• 1 I]
      WASHINGTON, D.C. 20460

Acknowledgments  	    1
Preface  	     1
Ornamentals 	     2
  Introduction  	     2
  Disease Agents 	     2
  Weeds   	    3
  Insects and Mites	    4
  Vertebrate Pests	    5
Turfgrass  	    5
  Introduction   	    5
  Disease  Agents  	    6
  Weeds   	    7
  Insects   	    8
  Vertebrate Pests	    9
Phytotoxicity 	    9
Environmental Concerns 	    9
Protecting Animals and People	  10
Application 	  10
Area Measurements	  10
Weights and Measures	  11

This guide has been developed by North Carolina
State University under U.S. Environmental Protec-
tion Agency  (EPA)  contract number  68-01-2903.
This contract was issued by the  Training Branch,
Operations Division, Office of Pesticide Programs,
EPA. The leader of this group effort was Robert L.
Robertson, North Carolina State University. Editors
were  Mary Ann  Wamsley,  EPA,  and Donna M.
Vermeire, North Carolina State University.

Contributors  were:
John  F.  Ahrens,  Connecticut Agricultural Experi-
   ment Station
Jack D. Butler, Colorado State University
Huston B. Couch, Virginia Polytechnic  Institute and
   State University
Douglas    Gaydon,   Environmental   Protection
   Agency, Region IV,  Atlanta, Georgia
William  M.  Hoffman,  Environmental Protection
   Agency, Washington, D.C.
Palmer Maples, Jr., Golf Course  Superintendents
   Association of America, Atlanta, Georgia
Richard L. Miller, The  Ohio State University
Federal  regulations  establish  general  and specific
standards that you must meet before you can use
certain pesticides. Your State will provide material
which you may study to help you meet the general

This guide  contains  basic information  to help you
meet the specific standards for applicators who are
engaged in  ornamental and turfgrass pest control.
Because the guide was prepared to cover the entire
nation, some  information important to your State
may not be included. The State agency in charge of
your training can provide the other materials you
should study.

This guide  will give you information about:
• recognition and control of ornamental pests,
• recognition and control of turfgrass pests, and
• environmental concerns for ornamental and turf-
  grass pest control.


Some plant  damage  is caused by  living  pests,  in-
•  disease agents,
•  weeds,
•  insects and mites, and
•  vertebrate animals.

Other causes of plant problems are:
•  too little, too much, or imbalanced fertilizer,
•  pesticide injury,
•  improper planting and pruning,
•  root girdling,
•  soil conditions  (such as improper drainage, com-
   paction) ,
•  mechanical  damage (by  such things  as  earth-
   moving equipment, mowers, and hand  tools),
•  pollution damage, and
•  natural aging of plants (often mistaken for dam-
   age caused by  insects and diseases).

You must diagnose  the problem before using con-
trol methods. Can you find an insect or recognize
the symptoms  of a  disease? Pinpointing causes  of
plant damage usually requires close observation.

Fungi,  bacteria,  viruses, nematodes, mycoplasmas,
and parasitic  plants cause diseases of  landscape
 plants.  Most common diseases are caused by fungi.
 The environment is of  major  importance  to  the
 development of  disease in woody plants. For  ex-
 •  A sudden drop in temperature in the fall or early
   winter increases the susceptibility of plants  to
   cankers caused by fungi.
 •  Waterlogging  of the soil contributes to the  de-
    velopment of certain root rots.
 •  Long periods  of  rain  can cause an increase of
    such fungal  diseases as scab and leaf spots.

The more common diseases of landscape plants are
described below.

 Vascular  Wilt
 Vascular wilt fungi of shade trees  are of two types:
 •  those that infect roots  (Verticillium wilt), and
 •  those that infect stems (Dutch elm disease).
The organism that causes  Vericillium  wilt is pres-
ent in the soil. It spreads upward from  the roots
through sapwood and interferes with  water move-
ment  and other plant functions. Dutch elm disease
is transmitted by elm bark beetles.

In both  diseases,  leaf  wilting, browning between
veins, and leaf drop usually begin in  one  branch
and progress through  the tree.  Dead and dying
branches, sparseness of the  crown,   and reduced
twig growth are common  symptoms.  Another is a
discolored  streaking  in  the  wood   of affected
branches or in the main trunk.

Leaf Spots

Fungal leaf  spots occur on most kinds  of orna-
mental plants.  They usually appear  first  on  the
lower leaves. They may begin  as dark brown, pin-
head-sized spots which sometimes have  a yellow
halo.  Spots may  enlarge to cover an entire  leaf.
Small, black structures the size of pinheads are in
the center of many leaf spots. As the spots become
more  abundant, leaves may yellow, die, and drop.

Leaf  spots  are  more common in the  early spring
and fall.  Wet conditions usually are  necessary for
infection. Healthy plants become infected when the
fungus spores are:
• splashed onto them from infected leaves on the
• blown  to them by the wind, or
• carried to them on clothing and tools.

Apples,  crab apples, and pyracantha are  suscep-
tible to the scab fungus. Symptoms include:
• spots on leaves and fruit, and
• premature defoliation.

Scab  first  appears  as  olive-green spots  on  the
underside of new leaves. These spots become brown
and velvety; then leaves turn yellow and drop pre-
maturely. Fruit may become infected at any time
with  circular,  olive-green  spots that  later  become
brown or black.  The fungi  overwinter in  infected
leaves and produce spores in the  spring.

 Powdery  Mildew

Powdery mildew occurs on plants both in green-
houses and  outdoors.  Common  hosts  are  rose,

zinnia, crab  apple, euonymus, and  crape  myrtle.
Powdery mildew may produce  a white powdery
coating on  the  leaves, buds,  or stems  of  highly
susceptible plants. The new growth is  stunted and
curled, and leaves may become dry and drop. The
flower buds  are  often deformed and  may fail  to
open properly.

Bacterial Fire Blight

Certain varieties  of  apple, flowering  crab,  pear,
pyracantha,  mountain ash,  and quince are highly
susceptible to fire  blight. Hawthorn,  rose,  coton-
easter,  spirea,  and amelanchier are affected less

The signs of fire  blight are:
• Blossoms  and leaves  suddenly wilt, turn  dark
   brown, shrivel,  and  die,  but usually  remain
• Secondary infections start in the small twigs, pro-
   gress down  the stem,  and may  involve  whole
• Blighted terminals may bend to look like a shep-
   herd's crook.
• Dark  streaking of the  wood extends   several
   inches beyond the diseased area.
• Cankers  on  limbs  are shrunken,  and are dark
   brown to purple. An orange gum  or slime often
   oozes from them.

The  baceria overwinter  in cankers  on  the  plant.
They are spread by:
• wind-blown rain,
• insects, and
• pruning tools.


Many nematodes live  in the soil and feed on plant
roots. Some kinds cause small knots on roots; others
kill the tips  of feeder roots.

The  above-ground symptoms  of nematode damage
may  include:
• yellowing of foliage,
• stunting,  and
• a general decline of the plant.

It is difficult to  distinguish between the symptoms
of nematode damage  and root  rot  infection. You
may need to have soil and plant samples examined
in a laboratory to confirm a nematode infestation.
Root-knot of boxwood is an example of a nematode
disease of ornamentals.

Disease Control
Types  of chemicals  available  for disease  control
• Protective  chemicals applied  to foliage, flowers,
  and  fruit.  They are subject  to weathering and
  must be reapplied regularly.
• Systemic chemicals.  These can be applied less
• Soil  fumigants. Use of these to control soil-borne
  fungi,  bacteria, and nematodes is economically
  feasible in  the production and establishment of
  high-value  ornamentals.

There  are no known chemicals for control  of  virus.
With few exceptions,  disease-controlling pesticides
will  not  eradicate  disease-producing  agents  after
infection  has  occurred. Careful  management,  in-
cluding pruning  out of dead and  dying  plant parts
and the  removal of  infected leaves, coupled with
preventive use of the correct  fungicides and bac-
tericides, will prevent further spread. In some  situa-
tions,  routine preventive use of a pesticide is  the
only practical  way to  protect  highly  susceptible
plants. Your local  extension agent can help you
identify your pest problems and select the correct

Many  kinds of weeds are pests in landscape  plant-

Annual  Weeds
Annual weeds are most troublesome in intensively
cultivated ornamentals. Common annual weeds in
ornamentals  include:
• grasses (crabgrass,  foxtailgrass, fall panicum,
   and  barnyardgrass) which germinate during the
   spring and summer,
• annual bluegrass and annual bromegrass,  which
   germinate  during the late summer or fall,
• annual broadleaf weeds (purslane,  pigweed,  and
   lambsquarters) which germinate during the warm
   season and are killed by hard frost,  and
• those  that survive freezing temperatures  (horse-
   weed,   common   chickweed,   bittercress,  and

Biennial and  Perennial Weeds
Biennial  and  perennial  weeds  are  most  trouble-
some in uncultivated ornamentals. They have under-
ground plant parts  that survive from year  to year.
They are spread in  several ways:
•  Many  spread easily when carried in soil, in root
   balls, and on cultivating equipment, as well as by
   seeds.  These  include  Bermuda  grass, Johnson
   grass, quackgrass, nutsedge, mugwort, and wild
•  Seeds  of perennial weeds such as dandelion  and
   goldenrod  are spread primarily  by  wind  and
•  Horsetail rush is spread by  underground plant
   parts and by spores.

 Weed  Control
Consider both the weeds and the ornamental plants
when choosing control methods. You can  use  cul-
tural methods, mechanical methods, herbicides, or
combinations  of the three.  Many  weeds  are  re-
 sistant to  some cultural  or chemical controls.  No
 herbicide is  safe for all  ornamental plants.  Newly
 planted ornamentals usually are more easily injured
 by herbicides than established plantings. The label
 will tell you how  to use a  herbicide  safely  and

 Herbicides  kill  weeds  through the leaves or  the
 roots or both. Selective  herbicides kill some plants
 without  killing  others.  Nonselective herbicides  kill
 most plants in the  area  of application.

 The main types of herbicides  used  in  or around
 ornamentals are:
 • preemergence herbicides,
 • postemergence herbicides, and
 • soil fumigants and sterilants.

 Persistence varies  with  the herbicide and  the  dos-
 age. Persistent  herbicides may leave residues  that
 may injure a sensitive crop planted later. Repeated
 applications of persistent herbicides also can injure
 ornamental  plants under certain soil and climatic
 conditions. Granular formulations are an efficient
 way to  apply preemergence  herbicides. Postemer-
 gence herbicides  usually are less  persistent  than
 preemergence herbicides.  They  usually  must be
 applied  as a directed spray.

 Soil fumigants  are nonselective  and  cannot be
 used in the root zones of desirable plants. Use fumi-
gants before planting. The label will specify waiting
periods between  treatment and planting.

Soil  sterilants will  control  most  weeds for  long
periods  of  time.  In humid regions, however, no
material  is  completely effective for more than one
season. Soil sterilants are  nonselective. They can
damage nearby trees, shrubs, and turfgrass through
root uptake or movement of the chemical by wind
or water.


Ornamenal   plants  are  damaged by  many  kinds
of insects and mites. Some suck sap  from plants,
others  chew  on  or  tunnel in plant parts or cause
damage in  other ways.

Some plants are very  susceptible  to  insects and
mites and  require  intensive pest  control.  Other
plants are rarely attacked by insects or mites.  Pest
insect  infestations  vary from  year to year,  and
control is not always needed.

There  are  several kinds of insects and mites that
you  should recognize. They can be grouped accord-
ing to  the  part of the plant they feed on and the
kind of injury they cause.

Insects and Mites  that Damage Leaves,
Buds, Fruits, and Flowers

CATERPILLARS  are  the larvae  of butterflies  or
moths. Caterpillars  chew plant parts and may com-
pletely defoliate  a plant. Some form webs  or  tents
on the branches. A  few bore into the plant and feed
inside. Some have more than one generation per year.

BEETLES are hardshelled insects. Many have spots,
stripes, or  other markings. Both adults and larvae
may damage plant  parts by boring into or chewing
them. Some beetles  are active only  at night.

LEAFMINERS  are the  larvae of small flies, wasps,
moths, or beetles. They feed inside the leaf. Damage
appears as brown or discolored blotches or winding
trails on the leaf. There may be more than one gen-
eration per year.

APHIDS are small, soft-bodied insects that suck sap
through  tiny needle-like rnouthparts. There may be
several generations  in a single season. They may be
green, red, or black. They feed on stems, terminals,
or undersides of leaves.

Foliage often curls or is otherwise distorted.  Some
aphids  transmit  plant  disease.  Aphids  produce
honeydew, a sweet  liquid which collects  on  the
foliage. A black sooty mold may grow on the honey-
dew.  Sooty mold  is controlled by controlling  the
MITES are closely related to  insects. They are hard
to  see without  magnification. Eggs,  young, and
adults all may be present on an infested plant  at the
same time. Some form webs  on the lower leaf sur-
face.  Mites damage  leaves  by  sucking  sap. The
foliage becomes stippled and may turn off-green, yel-
low, or orange. Mites may produce several genera-
tions in a single season.
LACEBUGS  are  small,  broad,  flat  insects  with
clear,  lace-like wings.  Eggs,  young, and  adults  all
may be on a plant at the same time. Both adults and
young suck sap and  cause off-colored speckles, yel-
lowing, and leaf drop. Many small, black,  varnish-
like spots of excrement on the undersides  of  leaves
are evidence of lacebug infestation.

Insect  Pests of  Trunks,  Stems,  or
large branches or  whole plants. Some  attack  leaves
and buds. Both  insects secrete  a protective waxy
substance which covers them.

Mealybugs move on the plants as both young  and
adults. Newly hatched scale insects (crawlers) move
around on the plant. Mature  scale insects, however,
are securely fastened to the plant  surface. They may
be circular,  oval, or pear-shaped. Large numbers
may form crusts on the plant. They lay eggs under-
neath the protective  covering.
BORERS  are larvae of some moths  and beetles.
They do the most damage in the tissue just under the
bark.  Plants in poor health are more susceptible to
attack by  borers.  One to several years may  be  re-
quired to complete a life cycle.

Insect  Pests  of  Roots

GRUBS  are the larvae of  hardshelled beetles  or
weevils. They usually are white  with  brown  heads.
Some have legs; others are legless. Grubs eat plant
roots and may weaken or kill a plant.
ROOT BORERS are the larvae of moths or beetles.
They are shaped like grubs or caterpillars. They are
usually a whitish color. Root borers damage plants
by eating or hollowing out plant roots and crowns.
ROOT-FEEDING  APHIDS weaken the root sys-
tems of plants. They damage roots by sucking sap,
which may cause galls to form. Root aphids look
like foliar-feeding aphids. Some are serious pests of
foliage as well as roots.
GALLS are swellings of plant parts. Many kinds of
insects and mites cause  galls and live inside them.
Galls  are unsightly but usually are not harmful to
the health of  a plant.

Insect  and Mite  Control
To  control insects and  mites, direct the pesticide
at the stage of the insect or mite that is causing  the
damage. In some situations, preventive use of insec-
ticides may be necessary to protect plants from in-
festations. Your decision to use a preventive insec-
ticide should  be based on a  previous history of in-
festation in your area. Your local extension  agent
can help to identify your pest problems and select
the correct pesticide.

Vertebrate  animals may  damage ornamentals in
several ways. Some (such as mice and moles) feed
on roots and crowns. Others (including mice, rabbits,
deer, and woodpeckers) feed  on stems, trunks, twigs,
or foliage.

Barriers, trapping, repellents, and pesticides all help
control  vertebrate pests. Control  of the insects on
which vertebrate pests feed is  essential.


Pest control in turfgrass includes:
• good cultural practices, and
• chemical pest control.

Turfgrass problems often  result from causes other
than pests. These other causes include:
• improper watering,
• improper fertilization practices,
• injury from pesticides,
• accumulation of excessive thatch,
• improper selection of turfgrass species,
• improper mowing height,
• poor root systems,

• soil that is either too acid or too alkaline, or
• an accumulation of soluble salts in the soil.
are most severe on grass grown under high nitrogen
Be  sure to consider these factors  when diagnosing
and treating turf grass problems.

The major diseases of turfgrass are caused by:
• fungi, which can cause root rots and foliar  dis-
  eases, and
• nematodes, which feed on the roots.

Stands of  diseased grass  may look thin  and  un-
thrifty or contain streaks or circular patches of dead
grass.  Some of the more common diseases of turf-
grasses are:

Helminthosporium causes  leaf  spots and  root rots.
Spots  on the leaves usually begin as small purplish,
reddish-brown  areas about the size of a  pinhead.
These enlarge to form tan to  light-brown spots with
reddish-brown margins.  When the  disease  is severe,
the spots girdle the leaves at the base and cause them
to  yellow.  A severe infection may cause  a general
fading out of  turfgrass. Helminthosporium diseases
are more severe during long periods of wet weather.
They develop  best under high nitrogen fertilization.

Symptoms are  light-yellow  flecks on  the leaves.
As these  spots  enlarge, the  surfaces  of  the leaves
rupture.  Dry,  reddish-brown  pustules develop. At
this stage, the spores readily  rub off. The  grass first
becomes light yellow and then rapidly turns tan or
light  brown as the grass leaves die. Rusts develop
best  in moderate air temperatures. The  disease  is
less severe on rye grasses grown  under high nitro-
gen fertilization.

 Pythium  Blights

Pythium  blights  are among  the  most destructive
turfgrass  diseases. Grasses most commonly affected
are bentgrasses,  Bermuda grasses, fescues, and rye
grasses. The disease is first seen as  small, irregularly-
 shaped, watersoaked, greasy  patches Vi to 4 inches
 in  diameter. A cottony growth may be present early
 in  the morning. Diseased  areas may   eventually
 range from 1  to 10  feet   in  diameter.  Pythium
 blights develop best in warm, humid weather. They
Rhizoctonia Brown  Patch
Under conditions  of  close  mowing,  Rhizoctonia
brown patch appears as irregularly shaped patches
of blighted turfgrass that range in size from a few
inches to 2 feet or larger. At first,  the patches are
purple-green in color.  They then fade to  a light
brown. When the grass is wet, the diseased patches
frequently  have  dark, purplish  margins   (smoke

When  high  mowing is  practiced,  the  leaves  wither
and rapidly fade to a light brown. The patches may
be irregular and range up  to 50  feet in diameter.
Rhizoctonia brown patch develops best during long
periods of  humid  weather. The  disease  usually
occurs during  hot weather (80-90  degrees  F).
Grass  grown under  high nitrogen fertilization is
more susceptible to the disease.

Snow Mold
Pink  and gray snow  molds are  turfgrass  diseases
that  occur in cold weather. A snow cover creates an
ideal situation for the  diseases to develop, but they
often occur in  the absence of snow.

Snow molds are  seen  as  small  patches  of tan to
light-brown  grass, 2 to  4 inches or larger. Pink snow
mold spots usually are  smaller than  gray snow mold
spots. With  gray snow  molds, hard, dark-red bodies
are embedded in the leaves.

Slime  Molds
Slime molds appear as  dull-gray to light-blue masses
of powdery growth on the  surfaces of the  leaves.
They are most  common during long periods of light
rainfall. Although they are unsightly, they do  not
damage the  grass. Controls  are not necessary.

Fusarium  Blight
Fusarium blight causes brown patches  1  to 3 feet
in diameter. The patches are similar to those caused
by other turfgrass diseases, but they  have  green
tufts (frog  eyes) in the  center.  Fusarium blight is
most severe during periods of high day and night
temperatures. Lush grass with an accumulation of
1  inch or more of thatch  is highly  susceptible to
severe outbreaks.

 Fairy Rings
Fairy rings are seen as circles of darker green, faster-
growing turfgrass ranging from 2 to several hundred
feet  in diameter.  They  are  often surrounded  by
mushrooms, toadstools,  or  puffballs.  These fungi
may prevent water from penetrating the soil.

Many kinds  of nematodes  feed  on  the roots  of
turfgrasses and  reduce their vigor.  Nematode  in-
jury  may  be  confused with  nutritional  problems,
insufficient water,  compact soil, or any other factor
which restricts root  development.

Symptoms of nematode injury include:
•  thinning or completely killed areas,
•  pale green to'yellow color,
•  excessive wilting,  and
•  poor response to fertilization.
The  best  way to identify nematode  problems  is
with  a laboratory  examination  of soil or  plants.

 Disease  Controls
Disease-producing agents  in   turfgrasses  can  be
minimized and in some cases controlled through the
use   of  good  management  practices.  Turfgrass
fungicides are available for use  as preventive sprays
or granules. When an outbreak of a  disease agent
occurs, apply preventive fungicides  immediately.
After infection has occurred, use  a preventive
fungicide to protect against future infection. Timing
of protective  fungicide applications should be based
on a  knowledge of:
•  the life cycle of the fungus, and
•  weather conditions that are best for its parasitic

Preventive use of a fungicide is  sometimes  war-
ranted when  the location has a history of turfgrass
disease. The routine use of fungicides can prevent
disease outbreaks  in turfgrass,  but is an expensive
and potentially harmful practice. Your local exten-
sion agent can help you identify pest problems and
select the correct pesticide.

Any plant  can be  considered a weed  if it is  grow-
ing where it is not wanted. Bentgrass, for example,
would be a weed  in  a bluegrass lawn. To plan a
good  weed control program, you must:
• identify the desirable turfgrass,
• identify the existing weeds, and
• know what other weeds are  likely to become a

Annual  Weeds
Annual  weeds complete  their  life  cycle  in  less
than one year. Because climatic conditions influence
the  timing  of the  life cycle, the correct tune  for
control varies from place to place, year to year, and
from one species to another. It is often desirable to
establish turfgrass in the fall so the freezing weather
will  control summer annual weeds. In established
turfgrass, the chemical control  of  summer annual
weeds after midsummer may not be necessary or
SUMMER ANNUAL  WEEDS common to turfgrass
                         Grass Weeds
Broadleaf Weeds
WINTER ANNUALS are common in new turfgrass.
After the first year, good management and dense
turfgrass usually  provide satisfactory control.  Ex-
amples are:
  Broadleaf                 Grass Weeds
  common chickweed        cheat

Biennial  Weeds
Biennial  weeds normally occur  at  the same time
as perennial broadleaf weeds. Controls are similar.
Examples are: roundleaf mallow and wild carrot.

Perennial Weeds
Perennials, both broadleaf and grasses, occur widely
as turfgrass weeds. Examples are:
  Broadleaf Weeds           Grass Weeds
  wild garlic
  mouse-ear chickweed
  red sorrel
                         Bermuda grass
                         tall fescue

Weed  Control

The presence of weeds in turfgrass does not always
require  the  use of herbicides.  In areas that  con-
tain sensitive plants, it may be better to avoid the
use of herbicides than to risk injury. In some loca-
tions, any kind of plant cover  may be  better  than
dead plants  or bare ground.

Granular formulations  are   effective  for  pre-
emergence herbicides.  Sprays  are better for post-
emergence control where foliar coverage is needed.

BROADLEAF  WEEDS—Several   postemergence
herbicides are  used to  selectively control  annual,
biennial, and perennial broadleaf  weeds in  turf-
grasses. They can be used alone or as combinations
of more than one  active ingredient. Spring  and fall
applications of postemergence  herbicides normally
give satisfactory control and reduce the possibility
of damage  to nontarget plants. Young weeds are
usually  more susceptible to herbicides.  Spot treat-
ments  are  best for  scattered weed  populations.
Weather conditions affect control results.

GRASS WEEDS—Control of annual grasses is best
achieved with:
• preemergence herbicides for  general infestations,
• spot  treatment with postemergence herbicides for
   localized  infestations.

Few herbicides  are safe for use  on  newly seeded
turfgrass. Some preemergence herbicides applied in
the  spring  adversely affect germination of  turf-
grasses  seeded  in the fall. Certain varieties of  turf-
grasses  are  more  prone to injury by some herbi-
cides. Check labels for precautions.

Perennial grass weeds are the  most  difficult to
control. No herbicides are available which will con-
trol these  weeds  without  damaging  cool  season
turfgrass. Some will selectively  control them in
warm season turfgrass. Soil fumigants and nonselec-
tive herbicides are sometimes  used.

When examining turfgrass  for insects,  look  for:
• thinned grass stands,
• dying or dead patches,
• discolored or withered blades,
• chewed or frayed blades,
• f rass or webbing,
• small holes, mounds, or burrows, or
• presence of large numbers of bird and animal

Some  of  the more  troublesome turfgrass  insect
pests are:

Grubs  are  the larvae of hardshelled beetles. They
are white to  off-white with a brown  head and six
legs. Grubs  damage grass by  eating  the  roots.
Seriously damaged turfgrass can be rolled back like
a carpet. When the grass is rolled back, grubs may
be found lying in  a C-shaped position in the soil.
Grubs  are  most easily controlled during  the time
they are actively feeding.

Billbugs are small,  dark-colored beetles with snouts.
Adults lay eggs in turfgrass items  in late spring.
The  eggs hatch into legless larvae.  The larvae  eat
their way  down the stems and into  the  crowns.
Adults feed on  leaves  and stems,  but cause less
damage than  the   larvae.  Damage  shows  up  in
late  summer  as small dead  patches  of  turfgrass.
Damaged plants break off at the crown if pulled  on.

Sod Webworms
Sod  webworm  caterpillars  are  1 inch or less  in
length.  They are  off-white with parallel rows  of
small dark spots. The adults are cigar-shaped, buff-
colored moths.  The caterpillars chew  off  grass
stems and leaves above the  soil line. Damage  shows
up as small dead spots. When many sod webworms
are present, the spots join to form large, irregu-
larly shaped brown  patches.  Adult  sod webworms
do not damage turfgrasses.

Chinch  Bugs
Full-grown chinch  bugs are about 1A  inch long.
They are rectangular black bugs with a white area
on their back. Turfgrass infested with chinch bugs
is a  sickly off-color at first, with brown and green
blades   intermixed.  Later, large  irregular dead
patches show up.   Young  and  adult chinch bugs
suck sap from  turfgrass blades.  The  bugs may be
found  deep in the thatch at  the outer edge  of the
brown patches.

Insect Control
Insects that attack  turfgrass  at  or below the  soil
surface can  be controlled only by  directing  the

pesticide at the soil surface and watering it in  to
contact the  pests.  Foliage-feeding insects  can  be
controlled  by directing the insecticide  at the turf-
grass foliage.

Watering   in  an  application  directed  at   foliage
feeders will  move  the insecticide  below the area
where the insect  pest  is feeding and  the  desired
control will be lost. In some areas, preventive appli-
cations of  insecticides will minimize  damage from
soil insect pests. More than one pest may be  causing
damage at the same time. Each may  require differ-
ent timing and placement of insecticide for control.
Be sure to consider this when you develop  a treat-
ment  schedule. Your  local extension  agent  can
help you identify pest problems and select the cor-
rect pesticide.

Vertebrate  animals may  damage large areas  of
turfgrass  while they  are  searching  for grubs  or
other  soil-infesting insects.  They  include:
•  mice,
•  voles,
•  skunks,
•  moles,
•  raccoons,
•  foxes,
•  squirrels, and
•  birds.

Control  of  turigrass-damaging  insects  also  helps
control damage by vertebrate  animals, because it
reduces their food  supply.


Phytotoxicity is undesirable injury to plants. Symp-
toms  of phytotoxicity include:
•  leaf drop,
•  stunting,
•  overgrowth,
•  discolored foliage,
•  leaf curl, and
•  stem distortion.

The  cause  of phytotoxicity may be easy to deter-
mine  or it  may be subtle and hidden.  Pesticides can
cause phytotoxicity. Other causes that create similar
symptoms are:
•  insects and disease agents,
•  insufficient moisture,
•  improper fertilization, and
•  other adverse growing conditions.
Factors that may  contribute to pesticide phytotoxic-
ity include:
•  high  air  temperature  during and  immediately
   after pesticide application,
•  excessive rates  of pesticide application,
•  too little water,
•  uneven distribution of pesticide,
•  mixing liquids  or emulsifiable concentrates with
   wettable powders,
•  mixing fertilizers with pesticides,
•  variety and species differences.
Take special care  to avoid injury to landscape plants
and  turfgrass when using  herbicides.  Some  herbi-
cides leave residues in spray tanks  that will injure
desirable plants. Use separate sprayers for herbicides.



To control drift and vaporization:
•  Apply pesticides when wind speeds are low.
•  Use lowest  practical  operating  pressure  and
   largest practical nozzle opening.
•  Keep nozzle  as close to target as possible.
•  Avoid using  airblast  sprayers and dusters when
   working near sensitive plants and areas  inhabited
   by animals.
•  Do not apply herbicides with airblast sprayers.
•  When possible, select  products with low  volatility.
To control the adverse effects of pesticide movement:
•  Use special precautions when using pesticides on
•  Select  the  least hazardous pesticide  that will do
   the job.
•  Use the lowest effective rate of application.
•  If possible, maintain  a buffer  zone  between the
   area to be  treated and sensitive areas.
•  Use mulches.
•  Consider the  chances  of heavy rainfall.
•  Regulate the amount  and duration of irrigation.
•  Be aware of  the  potential for ground water con-
•  Avoid carrying treated material  or  the pesticide
   residue from the target area  to other areas.
You must know  the  persistence of pesticides  you
apply  to ornamentals   and  turfgrass,   especially
•  adjacent areas may be affected,
•  treated soil is used to  grow other plants,  or
•  humans, pets, or other animals are present.

Repeated applications of some pesticides to the same
area may cause harmful residues.


Keep animals and people away during application
and  until spray has dried or dust  has settled. Keep
them away from areas of potential drift and runoff.
Remove  toys, pet food  dishes,  birdfeeders,  and
other articles from the site before applying a pesti-
cide. Do not use pesticides when people or pets can-
not be excluded during the reentry period  specified
on the label.


Methods of  application vary with:
• the kind of pesticide,
• the host, and
• the target pest.

Application equipment must be  able to deliver a
thorough  coverage of the correct amount  of pesti-
cide to the plant parts which need protection.

Low-pressure, low-volume  sprayers or granular ap-
plicators can be used for control  of:
• soil or foliage pests of ornamentals,
• diseases or insects on turfgrass,  or
• weeds.

High-pressure hydraulic  or  airblast  sprayers  are
not  often used on ornamentals  or turfgrass. You
 can use them for spraying large trees.


To  determine how much  pesticide you will need
 to do a  job, you must  measure the area to be
 treated. If the area is a rectangle, circle, or triangle,
 simple formulas may be used.

 Rectangles: The area of a  rectangle  is found by
 multiplying the length by the width.
 Area = Length X Width.
Circles:  The area of a circle is  the  radius (one-
half the diameter) squared and then multiplied by
Area = 3.14 X the radius squared.
Triangles: The area of a triangle is one-half the base
multiplied  by the  height.

Irregularly  shaped tuifgrass areas  often  can  be
reduced to one or more of these common shapes.
Calculate thi area of each and add them together
to obtain the total area.
                     Area A+B+C = Total Area

Another way is to establish a line down the middle of
the property for  the length, and then measure from
side to side at several points along this line. Areas
with very irregular shape require  more side to side
measurements. The average of the side measurements
can be used as the width. The area is then calculated
as a rectangle.
Area = Length XWidth. Example:

                                                 WEIGHTS  AND  MEASURES
                 Length = line AB
                           line C+D+E+F+G
                 Width =	
A third method is to convert the area into a circle.
From a center point measure distance to the edge of
the area  in  10 to 20  increments.  Average these
measurements to find the average radius. Then cal-
culate  the area, using  the  formula for a circle.
Area = 3.14Xthe radius  squared.
                                                 1 ounce
                                                 16 ounces
                                                 1 gallon water
                                                  =  28.35 grams
                                                  =  1 pound = 453.59 grams
                                                  =  8.34 pounds = 3.785 liters =
                                                      3.78 kilograms
                                 Liquid Measures
                                 1 fluid ounce     =

                                 16 fluid ounces    =
                                 2 pints           =
                                 8 pints = 4  quarts =

                                 1 foot
                                 3 feet
                                 16i/2 feet
                                 5,280 feet
                                                 1 square foot      =
                                                 9 square feet      =

                                                 43,560 square feet  =

                                                 1.466 feet per
                    2 tablespoons =
                    29.573 milliliters
                    1 pint =0.473 liter
                    1 quart = 0.946 liter
                    1 gallon = 3.785 liters
                 =  30.48 centimeters
                 =  1 yard = 0.9144 meter
                 =  1 rod = 5.029 meters
                 =  320 rods =1 mile =
                    1.6 kilometers
                                                      929.03 cm2
                                                      1 square yard =
                                                      0.836 square meter
                                                      160 square rods= 1 acre =
                                                      0.405 hectare
                                                      88 feet per minute =
                                                      1 mph= 1.6 kilometers per
Area = (3.14)x|
line A+B+C+D+E+F+
27 cubic feet

1 cubic foot
1 cubic yard =
0.765 cubic meter
7.5 gallons =
28.317 cubic decimeters