIC COAST CONTINENTAL
                                                            SHELF TEMPERATURE SURVEY
                                                              Tiburon Morine Loboroto'y
                                                             U.S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries
                                                                in cooperation with
                                                               The U.S. Coast Guard
                                                            halfInshore, celling 1100', wind J
                                                            3 kti., visibility 10 ai.; offshore.
                                                            celling 1800', vlnd ^ 5 he*., visibi-
                                                            lity 10 ml.
Figure 6-6.   Example of a typical infrared survey conducted by
                 the  Tiburon Marine Laboratory of the Bureau of
                 Sport Fisheries and Wildlife.   Note that insufficient
                 data prevents drawing temperature  contours  within
                 10 km of the coast.

                          jCOOS BAY

                        CAPE ARAGO
Figure 6-7.  Temperature contours from a typical infrared
             survey conducted by Oregon State University's
             Sea Grant project "Albacore Central."  Note
             closer spacing of flight track provides capability
             to construct contours closer to shore than
             that  shown in Figure 6-6.



Figure 6-8.   Segment of a typical infrared survey conducted by Oregon
             State University's Sea Grant project, "Albacore  Central"
             (July 1969).  Note that construction of temperature
             contours is highly subjective even for this relatively
             narrow strip.  (Compiled by Burton W. Adams)


      4.   Summer  temperatures in the  northern portion of the area
(from Willapa Bay, Washington,  to Tillamook Bay, Oregon) are
2 or 3 C warmer  than temperatures observed at the  more southerly
stations.   This is undoubtedly due to the warming influence of the
Columbia River.

      5.   In areas  where coastal upwelling is intense, summer
temperatures are  suppressed below those of the more northerly
stations.   Average minimum temperatures of  9. 5 to 1 0. 5Care
observed in upwelling regions whereas minimum temperatures  of
12 to 14 are found in regions of little  or no upwelling.

      6.   Due to extensive wind mixing of these shallow waters  in
winter, isothermal conditions exist from November through March-

      7-   Surface salinities are higher  in summer (approximately
33. 5%o) than in winter (approximately 32%o).  Coastal upwelling  tends
to keep salinities elevated during the summer while winter rains
and high river run-off tend to lower surface salinities.

      8.   Where coastal upwelling is prevalent, salinities in excess
of 33. 8%o are frequently observed.  However,  during periods of weak
or inactive upwelling,  surface salinities  may be reduced  to 32.  5
to 33%0.

      9.   In winter the discharge  from the  Columbia River flows
north close to the  Washington coastline.  Mean salinities observed
along the southern Washington coast are  low (25 to 28%o) with
maximum salinities rarely exceeding 30%o.  During periods of peak
discharge (June) salinities below  20%oare not uncommon.   During summer
when the Columbia River  plume flows offshore to the southwest, its
freshening influence is still felt along the southern Washington  coast.
Surface  salinities  average about 30%o occasionally reaching 33%o in
July and August.

                  Chapter 7.  HEAT BUDGET
                      by Robert H. Bourke
Rather than describe the  climatology of the nearshore region,
it was felt that a heat budget approach would be more informative.

A heat budget study for the coastal area of the Pacific Northwest  has
been completed by Lane (1150).  He investigated the area from 40 to
50 North Latitude and from the  coastline to 130 West Longitude.
A further subdivision narrowed this area to include only the region
within 60 nautical miles of the coastline.  This subdivided region  was
established to provide a comparison between a coastal upwelling
region and one free from  the effects of upwelling.  Measured values
of sea surface  temperature,  wet and dry bulb air temperature,  wind
velocity, solar radiation, and  cloud cover were used to compute the
terms in the  heat budget equation.  The  data used by Lane were
from records of naval vessels for the period 1952-1962.  These re-
cords are on file at the National  Weather Records  Center in Asheville,
N.  C.  Each  heat budget term was averaged month by month over
a ten-year period (Table 7-1).  The monthly variation of the total  net
heat exchange across the  air-sea boundary was computed from the
simplified heat budget equation:  Q  = Q  - Q    Q     Q         7-1
                                 t    s   b    h    e
where Q is net heat transfer;  considered positive when the sea  rer
ceives heat energy,

       Q is net short wave solar radiation incident on the sea

       Qn is  heat loss due to effective back radiation,

       Q is  heat conduction; considered positive when there is a
net exchange  of heat from the sea to the atmosphere,
       Q  is heat loss due to evaporation.
All terms are measured in langleys (calories/cm ).

Empirical Methods

Direct measurement of terms in the heat budget equation (equation
7-1) is presently limited to laboratory experiments with the possible


    Table 7-1.  Ten-year average monthly values (langleys) for the major heat budget terms for
                a region where coastal upwelling is seasonally present.  The Qf- overall includes
                this region as well as areas farther offshore not affected by coastal upwelling.

- 5
- 7
- 6
Q 3 net
- 14
- 36
- 90
Qt n
- 89
(modified from Lane,  1150)

 exception of the radiative terms.  In practice, empirical methods are
 used to compute the heat budget terms.  Spatial and temporal measure
 ments of ,,sea surface temperature, wet and dry bulb air  temperature,
 wind velocity,  solar  radiation, and cloud coverage are observed
 from which diurnal,  monthly, or annual means are  computed.  A
 variety of empirical  relationships have been established for the com-
 putation of each heat budget term utilizing the  above measurements.
 A discussion of the methods employed by Lane follows.

 Monthly mean values of the total daily solar radiation incident on the
 surface of the earth, Q  ,  were obtained from the U.  S.  Weather
 Bureau at Astoria, Oregon.  These monthly means were corrected
 for latitude and cloud cover.   The percent of the incident solar radia-
 tion reflected from the sea surface, i.e. ,  the  albedo, was determined
 by slightly modifying and averaging the albedos as determined by
 Burt (1116, 1117).  The net solar  radiation -was calculated as  the
 difference between the incident and reflected values.  Monthly means
 of net solar radiation are  listed in Table 7-1 and plotted  in Figure 7-3.

 The effective back radiation or the net loss of  heat due to long wave
 radiation from the sea surface is a function of the surface water
 termperature and several atmospheric  characteristics (temperature,
 vapor pressure, and cloud coverage).   Lane used the relationship
 developed, by Anderson e_t  al.  (1226)  to compute
       Q,  = 1.141   K 4 - K 4[(0.74 + 0.025 Ce~'584h) +
         D           S     cL

            (0. 0049 - 0. 00054  C e~'  h) e  ]  10"?  ly/day    7-2

where K  and K  are,  respectively, absolute sea surface and air
temperatures  in  K,

       C is cloud cover in tenths, and

       h is height of the clouds above sea level in meters.

The heat loss  due to evaporation, Q  ,  is primarily a function of the
wind speed, V (m/sec),  and the difference between the saturation
vapor pressure and ambient vapor pressure, (es - ea).
A number of equations have been developed,  but none are able to
predict the evaporation from the oceans with great confidence or
accuracy.  The equation chosen by Lane originated with Sverdrup

(1191) and is of the form:

       Q  =6. 13 V (e  -e )  ly/day                            7-3
         G           S3,

The  conduction of sensible heat from the sea surface to  the atmosphere
occurs when the  sea  is warmer than the overlying air.  Convective
cells are created due to the instability within the air column resulting
in cooling of the sea surface.  If the air is warmer than the sea,  a
condition of stability  is approached resulting in negligible exchange
of heat.  In general,  the conduction process favors the removal of
heat from the sea.  The standard technique for estimating Q  is  by
use of the  Bowen ratio, i.  e. , R = Q /Q .  Once the heat loss due to
evaporation has been determined,  Q  can be found by
            0.61(K -K )Qe
       Qh =	:	:	     ly/day                          7-4
         n     (e  -  e  )
                 s    a
where the  terms are  the same as those previously defined.

A comprehensive review of the heat budget including evaluation of  the
numerous empirical  relationships, methods of data analysis, and
techniques and equipment  for obtaining the required meteorological
variables may be found in several reports of which Edinger and Geyer
(1229), Raphael (1180) and a TVA report (1131 ) are  the most complete.
Average monthly values of the heat budget terms for the  Pacific  North-
west may also be determined from the heat budget Atlas  edited by
Budyko (1114).

Discussion of Results

Over the ten-year period of investigation the total net heat transfer
varied considerably from  one year  to the  next.   The  range was appre-
ciable, varying from over 42,000 langleys gained by the  sea in 1956 to
almost 2,000 langleys lost by the sea in 1959 (Figure 7-1).  Lane was
able to show that annual fluctuations in both solar radiation and evapor-
ation were the major contributors to the observed net heat differences.

From January through March the net heat transfer was negative  indi-
cating a  release of heat from the  ocean to  the atmosphere (Figure  7-2).
During March through May the direction of exchange reversed result-
ing in a warming of the ocean.  During the summer the warming pro-
cess  continued at a relatively constant rate.  However, farther off-
shore beyond the upwelling zone, the mid-summer atmospheric
warming of the ocean decreased due to high surface  temperatures

           53    54   55    56    57   58    59
                                 Year (19--)
   Figure 7-1.  Variation of annual heat exchange (Qt) from 1953 to
                1962 for the region 40 to 50  N. Lat.  and from the
                coastline to 130 W.  Long.  Note the  extreme fluctua-
                tions in heat gained  and lost by the region of the sea
                in 1956 and 1959,  respectively (from Lane,  1150).


 caused by warm Columbia River water and high values of cloud cover
 which reduced the incident solar radiation. By October the net heat
 exchange again reversed and the ocean continued to release heat at
 an increasing rate through December and January.

 Net  solar  radiation  and heat loss due to evaporation are the most
 significant factors affecting the total net heat  exchange.  The net
 solar radiation reaches its maximum during the summer months.
 April through September  experience more than twice the insolation
 of the winter months (Figure 7-3).   The heat loss due to evaporation
 is almost  double that due to back radiation (Figures 7-4 and 7-5).
 However,  during  the summer months when upwelling is prevalent,
 the evaporative heat loss is suppressed from  its winter maximum.
 The water transfer  to the  atmosphere  during summer is  less by
 approximately two inches per month compared to that in regions  be-
 yond the zone of upwelling.  Cooling of the surface waters in summer
 due to upwelling also results in the conduction term, Qfo, being nega-
 tive,  i. e. , a net conduction of heat to  the sea (Figure 7-6).  This lowering
 of the surface water temperature also results in a  reduction of the
 effective back radiation during the summer months.

 Direct Measurements

 Direct measurements of net radiation  and the evaporative and con-
 ductive heat fluxes will provide better knowledge of the heat transfer
 process across the  air-sea interface.   With increased understanding
 of the heat transfer  process, the reliability of the empirical relation-
 ships should be improved.  However,  direct measurement of the heat
 budget terms is still limited to laboratory experiments with the
 exception  of the radiative terms.

 Solar radiation incident on the sea surface is usually measured with
 a pyrheliometer.  Determination of the effective back radiation term is
 from empirical methods.   The net radiation, both long and short wave,
 incident on the sea surface,  however,  can be measured with a net radi-
 ometer.  Unfortunately, few of these devices  are in operation at marine
 stations (1150).

Both the conductive  and the evaporative heat exchanges can be  expressed
as the sum of a slowly  fluctuating average value and a  rapidly fluctua-
ting random value.  The slowly fluctuating portion  is that which is estimated
by empirical methods  since  these methods are based on average values  of wind,










 a   no
 jrt    90
 c    80


                       Monthly mean values of net solar radiation incident upon
                       the area from the Oregon coastline to 60 nautical miles
                       offshore.   The summer months experience more than twice
                       the insolation of the winter months.
                       (modified from Lane,  1150)
             Figure 7-4.  Monthly mean values of net back radiation for the area
                          from the Oregon coastline to 60 nautical miles offshore.
                          The  low surface temperatures in summer resulting from
                          coastal upwelling suppresses  the net back radiation during
                          this  season,  (modified from Lane,  1150)













4)   10

nt    0
tf  -10



             J     F    M    A    M     J     JASON     DJ
               Figure 7-5. -Monthly mean values of evaporative flux for the area
                           from the Oregon coastline to 60 nautical miles  offshore.
                           In summer the evaporative heat loss is  greatly suppressed
                           from its winter maximum due to cooling effect  of coastal
                           upwelling. (modified from Lane, 1150)
              Figure 7-6.  Monthly mean values of sensible heat conducted across
                           the air-sea interface for the area from the Oregon coast-
                           line to 60 nautical miles offshore.  Since surface temper-
                           atures are low in summer due to coastal upwelling, sensible
                           heat is conducted from the atmosphere to the sea.  (mod-
                           ified from Lane,  11 50)

temperature,  vapor pressure,  etc.  The rapidly fluctuating values
are the fluxes of evaporation and sensible heat.  These fluxes need to
be measured to obtain the true picture of the evaporative and conduct-
ive heat transfer processes.  In the past equipment with sufficiently
fast response time to measure the rapid fluctuations  was not  available.
Such equipment is now being developed in the laboratory.  It will be
some time in the future,  however,  before equipment  reliability and cost
will permit seasonal measurements encompassing  a  large area.


The direct measurement of the heat budget terms is  generally limited
to laboratory and field experiments.  Empirical methods employing
measurements of sea surface temperature,  air temperature, humidity,
wind velocity,  solar  radiation,  etc. will have to suffice until  direct
reading instruments  become available for practical use.

Based on empirical methods the following conclusions can be made
concerning the heat budget for the coastal upwelling region off Oregon
and Washington:

      (1)  The net heat exchange across the  air-sea boundary varies
considerably from year  to year.  In general, the sea receives a net
annual input of heat from air-sea exchange.

      (2)  The factors most influential in altering the heat budget
from year to year are variations in cloud cover, sea surface tem-
perature, and wind speed.

      (3)  Coastal upwelling  results in a lowering of air,  sea,  and
wet bulb temperatures in the nearshore region.  These reductions
affect the heat budget by slightly reducing the back radiation, greatly
reducing conduction from the sea to the atmosphere (conduction to
the sea occurs frequently during the upwelling season), and greatly
reducing the heat loss due to evaporation.  Due to the relative magni-
tude involved,  the reduction of the evaporative flux is the most im-
portant effect.

      (4)  The measurable effects of upwelling on the climate of
coastal Oregon and Washington are a suppression of  the summer and
autumn air temperature values and an increase in relative humidity.
      (5)  Data are now available to construct heat budget forecasts
on a regional basis.  Such forecasts should be  an integral part of any
siting study for a thermal outfall.

                          Chapter 8.  WAVES
                         by Robert H. Bourke


 The importance of wave statistics has long been recognized by
 oceanographers and ocean engineers as necessary for design of ocean
 and coastal installations.  Good wave data, however, are rare and the
 records are often such that the wide variability inherent in waves
 may not be  adequately described.  The wave  cl -nate off the Pacific
 Northwest coast displays a definite seasonal  pa tern in response to
 the wind regime requiring wave records which encompass all the

 The basic statistics required to describe the wave regime are the
 deep water wave direction, wave period and wave height.  From these
 statistics one can determine the  wave length, wave steepness, energy
 content, and particle motion.  In the analysis of wave  datr the
 significant wave height and period  (Ho and To) are calculated rather
 than average values.  The significant height and period are the
 average height and period associated with the highest one-third of
 the waves observed or measured.  In order to eliminate the shallow
 water effects of shoaling and refraction wave measurements or
 observations should be conducted in "deep" water, i.e. , in water
 where the depth is  larger than one-half the wave length.

 The wave height, period and direction can be determined by obser-
 vation from a moored ship in "deep" water, e.g., a lightship or
 instrumented buoy.  The wave characteristics can also be  inferred
 from observations  of breaker height and period.   Errors are inherent
 in both  of these methods, but the chief difficulty lies in obtaining a
 complete annual record.

 Wave statistics can also be calculated from the twelve hourly
 synoptic charts of the  U.S. Weather Bureau.   The fetch, duration,
and velocity of the wind are determined and the wave characteristics
are "hindcasted. "  Although this  method relies heavily on one's
ability to "read" or interpret the synoptic charts, it does provide
a long and continuous record.

Data on wave height,  period,  direction, and frequency of occurrence
over the yearly seasonal cycle are often important to power plant
siting and design for  several reasons.  Some of these factors which
are in part due to the wave climate are;
      a)  longshore current speed and direction
      b)  beach accretion and erosion
      c)  pressures and forces on bulkheads,  pipelines, outfalls,  etc.
      d)  dispersal of the heated effluent from the outfall by wave
Measured or Observed Waves
In the Pacific Northwest few deep water wave observations exist
for extended periods of time.  One such set of observations taken at
the Columbia River Lightship from 1933 to 1936 were analyzed and
reported by M. P. O'Brien in 1961 (1164).  The data were not
obtained by trained observers and the methods used were rough,
but O'Brien points out that the data are probably more accurate
than most deep -water observations since a limited number of observers
on a relatively small anchored ship were used.   The results are
presented in Table 8-1.

O'Brien's analysis showed that the observed periods and wave lengths
were less than the "correct" value.   This conclusion was based
upon comparative observations of the period of the breakers measured
near the Columbia River mouth.   O'Brien suggested that the reported
wave lengths from the lightship should be  increased by about one-
third to bring them into general agreement with those observed on
the coast.  The predominant wave direction (as a function of the
square of the wave height) was found to be from west to southwest
(Table 8-2).  In general,  the observations show that the higher and
longer period waves occur in winter (October through March).

Neal, _e_t_al. (1160) inferred the deep water wave statistics off
Newport,  Oregon, from observations  on the beach of breaker heights
and periods.  The average value of the significant breaker height
and period was determined from visual observations using the height
of eye technique.  From solitary wave theory the deep
water wave height was related to the breaker height,  H    by:

Table 8-1.  Dimensions and periods of waves observed at Columbia
           River Light Vessel
! Percentage of total observations exceeding figure specified
January 8.
February 6.
March 8.
April 4.
May 6.
June 5.
July 4.
August 6.
September 6.
October 7.
November 9.
December 10.


Ho = wave height; Lo
(from O'Brien, 1164)


T :
8. 1
8. 1
9. 5

2. 5
= wave length;
1 L0

. 2
. 0
. 5
. 5
. 0
. 1
. 5
. 0
. 2
T = wave period
H0 L
ft ft sec
2. 5 1
2. 1
1. 3
1. 2
1.6 1
2.4 1
2.7 1
4. 0 1
4. 0
4. 1
5. 5

wave direction
Percentage of ;
total observations
over 1 2 months

. 18
. 02
. 03
. 57
. 54

Percentage weighted
in proportion to H

0. 57
1. 26
25. 14
8. 24

      (from O'Brien, 1164)


H 3dl
B s
0. 027 LQ d!0
where the  refraction coefficient, dlg/dlo,  was assumed close to
unity and neglected.  For, the beach at Newport this assumption
may not be valid due to the presence of both an offshore reef and
physical barriers to the north and south which greatly influence the
refractive   pattern.  The  monthly averages of wave height,  period
and direction are listed in Table 8-3.  The number of observations
per month (from 3 to 9) permit only the  most general conclusions to
be drawn.   The significant wave heights ranged from 2. 8  ft.  in
August to 14. 6 ft.  in January averaging  7. 2 ft.  with the highest waves
generated  during winter (December through April).  The significant
wave periods ranged from 5. 2 seconds in  July to 17. 8 seconds in
February averaging  1 0. 5  seconds for the year.  The long period
waves (11  to 12 'seconds) occurred in winter from November to May.
During the period September-April the direction of wave
approach was from the west; in  summer (May-August) they
approached from WNW-NW.

The  Coastal Engineering Research Center of the  U. S. Army Corps
of Engineers  has established a program to measure wave data at
various coastal sites around the United States (Darling and Dumm,
1125).  The only site located within the study area is  off the  mouth
of the Umpqua River where,  in August 1964,  a pressure  type sensor
was  installed.  Wave data from  pressure sensitive devices can
provide accurate information provided the pressure fluctuations  can
be properly converted to fluctuations of the sea surface.   Recording
is not continuous,  however.  The available records cover the periods
of 13 August-13 September 1964 and 16 June-15  August 1966.   No
analysis has been made of these records as yet; pertinent wave
statistics will be published as soon as the  analysis is completed.

A prime source of deep water wave data is that measured from
offshore oil rigs.   These  rigs are equipped with automatic wave
recording  instruments  and have their vertical struts marked for
visual observations as  well.  Several articles in  industrial journals

                       Table 8-3. Monthly wave averages, Newport, Oregon, September 1968-August 1969.

from 272
(sec) 11.4
Ho(feet) 6. 8
No. of
Obs. 3
Oct. Nov. | Dec.

276 268 277

9.7 12.5 11.5
7.5 7.0 10.4

Jan. 1 Feb. | Mar.

280 271" 282

10.5 11.8 12.3
9.0 8.3 8.3







June 1 July

297 320

9.3 9.8
5.2 6.6

9 9



              (from Neal et al. , 11 60)

have reported the measurement of rather remarkable wave heights
developed during intense winter storms off the Pacific Northwest
coast.   One rig survived a storm -which generated 58-foot waves
(Watts and Faulkner, 1220), only to be subjected to another even
larger storm which generated a 95-foot wave (SEDCO 135F.1188).
Other large waves recorded from oil rigs are reported by  Rogers
(.1183).   None of these very large waves  represent average  wave
conditions during a severe storm, but are simply the chance increase
in wave height due to constructive interference from several large

Hindcasted Waves

One of the most detailed wave studies for the Pacific Northwest
region was conducted by National  Marine Consultants in i960  (1158)
and 1961 (1159).  Since equipment  to actually measure deep water
wave characteristics was not available at the time of the study, the
investigators resorted to wave hindcasting techniques employing the
spectral energy method  of Pierson, Neumann,  and James  (1176).
Wave prediction based on spectral theory is obviously not as
accurate as prediction based on measured data, but  it can  provide
indicative figures.  The accuracy of the hindcast depends on the
forecaster's experience and ability to interpret the synoptic -weather
charts produced by the  U.S. Weather Bureau.  The forecasters from
National Marine Consultants had been making verified -wave forecasts
for four years prior to this study  and were considered to be exper-

The analyses of the deep water wave statistics -were based upon
meteorological  records  and  pharts for  the years  1956,  1957, and 1958
which, when considered collectively, would represent an "average"
year.  The location of the four deep -water stations shown in Figure
8-1 are:

Station 1 4200'N, 12500'W  (off  Calif. -Oregon border)
       2 4440'N, 12450'W (off Newport,  Oregon)
       3 4612'N, 12430'W  (off  Columbia  River)
       4 4740'N, 12500'W (northwest of  Grays Harbor, Washington)

The hindcasting method  of wave forecasting has been shown to yield
varied results based upon the individual judgments of the interpreters
(Wiegel, pers. comm. ).  Because of this inherent variability in the
results,  the analysis by National Marine Consultants was considered
to be too detailed  for data based upon hindcasting techniques.   Their


Figure  8-1.  Location of deep water hindcast
             stations (from National Marine
             Consultants,  1159)

analysis has been made more general by grouping the data over four
octants (N-NW, NW-W, W-SW, SW-S) and over four seasons (winter,
spring, summer,  fall).  See Tables 8-4 and 8-5.   The winter season
includes the months of December,  January,  and February; spring -
March, April and May; summer -  June,  July, August and September;
and autumn - October and November.   These groupings were based
on the seasonal wind pattern of this region.  The  spring and autumn
seasons are transitional periods between the more stable climatic
seasons of summer and winter.  A further generalization was to
report only the average value of the significant wave height and period
for each octant and  season.  The standard deviation (S. D. ) of each
is also presented to provide a  measure of variability.  In addition,
the probable frequency of occurrence  for each condition is shown.

The National Marine Consultants' report listed the data in terms of
sea and swell, the  former being local waves of a  random nature
located within the storm generation area and the latter being the  more
uniform waves which were generated from distant storms.  Several
different trains of swell may be present at the same  time;  only the
height and period of the dominant swell train is reported.  Calm
periods are those times when no storm was  present in the  area to
generate local waves or "sea. "  These periods also include the
infrequent occasions -when the  direction of wave approach was offshore.

Analysis of the data listed in Tables 8-4  and 8-5 indicates that
general conclusions may  be  drawn which are common to all four
stations.  The most important of these are:

      1.  The predominant direction from which the swell approached
was from the  NW-W octant during  all  seasons.

      2.  The predominant direction from which local seas approached
was from SW-SSE during  autumn and winter and from N-NW during
spring and summer. The frequency with which the seas approached
from a particular direction showed more variability than did swell.

      3.  Waves generated by local storms were generally higher than
wave  heights of swell.

      4.  The highest waves regardless of angle of approach always
occurred in winter.



















4. 1
5. 1
4. 1
4. 1
N - N W
1 .0
1 .7
2. 1
1 .4
2. 1
1 .5

41 . 1
10. 1
32. b
11 .5

5. 1
4. 1
NW - W
1 .6
1 . 1
3. 1
1 .7
1 ,7
W - S W
11 .7
1 1 .4
4. 1
1 .4
1 . 1
1 .5
1 .8
1 .4
3. 1
1 .6
10. 1
9. 1
11 .0
11 .5
11 .3
4. 1
1 . 1
1 .4
' 1 .9
4. 1
' 3.3
1 .5
3. 1
20. 6
11 .0
9. 1
11 .O










31 .0


32. 1



31 .6
24. B

                                           Table 8-5.    HINDCAST  WAVE PERIODS  (TO)  FOR THE OREGON AND  WASHINGTON COAST
10. 3
10. 0
7. 1
N - N W
1 .7
1 .3
1 .4
1 .7
1 .6
1 .9
1 .4
1 .8
1 .4
1 .6
1 .5
1 .4
1 .4
1 .4
41 . 1
51 .4
1 .6
10. 5
7. 1
NW - W
1 .6
1 . 1
1 .5
1 .2
1 .8
1 .3
1 .5
1 . 7
1 .4
1 .7
1 .6
1 .7
1 .8
8. 1
5. 1
7 . 1
1 1 .7
1 1 .4
11 .6
73. 0
10. 2
10. 9
W - SW
1 .8
1 .4
1 . 1
1 .4
1 .4
1 .6
1 .4
1 .9
1 .4
1 .6
1 .7
1 .6
1 .9
1 .8
10. 1
7 .1
10. 0
11 .0
33. 1
1 1 .0
7. 1
1 .3
1 .6
1 .6
1 . 1
1 .6
1 .7
1 .2
1 .8
1 .4
1 .8
1 .6
1 .7
1 .7
1 .4
1 .6
1 .3
1 .7
1 .2
1 .6
1 .4
1 .7
1 .5
1 .2
11 .O
31 .4
31 .6

      5.  Throughout the year the highest waves came from the
SW-SSE octant.

      6.  The period of the swell was always greater than the period
of the locally generated wind waves.

      7.  The shortest periods for both sea and swell occurred
during summer.

      8.  The longest swell periods  generally occurred during
autumn; the longest  sea periods occurred during winter.

      9.  Throughout the year the longest period swell generally
approached from NW-W.  At stations 2 and 3  long period swell also
approached from the W-SW octant.

     10.  During all four seasons the longest period sea generally
approached from the SW-SSE octant.

      11.  During all four seasons the periods of calm occurred with
about the same frequency, 25-30%; the season of greatest calm was
Wave Steepness

Based on data from the National Marine Consultants' report (1159)
for a station 20 miles west of the Columbia River, Ballard  (1106)
has calculated the wave steepness and its effect on sediment transport.
The steepness of a wave is defined as the ratio of the wave height
to its length (HO/LO) and is a critical factor in determining  its
capacity to move sediment (Saville, 1185).   The steepness values
computed from annual average conditions for both sea and swell were
divided into three groups and the relative frequency  of occurrence
within each group determined for various wave directions (Table 8-6).
Most of the swell (81. 5%) fell in the H /Lo  range'of <0. 015 while
local seas were dominant (90. 3%) in the 0. 015 to 0. 025  range.

Waves with steepness values in the  0. 015 to 0. 025 range result in
the greatest amount of sediment movement  (1185).  Ballard has plotted
the relative frequency of waves in this range for various wave directions

       Table 8-6.  Relative frequency of waves with given steepness (HO/LQ) values from various directions.
                  Values  represent average annual conditions for the years 1956, 1957, and 1958.
Percent occurrence from various wave directions
0. 015
0. 015
0. 025
0. 025
sea 4. 8
sea 0. 4
Ballard, 1106)
0. 1
0. 5

9. 0
22. 2
0. 1

24. 2
5. 6
0. 1

8. 5
0. 5
0. 2

10. 2
4. 8
0. 1

4. 7
0. 1

0. 1
4. 0
10. 2
1. 2

2. 3

0. 1
3. 8
0. 1

0. 1
90. 3
0. 6

as shown in Figure 8-2.  The predominance of local seas over
swell in this range is evident.   The inset of Figure  8-2 shows the
effect of summing up the frequency of occurrence for both sea and
swell from north-of-west and from south-of-west.  The nearly  equal
frequencies of occurrence imply no net movement of sediment or a
tendency to keep it localized.
                                                  S  SSE
 Figure 8-2.  Relative frequency and direction of deep-water waves
              with steepness values of HO/LO = 0. 015 to 0. 025.  All
              values represent average annual wave conditions.
              (from Ballard, 1106)

               Chapter 9 .  COASTAL CURRENTS
              by Robert H. Bourke and Bard Glenne


Data on currents in the region of an ocean outfall are essential for
the solution of heat dispersion problems.  Measurements of current
velocities in coastal -waters are extremely sparse.  Those measure-
ments that have been made indicate that steady flow is not a common
occurrence,  but rather eddy flow and current reversals with tide or
wind are more characteristic of the nearshore circulation.  Defining
the circulation patterns throughout the entire project region would
be an enormous undertaking.  A more efficient and practical approach
would be to survey only those areas that could be classified  as  "prime"
site locations. Detailed measurements made at these prime sites may
allow extrapolation to other similar areas based upon a  limited number
of key measurements made in those areas.

Because of the many forces present to produce currents in coastal
areas, current speed and direction are highly variable.  Some near-
shore currents have been found to respond to the changing forces on
a time scale of about one hour (Neal, et al. ,  1160).  Due to this
variability average spatial as well  as temporal values are usually
reported.  In regions where local topography influences the  interaction
of the driving forces the current may move as an eddy fluctuating
widely in both speed and direction.   For such areas average values
may be meaningless.  This is perhaps the reason why some offshore
oil spills have been found to disperse in directions quite different
from that predicted.

The primary forces that produce coastal currents are winds, main
ocean currents, and tides.  Of lesser importance are the current
contributions from waves and pressure gradients.

Wind currents take place mainly on the surface.   The extent of this
surface layer is still under investigation, but recent studies indicate
wind driven water motion to a depth of about 10 meters.  Tidal wave
motion is a so-called "shallow water" phenomenon and  extends theoreti
cally to the bottom of the oceans.   Tidal currents, therefore,  are
generally thought to be essentially  constant with depth in nearshore
regions.   Currents due to wind waves (swell) decrease  logarithmically
with depth and are essentially negligible at a depth equal to one-half
the wave length.

Main Ocean Currents

The circulation of the main ocean currents off the Oregon-Washington
coast is known only in general terms.  The detailed circulation pattern

is still a topic demanding extensive investigation.  In general, the
California Current is a broad, slow,  and shallow southward flowing
current.  It flows offshore as a diffuse band about 300 miles wide
with an average speed of 0.2 knots (0. 34 ft/sec).  It attains maximum
strength during the summer when surface winds are consistently from

The Davidson Current as reported by Schwartzlose (1186) is a seasonal
northward flowing current  attaining speeds  of at least 0.5 to 0.9 knots
over extensive distances.  It has a minimum width of 50 miles.  The
current develops off the Oregon-Washington coast in September  and
becomes well established by January.   Towards spring it diminishes
and disappears by May.  The driving force  of the Davidson Current
is not well understood. Off Oregon it  appears to  result from local
wind stress (Ingraham, 1142), but Reid and Schwartzlose (1182) report
it as not due to the local winds but to some  larger scale phenomenon.
Their direct measurements indicate support for the concept advanced
by Sverdrup, ei_ al. ,  (1192) that the Davidson Current is  a surface
manifestation of a deeper northward flowing counter current that
develops when the winds weaken seasonally.

Tidal Currents at Pacific Northwest Lightships

Coastal tidal currents found 5 miles (9 km) offshore,  as observed
by lightships along the Pacific Coast,  are reported in the Tidal Current
Tables (U.S. C.  and G. S. ,  1202).   The currents are rotary, turning
clockwise, with a 12.5 hour period.  Spring and neap tides, which
occur biweekly, increase and decrease, respectively, the average
tidal current by about 20 percent.   Frequently, wind driven currents
and other nontidal currents are of such strength as to completely mask
the tidal current.  These nontidal  currents  must be  vectorially added
to the tidal current to obtain the resultant current.

The tidal currents measured at the Blunts Reef Lightship off  Cape
Mendocino show very weak rotary characteristics with average
speeds of less than 0. 1 knots (0. 17 ft/sec).  At maximum flood the
current sets north; at maximum ebb it sets south.  The tidal  current
is generally masked by a nontidal  current averaging 0. 2 knots (0. 34 ft/
sec) setting towards the southwest from March to November and towards
the northwest from November to March.  The  greatest observed
velocity at the lightship is  3. 0 knots (5. 1 ft/sec).

The tidal currents observed at the Columbia River Lightship  are also
rotary,  but rather weak, averaging about 0. 3 knots  (0.51 ft/sec).
The set of the maximum flood and ebb currents are  020 T and 200 T,
respectively.  The discharge from the Columbia River completely
masks the flood current at the lightship.  The  set of the nontidal
current created by the river  flow  changes from SW (235 T) during
February through October  to WNW (295 T)  from October to February
in response to the seasonal wind pattern.  The nontidal current speed

ranges from a monthly average of 15 cm/sec (0.45 ft/sec) in March
to 39  cm/sec (1.28 ft/sec) in June (Duxbury, et ai. ,  1128). During
periods of high river runoff the combined tidal  and nontidal current
frequently is 2.0 knots (3. 4 ft/sec) or greater to the SW.   The greatest
observed velocity at the lightship is 3.5 knots (5.9 ft/sec).  At the
river mouth between the north and  south jetties surface currents
measured by the U.  S.  Army Corps of Engineers (1200) were  300 cm/
sec (9. 8 ft/sec) on ebb and 120 cm/sec (3. 9 ft/sec) on flood during
June.  In September these values had  changed to 240 cm/sec (7.3  ft/
sec) on ebb  and 180  cm/sec (5.9 ft/sec) on flood.

The tidal  currents at the Umatilla Reef Lightship off Cape Arago.
Washington  are weakly rotary.  Maximum currents occur  15 minutes
after  maximum flood or ebb  is observed at the  entrance to the Straits
of Juan de Fuca.  The average velocity of flood and ebb currents is
0.3 knots (0.51 ft/sec) setting 345 T on flood and  165 T on ebb.  Wind
driven currents usually mask the tidal current. From November to
April the flow is northerly (350T) at  0.7 knots (1.2  ft/sec) peaking
to 1.0 knots (1.7 ft/sec) during December; from April to  November
the current  is variable, generally setting SE at an average speed of
0.4 knots (0.68 ft/sec).  The strong southeasterly winds of winter
produce a combined current  of 2 to 3 knots.  The greatest observed
velocity at the  lightship is 3.3 knots (5.6 ft/sec).

Because changes in wind direction and speed may  alter the wind
driven currents, tables have been prepared to  account for these changes
(1202).  Table  9-1 shows the increase in current speed due to increasing
wind  speeds.  The number of degrees by which the wind driven current
deviates to  the right or left of the wind direction is listed in Table 9-2.
This  deflection of the wind driven current, as measured approximately
5 miles offshore, appears to be primarily due  to coastline configuration
rather than  geostrophic effects.

Grays Harbor.  Washington

A literature survey of this area conducted by the Oceanography
Department of  the University of Washington (1218) describes the
average flood and ebb currents at the  harbor entrance as  generally
onshore-offshore at 2.5 knots (4.2 ft/sec).  Velocities in excess of
5.0 knots have been reported.  The estimated velocity at  a depth of
120-180 feet off the harbor entrance is 0.4-0.5 knots.  The littoral
current is generally northward although affected by the prevailing
winds.  In summer there is  an occasional flow  to  the south with a
maximum velocity of about 1.5 knots  (2.5 ft/sec).  The maximum
velocity in winter when the flow is northward is about  4. 0 knots
(6.8 ft/sec).

  Table 9-1. Average speed of current due to winds of various strength.

 Wind velocity (mph)	10	20	30	40      50
Average current (knots) due
to wind
Blunts Reef
Columbia River
Umatilla Reef
.2 .3 .4 .7 .8
.4 .5 .6 .8 .8
.2 .6 .9 1.0 .9
Table 9-2. Average deviation of current to Right or Left of wind direction.
Wind from
(in degrees)        Blunts Reef       Columbia River       Umatilla Reef

                   L,      R        L          R            L       R

                                               35                  44
                                               27                   18
                                                9                  34
                                               29                  48
                                               17                  52
                                                2                  38
                                              145           77
                                              105            6
                                               78                  37
                                               53                  25

(from Tidal Current Tables,  1202)


Depoe Bay. Oregon

An extensive  study -was made of the nearshore water movement off
Depoe Bay by Mooers,  et _al.  (1156) from moored current meters
and thermographs during August and September, 1966.  Three arrays
were anchored at 5,  10, and 15 miles off the coast (DB-5, DB-10,
and DB-15).  The  current meters were  spaced at a depth of 20 meters
and 60 meters from the surface.

When the current speed and direction vectors for each recording
time increment are progressively  summed (tail of one vector placed
against tip of preceding vector),  a progressive vector diagram (PVD)
results.  PVD's for DB-5 (20m and 6Om), DB-10 (20m),  and DB-15 (6Om)
are plotted in Figure 9-1.  Several conclusions  can be drawn from
these PVD' s:  (a)  The flow at 20 meters is to the south,  and at 60
meters is to the north; (b) The flow tends to follow the local topography,
except for DB-15 (60 meters) where  a strong onshore component is
present; (c) There are frequent wiggles  in the curves associated with
tidal-like motions; (d)  Periods of acceleration and deceleration in
speed and reversals in flow direction are easily seen, e.g., at DB-5
(60 meters) the current changed direction three times within 20 days.
   Table 9-3. Mean current measured off Depoe Bay, 15 August-24 September, 1966
           based on a 10-minute sampling rate.  S. D. is standard deviation.

   Depoe           N        U         V    Scalar Speed     Vector Mean
   Bay   Depth  (No. of   (cm/sec)   (cm/sec)  (cm/sec)    Speed   Direction
   Station   (m)    days)   MeanS. D.  MeanS. D.  MeanS. D.  (cm /sec)  Peg. True

37. 1
2.7 6.7
4. 8 7.6
5. 112.6
-13. 6 8.6
3.9 8.5
2 3 . 47 . 0
14. 35.8
6. 1
  (modified from Mooers, _et al. ,  1156)
A  summary of the basic current data is presented in Table 9-3.  The
vector mean speed and direction at 20 meters depth, five miles off
the coast,  is 18.0 cm/sec (0.59 ft/sec) flowing southward (187T).
At 60 meters depth the mean vector speed has been reduced  to a third
of that at 20 meters and changed direction by almost 180  to 028T.
Histograms of current speed and direction and current velocity components
for DB-5,  20 meters and 60 meters, are shown in Figures 9-2 and 9-3,
respectively.   These histograms are essentially unimodel indicating a
predominance in velocity and direction.

  Q DD 10
            2O m
9 DO 5
            DB 15 O
              DB 5 Q
Figure 9-1.  Progressive vector diagrams of currents,
             Depoe Bay array,  15 August-24 September
             1966.  The figures indicate the number of
             days since commencement of current meter
             recordings (from Mooers, et aL ,  1156).

    O   ?

10   ZO   30   10   50  60
  SPEED (cm sec-';

                                              DIRECTION fDEGREES)
                                                                100    ISO
        <0  -ZO   0   20  40
       -*'   U (cm sec-';   f-
                          -eo  -10  -20   o   zo   40   eo
                            "^"J   V (cm scc~';    H'^~
Figure 9-3.  Histograms  of current speed,  direction,  and
               velocity components measured 5 miles off Depoe
               Bay at 60 meters depth (from  Mooers,  jet al. ,

In order to establish the vertical structure of the horizontal current,
vertical profiles of current velocity were made at DB-5,  10, and 15
using a Savonius rotor current meter.  These profiles, as drawn in
Figure 9-4, show that at  each station a subsurface minimum and a
deeper maximum exist.   No directions are given as these are single
profiles and current direction is known to be highly variable over  a
tidal cycle.   The speed minimum occurs at a depth near the base of
the thermocline while the depth of the deeper maximum is associated
with the base of the permanent pycnocline.

Additional nearshore current data is available from current meter
arrays located off Depoe  Bay and Yaquina Head during the summers
of 1967 through 1969-  Analysis and conclusions for the 1967 and the
1968 surveys are nearly  complete (Pillsbury, Pattullo, and Smith,
1177).  The analysis of the 1969 data is incomplete.

Newport, Oregon

A recent report by Neal,  _et al.  (1160)  discusses the currents  near
an ocean outfall off Newport. Due to topographic features (a shallow
offshore reef,  a prominent headland to the north,  and a long jetty to
the south) the currents  are quite variable and unpredictable exhibiting
the characteristics of a large eddy.  The dominant driving force
appears to be the wind, but many exceptions  are noted.  The current
appears to deviate to the  left of the wind  direction for -wind speeds
less than 10 knots and to  the right for wind speeds greater than 10  knots.
South of Yaquina Head the predominant current direction was towards  the
beach.  Near the ocean outfall off Newport the flow was either northeast
or southwest.  North of the jetties  current flow was generally to the west.

Off Newport the littoral drift varies seasonally although the dominant
yearly drift along the coast is believed to be  north (Kulm, et al. ,  1761).
From  November-December to March the drift is northward reversing
direction from April to October-November.   Neal, _e_t al. (1160), how-
ever,  report from drift bottle studies that the longshore currents are
definitely not sustained since at times  the currents are in opposite
directions at different portions of the beach.   They found that the currents
were about evenly divided between northerly flow and southerly flow
throughout the year  except during summer (June-August) when the waves
were consistently out of the NW.  Measured values of the longshore
current velocity ranged from zero to over 1.6 ft/sec.

Additional current data is available from the work of James and Burgess
(1146) who have used aerial photography and drift cards in plume
dispersion studies off Newport.  Surface current speed and direction
can be calculated from this data,  but at present no analysis has been
undertaken for this purpose. Their aerial studies, however,  do
corroborate Neal, jet al.' s findings that the  outfall plume direction is
quite variable  and disperses in all directions.

             J 75
              100 '
            Figure 9-4.  Vertical profiles of current speed 5,  10,  and 15 miles off Depoe Bay,
                         23-24 September 1966 (from Mooers, et_aJ. ,  1156).

Goodwin,  Emmett and Glenne (1232) measured tidal heights and currents
in the Yaquina, Alsea and Siletz estuaries.  Higher flood velocities
than ebb velocities were observed.  In the Yaquina estuary entrance
a maximum flood velocity of about 2.4 ft/sec was  observed.   Near
Waldport in the Alsea estuary a maximum flood velocity of about 3. 0
ft/sec was measured.  Near Taft in the Siletz estuary entrance a maxi-
mum flood velocity of about 6.7 ft/sec was found.   In all three estuaries
an approximate 90 phase lag exists between tidal heights  and tidal
currents.  No attempts were made  to track the estuary flows  offshore.

Coos Bay,  Oregon

From a literature survey  similar to that undertaken for Grays Harbor,
Washington (1219), the average tidal current velocity is listed as 2.0
knots (3.4  ft/sec). Maximum ebb currents up to 7 knots (11.8 ft/sec)
and flood currents of 3.5 knots  (5.9 ft/sec) have been reported.  The
estimated velocity at a depth of 120-180 feet off the entrance is
0.4-0.5 knots.  The littoral current is southerly in summer due to
winds from the northwest  and reversed in winter.

Trinidad Head to Eel River, California

From an investigation undertaken for the California Water Pollution
Control Board, Humboldt  State  College has published a review of its
oceanographic study of the nearshore area of Northern California
(1140).  The current pattern of  this region is one of eddies superimposed
on the California and Davidson currents.  The headlands of Cape
Mendocino and Trinidad Head, the jetties of Humboldt Bay, and the
Eel River  canyon  all contribute to a mixed circulation pattern.  Tidal
currents, most pronounced near the entrance to Humboldt Bay;
dominate the flow when other influencing factors are minimal.  Near-
shore currents have been  correlated with wind conditions, but a lag
effect of unstated  duration was noted when the correlation  was poor.
Based upon a variety of observational methods, the current direction
for each month from January to  June (1959-1961) is presented in
Table 9-4.  Throughout this period the predominant observed direction
was  southward.  Northward flow was observed most frequently during
winter (January-February).

Table 9-4.  Summary of observations of surface current direction for
            January-June, 1959-1961, between Trinidad Head and Cape

Flow Direction    Jan   Feb     Mar    Apr    May    June    Total
(from Humboldt State College,  1140)

Bottom Currents

The scouring action and differential forces acting on structures  and
outfall pipes embedded in the ocean bottom are problems associated
with near bottom currents (Brown,  1112).  When current velocities are
of appreciable magnitude,  the bottom sediment may be loosely compacted
with considerable material in suspension.  Such conditions invite severe
scouring and sedimentation near cooling water intake and  outlet

Direct measurements of near bottom  currents are difficult to  make
and usually  require special equipment.  Few direct  measurements  are
available.   Observations along the Pacific Northwest coast have been
made from  sea bed drifters and moored current meters.

As reported in the s ection under Depoe Bay (1156),  the direction of
current flow measured at 60 meters (60 feet above the sea floor)
was opposite to that measured near the surface (20 meters depth)
(Table 9-3). At a point 5 miles off the  coast for  a period  of 35 days
during the summer the near bottom resultant current (vector mean current)
was 5.8 cm/sec (0. 19 ft/sec) at 028T.  The mean scalar speed was
14.3 cm/sec (0. 47 ft/sec).  Fifteen miles off the  coast at 60 meters
depth the resultant current was 6.1 cm/sec (0.20 ft/sec) at051T,
an increase in  the onshore component probably due to the  increased
depth.  The mean scalar speed was 12.5 cm/sec (0.41  ft/sec).

Over  the continental  shelves  of Washington and Oregon for water depths
below 200 meters Dodimead,  Favorite, and Hirano (1126) reported
the current  flow to be northward based  on geostrophic calculations.
This deep northward flowing  current was corroborated by Ingraham
(1142) who  also employed the geostrophic technique.

The first direct measurement of the near bottom current off the
Washington  coastline was made by Gross, Morse, and Barnes (1137)
using sea bed drifters, a saucer-like disk and stem arrangement which
drifts a few meters above the bottom.  Data  analysis is  essentially the
same as that employed with surface drift bottles.  Over the inner
continental  shelf (waters <40 meters  deep) the flow was  towards the
coast apparently responding to the influence  of waves and the ascending-
shoreward motion of coastal upwelling.  Speeds ranged from 0. 7 to 2. 5
km/day (0.03 to 0.09 ft/sec) averaging about 1.6  km/day (0. 06  ft/sec).
Within 10 km of the Columbia River mouth the flow was  towards the
river mouth at approximately 1.4 km/day (0.05 ft/sec).  For  shelf
waters in excess of 40 meters depth the dominant flow was northward.

These measurements were made over a period of 3 years which indicates
that these flows are persistent throughout the year.  Seasonal variability
in the flow of the near bottom current has not been determined.

The prediction of bottom currents may be calculated to an order of
magnitude  by investigating the relationship between current speed and the
size of the sediment found on the sea bed.  A review of previous investiga-
tions in this area and the development of a more  general relationship is
presented by Panicker (1171).  For currents over a downhill slope he

                        U = V /Ka                                9-1

where   U is the average velocity of the bottom current,

        V  is  the average  velocity of the sediment,

        a is the bottom slope,  and

        K is the portion of available turbulent energy released by the
          suspended particle to maintain it in suspension;  proposed to
          be of the order of 0. 1.
A calculation of maximum depths where wave motion tends to move  sedi-
ments is carried out in Chapter 3 in the section on Sediment Motion.

Current Flow under the Influence of Coastal Upwelling

During the summer months, June through September,  the process of
coastal  upwelling occurs along the Oregon coast (Bourke, 1111).  The north-
northwesterly summer winds produce a southward flow in the surface
layer and also an offshore surface flow due to the earth's rotation.  This
causes cold,  saline water  to upwell in eddies and form a rise in both the
seasonal and permanent pycnoclines (Figure 9-5).  The seasonal pycnocline
(region  of strong density gradients) breaks to the surface forming a surface
front approximately 10 to 20 kilometers offshore. Shoreward of the  surface
front the waters take on the characteristics associated with upwelling --
relatively low temperatures,  low dissolved oxygen content, and high
salinities.  Seaward of the surface front the surface temperature may be 5
to 7C warmer than the  surface waters in the upwelling region.  Other
indicators  of upwelled water would be increased alkalinity,  inorganic
phosphate, and hydrogen ion concentration (Park, _e_t al_.,  1172).


                                                             () EQUATORWARD   FLOW
                                                             X)  POLEWARD   FLOW
                         Continental  [Continental Shelf
                                                          30 kilometers
        Figure 9-5.  The mean current of the frontal  zone in the coastal upwelling region  off
                    central Oregon (from Mooers, 1157).

The following summary of the general flow pattern for the coastal
upwelling region off central Oregon during the upwelling season
(Figure 9-6) is  taken from that postulated by Mooers (1157).

      1.   The flow is southward in the upper 40 meters of the water

      2.   The flow is northward below 40 meters tending to concentrate
beneath the inclined permanent frontal layer at about 100  meters.

      3.   The flow in the surface Ekman layer (a boundary layer in
which frictional effects predominate in the equations of motion) is
offshore.  This transport layer is about 10 to ZO meters thick.

      4.   Within 10 to 20 meters  of the bottom, the frictional effects
of the bottom create a  bottom Ekman layer where the flow is onshore.

      5.   Beneath the  seasonal pycnocline (formed by summer heating
and the influx of relatively fresh water from the Columbia River
plume) the flow is  offshore at a depth of 10 to 30 meters.

      6.   Within the upper portion of the permanent pycnocline from
20 to 60  meters the flow  is onshore.

      7.   A new water  mass formed near the surface possessing a
characteristic temperature inversion sinks beneath the inclined permanent
frontal layer and flows offshore in a layer at a depth of about 40 to 80

      8.   Between  the above-layer and the bottom Ekman layer the flow
is onshore.

The process of  coastal upwelling may go through the phases  of inception,
steady-state,  and decay several times during the upwelling season
since it is believed to be a process which  responds to a wind field
which is neither steady nor statistically stationary.  Hence,  these
longitudinal and zonal flows fluctuate in depth and rate of  transport
commensurate with the current phase  of upwelling.

The study of coastal upwelling undertaken by Mooers provides little
information on the  effects of the upwelling process for the region
within 10 kilometers of the coast as the closest sensor was located

                       DISTANCE OFFSHORE (kilometers)
                      30              20   Front      10
                flow  in  Ekman layers

                onshore  flow  In geostrophic interior

                offshore flow in gooslrophic interior
Figure 9-6.  Inferred onshore-off shore flow over the continental
              shelf off Depoe Bay,  Oregon during the  summer
              upwelling season (from Mooers,  1157).

10 kilometers offshore.   He states that during the period of observation
it was uncertain how the upwelling process affected this region,  but
believed it to be a region where mixing is dominant.

Analytical Approach to Tidal Currents

In lieu of the scarcity of observed current data approximate analytical
methods may be used to determine current velocities.  One such
method would be to  consider  only the wind and tide as the driving
mechanisms for the establishment of coastal currents and to  vectorially
add the contributions from each of these forces.

(a)  Wind Driven Currents

The drag of the wind passing over the surface of the water  produces
a drift current.  Much of the initial investigation in this area was
done by Ekman (1130).  He found for  a homogeneous body of water of
infinite depth that the surface velocity of a pure drift current is  propor-
tional to the wind stress and, for an infinite ocean in the Northern
Hemisphere, directed 45 to the right of the wind direction:

                          V  =-^===?	                         9-2
                               /  p Af
where V is the surface current (cm/sec),
                                    _ o
       T  is the wind stress (dyne cm"  ),

       p  is the density of sea water (gm
       A is the eddy viscosity coefficient (gm cm"  sec" ), and

       f  is the Coriolis parameter,  f = 2f2sin (sec" )
         where  is the latitude and  fi is the rotation rate of the Earth.

For waters of finite depth the angle  of deflection of the surface current
from the wind direction is a function of h/D, the ratio between the water
depth and Ekman1 s depth of frictional influence.  In shallow water h/D
decreases with increasing wind speed.  Actual measurements have
shown the deflection angle at the  sea surface to vary between 25 -30 for
low velocity winds  (<4  m/sec) and approach the actual wind  direction for
high velocity winds  (Neumann and Pierson, 1530).

One must use an "effective" eddy viscosity coefficient, A, which is
a function of wind speed, i. e. , A must increase with increasing wind

speed.  The following table (Table 9-5) for A as a function of wind
speed is from Neumann (1161).
Table 9-5.  Effective eddy viscosity coefficient as a function of wind
Wind speed (m/sec)
A (gm/cm-sec)
Because of uncertainties in the values for wind stress and eddy viscosity
coefficient,  empirical formulae relating wind speed and current velocity
directly have been postulated.  These take the form


where W is the wind speed in m/sec,
       is the latitude,  and

      k is a coefficient which varies with wind speed; values used
         range from 0. 76 to 2. 59 (1530).

Wind drift currents and the relationship between wind speed  and current
speed at the surface have been discussed and studied, but few systematic
measurements are available.  Wide variability exists between actual
measurements, and that predicted by theory.  Wiegel (1542) emphasizes
that caution should be  exercised  when results based on theory are being
used. Neither of the two preceding formulas consider the influence of
a coast  and should probably not be  used in the nearshore region.

Bretschneider (1110) has developed a relationship between wind speed,
U,  and the steady  state mean longshore wind-driven current, Vgt,  over
the continental shelf.  Assuming shallow water conditions and constant
values of k = 3.0 x lO'6  and K =  lO'Zft1/3 for the wind stress and bottom
stress parameters,  respectively, the steady state mean current may
be expressed as:

                    = 0.0173 D^/sin 6
where 6 is the angle of the wind measured from the perpendicular
        to the coastline or bottom contours,

      D is the water depth (ft), and

    Vgj. is in ft/sec and U in knots.
Figure 9-7 shows the relationship of  versus D for various angles 9.
Exact values for the wind stress and bottom stress parameters have
not been established.

(b)  Tidal Currents

An  approximate tidal current velocity can be found from the information
listed in the Tide Tables (1203) and the  Current Tables (1202).  The
time it takes a particular stage of the tide (e.g. , HHW) to travel  from
the Farallon Islands off San Francisco to Cape Alava off the northern
Washington coast has been determined from the Tide Tables for four
periods of the year.  The pertinent  data are listed in Table 9-6 along
with tidal heights at HHW.  The approximate distance from the
Farallons to Cape Alava is 628 n. mi.
Table 9-6.  Time of higher high water (HHW) and tidal height for four
            periods in 1969 for  Farallon Island, California and Cape
            Alava, Washington.
                       11 Feb
15 May
23 July
26 Oct
                    Time  Height Time Height Time Height Time Height
                            (ft)           (ft)           (ft)          (ft)
Farallon Islands
Cape Alava
Travel time (min)





            Note for k = 3. 0 x 10
    0. 00





20  30    50 70  100    200 300

       Depth of Water,  D (ft)
500    1000

Figure 9-7.   Relationship of Vgt/U versus D for various angles 0.

(from Bretschneider,  1110)

Using a travel time of 104 minutes, the velocity of propagation up the
coast is 610 ft/sec (362 knots).  The Current Tables indicate that the
current is  rotary but rather weak all along the Pacific Coast,  setting
approximately 060T on flood, 240T on ebb.   Multiplying the computed
wave velocity by the cosine of 60  yields the resultant wave velocity
for a wave approaching the beach at an angle 30 normal to the shoreline
of 305 ft/sec.

The maximum horizontal particle velocity or the maximum velocity of
the net tidal motion is given by

                           u = g a/c                               9-5

where u is the maximum horizontal particle velocity for  a shallow-
        water progressive wave based on Airy wave theory (ft/sec),
       g is the acceleration due  to  gravity, 32.2 ft/sec^,

       a is the tidal amplitude and  from Table  9-6 is about r~ = 3.  55 ft,
       c is the wave velocity,  305 ft/sec.

The above values yield a maximum net tidal current of approximately
0.37 ft/sec (0.2 knots) approaching the coast from240T.  This speed
compares very  favorably with that -reported in the Current Tables based
on measured values at lightships five miles off the coast (1 202, p. 238).

Due to decreasing water depths  as the tidal wave approaches  shore,
the wave speed  decreases and the wave angle of approach becomes  more
and more parallel to the shoreline.  The net onshore-offshore component
of particle motion in this shallow coastal region can be computed from
a simple tidal prism analysis.   Assume  that a flow  of unit width perpen-
dicular to the shoreline with period T and height H enters a tidal prism
of volume (LavH) in time T/2  (Figure 9-8).  The average onshore-
offshore particle velocity may be expressed as:
                        -   2 LavH                                 ,
                        u = 	                               9-6

where dav is the mixing layer thickness  assumed to extend to the bottom.

The area between the sea surface  and the bottom, Lav x dav,  was
calculated from the coastline to 3  miles  offshore.  This  area was
divided by the square of the water  depth at 3 miles to yield the required
Lav/dav relationship in  equation 9-6.  Average net onshore-offshore

tidal currents at selected areas along the Pacific Northwest Coast were
computed using mean tidal heights from the Tide Tables (1203).  These
average tidal currents are listed in Table 9-7.  Of primary interest
is a comparison of the magnitude of these currents with location.  The
largest currents appear to occur in regions where the beach slope is
relatively flat.  The higher velocities of these regions implies better
dispersion of the thermal plume.  However, this advantage may be
offset by the necessity of constructing a lengthy outfall to achieve the
desired discharge depth.
Table 9-7.  Average net tidal currents for the Pacific Northwest Coast-
            line computed from tidal prism analysis.

Humboldt Bay entrance
Crescent City
Coos Bay entrance
Yaquina Bay entrance
Tillamook Bay entrance
Columbia River entrance
Long Beach, Washington
Grays Harbor entrance
Pacific Beach, Washington
Mean Tidal
Range (ft)
Average Onshore -Off shore
Tidal Current (ft/sec)
0. 12
0. 13
0. 14
0. 13
Figure 9-8.  Sketch of tidal prism defining terms used in equation 9-6.

Longshore Currents

Most waves approach the coastline at an angle to the bottom contours.
The effect of refraction tends to bend the angle of wave approach such
that the wave crests are almost parallel to the shoreline by the time
the waves break.  However, when waves do break at an angle to the
beach, the shoreward transport of water has a component parallel to
the coast.  This water  motion parallel to the coast is the longshore
current.  These currents are the major mechanism of longshore sand
transport. Most of the longshore sand transport takes place in the
surf zone.

Longshore current velocities can be computed from the relationship
listed by Eagleson (1129)
                                 sina sin0b sin 20-^
where V,  is the mean longshore current velocity (ft/sec)  assumed to
          be constant in the surf zone.  The current will actually
          decrease with distance from the shoreline as the depth increases;

HL and h\-, are respectively, the wave height (ft) and water depth (ft)  at
          the point of breaking;

       n-jj is the ratio of the group velocity to phase velocity;

       a  is the beach slope;

       OT-, is the angle between the breaker crest  and the original wave
        f is the Darcy Weisbach resistance  coefficient = [2 log-^Q ~+ 1.74]

      k is the equivalent sand roughness,  ft.

H-L and h.  can be computed from solitary wave theory using

       1^ = 0. 667 (H0'T)2/3 and                                   9-8

      Hb = 0. 78  hb                                                9-9

where Ho'  is the  deep water wave height considering the effects of
           refraction,  i. e. Ho'  = KrHQ
where K  is the refraction coefficient.

H, and h,  can more easily be determined from Figure D-54 in the U.  S.
Army Coastal Engineering Research Center Technical Report No. 4
(1121).  A sample calculation using conditions appropriate to the Pacific
Northwest Coast follows:

Assume Ho' = 8 feet; T = 10  sec; a = 1; Gb = 5;  bottom sand roughness,
k^ = 0.0033 ft.
then:             h,  = 12.3 ft
Hb =  9 . 6
                           f t
                 from eqs. 9-8 and 9-9
                 n,  = 0.95 from linear wave theory tables

                              h          -2
                 f  =[21og10^  +1.74]     =0.013
                  2 _ 3 r 32.2  x (9.6)2 x  0.95-ir0.0175 x 0.0872 x 0. 1736 i
                vTT  ~ 8 L        12.3        Jl          0.013          J
                    = 1.26 ft/sec.
This is in agreement with measured values off the central Oregon
coast as reported by Neal, et aJ.. (1160).

Many attempts have been made  to predict longshore current velocity.
Galvin (1553) in 1967 reviewed the theory and available data.  More
recently Lonquet-Higgins (1554) has  suggested using the concept of
radiation  stress to more satisfactorily estimate the momentum of
the incoming waves.  However, the chief difficulty in estimating
longshore current velocity is the inability to  accurately measure the
wave angle of approach.

          by Robert H. Bourke and Burton W.  Adams

In the early nineteen sixties,  several U0 S,,  West Coast power com-
panies initiated temperature studies  of thermal power plant cooling
water discharges.  Important contributions to West Coast field
studies of thermal discharges are described in  the following para-

In 1962 Squire (1538),  using an airborne infrared radiometer,
measured the distributions  of surface temperatures around the
outfalls of four steam-electric plants in Southern California (Figure 10-1).
The overflights, made on 16  January and 4 February, revealed increases
of 4 to 20F above ambient  surface temperatures.   The temperatures
recorded in February were lower because the area had experienced
storm conditions following the January survey.   He concluded that
the high surface temperature  gradients indicated the existence  of
a warm water lens  on the surface.

The Pacific Gas and Electric  Company (PG&E)  has conducted temper-
ature surveys for a number of years at several of their thermal
power plants in  Central and Northern California.  Early studies in
1950-1963 were made from  surface craft using standard oceanographic
instrumentation.  These surveys were considered inadequate because
the large distance between  sampling stations  and the time lag between
successive measurements prevented rapid  temperature changes from
being accurately mapped.   From 1963 to 1967 airborne infrared
radiometers were used by PG&E to map surface temperatures  around
power plant outfalls.

Cheney and Richards (1507) examined the temperature outfall data
from three power plants --Morro Bay (an open coast), Contra  Costa
(an estuary), and at Humboldt Bay (an enclosed bay).  Their data are
presented as maps  of surface temperature  (Figure 10-2a) and area-
temperature profiles (Figures 10-2b and 10-2c).  The infrared  measure-
ments were continuously  supplemented with surface temperatures
taken from a boat to provide calibration and temperature-depth
profiles.  Cheney and Richards  concluded that the warming effect
from power plant discharges, whether into a  sea,  a bay,  or an estuary,
is undetectable beyond a mile from the outfall.   At 1,000 feet from
the outfall the data  showed  only an occasional temperature exceeding
5F above ambient.  Subsurface temperature measurements in the

Figure 10-1.  General pattern of infrared survey flight
              tracks (from Squire,  1538).

              10-2a.   SURFACE ISOTHERMS,Run No.2,SepM2,1963.
Run No.
Average MW
         Z   4  6   0   10  12   I
vicinity of the outfall indicate the warm water is normally confined
to a layer approximately 10 feet thick.   The degree of wind mixing
dictates the extent to which these temperature gradients diminish.
Comparison with surface temperatures  showed that the airborne
radiometer was accurate to 1F except under conditions of fog or
smoke when the error could be as much as 3 or 4F.

In 1968 North and Adams (1531) collected data from nine thermal
power stations which included measurements of the surface areas
enclosed by isotherms drawn from infrared measurements.  From
these data  (35 measurements) a regression equation was calculated
to determine the correlation between power output at a  generating
station and the surface area enclosed by contour lines 10F and 2F
above ambient.  The wide scatter in the data resulted in a rather
poor correlation.

Maps produced from radiometric data require subjective interpreta-
tion of the  data points to plot isotherms  (Doyle and Gormly, 1509).
An objective map can be produced if the area under consideration can
be rapidly  scanned and a computer program used to  compose and
draw the map.   PG&E began using a thermal mapper in 1967 to con-
duct their airborne surveys.  The thermal mapper is an airborne
device, sensitive to infrared radiation,  used to mechanically scan
the scene in its  field of view in a  line by line fashion.  The output
can be recorded on film as an analogous image or on magnetic tape
(Doyle and Cartwright, 1508).  A computer program digitizes the
analog data from the magnetic tape and constructs a map of surface
isotherms  (Figure 10-3).  Additionally,  the isotherms can be inte-
grated by computer to yield a temperature-area relationship.  This
relationship is used to compare theoretical and prototype values from
which projections  of thermal influence from plant enlargements can
be made  (1509).  Regression equations for each plant have been
computed showing the area of influence as a function  of excess

Since July  1963 an oceanographic  monitoring program has  been
conducted by Marine Advisers, Inc.  for the San Onofre nuclear
generating  station (Marine Advisers, 1153 and 1154).   This power
plant utilizes a 2,600 foot submerged outfall  discharging 350,000  gal/
min of coolant in approximately 25 feet of water.  Sampling was
conducted monthly using standard oceanographic equipment.  Since
1969 occasional airborne  infrared radiometer surveys have been made

Figure 10-3.  Isothermal map of surface water produced by computer
              conversion of electrical signal from scanner (from
              Doyle and Gormly,  1535).

to supplement the oceanographic surveys.

Conclusions reached during the 5-year monitoring period are  (1154):
       1.  The largest temperature increase at the outfall boil was
9Ff but generally it is less than 6F (normal temperature rise
across the condenser is 18F).

       2.  Surface areas  containing -waters -warmed more than 4F
are confined to the immediate vicinity of the outfall boi;l (Figure 10-4).

       3.  The maximum distance from the outfall the warm water
plurne has been detected is 2 miles in the longshore  direction.

       4.  The thermal plume was confined to a shallow surface lens,
normally 5 to  12 feet thick (Figure 10-5).

       5.  From data available there seems to be little correlation
between the area influenced by the warm water discharge and the
local current speed and direction.

                                                                            Outfoll Operative; Worm Woter Discharge
                                                                            Temperature in F
Figure 10-4.  San Onofre sea surface isotherms, 21 February 1969 (from Marine Advisers, Inc. t 1154).

BO   Boil     CO
DO          EO

  l \  '

          i i i i i  i i i i i

          Temperoture in F

Figure 10-5.  Temperature-depth cross  sections, 21 February 1969
              (from Marine Advisers, Inc. ,  1154).

               by Robert H.  Bourke and Bard Glenne
Analytical models to determine the distribution pattern of heated
effluents discharged into ambient fluids are based on theory developed
for the disposal of sewage effluent.   This type effluent is usually dis-
charged  through multiport diffusers into the receiving water where
it undergoes mixing and dilution from the action of essentially two
distinct mechanisms: (1) turbulence and momentum associated with
discharge jets, and (2) natural turbulence and currents -within the
receiving water body (Brooks, 1504).

Upon discharge from the end of an outfall pipe or diffuser port an
effluent possesses kinetic energy due to its velocity.  This energy
is dissipated by the turbulent mixing of the jet -with  the surrounding
fluid.  This  mixing process is commonly termed "jet mixing.  "  Dur-
ing the jet mixing phase the turbulent jet entrains part of the surround-
ing fluid resulting in an increasing volume flux -with increasing dis-
tance from the outlet -while simultaneously decreasing the jet velocity.
                           Zone of
                       Flow Establishment
   Zone ot
Established Flow
                                      U = U     U 
The boundary between the jet and the receiving fluid is a region of
instability where high shear stresses exist.  Mixing will occur with
a subsequent interchange of properties and constituents (Wiegel,
1542).  In the zone of flow establishment (Figure 11-1) the center-
line jet velocity, Uo, is considered constant with longitudinal dis-
tance.  Within the zone of established flow mixing takes place
throughout the jet.  The velocity profile across this  zone is assumed
to be Gaussian.  The investigations of Frankel and Gumming (1518)
have shown that the concentration of effluent can also by reasonably
assumed  as Gaussian in the established flow zone.

Within a short distance from the outlet the velocity of the jet
will be  dissipated.   If the fluid  in the  jet has a different density than
the receiving fluid,  it will also possess potential energy.  Mixing
will occur as the potential energy is dissipated by the discharge
rising or  falling.  The combination of this mixing and jet mixing
is often termed "initial dilution. "  Further mixing  may  occur due
to natural turbulence and currents within the water body and the
wind over it (1504).  When this mixing takes place  on the ocean
or a lake  surface,  it may be termed "surface dispersion and
interface  exchange. "  In this zone  the effluent may move across the
water surface in the form of a dispersive plume.

Environmental Effects

The disposal of waste heat from thermal electric generating plants
discharging into the ocean,  requires  that certain environmental
factors be taken into consideration.   The major factors  and their
effects  are discussed below:

(a)  Buoyancy Effect

The density of the condenser discharge from a thermal-electric
generating plant will usually be less than that of  the surrounding sea
water.  This density difference, although quite small, creates a
buoyant force which measurably affects the  behavior of  the jet
(Figure 11 -2). A jet which  contains an initial buoyancy flux as
well as momentum flux is  termed a "buoyant" jet (Fan,  1515).
The buoyancy force is proportional to the difference in density
between the sea water and the rising  jet and generally decreases
as the jet ascends (1518).

No density difference
With density difference
(b)  Recipient Density Stratification Effect

Vertical temperature and/or salinity gradients in the ocean cause
density stratification of the water column.  As  the heated effluent
rises through the water column,  it mixes with the  sea water and
the mixture generally becomes more dense.  If the density of the
mixture becomes equal to that of the  receiving  fluid (which is usually
less dense near the surface), the ascending motion ceases and the
mixture tends to spread horizontally  (Figure  11-2).   It may be
possible to obtain a plume which is completely  submerged below
a strong thermocline (Rawn,  e_t a_L. , 1535).  The submergence of
a sewage  field is often a most favorable situation for  coastal
pollution  control (1515).  However, the heated discharge from
steam electric generating plants  will most  likely rise  directly
to the  surface due to the large density difference and  flow  rate.

(c)  Ocean Currents Effect

The ocean currents may affect not only the  dispersive plume
established at or near the sea surface, but  also the jet mixing
characteristics  (1515).  The ocean currents usually consist of
large scale ocean currents, tidal currents, wind drift currents,
and currents due to waves.  Although some of these currents  may
not produce a net transport of water, they are the  causes of tur-
bulence which mixes the waters  in a process akin to diffusion.

(d)  Atmospheric Effects

An  important factor in the dissipation of heat from  surface water
is the  condition  of the atmosphere. Air temperature,  winds,  air
humidity, and solar radiation all influence  the sea-air heat trans-
fer rate.

Analytical Models

Analytical models have been proposed by investigators to describe
temporally and spatially the fate  of constituents and pollutants when
discharged into  lakes,  estuaries,  and oceans.   The following  sections
are a review and analysis of models pertinent to the discharge of
thermal effluents into coastal waters.

The discharge of cooling water from thermal electric  plants  gen-
erally takes place via one of two  methods:  (1) from a  submerged
pipe at a  significant depth and distance offshore, or (2) from a canal
which discharges into the ocean  at the shoreline.  Research has


indicated that for both types of discharges cooling of heated effluent
may occur via  two processes: (a) initial dilution upon emission
from the outlet pipe or canal,  followed by, (b) surface  dispersion
and sea-air interface exchange.

Part I.   Initial Dilution
(a) Submerged Jets

The turbulent mixing process that occurs when one fluid is dis-
charged into another is a problem for which the theory is  relatively
well known.  The  reference lists of Fan and Brooks (1515) and
Cederwall (1505) contain papers which have contributed to the under-
standing of turbulent jet phenomenon.  Cederwall (1505) presents
a detailed review  of these studies as related to marine waste water
disposal.   Sewage outfalls are now often designed after the pro-
cedures developed by Rawn, Bowerman, and Brooks (1535) and
Brooks (1504).

Frankel and Gumming (1518) advanced the initial studies  of Rawn,
_e_t al_. and Brooks by investigating the efficiency  of various dis-
charge  angles of pipes. They found the horizontal diffuser to give
the least  concentrations, but that differences in concentration levels
for various discharge angles became insignificant for a ratio of
diffuser depth to diffuser diameter greater than 50.

Theory seems to underpredict concentrations in  the surface trans-
ition zone where vertical flow changes to lateral spreading, Figure
11-3, (1535).
                                   I Zone of establishment (momentum
                                            and buoyancy effects)
                                  II Established vertical flow
                                  III Surface transition zone  (little
                                  IV Surface horizontal flow
   Figure 11-3.  Zone configurations of a jet for the case of a
                 stagnant, homogeneous environment, (from
                 Frankel and Gumming, 1518).


Fan (1514) showed that for a vertical jet,  the trajectory of the
plume was bent toward the downstream direction of flow (Figure
11-2).   Turbulence induced by currents within the receiving fluid
may also affect the initial dilution, but these effects generally are
minor.   ,

(b)  Stability Considerations

A measure of the stability of a water column is provided by  the
Richardson number, Ri, which indicates the degree of turbulence
present.  The Richardson number may be expressed as:

          Ri = i  .8P.  /
               p  9z

       where the numerator and denominator,  respectively, describe
       the strengths of the vertical gradients of density and velocity
       within the water column.

A large density gradient or small vertical velocity gradient  results
in a large value of Ri which indicates  supression or extinction of
turbulence.  A small Ri generally indicates maintenance or an in-
crease of turbulence.

Near the discharge orifice the Ri of the jet is quite small due to
the large vertical shear;  the turbulent and momentum fluxes are
at a maximum.  With increasing distance  from the orifice the
turbulent and momentum  fluxes decrease  increasing the Richard-
son number.   The Richardson number, therefore, measured as
a function  of the  distance from the discharge point, indicates how
rapidly the momentum of the jet decays.   As discussed previously,
the amount of ambient cooling water entrained by the jet decreases
as the  velocity decreases; hence, further  cooling of heated jets
by turbulent mixing becomes insignificant for large Ri.

The experiments  of Hayashi and Shuto (1521) confirmed that for
small Richardson numbers  (less than one) turbulent mixing was the
most influential factor in reducing the temperature of the jet.

In practice the Richardson number is  difficult to determine.
Generally, velocity data is not available to determine vertical
velocity gradients in the vicinity of the plume.  The densimetric
Froude number,  N , is often used instead.

           = U0//(Ap/Po) g D0                           11-2

       where U  is the initial discharge velocity of the jet,'
        Ap/pQ  is the relative initial density difference between con-
        denser discharge and ambient water,

        DQ is either initial discharge depth or outfall diameter.

Experimentation has shown that the relative density difference is the
most significant factor in determining the type of pollutant field
that may develop (Wiegel,  1542).  Weak or negative relative density
gradients result in a surface field; strong relative gradients in a  *
submerged field.  The relatively large negative density difference
and large volume flow rate associated with thermal  power plant
discharges usually dictate that the heated effluent will spread as
a surface field.

(c)  Horizontal Surface Jets

Commonly, thermal power plants discharge their cooling water
through a channel or canal into the ocean at the edge of a beach.   The
work of Abraham (1500) indicates a relationship for (he distri-
bution of salinity in a horizontal surface jet.   When  slightly modi-
fied,  this relationship can be used for the distribution of tempera-
ture in the jet if the buoyant effect of the  warm water is  small.
Such a relationship  takes  the form (Jen, ejt ah ,  1524):

             T - T        .   D           ,     2
                   w      1    o          1    r  }
            -        -              -    ~                , ,  _
             1-1     7 r*    Y        7C *  v-^            1 1 -3
               o    w    ^^1   x        ^^1   x

       where T f is a  dimensionless surface temperature i.e.
       the "temperature concentration,"

       T    is the temperature of the receiving water (F),

       T    is the temperature of the jet prior to mixing (F),

       DQ  is the diameter of the jet (ft),

       x    is the horizontal distance along the jet axis, measured
            from the point of discharge (ft),

       r    is the radial distance normal to the jet axis (ft),

       C,   is an experimentally determined dimensionless constant,
             * 0. 096.


Equation 11 -3 is characteristic of jets with densimetric Froude
numbers which are large when compared to unity (Harleman and
Stolzenbach, 1520).  High discharge densimetric Froude numbers indi
cate  entrainment of the underlying cool water;  rapid thickening
of the jet ^takes place until the Froude number decreases to below
unity (Lean and Whillock, 1527).

For buoyant discharges having smaller densimetric Froude numbers,
but greater than unity, Jen, _e_tjal. (1524) found that the buoyancy
does not appreciably affect the entrainment dilution.  However,
the buoyancy tends to distort the  temperature  distribution from
that of the non-buoyant jet by horizontally  expanding the plume.
For this condition Jen,  e_t aA .  found the best temperature description
to be:
       where C-> is an experimentally determined dimensionless
       N   is the densimetric Froude number, and
       y    is the horizontal distance normal to the jet axis, measured
            from the axis of the jet (ft).

For dimensionless distances (x/D ) between 7 and 100 and densimetric
Froude numbers ranging from 18 to 180, equation 11-4 can be expressed

            T* =7.0-^ exp[-3(NF)1/2(y/x)2]                n_g

An important result indicated by equation 11-4 is that along the
centerline of the jet the discharge temperature decreases as 1 /x.

In  a  continuation of the above study Wiegel, Mobarek, and Jen
(1541) investigated the mixing efficiency of horizontal surface  jets
discharging over sloping bottoms.  The  constants  C, and C- in
equation 11 -4 were found to be  dependent on the bottom slope and
also on the ratio of height to width of the rectangular nozzels used
to represent the discharge  channel or canal.  Wiegel,  et al.  con-
cluded that steeper slopes resulted in more thorough mixing and,
hence, a more rapid cooling of the effluent plume.  Beaches with
shallow sloping profiles do not  provide enough water for optimum
entrainment.  The mixing capability at "low,  mid, and high tide"

conditions were examined.  The greatest amount of mixing
occurred logically at high tide.

Wiegel,  et^ al_. also observed  that jet mixing depends upon the jet
discharge velocity.  Low velocities result in laminar or low level
turbulent mixing,  while high velocities produce "high level1"1 tur-
bulent mixing with large scale eddies at the jet boundary  entrapping
the surrounding receiving water.

Part II.  Surface Dispersion and Interface Exchange

(a)  Surface Dispersion

Hayashi  and Shuto (1521)  investigated heated jets including the case
of no  entrainment, i. e. ,  the  velocity of the jet decreased to nearly
zero.  For this  condition they found the Richardson number to have
increased to a value slightly greater than one.   This is the regime
of "horizontal or surface dispersion and interface exchange. "

In this regime the plume  of hot waste is mixed and transported
away  from the region of the source by the action of surface cur-
rents.  The depth of the plume slowly thickens with distance
from the source due to surface mixing.  Heat may also be emitted
to the atmosphere.

The equation  developed by Hayashi and Shuto to predict surface
temperatures within  the dispersive plume (condition of negligible
entrainment)  is:
                          -.2         _          o
                   _   K    Or.
       where K is an atmospheric heat exchange coefficient (Btu
F'1 ft'2 sec'1),
       BQ  is the width of the outlet (ft),
       Q0  is the flow rate (cfs),
       C-  is an experimentally determined dimensionless constant.

This relationship has  been corroborated by the work of Harleman
and Stolzenbach (1520) using a hydraulic model.  Equation 11-6

indicates a temperature reduction at the rate e   x  where
C is a function of the outlet width, BQ, and discharge flow rate,
Q  .  Harleman and Stolzenbach1 s experiments with surface dis-
charges showed that the centerline temperature  decreased as
1 /x until a distance of x/BQ = 30 was reached when, the decrease
became more rapid and was well represented by  T ~  e~Cx .

From their hydraulic model study Harleman and  Stolzenbach
concluded that changes in tidal elevation,  condenser flow rate and
current velocities do not significantly affect temperature distribution, but
actual field studies have shown that these factors  can affect temperature
(b)  Interface Exchange

Heat exchange with the atmosphere must be considered once the
turbulent motion of the jet has decreased to a level where entrain-
ment of the  surrounding cooling water is low.   Equations which in-
clude this phenomenon are essentially similar to those used to
predict  the dispersion of sewage, pulp mill wastes,  or radio-
nuclides except that the non-conservative term (decay term) now
must account for the air-sea interface heat exchange.

The net rate  of heat exchange across the air-sea interface, AH,
can be expressed as the algebraic sum of: H-^,  the effective long wave
back radiation; He, the evaporative heat flux; and HC,  the sensible
heat flux.

To overcome the difficulties inherent in directly  measuring the net
heat flux from its  component terms,  Edinger and  Geyer (1512) have
approximated the net rate of heat exchange across the air-sea
boundary by:

       AH =.K (T   - Te) Btu Ft~2 Day  "1           11-7

       where K is the surface heat exchange coefficient (Btu Ft
           Day'1  'F'1),

       Tw is the  actual water temperature (F),

       Te  is the  equilibrium temperature (F).

Edinger and  Geyer define the equilibrium temperature,  Te, as  the water  tem-
perature at which  there is no net heat exchange across the  water  surface,
i. e.  AH = 0.   Procedures for the calculation of K and T  are fully
described by Edinger and Geyer (1512).                6


 The dispersion of heated discharges into the ocean requires a
 model equation in at least two dimensional form.  Following the
 development of Brooks (1504) for the dispersion and die-away of
 coliforms from a sewage outfall,  Edinger and Polk (1510)  derived
 a model to predict the temperature distribution based upon the
 lateral dispersion of heat into a uniform longitudinal velocity
 field with no vertical temperature gradient. Although the authors developed
 this model primarily for rivers and lakes, they applied it  to a coastal zone
 environment (Morro Bay, California) with some success.   The steady state
 non-conservative distribution may be expressed as:
        u  ae      a    r      ae  )      K  e                n-8
           9x  ~  8y       Y  8y        pcp d

 where the three terms represent the rates  of decrease  of excess
 temperature per unit volume for longitudinal advection,  lateral
 diffusion,  and atmospheric cooling.  Edinger and Polk choose a
 solution for a constant Dv (ft /day) which results in a conservative
 decay of temperature:

      JUJpl  Jjs] ^    e    if  e  a(^        U-9

        where 6 ( ,  y) is the temperature rise (F)  at some specified
            lateral  coordinate, y, and longitudinal coordinate,
              = _ y_ , where u is a constant stream velocity (ft/sec),
        9    is the temperature  rise across the condenser (F),
            is  the position of the source given by    _ 1
            where Q  is the flow rate through the condenser (cfs)
            and d is the depth of the water (ft),  and
         a   is a coefficient governing the rate  of heat loss at the
            surface ,
                               a =
                                      pcp Dy d
            where K is the surface heat exchange coefficient (Btu
            "F-1 Day"1 Ft ~2).                               '

 The reduction in temperature of the outfall plume may more con-
 veniently be expressed as the surface area contained -within given
 temperature rise contours.   Figure 11-4 from Edinger and Polk
 shows the relationship of the temperature rise ratio,   9C / 9p,to the
 non-dimensional surface area ratio,  A / An, for selected values
of p, a dimensionless coefficient governing  the rate of heat decay
at the surface.   For selected values of (3,  Edinger and Polk found
that atmospheric cooling had little influence on temperature


                            4 567891

                                                                    :n! M !i re : ktrttmiiiiniiu ;i
Two - dimensional
                                                                               ik  conservative case
                                                  Three - dimensional \
                                                   conservative  case
                                                                               jptogajt Q\ ^ " i "
       Figure 11-4.  Relationship of temperature rise ratio to non-dimensional surface area ratio for selected
                     values of 3, a dimensionless coefficient governing the rate of heat decay at the surface (from
                     Edinger and Polk, 1510).

reduction until 9C/6D had decreased to 0. 60.  For values of
9c/9p greater than 0. 60 turbulent mixing was the dominant pro-
cess in reducing the plume temperature.  These conclusions are
similar to those postulated by Hayashi and Shuto (1521) and  corrobo-
rated by Harleman and Stolzenbach (15ZO).

Edinger and Polk also investigated  a three dimensional conservative
model (no  heat exchange across the air-sea boundary) which included
a vertical  mixing term.  For this case temperatures were reduced
at a faster rate than for the two dimensional non-conservative
case (Figure 11-4).

(c)  Hydraulic Models

Concerning the  model laws for coastal and estuarine hydraulic
models Keulegan  (in 1144,  p691)  states:

      "Many of  the flow conditions  encountered in the natural
      phenomena  around coasts and estuaries unfortunately
      are not amenable to mathematical  analysis.  The diffi-
      culty may be due to the nonlinear character of the equa-
      tion  of motion, to a lack of information on  existing
      turbulence and effective diffusion coefficients in instances
      of mixing, to the multiplicity of interconnected flow
      passages. . . .In such cases it becomes necessary to resort
      to models in order to predict the behavior  of a prototype
      and in some instances to observe,  in the model, details
      that  are not readily examined in nature. "

Hydraulic  models should not be treated as a substitute for field and
analytical  studies, but  should  be  considered as an aid to such studies by
contributing  information not accurately obtained  by other means.

Most hydraulic  models  are distorted geometrically in that the vertical
scale is  exaggerated with respect to the  horizontal scale.  Such distor-
tion is a consequence of the need to have workable  water depths  and
non-laminar flow in the model.  The degree  of distortion is  dependent
on the  area, to be reproduced and the nature of the problem to be investi-
gated.   In  order to reproduce  frictional effects the model may be
"roughened" (generally vertically mounted thin metal strips are used).

In general, satisfactory model verification can be achieved  for kine-
matic quantities (i.e.,  velocity,  height,  etc.); however,  to  simulate
water quality parameters (i.e., salinity, temperature,  etc.) is
much more difficult. Vertical exaggeration prevents accurate


simulation of beach slope, channel geometry (depth to width ratios)
and lateral dispersion by turbulence (Ackers, 1503).  In the vicinity
of the jet where turbulent entrainment is dominant geometric  simi-
larity is also necessary.

To circumvent these incompatibilities two models  may be used:  (1)
an undistorted  scale  model of the area near the outfall to represent
initial dispersion and the buoyant plume zone,  and (Z) a vertically
exaggerated  model to represent the whole ar.ea  of interest (1503).
Another method is  to build a distorted model and attempt to interpret
the affects of differences of the non-similar parameters on the
temperature  distribution (1520).

Modeling of power  plant outfalls has been practiced extensively
in Great Britain, Japan and the United States.   In Great Britain the
Hydraulics Research Station at Wallingford and the University of
Strathclyde at Glasgow are the  principal institutions engaged in
hydraulic  model research.  The reference  lists of Ackers (1503)
and Frazer,  et_ aL  (1551) list pertinent papers in this field.  In
the United States hydraulic modeling centers are the U.  S. Army
Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Miss.;
the U.  S.  Army Corps of Engineers' San Francisco Bay-Delta
model;  the Coastal Engineering Research Center,  Washington
D. C. ;  Massachuetts Institute of Technology; and the University
of California, Berkeley.

(d) Numerical-Hydrodynamic Models

Solutions to most of the analytical models discussed in the previous
sections are  possible only when simplifying assumptions are  made,
e. g.  , boundaries are of regular shape, distribution of velocity is
simple, etc.   Such simplifications may result in solutions which
sometimes have little connection with actual conditions.

With the advent of high speed computers it has become  possible
to solve model equations using numerical methods (i. e. , using a
finite difference scheme) which eliminates the need for some
of the simplifications.  Applications of numerical hydrodynamic
(N-H) models were initially developed for rivers and estuaries
(Callaway, et al. ,  1545;  Bella and Dobbins , 1550; Fisher, 1547;
Glenne, 1548; Kent,  1549).  Recently several N-H models have
been devised for application to open coasts.  Among these are the
Walter  Hansen model used by the Fleet Numerical Weather Central
(Laevastu and Stevens,  1526) and the Leendertse  model  (1529).

Obtaining a solution to an N-H model may be quite costly.  Laevastu and
Stevens comment that the model must be  run ten to  sixty hours in real
time (dependent on the size of the area  and grid length) before a correct
solution is obtained.   This long running time is that required for initial
convergence, but after a converged  solution is obtained,  it may be that
it can be inserted repeatedly into a program which  solves the advection-
dif fusion equation.

Part III.  Dye Diffusion Studies

The use of dyes to study the movement and  dispersion characteris-
tics of effluent plumes has become widespread with the advent of
sensitive measuring  devices  (Pritchard and Carter, 1534; Yudelson,
1543; James and Burgess, 15Z3;  Ichiye,  152Z; Foxworthy,  1516).
The vast majority of these studies have been oriented towards the
disposal of sewage.  The use of dyes to trace the distribution of
heated effluents, however, has been limited since the distributions
obtained from tracer experiments have to be corrected for the
cooling process at the  air-sea boundary.

Pritchard and Carter (1534) have proposed  a technique to account
for the  non-conservative process of heat  loss at the surface when
rhodamine dye is used to trace the effluent  plume.  The  rhodamine
dye must be injected into the water body  in  a special manner to
take into account the large differences in volume  rates of flow of
dye and effluent.  The  concentration of dye  is then related to the
concentration of heat through an expression which takes  into account
the flow rates and mixing depths  of both dye and effluent, i. e.
                              -     [rd(t)I  e-th  at      u-io

       where  lY^ is the steady  state concentration of heat in Btu Ib

       F   (t)is the concentration of dye at time t in ppb (10"' Ib/lb),
           and QJ are the flow rates of heated effluent and dye,  in
       Btu day"   and Ib day"  , respectively,
           and Dn  are the mixing depths of the dye and heated effluent,
       respectively, in feet, and
        y   is a rate coefficient which represents the loss of excess
            heat to the atmosphere which for summer conditions was
            found  to be approximately 0. 1 ft hr~ .

The time dependent concentration of dye, T   (t), was found to
approach the steady state value,  r j  m , asymptotically at a constant


rate, ri  , which by best fit of the data was approximately 1. 0 day~ .
After making appropriate substitutions integration of equation 11-10
yielded  the steady state concentration of heat as functions of the
steady state dye concentration emitted from a continuous source and
of the flow rates and mixing depths of dye and effluent:
             = Qb_.  _d	 .  rdoo                    11-11
                      oh + Y/n

We wish to know the chemical characteristics of the nearshore waters
of the Pacific Northwest in order to make reasonable assessments of
the possible effects of the  addition of industrial effluents.  Dissolved
oxygen, inorganic micronutrients, pH, CCs tension,  trace metals,
radionuclides,  pesticides,  and pulp mill  effluents have been considered.
Although this list does not include all  constituents which might have
been studied, it does attempt to cover the major ones.

The general rationale for considering these factors can be simply
stated; that factors in the environment favorable to an organism
tend to reduce the effect of a harmful  substance, and that factors
unfavorable to the organism  tend  to increase the effect.  The various
factors can be interacting  or independent.  If interacting, they can
be "synergistic" or antagonistic.  Although theories relating to the
toxicity of  complex effluents  in sea water are very crude, they do
outline the  necessity  of characterization  of those substances which
affect how  the system reacts to a specific effluent.
Chapter 12.

Chapter 13.

Chapter 14.

Chapter 15.

Chapter 16.

Chapter 17.
CARBON DIOXIDE AND pH by Stephen W. Hager and
     Robert H. Bourke
OXYGEN AND NUTRIENTS by Stephen W. Hager and
     Robert H. Bourke                               139

     W.  Hager                                       143

TRACE METALS by Stephen W.  Hager                152

RADIOCHEMISTRY by William C.  Renfro             191

OTHER POLLUTANTS                               213

     PESTICIDES by Stephen W.  Hager                213
     CHLORINE by Stephen W. Hager                 218

            Chapter 12.   CARBON DIOXIDE AND pH

          by Stephen W.  Hager and Robert H. Bourke
Studies of the nearshore concentrations of dissolved CO2 in the
Pacific Northwest have been only recently undertaken.   Only a
few of the pertinent features will be presented.

1.    The concentration of dissolved CO-, in sea water in equilibrium
      with the atmosphere in nearshore areas is about 320 ppm (Park
      et_al.,  6093)

2.    The concentration of dissolved CO2 at a depth of 2. 5m in the
      Columbia River in December 1968 ranged from about 600 to
      1000 ppm (Park et al. , 6093 )

3.    Sea water values  in nearshore areas were as high as 525 ppm
      (Gordon and Park, 6092)

4.    Sea water values  in nearshore areas were as low as 155 ppm
      (Gordon and Park, 6092)

5.    Observed pH values  correlate very well with CO->  values,
      according to the equation:

         Pco2  =   
      where PCO? ^s t^e partial pressure of CO2 in air in equilibrium
      with the water, a is the solubility coefficient of CO2 in sea water,
      [ H*] is  the hydrogen ion activity as measured with a pH meter,
     2[CO2]is the total CO2 in the water, and K1 1 and K' 2 are the first
      and second apparent dissociation constants for carbonic acid
      (Gordon, 6288).

High CO? values are caused primarily by upwelling or by turbulent mix-
ing across the thermocline.  Land runoff may play a role in some areas.
Low CO?  values are caused by uptake of CO? by photosynthetic organisms.
                                 1 37


There are wide fluctuations in dissolved CO-, concentrations (or
PCQ ) in nearshore areas.  Due to the correlation between pH
and  PCO?' measurement f  pH, S[CO2] ,  and temperature is often
adequate for determination of CC>2 concentrations (Park  et al, 6093)
Certain kinds of pollution such as surface  active agents or organics
may change this relationship.

            Chapter 13.  OXYGEN AND NUTRIENTS

          by Stephen W.  Hager and Robert H. Bourke
Dissolved oxygen,  inorganic micronutrient (phosphate, nitrate,
silicate) and pH data were obtained from NODC (see Appendix 6
for details),  Oregon State University data reports (1231) and  the
California Water Quality Control Board (7014).  The  data were
divided geographically into the sections shown in Figure 13-1.
Only values from, inside of 10 nautical miles  were considered.

Monthly means for 0,  10,  ZO,  30 and 50 meters (where available)
were obtained for each section and graphed against month.  Values
from 10 and  30m were not included on the graphs since presentation
of surface,  20 and  50  meter values appeared to adequately describe
the distribution of the parameters.   The data for Section 3 are shown
in Figure 13-2.   Data from other sections are  given in Appendix 6.

Generalized  Features;

The data shown suggest that the  water column from the surface to
20 meters is approximately homogeneous from October to April.
During  the upwelling season,  approximately  May to September, the
waters  at 20m appear to be much more strongly affected by the up-
welled waters than do the surface waters.  This can probably be
attributed to more  turbulent mixing in the surface waters.

There are no apparent latitudinal variations  within our area.

Oxygen:  These observations can be made concerning the data:

1.    Average surface values are higher than 20m values throughout
      the year.
2.    The highest and lowest surface O2 values are found in the summer
      months, June,  July and August.  This is probably due to the com-
      peting influences of photosynthetic production and upwelling.

3.    The averaged gradient between the surface and 20m is steeper in
      the summer months.  Surface values are not lowered as much by
      upwelling as 20m values.

4.    Surface O2 values are about 6. 3 to 7. 0 ml/1 (N. T. P. ) unless
      affected by strong upwelling.


                              y..  CALIF.  -
Figure 13-1.  Study area, showing sections from which

             dissolved oxygen, nutrient, and pH data

             were taken.      . .

                 1    \
x 1  /
     Figure 13-2..
              Data for Section 3, Newport,  Oregon, to the

              Columbia Biver.  Oxygen is in ml/1 (N. T. P. ).

              Nutrients are in |j.g-at/l.


Nutrients: These observations can be made concerning the three
nutrients,  phosphate, nitrate, and silicate:

1.  The highest and lowest surface nutrient values are found in the
    summer months.   Silicate values  strongly affected by runoff may
    be higher at other times  of year.  Primary production and up-welling
    are probable causes of the wide variations in surface values.

2.  The averaged gradient between surface and 20m is steeper in the
    summer months.

3.  Exclusive of upwelling,  representative surface nutrient values are:

    P04:  0. 7  HLg-at/1
    NO :  5 (j.g-at/1
    SiO :   10 ug-at/1

pH:  Very few pH data were available. These tentative descriptions
can be made:

1.  pH values are lower in waters  affected by upwelling.

2.  Surface values are generally around 8. 1.


                     by Stephen W.  Hager
The Pacific Northwest supports a major pulp and paper industry.
With increased restrictions on the introduction of wastes to river
and lake waters,  coastal waters may be increasingly used for dis-
posal of the wastes from, the industry.   There are presently four
pulp mills in our area with marine outfalls.  Details  of the locations
and sizes of these operations are shown in Table 14-1 (Anon.,  6319).

Three kinds of pulping processes are in general use;  the kraft
process,  the sulfite process, and the groundwood process. In
addition,  associated bleaching or paper-making processes add to
the mill wastes.

Wastes from pulp and paper mills are basically of two classes:
solid wastes such as wood chips,  bark,  finely divided wood fibers,
etc. ,  and dissolved wastes which vary depending on the processes

The effects of pulp and paper industry wastes  on the environment
can be classified as either chronic or acute.   Chronic effects
generally involve changes  in the sediments underlying the waters
to which the wastes are  discharged.  The solid portion of the wastes
contributes heavily to this "habitat destruction, " although the role
of dissolved materials sorbing on existing bottom sediments cannot
be discounted (Howard and Walden,  6309). Acute effects include
toxicity to organisms in the area, and avoidance reactions in organ-
isms  which would ordinarily migrate through  the area (cf. Jones
et al. .  6310).

Kraft process;

The kraft process of wood pulping involves digestion of certain types
of wood in a strong caustic solution containing sodium hydroxide,
sodium sulfate, and sodium sulfide.  The used solution is called the
black liquor, and for economic reasons,  85-95% is recycled
(Waldichuk, 6316).  The wastes from a kraft pulp mill are mostly
made up of the waters used to wash the pulp after it is physically
separated from the black liquor.

The  characteristics of kraft mill effluents are shown in Table  14-2.

Table 14-1.  Pulp and paper mills in our area with marine outfalls.

1.  Samoa,  California. Georgia Pacific Corp.
         Kraft pulp mill.  550 tons bleached kraft market pulp
         per 24 hours.

2.  Arcata, California.  Crown-Simpson Pulp Co.
         Kraft pulp mill.  500 tons unbleached kraft market pulp
         per 24 hours.

3.  Gardiner, Oregon.  International Paper  Company.
         Kraft pulp mill.  570 tons kraft containerboard per
         24 hours,  545 tons unbleached kraft pulp per 24 hours

4.  Toledo, Oregon.  Georgia Pacific Corporation.
         Kraft paper and linerboard mill.  880 tons per 24 hours.
         Kraft pulp mill,  1075 tons unbleached kraft pulp per
         24 hours.
Table 14-2.  Kraft pulp mill effluents.
                kraft pulp process
                           bleached kraft pulp process


total solids
20,000-30,000 gal/ton
of product/day

130 ppm

1100 ppm
35 x 10  gal/day

72 ppm

 California State Water Pollution  Control Board, Publ. No. 17,
 generalized parameters (6300).
'Howard and Walden, for a specific mill (6309).

Note the significant pH difference between the effluents of mills
producing bleached kraft pulp and unbleached kraft pulp.

The black liquor contains mercaptans,  dimethyl sulfide, turpentine,
methyl alcohol, ammonia,  lignin, fatty and resinous acids,  formic
acid,  acetic acid, lactonic acid,  and sodium salts of organic and
inorganic acids (McKee and Wolf, 6000).   There may be other minor
components which are important (Servizi, Gordon,  and Martens,  6313).

The toxicity of kraft mill effluents to marine  species  has not been
well studied.   The results  of studies reported in the literature are
shown in  Table 14-3.  Other studies using diluted black liquor and
synthesized draft mill effluent gave  somwhat  similar  although less
interpretable results (McKee and Wolf, 6000;  Anon.,  6299).

Attempts  have been made to study the toxicity of individual components
of the  effluent (McKee and  Wolf,  6000;  Servizi et_aL  63 1 3) but are not
very useful due to the complexity of the factors involved in real efflu-
ent systems,  and the variation of composition of actual effluents  from
mill to mill (Black, 6301).

Of possible importance are the observations that  salmonid fish show
avoidance reactions to kraft mill effluents in fresh waters (Jones  et al. ,
6310) and that chlorine bleaching of  pulps may produce compounds
analogous in behavior to  the chlorinated hydrocarbon  pesticides
(Servizi _et_al. ,  6313).   However, recent work by Dr.  Carlton Dence
has shown,  for instance, that chlorophenols exist in only trace-amounts
in bleach  mill effluents (Anon. ,  6361).

There are a number of ways of treating kraft mill effluents  to reduce
toxicity.   Neutralization  of wastes reduced toxicity toward fish (Howard
and Walden,  6309).   Holding effluents in ponds reduced the BOD consid-
erably (Gehm and Gove,  6307).  Dispersion may be effective, but the
degree of dispersion necessary for protection of aquatic organisms has
not been adequately determined.

Sulfite process:

The sulfite pulping process consists essentially of the digestion of wood
chips  in the sulfite of calcium, ammonium, or magnesium,  usually
formed by addition of sulfur dioxide  to the appropriate hydroxide. It
has not been, economically feasible to recycle the calcium and ammonium
liquors, but magnesium liquors  can  presently be  recycled,  a desirable
step from the standpoint  of pollution (Waldichuk, 6316;  Hall,  6352).

Table 14-3. Toxicity
English sole
Fluffy sculpin
Striped seaperch
Starry flounder
Kelp greenling
Walleye surfperch
White seaperch
Salmon, chinook
Salmon, chinook
Salmon, coho
of KME to marine
(unless other-
wise specified)
8. 5
12. 2
15. 2
est. 5
10. 6
12. 5
1. 2
1. 0-3. 6

Effect Reference
96 hour TLm
64 hour TL at
18%o and 30%o sal.
96 hour TLm
96 hour TLm
96 hour TLm
96 hour TLm
(prelim. )
96 hour TLm
72 hour TL
growth rate reduced
30 day critical threshold
tolerated both bleached and
cited ii
Salmon, silver               3. 3

Salmon, sockeye, young       4.8

Salmon, sockeye, young       2.5

Dungeness  crab               50

Eastern oyster               0. 05

Bay mussel,  embryos         1. 5

Bay mussel,  embryos         0. 52

Bay mussel,  embryos         0.12
unbleached effluent for 14 da'y's77

30 day critical threshold    6299
tolerated full bleached

tolerated full bleached
effluent at reduced O^

no effect on 96 hours

decrease in feeding



48 hour EC50 for  strong    6342
waste from kraft mill

48 hour EC50              6344

48 hour EC50 for foam     6344
collected on a beach near
an ocean outfall.

Spent sulfite liquor (SSL) is the term used for the wastes from the
digestion process.   These wastes are mixed with wash waters and
other plant wastes producing an effluent characterized by large
volume,  very high BOD,  high dissolved organic content, and low
pH (Eldridge, 6303; McKee and Wolf, 6000).

An average  mill uses about 60,  000 gallons of water per ton of pulp
produced (Hall,  6352).  Most of this  is wash water, with 2500-3000
gallons per  ton being SSL. (Eldridge,  6303).  Thus, plant effluents
contain about 50, 000 ppm 10% SSL.   The 5-day BOD of the wash-
liquor effluent is about 1500 ppm (Eldridge,  6303) while the  liquor
itself may have 30, 000 ppm BOD (Waldichuk, 6316; Anon..  6300).
Lignins may make up more than 50% of  the dissolved organics in
the liquor.  The pH of the effluent may be 3-4 (Eldridge,  6303).

The total dissolved solids content of SSL may range from 6% to 16%
(Eldridge, 6303).  For convenience,  all toxicity data are normalized
to 10% total solids.  Results are then reported as dilutions  of 10%
SSL.  For instance,  10 ppm is  10 parts by volume of 10% SSL mixed
with water to make 1, 000, 000 parts.  Another measure of the dilu-
tion of SSL is the Pearl-Benson Index (PBI)(Gunter and McKee, 6308).
This index is not necessarily correlated with toxicity.  It is a
measure of  the lignin content of the waste waters  which may vary
from  mill to mill.  Background levels of natural lignins may vary
sufficiently  over  an area  to make accurate determinations difficult
(Woelke,  6321).

Sulfite wastes are highly  toxic to some marine organisms.   Eggs and
larvae of oysters, and eggs of English sole were found to be particularly
sensitive to SSL (Anon. ,  6320).  Ten ppm was suggested as  an upper
limit  for protection of this  kind of aquatic life (Anon. ,  6320).  Toxicities
of sulfite wastes  to fish are generally lower, in agreement with the
observation of McKee and Wolf that BOD presents the major problem
with respect to fish (McKee and Wolf, 6000).  However, 10 ppm has
been shown  to affect internal organs  of fresh water fish on long exposure
(McKee and Wolf,  6000).  Acute toxicities  to various marine organisms
are given in  Table 14-4.

Table 14-4.The toxicity of spent sulfite liquor to marine organisms.
Dilution of 10% SSL
Salmon,  chinook     560-1175

Salmon,  chinook     427-757
Salmon,  chinook     422-616
Salmon, pink

Salmon, silver
Oysters, Olympia   10 (Apr -Oct )
                    20 (Nov-Mar)

Oysters, Olympia   8-16

Oysters, Olympia   2-8
OysterSj Olympia   7
Oysters, Olympia  M6
Oysters, Olympia   8-16
Oysters, Olympia   13
   and Pacific

Oysters, Pacific    3
                      5% mortality               6317
28 day tolerance           6299
 level (NH -base

28 day tolerance level      6299
  (CaO base SWL)

5% mortality               6317
5% mortality               6317

recommended              6308
   safe level

harmful                   6308

 reproductive cycle        6312
   affected, but not
  necessarily detrimental

 adverse effect on          6318

 adverse effect on          6318

 adverse effect on          6318

 adverse effect on growth   6318
   and mortality

 reduction in % normal     6318
    larvae in labora-
    tory experiments

Dilution of 10%
SSL (ppm)	
Oysters, Pacific
Oysters, Pacific
Oysters, Pacific

Oysters, Pacific

Oysters, Pacific

Oysters, Pacific

Oysters, Pacific




      40 (Apr-Oct)
      80 (Nov-Mar)
Oysters,  larval      2-i

Oysters,  larval    <20

Oysters,  larval    ^30

English Sole, eggs   10
Monas sp. (oyster   1000-10,000
    food organism)
       sp. (oyster   2. 5
 reduction in % normal     6318
   larvae (bioassay of
    natural waters)

 50% abnormal larvae      6302
    (24C,  25 /oo)

 50% abnormal larvae
    (20C,  25 /oo)

 50% abnormal larvae
    (24C,  15 /oo)

 threshold of toxicity       6308
                        affected                   6312
 100% abnormal            6312
tolerated                  6308
recommended  safe level   6308
                        4% abnormal               6320

                        50% abnormal (in situ)     6320
                            (Everett area)

                        50% abnormal (in situ)     6320
                           (Bellingham area)

                        critical threshold for      6320
                           normal development

                        lethal                      6312
                         'depressing effect"        6312
    food organism)

Dilution of 10%
 SSL- (ppm)

Marine food

Fish (marine?)
Young herring
   50-157         significant mortalities      6311
                    in 2 to 14 days

   50             "significant injury"         6320

   500            harmful                    6317
   10            affected internal            6000
                    organs on long

   599-1022      tolerance level             6311
Groundwood process;

The groundwood pulping process is a purely mechanical process,
involving no chemical additives.  The wastes include some soluble
materials from the wood, but fine wood fibers are the primary
contributor to pollution (Waldichuk,  6316; McKee and Wolf,  6000).

Fates of pulp and paper mill effluents;

Hall (6352) states,  "  Clearly, if pulpmill effluent could be sufficiently
diluted, and quickly,  in receiving waters of high oxygen content,
little trouble would arise.. . "  This  statement reflects the feelings
of many people associated with  the pulp and paper industry waste
problem  that BOD is the major pollutional concern (McKee  and Wolf,  6000).
However,  it would be unwise to conclude that satisfaction of  BOD
requirement is the only concern.  In particular, the quantities and
fates of not readily biodegradable substances, whether natural or
added in the pulp and  paper  making processes,  is not known.

The possibilities have only recently started to come to light.  Most
pulp mill effluents  are thought to remain in solution on contacting
sea water, with subsequent dispersal and biological and chemical
degradation (Schroeder, 6348; Mason and Oglesby,  6349;  O'Neal,
6346).  However there are indications  that under certain conditions
some fraction of kraft process effluent precipitates on interaction
with sea water (Courtright and Bond, 6344; F^yn,  6347;  O'Neal,
6346).  In other situations, a fraction of kraft effluent may be foamed
off (Courtright and Bond,  6344).  Another fraction may be sorbed on
any of a number of solid substances (Howard and Walden,  6309;  O'Neal,
6346).  The nature of the fractions  undergoing these various reactions
is not well known, -but the foamed fraction was shown to have higher
toxicity than bulk effluent, even  though its FBI-was  lower (Courtright
and Bond,  6344).   The possibility that  the chlorine bleaching of pulps
produces chlorinated hydrocarbons similar in behavior to chlori-
nated hydrocarbon  pesticides and PCB's has been put forth (Servizi
et al. ,  6313)  although this suggestion  is yet to be confirmed.  More-
over, chlorophenols are found in only trace amounts in bleach liquors
(Anon.,  6361).

In general,  the fate of the not readily biodegradable fraction of
effluents is unknown.  The projected doubling of the pulp and paper
industry in the Pacific Northwest in the next 20 years (Hall, 6352)
makes it a matter worth investigating.


1.    There are four pulp and paper mill outfalls into the nearshore
      marine environment of the Pacific Northwest.  They discharge
      wastes from  the production of bleached and unbleached kraft
      pulp,  and kraft paper products.

2.    Mill effluents differ significantly in their characteristics.   A
      pollution prevention program, then,  should be tailored to a
      specific plant and location.

3.    Acute toxicities of kraft mill  effluents to marine organisms are
      not well known.

4.    Toxicities of sulfite mill effluents are better known and suggest
      a limit of 10  ppm of 10% SSL  for protection of marine  aquatic
      life.  This  represents  an approximately 5, 000 times dilution of
      a typical sulfite mill effluent.

5.    The amount and final disposition of less biodegradable products
      of the industry  are unknown.


             Chapter 15.   TRACE METALS IN THE NEARSHORE
                          MARINE ENVIRONMENT

                          by Stephen W. Hager

 The term "trace metals" is not concisely defined.   It applies  to all
 elements found in trace quantities (less than 1 mg/1) which show
 characteristic chemical behavior of metals to a greater or lesser
 degree.  The "heavy metals" and "transition  series metals" are
 both subcategories of trace  metals.  In all, 54 elements were con-
 sidered to be trace metals for the purposes of this study.

 Use of the term in the text implies a definite  lack of specific
 information, not a generalization over large bodies of data.  Where
 detailed quantitative  information is available,  the elements for which
 it is available are specified.

 Trace metal pollution is not so spectacular as oil pollution nor so
 obnoxious as pulp mill effluents.  It cannot usually be detected per se.
 Rather,  effects  on the biology of the area may be the first clue to
 the fact of pollution.   For these reasons,  we must be concerned with
 prevention and early detection of  increasing trace metals  concentra-

 This study was  undertaken:  (1) to provide information on existing
 levels of trace metals in  the nearshore marine environment of the
 Pacific Northwest.  The present low level of heavy industrial activity
 in this area suggests that such data  might well be used as a "baseline"
 for future pollution studies.  (2) to collect all data relevant to the
 distribution of trace  elements in the marine environment.  From this
 information it was hoped  that an understanding of the behavior of
 each element in the nearshore environment could be gained which
 would enable formulation of a meaningful trace metal evaluation
 program in the Pacific Northwest.   The following discussion attempts
 to point out information necessary for a consideration of coastal pollu-
 tion by trace metals.

 Chemical Form

 Chemical forms of trace  elements in sea water must be known before
an evaluation of their pollution potential can be made.  Oxidation state
and physical state are equally important.  The oxidation states of
many trace metals in sea  water are reasonably well known, either
by inference from thermodynamics or by direct observation.

It should be noted that thermodynamic  estimates and observational data
sometimes conflict, as in the cases of arsenate and arsenite (Goldberg,
6059),  chromium (III) and chromate (Fukai and Huynh-Ngoc, 6269), and
others.  In such  cases, the disagreements have been attributed to a need
for reaction sites (Goldberg,  6059), organic counter-reactions (Fukai
and Huynh-Ngoc,  6269),  or analytical problems.  It seems possible that
this problem might arise for other elements.

Adsorption on particulate  matter and chelation by dissolved organic sub-
stances are processes which may control the concentration of  a trace
metal in sea water.   The quantitative partitioning between these reser-
voirs and the dissolved ionic fraction is largely unknown.  We  distin-
guish between particulate  (>0.45|a) and soluble  material, but this is an
operational definition, related in an unknown way to the actual  manner
in which the metal behaves.

Table  15-1 presents data on the chemical and physical states of trace
metals in sea water with appropriate  references.   In cases where
there is  substantial agreement between investigators,  only the most
recent is cited.
Table 15-1.  Predominant physico-chemical forms of trace elements
             in sea water compiled from the literature.





Physical Form
ionic (? )
particulate (? )
Chemical Form

A1O2" (H2O)
SbO+ (?)
Sb(OH)6- ?
H3AsO3, H3AsO4
HAsC>4~, H2AsO4~
HsAsO4, H3AsO3
Ba++, BaSO4

  ' Bi
CdCl,  CdCl2
Cd++, CdS04

Table 15-1 continued










Physical Form
particulate ( ? )
soluble (?)
particulate ( ? )
particulate ( ? )
soluble ,

Chemical Form
Cs +
Ga(OH) ~
AuCl ~

In+++ ( ? )
Fe(OH) (soluble)
Pb++, PbOH+,
PbCl +
Li +
6059 '




Table 15-1 continued
Physical Form
parti culate (? )
mostly ionic
paiti culate ( ? )
Chemical Form
Hg++ _
MoO =
NbO (soluble) (? )
Po(OH)4 (?)
ReO ~
Rb +

                 parti culate ( ? )
                   SnCl  (?),SnCl  (?)   6179
                                5       6019

   Table 15-1 continued
Element Physical Form
Ti particulate (?)
Y particulate (?)
Zn ionic
Zr particulate (?)
Chemical Form References
H.TiO. 6062
4 4
WO = 6059
H VO ~ VO (OH) ~ 6102, 6059
Y(OH) (soluble) 6117
Zn++ 6117
Zn++ ZnOH+ 6099
 (?) indicates speculative
 The problem of possible trace metal pollution of the nearshore marine
 environment of the Pacific Northwest may be considered to be a "flushing"
 or "residence time" problem.

 The important factors are input rates, output rates, and allowable
 residual levels.  Input rates include both those from natural and
 industrial sources.  Output rates include those effected by circulation
 and by biogeochemicalprocesses.  Allowable residual  levels are
 those concentrations,  resulting from the balance of inputs and outputs,
 which do not constitute pollution.

 Natural Inputs

 There are three major natural inputs of water containing trace metals
 to the nearshore areas of the Pacific Northwest; surface advection,
 upwelling,  and land drainage/rivers.

Advection of surface water  trace  metals  into the area of interest is
 the "background" input against which the other inputs,  upwelling and
 land drainage,operate.  The magnitude of the effects of the other in-
 puts will depend to a large extent on the rate of  this advective input
 which is  discussed in Chapter 9.

Trace metal concentrations  in the advecting waters  are poorly known.
Gold and iron are the only trace metals which have been determined
in the nearshore waters (0-10 km) of the Pacific Northwest.  Caldwell
(6025) found an average value of 0. 21 \j.g gold/1 in seven samples taken
at Waconda Beach, just south of Waldport, Oregon.   He detected less
than 0. 05 |o.g gold/1 at Agate Beach,  north of Newport,  Oregon.
Putnam (6132) found 5. 1 |ag gold/1 at Copalis Beach, Washington,
and less than 0. 5 |j.g gold/1 at Bandon, Oregon.  Strickland (6156)
found 8.4-16 p-g/1 total reactive iron on the Washington coast.

A determination of molybdenum at Muir  Beach, Marin County,
California, is perhaps  relevant, although not strictly in our survey
area.  Bachmann and Goldman (6008) found 10. 0 \g  molybdenum/1.

The  elements aluminum, arsenic, cobalt,  copper, iron, lead,
manganese, nickel, selenium,  and titanium have been  determined
for the waters of Puget Sound,  the Strait of Juan de  Fuca, and the
Northeast Pacific, but these measurements may not be representative
of the open nearshore coastal  environment.

Measurements of nearshore and oceanic trace  element concentrations
suitable for direct comparison have  been made for eight elements
(Table 15-2). Six of the elements compared give values which might
be explained by considering the mixing- of sea water and land drainage
water (see Table 15-5).  However, data  are  insufficient to permit
generalizations  about concentrations to be expected in  nearshore areas.

A compilation of probable values for various trace metals in nearshore
and oceanic waters is presented in Table 15-3.   The values given
result from a consideration of  the frequency distribution of all values
available (see Appendix 4).  Other factors considered were location,
proximity to land masses,  methods,  season, and depth.  References
are for representative studies.

Previous compilations of oceanic trace metal concentrations have
been made by Richards (6261), Goldberg (6058), (6059), (6290^, Htfgdahl
(6289), Riley(6l81), and Bowen (6019).

The  trace metal concentrations considered in this compilation may
be real and a result of various hydrologic, geologic, and biologic

Table 15-2. Direct comparisons of near shore and oceanic values for
            trace metals
          Nearshore Value
Open Oceanic Value
            2 + 1 (Jig Al/1 (ionic)
            (Scripps Pier)

            1. 7xlO'4 |j.g Be/1
            0. 9xlO"4 fig Be/1
               (parti culate)
            (Scripps Pier)
            0. 335 + 0. 012
            (Scripps Pier)

            ca. 20 |j.g Cu/1
            (tropical waters)

            up to 25 jag Fe/1
            (tropical waters)
   Fe  ,     8.4-16 jig Fe/1
               (total reactive)
            (Washington coast)

   Mn       up to 3. 9 (JLg Mn/1
            (Gulf of Mexico)
1 t 1 ug Al/1 (ionic)
3.9xlO-4 |ig Be/1
l.SxlO"4 ,j.g Be/1
Cs/1    0.35 t 0. 024|j.gsCs/l
ca. 10 (jig Cu/1
                                 4. 6  |j.g Fe/1 (total
as low as 0. 5 (ig Fe/1      6194
                                  as low  as 0. 2 [ig Mn/1     6137
   Rb       170,  190 (j,g Rb/1

   Sr   ,-   5. 5 mg Sr/1
                                  120,  120,  140 fig Rb/1     6014
                                  7.5,  7. 8,  7.0 mg Sr/1     6014

Table 15-3.  Probable values of trace metals in oceanic and nearshore
Form Measured

dissolved (ionic)
total <0.45fo.
dissolved (total)
1 t 1
1 - 120
15 - 37
0. 11
0.03 - 0.012
+ 10
->10, 000
_ _ _
1 - 7
0. 11
0. 1 - 0.4
0.2 - 0. 7 ?




Table 15-3. continued
Form Measured






total <0. 5(Ji

total <0. 5p.
total <0. 5(1
<0. 5
0.06 0. 06 ?
	 + 5 ?
+ 25
+ 100
	 + 200+
+ 1.5
0. 2 - 4 	
+ 10






0.08 - 0. 15

Table 15-3. continued
Form Measured
<0.005 ->0. 1
0.05 - 0.5
0.29 + 19.6
5 - 12
0.30 - 1.22
0.09 - 0. 12





 Table 15" 3.  continued
Form Measured


0.6 -25
0.011 - 0.041

6155, 6175
6189, 6114

  "*"  Signifies highest measured value
 est  Signifies estimated from trends in behavior, but not based on actual
  ?  Signifies great uncertainty in the value(s)  cited

processes, or they may be analytical artifacts.  Often, it is impossible
to decide which the case may be.   No attempt was made,  therefore,
to exclude outlying results  from consideration.  Where the results
of one investigator had been criticized by a subsequent investigator
on the grounds of the methods involved, however, this was considered.

Upwelling may provide the  single largest perturbing influence on
trace metal concentrations off our coast.   Schutz and Turekian (6141)
found that silver, cobalt, and nickel were significantly higher in areas
of upwelling.  However, they did not state whether upwelling was-
actually occurring at the time of sampling.  Concentrations of
aluminum, chromium,  copper, iron, gallium,  lead, titanium, and
zinc, all with high concentration factors in plankton (Table 15-4),
might be higher in upwelled waters.

Land drainage probably does not play a significant role in determining
the dissolved trace metal concentrations on our coast.  As can be
seen from Table 15-5,  the  concentrations of many trace metals in
the river waters are roughly similar to those in sea water.  Thus,
the change in the salinity of a sample of mixed  river-sea water
environment would be much greater  than the change in the trace metal

Table 15-4. Concentration of trace metals by plankton:  concentration
            factor = ppm in fresh organ!sm/ppm in sea water.
            (Concentration factors from 6019.)
Element  | Concentration Factor   T













2000-140, 000




Marine .organisms may be able
to utilize particulate Al,
making this number of doubtful

Based on a sea water value of
30 ppb. Surface water value
is probably around 13 ppb.
Based on a S. W.  concentration
of 0. 00005 ppm.  It appears that
0. 0005 ppm may  be more
reasonable, giving a cOTicentra-
tion factor of 1700.

Based on a sea water value of
0. 05 ppb.  Value  is probably
nearer to 0. 3 ppb.

See comment on Al.

See comment on Al.
Nickel concentrations in S. W.
show great variation, 0. 43 to
43 [J.g/1 in one worldwide study

Based on  deep water Pb value
of 0. 03  ppb.  0. 1 to 0. 3 ppb  is
probably a better surface value.

Table 15-4.  continued
Element  [ Concentration Factor  |








8, 9




Value is based on a sea water
value of 3 jjig/1 (6121).  Sea
water value may be around
1 jig/I (6067).

Table 15-5.  Comparison of trace element concentrations in rivers  and
            in sea water
Columbia River
Sea water
uK A
1. 1
0. 24
0. 02
3. 2
1. 1
0. 04


0. 02
3. 2
1. 5

0. 12
0. 11
0. 35
0.3-0. 6
0.2-0. 7
0. 2-4
0.05-0. 5
0. 3-1. 2

 Table 15-5.  continued


Columbia River Sea water
~2 1-5
20 0.6-14
^0 0.011-
 Durum and Haffty (6281)
 Livingstone (6283)
 Kopp and Kroner (6278)
 Kharkar, Turekian, and Bertine (6282)
 'Durum and Haffty (6284)
  Kopp and Kroner  (6278)
  Silker (6045)

  This review
concentrations.  Aluminum,  beryllium,  chromium, iron, lead,  man-
ganese, strontium, and zirconium apparently have significantly higher
concentrations in river waters than in sea water.

All of these inputs undergo seasonal cycles. Ambient nearshore trace
metal concentrations may be highest following winter periods  of low
productivity (Atkins,  6007; Chow and Thompson,  6037).  River inputs
are probably highest at the times of highest runoff,  although river con-
centrations of trace metals may be highest at times of lowest  runoff
(see Chapter 4).  Upwelling occurs primarily in the late spring,  summer,
and early fall, although winter occurrences have been observed (Burt,
McAlister, and Queen,  6329).  The net effect of these variations may'
be to reduce the seasonal variations in the  sea water, while inten-
sifying short-term and local variations.

Industrial Inputs

One ultimate goal is to quantitatively estimate the  rate of input of
potential pollutants  which a given area can tolerate.  In order to do
this,  we must know the characteristics of the proposed  effluent.
These data  should include estimates of maximum volume of effluent
to be expected and maximum concentrations  of various substances
which will occur in  the effluent.  Plans for such a waste inventory
on a national scale are presently beset with implementation diffi-
culties  (Anon. ,  6358).  Such  declarations are regularly required by
the Department of Environmental Quality of the State of Oregon  and
the Water Pollution'Control Commission of the State of Washington
(Anon.,  6356).  The California Regional Water Quality Control
Boards require only a general "type of waste" declaration, with
the stipulation of ". . . such additional information as it (the regional
board) deems necessary. " (Anon. ,  6357). Each proposal is treated
as a separate case.

Removal Processes
A number of authors have adequately outlined the processes by
which trace metal pollutants  may be removed from nearshore
marine waters (Waldichuk,  6284;  Carritt and Harley,  6028).  These
processes include advection,  biological activity, sorption,  floccu-
lation, ion exchange,  precipitation and coprecipitation (Waldichuk,
6284).  However,  research on removal mechanisms has progressed
little beyond the naming of the various possible mechanisms.  There
are almost no quantitative data.   In short,  then when asked to predict
the fate of additions of toxic trace metals to nearshore waters of the
Pacific Northwest, we must answer,  "we don't know. "

The reasons for this ignorance are several.  First, the nearshore
coastal zone is  very complex.  The processes  of removal of trace
metals vary in time and space.  A measurement in the summer may
not be applicable to  the winter; a measurement in Southern California
may not be applicable to Northern California.

Second, the necessity for understanding the processes has not always
been clear.   Much pollution prevention has, in the past, actually been
pollution correction.  Admittedly, the prediction of pollution is not al-
ways  possible,  as, for instance,  in the cases of the biological produc-
tion of methyl-mercuryand  the worldwide dispersal of DDT.   However,
as our technology rapidly advances, we must attempt  to predict

 environmental consequences,  since they may be only slowly reversible.
 In particular,  trace metals in sediment and biological reservoirs may
 continue to supply pollutant long after the original source has been re-
 moved (Anon., 6337;  Abelson, 6338).

 What is needed,  as  specified by Carritt and Harley (6028) for radionuclides,
 is sufficient information on assimilative processes to be able to construct
 balance sheets, accounting for all of each specific pollutant added.  For
 example,  the study  of Duke et al. (6325) showed that of the zinc-65 added
 to experimental ponds,  up to 98. 8% was found in the sediments,  0. 2% in
 the macrobiota,  and 0. 0% in  the water at approximately steady state con-
 ditions.  Although it will not  be economically feasible to do the same with
 all industrial effluents,  it is  essential that  we recognize such complete
 knowledge as an ideal,  and that we not lose sight of that ideal.

 Precisely what do we know, relevant to the nearshore waters of the
 Pacific Northwest?

 A dvec tive R ernova 1

 The advection of nearshore waters of  the Pacific Northwest is not well
 enough known to  allow its quantitative prediction for a specific site
 (see Chapter 9).   Generally,  the advecting  waters  will remove the
 dissolved fraction of the trace  metal from an area.  In addition, por-
 tions of other fractions  (sorbed, precipitated, or flocculated) may be
 removed.  Consequently,  advection will probably be a key concern in
 outfall siting.  The  greater the rate of advective flow out  of an area,
 the lower the amounts of pollutant remaining in the area under steady
 state conditions.

 However, the metals may be removed from the water before it can be
 advected from the nearshore zone.  This may be accomplished by bio-
 logical or geochemical processes  which may act to prevent acute pollu-
 tion by removing  metals from the  solution phase or to establish chronic
 pollution by    concentrating the pollutant in another form and in
 another place.

Biological Removal

 Net removal of trace metals  by biological means depends on several
 factors:  a) primary production by phytoplankton,  b)  transportation of
 organic matter by physical processes, c) destruction of organic
 matter by organisms or non-biological processes, and d) rate of
 inorganic sedimentation (Gross, 6122).

The surface sediments of the Pacific Northwest inside of 10 km are
generally characterized by large particle size  (sand) and low  organic
matter content (0. l%)(Bushnell,  6148;  Carey,  6134).  Thus, although
production in  areas of upwelling may be as high as 150 gCm~2yr~l
(60 gCmT yr~  is average for the area, Gross, 6122), the net removal
of organic material in the  nearshore region is  probably low.  However,
high concentrations of glauconitic sands (up to  90%),  and organic car-
bon (up to 3%) in sediments from the continental slope about 30 miles
offshore (Bushnell,  6148) suggest that  transport and deposition of or-
ganic material away from  the coast may be significant.

Substantial burial of organic  material by rapid sedimentation  is not
probable due to the well-sorted characteristics of the nearshore
sediments (Bushnell,  6148).

Biological processes have been implicated in the removal of barium
(Goldberg, 6l69),  copper  (Turekian, 6125),  vanadium,  tungsten,
cobalt, and nickel  (Krauskopf, 6102),  and cadmium (Brooks and
Rumsby,  6021).

Geochemical Removal

Geochemical removal processes  include precipitation, completing
and chelation,  and solid-ion interactions such as sorption,  ion exchange,
flocculation, and coprecipitation.

Precipitation:  .It is doubtful that solubilities of inorganic precipitates
control the concentrations  of  many elements  in sea water (Goldberg,
6059).  However,  precipitates formed by the reaction of an effluent
with sea water may occur,  and 'it is this process which is of interest
in considering coastal pollution.   The precipitates formed  may act
as transport mechanisms and later redissolve  producing no net removal
from sea water.  However, by this process mass  removal of  pollutants
from nearshore areas or accumulation of the material in nearshore
areas may occur.

The main precipitates which might be formed by trace metals  in sea
water are carbonates and hydroxides or hydrous oxides.  Carbonates
of cobalt, copper,  zinc (Goldberg, 6059; Duursma and Sevenhuysen,
6213),  and lead  (Goldberg,  6059) might be precipitated from sea water
of pH 8 at levels around 20 jxg/1.

Copper hydroxide might also be precipitated from pH 8 sea water
at around 20 )o.g/l (Duursma and Sevenhuysen,  6213).  There is
great uncertainty in these estimates.   The pH dependence of these pre-
cipitations is inherent in the anions involved. Associations with inor-
ganic ligands and dissolved organic substances in sea water may also
alter these estimates considerably.  Kinetics of precipitation will prob-
ably be unimportant due to the availability of nucleation surfaces
(particulate matter) in nearshore waters.

Complexing:  Complexing by inorganic ligands does not physically
remove metals from the environment.  It does change their ionic
form,  however,  which affects their geochemical behavior and possibly
their toxicity.  The major ligands are the chloride and sulfate ions
which are present in consistently large quantities  in sea water.  Car-
bonate ions  may  also be important.  Recent studies have  indicated
that some trace metals may form ion pairs with the inorganic anions
of sea water. Specifically,  there is evidence for hydroxyl or carbonate
ion pairs of zinc  and lead in sea water  (Zirino and Healy,  6275).

Chelation:   Chelation of metals by the dissolved organic substances
in sea water is known to occur  (Koshy and Ganguly,  6339; Williams,
6040; Barsdate,  6279;  Rona _et_al. , 6137) , but the conditions  under
which this process occurs in the natural  environment are not well
known (Barsdate, 6279;  Koshy  and Ganguly,  6339).  The  major effect
is "solubilization, " or a tendency to keep metals  in the soluble  (<0. 45fi)
fraction of a sea  water  sample(Koshy and Ganguly, 6339). Chelation
thus affects the behavior of a metal with  respect to removal processes
such as precipitation and sorption.  The  organic ligands which chelate
metals in sea water are unknown.

The quantity of dissolved organics in nearshore waters of the Pacific
Northwest is unknown.  As shown by Duursma (6341), the factors
determining  dissolved organic concentrations are  insufficiently known
to allow prediction of the levels by considering the area to be a
typical nearshore,  upwelling, high-productivity area.

Solid-ion interactions:   The reaction of trace metal ions  with solid
materials in sea  water  may  result in the removal of the ions  from
solution.  The extent to which this process is capable of removal of
added metals from sea  water will be determined primarily by the
form of the ions  involved and by the nature and amount of  solids in-

The nature of the ions of concern will be determined by the composition
of the effluent, and its immediate interactions with sea water.  Such
interactions may include inorganic complexing or organic chelation.

The solids which interact with metal ions in sea water are extremely
varied,  including organic detritus, inorganic mineral grains,
hydrous oxide floes, precipitates,  etc.  In addition,  each of these
descriptive terms may encompass  a  wide range of materials with
equally widely varied sorptive characteristics.   Even for relatively
well defined substances, factors such as previous  history can change
sorption behavior.   Thus,  this discussion will deal only with the
general category solid materials.

Of the number of ways of considering solid-ion interactions which
may occur in  sea water, the concept of  reservoirs (see Carritt and
Goodgal,  6266) seems to be most useful. Although simplistic,  it
provides a quantitative overview conspicuously lacking in some
other approaches.                    Although there are few real
numbers which we can use in this model to  get useful answers, the
types of data needed will be made evident.

A schematic of a simple two-reservoir  system is shown in Figure
                             Figure 15.1.

  The system can be roughly described by a distribution coefficient
  between the two reservoirs,  and by the sizes of the two reservoirs.
  It is the latter factor which is often neglected.

4.  KD may depend on Xg or Cw, although within reasonable limits
    of Xs dependence does not seem great (Duursma and Bosch, 6330).
    At low solution concentrations, however,  K1 s varied with solution
    concentration (Hamaguchi,  6335).

5.  KT-J and Xs are operational parameters.  For instance, if Cs
    and C   are defined as the concentrations  in the fractions which
    are retained and which pass through a 0.45jx filter,  respectively,
    fs is then the fraction sorbed on the greater than 0. 45[i fraction,
    and thus represents a lower limit to the material actually sorbed.

6.  Organic chelation and sorption can  change the entire system,
    emphasizing the need to use natural waters and sediments.

The shaded  area in Figure 15-2 represents  that bounded by reasonable
   (102- 105) (Duursma and Bosch,  6330; Ganapathy, Pillai,  and Ganguly,
6365) and reasonable Xg (10-1000 mg/kg) (Ganapathy,  Pillai, and Ganguly,
6365) values.  Note that the f  values range from about .99 to 0.001,  or
from 99% of the metal sorbed on the sediment of 0. 1% sorbed.  This
uncertainty again outlines  the necessity of data specific to the region
of interest and the element of interest, using Kj^' s and Xg's observed
in the waters into which the proposed effluent will flow.

Although it appears  that the  suspended material in sea water
is qualitatively  superior to. the consolidated sedimentary material
with respect to  sorptive capacity (due to particle size) and availability
(due to dispersion in the water column),  the major limitation on the
suspended material  will be quantitative.   That  is, while the suspended
materials will,  in general, have a higher sorptive capacity per gram
and will  be more likely to come in contact with the ions,  the  total
sorptive capacity (capacity per gram times  gram available sorbent)
may not  be sufficient to remove  significant amounts of trace  metals.

Therefore, although we do not presently have sufficient  knowledge
of turbulent diffusion and mixing to determine which effluents will
be brought into  direct contact with bulk sediment (see Chapter 11)
this  distinction  will  be,  as pointed out by Waldichuk (6284), an
important one.  There seems to be little doubt that metals in
effluents which  come into  contact with bulk  sediments will become
sorbed to a substantial degree (Pritchard, 6231; Duke,  Willis, and
Price, 6325;  Carritt and Goodgal,  6266;  Postma,  6331;  Duursma
and Bosch, 6330).  This is borne out by  a consideration of Figure
15-2.  At a sediment- water  interface, we can probably  say that Xg
increases greatly, although, as pointed out in consideration number
3, it becomes difficult to quantitatively define.

A trace metal pollutant may be partitioned between reservoirs such
as suspended material, consolidated sediments,  dissolved components,
and biota.  The biological reservoir has already been discussed in

In order to get some quantitative feeling for the partitioning of
a trace metal between the dissolved and suspended reservoirs,
consider Figure 15-2 which is derived from mass balance consider-
ations.  T is the total trace metal in the water-suspended material
system,  Cs is  the concentration of the metal on the suspended mat-
erial,  Xs is  the concentration of suspended material  in the water,  MW
is the mass of water being considered,  Cw is the concentration of the
trace metal in  the water,  fs is the fraction of the total trace metal which
will be found associated with the particulate matter,  and K-p is  the
distribution coefficient for the metal between  the particulate matter
and the water,  defined as  CS/CW.

As mentioned above, such a diagram is only able to give a feeling
for  the possible magnitude of some of the factors involved and cannot
and must not be used without consideration of these approximations
involved in its  derivation:

1.   It is assumed that the  water  and suspended material are the
    only two  "reservoirs" involved.  A  similar diagram could be
    made for the relationship between amounts of metal  in water
    and in the biota.  The  vertical axis  would  be  biomass concen-
    tration in the water and the horizontal axis the concentration
    factor (see Table 15-4) for a given metal.  Thus,  only if other
    reservoirs are small when compared to the suspended material
    reservoir can we use Figure 15-2.

2.   Obviously,  this is an "equilibrium" model.  Whether or not
    this is a  realistic model of the natural environment is now known.
    In particular, the reversibility of sorption reactions  is not well
    known.  Thus metals sorbed in one  ionic  environment and trans-
    ported to another may or may not be desorbed (Turekian, 6282;
    Johnson,  Cutshall and Osterberg, 6047; Kharkar, Turekian and
    Bertine,  6215).

3.   The diagram cannot be used  for waters in contact with bulk sedi-
    ments.  The model is  very sensitive to variations in Xs,  which
    would be  difficult to define in such a case.

             Fzgure 15-2.  Nomograph representing approximate partitioning
                           of a metal between dissolved and suspended participate
                           reservoirs.  Xg,  concentration of suspended material
                          in the water in mg/kg; KD) observed distribution
                          coefficient for a specific metal on a  specific material-
                                           j-        -* WJ.A a,  ojjc^j.j.nj mate
                             fraction of metal in water-suspended material
                          system sorbed on suspended material
                                   F  =
                                                                T = CsXsMw+

It was noted earlier that the nearshore sediments of the Pacific
Northwest are primarily well-sorted sands (X  very  large;  K-Q
small).  Much less is known, however,  about the suspended mate-
rial;  its quantity (Xs), its characteristics (K-p),  its sources and
sinks, and its  rate of passage through the nearshore area.   The
quantity of suspended material in nearshore areas of the Pacific
Northwest is thought to be high (Waldichuk, 6284). Areas affected
by the river drainage might be expected to be particularly high.

Not much is known about the characteristics of the nearshore sus-
pended material.  It  might be guessed that suspended participate
matter is primarily organic in the spring and summer months and
inorganic during the  winter  months,  but this is unconfirmed. A
median diameter of 2 to 3  microns has been observed  (Carder,  6353),
suggesting that the surface to mass ratio  would  be high, and that
a high sorptive capacity would exist.  In addition, the Stokes'
settling rate for particles  of this size would be about 70 cm/year,
resulting in negligible sedimentation as compared to advection
into deeper waters.  The observed distribution of sediment sizes
in nearshore sediments  bears this out (Bushnell,  6296).

Allowable Residual Level
The establishment of allowable upper limits for trace metal concen-
trations in nearshore waters will require criteria for distinguishing
between change,  and detrimental change (pollution).  The "no change"
approach is rejected a  priori, since if we detect no change it could
mean simply that we are looking at the wrong variables  or with
insensitive techniques.

There are a number of approaches  which one  might take in order to
determine permissible  trace metal concentrations  in nearshore areas.
They include consideration of (1) the lethal limits and sub-lethal
effects for individual species, (2) lethal  concentrations  and sub-lethal
effects for natural populations, and (3) ecological models.

Individual species;  Most studies aimed  at determining  the permis-
sible levels of a  toxic substance in  the marine environment have deter-
mined the tolerance of  certain species of organisms to that substance.
The toxicities of various trace metals to marine organisms found in the
Pacific Northwest are presented in Table 15-6.  The data are listed
alphabetically by  species under the appropriate metal.   Included are
the concentration and form of the metal, effect on the organism, dura-
tion of the exposure, and the pertinent literature citations.  Data
for additional marine species are presented in Appendix 4.  Reviews

Tablel5-6.  Response of marine organisms of the Pacific Northwest
            to various concentrations of trace  elements
Generic name  Specific name (common name)
trace element       effect on the organism    duration
              (TLm,  killed, not lethal)     of test
Mya arenaria (soft-shell clams)
0. 1 ppm       apparently not toxic        56 days

Crassostrea virginica (oyster)
0.01-          pumping activity
   0.05 mg/1    reduced
1 mg/1        effective pumping

Macrocystis pyrifera (giant kelp)
1. 0 mg/1      no  effect                    5 days
5-10 mg/1     10-15% photosynthesis      2 days
5-10 mg/1     50-70% photosynthesis      5-7 days

Mytilus edulis  (adult mussel)
10 ppm        killed                      5 days
2. 5 ppm       killed                      5 days
1  ppm          killed                      15 days
Reference No.
Crassostrea virginica (oyster)
88 ppm not toxic
(pink salmon)
5. 3 mg/1 "extremely harmful"
Crassostrea virginica (oyster)
0. 2 mg/1 TL,m
0. 1 mg/1 TLm
1 1 days
8 days
8 weeks
15 weeks

Table 15-6.  continued
Cr    Macrocystis pyrifera (giant kelp)
      1 mg/1        photosynthesis             5 days

      Nereis yirens (polychaete worm)
      1 ppm        threshold                  5 weeks

      Nereis virens (polychaete worm)
      0. 2 mg/1      similar to controls         20 weeks

Cu    Acartia clausi (copepod)
      0. 5 mg/1      50% mortality              13 hours

      Acmaea scabra var. limatula (mollusc)
      0. 10 ppm     lethal                      3 days

      Balanus crenatus (adult barnacles)
      10 mg/1       killed                      2 hours

      Balanus crenatus (barnacle nauplii)
      30 mg/1       killed                      2 hours

      Haliotis fulgens  (mollusc)
      0. 10 ppm     100% mortality             3 days
      0. 05 ppm     less than 100% mortality   30 days

      Ischnochiton conspicuus  (mollusc)
      0. 15 ppm     100% mortality             10 days
      0.10 ppm     less than 100% mortality   60 days

      Macrocystis pyrifera (giant kelp)
      0. 1 mg/1      visible injury              10 days
      0. 1 mg/1      50% photosynthesis         2-5 days

      Mya arenaria (soft-shell clam)
      0. 02 ppm      least toxic concentration   8 days
       (0. 05 ppm     studied







SO4= & Cl"
S04= fad'

Table 15 -6. continued
Cu    Mytilus californianus (mussel)
      0. 20 ppm     100% mortality             2 days
      0. 15 ppm     less than 100% mortality   30 days
      0. 10 ppm     less than 100% mortality   60 days

      Mytilus edulis (mussel)
      0. 55          killed                      12 hours
      0. 14          killed                      1 day
      0. 08          killed                      2 days
      0. 04          some mortality            3 days
      0. 02          no mortality               4 days

      Mytilus edulis (mussel)
      0. 20 ppm     100% mortality             17 days
      0. 10 ppm     less than 100% mortality   35 days

      Mytilus edulis (mussel)
      0.32mg/l     "significant response"      	

      Mytilus edulis planulatus Lamarck (bivalve mollusc larvae) 6247
      22.2 mg/1     50% mortality              2 hours          citrate
                                                                pH 7.0-8.2
      Neosphaerona oregonensis (isopod)
      0.02 mg/1     "significant response"

      Nereis virens (polychaete worm)
      0. 1 ppm      threshold

      Paphia staminea var. laciniata (mollusc)
      1 ppm         non lethal
      3 ppm         -v50% lethal

      Skeletonema costatum (phytoplankton)
      0. 20 ppm     toxic (no growth)
      0. 17 ppm     toxic (no growth)
21 days
30 days
v60 days
8 days 20 C
8 days 30 C

Table 15-6.  continued
Spirorbis lamellosa Lamarck (tubeworm
0. 51 mg/1 50% mortality

Staphlococcus aureus (bacteria)
18 g /I lethal
Crassostrea virginica (oyster)
0. 2 ppm not toxic
Crassostrea virginica (Eastern oy ter)
0.5 mg/1 TLm
0.3 mg/1 TLm
0. 1-0.2 mg/1 noticeable tissue changes
Macrocystis pyrifera (giant kelp)
4. 1 mg/1 no deleterious effects on
rate of photosynthesis
Mya arenaria (soft- shell clam)
0. 2 ppm apparently not toxic
Acartia clausi (copepod)
0. 05 mg/1 50% mortality
0. 05 mg/1 50% mortality
Macrocystis pyrifera (giant kelp)
0. 05 mg/1 50% photosynthesis
0. 1 mg/1 15% photosynthesis
0. 1 mg/1 inactivation
Macrocystis pyrifera (giant kelp)
1.31 mg/1 no effect
13.1 mg/1 50% photosynthesis
Macrocystis pyrifera (giant kelp)
1.31 mg/1 no effect
10 mg/1 50% "inactivation"
2 hours

49 days
1 2 weeks
1 8 weeks
12 weeks
4 days
84 days
2. 5 hours
2. 3 hours
4 days
1 day
4 days
4 days
4 days
4 days
pH 7.0-8.2

of acute toxicity information have been made by Doudoroff and Katz
(6235) and McKee and Wolf (6000).  Ingols  (6239), Jones (6291),
Sprague (6l6l, 6155) and Woelke (6232) and others have reviewed
factors which relate to the measurement of toxicity.

Acute toxicity has usually been measured as  a 24-, 48-,  or 96-hour
TL   (median tolerance limit) or roughly equivalent parameter
(LDso,  etc. ).   The concept of a threshold concentration refers to
a concentration below which the organism could live almost indefinitely
(Lloyd and Herbert, 6359).   The 96-hour  TLm is an experimentally
feasible approximation to the above concept.   Because many log-toxicant
concentration vs.  log-time of measureable response plots are almost
parallel to the time axis at 96 hours (see  Figure 15-3, also Lloyd and
Herbert,  6359), the approximation can be quite good.   For points  on
the left arm of the curve, a small change in  some parameter (tempera-
ture, another toxin, etc. ) may  produce  relatively large changes in the
time to 50% mortality (frequently observed),  but small changes in the
observed  TLm (see Lloyd,  6267).

It would be well to discuss the concept of  "synergism" at this point.
There seems to be considerable imprecision in the literature in the
use of the word with respect to the effects of environmental pollu-
tants (see Sprague, 6155).  Synergism is  defined as "cooperative
action of discrete agencies  such that the total effect is greater than
the sum of the  two effects taken independently. "  (Webster's 7th
New Collegiate Dictionary,  1967).   To clarify what is meant by
synergism, then,  we must clarify what  we mean by the "effect"
of the toxicant.  There are  two "effects" encountered  in our normal
methodology:   (1)  shortening of survival time ("time  potentiation")
at a  given concentration of toxicant,  and (2) lowering of amounts
necessary to kill a certain fraction of the sample in a certain time
interval ("threshold lowering"). Both are of concern  in considering
nearshore pollution.  In areas immediately around outfalls, the
rates of toxic  reaction may be important,  particularly to organisms
which depend on avoidance reactions for survival.  In areas away
from outfalls,  long-term exposure to slightly elevated levels of
"synergistic"  toxicants would be important.

Figure  15-3, taken from  the paper of Sprague and Ramsay (6260)
illustrates the distinction between time  potentiation (vertical displace-
ment of the lower  part of the curve) and threshold lowering (horizontal
curve-displacement).  In fact, no study was found in  the literature
which conclusively demonstrates trace metal-trace metal threshold
lowering as opposed to time potentiation.

                5   20
Trace metal-temperature  "synergism" has been frequently cited
as a potential danger attendant to thermal pollution (see review of
de Sylva,  6283).  However, the recent conclusion of Sprague (6155)
that ". . .no assumptions should be made about temperature effects
on toxicity" is well supported by the literature.   Certainly, there
is often a time potentiation effect (see references given by Sprague,
6155).  However, Lloyd (6267) presents data and cites four references
to show that trace metal-temperature threshold lowering may not
occur.  A study by Portmann (6006) seems to suggest otherwise.
However, Portmann (personal communication,  6291)  agrees that
additional evidence is needed to confirm the presence of threshold
lowering.  In  addition,  Sprague cites unpublished data to the effect
that the incipient lethal level of zinc to salmon is actually lower at
lower temperatures (6155).

Effects  of sub-lethal levels of some trace metals on growth, respira-
tion,  and reproduction of some marine organisms have been studied
(Bougis, 6114, 6100; Clendenning and North, 6113,  see Table 15-6),
but many more studies  are needed.

Data obtained from laboratory toxicity tests using individual species
should be applied to the prediction of nearshore marine pollution
with caution.  Estimates of acceptable environmental levels include
one-tenth of the 48-hour TLm (Burdick, 6323) and one-tenth of the
96-hour TLm (Wurtz, 6233).  Beak (6276) had considered a similar
estimate to be "little more than an intelligent guess".  One-hundredth
of the 96-hour TIjm has been recently suggested by the U. S.  National
Technical Advisory Committee  (6004). Sprague (6155)  reviews studies
on water quality criteria relating to the validity of these assigned levels.

Natural populations:  The  determination of the  short-term tolerance
of a population is roughly  equivalent to determination of the most
sensitive species in the population.   Provided the appropriate tech-
niques can be worked out,  acute toxicity tests applied to natural
populations will be a systematic and relatively  rapid  method of sing-
ling out critical "indicator" species.  In addition,  such tests inher-
ently take into account  organism-organism interactions.  Ways in
which toxicity may be altered in a natural population are uptake of
the toxic substance by less sensitive species (see,  for  example, Keil
and Priester, 6083), and excretion of organic substances which bind
or chelate the toxic substance (see  Provasoli, 6367).

Studies of sub-lethal effects on natural populations may be prohi-
bitively difficult with our present technology.  If, however, we can
elucidate some  simple interactions in a population,  we may be able
to piece some meaningful "partial population" experiments together.
An example of an experimentally reasonable partial population study
has been  suggested by  Waldichuk (6248).  He pointed out i.hat labora-
tory predator-prey experiments could be expanded to include a study
of the  effect of pollutants on this important relationship between

Ecological models: No attempt has been made to list or evaluate
ecological models.  Their mention here is  to indicate the possibility
for their use  in evaluating pollution problems.

The goals  of ecological models are parallel to those of chemical
thermodynamics; to be able to describe the state of the system of
small  "particles" in terms of observable macroparameters.   The
choice of a "standard" or reference state of a biological system  will
be difficult.   The choice of variables is not obvious.   There may not
be basic variables for  biological systems corresponding to tempera-
ture,  pressure  and volume in gaseous chemical systems.

An example of a measurable parameter which may be usable in
modeling biological systems is species diversity, which has  been
described by  a number of statistical indices.  It is thought that
"stability" of an ecosystem (ability to withstand environmental stress)
increases  with increased species diversity.  This  relationship must
be further investigated (Pearson, Storrs,  and Selleck, 6366).


1.    The physical and chemical forms of trace metals in  sea water
      are important to a consideration of their behavior as potential
2.    Very little is known about nearshore  trace metal concentrations
      on the open coast of the Pacific Northwest.  Inference  from other
      "similar" locales is not justified at the present state of knowledge
      about factors which control trace metal concentrations.

3.    Some of the processes which may remove trace metals from  sea
      water are precipitation,  sorption, flocculation and biological
      uptake.  The relative importance of these mechanisms for specific
      areas is not known.

4.    Although there is a fair amount of information on the short-term
      acute toxicities  of trace metals to specific marine organisms
      from the Pacific Northwest,  methodological questions  and  lack
      of long-term or  sub-lethal studies make it difficult to predict
      safe levels.

In the course of this study,  several individual metals were selected
for more intensive study.  The metals selected were those with
apparently high potential for pollution of nearshore waters  of the
Pacific Northwest.  These metals were mercury, copper,  lead,
and zinc.
In the late 1950's and early 1960's, organo-mercury compounds on
fish and shellfish from Minamata Bay,  Japan caused severe neuro-
logical disorders in 111 persons and killed 41.  There were 19 cases
of congenital disorders attributed  to the same cause (Irukayama,

In 1966, Sweden prohibited the use of methyl-mercury as a seed-
dressing after significant bird mortalities (Jernelov,  6220).

In 1970, fish from Lake Erie  were found by Canadian researchers
to contain mercury levels higher than  those allowed by existing
health standards (Anon. , 6013).  The major  source of mercury in
Lake Erie was from chlorine-caustic soda production plants (Anon. ,
6298).  There are several chlorine-caustic soda plants in the  Pacific
Northwest, primarily for the  purpose  of supplying chlorine needed
for bleaching pulps,  although  none  yet are situated on the open coast.
In addition,  the continued use of organo-mercurial fungicides  as
seed treatment (Anon.,  6289), the  limited use organo-mercurials
in the pulp and paper industry (which has been reduced in recent
years), and  the presence of economic  deposits of mercury-bearing.
ores in the area (Highsmith,  6340) warrant some consideration.

The quantity of mercury in nearshore  waters and in rivers in  the
Pacific Northwest has never been  measured.  There are very few
determinations of mercury in sea  water.   The range of observed
open oceanic values  is from 0. 08 to 0. 27 p.g/1 (Hamaguchi, Kuroda,
and Hosohara, 6065; Hosohara, 6070).  In Minamata  Bay in I960,
values for total mercury (oxidized  samples)  ranged from 1.6 to
3. 6 fig/ 1.  Mercury in unoxidized  samples was about  one-tenth of
this value (Hosohara et al. , 6071).

Mercury has been detected in marine organisms in the following
concentrations: brown algae, 0. 03 ppm dry weight; mollusca
(tissues), 1 (?) ppm dry weight; pisces,  0.3 (?) ppm dry weight
(Bowen,  6019).  Question marks are those of the cited reference
and indicate questionable values.  Haddock and cod caught near
Sweden contained 0. 044 ppm and 0. 031 ppm wet weight respectively
(We s too,  6278).

The  behavior of mercury in the natural environment is not well
understood.  It has been established  that inorganic mercury is
converted to methyl-mercury in anaerobic sludges (Jensen and
Jernelov, 6242). "This may be a chemical transfer reaction, al-
though regeneration of methylcobalamine, one necessary factor
for the reaction, is enzymatic (Wood,  6009).

Mercury in most of its chemical forms is adsorbed onto sediments.
Some of this adsorbed mercury is very slow to exchange with the
water (Hannerz, 6003).  Marine sediments taken near the Hyperion
outfall at Los Angeles contained up to 50 times more  mercury  than
similar unaffected sediments (up to 1 ppm) (Klein and Goldberg,

Chemical form is  extremely important to the biological behavior of
mercury.  The species of primary concern in sea  water will be
HgCl4=,  HgCl3",  HgClz;  CH3HgCl;  and  (CH3)2Hg; inorganic mer-
cury, methyl-mercuric chloride,  and dimethyl mercury respectively.
All are quite soluble in water.  Dimethyl mercury[( CH3)2Hg] is
volatile and is changed to methyl-mercuric chloride (CHoHgCl)
under slightly acidic conditions (Wood, Kennedy, and  Rosen, 6010).

CH-jHgCl and (CH3)2Hg diffuse more easily than the inorganic
species through biological membranes (Wood, 6009).  Uptake of
mercury by organisms is generally more rapid than excretion, which
is one factor involved  in accumulation (Hannerz, 6003).  Thus  we
might expect organo-mercurials to be more highly concentrated by
organisms than inorganic mercury.   This is observed (Hannerz,  6003).
Westob"  (6278) found  that 82% of the  mercury in Swedish marine fish
was CH3Hg  Cl, although it is possible that (CH3)2Hg was converted
during the analysis procedure.

It should be noted that the concentration of mercury in organisms
is not necessarily related to its place in  the food chain (trophic level),
but to such factors as  the uptake-excretion balance (metabolism),
and size of individuals.  The variations between individual organisms
of the same species are very large,  with as much as a factor of
twenty between the lowest and highest concentrations in a single
laboratory sample (Hannerz,  6003).


Organo-mercurials are considerably more toxic than inorganic
mercury to marine organisms,  particularly vertebrates (Lbfroth
and Duffy,  6281) due  to the more rapid membrane passage.   Bond
and Nolan  (6222) tested 32 mercury compounds,  9 inorganic  salts
and 23 organo-mercury compounds, on the snail Australorbis
glabratus.   The most effective inorganic  salt (HgB^) produced
80% mortality in 24 hours at 1 ppm concentration,  although it pro-
duced no mortalities  at 0.5 ppm in the same time interval.  Twelve
organo-mercury compounds,on  the other  hand, produced significant
mortality at the 0. 3 ppm  level.

The acute  toxicity of  mercury to marine organisms is high.   Bi-
valve larvae were killed by 20 ng/1 (McKee and Wolf, 6000).  Cope-
pods (Acartia clausi)  were killed in 2. 5 hours by 50 (J.g/1 (Corner
and Sparrow,  6241).  Bryozoan larvae (Watersipora cucullata)
were found to have a  2-hour TL,-n of 100  jj.g/1 (Wisely and Blick, 6247).
These  short-term results,  combined with the observation of  Boetius
(cited in McKee and Wolf, 6000) that mercury is "infinitely toxic"
if the exposure is long enough,  suggest that acute toxicity of  mercury
may be important.

Giant kelp  (Macrocystis pyrifera) suffered a 50% decrease in photo-
synthetic capacity on exposure for  4 days to 50 (a.g/1 (McKee  and
Wolf,  6000).

A temperature-mercuric  chloride synergism has been reported by
Portmann  (6006).  He showed that LE>   (48 hour) for  the cockle
(Cardium edule)  at 5 C was 130 times that at 22 C.  The LD50
for the brown shrimp (Cragon cragon) changed only by a factor
of 5 over the same temperature interval.   However, Portmann
(personal communication, 6291) has indicated that more study is
needed to confirm this apparent synergism.

1.  Mercury has great pollution potential.

2.  Mercury concentrations in sea water may be around 0. 1 to
3.   The behavior of mercury in the natural environment is not
    well understood; certain conditions favor the production of
    methyl- mercury in sediments.

4.  Marine organisms concentrate mercury.  Methyl-mercury is
    even more highly concentrated.

5.  The acute toxicity of mercury to marine organisms is high.

6.  Temperature may have a effect on mercury toxicity.

Our concern with copper as a potential pollutant stems from its
extensive use in industry and its relatively high toxicity to marine
organisms.   Pollution with copper has been observed in a number
of harbors on Long Island  Sound (Prytherch, 6195; Galtsoff,  6056).
Sources of copper pollution are copper pickling and plating pro-
cesses (electronics industry, metals industry), algicides,  corrosion
of condenser tubing in thermal electric plants  ( see Roosenburg,
6324; USDI,  6240), marine antifouling paints,  and many other
industrial processes  (see Appendix 4).  The addition of copper  from
corrosion  of the condenser  tubing in thermal  electric power plants
may be negligible  (USDI, 6254),  but may  vary  considerably de-
pending on the antifouling additives which are used.

There are many measurements of copper in sea water. Only the
more recent ones  distinguish between inorganic and organic copper.
Corcoran and Alexander (6 193)and Alexander and  Corcoran (6192)
working in the Caribbean found less than  2  jag ionic copper/1  with
less than  ljag/1 below 50 m.   Particulate copper was  less than
0.5 H-g/1.   Total soluble copper  (<0. 5|J.) was 4-13  M-g/1 with occa-
sional values as high as 20 (J.g/1.

Williams  (6040) found organically bound copper ranging from 0.0
to 0. 45 (J-g/1, and  inorganic copper from  0.38  to 4. 26 |j.g/ 1 in near-
shore areas  off San Diego.  There was no correspondence between
amounts of organic and inorganic copper  found.   The  percent organ-
ically associated ranged from 0-28% of the total.   The nature of the
organic association is not  known.

Although only ionic copper is toxic to fish,  there  are  indications
that complexed copper may be as toxic to algae as ionic copper
(Ingols, 6239). Whether the organically  associated copper has
a nature similar to this "complexed" copper is not known. The
possibility needs  further investigation, particularly in light of  the
wide variations in "organic" copper reported above.


The ways in which the nearshore marine environment assimilates
copper "pollution" may be very complicated.  Divalent copper was
strongly and consistently adsorbed on all materials tested by
Krauskopf (6102).   Chow and Thompson (6037) showed that under
certain conditions,  shallow sediments release copper to sea water.
The concentration of  Cu++ in equilibrium with Cu(OH)2 in sea water
is about 20ug/l  (calculated from solubility constant values presented
by Duursma and Sevenhuysen,  6213) at 18-20 C.  Yet values up to
600 fjig/1 total copper are observed (Prytherch, 6195).   Thus the
organic involvement of copper in the marine environment seems to
"stabilize" relatively large concentrations of copper in  solution.

There are more data on the toxicity of copper to marine organisms
than on any other metal, probably due to its extensive use in marine
antifouling paints.  Bougis (6114) showed that 10 to 20 jj.g Cu/1  slowed
the growth of sea urchin pluteaus.  26 (j.g/1 CuSO4 in the presence
of EDTA inhibited growth of the phytoplankton Exuviaella at 30  C
(USDI, 6240).   A number of other phytoplankton species  (Coccochloris
elab ens, Glenodinum foliaceum,  Prorocentrum sp. ) have similar
tolerance levels (USDI, 6240; Marvin,  Lansford,  and Wheeler,  6252;
Mandelli, 6354). On the other hand,  the minnow,  Fundulus hetero-
clitus tolerated 30  mg/1 (30, 000 |J.g/l) for 4 days (Doudoroff and Katz,
6235).  Even higher concentrations (up to 18 g/1 ) were  used to kill
bacteria (USDI, 6253).  High copper concentrations in sea water make
oysters unfit for human consumption (Roosenburg, 6324).
1.   Copper is common in many industrial effluents, particularly
     those of heavy industry.

2.   The processes by which the environment deals with copper are
     complicated by organic involvement.

3.   Copper has a  high toxicity to marine organisms.

4.   Sub-lethal copper pollution can make oysters unfit for human
     consumption,  and may  slow growth of other marine organisms.


It has been recently estimated that 100, 000 tons of lead aerosols
are produced annually in the Northern Hemisphere (Murozumi,
Chow,1 and Patterson, 6360), primarily by the burning of fuels
containing tetraethyl lead.  The  effect of this  industrial input of
lead into the oceans is noticeable in oceanic lead concentrations.
The  deep sea lead concentration is about 0. 03 \ g Pb/1.  It has been
estimated  that  surface lead concentrations were similar prior to
the industrial revolution (Tatsumoto and Patterson,  6160).  Now
surface values run fairly consistently between 0. 1 (o.g/1 and 0. 4
fjig/l(Chow, 6031, 6032; Tatsumoto and Patterson, 6l60).   In local-
ized areas, values may run as high as 1. 5 [J.g/1  (Loveridge et al. ,
6109) or even 5 |ag/l  (Noddack and Noddack, 6121).

Rivers in the Pacific Northwest  have,  generally, a high lead content,
around 4 fig Pb/1 (Durum and Haffty,  6208).

The  acute toxicity of lead to marine organisms is poorly known.   An
18-week TL  for the oyster Crassostrea virginica was measured
to be 300 fJ.g/1.  100 (J-g/1 was observed to cause noticeable tissue
changes in 12 weeks (USDI, 6004).  On the other hand, 4 mg/1 had
no effect on Plaice embryos (Doudoroff and Katz,  6235), and 200
mg/1 was required to cause abnormalities in  sea urchin eggs
(McKee and Wolf, 6000).

Lead is accumulated in marine organisms, although not to  the same
degree as zinc.  Marine plants have been observed to contain 8,400
ppb compared to a sea water  concentration of  about 0. 1 ppb '(Bowen,


1.  Man has significantly changed the  lead content of surface sea

2.  The lead concentration in coastal waters of  the Pacific Northwest
    in unknown.  Rivers in the area have around 4 fig Pb/1.

3.  Sub-lethal  effects will probably be more important than acute

In spite of its relatively low acute toxicity,  zinc is of concern in
our  study of coastal pollution.  This is primarily due to observed
sub-lethal effects.  The high concentration factor of zinc in marine
organisms (USDI, 6004; McKee and Wolf, 6000) is also of interest.

Observed zinc values in nearshore areas range between 3 (Morris,
6117) and 50 (j.g/1 (Brooks, 6189).  Zinc apparently has a fairly
strong organic association in sea water, similar to copper  (Rona
et al. , 6137;  Barsdate, 6280).    The values of Buffo (61 75) thought
to be affected by contamination (Cutshall,  pers. comm. ) but could
be largely due to upwelling (see Schutz and Turekian, 6141).  Buffo
(6175) found an average of 22 [xg/ 1 in surface samples from off the
Oregon coast.

Zinc in rivers of the Pacific Northwest is generally around 10 to
20 jj.g/1 (Kopp and Kroner,  6251;  Durum and Haffty, 6208), but
values up to 300 |xg/l have  been observed (Kopp and Kroner,  6251).

Acute toxicities of  zinc to marine organisms are generally around
5 to  10 mg Zn/1, although some of these were measured over very
short time intervals (Wisely and Blick,  6247),  Invertebrate larvae
seem to be the most sensitive of the organisms tested (Wisely and
Blick,  6247).  Growth of the larvae of Poracentrotus lividus (a sea
urchin) was retarded by only 30 ug  Zn/1 (Bougis,  6100).  160 |ag
Zn/1 caused abnormalities in sea urchin eggs (McKee and Wolf,
6000).  The division rate of the diatom Nizschia was reduced by
exposureto only 0.25 nag/1 (Chipman, Rice, and Price,  6224).


1.   Zinc is somewhat variable  in nearshore waters,  but Oregon
    coastal values  are  probably around 20 jj.g/1.

2.  Organic involvement may "stabilize" high zinc concentrations
    in sea water.

3.  Acute toxicities are moderate,  but  sub-lethal effects may be

                Chapter 16.  RADIOCHEMISTR Y

                     by William C.  Renfro

The Pacific Northwest coastal region is one of the unique areas of
the world from a radiochemical viewpoint.  Any sample  of water
from this area may contain radioactive elements  from several
different sources,  including the following:

A.  naturally-occurring radionuclides,

B.  fallout fission products from nuclear weapons tests, and

C.  neutron-induced radionuclides from fallout and from the Hanford
    plutonium production reactors.

To understand the levels of radioactivity in water,  sediments, and
biota of the region, it is most convenient to discuss the  radionuclides
on the  basis of their origin.

A.  Naturally-occurring radionuclides

Radionuclides occurring naturally are essentially of two kinds:
long-lived primordial radioisotopes with their decay products and
cosmic ray-induced radionuclides.
From the standpoint of background radioactivity levels in sea water,
potassium-40 with a half life of 1. 26 x 10  years is a most important
primordial radionuclide.  More than 90% of  the total radioactivity
in sea water is due to "*0j (Burton,  4187) because potassium is a
major element in sea water averaging 0. 39 g K/l (of which 0. 0118%
is ^K).   Furthermore, potassium constitutes a significant fraction
(0. 2-0. 3%) of the elemental composition of man,  fish, and other
organisms so that the natural abundance of   K accounts for a large
part of the internal irradiation all organisms experience.

Relatively few measurements of 40K in the Pacific Northwest
marine environment have been published,  probably because this
radionuclide is so ubiquitious as to be of little interest to most
investigators.  Gross, McManus , and Creager (4218) observed
4K concentrations averaging about 25 picocuries per gram(pCi/g)
dry sediment in the area around the mouth of the Columbia River.
This value (25 pCi/g) is in general conformance with the 40K
sediment levels measured by Toombs and Culter (4217) throughout the
lower  Columbia River and Tillamook Bay.

The concentration of 40K  in sea water is stated by Burton (4187)
to be 0.324  pCi/g.  Osterberg (4069) measured 40K in euphausiids
(small marine crustaceans), lantern fish,  shrimp, and viper fish
caught along the Oregon coast.  With few exceptions  40K activities
in these organisms ranged from 0. 6 to  1.3 pCi/g wet weight.
Seymour and Lewis (4093) reported a range from 2 to 6 pCi/g
wet weight in intertidal marine organisms near the Columbia River
mouth.   Almost all marine and estuarine organisms  analyzed by
Toombs and Culter (4217) averaged 2 to 3  pCi/g wet  weight.  It
appears from these observations that the concentration of 4(^K in
marine organisms can be expected to be near 2 pCi/g regardless of
their habitat.
Another radionuclide in sea water contributing a small fraction
to the total sea water radioactivity (less than 1% of that due to 4<^K)
is 87Rfo with a 4. 8 x 10*0 year half-life.  Since its activity in sea
water is only 0. 003 pCi/ml (Burton,  4187) and because  most marine
organisms do not concentrate Rb to high levels  (concentration factors
from 1 to  26; Polikarpov, 4219), 87Rb is not greatly important
as a source of internal radiation.
232Th  235^  238^
Of particular interest to oceanographers and geochemists are the
naturally-occurring elements having atomic numbers greater than
83 (bismuth).  All these  elements are radioactive and belong to
the decay chains of 238U (4. 51 x 1 O9 years), 235 U (7. 13 x 1 O8
years), or 232Th (1. 39  x 1010 years).   Under certain conditions,

the relative activities of a parent-daughter pair of radionuclides in
a decay chain can be used to determine rates of oceanographic or
geochemical processes.

The concentration of uranium in well-mixed sea water averages
about 3. 3 (j.g/1 or 2. 2 pCi/1 (Burton,  4187) of which 99. 3% is 238U
and 0. 7% is 23^U.  The amount of thorium in sea water is very low;
being on the order of 10~9 g/1 (Prospero and Koczy, 4011).  In
sediments uranium may be present in concentrations around
1 microgram per gram ((J-g/g) but may be concentrated to high levels
in certain reducing conditions and when  associated with highly organic
sediments (Burton, 4187).  Thorium in oceanic  sediments varies
largely with the amount of clay  present,  ranging from 2-12 |o.g/g
(Prospero and Koczy, 4011).  In marine  organisms the concentrations
of both thorium and uranium are usually  hundredths  of (J.g/g wet
weight (Bowen,  4220).  Despite the generally low concentrations of
uranium and thorium parent elements in  marine organisms, some
daughter radionuclides further down  the decay chains may contribute
significantly to the  total radiation background.   For  example, 222j^n
is a radioactive gas in the 238u decay chain which escapes from
sediments,  sea water, and land to the atmosphere.   In turn, its
radioactive  daughter, ZlOpt^ can return to the ocean in precipitation
and constitute a significant fraction of the internal radiation background
of marine animals (Beasley, 4193).

Other primordial radionuclides

Other primordial radionuclides having very long half lives from
107 to 1015  years include ^V,  115In, 138La, 144Nd,  147Sm, 152Gdj
174Hf, 176Lu, 180Ta, 187Re,  and19Pt.  Most of these have'low
concentrations in sea water, and many have not been detected.  Hence,
these radioisotopes are responsible for  only a negligible fraction of
the total radioactivity in sea water and,  excepting vanadium in
tunicates, are not presently thought to be biologically important.

Cosmic ray-induced radionuclides

High energy cosmic rays  which originate in outer space and are
accelerated by interstellar magnetic fields engage in nuclear
reactions with elements in the earth's atmosphere.   Some of the
nuclear reactions involving cosmic rays  produce significant
amounts of 3H,  7Be,  and  ^Be as spallation fragments.  At the

 same time the radionuclides  H (half-life,  12.3 years) and 14C
 (half-life, 5730 years) are continuously formed and have proved to
 be valuable indicators of ocean and atmosphere mixing rates.
 Tritium,  in addition to being continually produced by cosmic ray
 neutron interaction with nitrogen (14N + !n- 3H + 12C) is also
 produced in large amounts in nuclear weapons tests,  reactor fuel
 element reprocessing, and nuclear reactors.  Although the concen-
 tration of 3H in sea water averages about 1 pCi/1 (Pertsov, 4097),
 it does not appear to be concentrated highly by marine organisms.
 Nevertheless,  large and continuing injections of 3H into the biosphere,
 as from fuel reprocessing activities , should be avoided for they
 increase the radiation background.
 Carbon-14 formed in the secondary cosmic ray reaction (  N +
 In - ^4C+  H) is also produced in nuclear -weapons tests.  Cosmic
 ray-produced *-^C is  oxidized to carbon dioxide and enters the
 atmosphe re -hydrosphere carbon dioxide cycle.  Almost 95% of the
 exchangeable carbon  is in the ocean, mostly in an inorganic form
 (Burton, 4187).   Substantial perturbations in the specific  activity
 of 14c (activity of 14c/g total carbon isotopes) have occurred in the
 past century due  to the burning  of 14c-poor fossil fuels and in the
 past two decades from nuclear weapons tests.   The concentration
 of 14c in sea water is around 0. 2 pCi/1.
Silicon-32 with a half -life of 650 years is produced in the atmosphere
by cosmic rays,  probably in a spallation reaction with argon (Burton,
4187).   The concentrations of 32Si in sea water are very low, being
8 x 10-6 pCi/1 (specific activity, 2.7 pCi 32Si/kg Si; Burton, 4187).


Beryllium-10 with a half-life of 2. 5 million years  is produced by
cosmic  ray interactions with atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen.

It has been measured at very low concentrations in deep ocean
sediments and is unlikely to be of importance in the nearshore
coastal zone.

B.  Fission product radionuclides from weapons tests
When a neutron reacts with the nucleus of a heavy element such
as ^3E>U, j-^g nucleus often splits, producing two fission fragments.
In general,  these fission products have unequal masses.   The light
fragment has an atomic mass around 95 and the heavier fragment's
mass is around 139, although detectable amounts of fission products
are found throughout the mass region 72-166 (Katcoff,  4221).
Some of the important fission fragments and their half-lives are listed
/ v _
* Y
/ -*' rj
7 Nb
Ha If -life

10. 27 yrs
54 days

28 yrs

64. 5 hrs

58 days

63 days

35 days

41 days

1. 0 yr
1 2Q m


30 sec
90 days

9. 3 hrs

33 days

72 min

8. 05 days

5. 27 days

6. 68 hrs

26. 6 yrs

12.8 days
40. 2 hrs

32 days

13.7 days

290 days

17.5 min

11.3 days

2. 6 yrs

93 yrs
Since these and other fission product radionuclides invariably have
an excess of neutrons in their nuclei,  they decay by emitting negative
beta particles (Glasstone,  4222).  In many cases,  fission decay
chains result from successive beta emissions.   For example,
the fission decay chain  for mass number 140 is as follows:
140V  16 sec
140_   66 sec
140^   12. 8 days
140T  40 hrs
In this manner,  a large spectrum of fission fragments and their daughter
radionuclides are present following a nuclear fission test in the

From the first nuclear explosion in the summer of 1945 to the
first test moratorium in late 1958, the United States, Great Britain,
and Russia detonated 250 nuclear devices.  The  total energy of the
fission events amounted to about 90 megatons (million tons of
TNT)as shown in Figure 16-1.   In addition, 80 megatons effusion
energy resulted from thermonuclear (fission-fusion) weapons  tested
prior to the 1958 test moratorium (Eisenbud, 4207).  In i960 France
began testing  nuclear weapons  and  in late 1961 and 1962 the United States
and Russia resumed tests.  The fission products yielded by tests
in 1961 and 1962 totalled more than that of all previous fission
explosions (Figure 16-1).  In addition, massive  fusion explosion
tests were carried out in 1961  and  1962 which added  moderate
amounts  of fission fragments to the biosphere.   In 1963,  the United
States, Great Britain and Russia signed a treaty banning nuclear
testing on the ground, under water, or in space.  Since that time
only France and Mainland China have contributed fission products to
the biosphere.

Vaporized fission products and neutron-induced  radionuclides are
mixed with surface material swept up into the mushroom.  This
debris reaches only into the  lower  atmosphere (troposphere) in
the case  of fission devices.  In contrast, radioactive debris from the
larger magaton weapons tests (thermonuclear or hydrogen bombs)
is thrown higher,  much of it being  injected into the stratosphere
(Mauchline and Templeton, 4126).  Because the  tropopause forms
a barrier to free exchange of material between  the troposphere
and the stratosphere,  the residence time for  bomb debris in the
stratosphere is long.  As a result, fallout of such material may
occur for several years after a bomb test and constitute  a continuing
source of fission fragments to  terrestrial and marine environments.

In 1966 Polikarpov (4219) stated that the cumulative contamination
of the earth's surface would increase to a maximum by about 1970
(in terms of 90Sr and 137Cs) as the result of inputs from the vast
reservoir of  long-lived radionuclides in the stratosphere.  Despite
continued atmospheric nuclear tests  by France and Mainland China,
fallout of long-lived fission fragments has diminished.  For example,
ground level  90Sr  concentrations in air measured by Shleien, Cochran,
and Magno (4223) showed continual decline  from late 1963 through

     1952-54     1955-56      1957-58
Figure 16-1.
Atmospheric nuclear tests prior to the 1963 moratorium.
Note that recent tests by China and France are not
included (Modified from Comar,  4208).

early 1969.  Thus, while the nuclear test ban has resulted in large
reduction in fallout of fission fragments, the total levels of long-
lived fallout radionuclides is probablynear a maximum at present.

The detonation of a nuclear weapon in the atmosphere can rapidly
increase the amount of fallout into the oceans.  For example,
89Sr and 90gr produced by the  second Chinese test in the Lop Nor
area (90E-40N) in May 1965  was shown by Kuroda,  Miyake, and
Nemoto (4224) to travel around the earth in the troposphere in less
than one month.  Consequently, general statements about concen-
trations of fission-product radionuclides in the marine environment
should be based on long-term averages.

Because 89Sr and 9Sr are not  gamma emitters, their measurement
is relatively difficult and comparatively few measurements of their
concentrations  have been made in Pacific Northwest waters.
Concentrations of 90sr in filtered Columbia River Estuary water and
in sea water 16 km off the river mouth in July 1964 were reported to
be 0.7  10%pCi/l (Parke^al. , 4077).   Reporting on the results
of more than 750 analyses for 90gr in the North Atlantic Ocean surface
waters, Bowen e al_. (4225) listed mean annual concentrations ranging
from 0. 08  to 0. 20 pCi/1 from 1959 through 1967.  Although 90sr is of
great concern in  the terrestrial environment because of its long
half-life,  tendency to be incorporated into bone, and dangerous ionizing
radiations,  it is greatly diluted by the relatively large  concentrations
of stable Ca and Sr in sea water.

Fission product '  Zr is a beta and gamma emitter which decays
with a 65-day half-life to 95Nb, also  a beta and gamma  emitter
(half-life, 35 days).  These radionuclides attain transient equilibrium
and are present in sea water almost exclusively in the particulate
form.  Watson ej: al.  (4004) analyzed estuarine and coastal organisms
collected near the Columbia River mouth in April 1959 and in April
I960.  They showed that 95Zr-9%b levels in all plants  and animals
were declining as the result of decreased world-wide fallout. Further-
more euphausiids (small crustaceans) taken in Oregon offshore waters
in the first portion  of 1961 gave no evidence of ^^Zr-^^N^  in
their gamma-ray spectra prior to the resumption of Russian nuclear
tests in September  1961 (Osterberg,  4069).  However,-Osterberg (4070)

         95    95
reported   Zr-  Nb activities as high as  618 pCi/g dry weight in
euphausiids taken off Oregon in November 1961.  Such rapid changes
in levels of fallout fission fragments emphasize the necessity  of
extended, periodic measurements to establish  radioactivity levels
in the marine environment.

103_     ,  106^
   Ru and _ Ru

Both    Ru and    Ru are important fission products  which are
as sociated with particle s in sea water.  They decay by beta emission
to short-lived 1(53Rh and 106Rh.   As with 95Zr-95Nb, 103Ru and
     u declined in organisms near the Columbia River mouth from
April 1959 to April I960 (Watson ej: al. ,  4004).  Similarly, these
fallout radionuclides  increased by November 1961 to concentrations
from 10  to 30 pCi/g dry weight in euphausiids along the Oregon coast
(Osterberg,  4070).  Seymour and Lewis  (4093) also noted great
increases in fallout radionuclides  in coastal marine organisms as
the result of nuclear  weapons tests in September 1961.

Cesium-137 is a long-lived (half-life,  30 years) fission product
which decays  by beta emission to      Ba (half-life, 2. 6 minutes).
It remains predominantly in the ionic form in sea water according
to Greendale and Ballou (4056).  The concentrations of '-^ Cs in
Northeast Pacific Ocean  surface waters  during  late 1959 and I960
ranged from 0. 05 to 0. 23 pCi/1 (Burton,  4187).  Park^tal.  (4077)
reported  -^'Cs surface concentrations from 0.3 to 0.8  pCi/1 in
the Columbia  River plume off Oregon in  July 1964.  Despite  the
fact that  3' QS js a prominent fission  fragment in  fallout, it is not
usually found  in high concentrations in marine organisms because of the
relatively high levels  of potassium, which is chemically similar  to
and biologically more important than cesium.  Polikarpov (4219) stated,
for example,  that concentration factors of 137 Cs (activity of *37cs per
gram organism/activity of ^-^'Cs per  gram water) are two to three
orders of magnitude higher in freshwater organisms than in  marine
organisms.   Folsom e_t al.  (4215) reported that  3'Cs activities in
albacore  muscle averaged 0.90 pCi/g  wet weight,  representing a
103 -fold concentration over 137cs  concentrations of North Pacific
surface waters between January and March 1966.


Another fission fragment of interest in the marine environment
is Cerium-141 , a beta emitter which decays with a half-life of
32. 5 days to Praesodymium-141 .   Cerium is an element which
occurs  almost entirely in the  ionic form in sea water (Greendale
and Ballou, 4056).  Activities of 141Ce-144Ce in marine organisms
near the Columbia River mouth were observed by Watson et al.
(4004) to decrease generally between April 1959 and April I960.
Following the nuclear tests of September 1961, Osterberg measured
141 Ce activities ranging from 5 to 175 pCi/g dry weight in euphausiids
along the Oregon coast.  As with l^Cs, freshwater animals have
much higher radiocerium concentration factors than do marine
animals (Polikarpov, 4219).

C.  Neutron-induced  radionuclides

In addition to radioactive fission fragments produced by fission
and fission-fusion devices, there is an enormous flux of neutrons.
These  neutrons interact with nonradioactive elements in  the air,
soil,  and bomb structure to form neutron-induced radionuclides.
These neutron-induced radionuclides are a conspicuous part of
local and worldwide fallout from atmospheric weapons tests.

A second source of neutron-induced radionuclides in marine  waters
of the Pacific Northwest is the Hanford Atomic Products Operation.
This facility, located in Eastern Washington  some 650 km up the
Columbia River from the ocean, is a site of plutonium production.
Plutonium ( "Pu) is  a fissionable  element which serves as the
primary ingredient of some fission bombs and as a  fuel in nuclear
reactors.   In the production reactors at Hanford 239pu is formed
in the following reactions:

                       23 mm          r  2.3 days

To provide the neutrons for plutonium production, large nuclear reactors
are necessary and great quantities of heat must be dissipated from
the  reactor cores.  This is accomplished in modern reactors by a
closed primary cooling system coupled through a heat exchanger
to an external heat sink.  However, the eight plutonium production

reactors constructed at Hanford between 1943 and 1956 use a "single
pass" cooling system in which Columbia River water was pumped
through the reactor cores,  delayed in cooling ponds, then returned
to the river.

In passing through the reactor core various elements, dissolved
or suspended in the cooling water stream, are exposed to the great
neutron flux and become radioactive.   Corrosion of neutron-activated
metal parts within the reactor structure also contributes radionuclides
to the coolant water.  Finally, certain chemicals used to pretreat
the coolant water  were also made radioactive by neutron activation.

Immediately after its discharge from the reactors the coolant
waters may  contain up  to 200 radioisotopes,  the majority very
short-lived.   Four hours after the water passes through the reactors
fewer than 20 radionuclides comprise 99% of the activity (Wooldridge,
4228).  During the two  to four week passage downriver the concen-
trations of radionuclides are  diminished by physical decay,  sedimentation
to the river bottom, and accumulation by organisms (Osterberg, 4069).
As a result,  only  a few of the longer-lived radionuclides are readily
measurable at the mouth of the  river.

Listed below are neutron-induced radionuclides present in fallout
and in the  Columbia River:

12. 3 years

5730 years

14. 3 days

87.9 days
83. 9 days

27. 8 days

303 days

2. 6 years

270 days

71.3 days

45. 6 days
5. 3 years

245 days

60. 4 days
	.._    / 	,	^_;	_	^-	i	
*Gamma-emitting radionuclides occurring in measurable amounts
in the river between Hanford and Vancouver, Washington in 1964
(Perkins et al. , 4226).


The levels of neutron-induced radionuclides introduced into the
ocean vary with changes in a number of conditions including the

A.  number of plutonium production reactors in operation,

B.  power levels of the operating reactors,

C.  flow rate of the Columbia River,

D.  operations of dams and reservoirs between reactors and ocean

E.  condition of the fuel element cladding

F.  methods of cooling water pretreatment,  and

G.  concentrations of elements in the water used for cooling.

The numbers of plutonium production reactors at Hanford has
decreased in recent years (Figure 16-2).  Discounting the N-reactor,
which has a closed primary cooling system, the numbers of production
reactors in  operation has decreased from eight in early 1965 to
one in early 1970.  This decrease in reactor  operations has reduced
the levels of neutron-induced radionuclides entering the Pacific
Ocean by at least five -fold.
In the nearshore  coastal waters of the Pacific Northwest only
32ps 5lQrj 54jy[n)  ancj o5zn have been r
water, sediments,  or  marine organisms.
                   ancj o5zn have been regularly measured in
Among these neutron-induced radionuclides only   P does not
emit gamma rays and, for this reason,  it is more difficult to measure
accurately.   Although very  small amounts of 32p in  marine waters
may originate from cosmic ray interactions, essentially all 32p
present near the  mouth of the Columbia  River  comes from Hanford.
Chakravarti e_t al. (4050) reported 32P activities  from 3. 6  0. 6 to
8. 0  0. 6 pCi/1 of filtered sea water at  stations ranging 16  to 56 km
from the Columbia River mouth during July 1963.  In June 1966,

Isakson (4211) measured the concentration of   P in filtered sea
water at the mouth of the Columbia River at 2. 2 pCi/1.  This decrease
is probably a reflection,  in part,  of reactor shutdown (Figure  16-2).
Isakson (4211) also radioanalyzed various organisms from a single
station at the mouth of the Columbia River from September 1965 to
September 1966.  He observed 32p jn dams (Siliqua  patula) and
mussels (Mytilus  californianus) to increase from February to  a peak
in April  or May with annual averages  during the  study near 150 pCi/g
dry weight.


Chromium-51 is the most abundant neutron-induced radionuclide
reaching the  ocean from Hanford.   It is introduced into the  Columbia
River largely in a dissolved hexavalent anion and,  except for small
amounts which are reduced to trivalent form and sorbed to  particulates,
remains in this  form at  sea (Cutshall,  4229).  Because 51 Cr remains
in the dissolved state and is not appreciably concentrated by marine
organisms (Osterberg, Cutshall,  and Cronin, 4026),  it has been
used as a tracer of Columbia River water in the  Pacific Ocean.
Frederick (4102) used large volume chemical coprecipitation and
shipboard gamma-ray analysis to  trace the Columbia River plume
380 km south from the mouth in summer and more than 200 km
northward in winter during 1966  (see Figure A7-1, Appendix 7).
In general, the  plume  remains offshore from the Oregon coast in
summer so that 51 Cr concentrations in waters near to shore are
low.  In the winter, however, the  plume is concentrated in Washington
coastal waters and has   Cr activities of 100 pCi/1 or more.

Curl, Cutshall,  and Osterberg (4030) reported that measurable
activities of 5-l-Cr  were associated with particulate matter in the
Columbia River plume.   These authors also showed in laboratory
studies that 51 Cr  in the  trivalent oxidation state  is actively sorbed
to particles in sea water. Although trivalent  51 Cr is not to be
expected in sea  water,  since it is  not thermodynamically favored
(Curl ej; al. ,  4030), this  radionuclide was measured  in sediments
as far as 56 km offshore from the Columbia River mouth in August
1962 (Osterberg,  Kulm,  and Byrne, 4034).

> 1  
' ' 1 '
' ' 1 '
                  Figure  16-2.
Operations of nuclear reactors at the Hanford Atomic
Products, Washington.  The N-reactor,  which became
critical in 1964,  has a heat exchanger system and,
thus,  contributes relatively little radioactivity to the
Columbia River (Modified from Nakatani, 4204).

The levels of ^  Cr in marine organisms are not usually high because
chromium has little biological importance.   Osterberg, Pearcy,
and Curl (4072)  observed that 51 Cr was not transferred up the
food web to higher trophic levels,  although it was present in particulate
form at a concentration of 1 6 pCi/1 of sea water 24 km off Astoria
in April 1962.


Manganese-54 is a neutron-induced radionuclide  formed in the
nuclear reaction:  ^4jre 4. in _ 54j^n + ip_  This reaction can take
place in the fireball of  a nuclear explosion or in the reactors at
Hanford.  The relative contributions of  ^^M.n to Northeast Pacific
Ocean waters from fallout and from Hanford are  not well understood.
Cutshall (personal communication, 4230) observed during 1963 that
the levels of ^4]y[n ^n sediments upstream were much lower than
sediments downriver from the Hanford reactors.  This observation
strongly suggests  that Hanford contributes significant levels of
54jvln to the Columbia River and plume.   In contrast, Kujala, Larsen,
and Osterberg (4231) observed gradients in the concentrations of
^Mn in salmon viscera between the Columbia  River mouth and Cook
Inlet, Alaska in 1964 which suggested that fallout of ^^M.n in high
latitude Alaskan waters was more  important than 5^Mn from Hanford.
These authors showed that ^Mn ^n chinook and coho salmon viscera
declined 4- to 40-fold between Alaska and Oregon,  while  ^Zn
(predominantly from Hanford) in the same samples had opposite
trends.  Pearcy and Osterberg (4146), studying ^^Zu and -"^Mn ^n
albacore bet-ween  Baja  California and Washington during the summers
of 1962-1965, concluded that -^Mn enters the ocean from fallout
and is more available in offshore waters than in nearshore -waters.
Folsom e_t al. (4029)  analyzed sea  water and biota from Southern
California in 1963 and reported a   Mn  average concentration of
. 059 pCi/1 in water and up to . 375 pCi/g wet weight of organisms.


Iron-55 is produced in  the reaction:    Fe +  n ->   Fe.  Most of
the  ~*Fe present in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean probably has
originated from the large thermonuclear tests with negligible
amounts being contributed by the Hanford reactors (Jennings, 4120).

Although it has a half-life of 2.7 years and is a major radionuclide
in fallout from recent nuclear  tests, the weak (5. 9 kev) x-ray
associated with decay of 55Fe  is easily absorbed and difficult to
measure quantitatively (Palmer and Beasley,  4024).  For this reason,
it has not been extensively studied.  Jennings (4120) reported 55Fe
specific activities in the viscera of  salmon from Pacific Northwest
waters  in 1964 ranging from 0. 7 to  28. 7 |J.Ci/g Fe.  Specific activities
of 55Fe in sea cucumbers and  sediments collected off the coast of
Oregon were three to four orders of magnitude lower than those in
the salmon (Jennings, 4120).

57     58rn  60
   Co,   Co,   Co
                  "57     58         60
The radionuclides    Co,   Co, and   Co are produced in nuclear
tests and are  conspicuous in plankton  samples in  the vicinity of
test sites for  many weeks after detonation (Lowman, 4149).
However, in Pacific  Northwest coastal waters only small concen-
trations of ^Co and  "^Co have been reported in plankton (Seymour
and Lewis, 4093) and sediments (Gross, McManus,  and  Creager,
4218; Osterberg, Kulm, and Byrne, 4034).  Gross and Nelson
(4232) used the ratios of the activities of  ^Zn and "^Co  to estimate
rates of sediment movement along the Oregon and Washington coasts.

59 Fe
Iron-59 is produced in the neutron activation reaction:    Fe +  n -   Fe
in nuclear reactors and in nuclear explosions.  However, the natural
abundance of ^Fe is very low (0. 3%) so that relatively small amounts
of 5
Off the Washington and Oregon coasts   Zn from the Hanford plutonium
production reactors occurs seasonally in all components of the marine
ecosystem: water,  sediments, and biota.  Comprehensive  sampling
programs sponsored by the U. S.  Atomic Energy Commission were
initiated in 1961 to learn the distribution and fate of Hanford-produced
radionuclides in the vicinity of the Columbia River  mouth.   Earlier
reports by Watson,  Davis,  and Hanson (4004,4022) established
the presence of 65zn and other radionuclides from fallout and
Hanford in estuarine and coastal biota.  These authors measured
65Zn in intertidal clams within 20 km north and  south of the river
mouth ranging from 1 0 to 147 pCi/g wet weight in 1957 ,  1959, and

The distribution of   Zn in plankton from the offshore  areas of
Washington and Oregon during the three-year period, 1961-1963,
was studied by Lewis and Seymour (4010).  Although significant
seasonal fluctuations in "^Zn occurred, the levels of "-^Zn in unsorted
plankton near the river mouth did not change greatly from 1961
to 1963.  The geometric mean "^Zn concentrations were highest
(200 pCi/g dry plankton) to the north of the river mouth in winter
and at the mouth during spring (200 pCi/g)  and summer (110 pCi/g).
In the autumn the geometric mean concentrations of the Washington
and Oregon coastal regions were  low (19-41 pCi/g dry plankton).

A number of intertidal animals from the Washington and Oregon
coasts have been analyzed for 65zn.   Seymour and Lewis (4093)
reported that 65zn concentrations in mussels (Mytilus californianus)
averaged over the period 1961-1963 decreased sharply with increasing
distance from the Columbia River mouth.   From a mean value of
540 pCi/g dry weight the mussel 65zn levels diminished to roughly
210 pCi/g at a distance of 80 km north and to about 80 pCi/g at a
distance of 80 km south.  In January 1966, Mellinger (4128)
repeated these coastal ->Zn analyses of mussels along the Washington
and Oregon coasts with the following results:  mussels at the
Columbia River mouth. . . 120 pCi/g, 80 km north. . . 55 pCi/g, and
80 km south. . . 25 pCi/g dry weight.   The higher 65zn levels in
mussels from locations north are due to the fact that the winter
Columbia River plume is driven inshore along the Washington coast,
whereas the  summer plume sets to the southwest and tends to remain
away from, the Oregon coast.

There are abundant reports on   Zn in pelagic and benthic animals
from offshore waters of Washington and Oregon.  However, little
information is available regarding 65zn concentrations within 10 km
of the coast.   Carey (4233) reported that 65Zn specific activities
of echinoderms varied with season,  depth,  distance from the
Columbia River,  and food habits.  Specific  activities of 5Zn in
echinoderms taken at depths of 200  m or less during June 1966
along the Oregon coast ranged from . 02 to  . 25  pCi/g Zn.  In
albacore (Thunnus alalunga) livers collected along the Oregon  coast
in 1963, 1965, and 1966,  Pearcy and Osterberg (4146) reported
65Zn specific activities from .02  to .37 pCi/g Zn.  In earlier  studies
Osterberg,  Pattullo, and Pearcy (4033) observed that 5Zn
concentrations in euphausiids off Newport,  Oregon (170 km south
of the Columbia River) were sometimes higher than  those at the
river mouth.  They  suggested that this condition probably reflected
the  length of time the euphausiids spent in  water containing    Zn.
The   Zn concentrations in euphausiids taken within 50 km of the
shore from July  1961 through August 1962  ranged from 13 to  136
pCi/g dry weight at  the Columbia  River mouth,  12 to 93  pCi/g
at Newport, and  5 to 27 pCi/g at Coos  Bay.

Although    Zn is introduced into the river  at Hanford in  the cationic
form,  it becomes increasingly associated with  particulate matter
during its transit to the ocean (Perkins, Nelson, and Haushild,
4226).  Some  of the  particulate matter in the Columbia River plume
settles  to the  continental  shelf and can be identified by its radio-
activity.  During 1961 Gross,  McManus, and Creager (4218) measured
   Zn in the top centimeter of sands along the Washington-Oregon
coasts at depths  of 60 m or less.  The 65zn concentrations in  these
samples ranged from 1.3 to 16 pCi/g  dry weight.  Offshore sediment
values reported by these authors ranged from 0 to 460 pCi ^Zn/g
with most being less than 10 pCi/g.  Osterberg, Kulm, and Byrne
(4034) reported that 5Zn concentrations in sediments in and around
the Astoria Canyon decreased from about 100 pCi/g  dry  weight
9 km offshore from  the Columbia  River mouth to undetectable  levels
at stations 65 km offshore during  August 1962.   Recently, the
Oceanography Department at Oregon State  University has measured
65Zn specific activities ranging from  100 nanocuries per gram zinc
(nCi/g Zn) at the Columbia River  mouth to  1 5 nCi/g  Zn at the Straits
of Juan de Fuca.


Antimony-124 is formed in the reaction:     Sb + n -*     Sb in
the nuclear reactors at Hanford.  Like  ->J-Cr, ^ "Sb tends to remain
in the ionic state during its passage downriver (Perkins, Nelson,
and Haushild, 4226).  Both ^  Cr and    4Sb appear to be conservative
radionuclides,  that is, their concentrations are not altered significantly
by biological processes but are changed primarily by mixing.  For
this reason, the  ratios of ^Cr- ^Sb activities in Columbia River
plume waters may hold promise for determining mixing and movement
rates.   To date ^ "Sb concentrations have not been reported,
although Pope (4205) measured  ^"*Sb in the water at the  Columbia
River mouth at 1. 2  0. 2 pCi/1 in April 1969.

Future  radioactivity levels in coastal waters

Man has little or no control over his exposure  to radiations from
naturally-occurring radionuclides.  Short of moving to another location,
a man is generally compelled to accept radiations from the rocks
on -which he lives and the various building materials about him.
However; the levels of artificial radionuclides in the environment
from nuclear reactors and weapons tests can be  controlled.   Thus,
man is  faced with decisions regarding the environmental costs
and the  benefits to be  derived from the use of nuclear  fission and

Despite the current  ban on atmospheric nuclear tests,  France and
Mainland China continue to explode nuclear devices in the atmosphere.
For this reason, the concentrations of fission fragments and neutron-
induced radionuclides in fallout can be expected to fluctuate.  Until
all such tests cease and the reservoirs of radionuclides in the
atmosphere stabilize, accurate predictions of fallout radioactivity
in surface  ocean waters are not possible.

The Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty between the United States,
United Kingdom, and Russia has contributed  to reducing  radioactive
fallout and to limiting the proliferation of nuclear -weapons (Ehrlich,
4234).   Furthermore, a provision in this treaty prohibits any under-
ground  explosion that  causes radioactive debris to be present beyond
the boundaries of the country initiating the  explosion.   This prohibition

may place formidable barriers to many peaceful applications
of nuclear explosions  such as harbor excavations, sea level canal
projects, and other nuclear engineering works which might add
radioactivity to the biosphere.

An additional  source of radioactivity in atmospheric fallout may
result from space vehicle incidents.   For example,  SNAP -9 A,
an isotope power generator for a space vehicle,  burned up in the
atmosphere in 1964.   This resulted in  increased levels of 238pu
(the SNAP-9A power source) in ground level air samples taken
in Massachusetts from mid-1966 through 1968 (Schlein,  Cochran,
andMagno, 4223).

Radioactivity  from nuclear reactors is currently of great interest
in the  Pacific Northwest.  The history of reactor operations at
Hanford (see Figure 16-2) clearly shows that the number of plutonium
production reactors has been drastically reduced.   On 29  January
1971  the last plutonium production reactor was shut down.
Following this   the   levels of 32P and   Cr  in the  coastal ecosystem
should  soon become negligible due to their short  physical half -lives.
However, traces of >$Zn (half-life, 245 days) will   remain in coastal
sediments and organisms for several years.
According to Wooldridge (4228), an average of 40 Ci of   zn was
transported past Bonneville Dam each day during 1967.  With
reductions in the numbers of operating reactors in the following three
years (Figure 16-2), the transport rate probably decreased by at
least one-half.  Hence, if we assume equilibrium between the rate
of decay in the ocean and a. constant input rate of 20 Ci/day,  then
about 7,000 Ci of 65zn should exist in the Pacific Ocean and Columbia
River below Bonneville Dam as a result of the Hanford operation.
This total inventory in water, sediments, and biota  will  decay at
a rate of 65% per year following shutdown of the last reactor.  Thus,
in two years (three 65Zn half-lives) less than  15% of the inventory
should remain.

At present only three electrical generating stations in the  Western
United States are powered by nuclear fission.  These are: (a) San
Onofre in Southern California with  an electrical  generating capacity
of 385 megawatts (MW), (b) Humboldt Bay in Northern California

with a capacity of 172 MW (North and Adams, 1531),  and (c) the
N-reactor on the Columbia River at Hanford, Washington with an
800 MW capacity.  These plants employ closed primary cooling
loops and thus add minimal amounts  of radionuclides  to the aquatic
environment.  Scientists at Hanford are unable to distinguish
radioactivity originating in the N-reactor  from the higher radionuclide
concentrations released to the Columbia River  by the plutonium
production reactor situated upriver.

Despite the  fact that all modern nuclear power  reactors are provided
with closed  loop primary coolant systems in which demineralized water
circulates,  small amounts of radionuclides  do escape to the environment
during normal operations.  Salo and  Leet (4194) stated  that radionuclides
at the Humboldt Bay plant accumulated from the following:  (a) reactor
water and steam-system drainage, (b) floor drainage of the  radiation
zone, (c) liquids associated with fuel handling,  (d) fuel  storage basins,
(3) radiochemical laboratory, (f) laundry, (g) routine maintenance
operations,  and (h) equipment decontamination  operations.   At
the Humboldt  Bay plant these liquid wastes are stored in holdup
tanks for decay,  filtered,  and,  if necessary, processed further prior
to release to the condenser cooling discharge canal.  The principal
radionuclides in  the discharge waters at Humboldt Bay  during 1965 were the
neutron activation products   Zn,    Mn,    Fe,    Cr,    Co, and
the fission fragments  134Cs and 137Cs (Salo and Leet,  4194).  The
most abundant radionuclide,   Zn, averaged about 5  pCi/1 in the discharge
waters during 1965 but was diluted 103 to 10 times within 30 m of
the point at which the  effluent entered Humboldt Bay.

Although radioactivity may be expected to be present in exceedingly
low concentrations in discharges of a nuclear power reactor, various
marine organisms can accumulate and retain some of the biologically
important radionuclides for long periods.   For example, oysters
in the vicinity of the Bradwell nuclear power plant on Blackwater
Estuary in England increased steadily in their  ^^Zn concentration from
early 1964 to  an  apparent equilibrium in early  1967 (Ministry of
Agriculture, Fisheries and Food,  4235).  Other radionuclides found
in low levels around English nuclear  power  stations include: 3 P,
55Fe, 6Co, 11OmAgj 134CS) 137Cs> and 144Ce (Mitchell,  4236).

To conclude, it seems reasonable to expect that radioactivity in Pacific
Northwest coastal waters will continue to diminish in the 1970's.
Although natural radioactivity will remain,  fallout radionuclide
concentrations may decline as the weight of world opinion continues
to be exerted on the nations  still conducting nuclear weapons tests
in the atmosphere.  Although nuclear generation of electric power
will increase in the Pacific Northwest, radioactivity from nuclear
reactors will probably decline as plutonium production at Hanford
is phased out.

Despite the possibility that total radioactivity may diminish in the
future,  research on the distribution and  cycling of radionuclides
in coastal ecosystems should continue.   Such research provides
important insight into the fates of  radionuclides released to the marine
environment by future nuclear power  stations.   In addition,  these
studies furnish baseline radioactivity values against which  future
levels can be compared.  It  is important, therefore, that detailed
studies of radioactivity, community structure, temperature, and
other environmental variables be carried on at each plant site
before construction and throughout its operational existence.


1.   Coastal waters of the Pacific  Northwest contain naturally-occurring
     radionuclides, fission fragments from nuclear test fallout,
     neutron-induced radionuclides from nuclear weapons tests, and
     radionuclides from the plutonium production reactors at Hanford,

2.   Man has no control over the primordial or cosmic ray-produced
     radionuclides in the ocean.  However, these radionuclides occur
     in very low concentration except  for ^K which is present in all
     sea water, living matter, and sediments.

3.   Radioactivity from Hanford has declined due to serial  shutdown
     of the plutonium production reactors.

4.  Fallout radioactivity has diminished  since the  nuclear test ban of
     1963.  Nevertheless,  France and Mainland China continue  to
     create radioactive fallout through atmospheric weapons tests.

5.  Research on the cycling of radionuclides now in the marine ecosystem
    will aid in understanding the environmental impact of future  coastal
    nuclear facilities.

                 Chapter 17.  OTHER POLLUTANTS


The extensive use of pesticides in agriculture and forestry in the Pacific
Northwest warrants a brief consideration of the role of pesticides in
nearshore regions  of the area.   This section summarizes pesticide
residue levels which have been observed in the area, the toxicities of
various common pesticides to marine species, and the behavior of
persistent pesticides in the marine environment.

Pesticide Residues in the Pacific Northwest

Since pesticide levels in natural waters are generally low and quite
variable,  a bioassay approach is usually taken to determine the
extent of pesticide  pollution in an area.   Since organisms are able
to excrete many pesticides only very slowly, the pesticide level
in the organisms represents an integrated value over some time
interval.  Even then, however, there are large variations in pesti-
cide levels from sample to sample and from individual to individual.
The cause of these wide variations is unknown.

The Bureau of Commercial Fisheries is conducting an extensive
pesticide  monitoring program in the United States.   Ten or more
pesticides were determined in selected  organisms.   Less than  3%
of the samples taken in  Washington between 1965 and 1968 were
contaminated  with pesticides.  DDT residues (DDT + DDE), by far
the most commonly detected pesticides,  were always less than 50 ppb
(Butler,  6273).  Oysters,  Crassostrea gigas, taken in Humboldt Bay,
California in 1966-1967  also showed DDT residues  to be less than 50
ppb.  However,  the ova  of a king salmon taken in the American River,
California in January of 1968 contained  668 ppb total DDT residues
(Modin, 6272).

Kraybill (6063) cites observations made in the Willapa Bay area in
Washington which show  the effects of aerial spraying of forests with
DDT on DDT concentrations  in oysters (Crassostrea gigas).  When
the spraying was halted,  DDT plus DDE values for  shellfish dropped
to as low as 0. 008 ppm,  the lowest value recorded  in the United States
at that time.

Kraybill (6063) also reported less than 0. 1 ppm each of o-p DDT and
p-p DDT in oysters from Sheldon,  Washington and in shrimp from
Bodega Bay, California.  Less than 0. 02 ppm each of Heptachlor
Epoxide, DDE, and Dieldrin were found in oysters from Sheldon and
shrimp from Bodega Bay.

Stout (6069) measured concentrations  of DDT and its  metabolites, DDE
and TDE in anchovy (Engraulis mordax), Dungeness crab (Cancer magister).
English sole (Parophrys vetulus), hake (Merluccius productus), ocean
perch (Sebastodes alutus), starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus), true
cod (Gadus macrocephalus), and yellowtail rockfish (Sebastodes flavidus)
taken in Oregon and Washington coastal waters.   Concentrations were
generally low,  less than 100 ppb. Significantly more residue was found
in yellowtail rockfish caught near the  mouth of the Columbia River than
in those caught in Hecate Strait, British  Columbia which is near no
major river.  It was concluded that this was due to agricultural runoff
from Oregon and Washington.

Risebrough et al.  (6271) found  from 0. 2 to 2. 8 ppm total DDT residues in
northern anchovy,  Engraulis mordax,   English sole,  Parophrys vetulus,
Pacific jack mackerel,  Trachurus  symmetricus,  and hake, Merluccius
productus  caught  south of San  Francisco.  These values may be more
representative of  the southern California coast than of our area.

More recently, residues in mackerel  have been monitored by the
Department of Public Health,  State of California.  Between November
1969, and 11 May 1970,  31 lots of mackerel gave DDT residues ranging
from 0. 50  ppm to 6. 0 ppm.  Only 2 of the 31 lots contained more than
3 ppm (Buell, 6270).

The  recent review by Edwards (6084)  covers pesticide residues on a
nationwide scale.

Toxicities of Pesticides to Marine Organisms

An incomplete, but representative,  listing  of the  toxicities of commonly
used pesticides to marine organisms is given in Appendix 5.

In general,  "... organochloride insecticides are  more toxic to marine
fauna than other agricultural,  industrial, and domestic wastes--including
organophosphorous insecticides, soaps and detergents,  aziridinyl insect
sterilants,  slimicides,  heavy metals and crude and refined oils" (Eisler

Specifically,  for phytoplankton, Ukeles (6101) found substituted ureas
to be most toxic,  closely followed by Lignasan, an organo-mercurial.
Chlorinated hydrocarbons, carbamates, and organophosphates com-
plete the list, with considerable differences observed between the
toxicities of the various chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides tested.

For crustaceans,  Eisler (6048) found organochlorine pesticides to
be generally more  toxic than organophosphates, but there was con-
siderable overlap  between the  less toxic organochlorine compounds
and the more toxic organophosphates.

For fish,  Johnson (6072) gives a general order of organochlorine,
organophosphate,  herbicide.  He also notes that eggs and larvae are
generally more resistant than  adults.

The specificity of  certain pesticides toward certain kinds of marine
organisms may make them useful in marine aquiculture, but it is of
more interest in this study to discover which marine organisms  will
be most affected by pesticide pollution.   The specificity of organo-
phosphates will not be considered since they are quite unstable in the
environment.   Organochlorines will be our biggest concern.   Lindane
and DDT have both been shown to be toxic to arthropods (copepods)
at concentrations which did not harm phytoplankton cultures (Ukeles,

In addition to the reductions in photosynthesis caused by sub-lethal
concentrations of pesticides cited in Appendix 5,  sub-lethal concen-
trations increase the "body burden" of pesticides in organisms.
This can affect carcinogenesis, resistance to disease and stress,
reproduction, genetic factors,  longevity,  and vigor in organisms.
There  may be other factors as of yet unrecognized  (Johnson,  6072).

A particularly pertinent example of the effects of sub-lethal exposure
is in the results of Ogilvie and Anderson (6274) who suggested that
". . . DDT may interfere with the normal thermal acclimation  mecha-
nism"  on the basis of observed changes in the "selected temperature"
of Atlantic Salmon.

Behavior of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Pesticides in the Marine

Although DDT and other chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides have
served mankind quite well,  it has become increasingly evident in
recent years that their persistence in the environment precludes
adequate control and prediction of effects on non-target organisms.
As a result,  the U.  S. Department of Agriculture has  announced
plans to phase out the  use of DDT by 1971 (Anon. ,   6294).  Use in
other parts of the world will probably continue for some time.

Although our understanding of the behavior of  DDT  (and other chlor-
inated hydrocarbons) in the environment is better than for other
compounds, it is still  rudimentary.  These points have emerged
as the relevant factors;

1.  DDTis strongly  hydrophobic,  and has a very low solubility
    in water.  As a result, it is concentrated at sediment-water,
    and atmosphere-water  interfaces (Seba and Corcoran, 6046;
    Keith and Hunt, 6292).  In addition,  its high solubility in
    lipid-containing biological materials produces  high biological
    concentration factors relative to the bulk  water mass  (Wurster,
    6295;  Keil and  Priester,  6083).

2.  The toxic action of DDT is not highly specific,  affecting most
    organisms (Wurster, 6295).

3.  DDT is quite stable in the aquatic environment.  The exact
    residence time  is difficult to determine (Wurster,  6295;  Peterle,

4.  Almost no area of the earth's surface is free from the influence
    of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides, probably as a result of
    significant atmospheric transport (Frost,  6297; Risebrough et al,
    6271).                                                         '

It has been suggested that DDT in the world ecosystem is in steady
state.  That is,  in the 25 years of its use,  reservoirs of DDT have
been built up into which the rate of input (usage today) is equal to the
rate of output (breakdown into non-toxic  substances and loss to  sedi-
ments and  other sinks) (Spencer,  6293).  It appears,  however, that
the  data on the size  of the reservoirs and on the rates of output are
at present insufficient to  establish the existence of a steady state con-

1.  Pesticide residue levels in marine organisms in the Pacific
    Northwest are generally low.

2.  Acute toxicities of pesticides to marine organisms are probably
    less of a concern than sub-lethal  effects.  Residues may be im-
    portant to higher predators such as sea birds and man.

3.  Although the behavior of DDT in the marine environment is
    poorly understood, its hydrophobic nature, non-specific toxi-
    city,  stability, and modes of transport make it a matter of
    real concern.

4.  Much more information is needed on the overall behavior and
    effects of DDT in the marine environment.

Elemental chlorine, C12, does not occur naturally in sea water.
Concern with its effects stems from its use as an antifouling agent
in thermal electric power plants.  Use of chlorine (or substances
which hydrolyze releasing Cl ) varies widely.  Use of various
methods of preventing fouling are shown below, a response
to a questionnaire sent to 69 operating power plants in 1968 (USDI,
     40   Chlorination
      1   Chlorination 0. 6 ppm at condenser  outlet
      3   Chlorination, periodic  shot feed
      3   Intermittent chlorination
      9   Sodium hypochlorite
      2   Sodium hypochlorite, 3 Ibs per min for 20 min for each
               unit twice a day
      1   Sodium hypochlorite, 1.4  Ibs per min for 20 min for each
               unit twice a day
      3   Sodium hypochlorite shot fed daily
      0   Polyphosphate addition
      8   Ferrous sulphate
      1   Sodium hydroxide (for pH  control)
      2   Thermal shock  (to inhibit  marine growth)
      3   None
      3   Chlorination, stable residual 7-10 ppm as available C1-?
      2   Chlorination as  required to control slime
      2   Sodium hypochlorite, 30 min per day

Although intermittent chlorination is apparently the usual practice for
operating thermal power plants (USDI, 6254;  Hamilton et al   6322)
it has  been pointed out  that continuous  chlorination at low levels is
necessary to prevent mussels from setting and growing on the efflu-
ent pipe (Beauchamp,  6326; Holmes, 6355).

Chlorine in water hydrolyzes rapidly to form  HOCL which is the primary
toxic principal.  HOCL oxidizes organic matter rapidly, and so it,  too,
is  short lived in the marine environment.  The major effect of chlorina-
tion,  then, will be on the planktonic  organisms actually transported
through the cooling system of the power plant.  The total amount of

water passing through a 1000 Mw plant in a year would fill an area
60 km by  1 km,  30 meters deep.  The existing tidewater power
plants in the state of California pass a volume of water 1000 km
by 1 km by 30 meters each year (calculated using power generation
data of Adams,  6364).  In short, a very large volume  of planktonic
organisms may  be subjected to short-term exposures  of peak chlorine

The effects  of such short-term exposures are poorly known.  Waugh
(6268) showed that nauplii of the barnacle Elminius modestus suffered
heavy mortalities following a 10-minute exposure to 0.5 ppm chlorine.
Larvae of the oyster Ostrea  edulis, on the other hand,  were apparently
unharmed by up to 48 minutes exposure to 10  ppm chlorine  at 10 C
over ambient temperature.

Chlorination to level of 2. 5 ppm (my calculation) was found to
decrease  primary productivity of effluent waters by as much as
91%. A consistent effect on estuarine  receiving waters was not de-
tected, although the calculated maximum  effect for the estuary
studied was 6. 6%  (Hamilton etal., 6322).

1.   Chlorine is used as an antifouling agent in many thermal
     electric power plants.

2.   The response of marine organisms to short-term, low level
     doses of chlorine is highly variable.

3.   Phytoplankton are apparently very sensitive to the action of

4.    Effects on receiving waters are unknown.


                  James  E.  McCauley and Danil R. Hancock      223

                  by Danil R.  Hancock and James  E.  McCauley    228

                  OR SPECIES GROUPS  by James E. McCauley
                  and Danil  R.  Hancock                          246

            by James E.  McCauley and Danil R. Hancock

The physical and chemical properties of  the coastal zone are important
to man because they affect him either directly, or through some of the
organisms of  the region.  The biology of this outer zone becomes important
because man depends on many species  for food, raw materials, and
recreation, but more importantly because he is firmly enmeshed in the
complete  ecological system which  includes marine as well as fresh-
water and terrestrial species.  The coastal zone,  considered by some
to be the most productive region of the world (Ryther, 5852), produces
95% of the organic matter in the sea.  It  is a heavily fished zone where
many species  feed and where primary productivity is at its greatest.  It
is important not only because it provides for man but because it is readily
accessible and seemingly inexhaustible.

Recent awareness of how man may damage this rich region by using
it for a  dump  has reemphasized the need to  study nearshore  coastal
zones.  What  will be the effects of dumping  large amounts of solid,
liquid, and thermal wastes into the coastal zone?  Can the biota survive
under such conditions?   Can man continue to pollute?  Do we really
know what is there?  Much has been written about the coastal zone biology,
most of it restricted to the intertidal zone or to commercially important
species.  This section summarizes biological information as it applies to
the nearshore region of the Pacific Northwest.  We have arbitrarily dealt
with the outer coastal zone from Cape Flattery at the northwest corner of
Washington to Cape Mendocino about 180  km south of the Oregon-California
border in California.  This is  a relatively straight coastline with sandy
beaches alternating with rocky headlands and with a  biota that does not
differ greatly  from place to place when similar areas are compared.  The
estuaries and  bays represent a special type  of habitat; one that is critical
to many species of animals as breeding or nursery ground.  These areas
are highly susceptible to damage from  pollution and  -with few exceptions
should be rigorously protected from man's industrial activities.   For these
reasons -we have excluded the bays and estuaries from our studies except
in those cases where they were inseparable  from the outer coastal zone;
e. g. , where a species that occurred in the outer zone spends part of its life
in an estuary  or where research on the coastal species had been done on an
estuarine  population.

Where feasible we have reviewed the information only of those
species occurring within 10 km of shore.  This is the region where
man's impact will be most severely felt; the zone where pollutants are
most likely to  enter and be diluted.  Our goal was to  determine the kinds
of organisms that occur in this area and to determine their vital
requirements, preferences,  and limitations.   Special emphasis has
been placed on the influence of temperature on the species; including
special thermal tolerance studies,  and the casual notations included
in ecological or distributional studies.

The effects of temperature on aquatic organisms  has  been the  subject
of a number  of comprehensive reviews (Brett, 2796,  2770; Gunter, 2849;
Wurtz and Renn,  2565; Naylor,  2798; Warinner and Brehmer,  2690;
Kinne,  2378, 2379;  de Sylva,  6283; Hedgpeth and Conor, 3856; and
Parker and Krenkel, 3222.  In addition, a number of extensive
bibliographies have been produced (Trembley, 2692;  Kennedy and
Milursky, 2926; American Society of Civil Engineers, 3673; Raney
and Menzel,  2946).  Most of  these reviews and bibliographies  concern
fresh water aquatic organisms and only a few deal with marine or
estuarine species.  None is specific to the Pacific Northwest coast and
none emphasizes  the outer coastal region.  Naylor (2798) and Kinne
(2378, 2379) have dealt primarily with  marine and estuarine species
but have emphasized European,  primarily estuarine species.

The volume of information covered in these reviews and bibliographies
is simply overwhelming.  Krenkel and  Parker (3222)  assessed the
situation:  "Unfortunately the sheer mass of detailed  information in
these reviews  leaves the reader with a feeling of hopeless frustration. "

We have concentrated on a limited geographical region with a concerted
team effort,  attempting to assemble all the known information about
species occurring here.  To accomplish this study a  detailed annotated
checklist has been assembled and is included (Appendix 8).  Not all
groups have  been  included although some omitted may be extremely
important.  The marine bacteria, marine fungi, Kiriorhynch, and
Ostracods have been intentionally omitted.  Representatives of the
first two groups are often cosmopolitan and the literature is widely
scattered. Few of the  papers on these  groups deal specifically with
the Pacific Northwest.   Only  a  single Kinorhynch was found to be
reported from the area.  The Ostracods were  excluded because a detailed
review is forthcoming from the  University of Minnesota  (Swain, in press),
and it did not seem necessary to duplicate part of this work.

From the annotated checklist a few species were selected for
intensive study.  In general, these were the better known species,  those
commercially or numerically important or subject to intensive
biological study.

The biological information available for the coastal zone of the
Pacific Northwest is indeed diverse, and the sources are many.
Much of the information has  been derived from the published literature,
but some has come  from less readily available sources:  progress
reports,  personal communications, in-house working papers, student
reports,  etc.  Not all the published information is readily accessible,
occurring in obscure and unexpected places.

The number of entries in our bibliography indicates the large amount
of information that is known, how scattered it is, and why it  was
necessary to compile it in  a  review study.  Very little  of the information
can be used directly to assess  the impact of an ocean outfall  on  the
environment.  Many of the studies which would have seemingly been
useful were  directed at estuarine or oceanic  species instead  of coastal
species.  Still other studies  of coastal species have dealt with problems
of resource  management and have emphasized the effectiveness of
legal restraints or artificial propagation.  Basic biological studies
have often been left to the academic sector, which has  contributed
significantly to overall understanding  of biology but may fail  to answer
specific practical questions because these questions were not the
goals of the  study.

We have attempted to assemble all the available  biological literature.
Taxonomic Studies
By far, the largest body of information available on the organisms of
the outer coast of this region is taxonomic.  Our bibliographic citations
reflect this situation, even after the omission of some of the very
early works which have been  subsequently summarized.   Many of the
citations  contain taxonomic or distributional information, describing
species,  listing the occurrence of a species, or a  general group of
biota.   Some of these listings include very detailed collection locations,
others simply infer the presence  of a species.   These works contain a
wide variety of literary styles and therefore are quite erratic  in
supplying pertinent supplemental  information on the requirements,

preferences and tolerances of the organisms from this zone.  Such
variety makes categorizations difficult.  For many of the species
which do not have direct commercial value the only information known
is its collection record(s); i. e. , where it has been found.  Few of the
groups  have been  monographed for large enough geographic regions
to be complete and therefore  the amount of additional work required
for a coastal  site  will vary with the location.

The fauna and flora of the nearshore region is known mostly from
extensions of studies of intertidal areas, pelagic offshore fisheries
studies, or nearshore coastal studies performed in California.
Oceanographers are just becoming aware of  the urgency for data
from this region and hopefully will endure the hardships required to
study this inhospitable zone.  Generally the adult stages of the macro-
fauna of the coastal zone  from our region will not present serious
taxonomic difficulties to qualified personnel  studying the region, but
larval and juvenile stages,  even for  the commercial  species are not
well known taxonomically.  Likewise,  many  of the less  popular
smaller groups are not well known taxonomically.  These include
such things as bacteria, fungi,  protozoa,  phytoplanktoh, annelids,
insects, certain of the crustaceans,  and many others which may be
extremely important to the  community.  These groups generally
require specialists for identifications and may present real problems
to those responsible for siting outfalls on the coast of the Pacific

Obviously,  the familiarity of  the fauna and flora is a function of the
number of studies and the kinds of studies previously made.  Further,
these studies  seem to be  related to areas near marine biological stations.
Bibliographie s
Bibliographies are a time-saving tool to the scientist facing a new
problem.  If kept up to date,  good bibliographies can give a gross
indication of the state of knowledge of a subject.  Both  the number of
entries and  titles of citations however can be misleading.

Several bibliographies occur for the Cape Flattery to Cape Mendocino
region, none of which is directed at the nearshore  region.  Some of
these are  regional in nature; others concern an individual organism
or a group,  while  still others concern a  general topic such as "Effects
of heated effluents on marine organisms," e.g. , of which only a
fraction is relevant to our region.


Many of the bibliographies concern bays in our region but have some
information pertinent to the outer  coast.  Bibliographies of some value
to our review -were:

Bryan, (3851), A partial bibliography on Humboldt Bay; Ditsworth
(3833, 3854), Environmental factors  in Coastal Waters; Pearce,
(3852), A bibliography on Marine Benthic Investigations; Butler,
(3611), A bibliography on the Dungeness Crab; and the University of
Washington's Literature Surveys on Grays Harbor,  Coos Bay,  and
Humboldt Bay (2569, 2568, 2008).

The assessment  and prediction of pollution in the nearshore coastal
zone as -well as determination of indications of normal or  "baseline"
conditions are dependent on detailed,  statistically valid ecological
studies.  Such comprehensive studies of the nearshore coastal zone
of the  region encompassed by this study are conspicuously lacking.
Our review indicates that only in the  southernmost region has this
type of study been even attempted.  This study was Allen's (2686) work
entitled "An oceanographic study between the points of Trinidad Head
and the Eel River. "

Many pieces of important ecological data are contained in small-scale
ecological studies,  rather than broad comprehensive investigations.
These data have  been listed as  annotations to the  species checklist
of Appendix 8. The problem with  this data is that it lacks  continuity,
usually is without time sequence,  and is usually directed at different

Chapter 19 deals with the  thermal ecology  of coastal species of the
Pacific North-west, summarizing the information  that  is available.
It also includes the available  information on other physical factors
such as salinity,  oxygen,  and pH.  While Chapter 19  deals  in general
terms, Chapter 20 singles out those species which we consider to
be important and which have received the most attention.   This Chapter
summarizes the  data which are available.   Not only are ecological
data included but other biological data potentially important to
pollution studies  are included as well.

                by Danil R. Hancock and James E.  McCauley

Of concern to many, especially to those involved in the siting of marine
coastal outfalls, are the physiological responses of organisms to environ-
mental stresses such as increased temperature, rapid fluctuations in tem-
perature, oxygen, and salinity.  Recently, concern has also included the
actual environmental conditions dictated by the physiological requirements
of the  organism i. e. , the fact that  some organisms actually require fluc-
tuations in-temperature (Kinne, 2379;  Hedgpeth and Conor,  385-6).
Temper a til re

Interest  in the effects of temperature on marine organisms is not new and
perhaps  began early in  the eighteen hundreds.   As early as 1899,  H.  M.
Vernon published a paper entitled  "The Death Temperature of Certain
Marine Organisms" (2912).  Earlier works by Vernon included heat rigor
and effects of temperature on respiration (3307, 3306).  Recent years have
seen a proliferation of information on the response of both freshwater and
marine organisms to increased temperatures.  The listing of previous
general reviews and comprehensive tables  covering the extremes of tem-
peratures which can be endured by fishes has recently been done by Parker
and Krenkle (3222).  The literature describing  responses  of aquatic in-
vertebrates to thermal  gradients by taxonomic  groups has been discussed
by Jensen _t il.  (3855).  Such reviews generally place major  emphasis on
freshwater organisms.   Although both of these  reviews have  some information
applicable to marine forms,  the detailed reviews of Naylor (2798) and Kinne
(2379, 2378) are  probably the best source for marine and brackish forms.
Hedgpeth and Conor (3856) have presented a brief review  of the literature
on the marine benthos,  particularly as it relates to research  needs of
the marine benthos.

The review by Jensen e_t al. (3855) states:  "It  should be observed;  the
data used to predict the effects of heated effluents  on the biota,  the focus
of this paper,  have rarely been drawn from field studies deliberately de-
signed for these purposes. "  Our study is in full agreement with this state-
ment, but not, however, with their attempts to formulate general principles
and generalizations based on such heterogeneous information.  We feel
that such broad conclusions must be subjected to further verification, least
we succumb to what Chamberlin  (3858) refers  to as the  "Ruling Theory. "
Most of these studies involve work done in  regions  of the  world other than
the Pacific Northwest.  The study of Hedgpeth and Conor  (3856), however,
includes  some data from the central Oregon Coast.

Our attempts to summarize temperature and other physical information by
species is presented in Tables  19-1,  19-2,  and 19-3.  No requirements
for admission to this listing were set, therefore information came from
a wide variety of sources and may refer to  an  estuarine form,  to an outer
coastal form,  to an Atlantic population of a Northwest form or to a labora-
tory study.  Jensen _ejt al.  (3855) in their review of the role  of temperature
in the aquatic  ecosystem suggest that laboratory results are often based
upon the use of laboratory aquaria in which the water quality is less than
typical of that found in natural environments.   In most laboratory studies
they found that aquaria water was either abnormally pure  or polluted with
toxic nitrogen wastes, or that parasitism was  often high due to the stress
of overcrowding, or high ammonia levels etc.   "In addition,  placing animals
in heated water cannot simulate natural conditions  where heat decays and
where animals are free to move to cooler layers. "  Maximum  tolerable
temperature may be a poor predictive tool for  scientists concerned with
the problems of thermal discharges  (Jensen et al. ,  3855).   Maximum ther-
mal  tolerance depends on water quality,  age,  condition and  size of the  ex-
perimental animal,  reproductive state, previous thermal  history,  and/or
the rate of change of temperature.  Thus,  the  precision of maximum ther-
mal tolerance evaluations necessitate careful delineation of variables by
the researchers.  For example, temperature limits on the "O" strain of
Macrocystis from Baja,  California  are quite different from those of other
regions.  We therefore urge that caution be employed when  relating specific
values from one  region to another  or from  field to  laboratory.

Since the data in our tables came from widely  scattered studies in which
no common denominator of life stage,  age size,  or previous temperature
history was recorded, we have attempted to include these "Classic" papers
along with the meager information from the Pacific Northwest and abstract
from them published temperature.  We do not  attest to the quality of this
previous temperature information,  but present it only to indicate what is
available to fulfill the needs of other investigators.  Detailed summaries
of this information for selected species are presented in. Chapter 20,

For  the most part,  the discussion restricts itself to the particular kinds
of temperature information found as compared to what is necessary to
make the kinds of decisions currently in demand.  Interspersed with the
kinds of information available are  critical remarks about the quality of
this  information.  We hope that such criticism is both justified and helpful
in the  design of future research.

Tables 19-1,  19-2,  and  19-3 summarize most of the temperature information
located in this  review.  The 129 species,  at first glance,  may seem quite.
numerous,  yet, when viewed in terms of the 3, 000-odd species recorded
from this coast it represents only a fraction of a percent.


                                       Table  19-1
                    Summary of Physical Data t n Phytoplankton and Algae
  Phytoplankton (gen.inform. )
  Ampidinium cortesi
  Asterionells japonica
  Chaetoceros curuisetus
  Chaetoceros gracilis

  Chaetoceros lacinisosus
  Dunaliella tertiolecta

  Eucampia zoodiacus
  Isochrysio gabana
  Monochrysis lutheri
  Nitzochia closterium

  Procentrum micans
  Phaeodactylum tricornaturn
  Rhizosolenia setigera

  Skeletonema costatum

  Skeletonema tropicum
  Thalaniosera noudenskioldii
Dinoflagellates  (gen, inform.)

  Chlamydomoiius  reinhardi
10. 5-14C(E)
18-33C (R)
<30C (L), 20-25C(0)
G. R.  17-18C (E)
11-41C (R),
23-37 C(O)
G. R.  17-18C(E)
11- 36+C (R)
  39 C (L)
G. R.   17-18C(E)
8- <30C(R)
14-25 C(O)
20-35 C(L)
8-< 27C(R),
G. R.  18-20C(E)
5-30C (R)
9-25C (R)
5-25C (R),
G. R.  5-20 C(E)
5-30C (R),
37-40 C (L)
G. R. < 13-31C(E)
< 2-19C (R)
14. 2-39 C,
-1.39-12. 22 C
6-28 C,
(7032), (7030),
(3527), (7015),
(7006), (7008),



(7016), (7009)


(7009), (7012)
(7026), (7029)


                        Table 19-1 (cont'd)
  Corallina                                                     +        (2949)
  Enteromorpha                                                +        (2949)
  Fucus                                                        +        (2949)
  Macrocystis                         15-17C(E),                       (5816)
                                      18-20 C(L)                        (5809)
  Nereocystis luetkeana                16-18C (E)
  Pelvetia                                                     +        (2949)

  Ulva                                                          +        (2949)

Key;    R =  Range
        L =  Lethal
        E =  Experimental
        O =  Optimum
        G. R. - Growth Rate
        + = Data Available

Of those organisms listed in the tables  "Temperature Kange" information
seems to be the most common entry.  If all of these data were taken in the
same manner or if it  referred to a  single ecological factor, these so-called
ranges would become both meaningful and useful.  Such is not the case,
and  therefore, each datum entered  must be considered separately and be-
comes limited to a specific intended use.   The temperature ranges in the
literature indicate almost anything.  They can mean the two extreme tem-
peratures under which a particular  experiment or observation was made,
the end points of a temperature curve, the actual range determination made
by multiple experimentation,  the upper  lethal and  the  lowest temperature
at which an experiment was conducted,  or  any combination of  these.  Some
reports such as  Farmanfarmaian  and  Giese (2835) and Reed (3092) were
very explicit and'all necessary details were included.   Such studies are
most valuable.

The temperature at which an organism dies may have  little significance if
it is far from the  natural temperatures  the organism might experience.  As
previously mentioned,  itis well  established that these limits or tolerance
levels are quite dependent on many  factors, such as previous  temperature
history.  Tropical species may be living nearer their  upper temperature
limit and  Arctic species may be living near their lower limit.   Many of the
laboratory studies which have  determined temperature requirements  for an
organism do not use temperature values which would be similar to an
organisms natural experience.   A major criticism of  the values listed
in Table 19-1 , -2, -3  is that most were presented without the important
necessary background information.
In view of the heterogeneity of the information listed under the column "Range"
it is perhaps a misnomer to have a  column entitled "Miscellaneous, " yet
information listed is  sometimes more specifically categorized as to whether
or not it was a rearing range,  a temperature  at which the organism was ob-
served to live, its eggs hatched,  or was spawned.

The  optimum ranges  of some.of  the organisms in this  study have been deter-
mined.  These are somewhat obscured by the fact that.for at least some of
the species  the best (optimum) temperatures for reproduction,  for survival,
or for  growth of the various life stages  may not be identical.  By and large,
however,  this temperature information'is probably the most usable of any
temperature data  that we encountered.

Information on temperature requirements of larval and juvenile stages is
scant.   Studies of laboratory rearing of species seem to account for
most of the  knowledge we have about these sensitive stages of an animal's
life.   Serious attempts at in situ  rearing of larvae are absent and published
studies of temperature requirements are noticeably lacking for all but a
few species.


Although adequate temperature information forno species is completely
known,  temperature information was found to be nearly adequate for several
species.  In general, this  information was of applied value  to the species
involved.   The species  included in Chapter 20 are the best  studied and many
need only specific goal-related temperature measurements to be useful.

Of the many marine phytoplankton occurring  in this  region, only the ubiquitous
Skeletonema costatum is well studied.   The temperature range and growth
range are known for Chaetoceros gracilis  and the growth ranges of two other
members of the genus,  C. lanciniosus  and C. curvisetus ,  are reported.
Similar information was not found for a very important member of this
genus C^ a r ma turn,  which is thought to be the major food source of Siliqua
pa tula, the Pacific  razor clam (personal communication,   H. Tegelb^rg
and D.  Magoon).

Only a single  member of the marine macroalgae is well known thermally.
The commercially important Macrocystis pyrifera has been studied ex-
tensively off Southern California.  It occurs in the Pacific Northwest but
is less  abundant.  Macrocystis integrifolia tends to replace it in the Pacific
Northwest.  Studies of temperature, light requirements,  effects of turbidity,
nutrients,  effects  of predation, and in  situ  growth rates have been attempted.
Much of the data is scattered in progress reports and agency reports.   The
Final Report of the California Water Resources Agency "The effects of dis-
charged wastes  on Kelp" (2994  ) contains a good deal of information on
M.  pyrifera  and its ecological associates.

Little temperature information is known for most of the marine bacteria,
and most of the smaller invertebrate phyla occurring in the Pacific

A large amount of temperature information,  most of which is far from com-
plete relates to mollusks.   Some of the more important commercial species
have been extensively studied with respect to the culture experiments.  Tem-
perature relations in the oysters,  both commercial and imported, have been
reasonably well studied.   For the  most part,  these are bay forms,  although
beds are known from some outer coastal areas.

Mytilus californianus has  been well studied with respect to community
interactions and community ecology.  Information on temperature  range,
growth  range, salinity  relationships,  and larval stages is available.
Mytilus edulis (the cosmopolitan bay mussel)also found  on  the outer coast,
is one of the best known thermally of any invertebrate species found along
the coast of the Pacific Northwest, but most of  the published studies have
come from other regions.   Table 19-2 does not completely cover the thermal


                                    Table 19-2
                         Physical Data on Invertebrates
Actina equina
Aequoria aequoria
Beroe ovata
Echinoderes pennaki
B r anchiopoda
Evadne normanni
Pondon polyphemoides
Calanus finmarchicus
Ismalia montrosa
Tigriops californicus
Callianassa. longimanna
Cancer gibbosuius
Cancer magister
Cancer magister
Cancer magister
Temperature Salinity
0. 1 - 11C(E)
20-30 C(O)(R)
16C (N)
6 18. 5C(R) 2-35. 47%o
2.46-19. 8 C(R) 1.05-35. l%o
0 -10C(R)
? 39C(R) 2-90%o (R)
90-175%o (L)
8. 2-13. 9 C(R) 4-8%o (R)
9. 7-11. 5C(R) 33. 9%o (N)
38-75F(R) 11-32% (R)
< 10%o (R)
71F(L) 20%o (L)
50-57 F(O) 25-30%o (O)
6. 1-21. 7C(L)
10-17. 8C(O)
Key;   R = Range             O -  Optimum  L=Lethal   T =  Tolerance level
       N   Natural or "in situ"E = Experimental        x = Data  Available


Table 19-2  (cont'd)
Cancer oregonensis
Cancer productus
Crangon alaskensis elongata
Crangon munita
Crangon munitella
Crangon communis
Crangon spinosissima
Hemigrapsus nudus
Hemigrapsus oregonensis
Oregonia gracilis
Paeurus samuelis
Pandalis dana
Pandalus jordani
Pandalus jordani
Paracrangon echinata
Petrolistles eriomerus
Pugettia gracilis
A &L
Temperature Salinity
24-30 C(L)
11C Adult 33%o+ l%o (E)
spawned and
larvae reared
30 C(L)
9.3-12. 2 C(R) 33. 8-34. 3%o (R)
24-27 (L)
11.5-13.0 C(E)
24-26 C(L)
11.0-13.5C(R) 26.6-31. 6%o (R)
11.5-13.0 (E)
9.3-11.4C(R) 33. 8-34. 3%o (R)
11.5-13.0C(E) 4%o-8%o(R)
9.8-llC(?) 3. 8-34: 2%o (R)
24-30 C(L)
11.5-13. 0C(E)
24-30 C(L)
13+ 0. 2C(reared)
50-54 F(hatching) 7. 8- 24. l%o (R)
13J-0. 2C(O)
11 C 1 "^ o f~* / Ti*\
1 . O  A O \^ 1 Jtl//
24-30 C(L)

 Table 19-2 (cont'd)
Segra acutifrons

Spirontocaris cristata

Spirontocaris gracilis
Uca pagnax
Argeia pugettensis
Limnoria '(gen)

Limnoria (gen)

Limnoria ligorum
Limnoria lignorum

Limnoria quadripunetata

Limnoria tripunetata

Limnoria tripunetata

Balanus balanus
Balanus cariosus
Balanus crenatus
Acmea digitalis
Acmea persona
Class Temperature
24 C (L)
7. 6-19. 4C(R)
13. 8-14. 6" C(N)
9. 6-9.8C(N)
20 C (E)

20 C (E)
A 7-23 C(T)
Salinity & DO Source
20. 8-32. 2%o(N)
34. 2-34. 3%o (N)

E 9 C =53 days incubation 2689
21 C =20 days incubation
A 28C-med. Tol.
E 11-16C(R)
7-8C (lo. dev)
A 10-30C(R)
E 20-30C(R)

A 7. 6-8. 6 C
42 C
1. 0 mg/L 3636,
@ 15-16C 2689
1.0 mg/L
@ 15-l6C
0. 75 mg/L 3636
@15-16C 2710
0. 60 mg/L 2689
@ 22-26 C
1. 0 mg/L 3628
@ 15-16C 2710
1. 18 mg/L 2689
@ 22-25C


                                  Table  19-2  (cont'd)
Acmea scabra
Adula californiensis
Botula falcata

Class Temperature
5 &20C dev.
Salinity &DO
32. 2%o (O)
DO max. @ 20 C
DO inc. @ 35. 3 C
Brachidontes demissus plicatulus
Callistoma costatum

Crassostrea gigas

Crassostrea virginica         A
Crassostrea virginica

Cymbulia peronii

Limacina helacina

Littorina (gen)

Littorina scutulata

Littorina sitkana


Mytilus edulus

Mytilus californianus
Mytilus californianus

Octopus vulgaris

Ostrea edulis
60 C air temp.
10-20 (N) much other information

10 & 20 (N) much other information
  much temp,  information under

Temp. &. Development

35.2-35. 7 C(L)
          Lower Limit

          34-36.5  (R)

          7. 8-9. 7(R)

                 DO 4. 3-6. lmj./L

                 O,  max. @ 20 C



          82-106 F(L)?    O2 max. @ 20 C       2839
          77F(O)                                2798
             much other ecol.  temp, infor.

          7-28C(R)       17-45%o (R)  well  studied 2330,
          15-20 C(O)       12&55%o(L)          2225,
                           21.5%oLo survival
          33. 7-36.0 C
          15C gametogenesis   much other

                                     Table  19-2  (cont'd)
Patella aspersa
Patella vulgata
Plarnnectfin mapellani
Class Temperature Salinity & DO
Low Q]Q
cus 21.0-23. 5 C(L)
    Placopecten tnagellanicus

    Pododesmus cepio

    Pterotrachea cornata

    Tegula fundbrali_s
    Tefoys lanorina

    Iresus capax

    Dendraster excentricus

    Pisaster ochraceous

    Strongylocentrotus franciscanus

    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus A

    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus E
upper lethal raise

0 C/5 C inc. in
acclimation temperature

15 C  (Gametogensis)


24C; 51.5-63T

60 C  air


9 C?             30.5%o (O)

7. 4C(N)
17. lOchlorinity(N)
7. 85-8. 55 mg/L
 5 C & 30 C no fertilization





knowledge because we consider this species primarily a bay form.  Mytilus
larvae are relatively sensitive to environmental changes, and have been
recommended as a standard for toxicity tests  (De  Ben,  3857).

Incidental temperature studies for the mollusks Macoma spp. , and Littorina
spp.  are also known.

Excellent temperature and other physical information exists for  several
Arthropods.  Calanus   finmarchicus,  a cosmopolitan form  has been studied
in other  regions.  The wood-boring isopod  genus Limnoria  rivals Mytilus
in the amount of temperature information known.  The destruction of wooden
structures by this genus has been the  subject of much study.  Information
on rates of boring with increased temperatures, O  consumption, survival,
reproduction, and population dynamics have been studied.   The validity of
this information applied to specimens  of this genus on our coast is unknown
because  many of these  studies have been done elsewhere, under  different
environmental conditions.
The barnacle genus Balanus has been quite extensively  studied and information
on temperature,  especially, as it relates to the zoogeography of this genus
is published.  Although some of the species are cosmopolitan,  most of the
studies were done in Europe and may have  limited value.

The most important decapod crustacean which is well known thermally is
Cancer magister, the dungeness crab.   This  species has been very well
studied in many respects.   At least partial temperature information exists
for all life stages:  it has been reared in the laboratory and the thermal
tolerances of the adults are  reasonably well understood.  In situ studies,
especially of larval forms,  present one type of study which is  needed.   Such
studies are necessary to predict the distribution,  the expected yield or
the effects of a coastal outfall.  Cancer productus , a closely related species
has also been reared in the laboratory, but due to its lack of commercial
importance,  has  not received the attention  given _C_._ magister.

A small amount of temperature information is available for three other
genera of decapod crustaceans, Crangon,  Pagarus and  Pandalus. The
latter two genera have been  reared in the laboratory.

The kinds of  information available for some of the common species of the
Echinodermata is perhaps  of better quality than for most of the other groups
of organisms. The urchin  genus Strongyloc entrotus is  represented in this
region by three species.  Two of these Strongyloc entrotus  purpuratus   and
S^ fransiscanus  occur  commonly from Washington to Southern California.
A third, _S_. droebachiensis is the  common form in Puget Sound and is  also
found  on  the outer coast of Washington and  on the Atlantic coast.   Strongylo-
c^entrotus purpuratus has been commonly used as a laboratory test animal
for numerous physiological,  biochemical and histological studies.  We have


 not attempted to summarize these types of studies but have concentrated
 on pertinent life history and temperature  studies.  The reason for the large
 number of studies on this  species is due to its  large size,  common occur-
 rence,  ease of collection,  and readily obtainable reproductive cells for
 developmental studies.  The importance of S. purpuratus  to the decline of
 the kelp forests in Southern California also  led to many detailed investigations
 of this species.

 Experiments by Farmanfarmaian and Giese (2835) indicate that >.  purpuratus
 does not acclimatize beyond the upper limit of its temperature range  of
 5   23. 5 C. (The Crinoids  have also been shown similar in this respect.)
 Temperatures of 25 C "were lethal even after acclimation at 20 C for four
 days.  This species also exhibits a rather sharp upper tolerance boundary.
 It appears healthy and normal at 23. 5 C but is  killed at 25 C.  Acclimatization
 to lower temperatures,  however, did occur.  The same study by Farmanfarmaian
 and Giese also presented information on the fertilization and development
 in S^ purpuratus .  Animals developed normally between 13   20 C but at
 5 C and 30 C no fertilization membrane or development occurred.  The
 low temperature of 5 C  was not deleterious  but 25 C was lethal to the eggs.
 Eeproduction is thought  by Boolootian (5836) to be independent of temperature.

 Conor  (3338) made internal temperature measurements on S^.  purpuratus
 on the  outer coast of Oregon.   When the internal  temperature rose above
 26 C for 3-5 hours on several successive days, a heat kill resulted.  This
 heat kill was a natural occurrence and was attributed to the occurrence of
 spring tides at a period  of maximum solar heating for this region.

 Limited information on oxygen utilization  by the purple urchin is presented
 by Farmanfarmaian  and  Giese (2835).  Salinity tolerances  of this genus have
 not been specifically studied;  however, the echinoderms in general are
 considered to be unable  to  tolerate low salinities (Boolootian, 3286).

 Such studies suggest that the urchin S_. purpuratus is very sensitive to temperature
 changes.  Since it is not presently conceivable  that large volumes of the
 coastal region in the Pacific Northwest would be  heated above 25 C,  the
upper lethal temperature of the purple urchin may not be as important as knowing
 the effects of the rate of change of temperature within the viable  range of  this

Strongylocentrotus fransiscanus  and S_. droebachiensis have not been  sub-
jected to such extenisve  studies although they are also frequently used as
 laboratory test animals.

Information on the effects  of temperature on the thickness and structure
of the tests  of Dendraster  excentricus is the only temperature information
located for this  species of sand dollar (Raup, 3012) although a goodly
amount of information was available on  the natural history of this species.
Only scattered incidental temperature information was found for the aster-
oid,  Pisaster ochraceous.  It was observed that this starfish seldom ex-
periences water below 10 C or above 16C, but it tolerates air temperatures
of 21 C in the laboratory for 3 hours (3286). At 12-18C it can survive for
18 months without food (5283).  Such information is not adequate to  determine
the effect of temperature on this species.

The most frequently studied holothuroids from  our area  are  Parastichopus
californiensis and Cucumaria curata   Most studies on this group centered
on behavior, ecology,  natural history,  or physiology.

To date, the work done on temperature  requirements and tolerances of
marine vertebrates has been minimal.   For mammals and birds,  this
lack of knowledge may not be critical for they are  homeothermic animals
and can stand a very wide  range of temperatures.  Most of the birds along
the Pacific coast undertake extensive migrations,  spending their summers
in the Arctic and their winters along the California,  Mexican,  and South
American coasts. Some birds are perennial residents along the Pacific
Northwest coast and so obviously can withstand the large seasonal changes
in temperature.  For the most part offshore marine birds are unstudied.

The mammals, such as the whales and sea lions, also migrate long dis-
tances, some from Arctic to sub-tropical waters as a normal part of their
life cycles.

Of all groups studied the largest amount of temperature  information was
found for the marine fishes.  The anadromous Salmonids have been extensively
reviewed, and temperature studies,  expecially those pertaining to rivers
and fresh waters are numerous. A recent review  of the Pacific salmon
is to be found in Parker and Krenkel (3222).  We have therefore omitted
the Salmonids from out: temperature discussion.  However,  Chapter 20
does contain a review of the coastal migrations and feeding of  Pacific

We have recorded (Table 19-3)  temperature range information for some
life stage of thirty-one (31) species  of marine fishes, of which approximately
50% are for  adult stages.   For some of these data,  it is  not known for which
life stage the information was obtained.   Only eight species had information
for more than a single life stage;  Trachurus symmetricus and Engraulis
mordax (Anchovy) had information, recorded for adult, juvenile,  and larval


Table  19-3
                      Summary of Physical Data otiFish
H O etc. Medium Tol.
Upper Optimum b Nit. Temp. Limits Temp/
Name Age Claia T. Range Lethal T. T. Env. T. Mine. O2 - cent. O,
Alosa sapi- A 16-25' F
Alosa sapi- J 45-70' F
Alosa sapi- J 55-70' F
Artherinops 12. 8-28. 5'C
affinis oregonla
Brachj'iatlus 13-19' C
Bram rail 57' F
Clinocottui Max. Surv. 26' C
globicepe QIO = 3.6
Clinocottus Q]() =.2.9
rccalvus ,
Clupca harangm 20. 8-24. 7* C
Ciup^-a harangu* E "Large" Nat. Hatch Hatch Exp.
pallasi 3-6' C 9-14' C
Cyrnatogaster A
Cyrr.atojgaster J
Engraulis mordax A Spawn Thre-
,. , .  . hold 11.5-12.0'C
Engraulij mordax A 14. 5 Ic 8. 5 -
20.0C 25. 0'C Spawn. 13'C
Engrauli. mordax L 10.0-19. T C 14.0-
	 	 17.4' C
EngraulU mordax E 9. 9-23. 3' C 13.0fc
	 17.5' C
Embiotocid 13' C Unfavorable
	 " 19'C
Fundulua 40.5-42 40.5-
hcteroditus' 42' C
Gadus macro- 2 - ll'C
Girelia nigi-an* 11.8-27.0'C
 Hippoglossm 2C-north 3-8*C Breeding Z. 3-
t.-noli.,n 10-ll'C-outh *.* f-
Hipposlo3SU L 1-10'C Development
gtcnolcpii J. !>-6.!>*t.
Leptocottm 12-29. 5'C
B rinatm
Merluccius 1. l> E 10.6-15,0'C 47.5-67.3'F
Salinity See
Salinity MUc. Sources

26- 32%o R

max. 75%> Tolerated 2687
12' C L. 44%, Z6C

R= "Large"
20- 100ft, R 5802
25-36%o R 5802

in >itu 32%c ;6%, 5549
19-31j R 5502

B re eding 5 764 , 5 766
33. S-34. l%o S772

37. 5-67. 5%cR 26S7
Max. 67.5%,

O. snvrieri
Osn ie rua mordax
_vg.tul._us v
vmalu* See B.
P;wlis clemensl
nu- 1 -x r.t? s t i c tu
Quietula ycauda
Raja diaphane*
Raii erinacea
Ra^a radiata
muse u ram
Koccua saxatilis
Roccas saxatiUs
5a rdinoga sagax
Sardinnr3 sagax
Sebastodes alutus
Sjqualua acanthiaa
Thunnus alalunt^a
** ParopHvrvs vetulua
2-z'.s-c Q .2.,
 21-75%, H n
2-28*C 30'C 1-50%.
2.3-18'C- 21.5-
28. 5"C
E 2. 3-13. 8- C Extremes Viable 10. 6+0.4'C Hatched at Consumption
Blow 2.3-18-C Hatch ~ 4-13* C 0. 560g/embryo/. viable hatch
6. 5-10- C hr. 20-32%,
E Won't hatch In situ
at 2* C 20-34%,
8.8-10. 5' C
E Embryo
Oevel. 12. 5* C
E Hatch
7-9- C
max. critical Mar. 37. 4+. 1'C fc
37*C Sept. 42. 3+0. 3C
28. 6 t,
29. 0*C
30.2'C(2 small)
29. 1-29. S'C
(2 large)
3 died at 26.5-
26. 9- C
14- C
A 45-80- F
J 55-70-F Can't tolerate
45- F
11-27. 4-C Spawns 12.5-
16. 5-C
Dev. Impaired
4-5-- 14- C Spawn. 3.8-
28. 5 - 29. 1- C
16. 3-22. 8- C
A 10-19.5-C
L 14-16- C Spawn. 14-
15. 5-C
E 14 - 16- C 15. 5-C 10-19. 5-C
- development time; 5C% hatching ranged from 3.5 days at 12- C and 25%oS to 11. 8 days at
                                                                                                                                     Hatch 10-40%,

           -1'C and 25%o S.  Between 6-12*C development time to 50% hatching was delayed by salinities above and
           below 25%o. At 4'C hatching seemed to be accelerated by salinities greater and smaller than 25%.
Key        N,-it. Hatch. =  Natural Hatch conditions
           Hatch Exp.  =  Hatch Experiment conditions
           T.  = Ttmperature
           M^x. Surv. -  Maximum Su-rvival
           R.  = Ean^e
           L,  - Ltthal

General information about the temperature of the water of the natural en-
vironment of fishes is also occasionally found in the literature.  Information
on breeding and spawning especially for commercial species,  although
meager, is best known for this group.  For marine fish the scarcity of
temperature data becomes more important.  Many studies have revealed
that temperature is an important  factor in the development, longevity and
distribution of various species.  However, the information is woefully in-
complete.  Obviously, the fish are living in areas whose temperature is
suitable to their life cycle and diet.  But in very few cases is it known how
much of an increase or decrease in temperature a particular species can
tolerate without upsetting its  delicate metabolism,  disturbing the develop-
ment  of its young, and altering its own position  in the food chain.

The summary of available temperature information clearly indicates the
need for high quality  temperature measurements,  on a wide variety of
outer coastal marine species.  Especially important would be studies on
early life stages and  effects of change in temperature on coastal habits
such as feeding and migration.  Such studies will be useful only if suffi-
cient background information is simultaneously collected to make comparisons
and inferences.  Concentrated efforts must be made to determine the critical
organisms from a biological,  economic,  and practical standpoint and obtain
as much i.n situ  temperature  information as possible.  It is evident that one
of the first goals to do this  type of research will be the development and
standardization of methods.   A similar finding was derived by Parker and
Krenkel (3222) who made the  following statement;

       "The authors  would  like to stress the need for future investi-
       gators to conform to a standard methodology in determining tem-
       perature effects on the biota.  For example, information on maxi-
       mum lethal temperatures is rather useless  unless simlutaneous
       data are  collected on the acclimating  time,  the length of time the
       fish (and other organisms-authors) are  exposed to temperature,
       the rate of change of temperature, the size  of  the animal, the
       condition of the organism, the salinity and dissolved oxygen con-
       centration and the concentrations of ions which might be synergistic
       or antagonistic to the effects  of increased temperature (Doudoroff,
       1957). Furthermore,  even if the animals die or were dying at
       these temperatures, many experiments do not disclose if sublethal,
       irreversible physiological reactions had occurred well below the
       so-called upper lethal limit (de Sylva, 1969). "

Other Factors

Temperature is not the only factor which affects the distribution and abund-
ance of marine organisms.  Physical factors such as salinity, dissolved
oxygen,  light, turbidity and pH are also important.  Previous reviews of
the literature on the combined effects of temperature and salinity are limited
to Kinne's (Z378) discussion.  In discussing the effects  of physical factors
on marine organisms,  we must  remember that animals and plants do not com-
partmentalize the various physical and biotic factors in their environment.
The organisms see the combined effects of all of the complex interacting
environmental factors  and a small change in one may have a significant
effect on some other factor  (Kinne,  2379;   Hedgpeth and Gonor,  3856).

Our review of supplementary  physical factors was not as extensive as that
for temperature;   we feel a quick perusal of Tables 19-1,  19-2,  and 19-3
will indicate  the appalling lack of supplemental factors  for almost every

Salinity information was found for 28 species of marine invertebrates
from our area (Table 19-2)  and 1 2 species of fishes (Table 19-3).   These
data can generally be broken  into two groups--optimum salinity  which
generally corresponds to a given temperature and salinity range which,
like the temperature range, is not comparable between species.

Oxygen data are meager.  Several studies confirmed the increase of O?
consumption  with increasing temperature.   The importance of O_ may be
a matter of concern only seasonally, if at all. Information on pH is recorded
for seven species of marine algae, and this in an abstract of an  unpublished
report by Blinks (2949).

In view of the fact that there is  so much variance in the amount and the
quality of temperature, salinity and other physical data on the organisms
of the outer coast of the Pacific Northwest we strongly recommend referring
to specific entries in Chapter 20, or to appendix 8.

The effects of other factors such as chemical pollutants are found in Chapters
15, 16, and 17.

                      OR SPECIES GROUPS
           by James E.  McCauley and Danil R.  Hancock

This chapter presents comprehensive summaries  of the information
collected for 20 selected species or species groups which we concluded
were important.  Importance is a highly subjective concept often
reflecting the views of the writer.  It, therefore,  becomes  necessary
for the writer to  state his  position when selecting  a group of species
which he wishes to call important.  To derive such a list we
reviewed the amassed literature available on species from  the region
of our  study.  This literature involved more than four thousand
species; most included simply reports of the species occurring in
the region.  From this literature review a checklist of the species
from the  region was compiled; this list, with appropriate annotations,
is included in this report as Appendix 8.   Among the  species included
in this list, a few stood  out as being  much more thoroughly studied
than the rest.  The reasons  for this more intensive study were
usually rooted in the economic importance of the species, but in some
.cases were related to  abundance or to other less specific factors.
Although 20 species or species groups are included in this  Chapter,
we  do not intend to infer that these are the only important species
in the region of our study.  The listing is comprised  mostly of fishes,
probably because this  group has been subjected  to a great deal of
study by State and Federal fishery agencies and by other  interested
groups.   Many species have been omitted from this Chapter simply
because there is  not enough information available  to allow us to
assess  their importance in the nearshore marine  community.

In this Chapter the ecology of each of the 20 species (or  species groups)
has been described.  Data on such environmental  factors as temperature
and salinity have been discussed fully but information of other factors
sometimes is limited  to a  literature  reference.  Whereas most of the
literature used to derive the big  checklist (Appendix 8) has  referred"
to the Pacific Northwest,  more distant sources  were included in these
detailed studies.

The assembled information included here should be useful in
quickly determining significant basic  facts about some of the important
organisms of the region and, perhaps more importantly,  should point
out those areas in which more research is needed.

We wish to acknowledge the assistance of Dr.  Emory Sutton,
Mrs., Nancy Blind, and Mrs.  Dianne Dean for their assistance in
compiling this information.

The species (or species groups) are arranged alphabetically by
scientific name except for the group Phytoplankton which comes first.
The following are  included:
 1. Phytoplankton                                                247
 2. Clupea harengus pallasi. (Pacific  herring)                      251
 3. Cymatogaster aggregata  (Shiner perch)                        253
 4. Cancer magister (Dungeness crab)                            255
 5. Engraulis  mordax  (Northern anchovy)                          259
 6. Eopsetta jordani (Petrale sole, brill)                          262
 7. Hippoglossus  stenolepis (Pacific  halibut)                       263
 8. Macrocystis spp.  (Giant  kelps)                                266
 9. Merluccius productus (Pacific hake)                           269
10. Microstomus  pacificus (Dover  sole)                           272
11. Mytilus  californianus (Sea mussel)                            273
12. Oncorhynchus spp.  (Pacific salmon, five species)              277
13. Ophiodon elongatus (Ling cod)                                 283
14. Parophrys vetulus  (English sole)                              285
15. Pandalus jordani (Pink shrimp)                               288
16. Sardinops  sagax (Pacific sardine)                             291
17. Sebastodes alutus (Pacific ocean  perch)                        294
18. Siliqua patula (Razor .clam)                            '       296
19. Thallichthys pacificus (Columbia River smelt)                 300
20. Trachurus symmetricus  (Jack mackerel)                      301
                      1.  Phytoplankton

                         by Emory Sutton
The knowledge of the inshore marine phytoplankton of the area may
be divided into three categories (1) taxonomy and distribution
(2) community structure (3) physiological responses to elevated
temperature.  It is advantageous to discuss  these three categories
separately  so that the need for additional work may be easier to assess.

Taxonomy and species distribution

A review of the literature concerning species distribution reveals
that a large number of species are present wherever a taxonomist
is found,  and that the phytoplankters in the areas between the focal
points of taxonomists are poorly known.  The region with which we
are concerned is located between two such focal points and it must
be inferred in many cases that an organism exists in this area
because it exists both at the northern and southern sites  of taxonomic
study.  It may be further pointed out that both of the extensive studies
(Cupp off southern California; 7000, and Gran and Angst in Puget
Sound, 3527) were  done over thirty  years ago.  Since that time
taxonomy has been largely a by-product  of some other aspect of
planktonology and not the result of work by a full-scale taxonomist.
By  contrast, Hendey (7039) has done quite a thorough study of the
British coastal waters.  This work was begun in the mid 1930's

What is needed for this area is a sampling program which would
give an adequate picture of what organisms are found in the coastal
waters of the  region under consideration.  This -would take at least
a year since different organisms appear at different times of the
year.   The validity of the fl.ora of Puget Sound (Phifer, 7017;
Gran &: Angst, 3527) might be questioned at this time due to the
influence  of increased population, since  1930, in the Puget Sound
region.   Another problem with the species distribution analysis is
the  fact that few people are active in the  field of taxonomy.  The
University of Washington and Oregon State University both have
preserved samples from off the Oregon coast but so far no publications
have come from these samples which represent years of data.

Community structure

This aspect of marine phytoplankton research cannot actually be
separated from part (1) since the  factors which control the distribution
of species also act to control the community  composition at any
given location.  It is this phase of research which should concern
the  individuals engaged in determining the possible effects of elevated
temperature on the marine  phytoplankton.  So little is known about

the effects on community structure of a changing environment that
we  cannot even predict with any certainty what will happen when
we  change just one factor, temperature.  It has been observed
(7032) in Monterey Bay, California,  that when the temperature of
the water warmed from 12C to 14UC the  diatoms were displaced
as the dominant organisms by species  of Peridinium,  Gonyaulax,
and Ceratium with accompanying red tide and bioluminescence.
When studying the effect of temperature variation on phytoplankton,
the situation is complicated by the combined interactions between
the organism, the community of light,  nutrients,  and  temperature.
This is  the one point upon which many  phytoplanktonologists and
ecologists are agreed (Oppenheimer, 7041).   In the  laboratory the
light and nutrient  variables may be controlled and the effects of
temperature examined before any predictions may be  made on
the possible  effects on the phytoplankton community of the intro-
duction of effluent of high  temperature into the environment.

Physiological responses to elevated  temperatures

So  little has  been  done in this area that in a recent publication
Strickland and Eppley (7038)  devoted less than two pages to the
effects  of temperature on  the kinetics of marine  phytoplankton
growth.  A number of investigators have looked at the thermal limits
of some marine phytoplankters but oftentimes they were looking
at different aspects of the organism's responses to  thermal stress.

A partial listing of the work and findings of investigators using
organisms found in this area follows.  Kain and Fogg  (7002), while
studying Asterionella  japonica, found that this organism had  an optimum
temperature for growth at 20-25C and a maximum of less than
30C in culture.   This is considerably higher than that found in the
natural situation in the region under consideration.  However,
the effects of adding nutrients, trace elements, and vitamins to
the medium must  be considered in such laboratory cultures.
Asterionella japonica  is very common in  the inshore region and
needs more attention before conclusions are drawn  in regard
to the effects of thermal pollution.  Thomas (7003) used another
organism which occurs in this region,  Chaetoceros  gracilis,
and found that this organism  had a lower  limit of 11 C and an upper
limit of 41 C with an optimum between 23 and 37 C.  Skeletonema
costatum has been the subject of considerable research on the

influence of temperature on physiological processes.  This
organism is important in the neritic phytoplankton and is of ubiquitous
distribution.   Jorgensen and Nielsen (7006) found that photosynthesis
was little affected by temperature in the range 7-20C.  Curl and
McLeod (7008) found this organism  to be tolerant of temperatures
5-30C and reported that Matsue had found a tolerance  to 37-40C.
Jitta e_t al. (7009) studied the cell division of Skeletonema  costatum
and found that it would tolerate temperatures from 6C to  more
than 28 C.  Braarud (7012) found that this organism grew  well
at!7-18C.  Ryther and Guillard (7015) found that SL costatum grew
from 5 to 25 C.

The problem of assigning a label of "important" to  a  species of the
phytoplankton is nearly impossible whether it be for scientific or
economic reasons.  Little is known about the effect on the higher
trophic levels of  changing phytoplankton community structure.
Some studies have been done on the  feeding preferences of copepods
with respect to diatom shape by the  Bureau of Commercial Fisheries
Laboratory at Auke  Bay, Alaska.  It has been suggested that the
diatom Chaetoceros armatum might be a principal food organism
for the razor clam along the Washington coast.  If this  is so then
this organism should be investigated with respect to its physiological
ecology.   The diatom Skeletonema costatum is important because
of its ubiquity and its role in phytoplankton research.  Chaetoceros
decipiens is important because of its abundance off the  Oregon coast.
A group of organisms which is probably important but largely
unknown are  the various unicellular flagellated forms which are
not studied because  of the difficulty involved.  These small
flagellates abound in the estuaries and inshore regions  of the  area
especially in the  spring and summer months.  A concentrated
effort is  needed to gain some knowledge as to the distribution and
physiology of these organisms as well as  their interrelations with
the higher trophic levels.

The fact  is clear  that there can be little possibility of assigning
importance values to the phytoplankters until there is more known
about their interrelationships with the next higher trophic  level.   The
fact that  an organism which occurs  in abundance in an area may
be displaced by another organism when the environmental  conditions
change is important.

In conclusion it might be  said that the need at present is to find
out,what organisms are occurring in the area, the dynamics of
change in population size, and the dynamics of change in community
structure and then to find how a change  in temperature  changes the
above.  The phytoplankton are small and easily overlooked when
concentrating attention on larger  economically important species.
  2.  Clupea harengus pallasi (Valenciennes) (Pacific Herring)

                        by Nancy Blind
The Pacific herring is probably the most important fish in the
northeastern Pacific area.  Not only is it important because of
the large commercial fishery it forms but also because of the
great number of animals that feed upon herring eggs, larvae and

The range of the herring is from Kamchatka to the San  Diego area
(Schultz and DeLacy, 2049), with  the largest fishery being in
British Columbia and Washington.   The herring is fished commercially
in the fall when it begins to move  inshore toward the spawning
grounds (Thompson, 2444).

Spawning takes place primarily in bays and estuaries along the
Pacific coast, in winter and spring.  In British Columbia, spawning
is from mid-February to mid-April, with the peak occurring
slightly earlier in southern British  Columbia than in the northern
area (Taylor, 5530).                                         :

The eggs are laid in the intertidal zone from approximately 0 to
4 meters above the low tide level  (Taylor, 5530).  Some sources
extend the area of egg  deposition to a  depth of 30  ft.  (Fulton, 3635).
The spawn adheres to gravel, pilings, oysters and vegetation such
as Zpstera marina,  Phyllospadix  scouleri, Sargassum muticum,
Fucus evanescens,  and Laminaria sp. (Taylor, 5530).

Temperature and Larvae^

Hatching time of the eggs has been shown to be temperature dependent.
In the natural environment, the water temperature is around 3-6C
and at this temperature, hatching occurs in 20-22 days.  When
the temperature is  raised to 9-10C, hatching takes 14-15  days,
and when increased to 12-14C, the eggs hatch in 9 days
(Nikitinskaya, 5673).   The larvae are very small, thin and nearly
transparent and are easily sucked into water intake pipes (Fulton,
3635).  They can withstand large ranges of temperature and
salinity.  At the end of the first year, the larvae leave the  bays
and sounds for the open ocean (Taylor, 5530).


Maturity is reached after 2,  3, or 4 years and herring may live 8
years (Clemens and Wilby,  2390).  Tagging of juveniles showed
52% homing after 2 years at large and 64% after 3 years, by sub-
district, which is defined as the region occupied by an adult
population.  Adults showed 81% and 92% homing (Hourston, 5666).
Analyses of vertebral counts and tagging data also show that there
is more than one population along the west coast of Vancouver
Island.  Each has a separate run and there  is very little mixing
between populations (Tester, 5680).   The largest  migratory
populations form the  greatest part of the fishery (Taylor,  5678).


The herring is primarily a plankton feeder  (Clemens and Wilby, 2390)
and (Fulton,  3635).  However,  in Little  Port Walter, Alaska,  herring
were  observed feeding on Qncorhynchus gorbuscha fry.  The greatest
predation,  in this instance seemed to be in  daylight (Thorsteinson,


Most  importantly,  it is a food source for innumerable marine
animals.  Herring eggs are eaten by fish and other filter feeders
such as  jelly fish,  combjellies and crustaceans (Clemens and
Wilby, 2390).   Primary predators on herring eggs are the  marine

birds.   It has been estimated that mortality due to bird predation
ranges between 56% and 99% (Taylor, 5530).  Losses up  to 39%
within the first 3 days after spawning were calculated from predation
by the glaucous-winged gull and the herring gull alone.  This was
calculated for eggs laid mainly on vegetation.  Of the two, the
glaucous-winged gull consumed less vegetation and more spawn
than did the herring gulls (Outram, 5661).  Larvae near  the surface
are also preyed upon heavily  (Taylor,  5530).

Larger  herring are eaten by sharks,  fishes, waterfowl,  seals
and sea lions (Clemens and Wilby,  2390).  Stomach analyses of
1004 salmon (Oacorhynchus tshawytscha) caught in the year  of
October 1954 to October 1955,  showed that 12. 7% of the stomach
contents was Clupea pallasii (Merkel,  5669).   Herring is the principal
food of  the Alaskan fur seal during the spring (Scheffer,  5674).
Ninety-nine percent of the  food of  148 mature female Callorhinus
ursinus taken in January and  March was jC. pallasi.   Also, one
harbor  porpoise (Phocoena vomerian) taken had fed entirely on
herring (Wilke and Kenyon, 5682).

Very little has been done on temperature tolerances and  we  found
no information concerning  the effects of various chemicals or
pollutants on the herring.

Other studies on the Pacific herring include:
Fecundity -  Piskunov, 5671; Katy and Erickson,  5664; McHugh, 5668.
Egg  description and fertilization information  -  Yanagimachi, 5690,
     5691, 5692; Yanagimachi and  Kaneh, 5693.
Fishery - Taylor,  5530; Kithama, 5665; Tester,  5529.
For  catch data see - U. S.  Fish and Wildlife Service, Current
     Fishery statistics; U.  S. Fish and Wildlife Service,  and
     Statistical Digest (Pacific Coast Fisheries).

Synonyms:  Clupea pallasii, C.  mirabilis
       3.  Cymatogaster aggregata (Gibbons) (Shiner perch)

                         by Nancy Blind
The shiner perch,  a fish of relatively small commercial value,
is of particular interest because  it is so numerous along the Pacific
coast and because it bears live young.  Sometimes called the pile


perch, it is common around docks and pilings.  According to Schultz
and DeLacy (2049) the range of C.  aggregata extends from approxi-
mately Port Wrangel,  Alaska to  Todos Santos Bay in Baja California.

Life history

The  reproductive cycle of this fish has been the subject of much
study.   Copulation occurs in mid-summer; sperm is retained in
the ovary of the female until December when fertilization takes
place (Wiebe, 5800; Eigenmann,  5736).  The embryos are then
held until parturition in mid-summer.

Temperature studies

Temperature and photoperiod seem to have a definite effect on
the reproductive cycle of _C. aggregata. Increasing  or long photo-
period, such as in late winter, spring or early summer,  results
in spermatogenesis, development of secondary sex structures
and reproductive behavior.   Warm temperatures  also  enhance  this.
Cold temperatures and short photoperiod,  as in winter, result in
testicular restitution and growth of spermatogonia (Wiebe, 2484).

In the female, warm, temperatures as in late summer  and early
autumn aid in oocyte formation.  Cold temperature as in  late winter
helps oocyte maturation.  Early  gestation is aided by cold temperatures
but warmer temperatures are  required later on (Wiebe,  2484).

Adults regulate to dilutions from 20% to 100% sea water,  but the
ability of  the young to  regulate was  proportional to their stage  of'
development.   The youngest stages  could only regulate -well between
25-36% sea water due  to greater permeability and less efficient
salt secretory mechanisms (Triplett and Barrymore,  5802).
Cymatogaster aggregata is  more resistant to changes  in oxygen
content or carbon dioxide content of sea water than either the salmon,
Qncorhynchus kisutch,  or the herring, Clupea pallasii.  This was
in keeping with the fact that the alkali reserve of the blood plasma
of_C. aggregata changes very rapidly with changes in carbon dioxide
tension of sea water (Powers and Shipe, 2575).

The pile perch is found in shallow waters during the summer and
in deeper waters in the winter.  They eat small crustaceans and
other invertebrates (2390).   There is a record of a massive kill
of C^.  aggregata in British Columbia due to hydrogen-sulfide
production during a dredging operation (Hourston and Herlinreaux,

Other important studies include:
Reproduction - Wiebes, 5800; Turner,  5801; Eigenmann,  5736;
    and Wilson and Millemann, 5799.
          4.   Cancer magister Dana (Dungeness crab)

                        by Diane Dean
The Dungeness crab is one of the largest edible crabs of the  United
States.  It is also known as  the Pacific crab,  market crab, commercial
crab, and white crab (3361 , 3342), ranging from the Alaskan Peninsula
(Aleutian Islands) to Magdalena Bay in lower  California (Rees,
3275; MacKay, 3363).  It occurs within bays and estuaries as
well as on the open ocean floor preferring sandy or sandy-mud
bottoms but found on all  types (Waldron, 3232; Dewberry, 3356;
MacKay, 3363). The crab is found at varying depths.  Rees  (3275)
stated 12-120 feet and Dewberry (3356) stated from low tide to
an average of 50 fathoms.  Other reports are from 2-20 fathoms
(Hipkins, 3361), 40-60 fathoms (Cleaver, 3333) and from inter tidal
zone to 93 fathoms (Kenyon  and Scheffer, 3372).   Butler (3611)
has compiled an extensive bibliography for  this species.     3

Life  history

The diet of the Dungeness crab consists of small fish,  shrimp,
small crabs, marine worms,  isopods, amphipods,  barnacles,
clams, oysters and other shell fish, preferring fresh,  live food
or recently dead to  stale food (Dewberry, 3356; Waldron,  3282;
MacKay,  3363). It  is mainly carnivorous and -will eat other
crabs in the soft-shelled stage (Dewberry,  3356).

Reproduction and life cycle

The female is usually 90 to  100 mm wide and about two years of age
at sexual maturity ( Cleaver, 3333;. Butler, 3329).  The males
reach sexual maturity at a carapace width of 11 6 mm.  Breeding
activity begins at about  140  mm carapace width or when the crab
is 3 years old (Butler, 3329). At the onset of maturity there is
a definite  segregation between males and females as shown by lack
of uniform distribution (Cleaver, 3333; Dewberry, 3356).   In British
Columbia  mating takes place from April to September on the tidal
flats.   Males are polygamous (Dewberry, 3356).   In Washington,
mating takes place during May and June (Cleaver,  3333).  Hatching
takes place  from December to June with the height in March in
British Columbia (MacKay, 3356).   In Oregon waters hatching
takes place  from December to April (Trask,  3279).

Larvae or "protozoea"  swim to the  surface of the water and moult
to zoea stages.  Crab larvae are attracted by light and at times in
May and June in Washington waters they swarm near  shore at the
surface of the water. Later in life  they show an aversion to light
(Cleaver,  2039).

Poole (3273) reared larvae  in the laboratory and watched them
'develop through six larval stages,  five zoea and  one megalopa
which metamorphoses directly to the first crab instar (Reed, 3274).
Development occurred in salinities from 26-30%o at a temperature
of 51 F.  Total  development time from egg to first crab instar
was 111 days.  High mortality during transitions appeared to be
due to inability of larvae to break completely away from casts.
Under natural conditions sand may aid.in shedding casts.   Food
for the zoea was Artemia nauplii.  The megalops fed  on larger
brine shrimp (Poole, 3273). Natural development in  the  ocean
appears tb take from 128 to 158 days.  Under natural conditions
the zoea feed on microscopic plants and minute marine animals
(Dewberry,  3356).  Crab larvae  are eaten by a number of aquatic
animals, among them fish such as  silver salmon,  herring, pilchard,
mackerel  and wolf eel,  and also  sea birds (Fish  Commission of
Oregon, 3319; Waldron, 3282; Dewberry, 3356).

The megalops is cannibalistic and preys on small crustaceans,
crab eggs, and dying and dead planktonic life (Dewberry, 3356).
The megalops stage shows up about the month of August (Dewberry,
3356; Butler,  3332) and eventually  loses its ability to swim,
sinking to the  sea bed where it burrows into the sand and mud and
continues to molt (Dewberry. 3356).

Trask (3279) reared Cancer magister and Cancer productus in
the laboratory and indicated how to separate the  larval stages of
these two species.  He did not describe in detail the physical
conditions under which they -were reared.

Temperature  and salinities

MacKay (3397) reported  that the  crabs' distribution is bounded
by surface water isotherms of 75 and 40F and one report of
temperature-salinity range for the Dungeness crab is from 38-65 F
and from ll-32%o.   Crabs  can't live in fresh water, and adult
crabs  retreat before a freshet.   Juvenile crabs appear to have a
wider  tolerance for they are commonly found in estuaries with
salinities less than 1 0%o  ( Cleaver ,  3333).

In culturing zoeae, Reed (3092) found the optimum lab-culturing
ranges of temperature and salinities to be 10. 0-1 3.9 C and
25-30%o respectively.  Faster zoeal development with lower
survival rate  occurred at 17.8C and 20-30%o.  The effects of
temperature and salinity alone on zoeae didn't seem to cause large
fluctuations in zoeal survival, but  reduced temperature and resulting
prolonged zoeal development combined with current transport may
effect survival of post larval crabs.

The Dungeness crabs are extremely  susceptible to drying (Cleaver,
3333), but can be kept alive for 2-8 hours if their  gills are kept
moist (Hipkins,  3361; Dewberry, 3356).


Both sexes show characteristic migratory patterns (Dewberry, 3356),
A predominant south to north movement occurs during spring and
summer months (January to June).  Two other migratory patterns

are (1)  on and off-shore and (2) coast wise.  Tagged specimens
travel average distances of 10-12 nautical miles after six months'
freedom.  One long migration was recorded from Grays Harbour
to Tillamook Bay, Oregon,  a distance of more than 148 km
(Cleaver, 3333).  Waldron (3282) found that the average non-
directional distance travelled was 15 km (range 0-250 km).
Crabs released in bays averaged non-directional distance of
8 km (range 0-150 km).  Snow and Wagner (3278) and Butler (3331)
also made tag-migration studies.

Crab larvae have numerous enemies, and the adult is also subject
to prey.  After molting it is defenseless.  Enemies include the
conger eel, wolf eel, cod, dog fish, halibut, skate rays,  nurse
hound sharks, marbled sculpin, rock fish, octopus and other crabs.
Cannibalism takes place when one crab is in the soft-shelled state
(Waldron,  3282; Dewberry, 3356; Gray, 3358).

Economic importance

Crabs are  economically important.  The Pacific Coast  states
produce over 15,800 metric tons of shell crab with a value of at
least $5. 5  million to the fishermen (Poole,  3273).  The crabs are
marketed as frozen, whole or dressed crabs and cooked meat
is sold fresh or canned (Walburg,  3287).  California leads in
catches followed by Oregon, Washington and then Alaska (Rees, 3275).

Other important studies include:
Molting and regeneration - Dewberry, 3356; Phillips, 3405;
     MacKay, 3363; Walburg,  3287.
Mating behavior - Snow and Nielson,  3277; MacKay, 3363 .
Egg  development - MacKay, 3363.
Growth and development - Butler, 3222 and 3321;  Dewberry, 3356;
     MacKay and Weymouth, 2067-
Physiological studies - Jones, 3362; Davenport, 3344; Collip, 3129;
     Goode, 3318.

Needed research:
Although much work has been  done  on Cancer magister, no "in  situ"
studies describing the  effects  of environmental changes on the life
cycle and ecology were found.

          5.  Engraulis mordax (Girard) (Northern anchovy)

                        by Nancy Blind
The northern anchovy is probably the most abundant fish in the
northeastern Pacific ranging from the Queen Charlotte Islands in
British Columbia to Cape San Lucas,  Baja California.  The largest
concentration is found from San Francisco Bay to Magdalena Bay
(Baxter, 5697).  Meristic characters such as  the number of gill
rakers, vertebrae and fin rays, indicate three subpopulations along
the Pacific coast (McHugh,  5696).   The first population extends
from British Columbia to central California, the second from southern
California to northern Baja California,  and the third from central
to southern Baja California (Baxter, 5697).  There seems to
exist for each characteristic an inverse relationship between the
mean number of meristic elements  and  the water temperature during
the fixation period in the larval stage (McHugh,  5696).

The anchovy, a pelagic fish inhabiting coastal waters, is found well
below the surface during the day and in  the upper layers at night
(McHugh and Fitch,  5621).  No north-south migrations have been
noted but the fish move offshore during  fall and winter and inshore
during the spring (Baxter, 5697).   Tagging studies indicate no
significant movement for this species (Wood and Robson,  5706;
Messersmith, 5703).  At times when the water temperature is
warmer than usual,  fewer adults are found in  inshore waters
(Baxter, 5697).


Spawning  occurs over the entire range but is  concentrated from
Point Conception,  California, to Point San Juanico, Baja  California.
The peak  of the spawning period is in late winter and  early spring,
however spawning does occur in every month of the year.  Although
anchovies spawn as far as 480 km from shore, most spawning takes
place within 90 km.  Each female spawns 2-3  times each year.   The
eggs and larvae are  pelagic and are found in the upper layers
(Baxter, 5697).

Off California, eggs are found in temperatures ranging from
9. 9 to 23. 3C with most between 13. 0 and 17. 5C.  Ten  percent
of the spawning takes place below 13.0C (Baxter, 5697).  Bolin
(5726) indicated that spawning occurred regularly at 10C.  The
threshold temperature for spawning seems to be 11.5 or 12. 0C.
Fertilization is immediate and apparently very successful since
unfertilized eggs are uncommon (Baxter, 5697).

Hatching occurs in 2-4 days depending  on the water temperature.
Larvae taken in California are found from 10. 0 to 19. 7C with
95% being present in temperatures from 14. 0 to 17.4C.   Some
were  taken in the upper 23 meters but the  main concentration
seemed to be between 24-48 meters.  The larvae are 2. 5 to 3. 0 mm
at hatching (Baxter, 5697) and colorless, in contrast to most fish
larvae which have some pigmentation (Ahlstrom, 5724).

The growth rate is very rapid, however,  there seems  to  be a
decrease in growth rate from August to November (Baxter, 5697).
Clark (5694) found that fifty percent of  the females reach maturity
in 2-3 years.  All are mature by the time  they reach a length of
150 mm or by 4 years.  The anchovy is relatively short-lived, with
a life span of approximately four years.


Food is primarily organisms less than one mm in length filtered
from  the water.  Larvae feed on  crustaceans,  especially copepods.
Adults feed also by biting on larger  organisms.  In this sense,
they are somewhat cannibalistic, since they occasionally prey on
smaller anchovies.  Although they seem to prefer larger organisms,
anchovies will not abandon filtration unless other organisms are
in abundance (Baxter, 5697).


Along the Pacific coast,  there is a close competition between
the anchovy and the sardine (Sardinops  sagax).   The  competition
seems to be that of two animals occupying the  same trophic level
(Ahlstrom, 5698) and is evident from the larval  stages of both fish.
Both sardine and anchovy are  abundant in the same area and eat

nearly the same food (Baxter,  5697).  Indications are that anchovy
larvae can consume larger food particles than can sardine larvae
(Berner, 5725), perhaps, giving it an advantage.  However, it
will be noted that the sardine is present in the Gulf of Mexico, an
area which has not yet been invaded by the anchovy (Ahlstrom, 5698).
Since 1954,  the sardine population along the Pacific coast has
greatly decreased while  the anchovy has increased.  Recent surveys
show that eggs of the sardine are outnumbered .not only by the eggs
of Engraulis mordax, but also  of Merluccius productus,  Trachurus
symmetricus and Sebastodes spp.  The anchovy now appears to be
the dominant species.

Freda tion

Enemies of  the anchovy include nearly every species of predatory
fish.  Not much is  known about the percent of the  anchovy population
consumed by the various  species.  Available data shows  that in
California,  the anchovy comprises 12. 8% of the food of Senola
dorsalis and 29. 1% of Qncorhynchus kisutch (Baxter,  5697).
It is also the main  food in summer and fall for Roccus saxatilis
in San Francisco Bay (Johnson and Calhoun, 5695).

Tempe ratur e s tudie s

From 1955  to 1964, samples of anchovy taken along the California
coast -were  taken in water temperatures ranging from  8.  5 to 25. 0C.
Of 617 samples from northern California to Magdalena Bay,  75.9%
were taken  between 14. 5  and 20. 0C.   From southern California to
northern Baja California, 340  samples were taken in 8. 5 to 21,. 5C and
72. 5% of these were between 14. 5C and 18. 5C.  Of 277 samples
taken in central to  southern Baja California waters of  13.0 to
25. 0C, 65% were  from water between 17. 0 and 21. 5C  (Baxter,  5697).

Economic importance

There are two fisheries  for the anchovy: the commercial and the
live bait fishery.   The commercial fishery is  concerned with fresh,
frozen, or salted fish for human or pet food; dead bait; feed for
hatcheries or mink farms and  reduction of waste  parts to meal and
oil.   The anchovy comprises 98% of the live bait  fishery (Baxter,
5697).  It is mainly used in fishing for albacore.  Most indications
are that the anchovy fisheries  can be  exploited to a greater extent
in the future (Prater, 2571).

Other important studies are:
Fecundity - Baxter, 5697.
Eggs - Ahlstrom, 5724.
Photoreception and light intensity - O'Connell,  5700; Loukashkin, 5704.
Catch Statistics for California (other states not available) from
    U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Statistical Digest.  No. 55-60.
      6.  Eopsetta jordani (Lockington) (Petrale sole,  brill)

                        by Nancy Blind
In older literature, the name may appear as Hippoglossoides
jordani (241 6).

The range  of the petrale sole extends from Unalaska to San Diego
Bay (Schultz and DeLacy, 2049) however it is fished commercially
only from Santa Barbara, California, to Hecate Strait, British
Columbia,  with the main area of concentration  being in northern
Washington and southern British Columbia (California Fish and Game,


Eopsetta jordani is usually found on bottoms of a mixture of mud
and sand.  Although little is  known about its feeding habits,
the sole is reported to eat herring,  sandlance,  anchovies, euphausiids,
rockfish, flatfish, and zoarcids  (Clemens and Wilby, 2390;
California  Fish and Game, 5729; Cleaver, 5773).

Spawning and growth

Harry  (5525, 5775) indicated that spawning takes place from
November  to March throughout the range with the heaviest spawning
being in December and January.  The eggs are probably free floating;
very little  information is  available on development (California Fish
and Game, 5729).

Comparison of meristic characters indicate the existence of two
main stocks in the northern Pacific area:  one  extends from Hecate
Strait to Trinidad Head, California,  and the other one ranges from
central to southern California.  This is accounted for by the stable
conditions of temperature  and salinity -within the areas -where
spawning takes place.  South  of Point Conception, the salinity is
similar but the water temperature is 1. 0C higher (Best,  5774).


Although there is little mixing of the two populations, tagging
studies indicate a north-south spawning migration (Ketchen and
Forrester, 5793; Barraclough, 5789; California Fish and Game,
5729).  There is a northerly inshore feeding migration in the summer
and a southerly,  offshore  spawning movement in the -winter.
Spawning seems to  take place in waters of about ZOO fathoms (California
Fish and Game, 5729).  The average rate of migration is 3. 75 km/
day with the maximum for an individual being 7. 1 km/day (Best,

Additional important information on  the petrale sole includes:
Trawling and catch data -  Alverson and Pruter,  5735.
Feeding - California Fish  and Game, 5729
Age,  Growth and Size range    Alverson and Pruter, 5735; California
     Fish and Game,  5729; Cleaver,  5773;  Harry, 5775;  Ketchen
     and Forrester,  5793.
      7.  Hippoglossus stenolepis Schmidt (Pacific halibut)

                        by Nancy Blind
The Pacific halibut, Hippoglossus stenolepis Schmidt, forms the
basis for a significant industry along the Pacific Northwest coast.
It is widely distributed throughout the north Pacific, occurring
from Japan north into  the Bering Sea and then southward along
the  coast to northern California (Schultz and DeLacy,  2049).  The
southern limit of the commercial fishery is Cape Mendocino,
California (Bell and Best,  5766).

Life history

Information concerning the life history of the halibut is not extensive.
The fish occurs from very shallow water to depths around 1100 meters
although it is most numerous between 55-400 meters (Clemens
and Wilby, 2390).  Along the Washington and Oregon coasts, no
halibut are taken commercially deeper than 367 meters.  Most
of the fish were caught on the inner continental shelf and the number
taken decreased with increased depth.  Halibut comprised 15% to
42% of all flounders caught on  the inner shelf (Alverson, 5735).


Spawning takes place during  the winter, usually from November
to January,  at depths of 275-400 meters (Clemens, 2390).   The
fertilized eggs  and early larvae rise to midwater depths and are
carried great distances  by the ocean currents.   The northward
drift of the larvae is counterbalanced to some extent by a general
southerly movement of the adults (Bell and Best, 5766).  Studies
in the Gulf of Alaska show considerable movement eastward
(Thompson and Henington, 5765), presumably toward spawning
grounds  over the continental slope (Thompson and Van Cleve,

Russian studies in the Bering Sea indicate that the halibut breeds
in water of temperature 2. 3 to 3. 5C  and salinity of 33. 5%0 to
34. 1%0 (Novikov, 5772).   Thompson et al.  (5764) report  that the
larvae develop at 3. 5-6. 5  C.

After six to seven months, the larvae become demersal, usually
during May and  June.  Thompson and Van Cleve  (5764) gave a
very detailed account of this as well as the taxonomic aspects  of
the development of the eggs and larvae.  Apparently,  the young
halibut occupy somewhat shallower water  than do the adults (Novikov,
5772).   Females grow faster than males and have a longer life
span.  Catches in the Bering Sea consisted of fish from 1 to  25
years of age.  Males reach maturity sometime between their seventh
and thirteenth year and at lengths of 90 to 140 cm (Novikov,  5772).
Off the Oregon and Washington coasts,  the range was 23 to 176 cm
with an average of 59. 2  cm (Alverson et al. , 5735).


Clemens and Wilby (2390) list food of the halibut as: various fish,
crabs, clams,  squids and other invertebrates.  There is  some
indication that diet varies with age (Novikov, 2772).


Some of the halibuts' natural enemies are the sea lion (Eumetopeaj
stelleri), the "ground shark,"  the lamprey and other halibut
(Thompson, 2442).

Temperature and Distribution

The geographic distribution of the halibut has been analyzed -with
regard to temperature.  Throughout the north Pacific  it occurs in
boreal waters of 3-8C.  This  also  seems to be correlated with
the ocean current pattern.  The southern limits of the commercial
fishery occur at 10-11C and the northern limit is 2C (Thompson
and Van Cleve,  5764).  Optimum temperature for the halibut in
the Bering Sea was given as  1-10C.  This was considered to be
a wider range than evidenced for more southerly individuals (Novikov,
5772). Abundance of halibut broods and the temperature  from 1910
has seemed to have a positive  relationship 10 to 12 years later
(Ketchen, 5767).

Other important studies on the Pacific halibut include:
Size range - Alverson et al.  , 5735
Fecundity - Alverson et_ al. , 5772
Egg size and composition - Thompson and Van Cleve, 5764
Growth - Southward, 5769
Food and Feeding - Thompson, 2442
Fishery  - Thompson, 5762; Burkenroad,  5763; Southward, 5769,  5770
Catch statistics - see U. S.  Fish and Wildlife Service statistical
      digest for the years  of interest.
Also  see the publications by the International Halibut Commission
      for additional information concerning catch statistics, regulation
      and state  of the fishery.

               8.  Macrocystis^ spp.  (Giant kelps)

              by Diane Dean and Danil R. Hancock
Macrocystis ,  the giant kelp, forms the dominant plant community
of-sub-littoral, temperate,  boreal and austral areas (MacFarland
and Prescott,  5817) growing along the North and South Pacific
coasts of the Western  Hemisphere between 40 N and 60 S latitude.

In shallow (8-25 m) rocky regions of southern California Macrocystis
pyrifera is the dominant species in the climax community, while
further north M^  integrefolia increases in relative dominance.
In the Pacific  Northwest, especially Puget Sound, the closely related
Nereocystis luetkeana (the bull kelp) becomes the dominant kelp.

Macrocystis attaches to  rocks by means of a  holdfast.   Growth
tends to diminish with depth and below 30 m attached plants become
quite sparse (Anonymous, 5815;  Leighton e_t al. ,  5816).  Kelp,
both directly and indirectly, is an important food source for man
and for nearshore animals.   The extensive holdfast system and
the dense foliage canopy at  the surface provides both food and
shelter for marine organisms and therefore the beds comprise
prize fishing areas (Leighton ej: a_l. ,  5816).  "Drift" seaweed,
of which Macrocystis often  comprises a substantial portion, is
of importance and has often been observed on the sea floor in
areas much deeper than  it normally grows  (Anonymous, 5815).

Although agarophytes and edible  seaweeds are often present in
abundance, giant kelp  is  the only marine plant in the California
region directly utilized by man and 90,000  metric tons  (wet)
are harvested annually (approximate value, one million dollars).
It is also used as fertilizer, for  food additives, and the upper .parts
are harvested for certain chemical constituents (North,  5811).

Most of our knowledge concerning the giant kelp communities are
the result of studies in southern California to determine the causes
for their decline  since 1940.

Growth and photosynthesis

The giant kelps extend from the bottom into the zones of bright
illumination providing a large surface area of photosynthetic
tissue and creating a zone of plant productivity in deeper water.

The stipes, pneumatocysts  and blades are photosynthetic (Clendenning,
5812), but the vegetative blades are the main site of photosynthesis.

The sporophyll-is located directly above the  holdfast.  Spore
liberation apparently continues throughout the year eventually
giving rise  to gametophytes.  Gametophytes  are dioecious, the
female producing the egg which can be fertilized by the sperm to
produce the spermatophyte, known as kelp.  It requires about 1/2
year from the time of spore liberation to the development of a
sporophyte  18" high (Anonymous,  5815).

Temperature,  salinity and water  quality

Kelp growth probably increases about two-fold for a 10C rise in
temperature (Leighton,  5816).  Leighton cited  Clendenning who
found a QIQ of 2. 0 for kelp  photosynthesis and  North who obtained
a value of 1.7 for frond  elongation (Leighton et_ al. , 1966).

Temperatures  above 18 C may affect kelp adversely,  increasing
with the length of time the high temperature is  maintained. Beds
seem to deteriorate in warm water later in the summer and early
autumn but will revive in cold conditions (North, 5809).

There seems to be considerable geographic variation in the degree
of sensitivity of kelp to warm water (Anonymous,  5815).  The
strains of Macrocystis in southern California exhibit sensitivity
to elevated water temperature and large quantities of kelp are
lost in summer if water  temperature exceeds 20C and persists
for several -weeks.  A strain of kelp labelled "O"  in Baja California
has greater resistance surviving  temperatures of 24C (North, 5809).

In a 90-day transplant experiment, plants kept at  1 5 meters
(temperature 15-1 8 C; photosynthetically active light 5% of surface
intensity)  doubled in area every 21 days and in  length every 24 days.

Plants growing at comparable depths on natural substrates doubled
in length every 24 to 34 days (Haxo and Neushal, 5818).  For additional
information on temperature and transplants see North and Neushal

Salinity does not seem to have a detrimental effect on photosynthesis
following an 18-hour exposure to salinity of 25%o higher or lower
than natural seawater.  In a 5-day incubation period at 20 C
photo synthetic capacity was lower in samples that had been exposed
to seawater diluted 10% to 25% with distilled water.  Water temperature
was  held between 14-17 C. At 18C the kelp did not do well (Anonymous,

Discharge  of effluent may cause changes in salinity and/or temperature
which could be significant in the immediate vicinity of an outfall,
but certainly not at greater distances.  In fact, investigations into
the effects of  discharged wastes on kelp have revealed that no
chemical or effluent tested was sufficiently toxic to account for
great losses in kelp (Anonymous,  5815).

Grazers use the kelp beds as a main supply of food.   More obvious
grazers include fish, the abalone Haliotus fulgens; the wavy top,
Astraea undosa; the turban,  Norriaia norrisii; the opaleye, Girella
nigricans;  crustaceans; gastropods,  and echinoids.  Two important
urchins Strongylocentrotus franciscanus and S_. purpuratus feed
on the sporophylls of the kelp (Leighton et^ al. ,  5816; Anonymous,
5815).  These sea urchins seem  to be one of the most damaging
herbivores because they sever the stipe at the base (Leighton
j^t al. , 5816).  Sewage may encourage urchins and cause a change
in the ecological balance between seaweed and grazers.

Predators  of the urchins include:  sheephead fish (Pimelometopon
pulchrum),  the sun star (Pycnopodia helianthoidesj,  the  agile
sea star (Astrometris sertulifera), and the  sea otter (Enhydra
lutris).  Only the otter appears to be an effective controlling agent,
but  it occurs in insignificant numbers (Leighton et al. ,  5816).

Leighton et_ al. (5816) showed that a rise in temperature from 5-1 5 C
can increase the average daily algal consumption by L  purpuratus
from about 1. 7 to 6. 4% of body weight.  Above 17 C the consumption
rate declined.  Over the range where  rates increased,  consumption
by urchins increased much  more  rapidly than the kelp growth
rates.   Increased demands  by grazers may occur during warm
water seasons when feeding rates may rise more rapidly than
plant growth rates.

Other important studies on  the giant kelp include the following:
Measurements on respiration and chlorophyll  MacFarland and
      Prescott, 5817
Translocation of organic matter  - Sargent and Lantrip,  5819
Growth -  North, 5811
Transplantation - Anderson and North,  5813
Standing crop - MacFarland and  Prescott,  5817; Anderson and
      North, 5813
Grazing pressures - Leighton j^t al. ,  5816

For further information on  giant kelp see:

Clendenning, K. A.  1958.  Quart.  Prog. Rpt.  Kelp Inv. Prog.
      Univ. Calif.  Inst.  Mar.  Res.  IMR ref.  58-3, Oct-Dec,
      1957, p.  6.

Clendenning, K. A.  1959.  Physiological Studies on Giant Kelp.
      Kelp Inv.  Prog. Quart. Prog.  Rpt.  IMR ref.  59-9, Univ.
      of Calif.

I.  M. R.  1963.  Kelp Habitat  Improvement Proj.  Final Rept.
      1962-63.  Univ. Calif. Inst. Mar. Res.  I. M.  R. ref. 63-13.

Leighton, D. L.  I960.  Quart. Prog. Rept.  Kelp Inv.  Prog.
      Univ. Calif.  Inst.  Mar.  Res.  I.  M. R.  ref.  60-8, Jan-Mar,
      I960, p.  28.
        9.  Merluccius productus (Ayers) (Pacific hake]

                         by Nancy Blind
 The biology of the Pacific hake has recently been reviewed in
 detail by the U. S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries (3081, 3082).

The hake is pelagic and sometimes demersal.  It ranges from the
Gulf of Alaska to the Gulf of California but it is commercially
concentrated from south Vancouver Island to Baja California.
It is usually taken near the bottom anywhere in shallow waters to
depths around 800 meters, and particularly between 45 and 500
meters (Alverson and Larkins, 5712), (Nelson and Larkins, 3081).

In Washington, the hake is most numerous from Grays Harbor
to the Columbia River  at depths of 37 to 92 meters, most occurring
within 18 meters from the sea bed (5714).


Spawning is pelagic in  the open ocean and the greatest concentration
of eggs and larvae seems to be at about 200 meters.  Larvae
are abundant very near the coast to 380 km from the coast off
southern California (Alverson and Larkins, 5712). Some hake
larvae have been found as far out to  sea as 650 km., Along the
California  coast, hake  larvae are  the most numerous species
taken (Calif.  Dept.  Fish & Game, 5729).  The largest concentration
of eggs and larvae occurs at temperatures between 10. 6 and
15.0C in southern California (Ahlstrom and Counts, 5728).
Nelson and Larkins (3081) state larvae most often found with
or near the thermocline at temperatures 47. 5-65. 3F.  An
obvious lack of knowledge concerns the distribution and  ecology
of the juvenile (1-3 yr.  old) hake (Nelson and Larkins,  3081).
Adult hake  usually mature between 3 and 4 years.  There seems
to be a high natural mortality among adults which has  been
estimated to be around 40% (Alverson  and Larkins, 5712).

Migration and schooling^

The adult population occupies the northern part of the  range  in
spring,  summer, and fall; and the southern part in the winter
(Alverson and Larkins, 5712).  This may be associated with
spawning which occurs primarily in  January through April (Calif.
Dept. Fish & Game, 5729).  During  the  summer, length-frequency
data shows a lack of juveniles off Washington,  but an abundance
off southern California.  This, too,  indicates some north-south
migration.   Migration patterns suggest that there is one homogeneous
stock off the Pacific coast.  Genetic studies also indicate a single

population throughout the range (Nelson and Larkins, 3081).   This
population may perhaps aggregate during the spawning season
(Alverson and Larkins , 5712).


Off the Washington coast,  the main foods of the hake are the
euphausiids Thysanoessa spinifera  and Euphausia jaacifica,  and
the pink shrimp Pandalus jordani ( U.  S. Fish and Wildlife Service,
5713; Nelson and Larkins, 3081; and Gotshall, 5730).  In addition,
the hake also eats some  small fishes and squids (Clemens and Wilby,
2390). Alton and Nelson (3082) have recently published a complete
review of the feeding of the Pacific  hake.


No specific  major predators have been listed for the hake.  The
dog-fish  shark,  Squalus  acanthias, has been observed eating hake
(Shippen and Alton, 5639) and it can be assumed that probably any
one of the large predators will consume hake.

The interest in commercially fishing for hake has risen  considerably
in the last ten years.  With the use of special techniques,  the hake
can be easily and profitably reduced to meal and  oil (Dyer e_t al. ,  5731;
Alverson  and Larkins, 5712).  Also, it has  recently been appearing
on the market in small numbers as fillets.   It is  still a large  source
of  animal food (Best and Nitsos, 5732).  The standing stock in  the
summer off Washington and Oregon has  been estimated to be between
550 and 1,100 thousand metric tons.   This  means that the  population
is second only to the anchovy,  Engraulis mordax, in number
(Alverson and Larkins, 5712).  There is no reason to doubt that
the hake may become even more important in the future.

Other important information on the Pacific hake includes:
Depth and Distribution - Calif. Fish and Game, 5729; U.  S. Fish and
       Wildlife Service, 5713.
Fecundity - MacGregor, 5637.
Vertical Migration - U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service,  5713.
Catch Data - U.  S.  Fish and Wildlife Service statistical digest for
       years of interest.

       10.  Microstomus pacificus (Lockington) (Dover sole]

               by Nancy Blind and Danil R.  Hancock
The Dover sole, which ranges from Alaska to Guadalupe Island,
Baja California, is one  of the most important species of flatfish
along the Pacific coast.  It inhabits  deeper waters than  most flatfish
and is found on muddy bottoms (Roedel,  2567; Clemens  and Wilby,
2390).   One fishery survey found Dover  sole from 2 to 1090  meters
although catch rates were highest between 180 and 365 meters.
Off Washington and Oregon it was a  dominant species, comprising
56-91% of the flatfish catch.  It was found to be  less abundant and
in shallower waters farther north (Alverson  e_t aL ,  5735).


Spawning takes place  from November to  March (Harry,  5775).
Some references give the time as December to February (Hagerman,
2572).   The larvae are pelagic.   According to Hagerman (2572)
eggs and young tend to drift south and shoreward on currents.

Growth and development

Very little information is available on the growth  and  development
of the Dover sole.  The trawls catch fish whose lengths  range from
11 to 63 cm (Alverson _et al. , 5735)  but 14 in. (approximately 35 cm)
seems to be the accepted market minimum (Harry,  5775).  The
females are larger than the males (Westrheim and Morgan,  5776).
Mean size  seems to increase with depth  (Alverson et al. ,  5735).
The sole eats mainly invertebrates that  inhabit mud (Hagerman, 2572).


No north-south migrations are indicated for  this species (Harry, 5528)
but tagging studies have revealed a seasonal inshore-offshore migration
(Harry, 5528; Westrheim and Morgan, 5776).  This probably accounts
for the fact that in California, the Dover sole fishery  is most
important in the summer (Best, 5785).   Tagging in the Willapa area
in Washington showed that inshore recoveries were made between

55-110 meters during June to September and offshore recoveries
were made between 180-300  fathoms from November to April.
Most of the fish tagged were males (Westrheim and Morgan, 5776).
Another study found that fish tagged in shallow water in the summer
were recovered in 365 meters in the winter (Harry,  5528).

There  seems to be a  limited exchange of stocks between British
Columbia and northern California (Westrheim and Morgan,  5776).
In the Willapa tagging study, only seven sole were recaptured at
distances more than 55 km from the  original tagging area.  Also
from this study, the annual mortality was estimated to be 0. 58
(Westrheim and Morgan,  5776).

Other information on Dover  sole includes:
Fecundity - Harry, 5775.
Fishery - Best,  5785; Westrheim and Morgan,  5776.
     11.  Mytilus californianus Conrad (California sea mussel)

                          by Diane Dean
The California sea mussel is also known as the big mussel or rock
mussel.   It ranges from 18 N to 54 N (Alaska to Mexico) (Keen,
2207).  Reish (2898) pinpointed the two extremes of their range
at the Aleutian Islands in Alaska and Isla Socorro in Mexico.  On
the Oregon coast these mussels are abundant at Netarts Bay, Cape
Mears, North Siletz Bay and Tillamook Head (Edmondson, 2345).

The habitat of the mussel is the inter tidal zone on rocky exposed
coasts (Reish, 2898).  The supposed stenobathic habitat of the
California sea mussel has been questioned by Berry (2542).  He
stated that the mussel can survive long periods of immersion in
aerated sea water of widely different salt concentrations and further
that the mussel has the ability to  live and thrive well below the
tidal zone; in fact as far down as  90 meters.

The mussel occupies a wide vertical zone in the  marine intertidal
environment. Research on respiration showed that high-level mussels

have higher metabolic rates during submergence and post-exposure
periods.  One consequence of high tide existence is an increase
in metabolic function above that found in low-level animals (Moon, 2335).

Salinity, temperature and physiology studies

Studies of sex cells and larvae suggest that they are affected by
salinities less than 29. 6%o.  Fertilization usually occurs  readily at
21. 5%o but survival of the larvae is low.  Turbulence as well as
salinity may be  a factor in determining  the mussel's  distribution
(Young, 2330).

Aeration is  a factor very beneficial to prolonging the life  span of
the mussel in water of any salinity that does not kill them in a
short time.   Under conditions of continuous aeration, the mussel
possesses a wide range of tolerances for heterosmotic  conditions
(17%o-45%o S).   Fox e_t al. (2228) found that mussels immersed in
water of salinities about 1 2%o and less die in 4-7 days.  Hypertonic
solutions of 55%o or more prove fatal also.   Crowding individuals
in an aquarium has a deleterious effect because of the accumulation
of nonvolatile waste products.

Temperature is another factor which affects the California sea
mussel.  Naylor (2798) stated that intertidal molluscs show tolerances
for higher temperatures;  the higher up the  shore they are found, the
longer periods they are normally exposed to air.  Sublittoral species
are much less tolerant.  Mussels of higher latitudes had higher rates
of ciliary pumping action than did low-latitude species at  lower
temperatures.   A positive correlation between growth rate and water
temperature was found by Fox and Coe (2229),  but there was a
decrease in growth during the month with the highest temperature.

Optimum growth temperatures are 15-19C with a decrease of growth
at 20C.  Temperatures above 20C are  less favorable for general
metabolism (Coe and Fox, 2225).   Other temperature data listed
by Coe and Fox  (2226) showed that mussels exhibit a rapid increase
in size at temperatures of 17-20C.  Growth continues  less rapidly
at 14C or lower.  Feeding continues at temperatures as  low as 7-8C
and as high as 27-28C.

Rao (2891) studied rate of water propulsion in the mussel as a
function of latitude.  He found that (1) shell weight is a function of
latitude and, consequently, of the mean annual temperature (increases
with increasing latitude),  (2) absolute rate as well as weight-specific
rate of pumping is greater at any temperature in mussels from higher
latitudes, (3) rate of decline, in absolute as well as weight-specific
rate of pumping with increasing size  was slower in higher latitudes.
He speculated perhaps this is why there  are larger sized mussels
in the  more northern forms.  The center of  dispersal of species
such as Mytilus calif or nianus is in  the lower latitudes.

Rao (2893) made other studies concerned with tidal rhythmicity of
rate of water propulsion in the  California sea mussel.   Mussels
exhibit a pattern of activity (measured by rate of water  propulsion)
which  corresponds in time and  degree to the tidal levels in the locality
in which they live.  The rhythm is  independent of temperature (range
from 9-20C) and of various light conditions and no indication of
a diurnal rhythm in the rate of water propulsion  is  apparent.
Rao speculated that the frequency of the  rhythm is intrinsic and
perhaps  inherited and suggested that  the degree to which the intrinsic
rhythm becomes marked and measurable depends on the amplitude
of the  environmental rhythm.

The California sea mussel is a mucus, filter-fee ding organism.
Mussels feed by extending their siphons  and drawing a  current of
water.  Their principal food supply is minute particles  of organic
detritus from disintegrating cells of all kinds of  marine organisms
(plant  and animal), supplemented by living and dead unicellular
organisms and living or dead gametes (Coe and Fox, 2226).  Detritus
comprises 4/5 of their nutrition (Fox e_t  aL ,  2228).  Rapid growth
rate correlates indirectly with dinoflagellate populations, however,
dinoflagellates can supply only a small fraction of  the mussel's
nutritive requirements (Coe and Fox, 2226).  Calcium used  in shell
building is obtained from the water.  The alkaline nature of the mantle
next to the shell permits  calcium deposition by that tissue.


Sexes  of the mussels are strictly separate (Fitch,  2227).  Males
become sexually mature earlier than females (Coe and Fox,  2225).
Female mussels  produce as many as  100,000 eggs during a season
(Bonnot, 2224).

According to Whedon (2329)  spawning occurs at all times of the year
irrespective of temperature or other external stimuli, yet at the same
time he found spawning coincident with a falling rather than a rising
temperature.  The period of maximum spawning  begins in early
October followed by two lesser periods in January-February
and May-June.  Data indicating a definite annual  spawning cycle
are also in the literature (Annonymous, 2706). Spawning begins
in September, increases to a maximum in midwinter and gradually
declines to a minimum from May to August.  Occasional spawning
is observed in summer.  A negative  correlation exists between
rising temperature and spawning in Mytilus.   The major spawning
season is between October and March.

Stimulation of spawning  by Kraft mill effluent has been studied
(Breese e^ al. , 3810).  Kraft mill effluent is highly effective in
triggering spawning in the bay and California sea  mussels.  Stimu-
lation  does not seem to affect viability and fertilization capacity
of the  gametes.

Ecological studies

Hewatt (2233) studied ecological succession on an exposed rock which
had been scraped clean.  He stated that the reestablishment of the
climax condition requires a period of at least more than 21/2 years;
therefore, he cautioned  against exploitation of mussel beds.  Predators
of the  mussel include gulls,  sharks,  rays, fish,  starfish, flesh-
eating snails and crabs (Fitch, 2227).

The mussel affects the  physical properties of the  environment,
(1) by  removing minute material, altering turbidity and light penetration
of the water, (2) by depositing feces  and pseudofeces to change the
character of the bottom,  (3) by altering the chemical composition
of the water slightly (3 -*CO2, etc. ), (4) by adding to a temporary
supply of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates where it dies, and
(5) by  contributing to gametes  and itself a food supply for fish and
other invertebrates (Fox and Coe, 2229).

There  are  several reasons why the California sea mussel is
economically important.  It can be one of the greatest expenses  to
steam and other industrial plants by  growing in large clumps and
fouling intake  pipes (Fitch, 2227).

The mussel is used as a food source by man (Fitch, 2227).  Joyner
and Spinelli (2446)  stated that mussels can be readily processed
into dried concentrate, rich in protein.

Other studies on the California  sea mussel include:
Attachment and  locomotion - Bonnet,  2224
Organic matter  and soluble nutrient removal, utilization and
       fixation  - Coe and Fox,  2226
Clumping,  crawling as a distributional and competitive factor
       Harger,  3753
Paralytic shellfish poisoning, Pharmacological and biochemical
       studies  - Murtha, 2334; Schantz, 2332
Parasitological  studies - Berry,  2543; Chew e_t a_l. , 5534; Naylor,
       2798; Coe and Fox,  2525               ~~
Predator prey relationship - Pilson and Taylor,  2333

Portions of the  life cycle of this mussel are well studied while
information on other phases, especially larval stages  is less well
known.  A comprehensive review of the life history of the California
sea mussel would be most useful.   Although  the larvae has been
shown to be very sensitive  to toxic substances, only limited information
on the mussel's tolerance to temperature and other pollutants is
available.  Work in these areas would be advisable.
            12.  Qncorhynchus spp.  (Pacific salmon)

                by Diane Dean and Danil R. Hancock
 This report deals -with five species of Pacific coast salmon:  Qncorhynchus
 gorbuscha (pink salmon), C).  keta (chum salmon), O_. kisutch (coho
 salmon),  O_.  nerka (sockeye salmon), and O_.  tshawytscha (chinook
 salmon).   These salmon have been intensively studied with regard
 to their fisheries which are primarily brackish and fresh water.
 We therefore placed emphasis on reviewing the coastal migratory
 patterns of these fishes although a succinct summary of the life
 cycle, biology,  and ecology has been attempted. A review of the
 Pacific salmon has recently been published by Parker and Krenkel (3222).

Review of life history

Salmon hatch in streams, rivers and lakes of the mountainous  coasts
of North America and eastern Asia.  They journey out to the sea
where they grow to a fairly large size and then by some unknown
mechanism return to their natal streams to spawn and die.

All species of Pacific salmon are anadromous, meaning the adults
must migrate  to fresh water to  spawn.   Spawning usually takes place
in the  summer and  autumn months.  Females deposit their eggs in
redds (or nests) in  the stream's gravel.  The accompanying male
fertilizes the eggs and the eggs  are covered over by gravel.  Hatching
depends on water temperature and the particular species, but usually
takes about three months.   Fry  absorb food from their yolk sacs
and then leave the gravel in search of food.  They often move down-
stream to a lake where they may remain for a time before going on
to the  sea.  Seaward migration  depends on the species.  Some  fish
may go to sea as fry and some as late as two years.  During summer
young fish tend to occupy a  single region of thermocline.  Later,
in autumn and winter when temperature is more uniform, a vertical
distribution occurs.  With the onset of spring, yearlings tend to
become more  active and start to school.   Their  movement and the
current flow to outlets brings fish to stream outlets of the lakes and
then they are caught in the streams.  Now they are  under the influence
of the current.  Some fish (in Georgia Strait) tend to remain in the
upper less saline water.  This places them in the location of the
strongest seaward current.  Young salmon are sometimes carried
in a  coastal current causing them to move in a north and northwest
direction (Clemens, 2424).  The time at sea and the miles they travel
is as yet not definitely known.   When salmon eventually reach the
ocean their oceanic life  spans one to four years  depending on the
species.  As they begin  to mature they change physically:  (1) increasing
in endocrine activity,  (2) changing  body metabolism, and (3)
altering osmotic regulation. The fish tend to occupy water  of lower
salinity which will be surfaceward  and  shoreward.  They also respond
rheotactically and will be led to the rivers,  whereupon they begin
their upstream migration to spawn (Clemens and Burner, 2424, 3020;
Foerster, 2502).


Young salmon depend on plankton organisms which are abundant both
in fresh and salt water (Burner, 3020).  All salmon eat crustaceans,
especially the pinks (2390), chum (2771),  sockeye (Burner, 3020)
and king (5507).  Pinks  also feed on squid and other fish (2390).
Coho are more pelagic in feeding and accept a wider variety of food
than the chinook salmon.  Herring is one of the  main foods but studies
show that if the herring is eliminated from their diet, the salmon
would turn to other food sources (5507).
Food of the Pacific Salmon.
Crustaceans      A
Crab megolops
Squids            AB
small fish        AB
sand lance

A - Clemens and Wilby,  2390
B - Manzer, 3032
C - Brett and Alderdice, 2771
D - Carl, 2336
E - Prakash, 5507

                     F - Merkel, 5669
                     G - Sosaki, 3144
                     H - Burner, 3020
                     J - Fulton, 3635

 Temperature and salinity factors

 Studies show that young chum, chinook, coho, sockeye,  and pink
 salmon prefer salinities less than 33. 6%o and temperatures less
 than 15C.   They avoid water of greater than 34%o salinity and
 temperatures of 20C.   Young pinks and chum have intolerance
 to temperatures below  -0. 5C and -0. 1 C is the low limit for lethal
 temperatures (2771).  Young coho have a fairly high minimum
 temperature limit of 5. 0-5. 9  C and prefer 7C (Manzer_et_a_l. , 3023).
 Juvenile coho have a maximum cruising speed of 0. 3  m/sec at 20C
 and a minimum of 0. 06 m/sec at around 0C (5513).  Juvenile
 sockeye salmon had a maximum cruising speed of 0. 33 m/sec at
 the optimum temperature of 16C and a minimum of 0. 1 2 m/sec at
 0C (5513).  A high water  temperature where chinook were caught
 was 13-13. 9C (Manzer ert al. , 3023).

 Temperature and Salinities Information on  Pacific Salmon

                       Pink       Chum  Coho     Chinook  Sockeye
 Salinities          O. gorbuscha   keta kisutch   tshawytscha  nerka

 Young prefer
  less  than33.6%o        'A        A     A          A         A

 Avoid  greater
  than  34%o                A        A     A          A         A


 Preferred less than
  15C                    A              A          A         A

 Avoid greater than
  20 C                    A        A     A          A         A

 Complete intolerance
  to temperature
  below -0. 5C            B        B

 Lethal temperature
  -0. 1 C low limit        B        B

A - Clemens and Wilby, 2390
B - Brett and Alderdice, 2771

One research operation including 5,160,000 square meters off
the coast of Oregon and Washington to longitude  175C and from
latitude 43 N to 60N captured salmon in surface water temperatures
of 0. 5-14. 5C.  No juvenile sockeye or  chum were captured in
water temperatures  below4.4C.  In warmer  areas,  the largest
salmon catches were made in waters ranging from 9. 4-12. 8C -with
the largest total catch associated with a 10C  surface temperature
(Hanovan and Tononako, 2645).   Chinook and coho seem to be the
most resistant to high temperatures (5-24C) while pinks and chums
are least resistant.  Sockeye have greater resistance to prolonged
exposure to high temperatures than the latter  two.  None of these
species can withstand temperatures below 4C when acclimated to
20 C ,  nor  can they tolerate temperatures exceeding 25. 1 C when
exposed for a -week (Brett, 5568).

Sockeye are  native to practically all temperate and subarctic water
where  summer surface temperatures range from 5-1 6 C and summer
surface salinities  are generally  less than 32. 2%o.  Salmon occupy
the upper 20-30 m (60-100 ft) strata of water (Foerster, 2502).

Spawning times:  pink      late September to early November (2390)
                 chum     late in fall (2390)
                 sockeye   late  summer and autumn,  August to
                           November (Foerster, 2502)

Most salmon in Aleutian waters  spawn in  streams either in Asia or
North America, exclusive of the Aleutian Islands.  Migrations
ultimately must be more  or less west or eastward (Johnson, 2840).

Migration patterns

Not much is  known concerning the migratory patterns of salmon
at sea.   It -would seem that temperature and maturity of the  fish
influence their location.  A change  in distribution of each species
may be due  to maturing fish leaving the high seas for spawning
grounds and immature individuals remaining and responding to
various environmental factors (Manzer  e_t a^.  , 3023).  Salmon
evacuate the Bering Sea and northeastern Pacific  in winter where
surface water temperature decreases and they move  southward and
eastward (Manzer et al. ,  3023).

Columbia River fall chinook are found principally north of the  Columbia
River and predominant migration in the fall is to Columbia River
watersheds  to spawn.   Tagging in Northern British Columbia and
Alaska have shown large numbers of Columbia River fish.

Lower river populations must confine their ocean migrations to
areas between the Columbia River and Vancouver Island.   Upper river
fish may not even make a long northward migration but stay in the
local area through life.

Relatively few chinook  are found in the ocean off the Columbia  River
during June and July.   In winter the fish gather in the area between
the Columbia River and Gray's Harbor.   As the  season progresses
most of the  fish move northward on a feeding migration -while the
rest turn south towards the Sacramento-San Jaoquin System.  In
the fall mature fish enter rivers leaving immature fish scattered
along the coast.  In the winter the remaining fish regroup in the
Columbia River-Gray's Harbor area making a spring and summer
northward migration again.

The northward shifting  populations in the summer and southward
movement in the  winter appear to be characteristic for all North
Pacific salmon.  This could be due to a  response to warming of
surface water or differences in distributional patterns between
mature and  immature fish (Van Hyning,  3301).

Adult fall chinook return from the North in August and September
when the current is running south. Young  may be carried north
earlier by currents.

Studies in British Columbia show that initial dispersion of immature fish
from stream mouth up  to distances of 55-74 km  is accomplished
within  a few days.  Pinks and chums  intermingle and frequent the
shores until mid  July.  Their offshore movement is  gradual or
irregular.   Pinks have  been captured up to 11-22 km from shore in
September.  Distribution and movement during autumn and winter is
virtually unknown.  Tagging in 1962 showed that in April and May
fish which subsequently migrated to central coastal areas  in British
Columbia were to the south of their spawning streams or  near  the
latitude of the Columbia River (4531'N, 12636'W).  A northward

movement took place next and some went far north of their spawning
grounds (Neave, 3053).  It is known that a concentration of sockeye
occurs near the middle of the Gulf of Alaska during April and May.
Distribution becomes complicated as fish go to their separate
rivers (Ricker,  3116).

It is known the sockeye reproduce in North American watersheds
from the Columbia River to the Bering Sea (Margolis e_t a_l. , 3202).
The fry generally  emerge in 80-140 days (April-May) (Foerster, 2502).

Avoidance reactions of Pacific salmon to pulp mill effluent were
tested.  Chinook showed marked avoidance to toxic concentrations
of sulphate and sulphite wastes.  Coho showed reduced avoidance
compared to chinook (Beak,  2152).

Studies of ocean migrations for salmon are being conducted and
perhaps in the future predictions can be made.
            13.  Ophiodon elongatus (Girard) (Ling cod)

                          by Nancy Blind
The ling cod ranges from Alaska to the San Martin Islands in
northern Baja California (Roedel,  2567) but it reaches its greatest
abundance north of California.  It lives on  the bottom in rocky areas
or kelp beds, particularly near a strong tidal current (Calif.  Fish
and Game, 5729; Clemens and Wilby, 2390).  It is sometimes taken
as deep as 370 meters but is found mainly  in depths of around 1*10
meters (Calif.  Fish and Game,  5729; Phillips, 5647).

Life  history

The adult ling cod is rather sluggish and spends most of its time
resting on the bottom waiting for prey to swim within its reach.
Tagging studies by Phillips (5647) indicate  that only nine percent
of the population move more than five miles from the area of release.
Sex does not seem to have any effect on migration/ but  indications
are that large fish move less frequently than smaller ones (Hart,  5734).

In some regions there seems to be a shifting of spawning fish from
offshore waters to inshore sub-tidal rocky reefs (Calif.  Fish and
Game, 5729).


Spawning takes place from late December to February or early
March (Clemens and Wilby,  2390).  The  eggs are  guarded by the male
ling cod until they hatch,  around six weeks later.  The larvae are
about 1. 3  cm long and use their yolk sac in 1 0 days.  Very little is
known about  the post-larval  stages (Phillips,  5647).

Growth and development

Both males and females start to  mature at 63 cm in  length and almost
all are mature at 65 cm.  Females  reach 63 cm in 3 years and  65  cm
in four years (Phillips, 5647; Calif.  Fish and Game,  5729).   Males
are somewhat shorter-lived than the females, which may reach
a maximum age of twenty years (Calif. Fish and Game,  5729).


The ling cod is an extremely voracious fish and will eat almost
anything.   Its most common diet includes herring, flounders, hake,
cod, whiting, sand lance, young  ling cod, squid,  dog fish shark,
pollack, rockfish, crab and  shrimp (Clemens and Wilby, 2390;
Phillips, 5647).


Although the  ling cod is an important component of the west coast
fishery, there  seems to be  comparatively  little information in  the
literature about it.   No temperature data  seem to be available and
information about life  history is  minimal.

Other important information on ling cod includes:
Fecundity - Calif. Fish and  Game,  5729;  Phillips, 5647
Metabolic rate and biochemical studies -  Pritchard, 2097
Egg description - Phillips,  5647
Survival rates  - Chatwin, 2211
Catch statistics - U.  S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Statistical Digest,
      for years of interest
Fishery   Reeves, 2089;  Calif.  Fish and Game, 5729; Phillips, 5647.

    14.  Parophrys vetulus Girard (Lemon sole or English sole)

                          by Nancy Blind
Parophrys vetulus ranges from Unalaska to Sebastian Vizcaino Bay
in Baja  California (Roedel,  2567).  More specifically, its range is
given as being from 2830'N, 11500'W to 5430'N,  16400'W (Alderdice
and Forrester, 2453).  The range for the commercial fishery is
from Santa Barbara, California, to Hecate Strait, British Columbia
(Jow, 5778).  It is particularly important in Oregon and Washington,
but declines toward  the northern end of its  range (Alverson e_t aA. ,
5735).   Almost all lemon sole  caught are sold as fresh fillets
(Calif.  Fish and Game, 5729).


The  lemon sole is found over muddy or sandy bottoms, often from
20 to 50 fathoms (Clemens and Wilby,  2390; Ketchen,  5522,  5523).
A trawling survey, primarily along the Washington coast,  found
the sole in depths  from 1 to 299 fathoms (Alverson e_t al_. ,  5735).

The  spawning season is given by Budd  (5737) as being  from January
to May, whereas  Harry (5775)  believes it to be from November to
March.  Alderdice and Forrester (2453) listed the lemon sole as
spawning  over a four-month period ending in late March or early
April with the peak in early February.

The  eggs  are bouyant, pelagic, spherical,  and transparent (Budd,  5737;
Alderdice and Forrester, 2453; and Calif.  Fish and Game, 5729).
The  eggs  float at the surface but if not fertilized within 15 to 30
minutes,  they begin to sink (Orsi,  5541).

Temperature and salinity

Alderdice and Forrester (2453) performed experiments to determine
the effect of temperature and salinity on the eggs and larvae of
Parophrys vetulus.  Their study produced  the following information:
The  eggs  were  held at various combinations of salinities from 1 0%o
to 40%o  S and temperatures  of  4 to 12C.   Hatching occurred at

every salinity and temperature.  Development time to 50% hatching
ranged from 3. 5 days at 12 C and 25%o salinity to 11.8 days at 4C
and 25%o salinity.  Between 6C and 12C, development time to 50%
hatching was delayed by salinities above and below 25%o whereas at
4C, hatching seemed to be accelerated by salinities greater and
smaller than 25%o.

In regard to lengths  of the  larvae, the greatest mean length (2.92  mm)
was obtained at 25%o salinity and 8C.  The total number of larvae
hatched seemed to be greatest at this level also.  The oxygen con-
sumption was  calculated to be 0. 560 g per embryo per hour.

Salinities and temperatures encountered in the natural environment
were 20%o to 34%o salinity and 2. 3 to 13. 8 C.  A change  of 1  C was
found to be approximately  equivalent to a change of 4%o salinity.
Experimental evidence  showed that 90% viable hatch was obtained
at salinities of 20-32%o  and temperatures 6. 5-10C.  Although
salinity may perhaps modify the effects of temperature  on early
development of F\ vetulus, it appears to have little direct influence
on egg survival.  Temperatures at the  extremes of the geographical
range for this species are  2.3C and 18C.  These areas are probably
populated through larval drift and some adult migration.  Irregularity
of catch and abundance  over the area would suggest that other factors
such as water transport and availability of suitable areas for continued
larval development also influence egg and larval survival.

It has been noted that weak year classes are produced in  years
when the water temperature is higher than normal since the elevated
temperature speeds  up  embryonic development.  Thus the developing
larvae would not be carried to the proper rearing grounds  by the
currents.  Low temperature prolongs the pelagic stage  allowing the
larvae to be^carried to  the rearing grounds (Ketchen,  5522).

The young, when hatched,  are extremely weak swimmers and hence
are at the mercy of the  water currents.  They survive for approximately
14 days on the yolk sac  (Orsi, 5541).  The larvae are carried about
in the surface currents  for about 6 to 1 0 weeks  and then go to the
bottom (Calif. Fish and Game, 5729).  Usually they are  found close
to the intertidal zone and then move into deeper water as they mature
(Clemens and  Wilby, 2390).  In  one bay survey,  only young fish

(2 to 18 cm) were caught in the bay.  Presumably no adults were present.
All but 5% of the young fish migrated from the bay to the ocean in the
late summer and early fall of their first year (Westrheim,  5542).


Adult lemon sole feed mainly on invertebrates which inhabit muddy
bottoms,  such as worms,  molluscs,  small starfish, small crabs,
brittle stars, clam siphons and shrimps.  Occasionally they consume
small fish.  Sharks, .skates and lingcod are the lemon sole's main
predators however,  no one species can be designated as the major
predator (Calif.  Fish and Game, 5729; Clemens and Wilby, 2390).

Distribution and migragion

Various studies  have indicated the existence  of several stocks of
Parophrys vetulus along the Pacific coast.   Two broad groups have
been defined; one ranging along the Washington coast and the other
centering around Cape Blanco  to Cape  Mendocino (Anon. , 5777).
In addition,  two  major stocks have been'described off  British Columbia;
one in the Strait of Georgia and the other around Hecate Strait.
Within these main stocks,  there appear to be substocks (Forrester,
5781).  Four stocks  have been described for  California (Jow, 5778).

Along the Washington and British Columbia coasts, a spawning migration
seems to  take place.   Fish tagged in Washington went  south along
northern Oregon; some as  far as northern California,  in the fall
and then north in the spring.  All recoveries were made over the
continental shelf in depths  less  than 100 fathoms (Pattie, 5782).
Off British Columbia,  the  fish go north to feed in the  summer. ^The
adults then are  found around 20 fathoms.  In  the winter they are
somewhat deeper.  Extensive migrations seem to be more characteristic
of the females than the males (Forrester, 5781).   There appears
to be little mixing between stocks (Ketchen and Forrester,  5546).

Other important information on the English sole includes:
Egg description  - Budd,  5737
Fecundity - Harry, 5775
Catch statistics  - see  U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Statistical
     Digest, for the years of interest
Fishery - Palmen,  2063; Holland, 5779; Smith, 5780;  Forrester,  5781
Growth and development -  Van Cleave and El Sayer,-5783; Smith,
     5790; Calif.  Fish and Game,  5729; Alverson t al. , 5735;
     Harry,  5775.


     15.  Pandalus jordani Rathbun (Pink shrimp)

                       by Diane Dean
The pink shrimp Pandalus jordani is distributed along the Pacific
coast from Unalaska in the Aleutians to Southern California
(Rathbun, 2328).  San Diego is the extreme southern extension of
its range (Dahlstrom,  2327).  The pink shrimp is the dominant
species along the Oregon and Washington coasts, but north of
British Columbia P. borealis becomes the dominant species.  Ronholt
(2294) stated that P. jordani,  P. borealis and Pandalopsis dispar
all appeared to occur in concentrations  adequate to support large-
scale commercial operations.

The pink shrimp have been taken at  depths ranging from 37 to
450 meters,  but are commonly  caught within the depths of 110-180
meters.  They generally occur  in areas which are characterized
by green mud (Ronholt,  2294) or glauconite mud (Alverson jet aL  ,

Food  habits of P.  jordani are not well known.  Dahlstrom (2327)
stated that the food of the pink shrimp was believed to be microscopic
material found in green  mud bottoms.  The only available temperature
information on the adults (Alverson  et al. , 2324) reported that
shrimp were caught in water having a temperature of 42. 1 -46. 7F
off Oregon and Washington and further  that no apparent relation was
noted bet-ween catches  of pink shrimp and differences in bottom-water
temperature  -within that  range.

Some  comparisons of different species of shrimp were  made as
to depth range (Anonymous, 2322).  Spot shrimp collected in Dabob
Bay were,found  to occur only in the  lower four rows of collector
bags.   These were concentrated in the  area between the bottom and
one meter.  Pink shrimp and side-striped shrimp were found in
all openings of the bag particularly from . 03  to 1 meter off bottom.

That pink shrimp undergo a.vertical  migration to the  near-surface
water during hours of darkness  is well documented.

They have been located off the Queets River, 11 to 1 5  meters
below the surface  over bottom depths of 79 to 81 meters.  Before
midnight there was none caught and at 041 Z hours  there was no
yield (2321).   Shrimp off the Washington coast may move off the
bottom at night.  One night drag in autumn produced 30 kg pounds
of pinks while 4 night drags in spring produced an average of 2. 5 kg
per drag.  Alverson et a_l. (2324) also mentioned vertical movements
in response to diurnal changes.  Day-time drags always produced
more shrimp  (Tegelberg, 2325).

Magill and Erho (2296) reported that the species is small,
with the average length being 10 cm.  Shrimp are  measured
by count per pound and Dahlstrom (2327) listed figures of approxi-
mately 100/lb. or 60-180/lb. while Magill and Erho (2296) listed
70-150/lb.  Dahlstrom (2327) reported the average age of shrimp
to be about 4 years.

Pink shrimp are protandric hermaphrodites beginning life as males
and changing to females (Magill and Erho, 2296).  During the period
when the males transpose to females  the shrimp are termed
"transitionals" (Ronholt and Magill, 2326).  Normally, the individuals
reach maturity as mature males at 1  1/2 years but up to 50% of
this age group may be mature females by the second autumn (Butler,
2323).   Some  confusion exists on the breeding cycles of the pink shrimp.
Certain instances  in Oregon have been noted where shrimp continued
as males throughout the second winter -while the majority of the year
class transposed to females and became gravid (Magill and Erho,
2296).   Tegelberg and Smith (2325) noted 18 month old females bearing
eggs in the fall.  They had either functioned early as males or  had
skipped the male stage.

In distinguishing males from females after larval development
two points, including the male organ, are evident on the ramus
of the male.   Atrophy of the male sex organ and lengthening of
the tip of the ramus take place during the transitional  period.  The
female has a single elongate ramus tip (Tegelberg and Smith,
2325).   Tegelberg and Smith (2325) stated that females taken in
October and November could be identified by a distinct blue
coloration seen dorsally through the carapace.

At 2 1 /2 years the pink shrimp are mature females carrying
1,000 to 3,000 eggs  attached to their pleopods.  Eggs are present
from October through January (Dahlstrom, 2327).  The eggs are
ellipsoid,!. 2-1. 6 millimeters long (2327).  At approximately three
years of age  (2327) spawning of the pink shrimp occurs.  There is
a seasonal movement to deeper waters (160 fathoms) for spawning
(2327; Alverson et al. ,  2324).

There is disagreement  on timing of metamorphosis, spawning,
and hatching  as shown in the following table.
Time of

Mature ova
Time of
late Mar -Apr
Time of
Early August

visible under
carapace in Aug
carried externally
by Oct-Nov
Larval development

Modin and Cox (2295) and Lee (3346) have successfully reared
pandalid shrimp in the laboratory.   The former found that planktoriic
larvae were subject to many physical,  chemical and biological
phenomena in the ocean and that this stage of their life is a very
vulnerable one.  In both studies egg-bearing shrimp were transported
to specially equipped aquariums where temperature was  controlled
and the water could be filtered, aerated, and ultra-violet treated to
reduce bacterial growth.  Modin and Cox (2295) maintained a
constant water temperature of 10-12C.  Lee (3346) maintained a
water temperature of 13 C (0. 2C) and a pH and salinity of
7. 8 and 24. 1%0 respectively.  Details of development are in both

Magill and Erho (2296) stated that pink shrimp may be particularly
susceptible to overfishing since the large shrimp which are most
available to the fishery are females.  A reduction in the female
pink shrimp population could be conceived to be serious,  if the
female brood stock became low enough to result in a year class

The information on the shrimp seemed to be limited in the sources
used.  Some studies on thermal and salinity tolerances,  food habits
and ecology -would.be helpful.

Other information on the  pink shrimp includes:
Fishery  - Alverson e_t al. ,  2324;  Magill and Erho,  2296;  Modin
      and Cox, 2295
Predators - Dahlstrom, 2327.
         16.  Sardinops  sagax (Jenyns) (Pacific  sardine)

                        by Nancy Blind
Sardinops sagax is the presently accepted name of the Pacific
sardine, but it is also found under Sardinops caerulea. It  ranges
along the Pacific Northwest coast.  It has been taken as far north as
southern Alaska, off the outer coast of Vancouver Island.  It
has been found along the Washington, Oregon, and California coasts
and its southern range is lower California and the Gulf of California.
The  sardine is not found more than 550 to 750 km from shore,  usually
less than 180 km (Clark, 2976).

The  Pacific sardine is an inshore, pelagic,  south temperate fish.
The  southernmost end of its range abuts  on tropical waters and this
boundary seems to be relatively uniform geographically (Murphy,

Ecology and life cycle and biology

Much of the information concerning the behavior, locations, etc.
for spawning sardines seems to be speculative.'

Farris (3428) studied the sardine and found that they exhibit diurnal
and seasonal periodicity but do not exhibit lunar periodicity.


Sardines spawn planktonic eggs under fairly specific temperature
conditions.  The temperature range for spawning is between 12C
and 17 C (Ahlstrom,  2473) but under lab conditions they have
spawned at 13-24 C (Lasker, 2385).

Spawning centers are off Southern California and include Cedros
Island,  Baja California, and Northern Baja California  (Dahlstrom,
2700).  Most spawning takes place in April through June but it
does occur throughout the  year (Ahlstrom, 2473).

The eggs are fertilized after extrusion and float freely in the upper
50 meters of water.  After three days the eggs hatch into tiny
transparent, thread-like larvae about 3 mm in length.   The larvae
reach the  sandy beaches of Southern and Lower California (Clark, 2976).


Lasker  (2385) ran some experiments on yolk utilization and found
that the energy provided by the yolk would meet the metabolic
needs of the animal at 14C until 160 hours after spawning.   From
this tim.ec.on, the larvae were on a continuing energy deficit and
were actually at a critical stage in their life.  They must be able
to feed and food must be available.  Lasker (2592) also showed how
important the temperature is to the  struggling larvae,  for functional
jaws and pigmented eyes fail to develop in sardine larvae at
temperatures below 13 C.  Lasker (2592) ran some temperature
experiments with anchovies (-which seem to be competitive) and
found that they hatch sooner and develop normally at these lower
temperatures.  A two-degree decrease in temperature (from critical
temperatures) for the sardine larvae can prolong the rate of
development by one-third and larval  survival may decrease
concomitantly (Lasker, 2592).

Temperature appears to influence both the time of spawning and
the length of the spawning  season.  If an abundant food supply is
available and there is a large area for  young sardines, then survival
chances are good.   All  this would tend  to depend on temperature
(Ahlstrom,  2597).


Scofield (2591) stated that larval sardines are unable to strain food
because their gill rakers do not form on the gill arch until they
are about 20 mm long.   Young sardines (40 mm long) feed primarily
on copepods, and sardines 100  mm long feed primarily on diatoms.
Other studies how little  variation to this one (Arthur, 3644).
Hand and  Berner (2593)  felt that crustaceans are the most important
food source with copepods highest on the list, but they stated that
the size of the fish didn't have much to do -with the food contained
in the stomach.   They also stated  that the sardine is primarily an
omnivorous filter-feeder rather than a particulate feeder.

Lewis (5540) stated after feeding studies in the  San Diego area that
sardines eat diatoms, dinoflagellates and crustaceans.  He felt
that fluctuations in temperatures affected the abundance of diatoms
which affects sardines.  He believed that lower temperatures  favoring
growth of diatoms attracts sardines.


Walford (2594) made some studies on the correlation between
fluctuations in abundance of the Pacific sardine and salinity of the
sea water; salinity reflecting the intensity of upwelling  which
increases plankton production.   As has been pointed out,  an environ-
mental condition most critical to the young  sardine is the abundance
of food.  This varies directly with the availability of nutrient salts
which in turn is dependent on strength of upwelling.  What is
suggested here is that intensity of upwelling or  surface salinity^
is highest in summer, and this is  at the same time a critical period
in the life of the young sardine, and also a  period of maximum solar

A comprehensive review of the life history and  biology of the sardine
has been compiled by Gates (5649).  Investigations on thermal ecology
as such are limited to just the  spawning temperature ranges and
development of the larvae.  This report indicates that  some information
is known concerning lower temperature tolerance but not the effects
of elevated  temperatures.  Knowledge of the early life history of the
sardine is incomplete.   Ecological studies  would also be  of value.

Other studies  on the sardine include:
Spawning behavior - Wolf, 2619
Fecundity - Clark,  2976
Behavioral studies  - Fink, 2861; Yoshimuta and Mitsagi, 2595;
      Clark, 2967;  Loukashkin, 2596
Catch statistics  Kimura and Blunt, 2708;  Marr, 3641
Parasites - Kunnenkeri, 3645
Morphology and Serology - O'Connell, 3638; Voorman, 2817
      17.  Sebastodes alutus (Gilbert) (Pacific ocean perch)

                        by Nancy Blind
The genus Sebastodes, one of the largest on the northeast Pacific
coast, is represented by 52 species in this  area.  Several, of the
species are important commercially but probably the one  of greatest
importance is Sebastodes alutus, the Pacific ocean perch  (DeLacy
t al. , 5624).  The Pacific ocean perch is found from the  Bering
Sea to Santa Barbara,  California (Clemens  and Wilby, 2390), but
the fishery is concentrated in the northern parts of its range.
Westrheim (5567)  reported its depth range as being  38 to 350


Information on the life history of the Pacific ocean perch is  minimal
at best.  Much recent information has come from Russian studies
carried out in the  Gulf of Alaska and the Bering Sea.  Because data
are wanting from the Pacific Northwest populations,  some data
from the Bering Sea are included herein.


Westrheim (5567)  concluded that birth for S^. alutus  occurred in
January, February and March.  Paraketsov (5752),  however, in
a study conducted  in the  Bering  Sea, reported  that fertilization
occurred in January and February and that  hatching took place in
March through May.  It has not  yet been determined for this species
whether or not the eggs hatch within the  ovary or after they  have
been released (DeLacy tal. , 5624).

Distribution and migration

Usually, there is a 1:1  sex ratio in a catch of Sebastodes alutus,
but this varies during the year.  Westrheim (5567) found that the
males seemed to dominate during February and March and that
their numbers reached  a minimum in September.   The lack of
females in the population during February and March may be
connected -with spawning activities.  Fadew (5759) found that spawning
populations tended to move  to shallower waters. According to
Lyubimova (5753, 5758),  the females forma separate group at
this time and  move away from the males to the spawning areas.
After hatching, which takes place from March to April in the
Bering Sea, the females begin to feed intensely and then rejoin
the males.  The adults  are  found at a greater depth in the winter
in the Bering  Sea.  Paraketsov (5752) reported that during the
winter, the largest aggregations were found at 340-420 meters
and in the summer at 140-360  meters.   From May to September
the adults forage and fatten in  open waters (Lyubimova, 5753).
Fertilization takes place in November and December  according to
Lyubimova (5758), but Paraketsov (5752) reports it to be during
January to February.

The young  ocean perch  form separate schools from the adults.
The surface temperatures near the Pribilov Islands which are
the main spawning grounds  in the Bering Sea were  around 3. 8C-
4. 2C (Paraketsov,  5752).  However, temperatures at places  of
larval shoaling ranged from 4-5C to 14C (Lyubimova,  5756).

The young  eat planktonic crustaceans during their first two years
(Paraketsov,  5752).   During their third  year of life,  they change
to a demersal mode  of life.  The growth rate is high during  the
first 5 to 6 years (Lyubimova,  5756) and maturity is reached
between 6 and 8 years (Paraketsov,  5752).

Westrheim (5567) found that fish in commercial catches ranged
in size from 25 to 48 centimeters with the main part of the population
occurring between 32 and 44 cm.  Males were somewhat smaller
than females,  and rarely exceeded 40 cm.  The females  ranged
between 32-44 cm.   Paraketsov (5752) reported for the Bering Sea
that the average length for males was 46 cm and for females, 49  cm.
The maximum size for S. alutus according to Lyubimova (5758) is
40 cm and 1. 5 kg.  The maximum age seems to be around 25 years

with the 14 to 16+ age groups dominating the catches (Gritsenko,
5754).  This figure was given as 11-18 year class by Paraketsov


The adult Pacific ocean perch feed in open waters mainly on
euphausiids, calanoids, hyperiids, mysids,  amphipods (Paraketsov,
5752).  Sebastodes alutus seems to be important as food for halibut
and albacore (Clemens and Wilby, 2390).

No extensive migrations have been indicated for 5.  alutus except
those  connected with spawning activities (Fadew,  5759).  However,
the populations in the eastern and western portions of the Pacific
are considered to be of the same biological stock  with differences
in local populations (Lyubimova, 5756, 5758).

Additional information which is  available:
Fecundity  - Westrheim,  5567
Catch statistics   Niska, 5853; Westrheim, 5567; Alverson e_t al. ,
       5735; Greenwood, 5751.
          18.  Siliqua patula Dixon (Pacific razor clam)

                      by Danil R.  Hancock
 The Pacific razor clam Siliqr.a patula Dixon is a most important
 molluscan species  in the Pacific Northwest.  Its total value is
 more than that of all other molluscs in the  state of Washington
 (McMillin, 2732).  Although it ranges from the Aleutian Islands in
 Alaska  to Pismo Beach,  California (Anonymous, 3597; Fitch, 2227),
 its distribution within these limits is far from ubiquitous.  Broad
'flat beaches of fine  sands retaining interstitial water are most
 typical  but  it  exhibits  preference  for ocean
 beaches where a strong surf beats constantly and appears to be
 dependent on wave  action for carrying out its life activities.
 Although sometimes found on the inland side of spits, it will not
 grow in sheltered bays (McMillin, 2732).

Maximum abundance of young and old occurs at about 30 cm below
mean low water.  Large clams are usually found about 30 cm under
the sand and smaller clams nearer the surface.  According to
McMlllin (2732),  350-550 m from low water line is the lower
limit of the  razor clam, and the beds are limited in width to the
area near mean low water.  Diving observations have indicated
at least a fair population of clams exists 1 km offshore but
Tegelberg,  Magoon,and Woelke (personal communications)
further stated that the offshore distribution of  the razor clam has
never been established, and that a separate offshore population may

Locomotion in razor clams is by means of digging with the large
muscular foot.   The digging actions are so rapid  that a large clam
can be buried in 1 /2 to 2 minutes  and a young clam can bury itself
in 5-10 seconds.  Clams have been reported several feet  beneath
the surface.  Such locomotion provides protection from shifting
sands and predation from enemies (McMillin,  2732).  Larger members
of a year class were found lower than smaller members,  however
this comparison did not include offshore areas (Hirschhorn,  3816).
Razor clams orient to the direction of wave action, with the hinged
side toward the ocean.

The region of the Washington coast just north of the  Columbia River
and extending to the Quinalt Reservation appears  to be a region of
maximum, density and supports the largest fishery.   Densities
here have been recorded as high as  12,000/m  (1450 clams/square foot)
at Copalis Beach in August, 1923  (McMillin, 2732; Tegelberg and
Magoon, 3407).   In Oregon, Clatsop county beaches  are the region
of maximum abundance of the razor clams.  These beaches have
supported a commercial and recreational fishery for many years
under a commercial minimum size limit of 3.5 inches (90 mm)
and a sport fisheries bag limit of 36 clams* In the period 1955-1962
the Clatsop beaches yielded one million razor  clams to  the sport
fishery and 308,000 to the commercial fisheries (Anon.  , 3597).
Until about 1914 many productive razor clam beds were known along
the entire coast of Oregon,  but many of these have disappeared.  In
1920 Edmondson  (2345) wrote, "Until  about six years ago beds of
razor clams of considerable size were known  to exist at many  points
throughout the entire coast of Oregon.   There  apparently  occurred,
however, a sudden  depletion of the species along  the sandy beaches
south of Tillamook  Head, a satisfactory cause for which has not
been ascertained. "
 *Current Oregon limit 24 clams/day,  no size limit.



Sexes are separate in the razor clam.  The mature female (age
two years) produces six to ten million eggs.  The rich, yellow,
"ripe" ovaries contribute 30% of the animal's non-shell weight.
Ovarian follicles,  each containing 100-150 eggs, rupture releasing
eggs through the siphon into the water.  Both eggs and sperm are
released when the water temperature reaches  13 C and fertilization
occurs in the water.  The clams on one section of the beach spawn
simultaneously, and the triggering of this is thought to be due to
the release of certain chemical substances  into the  environment.
Washburn (3609) indicated the bulk of spawning occurred during
April and May.  McMillin (2732) indicates the  principal spawning
period was between May 15 and June 5 but noted that a very small
amount of spawn is released in October.  On Clatsop beaches (Anon. ,
3597) spawning occurs in late  spring and summer with almost 98%
of the spawn  cast out in 2-4 days.  Dispersal of eggs is determined
by the  currents and waves  and is thought to be limited.  The  fertilized
egg is  "pear  shaped" with a white spot in the center.  After subsequent
cleavage (about 3 weeks) the fertilized eggs become a veliger larvae
and begin swimming.  The number of -weeks before  the free living
larvae "sets" or begins to  dig into the sand varies from 5 to  8 weeks
(Fulton, 3600; McMillin, 2732; Anon. , 3597).   The veliger larvae
are distributed by currents and waves during the larval stages and
migration of  adults is very limited (McMillin,  2732).  Because of
small size, the young set are  unable to withdraw rapidly from the
top layers of sand and hence their movement is likely to be governed
by upper sand layers.  During erosional phase of the annual beach
cycle upper layers of sand move offshore and are a ready vehicle
for the redistribution of small razor clams (Hirschhorn, 3816).  The
spawn  develop in water ranging in temperature from 11-17C.

Mortality of larvae and young  razor clams can be very high.   McMillin
(2732)  records 99% loss  from fall 1923 to mid  February 1924, and
Tegelberg and Magoon (3407)  observed a 95% mortality of set during
a severe storm.  Mortality of young is influenced by such things  as
freshwater runoff  (rain)  crowding,  predation,  and sediment
disturbances. Natural predators are sea gulls, ducks and fish.
Man-caused mortalities  of young are alteration of clam beds by
coastal construction (groins, jetties, outfalls), vehicular traffic  on
clam, beds, and careless digging.

After reaching sufficient size  to actively dig, the mortality rate
is greatly reduced and life spans of 1 5 years have been recorded
in Alaska.   At the  southern end of the range the average life span
is four years,  and the maximum life span on Copalis Beach, Washington,
is about 8 years (Anon. ,  3597).

Food and feeding

The razor  clam is a filter feeder.  Water containing diatoms, organic
detritus, and some .small animals is taken into the mantle cavity
by the inhalent siphon.  As the water passes over the gills food
is taken out and passed to the  stomach (McMillin, 2732).   Tegelberg
and Magoon (3704) feel that the major food source of the razor
clam is the diatom Chaetoceros  armatus, and that growth rate is
dependent on food supply.   They conclude the poor growth in the
1966  set of clams on Washington clam beaches was due to overpopulation
which caused a drastic reduction of the  plankton  supply.  Growth is
thought to be proportional to food intake while temperature of  the
water influences  the intensity  of feeding (McMillin,  2732).   Relative
shell width was found to increase during the period March-July,
as did maximum increase of total length.  Size increase appears
to be associated with seasonal rises in water temperature
(Hirschhorn, 3816).


Temperature of the water is thought to play an important role  in
spawning, feeding, and growth of the razor  clam, yet there appears
to be little evidence for such thinking.   In fact, very little is known
about either the thermal tolerances or the responses of this clam
to temperature.  Some very preliminary temperature tolerance
tests on adult razor clams indicated that a two-hour exposure  to
75F (24C) was  lethal (Tegelberg, personal communication).
Larval razor clams are expected to have a narrower temperature
tolerance  than the adults  (Fulton, 3600).

Ova are found in  female clams throughout the entire year; therefore
if increased temperatures or changes in temperature play a role
in spawning, the  effects of a lens of warm water  from a thermal
outfall could be significant.  Since the razor clam moves very little
after  settling,  such a warming of the water  may  cause spawning
at times that are not optimal.  Growth parameters of the  Pacific
razor clam are quantitatively associated with mean annual air
temperature at localities ranging from California to Alaska
(Taylor, 3831).


              .  Thaleichthys pacificus (Richardson)
               (Columbia River smelt,  eulachon)

                         by Nancy Blind
The eulachon is an anadromous member of the family Osmeridae.
Until fairly recently its range was thought to extend from the Bering
Sea to the Klamath River in California, but records show that it
has been found as far south as  Bodega Head,  California (Odemar, 5804).

Since spawning and the hatching of the larvae takes place in freshwater
from mid-March to mid-May,  they will not be treated in any detail
here.  "Little is known about the distribution of  eulachon from
the time the  larvae leave the river until the  time the adults return
to spawn" (Barraclough,  5798).  The eulachon spend two years in
the ocean and return to the rivers to spawn at three years.   The
larvae and juveniles are prevalent in the echo-scatter ing layers.
The stomachs of those caught were full of euphausiids (Barraclough,
5798).  The adults also seem to be plankton feeders; Cumacea
dawsoni is the only species positively identified  from stomach
contents (Smith,  5795).

The eulachon may be an  important link in the food chain as it is
consumed by a number of different species, among which are
sturgeon, halibut, cod, porpoise, finback-whale, seals and sea lions
(Hart and McHugh, 5538). Adults have also been found in the stomachs
of the dogfish,  salmon, hake, lingcod, harbour and fur seals but
its  relative importance in these diets is unknown (Barraclough, 5798).
They also may be important in the food supply of Cancer magister
as well as  other shore species  (Smith, 5798).

Fishermen have reported large aggregations  of eulachon off the
mouth of the  Columbia River in November- December and  January,
just prior to  their move up river.  Migration upstream may be
influenced by temperature of the river water  (Smith, 5795).

The fish are  primarily caught as they go up river to spawn.
Males  seem to predominate in  the commercial catch (Smith, 5795).
Most of the spawning fish die but some may  survive and  return to
spawn again in their fourth year (Barraclough, 5798).

For catch data on the Columbia River smelt see U.  S.  Fish and
Wildlife Service Statistical Digest for years of interest.
Spawning - Hart and McHugh, 5538; Smith, 5795; Barracough,  5798.
      20.  Trachurus symmetricus (Ayres) (Jack mackerel)

                        by Nancy Blind
The range of the jack mackerel extends from the Gulf of Alaska to
Cape San Lucas,  but the fishery is concentrated in Southern California,
from Monterey to San Diego  (Ahlstrom, 5748; Anon. , 5729).
Adults have been taken  1100 km from shore and the eggs and larvae
have been taken as  far sea-ward as 2000 km off the coast of Washington
(Ahlstrom,  5748).  Studies  indicate that there is one population
along the Pacific coast  (Roedel, 5746).

Spawning takes place primarily from February to October (Farris,
5619) with the peak ranging from. April to June (Ahlstrom,  5724).
Cruises along the California coast produced the folio-wing results:
1951--the peak number of eggs occurred in March, 1952--spawning
began in January with the peak in  May and ended at the end of
September,  1953 - -spawning began in February with the peak in
April, l954--the peak occurred in May (Farris, 5747).

Spawning is pelagic and takes place (Ahlstrom, 5724) mainly from
150 to 450 km offshore  (MacGregor, 5741).  Larvae have been
taken as far north as Washington (Anon. , 5729; MacGregor, 5741)
but the area of concentration  seems to be from Point Conception,
California,  to San Quentin,  Baja California (Anon. ,  5729).   The
jack mackerel lives in the upper water layers, between 16  and 90 m
(Ahlstrom,  5724).  In one survey, 97% of the eggs and 88% of
the larvae were taken in the upper 50 meters (MacGregor,  5741).

Very little is known about the mating activities of the mackerel but
evidence indicates  that  most spawning  occurs around midnight
(MacGregor , 5741). Indications are that females spawn more than
once in a season (Anon. ,  5729).

Temperature of the water has a definite effect upon the incubation
time.  It has been shown that hatching occurs in 108. 5 hours at
14C and 84 hours (3. 5 days) at 15C.  Temperature may also have
importance in relation to where the jack mackerel spawns.  The
spawning area is approximately bounded by the 26th parallel in
the south,  the 45th parallel in the north and the 150th meridian on
the west.   Within the southern  California area, and at a depth around
10 meters, where the greatest abundance of eggs occurs,  the
temperature  remains fairly constant around 15. 5 C.  In one study,
it was  found that 60% of the spawning took place within 1   of 15. 5C
(Farris, 5619).  Another survey indicated that 70% of the  larvae
collected were in waters of 14-1 6 C (MacGregor,  5741).   However,
despite the constancy of temperature in the  California area,
spawning occurs only in the spring and summer.  Therefore, it is
thought that photoperiod may also be of some  importance (Farris, 5619).

At hatching,  the larval jack mackerel  is somewhat larger than the
larvae of either  the anchovy or the sardine.  However, it  has no
eyes, fins  or mouth  (Ahlstrom, 5724).  After the development of
these features, the larvae  feed upon minute crustaceans (MacGregor,
5741).   Microstella norvegica seems  to be particularly important
(Ahlstrom, 5724). At this stage  the jack mackerel eats nearly  the
same things as do the anchovy and sardine but the  specimens it
can consume are somewhat larger than those  taken by the  other
species. This is probably one  of the  reasons for its success (Ahlstrom,
5724).   Survival at the end of 30 days after hatching was calculated
as 131, 112,  and 179 larvae per 100,000 eggs hatched for  the years
1952, 1953, and 1954.  The variation was considered insignificant
(Farris, 5619).

Very little  is known  about the juvenile stage except that juveniles
eat euphausiids, pteropods and copepods.  Copepods seem to be
more important  to the juveniles than to the adults (MacGregor,  5741).
The jack mackerel matures between the second and third year (Anon. , 5729).

Predation by organisms other than man has not been studied (MacGregor,
5741) but it is assumed that the jack mackerel is consumed by sea
lions, porpoises and most  of the  large predatory fish in the  area
(Anon.  , 5729).   The  Pacific mackerel is considered its most important
competitor  (MacGregor, 5741).


The adult jack mackerel is known to eat euphausiids,  copepods ,
pteropods,  anchovies, lanternfish and juvenile squid (Anon. ,  5729).
The fish  have been observed feeding on saury and lanternfish gathered
beneath the floodlights of a ship at night.  The jack mackerel congregated
3 to 5 meters below the surface in schools of around forty fish.
They selected and chased individual prey (Grinols and Gill, 5742).
Mackerel seem to feed at any time during the day but it is not known
if they feed at night (MacGregor,  5741).

Schooling and migration

The jack mackerel is a schooling  fish and there has been some
research regarding the effects of  light on feeding and schooling and
the organization of the schools before, during and after feeding.
Schooling seems to be determined by size.  It was observed in one
laboratory study that  schools of juveniles that were  rather disperse
during feeding became more compact after feeding (Hunter, 5745).

Not much is known about migrations of the jack mackerel (MacGregor,
5741).  In 1950,  adult jack mackerel taken at a depth of 20 meters
were found in temperatures ranging from 10C to 19. 5C (MacGregor,

Other information on  the jack mackerel includes:
Catch statistics  - U.  S. Fish and  Wildlife Service, Statistical Digest,
      No. 55-60.  Information available for California only.
Growth,  maturation and life  span   MacGregor,  5741; Roedel, 5746;
      Anonymous, 5729
Fecundity and egg description - Anonymous, 5729; Ahlstrom,  5724;
      MacGregor, 5741
Behavior - Hunter,  5744

                  OVERVIEW by James  E.  McCauley,
                  William C.  Renfro, Robert H. Bourke,
                  Danil R. Hancock and  Stephen W.  Hager

                          AN OVERVIEW

           by James E. McCauley,  William C. Renfro,
    Robert H.  Bourke, Danil R. Hancock and Stephen W.  Hager
An ecosystem is defined as "any area of nature that includes living
organisms and nonliving substances interacting to produce an exchange
of materials between the living and nonliving parts," (Odum, 1959).
This broad concept can be used to advantage in considering an area
subject to possible pollution.   Knowledge of the various living and
nonliving components in sufficient detail to understand their inter-
relationships enhances our ability to anticipate changes resulting
from pollution  of the ecosystem.  In one sense, pollutants, such as
toxic chemicals or heated  water,  might be thought of as additional
environmental  factors which might alter the  system drastically.
Patently,  a certain minimal level of information is necessary for
even crude predictions of  the effects of pollution.

No ecosystem is a completely self-contained unit,  and the Pacific Northwest
coastal region  is no exception.  It is influenced by adjoining  regions
such as the open Pacific Ocean to the west and the land mass to
the  east.  These adjacent  regions have a marked influence on the
climate and are the sources of many inputs into  the system.  Although
we can look at  the region as a somewhat discrete unit, we must
continually keep in mind the influence of these contiguous territories.
Within the  coastal ecosystem there are many interrelated physical,
chemical,  geological, and biological processes.  In the following
section an attempt will be  made to describe some of these important
factors and the manner in  which they interact.

The  area considered here  is the  coastline of the Pacific Northwest,
extending from Cape  Flattery,  Washington to Cape Mendocino,
California.  It  can be  characterized as a  series  of sandy beaches
interspersed with rocky headlands.  This coastline is oriented in a
north-south direction  and, except for local headlands  and bays, is
nearly straight.  The  absence of  major embayments and irregularities
results in a smaller variety of habitats thanwould normally be
expected to occur on a more highly dissected coastline.  A large
portion of the coastline is, therefore,  subjected to the full impact
of breaking -waves.

The sandy beaches generally lie at the foot of low bluffs which are
usually not more than 10 meters high.  Occasionally the bluffs reach
much greater heights,  especially along the southern Oregon coast.
In some areas the bluffs may be greatly reduced as along the Clatsop
Plains region of northern Oregon or along the spit that separates
Willapa Bay from the ocean near Long Beach, Washington.  In
other regions the bluffs may be far inshore, separated from the
beach by extensive sand dunes  as occurs near Florence, Oregon.

The beaches  are  composed primarily of quartz and feldspar that
have been derived from ancient marine terrace  deposits found along
the entire length  of the inner continental shelf off Washington and
Oregon.   These beach  sands are conspicuously lacking in shells
and shell  fragments which characterize the beaches of the mid-
Atlantic states.

Beach profiles exhibit wide  annual fluctuations in response to
wind-generated wave conditions, being broader  and steeper in
summer.  The intertidal microfauna of the sandy beaches  of the
Pacific Northwest has not been extensively studied.  The macrofauna
is limited to  a few species which are mostly burrowing organisms.
The well-sorted character and large particle size of these beaches,
combined with a low content of organic matter,  results in  low species
diversity.  Particle size of  the sand also affects the compaction
and aeration  of the beach, thereby affecting its suitability  as a
habitat for animals which burrow into it or obtain nourishment from
it.  The shifting of the sand and the absence of rocks or cobbles
generally exclude macroalgae from the sandy beaches of the
Pacific Northwest.  In northern Oregon and southern Washington
sandy beaches harbor vast numbers of razor clams, Siliqua patula,
but no other intertidal  species  are of great economic importance.

Basaltic headlands alternating with the sandy beaches provide
rocky intertidal areas having an exceedingly rich flora and fauna.
In some areas, offshore rocks and reefs temper the force of the
surf on these headlands forming the well-known protected  rocky
outer coastal habitat.  This  type of environment,  considered to be
one of the most productive,  is  a graphic example of the  moderating
effect of the geomorphology on physical oceanographic processes
which, in turn, profoundly influence  the biology.  Tides,  with an

average range of about two meters, bare  much of this area at low
tide,  subjecting it to abnormally high temperatures.  The degree
to which the exposed intertidal surfaces are heated by absorption
of short wave solar radiation is largely determined by  the nature
of the substrate.  Dark surfaces absorb greater amounts of energy
than lighter ones.  Hence,  organisms found on dark surfaces may
tolerate, or even require,  broader daily ranges of temperature
and higher temperatures  than those on lighter surfaces.  Such subtle
differences in substrate characteristics may have significant effects
on the composition and distribution of intertidal communities.

The water  level changes due to tides have a marked effect on the
distribution of intertidal species.  Vertical zonation is  generally
quite  evident, especially  on the more vertical rock faces.  The
California  mussel, Mytilus californianus,  the ocean goose barnacle,
Pollicipes  polymerus, and the sea star,  Pisaster ochraceous,
constitute a trio of species which form massive beds in the upper
intertidal zone.  The splash zone above has its own biota, consisting
primarily of smaller species.   The zones below also have characteristic
plants and  animals and generally have a great number of species.
The My tilu s - Polli cipe s - Pisa s te r zone is alternately exposed  to
air and water and the upper limit of this  zone is generally determined
by this exposure.   The lower limit, however, is  most likely
controlled  by predation of the starfish on  the other two  species.
This illustrates the interaction of biological and physical influences
on the distribution  of species.

The intertidal community is dually exposed to predation.  When  covered
with water, fishes,  seals,  diving birds and other marine species
have ready access  to the  organisms.  At low tides, shore birds
and terrestrial animals invade the region.  Man, too, has become
a major influence on the ecology of intertidal zone along the Pacific
Northwest  coast.  The impact of intertidal collectors (tourists,
school and college  classes) and fishermen has become  so great that
use of the region must be regulated to protect the species.  In
many areas Pisaster ochraceous,  the starfish that was once a
most  conspicuous part of the fauna, is now a rare species, having
been removed by human visitors to the beach.  How will man's
predation on Pisaster effect the Mytilus-Pollicipes-Pisaster  zone
of animals?  Will Mytilus and Pollicipes encroach upon the lower zones?

Man-made structures have altered the shape of the coastline and
provided solid substrates for the attachment of many sessile organisms.
Jetties have been constructed to protect practically all the harbor
entrances along the Pacific Northwest coast.  These jetties disrupt
the movement of sand along the coast.  The seasonality of this
alongshore movement, or  littoral drift, causes sandy beaches to
build up on both north and  south sides of some jetties.  Breakwaters
and groins similarly  alter the natural flow of sand in the littoral drift.

The nearshore subtidal area is  largely composed of sands similar
to those found intertidally,  but become finer farther from shore.  The
sand characteristically has a median diameter ranging from 200 to
300 microns and makes up nearly 100% of the  sediment.  The supply
of sand to this  area from coastal rivers is small,  most of it
being trapped in the estuaries of the supplying streams.  Silt and
clay sized particles,  however,  are supplied to the nearshore
region in  significant quantities.  These particles do not settle,
but remain suspended and are transported from the area, most
being deposited farther out on the continental shelf.  This suspended
material may be important in removing toxic substances from the
water.  For example, toxic organic substances, such  as pesticides  or
pulp mill wastes, and toxic trace metals (e.g. , mercury,  lead,
etc. ) may be absorbed or adsorbed by the  suspended silt and clay
particles and be deposited farther offshore.

The subtidal region has a moderate slope  of about  1 : 80 such that
at one kilometer from shore the average depth is about 10-14
meters.  In the northern part of the area under consideration the
slope is somewhat  less than this; in the southern part,  somewhat
more.  Gravelly or rocky  substrates are found off the mouths of
many coastal rivers due to the scouring action of the  more intense
tidal currents created by the flow of water entering and leaving
the estuary.  Rocky outcroppings occur off most headlands either
as sea stacks  which have resisted erosion or as rubble which has
fallen from eroding headlands.  Sea stacks are common off the
major headlands  such as Tillamook Head,  Cape Arago, and others,
and are a  dominant part of the seascape within several kilometers
of the shore south of  Cape  Blanco.  These structures may have a
large influence on the local, nearshore circulation (to be  discussed
later) which, in turn,  may affect communities by altering.the transport
of nutrients,  pollutants, and pelagic larvae.

Two dynamic communities interact in this near shore subtidal
region:  (1) A benthic community consisting of those organisms
living in or on the sediment or near the sediment-water interface
and (2) A pelagic community consisting of those organisms drifting,
floating, or swimming in the overlying water.  Because of their
interactions, the boundaries of these communities are not clear.
The Pacific herring,  for example,  deposits eggs which become part
of the benthic community while the  larvae and adults are members
of the pelagic community.   Conversely, many of the benthic species
produce eggs which float to the surface, hatch into planktonic larvae,
and become dispersed by ocean currents before settling permanently
to the bottom.  In many  other cases, benthic fishes  swim up into
the surface waters to feed on pelagic organisms, while such pelagic
species as sea  otters dive to the bottom to feed on benthic sea
urchins.  The benthic community depends upon the continual "rain"
of materials from the overlying waters in the form of decomposing
organisms,  fecal pellets,  suspended sediment particles, etc. ,  for
nourishment.  These bottom organisms, including bacteria, marine
worms, etc. ,  perform the valuable function of breaking down these
organic materials into elemental forms which are recycled.  The
cycling of some elements have  been studied by following  radionuclides
artificially induced in the Columbia River at Hanford, Washington,  and
subsequently incorporated into  the marine biogeochemical system.

This nearshore  subtidal region with its many interacting communities
is the site of several major fisheries in the Pacific Northwest.  The
largest of these is the salmon fishery,  but Dungeness crab, shrimp,
perch, sole, founder, bass, and rockfish fisheries contribute
significantly to the economy of the region.

The temperature of the nearshore  coastal surface water  varies
seasonally,  ranging from an average high of 17.7C to an average low
of 7. 6C.  The annual range in mean temperature is small, however,
with mean summer temperatures (14C) being about 5C warmer than
mean winter temperatures (9C).  Such a small annual temperature
range is in sharp contrast to that of many other coastal regions.
More variability is observed in summer than in winter.  Summer
temperatures fluctuate within a 4 to 6C range while winter temperatures
are constrained to a 1 to 2C range.  Due to the warming influence of
the Columbia River,  summer temperatures are 2 to 3  C higher in
the vicinity  of the river  mouth (from Willapa Bay to Tillamook  Head).

Coastal upwelling,  most prevalent off southern Oregon and northern
California,  tends to suppress the  high surface temperature normally
expected during summer.  Average temperatures of 9. 5 to 10. 5C are
observed in regions of active upwelling.  At the same time, temperatures
of 12 to 14C are found in nearby  regions undergoing little or no

The  net heat exchange across the  air-sea boundary varies from year
to year due mainly to fluctuations in solar radiation and evaporation.
Seasonal fluctuations of these two factors also establish an annual
cycle of net heat transfer.   From April through September the ocean
is warmed by a transfer of heat from the atmosphere to the oceans;
October through March constitutes a cooling period when  the ocean
gives up heat to the atmosphere.  Net solar radiation reaches its
maximum during the  summer months.  The insolation during April
through September is more than twice that received during the
winter months.  Heat loss due  to evaporation is at a maximum during
the winter  months.  The evaporative process is supressed during
the summer months when upwelling is prevalent.

Atmospheric temperatures observed at coastal weather stations
and at lightships range from a  mean summer temperature of
approximately 14C peaking  in August to a mean winter temperature
of approximately 10C during January through March.

Average surface salinities are higher  in summer than in winter
(approximately 33. 5%o and 32%o, respectively).   Coastal upwelling
tends to keep salinities high  during the summer, while winter rains
and high river  run-off tend to lower surface  salinities.  Where
coastal upwelling is prevalent,  salinities are frequently observed in
excess  of 33. 8%o but seldom  exceeding 34.4%o.  In winter  the discharge
from the Columbia River flows northward along the Washington
coastline.  Mean salinities observed along the southern Washington
coast are low (25 to 28%o) with  maximum salinities rarely exceeding
30%o.  In June, during periods  of peak river  flow, salinities less
than 20%o have been observed from Seaside,  Oregon to Willapa Bay,

The  quality of sea water depends not only upon  those substances which
are a natural part of the marine ecosystem,  but also upon those
substances-which have been added by man.  Little is known about

the natural properties of Pacific Northwest nearshore coastal waters
except for those tied closely to biological production and upwelling.
These properties,  pH, dissolved CC^, inorganic nutrients, and
dissolved oxygen,are discussed later under considerations of upwelling.

Substances introduced into the nearshore waters  of the Pacific
Northwest by man include domestic sewage, pesticides, and pulp
mill effluents.  The interactions of these  substances with the environ-
ment have not been  studied thoroughly in this region.   Although there
are four pulp mill outfalls in this coastal zone, little  is known  about
the interactions of these waste products with sea water and nearshore

One feature of the Pacific Northwest coast which sets  it apart from
the more southerly  coasts is the occurrence of much  driftwood washed
ashore or water-logged in the  sub-tidal area.   This wood, carried
to the oceans from logging activities ashore or lost from log-rafts at
sea,  provides a substrate for  those communities which attach to
floating objects  or bore into submerged wood.  In the surf these
logs are a hazard to swimmers and boaters and may act as battering-
rams dislodging attached animals and damaging sea walls.

The trend of the winds  over  this coastal area is largely influenced
by the barriers  presented by the coastal bluffs  and nearby mountains.
Summer winds prevail from the north-west (WNW in the northern
region, NNW in the southern).  Winds observed at the lightships
off Cape Flattery,  Cape Mendocino, and the mouth of the  Columbia
River are similar to those observed at coastal  stations suggesting
that the influence of the coastal bluffs and mountains is felt at least
10 kilometers offshore.  Most winter  storms are southwesterly,
but prevailing winds during the winter generally have an easterly
component.   The net result of  these wind forces is a seasonal
pattern of nearshore water' movement either northward or southward
along the coast.

Littoral  sand transport along the coast is  responsive  to the local
wind-generated wave action and moves sand northward during the
winter and southward during the summer.  The more severe winter
storms  generate higher waves  tending to make  the annual net movement
northward, but this  may vary locally.   Except for seasonal changes in

the beach slope very near to shore, the onshore-off shore movement
is negligible.   This  absence of net offshore transport, combined
with reduced net alongshore drift due to seasonal reversals,
results in a low rate of removal of sands from a given area.
Dispersion of pollutants adsorbed on the  sand particles would also
be limited by  this containment or anti-dispersal mechanism.

The northerly summer winds are also associated with coastal
upwelling which brings cold, nutrient-rich waters to  the surface to
replace the  surface  water which has been transported offshore by
the combined  influence of wind stress and the Earth's rotation.
Upwelling is particularly apparent in  the southern half of the region
(southward of Tillamook Head) and generally is initiated in June,
becoming most intense in July and August and persisting until
September.  Periods of subsidence occur during periods of calm
or when the wind shifts from the north.   The upwelling phenomenon
is manifested as  local pockets of relatively cool saline water
varying locally in intensity.  The temperature of this upwelled
water is about 11  to 13C, approximately 5 to 7C less than that of
surface waters 40 kilometers farther  offshore.  Upwelling has a
marked effect on the coastal climate producing local  fog and chilly
weather during the summer months.   Recent studies  indicate that
upwelling is more persistent in the vicinity of rocky headlands.

Upwelling is an important mechanism for bringing cold,  nutrient-rich,
low oxygen water  to the  surface where it can be utilized by phytoplankton.
The rich supply of these nutrients, which often limit  photo synthetic
production,  stimulates the growth of phytoplankton resulting in a
population explosion or "bloom. " Such blooms generally occur between
May and September  along the Pacific Northwest coast.  These blooms
are closely  followed by an increase in the population  of zooplankton
which feed on the  phytoplankton.   The region is thus rich in food for
higher trophic levels.  Important forage fish, such as anchovy and
herring feed on this rich food and in turn are fed upon by salmon and
other commercial species.  Thus, the success and timing of the
fisheries in the Pacific Northwest is  closely correlated with the
timing and location of intense upwelling zones.

In addition to  its higher nutrient concentration, upwelled waters differ
from surface  waters in other chemical characteristics.  Values of

pH may be as low as 7.7 or  roughly twice as acidic as surface
waters (pH 8. 1).  Dissolved carbon dioxide may reach levels of
500 ppm or more while the level of typical surface waters is
generally less than 3ZO ppm.  Oxygen values may be  as low as
1. 5 ml/1 (N. T. P0 ) whereas  usual surface values are about 7 ml/1.
Higher concentrations of trace metals  probably occur in upwelled
waters, and concentrations of dissolved organics and particulate
matter may also be  high.  The implications of these significant
changes in chemical composition are not yet fully understood, but
they may be  as important as the nutrients to the biological systems.

Wave studies indicate that the predominant  offshore swell is from
the northwest throughout the year.  Thus,  communities on the
exposed northern sides of headlands  may differ in their species
composition from those on the more  protected southern sides.  The
average height of the swell is less in summer than in winter (1  m and
1. 6 m); the average period during both seasons is about 1 0. 5 seconds.
Waves generated by local storms are superimposed on this general
swell pattern.   These locally generated waves are higher (1.1 m
in summer,  2. 5 m in winter) and of a  shorter period (6. 4 sec in
summer, 8. 1 sec in winter) than the swell.  Wave height and wave
length determine the depth at which bottom material  can  be resuspended
or moved.  The resultant turbidity and movement of  material may
significantly influence the bottom topography, benthic communities, and
chemical characteristics of the area..  Upon reaching the nearshore
area the waves appear mostly as swell and are bent from their
direction of  approach to arrive with  their wave crests nearly parallel to
the shoreline.   Where troughs, canyons, or other depressions  occur
on the sea floor, there are regions of  divergence  where the wave
heights are diminished.  Off headlands, reefs, bars, and other
shoaling areas (regions of convergence), wave heights are increased,
in some  cases to a height where breakers occur.

Turbulent mixing by the large storm waves of winter causes thorough
mixing of the -water column from surface to bottom.  The small
temperature differences observed between  surface and bottom waters
(about 1 C) during the summer are absent during the period from
December through March or April.

Reliable estimates of wind-driven current velocities beyond the
surf zone are not available at present, but  observations  5 to 1 5
kilometers offshore  show a.  general southward surface  flow of 20

to 40 cm/sec during the summer.  Depending on the strength of
the  surface flow, a subsurface northward flow may also be present
near the base of the permanent pycnocline.  It seems doubtful
that such subsurface flow would be observed because of the influence
of the shallower water and other coastal features.  In winter  the
direction of the southward current is reversed in response to the
seasonal shift of the winds.  The conformation of the coastline
(headlands,  reefs,  etc. ) has a marked influence on local circulation
patterns, creating complex eddies, most of which have not yet been
studied.  Local circulation constitutes the main mechs.nism for the
dispersal of material added to the nearshore area by rivers,  erosion,
and human activities.

These circulation patterns are also of great importance in transporting
planktonic organisms, particularly the planktonic larvae of benthic
plants and animals.  Such  offspring must be transported to a  suitable
area during proper seasons in order to insure continued maintenance
of benthic communities. Distribution of materials  such as nutrients,
trace metals,  and pollutants are also  influenced by the  currents.
Disruption of the usual patterns of longshore water movement during
prolonged stormy periods  may seriously affect planktonic  organisms.
Currents also carry foods  and other substances to various organisms,
especially those which are attached to the substrate,  and may also
remove waste products which might become toxic if allowed to remain
in the area.

A number of rivers empty into the region,  including coastal streams
and the  Columbia River.  The impact  of the coastal streams is slight
compared to that of the mighty Columbia.  These rivers introduce'
fresh water with its load of sediment and diverse chemicals into
the  ocean.  Such riverborne chemicals as trace elements,  organic
compounds, inorganic nutrients, and particulate matter, may have a
great influence on the ecology of the nearshore region.   The specific
chemical characteristics of each stream are largely determined
by the nature of its drainage basin.  The chemistry of Pacific
Northwe&t coastal streams is thus influenced by the geology of the
Coast Range; the markedly seasonal precipitation patterns; and the
activities, of various industries, in particular, the forest products
industries.  The generally low population density in these  drainage
basins has helped to preserve the pristine quality of the water.

The effects of the coastal streams are generally local and seasonal
with discharges ranging from 3 to 30 m^/sec in summer and 300 to
600 m^/sec cfs in-winter.   The Columbia River, however,  is much
larger (7500 m^/sec mean annual flow) and has  a plume that can
be detected far at sea.  Its  impact on the coastal area is primarily
along the Washington coast  where the winter plume flows northward
close to shore.  The summer plume of the Columbia flows southwest
from the mouth of the river and is soon far offshore.   The influence
of the Columbia is not entirely absent from the coastal region of
Oregon, however, for traces of radionuclides induced in the Columbia
River at the Hanford Atomic Works can be detected in the coastal
fauna and sediments at least 300 kilometers south of the river mouth.

The influence of the river on the biota  is not always obvious, but
anadromous fishes such as  salmon, bay smelt,  and herring require
varying degrees of fresh water for spawning.  It is also thought
that the chemical make-up of the  rivers is important for the successful
navigation of these anadromous species,  serving as a  sort of
"fingerprint" to identify the natal stream.  Changes of the chemical
make-up of a river can hinder their upstream navigation.

Most of the coastal rivers and the Columbia River enter the ocean
through well-developed estuaries.  Estuaries are the  sites  of most
of the cities and smaller communities  along the coast, and  also
the location of  most of the industry.  These estuaries  have  a fauna
and flora that are more or less typical of the habitat,  and-are
important feeding grounds for the larvae and juveniles of many marine
species.   Estuaries undoubtedly have an important impact on the
outer coastal zone,  but they have  been excluded from  this study.

In summary, the general uniformity of this coastal region should
be emphasized.  The plant and animal  composition of  the entire
region shows a remarkable  similarity  from north to south.  Most
of the more common species reported  from northern Washington have
also  been reported from northern California and vice versa.  There are
no major faunal or floral boundaries in the region,  and the  differences
in biota that can be seen between  the extremes  of the  region generally
occur gradually.  The general ecological factors which are thought
to control biological distributions (e.g. temperature,  substrate,
salinity) all show a relative uniformity throughout the  region so that
the absence of a biological boundary is not surprising.

In this chapter we have attempted to describe  the nearshore coastal
region of the Pacific Northwest, to  show that it is a dynamic ecosystem
interacting with adjacent ecosystems.  We have  tried to discuss
the various  components of this ecosystem as they interact and to
show that there is great interdependence among  these components.
In the preceding chapters and in the appendices to this report we
have brought together all the information that we could locate about
the area.  It was necessary for this information to  be compartmentalized,
although from the ecological viewpoint it cannot  realistically be
separated into  discrete parts.   Much of the information is so fragmentary
and so incompletely understood that we cannot incorporate it into
a large interacting whole.  Ecology  has  not yet reached the degree of
sophistication necessary for us to completely understand  the complex
and subtle interactions within an ecosystem, but it  is probable
that any available information may be useful and perhaps  even

In preparing this bibliography an attempt was made to uncover
all of the literature pertaining to the outer coastal zone.
Undoubtedly, important references were unintentionally omitted.
For this the authors apologize and would appreciate having such
omissions called to their attention.

Early in the preparation of this report the  decision was  made to
number literature citations serially, and a block of numbers
was assigned to each worker.  Duplications have been deleted but
limited time and space have precluded indexing or alphabetizing
the references.   Hence, the reader must reach the references
from the number citations in the text and appendices.

Only selected publications from the pre-1920 literature  have  been
reviewed and evaluated.   This literature was often unavailable.
Changes in biological nomenclature made accurate placement of the
information difficult, if not impossible, without a complete
synonymy of the  species.  Furthermore, most of the significant
works  published  before 1920 have become incorporated into the more
recent literature.

1100   Adams, James R.  1969.  Ecological investigations related
              to thermal discharges.  Pacific Coast Electrical
              Association, Engr.  & Operating Section.  Annual
              Meeting. March 13, 14. 1 0 p.

1101   	.   1969.  Thermal power^aquatic life,  and
              kilowatts on the Pacific coast.  American Power Confer-
              ence Annual Meeting.   Chicago, 111.   April 2?,-25. 13 p.

1102   	.   1968.  Ecological investigations around
              some thermal power stations in California tidal waters.
              Chesapeake Science (to be published).  1 3 p.

1105   Pacific Gas and Electric Company.   1969.   Summary of
              ecological  studies and agreements between Pacific
              Gas and Electric Company  and California  Resources
              Agency for thermal power plants.  PG&E Company,
              San Francisco.

1106   Ballard,  R. L.  1964.  Distribution of beach sediment near
              the Columbia River. Department of Oceanography,
              University of Washington, Seattle.   Tech.  Report
              #98.  82 p.

1107   Bijker, E. W.  1968.  Littoral drift as a function of waves
              and current.   Proceedings llth Conference  on Coastal
              Engineering.  London.   Vol.  I:  421 -435.

1110   Bretschneider, C. L.   1966.   On wind tides and longshore
              currents over the continental shelf due to winds blow-
              ing at an angle to the coast.   National Engineering
              Science  Company, Washington.  45 p.

1111   Bourke,  R.  H.   1969.   Monitoring coastal upwelling by
              measuring its effects within an estuary.  Master's
              thesis.  Corvallis,  Oregon State University.  54 num.  Ivs.

1112   Brown, R. L.  1967.  Hydrodynamic forces on a submarine
              pipeline.  Proc.  Journal of Pipeline Division. , ASCE.
              93 (PL1): 9-19.

1113   Budinger, T.  F. , L. K. Coachman, and C. A. Barnes.  1964.
              Columbia River effluent in the  northeast Pacific Ocean.
              1961, 1962:  selected aspects of physical oceanography.
              Department of  Oceanography,  University of Washing-
              ton,  Seattle.    Technical Report  99. 78 p.

1114   Budyko,  M.  I.  1964.  Atlas of the heat balance of the earth.
              U. S.  Department of Commerce WB/T-106.  25 p.

1115   Burt, W.  V. ,  W. B. McAlister,  and J.  Queen.  1959.
              Oxygen anomalies in the surf near Coos Bay,  Oregon.
              Ecology 40(2):  305-306.

1116   Burt, W.  V.   1954.  Albedo over wind-roughened water.
              Journal of Meteorology J_l (4): 283-290.

1117   	.  1958.   Heat budget terms for Middle
              Snake River reservoirs.  Corvallis.  (OSU Tech. Rpt. 6).

1118   Cairns, J. L.   1968.  Thermocline  strength fluctuations
              in coastal waters.  JGR_73(8):  2591-2595.

1121   Coastal Engineering Research Center.   1966.  Shore pro-
              tection, planning and design.  Technical Report No. 4.
              Third ed.   U. S.  Army Corps of Engineers, Washington.
              401 p.

1123   Committee on Thermal Pollution.   1967.  Bibliography
              on thermal pollution. Proc. ASCE.  J.  of San. Engr.
              Div.  SA3: 85-113.  #5303.

1124   Cooper,  William S.  1958.  Coastal sand dunes of Oregon
              and Washington.   GeologicalSoc. of America. ,  Memoir
              72.  169 p.

1125   Darling, J.  M. and D.  G.  Dumm.   1967.   The wave record
              program at CEP C.  U. S. Army Coastal Engineering
              Research Center Miscellaneous Paper No.  1-67.
              30 p.

1126   Dodimead, A. J. ,  F.  Favorite,  and T. Hirano.  1963.  Salmon
              of the North Pacific Ocean,  Part II, Review of the oceanog-
              raphy of the subarctic Pacific region.   International
              North Pacific Fisheries Commission,  Bulletin 13.
              195 p.

1128   Duxbury,  A. ,  Betty-Ann Morse, and N. McGary.   1966.   The
              Columbia River effluent and its distribution at sea
              1961-1963.  University of Washington,  Dept.  of Oceanog-
              raphy, Seattle.  Tech. Report  #156.   105 p.

1129   Eagleson, P. S.  1965.  Theoretical study of  longshore currents
              on a plane beach.   M. I. T. ,  Department of Civil Engineering
              Hydrodynamics Lab. , Report no. 82.

1130   Ekman, V.  W.   1905.   On the influence of  the earth's radiation
              on ocean currents. Ark.  f. Mat. , Astron.  och Frysik,
              2/11): 1 -53.

1131   Engineering Laboratory,  TVA.   1969.  Heat and mass transfer
              between a water surface and  the atmosphere.   Water
              Resources Research Lab.  Report.  #14 (revised).
              Norris , Tenn.   98  p.

1132   Federal Power Commission.  1969.  Problems in disposal of
              waste heat from steam-electric plants.  Bureau of Power,
              Washington, D. C.  53 p.

1133   Frolander, Herbert F.  1960-1970.  Unpublished hydrographic
              data from Yaquina  Bay,  Oregon.  Corvallis, Oregon State
              University,  Department of Oceanography.

1135   Conor, J. J.  1968.   Temperature relations of coastal
              Oregon marine intertidal invertebrates; a pre-publi-
              cation technical report to the office of naval research.
              Dept. of Ocean. , Oregon State University, Corvallis.
              Ref. No. 68-38.  43 p.

1137   Gross, M. G. ,  B. Morse, and C. A.  Barnes.  1969.  Move-
              ment of near-bottom waters  on the continental shelf
              off the Northwestern United States.  J. of Geo.
              Research 74(28): 7044-7047.

1138   Haertel,  L. S.  1969.   Plankton and nutrient ecology of the
              Columbia River. Ph.  D. thesis.  Corvallis, Oregon
              State University.  54  numb,  leaves.

1139   Hedgpeth, J. and J.  J.  Conor.  1969. Annual summary report
              for 1969 on Project #NR1 04-936.  Marine Ecological
              Studies.  Dept.  of Oceanography, Oregon State Univ.
1140   Humboldt State College.   1964.  An oceanographic study
              between the points of Trinidad Head and the Eel
              River.  State Water Quality Control Board, Sacramento.
              Pub. #25.  135 p.

1142   Ingraham, W. J.   1967.   The geostrophic circulation and
              distribution of water properties off the coasts of
              Vancouver Island and Washington,  spring and fall
              1963.  Fishery Bulletin, 66j2): 223-250.

1144   Ippen, A. T.  1966. Estuary and coastline hydrodynamics.
              McGraw-Hill, New York.  744 p.

1145   James, R. W.  1966.   Ocean thermal structure forecasting.
              Asweps Manual Vol. 5.  Nav.  Ocean.  O. , Washington.
              217 p.

1146   James,  W. P.  and F.  J.  Burgess.  1969.   Airphoto analysis
              of ocean outfall dispersion for period 6/1/68 - 4/30/69.
              Progress Rpt. , Dept.  of Civil Eng. , Oregon State Univ.
              Corvallis.  100 p.

1147   Johnson, J. W.  and R.  L. Wiegel.  1958.   Investigation of
              current measurements in estuarine and coastal waters.
              California State Water Pollution  Control Board, Pub.
              #19.  233 p.

1148   Kulm,  L. D. and J. V. Byrne.  1966.  Sedimentary response
              to hydrography in an Oregon estuary.   Marine Geology
              4: 85-118.
1149   Laevastu, T.  i960.  Factors affecting the temperature of
              the surface  layer of the sea.  Societas ,Scientiarum
              Fennica, Commentations  Physico-Mathematicae,
              Helsenki_25(l).  136 p.

1150   Lane, Robert K.  1965.  Climate and heat exchange in the
              oceanic region adjacent to Oregon.  Ph. D. thesis.
              Corvallis,  Oregon State University.  115 numb,  leaves.

1151   Law,  W. P.  1965.  Investigation into the short-period advective
              change of sea surface temperature.  Master's thesis.
              Monterey,  U. S.  Naval Postgraduate School.   54 p.

1153   Marine Advisers,  Inc.  1969.  Summary  report of San Onofre
              oceanographic surveys--July 1963 to December 1968.
              1 68 p.

1154   	.  1969.  Summary report of the San Onofre
              oceanographic monitoring program July 1963 to Sept.
              1969.  176 p.

1155   Meteorology Committee,  Pacific Northwest River Basins
             Commission.  1968.  Climatological Handbook Columbia
             Basin States.  Hourly Data.  Vol.  3, Part A.  Vancouver,
             Washington.  341  p.

1156   Mooers, C. N. K., et_al.   1968.   A compilation of observations
             from moored current meters and thermographs (and of
             complementary oceanographic and atmospheric  data).
             Vol.. II.  Aug-Sept.  1966.   OSU Dept. of Ocean. (Data Rpt.
             30.  Ref. 68-5.)  98 p.

1157   Mooers, C. N. K.  1970.  The interaction of an internal tide with
             the frontal zone in a coastal upwelling region.  Ph. D.
             thesis.  Corvallis, Oregon State University.   480 numb.

1158   National Marine Consultants.  I960.  Wave statistics  for seven
             deep water stations along  the California coast.  U. S. Army
             Corps of Engineers, Districts Los Angeles &  San Francisco.

1159   	.  1961.  Wave  statistics for three  deep water
             stations along the Oregon-Washington coast.   U. S.  Army
             Corps of Engineers, District Portland & Seattle.

1160   Neal, V. T. , D.  F.  Keene and J. Detweiler.  1969.   Physical
             factors affecting Oregon coastal pollution.  Progress Report
             to FWPCA.  Grant # 16-070 EMO ,  Dept.  of Ocean. , OSU.
             (Ref.  #69-28).

1161   Neumann, G.  1952.  On the complex nature  of ocean waves and
             the growth of the  sea under the action of wind.   Gravity
             Waves, NBS Circular 521.

1162   North, Wheeler J.  1968.   Biological effects of a heated water
             discharge at Morro Bay,  California.  IV International
             Seaweed Symposium,  Madrid, Spain.  18 p.

1163   Northwest Water Resources Data Center, 1968.  Average monthly
             discharges  for 15 year period, 1953-67, Table no.  1, Dec.  20.
             Supplement to Current Discharge at Selected Stations in the
             Pacific Northwest.

1164   O'Brien, M.  P.   1951.  Wave measurements at the Columbia River
             Light Vessel,  1933-1936.   Trans.  AGU 32(6); 875-877.

1165   Oregon State Water Resources Board.  1959.  Rogue River Basin.-
             Salem,  Oregon.  440 p.

1166   	.  1969.  Summary report of Oregon's long range
             requirements for water.  Salem, Oregon.

1167   	.  1965.  Mid coast river basin. Salem, Oregon. 122 p.

1168   	.  1963.  South coast river basin.  Salem,  Oregon. 125 p.

1169   Oregon State University, Department of Oceanography.  1961-1963.
             Surface temperature and salinity observations at shore
             stations on the Oregon coast.  Corvallis, Oregon.  3 vols.
             (Data Report no.  6, 8, 11,  reference 61-4, 62-11,  63-27).

1170   	.  1965-1969.  Surface temperature and salinity
             observations at Pacific Northwest shore  stations. Corvallis,
             Oregon.  4 vols.  (Data report no.  21, 25, 28, 37,  reference
             65-20, 67-8, 68-1,  69-7).

1171   Panicker; N.  N.   1969.  Prediction of bottom  current velocities
             from sediment deposits on  the sea bed.  Hydraulic Eng.
             Lab. , Univ. of Calif. , Berkeley.  Tech.  Rpt. HEL-2-24.
             28  pp.

1172   Park, K. , J.  G.  Pattullo, and B. Wyatt.  1962.  Chemical properties
             as  indicators of upwelling along the Oregon coast.  Limnol.  &
             Oceanog. 7:435-437.

1173   Pattullo, J.  and W.  Denner.  1965.   Processes affecting seawater
             characteristics along the Oregon coast.  Limnol. &  Oceanog.
             10(3):  443-450.

1174   Pattullo, J.  G. , W.  V. Burt, and S. A.  Kulm.  1969.  Oceanic
             heat content off Oregon:  its variations and their causes.
             Limnol. & Oceanog.  14(2):  279-287.

1175   Pearson,  E.  A.  and G. A. Holt.   I960.   Water quality and upwelling
             at Grays Harbor entrance.   Limnol. & Oceanog. 5(1): 48-56.


1176   Pierson,  W. J. , G. Neumann, and R. W.  James.  1955.
             Practical methods for observing and forecasting ocean
             waves.   U. S.  Navy Hydrographic Office Publ.  No.  603.

1177   Pillsbury, R.  D. ,  J.  G.  Pattullo, and R. L. Smith.   1970.
             A compilation of observations from moored current meters
             and thermographs.   Vol. III.   Oregon continental shelf.
             May-June 1967,  April-Sept.  1968 (in press).  Dept. of
             Oceanog. , OSU, Corvallis.

1178   Power Planning Committee, Pacific Northwest River Basins
             Commission.  1969.  Review of power planning in the
             Pacific Northwest for 1968.

1179   Pritchard, D.  W.  1969.   Problems related to disposal of
             radioactive wastes  in estuarine and coastal waters.
             Contribution  no.  41 of the Chesapeake Bay Institute.

1180   Raphael,  J..  M.  1962. Prediction  of temperature  in rivers and
             .reservoirs.  Proc. ASCE, J.  Pow. Div. Vol.  88: 157-181.

1182   Reid, J. L.  and Schwartzlose, R. A.  1962.  Direct measurements
             of the Davidson  Current off Central California.   JGR 67(6):

1183   Rogers,  L.'  C.   1966.   Blue Water 2 lives up to promise.  The
             Oil and Gas Journal.  August  15.  p. 73-75.

1185   Saville, T. ,  Jr.  195C.  Model study of sand transport along
             an infinitely long, straight beach.  Am.  Geophys. Union
             Trans. 31: 555-565.

1186   Schwartzlose,  R. A.   1963. Nearshore currents of the western
             United States and Baja California, as measured by drift
             bottles.  Calif.  Coop. Oceanic Fish. Invest.  Rpts,  Vol. IX:

1187   Scripps Institution of Oceanography.  1968-1969.  Surface water
             temperatures at shore stations, United States west coast.
             La Jolla,  Calif.   2 vols.  (Ref.  68-22, 69-14).

1188   SEDCO 135F takes a 95-ft. wave!  1969.  Ocean Industry 4(1): 21-22.

1189   Skeesick, Delbert G.  1913.  A study of some physical-chemical
             characteristics of Humboldt Bay. Master's thesis,  Arcata,
             Humboldt State College.  148 p.

1190   Snow, Dale.  1958.  Unpublished hydrographic data from Nye Beach,
             Newport, Oregon.  Newport, Marine Science  Center.

1191   Sverdrup, H.  U.   1951.  Evaporation from the oceans.  In:
             Compendium of meteorology, ed.  by T.  F.  Malone.  Boston,
             Amer. Meteor.  Soc.  1071-1081.

1192   Sverdrup, H.  U. ,  Martin W.  Johnson, and Richard  H.  Fleming.
             1942.   The oceans,  their physics, chemistry, and general
             biology.  Prentice-Hall, Inc., N. Y.  1087  pp.

1193   U.S.  Dept.  of Agriculture Weather Bureau.  1936.  Climatic
             summary of the United States, Section 1.  Western Washington.
             Gov. Print.  Office, Washington,  D. C.  38  pp.

1194   U.S.  Army  Engineer Waterways  Experiment Station.  1968.
             Design for optimum wave conditions at Crescent City
             Harbor,  Crescent City, Calif; Hydraulic model investigation.
             Tech. Rpt.  H-68-6.  (P. K.  Senter and C. W. Brasfield)

1195   U.S.  Army  Corps of Engineers.   I960.  Sedimentation investigation
             lower Columbia and lower Willamette Rivers.  U. S. Army
             Corps of Engineers, Portland District.

1196   	.   n. d.  Wind roses obtained from various drawings
             for Coos Bay.  On file Portland   District,  Portland, Oregon.

1197   	.   1926.  Wind  charts for Coos Bay,  Oregon.  On
             file Portland District,  Portland,Oregon.  Map file #CB-1-1 35.

1198                   .   n. d.  Average velocities,  deviation and direction
             of  winds at Lone Tree.  Seattle District, Seattle, Washington.
             Map file #E-5-6-49.

1.199   	.   n. d.  Wind chart at Lone Tree Point.  Seattle
             District, Seattle, Washington.  Map file #E-5-6-6l.

1200   U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.  I960.  Interim report on 1959
             current measuring--Columbia River at mouth, Oregon and
             Washington, Vol. I-IV.  U.S. Army Engineer District,
             Portland,  Oregon.

1201   	.   1948.  Coos Bay at Charleston,  South Slough,
             Oregon.  House  Document #646,  80th Congress,  2nd
             session.  20 pp.  , 1 map.

1202   U.S.  Coast & Geodetic Survey.  1969-  Tidal current tables 1969.
             Pacific coast of  North America and Asia.  Washington,
             D. C.  20401.  254 pp.

1203   	.  1969.   Tide Tables.  High and low water
             predictions 1969.  West Coast North and South America
             including the  Hawaiian Islands.  Washington,  D. C. 20401.
             224 pp.

1204   U.S.  Department of Commerce, Weather Bureau.   1961.  Local
             climatological data with comparative  data.  Eureka,  Calif.

1205   U.S.  Department of Commerce.  1967.  Surface water temperature
             and density, Pacific Coast.   USC&GS  Publ. 31-3.  2 ed.
             U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Washington, D. C.

1206   U.S.  Department of Commerce, Weather Bureau.   1964.  Local
             climatological data with comparative  data.  Astoria, Oregon.

1207   U. S.  Department of Commerce.  Climatological Data for Washington.
             Washington, D. C.  Issued monthly.

1208   	_.   Climatological Data for  Oregon.  Washington,
             D. C.  Issued monthly.

1209   	.   1961.  Climatological and oceanographic atlas
             for  mariners, Vol. II.  Washington.  159 charts.

1210   U.S.  Department of Commerce>  Weather Bureau.   1965.  Surface
             wind roses for Oregon stations.  Washington,  D.  C.

1211   U.S.  Department of Commerce.  1969. U.S.  Nautical chart
             catalog No.  2 -  Pacific Coast Washington.

1212   U.S. Geological Survey.  1954.  Water loss investigations:
            Lake Hefner studies.  Technical Report.  Professional
            paper 269.  1 58 pp.

1213   	.  1960-1968.  Water resources data for
            Washington, part 1.  9 vols.

1214   	.  1953-1967.  Water resources data for
            Oregon, part 1.  15 vols.

1215   	.  1958-1967.  Water resources data for
            California, parti.  10 vols.

1216   U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office.  Catalog of nautical charts
            and publications.   Pub.  No.  1 -N.  Region 0.   QIC U. S.
            Naval Oceanographic Dist.  Office, Clearfield, Utah.

1217   U.S. Navy  Hydrographic Office.  1958.  Inshore survey of
            approaches to  Columbia River  13 Jan.-20 Feb. 1958.

1218   University  of Washington, Department of Oceanography.  1955.
            Grays Harbor, Washington--A literature survey.  U.S.
            Navy Hydrographic Office Contract #N62306s -303.

1219   	.  1955.  Coos Bay,  Oregon   A literature
            survey.  U.S.  Navy Hydrographic Office Contract #N62306s -303.

1220   Watts,  J. S.  and R.  E. Faulkner.  1968.  Designing a drilling
            rig for severe seas. Ocean Industry 3(11): 28-37.

1221   Zim, M. W.  1967.  L.  A. Dept. Water & Power statement to
            Cal.  State Water Resources Board & FWPCA.
1222   McAlister, E. D.  1964.  Infrared-optical techniques applied to
            oceanography.   I.  Measurements of total heat flow from
            the sea surface. Applied Optics 3(5): 609-612.

1223   Oregon State Water Resources  Board.   1961.  North Coast
              Basin.  Salem, Oregon.  142 p.

1224   Saunders,  P.  M.  1967.  Aerial measurement of sea surface
             temperature in the infrared.  J.  Geophys. Res.  72(16): 4109-4117.

1225   Schuyler, Sonja (comp. )  1969.   Users guide for NODC's data
             processing systems.  Publication No. G-15.  National
             Oceanographic Data Center, Washington.  150 pp.

1226   Anderson,  E.  R. ,  L. J. Anderson,  and J.  J. Marciano.   1950.
             A review of evaporation theory and development of
             instrumentation.  U. S.  Navy Electronics Lab. Rpt.
             159.  70  p.

1227   Inman, D.  L.   1955.   Areal and seasonal variations in beach
             and nearshore sediments at La Jolla,  Calif.  Beach
             Erosion Technical Memorandum, No.  39.

1228   Glenne, B.  1970.   Unpublished data on sediment motion  by
             wave action.  Dept of Civil Eng. , Oregon State Univ. ,

1229   Edinger, J. E. and J.  C. Geyer.  1965.  Heat exchange in the
             environment.   Edison Elect. Inst.  Publ. 65-902. 259 p.

1230   Wiegel, R. L.  1969.  Prof, of Civil Eng. , Univ. of Calif. ,
             Berkeley. Personal Comm.

1231   Oregon State University,  Dept. of Ocean.  1960-1969.
             Hydrographic data from Oregon waters, June 1960-
             1969.  Corvallis, Oregon.  8 vols.

1232   Goodwin, C.  R. ,  E. W.  Emmett, and B. Glenne.  1970.
             Tidal study of three Oregon estuaries . Eng. Exper.
             Station,  Oregon State  Univ. ,  Corvallis. Bull. 45. 32 p.

1233   Edie, L. D. and Co.  1969.  A special survey of spending
             expectations and planned additions to capacity.  Wall
             Street Journal,  15 August.

1234   Anderson, George C. ,  Clifford A. Barnes, Thomas F.
              Budinger, Cuthbert M. Love,  and Dean A. McManus.
              1961.  The Columbia River discharge area of the
              Northeast Pacific Ocean:  A literature survey.
              Univ. of Washington, Dept. of Ocean. (Rep.  M61-25).

1235   Bureau of Commercial Fisheries. 1962.   Monthly mean charts
              sea surface temperature North Pacific Ocean.   Circular
              134.  BCF Biological Lab. ,  Stanford.

1236   Burt, Wayne V. and W.  Bruce McAlister.   1958.  Hydrography
              of Oregon estuaries, June 1956 to September 1958.
              Dept. of Ocean. ,  Oregon State  Univ. 18 p. (Data Rept.
              no. 3, Ref. 58-6).

1237   Burt, Wayne V. and W.  Bruce McAlister.   1959.  Recent
              studies in the hydrography of Oregon estuaries.  Re-
              search Briefs of the Fish Commission of Oregon.

1238   Callaway, R.  J. , G.  R. Ditsworth, and D.  L.  Cutchin.  1969.
              Salinity,  runoff and wind measurements Yaquina
              Estuary,  Oregon.  Pacific Northwest Water  Lab. ,
              Corvallis.  Working paper no. 70.  42 p.

1239   Duxbury, Alyn C.  1965.   The union of the Columbia River
              and the Pacific Ocean--General features.   In Ocean
              Sci.  and Ocean Eng. 1965, vol. II.  p.  914-922.

1240   Fisher,  Carl W.   1970.  A statistical study of winds and sea
              water temperatures during Oregon  coastal upwelling.
              Master's  thesis.  Corvallis, Oregon State Univ.  67
              numb,  leaves.

1241   Hansen,  Donald V.  1965.   Currents  and mixing in the Columbia
              River estuary.  In Ocean Sci.  and  Ocean  Eng.   1965,
              vol.  II.   p.  943-955.

1242   Ingraham,  W. James.  1966.   Distribution of physical-chemical
              properties and tabulations of station data, Washington
              and British Columbia Coasts May 1963 (vol.  I),
              October-November  1963 (vol. II).   BCF Biological  Lab. ,

1243   Ingraham,  W. James and D. Fisk.  1966.  Oceanographic
              observations off the  coasts of Washington and British
              Columbia--April, July, and November,  1964,  and January,
              1965.  BCF Biological Lab. , Seattle.

1244   Love, Cuthbert M.   1963.  Physical, chemical, and biological
              data from the Northeast Pacific Ocean:  Columbia River
              effluent area, January-June 1961.  Univ. of Washington,
              Dept. of Ocean. Tech. Rpt. no., 86.  405 p.

1245   Love, Cuthbert M.   with the Data Analysis Staff.  1964.  Physical,
              chemical, and biological data from the Northeast Pacific
              Ocean:  Columbia River effluent area, July-August
              1961.  Univ. Washington, Dept. Oceanography Tech.
              Rpt. no. 112.  260 p.

1246   	.  1964.  Physical, chemical, and biological
              data from the Northeast Pacific Ocean:  Columbia River
              effluent area, September-December 1961.  Univ.
              Washington,  Dept. Oceanography Tech.  Rpt. no.  115,
              vol. I-II.

1247   	.  1965.  Physical, chemical,  and biological
              data from the Northeast Pacific Ocean:  Columbia River
              effluent area, January-October 1962.  Univ. Washington,
              Dept. Oceanography Tech. Rpt. no. 119, vol.  I-V.   (AEC
              rept. no.  RLO-1725-1 5 through 19)

1248   	.  1966.  Physical, chemical,  and biological
              data from the Northeast Pacific Ocean:  Columbia River
              effluent area, January-June 1963.  Univ. Washington,
              Dept. Oceanography Tech. Rept. no.  134, vol. I-VI.
              (AEC rept.  no. RLO-1725-32 through 37)

1249   Maughan, Paul Me.   1963.  Observations and analysis of ocean
              currents above 250 meters off the Oregon coast.  Master's
              thesis.   Corvallis, Oregon State Univ.  49 num.  leaves.

1250   Maughan, Paul Me.   1965.  Measurement of radiant energy over
              a mixed water body.  Ph.  D.  thesis.  Corvallis, Oregon
              State Univ.   126 numb,  leaves.

1251   McAlister, W. Bruce and Jackson O.  Blanton.  1963.  Tempera-
              ture,  salinity and current measurements for Coos Bay,
              Oregon.  Dept. of Ocean. ,  Oregon State Univ.  33 p.
              (Data Rpt.  no.  10,  Ref.  63-23).

1252   Minard, David R.   1965.  Solar radiation measured at the sea
              surface off Oregon  during summer 1963.   Master's
              thesis.  Corvallis,  Oregon State Univ.  74 numb, leaves.

1253   Morse, Betty-Ann and Noel McGary.  1965.  Graphic repre-
              sentation of the salinity distribution near the Columbia
              River mouth.  Li Ocean Sci. and Ocean Eng.  1965,
              vol. II.
1254   Panshin, Daniel A.  1967.  Sea level, winds, and upwelling
              along the Oregon coast.  Master's thesis.  Corvallis,
              Oregon State University. 71  numb, leaves.

1255   Smith, Robert L.  1964.  An investigation of upwelling along
              the Oregon coast.  Ph.  D.  thesis.  Corvallis, Oregon
              State Univ.  83 numb,  leaves.

1256   Smith, Robert L. , June G. Pattullo and Robert K. Lane.  1966.
              An  investigation of the early stage of upwelling along
              the Oregon coast.  JGR 71: 1135-1140.
1257   U. S.
Geological Survey, Water Resources Division,  n. d.
 Weekly runoff report, Pacific Northwest water resources.
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1258   Wyatt, Bruce and Richard Callaway.  1961.  Physical hydrographic
              data offshore from Newport, Ore.  for July 1958 to July
              19 1959. Dept.  of Ocean. ,  Oregon State Univ.  15 p.
              (Data Rept.  no.  4, Ref.  61-1).

1259   Wyatt, Bruce and Norman Kujala.   1961.  Physical oceanographic
              data offshore from Newport and Astoria, Oregon for June
              1959 to  June I960.  Dept. of Ocean. , Oregon State Univ.
              17 p.  (Data Rpt. no.  5, Ref. 61-3).

1260   Wyatt, Bruce,  M.  Stevenson, W. Gilbert, and J. Pattullo.  1967.
              Measurements of subsurface currents off the Oregon
              coast made  by tracking of parachute drogues.  Dept of
              Ocean. , Oregon State  Univ.  34 p. (Data Rpt. no. 26,
              Ref. 67-20).


1500   Abraham, G.  I960.  Jet diffusion in liquid of greater density.
             J.  Hyd.  Div. , Proc. ASCE 86 (HY6):1 -13.

1501   Abraham, G. and W. D. Eysink. 1968.  Jets issuing'into fluid with
             a. density gradient.  Delft Hydraulics Lab. , Delft, The

1502   Abraham, G. and R.  Koudstaal.   1969.  Wind influence upon cooling
             water circulation.   Proc. ASCE.  J. of Power Div. PO1:
             63-75.  #6466.

1503   Ackers,  P.  1968.  Modeling of heated water discharges.
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1504   Brooks,  Norman H.   I960.   Diffusion of sewage effluent in an
             ocean-current.   Proc.  of 1st Conf. on Waste Disposal
             in the Marine Environment.  E. A. Pearson ed.   Berkeley.
             Pergamon Press,   pp. 246-267.

1505   Cederwall, Klas.  1968.  Hydraulics of marine water disposal.
             Hydraulics Division, Chalmers Institute of Technology,
             Goteborg,  Sweden.  January.  Report #42.  273 p.

1506   Cederwall, Klas and A. Sjoberg.  1969.  Discharge of cooling
             water from thermal power  plants.  Chalmers Institute of
             Tech., Sweden,  p. 15.  (In Swedish, English summary.)

1507   Cheney,  W.  O. and G.  V. Richards.  1966.   Ocean temperature
             measurements for power plant  design.   Proc. ASCE 1965
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1508   Doyle, M. J. and V.  W. Cartwright.  1969.   Practical remote
             sensing.  Am. Soc. Photogram.  Am.  Cong. Surv.  & Mapping
             Washington, D. C.   8  p.

1509   Doyle, M. J. and H.  J.  Gormly. 1969.  Thermal power cooling-
             water  studies.  A comprehensive approach.  Pacific Gas &
             Electric Co.  San Francisco.  15 p.

1510   Edinger, J.  E. and E. M. Polk, Jr.  1969.  Initial mixing of
            thermal discharges into a uniform current.  Dept. of
            Environmental and Water Resource Engineering,  Vanderbilt
            Univ.,  Nashville.  Rpt. #1.  45 p.

1511   Edinger, J.  E. and J.  C. Geyer.   1968.  Analyzing steam electric
            power plant discharges.   Proc.  ASCE.  J.  of San. Engr.
            SA4: 611-623.  #6064

1512   	.     1965.  Heat exchange  in the environment.
            Edison Electric Institute, Pub.  #65-902.  259 p.
1513   Edinger, J.  E. , D. K.  Brady and W.  L.  Graves.  1967.  The
            variation of water temperatures due to steam electric
            cooling operations.   Journal of Water  Pollution Control
            Federation.  40(9): 1632-1639.

1514   Fan, L.-N.   1967.  Turbulent buoyant jets into stratified or
            flowing ambient fluids.  W. M.  Keck Lab. of Hydraulics
            & Water Resources,  CIT, Pasadena.  Rpt.  no.  KH-R-15.

1515   Fan, L.-N.  and N. H.  Brooks.   1969. Numerical solutions  of
            turbulent buoyant jet problems.  W. M. Keck Lab. of
            Hydraulics and Water Resources,  CIT, Pasadena.  Rpt.  no.
            KH-R-18.  94 p.

1516   Foxworthy,  James E.   1968.  Eddy diffusivity and the four-thirds
            law in near-shore (coastal waters).  University of So.  Cal. ,
            Allan Hancock Foundation Report 68-1.   72 p.

1517   Foxworthy,  J. E.  and H. R. Kneeling.  Eddy diffusion and bacterial
            reduction in  waste fields in the ocean.   Hancock Foundation,
            Univ.  of So.  Cal. Rpt.  69-1.   176  p'.

1518   Frankel, R. J. and J.  D.  Gumming.   1963.   Turbulent  mixing
            phenomena of ocean outfalls.   Hydraulic Engineering Lab,
            Univ.  of Calif., Berkeley. Rpt. no. HEL-3-1.  71 p.

1519   Garrison,  J. M. and R. A. Elder.   1965. A verified rational
            approach to the prediction of open channel water temperatures.
            LAHR Proc.  of 11th Congress,  Leningrad.  Vol. II  2.5:  1-8.

1520   Harleman, D. R.  F.  and K. D. Stolzenbach.  1969.  A model
             study of proposed condenser water discharge configurations
             for the Pilgrim nuclear power station at Plymouth, Mass.
             School  of Eng. , Dept. of Civil Eng. ,  MIT,  Cambridge
             Hydrodynamics Lab Rept. no.  113.  53 p.

1521   Hayashi, T.  and N.  Shuto.   1967.  Diffusion of warm water jets
             discharged horizontally at the water surface.  Proc. IAHR
             vol.  4, D6: 47-59.

1522   Ichiye,  T.  1964.  Analysis of diffusion of dye patches in the ocean.
             Tech. Rpt. CU-8-64,  The Office of Naval Research.  16 p.

1523   James, W. P.  and F. J.  Burgess.   1969.  Airphoto analysis  of ocean
             outfall  dispersion.  Dept. of Civil Engineering, Oregon State
             University, Corvallis.  100  p.

1524   Jen, Y. , R. L.  Wiegel, and I, Mobarek.  1966.  Surface discharge
             of horizontal warm-water jet.  Proc.  ASCE.  J. of Power
             Div.  PO2: 1-30.  #4801

1525   Krenkel, P. A.  and F.  L. Parker.   1969.  Project for  concen-
             trated research and training in the  hydraulic and hydrologic
             aspects of water pollution control.  Progress Report
             1 Aug.  1968-1  Sept.  1969.   School of Eng. , Vanderbilt
             Univ. ,  Nashville.  Rpt. #2.
1526   Laevastu, T. and P.  Stevens.  1969.  Applications of numerical-
             hydrodynamical models in ocean analysis/forecasting.  Part 1,
             The single-layer models of Walter Hansen.  Fleet Numerical
             Weather Central, Monterey,  Calif.  Tech.  Note  51.  pp. 45.

1527   Lean, G.  H.  and A.  F. Whillock.   1965.  The bheavior of a warm
             water layer flowing over still water.  I. A. H. R.  Proc.  of
             llth Congress, Leningrad.  Vol. II 2.9:   1-7.

1528   Leendertse,  J. J.  1967.   Aspects of a computational model for
             long-period water-wave propagation.  The Rand  Corporation,
             Santa Monica,  Calif.  RM-6294-PR.

1529   Leendertse, J. J.  1970.  A water-quality simulation model for
            well-mixed estuaries and coastal seas:  Vol.  I.  Principles
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1530   Neumann, G.  and W. J.  Pierson, Jr.  1966.  Principles of
            physical oceanography.  Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs,
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1531   North,  W.  J.  and J. R.  Adams.  1968.  The status of thermal
            discharges on the  Pacific coast.  2nd IBP Workshop on
            effects of thermal additions in the marine environment,
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1532   Okubo, Akiro. 1968.  Anew set of oceanic diffusion diagrams.
            Chesapeake Bay Inst. , Johns  Hopkins Univ.   Tech. Rpt.  #38.
            Ref.  68-6. 35  p.

1533   Parker,  F.  L. and P. A.  Krenkle.   1969.  Engineering aspects
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1534   Pritchard, D. W.  and H. H. Carter.  1965.  On the prediction
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1535   Rawn,  A. M.  , F.  R. Bowerman,  and N. H.  Brooks.  I960.
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1536   Senshu, S. and A. Wada.  1967.  Study on  bottom water intake for
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1537   Spencer, R. W. and W.  Bruce.  I960.   Cooling water for steam
            electric stations in tidewater.  ASCE J. Pow. Div.  PO 3(86):
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1538   Squire, J.  L.   1964.  Surface temperature gradients observed in
            marine  areas  receiving warm water  discharges.  Bureau of
            Sport Fisheries  and Wildlife,  Tiburon Marine Lab.  Tiburon,
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1539   Stommel, Henry.   1949.  Horizontal diffusion due to oceanic
             turbulence. J. of Marine Re'search. 8: 199-225.

1540   Wada, Akira.  1967. A study on phenomena of flow and thermal
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1541   Wiegel, R.  L. , I. Mobarek,  and Yuan Jen.   1966.   Discharge of
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1542   Wiegel, R.  L.   1964.  Oceanographical Engineering.  Prentice-
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1543   Yudelson, J. M.  1967.  A survey of ocean diffusion studies
             and data.   W.  M. Keck Lab of Hydraulics  and Water
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1544   Zeller, Robert.  1963.   Summary of current theories and studies
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1545   Callaway, R. J. , K. V.  Byram, and G. R.  Ditsworth.  1969.
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             Ocean to  Bonneville  Dam.  Part I.   Theory, Program Notes
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1546   Bella, D.  A. and W. E.  Dobbins.   1968.  Difference modeling
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1547   Fischer, H. B.   1970.  A  method  for predicting  pollutant
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1548   Glenne, B.  1966.  Diffusive Processes in estuaries.  San.
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1549   Kent, R. E.   1958.  Turbulent diffusion in a sectionally
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1550   Dronkers,  J.  J.  1969.  Tidal computations for rivers, coastal
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1552   Parker,  F. L. and P.  A.  Krenkel.  1969.   Thermal pollution:
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1553   Galvin, C. J.  1967.  Longshore current velocity:  a review  of
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1554   Longuet-Higgins, M. S.  1970.  On the long-shore currents
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1700   Algermissen,  S. T. ,  S.  T.  Harding, K. V. Steinbrugge and
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1701   Allen, J. E. and E. M. Baldwin.  1944.  Geology and coal  resources
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1702   Baldwin, Ewart M.  1945.  Some revisions of the Late Cenozoic
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1703   	.  1950.   Pleistocene history of the Newport,  Oregon
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1704   	.  1964.   Geology of Oregon.  2d ed.  Eugene, Oregon,
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1705   	.  1959.   Geology of Oregon.  Edwards Brothers,
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1706	.  1966.   Some revision of the geology of the Coos
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1707   Ballard, R. L. 1964.   Distribution of beach sediment  near  the
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1708   Berg,  J. W. ,  Jr.  and C.  D.  Baker.  1962.  Oregon earthquakes,
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1709   Bushnell, David C.  1964.  Continental shelf sediments in the
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1710   Byerly, P.  1952.  Pacific coast earthquakes, Condon
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1711   Byrne, John V.  1962.  Geomorphology of the continental
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1712   	.  1963.  Coastal erosion, northern Oregon.
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1713   	.  1963.  Geomorphology of the continental terrace
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1714   	.  1963.  Geomorphology of the Oregon continental
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1715   	,  G.  A. Fowler,  and N. J.  Maloney.   1966.
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1716   Cooper, William S.  1958.  Coastal dunes of Oregon and
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1717   Cummings, Jon C.   1962.  Recent estuarine and marine sediments
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1718   Dehlinger, P.  and J. W.  Berg, Jr.  1962.  The  Portland  earthquake
             of November 5, 1962.  Ore Bin 24(11),  November.

1719   Dicken, Samuel N.   1961.  Some recent physical changes of the
             Oregon coast.  Eugene, Oregon, Dept.  Geography, University
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1720   Dietz, R.  S.  1963.  Wave base, marine profile  of equilibrium,  and
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1721   Garling,  M. E. ,  D.  Molenaar,  e_t aL  1965.  Water resources and
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1722   Gross,  M. Grant and Jack L. Nelson.  1966.  Sediment movement
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1723   Gross,  M. Grant.  1966.   Movement of near-bottom waters on
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1724   Huntting, M.  T. , W. A. G.  Bennet, V. E. Livingston, Jr.  and
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1725   Jarman, Gary D.  1962.  Recent Foraminifera and associated
             sediments of the continental shelf in the  vicinity of Newport,
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             Ill numb, leaves.

1726   Jones, F. O. , D.  R. Embody and W.  L.  Peterson.  1961.  Land-
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1727   Kleinpell, Robert M.  1938.  Miocene stratigraphy of California.
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1728   Kulm, L. D.  1965.  Sediments of Yaquina Bay,  Oregon.  Ph. D.
             thesis.  Corvallis, Oregon State  University.  184 numb, leaves,

1729   	and John V.  Byrne.   1966.   Sedimentary response
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1730   Kulm, L. D.  1969.  Study of the continental margin off the  state
             of Oregon, February 1968 to January 1969.  134 numb, leaves.
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1731   Lockett, John  B. 1963.  Phenomena affecting improvement of the
             lower Columbia estuary and entrance.  U.  S. Army
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1732   McKay, R. H.  1962.  Texture and mineralogy of Oregon beach
             sand.   Master's thesis.  Missoula, University of Montana.
             70 numb, leaves.

1733   MacKay, A.  J.  1969.  Continuous seismic profiling investigation
             of the southern Oregon continental shelf between Coos Bay
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1734   Menard, H. W.  1955.  Deformation of the northeastern Pacific
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1735   	.  1964.  Marine Geology of the Pacific.  New York.
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1736   National Marine Consultants, Inc.  1961.  Oceanographic study for
             breakwater sites located at Yaquina  Bay; Siuslaw River,
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             numb,  leaves,  5 maps, 6  tables.  (Prepared for U. S.  Army
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1737   Nayudu, Y.  R.  1959. Recent sediments of the north east
             Pacific.  Ph. D. thesis.   Seattle, University of Washington.
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1738   Nobel,  J.  B.  I960.   A preliminary report on the geology and
             ground-water resources of the  Sequim-Dungeness area,
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             Conservation,  Div.  of Water Resources, Water Supply
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1739   North,  W.  B. and J.  V.  Byrne.  1965.  Coastal landslides of
             northern Oregon.  Ore Bin 27(11), November.

1740   Oregon State Water Resources Board.  1959.  Report to the state
             legislature on the status and potential of the Rogue River
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1741   Palmer, Leonard A.   1967.  Marine  terrace  deformation in Pacific
             coastal United States.  Journal of Geoscience (Osaka City
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1742   Peck, D.  L.  (compiler) 1 961.  Geologic map of Oregon west of the
             1 21 st meridian.  U. S. Geological Survey and Oregon  Dept.
             of Geology and Mineral Industries,  Miscellaneous  Geologic
             Investigations, Map 1-325.

1743   Richards, H. G. and D.  L.  Thurben.  1964.  Pleistocene age
             determinations from California and Oregon.  Science 152:
             1091 -1092.

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2376   Reish, D. J.  I960.  The use of marine invertebrates as
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2377   Kanwisher,  J. 1962.  Gas exchange of shallow marine sediments
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2379   Kinne, O.  1963.  The effects of temperature and  salinity
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2381   Hartman, Olga.   I960.   The benthonic fauna of Southern
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2382   Chatwin,  B.  M.  1954.  Growth of young lingcod.  Fish. Res.
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2385   Lasker,  Reuben.   1962.  Efficiency and rate  of yolk utilization
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2386   Marriage, Lowell  D.  1958.   Ba, Clams of Oregon.  Educational
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2407   Bean, Tarleton H.  1890.  New fishes collected off the coast
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2409   Collins, J.  W.  1892.  Kept, on the fisheries of the Pacific
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2410   Dean, B. , N.  Harrington,  and others.  1896.  The Columbia
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2412   Gill, Theodore.   1882.  Bibliography of fishes of the Pacific
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2414   Gill, Theodore.   1858.  Fishes (in Reports of  Explorations and
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2417   Jordan,  David Starr. 1884.  The rock cods of the Pacific.
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2418   Jordan,  David Starr.  1884.   The rock trouts --Chi ridae.
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2419   Jordan,  David Starr. 1884.  The surf -fish family- -Embiotocidae.
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2420   Jordan,  David Starr.  1884.  The salmons of the Pacific,
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2421   Jordan,  David Starr. 1884.  The Dolly Varden trout--
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2422   Jordan,  David Starr. 1884.  The lesser white-fishes,
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2423   Jordan,  David Starr.  1884.   The herrings of the Pacific
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2425   Coan,  E. 1964.  The mollusca of the Santa Barbara County
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2426   Jordan,  David Starr.  1884.   The sharks of the Pacific coast,
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2427   McDonald, Marshall.  1884.   The shad- -Clupea  sapidissima,
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2428   Stone,  Livingston.  1884.  The Quinnat or California salmon--
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2430   Hammond, J. P.  1887.  Fish in Puget Sound.  Bull. U. S.
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2431   Jordan, D. S. , and  C.  H.  Gilbert.   1881.  Lists of the
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2432   Jordan, D. S. and C. H. Gilbert.  1882.  Notes of the fishes
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2433   Jordan, D. S. and P. L. Jouy. 1882.  Check list of duplicates
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2434   Jordan, D. S. and E. C. Starks.  1895.  The fishes of Puget
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2435   Kincaid,  Trevor.  1919.  See 2051.

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2437   Coulthor,  H. S.   1929.   Growth of the  sea  mussel.  Contr.
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2438   Starks, Edwin Chapin.  1896.  List of  fishes collected at
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2439   Starks, Edwin Chapin.  1896.  Description of a new  genus  and
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2440   Starks, Edwin Chapin.  1905.  The osteology of  Caularchus
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2441   Starks, Edwin Chapin.  19H.   Results fo an ichthyological
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2442   Thompson,  William F.  1915.  A preliminary report on the
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2443   Thompson,  William F.  1915.  A new  fish of the genus  Sebastodes
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2444   Thompson,  William F.  1916.  A contribution to the life-
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2445   Wismer, N.  M. ,  and J. H.  Swanson.   1935.  Some marine
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2446   Joyner,  T.  and J. Spinelli.  1969.  Mussels:  a potential source
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2447   Anon.  1968.  Anti-pollution and Atlantic Salmon Fisheries of
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2448   Cox, Keith.   1962.  California abalones. family Haliotidae.
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2449   Cronin,  L.  Eugene.   1968.  The impact of thermal releases
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2450   Bick, H. 1968. Studies on the Toleration of Sea and Brackish
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2451    Darby, Richard L.  1964.  On growth and longevity in Tegula
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2452    Adams,  J.  R.  1968.  Thermal effects and other considerations
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2454   Anderson, J. W. ,  and D. J.  Reish.  1967.   The Effects of
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2453   Alderdice, D.  F. , and C. R.  Forrester.  1968.   Some Effects
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2455   Ansell, A. D.   1968.  The Rate of  Growth of the Hard Clam
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2456   Davis, Harry Carl.  1955.  Mortality of Olympia oysters at
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2457   Barnwell, R. H.  1968.  Comparative Aspects of the Chromato-
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2458   Battelle-Northwest.  1968.  Biological Effects of Thermal
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2459   Berenbeim,  D.  Ya.  1966. 1968.  Effects of Water Temperature
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2460   Carlisle, D. B. , and  J.  L.  Cloudsley-Thompson.   1968.
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2461    Crisp,  D.  J. ,  and D. A. Ritz.  1968.  Temperature Acclimation
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2462    Coutant, C.  C.  1968.   Thermal Pollution--Biological Effects.
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2463    Doudoroff, Peter.   1941.  The resistance,  reactions, and
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2464    Dunnill, Robert M.   1968.   A  Taxonomic and Ecological
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2465    Edwards,  D.  Craig.  1965.  Distribution patterns -within
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2466    Glynn, P.  W.  1968.  Mass  Mortalities of Echinoids and
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2467    Eppley, Richard W.  1957.  Evidence  for active transport in
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2468   Heath, W.  G.  1967.  Ecological Significance of Temperature
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2469   Hulburt, E. M. , and R. L.  Guillard.  1968.  The Relationship
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2471   Evans,  John William.  1966.  The Ecology  of the  Rock-Boring
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2472   Largen, M.  J.  1967.  The Influence of Water Temperature
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2473   Ahlstrom, Elbert H.  1954.  Distribution and abundance of
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2474   Coutant,  C.  C.  (N.  d. )   The  effect of a heated water effluent
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2476   Page,  J.  Z. , and J. M. Kingsbury.  1968.  Culture Studies
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2477   Reingold, M.  1968. Water Temperature Affects the Ripening
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2478   Ritz,  D.  A., and  B. A. Foster.  1968.   Comparison of the
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2479   Sandison, E. E.  1968.  Respiratory Response to Temperature
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2480   Simpson, T. L.  1968.  The biology of the Marine Sponge
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2481   Tat'yankin, Yu. V.  1966, 1968.  Upper  Temperature Threshold
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2482   United States Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.
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2483   Ushakov,  B.  P.  1968.   Cellular resistance adaptation to
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2484   Wiebe,  J. P.   1968.  The Effects of Temperature and Day
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2485   Zarenkov,  N. A.  1967.  Distribution of Specific Diversity
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2491   Gibbs,  C. V.,  and G. W. Issac.  1968.  Seattle Metro1 s
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2492   Knott, Y. , H.  Ben Ari,  and N.  Buras.   1968,1969.
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2496   O'Connor, B. A. and J. E.  Croft.  1967, 1968.  Pollution in
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2499   Smith, J. E. , ed.  1968.  Torrey Canyon Pollution and Marine
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2517    Corner,  E. D.  S. , A.  J.  Southward, and E. C. Southward.
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2518   Gifford,  D. S.  G. and E.  W. Gifford.  1942.  Olivella pycna.
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2519   Kariya,  T.  , and S.  Suzuki. 1967.  Studies  on the Post-Mortem
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2548   Cross,  F.  A.  1964.  Seasonal and geographical distribution
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 2560   Cornwall, Ira E.   1955.   Canadian Pac. Fauna,  10 Arthropoda
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2563   Renfro, W. C. and W.  G.  Pearcy.  1966.  Food and feeding
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2572   Hagerman,  Frederick B.  1952. The Biology of the Dover
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2573   Aluenson, D.  L.  and A.  D. Welander.   1952.  Notes on
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2574   Roedel, Phil M. and W.  E. Ripley.  1950.   California Sharks
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2576   Carter, Robert M. 1967.  The shell ornament of Hysteroconcha
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2577   Bock,  Carl E. and Richard E.  Johnson.  1967.  The Role of
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2578   Maurer,  Don.  1967.  Mode  of feeding and diet,  and synthesis
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2579   Omelich,  Paul.  1967-  The  Behavior Role  and the Structure
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2580   Harry, Harold W.  1967.   A Review of the living Tectibranch
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2581   Evans, John W.   Relationship between Penitella  penita (Conrad,
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2582   Narchi, Walter.  1969.  On Pseudopythina  rugerifera  (Carpenter,
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2583   Dimock,  Ronald V. and Joyce G. Dimock.  1969.  A Possible
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2584   Cowan, I.  McT.  1968.   The Interrelationships of certain
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2585   MacGinitie, B.  E. and Nettie MacGinitie.   1968.   Notes on
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2586   Cowan, I.  McT. and J.  H. McLean.  1968.  A  New species
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2587   Smith, Allyn G.   1968.  A New Neptunea from the Pacific
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2588   Webster, Steven K.  1968.  An Investigation of the Commensals
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2589   Lim, C. F.  1969.  Identification of the Feeding types in the
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2590   Spencer, Larry T.  1969.  Relative Growth Patterns  of
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2591   Scofield, E.  C.  1934.  Early life history of the California
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2592   Lasker,  Reuben.  1964.  An experimental study of the effect
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2593   Hand,  Cadet H. and L.  Berner, Jr.  1959.  Food of the  Pacific
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2594   Walford, Lionel A.  1946. Correlation between fluctuation  in
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2595   Yoshimuta C. , and J. Mitsugi.  1958.  Effect of supersonic
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2596   Loukashkin,  A. S.  and N.  Grant.  1961.  Behavior and
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2598   Murphy, G.  I.  1966.   Population bioloby of the Pac.  sardine
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2600   Godfrey,  H.   1965.  Salmon of the North Pacific Ocean--
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2601   Waldron, K.  D.  1958.   The fishery and biology of the Dungeness
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2602   Gonor,  J.  J.  and J. Barnes.   1968.   Unpublished research on
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2603   Bellamy, D.  J. , D.  M. John,  and A.  Whittick.  1968.  The
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2604   Bellamy, D.  J., D. J.  Jones,  and A.  Whittick.  1969.  How
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2605   Jones,  D.  J.  1969.  The infauna of the kelp holdfast.  Underwat.
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2606   Dennis, J. V.  1959.  Oil pollution survey of the United States
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2607   Conor,  Jefferson J.  1961.  Observations on the biology
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2608   Mayo, F. 1968.   Dealing with oil pollution on water and shores
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2609   Pattison, D. A.   1969.  Oil-spill cleanup.   Ext. Chem.  Eng. ,
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2611   Carter,  L.  J.   1968.  Thermal pollution: a threat to  Cayugas
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2612   Annon.   1969.   Too much hot water,  Nature,  221; 116.

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2615   Ayers,  R. J. and J.  M.  Meehan.  1963.  Catch locality,
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2616   Berner,  L. D. ,  Jr.  1957.  Studies on the Thaliacia of the
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2617   Borgorov, V.  G. and M.  E.  Vinogradov.  1955.  Some essential
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2618   Brinton,  E.   1962.  The distribution of Pacific euphausiids.
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2619   Wolf, R. S.   1964.  Observations on spawning Pacific Sardines.
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2620   Clarke, M.  R.  1966.   A review of the systematics and ecology
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2622   Gunter, G. and J. E.  McKee.  I960.  On oysters and sulfite
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2623   Cross, F.  A. and L. F. Small.  1967.   Copepod indicators
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2624   Fager, E.  W.  and J. A. McGowan.  1963.  Zooplankton species
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2625   Frolander, H.  F.  1962.   Quantitative estimations  of temporal
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2626   Hebard,  J. F.  1966.   Distribution of Euphausiacea and Copepoda
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2627   Hubbard,  L.  T.  1967.  Distribution and occurrence  of the
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2628   McGowan,  J. A.   1963. Geographic variation in Limacina helicina
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2629   Milne, D. S.  1968.  Sergestes similis Hansen and 5.
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2630   Machell, John R. 1968.   The Reproductive Cycle of the clam,
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2631   Pearcy,  W. G.   1965.  Species composition and  distribution
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2632   Pearcy,  W. G. and C. A. Forss.   1966.  Depth distribution
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2633   Renfro,  W. C. and W. G. Pearcy.   1966.  (See 2563).

2634.  Tchindonova, J. G.  1959.  Feeding of some groups of  macro-
           plankton in the northwestern Pacific.  Trudy Inst.
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2635   Robertson, A.   1904.  The  Bryozoa, Harriman Alasks Expedition.
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2636   Bowman, T. E.  I960.  The pelagic amphipod genus Parathemisto
           (Hyperiidea: Hyperiidae) in the North Pacific and adjacent
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           Museum  112(3439): 343-392.
2637   Fleming, R. H.  1958.  Review of the oceanography of the
           Northern Pacific.  Vancouver, B. C.  International North
           Pacific Fisheries Commission.   Bulletin no.  2. 43 p.

2638   Holme,  N. A.  1950.  Population-dispersion in Tellina
           tenuis Da Costa.  Journal of  the Marine  Biological Association
           of the United Kingdom 29: 267-280.

2639   Holmes, S. J.   1909.  See 2012.

2640   Iversen, R. T.  B.   1962.  Food of Albacore  tuna, Thunnus
           germo (Lacpede) in the central and northeastern Pacific.
           Bull.  U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  62(214): 459-481.

2641   LaBrasseur, R. J.  1966.  Stomach contents of salmon and
           steelhead trout in the  northeastern Pacific Ocean.  J. of
           the Fish. Res.  Bd.  of Canada, 23J1): 85-100.

2642   Vinogradov,  M. E.  1959.  Hyperiids (Amphipoda) of the North-
           west Pacific Ocean. 1. Tribe Hyperiidea Physosomata.  In:
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2643   Banse, K. , K. D. Hobson, and F. H. Nichols.  1968.
            Annotated list of polychaetes.  In  Lie,  A Quantitative
            study of benthic infauna in Puget Sound,  Washington 1963-
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2644   Hall, Clarence A. , Jr.  1964.  Shallow-water marine climates
            and molluscan provinces. Ecology,  45:  226-234.

2645   Hanavon,  M.  C. and G.  K. Tanonaka.  1959.  Experimental
            fishing to determine distribution of Salmon in the North
            Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea.  1956.  U. S.  Fish and Wildl.
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2646   Johnson,  H.  P. 1901.   The Polychaeta of the Puget Sound
            region.  Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist.,  29; 381-437.

2647   Klawe,  W. L.  and L. M. Dickie.   1957.  Biology of the blood
            worm, Glycera dibranchiata Ehlers, and its  relation to
            the blood worm fishery of the Maritime Provinces.  Bull.
            Fish. Res. Bd.  Canada,  115: 1-37.

2648   Lie, U.  In press  1968.  A quantitative study of benthic
            infauna in Puget Sound,  Washington  1963-1964, Fisk
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2649   Pettibone, M. H.  1953.  Some scale-bearing polychaetes
            of Puget Sound and adjacent waters.  Seattle:  Univ.
            Washington Press.  89 p.

2650   Pettibone, M. H.  1954.  Marine polychaete worms of the
            New England region, 1: Aphroditidae through Trochochaetidae.
            Bull.  U. S. Nat.  Mus. , 227; 1-356.

2651   Pettibone, M. H.  1967.  Type-specimens of polychaetes
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            U.  S. Nat. Mus., H_8(3525): 155-208.

2652   Davis, C. C.   1949.  See 2110.

2653   Harrison, Florence M.  1957. Some Excretory Processes in
            the Abalone.  The Western Society of Naturalists, 27th
            Annual Meeting, Stanford Univ.  26-29 Aug. ,  Program
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2654   Olson, J. B.  1963.  The pelagic cyclopoid copepods of the
           coastal -waters of Oregon, California and Lower California.
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           208 numb, leaves.

2655   Owen, R. W. , Jr.  1963.  Northeast  Pacific albacore oceanography
           survey.   U.  S. Fish and Wildlife Service.  Special Science
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2656   Foerster, R.  E.   1923.  The Hydromedusae of the West Coast
           of North America, with special reference to those of the
           Vancouver Island Region.  Contrib.  Can. Biol. N. S.,
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2657   Mackie,  G.  O. and G. V.  Mackie.  1963.  Systematic and
           Biological Notes on Living Hydromedusae from Puget
           Sound.   Contri. Zool. Nat.  Mus. Can.  Bull.  199; 63-83.

2658   Dales, R. P.   1957.  Pelagic polychaetes of the Pacific Ocean.
           Bull. Scripps Inst.  Oceanogr. , 7_(2): 99-168.

2659   Tebble, N.   1962.  The  distribution of pelagic polychaetes
           across  the North Pacific Ocean.  Bull, Brit.  Mus.  (Nat.
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2660   Izuka, Ahira.  1914.   On the pelagic annelids of Japan.  Tokyo
           Imperial University J. Coll. Sci. , _3_6(5): 1-14.

2661   Wailes, G.  H. 1929.  Marine-Zoo-Plankton of British Columbia.
           Museum and Art Notes (Vancouver), 4_(4): 159-165.

2662   Smith, V. Z.   1952.  Further Ostracoda of the Vancouver
           Island Region.  J.  Fish. Res. Bd.  Canada , _9( 1): 1 6-41.

2663   Lucas, V. Z.  1931.   Some  Ostracoda of the Vancouver Island
           Region.   Contrib. Can.  Biol.  and Fish. N.  S. , _6: 399 -404.

2664   Campbell, M.  H.   1929.  A  preliminary quantitative study of
           the zooplankton in the Strait of Georgia.  Trans.  Roy.  Soc.
           Canada, 23(5): 1-28.

2665   Campbell, M.  H.   1929.  Some free-swimming  Copepods of the
           Vancouver Island Region.  Trans. Roy. Soc.  Canada,
           23(5): 303-332.

2666   Campbell,  M. H.  1930/  Some free -seimming Copepods of
           the Vancouver Island region.   II.   Trans.  Roy. Soc.
           Canada, 24(5): 177-182.

2667   Campbell,  M. H.  1934.  The  Life history and post embryonic
           development of the cope pods,  Calami s tonsus Brady and
           Euchaeta japonica Marukanwa. J. Biol. Bd. Canada
           1_(1): 1-65.

2668   Bowman, T. E.  1953.  The Systematics and Distribution of
           Pelagic Amphipods of the  Families Vibiliidae,  Paraphoronimi-
           dae, Hyperiidae, Dairellidae, and Phrosinidae from the
           Northeastern Pacific.  Ph. D.  Thesis, University of  California,
           Los Angeles: 430 p.

2669   Dunbar, M. J.  1963.  Amphipoda-Sub-order:  Hyperiidea.
           Fich.  Ident.  Zoopl. ,  103.

2670   Gur'janova, E. F.  1951.  Amphipods of the Seas of the USSR
           and Surrounding Waters (in Russian).   Zool. Inst. , Akad,
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2671   Hurley, D.  E.  1956.  Bathypelagic and other Hyperiidae from
           California  waters.  Allan  Hancock Fdn. Occ. paper 18; 1 -25.

2672   Brinton, E.  1962.  Variable factors affecting the apparent
           range  and  estimated  concentration of euphausiids in the
           North  Pacific.  Pacific Science, 1_6(4):  374-408.

2673   Helm, M.  M. and E. R.  Trueman. 1967.  The  effects of
           exposure on the heart rate of the  mussel M.  californianus
           Comparative Biochem. , Phys. 21; 121-177.

2674   Alvarino, A.  1962.   Two new Pacific  Chaetognaths.  Bull.
           Scripps Inst.  Oceanogr. Tech. Ser. ,  8_: 1 -50.

2675   Hoar, W. S. 1951.  The  behavior of chum, pink, and coho
           Salmon in  relation to their seaward migration.   J.  Fish.
           Res. Brd.  Canada, 8(4): 241-263.

2676   Aron, W.  1962.   The distribution of animals  in the eastern
           North  Pacific and its relationship  to physical and chemical
           condition.  J. Fish Res.  Bd.   Canada,  19(2): 271-314.

2678   Hida, T. S.  1957.  Chaetognaths and Pteropods as biological
           indicators in  the North Pacific.  U. S. Fish and Wildlife
           Serv. ,  Spec.  Sci. Kept.  Fish, No. 215: 1-13.

2679   Lea, H.  1955.  The Chaetognaths of Western Canadian
           Coastal Waters.  J.  Fish.  Res.  Bd. Canada,  12(4): 593-617,

2680   LeBrasseur, R. J.  1959.  Sagitta lyra, a biological indicator
           species in the subarctic waters of the eastern Pacific
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2681   Wailes, G.  H.  1928.  Freshwater and marine  Protozoa from
           British Columbia.  Vancouver Museum Notes, No. 3, 3-4.

2682   Wailes, G.  H.  1932.  Description of new species  of marine
           protozoa from British Columbia.   Contr.  Canada  Biol.
           Fish. Vol7 No.  17.

2683   Wailes, G.  H.  1928.  Dinoflagellates from British Columbia
           with descriptions of new species.  Vancouver  Museum
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2684   Peterson,  W. K.  and G.  C.  Anderson.  1966.  University of
           Washington,  Dept of  Oceanography.  Technical
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2685   Murphy, D. C.  1962.  Three undescribed nematodes from
       the coast of Oregon.  Limnology and Oceanography 7_: 386-389.

2686   Allen,  George H.  1963.  An Oceanographic Study  between the
           points  of Trinidad Head and the eel River,  Resources
           Agency of Califorii a  State Water Quality Control Board,
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2687   Morris, Robert W.  I960.  Temperature, salinity, and southern
           limits  of three species of Pacific cottid fishes.  Limnology
           and Oceanography, _5( 2): 175-179.

2688   Keen, A. M.  1963.   Marine molluscan genera of western North
           America.  Stanford University Press.  126 p.

2689   Eltringham, S. K.   1967.  The  effects  of temperature on the
           development of  Limnorid eggs (Isopoda: Crustacea) J.  of
           Applied Ecology, 4(2): 521 -529.

2690   Warinner, J.  E. and M.  L.  Brehmer.  1966.  Effects of
            Thermal  Effluents on Marine Organisms.  Air and Water
            Pollution, Int. J. Pergaman Press, 10; 277-287.

2691   Warkowski, S.  1959.  Cooling water of power stations.   A
            new factor in the environment of marine and fresh water
            invertegrates.  J.  Anim.  Ecol. , 28/2): 243-255.

2692   Trembley, F. J.  I960.  Research project on effects of condenser
            discharge water on aquatic life.   Progress Report 1956-59.
            Inst.  Res. , Lehigh University, Penn.

2693   P. S. Davies.  1966.  Physiological  ecology of Patella.  I.   The
            effect of size and temperature on metabolic rate.  J. Mar.
            Biol. Assoc. , U. K.  , 46(3): 647-658.

2694   Bohart, Ruby M.  1925-1928.  Bibliography of Marine Bacteria
            Publ. Puget Sound Biol. Stu. _5:  309-318.

2695   Harcrow, K.  1963.  Acclimation to  temperature in the marine
            copepod,  Calanus finmarchicus (Gummer).  Limnol.
            and Oceanogr. _8: 1 -8.

2697   Mullin, Michael M.  1963.  Some factors affecting the feeding
            of marine copepods of the genus  Calanus.  Limnology
            and Oceanography J(2): 239-250.

2698   Morita, Richard Y. and Roger D. Haight.  1964.   Temperature
            effects on the growth of an abligate psychrophilic marine
            bacterium.  Limnology and Oceanography, _9(1): 103-106.

2699   McLaren, Ian A.  1965.  Some relationships between temp.
            and egg size, body size,  development rate fecundity,
            of the copepod Pseudocalanus.  Limnology and Oceanography.
            1_0(4): 528-538.

2700   Ahlstrom, E.  H.  1959.  Distribution and abundance of eggs
            of the Pacific Sardine  1952-1956.  U.  S. Dept. Fish and
            Wildlife Serv.   Fish  Bull.  60; 185-213.

2702   Malone,  Philip G. , and J. Robert Dodd. 1967.  Temp, and
            salinity effects on  calcification rate in Mytilus edulis
            and its paleoecological implications.  Limnology and
            Oceanography.  1_2_(3): 432-436.

2704   Murphy,  D. G.  1962.  Three undescribed nematodes from
           the Coast of Oregon.   Limnol. and Oosanogr. Tj 386-389.

2705   Berner,  Leo D. , and Joseph L. Reid, Jr.  1961.  On the
           response to changing temperature of temperature limited
           plankton Doliolum denticulatum Quoy and Gaimurd
           1835.  Limnology and Oceanography, 6(2):  205-215.

2706   Annonymous.   1952.  Spawning season of the Calif.  Mussel
           (M.  Californianus) Ecology,  23:  490-492.

2707   Stickney,  Alden P.   1964.  Salinity, temperature,  and food
           requirements of soft-shell clam larvae in laboratory
           culture,  Ecology 45(2): 283-291.

2708   Kimura,  M.  and C.  E. Blunt, Jr.  1967. Age, length composition,
           and catch localities of sardine landings on the Pacific
           Coast of the U.  S.  and Mexico in 1962-1963.  Calif. Fish.
           and Game,  53: 105-124.

2709   Colton,  John B. , Jr.  1959.  A field observation of mortality
           of marine  fish larvae due to warming.  Limnology and
           Oceanography, 4(2): 219-222.

2710   Eltringham,  S.  K.  1965.  The effect of temperature upon the
           boring activity and survival of Limnoria (Isopoda), Jour.
           of Applied Ecology, _2(1): 149-157.

2712   Dayton, P. K.   1968.   Feeding behavior of asteroids and
           escape responses of their prey in the Puget Sound region.
           Ecology 49(9).
2716   Kanatani, Haruo.  1968.  Problems concerning the parti-
           cipation of a pheromone in starfish spawning.  Zool.
           Mag. (Tokyo) 77j  207-212.

2717   Mauzey, Karl P. , C.  Birkeland,  and P.  K. Dayton.   1968.
           Feeding behavior  of asteroids and  escape responses
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2719   Cornwall, I. E.  1924.  Notes on west American whale
           barnacles.  Proc.  California Acad.  Sci. ,  1_3_(26): 421-431.

2720   Cornwall, I. E.  1924.  Some littoral barnacles from William
           Head,  British Columbia.  Canadian  Field-Naturalist,
           3_8(3): 41-43.

2721   Cornwall, I. E.  1925.  A review of the  Cirripedia of the
           coast of British Columbia, with glossary and key to
           general and species.  Contr. Canadian Biol. , N.  S. ,
           2: 471-502.

2722   Cornwall, I. W.   1927.  Some north Pacific whale barnacles.
           Contr.  Canadian Biol.  and Fish. ,  _3_: 503-517.

2723   Cornwall, I. E.  1951.  See 2120.

2724   Henry,  Dora Priaulx.  1940.  See 2122.

2725   Henry,  Dora Priaulx.  1942.  See 2123.

2726   Pilsbry, H. A.  1909.  A new species  of Scalpellum from
           British Columbia.   Proc. Acad. Nat.  Sci.  Philadelphia,
           6^: 367-368.

2727   Pilsbry, H. A.  1916.  The sessile barnacles (Cirripedia)
           contained in the collections of the  U. S.  Natural Museum;
           includina a monograph of the America species.   Bull.
           U.  S. Nat.  Mus. ,  93: 1-366.

2728   Henry,  Dora Priaulx.  1940.  See 2121.

2729   Coker,  R.  E. , A. F.  Shira, H. W. Clark and A. P.  Howard.
           1921.   Life History and growth of the  razor  clam.  Wash.
           Dept. Fish.,  Olympia,  1924: 52 p.

2730   Harty,  H.  et al.   1967.  Nuclear power plant siting  in the Pacific
           Northwest for the Bonneville Power Administration.  Battelle'
           Northwest, Richland, Washington.  Contract 14-03-67868.
           Printed by U. S. D.  I.,  BPA,  Portland, Oregon.,  July 1,
           1967: 545 p. and App.  (esp. pp. 102-126 and pp.  D-l-61).

2731   Annon.  Lincoln County Beaches Check list,  Revised July
            1961--Xerox  obtained OSU Marine Science Center,
            Newport, Oregon.

2732   McMillin,  Harvey C.  1924.  Life History and Growth of
            the Razor Clam.  State of Washington,  Dept.  of
            Fisheries.  Olympia, 1924.  52 p.

2733   Tegelberg, H. C.  1964.  Growth  and ring formation of
            Washington razor clams.   Fish. Res. Pap.,  Wash. Dept.
            Fish. , 2(3): pp.  69-103.

2734   Tyler, R.  W.  1962.  Distribution and migration of young
            salmon in Everett Harbor  1962.  Final report to the
            Everett Technical Committee,  (ditto).  Univ. of Wash. ,
            Fish.  Res. Inst.  26 p.

2735   Tyler, R.  W.  1965.  Distribution and migration of young
            salmon in Everett Harbor Relative to water quality,  1963
            and 1964. Univ.  of Wash. , Fish. Res.  Inst.

2736   Weymouth, Frank, H.  C. McMillin, and  H.  B.  Holmes.
            1925.  Growth and age at maturity of the Pacific razor
            clam.  S_. patula (Dixon).   Bull. U. S. Bur.  Fish.
            4^: 201-236.

2737   Busk, G.   1852.  Catalogue of the Marine Polyzoa, pt. 1,
            Cheilostomata.  London,  p.  1-54.

2738   Busk, G.   1854.  Catalogue of the Marine Polyzoa, pt. 2,
            Cheilostomata (part), London, p.  55-120.

2739   Hincks, Th.  1882.  Polyzoa of the Queen Charlotte Islands;
            Preliminary Notice of new Species.   Ann. and Mag.  Nat.
            Hist. ,  H): 248-256.

2740   Hincks, Th.  1882.  Report on the Polyzoa of the  Queen Charlotte
            Islands.  Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. ,  series 5, vol.  10:

2741   Hincks, Th.  1883.  Report on the Polyzoa of the  Queen
            Charlotte Islands.  Ann. and Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  ser.  5,
            vol. 11, p. 442-451, pis.  17-18.

 2742   Cameron, Frank K.  1914.  Kelp Groves of the Pacific
            Coast and Islands of the United States and Lower California.
            U. S. Department of Agriculture Bureau of Soils, Office
            of the Secretary, Report no. 100, Government Printing
            Office, Washington,  D. C.

 2743   Cleaver,  F. C. (editor).  1951.  Fisheries Statistics  of
            Oregon.  Oregon Fish Commission, Portland, Contribution
            No.  16,  176 pages.

 2744   Cutress,  Charles E.  1949. The Oregon Shore Anemones
            (Anthozoa).  M.  S. Thesis,  Oregon State College, Corvallis,
            Oregon, 71 pages.

 2745   Gharrett, John T.  and John I.  Hodges.   1950.  Salmon
            Fisheries of the Coastal Rivers of  Oregon South  of the
            Columbia.  Oregon Fish Commission, Portland,
            Contribution No.  13, 31 pages.

 2746   McGowan, John A. and Ivan Pratt.  1954.  The Reproductive
            System and Early Embryology of the Nudibranch Archidoris
            monterevensis (Cooper).  Bulletin  of the Museum of
            Comparative Zoology at Harvard College,  111(7): 261-276.

 2747   Morgan, Alfred R. and Arthur R. Gerlach.  1950.  Striped
            Bass Studies on  Coos Bay, Oregon, in 1949 and 1950.
            Oregon Fish Commission, Portland,  Contribution
            No.  14,  31 pages.

 2748   Pruter, Alonzo T.  and George Y. Harry, Jr.  1952.  Results
            of Preliminary Shrimp Explorations off the Oregon
            Coast.  Fish Commission  Research Briefs, Fish Commission
            of Oregon, Portland.  4_: 12-24.

 2749   Reish, Donald J.  1949.   The Intertidal Polychaetons
            Annelids of the Coos  Bay,  Oregon Region.  M. S. Thesis ,
            Oregon State College Corvallis, Oregon, 89 pages.

2750   Shearer, Gilbert M.  1942.  A Study of  Marine Isopods of the
            Coos Bay Region.  M.  S.  Thesis, Oregon State College,
            Corvallis, Oregon, 64 pages.

2751   Shotwell,  J. Arnold.  1950.  The Vertical  Zonation of Acmaea, the
            Limpet.   Ecology,  3_1_: 647-649.


2752   Sowell, Robert R.   1949.  Taxonomy and Ecology of the
           Nudibranchiate Mollusca of the Coos Bay, Oregon Region.
           M. S. Thesis,  Oregon State College,  Corvallis, Oregon,
           54 pages.

2753   Stevens, Belle A.  1928.  Callianassidae from the West Coast
           of North America.  Publications Puget Sound Biological
           Station,  6_: 315-369.

2754   U. S. Army Corps of Engineers.  1949.  Coos Bay,  Oregon,
           Entrance to Smith Mill. , Location of Oyster Beds, June.
           Portland District,  Portland, Oregon, Map File No.
           CB-1-384/2.     Unpublished.

2755   Hoar,  T.  S.   1956.   The behavior of migrating Hnk and
           Chum Salmon fry.  J. Fish. Res. Brd.  Can.  13(3):309-325.

2756   Agersborg,  H. P.  K.  1930. Influence of temperature on
           fish.  Ecology, 11: 136-144.

2757   Hollis,  E. H.  1952.  Variations in the feeding habits of the
           striped bass, Roccus saxatilis (Walbaum),  in Chesapeake
           Bay.  Bull. Bingham Oceanogr.  Coll. _14_(1): 111-131.

2758   Alabaster, J. S.   1961.  Reactions of fish to increased
           temperatures.  Int.  J. Air-Water Poll.  7: 541-563.

2759   Alabaster, J. S.  and K.  G.  Robertson. 1961.  Effect of
           diurnal changes in temperature,  dissolved oxygen, and
           illumination  on the behavior of roach (Rutilus rutilus  L. ),
           beam (Abramis brama L. ) and perch (Perca fluviatilus L_. )
           Animal Behavior,  9J3-4): 187.

2760   Hopkins, A.  E.   1936.  Ecological observations on  spawning
           and early larval development on the Olympia oyster
           (Ostrea lurida).  Ecology 1_7J4): 551-566.

2761   Armitage, K. B.  1962.  Temperature and O_ consumption
           of Orchomonella chilensis  (Heller)  (Amphipoda: Gammeroida)
           Biol.  Bull.,  123(2): 225-232.

2762   Bakshtanskii, E. L.  1961.  The role of feeding and of
           warming of the water in the artificial rearing of salmon
           above the Arctic circle.  Rybnoe Khoz.  10:  15-18;
           Referat. Zhur. ,  Biol.  (1962) No. 91 78; Sport Fish.
           Abs.  8(2): (1963).

2763   Helchradek,  J.  1930.   Temperature coefficients in biology.
           Biol. Rev. , ^(1): 30-58.
2764   Berg,  Kaj.  1952.  On the O2 consumption of Anculidae
           (Gastropoda) from an ecological point of view. Hydro-
           biologia,  4_(3): 225-267.

2765   Bishai, H. M.  I960.  Upper lethal temperatures for larval
           salmonids. Journal du Conseil, 25(2).  129-133;  5(4) (I960),

2766   Blaxter, J.  H. S.   1957.  Herring rearing, III--The effect
           of temperature and other factors on myotome counts.
           Scot. Home Dept. ,  Mar. Res.  No. 1, 16pp.

2767   Blaxter, J.  H. S.   I960.  The effects of extremes of
           temperature on herring larvae. J. Mar. Biol.  Assn. ,
           3_9: 605.

2768   Hopkins, A. E. 1937.   Experimental observations on
           spawning, larvae development  and setting in the Olympia
           oyster, Qstrea lurida.  Bull. U. S.  Bur. Fish. 23: 439-503.

2769   Brett,  J.  R.  1956.  Some principles in the thermal require-
           ments of  fishes.   Quart. Rev.  Biol., 3j_(2):  75-87-

2770   Brett,  J.  R.  I960.  Thermal requirements of fish- -three
           decades of study, 1940-1970.   In Biological  Problems
           in Water  Pollution.  Robt.  A. Taft San.  Eng. Center
           Tech. Rept. W60-3.

2771   Brett,  J.  R. and D. F.  Alderdice.   1958. Resistance of
           cultured young chum and sockeye salmon to  temperatures
           below 0C. J. Fish. Res. Bd.  Can., J_5_(5): 805-813.

2772   Cairns, J. , Jr.  1955.  The effects of increased temperatures
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2773   Cairns, J. ,  Jr.  1956.  Effects of heat on fish. . Ind. Wastes,
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2774   Combs, B. C.  and R.  E. Burrows.  1957.   Threshold
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2779   Downing,  K.  M.  and J.  C. Merkens.  1957.  The  influence
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2793   Parry, Gwyneth.  1961.  Osmotic and ionic changes in blood
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2794   Privol'nev, T. I.   1963.  Threshold  concentrations  of
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2802   Ansell,  A. D.  1963.  Venus mercenaria (L.) in Southhampton
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2803   Ansell,  A. D.  1963.  The biology of Venus mercenaria in
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2804   Ansell,  A. D. and F.  A.  Loosemoore.  1963.  Preliminary
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2806   Ansell,  A. D. , F. A. Loosemore,  and K.  F.  Lander.   1964.
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2807   Berg, K.   1953.  The problem of respiratory acclimatization.
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2811   Brown,  F. A. Jr., and H.  M. Webb.   1948. Temperature
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2812   Hubbs,  Carl L.  1921.  The ecology and life-history of
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2823   Crisp,  D.  J.   1964.  Racial differences between North
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2825   Croft,  J.  E.  I960.  Pollution of coastal and estuarial waters.
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2829   Doudoroff,  P.,  and M. Katz.  1953.  Critical review  of
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2840   Johnson, R.  C.   1964.  Direction of movement of salmon
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2856   Hynes,  H. B. N.  I960.  The Biology of Polluted Waters.
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2857   lies,  R. B.  1963.  Cultivating fish for  food and sport in
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2860   Kinne,  O.   I960.  Growth,  food uptake,  and food conversion
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2908   Tarzwell, C. M.  1962.  Development of water quality criteria
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2909   Huntsman, A. G.   1925.  Limiting factors for marine animals.
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2910   Trembley, F. J.  I960 (Ed.)  See 2692. Research project
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2911   Trembley, F. J.  1961 (Ed.)  Research project on effects of
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2912   Vernon,  H. M.   1899.  The Death Temperature of Certain
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2913   Van Vliet, R.  1957.  Effect of heated condenser discharge
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2914   Weymouth, F. W.   1918.  Contributions to the life-history
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2915   Wurtz,  C. B. and T. Dolan.   I960.  A biological method
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2916   Ketchum,  B.  H.   1967.  Man's resources in the marine
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2917   Alabaster, J. S. and A. L. Downing.  1966.  A field and
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2918   Arndt, H.  E.  1968. Effects of heated water on a littoral
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2919   Cadwaller, L. W.   1964.  Thermal pollution of water courses.
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2920   Cheney,  W.  O.  and G.  V. Richards.   1966.  Ocean temperature
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2921   Ebert, E.  E.  1966. An evaluation of marine resources, Point
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2922   Ebert, E.  E.  1967.  Morro Bay power plant survey.
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2923   Edinger,  J.  E.  and J. C.  Geyer.  1965. Heat exchange in
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2924   Edinger,  J.  E.  and J. C.  Geyer.   1967.  Analyzing steam
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2925   Huntsman, A. G.   1926.   The comparative thanatology
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2926   Kennedy,  V. S.  and J. A.  Mihursky.  1967.  Bibliography
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2927   Loveland, R. E. and E.  T. Moul.   1966.  The  qualitative
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2928   Markowski, S.   1962.  Faunistic and ecological investigations
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2929   Markowski,  S.  1966.  The diet and infection of fishes in
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2930   Mihursky,  J. A.   1963.  Patuxent River estuary study with
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2931   Mihursky,  J. A.   1966.  Patuxent thermal  study.  Progress
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2932   Mihursky, J. A.  1967.  Interim recommended regulations
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2933   Mihursky, J. A.  1967.  Patuxent thermal studies.  Prog.
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2934   Mihursky, J. A.  1967.  On possible constructive uses of
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2935   Mihursky, J. A. and V.  S. Kennedy.  1967.   Water
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2936   Larkins,  II.  A.  1964. Direction of movement  of salmon
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2937   Naylor, E. 1965.   See 2798.

2938   Nelson, B.  1967.  Thermal pollution:  Senator Muskie
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2939   North, W. J.  1963.  A short term oceanographic  survey of
            the region offshore of the proposed nuclear power plant
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2940   North, W. J.  1966.  An evaluation of the marine flora and
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2941   Pacific Gass & Electric Co.  1966.  Moss Landing Power
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2942   Pacific Gas fc Electric Co. 1967.   Investigation of cooling water
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2943   Pacific Gas & Electric Co.  1968.  Oceanographic Background
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2944   Pannell, J. A. M.  A.  E.  Johnson and J. E. C.  Raymont.
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2946   Raney,  E. C. and B. W. Menzel.   1967.  Heated effluents
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2947   Warinner, J. E. and M.  L. Brehmer.  1964.  The effects
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2948   Warinner, J. E. and M.  L. Brehmer.  1966.  See also
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2949   Blinks, L. R.  1961.  The effect of pH on the photosynthesis
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2950   Fry,  F. E. J.  1947.  Effects of the  environment on animal
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2951   L/aevastu,  P. 1959.  A review of marine pollution and the
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2952   Battle, H. I. _ei_ al.    1936. Fatness, digestion and food of
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2953   Boden,  B. P.  1950.  The crustaceans of the order Euphausiacea
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2955   Brook,  G. and W.  Calderwood.   1885.  Report on the food
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2956   Lee,  J.  W. and A. Klain.  1954.  A simple apparatus for
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2957   Brown, Dorothy J.  (compiler).  1954.   Seventh Progress Report
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2958   Delquest, Walter,  W.  1948.  Mammals of Washington.
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2959   Eriksen,  Arne and Lawrence D.  Townsend.   1940.  The
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2960   Scheffer, Victor B.  1928.  Precarious Status of the Seal and
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2961   Scheffer, Victor B. and John W.  Slipp.  1944.  The Harbor
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2962   Scheffer, Victor B. and J. W. Slipp.   1948.   The Whales and
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2963   Washington State Department of  Fisheries, (undated)
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2964   Washington State Department of  Fisheries. 1951-1954.
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2965   Washington State Department of  Fisheries. 1952.  Washington
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2966   Washington State Department of Fisheries.  1952.
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2967   Cole,  L.  J.   1904.  See 2196.

2968   Exline, Harriet I.   1936.  Pycnogonids from Puget Sound.
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2969   Giltay, Louis.  1934.  Pycnogonida from the coast of British
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2970   Gislen, Torsten. 1943.  Physiographical and ecological
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2971   Gislen, Torsten. 1944.  Physiographical and ecological
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2972   Hedgpeth,  J.  W.  1939.  Some  pycnogonids found off the
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2973   Linton, Edwin.   1921.  Food of young  winter flounders.
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2974   Fry, W. F.  1965.  The Feeding mechanisms and preferred
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2975   Hedgpeth,  J. W.  1943.   On a species of pycnogonid from
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2976   Clark, F. N.  1934.  A Summary of the life history of the
            Calif.  Sardine and it's influence on the fishery.  Calif.
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2977   Budinger,  T.  F., L. K.  Coachman, and C. A. Barnes.   1964.
            Columbia River effluent in the northeast Pacific Ocean,
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            Univ.  Wash., Dep.  Oceanogr. ,  Tech. Rept.  99 78 p.
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2978   Butler, T. H.  I960.  Maturity and breeding of the Pacific
            edible crab,  Cancer magister Dana.  J. Fish. Res.
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2979   Schroeder, Edward Dean.  1962.  The degradation of Kraft
            mill waste in a marine environment.  M.  S. Thesis.
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2980   Long,  Edward.   1967.  The Associates of Four species
            of Marine Sponges of Washington and Oregon.  M. S.
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2981   Morgan,  A. R. and D.  E. Gates.  1961.  A cooperative
            study of shrimp and incidental fish catches taken in
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2982   Murphy,  G. I.  I960.  Oceanography and variations in the
            Pacific Sardine population.  Calif.  Coop. Oceanic
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2983   Chanley, P.  E.  1961.  Inheritance of shell markings  and growth
            in the  hard clam,  Venus mercenaria.  Proc.  Nat.
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2984   Hancock,  D.  A.  I960.  Seasonal changes in the condition
            of edible cockles (Cardium edule L.).  Int. Comm.
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2985   Highsmith, Richard M.  Jr.  1953.  Water resources.  In_
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            Oregon State Univ.,  Corvallis: p.  15-20.

2986   Hancock, D.  A. and A.  E.  Urquhart.  1965.  The determination
            of natural mortality and its causes in an exploited
            population of cockles (Cardium edule L. ).  Fishery
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2987   Breese,  Wilbur Paul.  1953.  Rearing of the native Pacific
           Coast oyster larvae, Ostrea lurida Carp. ,  under controlled
           laboratory conditions M.  S. Thesis, Oregon State Univ.
           48 p.

2988   Haydu, Eugene Peter.  1949.  The effects  of Kraft mill waste
           effluents on king and silver salmon.  M. S. Thesis,
           Oregon State University,  71 p.

2989   Loosanoff, V. C.   1942.  Shell movements of the  edible
           mussel, Mytilus edulis  (L.) in  relation to temperature.
           Ecology 23:  231-234.

2990   Mariscal,  Richard N.  1961.  A comparative study of the
           larval and adult morphology of  an entoproct.  The Western
           Society of Naturalists.   Annual Winter Meeting, U. of O. ,
           Dec. 27-29,  Abstracts of Contriubted  Papers, p.  8.

2991   Banse, K. and F. H. Nichols.   1968.  Two new species and
           three new records of benthic polychaetes from Puget
           Sound (Washington).  Proc. Biol.  Soc. Washington,
           81: 223-230.

2992   Banse, K.  1968.   Streptosyllis latipalpa,  new species
           (polychaeta,  syllidae) from Puget Sound (Washington).
           Proc. Biol.  Soc. Wash. , _81: 151-154.

2993   Reish, D.  J. and T.  L.  Richards.  1966.  A technique for
           studying the  effect of varying concentrations of dissolved
           oxygen on Aquatic organisms.  Air and Water Pollut.
           Int.  J.  Pergeman Press.   10:  69-71.

2994   Calif. State Water  Quality Control Board.  1964.  An
           investigation of the  effects of discharged wastes on kelp. In
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2995   Loosanoff, Victor Lynn.  1958.  Some aspects of  behavior
           of oysters  at different temperatures.  Biol. Bull.
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2996   Marsden, J. R.  1959.  Phoronidea from the Pacific  coast
           of North America.  Canadian J. of Zool.  37(2): 87-111.

2997   Kozloff, E. N.  1965.  New Species of Acoel Turbellarians
            from the Pacific coast.  Biol.  Bull.  129(1): 151-166.

2998   Hyman,  L. H.  1953.   The Polyclad Flatworms of the Pacific
            Coast of North America.  Bull. Am. Mux. Nat. Hist.
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2999   Karling, T.  G.   1963.  Marine Turbellaria from the Pacific
            coast  of North America I.  Plagiostomidae.  Arkiv.
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 3000   McCauley, J. E.  1967.  Status of the heart urchin,
            Brisaster latifrons.  J. Fish.  Res. Bd. Canada,
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3001    McCauley,  J.  E.  and A. G. Carey,  Jr.  1967.  Echinoidea
            of Oregon, J. Fish Res.  Bd. Canada,  24:  1385-1401.

3002    Mortenson, Th.   1943.  A monograph of the echinordea
            Vol. Ill,  pt.  3.  Camarodonla II,  Echinidae,  Strongylocentrotidae
            Parasaleniidae,  Echinometridae.  446 p. Copenhagen.

3003    McCauley,  J.  E.  1970.  A preliminary checklist of selected
            groups of invertebrates from otter trawl and dredge
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            Estuary and Adjacent Ocean Region.  AEE publication
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3004    Manzer, J. I.  n. d.   Growth of lemon sole in northern
            Hecate Strait. Fish Res.  Bd.  Canada,  Pac.  Progr.
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3005    Manzer, J. S. and A. J. Dodinead, M. S.   1965. Winter
            distribution of salmon in the Northeast  Pacific Ocean,
            Jan 7 - Feb.  7,  1964.  With some reference to oceanographic
            conditions. Fish.  Res. Bd. Can. M. S. Report (Biol.)
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3006   Astrahanlseff, S.  and M. S. Alton.   1965.   Bathymetric
            distribution of brittlestons (Ophiuroidea) collected off
            the North  Oregon Coast.  J. Fish. Res. Bd. , Canada.
            2_2:  1407-1424.

3007   Bonnot,  P.  1948.  The abalones of California.    Calif. Fish
            & Game,  34:  141-169.

3008   Tarp, Fred H.  1952.  A Revision of the Family Embiotocidae
            (The Surf perches).  California,  Fish and Game, Fish.
            Bull. No.  88.

3009   Skogsberg,  Tage.   1939.  The Fishes  of the Family Sciaenidae
            (Croakers) of California,  California Fish and Game,
            Fish Bull. No. 54.

3010   Day,  D. S.  and W. G.  Pearcy.  1968.  Species  associations
           of Benthic fishes on the continental shelf and slope
           off Oregon.  J. Fish. Res.  Bd.  Canada, 25;. 2665-2675.

3011   Moore, A. R.   1959.  On the embryonic development of the
           sea urchin Allocentrotus frozilis, Biol. Bull.  117: 492-494.

3012   Raup,  D.  M.  1958.  The relationship between water temperature
           and morphology in Dendraste.  J. Geol.  66: 668-677.

3013   Boolootion,  R. A., A.  C. Grese,  and J. S. Tocker,  and A.
           Farmanfarmoian.  1959.  A contribution to the biology
           of the deep-sea echinoid Allocentrotus frozilis (Jackson)
           Biol. Bull. 116:  362-372.

3014   McGowan, John A. and Ivan Pratt.   1954.  See 2746.

3015   Murphy, Donald G.  and H.  J. Jensen.   1961.  Laurotonema
           obtusicandatum n.  sp.  (Nemata: Enoploidea),  a marine
           nematode from the coast of  Oregon.  Proc.  Helm Soc.
           Wash.  28: 167-169.

3016   Pratt, I.  1952-1954.   Protein digestion in the green sea
           anemane (Anthopleura Xanthozranmeia) (an abstract)
           Oregon Acad.  Sci. Proc.  _3: 4-5.

3107   Prat, Ivan and Lewis E. Aldrich,  Jr.   1953.  Mezalocotylc
           triluba n.  sp.  (Trematoda: Monozenea.) J.  Parasitol.
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3018   Pratt, I.  and H. Kreuger.   1950.  A redescription of the
           circulation of fluids within the gastrovascular  cavity
           of Pleurohachia (Ctenophora) (an abstract)  Proc. Oregon
           Acad. Sci.  2: 48.

3019   Pratt, Ivan and James  E. McCauley.  1961.  Trematodes
           of the Pacific Northwest,  and annotated catalogue.
           Studies in  Zoology No.   11.  Oregon State University
           Press,  Corvallis.  113  p.

3020   Burner, C. J.  1964.  Pacific Salmon.  U.  S. Fish and Wildl.
           Service, Fish. Leaflet, 563:11 p.

3021   Manzer, J.  I., T.  Ishida, A. E.  Peterson, and M.  G. Hanavan.
            1965.  Salmon of the North Pacific Part V.  Offshore
            distribution of salmon.  Bull. Intern. North Pacific
            Fish. Comm.  15: 425 p.

3022   Bond,  C.  E.  1959. Record of  agonid fishes from Oregon
            Oregon Fish. Comm. Res. Br.  _7_: 79-80.

3023   Manzer, J.  I, T. Ishida,  A.  F. Peterson,  and M. G.  Hanavan.
            1965.  Salmon Distirbution in relation to  sea-surface
            temperatures.  Intern. N.  Pac.  Fish. Comm. J_5: 112-118.

3024   Frolander,  Herbert F.  1962.   Quantitative estimates of
            the temporal variations  of zooplankton off the coast
            of Washington and British Columbia.  J.  Fish.  Res.
            Bd. Canada, J_9_: 657-675.

3025   Grezoire, Earl and J.  Pratt.  1952.   Helminth parasites
            of the Petrale Sole.  J.  Parasitol.  38: 84.

3026   Landenberger, Donald E.  1970.  The effects  of Exposure
            to Air on Pacific   Starfish and its relationship to
            distribution.  Physiological Zoology, 4.3(2): 220.

3027   McCauley, James E.   I960.   Some hermiurid trematodes
            of Oregon Marine fishes.  J. Parasitol.  46: 84-89.

3028   McCauley, James E.   I960.   The morphology of Phyllaphysen
            zostericola,  new  species.  Proc. California Acad.  Sci. ,
            2_9_: 549-576.

3031   Carter, L.  J.  1969.  Warm-water irrigation:  An answer
            to thermal pollution?  Science,   165: 478-480.

3032   Manzer, J.  I.  1968.  Food  of Pacific Salmon and steelhead
            trout in the Northeast Pacific Ocean.  J.  Fish.  Res.
            Board Canada, _25(5): 1085-1089.

3034   Lavergne, M.  and W. Drost-Hansen.  1956.  Discontinuities
            in slope of the temperature dependence of the thermal
            expansion of water.  Naturwissenschoften.  43: 511-512.

3035   Ryabchikor,  P. I. and G. G.  Nikolaern.  1963.  Settling
           of wood-borer larvae,  Teredo navalis (Mollusca:
           Teredudae) and water temperature in Gelendzhih
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3036   Falh, M.  and G. S.  Kell.   1966.  Thermal properties of
           water:  Discontinuities questioned. Science.  154: 1013-1015.

3037   Rusche,  E. W.  andW. G.  Good.  1966.  Search for dis-
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3038   Drost-Hansen, W.  1956.   Temperature anomalies and biological
           temperature optima in the process of evolution.
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3039   Drost-Hanse, W.  and Anrtro Thorhang.   1917.  Temperature
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3040   Oppenheimer,  C.  H. and W.  Drost-Hansen.   I960.  A relation-
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3041   Drost-Hanse, W.   1967.  The structure of water and water-
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3042   Vernberg, W.  B.  and F.  J. Vernberg.  1966.  Comparative
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3034   Harriss,  R.  C. and O. H.  Pilkey.  1966.   Temperature and
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3044   Bonner,  O. D. and G. B. Woolsey.  1968.  The effect of
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3045   Matthews, S. B.  1968.   An estimate of ocean mortality
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3046   Naylor;  E.  1965.  See 2798.

3047   Kinne, O.   1964.  See  2378.

3048   Kinne, O.   1963.  See  2379.

3049   Moreira, G. S. and W. B. Vernberg.   1968.  Comparative
            thermal metabolic patterns in Enterpini acritifrons
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3050   Moore, H.  G.   1934.   The Biology of Balanus balanoides
            I.  Growth rate and its relation to  size, season, and
            tidal level.  J. Mar.  Biol. Assoc.   19: 851-868.

3051   Kinne, Otto and G. A.  Poffenhoefa.  1966.  Growth and
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3052   Kinne, Otto.  1967. Physiology of estuarine organisms with
            special reference to salinity and temperature:  General
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            1964.   Jekyll estand,  Georgia.  AAAS Publ. 83: 525-540.

3053   Neave, J.   1966.  Salmon of the North Pacific Ocean--III.
            A review of the life history of North Pacific Salmon 5.
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3054   Norman, J. R.  1934.  A  systematic monograph of the flat-
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3055   Olsson, Axel Adolf.  1956. Studies on the genus Olivella.
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3056   Sieburtb,  John  McM.   1967.   Seasonal  selection of estuarine
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3057   Outram,  D. N.  1967.  Herring spawn production in British
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3057   Outram, D.  N.   1968.  The 1968 herring spawn deposition
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3058   Palmer, John Beach.  1968.  An analysis of the distribution
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3060   Gunter, G.  1957.   Temperature.  In J.  W. Hedgepeth.
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3061   Hulthins,  L. W. 1947.  The bases for temperature zonation
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3062   Sparks, A. K.   1962. Metoplasin of the gut of the oyster
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3063   Garth, John  S.   1958.  Brachyura of the Pacific Coast of
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3064   Glassell,  Steve A.   1938.   New and obscure decapod Crustacea
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3065   Palmer, Katherine V. W.  1958.  Type specimens of marine
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3066   Patrick, P.  1957.  Diatoms as indicators of changes in
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3068   Rathbun, M. J.   1904.  See 2328.

3069   Lance,  James Robert.  1967.  Northern and Southe rn range
            extensions  of Aplysia vaccaria (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia),
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3070   Rathbun, M. J.   1904.  See 2328.

3071   Richardson, Harriet.  1904.  Isopod crustacean of the Northwest
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3072   Rao, K.  P.  and T. H. Bullock.  1954.  QIQ as a function
           of size  and habitat temperature in Poikilotherms.
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3073   Taylor,  C.  C.   I960.  Temperature growth and mortality of
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3074   Nutting,  C.  C.  1910. Hydroid.  Harriman Alaska Series
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3075   Smith, Lymodd.  1962.  Common Seashore Life.  Naturegraph
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3076   Dawson, E.  Yole.    How to Know the Seaweeds. W. C.  Brown Co.
           Dubruque, Iowa. 197 p.

3077   Gubulet, M.  L.   1956.  Seaweeds at ebb-tide.  Seattle, University
           of Washington Press.   181  p.

3078   Pickford,.Grace  E.  1964.  Octopus  dofleini (Wiilker). Bull.
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3079   Milburn, G.  S.  and J. G. Robinson.  1969.  Catch and effect
           data by depth intervals for  areas  fished by Oregon shrimp
           trawlers 1958-19 66.  Fish Commission of Oregon Data
           Report  No.  2, 46 p.

3080   Pimental, R.  A.  1959.  An investigation of marine organisms
           concentrations in the vicinity of the Union Oil Company
           Santa Maria Refinery Outfall, Oso Flaco, San  Luis  Obispo
           County,  California.   Report  submitted to California
           State Water  Pollution Control Board,  June  1959, by Dept.
           Biological Sciences  Calif.  State Polytechnic College;
           17 p. Processed.

3081   Nelson, Martin O.  and Herbert A. Larkins.   1970.  Distribution
           and Bioloby of Pacific Halke:  A Synopsis in Pacific Hake,
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3082   Alton,  Miles S. and Martin O. Nelson  1970.  Food of Pacific
           Hake,  Merluccius  productus,  in Washington and Northern
           Oregon Coastal Waters in Packfic Hake,  U.  S.  D.  I.,  U. S.
           Fish and Wildlife Service,  Circular 332,  35-42.

3083   Harry, G.  Y.  1959.  Time of Spawning, length at maturity,
           and fecundity of the English,  Petrule,  and Dover Soles
           (Parophrys vetulus, Eopsetta jordani, and Mairastmus
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           Commission. _7: 5-13.

3084   Turner, Ruth D.  1954. The Family Pholididae  in the  Western
           Atlantic and the e'astern Pacific.  Johnsonia_3(33):  1-64.

3085   Hurst, Anne.  1967. The  egg masses and veligers  of thirty
           N. E.  Pacific  opisthobranche.  Veliger _9(3): 255-288.

3086   Turner, Ruth D.  1955. The Family Pholididae  in the  Western
           Atlantic and Eastern Pacific  II.  Martesiinae, Jouannelina
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3087   Gifford, D. S.  and E. W.  Figgord.  1944.  California Ohivellas.
           Nautilus  57^ 73-80.

3088   Quayle, D. B.   1955.  The British Columbia Ship-worm.
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3089   Queen, John C.  1930.   Marine Decapod Crustacea of the Coos Bay
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3090   Burghardt, Glenn and Laura Burghardt.  1969.   A Collectors
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3091   Rathbun, Mary.  1918.  Grapsoid crabs of America. U.  S.
           Nat. Mus.  Bull. 97: 461.

3092   Reed, Paul H.   1969.  Studies of Dungeness  crab (Cancer magister
           Dana)  larvae:  Culture methods  and the effect of temperature
           and salinity on  survival and growth in the habitat.  J. Fish
           Res.  Bd. Can., 26: 389-397.

3093   Dimich, R. E.  and G.  E. Egland and J. Long.   1941.
            Native oyster  investigation of Yaquina Bay,  Oregon.
            Agri.  Expt. Sta. Progress Kept.   1941.

3094   Reish,  Donald J.   Studies on the Mytilus edulis community
            in Alamitos Bay,  Calif.  I. Development and Destruction
            of the Community.  Veliger 6p): 124-131.

3095   Berry,  S.  S.   1908.  Miscellaneous notes on  California
            mollusks.  Nautilus  22: 37-41.

3096   Berry,  S.  S."  1907.  Molluscan fauna of Monterey Bay,
            Nautilis_21: 17-22,  34-36, 39-47,   and 51-52.

3097   Bartsch, Paul  1944.  Some turrid mollusks of Monterey
            Bay and vicinity.   Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 57: 57-68.

3098   Bartsch, Paul. 1944.  Some notes on West American turrid
            mollusks.  Proc. Biol. Soc.  Washington 57: 25-30.

3099   Oldroyd, Ida S.  1924-1927.  See 2026.

3100   Reish, D.  J.   1964.  Studies on the Mytilus edulis community
            in Alamitos Bay,  California:  II. Population variations
            and discussion of the associated organisms.  Veliger,
            6: 202-207.

3101   Morris,  P. A.  1952.  Field guide to shells of the Pacific Coast
            and Hawaii, Boston.  Houghton Miffhin,  220 p.

3102   Keep, Josiah.   1935.  See 2025.

3104   Keen, A.  M.  and C. L. Dotz.  1942. See 2021.

3106   Reynolds,  H.  C.  1948.  Notes on the feeding and food
            habits of the Gastropod Olivella biplicata (Sowerby) at
            Monterey Harbor.  Unpubl. Student rept. Invert. Zool. Univ.
            Calif. , Berkeley.

3107   MacFarland, Frank M.   1966.  Studies  of opisthobranchiate
            mollusks of the Pacific Coast of North America.  Mem.  Calif.
            Acad.  Sci. , 6: 1-546.

3108   Alton, M.  S.   1966.  Bathymetric distribution of the  sea
            stars  (Asteroidea) off the Northern Oregon Coast. J.
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3109   Fisher; W. K.  1911.  Asteroidea of the North Pacific and Adjacent
            Waters.  Bull.  U. S. Nat. Mus.J76(l): 1-419.

3110   Fisher, W. K.  1928.  Asteroidea of the North Pacific and
            Adjacent Waters.  Bull U. S. Nat. Mus.  76_(2): 1-245.

3111   Fisher, W. K.  1930.  Asteroidea of the North Pacific and
            Adjacent Waters.  Bull.  U. S. Nat. Mus. 76(3):  1-356.

3112   Smiles, C. M.  1969.  Size,  structure and growth rates  of
            Euphansin pacifia off the Oregon Coast.  M. S. Thesis
            Oregon State University 82 p.

3114   Barnard,  J.  L. and F. C. Ziesenhenne.  1961.  Ophiuroid
            communities of Southern Cal ifornia coastal bottoms.  Pacific
            Naturalist, 2(2): 131-152.

3116   Richer, W. E.  1966.  Salmon of the North Pacific ocean--
            Part III.  A review of the life history  of North Pacific
            Salmon 4 Sockeye Salmon of  British Columbia. Int. N.
            Pac.  Fish. Comm.  1_8  59-70.

3117   Ricker, W. E.  1962.  Comparison  of Ocean  growth and  mortality
            of Sockeye Salmon during their  last two years.  J. Fish.
            Res.  Brd.  Can.   ljj.(4): 531-589.

3119   Ross,  D.  M.   1967.  Behavioral  and ecological relationships
            between sea anemones and other invertebrates.  Oceanogr.
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3120   Clark, H.  L.  1922.   The Holothurians of the genus Stichopus.
            Bull,  Mus. Compar. Zool.   Harvard,  65: 37-74.

3121   Edwards,  C. L.  1907.   The holothurians  of the north Pacific
            coast  of North America collected by the Albatross in 1903,
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3122   Coffin, Harold G.  1958.  The laboratory culture" of Pagurus
            samuelis (Stimpson).  Walla Walla College Pub.  #22.

3123   Coffin,  Harold G.  I960.  The ovulation, Embryology and
           Development stages of the Hermit crab Pagurus samuelis
           (Stimpson).  Walla Walla College Pub.  #25.

3125   Ziegler, A. C.   I960.  An annotated list of Pycnogonida
           collected near Bolinas California.  Veliger 3:  19-22.

3126   Benson, P. H.  and D.  D.  Chivers.   I960.  A pyconogonid
           infestation  of Mytilus  californianus.  Veliger_3:  16-18.

3127   Listen J., J. Peters and J.  A. Stepns.  no date.   Parasites
           in summer--caught by Pacific rockfishes.  Special
           Sci. Rept.  Fisheries  352:  1-10.

3128   Marcus, Ernst.  1961.  Opistholbranch mollusks from
           California.   Veliger 3_(1):  1-85.

3129   Collip,  J.  B.  1920.  The  alkali reserve of marine fish
           and invertebrates.  J. Biol. Chem.  _44(2): 329-244.

3131   Sindermann,  Carl. J.  1966.  Diseases of Marine fishes.  Adv.
           Mar. Biol.  _4:  1-91.

3132   Ward, Helen L.  1951.  The species of Acanthocephala described
           since 19331.  J. Tennessee Acad. Sci.  26:  282-311,
           27:  131-149.

3133   Rubtzoff, Peter.  1955.  Studies on the life history of the
           pink shrimp.  Pandalus jordani Calif. Dept. Fish and
           Game, unpublished manuscript 51 p.

3134   Uzmann, J. R.  and M. N.  Hesselholt.  1957. New host and
           locality record for Triaenophorus crassus Forel (Cestoda:
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3136   Pearce, J. B.  1966.  Biology of mussell crab Fabia
           subquadrata from waters of San Juan Archipelago, Washington
           Pac. Soc.  20; 3-35.

3137   Park, James  T. 1937.  A revision of the genus Podocotyle
           (Allocreadiinne)  with  a description of eight new species
           from tide pool fishes  from Dillon Beach,  California.  J.
           Parasitol,  23:  405-422.

3138   Paine, P.  T.   1966.  Food web complexity and species
           diversity.  Am.  Nat.   100: 65-75.

3139   Tucker,  John S. ,  W. Shepherd and J.  Petersen.  1961.
           Acclimation of the clam, Macoma secta to temperature and
           salinity.  The Western Society of Naturalists.  Annual
           Winter Meeting,  U. of O. , Dec. 27-29,  Abstracts
           of Contributed Papers, p.  1.

3141   Vernbey, W.  B. and F. J. Vernbey.   1967.  Interrelationships
           between parasites  and their hosts  III Effect of Oawne
           trematodes on the  thermal metabolic response of their
           molluscan host.  Exptl. Parasitol. 20:  225-231.

3142   Battle,  H.  I.   1926.  Effects of Extreme Temperature on
           muscle and nerve tissue in marine fishes.  Trans. Proc.
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3143   Russell, H. J. , Jr.  1964.  The  endemic zooplankton population
           as a food supply for young  herring in Yaquina Bay.  M. S.
           Thesis, Oregon State Univ., Corvallis.

3144   Sosaki,  S.   1966.  Distribution and food habits of king salmon,
           O_.  tshawytscha,  and steelhead rainbow trout, Salmo
           gairdnerii in the Sacramento, San Joaquin Delta,  Calif.
           Fish.  & Game.  Fish Bull.  136: 108-114.

3145   Crisp, D.  J.   1957.  See 2819.

3146   Scheer,  B.  T.  1940.   Metabolism of mussel carotenoids.
           J. Biol. Chem.  136: 275-299.

3147   Schultz,  Leonard P.  1936.  Keys to the fishes of Washington,
           Oregon and closely adjoing regions.  Univ. Wash. Publ.  Biol.
           2(4): 103-228.

3148   Segal, Eare.   1961.  Acclimation in Mollusks, Amer. Zool.
           1(2): 235-244.

3149   Doudoroff,  P.   1945.  See 2828.

3150   Segal, Earl.  1962.   Initial Response of the Heart Rate of
           a Gastropod,  Acmaea limatula, to abrupt changes in
           temperature. Nature,  195(4842): 674-675.

 3151    Servizi J. A., R. W. Gordon,  and D.  W. Martens.  1968.
            Toxicity  of two chlorinated catechals, possible
            components of Kraft pulp mill bleach waste.  Int.  Pac.
            Salmon Fish Comm. Progr.  Rep.  17: 1-42.

 3152    Galloway, J.  C. 1941.  Lethal effects of the cold winter of
            1939/40 on marine fishes at Key West, Florida.
            Copeia (1): 118-119.

 3153    Gowanloch, J. N.andF. R.  Hayes.  1927.  Contributions to the
            study of marine  gastropods.  I.  The physical  factors
            behavior  and intertidal life of littorina.  Contr. Can.  Biol.
            Fish. N.  S. 3_: 133-166.

 3154    Shelford, V. E.  and  E.  T.  Towler.  1925.  Animal communities
            of the San Juan Channel and adjacent areas.  Univ. Wash.
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 3155    Hoff, J.  G. and J.  R. Westman.  1966.  The temperature
            tolerances  of three  species of marine fishes.  J. Marine
            Res. 24(2): 131-140.

 3157    Kinne, O. 1963.  See 2379.

 3158    Kinne, O. 1964.  See 2378.

 3159    Kuthalingam,  M. D.  K.  1959.  Temperature tolerance of the
            larva of ten species of marine fishes.  Curr. Sci.
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 3160    Markowski, S.  1959.  The cooling water of power  stations.
            A new factor in the  environment of marine and fresh
            water invertebrates.  J. Anim.  Ecol.   (2): 243-258.
3161   Smith, G.  F.  M.  1951.  The physiology of thermal and salinity
           tolerance in lobsters.  Report to the Assoc. Comm.  on Res.
           in Aquatic Biol. Natl. Res.  Council,  Canada, 5 p.

3162   Morrow, J. E. , Jr.  and A. Mauro.   1950.  Body temperatures of
           some marine fishes.  Copeia (2): 108-116.

3163   Naylor, E.  1965.  See 2798.

3165   Orton, J. H.  1920.  See 2884.


3166   Steinberg, Joan E.  1963.  Notes on the opisthobranchs of
           of the West Coast of North America IV.  A distirbutional
           list of opisthobranchs from Pt.  Conception to Vancouver
           Island.   Veliger 6(2): 68-73.

3167   Stohler, Rudolf.   1962.  Preliminary report on growth
           studies in Olivella biplicata.  Veliger _4(3): 150-151.

3168   Rice, A.  L.   1964.  Observations on the effect of changes
           of hydrostatic pressure on the behavior  of some marine
           animals.  J.  Mar. Biol. Ass. U.  K.   44_:  163-175.

3169   Saemundsson,  B.  1934.  Probable influence of changes in
           temperature on the marine fauna of Iceland.  Rapp. et
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3170   Schlieper, C. , H. Flugel and J.  Rudolf.   I960. Temperature
           and salinity relationships in marine bottom invertebrates.
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3171   Schwartz, F. J.   1964.   Effects of winter water condition
           on fifteen species of captive marine fishes.  Amer. Midi. Nat.
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3172   Simpson,  S.   1908.  The body-temperature of fishes and
           other marine animals.  Proc. Roy. Soc.  Edinburgh
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3173   Steemann Nielsen, E. and V. K.  Hansen.   1959.  Light
           adaptation in  marine phytoplankton.  Populations and
           its interrelation with temperature. Physiol.  Plant.
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3174   Taylor, C. C. , H. B.  Bigelow and H.  W.  Graham.   1957.
           Climatic trends and the distribution of marine animals
           in New England.  Fish and Wildl.  Serv.  Fish.  Bull.
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3175   Templeman,  W.   1965.  Mass mortalities  of marine fishes
           in the Newfoundland area presumable due to low temperature.
           Int. Comm. N.  W. Atl. Fish.,  Spec.  Publ. No. 6; 137-148.

3176   Vernon, H.  M.  1899.  The death-temperature of certain
           marine organisms.  J.  Physiol.  26: 131-136.

3177   Warinner,  J.  E. and M. L.  Brehmer.  1964.  See 2947.

3178   Warinner,  J.  E. and M. L.  Brehmer. 1966.  See 2690.

3179   Storer,  Tracy I.  1959.  Some Pacific Coast Zoological
           History.  Bios. _30(3): 131-147.

3180   Bell,  F. H. and A. T. Pruter.   1958. Climatic temperature
           changes and commercial yields of some marine fisheries.
           J. Fish. Res.  Bd. Canada j_5(4):  625-683.

3181   Chase,  H.  Y.   1935.   The effect of temperature on the rate of
           fertilization reaction in various marine ova.  Biol.  Bull.
           6_9_(3):  415-426.

3182   Dow,  R. L.  1964.  A comparison among selected marine
           species of an association between sea water temperature
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           28(3):  425-431.

3183   Field, J.  and C. N. Peiss.  1949.  Tissue  respiration in
           the polar  cod (Boreogadus saida)  as  a function of
           temperature.  Fed. Proc. _8: 44.

3184   Gunter, G. 1950.  Correlation between temperature of water
           and size of marine fishes on the Atlantic and  Gulf coasts
           of the  United States.  Copeia (4):  298-304.

3185   Lewis,  J.  B.   1963.  Environment and tissue temperatures
           of some tropical intertidal marine animals.   Biol. Bull.
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3186   Qasim,  S.  Z.  1959.  Laboratory  experiments on some factors
           affecting  the survival of marine teleost larvae.  J.  Mar.
           Biol.  Assoc.,  India 1_(1): 13-25.

3187   Radovich,  J.  1961.  Relationships of some marine organisms
           of the northeast Pacific to water  temperatures particularly
           during 1957 through 1959.  Calif. Dept. Fish & Game,
           Fish.  Bull.  112,  62 p.

3188   Radovich,  J.  1962.  Effects of water temperature on the
           distribution of some scombrid fishes along the Pacific coast
           of North America.  World Scientific Meeting  on the Biology
           of Tunas  and Related  Species. F. A. O.  Sec.  4, Experience
           Paper 27,  19 p.


3189   Timet,  D.  1963.  Studies on the heat resistance in marine
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3190   Biebl,  R.  1962.  (Cold  and  heat resistance of tropical marine
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3191   Crisp, D.  J. and A.  J.  Southward.  1959. Recent changes
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3192   Deevey, G. B.  I960.  Relative effects  of temperature and
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3193   Reish, D.  J. and J.  J_.  Barnard.  1959.  Marine Pollution.
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3195   Wolsky,  A. and M. Wolsky.  1959.  The Adaptation of Early
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3196   Taylor,  C. C.  1958.   Cod growth and temperature.   J.
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3197   Strickland, J.  D.  H.   I960.  Measuring the production of
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3198   Bechman,  C.  and R. Menzies.   I960.  The relationship of
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 3200   Coe, W.  R.  1948.  See 2313.

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 3202   Margolis, L. , F.  C.  Cleaver, Y. Fukuda, and H.  Godfrey.
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3213   Gonor; Sue Lewayne.  1970.   The larval histories of four
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3214   Cross, F. A.,  J. M. Dean and R.  E. Nakatani.  1966.
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3215   Ushakov, B. P.  1968.  Cellular resistance adaptation to
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3216   Lyutoba, M. I. , I. G. Zavadskaya,  A.  F.  Lukinitskaya and
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3217   Taylor,  C.  C.  I960.  Temperature growth and mortality--
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3219   Zirmunsky, A.  V.  1967.  A comparative study of cellular
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3223   Berger,  J.  I960.  Holotrich ciliates entocommensal in
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3224   Berger,  J.  and R. J. Profant.   1961.  The entocommensal
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3226   Katkansky,  S. C.  and R.  W. Warner.  1968.  On the unusual
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3265   Stewart, N. E. ,  R. E. Millamann,  and W. P.  Breese.  1967.
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3266   Clark, H. L.   1915.  A  remarkable new brittle star; Jour.
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3267   Wix,  J. R.  1967.  Some economic  considerations in
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3269   Nielsen, Eigel.  1932.   Ophiurans from the Gulf of Panama,
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3271   Grant, U. S. IV,  and L. G. Hertlein.   1938.   The west
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3273   Poole, R. L.   1966.  A  description of laboratory-reared
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3274   Reed,  P.  H.   1969. Culture methods and effects of temperature
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3275   Rees,  G.  H.  1963.  Edible crabs of the United States;  U. S.
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3276   Clark, H. L.   1907.  The  apodous holothurians, Smithsonian
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3277   Snow,  C.  D. and J.  R. Neilson.  1966.   Premating and
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3278   Snow,  D.  C. and E. J. Wagner.  1965.   Tagging of Dungeness
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3279   Trask,  T.  1969.  A description of laboratory-reared larvae
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3280   Heding, S. G.  1928.  Synaptidae,  No. 46 in:  Papers from
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3281   Wells, W. W.  1924.  New species of holothurians from
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3282   Waldron,  K. D.  1958.  The fishery and biology of the Dungeness
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3283   Hall,  A. R.  1927.  Histology  of the retractor muscle of
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3284   Coutrney,  W. D.  1927.  Fertilization in Stichopus californicus,
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3285   Austin, W.  C. MS.  1966.  Feeding mechanisms,  digestive
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3286   Boolootian, R. A.   (ed. )  1966.  Physiology of the Echinodermata.
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3287   Walburg,  C. H.  1963.  Edible crabs.  N. S.  Fish and Wildl.
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3288   Sylvester, R. O.  and F.  L. Clogston.  MS.   1958.
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3289   Ellis,  D. V.  1967.  Quantitative benthic investigations.
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3290   Ellis,  D. V.  1968.  Quantitative benthic investigations. III.
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3291   Ellis,  D. V.  1968.  Quantitative benthic investigations. V.
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3292   Gentleman,  S.  MS.  1964.  Feeding mechanisms of Ophiura
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3293   Johnson, W. W.  MS, 1964.  A study of the feeding methods of
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3294   Lie, Ulf.  1968.  See 2648.

3295   Conor,  J. J. 1968.  Temperature relations of central
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3296   Alabaster,  J. S.  1967.  The survival of salmon (Salmo
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3297   Triplett, Edward  L.   I960. Notes on the life history of the
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3298   Tucker,  John S.  and Arthur C. Giese.  1962.   The reproductive
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3299   Ansell, A. D.  1968.  The rate of growth of the hard clam
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3300   Tully, J. P., A. J. Dodimead, and S. Tabata.  I960.
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3301   Van Hyning,  Jack M.  1968.  Factors affecting the abundance
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3302   Vernberg,  F. J.  and W-  B. Vernberg.  1968.  Thermoregulation
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3303   Vernberg,  F. J.  and W.  B. Vernberg.  In Press.  Thermoregu-
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3304   Boetius,  I.,  and  J. Boetius.  1968.   Studies in the European
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3305   Cairns, J. , Jr.  1968. Welre in hot water.  Sci. and Cit. ,
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3306   Vernon,  H.  M.  1897.   The relation  of the respiratory exchange
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3307   Vernon,  H.  M.  1899.   Heat rigor in cold Blooded animals
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3308   Verril, A. E.   1871.  On the food and habits of some of our
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3309   Weymouth,  Frank W.   1910. Synopsis of the true crabs
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3310   Wilbur, K.  M.  and G.  Owen.  1964.  Growth.  In:  K. M.
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3311   Winkler, L.  R. andB. E. Tilton.  1962.   Predation on the
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            green  sea anemone Anthopleura xanthogrammica,  and
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3312   Hardin, D.  D.   1968.   See 3772.

3314   Wilkens, J. L.  and M. Fingerman.  1965.  Heat tolerance
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3315   J^rgensen,  E.  G.  1968.   The adaptation  of plankton algae II.
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3316   Yentch, Charles S.  and D.  C. Pierce.  1955.  A swimming
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3317   Zeitoun, M.  A. (_et_al.) 1969.  Disposal of the Effluents
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3318   Goode,  Wesley  L. 1970.  An investigation of the acoustic
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3319   Annonymous.   1949.   Crab larvae as food for Silver Salmon
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3320   Newell, R. C. ,  and V.  I. Pye.   1968.  Seasonal variations
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3321   Butler, J.  H.  1961. Growth and age determination of the
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3322   Sandison,  E. E.  1968.  See 2479.

3323   Sastry, A.  N.  1968.  The relationships among food, temperature,
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3324   Shields, R.  J.   and W.  M. Tidd.  1968.  Effect of temperature
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3325   Simpson, T.  L.  1968.  See  2480.

3326   Smirnora,  G. P.  1968. The effect of food quality on the
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3327   Steeman, Nielsen,  E.   and E.  G. Jflirgensen.  1968.  The
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3328   Strawn, K.  and J.  E. Dunn.  1967.  Resistance of Texas
           salt- and freshwater  - marsh fishes  to heat death at
           various salinities.  Texas J. Sci. , 19, 57.

3329   Butler, T.  H.  I960.  See 2978.

3330   Watertor, J. L.  1968.  Effects  of temperature stress on
           growth and  development of larval and adult Telorchis
           bonnerensis (Trematoda: Telorchidae).  J. Parasitol.
           54, 506.

3331   Butler, T. H.   1957.  The tagging og the commercial crab
           in the Queen Charlotte Islands region.  Fish. Res. Bd.
           Can.  Pac.  Prog.  Kept.  109:  16-19.

3332   Butler, T. H.   1956.  The distribution and abundance of early
           post-larval stages of the British Col. Comm. crab.
           Fish.  Res. Brd.  Can.  Pac.  Prog. Rept.  107: 22-23.

3333   Cleaver, T.  C.  1949.  Preliminary results  of the coastal
           crab (Cancer magister) investigation.  State of Wash.
           Dept.  of Fish. Biol. Rept. 4_9_A: 47-82.

3334   Nishimato, J.   1969.  Two sea urchins found inside the air
           bladder of the Bull Kelp (Nereogstis leutkeana)
           Pacific Sci. 23: 397-398.

3335   Chin, F. S.  1966.  Brooding behavior of a six-razed
           starfish,  Leptasterias hexactia.   Biol. Bull.
           130: 304-315.
3336   Chin, F. S.  1966.  Systematics of the six-razed star,
           Leptasterias,  in the vicinity  of SanJuan Island,  Washington.
           Syst.  Zool.  15; 300-306.

3337   Chin, F. S.  1966.  Development of  a deep-sea cushion
           star,  Pteraster tesselatus.  Proc.  Calif.  Am. Sci.
           34_: 505-510.

3338   Krenkel, P.  A. and F. L. Parker.  1969.  Biological aspects
           of Thermal pollution.  Vanderbilt Univ.  Press.  407 p.

3339   Parker,  F. L.  and P. A. Krenkel. 1969.  Engineering Aspects
           of Thermal Pollution.  Vanderbilt Union Press.  351 p.

3340   North, W.  J.  and J.  S.  Pearce.  1970.   Sea  urchin population
           explosion in Southern California Coastal Waters.  Science,
           167: 209.

3341   Isakson, John S.  1969.   Total  phosphorus and phosphorus - 32
           in seawater, invertebrates, and algae from North Head,
           Washington, 1965-66.  M.  S.  Thesis,  University of
           Washington, 63 p.

3342   Dahlstrom, W.  A. and H. G.  Orcutt.  1956.   The market
           crab--Science seeks data to  maintain thriving resources.
           Outdoor California _T7(11): 4-5.

 3343    Varma, C. P.  1950.  Study of the effect of sudden temperature
            changes and fasting upon the survival of trout and salmon
            fingerling.  M. S. Thesis,  University of Washington
            61 p.

 3344    Davenport, D.  1942.  Further studies in the pharmocology
            of the heart of Cancer magister Dana.   Biol. Bull.
            82(2): 255-260.

 3345    Blanco, G. J.   1933.   Contributions to the  early development
            of the vivarous perch Taeniotoca lateralis agassiz.
            M.  S. Thesis, University  of Washington 33 p.

 3346    Lee, Y. J.  1969.  Larval development of pink shrimp,
            Pandalas jordani Rathbun,  reared  in laboratory.   M. S.
            Thesis,  University of Washington, 62 p.

 3347    Leong, C. C.  1967.  Fedundity of surf smelt, Hypomesus
            pretiosus  (Girard), in the  state of  Washington.  M. S.
            Thesis,  University of Washington  99 p.

 3348    Orsi,  James J.  1965.  The Embryology of Parophrys
            retulus, the English sole.  M. S.  Thesis,  University of
            Washington,  73 p.

 3349    Morris, R. W.  I960.  See   2687.

 3350    MacGinitie, G. E.   1935.   Ecological aspects of a California
            marine estuary.  Am.  Midland Naturalist 1_6_(5):  629-765.

 3351    Rulon,  Olin.  1949.  The modification of Developmental patterns
            in the sand dollar with Maleic Acid, Physiol. Zool.  21: 247-261,

 3352    Anonymous.  1969.  Debate on  thermal issue continues.
            Environ. Sci. Technol. , 3_: 425-427.

3354    Bernstein, L.  1967.  Plants and the super saline habitat.
            Univ.  of Texas Marine Science Inst. Contrib.  Mar. Sci. ,
            j_2: 242-248.

3355    Braarud, T.   1951.   Salinity as an ecological factor in marine
            phytoplankton.   Physiol. Plant. , 4: 28-34.

3356   Dewberry,  E.  B.  1959.  The Pacific Crab canning industry
            of British Columbia--!.  Food Manufacture 34: 425-429;

3357   Clark, J. R.   1969.  Thermal pollution and aquatic life.
            Sci. Amer.  220: 19-27.

3358   Gray,  G. W. Jr.   1964.  Halibut preying on large Crustacea.
            Copeia 1964(3): p.  540.

3359   Friedman,  S.  1969.  Thermal addition:  One step from thermal
            pollution.  BioScience,  19: 60-61.

3360   Heath, W. C.  1967.  Comparative osmotic regulation and
            temperature resistance in several Gulf of California
            and  Puget Sound shallow water fishes.  (Paper presented
            at Int'l Symp.  on Coastal Lagoons, Mexico City,
            Nov., 1967.)

3361   Hipkins, F. W.  1957.  The Dungeness Crab industry, Fish
            & Wildlife Serv. , Fish.  Leaf.  439: 1-12.

3362   Jones L.  L.  1941.  See 2178.

3363   MacKay,  D. G. C.  1942.  The Pacific edible crab,  Cancer
            magister.  Bull.  Fish. Res.  Bd.  Can. 62:  1-32.

3364   Thomson,  D. A.  1969.  Biological effects.  In:   Environmental
            Impact of  Brine  Effluents on Gulf of California.   Office
            of Saline Water R.  & D.  Progress Report 316.

3365   United States Department of Interior  (USDI)  1968.  A Study
            of the Disposal of the Effluent from a Large Desalination Plant.
            Office of Saline Water R & D Progress Report 316

3366   USDI.  1969.   Disposal  of the Effluents from Desalination
            Plants in Estuarine Waters.   Office of Saline Water R & D
            Progress  Report 415.

3367   USDI.  1969.   Disposal  of the Effluents from Desalination
            Plants:  The Effects of Copper Content,  Heat and Salinity.
            Office of Saline Water R & D  Progress  Report 437.

3368   Woods, W. K.  1968.  Warm Water Irrigation Proposal.
           Douglas  United Nuclear, Inc. ,  Richland, Washington
           (Microcard # DUNSA-59).

3369   Shen-Miller, J.  1970.  Some thoughts on the Nuclear
           Agro-Industrial complex.  BioScience 20: 98-100.

3370   Nash,  Colin.  1969.   Thermal Aquaculture.  Sea Frontiers
           J_5(5): 268-276.

3371   Swan,  E.  S.  1961.  Seasonal evisceration in the sea cucumber
           Parastickopus californicus (Stimpson) Science  133: 1078-1079,

3372   Kenyon, K.  W.  and V.  B.  Scheffer.  1962.  Wildlife surveys
           along the Northwest Coast of Washington.  Murrelet,
           42_: 29-37.

3373   Kirk, Ruth.  1962.  The Olympic Seashore.  Olympic National
           History Museum,  2800 Hurricane Ridge Road, Porte
           Angeles, Washington  98362.  80 p.

3374   Porter, Russell G.  1964.  Food and feeding of  staghorn sculpin
           ( Leptrcottus armatus  Girard) and starry flounders
           (Platichthys stillatus Pallas) in  euryhaline environments.
           M. S.  Thesis Humboldt State College.

3375   Allen,  George H.  and  Peter A.  Morgenroth.   1966.   The
           early development of Petrole Sole .  Final Progress report
           of Contract agreement S-1584 between Humboldt State
           College Foundation and Calif. Dept. Fish,  and  Game.

3376   Leet, William S.  1969.  Accumulation  of Zinc-65 by oysters
           maintained in a discharge canal of a nuclear power plant
           M. S.  Thesis, Humboldt State  College.

3377   Allen,  G.  H. , A.  C.  DeLacy,  and D. W.  Gatshall.   I960.
           Quantative sampling of marine fishes--a problem in
           fish behavior and  fishing gear.   Proc. 1st Intl.  Conf.
           Waste Disposal in mar. Environment Pergaman Press,
           New York pp. 448-511.

3378   Magoon, Charles D.   1965.  An  investigation of near-shore
           phytoplankton of the Pacific Ocean off Northern California
           M. S.  Thesis, Humboldt State  College, 157 p.


3379   Porter,  Preston.  1964.  Notes on fecundity,  spawning, and
            early life history of Petrole Sole (Eopsetta jordani),
            with descriptions of flatfish larvae  collecters in the
            Pacific Ocean off Humboldt Bay,  California.  M.  S.
            Thesis,  Humboldt State College,  98 p.

3380   Sasaki, Ronald K.  1967.  The anteology of the genus Saxidonnus
            in southern Humboldt Bay,  California.  M. S.  Thesis,
            Humboldt State Coll.  42 p.

3381   McKee,  J. E. and H. W. Wolf, (eds.)  1963.  Water Quality
            Criteria,  2nd ed.   The Resources Agency of California,
            State Water Quality Control Board.   Publication No. 3-A.
            548 p.

3382   Pappas, Peter W.  1968.  The metazoan parasites of
            sharks from Humboldt Bay and vicinity.   M. S. Thesis
            Humboldt State Coll.  66 p.

3383   Sims,  Carl W.  I960.   A study of the fishery  and the population
            of the Pacific razor clam Siliqua patula of Clam Beach
            California.  M.  S.  Thesis, Humboldt State College,  130 p.

3384   Anderson, Robert D.  1969.  Age and Growth of three
            surfperches (family Embiotocidae)  from Arcata Bay,
            California.  M.  S.  Thesis, Humboldt State College.   69 p.

3385   Smith,  Allan  K.  1967.   Population dynamics  and ecology  of
            the  embiotocids of  Humboldt Bay, California.  M.  S.
            thesis, Humboldt State College, 84 p.

3386   Chain,  Richard K.  1962.  A study of the oxidative metabolism
            in the sponge Haliclona permollis (Bowerbank,  1866).
            M. S. Thesis,  Humboldt State College, 113 p.

3387   Grosy,  Terry.  1966.   Food .habits  and  parasites of the
            Pacific White Wing Scoter (Melanitta fusea dixoni) in
            Humboldt Bay Area.  M. S. Thesis, Humboldt State
            College,  44 p.

3388   Stout,  W.  E.   1967.  A study of the antecology of the horse
            neck clams Tresus cap ox and Tresus nuttalli in South
            Humboldt Bay, Calif.  M. S. Thesis,  Humboldt State
            College  51 p.


3389   Stroganov, N. S.  1956.  Physiological adaptability of Fish
            to the Temperature of the surrounding Medium AK
            SSSR.  Translation NSF,  Dept of Intern by Isrene
            Program, for Scientific Translations (1962).

3391   Chitwood,  B.  G.  I960. A preliminary contribution on the
            manine nemas (Adenophurea) of Northern California.
            Trans. Amer. Micr. Soc. 79: 347-384.

3392   Wieser,     1959.  Free-living nematodes and other small
            invertebrates of Puget Sound beaches.   Univ. Wash.
            Publ.  Biol. 19: 1-179.

3393   Murphy,  D. G.  1964.  Rhynconema subsetosa, anew species
            of marine nematode, with a  note on the genus Phylolaimus
            Murphy, 1963.  Proc. helminth. Soc. Wash. _31_: 26-28.

3394   Murphy,  D. G.  1964.  Free-living marine nematodes I.
            Southerniella youngi, Dagda phinneyi, and Gammanem
            smithi, n. sp.  Proc. helminth, Soc. Wash. 31:  190-198.

3395   Murphy,  D. G.  1963.  A new genus and two new species
            of Nematodes from Newport, Oregon.  Proc. helminth.
            Soc. Wash.  3(1): 73-78.

3396   Murphy,  D. G.  1963.  Three new  species of marine  Nematodes
            from the Pac. near Depot  Bay, Oregon.  Proc. helminth
            Soc. Wash.  32(2): 249-256.

3397   MacKay, D. C.  G.  1943.  Temperature of the world  distri-
            bution of crabs of the genus  Cancer. Ecology 24: 113-115.

3398   Mir, R.  D. 1961.  The external morphology of the  first zoeal
            stages of the crabs, Cancer  magister Dana, Cancer ant en-
            narius Stimpson,  and Cancer anthonyi Rathbun Calif.
            Fish & Game, 47:  103-111.

3399   Murphy,  D. G.  1965.  Free-living marine Nematodes. II.
            Thoracostoma pacific a n.  sp.  from the Coast of Oregon.
            Proc.  helminth.  Soc. Wash.  32:  106-109.

3400   Pratt,  I. and R. Herrmann.  1962.  Nitschin qundritestis
            sp. n. (Monogeneni Capsalidae) from the Columbia River
            Sturgeon.   J.  Parasitol, 48: 291-295.


3401   King, R.  E.  1963.  Anew species of Parahimiurus and
            notes  on Tubulovesicula lindbergi (Trematoda: Hem-
            iuridae) from fishes of  Bohia de San Quentin, Baja
            California.  Pacific Naturalist, 3j  330-336.

3402   Margolis,  L.  and N. P. Boyce.  1969.  Life span, Maturation
            and growth of two Hemiurid trematodes, Tubulovesicula
            lindbergi and Lecithoster gibbosus in Pacific salmon
            (Genus Oncorhynchus).  J. Fish. Res.  Brd. Canada.
            2_6_(4): 893-907.

3403   Hall, J. R. and I. Pratt.  1969.  Some digenetic trematodes
            of Oregon tidepool cottid fish:  J.  Parasitol.  55: 207.

3404   Laurs,  R. M.  and  J. E.  McCauley.   1964. A new Acantho-
            cephalan from the Pacific Saury.  J.  of Parasitol.
            50_(4): 569-571.

3405   Phillips,  J. B.  1939.   The market crab of California and
            its close relatives.   Calif. Fish  &  Game,  25: 18-29.

3406   Tegelberg, H.,  D.  Magoon, and M. Leboki. 1969.  The
            1968  Razor clam fisheries and sampling programs.
            Report. Res. Div. Wash. Dept Fish. 92 p.

3407   Tegelberg, H. C. and C.  D. Magoon.   1969.  Growth, Survival
            and some  effects  of a dense razor clam set in Washington.
            Proc. Nat. Shellfish Assoc.   59: 126-135.

3408   Ronholt, L. L. and C. R. Hitz.  1968.  Scallop Explorations
            off Oregon.   Comm. Fish. Rev.  30: 42-49.

3409   Liston, J. and C. R.  Hitz.  1961.  Second survey of the
            occurrence of parasites and blemishes in Pacific Ocean
            Perch, Sebastodes  alutus,  May-June 1959. USDI F and
            WL S.  Special Scientific Report.   Fish. No.  383, 6 p.

3410   Reish, D.  J.   1955.  The  relation of Polychactous Annelids
            to Harbor Pollution. Public Health reports _70_( 12): 1168-1174.

3412   Bu. Com. Fish.  1969.  Cruise Report  69-11. John N.  Cobb.

3413   Bu.  Com.  Fish.   1969.  Cruise Report 69-4 John N. Cobb.


3414   Templeton,  W. L. _et al.  1969.  Biological effects of Thermal
           discharge: Annual Progress Report for 1968.  Battelle
           Northwest, Richland, Wash.  BNWL-105, 49 p.

3415   Barnard,  J. L. and R.  R. Ginen.  I960.  Morphology and ecology
           of some sublittorine Cumscean Crustacea  of Southern
           California.  Pacif.  Nat. 22(4): 153-165.

3416   Caiman,  W. T.  1912.  The  Crustacea of the Cumacen
           in the collection of the United States National Museum.
           Proc. U.  S. Nat.  Mus.  41: 603-676.

3417   Coe, W.  R.  and D. L.  Fox.   1942.  Biology of the California
           sea mussel (Mytilis californianus) I. Influence of temperature,
           Food Supply,  sex and age on the rate of growth.  J.
           Exptl. Zool.  90:  1-30.

3418   Kennedy,  V. S. and J.  A. Mihursky.  1967.  See 2926.

3419   Pech,  Morton E.   1941.  A  Manual of the Higher plants of
           Oregon Binfords  and Mort, Portland, Oregon  866 p.

3420   Marshall, S. M. and A. P.  Orr.  1955.  The biology of a
           Copepod:  Calanus finmarchicus (Gunnerus). Oliver and
           Boyd, Edinburgh and London,  188 p.

3421   Danforth, Charles G.   1963.  Bopyridian (Crustacea, Isopoda)
           parasites found in  Eastern  Pacific of the United States,
           Ph.  D.  Thesis, Oregon State University  110 p.

3422   Belcik, Francis P.  1965.  The morphology of Ismaila
           monstrosa Bergh (Copepoda),  M. S. Thesis,  Oregon State
           University, 36 p.

3423   Baker, Carol  D.   1968. A  study of the effects of exposure
           to air on the respiration of two intertidal snails.
           M. S. Thesis, Oregon State University,  33 p.

3424   Lorss, Carl Albert,,  1966.  The oplophorid and pasiphaeid
           shrimp from off the Oregon Coast.  Ph.  D. Thesis,  Oregon
           State University,  54 p.

3425   Spencer,  Larry Thomas.  1965.  A morphological study of
           gonatid squids found off the Oregon Coast. M. A.  Thesis
           Oregon State University, 34 p.


3426   Tipper, R.  C.  1968.  Ecological aspects of two wood-boring
           Molluscs from the Continental terrace off Oregon.
           Ph.  D. Thesis, Oregon State University,  137 p.

3427   Kincaid,  Trevor.  1957.  Local races and clines in the marine
           gastropod Thais lamellosa Gmelin, a population study.
           Seattle,  The Calliostoma Company.   75 p.

3428   Farris, David A.  1963.  Reproductive periodicity in the
           sardine  (S_. caerulea) and the Jack Mackerel (Trachurus
           symmetricus) on the Pacific Coast of North America.
           Copeia:  1963: 182-184.

3500   Karling,  T.  G. 1963.  Marine Turbellarina from the Pacific
           coast of North America II.  Pseudostomidae and Clindro-
           stomidae.  Arkiv for Zoologi, Band 15 nr 10 p.  181-209.

3501   Karling,  T.  G. 1965.  Marine Turbellaria from the Pacific
           coast of North America. III.  Otoplanidae.  Arkiv for
           Zoologi,  Band 16  nr 26, pp. 527-556.

3502   Karling,  T.  G. 1967.  Marine Turbellaria from the Pacific
           coast of North America. IV. Coelogynoporidae and
           Monocelididae.  Arkiv for  Zoologi Band 18 nr  22, pp. 493-528.

3503   Hyman, L.  H.  1959.  Some Turbellaria from the coast of
           California. American Museum Novitates,  1943: 17 p.

3504   Hyman, L.  H.  1955.  The polyclad flatworms of the Pacific
           coast of North America: Additions and Corrections.
           American Museum Novitates,  No. 1704,  11 p.

3505   Roth, Eric M.  1967.  A report on five species of valviferous
           isopods  in the vicinity  of Newport, Oregon.  16  p.  Un-
           publ. Student report, Oregon State Univ. Mar.  Sci. Center.

3506   Thomas, Robert I.  1966.  The distribution and zonation of
           Prosobranch molluscs  of the genus Littorina on the
           central Oregon  coast.  MSC, Newport.   44 p.

3507   Frank, Peter W.  1961.  Growth and death rates in a natural
           population of Acmaea.   The Western Society of Naturalists.
           Annual Winter Meetin,  Univ. of Oregon,  Dec.  27-29,
           Abstracts of Contributed Papers, p.  10.


3508   Univ.  of Washington,  Dept.  of Oceanography, 1954. (R. H.
            Fleming, Executive Officer).  Puget Sound and Approaches,
            a Literature Survey, Vol. III.  (Physical Oceanography,
            Marine Biology, General Summary), 175 p.

3509   Andrews, Florence Ballaine. 1925.  Resistance of Marine
            Animals of Different Ages.  Publications Puget Sound
            Biological Station,  3J72): 361-368.

3510   Andrews, Henry.   1925.  Animals living on kelp.   Publications
            Puget Sound Biological Station, 5_: 25-27.

3511   Hobson,  L.  A.  1964.  Some influences of the Columbia River
            effluent on marine phytoplankton during January
            1961.  Dept. of Oceanography, Univ. of Washington,
            Tech. Rept. no. 100.  46 p.

3512   Carter, Neal M.  1943. The stinging action of jellyfishes.
            Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Progress Reports
            of the Pacific Coast Stations, no. 55, p. 7-9.

3513   Chapman, W. M.  and A.  H. Banner.  1949.  Contributions
            to the life history of the Japanese oyster drill,  Tritonella
            japonica, with notes on other enemies of the Olympia
            oyster, Ostrea lurida.   State of Washington Dept. of Fish. ,
            Biol. Rept. no. 49A: 167-200.

3514   Chapman, W. M. ,  M.  Katz, and D. W. Erickson.   1941.
            The races  of herring in the State  of Washington.  State
            of Washington Dept. of Fish. , Biol.  Rept. 38A: 36.

3515   Clemens, W. A.  1930. Pacific salmon  migration: the tagging
            of the Coho salmon on the east coast of Vancouver Island
            in 1927 and 1928.  Canada Biological Board, Bull. j_5_: 1-19.

3516   Curtiss, R. M.  1941.  An  ecological and taxonomic survey
            of the Acmaeidae of the Northwest Pacific area.  Thesis,
            University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 120 p.

3517   Daugherty, A. M. and L. C.  Altaian.  1925.  Influence  of
            hydrogen ion concentration,  salinity and oxygen upon the
            rheotaxis of some marine fishes.  Publications Puget
            Sound Biol. Sta. , 3^(73): 365-368.

3518   Smith,  H.  S.  1956.  Fisheries statistics of Oregon 1950-
            1953.  Fish.  Comm. of Oregon, Contr. no. 22, 33 p.

3519   Edmondson,  C.  H.  1922.  Shellfish resources of the Northwest
            coast  of the United States.  U.  S. Bureau of Fisheries,
            21  p.

3520   Fasten, Nathan.  1915.  The male reproductive organs of some
            common crabs of Puget Sound.  Puget Sound marine station
            Publ.  J_(7):  35-41.

3521   Fasten, Nathan.  1917.  Male reproductive organs  of decapoda,
            with special reference to Puget Sound forms.   Puget
            Sound Mar. Sta. Publ., J_(26):  285-307.

3522   Schultz, Leonard P.   1933.  The Age and Growth of Atherinops
            Affinis Oregonia Jordan & Snyder and of other  subspecies
            of Bay Smelt along the Pacific  Coast of the United States.
            Univ.  of Wash. Pub. in Biol.  2(3): 45-102.

3523   Schaefers, E. A., and H. C. Johnson.   1957.  Shrimp
            explorations off the Washington Coast, fall 1955 and
            spring 1956.  Comm. Fish. Rev. 19J1): 9-25.

3524   Gail, Floyd W.   1922.  Photosynthesis in some of the  red
            and brown algae as  related to depth  and light.   Publ.
            Puget Sound Biol. Sta.  _3(66): 177-193.

3525   Gersbacher, W. M. and M. Denison.  1930.   Experiments
            with animals in tide pools.   Publ.  Puget Sound Biol.  Sta.
            _7: 209-215.

3526   Gilbert, Charles H.  1912-1925.  Contributions to the Life
            History of the Sockeye Salmon.  Reports of the British
            Columbia Commissioner of Fisheries.

3527   Gran, H.  H. and E. C. Angst.  1931.  Plankton diatoms
            of Puget Sound. Publ.  Puget Sound Biol. Sta.  7j 417-516.

3528   Gran, H.  H. and T. G.  Thompson.  1930. The diatoms and
            physical and chemical  conditions of  the sea water of the
            San Juan Archipelago.   Publications Puget Sound Biological
            Station,  7:  169-204.

3529   Guberlet, John E.  1928.  Observations on the spawning
           habits of Melibe leonia (Gould).  Publications Puget Sound
           Biol. Sta.  6_: 263-270.

3530   Guberlet, John E.  1934.  Observations on the spawning
           and development of some Pacific annelids.  Proceedings of
           the Fifth Pacific Science Congress, 4213-4220.

3531   Guberlet, J. E. and Melville H. Hatch,  n. d.  The distribution
           of the bottom animals in Puget Sound and adjacent waters.
           (1931-1941)  Manuscript on file in the Department of
           Zoology, University of Washington (unpublished).

3532   Hacker, R.  L.   1934.  The method of boring, spawning
           season,  larval stages, and food  of Pholas (Zirfaea)
           pilsbryi Lowe.  Thesis, University of Washington,
           Seattle,  Washington, 23 p.

3533   Halstead, B. W.  and N. C.  Bunker.   1952.   The venom
           apparatus of the ratfish, Hydrolagus  colliei.  Copeia
           1952, (3): 128-138.

3534   Tibby, R. B. and J.  L. Barnard.  1964.  Some physical
           and biological characteristics of open coastal waters and
           their relationship to waste discharge. Int.  Conf. Water
           Pollut.  Res. Proc. 1st. Conf. 3_: 219-246.

3535   Hower, J. H.  1938.  The seasonal settlement of Bankia,
           Limnoria,  Barnacles,  Bryozoa, and  other Sessile
           organisms at Shelton, Washington. Thesis, University
           of Washington, Seattle Washington, 53 p.

3536   Soat-Ryen,  T.  1955.   A report on the family Mytilidae.
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3537   Jones, Vicki.  1967.  The Ecology of Qnchidella borealis
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3538   Hurd,  Annie May.  1916.  Codium mucronatum.  Puget Sound
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3539   Hurd,  Annie May.  1916. Factors influencing the growth and
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3540   Kurd,  A. M.  1917.  Winter condition of some Puget Sound
            algae.  Puget Sound Marine Station Publications,  1(29):
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3541   Hurd,  A. M.  1919.  The  relation between the osmotic pressure
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3542   Johnson,  H.  P.   1901.   The polychaeta of the Puget Sound
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3543   Igelsrud, I., T. G. Thompson,  and B.  M. G.  Zwicker.
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3544   Johnson,  M. W.  1934.  The life history of the copepod
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3545   Smith, A. G.  1955. Chitous  of West Coast of N. America.
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3546   Johnson,  M. W.  1943.  Studies on the  life history of  the
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3547   Johnson,  M. W. and R. C. Miller.  1935.   The seasonal
            settlement  of shipworms,  barnacles, and other wharf-
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3548   Kenyon,  K. W.  and V.  B. Scheffer.  1953.   The seals,  sea
            lions, and sea otter of the Pacific coast.  U. S. Fish and
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3549   Martin,  George W.   1938.  The  seasonal settlement of Bankia,
            Limnoria,  Barnacles and other wharf pile organisms in
            the vicinity of Bremerton, Washington.  Thesis,
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3550   McCutcheon,  Rob. S. , L. Arrigoni, and L.  Fischer.  1949.
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3551   McKernan, D. L. , V.  Tarter, and R. Tollefson.  1949.
            An investigation of the decline of the native oyster
            industry of the state of Washington,  with special reference
            to the1 effects of  sulfite pulp mill waste of the Olympia
            oyster Qstrea lurida.  State of Washington Dept.  of
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3552   Miles, Ward R.  1918.  Experiments on the behavior  of some
            Puget Sound shore fishes  (Blenniidae).   Publications Puget
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3553   McLean,  A. J.  1921.  Effects of thyroid and iodind feeding
            upon the metamorphosis  of two species of crab. Publications
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3554   Miller, R.  C. and E. R. Norris.  1939.  Some  enzymes of
            the northwest  shipworm Bankia setacea.  Proceedings
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3555   Monda, George  J.  1926.  The isopoda of Puget Sound and
            adjacent waters.  Thesis, Univ.  of Washington, Seattle,
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3556   Moore, Clarita  L.  1927.  Simple  ascidians of the Friday
            Harbor, Washington,  region.  Thesis,  Univ.  of Washington,
            Seattle, Washington,  71 p.

3557   Nightingale, H.  W.  1936.  Red water organisms--their
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            special reference to shellfish  in the waters of the Pacific
            coast.  The Argus  Press, Seattle, Washington, 24  p.

3558   Miller, A.  P.  1937.  Waste  disposal as related to shellfish.
            Sewage Works Jour. _9: 482.

3559   Pease, Vinnie A.   1917.  North Pacific coast species  of
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3560    Phifer,  Lyman D.  1929.  Littoral diatoms of Argyle Lagoon.
            Publications Puget Sound Biol.  Sta. ,  7_:  137-149.

3561    Phifer,  Lyman D.  1933.  Seasonal distribution and occurrence of
            planktonic  diatoms at Friday Harbor,  Washington.  Univ.
            of Washington Publ.  in Oceanogr. ,  1(2): 39-81.

3562    Phifer,  Lyman D.  1934.  Periodicity of diatom growth in the
            San Juan Archipelago.  Proceedings of the Fifth Pacific
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3563    Phifer,  Lyman D.  1934.  Vertical distribution of diatoms
            in the Strait of Juan de Fuca.  Univ. of Washington
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3564    Powers,  Edwin B.  1921.  Experiments and  observations
            on the behavior of marine fishes toward the hydrogen-
            ion concentration of the sea water  in relation to their
            migratory  movements and habitat.  Publ. Puget Sound
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3565    Schaefer, Milner B.   1936.  Contribution to  the life history
            of the surf smelt Hypomesus pretiosus in Puget Sound.
            Washington State Dept. of Fisheries Biological Report
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3566    Schaefer,- Milner B.   1938.  Preliminary observations on the
            reproduction of the Japanese common  oyster,  Qstrea
            gigas,  in Quilcene Bay, Washington.   State of Washington
            Dept of.  Fisheries Biol.  Rept.  no.  38E: 36.
3567    Scheffer, Victor B.   1952.  Outline for ecological life  history
            studies  of marine mammals.  Ecology,  3^3(2):  287-296.

3568    Scheffer, Victor B. and  J. W. Slipp.  1948.  The whales
            and dolphins of Washington State with a key to the cetaceans
            of the West Coast of North America.   American Midland
            Naturalist,  3_9(2): 257-337.

3569    Scheffer, V. B.  and C. C. Sperry.  1931.  Food  habits of
            the Pacific harbor seal, Phoca richardii.  J. of Mammalogy,
            12(3): 214-226.

3570    Schultz, Leonard P.  1930.  Miscellaneous observations on
            fishes of Washington.  Copeia 1930,  (4): 137-140.

3571   Shelford,  V.  E. , A. O.Weese,  L.  A. Rice, D. I. Rasmussen,
              A. MacLean,  N.  M. Wismer, and J. H.  Swanson.  1935.
              Some marine biotic communities of the Pacific coast
              of North America.  Ecological Monographs, j>(3): 249-354.

3572   Swan, Emery F.  1952.  Growth indices of the clam Mya arenaria.
              Ecology, 33(3):  1962.

3573   Swan, Emery F.  and J. H. Finucane.  1951.  Observations
              on the Genus Schizothaerus.  The Nautilus, ^6(1):  19-26.

3574   Towler, Emmett D.  1926.  The common barnacles of Friday
              Harbor, Washington, and their distribution.  Thesis,
              Univ. of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 65 p.

3575   U. S. Dept. of Agriculture Bureau of Soils.  1914.  Kelp groves
              of the Pacific coast and islands of the U.  S.  and Lower
              California.  Office of the Secretary,  Rept. no.  100,
              Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C.

3576   Shotwell,  J.  A. 1950.  Distribution of volume and relative
              linear measurement changes in Acmaea, the  limpet.
              Ecology, 31; 51 -62.

3577   Weese,  A. O.  and M.  T.  Townsend.   1921.  Some reactions of
              the jellyfish Aequoria.  Publications Puget Sound Biol.
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3578   Worley, Leonard G.  1930.   See 2128.

3579   Rigg, George G.  1917.  Seasonal development of Bladder
              kelp.   Puget Sound Marine Station Publications, J.(27): 309-31 i

3580   Wells, Wayne W.  1931.  Ecology and taxonomy of the Pinno-
              theridae of Puget Sound.  Thesis, Univ. of Washington,
              Seattle, Washington,  78  p.

3581   Tucker, John S. and A. C. Giese.  1958.  Shell repair in
              chitons. The  Western Society of Naturalists, 28th
              Annual Meeting, U. of W. ,  28-30 Dec. , Program Abstract
              p.  8.

3582   Tucker, John S.  1958.   Bipolarity in the anemone Anthopleura
            elegantissima.   The Western Soc.  of Nat. , 28th Annual
            Meeting, Univ. of Washington, 28-30 Dec., Prog. Abst. p.  9.

3583   Chitwood,  Benjamin G.   The intertidal  occurrence of
            Echinoderes pennaki (Kinorhyncha) in the Straits of Juan
            de Fuca, Washington.  The West. Soc. of Nat. ,  45th Annual
            Meeting, Univ. of Washington, Abstracts of Contributed
            Papers, 28 Dec.  p.  3.

3584   Clogston,  Fred. L. and  D. H.  Montgomery.   1964.  Spawning
            and development in the abalone,  Haliotis rufescens
            Swainson.  The Western Society  of Naturalists,  45th
            Annual Meeting,  Univ. of Washington,  28 Dec. ,  Abstracts
            of Contributed Papers, p.  6.

3585   Quade, Henry W. and G. C.  Packard.  1963.  Influence of
            Salinity,  Temperature, and Tide on the Population
            Structure of Hemigrapsus  oregonensis.  Unpug:  Abstract
            of Individual Problems,  Univ. of Pac.  Dillon Beach
            Calif.  Summer 1963.

3586   Oglesby,  Larry C.   1964.  Chloride  exchange in nereid
            polychaetes.  The Western Society of Naturalists,  45th
            Annual Meeting,  Univ. of Washington,  28 Dec. ,  Abstracts
            of Contriubted Papers, p.  8.

3587   Kincaid, Trevor.  1961.   The ecology and morphology of
            Thinobius frisselli .H a t c h,an intertidal beetle.  The
            Calliostoma Company, 1904 East 52, Seattle,  WA.
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3588   Kincaid, Trevor.  1961. The Staphylinid genera Pontomalota
            and Thinusa.  The Calliostoma Company, 1904 North East
            52,  Seattle, WA, 10pp.  and 4 pis.

3589   Usinger,  R. L. (ed.)  1956.  Aquatic insects  of California
            with keys to North American  Genera and California
            Species.  Univ.  of Cal ifornia Press, Berkeley and
            Los Angeles.

3590   Lattin, John D.  n.  d. Selected Bibliography on Marine
            Entom.  and Partial  List of Some Insects Along the
            Seashore and in the Intertidal zone.  Dept. of Entom.
            Oregon State Univ.  (Unpublished).


3591   Wirth, Willis W.  1949.  A review of the  Clunionine midges
              with descriptions of a new  genus and four new species
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3592   Water Resources  Research Institute.   1962.  Publications and
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3593   Warren, Charles  E.  and Peter Doudoroff.  1957.   Cooperative
              research at Oregon State College in  the biological
              aspects of water pollution.  In Biological problems
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              R.  A.  Taft Sanitary Eng. Center,  U. S.  Publ.  Health
              Serv. ,  Cincinnati, Ohio: 201-208.  Reprinted 1958
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3594   Bali, J.  M. and Carl E.  Bond.  I960.  Records of agonid
              fishes from Oregon.  Oreg. Fish Comm. Research
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3595   Bali, J.  M. and Carl E.  Bond.  1959.  The  bigfin ellpout,
              Aprodon cortezianus Gilbert, common in waters off
              Oregon.   CopeiaJ.: 74-76.

3596   Mains, E.  M. and J. M. Smith.  1964.  The distribution,  size,
              time, and  current preferences of seaward  migrant
              chinook salmon in the Columbia and  Snake  Rivers.
              Fisheries  Research Papers, Wash.  Dept. Fish. ,2(3): 5-43.

3597   Oregon Fish Commission.  1963.  Razor  Clams,  Educational
              Bull.  #4, Portland, Oregon.

3598   Markowski, S.  1965.  See 2872.

3599   Tichenor,  Bruce A.   1968.  Thermal  Pollution;  a  seminar
              paper unpubl. PNW Water Lab. 200  So.  35th St. , Corvallis,

3600   Fulton, Leonard A.   1968.  See 3635.

3601   Brongersma-Sanders, Margaretha.  1957.  Mass  mortality
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3602   Wurtz, C.  B.   1968.   The realities of thermal pollution--
               environmental limitations and ecological adaptations.
               Publ. Wks. ,  N. Y. ,_99(8): 148.   (Wat.  Poll. Abstr.
               42(4), 1969,  p.  182,  no.  851)

3603   Ingram, William.  1952,  Selected Biological references
               applicable to water Pollution Control Programs.
               Ohio-Tenn.  Drainage Basins Office Div. of Water
               Pollution Control  Federal Sec. Agency, Pub.  Health
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3604   Southward, A.  J.  1955.  The  relation of cirral and othe r
               activities  to temperature.  J.  Mar.  Biol. Assoc. ,
               U.  K. ,  34: 403-422.

3605   Southward, A.  J.  1964.  The  relationship between temperature
               and rhythmic  cirral activity in some cirripedia considered
               in connection with their geographic distribution.  Helgol
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3606   Southward, A.  J.  1957.  Further observations on  the
               influence of temperature  and age  on cirral activity.
               J.  May. Biol.  Asso.  U. K.  36: 323-344.

3607   Southward, A.  J.  1962.  The  influence  of  temperature on cirral
               activity and survival  of some warm water species.   J.
               Mar. Biol. .Assoc. U.  K. , 42: 163-177-

3608   Wesley, Ronald D.   1966.  The relationship between the distri-
               bution of the barnacle,  B. glandula along the Yaquina Bay
               estuary and their response to thermal variations.  Un-
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3609   Washburn,  F.  L.  1900.  Notes on the spawning habits of the
               razor clam; recommendations regarding protective
               measures, in Report of the State  Biologist 1899-1900.

3611   Butler, T.  H.   1967.   A bibliography of the Dungeness crab,
               Cancer  magister Dana.   Fish. Res.  Brd. Canada,  Tech.
               Rept.  no.  1.

3615   Aubert, M. and J. Aubert.   1967.  Study on the diffusion of
               bacterial pollution in the  sea.  J. Penn.  Bed, 1967,
               o_(50): 139-149.  Biol. Abstr., 1968,^9:7825.
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3616   Survey of marine pollution.  1968.  Surv. local Govt.  Technol. ,
              1_32_(3973):  20.  (Wat. Poll. Abstr. 42(3) 1969,  p. 142,
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3618   Pringle,  B. H. , D.  E. Hissong,  E.  L. Katz, and S. T. Mulawka.
              1968.  Trace metal accumulation by estuarine  molluscs.
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3619   Oglesbury, R.  T.  and D. J. Jamison.   1968. Intertidal
              communities as monitors  of pollution.  J.  Sanit. Engng.
              Div. Am. Soc. Civ. Engrs. ,  94_, SA3,  541-550,
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              no. 424.

3620   Giesler,  J. C.  1952.   Summering birds of the Cape Arago
              region, Coos Bay, Oregon.  M. S. Thesis, Oregon
              State College,  Corvallis.

3621   Institute of Biology.  1967.  Biology and the  manufacturing
              industries.   Sump.  Inst.  Biol.  No. 16,  Academic
              Press Inc. (London) Ltd., London, 178 p. 45  s. Wat.
              Poll. Abstrs. j42(l) 1969,  p.  34, no.  165.

3623   Lough, Gregory R.  1967.  Effects of Salinity and Temperature
              on development of Botula  Falcata (Pelecypoda-Mytilidae)
              Unpub.  report Oregon State Univ.  Mar. Sci. Cent.

3624   Lie, Ulf.  1969.  Cumacea from  Puget Sound and  off the
              Northwestern  Coast of Washington.   With  Descriptions
              of Two new species Crustaceana,  17(1).

3625   Ridge, M. C.  1968.  A Symbiotic Gammarid on the Purple
              Sea Urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.  Unpubl.  Res.
              Proj. 2-451-452.  Oregon State Univ. Mar.  Sci.  Cen.

3627   Wilson,  D. P.   1968.  Temporary adsorption on a substrate of
              an  oil-spill remover ('detergent'): tests with larvae
              of Sabellaria spinulosa.  J. Mar.  Biol. Ass. U. K. ,
              4_8: 183-186.

3628   Beckman,  C. and R. Menzies.   I960.   See 3198.

3629   Davis, H.  C.  1958.  Survival and growth of clam and oyster
              larvae of different salinities.  Biol. Bull.  114: 296-307.

3630   Henderson, J.  T.  1924.  The gribble:  a study of the distri-
              bution factors and the life history of Limnoria
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              N.  S.  2_: 309-325.

3633   Lough,  Robert Gregory.  1969.  The effects of temperature and
              salinity  on the early development of Adula californiensis
              (Pelecpoda-Mytilidae).  M.  S.  Thesis,  Oregon State
              Univ. ,  Corvallis.

3635   Fulton, Leonard A.  1969.  A survey of biological and oceanogr.
              information on Inshore and offshore areas of the
              Washington coast north of Grays Harbor.  (Unpubl.
              manuscript) Bureau of Comm.  Fish. ,  Seattle Washington.

3636   Eltringham,  S.  K.   1967.  See 2689.

3637   MacGregor,  John S.  1964.  The relation between spawning-
              stock size andyear-class size for the Pacific sardine
              (Sardinops caerulea) Girard.  U. S. Fish and Wildl.
              Serv. ,  Fish.  Bull.   63_(2): 477-491.

3638   O'Connell, C.  P.  1963.  The structure of the  eye of Sardinops
              caerulea, Engraulus mordar and four other pelagic
              Marine tellosts.  J.  Morph.  113: 287-330.

3640   Ministry of Technology.  1967.  Water  pollution research 1966.
              H.  M. Stationery Office, London,  1967.  186 pp.
              5 pis.,  15 s.  6  d.  (Wat.  Poll. Abstr. 41_(1):  19#74).

3641   Marr. J.  C.  1950.  Apparent abundance of the Pilchord
              (Sardinops caeralea) off Oregon, and Washington
              1935-1943 , as measured  by the catch per boat.  U.  S.
              Fish  & Wildl. Serv.  Fish. Bull. _5_1_: 385-394.

3642   Wisner,  R. L.  I960.  Evidence of northward  movement of
              stocks of the Pacific Sardine based on the number  of
              vertebrae.  Calif. C. O. F.  I.  8J1960): 75-82.

3643   Radovich,  John. 1962.   Effects of  sardine  spawning-stock
              size and environment on  year-class production.  Calif.
              Fish  and Game, _48:  123-140.


3644   Arthur,  D. K.  1956.  The Particulate food and the food resources
               of the larvae of three pelagic fishes, especially the
               Pacific Sardine, Sardinops  caerulea.  Doctoral
               Dissertation, Univ.  of California,  Scripps Instit.
               of Oceanogr.

3645   Kunnenkeri, J.  K.  1962.  Preliminary report  on the parasites
               of the California sardine and the parasitic distribution
               in Clupeidae.  J.  Parasitol. 48: 149.

3647   Druehl,  L. D.  1967.  Vertical distributions of some benthic
               marine algae in a British Columbia inlet, as related to
               som environmental factors.  J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can.,
               24_: 33-46. (Wat. Poll. Abstr. :  41(2):  58#211)

3648   Verwey, J.  1966.  The role of some external factors in
              the vertical migration of marine animals.  Neth.
               J. Sea Res.,  3_: 245-266,  1  folding chart. (Wat. Poll.
              Abstr. 41(2): 59#215)

3649   Hebard, J.  F.  1966.  See 2626.

3650   Hawkins, Bernard.   1962.  The Biology of the Marine Copepod
              Tigriopus  californicus (Baker) M.  S. Thesis,  Humboldt
              State College.

3653   Bandy,  O. L. , J. D. Ingle, and J.  M.  Resig.  1965.
              Foraminiferal trends, Hyperiod outfall,  California.
              Limnol.  Oceanogr. 1_0: 314-332. (Wat.  Poll. Abstr.  41(3):

3658   Mariscal,  Richard N.  1965.  The Adult and Larval Morphology
              and  Life History of the Entoproct Bareutsia gracilis
              M. Sars,  1835). J. of Morph.  116(3).

3659   Ruggles,  C. P.  1967.  The effect of water pollution on
              maritime  fisheries.   Can.  J. publ. Hlth,  58: 77-79.
              (Wat.  Poll. Abstr.  4J_(3):  141#508).

3660   Talbot, G.  B. 1966.   Estuarine environmental requirements
              and  limiting  factors for striped bass. Am. Fish.  Soc.
              spec.  Publ.  No. 3, 37-49.  (Wat.  Poll Abstr. 41_(3):

3661   Wichman, S. H. and G.  K.  Ahlers.  1967.  Recharging
               conserves nuclear reactor cooling water.  Wat. Wastes
               Engng, _4(3): 79-81.   (Wat. Poll,  Abstr. 4J_(4):

3663   Woelke, C.  E.   1967.  Measurement of water quality with the
               Pacific  oyster  embryo bio-assay. Spec.  tech.  Publs.
               Am.  Soc. Test. Mater.  1966, No. 416: 112-120;
               Chem. Abstr., 1967,  6J7:  9678.  (Wat.  Poll.  Abstr.
               41_(4): 157#564).

3666   Chipperfield, P. N. J.  1967.  The pollution of estuaries:
               an industrial view.  Chemy Ind. , 1245-1247. (Wat.
               Poll.  Abstr. 4J_:(5): 195#705).

3669   Cameson, A. L. H. , A. W. J.  Bufton, and D. J. Gould.
               1967. Studies  of the coastal  distribution  coliform
               bacteria in the vicinity of  a sea outfall. J. Wat. Poll.
               Cont. , London. (J.  Proc.  Inst.  Sew. Purif.  ) _66: 501-523
               1  folding chart. (Wat. Poll. Abstr. 41_(6): 283#1107).

3670   Cross, F. A. and  L. F. Small.   1967.   Copepod indicators
               of surface water movements off the Oregon coast.
               Limnol.  Oceanogr.  12: 60-72.  (Wat. Poll.  Abstr.
               4_1_(8): 349#1397).

3672   Kilburn,  P.  D.   1961.  Summer phytoplankton at Coos  Bay,
               Oregon,  Ecology 42: 165-166.

3673   American Society of Civil Engineers.  1967.  Bibliography
               on thermal pollution.  J. sanit.  Engng. Div. Am . Soc.
               Civ.  Engrs.,  93, SA3, 85-113,  Pap. No.  5303.
               (Wat. Poll.  Abstr. 41(8):  384#1544).

3677   Hartman,  Olga. 1969.  Atlas of the sedentariate polychaetous
               annelids from California.   Allan Hancock Foundation,
               Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles,  CA.

3678   Hartman,  Olga. 1968.  Atlas of the errantiate polychaetous
               annelids from California.   Allan Hancock Foundation,
               Univ. of Southern California, Los Angel es.  1968.

3750   Schmidt,  Ronald R. and J. E. Warme.  1969.  Population
              characteristics of Protothaca staminea  (Conrad)  from
              Mugu Lagoon Calif. , Veliger, J_2(2): 193-199.

3751   Dunhill,  R. M.  and D. V. Ellis.   1969.  The Distribution
              and Ecology of Sub-Littoral species of Macema ( Bivalvia)
              off Moresby Island and in Satellite  Channel near
              Victoria, B.  C.  Veliger, J_2(2):  207-219.

3753   Harger,  J. R. E.  1968.  The Role of Behavioral Traits  in
              Influencing the Distribution of Two Species of Sea
              Mussel,  Mytilus edulis  and Mytilus californianus.
              Veliger, 11(1): 45-49.

3754   McGowan, John A.  and Takashi Okutani.  1968. A new species
              of Enoploteuthid Squid,  Abraliopsis (Watasenia) fells,
              from the California Current.  Veliger,  11_(1): 72-79.

3755   Eaton, Charles  McKendree.  1968.  The activity and food of the
              File Limpet Acmaea limatula.  Veliger, 11 (Supplement):

3756   Craig, Peter C.  1968.  The Activity Pattern and Food Habits
              of the Limpet Acmaea pelta.   Veliger, 11 (Supplement):

3757   Rogers,  Don A.  1968.  The Effects of Light and Tide on
              Movements of the Limpet Acmaea  scutum.   Veliger,
              11_( Supplement): 20-24.

3758   Rose,  Tom L.  1968. Light Responses  in the Limpet Acmaea
              limatula.  Veliger, JJ.( Supplement): 25-29.

3759   Miller, Alan C.  1968.  Orientation and Movement of the
              Limpet Acmaea digitalis on Vertical Rock Surfaces.
              Veliger,  l_j_(Supplement):  30-44.

3760   Millard,  Carol S.  1968.  The  Clustering  Behavior of
              Acmaea digitalis.  Veliger, JJJSupplement): 45-51.

3761   Jesse, William I.   1968.  Studies of Homing Behavior in the
              Limpet Acmaea scabra.  Veliger,  11 (Supplement):

3762   Berkely,  E. and C. Berkely.  1954.  Notes on the life
              history of the polychaete Dodecaceria feukesi.
              Journal of Fish. Res. Brd.  of Canada. _11(3): 326-334.

3764   Dickie, L.  M.  1958.   Effects of high temperature on survival
              of the giant scallop.  J. Fish. Res.  Board of Canada,
              L5(6): 1189-1211.

3765   Johnson,  Samuel E. , II.  1968.   Occurrence and Behavior
              of Hyale grandicornis, a Gammarid Amphipod
              Commensal in the Genus, Acmaea.  Veliger,
              n_(Supplement):  56-60.

3766   Alleman,  Lani Lee.  1968.  Factors  affecting the attraction
              of Acmaea  asrni to Tegula funebralis. Veliger,
              lljSupplement):  61-63.

3767   Chapin, Dexter.   1968.   Some Observations of Predation on
              Acmaea Species by the Crab Pachygrapeus crassipes.
              Veliger, JJ. (Supplement):  67-68.

3768   Jobe, Alan.   1968.  A Study of Morphological Variation
              in the Limpet Acmaea pelta.  Veliger,  11 (Suppl ement):

3769   Kingston, Roger S. 1968. Anatomical and Oxygen Electrode
              Studies of Respiratory Surfaces and Respiration in
              Acmaea.   Veliger, JJ. (Supplement):  73-78.

3770   Bulkley,  P. Todd.  1968. Shell Damage  and Repair in Five
              Members of the Genus Acmaea. Veliger 11 (Supplement):

3771   Baldwin,  Simeon.  1968.  Manometric Measurements of
              Respiratory Activity in Acmaea digitalis and Acmaea
              scabra.   Veliger, lJ_(Supplement):  79-82.

3772   Hardin, Dane D.   1968.  A Comparative Study of  Lethal
              Temperatures in the Limpets Acmaea scabra and
              Acmaea digitalis. Veliger, JJ.(Supplement): 83-87.

3773   Walker,  Catherine Gene. 1968.  Studies  on the Jaw, Digestive
              System, and Coelomic Derivatives of the Genus  Acmaea,
              Veliger, JJJSupplement): 88-97.

3774   Beppu, William J.  1968.  A Comparison of Carbohydrate
               Digestion Capabilities in Four Species of Acmaea.
               Veliger, JJJSupplement):  98-101.

3775   White,  T.  Jeffrey.  1968.  Metabolic Activity and Glycogen Stores
               in Two Distinct Populations of Acmaea scabra.  Veliger,
               J_l_( Supplement):  1.02-104.

3776   Baribault, William H.   1968.  Nitrogen Excretory Products
               in the Limpet Acmaea.  Veliger, _1_1 (Supplement): 109-112.

3777   Burn,  Robert.  1968.  Archidoris pdhneri (MacFarland,
               1966) comb. nov. , With Some Comments on the Species
               of the Genus on the Pacific Coast of North America.
               Veliger: 11(2): 90-92,

3778   Greene, Richard W.   1968.   The Egg Masses and Veligers
               of Southern California Sacoglossan Opisthobranchs.
               Veliger, 1_1_(2):  100-104.

3779   Olsen,  David A.   1968.   Banding Patterns in Haliotis--!!
               some Behavioral considerations and the Effect of
               Diet on Shell Coloration for Haliotis rufescens,
               H_.  corrugata,  H. sorenseni,  and H.  assimilis.
               Veliger U_(2):  135-139.

3780   Jessee, William F.  1968.  A New Northern Limit for the
               Limpet, Acmaea digitalis. Veliger,  J_l(2): 144.

3781   McBeth, James W.  1968.   Feeding  Behavior of Corambella
               steinbergae.  Veliger: 1JJ2):   145-146.

3782   Gosliner, Terrence.   1968.  A New  Record of Corambella
               steinbergae Lance, 1962.  Veliger,  11_(2): 146.

3783   Loosanoff, Victor L.  1969.  Maturation of gonads of Oysters,
               Crassostrea virginica,  of different geographical areas
               subjected to relatively low temperatures.   Veliger,
              JJ_(3):  153-163.

3784   Vassallo, Marilyn T.   1969.  The Ecology of Macoma inconspicua
               (Broderip  and Sowerby, 1829) in Central San Francisco
               Bay.   Part I.  The Vertical Distribution of the Macoma
               community.  Veliger,  11_(3):  223-234.


3785   Stohler, Rudolf.  1969.   Growth Study in Olivella biplicata
               (Sowerby, 1825).  Veliger, JJ.(3): 259-267.

3786   Carlton, James.  1969.  Littorina littorea in California (San
               Francisco and Trinidad Bays).  Veliger, J_l(3): 283-284.

3787   Edwards, D.  Craig.  1969.   Predators on Qlivella biplicata
               Including a Species -- Specific Predator Avoidance
               Response.  Veliger, _U(4): 326-333.

3788   Kenny,  Ron.  1969.  Growth Characteristics  of Acmaea persona
               Eschscholtz.  Veliger,  U_(4): 336-339.

3789   Leonard, Vernon K. , Jr.  1969.  Seasonal Gonadal Changes  in
               Two Bivalve Mollusks in Tomales Bay,  California.
               Veliger,  11J4): 382-390.

3790   MacDonald, Keith B.  1969.  Molluscan Taunas of Pacific
               Coast Salt Marshes and Tidal Creeks.  Veliger,
               U_(4):  399-405.

3791   Frank,  Peter W.  1969.  Sexual dimorphism  in Tegula
               funebralis.  Veliger, JJ_(4): 440.

3792   Keen, A. Byra.   1969.  Laternula Living on the Pacific
               Coast?  Veliger, JJ_(4): 439.

3793   Roller,  Richard A.   1969.   An Annotated List of Apisthobranchs
               from San Luis Obispo County,  California.   Veliger,
               JJ_(4):  424-430.

3794   Medcof, J.  C. and A. W. H. Needier.   1941.  The influence of
               temperature and salinity on the condition of oysters
               (Qstrea virginica), Joun.  of  Fish. Res.  Brd. of
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3795   McLaren, Ian A.  1963.  Effects  of  temperature on growth of
               zooplankton and the adaptive  value of vertical migration.
               J. of Fish. Res.  Brd. of Can.   2(3):  685-727.

3796   Berg, Carl J. Seasonal Gonadal Changes of Adult Aviparous
               Oysters  in Tomales  Bay,  California.  Veliger, 1_2_(1): 27-36.

3797   Talmadge, Robert R.  1967.  Notes on Cephalopods from
              Northern California.  Veliger, J_0(2):  200-202.

3798   Meredith, S. E.  1968.  Notes on the Range extension of the
              Boring Clam Panitella conradi Valenciennes and its
              occurrence in the shell of the  Calif. Mussel.  Veliger,
              J_0(3): 281-282.

3799   Helfman,  Eugene S.  1968.  A Ctenostomatous Ectoproct
              Epizoic on the Chiton Ischnochiton mertensii.  Veliger,
              10(3): 290-291.

3800   Edwards, Dallas Craig.  1968.   Reproduction in Olivella
              biplicata.  Veliger, 10(4): 297-304.

3801   Zell, Clarace Plumb Bock.  1955.  The morphology and
              general histology of the  reproductive system of Olivella
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3802   Smith, Gertrude M.  1928.  Food material as a factor in
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3805   Gross, James B.   1967.  Note on the Northward Spreading of
              Mya arenaria Linnaeus in Alaska.  Veliger, _10(2):  203.

3806   Narchi, Walter.  1968.   The Functional Morphology of
              Lyonsia  californica Conrad, 1837.  Veliger, 10(4);

3807   Parajape, Madhu A.  1968.  The Eff Mass and Veligers  of
              Limacina helicina Phipps.  Veliger,  10(4): 322-326.

3808   Haderlie, E. C.   1968.  Marine Fouling Organisms in
              Monterey Harbor. Veliger, J_0(4): 327-341.

3809   Beonde,  Anthon Craig.  1968.  Aplysia vaccaria, a new host
              for the pinnotherid crab, Opisthopus transuersus.
              Veliger, J_0(4): 375-378.

3810   Breese,  W. P., R. E. Milleman, and R. E.  Dimick.   1963,
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              Linnaeus,  andjvl.  californianus Conrad,  by Kraft Mill
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3811   Bertsch,  Hans.  1968.  Effect of Feeding by Armina califorica
              on the Bioluminescence of Renilla Koellikeri.  Veliger,
              J_0_(4): 440-441.

3813   Marriage, Lowell D.  1954.  See 2386.

3814   Bonnot, Paul.  1940.  See 2224.

3815   Griffith, Lela M.  1967.  The Intertidal Univalves of British
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3816   Hirschhorn,  George.  1962.  Growth  and  Mortality Rates
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3818   California Cooperative Sardine Research  Program.   1950.
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3819   California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigation.  1953.
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3820   Clark, F.  N.  and J. C.  Marr.  1955.  Population dynamics
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3821   Burghardt,  Glenn E. and Laura E.  Burghardt.  1969.  A
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3822   Barnes,  C. A. and R. G.  Paquette.   1957.   Circulation near
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3823   Stefansson, U. and F. A.  Richards.  1964.   Distributions of
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3824    Castenholz,  R.  W-  1962.  Ecology and physiology of marine
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3825    Castenholz,  R.  W.  1961.  The  effect  of grazing on littoral
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3826    Anderson, G. C.   1964.  The seasonal and geographic  distribution
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3827    Castenholz,  R.  W.  1963.  An experimental study of the
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3828    Cupp,  E. E.  1943. Marine  Plankton diatoms of the west
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3829    Dales,  R.  P. 1952.  The distribution of some heteropod
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3830    Moon,  Thomas W.   1969.  Aspects of resp. in vertically
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3831    Taylor,  C. C.   1959.  Temperature and GrowthThe Pacific
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3833   Speer,  C.  J.  1938.  Sanitary engineering  aspects of shellfish
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3834   Riechers, M. 1943. A  survey of the genera of the foraminifera
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3835   Queen,  J. C.  1930.  Marine decapod Crustacea of the Coos
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3836   Murphy, D. C.  1961.  Taxonomy of marine nematodes
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3837   Tollefson, R.  and L. D. Marriage.  1949.  Observations
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3839   Outran, D. N.   1968.  The 1968 Herring Spawn Deposition
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3840   Smith, M. S.  and T.  H. Butler.  1968.  Shrimp Exploration on
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3843   Kennedy, Victor S.  1967.  Temperature, Mortality Studies
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3844   Blanco, Guillermo  J.  1938.  Early life history of the viviparous
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3845   Rulifson, R. L. and R. W. Schonign.  1963.  Geophysical
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3846   Morgan,  A.  R.  and D. E.  Gates.  1961. A cooperative  study
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 3847   Magill,  A. R. and M.  Erho.  1963.   The development and
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 3850   Harry, G.  Y. ,  Jr.  1949.  The  pilchard situation in Oregon
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5059   Gail,  F.  W.  1919.  Hydrogen ion concentration and other
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5064    Gardner, N.  L.   1927.  New Rhodophyceae from the Pacific
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5065    Gardner, N.  L.   1927.  New Rhodophyceae from the Pacific
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5067    Gardner, N.  L.   1927.  New Rhodophyceae from the Pacific
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5068    Gardner, N.  L.   1927.  New species of Gelidium on the Pacific
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5109   Myers, Margret  E.   1928.   The life-history of the brown
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5133   Setchell, W. A.  1906.  A revision of the  genus Constantinea.
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5134   Setchell, W. A.  1908.  Critical notes on  Laminariaceae.
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5135   Setchell, W. A.  1908.  Nereocystis and Pelagophycus.  Bot.
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5136   Setchell, W. A.  1914.  Parasitic Florideae.  I.  Univ.  Calif.
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5137   Setchell, W. A.  1914.  The Scinaia assemblage.  Univ. Calif.
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5138   Setchell, W. A.  1915.  The law of temperature connected with
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5139   Setchell, W. A.  1920.  The temperature  interval in the
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5140   Setchell, W.  A.   1920.   Stenothermy and zone-invasion.
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5141   Setchell, W.  A.   1923.   Parasitic Florideae.   II.   Univ.  Calif.
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5142   Setchell, W.  A.   1923.   A revision of the west North American
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5143   Setchell, W.  A.   1932.   Macrocystis and its holdfasts.  Univ.
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5144   Setchell, W-  A.  and N.  L.  Gardner.  1919.  The  marine
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5145   Setchell, W.  A.  and N.  L.  Gardner.  1922.  Phycological
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5146   Setchell, W.  A.  and N.  L.  Gardner.  1922.  Phycological
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5147   Setchell, W.  A. , and N. L. Gardner.  1922.  Phycological
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5148   Setchell, W.  A. , and N. L. Gardner.  1922.  Phycological
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5149   Setchell, W.  A.  and N.  L.  Gardner.  1922.  Phycological
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5150   Setchell, W.  A.  and N.  L.  Gardner.  1924.  Phycological
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5152   Setchell, W. A., and N.  L.  Gardner.  1925.  The marine
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5153   Setchell, W. A., and N.  L.  Gardner.  1933.  A preliminary
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5157   Smith, G.  M.  1942.  Notes  on some brown algae from the
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5158   Smith, G.  M. , and G. J. Hollenberg.  1943.  On some
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