WATER POLLUTION CONTROL RESEARCH SERIES
         14010 DOH 08/71
    Control
         rom
      Coal Mine Mineral Wastes
                                        ,^-
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH AND MONITORING

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          WATER POLLUTION CONTROL RESEARCH! SERIES

The Water Pollution Control Research. Series describes the.
results and progress in the control and abatement of pollu-
tion of our Nation's waters.  They provide a central source
of information on the research, development, and demon-
stration activities of the Environmental Protection Agency
through inhouse research and grants and contracts with
Federal, State, and local agencies, research institutions,
and industrial organizations.

Inquiries pertaining to the Water Pollution Control Research
Reports should be directed to the Head, Publications Branch,
Research Information Division, R&M, Environmental Protection
Agency, Washington, D.C. 20460.

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           Control of Mine Drainage

        From  Coal Mine Mineral Wastes
                      PHASE I
        HYDROLOGY  AND RELATED EXPERIMENTS
                         by

             Truax-Traer Coal Company
             Pinckneyville, Illinois
                   A Division of
            Consolidation Coal Company
                       for the

           Environmental Protection Agency

                 Project No.  14010DDH
                    August,  1971
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $1.25

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              EPA Review Notice
This report has been reviewed by the Environ-
mental Protection Agency and approved for
publication.  Approval does not signify that
the contents necessarily reflect the views and
policies of the Environmental Protection Agency,
nor does the mention of trade names or commercial
products constitute endorsement or recommendation
for use.
                        11

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                         ABSTRACT
A project has been underway since 1968,  at an abandoned mine
located in Southern Illinois, attempting to demonstrate
practical means of abating pollution from coal mine mineral
wastes.  The site included a refuse pile occupying approxi-
mately 40 acres and a slurry lagoon complex of 50 acres.

The project consists of two phases.  Phase I, reported
herein, describes the characteristics and acid formation
rate of the refuse pile.  The average rate of acid formation
for this refuse pile is 198 pounds of acidity, as CaCOs, per
acre per day.  Acid contribution from the slurry lagoons was
not determined but appears to be negligible.

As an abatement measure, a number of experimental vegetative
covers were tested.  Grass was successfully established with
and without the use of topsoil, weathering well for one year.
The long-term effects of establishing a grass cover directly
on the refuse without the use of topsoil are not known at
this time.

Phase II, currently in progress, will implement specific
remedial procedures for the entire site, to be followed by
a monitoring program that will determine the degree of
pollution abatement.  A final report covering Phase II will
be submitted.

This report was submitted in partial fulfillment of Project
Number 14010DDH under the partial sponsorship of the Water
Quality Office, Environmental Protection Agency.
Key words:  Mine drainage, refuse piles, slurry lagoons,
            New Kathleen Mine, vegetative covers, mineral
            wastes, acid formation rate, Illinois, grasses,
            reclamation.
                          111

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                         CONTENTS
Section                                               Page

    I    Conclusions	    1

   II    Recommendations	    3

  III    Introduction	    5

   IV    Description of Site	    9

    V    Objectives	   19

   VI    Acid Formation Rate Studies	   21

  VII    Experimental Abatement Measures	   41

 VIII    Acknowledgments	   57

   IX    References	   59

    X    Publications	   61

   XI    Appendices

         A.  Rainfall data	   63

         B.  Water Level Rating Table,  Area 6  Flume...   69

         C.  Daily Maximum and Minimum  Temperatures,
             Area 6	   71

         D.  Surface Flow and Water Quality Data	   81

         E.  Seepage Flow and Water Quality Data	   97

         F.  Acidity vs. Conductivity Charts	  101

         G.  Observation Well Data	  105

         H.  Analyses of Subsurface Drainage from
             Vegetative Test Plots	  117

         I.  Analyses of Refuse Samples at Interface
             of Vegetative Test Plots	  125

         J.  Analytical Procedures	  137

         K.  Cost Estimates of Vegetative Test Plots..  139

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                         FIGURES



No.                                                  Page

 1    Location of New Kathleen Mine Site	   10

 2    Aerial View of New Kathleen Mine Site	   11

 3    Aerial View of Refuse Pile	   12

 4    Aerial View of Slurry Lagoon Area	   13

 5    Contour Map of Refuse Pile	   15

 6    Contour Map of Slurry Lagoon Area	   16

 7    Flow Monitoring Points, Wells and Springs	   23

 8    Simulated Rainfall Test Plot	   26

 9    Hydrographs, Storm July 23,  1969, Area 6	   29

10    Hydrographs, September 2, 1969,  Test Plot	   30

11    Hydrographs, Storm August 20, 1969,  Area 1....   31

12    Hydrographs, Storm September 16, 1969, Area 2.   32

13    Location of Experimental Vegetative  Test
      Plots	   43

14    Grass Cover on Refuse Pile,  Test Plot #2	   50

15    Grass Cover on Slurry Lagoon, Test Plot #16...   50
                             vx

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                           TABLES
 No.                                                 Paqe
   I    Forms of Sulfur on Refuse Pile in Upper
        4-Inch Layer	   17

  II    Hydrograph Data, July 24, 1969,  Area 6	   27

 III    Acid Formation Rate - SRTP	   33

  IV    Acid Formation Rate - Area 1	   34

   V    Acid Formation Rate - Area 2	   35

  VI    Acid Formation Rate - Area 6	   36

 VII    Summary of Acid Formation Rates	   37

VIII    Summary of Experimental Vegetative Test
        Plots	   44

  IX    Sulfate Analysis from Refuse Pile Test
        Plots	   51

   X    Average Analyses of Subsurface Drainage
        on Test Plots	   51

  XI    Comparative Costs of Vegetative Test Plots..   52
                              vii

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                        CONCLUSIONS
1.  The 40-acre refuse pile under investigation can be  re-
    garded as being reactive primarily at the  surface exposed
    to the atmosphere, the zone of reaction extending approx-
    imately 4 inches into the pile, but spreading up to 24
    inches in depth in noncompacted areas.   Between rains,
    the pyrite oxidation reaction proceeds  on  the refuse
    pile at a relatively constant rate, with the acid
    products accumulating in the outer reactive mantle.
    When precipitation occurs, approximately 54% of the rain-
    fall appears immediately as an acidic runoff, while the
    remainder either infiltrates into the interior of the
    pile, reappearing later as seepage, or  eventually returns
    to the atmosphere by evaporation.

2.  The average rate of acid formation for this particular
    refuse pile is 198 pounds of acidity, as CaC03, per acre
    per day.

3.  Erosion during periods of precipitation constantly  renews
    the reactive mantle and, in its present state, the  refuse
    pile can be expected to produce acid at a  relatively con-
    stant rate until it is completely eroded away or effective
    abatement procedures are developed or adopted.

4.  The acid contribution from the slurry lagoons to the
    surface streams at this site was not determined but ap-
    pears to be negligible, based on observations in Walker
    Creek, primarily because the slurry lagoon area is  com-
    pletely enclosed by dikes.  However, during dry weather,
    the slurry lagoons create an air pollution problem  due  to
    the very small particle size of the material deposited
    therein.  Blowing winds entrain the surface material and
    deposit dust in the vicinity of the site.

5.  Vegetative covers can be established, as an abatement
    measure, on highly acidic mineral wastes,  with and  without
    the use of topsoil.  Stands of dense grass were established
    on 0.1 acre test plots weathering well for one year.  The
    key to successful establishment of a grass cover directly
    on the refuse pile without any external topsoil appears
    to be the application of sufficient quantities of agri-
    cultural limestone to raise the pH of the  material  into
    a zone capable of supporting vegetation (pH >5) followed
    by proper addition of fertilizer.

6.  The long-term effects of establishing a grass cover
    directly on the mineral wastes without the use of topsoil

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    are not known at this time.  Whether a stand of grass
    will sustain itself after an initial treatment or
    whether it will be necessary to apply limestone and
    fertilizer again, and for how long, is unknown.

7.  Severe corrosion problems were experienced with the
    steel flumes used in conjunction with the flow measure-
    ments from the refuse pile.  Although these problems
    were eventually brought under control by the installa-
    tion of stainless steel liners, some water loss probably
    occurred throughout the course of the study.

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                     RECOMMENDATIONS
1.  The estimation of acid formation rates  from hydrologic
    and water quality data should be further  investigated
    for other refuse piles.

2.  An essentially complete water balance should be made
    to further characterize the pyrite oxidation system and
    should include a study of the infiltrated water and
    evaporation as related to acid formation.  Such data
    could then be used with a greater degree  of confidence
    in selecting the optimum alternatives for remedial
    action.

3.  Additional studies are required to better correlate
    acidity with conductivity.

4.  Less conservative pollution abatement procedures should
    be investigated and their effectiveness determined over
    a relatively long period of time, say five years.
    Organic, chemical, and mechanical abatement techniques
    that appear promising should be tested on large demon-
    stration plots, say 25 acres minimum.

5.  Among the more promising abatement techniques recommended
    for further study on large demonstration  plots are the
    application of vegetative covers directly on refuse piles
    after treatment with limestone and/or with minimum thick-
    ness of topsoil.

6.  Additional research is needed in the area of chemical
    characterization of coal mining mineral wastes prepa-
    ratory to implementing abatement procedures of the
    vegetative cover type.  Conventional soil tests, used
    in the agricultural industry, cannot be used because  of
    the reactive nature of acid-forming pyrite.

7.  Additional research is needed to determine the minimum
    thickness of topsoil required to provide  a suitable
    environment for germination, growth, and  survival of
    vegetative covers established on coal mining mineral
    wastes.

8.  Chemical stabilizers and mechanical covers should be
    investigated to broaden the knowledge of  these pollution
    abatement techniques.  Thus, industry would have avail-
    able a large number of options from which to make a
    rational selection to abate pollution from coal mining
    mineral wastes.

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                         INTRODUCTION
A substantial amount of coal mined in this country under-
goes a beneficiation or a cleaning operation.   This is done
to remove some of the dirt and impurities present in the
coal.  These impurities form the rejects or unmarketable
portion of the coal mining operations and are  usually
referred to as "refuse" or "gob".

Disposal of the refuse varies with the type of mining opera-
tions conducted, i.e., surface or underground.  When coal
from a surface mine is cleaned, modern practice frequently
consists of trucking the refuse back to the strip pits to
be buried in the spoil bank under an adequate  thickness of
overburden material.  The land is then graded  and planted
with a suitable cover of grass, shrubs, or trees.

When a coal cleaning operation is practiced in conjunction
with an underground mine, the disposal of refuse becomes a
more complex problem.  Since strip pits are not normally
available to an underground mine, disposal of  the larger
pieces of refuse, up to 8 inches in diameter,  is to the
nearest open field or valley.  Fine reject material, usually
20 mesh and smaller, is transported in slurry  form, by
pipeline, to diked enclosures, slurry lagoons, or surface
impoundments.

The coarse refuse portion of a coal cleaning operation
consists largely of coal intermixed with pyrites, sand-
stones, clays, and shales of a carbonaceous character.
When stored outdoors in piles or heaps and exposed to the
elements, chemical reactions take place on the surface of
the refuse pile.  Rainfall, oxygen in the air, and the
pyrite in the refuse provide an ideal environment for the
formation of an acidic drainage containing dissolved iron
and other compounds which enters the streams and rivers
from runoff and seepage through the pile.  Additional
problems follow in that the clays, shales, and sandstones
are continuously decomposed and erosion constantly washes
away the silt, exposing new material for oxidation and acid
formation.  Acid drainage and siltation occur  during mining
operations, and can continue for decades after operations
cease.

Slurry lagoons associated with coal mining operations
present a different type of environmental problem.  The
lagoons contain the fine reject material from a cleaning
plant and can analyze as much as 50% coal with the balance
ash and some pyrite.  Rainfall on these lagoons percolates

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 into the beds,  seeps  through the  dikes,  or  is returned to
 the atmosphere  via evaporation, with  little surface runoff.
 The dikes are usually well  built  and  compacted  from clean
 earth,  but occasionally  are built from refuse and covered
 with a  layer of earth.   In  many instances,  a grass cover
 or trees are planted  on  the slopes to prevent erosion, or
 vegetation can  develop from volunteer growth.   During active
 operations,  a pool of water exists on the surface and only
 minor problems  are experienced involving repairs to a leak-
 ing dike.  When mining operations cease, maintenance often
 ceases  and the  dikes  can wash out during heavy  rainstorms.
 In addition,  during extended periods  of  dry weather, blowing
 winds entrain the  surface material and create a dust problem
 in the  vicinity of the site.

 Scores  of these types of refuse piles and slurry lagoons,
 from undergound and surface mining operations,  exist in both
 the Appalachian and Midwestern coal fields.  To date, only
 a  limited number of options are available to effectively
 handle  this  problem.   Topography  tends to make  each situation
 unique.   In  a large number  of instances, the refuse piles
 have been abandoned.

 In some  instances,  covering the pile  with a thick layer of
 clean earth  and planting a  vegetative cover has been effec-
 tive but very expensive.  As  an example, current requirements
 in Illinois^* require a  four-foot thickness of  clean earth
 to be applied to a  new refuse pile, followed by a vegetative
 cover to prevent erosion and  exposure of the refuse pile to
 the elements.   In  certain cases,  earth cover may not be
 available or  it may be so expensive as to make  the covering
 operation very  costly.   Chemical  treatment  of the runoff
 and seepage,  using  hydrated lime  or limestone,  may be an
 interim  measure during active operations but is obviously
 not the  long-term  solution  since  the  formation  of acid can
 continue  for  decades.

 In the latter part  of  1968, Truax-Traer  Coal Company, a
 Division  of Consolidation Coal Company,  entered into a co-
 operative  grant with  the Federal  Water Pollution Control
Administration  to demonstrate effective  and practical means
 of  abating air  and  water pollution  from  coal mining refuse
 piles and  slurry lagoons.   The intention of  this demonstra-
 tion  project was to provide engineering data and design
parameters that  could be applied  to minimize or prevent
 these types of  pollution.   The project would thus allow the
knowledge  on  this subject to  be advanced a  stage further by
providing design data and field experience  for  which there
was and is an industrywide  need.
*References are found in the back of the report

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The specific site chosen for this project was an abandoned
mining operation, formerly known as the New Kathleen Mine,
located in Southern Illinois and active from 1943-1955.
This site consisted of a refuse pile occupying approximately
40 acres and an adjacent slurry lagoon complex consisting of
50 acres.

The project is divided into two phases.  Phase I consists
of determining the system characteristics and acid formation
rate of the refuse pile and testing potential abatement
measures for both the refuse pile and slurry lagoons.  Phase
II, currently in progress, will implement specific remedial
procedures for the entire demonstration site to be followed
by a monitoring program that will evaluate the degree of
pollution abatement.  This report presents the results of
Phase I.  A final report covering Phase II will be submitted,

The Water Resources Center of The Ohio State University was
selected as subcontractor to Consolidation Coal Company and
acts as technical consultant to the project, providing
guidance and interpreting data on hydrology and acid forma-
tion.

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                   DESCRIPTION OF SITE
The New Kathleen Mine site, the subject of this study,
is located approximately five miles southwest of DuQuoin,
Illinois, on typical midwestern flatlands, surrounded by
agricultural operations, with surface mining activities,
both active and abandoned, in close proximity, Figure 1.

The site forms a part of an abandoned coal mining operation,
active from 1943-1955, that included a coal cleaning plant
operated by Union Collieries Company in conjunction with
the New Kathleen Mine.  This was a slope mine in the Herrin
(No. 6) Seam at a depth of approximately 110 feet.

Surface drainage from the site is generally to the west,
into Walker Creek which flows southwest past the western end
of the pile and which has its headwaters approximately one-
half mile north of the pile.  Flow in Walker Creek often
ceases during the dry summer months.

The site contained an irregularly shaped refuse pile approxi-
mately 40 acres in area, standing 65 feet at its highest
point and containing about 2,000,000 cubic yards of coarse
refuse.  In addition to the refuse pile, the site contained
a complex of six slurry lagoons, standing approximately 15
feet high, essentially flat, and occupying some 50 acres in
area, Figure 2.  The lagoons were completely enclosed by
earthen dikes and contained the fine coal rejects transported
thereto by hydraulic means.  At the west end of the slurry
lagoons, six small lakes remained from the abandoned mining
operations that were used to collect the runoff from the
slurry lagoons, and so arranged as to eventually overflow
into Walker Creek.  The refuse pile and slurry lagoons were
separated by a strip of original ground, approximately 1,500
feet wide, that was used for a railroad siding during the
active mining operations.  The material in the refuse pile
was a mixture of shale, clay, and low-grade coal, in which
both sulfur ball and large-crystal pyrite forms were included,
The composite material was sufficiently cohesive to stand at
an angle of repose nearly vertical, but it was very sus-
ceptible to erosion, as reflected in the deep gullies which
were formed on the side slopes of the pile, Figure 3.  The
refuse material throughout the pile appeared to be hetero-
geneous in its physical characteristics, reflecting the
irregular manner in which the pile was formed.  Much of the
pile was placed by end-dumping from trucks.

Further examination revealed a relatively large number of
individual seepage points at the base of the refuse pile.

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                              NEW
                             KATHLEEN MINE
                              PROJECT STE
                    SCALE  I"= I Mile
FIG. 1   NEW  KATHLEEN  MINE   DU QUOIN,  ILLINOIS
                       10

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FIG. 2   AERIAL VIEW OF NEW KATHLEEN MINE

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u
,
   FIG. 3   AERIAL VIEW  OF REFUSE PILE
                   12

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FIG. 4  AERIAL VIEW OF SLURRY  LAGOON AREA

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 Some were continuous flows  while  others  appeared  to  be
 intermittent,  indicating either a storage  pool  of water
 existed in the pile or parts of the  pile were resting on
 ground water springs, or both.

 Portions of the western one-third of the pile showed evidence
 of burning at  some time in  the  past.

 Both the refuse pile and the slurry  lagoons were  essentially
 barren except  for the eastern edge of the  slurry  lagoons,
 where volunteer growth was  established on  soil, apparently
 washed down from the top of the dikes.   Vegetation in the
 form of trees,  grass, and shrubs  was established  on  the
 outer periphery of the slurry lagoon area, Figure 4.

 An aerial survey of the site was  made from which  contour maps
 were prepared.   These are shown in Figure  5 and Figure 6.
 Reference to Figure 5 shows the natural  division  of  the
 refuse pile into three sections.   The western one-third
 features a plateau with a surface elevation of  about 470
 feet,  relative  to an original ground elevation  of about 430
 feet.   The central,  and highest section  of the  pile  has an
 elevation of somewhat more  than 490  feet at its western edge,
 and slopes toward the east  to an  elevation of about  475 feet,
 where  there is  an abrupt drop to  the eastern one-third of
 the pile.

 To develop a better  understanding of  the pile structure
 below  the  surface,  a backhoe was  used to cut a  number of
 trenches in several  sections of the  pile to a depth  of 8
 feet.   Examination of the cross section  of the  pile  indicated
 three  distinct  layers or zones.   The  first was  the outer
 mantle  of  the pile,  consisting  of a  layer  4 to  10 inches
 thick,  from which much of the clay had been washed out by
 precipitation.   From the standpoint  of permeability  to air
 and water,  this  outer mantle appeared to be relatively open.
 The second  zone  was  comprised of  a layer of clayey fines, an
 inch or  more thick,  packed  tightly by rain action into the
 refuse  immediately beneath  the  outer  mantle that  served as a
 partial  barrier  to air and  water.  This  layer had disconti-
 nuities  which provided points of  entry for water  into the
main body  of the  pile.   The  third zone was the main  body of
 the pile which showed  only  little evidence of weathering.

 It  became  apparent at  that  time that  any efforts  to  obtain
representative samples  of the solid material in the  pile,
using classical  procedures,  would be  difficult from  a
practical  standpoint  because  of the heterogeneous nature of
the material and  the  large variations  in particle size
observed, ranging from fine  silt  to pieces 6 to 8 inches in
diameter.  However, recognizing these  limitations, a set of
                             14

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Ul
                   FIGURES   CONTOUR  MAP  OF REFUSE PILE
                                                          •:)

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FIGURE 6  CONTOUR MAP OF SLURRY LAGOON AREA


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random samples was taken from the top 4 inches of the refuse
pile and analyzed for sulfur forms and total sulfur.  The
results are shown in Table I.
                 TABLE I.  FORMS OF SULFUR ON
	REFUSE PILE IN UPPER 4-INCH LAYER	

Sample No.   % Tota.ls   % Sulfates   % Pyritics   % Organics

    1           5.51        4.83        0.029        0.65
    2           9.12        3.36        4.08         1.68
    3          14.05        3.27       10.60         0.18
    4          14.02        2.73        9.78         1.51
    5           7.77        3.07        3.70         1.00
    6           5.35        3.94        0.72         0.69
    7           5.82        5.05        0.078        0.69
                  Soil Type Composition of
               Composite of Above Seven Samples

    Clay:  34.7%
    Carbonaceous material:  37.8%
    Shales, other coarse non-carbonaceous material:  27.5%

    All analyses reported on a dry weight basis.
                            17

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                       OBJECTIVES
The main objective of this demonstration project was to
develop a realistic understanding of the factors associated
with acid formation and runoff from coal refuse piles and
slurry lagoons so that rational pollution abatement tech-
niques could be developed and applied elsewhere to similar
environmental problems.

More specifically, the intention of this project was to
provide engineering data and design parameters that, when
applied, would minimize or prevent this type of acid
pollution.

The immediate objectives of this program were:

1.  To determine the acid formation rate of the refuse
    pile.

2.  To explore the effectiveness of specific abatement
    procedures for this site.
                            19

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               ACID FORMATION RATE STUDIES
                   Strategy for Action

The visual examination of the refuse pile cross sections
formed the basis for the hypothesis used in determining the
acid formation rate of the pile.  It was postulated that
acid formation, i.e., the oxidation of pyrite, was confined
to a relatively narrow zone at or near the surface with the
products of the reaction accumulating in this zone.  During
periods of precipitation, a portion of these products was
flushed out and appeared in the surface runoff while the
remainder percolated into the interior, appearing later as
seepage at the base of the pile eventually entering Walker
Creek.

Two approaches to determining the acid formation rate from
the pile were considered.  The first consisted of a direct
measurement of the total amount of acid leaving the pile,
which could be obtained by measuring the drainage flow and
acidity at a single point receiving all the flows from the
pile.  If measured over an extended period of time, prefer-
ably one water year, the total acid formation rate could be
thus determined.  After due consideration, this approach
was abandoned because of practical problems involving prop-
erty limitations, excavation, and construction difficulties
associated with collecting all the drainage at a single
point.

As an alternative approach, consideration was given to
dividing the refuse pile into six watersheds and monitoring
the surface runoff from each watershed.  Seepage into and
out of the pile, plus the evaporation effect, would then
have to be related to the rainfall and surface runoff before
an average acid formation rate could be determined.  This
alternative approach, with certain modifications, was used
in the study.

Installation and Operation of Monitoring Stations

The situation at the site was favorable for the determina-
tion of a hydrologic water balance around the refuse pile
in that the only water input to the area was in the form of
precipitation.  The pile rests near the headwaters of Walker
Creek and is located at an elevation sufficient to prevent
either ground or surface water from entering the refuse pile.
A water balance around the pile would have consisted of rain-
fall on the pile, direct runoff, seepage from within the
pile, and evaporation.
                            21

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 Rainfall was measured by a  single continuous bucket recorder
 type rain  gage.  This instrument was located approximately
 500 feet east of the pile.  No problems were experienced
 with this  instrument and the measurements were considered
 satisfactory with respect to rainfall on the pile.

 Although it appeared feasible initially to measure surface
 runoff from the pile by installing six monitoring stations,
 additional construction problems prevented the installation
 of all six.  Instead, sections of the refuse pile were shaped,
 with a minimum amount of grading, into three watersheds from
 which runoff and water quality data could be obtained.
 Flumes were sized and installed to monitor surface runoff
 from the three areas shown  in Figure 7 (Areas 1, 2, and 6).
 H-type flumes as described  in U.S. Department of Agriculture
 hydrology  field manual2 were used.  An error in construction
 of the 1.5-foot flume in Area 6 required the calibration of
 this flume in the field and the revised rating table is
 given in Appendix XI-B.  The 3.0-foot flume in Area 1 had
 a flume section constructed of stainless steel, while the
 other two  were constructed  of Corten steel.  The drop boxes
 of all three flumes were constructed of mild steel.  Each
 flume was  equipped with a water level recorder to measure
 surface runoff.  Severe corrosion was experienced with the
 Corten flumes and with the  drop boxes for all three flumes,
 in spite of attempts to protect them with asphalt mastics.
 Although the corrosion problems were brought under control
 by August, 1969 by the installation of stainless steel
 liners, some water loss probably occurred at the Area 1
 and Area 2 flumes throughout the course of the study.

 Siltation  in the drop boxes of the flumes and stage recorder
 float chambers created a continuous maintenance problem.  A
 single storm of sufficient duration could completely fill
 these units with silt.  Manual removal of the silt with
 shovels after the storm was the most practical way of
 handling this problem.

 In December, 1969, a three-point continuous temperature re-
 corder was installed near the flume in Area 6.  A continuous
 record of  ambient temperature, temperature 2 inches below
 the surface, and 20 inches below the surface was obtained.

During all of 1969, water quality samples were taken by
hand at approximately 2-minute intervals throughout the dura-
tion of a rain storm.  Samples were analyzed at the on-site
 laboratory for pH, acidity, total alkalinity, ferrous and
total iron, and sulfate.  The acidity values, together with
the runoff data obtained at the flumes, were used  to calculate
the mass flow of acid flowing from each of the monitored
areas.   While this procedure was very accurate, it required
considerable amounts of manpower, and storms occurring during
                              22

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ro
Lo
              SAMPLING POINT
              WALKER CREEK
              UPSTREAM
                                                                                 LEGEND

                                                                                  t SPRING
                                                                                  •* FLOW POINT
                                                                                  • WELL
                                                                                  ...DRAINAGE AREA
                                                                                    BOUNDARY
                    FIGURE  7   FLOW  MONITORING  POINTS-WELLS AND SPRINGS

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 unattended periods could not be effectively monitored.
 Experiments conducted with a laboratory conductivity meter
 showed a correlation between total acidity and  conductivity
 for any given flow point (data in Appendix XI-F).   However,
 separate correlations for each flow point  were  necessary.
 Based on these correlations, portable battery-operated  record-
 ing conductivity meters  were installed at  the three monitoring
 flumes in January, 1970.  Meter readings were correlated
 regularly with acidity analyses to provide a basis  for  the
 estimation of acidity concentrations from  the conductivity
 record during a period of storm runoff.  All storms monitored
 in 1970 used conductivity measurements as  a basis for esti-
 mating the acidity values in the runoff.

 Notwithstanding manufacturer's claims, the battery-operated
 conductivity meters did  not function satisfactorily.  Leak-
 proof batteries leaked and the response of the  instrument
 was sluggish in cold weather.   In January, 1970, the conduc-
 tivity meter installed in Area 6 was converted  to operate on
 110 V.  AC and this proved to be very satisfactory.  The other
 two meters continued to  operate on batteries for the duration
 of the data collection period,  i.e.,  Phase I.

 The final item in the hydrologic water balance  was  evapora-
 tion.   In this system, evaporation occurs  from  the  pile
 surface at a decreasing  rate for several days after rainfall
 and continuously from the pile surface adjacent to  the  springs.
 Although the evaporation phenomenon was  recognized  as a vari-
 able,  it was not related to the overall  hydrologic  balance.
 An assumption was made,  based  on the physical characteristics
 observed on the pile,  that  the  concentration of acid products
 in the  direct runoff was similar to the  concentration in the
 water  infiltrating into  the pile.   The difference in concen-
 trations observed in the base  flows was  attributed  to evapora-
 tion  losses rather than  to  any further significant  oxidation
 within  the  pile.

 Ground  Water Survey

 To  identify the nature of the water seepage at  the  base of
 the refuse  pile  (hereafter  referred to as  base  flows),  the
 original  plan  called for monitoring these  flows, both quantity
 and quality,  on  a  predetermined  schedule.   Since observed
 flows were  very  small or intermittent,  the bucket-stopwatch
 technique was  used  to measure  these flows.   As  a further aid
 toward understanding these  base  flows  from within the pile,
 fourteen  observation wells  were  drilled  to the  original
 ground  level below  the pile and  each  cased with 1-inch
 diameter  PVC plastic pipe,  Figure  7.   Water level measure-
ments of  the pile  storage pool were determined  regularly by
 lowering  an electrical probe down  the  tube.
                            24

-------
Simulated Rainfall Test Plots

To allow the collection of supplementary acid formation data
under closely controlled conditions and to guard against the
possibility of a sustained drought during the data collection
period, a small  (0.109 acre)  simulated rainfall test plot
was installed on a representative section of the refuse pile.
Figure 8 shows the plot, sprinkler system, collection ditches,
and pump system.  Uncontaminated water from a nearby ground
water source was applied via irrigation sprinklers at desired
metered rates.  The direct runoff was collected in the ditch-
ing system and measured by a flume at the outlet.  Throughout
the simulation runs, water quality samples were manually col-
lected.  Acid formation rates from this test plot, together
with those obtained during periods of natural precipitation,
were used in estimating the average acid formation rate from
the refuse pile.

Hypothesis of Acid Formation

The following fundamental hypothesis was used to allow the
calculation of an average acid formation rate for the refuse
pile :

1.  The oxidation of pyrite is primarily confined to a
    relatively narrow zone at or near the surface of the
    pile with the products of the reaction accumulating in
    this zone to be flushed out during periods of precipi-
    tation and appearing in the runoff, and

2.  The acid load from the refuse pile is directly propor-
    tional to the acid load from the surface runoff and
    inversely proportional to the ratio of total storm
    runoff to the total rainfall, seepage at the base of
    the pile being disregarded.

This hypothesis can then be expressed mathematically using
the following relationship:
               P =
                   A x Zt x f
     where
               P = Average acid formation rate, Ib/acre/day
              ER = Total weight of acidity in runoff from
                   all storms on record for a given drain-
                   age area, in Ib acidity as CaCOs
               A = Surface drainage area in acres
              Zt = Total period of acid formation corre-
                   sponding to all storms on record, in days
               f = Ratio of total storm runoff volume to total
                   rainfall volume for all storms on record
                             25

-------
     2 Ft.  Collection Ditch-.
	 ^ 	 	
r ~~ i
1 <
\
i
i
i
i
i <
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
1 c.
p e
— 2 Inch
Pipe

) <



f

^ 0.8 Ft.
H.S Flume
? C



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I /

1
I
1
1
1

1
1
I
1
1
1
i
i

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Total Arpn

0.109 Acres






\ Irrigation Sprinkler
( 7/32" Noz.) with
Valve for Adjustment
                          Water Meter Records
                          Volume  Applied
                          ,Pump  House
                                • Uncontaminated
                                Ground water Source
FIG. 8   SIMULATED   RAINFALL  TEST  PLOT
                      26

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A detailed example of the methodology used in developing the
storm data from which acid formation rates were subsequently
estimated follows.  The storm of July 24, 1969, monitored at
Area 6, was selected for this example.

At the first sign of the storm, manpower with sample bottles
was deployed to the Area 6 monitoring station.  When the rain
began to fall, samples of the runoff were taken at the flume
at approximately 2-minute intervals and at longer intervals
as the storm subsided.  At the completion of the storm,
samples were returned to the laboratory and analyzed for
acidity and other items.  The following day, charts were
removed from the stage recorder and rain gage, necessary
notations completed, and these data, together with the
analytical data obtained from samples taken during the storm
were correlated.

Using the flow data and acid analyses, instantaneous mass
flows of acid were calculated.  As an example, at 1626 hours,
the flow at the flume was determined from the stage recorder
to be 0.934 CFS .  The acidity of the sample taken at the
corresponding time was 14,750 mg/1 acidity.  The instanta-
neous mass flow of acid was calculated as:
     0.934
   sec       mm

= 74,500 Ib/day acid
1440 min
  day
                                       ft3
A composite of the data for the storm of July 24, 1969 is
presented in Table II.
                   TABLE II.  HYDROGRAPH DATA
                    JULY 24, 1969 - AREA 6
I
Time of
Day

1618
1622
1624
1626
1628
1631
1633
1639
1657
1705
1710
1730
II
Flow
CFS

1st Flow
0.00153
0.099
0.934
2.30
2.02
1.31
0.715
0.605
0.099
0.0278
0.0007
III
Acidity
mg/1

37,600
No Sample
18,900
14,750
11,750
7,925
7,575
No Sample
7,100
No Sample
9.075
11,730
IV
Acid
Ib/Day

_
-
10,100
74,500
146,000
86,500
53,500
-
23,200
-
1,360
44
V
Time Since
Storm Started
(min)
0
4
6
8
10
13
15
21
39
47
52
72
                            27

-------
 The flow in CFS (Column II)  was  then plotted  against  time,  in
 minutes, since the storm started (Column V) and  the points
 connected with a smooth curve, Figure 9A,  Runoff Volume.  The
 area under the curve was planimetered to obtain  the total
 runoff,  2834 ft3,  measured at the  flume  during the monitored
 period.

 Next,  the instantaneous mass flow  of acid,  in Ib/day  (Column
 IV),  was plotted against time, in  minutes,  since the  storm
 started  (Column V)  and  the points  connected with a smooth
 curve, Figure 9B,  Acid  Load.  The  area under  the curve was
 then planimetered  to obtain 1,111  Ib acid,  the total  acid
 load measured at the flume during  the monitored  period.

 The rainfall, as determined from the rain  gage chart  during
 this  monitored storm, was  0.39 inches.   The watershed assoc-
 iated with Area 6  was measured as  2.71 acres.  Rainfall on
 Area  6 watershed during the monitored storm was  therefore:

      0.39  in.  x 2.71 A  x 43,560  ft2  x 1 ft  = 3837 ft3
                              A         12 in.

 The elapsed time from the  previous storm was  determined to
 be  2.2 days,  from  the rain gage  charts.

 Typical  hydrographs  from the  simulated rainfall  test  plot,
 Area  1 and Area 2, are  shown  in  Figures  10, 11,  and 12,
 respectively.   Data  from the  simulated rainfall  test  plot
 were treated  in a  similar  manner except  that  a water  meter
 was used to measure  the amount of  "rainfall", i.e., water
 applied  to the  test  plot.

 A summation technique was  then used  in estimating an  average
 acid formation  rate  for the  specific  area.  The  area  acid
 formation  rates  were then  averaged,  weighted  in  accordance
 to the areas  represented by  the  test data,  to obtain  an
 average  acid  formation  rate  for  the  entire  refuse pile.

                   Results  and Discussion

 The acid formation rates,  in  pounds  of acidity,  as caCC-3,
 per acre per day (Ib/A/day) from the  simulated rainfall test
 plot and from Areas  1,  2,  and 6  are  shown  in Tables III, IV,
 V, and VI  for the individual  tests or  storms monitored.
 These results are summarized  in  Table  VII.

 Because  of  topographic  similarities  of Areas  1 and 2, the
 acid formation rates were  averaged for these  two areas,
weighted in accordance  with the  number of  storms monitored,
 to produce  a single value  representative of the  steep slope
                            28

-------
  M
  •^
  O
   •»
  5
  O
3.0-

2.5-

2.0

1.5-

1.0-

 .5-

 0--
                  Area Under Curve
                  2,834 ft.3  Runoff
           0    10   20   30   40   50   60  70   80   90
                         Time, Minutes
                    FIG. 9A   RUNOFF  VOLUME
     I.50T
 no
  x  1-25 +
  o
  a
  n
  T>
  O
  _l
  •o
     1.00-
     .75-
.50-
     .25-
                   Area Under  Curve
                   1,11!  Ibs.  Acid Load
                 10   20   30   40    50
                       Time , Minutes
                      FIG.  9B   ACID  LOAD
                                    60   70   80   90
FIG. 9  HYDROGRAPHS,  STORM  JULY 24,1969, AREA  6
                            29

-------
  .06-





  .05





  .04
M

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  .01-





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     6 T
  CM
 O  Sf

 x


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   CO

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   o  oj
   O  £.'
                30
                30
                     Area Under Curve

                     429 ft.3   Runoff
60    90    120    150


  Time, Minutes
                        Area Under  Curve

                        36.4 Ibs. Acid Load
                     60    90    120    I5O


                       Time ,  Minutes
                                             . \
                                           180   210
                       180    210
FIG. 10 HYDROGRAPHS, SEPTEMBER 2, 1969 ,  TEST PLOT
                             30

-------
         to
         s-
         o
             I.75--



             1.50-



             1.25-
         5   1.00+
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 -  1.00-r
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             0 •
                                Area Under Curve

                                3,170 ft.3  Runoff
                            30     60     90

                                   Time, Minutes
                                           120
                                     Area Under Curve

                                     2,790 Ibs. Acid  Load
150
                          30     60      9O     120

                                 Time,   Minutes
                                                150
FIG. II   HYDROGRAPHS,  STORM  AUGUST 20, 1969, AREA  1
                              31

-------
              1.5 T
          in
          <*-
          u


          3B*
          o
I.O--
             0.5--
              o-1-
             60T
         10
          O
          >.
          O
          m
            40--
          2 20
          u
          <
             0J
                               Area Under Curve

                               3,449 ft.3 Runoff
                    60      90     120

                   Time ,  Minutes
                                                       150
                                          Area Under  Curve

                                          ,860 Ibs. Acid Load
                          30     60     90     120

                                Time , Minutes
                                         150
FIG. 12  HYOROGRAPHS, STORM  SEPTEMBER  16,1969, AREA  2
                              32

-------
         TABLE III.  ACID FORMATION RATE - SRTP*
             Applied
              Water
  Date
             Measured
              Runoff
8/1/69
8/5/69
8/11/69
8/12/69
8/22/69
8/26/69
8/29/69
9/2/69
9/5/69
9/6/69
9/9/69
9/30/69
10/7/69

  Z13
  1,093
  1,186
    519
    689
    584
    967
    686
    719
  1,621
    405
    710
  1,592
    790

211,561
   659
   703
   231
   455
   385
   561
   414
   429
 1,237
   235
   445
 1,159
   663

17,576
Time Since
Last Storm
   days

    4.3
    4.0
    6.2
    0.7
    1.6
    3.9
    2.8
    3.9
    1.2
    0.9
    2.3
   13.7
    0.5

  246.0
  Acid
  Load
  Ibs

  30.7
  56.3
  16.6
  22.4
  20.2
  36.6
  32.2
  36.4
  31.4
   7.4
  18.7
  61.9
  21.7

Z392.5
Area of Simulated Rainfall Test Plot = 0.109 A
f = 7576 * 11,561 = 0.655
Acid Formation Rate =
                               392.5 Ibs
                      0.109 A x 46.0 days x 0.655

                    =120 Ibs/A/day
*Simulated Rainfall Test Plot
                              33

-------
          TABLE IV.   ACID FORMATION RATE - AREA 1
  Date

 8/20/69
 3/17/70
 4/12/70
 5/25/70
 5/29/70

  Z5
Rainfall
  in.

  0.35
  0.55
  0.74
  0.20
  0.40
                     Applied
                      Water
15,627
24,557
33,040
 8,930
17,860
Area 1 = 12.30 A
f = 19,451 -r 100,014 = 0.194
         Measured
          Runoff
3,170
3,270
9,480
  441
3,090
          1100,014   £19,451
         Time Since   Acid
         Last Storm   Load
            days      Ibs
Acid Formation Rate =
                                7,453 Ibs
  2.5
 13
 10
 10
  4

Z39.5
                       12.30 A x 39.5 days x 0.194

                       79 Ibs/A/day
 2,790
 1,123
 3,010
   300
   230

£7,453
area typical of the periphery of the refuse pile, thus
          Area 1
          Area 2
                79 x  5 storms =  395
               193 x 22 storms = 4246
                              Z27
                                £4641
          Average for Area 1 and 2 = 172 Ib/A/day

Using the contour map of the refuse pile and visual inspec-
tion, the refuse pile was divided into areas considered
representative of the test data.  This procedure resulted in
estimating approximately 13 acres of compacted refuse area
typical of the area on which the simulated rainfall tests
were conducted.  The steep slope areas were estimated to
consist of approximately 14 acres represented by the results
from Area 1 and 2.  The uncompacted dumped refuse area was
approximately 13 acres represented by the results from Area
6.  Applying the acid formation rates to these respective
areas, an average acid formation rate for the pile was
calculated:
   Compacted Refuse (SRTP)
   Steep Slope Area (Area 1 and 2)
   Uncompacted Refuse (Area 6)
   Average =198 Ib/A/day
                          13  acres x 120 = 1560
                          14  acres x 172 = 2408
                          13  acres x 305 = 3965
                                   £40
                                          Z7933
                              34

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          TABLE V.   ACID FORMATION RATE - AREA 2
  Date

7/21/69
9/16/69
3/17/69
3/21/70
3/25/70
3/25/70
4/2/70
4/12/70
4/28/70
5/10/70
5/11/70
5/15/70
5/29/70
5/30/70
5/31/70
6/1/70
6/1/70
6/1/70
6/2/70
6/3/70
6/4/70
6/13/70

 Z22

Rainfall
in.
1.20
0.75
0.55
0.20
0.40
0.40
0.40
0.74
0.50
1.38
0.88
0.45
0.40
0.20
0.25
0.75
0.15
0.35
0.53
1.33
0.25
0.35
Applied
Water
ft3
17,206
10,754
7,886
2,868
5,735
5,735
5,735
10,610
7,169
19,787
12,618
6,452
5,735
2,868
3,585
10,754
2,151
5,018
7,599
19,070
3,585
5,018
Measured
Runoff
ft3
6,270
3,449
160
337
545
1,761
335
3,269
1,717
1,710
3,590
858
164
1,500
2,040
3,210
294
1,930
798
5,460
611
982
                      Time Since
                      Last Storm
                         days
7
8.
13
4
1.
0.
8
10
1
10
1
4
4
1
1
0.
0.
0.
1
1
1
9

4


7
3









3
4
3




£177,936   Z40,990
Z87.4
   Acid
   Load
   Ibs

  2,290
  1,860
    119
    404
    456
    815
    313
  1,851
    353
  1,371
    500
    298
    102
    350
    622
    900
    164
    745
    454
    740
    312
    331

115,350
Area 2 = 3.95 A
f = 40,990 T 177,936 = 0.230
Acid Formation Rate =
                              15,350 Ibs
                      3.95 A x 87.4 days x 0.230

                    =193 Ibs/A/day
                              35

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           TABLE VI.  ACID  FORMATION RATE - AREA 6
   Date

 7/24/69
 8/20/69
 9/16/69
 2/7/70
 2/7/70
 1/17/70
 2/20/70
 3/1/70
 3/2/70
 3/3/70
 3/4/70
 3/17/70
 3/25/70
 4/12/70
 4/23/70
 4/27/70
 4/30/70
 5/10/70
 5/11/70
 5/15/70
 5/25/70
 5/29/70
 6/1/70
 6/1/70
 6/2/70
 6/3/70
 6/13/70
 6/19/70
 6/24/70

 £29

Rainfall
in.
0.39
0.35
0.75
0.25
0.45
Snow
0.45
0.20
1.30
0.14
0.45
0.55
0.95
0.74
0.23
0.60
0.55
1.38
0.88
0.60
0.20
0.60
0.90
0.35
0.53
1.33
0.35
0.10
0.20
Applied
Water
ft3
3,837
3,443
7,378
2,459
4,427
Melt
4,427
1,967
12,788
1,377
4,427
5,411
9,345
7,280
2,263
5,902
5.411
13,575
8,657
5,902
1,967
5,902
8,854
3,443
5,214
13,084
3,443
984
1,967
Measured
Runoff
ft3
2,834
1,537
4,479
329
1,732
990
344
784
8.239
260
454
1,128
2,830
5,750
274
4,463
1,450
10,400
8,300
769
255
4,900
5,799
2,820
2,840
7,240
2,410
155
312
Time Since
Last Storm
days
2.2
2.5
8.4
8.5
0.5
10
5
7
1
1
1
13
1
10
5
5
2
10
1
4
10
4
0.5
0.5
•
/
1
9
6
4
Acid
Load
Ibs
1,111
1,530
2,330
250
796
280
278
750
17,827
185
374
681
17,300
1,900
144
817
47
1,450
2,890
142
198
3,850
1,496
604
478
1,372
718
171
195
£155,134
£84,077
£134.1
£60,164
Area 6 = 2.71 A
f = 84,077 f 155,134 = 0.542
Acid Formation Rate =
                              60,164 Ibs
                      2.71 A x 134.1 days x 0.542

                    =305 Ibs/A/day
                             36

-------
         TABLE VII.  SUMMARY OF ACID FORMATION RATES
                Acid Formation Rate     Number of Tests or
      Area      	Ibs/A/day	      Storms Monitored

     SRTP               120                    13
     Area 1              79                     5
     Area 2             193                    22
     Area 6             305                    29
Thus the average rate of acid formation for this particular
refuse pile was 198 pounds of acidity, as CaC03, per acre
per day.

Two points should be mentioned regarding the results obtained
by this method.  The first relates to the temperature effects
on acid formation.  The data are not considered sufficiently
accurate to reflect temperature effects and thus the acid
formation rates reported herein can only be considered as
average values.  Although a continuous record of temperatures
was obtained near the Area 6 flume at ambient level, 3 inches
below the surface, and 18 inches below the surface, the temper-
ature effects were not related to the average acid formation
rate.  It is believed that due to the dark surface of the
pile, sunlight warms the surface mantle rapidly and acid
production probably continues during all but the coldest
months of the winter at this location.  Temperature data are
reported in Appendix XI-C.

The second relates to the fact that seepage flows are tribu-
tary to the ponds above the flumes of Area 1 and 2.  Due to
the rapid flush of water during a storm, it would appear that
seepage water accumulated in the ponds from a previous storm
has little effect on the acid weight determined from the
runoff data.  Due to the lack of sufficient data, however,
this point cannot be checked with any precision.

The data obtained from the ground water survey were incon-
clusive.  Although considerable effort was expended in
monitoring the water levels in the observation wells and
obtaining base flow and quality data, these data were not
amenable to any analysis and no rational correlations were
evident.  All wells, with the exception of #1, 13, and 15,
indicated water level variations of 1 foot or more with
well #2 showing a 33.02 foot maximum variation.  Comparison
of the overall situation with regard to the locations of the
                              37

-------
more variable wells with the observed points of seepage flow
did not yield a positive correlation between base flows and
well elevation.  While the well data indicate the location
of some of the storage pool water movement in the pile, a
Theissen polygon network analysis of the observation well
data did not yield any significant volume figures.  The
storage pool in the pile appeared to be comprised of several
unique pools of water, interconnected, that feed the indi-
vidual base flow points.  It appears that a more closely
spaced network of wells would be required to give an adequate
picture of ground water storage and movement.  The data are
included in Appendix XI-E and Appendix XI-G.

A number of samples were taken from Walker Creek, upstream
and downstream from the site and at a point three miles
downstream from the site, at Route 127.  These data are
included in Appendix XI-D and are to be used as reference
points during the monitoring program of Phase II.

As mentioned earlier, severe corrosion problems were exper-
ienced with the non-stainless steel flumes and drop boxes
used to measure the surface runoff.  As an alternative
material of construction, kiln-dried, untreated lumber or
marine-type plywood could be used.  The wood should be
essentially free of knots and cracks and adequately rein-
forced.  Waterproof glue and stainless steel bolts are recom-
mended for fasteners.  Weir plates should be made of stainless
steel, Type 304 or Type 316, and regularly inspected and
replaced at the first sign of deterioration.  A variety of
other materials such as reinforced plastics, coated steels,
concrete, and cements should also be considered for flume
construction.   However, each of these materials has certain
practical limitations and a careful evaluation of each should
be made before final selection.

                   Supplementary Experiments

The following supplementary experiments were conducted during
the course of this study and are briefly summarized herein:

1)   Role of Bacteria in Acid Formation

    A study was conducted to determine what role, if any,
    bacterial catalysis may play in the oxidation of pyrite.
    The initial conclusions, reported by Lau^ et al, indicated
    sound evidence for the occurrence of significant catalysis
    of pyrite oxidation only in environments such as are found
    at the surface of refuse piles and spoil banks.  Bacterial
    catalysis  is  less likely in underground environments.
                             38

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2)   Application of Bactericides

    During the bacterial catalysis studies, a number of
    bactericides were applied to the simulated rainfall test
    plot on the refuse pile to determine if the oxidation
    of pyrite could be reduced or arrested.  Hexionic acid,
    sodium lauryl sulfate,  and linear alkyl benzene sulfonate
    were applied separately.  No significant reduction in the
    acid formation rate was noted.

3)   Laboratory Acid Formation Rate Studies

    In an effort to substantiate the acid formation rate
    estimated in the field studies, refuse samples were
    tested in the laboratory for oxygen uptake at 25°C in a
    Warburg apparatus.  An average of nine tests on the
    random samples taken from the pile mantle indicated an
    acid formation rate of 107 Ibs/A/day.
                              39

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             EXPERIMENTAL ABATEMENT MEASURES
                 Rationale for Abatement

One of the objectives of this project was to demonstrate
water and air pollution abatement measures which would be
essentially permanent, require little need for continued
maintenance, and would present a pleasing aesthetic appear-
ance.  The basic approaches discussed were ways to minimize
the movement of air and/or water into the pile by sealing
the pile with a suitable cover (organic, mechanical, or
chemical), thus reducing or eliminating completely the
formation of acid, siltation, erosion, and dust entrainment.

A cover should function to varying degrees in one or more
of the following ways:

1.  The cover may prevent erosion and thus prevent the
    continuing exposure of fresh pyrite surfaces.  Since
    oxygen must be continuously supplied to support the
    pyrite oxidation reaction and since any layer of material
    separating pyrite from the atmosphere will function as
    a resistance to diffusion, then any physical stabiliza-
    tion of the pile surface will cause the zone of oxidation
    to move deeper into the pile and the overlying diffusion
    barrier will eventually control the rate of pyrite oxida-
    tion.  The reaction will decrease with time due to this
    effect, although the decrease may be very slow.

2.  The cover may be sufficiently impermeable to oxygen
    transport to act as an efficient diffusion barrier.  For
    example, a plastic sheet placed over the refuse may
    effectively stop all oxygen transport to the pyrite and
    oxidation will cease.

3.  The cover may be sufficiently impermeable to water move-
    ment to decrease or stop water movement into the refuse.
    If this occurs, then oxidation products will not be
    flushed away from the oxidation sites and the only move-
    ment of acid salts into the interior of the pile will be
    through seepage generated by the hygroscopic nature of
    the acid salts themselves.  Depending on oxygen avail-
    ability, pyrite oxidation may continue, but the products
    will be largely retained at or near the site of oxidation.

4.  The cover may function as an oxygen-consuming layer.  A
    vegetative cover such as grass might build up a suffi-
    ciently high concentration of organic matter in the soil
                             41

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     to support high rates  of  aerobic  bacterial  activity.
     Such a layer  might  be  effective in removing oxygen from
     the soil  atmosphere before  it  reaches the zone of pyrite
     oxidation.

 Attention was directed  largely  toward vegetative covers that
 could  be applied  using  standard agricultural techniques with-
 out  resorting to  new and untried equipment and/or machinery.
 Such covers would be self-healing  and would prevent further
 exposure of pyrite  by erosion.  A  selection of  grasses and
 legumes were  considered to be the  best approach in this
 experimental  program.

 Accordingly,  fourteen 0.1  acre  test plots were  established
 on the refuse pile  outside the  limits of drainage Areas 1,
 2, and 6.  The  location of these plots is shown in Figure 13.
 In addition,  three  test plots were established  on the slurry
 lagoons.

 Plots  3,  4, 5,  6, 7, 8,  9, 10,  12, 13, and 14 were equipped
 with a tile underdrain  laid one to two feet below the surface
 of the gob and  the  boundaries of the  plots were ditched to
 prevent the flow  of  surface acid runoff from adjacent areas
 across  the plots.  Monitoring of the  plots consisted of
 visual observation  of the  growth of grasses, chemical analysis
 of soil samples taken from the  refuse layer at  the interface
 of the  refuse with  the  various  applied covers,  and chemical
 analysis  of subsurface  drainage caught in the underdrain.

 The  grass species selected were recommended by  the USDA Soil
 Conservation  Service based on their experience  at this locale.
 In establishing grass covers  on test  plots using a topsoil
 cover,  samples of soil  were submitted to a soil testing
 laboratory, Agrico Chemical Division, Continental Oil Company,
 to determine  limestone  and fertilizer requirements (Appendix
 XI-J).   In the case  of  test plots  planted directly on  refuse
 or on  slurry  lagoon material  without  the use of topsoil, a
modified  soil test was  developed and  used as a  guide after
 it became apparent that  the standard  soil test  was not appli-
 cable  to  these types of material.

The  treatment procedures used in establishing the experimental
covers were as follows  and are  summarized in Table VIII.

Plot 1   Established June, 1969.  Agricultural  limestone,
         48 x 100 mesh,  applied at 40 T/A, rototilled into
         the refuse to  a depth  of  8".  Commercial fertilizer,
         6-24-24, applied at  1500  Ib/A.  Seeded with a
         mixture of Kentucky  fescue (37%% by weight)  and
         perennial rye  (62%%)  at 80 Ib/A.  Straw mulch
         spread on surface at 1% T/A.
                              42

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J-
Ul
                                                               I
             FIGURE 13  LOCATION OF EXPERIMENTAL VEGETATIVE TEST PLOTS

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                               TABLK VIII.   KXl'MKIMKNT.M,  VKCKTAT I\'t: TI1ST  PLOTS
 Test
 Plot
  No.
               Date
Location     Installed
                                             pll Adjustment       Fertilizer
                                     Barrier
   1     Refuse pile   June  1969   None



   2     Refuse pile   July  1969   None



   3     Refuse pile   Sept. 1969  None



   4     Refuse pile   Sept. 1969  None



   5     Refuse pile   Sept. 1969  None
  6    Refuse pile   Oct. 1969   Polyethylene
                                 membrane plus
                                 4" topsoil

  7    Refuse pile   Control     None
                     plot

  8    Refuse pile   Oct. 1969   4' topsoil
Type
Rate   Type      Rate   Type
 T/A             Lb/A
                                                                                    Grass  Seed
                                           Limestone'1*   40    6-24-24   1500    Ky.  fescue
                                                                                Per.  rye
                                                                                mix

                                           Limestone     40    6-24-24   1500    Ky.  fescue
                                                                                Per.  rye
                                                                                mix

                                           Limestone     40    6-24-24   1500    Ky.  fescue
                                                                                Per.  rye
                                                                                mix

                                           Limestone     40    6-24-24   1500    Ky.  fescue
                                                                                Per.  rye
                                                                                mix

                                           Limestone     40    6-24-24   1500    Ky.  fescue
                                                                                Orchard
                                                                                mix
                                          None
                                          Limestone
  9    Refuse pile   Oct.  1969   12" topsoil       Limestone
                                                              None
                                                                               None
                                                         2    6-24-24    500   Ky. fescue
                                                                               Orchard
                                                                               mix
                                                   Rate
                                                   Lb/A

                                                    30
                                                    50
                                                    30
                                                    50
                                                    30
                                                    50
                                                    30
                                                    50
                                                                                                       30
                                                                                                       50
                                          Limestone       2    6-24-24   1000   Ky. fescue     50
                                                                                                       40
                                                                                                       30
                                                         2    6-24-24    500   Ky. fescue >j   40
                                                                               Orchard    %   40
 10    Refuse  pile    Oct.  1969   24' topsoil       Limestone
 11     Refuse  pile   Oct.  1969    None
 12
13
14
16
17
      Refuse pile   Oct. 1969    4"  dried  sew-     None
                                 age sludge
      Refuse pile   Oct. 1969   Lime  sludge  from None
                                oil refinery
                                water treatment
                                plant
      Refuse pile   Nov. 1969   Waste line-
                                limestone
                                mixture
      Slurry
      lagoon
      Slurry
      lagoon
      Slurry
      lagoon
            June  1970   3" topsoil
                        tilled into
                        slurry to form
                        wind rows

            May 1970    None
           May  1970     Coherex
                                                  Code L
                                                  Limestone
                                                  Limestone
                                                  None
                                                         2    6-24-24    500   Ky. fescue %   40
                                                                               Orchard    ij   40
                                                                               Lespedeza
                                                                                 both sides   10
                                          Limestone     40    6-24-24   1500   Ky. fescue     30
                                                                               Per. rye       50
                                                                               mix
                                                                      None
                                                              None
                                                                 90    None
                                                                               Ky. fescue     10
                                                                               Per. rye       10
                                                                               mix

                                                                               None
                                                                                       None
                                                                  2    6-24-24    500   Grass seed :nix 65
             15    45-0-0     200   Oats           40
                   0-46-0     300   Ky. fescue     20
                   0-0-60     300   Sudan grass    30
                                    mix
                                                                      None
                                                                                       None
      *  'Agricultural limestone usad on Test Plots was 48 x 100 mesh

         Note:  All test plots planted to grass were covered with straw mulch at I1] T/A.
                                                    44

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Plot 2   Established July, 1969.   Agricultural limestone,
         48 x 100 mesh, applied at 40 T/A,  rototilled into
         the refuse simultaneously with 1 T/A straw to a
         depth of 8".  Commercial fertilizer, 6-24-24,
         applied at 1500 Ib/A.  Seeded with a mixture of
         Kentucky fescue (37%%)  and perennial rye (62%%)
         at 80 Ib/A.  Straw mulch spread on surface at 1%
         T/A.

Plot 3   Established September, 1969.  Agricultural limestone
         48 x 100 mesh, applied at 40 T/A disked into refuse
         to a depth of 8".  Commercial fertilizer,  6-24-24,
         applied at 1500 Ib/A.  Seeded with a mixture of
         Kentucky fescue (37%%)  and perennial rye (62%%)  at
         80 Ib/A.  Straw mulch spread on surface at 1% T/A.

Plot 4   Duplicate of Plot 3 with identical results.

Plot 5   Established September, 1969.  Agricultural limestone
         48 x 100 mesh, applied at 40 T/A,  disked into refuse
         to a depth of 8".  Commercial fertilizer,  6-24-24,
         applied at 1500 Ib/A.  Seeded with a mixture of
         Kentucky fescue (37%%)  and orchard grass (62%%)  at
         80 Ib/A.  Straw mulch spread on surface at 1% T/A.

Plot 6   Established October, 1969.  Black  polyethylene
         membrane, 39 mils thick, was placed on the graded
         refuse.  A 4" thickness of field soil was placed on
         the membrane.  Set out for percolation tests
         initially.

         In March, 1970, agricultural limestone, 48 x 100
         mesh, applied at 2 T/A, was raked  into the soil.
         Commercial fertilizer, 6-24-24, applied at 1000 Ib/A.
         Seeded with Kentucky fescue at 50  Ib/A.  Straw mulch
         spread on surface at 1% T/A.

Plot 7   Control plot; no treatment.

Plot 8   Established October, 1969.  A 4" thickness of field
         soil was placed on the refuse.  Agricultural lime-
         stone, 48 x 100 mesh, at 2 T/A, was hand-raked into
         the soil.  Commercial fertilizer,  6-24-24, applied
         at 500 Ib/A.  Seeded with a mixture of Kentucky
         fescue  (57%) and orchard grass  (43%) at 70 Ib/A.
         Straw mulch spread on surface at 1% T/A.

Plot 9   Established October, 1969.  A 12"  thickness of field
         soil was placed on the graded refuse.  Agricultural
         limestone, 48 x 100 mesh, at 2 T/A, hand-raked into
         the soil.  Commercial fertilizer,  6-24-24, applied
         at 500 Ib/A.  One-half of test plot seeded with
                               45

-------
          Kentucky  fescue  at  40  Ib/A  and one-half of plot
          seeded  with  orchard grass at  40 Ib/A.  Straw mulch
          spread  on surface at 1% T/A.

 Plot 10   Established  October, 1969.  A 24" thickness of field
          soil was  placed  on  the graded refuse.  Agricultural
          limestone, 48 x  100 mesh, at  2 T/A, hand-raked into
          the soil.  Commercial  fertilizer, 6-24-24, applied
          at 500  Ib/A.  One-half of test plot seeded with
          mixture of Kentucky fescue  (80%) and lespedeza (20%)
          at 50 Ib/A.  The other half of test plot seeded with
          mixture of orchard  grass  (80%) and lespedeza  (20%)
          at 50 Ib/A.  Straw  mulch spread on surface at 1% T/A.

 Plot 11   Established  in October, 1969  on a 4:1 slope with
          southern  exposure.   Agricultural limestone, 48 x 100
          mesh, applied at 40 T/A, disked into refuse.  Com-
          mercial fertilizer,  6-24-24,  applied at 1500 Ib/A.
          Seeded  with  a mixture of Kentucky fescue (37%%) and
          perennial rye  (62%%) at 80  Ib/A.  Straw mulch spread
          on surface at 1% T/A.

 Plot 12   Established  October, 1969.  Dried sewage sludge at
          4" thickness was applied to the surface of the
          refuse.   Seeded  with a mixture of Kentucky fescue
          (50%)  and perennial rye (50%) at 20 Ib/A.

 Plot 13   Established  October, 1969.  Lime Sludge from an oil
          refinery water treatment plant at 95 T/A was spread
          on the  surface.  The material was slightly oily and
         was not mixed into  the refuse.  Test plot set out
          for percolation  tests only.

Plot  14  Established November, 1969.  A finely ground mixture
          of lime and  limestone, labeled Code L from Mississippi
         Lime Company, applied at 90 T/A, was disked into
         refuse  to a depth of 6".  Test plot was set out for
         percolation tests only.

Three additional test plots  were established during this
investigation on the slurry  lagoons and are summarized as
follows:

Plot 15  Established June, 1969.  A series of 24 strips, 200
         ft long, 3 ft wide, and on 9 ft centers were staked
         out on the slurry lagoons.  Field soil at 3" thick-
         ness was applied to the strips and rototilled to a
         depth  of 3".   Agricultural limestone, 48 x 100 mesh,
         at 2 T/A,  was hand-raked into the surface.  Commer-
         cial fertilizer, 6-24-24,  at 500 Ib/A was applied.
                              46

-------
         The strips were seeded with a mixture  of  Kentucky
         fescue (31%) ,  lespedeza (15%) , red clover (8%) ,  and
         perennial rye  (46%)  at 65 Ib/A.   Straw mulch at  1%
         T/A was spread on the surface.

Plot 16  Established May, 1970.  Agricultural limestone,
         48 x 100 mesh, was rototilled into a 0.1  acre test
         plot of slurry lagoon material to a depth of 8", at
         15 T/A.  Urea, 45-0-0, at 200 Ib/A, triple-super
         phosphate, p-46-0, at 300 Ib/A,  and potash,  0-0-60,
         at 300 Ib/A were applied.  The test plot  was seeded
         with a mixture of Kentucky rescue (22%) ,  sudan grass
         (34%), and oats (44%) at 90 Ib/A.  Straw  mulch at
         1^ T/A was spread on the surface.  This test plot
         was completed  on an extremely windy day and  the
         mulch was held down with binder twine anchored to
         stakes to prevent the seed from blowing away.

Plot 17  Established May, 1970.  A 10 ft by 10 ft  test plot
         was established to determine the stabilizing effect
         of a petroleum-based product, "Coherex".*  The use
         of Coherex as  a stabilizing agent for mineral wastes
         has been reported by the Bureau of Mines.^  A one-
         gallon sample  of Coherex was mixed with 6 gallons of
         water and the  mixture was applied at a rate of one
         gallon per square yard to the slurry lagoon test
         plot using a garden sprinkler can.

                     Results and Discussion

In summary, grass was established on all test plots planted
to grass on the refuse  pile, with and without the  use of
topsoil.  The grass plots weathered well through one winter
season and continued growth was visible during the second
season.  The control plot, No. 7, remained barren  during  this
entire period.

Grass covers established on Plots 1 and 2 produced excellent
stands of grass.  Figure 14 shows the grass cover  on Plot 2
established directly in the refuse without the addition of
any topsoil.  As visually observed, the vegetative covers on
Plots 1 and 2 were significantly more uniform, with denser
grass than the grass covers on Plots 3, 4, and 5.

This improvement is attributed to the use of rototilling
equipment when applying the limestone on the former plots as
contrasted to discs used on the latter.  A more intimate mix-
ing of limestone with refuse material is believed to have
*Golden Bear Oil Company, Bakersfield, California
                              47

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 taken place.   Average  pH  values  of  the  "soil" on Plots  1
 and 2 were pH 4.7  and  pH  4.9  respectively  for the first six
 months of  1970.  No  data  were collected  for Plots 3,  4, and
 5 because  of  the spotty condition of  the vegetation.

 Plot 6,  using a polyethylene  membrane and  a 4-inch  thickness
 of topsoil, presented  several problems.  Spreading  of plastic
 was a very difficult task even during a  calm day.   Soil was
 piled on one  edge  and  then spread ahead  by a small  bulldozer.
 Great care was taken to protect  the plastic but it  was  diffi-
 cult to  be certain that it was not  punctured in the process
 of spreading  the soil.  This  plot was initially set out
 without  grass cover  for percolation tests  only.  Grass  was
 planted  on this plot in Spring 1970 and  a  good cover  of
 grass was  established.

 Plot 7,  control plot,  remained barren during the entire test
 period.  One  sample  of the refuse material taken in June,
 1970 showed a pH 2.3.

 Plot 8,  established  with  a 4-inch thickness of topsoil, had
 good grass growth  where the soil thickness was maintained.
 However, the  plot  was  relatively small to  be worked with even
 the  smallest  farm  equipment and refuse was exposed, resulting
 in a spotty grass  cover.   This problem was not experienced
 to the same degree in  Plots 9  and 10  that  were covered  with
 12 inches  and 24 inches of topsoil.

 Plot 9 wintered well into  the  1970  growing season.  The
 fescue did better  than the orchard  grass.

 Plot 10  showed good  grass  growth on both sides in the Spring
 1970.  The legumes (lespedeza) appeared  in June 1970.

 Plot 11  produced a spotty  grass cover, apparently due to
 poor mixing of limestone with  the refuse.  A disc attachment
 was  used on a  small  farm tractor.   Results were similar to
 Plots 3, 4, and 5.

 Plot  12, established with  dried sewage sludge in October
 1969, produced no vegetation until  Spring  1970, when  a  heavy
 growth of grass appeared including  tomato  plants and  a  number
 of weed  species.

 Plots 13 and  14 were set out for percolation tests  only.

The wind rows of grass established  on the  slurry lagoons
 grew well in  1969 and even  better in  1970.  Visual  observa-
 tion of the areas between  the  rows  in the  Summer 1970 showed
grass seed present but in  an ungerminated  form.  Excellent
new growth on the strips was evident  in the Fall 1970.
                              48

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Grass growth was visible within one week after planting on
Plot 16.  By mid-Summer 1970, the vegetation was 5 feet tall
and continued growth was expected.  This test plot is shown
in Figure 15.

Plot 17, treated with Coherex, developed a hard crust on
the surface which penetrated approximately 4 inches deep
with decreasing hardness.  The condition of the test plot
was essentially the same six months after application.  This
type of treatment would probably reduce any air pollution
from the slurry lagoons to an insignificant level and would
also reduce infiltration rate by increasing runoff.

All test plots on the refuse pile and slurry lagoons, except
Plots 15 and 16, were destroyed during Phase II operations.

Refuse samples were taken from the test plots on the refuse
pile only three times per month during the first six months
of 1970.  The samples were taken immediately below the inter-
face between the refuse and the prepared cover, or from the
.first 4 inches of refuse in plots having no cover.  One
hundred grams of refuse were mixed with 500 ml distilled
water and the resulting supernatant taken for chemical
analysis.  Due to the effect of the agricultural limestone
used in the preparation of some of the plots, pH, acidity,
and soluble iron analyses do not reflect the amount of
oxidation products in the solid sample.  Sulfate, however,
was present in proportion to the amounts of pyrite oxidation
products and should reflect any change in the oxidation rate,
given a sufficiently long period of time.

For all of the plots, there was a considerable amount of
scatter in the data and no apparent decrease in sulfate
concentration in the refuse with time.  However, due to the
slow rate of flushing of the refuse by infiltrating water,
detecting a definite change in oxidation product concentra-
tion in the refuse might require as many as five years, and
no conclusion as to pyrite oxidation rate change can be drawn
from these data.  Hill5 reports similar results in the Elkins
mine drainage pollution control project.  Table IX shows the
average sulfate concentrations found in the samples taken
from the plots shown during the six-month sampling period.
The variation in these values from plot to plot is believed
to be due to differences in the plots before covering and
to have little relationship to the effect of the cover.

Samples of subsurface drainage from the test plots were taken
once per week during the period February to May, 1970.  No
flows were detected in the underdrains before or after these
dates and several plots showed no flow at any time.  Samples
                              49

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FIG. 14  GRASS  COVER  ON REFUSE  PILE
           TEST  PLOT  *2

FIG. 15 GRASS COVER ON  SLURRY LAGOON
           TEST  PLOT  h6
                   50

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   TABLE  IX.   SULFATE ANALYSES FROM REFUSE PILE TEST PLOTS*

           Test Plot                Average Sulfate
              No.                   	mg/1	

              1                         1665
              2                         1752
              7                         2350
              8                         2193
              9                         2287
              10                         2035
              12                         2860
              13                         1834
              14                         2435

   *Period  -  February 1970  through May  1970
 were  analyzed  for  pH,  acidity,  iron,  and sulfate.  As  in the
 case  of  the  solid  refuse  samples, there was no  trend evident
 for meaningful sulfate content  change with time for any of
 the test plots.  Here,  again, it is believed that  several
 seasons  might  be required to flush the refuse significantly
 of oxidation products,  even if  oxidation of pyrite were
 completely stopped.  Data shown in Table X.

                 TABLE X.AVERAGE ANALYSES OF
	SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE ON TEST PLOTS*	

 Test  Plot   Acidity     pH   Sulfate   Total Iron   %  Ferric
   No.         mg/1    	     mg/1       mg/1      	

    3       20,191    1.71   20,590      5445         62.7
    4       10,026    2.25   10,391      2759         30.6
    7       30,211    1.64   30,662      7880         52.7
    8       35,710    1.29   37,518      9452         49.1
    9       34,447    1.41   36,360      9476         50.5
   10       29,018    1.35   30,341      7059         28.6

 *Period  - January  1970 through  June 1970
The chemical analyses presented herein and in Appendix XI-H
and XI-I are inconclusive in regard to an evaluation of  the
ability of  any of the covers to retard or stop pyrite oxi-
dation.
                               51

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 The most significant result of  the experimental  abatement
 measures applied  to the test plots was the discovery that a
 grass cover could be established  directly on highly acidic
 refuse material without the use of a topsoil base.   However,
 because of the short duration of  the test, it is not known
 to  what extent direct application of limestone and  fertilizer
 to  refuse material can be effective in abating pollution by
 the vegetative cover technique5   Whether a single applica-
 tion of limestone will be sufficient or whether  the treatment
 will have to be repeated at some  frequency has yet  to be
 determined.

 An  attempt was made to estimate the costs of the experimental
 abatement .measures developed in this study by extrapolating
 the basic data to a hypothetical  site of approximately 100
 acres.   These data are summarized in Table XI, exclude grading,
 special drainage  and engineering  costs, and assurae  the use of
 conventional farm machinery.  Since unit costs vary widely, a
detailed breakdown of costs associated with each test plot is
reported in Appendix XI-K.

There  appears to  be a decided incentive to further  investigate
limestone application directly to the graded refuse without
topsoil addition  as  there are many  instances where  good topsoil


          TABLE XI.   COMPARATIVE COSTS OF VEGETATIVE TEST PLOTS
  Plot
   No.
   Barrier
   1,2   None

  3,4,5  None

   6
   9

   10

   12


   16


   17
4" of sewage
sludge

None
None
                     Vegetative  Cost
                       Results   $/A
                      Remarks
Polyethylene
Membrane and
4" of topsoil

4" of topsoil   Grass
12" of topsoil  Grass

24" of topsoil  Grass

             Grass
             Grass
Excellent

Spotty

Good



Spotty



Good

Good

Good


Good
             Coherex  None
                                365  Limestone rototilled

                                365  Limestone disked

                               1749  Difficult to apply poly-
                                    ethylene
 660  Difficult to cover com-
     pletely without leaving
     exposed patches of refuse

1735

3345

 820
 210  Requires special equipment
     due to soft base material

 388  Requires special equipment
     due to soft base material
                               52

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is a scarce and/or expensive commodity.   Agricultural lime-
stone is usually available locally at approximately $4-$6/ton
spread on the site.  At the rates used in the experimental
Plots 1 and 2, i.e., 40 tons/acre, the cost of establishing
a grass cover directly on the refuse material was estimated
at approximately $365, excluding grading and certain other
related costs.  These costs can be broadly compared to those
reported by others using topsoil covers.  The Bureau of Mines^
reports cost estimates from several sources for digging, short
haulage and placing a 12 inch soil cover ranging from $0.23
to $0.36 per square yard ($1140-$1790/acre).  This same
reference reports "an Arizona copper producer with experience
in covering two copper mill tailing ponds and an HEW report?
estimating the cost of burying uranium mill tailings agree
on a cost of $0.23 per square yard for digging, short hauling
and placing a 12 inch soil cover.  This would amount to
$1113 per acre exclusive of costs for soil procurement."

During the course of this study, several waste-type alkaline
materials were found to be available in the area.  Similar
situations may exist elsewhere and these can be tried to
further reduce the costs.  However, a word of caution is in
order regarding the application of waste-type alkaline
materials for mineral waste neutralization prior to estab-
lishing vegetative covers.  Agricultural limestone is usually
available locally at approximately $4-$6/ton spread on the
site.  A variety of alkaline-type waste materials may be
available, either locally or at a relatively short distance
from a site.  Although the waste material may be inexpensive,
sometimes even available at no cost, transporting and spread-
ing this material can exceed the cost of agricultural lime-
stone.  In addition, the chemical potency of these materials
may be quite low, requiring excessive quantities of weak
material to furnish equivalent neutralizing power, further
increasing the costs.  And finally, toxic elements may be
present in waste materials, and their effect on vegetative
covers should be determined.  Soil testing laboratories,
university extension services, and the U.S. Department of
Agriculture can be sources of valuable information in deter-
mining toxicity levels when matching plants with soils.
However, it is important that the soil testing laboratory be
made aware of the nature of the material being tested, other-
wise a routine test will be made which can lead to erroneous
conclusions.  Each situation should therefore be carefully
explored before deciding on a specific course of action.

In determining limestone requirements for the refuse-type
material, a modified soil test was used as a guide.  The
procedure used was as follows:

     A select sample of refuse material containing particles
     <1 inch D. was crushed in a mortar and pestle to
                              53

-------
      approximately 20 mesh size.   A 100-gram portion was
      mixed with distilled water  and the  volume  adjusted to
      400 cc.   The pH of the slurry was determined  and  incre-
      ments of agricultural limestone were  added to the
      slurry until pH 5+ was obtained, at which  point the
      rate of  pH rise decreased sharply.  The amount of lime-
      stone added was determined  and this was then  extrapo-
      lated to an application rate  for the  test  plots.  As an
      example, 7 grams of limestone was added to a  100-gram
      sample of refuse to raise the pH to 5.9 from  2.3.  Refuse
      material had a bulk density of approximately  75 Ib/cubic
      foot and tilling normally decreased this bulk density
      by  30% to 52 Ib/cubic foot.   One acre of refuse tilled
      to  a depth of 6 inches weighed:

         J3,560 ft2 x 0>5 ft x 52.5 Ib _  1,150,000  Ib/acre
            acre                 ftj

      The amount of limestone necessary to  neutralize 1 acre
      of  refuse was:

         1,150,000 Ib refuse   7 grams limestone    1 ton
                acre          x 100  grams  refuse   x  2000 Ib
         =40  tons/acre

 It is apparent that  the technique  used here considers  only
 the soluble acid present in the  sample,  and assumes that
 further  oxidation of the remaining pyrite  will  not take place.
 This may or may not  be  true.

 Additional  work in this area of soil testing for refuse piles
 appears  justified.   The University of Illinois  is  reported to
 be doing research in chemical characterization  of  high sulfur
 coastal  plain soils  using the sulfur fractionation procedure
 developed there.

 Phase II of this  project is  currently underway.  The refuse
 pile has been graded, special drainage lines have  been in-
 stalled  and three  giant test plots  established  with different
 thicknesses of  earth planted to grasses.   Four  automated
monitoring  stations  have  been installed  and these  will be
used to  collect data during  the next year  from  which the
effectiveness  of  the abatement technique will be determined.

The slurry  lagoons have  also been  treated  with  abatement
measures.  One-half  of  the  slurry  lagoons  was treated  with
limestone and  fertilizer  and planted to  grasses.   The  other
half was treated with the Coherex  chemical stabilizer  and may
be planted to grasses later.   The water  in the  ponds was
neutralized and drained  and  the area occupied by the ponds
                              54

-------
planted to grass.  The dikes were opened to allow any runoff
to flow into Walker Creek rather than be impounded.  Two
monitoring stations were also installed at the slurry lagoons

A final report covering Phase II will be issued after the
monitoring program is completed.
                              55

-------
                            ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The following have made slnnificant contributions in the preparation
of this renort and their assistance is gratefully acknowledged.
            G. L. Barthauer, Consolidation Coal Company
            Z. V. Kosowski, Consolidation Coal Company
            J. L. Lombardo, Consolidation Coal Company
            Gene Lona, Truax-Traer, Coal Company
            J. P. Ramsey, Truax-Traer Coal Company
            V. T. Ricca, The Ohio State University
            W. A. Saymansky, Consolidation Coal Company
            K. S. Shumate, The Ohio State University
            E. E. Smith, The Ohio State University
                             and
            Mrs. F. Voqel, Consolidation Coal Company
      The primary obiective of this laroe scale project was to demonstrate
practical methods of abating pollution from coal mine refuse piles.  The
demonstration of at-source control methods such as this is an important
element of the total Environmental Protection Agency Mine Drainage
Pollution Control Program.  This project was conducted under the
direction of the Pollution Control Analysis Section, Ernst P. Hall .Chief,
and Donald J. 0'Bryan, Project Manager, with Eugene E. Chaudoir, of
the EPA Indiana District Office serving as Project Officer.
                                57

-------
                          REFERENCES
1.  Surface Mined Land Reclamation Act,  State  of  Illinois,
    Rule 9, p. 9, (July 1, 1968).

2.  Field Manual for Research in Agricultural  Hydrology,
    Agriculture Handbook No.  224,  U.S.  Department of
    Agriculture  (June 1962).

3.  Lau, C. M., Shumate, K.  S., Smith,  E.  E.,  "The Role of
    Bacteria in the Pyrite Oxidation Kinetics,"  Second
    Symposium on Coal Mine Drainage Research,  Mellon
    Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (May 1968).

4.  Dean, K. C., Havens, R.,  and Harper, K.  T.,  "Chemical
    and Vegetative Stabilization of a Nevada Copper Porphyry
    Mill Tailings," Bureau of Mines R.I. 7261, U.S. Depart-
    ment of the Interior  (1969).

5.  Hill, R. D. , "Elkins Mine Drainage  Pollution Control
    Demonstration Project,"  Third Symposium on Coal Mine
    Drainage Research, Mellon Institute, Pittsburgh,
    Pennsylvania (May 1970).

6.  Havens, R., and Dean, K.  C., "Chemical Stabilization of
    the Uranium Tailings at Tuba City,  Arizona,"  Bureau of
    Mines R.I. 7288, U.S. Department of the Interior  (1969).

7.  "Disposition and Control of Uranium Mill Tailings in the
    Colorado River Basin," U.S. Department of Health, Educa-
    tion and Welfare, Federal Water Pollution Control Ad-
    ministration, Region VIII, Denver,  Colorado (March 1969),
                              59

-------
                         PUBLICATIONS
Barthauer, G. L., "Pollution Control of Preparation Plant
     Wastes - A Research and Demonstration Project," AIME
     Environmental Quality Conference,  Washington,  B.C.
     (June 1971).

Brown, W. E., "The Control of Acid Mine Drainage Using an
     Oxygen Diffusion Barrier," a Thesis Presented  in Partial
     Fulfillment for the Degree Master  of Science,  the Ohio
     State University (1970).

Good, D. M., Ricca, V. T., Shumate, K.S., "The Relation of
     Refuse Pile Hydrology to Acid Production," Second
     Symposium on Coal Mine Drainage Research, Mellon
     Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa. (May 1968).

Lau, C.M., Shumate, K. S., Smith, E. E., "The Role  of
     Bacteria in the Pyrite Oxidation Kinetics," Second
     Symposium on Coal Mine Drainage Research, Mellon
     Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa.  (May 1968).

Ramsey, J. P., "Demonstration of Control of Acid Mine
     Drainage from Coal Refuse Piles,"  AIME Meeting. Salt
     Lake City, Utah  (September 1969) .

Ramsey, J. P., "Control of Acid Drainage from Refuse Piles
     and Slurry Lagoons," Second Symposium on Coal  Mine
     Drainage Research, Mellon Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa.
     (May 1968).
                              61

-------
APPENDIX XI-A




RAINFALL DATA
        63

-------
                      RAINFALL, INCHES
 Date
 1969

   1
   2
   3
   4
   5
   6
   7
   8
   9
  10
  11
  12
  13
  14
  15
  16
  17
  18
  19
  20
  21
  22
  23
  24
  25
  26
  27
  28
  29
  30
  31

Total
April
May
June
           August
_
—
—
_
_
_
_
_
—
».
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
o.io (i)
0.05
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0.25
0.20
0
0
0
0
0.50
0
0
0
0.55
0.35
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.05
0.10
0
0
0
0.20
0.85
0.05
0
0
0.20
0
0
0
1.70
0.20
0.30
0
0
0.05
0.75
0
1.45

1.90
0.40
0.20
0
0
0.15
1.30
0
0.05
0
0.15
0
1.00
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.50
1.25
1.55
0
1.55
0
0
0.40
0
0
0
0.05
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.50
0
0.40
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.15"
1.85"
5.90"
10.45"
                                         0.90"
(1) Started operation of rain gage on  4/18/69
                             64

-------
                      RAINFALL, INCHES
               September   October   November   December

   1
   2
   3
   4
   5
   6
   7
   8
   9
  10
  11
  12
  13
  14
  15
  16
  17
  18
  19
  20
  21
  22
  23
  24
  25
  26
  27
  28
  29
  30
  31

Total            2.60"      1.80"      1.35"      1.05"
0
0
0.15
0.75
0
0.40
0.25
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.05
0.65
0.15
0
0
0
0
0
0.10
0
0
0
0.10
0
0
0

0.10
0
0
0
0
0.95
0.10
0
0
0
0.40
0
0.15
0
0
0
0
0.10
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.05
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.45
0.85
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0.60
0.20
0
0
0.10
0.15
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
                             65

-------
                    RAINFALL, INCHES
           January      February,      March       April
            "1          °°:»        sis        -".
               :             s        "•'!            :
                         J                        :
10
 13                          n            0            0
 14          O-25            2            6            0
 15          0.10            0            0            Q

 16             °            0         0.55         0.25
 17             0            0         0.05         0.15
 18             0            0            0         1-35
 19             S            S            0            0
 20             °            S         0.10            0
 21             n          0  45         0.15            0
 22             °          °  0         0.05         0.10
 23             0            0         0.05         0.15
 24             °            0         0.95            0
 25             °            0         0.05            0
 26             0            0            0         0.20
 27             0            n            0         0.45
 28          0.85            0            0             Q
 29             °                         0        0.15
 30             0          _        Q.05        _


Total       ^«
                            66

-------
                      RAINFALL, INCHES
Date
197Q       May     June     July     August     September

                                                     0
                                                     0
                                                     0
                                                     0
                                                     0
                                                     0
                                                     0
                                                     0
                                                     0
                                                     0
                                                     0
                                                     0
                                                  0.35
                                                     0
                                                     0
                                                  0.15
                                                  0.10
                                                  1.25
                                                     0
                                                     0
                                                     0
                                                     0
                                                  0.55
                                                     0
                                                     0
                                                  0.95
                                                     0
                                                     o(D
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
0.45
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.10
1.35
0.90
0
0
0
0.60
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.20
0
0
0
0.40
0.25
0.25
1
0
1
0








0





0
0


0
0







.25
.55
.35
.20
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
.35
0
0
0
0
0
.15
.20
0
0
.15
.05
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0.60
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.50
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.70
0.05
0
0.45
0.40
0
0.40
0
0
0
0
0
0.95
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.45
Total     4.50"    4.25"    1.10"     3.40"       3.35"
(1) Collection of rain gage data terminated on 9/28/70
                              67

-------
      APPENDIX XI-B




WATER LEVEL RATING TABLE




      AREA 6 FLUME
             69

-------
FLUME 1.5 FEET DEEP AT  FLOW POINT NO.  6
Head
TftT
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
0.00

_
.028
.099
.218
.393
.631
.934
1.31
1.76
2.30
2.91
3.63
4.45
5.38
6.40
0.01

_
.033
.108
.234
.414
.658
.968
1.35
1.81
2.35
2.98
3.71
4.54
5.48
6.50
0.02

.002
.038
.119
.249
.436
.685
1.00
1.39
1.86
2.40
3.04
3.80
4.63
5.57
6.61
0.03

.003
.044
.129
.266
.459
.714
1.04
1.44
1.91
2.47
3.12
3.86
4.71
5.67
6.72
0.04

.005
.051
.140
.282
.481
.744
1.07
1.48
1.96
2.53
3.20
3.95
4.80
5.76
6.84
0.05

.008
.058
.152
.298
.505
.775
1.11
1.53
2.02
2.58
3.26
4.04
4.89
5.86
6.95
0.06

.011
.066
.164
.317
.528
.805
1.15
1.57
2.07
2.65
3.34
4.11
4.99
5.97
7.05
0.07

.014
.073
.177
.335
.554
.835
1.19
1.62
2.13
2.71
3.40
4.20
5.09
6.08
7.18
0.08

.018
.081
.191
.354
.578
.868
1.23
1.67
2.18
2.78
3.48
4.28
5.19
6.19
7.28
0.09

.023
.090
.204
.374
.604
.900
1.27
1.71
2.24
2.85
3.56
4.37
5.29
6.28
7.40
                70

-------
             APPENDIX XI-C



DAILY MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM TEMPERATURES




                AREA 6
                    71

-------
               48" Above        3" Below         20" Below
                Surface         Surface           Surface
                  op              OF                °F
Dec. 1969     Max     Min      Max     Min      Max     Mm

   12
   13
   14
   15
   16
   17
   18
   19
   20
   21
   22
   23
   24
   25
   26
   27
   28
   29
   30
   31

60
38
31
39
42
52
37
28
26
36
32
24
32
27
27
30
30
26
27
24
26
28
17
14
18
24
18
14
24
22
20
12
20
7
12
25
23
22
21
34
40
39
32
28
28
38
30
26
27
27
27
26
26
26
25
26
26
26
27
—
29
33
27
25
25
28
26
25
26
26
26
25
25
25
24
25
26
26
26
35
41
39
36
38
36
38
36
34
32
33
32
32
32
31
30
30
30
30
30
33
35
37
33
32
33
34
32
32
32
32
31
30
30
28
28
30
30
30
30
                              72

-------
Jan. 1970

    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    7
    8
    9
   10
   11
   12
   13
   14
   15
   16
   17
   18
   19
   20
   21
   22
   23
   24
   25
   26
   27
   28
   29
   30
   31
 48" Above
  Surface
    0F
Max     Min
 3" Below
 Surface
   OF
Max     Min
 20" Below
  Surface
    oF
Max     Min
26
34
20
39
39
8
6
2
11
24
30
35
40
51
56
46
35
11
16
15
13
21
25
42
60
42
54
72
45
46
55
17
2
2
1
4
-4
-4
-4
-4
-4
22
4
1
13
18
22
7
-1
0
-5
-5
-3
7
11
31
27
30
45
19
17
24
27
28
25
26
26
22
18
13
14
17
21
22
22
24
25
24
25
21
17
18
12
15
18
22
29
28
35
49
42
27
35
27
27
24
22
22
18
13
10
10
9
17
19
18
18
21
23
21
13
13
6
2
4
15
15
22
26
26
31
27
26
27
30
31
29
31
30
26
24
22
22
22
24
22
26
28
28
26
27
26
24
22
22
20
19
26
25
24
26
43
37
31
33
29
29
27
28
26
23
22
20
19
18
22
21
20
23
24
25
26
23
21
21
18
17
17
19
23
23
23
25
28
27
28
                             73

-------
Feb. 1970

    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    7
    8
    9
   10
   11
   12
   13
   14
   15
   16
   17
   18
   19
   20
   21
   22
   23
   24
   25
   26
   27
   28
 48" Above
  Surface
    OF
Max     Min
 3" Below
 Surface
   oF
Max     Min
 20" Below
  Surface
    OF
Max     Min
48
36
10
32
48
39
48
42
28
46
44
37
34
23
27
43
45
63
34
26
62
44
59
46
42
41
59
51
28
-2
-4
1
28
28
34
26
22
21
23
20
22
16
5
3
14
24
18
11
21
33
28
29
14
12
28
29
35
33
18
23
29
30
36
26
36
35
29
29
29
24
24
28
27
45
30
29
36
35
49
40
38
27
42
39
28
24
10
10
23
27
24
24
26
27
28
28
26
22
21
22
23
27
27
24
24
31
30
32
22
22
30
30
32
30
24
26
30
26
31
31
29
31
29
29
26
24
24
26
29
35
29
29
34
31
36
34
34
31
36
34
30
24
22
22
26
24
27
29
27
27
28
26
25
21
22
22
24
27
27
25
24
30
28
31
27
26
28
30
                             74

-------
March 1970

     1
     2
     3
     4
     5
     6
     7
     8
     9
    10
    11
    12
    13
    14
    15
    16
    17
    18
    19
    20
    21
    22
    23
    24
    25
    26
    27
    28
    29
    30
    31
 48" Above
  Surface
    Op
Max     Min
 3" Below
 Surface
    oF
Max     Min
 20" Below
  Surface
    OF
Max     Min
53
68
60
54
55
64
63
72
55
46
32
32
37
33
40
40
29
42
42
42
43
55
38
58
56
47
60
50
42
37
63
44
51
52
31
28
28
30
33
35
27
26
26
22
20
18
18
25
28
29
29
25
31
30
29
34
30
25
28
26
32
31
45
54
52
51
46
52
50
57
48
42
32
31
32
29
32
33
30
38
37
38
38
35
34
49
46
42
48
42
41
42
51
38
45
51
34
33
32
36
36
38
32
31
30
27
28
26
26
29
28
31
30
30
32
32
29
35
30
28
33
32
34
36
36
43
43
42
40
42
42
45
41
38
36
34
32
30
30
36
30
31
32
30
32
36
34
38
40
36
39
37
35
36
41
33
36
41
36
36
34
35
36
38
36
33
33
28
29
28
29
29
29
31
28
38
30
30
29
35
33
31
33
32
33
32
                              75

-------
April 1970

     1
     2
     3
     4
     5
     6
     7
     8
     9
    10
    11
    12
    13
    14
    15
    16
    17
    18
    19
    20
    21
    22
    23
    24
    25
    26
    27
    28
    29
    30
 48" Above
  Surface
    OF
Max     Min
 3" Below
 Surface
    °F
Max     Min
 20" Below
  Surface
    OF
Max     Min
53
51
70
54
64
64
69
79
73
81
82
71
58
47
72
84
84
65
69
76
79
76
60
84
68
84
88
87
83
87
35
31
31
33
28
38
30
41
45
43
43
46
40
40
34
51
60
53
47
44
40
56
49
50
48
57
60
69
68
66
45
43
54
48
52
54
50
60
61
66
66
59
54
45
59
71
66
58
62
59
63
63
62
66
60
72
70
75
74
77
39
35
34
42
35
40
38
42
48
46
48
51
45
43
40
51
60
53
50
48
47
53
53
52
52
57
60
66
68
68
40
39
44
44
44
45
46
50
51
53
55
52
48
45
49
56
55
53
55
50
53
54
54
55
54
58
60
62
62
64
38
34
34
34
45
38
37
41
44
48
46
47
45
43
42
46
52
50
50
48
46
50
49
49
50
52
57
58
60
60
                             76

-------
               48" Above        3" Below         20" Below
                Surface         Surface           Surface
                  Op               Op               Op
May 1970      Max     Min      Max     Min      Max     Min

   1
   2
   3
   4
   5
   6
   7
   8
   9
  10
  11
  12
  13
  14
  15
  16
  17
  18
  19
  20
  21
  22
  23
  24
  25
  26
  27
  28
  29
  30
  31
68
67
78
88
90
71
86
86
85
84
83
90
94
92
88
74
87
87
87
93
97
96
99
98
98
89
89
94
91
84
80
42
37
34
47
47
47
47
56
62
56
62
68
70
63
52
51
68
52
56
57
60
67
64
66
58
52
56
64
67
66
68
66
63
70
66
79
70
77
78
73
75
73
80
84
84
78
66
80
80
87
88
92
91
88
82
88
85
86
91
86
78
73
52
48
46
54
57
56
56
64
48
64
64
68
70
70
60
58
55
60
63
66
78
72
79
74
68
64
66
70
70
70
70
62
56
58
62
64
61
63
63
63
64
62
66
69
69
68
62
65
66
70
62
73
74
64
76
75
72
72
74
74
70
68
56
50
50
54
55
56
55
58
62
61
60
61
64
62
60
58
57
59
61
64
66
78
58
69
68
66
66
68
70
68
68
                             77

-------
June 1970

    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    7
    8
    9
   10
   11
   12
   13
   14
   15
   16
   17
   18
   19
   20
   21
   22
   23
   24
   25
   26
   27
   28
   29
   30
 48" Above
  Surface
    OF
Max     Min
 3" Below
 Surface
    OF
Max     Min
 20" Below
  Surface
    OF
Max     Min
82
80
74
71
64
86
94
93
92
93
82
86
90
100
90
94
101
96
78
90
74
90
93
100
93
94
92
91
97
102
67
65
62
60
60
57
53
61
62
64
66
69
66
68
67
69
84
78
60
58
56
52
54
64
66
66
57
58
61
67
73
71
66
64
60
74
83
84
85
83
86
78
84
92
84
87
93
92
74
84
75
84
90
94
91
82
90
89
93
97
68
64
64
61
60
61
60
66
68
68
70
72
70
73
72
83
76
78
78
65
66
62
66
72
73
76
70
70
71
76
67
66
64
61
60
64
69
70
71
71
72
70
72
75
72
73
76
78
70
72
69
71
74
76
76
76
76
76
77
80
66
64
62
60
58
60
60
63
65
66
67
68
67
69
69
67
71
74
68
67
66
64
66
69
70
72
70
70
70
72
                            78

-------
July 1970

    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    7
    8
    9
   10
   11
   12
   13
   14
   15
   16
   17
   18
   19
   20
   21
   22
   23
   24
   25
   26
   27
   28
 48" Above
  Surface
    oF
Max     Min
 3" Below
 Surface
    oF
Max     Min
 20" Below
  Surface
    oF
Max     Min
111
111
106
81
90
92
92
101
92
100
104
101
104
102
99
102
96
99
92
76
88
87
89
97
102
98
99
98
71
66
71
62
58
56
62
68
62
62
65
68
66
69
66
62
62
63
70
60
52
56
66
63
67
74
71
72
101
105
93
84
85
82
91
95
92
90
100
99
100
99
92
96
90
95
85
75
83
85
87
95
99
98
96
96
79
104
73
62
69
67
72
76
74
74
77
79
79
80
78
73
76
78
76
67
63
65
73
73
77
82
81
81
83
86
82
78
78
78
78
80
79
80
82
83
84
84
82
82
82
82
80
78
74
74
75
79
82
82
82
82
75
78
76
74
75
69
72
74
74
72
75
76
86
78
78
74
76
78
77
76
66
68
71
71
74
78
77
77
                              79

-------
           APPENDIX XI-D




SURFACE FLOW AND WATER QUALITY  DATA
                  81

-------
FLOW POINT NO.  1


Date
ISeT
4/16
4/23
5/6
5/7
5/8
5/8
5/9
5/11
5/14
5/14
5/14
5/18
5/18
5/19
5/20
6/9
6/9
6/9
6/9
6/13
6/18
6/18
6/18
6/18
6/18
6/18
6/18
6/18
6/22
6/22
6/22
6/22
6/22
6/22
6/22
6/22
6/22
6/24
6/24
8/4
8/6
8/12
8/14
8/14
8/15
8/19
8/20
8/20
8/20
8/20
8/20
8/20
8/20
8/20
8/20
8/20
8/20
8/20
8/20
8/21
8/25
8/28
9/3
9/4
9/10
9/12
9/16
9/18
9/29
10/2
10/6
10/7


Time Flow
CPU




09:15
10:15
09:00
19:00
08:00
11:00
17:00
10:00
16:00
16:30
09:00
09:00
11:00
13:00
15:00
08:00
08:15
03:30
09:45
09:00
09:15
09:30
09:45
15:00
08:45
09:00
09:15
09:30
09:45
13:30
13:45
14:00
14:15
07:50
08:30
11:30 2.4
3.0
4.0




16:52
17:17
17:21
17:26
17:30
17:36
17:41
17:45
17:50
17:55
18:00
13:06
20:30
2.0
2.0
1.1
1.7
8.6
2.2
1.2
0.75
1.4
2.0
1.3
0.26
08:30


pll


2.6
2.45
2.4
2.1
2.3
2.35
2.5
2.4
2.45
2.4
2.35
2.35
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.45
3.5
3.45
2.3
2.25
2.25
2.3
2.25
2.25
2.25
2.25
2.25
2.55
2.5
2.5
2.45
2.4
1.9
2.25
2.35
2.3
2.3
2.25
2.4

2.55
2.55
2.45
3.45
2.35
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.15
2.15
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.3
2.5
2.5
2.1
2.6
2.4
2.4
2.60

2.4
2.55
2.45
2.25

Net
Acidity
mg/1


21,450
15,150
21,100
18,750
18,350
19,400
8,975
6,550
6,690
3,500
8,250
7,900
8,850
23,500
25.3SO
26,500
27,500
10,750
10,950
3,725
7,500
7,250
8,500
8,850
8,475
19.450
3,975
2,400
2,700
3,100
3,400
7,750
5,750
5,300
5,550
2,675
3,815
14,700
15,400
16,050
17,800
21,600
15,400
10,850
14,350
15,400
12,950

9,750

7,900


7,200
6.250

7,000
11,500
12,550
15,500
14,200
1,500
4,350
6,140


14,700
13,750
17,000
5,700

Conductivity
Micromhos
per era















20,160
21,340
22,400
22,960
9.856
11,100
9,075
8,230
7,840
9,070
9,180
3,960
19,900
2,250
4,050
4,330
4,875
5,150
9,800
8,520
7,280
7,500
5,260
6,610
16,700

17,800
20,950
24,100
18,600
12,700
15,904
14,630
13,100
12,100
10,700
9,860
9,350
8,960
8,620
8,830
8,230
3,430
8,960
11,550
15,000
13,203
17,050
3,830
6,950
9,620
13,930
8,620
14,000
13,200
18,500
6,830
Total
Alkalinity
Methyl
Ornnqe
mcj/i
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0













0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

Total
Iron
rag/1
780

6,842
4,330
6,708
5,724
6,093
5,937
2,571
1,474
1,833
9,771
2,616
2,234
2,340
7,871
8,870
9,000
9,210
2,292
3,019
2,194
1,880
1,688
2,214
2,236
2,142
6,015
455
492
592
730
817
2,050
1,540
1,400
1,410
620
923
4,780
4,880
5,225
5,700
7,040
4,925
3,170
4,350
4,245
3,320

2,320

1,300


1,565
1,400

1,625
3,040
4,310
4,970
5,360
384
1,287
1.825


4.310
4.550
5,570


Ferrous
Iron
rag/1
702

5,881
3,220
5,210
4,530
4,852
5,022
1,608
1,018

• 604
1,983
1,802
1,874
5,903
6,570
6,641
6,735
1,297
1,737
1,101
890
702
1,050
1,275
1,073
4,584
112
145
181
251
311
492
672
593
601
292
454
4,140
3,900
4,350
4,660
6,650
4,920
1,590
3,150
2,540
1,585

895

630


565
485

708
1,420
3,945
3,930
4,790
127
917
1,315


2,460
3,575
4,360



Sulfate
mg/1
5,789

25,848
18,420
26,400
23,010
23,340
22,500
10,752
8,352
8,683
4,877
10,560
9,840
10,152
30,480
33,312
34,176
34,560
12,816




















































    82

-------
                                       FLOW POINT NO. 1

Date Time
IBS?
10/9
10/13
10/13 12:15
10/13 14:30
10/15
10/20
10/27
11/4
11/11
11/14
11/18
11/21
11/25
12/5
12/9
12/11 08:50
12/11 10:30
12/12
12/16
12/19
12/23

Flow
GrM
0.62
1.4



1.5
0.32
0.79
1.5
0

3.2
0.43
0.86








pll

2.5
2.45
2.5
2.15
2.2
2.65
2.7
2.5
2.7
2.75
2.3

3.48
3.56







Net
Acidity
mg/1
5,800
7,890
11,600
6,150
7,300
12.065
14,250
12,000
425
11.700
3,000


13,050
3,800
8,700
10.P50
8,400
11,450
12,150
11,600
Conductivity
Microrahos
per cm
8,070
8.G30
8,850
7,450
7,340
12,200
12,650
10,100
4,930
3,630
3,300
6,270
9,750
9,025
3,700


5,712
9,700
8,625
6,500
1970
1/5
1/14
1/16
1/26
1/28
2/2
2/5
2/5
2/5
2/5
2/9
2/13
2/17
2/18
2/18
2/20
2/25
2/27
3/3
3/4
3/4
3/4
3/6
3/8
3/10
3/12
3/13
3/13
3/18
3/18
3/18
3/19
3/19
3/20
3/24
3/25
3/25
3/25
3/30
4/2
4/7
4/12
4/14
4/16
4/19
4/19
4/21
4/23







14:05
15:05
16:05



09:50
12:05




09:45
13:10
16:00



15:15
15:00

09:15
13:30
16:35
11:20
15:20


08:15
13:00
15:45






14:00
17:00





6.7
0.92
12
80
80
30
80
15
3.7
80


4.6
2.6
1.6
20



12
4.3
2.2
12
15
15
34




7
3.7



6.6
2.0
5
3.0
1.1
1.5


1.1
1.9
2.4
2.8
2.9
2.2
2.8
2.35
2.6
2.6
2.4
2.5
2.45
2.55
2.6
2.4
2.4
2.6
2.7
2.6
2.25
2.2
2.0
2.0
2.3

2.4
3.1
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.6

2.4
2.20
2.5
2.4
2.4
2.25
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.5
2.5
3.1
2.4
2.4
2.45
2.5
2.5
11,600
16,700
13,275
11,200
7,000
6,000
3,820
5,100
3,570
4,300
9,075
17,425
5,400
4,580
5,320
15,020
15,420
16,275
9,250
3,825
6,700
10,600
16,950

21,800
11,850
20,300
7,500
9,240
5,750
3,500
9,320
9,250
14,500
15,500
4,900
7,560
9,370
17,800
16,900
19, IOC
21,900
14,900
18,200
4,150
5,000
14,300
15,250
9.460
13,450
9,960
8,620
8,000
4,480
4,250
4,250
4,310
4,600
7,615
14,700
5,330
5,090
6,610
10,975
10,300
13,300
9,300
4,480
6,380
9,060
13,450

14,800
3,300
7,620
7,620
7,210
5,370
4,040
7,340
7,270
10,850
13,550
4,940
7,500
3,730
13,932
12,750
14,550
17.620
10,090
17.600
5,490
6,160
12.370
12,200
                                                         Total
                                                       Alkalinity
                                                         Methyl
                                                         Oranne
Total
Iron
mg/i
1,470
2,485
2,740
1,600
2,030
4,050
4,750
4,114
1,320
4,150
659
2,062
3,430
4,575
915
2,720
3,660
2,560
3,920
4,010
3,830
3,730
5,675
4,370
3,510
2,230
1,765
950
950
950
1,185
2,710
5,649
1,540
1,150
1,472
5,250
5,030
5,270
2,610
917
1,811
2,974
5,090
6,680
3,620
5,230
2,290
2,770
1,565
960
2,790
2,620
4,580
5,320
1,356
2,220
2,880
5, €25
5,100
6,400
6,820
4,830
5,780
1,035
1,361
4,160
4,940
Ferrous
Iron
mg/1
1,145
2,090
2,280
780
1,335
3,420
4,030
3,667
1,200
3,580
403
'1,890
3,205
4,290
591
2,440
3,430
2,230
3,730
3,225
3,755
3,560
5,550
4,260
2,820
2,070
1,340
840
839
744
894
2,370
5,478
1,284
760
984
5,050
4,785
5,100
1,710
4,092
910
1,345
4,450
6,300
3,240
3,755
1,800
2,420
1,185
559
2,300
2,030
4,120
4,960
867
1,641
2,360
5,250
4,720
6,020
6,440
4,490
5,500
648
973
3,910
4,480

Sulfatc
mg/i


10,780
7,380
9,120
15,000
19,100
14,880
5,136
10,940
3,528
3,760
12,800
15,150
4,650
9,850
10,123
9,800
10,490
14,150
10,500
12,950
19,200
9,720
10,000
8,900
7,030
4,900
3,670
4,410
5,420
9,504
19,295
6,330
5,380
6,570
11,700
9,700
18,630
9,750



18,400
19,550
13,380
20,700
8,625
10,080
6,490
4,300
11,000
10,300
16,700
19,150
6,060
9,000
9,440
23,200
13,400
22,700
25,500
24,000
21,800
5,060
6,000
16,600
10,650
                                            83

-------
FLOW POINT NO.  1


Date
1970
4/28
4/30
5/5
5/11
5/15
5/15
5/19
5/25
6/2
6/2
6/3
6/3
6/3
6/3
6/3
6/8
6/15
6/22
6/25
7/1
7/6
7/13
7/17
7/21
7/24


Time





14:30
16:15

15:15
01:45
04:00
09:15
09:30
10:50
13:45
15:50

14:15










Flow
CPU
7.5
1.8
2.6
14


2.3








1.2
0.36
1.1
0.87
0.42
1.1
0.27
0.07
0.31
0.47


pH

2.4
2.45
2.5
2.8
2.7
2.5
2.9









2.15
2.45
2.2
2.5
2.3
2.8
2.25
2.2
2.2

Net
Aci.Ui.ty
mg/1
8.200
16,900
19,800
7,700
15,750
5,750
19,000
22,600
11,200
2,500
19,600
1,000
2,500
2,000
4,600
16,900
20,5:0
20,100
18,800
24,400
21,100
19,700
26,600
22,000
25,300

Conductivity
Micronhos
per era
9,400
16,800
17,100
8,240
13,340
6,500
17,950
19,600
10,980
4,370
16,800
2,075
3,810
3,640
6,500
15,700
20,820
19,320
17,900
25,200
19,050
20,600
22,000
19,000
21,000
Total
Alkalinity
Methyl Total
Oraiuic Iron
mg/1 my/1
2,100
5,200
5,930
7,100
4,700
1,420
5,900
7,250
3,195
581
4,570
123
576
391
1,070
5,400
6,730
6,370
5,430
7,100
6,600
5,880
3,230
6,820
7,890

Ferrous
Iron
mg/1
1,880
4,700
5,600
1,830
4,371
637
5,500
6,100
3,045
436
1,260
73
447
185
810
4,730
6,420
6,260
5,040
6,780
6,200
5,310
7,330
6,350
7,390


Sulfate
mg/1
8,500
18,800
21,700
8,420
16,000

22,100
23,550
12,100
3,165
19,500


2,590
5,380
19,100
23,350
24,600
20,650
27,800
25,400
22,650
29,600
24,950
29,200
   84

-------
                                        FLOW POINT NO. 2

Date
I5iT3T
3/26
4/16
5/6
6/24
6/24
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/21
7/21
7/21
7/21
7/21
7/21
7/21
7/21
7/21
7/22
7/22
7/22
7/22
7/22
7/22
7/22
7/22
7/22
7/22
7/23
7/23
7/23
7/23
7/24
7/24
7/24
7/24
7/24
7/25
7/25
9/4
10/13
10/13
12/11
12/11

Time




07:55
08:35
05:08
08:48
09:05
09:30
09:58
10:10
10:48
10:55
11:57
14:00
15:00
15:45
16:30
15:05
15:10
15:15
15:30
16:00
16:25
17:00
19:30
20:00
09:12
09:34
09:46
09:56
10:06
14:30
15:30
16:30
19:40
20:15
08:30
10:30
13:00
17:00
09:15
16:25
17:00
17:15
17:45
08:30
11:12
09:30
12:15
14:33
08:50
10:30

Flow
CPU


















422
422
435
337
238
184
144
49
45
337
247
220
211
193
45
36
27
9.0
9.0
22
13
18
49
256
4.5
20
36
31


12





pll

2.3
2.4
2.3
2.1
2.1
2.15
2.15
2.15
2.15
2.25
2.25
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.05
2.05
2.15
2.1






























2.15
2.1
2.0


Net
Acidity
mg/1
14,640
8,200
16,500
7,065
9,150
3,625
4,300
4,650
5,050
1,850
2,250
4,300
3,750
4,150
4,210
4,075
4,150































8,900
3,675
13,000
16,100
17,650
1970

2/5
2/5
2/5
2/18
2/18
3/3
3/4
3/4
3/4
3/12
3/13
3/18
3/18
3/18
3/19
3/19
14:10
15:10
16:10
09:45
12:10
10:00
09:35
13:05
16:05
15:15
15:00
09:10
13:40
16:35
11:15
15:25
3.0
 10
6.7
8.6
4.6
7.5
                                                          Total
                                                        Alkalinity
                                         Conductivity
                                          Hicror.'.hjs
                                           per ca
                                             8,850
                                             9,750
                                             5,830
                                             6,050
                                             6,500
                                             6,720
                                             4,420
                                             4,870
                                             6,500
                                             6,160
                                             6,130
                                             6,730
                                             6,7SO
                                             6,730
                                             6,730
                                             5,250
                                             5,370
                                             5,850
                                             6.570
                                             7,980
                                             8,270
                                             8,650
                                             8,280
                                             8,370
                                             5,050
                                             5,180
                                             5,180
                                             5,280
                                             5,600
                                             6,060
                                             6,250
                                             6,830
                                             6,400
                                             6,380
                                             8,800
                                             9,320
                                             9,420
                                             9,800
                                            13,600
                                             8,820
                                             7,200
                                             6,900
                                             6,500
                                             9,970
                                            10,360
                                             9,SCO
                                            10,2CO
                                            11,650
2.35
2.2
2.15
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.1
2.2
2.0
2.3
2.2
2.2
2.3
2.25
2.35
2.0
7,500
7,150
7,250
12,050
14,350
9,150
9,100
8,700
11,600
20,300
20,500
13,950
13,250
9,250
18,500
17,720
5,040
6,440
5,8£0
9,3SO
11,550
8,575
7,120
6.6CO
3,240
10,750
13,000
8,230
8,900
6,250
11,410
10,610
Methyl
Oranqo
nig/ 1
0
0
0
0
0
0








Total
Iron
my /I
3,589
1,789
3,913
1,475
1,990
716
850
943
963
291
411
876
823
843
Ferrous
Iron
nig/1
2,205
9
22
272
185
72
24
36
73
123
124
49
119
74

Sulfatc
rag/1
17,520
10,830
19,584











                                                               810
                                                             2,210
                                                             2,555
                                                             3,045
                                                             3,690
                                                             3,900
                                                                          53
                                                                          34
                                                                          48
                                                                          36
                                                                         101
                                                                         235
                                                                         268
                                                                         385
                                                                         257
                                                                         280
                                                                 498
                                                                 943
                                                                 788
                                                               1,930
                                                               1,910
13,320
15,550
10,950
10,610
1,410
1,340
1,395
2,480
2,830
1,655
1,621
1,655
2,225
5,230
5,500
3,400
3,100
1,685
4,440
4,150
917
660
716
1,362
1,495
592
537
604
928
3,755
3,900
2,330
1,840
895
2,900
2,580
8,200
7,870
7,960
10,120
15,510
9,030



20,700
22,300
15,000
10,250
8,650
18,600
17,500
                                              85

-------
                                        FLOW POINT NO. 2
Date
I3TO
        Time
Flow
GPM
3/25
3/25
3/25
4/1
5/15
5/15
5/25
6/2
6/2
6/3
6/3
6/3
6/3
08:50
13:15
15:45
16:30
14:30
16:15
15:15
13:45
16:00
09:20
10:50
13:40
15:45
                        2.6
                        2.2
                        2.2
                        2.5
                        2.2
                        2.1
                 9,570
                 8,710
                10,100
                20,600
                14,125
                 9,200
                24,200
                18,600
                 8,100
                 2,600
                 5,500
                 5,400
                10,500
Conductivity
 Hicrorihou
  por cm

    7,500
    7,390
    8,170
   13,900
   11,200
    3,180
   15,450
   14,400
    8,960
    3,980
    5,890
    6,280
   10,400
  Total
Alkalinity
  Methyl     Total
  Or.nujc     Iron
   uuj/1      nuj/1

             2,470
             1,920
             2,270
             5,970
             3,060
             1,950
             3,180
             4,230
             1,605
               475
               934
               977
             2,070
Ferrous
Iron
my/1
1,540
1,125
1,310
4,730
2.120
626
1,185
3,280
850
241
525
392
1,145

Sulfate
m^1
9,940
9,870
11,510
11,700
15,260

23,610
20,750
8,540
2,980

6,920
11,800
                                           86

-------
                                        FLOW POINT NO. 3
 Date
 1567

 3/26
 4/16
 5/6
 7/21
 8/4
 8/12
 8/14
 8/19
 8/21
 8/25
 8/28
 9/3
 9/10
 9/12
 9/16
 9/18
 9/29
 10/2
 10/6
 10/9
 10/13
 10/15
 10/20
 10/27
 11/4
 11/11
 11/14
 11/18
 11/21
 11/25
 12/5
 12/9
 12/12
 12/19
 12/23

 1970

 1/5
 1/14
 1/16
 1/26
 1/28
 2/2
 2/5
 2/9
 2/13
 2/17
 2/20
 2/25
 2/27
 3/3
 3/6
 3/8
 3/10
 3/13
 3/20
 3/24
 3/30
 4/2
 4/7
 4/12
 4/14
4/16
V21
4/23

4/30
 5/5
5/11
5/19
5/25
        Time
11:30



Flow
GPM





3.0






3.0
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.9
1.9
2.4
1.6
2.1

1.7
1.7
1.5
1.4
1.2

1.1
0.97
1.0
1.1
0.93
0.88

0.92
1.4
1.4
1.2
1.4
2.7
0.94
1.6
60
1.9
1.5
2.2

3.4
3.0

4.0
3.5
4.0
4.6
4.3
3.8
3.2
3.3
3.2
3
1.9
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.3
3.0
3.0



pll

2.4

2.3

2.9
2.9
2.95
3.0
3.05
3.1
2.95
2.6
2.9
3.0
3.05

2.6
3.0
2.9
3.1
2.9
2.9
3.15
3.1
3.0
2.95
3.2
2.1
2.7
3.48
3.68




2.6
2.75
2.7
2.55
2.6
2.3
2.5
2.75
2.4
2.75
2.9
2.75
2.5
2.6

2.7
2.6
2.75
2.7
2.68
2.75
2.8
2.8
3.4
2.7
2.75
2.8
2.6
2.7
2.85
2.30
3.3



Net
Acidity
mg/i
23,680

30.500
19,000
16,500
15,150
15,400
14,800
15,000
15,450
16,500
15,250
17,690
15,500


16,550
16,250
15,450
15,550
15,150
14,950
15,750
15,650
15,500
15,500
15,250
12,600


15,900
15,500
16,150
16,800
16,700
16,350
13,250
13,225
16,200
14,350
11,240
16,900
19,250
9,300
13,520
21,100
21,600
19,150
22,100

24,700
25,250
22,600
22,950
25,100
25,300
23,150
25,200
23,900
24,700
22,050
21,200
22,300
23,000
23,250
20,700
21,000
21,180


Conductivity
Micromhfa
per cm



20,300
17,350
16,100
16,550
16,503
15,700
15, 450
15,960
16,100
16,400
15,900
15,600
15,250
15,450
14,450
15,500
14,800
16,130
11,870
13,700
13,000
11.4EO
11,750
9,620
9,700
10,720
11,100
9,750
9,180
8,843
10,200
7,950
11,650
11,000
9,840
10,400
12,650
3,850
11,200
14,570
7,840
10,420
il,2CO
15,430
14,350
15,100

15,250
14,650
15, -150
15,910
16,800
15,550
16.050
13, SCO
13,450
19, 150
16,800
14,600
19,050
13,600
16,600
15,650
15,950
17,620
Total
Alkalinity
Methyl
Oranac
mg/1
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0












































Total
Iron
tny/1^
6,985
6,932
9,011
6,200
5,320
4,920
4,900
4,980
4,770
4,360
4,920
5,025
4,990
5,080


5,240
5,220
5,020
5,140
4,390
5,060
5,060
5,080
5,110
4,990
4,960
3,460
4.950
4,400
4,950
5,030
5,030
5,120
5,050
5,070
4,000
3,960
5,790
4,290
3,240
5,100
5,745
2,320
6,350
6,550
6.620
5,680
6,500

7,530
7,450
7,180
7,140
7,330
7,680
7,550
7,430
7,250
6,930
6,680
6,720
6,503
6,760
6,930
6,150
6,340
6,150


Ferrous
Iron
"'9/1
6,578
6,630
8,631
5,980
5,230
4,760
,760
,860
,620
,710
,780
,880
,900
4,990


5,140
5,080
4,875
5,010
4,780
4,960
4,930
4,980
4,920
4,680
4,760
2,550
4,600
4,300
4,730
4,900
4,900
4,960
4,780
4,810
3,720
3,720
4,660
3,920
2,620
4,830
5,658
2,110
6,190
6,430
6,480
5,090
6,260

7,340
7,280
7,000
7,130
7,170
7,350
7,430
7,260
7,050
6,900
6,600
6,620
6,430
6,380
6,590
6,000
6,120
5,950



Sulfate
rag/1
28,416
30,144
37,800


















18,720
13,600
19,820
19,200
10,300
10,530
11,038
4,475
18,000
17,900
10,350
10,450
18,400
10,550
18,240
10,550
9,830
9,750
17,100
9,220
18,240
19,350
11,100
19,050
19,350
19,100
20,250
26,300

19,350
23,300
27,200
26,200
27,580
28,400
27,600
28,600
18,600
26,600
25,100
23,600
24,300
25,400
25,050
24,300
24,000

                                            87

-------
                                        FLOW POINT NO. 3
Date
1375"

6/8
6/15
6/22
6/25
7/1
7/6
7/13
7/17
7/21
7/24
        Time
Flow
Gl'M

2.7
3.3
3.2
2.S
2.6
2.2
1.8
1.6
1.5
1.4
Net
Acidity
nig/1
Conductivity
Micronlios
per cm
Total
Alkalinity
Methyl
Ornmie
my, 1
Total
Iron
ifuj/1
Ferrous
Iron
mg/I
Sulfatc
my/1
2.55
2.85
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.9
2.7
2.85
2.9
19,700
19,350
18.GOO
18,000
17,700
17,600
17,500
17,900
21,000
17,500
16,100
16,300
15,250
15,000
17,400
15,110
16,600
13,500
13,600
13,800
5,590
5,790
5,450
5,300
5,260
5,250
5,090
5,150
5,250
5,200
5,400
5, COO
5,310
5,200
5,040
5,035
5,040
5,040
5,090
5,040
21,000
21,200
21,000
20,750
20,100
20,200
19,700
19,600
19,200
19,900
                                             88

-------
                                        FLOW POINT NO. 5


Date
I9T9~
4/17
7/30
8/4
8/6
8/12
8/14
8/19
8/21
8/25
8/28
9/3
9/4
9/10
9/12
9/16
9/18
9/29
10/2
10/6
10/9
10/13
10/15
10/20
10/27
11/4
11/11
11/14
11/18
11/21
11/25
12/5
12/9
12/12
12/16
12/19
12/23


Time Flow
Gi'M

0.43
0.46
0.46
0.38


0.38
0.38
0.38
0.39
09:40 0.48
0.35
0.32
0.33
0.34
0.33
0.34
0.45
0.31
0.75

0.33
0.33
0.31
0.31
0.34

0.39
0.32
0.43
0.38
0.37

0.34



pll

2.4
2.4
2.35

2.4
2.4
2.45
2.45
2.5
2.45
2.1
2.35
2.5
2.5
2.60

3.1
2.6
2.5
2.7
2.3
2.45
2.75
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.8
2.2

3.47
3.54






Net
Acidity
mg/1

22,000
21,450
21,500
20,750
20,900
21,400
21,750
20,400
20,150
22,000
23,000
20,250
20,150


19,500
20,150
19,150
20,000
17,050
19,900
19,295
19,200
19,500
20,000
13,700
9,300


18,550
18,800
18,800
19,100
17,775
19,100

Conductivity
Micromhos
por ca

23.500
22,400

22,050
23,900
24,100
22,100
22,400
22,400
21,250
22,200
19,600
22,550
21,300
19,300
19,300
18,800
20,450
19,300
15,350
15,230
17,450
16,100
14,620
14,400
12,520
14,000
13,000
13,650
11,790
11,410
10,152
13,320
11,650
9,400
Total
Alkalinity
Methyl
Oramic
ir.g/1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0











Total
Iron
mg/1
8,340
7,620
7,560
7,500
7,500
7,360
7,590
7,560
7,530
7,310
7,220
7,225
7,080
7,230


7,050
7,020
6,900
6,770
5,300
6,950
6,920
6,820
6,750
6,660
6,640
6,120
6,975
6,410
6,270
6,240
6,120
6,250
6,100
6,000

Ferrous
Iron
my/1
7,625
7,250
7,080
6,950
7,180
7,050
7,260
7,025
7,025
7,000
5,860
6,650
6,825
6,900


6,800
6,750
6,590
6,720
4,520
6,740
6,610
6,590
6,530
6,330
6,260
5,440
6,060
6,295
6,100
6,050
5,930
5,910
5,940
5,700


Sulfatc
n^/l
32,928




















24,480
24,300
24,000
24,000
10,550
10,560
11,100
4,530
23,500
19,650
20,100
10,080
10,500
20,100
10,350
1970

1/5
1/14
1/16
1/26
1/28
2/2
2/5
2/9
2/13
2/17
2/20
2/25
2/27
3/3
3/6
3/8
3/10
3/13
3/20
3/24
3/30
4/2
4/7
4/12
4/14
4/16
4/21
4/23
4/28
4/30
5/5
5/11
5/19
5/25
0.44
0.03
0.09
0.48
0.55
0.48
0.88
0.53
0.46
1.4
0.40
0.37
0.37
1.1
0.83
0.67
0.63
0.8
0.88
0.68
0.65
0.71
0.71
0.65
0.72
0.63
7.2
0.66
0.68
0.72
0.60
0.92
0.36
0.47
2.3
2.6
2.55
2.4
2.5
2.3
2.35
2.3
2.5
2.55
2.5
2.6
2.55
2.3
2.3

2.45
2.5
2.5
2.45
2.4
2.55
2.55
2.5
3.2
2.4
2.45
2.5
2.35
2.45
2.55
2.45
3.25

13,800
18,400
18,850
18,300
13,350
16,900
15,350
19,700
20,000
14,400
19,900
21,400
21,550
21,550
23,325

25,500
25,250
24,900
23,400
24,300
25,000
24,100
24,900
25,000
24,300
25,250
24,800
24,800
24,600
24,500
24,800
25,000
23,500
13,000
14,100
12,540
11,420
14,630
9,520
10,350
12,210
15,250
9,630
12,100
11,230
15,600
14,550
15,800

15,100
14,650
14,550
16,800
16,352
15,450
16,600
19,050
14,450
20,400
13,592
15,700
20,040
22,250
19,300
17,625
19,320
21,150
5,875
5,675
5,555
5,500
5,000
4,787
4,270
5,320
5,920
3,360
6,150
6,340
6,530
5,270
6,440
7,250
7,050
7,300
7,540
7,425
7,650
7,770
7,790
7,820
7,800
7,600
7,600
7,390
7,650
7,640
6,725
7,760
7,790
5,450
5,300
5,170
5,140
4,380
4,250
3,500
4,470
5.499
2,520
5,520
5,950
6,080
3,745
5,500
6,550
6,440
6,550
6,880
6,850
7,000
7,320
7,350
7,520
7,560
7,100
7,290
6,930
7,100
7,300
6,150
7,230
7,300
19,950
19,850
18,330
19,500
20,100
9,900
17,900
18,630
20,255
15,350
20,110
24,350
19,000
19,700
27,200
20,100
24,200
23,200
23,000
27,580
28,400
27,200
23,400
17,500
2? ,600
27,600
21,500
26,885
27,100
26,800
20,200
26,400

                                             89

-------
                                FLOW POINT NO. 5
Time
        Flow
        Gl'M


Not
Acidity
mg/1


Conductivity
Micromhos
per en
Total
Alkalinity
Methyl
Oranoe
wg/i


Total
Iron
rag /I


Ferrous
Iron
mg/1



Sulfate
mg/1
0.49
0.49
0.45
0.43
0.33
0.44
0.36
0.34
0.32
0.38

2.15
2.5
2.35
2.4
2.5
2.5
2.4
2.5
2.5
25,700
23,800
23,800
23,300
23,200
23,300
23,300
22,800
23,000
22,000
                                    19,600
                                    20,750
                                    19,500
                                    20,190
                                    23,000
                                    20,160
                                    20,850
                                    17,700
                                    17,100
                                    17,000
7,550
7,490
7,490
7,380
7,490
7,500
7,210
7,260
7,260
7,100
6,910
6,950
7,050
7,000
7,060
6,940
6,900
7,050
6,900
6,700
26,800
20,200
2G.700
26,500
27,700
26,000
25,300
25,430
24,950
24,300
                                     90

-------
FLOW POINT NO.  6


Date
1969
6/24
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/2
7/11
7/11
7/11
7/11
7/11
7/11
7/11
7/11
7/11
7/11
7/11
7/11
7/11
7/11
7/11
7/11
7/21
7/21
7/21
7/21
7/21
7/21
7/21
7/21
7/21
7/21
7/21
7/21
7/21
7/21
7/21
7/21
7/21


Time

07:05
04:45
08:32
03:43
08:53
09:00
09:04
09:09
09:14
09:17
09:19
09:22
09:25
09:28
09:31
09:33
09:36
09:40
09:44
09:47
09:52
09:58
10:04
10:13
10:30
10:47
10:59
11:18
11:31
11:45
12:00
12:30
12:45
13:05
13:25
13:45
14:50
15:35
16:05
16:40
08:55
08:57
08:59
09:00
09:01
09:02
09:03
09:04
09:05
09:07
09:11
09:14
09:19
09:23
09:27
09:33
14:51
14:52
14:53
14:54
14:55
14:56
14:57
15:00
15:01
15:02
15:05
15:07
15:08
15:10
15:15
15:20
15:25


Flow
GPM











































467
419
206










6.3
390
790
1630
3320






2420
1630
1030
480
320
176


p,l

1.9
1.15
1.35
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.3
1.25
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.3
1.35
1.4
1.35
1.35
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
2.0
2.0
2.0
1.93
1.85
1.75
1.65
1.6
1.6
1.55
1.5
1.45
1.4
1.4
1.35
1.35
1.35
1.4
1.35
1.35
2.1
1.9
1.35
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.3
1.8
1.8
1.3
1.75
1.75
1.7
1.7
1.65
1.65



















Net
Acidity
my/i

41,500
39,000

39,200
35,630

35,350

30,750
28,200

22,300


19,325
16,110
13,600
10,650
6,850
2,300
2,250
3,175

6,050


9,950

11,675

15,500

18,150

20,000


22,400

17,600
18,400
19,100
18,700
18,300
17,800
17,500
17,000
16,900
16,700
17,200
18,300
18,700
19,400
20,000
20,900



















Conductivity
MicroKhos
piu- csi
1,037
37,000
34,500
35,700
34,700
31,700
30,000
31,400
29,200
28,000
26,500
24,600
22,400
21,300
23,000
23,300
19,050
16,800
14,100
10,300
51,500
51,500
68,400
87,500
10,500
11,300
12,000
13,300
14,100
14,800
16,050
19,300
19,500
20,800
21,800
22,800
24,300
23,800
25,300
26,400
13,200
14,000
14,300
14,500
14,500
14,500
13,600
13,600
13,600
13,800
14,300
14,830
15,600
16,100
15,700
17,500
16,000
13.500
12,050
11,400
10,800
10,100
8,500
6,710
5,930
5,490
5,280
5,600
6,060
6,430
7,150
7,830
8,520
Total
Alkalinity
Methyl
Orar.no
my/1
0
0






































0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0



















Total
Iron
mg/1
1,835
10,845
10,300

10,500
9,480

9,160

8,090
7,500

5,700


5,300
4,150
3,460
2,610
1.680
510
503
745

1,450


2,550

3,020

4,000

4,700

5,140


5,830

4,330
5,050
5,320
5,300
5,250
5,130
4,760
4,670
4,650
4,630
4,810
4,940
5,200
3,400
5,550
5,750
4,460
4,130
3,370
3,130
2,770
2,480
1,935
1,230
1,005
861
738
828
940
1,020
1,180
1,295
1,495


Ferrous
Iron Sulf.ite
mg/r~ mg/1
344
3,242
3,000

2,990
2,470

2,325

1,825
1,673

1,118


1.395
943
760
558
344
112
110
160

291


492

£26

867

1,085

1,270


1,990

1,025
1,150
988
1,005
985
839
750
733
738
750
828
884
984
1,050
1,105
1,160
1,460
940
630
445
380
331
230
136
114
93
73
86
105
116
136
162
190
    91

-------
FLOW FOINT NO. 6


Date
I5S?
7/21
7/21
7/21
7/21
7/21
7/21
7/22
7/22
7/22
7/22
7/22
7/22
7/22
7/22
7/22
7/22
7/22
7/22
7/22
7/22
7/22
7/22
7/22
7/24
7/24
7/24
7/24
7/24
7/24
7/24
7/24
7/24
7/24
7/24
7/24
7/25
7/26
8/20
8/20
S/20
8/20
8/20
8/20
8/20
8/20
8/20
»/20
S/20
10/13
12/11
12/11
1970
2/5
2/5
2/5
2/5
2/7
2/7
2/17
2/17
2/17
2/17
2/17
2/18
2/18
2/18
2/22
2/22
2/22
2/22


Time

15:30
15:35
15:40
15:45
15:50
16:10
09:23
09:32
09:51
10:06
11:10
11:30
12:15
13:15
13:45
14:15
14:45
15:15
15:45
16:15
16:45
19:15
20:50
16:13
16:22
16:2!
16:25
16:28
16:31
16:33
16:39
16:57
17:05
17:10
17:30
10:40
08:30
16:47
16:43
16:49
16:52
16:55
17:00
17:07
17:12
17:20
17:35
13:11
12:25
08:50
10:30

14:00
14:20
15:40
16:30
03:40
09:05
14:30
15:00
16:00
17:00
18:00
09:30
10:10
12:20
12:30
13:20
14:00
14:40


Flow
GL'M
196
119
33
13
3.6

36
33
6.3
15
2.2
2.2
15
3.6
2.2
0.90








0.90
44
419
790
907
538
320
271
44
13




237
583
348
176
119
216
624
227
13
0.90




10
43


















pll






































2.0
2.0
1.9
2.05
2.0

2.05
2.1


2.05
1.95



1.7
1.7
1.7
1.75
2.0
1.9
1.95
1.35
1.95
1.9
1.9
1.75
1.7
1.6
1.9
2.0
2.0
2.0

Net
Acidity
»9/i























37,600

18,900
14,750
11,750
7,925
7,575

7,100

9,075
11,730
25,400
12,500
23,700
23,750
27,500
22,750
20,500
19,100

10,900
3,300
11,700
11,050
9,400
18,050
25,456

10,420
9,350
9,050
9,480
16,900
18,530
6,150
5,920
6,130
7,600
10,000
13,650
14,250
20,775
12,300
12,625
11,400
14,175

Conductivity
Micronhos
per era
8,700
8.950
9.420
10,100
10.800
13,400
9,470
10,600
13,100
13,700
16,100
17,800
16,500
19,100
21,000
22,950
24,300
26,200
27.900
27,900
28,100
27,200
27,600
24,000
23,000
16.000
13,900
12,100
9,340
9,180
9,610
9,500
10,920
11,650
14,670
24,000
15,230
16,700
16,700
13,500
16,000
14,800
14,550
12,830
10,400
9,350
11,750
11,350
3,460



9,300
3,300
7,400
7,250
11,650
12,530
5,320
5,210
5,150
5,940
7,390
11,760
12,100
17,992
8,960
9,630
9,410
10,300
Total
Alkalinity
Methyl Total
Oranoe Iron
mg/I og/J.
1,510
1,520
1,630
1,790
1,990
2,610

















10,250

5,080
3,960
3,070
1,990
1,900

1,760

2,240
3,030
6,790
3,170
6,630
7,030
3,300
6,600
5,700
5,380
4,180
2,910
2,320
3,150
3,035
1,995
6,490
6,920

2,560
2,410
2,230
2,560
4,360
4,850
1,540
1,430
1,495
1,485
2,440
3,520
3,620
5,170
3,190
3,190
2,905
3,590

Ferrous
Iron
""J/1
197
202
243
286
352
560

















2,060

1,060
715
465
246
232

227

378
765
3,110
2,640
2,040
1,825
2,090
1,235
1,003
962
678
478
373
682
648
326
534
950

581
537
469
492
570
649
356
257
257
356
413
603
660
1,073
537
493
425
514


Sulfate
mg/l
















































8,930
10,630
19,680

11,030
10,750
9,880
10.730
16,350
17,350
6,240
5,930
6,340
7,320
9,550
14,130
14,620
19,050
10,000
10,230
9,830
14,950
    92

-------
FLOW POINT NO.  6
Date
1370
3/2
3/2
3/2
3/2
3/2
3/2
3/2
3/2
3/3
3/3
3/4
3/4
3/4
3/4
3/4
3/18
3/18
3/18
3/19
3/19
3/25
3/25
3/25
3/25
4/1
4/19
4/19
5/25
6/2
6/2
6/2
6/2
6/2
6/2
6/2
6/3
6/3
6/3
6/3
6/3
6/3
6/3
6/3
6/19
6/19
6/19
6/19
7/3
7/3
7/3
7/3
7/3
7/3
7/19
7/19
Time

08:30
09:15
10:15
11:15
13:00
14:00
15:00
16:00
03:40
09:00
09:15
10:00
11:30
13:00
16:10
09:30
14:00
16:30
11:00
15:00
08:20
11:15
13:30
15:30
16:15
14:00
16:45
15:15
14:10
14:40
15:00
15:20
15:40
16:00
16:20
08:50
09:30
10:15
10:45
11:30
13:00
14:30
16:00
10:30
10:45
11:05
11:45
08:15
08:25
08:30
08:40
08:55
09:00
13:40
14:15
Flow
CPU















3.3





























2.0











Flow
CPU















3.3





























2.0











pn

1.6
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.5
2.0
1.7
1.5
1.9
1.35
1.25
1.7
1.9
1.75
1.7
1.45
1.75
1.6
1.4
1.35
2.0
1.9
1.6
















1.55
1.5
1.4
1.8
2.0
1.9
1.9
1.8
1.75
1.7
1.7
1.7

Net
Acidity
rng/1
21,500
25,500
28,000
29,500
32,000
32,300
32,700
34,000
31,500
9,250
11,000
21,000
10,500
24,000
30,000
15,500
3,500
10,750
16,000
19,700
12,900
21,000
24,400
26,000
8,080
a, 400
22,800
29,900
14,000
6,400
2,600
3,200
5,400
6,600
7,500
8,900
2,600
5,500
7,900
10,800
2,700
13,000
17,500
31,300
34,000
38,000
15,100
16,900
16,600
15,500
18,100
21,400
20,300
16,650
17,050

Conductivity
Micro-ihos
per cm
17,350
19,600
20,330
24,000
25,200
25,500
26,000
26,100
21,950
9,300
9,300
15,560
3,350
18,050
20,750
12,300
6,540
8,300
11,910
14,900
10,350
15,300
18,850
19,900
3,070
9,080
13,150
16,350
13,700
7,950
4,490
5,500
7,400
3,580
9,640
8,630
4,370
7,100
8,740
10,620
4,250
11,650
16,500
19,900
21,300
23,500
11,390
11,200
11,500
11,500
12,800
14,550
15,250
10,700
10,650
Total
Alkalinity
Mothyl Total
Oraiuic Icon
my/1 rag/1
5.310
6,220
6,580
7,250
7,730
7,920


7,800
2.145
2,527
5,142
2,482
6,440
7,435
5,120
2,050
2,650
3,980
4,950
3,350
5,460
6,250
6,790
2.010
1,965
5,340
7,830
3,600
1,295
469
671
1,139
1,430
1,690
2,460
536
1,280
1,840
2,560
497
2,680
4.230
3, 780
9,730
10.720
3.690
4,640
4,420
4,190
4 800
5,430
5,750
4,590
4,420

Ferrous
Iron
nig/!
604
738
817
939
1,140
1,185
1,262
1,319
1,375
359
436
872
413
1,039
1,253
972
268
379
682
926
610
1,015
1,230
1,350
380
313
1,072
1.513
760
224
89
156
279
369
537
2,320
151
364
470
632
83
458
838
1,855
2,100
2,300
560
615
670
559
670
950
1,060
1.175
1.340


Sulf Jte
mg/1








33,600
9.650





20,100
8,630
10,700
15,810
20,100
13,350
25,200
22,200
27,300
8,500
8,550
23,300
27,930
14,980
6,340
2,590
3,555
5,660
6,820
7,970

3,745


11,520

12,400
21,000
31,250
34,900
37,800
14,400
16,320
16,550
15,630
18,350
20,200
20,350
18,050
17,130
     93

-------
                                      WALKER CREUK - UPSTREAM
 Date
         Flow
         Gt'M
 2/27
 3/4
 7/21
 8/6
 8/14
 8/19
 8/21
 8/25
 8/28
 10/13
 11/14
 11/18
 11/25
 12/5
 12/9
 12/12
 12/16
 12/19
 12/23

 1970

 1/5
 1/26
 1/28
 2/2
 2/5
 2/9
 2/13
 2/17
 2/20
 2/25
 2/27
 3/3
 3/6
 3/10
 3/13
 3/20
 3/24
 3/30
 4/2
 4/7
 4/12
 4/14
 4/16
 4/21
 4/23
 4/28
 4/30
 V5
5/19
5/25
6/8
6/15
6/22
6/25
7/1
7/6
7/13
 6.2
 5.9
 6.25
 6.4
 4.25
 3.8
 5.9
 5.3
 6.0
 7.0
 6.4
 6.3
 5.8
 6.3
 6.3
 7.0
 6.6
 6.65
 6.65
 6.6
 6.9
 6.0
 7.1
 7.0
 6.0
 6.4
 6.6
 6.8
 7.0
 6.9
6.7
3.0
7.5
7.3
4.5
4.2


Net
Acidity t*!
""J/1
70
-60
-15





-190
20


-15
-20
-30
-100
-10
-30
-10
-10
30
-10
0
115
-50
80
50
-10
0
0
-20
-10
-35
-25
-10
-60
-10
-10
-500
-100
-10
-550
-45
-40
0
-10
-40
-50
-50
-50
-30
-30
-60
-50
-20
150
190


Conductivity
Micromhos
per cm


840

1,735
1,640
1,435
1,545
1,670
1,090
1,130
1,280
1,420
1,265
997
1,008
1,350
1,435
1,042
1,510
266
870
340
985
426
1,041
985
532
773
1,100
226
481
985
1,075
420
784
312
550
1,110
1,580
763
1,200
533
380
683
1,075
1,142
1,241
1,245
1,680
1,020
1,500
1,590
1,735
2,330
1,795
1.995
Total
Alkalinity
Methyl
Oranqc
m
-------
                                      WALKER CREEK  -  DOWNSTREAM
Date
I5W
7/30
8/6
8/14
8/19
8/21
8/25
8/28
9/3
9/4
9/10
9/12
9/16
9/18
9/29
10/13
10/27
11/4
11/11
11/14
11/18
11/21
11/25
12/5
12/9
12/12
12/16
12/19
12/23
Flow
GPM



6.0
4.0
1.8
3.0
12
3.0
3.0
2.4
4.0
3.0





180









2.8

2.5
2.4
2.45
2. 45
2.4
2.05
2.45
2.5
2.5
2.40

2.4
2.5
2.5
2.6
2.45
2.32
2.15
2.4
3.38
3.44





Net
Acidity
mg/1
7,050
12,600
17,250
11,750
11,800
15,150
17,000
16,900
4,850
11,900
12,200


15,650
6,600
14,900
12,500
15,600
16,400
4,900


8,450
5,770
5,025
5,800
7,113
7,650
Conductivity
Micromhos
per era
9,900

19,150
15,050
12,750
15,600
13,140
17,750
7,370
13,800
13,550
16,300
7,960
14,800
7,400
12,900
9,500
11,700
10,030
4,870
6,370
6,210
5,940
4,490
3,808
5,480
6,160
4,940
Total
Alkalinity
Methyl
Oranqe
my/1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


0
0
0
0
0










Total
Iron
E^7I~
3,830
5,060
3,510
3,235
4,420
5,060
5,180
1,148
3,510
3,655


4,650
1,775
4,430
3,350
4,500
5,030
993
1,310
1,520
2,160
1,350
1,170
1,450
1,585
1,885
Ferrous
Iron
r''9/1
3,275
4,990
2,970
2,240
3,780
4,730
4,700
655
3,085
3,175


4,030
1,500
3,980
2,930
3,550
4,260
493
1,420
1,062
1,675
1,050
360
1,100
1,451
1,473
Sulfate
09/1














18,300
14,400
10,680
10,760
5,520
3,475
7,700
9,990
6,620
6,000
6,820
8,330
8,650
1970
1/5
1/26
1/28
2/2
2/5
2/9
2/13
2/17
2/20
2/25
2/27
3/3
3/6
3/10
3/13
3/20
3/24
3/30
4/2
4/7
4/12
4/14
4/16
4/21
4/23
4/28
4/30
5/5
5/11
5/19
5/23
5/25
6/8
6/15
6/22
6/25
7/1
7/6
7/13
7/17
7/24



















18
25
80
43
150
43

50



11
4.3
3.2
3.0
4.2
5.7
2.4
2.4
6.0
0.58
0.11
2.4
2.65
3.1
3.4
2.95
3.0
3.0
2.9
2.7
2.85
2.9
3.35
3.0
3.0
2.8
3.0
2.7
2.65
2.75
2.9
2.7
2.9
2.6
3.15
2.3
3.2
2.6
2.75
3.1
3.15



2.25
2.5
2.2
2.6
2.45
2.4
2.25
2.4
5,700
3,500
1,201
500
2,900
1,400
2,900
2,500
4,500
4,300
3,850
515
4,250
5,750
4,750
3,120
4.200
18,230
5,300
4,500
5.450
7,800
4,800
1.650
3,630
633
4,400
5,250
6,500
10,600


6,500
9,950
11,300
12,300
18,800
20,000
21,000
21,400
19,400
                                       5,210
                                       3,360
                                       2,420
                                         874
                                       3,220
                                       1,960
                                       3,360
                                       3,050
                                       4,480
                                       4,370
                                       4,700
                                       1,345
                                       4,930
                                       5,770
                                       5,040
                                       3,360
                                       4,940
                                       3,400
                                       5,370
                                       4,760
                                       6,330
                                       3,800
                                       6,730
                                       2,604
                                       4,300
                                       1,553
                                       6,620
                                       6,220

                                      11,200
                                       7
                                      11
   400
   500
11,420
13,320
18,150
16,150
18,600
16,500
15,000
1,250
939
279
118
525
355
592
604
1,272
126
938
115
1,015
1,655
1,250
889
1,140
2,439
1,385
1,275
1,340
730
1,229
430
895
115
1,118
1,342
2,905


1,510
2,550
3,200
3,240
5,310
5,310
5,700
5,930
5,400
950
738
223
105
413
268
537
536
1,117
114
849
105
962
1,475
1,062
760
l.O'.O
2,230
1,160
1,140
1,162
615
1,115
347
816
89
783
1,162
2,525


1,312
2,080
2,600
2,630
4,310
4,750
5,090
5,370
4,750
6,240
4,120
1,610
816
2,830
1,726
3,120
3,190
5,810
5,310
4,420
625
5,430
7,250
5,550
3,340
4,420
19,750
6,380
5,425
6,390
3,696
5,855
2,136
4,325
816
5,230
6,100
383
13,630
16,270
6,920
11,300
13,250
14,500
21,600
20,900
22,850
23,550
22,100
                                              95

-------
                                 WALKER CREEK - UI.'DER ILLINOIS RTE 127
                                                                      (1)
                          Net
Date
1769"

11/18
11/25
12/5
12/9
12/12
12/16
12/19
12/23

1970

1/26
2/2
2/5
2/9
2/13
2/17
2/25
3/3
3/6
3/10
3/13
3/20
3/24
3/30
4/2
4/7
4/12
4/14
4/21
4/28
4/30
5/11
5/19
5/25
6/8
6/22
7/1
7/6
7/13
7/17
 7/21
 7/24
Flow
GfrM
3.1
3.49
3.56





4.5
3.4
4.9
5.1
4.9
4.5
4.4
5.9
5.1
3.5
3.7
5.0
4.45
5.0
5.1
3.6
3.3
4.4
5.0
2.1
4.5
4.5
3.4


6.35
2.6
2.5
3.1
2.25
2.4
2.35


1,625
4,920
1,050
1,550
1,550
300
130
400

195
260
340
290
-60
180
550
600
155
250
+ 48
290
450
500
290
150
900
140

340
-160
-180
-50
1,600
2,600
3,800
4,200
3,700
4,450
Conductivity
 Microrhos
  per cm

   1,860
   2,580
   2,900
   2,550
   1,613
   1,965
   2,005
   2,050
                                  504
                                 1,187
                                 1,365
                                  627
                                 1,103
                                 1,231
                                  997
                                  360
                                  761
                                 1,355
                                 2,130
                                  570
                                 1,030
                                 1,187
                                  907
                                 1,815
                                 1,710
                                10,650
                                 1,020
                                 1,792
                                 1,200
                                   616
                                 1,735
                                 1,725
                                 1,430
                                 2,420
                                 4,600
                                 4,880
                                 6,270
                                 5,100
                                 4,900
                                 5,200
Total
Alkalinity
K^thyl
Ornnqe
ny/1"








20


35
25
30
























Total
iron
Sy/r-
36
625
203
350
158
230
230
58
11
78
35






67
78
207
84
604

38
36
35

156

6.7
8.9
0
o
13
161
436
548
615
486
615
Ferrous
Iron
mg/I~~
6.7
335
43
170
54
54
54
34
10
69
35






67
67
157
81
553

30
22
27

112

6.7
2.2
0
0
2.2
17
22
5.6
391
5.6
20
Sulfate
/i
mg/1
1,776
2,090
2,420
2,552
1,585
2,400
2,400
625
528
672
960
240
768
671
485
144
264
1,200
1,320

745
2,020
576
576
1,200
968
552
1,008
576
432
12,380

1,008
1,500
2,690
3,840
4,990
5,330
4,700
5,750
 '^Aporoxinately 3 miles from site.

 '2)»iinus net acidity values denote alkalinity.
                                                96

-------
           APPENDIX XI-E




SEEPAGE FLOW AND WATER QUALITY DATA
                   97

-------
                                            SPRING NO.  1
Date
I9C7

5/7
Flow
GPM
        3.1
Not
Acidity
n*J/l
Conductivity
Hicromhos
per ca
Total
Alkalinity
Methyl
Oranne
mg/1
Total
Iron
mg/1
Ferrous
Iron
my/1
Sulfatq
irig/1
                 45,000
                           9,744
                                                                            9.727
                                                                                       42,480
1969

5/7
5/28
7/21
        2.9
                 15,150
                 20,000
                 16,650
                                            SPRING NO. 3
19,900
21,300
6,753
6,663
6,280
6,697
6,440
5,820
21,216
21,936
1969
                                            SPRING NO. 5
7/8
7/17
7/30
8/4
8/6
8/12
8/14
8/19
8/21
8/25
8/28
9/3
9/4
9/10
9/12
9/16
9/18
9/29
10/2
10/6
10/9
10/13
10/15
10/20
10/27
11/4
11/11
11/14
11/18
11/21
11/25
12/5
12/9
12/12
12/16
1970
1/26
1/28
2/2
2/5
2/9
2/13
2/17
2/20
2/25
2/27
3/3
3/6
3/8
3/10
3/13
3/20


0.27
0.22
0.22
0.14


0.14
0.13
0.13
0.15
0.20
0.20
0.17
0.10
0.10
0.13
0.14
0.09
0.10
0.80

0.19
0.15
0.16
0.14
0.06

0.14
0.07
0.41
0.12
0.09


0.24
0.23

0.81
0.23
<0.01
1.0
0.25
0.12
0.11
0.36
0.27
0.16
0.21
0.27
0.25
2.4
2.3
2.55
2.4

2.3
2.4
2.55
2.65
2.6
2.5
2.2
2.40
2.7
2.55
2.70

2.7
2.65
2.55
2.85
2.3
2.75
2.9
2.95
2.3
2.7
3.15
2.4
2.75
3.45
3.57




2.65
2.35

2.8
2.7
2.9
2.3
2.3
2.95
2.7
2.3
2.9

2.85
3.1
2.85
15,200
9,750
18,850
20,200
20,350
21,500
21,050
19,600
20,100
20,250
19,750
18,450
20,400
17,300
18,500


17,000
17,500
16,350
15,700
10,000
14,450
14,150
13,125
13,000
12,230
11,200
13,700


11,150
11,050
11,000
5,300

9,350
9,750

4,500
3,630
9,075
4,150
8,000
11,430
10,400
9,300
10,950

12,750
10,750
12,400
                                       16,600
                                       20,700
                                       19,900
                                       20,400

                                       22,050
                                       23,400
                                       23,200
                                       19,900
                                       20,650
                                       22,180
                                       19,750
                                       20,050
                                       17,150
                                       21,700
                                       19,450
                                       16,800
                                       17,100
                                       15,900
                                       18,200
                                       16,800
                                        9,750
                                       11,650
                                       14,000
                                       12,553
                                       10,803
                                       10,800
                                        7,500
                                       10,000
                                        9,970
                                       11,150
                                        8,123
                                        7,623
                                        7,450
                                        9,300
                                        7,500
                                        9,410

                                        5,150
                                        7,615
                                        9.520
                                        4,310
                                        9,703
                                        8,000
                                      11,000
                                        9,410
                                      10,300

                                      10,400
                                        9,180
                                        9,860
2,996
5,880
5,570
6,255
6,320
6,750
6,350
6,650
6.290
6,190
6,150
5,880
5,770
5,670
6,000
5,260
5.230
5.210
5,070
1,905
4,550
4,460
4,220
4,050
3,930
3,640
3,480
3,810
3,730
3,420
3,420
3.443
3,100
2,800
2.370
1,210
2,415
2,755
1,005
2,660
3,110
3.175
2,500
3,165
3,840
3.090
3,680
2,683
5,170
4,780
5,560
5,590
6,200
5,750
6,140
5,530
5,510
5,590
5,3.50
5,220
5,270
5,580
4,900
4,310
4,830
4,780
1,242
4,470
4,130
3,980
3,810
3,530
3,510
3,090
3,650
3.;oo
3,260
3,230
3,390
2,910
2,720
2,270
1,105
2,328
2,493
894
2,550
2,980
3,030
2,310
3,015
3,480
2,860
3,410
                                                                             19,000
                                                                             18,210
                                                                             15,900
                                                                             16,300
                                                                             10,750
                                                                             10,310
                                                                             11,330
                                                                              4,440
                                                                             15,650
                                                                             14,000
                                                                              9,350
                                                                             10,210
                                                                             10,600
                                                                              9,640
                                                                             10,850

                                                                              6,000
                                                                              9,410
                                                                              9,670
                                                                              5,250
                                                                              7,730
                                                                             12,750
                                                                              9,700
                                                                              9,800
                                                                             13,630

                                                                              9,750
                                                                              8,900
                                                                             15,100
                                            98

-------
SPRING NO. 5 (conf d)



Date
1970
3/24
3/30
4/2
4/7
4/12
4/14
4/16
4/21
4/23
4/28
4/30
5/5
5/11
5/19
5/25
6/8
S/15
«/22
«/25
7/1
7/6
7/13
7/21
7/24

1970
4/12

1969
5/7
1970
2/13
2/17
2/20
2/25
2/27
3/3
3/6
3/8
3/10
3/13
3/20
3/24
3/30

4/7
4/12
4/14
4/16
4/21
4/23
4/28
4/30
5/5
5/11
5/19



Flow
Gl'M
0.23
0.25
0.18
0.21
0.167
0.23
0.16
0.17
0.20
0.21
0.13
0.17
0.24
0.16
0.10
0.09
0.11
0.08
0.11
0.10
0.11
0.09
0.06
0.07


0.63




1.6
1.4
1.2
0.76
0.57
1.6
2.4
2.2
1.3
0.81
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.1
0.70
0.28
0.27
0.14
0.41
0.38
0.13
0.09
0.12
0.13
0.03



pll

2.65
2.7
2.8
2.3
2.65
3.4
2.5
2.70
2.8
2.5
2.7
2.75
2.6
3.15


2.4
2.65
2.5
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6


5.6


2.0

2.6
2.2
2.35
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.25

2.4
2.3
2.45
2.4
2.31
2.45
2.4
2.25
3.0
2.1
2.35
2.3
2.1
2.2
2.2
2.1
2.5


Net
Acidity
~T^71
13,100
14,700
16,000
15,450
18,200
16,200
17,800
17,200
16, SCO
16,000
17,900
13,000
17,100
18,000
19,000
18,000
17,350
17,700
16,800
17,400
16,900
16,200
17,000
15,300


4,200


33,250

19,275
39,300
26,900
24,800
30,530
29,650
30,875

32,000
32,750
29,630
29,100
30. COO
31,500
31 ,C53
35,700
34,')00
33,000
32,450
34,350
35,300
39,300
35,900
37,000
47,000
Total
Alkalinity
Conductivity Methyl
Hicrouiios Oranqc
per cm nnj/1
12,200
11,402
12,310
12,330
15,350
10,200
16,600
14,550
12,550
16,700
18,600
16,250
14,325
16,800
18,500
16,500
13,850
16,300
17,650
21,300
16,150
17,400
15,200
14,500
SPRING NO. 6

6,150
SPRING NO. 7

0

19,910
12,310
16,300
16,250
20,080
20,300
20,700

20,200
19,050
18,600
20,400
-9,380
18,300
15,700
24,100
13.050
28,000
23,300
20,400
29,100
22,000
28,000
24,640
31,180


Total
I r on
ng/1
4,100
4,370
4,980
4,850
5,340
5,033
5,250
5,200
5,190
4,980
5,590
5,430
4,950
5,480
5,780
5,250
5,460
5,650
5,300
5,480
5,250
4,800
5,140
4,800


2,200


15,473

8,643
6,240
9,550
9,550
9,840
9,360
10,010

10,950
10,550
10,500
9,850
9,380
10,400
10,500
11,350
11,250
12,200
10,100
11,320
11,950
12,750
12,650
11,480
14,850


Ferrous
Iron
"ng/1 -
3,700
3,880
4,430
4,360
4,810
4,740
4,910
5,025
4,820
4,790
5,200
5,300
4,660
5,140
5,460
4,340
5,140
5,250
5,090
5,090
4,700
4,530
4,870
4,430


2,190


14,802

8,313
5,350
9,030
9,200
9,443
7,930
9,330

10,850
9,930
9,800
9,400
9,300
9,700
9,390
10,700
10,0-40
11,450
10,050
10,540
11,430
11,720
11,550
10,050
13,950



Sulfntc
«'9/l
16,590
17,280
19,400
18,600
20,900
8,350
20,700
20,600
19,300
20,550
21,400
20,650
19,300
20,200

20,400
19,600
21,000
20,190
20,350
19,200
18,950
20,550
19,500


7,000


53,760

28,945
19,380
20,230
30,250
26,350
22,530
30,000

29,900
26,600
35,100
33,200
33,400
36,000
32,600
42,700
18,900
43,200
39,250
22,000
41,400
44,900
42,700
37,000
50,300
     99

-------
                                             SPRING NO. 8


Date
I9TO
3/6
3/8
3/10
3/13
3/20
3/24
3/30
*/2
4/7
4/12
4/14
4/16
4/21
4/23
4/28
4/30
5/5
5/11
5/19
6/8
«/15
«/22
6/25
7/6


Flow
GPH
0.84
0.78
0.30
0.36
1.0
0.60
1.3
0.36
0.80
1.5
0.53
0.36
0.37
0.39
0.28
0.17
0.20
0 29
0.11
0.15
0.78
0.15
0.16
0.15


pH

2.0

2.2
2.15
2.45
2.3
2.25
2.5
2.5
2.5
3.1
2.3
2.3
2.4
2.1
2.3
2.5
2.2
2.85

2.1
2.4
2.2
2.4

Net
Acidity
mg/i
24,850

25,700
2-1,000
20,850
20,350
23,900
21.700
20,700
25,500
19,200
21,600
19,450
20,500
20,800
22,000
20,530
18,300
21,000
19,100
18,400
18,600
18,100
16,200

Conductivity
Micror-hor,
per cm
20,600

17,350
15,250
14,300
16,900
17,248
15,550
20,190
13,500
13,:20
20,050
17,920
15,500
21,190
22,650
19,050
16,640
19,600
17,900
20,100
18, -100
19,600
16,300
Total
Alkalinity
Methyl Total
Or.inqo Iron
m<]/l mg/1
7.120

3,150
7,500
7.130
7,190
7.850
7,460
7.075
7,170
6,950
7,000
6.790
6,970
6,760
7,450
6,900
5,900
6,750
5.950
$,180
6,430
6,260
5,760

Ferrous
Iron
mg/1
5,580

7.100
6,440
6,450
6,710
7,200
7,010
6,950
6,860
6,520
6,780
6,460
6,490
6,320
6,830
6,600
5,400
6,230
5,420
5,920
6,180
6.050
5,200


Sulfate
mg/1
27,850

28,100
21,100
23,600
24,850
26,400
24,850
23,700
25,800
13,950
-22,800
23,800
20,650
24,400
26,000
23,300
20,400
23,040
20,900
20,900
22,200
21,600
20,200
1969
                                            SPRING HO. 9
7/30
8/4
8/6
8/12
8/14
8/19
8/21
8/25
8/28
9/3
9/4
9/10
9/12
9/16
9/18
9/29
10/2
10/6
10/9
10/13
10/15
10/20
10/27
11/4
11/11
11/18
11/21
12/16
1970
1/26
1/28
2/5
2/17
3/3
3/6
3/20
3/30
4/2
4/12
0.43
0.30
0.27
0.19


0.20
0.13
0.11
0.11
0.16
0.13
0.17

0.10
0.09
0.09
0.05
0.06
0.37

0.10

0.04
0.05

0.06


0.07
<0.31
0.04
0.32
0.12
0.13
0.11
0.14
0.09
0.07
2.5
2.5

2.5
2.45
2.35
2.6
2.6
2.5
1.15
2.30
2.6
2.5
2.60

2.7
2.65
2.5
2.7
2.3
2.55
2.8
2.5
2.69
2.6
2.0
2.5


2.3
2.45
2.3
2.35
2.25
2.2
2.4
2.3
2.35
2.3
23,000
22,400
22,650
22,100
21,600
10,850
20,400
20,400
19,500
19,230
18,650
17,330
18.775


15.600
16,750
16,500
15,300
12,750
14,150
14,145
14,930
14,300
13,000
15,400

12,000

9,600
10,750
9.170
7,050
10,000
14,300
12,700
13,550
13,400
20,700
                                       23,200
                                       22,100

                                       22,050
                                       24,iOO
                                       12,700
                                       20,700
                                       21,050
                                       22,230
                                       20,400
                                       19,050
                                       17,400
                                       20,900
                                       19,300
                                       16,800
                                       16,550
                                       15,300
                                       13,600
                                       16,300
                                       12,320
                                       11,370
                                       14,100
                                       12,300
                                       11,100
                                       11,200
                                       11,550
                                       10,480
                                        9,350
                                        7,050
                                       10,530
                                        6,330
                                        5,330
                                        9,350
                                       11,985
                                       10,050
                                       13,332
                                       13,335
                                       17,100
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7,700
7,350
7,230
7,090
7,040
3,170
6,770
6,490
6.575
6,360
5,210
5,870
5.920
5,120
5,160
5,390
5,030
3.270
4.780
4,490
4.430
4,250
3,990
3,740
3,910
3.440
2,380
2,620
1,765
1,685
2,480
3,390
3,800
5,170
5,380
5,940
7,210
6,920
6,710
6,850
6,650
1,590
6,250
6,120
6,150
6,020
4,670
5,560
5.530
4,910
4,890
5,060
4,810
2,635
4,540
4,340
3,980
4,060
3,340
2.860
3,560
2,925
1,875
2,060
704
1,072
1,775
2,895
2,970
4,625
4,620
5,300
                               18,750
                               13,400
                               13,300
                               16,300
                               10,520
                               11,040
                                4.440
                               10,530
                                9,730
                               12,950
                               10,950
                                3,190
                               11,250
                               17,050
                               15,810
                               20,200
                               20,700
                               23,700
                                            100

-------
         APPENDIX XI-F




ACIDITY VS. CONDUCTIVITY CHARTS
             101

-------
         5M        IOM       ISM
    CONDUCTIVITY-MICROMHOS PER CM.
ACIDITY VS. CONDUCTIVITY CHART AREA I
               102

-------
25 M
20 M
ISM
2
CL
o:
| 10 M
1
1
>-
1-
£ 5M
O
<
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5M 10 M 15 M
CONDUCTIVITY-MICROMHOSPER CM.
ACIDITY VS.CONDUCTIVITY CHART AREA  2
               103

-------
   40 M
   30M
Qj 20 M
o:
 I
 I
 I
   10 M
O
O
                                      	
                                A
          . *
         V
A
     '            10 M          20M         30M

          CONDUCT!V1TY-MJCROMHOS PER CM.



     ACIDITY VS. CONDUCTIVITY CHART AREA 6
                    104

-------
    APPENDIX XI-G




OBSERVATION WELL DATA
            105

-------
OBSERVATION WELL  DATA

Well
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
12
13
14
15
Elevation
Top
of Well
ft.
486.99
495.55
481.45
468.07
474.50
474.33
467.44
486.98
496.39
494.06
477.14
467.81
473.02
468.70

11/29/68 12/7/68 1/13/69
445.42
474.02
451.74
439.84
438.25
439.70
450.69
449.74 447.05 446.55
448.83 449.00 449.42
458.10 457.81 457.89





1/24/69


451.72




449.96
450.26
457.89




          106

-------
OBSERVATION WELL  DATA
Well
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
12
13
14
15
2/11/69
445.38
457.52
452.60
442.05
441.50
440.33
451.48
447.80
449.88
459.22




2/25/69
445
459
452
442
439
440
451
443
450





.36
.89
.63
.22
.96
.35
.23
.78
.52





2/28/69 3/3/69 3/12/69
445.30 445.27 445.25

452.67 452.44 452.28
441.34 442.17 442.01
440.35 440.83 441.19
440.35 440.33 440.31
451.32 451.23 450.90
443.80 443.97 443.22
454.00 451.23 449.73





         107

-------
OBSERVATION WELL DATA
Well
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
12
13
14
15
3/17/69
445.25

452.05
441.86
441.19
440.27
451.03
443.24
449.67





4/1/69


451.86
441.97
441.12
440.20
450.94
443.25
449.50
444.39




4/9/69 4/15/69 5/26/6


451.76 451.95
449.13 444.59 442.28
441.12 441.08 441.38
440.25 440.31 440.25
450.94 450.98 450.90
443.23
449.38 449.68





        108

-------
OBSERVATION WELL  DATA
Well
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
12
13
14
15
6/11/69

451.87
442.51
441.08
440.23
450.77
443.25
449.56

443.22
441.52
440.64
438.87
6/26/69


451.53
442.20
441.08
440.08
450.67

449.41

447.16
441.66
440.62
438.83
7/3/69


451.43
448.90
441.02
439.77
450.90

449.29

449.31
441.87
440.87
438.87
7/10/69


451.60
442.72
441.06
440.00
451.07

449.27

449.12
441.85
441.46
438.80
7/17/69

441.90
451.78
441.95
441.13
440.10
451.13

449.43
443.10
448.14
441.79
441.69
438.78
         109

-------
OBSERVATION WELL DATA
Well
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
12
13
14
15
7/26/69 8/1/69
445.57
441.90
452.08
442.40
441.18
440.14
451.37
442.87
449.66
443.05
446.16
441.81
442.10
438.78
8/8/69
445.16
441.82
452.28
442.37
441.21
440.13
451.36
442.81
449.72
442.94
447.96
441.65
442.06
438.74
8/15/69

441.78
452.20
442.30
441.19
440.02
451.23

449.81
442.77
447.89
441.52
441.87
438.62
8/22/69

441.72
452.08
442.16
441.21
440.05
451.15

449.83
442.78
447.86
441.48
441.58
438.65
         110

-------
OBSERVATION WELL DATA
Well
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
12
13
14
15
8/30/69

441.76
451.87
441.84
441.04
439.99
451.00

449.66
442.68
447.78
441.44
441.19
438.66
9/6/69

441.61
451.74
441.67
441.07
439.92
450.95

449.64
442.59
447.74
441.37
441.02
438.62
9/15/69

441.57
451.68
441.55
440.94
439.64
450.96

449.49
442.71
447.74
441.50
440.85
438.64
10/9/69

442.45
451.51
441.30
440.92
439.54
450.84

449.39
442.62
447.64
441.39
440.73
438.70
11/22/69

441.97
451.16
440.74
440.87
439.31
451.38

449.26
442.64
447.81
441.39
440.87
438.78
           111

-------
OBSERVATION WELL DATA
Well
NO.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
12
13
14
15
12/8/69
441.7
451.11
441.32
440.92
439.23
450.62
442.06
451.05
442.81
447.85
441.45
440.27
438.78
12/17/69
445.40
441.61
450.97
440.81
440.82
439.20
450.60
442.87
448.98
442.73
447.79
441.38
440.03
438.74
1/30/70
445.39
442.03
450.90
440.57
440.83
439.15
450.76
449.53
451.41
442.58
448.47
441.25
440.06
439.11
2/2/70
445.35
441.97
451.20
435.13
440.83
439.16
451.42
447.14
451.48
442.83
449.05
441.53
440.04
439.13
2/21/70
445.30
442.19
451.37
441.22
440.82
439.12
452.50
446.09
450.53
442.88
448.83
441.53
439.45
439.07
          112

-------
OBSERVATION WELL DATA
Well
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
12
13
14
15
3/7/70
445.38
442.46
451.77
440.89
440.91
439.07
452.04
445.53
450.88
442.99
449.28
441.60
441.31
439.06
3/16/70
445.24
442.37
452.03
440.72
440.92
439.09
452.12
445.26
449.76
442.99
449.22
441.57
440.88
439.04
3/30/70
445.32

452.51
441.19
441.01
438.13
454.61
445.14
450.67
443.08
449.56
441.64
441.29
439.00
4/4/70
445.38
442.90
452.52
441.06
441.00
439.13
452.48
445.07
450.13
443.04
449.59
441.63
441.18
439.01
4/11/70
445.39
441.65
452.62
441.47
441.03
439.80
452.47
444.98
449.99
443.08
449.53
441.59
441.34
438.89
         113

-------
OBSERVATION  WELL DATA
Well
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
12
13
14
15
4/17/70
445.60
442.32
452.52
441.58
441.00
439.98
452.44
444.89
449.95
443.01
449.42
441.50
441.06
438.84
4/24/70
Dry
442.36
452.49
441.50
440.94
440.00
452.67
444.81
449.92
442.81
449.47
441.56
441.13
438.82
5/1/70
445.34
442,39
452.49
441.57
440.93
439.93
452.64
444.72
449.93
443.00
449.45
441.57
441.02
438.82
5/9/70
445.36
442.51
452.57
441.61
440.98
439.83
452.73
444.43
449.72
443.00
449.43
441.33
441.10
438.70
6/11/70
445.35
441.00
453.20
443.16
440.96
440.13
452.02
444.33
449.83
443.11
448.85
441.67
441.53
438.68
            114

-------
OBSERVATION WELL DATA
Well
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
12
13
14
15
7/2/70
444.95
441.63
451.95
443.34
440.62
439.69
451.19
443.81
449.39
442.54
437.93
441.07
430.89
438.39
7/20/70
445.69
441.88
451.95
444.29
440.97
440.00
453.21
444.15
449.71
442.80
448.04
441.39
431.11
438.76
           115

-------
            APPENDIX XI-H




ANALYSES OF SUBSURFACE  DRAINAGE FROM




        VEGETATIVE TEST PLOTS
                 117

-------
                        General Notes
1.  Subsurface drainage pipes and sampling ports  installed
    on Test Plots 3,  4, 5,  6, 7,  8,  9,  10, 12,  and  13.

2.  Sampling ports on Test  Plots  5,  6,  12, and  13 were
    always dry.
                           118

-------
TEST PLOT NO. 3 SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE
   Net    Conductivity   Total  Ferrous
Date
1970
1/16
1/27
2/23
3/7
3/11
3/19
3/27
4/4
4/9
4/15
4/22
4/30
5/7
5/15
5/21
PH

1.4
1.5
1.55
1.8
1.8
1.35
1.7
2.1
1.65
1.8
1.8
1.6
1.8
1.55
1.6
Acidity
mg/1
47,100
22,200
27,250
18,600
23,000
20,100
20,000
21,750
20,600
18,600
16,000
18,000
19,100
19,300
18,100
Micromhos
per cm
27,000
16,120
17,350
14,350
16,800
15,100
15,900
14,450
15,800
14,550
15,120
16,150
17,100
17,250
19,600
Iron
mg/1
14,320
6,250
7,660
5,130
6,475
5.600
5,360
6,450
6,400
5,240
4,550
5,150
2,460
4,860
5,650
Iron
mg/1
5,170
1,140
2,435
1,920
3,060
1,765
1,790
2,730
2,920
1,790
1,430
1,755
1,030
2,065
2,795
Sulfate
mg/1
45,600
19,900
21,650
19,400
2,345
20,450
21,000
24,500
22,000
19,800
17,380
19,600
20,200
17,650
19,700
                 119

-------
TEST PLOT NO.  4  SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE
Date
1970
1/16
1/27
2/23
3/7
3/11
3/19
3/27
4/4
4/9
4/15
4/22
4/30
5/7
5/15
5/21
PH

2.2
2.0
2.15
2.2
2.6
2.0
2.0
2.5
2.35
2.2
2.6
2.1
2.35
1.9
1.9
Net Conductivity Total
Acidity Micromhos Iron
mg/1
19,300
5,230
8,050
6,930
11,500
7,720
5,850
6,760
6,800
10,400
11,300
11,800
17,300
15,900
15,600
per cm
36,000
5,700
8,300
7,950
7,500
6,950
7,000
6,950
7,400
10,900
11,870
11,650
11,090
15,000
16,800
mg/1
6,880
1,361
2,390
1,875
2,200
2,460
1,565
2,260
2,360
3,130
3,620
4,110
1,880
5,260
5,480
Ferrous
Iron
mg/1
6,230
201
1,430
1,150
1,595
1,645
643
1,630
1,890
2,500
2,430
3,240
1,460
3,915
4,190
Sulfate
mg/1
19,200
6,250
8,940
7,775
8,650
8,900
6,730
8,160
7,730
11,230
12,580
13,550
13,450
17,000
17,650
                 120

-------
TEST PLOT NO. 7 SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE
   Net    Conductivity   Total  Ferrous
Date
1970
1/27
2/11
2/23
3/7
3/11
3/19
3/27
4/4
4/9
4/15
4/22
4/30
pH

1.3
1.3
1.3
1.6
1.5
1.2
1.3
1.95
1.8
1.8
2.1
1.85
Acidity
mg/1
21,300
40,000
34,600
55,000
53,500
17,900
41,400
28,800

29,900
5,400
5,400
Micromhos
per cm
17,650
23,500
22,400
32,100
28,000
17,500
26,700
17,700
21,200
18,200
7,220
7,680
Iron
mg/1
4,800
8,850
8,300
15,520
14,100
3,880
10,000
7,470
9,400
7,730
1,140
1,255
Iron
mg/1
413
1,609
1,485
11,050
9,050
470
4,580
4,360
6,590
4,950
380
555
Sulfate
mg/1
20,700
38,400
30,350
56,650
5,075
18,550
41,800
33,100

32,700
5,660
6,900
                 121

-------
TEST PLOT NO.  8  SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE
Date
1970
2/1
2/23
3/7
3/7
3/19
3/27
J
1
1
1

1
1
oH
-
.1
.4
.35

.45
.1
Net C
Acidity
mg/1
60
28
57
36
12
40
,500
,400
,000
,000
,050
,600
lonductivity Total
Micrornhos Iron
per
34,
18,
36,

11,
33,
cm
650
750
700

650
500
mg/1
16
7
15
10
2
11
,320
,130
,850
,110
,580
,500
Ferrous
Iron
mg/1
7,670
3,580
8,480
5,320
470
5,200
Sulfate
mg/l
56
28
60
37
12
46
,600
,000
,300
,400
,490
,000
                   122

-------
TEST PLOT NO. 9 SUBSURFACE  DRAINAGE
Date
1970
1/27
2/1
2/23
3/7
3/11
3/19
3/27
4/4
4/15
Net Conductivity Total
pH Acidity Micromhos Iron

1.1
1.3
1.35
1.4
1.2
1.6
1.2
1.6
1.55
mg/1
32,500
40,450
29,350
36,600
54,000
6,230
40,050
36,500
38,400
per cm
26,400
29,100
20,200
33,350
35,900
7,950
29,700
30,000
28,000
mg/1
8,400
12,900
7,260
12,100
14,225
1,320
9,400
11,250
10,780
Ferrous
Iron
mg/1
4,160
5,720
3,510
5,780
9,200
100
4,220
8,530
5,860
Sulfate
mg/1
20,300
43,200
29,350
50,700
48,000
7,000
39,410
43,700
39,400
                 123

-------
TEST PLOT NO. 10  SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE
Date
1970"
1/16
1/27
2/11
2/23
3/7
3/11
3/19
3/27
4/4
4/9
4/15
4/22
4/30
5/7
5/15
pH
1.2
1.4
1.8
1.6
1.6
1.3
1.8
1.3
1.65
1.15
1.2
1.4
1.1
1.3
1.1
Net Conductivity Total
Acidity Micromhos Iron
mg/1
40,600
12,150
10,300
11,350
24,900
32,000
4,550
21,000
24,750
40,000
42,700
30,500
44,750
43,800
38,900
per cm
16,200
13,650
14,900
12,200
24,400
27,750
7,830
22,400
22,400
35,900
40,300
32,500
42,500
42,000
39,400
mg/1
11,290
2,860
3,130
2,320
6,060
7,870
1,025
5,040
6,180
10,200
10,850
7,670
11,710
4,730
10,170
Ferrous
Iron
mg/1
8,400
1,852
2,150
1,515
4,250
5,600
536
3,870
4,600
8,300
8,920
5,730
10,050
4,120
8,560
Sulfate
mg/1
39,350
12,500
12,950
11,320
27,350
32,200
5,380
21,500
28,800
40,800
42,600
31,600
47,100
45,500
40,400
                124

-------
          APPENDIX XI-I




  ANALYSES OF REFUSE SAMPLES  AT




INTERFACE OF VEGETATIVE  TEST  PLOTS
                 125

-------
                     General Notes
1.  Solid samples taken from Test Plots 1, 2, 1, 8, 9,
    10, 12, 13, and 14 only.

2.  Samples were taken at the interface between the cover
    and refuse or from the first 4 inches of refuse in
    plots having no cover.

3.  Three solid samples, each weighing approximately 1 lb,
    were taken from each test plot and mixed together.  A
    100 gm sample was then taken from the composite, mixed
    with 500 ml of distilled water arid allowed to settle
    for 10 minutes.   The clear supernatant was then
    analyzed.

4.  Minus net acidity values denote alkalinity, to phenol-
    phthalein end point.
                           126

-------
TEST PLOT NO. 1 SOLID  SAMPLE
Date
1970'
1/6
1/12
1/15
3/10
3/23
3/31
4/7
4/14
4/22
4/29
5/4
5/13
5/21
5/27
6/5
6/12
6/18
6/26
-EL
2.75
2.62
2.45
3.7
3.0
4.3
4.8
3.35
6.0
5.5
6.45
6.5
8.2


5.1
7.0
3.6
Net
Acidity
mg/1
1,000
1,230
1,875
400
450
-40

-570
-30
-50
-80
-50
-160
-60
-120
-50
-60
200
Total
Iron
mg/1
174
221
353
60
74
4
23
21
49
18
0
20
45
45
25
4
36
31
Ferrous
Iron
mg/1
9
3
4
56
45
0
4
4
0
0
3
0

0
0
0
0
4
Sulfate
mg/1
2,065
2,280
2,710
1,630
1,345
1,175
1,440
768
2,015
1,345
1,490
1,265
2,880
1,536
2,500
1,390
1,535
1,585
             127

-------
TEST PLOT NO. 2 SOLID SAMPLE

Date
1970
1/6
4/7
4/14
4/22
4/29
5/4
5/13
5/21
5/27
6/5
6/12
6/18
6/26

J2!L_
2.5
2.7
3.1
6.2
5.2
6.4
7.4
7.5


3.3
6.1
4.0
Net
Acidity
mg/1
2,050
475
500
-10
-80
-80
-60
-70
-110
-170
425
-70
130
Total
Iron
mg/1
393
49
45
10
27
4
23
45
25
25
45
25
16
Ferrous
Iron
mg/1
2
3
4
0
4
0
22

8.9
2
2
18
4

Sulfate
mg/1
1,920
1,630
1,820
1,680
2,545
1,585
1,480
3,740
1,680
2,980
1,315
1,535
1,730
             128

-------
                TEST PLOT NO. 7 SOLID SAMPLE
                    Net        Total    Ferrous
Date      pH      Acidity      Iron       Iron      gulfate
1970               mg/1        mg/1       mg/1        mg/1

1/6      2.3      1,400         150          2       2,350
                            129

-------
TEST PLOT NO.  8 SOLID  SAMPLE

Date
1970
1/6
1/12
1/15
3/10
3/23
3/31
4/7
4/14
4/22
4/29
5/4
5/13
5/21
5/27
6/5
6/12
6/18
6/26
7/8

pH_

2.3
2.51
2.6
2.25
2.55
2.7
2.55
2.9
2.5
2.6
2.25
3.0
2.5


2.4
2.3
2.35
2.5
Net
Acidity
mg/1
1,625
1,300
900
2,100
950
450
700
1,400
1,700
720
2,300
-280
980
800
2,600
390
1,800
1,770
800
Total
Iron
mg/1
165
140
144
373
134
27
74
159
329
69
332
13
168
112
512
22
326
391
29
Ferrous
Iron
mg/1
18
11
22
58
11
7
18
54
24
11
38
4
40
56
45
4
112
206
7

Sulfate
mg/1
2,470
1,625
1,367
3,120
2,140
865
1,705
1,490
2,930
1,105
3,170
1,632
5,140
1,392
6,250
529
2,690
2,400
2,110
            130

-------
TEST PLOT NO. 9 SOLID SAMPLE
Date
1970
1/6
1/12
1/15
3/10
3/23
3/31
4/7
4/14
4/22
4/29
5/4
5/13
5/21
5/27
6/5
6/12
6/18
6/26
7/8
PH

2.3
2.45
2.3b
3.7
2.3
2.4
2.1
2.35
2.3
2.65
2.3
2.25
2.2


2.3
2.35
2.5
2.2
Net
Acidity
mg/1
1,950
1,525
1,850
400
1,200
2,500
3,110
1,775
2,950
1,200
1,550
1,720
2,840
1,500
1,300
1,300
1,300
900
2,700
Total
Iron
mg/1
458
192
328
60
173
484
626
313
606
192.5
216.5
306
583
281.5
208
266
197
125
508
Ferrous
Iron
mg/1
145
56
11
56
46.0
196.5
236
120.5
159
94
122.9
172
148
180.6
80.6
184
145
17.9
161
Sulfate
mg/1
1,920
2,110
2,470
1,630
1,680
3,200
4,280
2,880
4,130
1,440
2,400
2,420
8,260
2,112
2,120
1,535
1,975
1,780
3,170
             131

-------
TEST PLOT NO. 10 SOLID SAMPLE

Date
1970
1/6
1/12
1/15
3/10
3/23
3/31
4/7
4/14
4/22
4/29
5/4
5/13
5/21
5/27
6/5
6/12
6/18
6/26
7/8

DH

2.45
2.37
2.4
2.1
2.45
2.4
2.4
2.75
2.4
2.65
2.5
2.4
2.1


2.3
2.75
2.65
2.4
Net
Acidity
mg/1
2,300
1,920
1,700
1,650
1,050
1,150
1,550
1,575
1,425
1,000
1,850
1,180
2,240
950
1,200
1,000
400
750
1,600
Total
Iron
mg/1
243
244
275
297
175
186
288
261
263
139
243
199
456
181
172
193
31
113
231
Ferrous
Iron
mg/1
67
88
18
163
96
60
159
57
167
92
166
159
313
114
114
145
7
74
170

Sulfate
mg/1
2,300
2,800
2,330
2,305
1,875
1,895
1,920
2,260
2,640
1,730
2,980
1,825
7,350
1,584
2,69C
1,585
913
1,151
1,920
             132

-------
TEST PLOT NO. 12 SOLID SAMPLE
Date
1970
1/6
1/12
1/15
3/10
3/23
3/31
4/7
4/14
4/22
4/29
5/4
5/13
5/21
5/27
6/12
6/26
7/8
pH

2.15
2.25
2.7
2.35
3.25
2.5
3.3
3.0
3.2
3.05
3.9
3.0
2.7

2.5
2.55
2.2
Net
Acidity
mg/1
6,300
1,355
2,150
2,850
300
1,200
600
1,050
-390
404
2,750
320
670
1,300
1,000
1,300
4,000
Total
Iron
mg/1
1,445
540
465
536
25
172
76
117
29
31
36
34
114
199
244
253
754
Ferrous
Iron
mg/1
415
141
161
380
16
82.8
65
67
18
9
13
20
105
83
181
74
286
Sulfate
mg/1
7,520
2,045
3,070
3,405
1,008
2,450
1,705
2,420
1,825
1,200
1,540
1,075
3,120
9,600
1,680
1,585
3,700
             133

-------
TEST PLOT NO. 13 SOLID SAMPLE
Date
1970
1/6
1/12
1/15
3/10
3/23
3/31
4/7
4/14
4/22
4/29
5/4
5/13
5/21
5/27
6/5
6/12
6/26
7/8
-EL
2.5
2.47
2.45
2.35
4.3
5.7
5.1
3.35
4.35
4.15
5.2
6.4
3.5


5.4
2.9
3.6
Net
Acidity
mg/1
1,550
2,360
2,650
2,850
250
-60

-700
-160
200
-180
-10
880
1,100
-460
-30
500
40
Total
Iron
mg/1
247
236
578
536
6

13
9
17.8
26.8
9
11
98
67
58
29
27

Ferrous
Iron
mg/1
4
17
83
380
2


4
9
11
2
0
9
13
7
0
4

Sulfate
mg/1
2,300
2,120
3,600
3,405
1,490
673
1,225
1,055
2,115
1,390
1,780
673
4,502
2,640
2,880
1,005
1,055
865
             134

-------
TEST PLOT NO. 14 SOLID SAMPLE
Date
1970
1/6
1/12
1/15
3/10
3/23
4/7
4/14
4/22
4/29
5/4
5/13
5/21
5/27
6/5
6/12
6/18
6/26
7/8
pH

2.6
2.8
2.55
5.3
3.75
5.8
2.6
4.3
3.7
4.1
3.0
2.9


3.7
2.6
2.7
3.6
Net
Acidity
mg/1
2,750
1,740
2,200

450

4,700
500
160
-1,270
640
1,320
150
1,300
400
2,100
950
40
Total
Iron
mg/1
386
271
509

43
11
726
1,640
27
440
87
239
22
190
83
400
199

Ferrous
Iron
mg/1
60
13
24

38

74
150
13
438
45
134
13
145
72
117
4

Sulfate
mg/1
2,850
2,390
3,165
3,700
1,490
1,370
4,220
2,160
816
2,690
1,805
6,340
960
4,600
1,200
2,790
2,015
865
             135

-------
    APPENDIX XI-J




ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES
         137

-------
1.  pH:  Standard glass electrode pH meter.

2.  Net acidity:  ASTM D-1067 Method E, 1970.

3.  Conductivity:  Standard conductivity meter.

4.  Total alkalinity:  ASTM D-1067 Method B (methyl orange
       end point), 1970.

5.  Total iron:  Quantitative Analysis, H. Diehl and G.  F.
       Smith, p. 292-3, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1955.

6.  Ferrous ion:  Ibid.

7.  Sulfate:  ASTM Benzidine Method for Sulfate  (1946) with
       Modifications by Johnstone er al (C. 1959).

8.  Soil test:  The procedures used by the Agrico Chemical
       Division, Continental Oil Company for determining
       limestone and fertilizer requirements for grass
       plots established on soil covers are those recom-
       mended by the University of Illinois, Department
       of Agronomy, Urbana, Illinois.   These procedures
       are as follows:

       pH:   Soil plus water, measure with glass  electrode
            and direct reading conductivity meter.

       Available Phosphorus:  "Pi" test by Bray  and Kurtz,
            Soil Science,  59:39 "(1945).

       Exchangeable Potassium:  C. A.  Black et al.   Methods
            of Soil Analysis,  Part 2.   Chemical  and Micro-
            biological  Propertis3, Am.  Soc. of Agronomy,
            Inc., Madison,  Wisconsin (p.  1025-6).

       Exchangeable Calcium:  Ibid,  p.  894-5.

       Lime  Requirement:  McLean, Dumford and  Coronel, Soil
            Science Society of America  Proceedings,  Vol. 30,
            No.  1,  Jan.-Feb. 1966, p.  26-30.
                            138

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            APPENDIX XI-K




COST DATA FOR EXPERIMENTAL  TEST PLOTS
                 139

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                     PLOTS 1 AND  2
                                                     $/A

Agricultural Limestone
    40 T/A  <§ $5.50/T, spread                        $220.00

Tilling  limestone into refuse                         6.00

Fertilizer, 6-24-24
    0.75  T/A @ $55.30/T                               41.48

Tilling  fertilizer into refuse                        3.00

Grass seed, rye and fescue
    80 Ib/A @ $24.00/cwt.                             19.20

Grass seed application                                3.00

Straw mulch
    1.5 T/A @ $30.00/T                                45.00

Mulch application
    6 man-hours/A @ $4.50/man-hour                    27.00

                                             Total $364.68

                                             say   $365/A
                           140

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                 PLOTS 3, 4, 5 AND 11
Agricultural limestone
   40 T/A <§ 55.50/T, spread

Disk limestone into refuse

Fertilizer, 6-24-24
   0.75 T/A 3 $55.30/T

Tilling fertilizer into refuse

Grass seed, rye and fescue
   80 Ib/A @ $24.00/cwt.

Grass seed application

Straw mulch
   1.5 T/A @ $30.00/T

Mulch application
   6 man-hours/A 3 $4.50/man-hour
        $/A


      $220.00

         6.00


        41.48

         3.00


        19.20

         3.00


        45.00


        27.00

Total $364.68

say   $365/A
                           141

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                         PLOT 6
                                                     $/A

 Polyethylene plastic,  20  ft x 100  ft rolls
    22  rolls/A @  $13.00/roll                       $  396.00

 Labor  to spread  plastic
    8 man-hours/A i§  S4.50/man-hour                    36.00

 Soil,  4  inches thick
    540 yd3/A 3 Sl.OO/yd3                             540.00

 Lightweight  equipment  to  spread  soil without
 tearing  plastic
    540 yd3/A 
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                        PLOT 8
Soil, 4 inches thick
   540 yd3/A @ $1.00/yd3

Agricultural limestone
   2 T/A @ $5.50/T spread

Fertilizer, 6-24-24
   0.25 T/A 5 $55.30/T

Tilling limestone and fertilizer

Grass seed, rve and fescue
   70 Ib/A @ $24.0C/cwt.

Grass seed application

Straw mulch
   1.5 T/A @ $30.00/T

Mulch application
   6 man-hours •§ $4.50/man-hour
        $/A


      $540.00


        11.00


        13.83

         3.00


        16.80

         3.00


        45.00


        27.00

Total $659.63

say   $660/A
                           143

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                        PLOT  9
                                                     $/A

Soil, 12  inches thick
   1613 yd3/A  3 $1.00/yd3                         $1613.00

Agricultural limestone
   2 T/A  @  $5.50/T spread                            11.00

Fertilizer, 6-24-24
   0.25 T/A @  $55.30/T                               13.83

Tilling in limestone and fertilizer                   3.00

Grass seed, rye, fescue, orchard grass
   80 Ib/A @ $24.CO/cwt.                             19.20

Seed application                                      3.00

Straw mulch
   1.5 T/A @ $30.00/T                                45.00

Mulch application
   6 man-hours '3 $4 . 50/man-hour                      27 . 00

                                            Total $1735.03

                                            say   $1735/A
                           144

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                        PLOT 10
                                                     $/A

Soil, 24 inches thick
   3226 yd3/A Q $1.00/yd3                         $3226.00

Agricultural limestone
   2 T/A @ $5.50/T spread                            11.00

Fertilizer, 6-24-24
   0.25 T/A 9 $55.30/T                               13.83

Tilling in limestone and fertilizer                   3.00

Seed, fescue, orchard grass, lespedeza mix
   55 Ib/A Q $26.00/cwt.                             14.30

Seed application                                      3.00

Straw mulch
   1.5 T/A (§ $30.00/T                                45.00

Mulch application
   6 man-hours 9 $4.50/man-hour                      27.00

                                            Total $3343.13

                                            say   $3345/A
                           145

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                        PLOT 12
                                                     $/A

Dried sewage sludge, 4 inches thick
   540 yd3 @ 90 lb/ft3 = 656 T/A
   @ 12 T/truckload = 55 loads/A
   @ 1.5 hr/load and $S.OO/hr                      $660.00

Sludge application
   8 hours 3 $10.00/hr                               80.00

Grass seed, fescue and rye
   20 Ib/A 3 $24.00/cwt.                              4.80

Seed application                                      3.00

Straw mulch
   1.5 T/A 8 $30.00/T                                45.00

Mulch application
   6 man-hours § $4.50/man-hour                      27.00

                                             Total $819.80

                                             say   $820/A
                          146

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                        PLOT 16
                                                     S/A

Agricultural limestone
   15 T/A @ S5.50/T spread                         $ 82.50

Fertilizer
   Urea, 45-0-0      @ 200 Ib/A @ $82.00/T            8.20
   Phosphate, 0-46-0 @ 300 Ib/A @ $77.00/T           11.55
   Potas, 0-0-60     @ 300 Ib/A @ $58.00/T            8.70

Fertilizer application                                5.00

Grass seed, oats, fescue, sudangrass mix
   90 Ib/A @ $24.00/cwt.                             21.60

Straw mulch
   1.5 T/A @ 530.00/T                                45.00

Mulch application
   6 man-hours S $4.50/man-hour                      27.00

                                             Total $209.55

                                             say   $210/A
                           147

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                        PLOT 17
                                                     $/A

Coherex, 1:6 Coherex-water mixture
   @ 1 gal mixture/yd2 or
   807 gal. Coherex/A @ $0.42/gal.                 $339.00

Self-propelled pressure sprayer vehicle
   and two tank trucks operating at
   1 hr/A @ $49/hr                                   49.00

                                             Total $388.00

                                             say   $388/A
                           148

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» /Icces.sioti (Vumbor

~ Subject Ft^ld &. Group
05B
05G
SELECTED WATER RESOURCES ABSTRACTS
INPUT TRANSACTION FORM
c- Organization
       Truax-Traer Coal Company, A Division of Consolidation Coal Company,
       Pinskneyville, Illinois
     Title
       Control of Mine Drainage from Coal Mine Mineral Wastes
       Phase I - Hydrology and Related Experiments
•JQ Authors)
Barthauer, G. L.
Kosowski, Z. V.
Ramsey, J. P.
16

21

Project Designation
Environmental Protection Agency Grant
14010 DDK
Note
  22
     Citation
Water Pollution Control Research Series, 14010DDH  08/71
Environmental Protection Agency, Water Quality Office
Washington, P,Q., August 1971	
 23
     Descriptors (Starred First)
       Mine drainage*, waste piles*, lagoons*, vegetative covers*, mineral wastes*,
       grasses, reclamation, acid mine drainage
  25
     Identifiers (Starred Firs')
       Refuse piles*, slurry  lagoons*, New Kathleen Mine*,  Illinois,  acid formation rate
 27
     Abstract
   -"A project has been underway since 1968, at an abandoned mine  located in southern
Illinois, attempting to demonstrate practical means of abating pollution from, coal mine
mineral wastes.  The site included a refuse pile occupying approximately 40 acres and
a slurry lagoon complex of  50 acres.
     The project consists of two phases.  Phase I, reported herein,  describes the
characteristics and acid formation rate of the refuse pile.  The average rate of acid
formation for this refuse pile is 198 pounds of acidity, as CaC03, per acre per day.
Acid contribution from the  slurry lagoons was not determined but appears to be negligible.
     As an abatement measure, a number of experimental vegetative  covers were tested.
Grass was successfully established with and without the use of topsoil, weathering well
for one year.  The long-term effects of establishing a grass cover directly on the
refuse without the use of topsoil are not known at this time.
     Phase II, currently in progress, will implement specific remedial procedures for
the entire site, to be followed by a monitoring program that will  determine the degree
of pollution abatement.  A  final report covering Phase II will be  submitted.
 Abstractor
          Z. V. Kosowski
                               Institution
                                     Consolidation Coal Company
  WH:1O2  (REV JULY 1969)
  WRS1C
                                        SEND TO: WATER RESOURCES SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION CENTER
                                               US. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
                                               WASHINGTON, D. C. 20240
                                                                               * SPO: 1969-359-339

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