United States
            Environmental Protection
          Office of
          Pesticide Programs
          Washington DC 20460
February 1992
Pest Management
            A Guide for
            Commercial Applicators
                                   Printed on Recycled Paper

Page Intentionally Blank

Prepared for
United States Environmental Protection Agency
Certification and Training Branch
Office of Pesticide Programs
Washington, DC 20460
under Contract No. 68D00011

A Guide  for Commercial  Applicators
                  Module I, Structure Infesting Pests
                     Module II, Invading Pests
                         Written by

                       Dr. Eugene Wood
               Dept of Entomology, University of Maryland
                     Module UI, Vertebrates
                         Written by

                        Lawrence Pinto
                     Pinto & Associates, Inc.
                          Edited by

                          Jann Cox
                     DUAL & Associates, Inc.
DUAL & Associates, Inc.
2101 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 600
Arlington, VA 22201
Phone (703) 527-3500
Fax (703) 527-0829                                Published February 1992

       Information accumulates from direct observations, scientific literature, and anecdotes from others
Information from these sources blur together quickly, and consequently, unique ideas are appropriately
rare in society. Credit for sources of information on urban pest control and management must go to:

       *>      Land Grant University  Extension  and research workers, most entomologists,  who
              pioneered this work, those who kept training and research alive during the period when
              the success  of synthetic organic pesticides preempted nearly all but control evaluations
              from the 1940s to the 1960s, and those who persist today;

       >      Pest Control Industry workers who held  training sessions nationally,  regionally, and
              locally where information was disseminated among the experienced and provided to the

       »      Environmental Protection Agency personnel who molded modern training and  influenced
              the need for national uniformity in training requirements;

       »      State regulatory  personnel who cooperated with  Universities and  Industry and who
              strongly emphasized die importance of training;

       »      The few textbook authors in the United States and England who compiled the reference
              data  in  die understandable  and usable  form  that allows  urban pest  management
              practitioners to be professionals.

       Specific acknowledgements should  go to biological illustrators who graphically render pest and
beneficial  animals where photographs fail;  A.O. Cushman, Dean of USDA illustrators, A. B. Wright,
and Joseph Papp provided many illustrations for these modules as did many anonymous illustrators whose
work was  stripped of identification through the decades of public use. Likewise, heartfelt credit must go
to photographers who provide the illustrative color slides  so important to training sessions. Slides used
in this publication were provided by N.  Briesch, University of Maryland; A.  Greene, GSA;  R.T.
Lubbert,  National Institutes of Health, J. Sargent,  Great  Lakes Chemicals; N. Swink, U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service; and die Fish and Wildlife Service, Audiovisual Office. And like all else, many other
slides were provided by colleagues whose generosity goes unrewarded.

       Individuals who were vitally helpful  in the production of diese training modules include Elaine
Mesavage, University of Maryland Entomology Department; Robert Gillette, DUAL & Associates, Inc.;
Robert Bielarski, Environmental Protection Agency; Lawrence J. Pinto, Pinto and Associates, Inc., who
wrote die Vertebrate Module; and finally, Jann Cox, DUAL & Associates, Inc., whose abilities as
technical and format editor  were responsible for evaluating and bringing all of die information together
in usable form.

          A Guide for Commercial Applicators
Chapter One
Chapter Two
Chapter Three
Pest Control in Urban and Industrial Sites
Pest Management and Control
Using Equipment in Urban Pest Management
Laws and Regulations
Chapter One
Chapter Two
Chapter Three
Chapter Four
Chapter Five
Chapter Six
Chapter Seven
Introduction: Insects and Their Relatives
Stored Product Pests
Fabric Pests
Silverfish and Firebrats
Chapter One
Chapter Two
Chapter Three
Chapter Four
Chapter Five

Houseflies and their Relatives
Stinging Pests
Ticks, Mites, Bedbugs & Lice
Miscellaneous Invaders
Chapter One
Chapter Two
Chapter Three
Chapter Four
Chapter Five
Introduction: Rodents and Other Vertebrate Pests
Other Vertebrate Pests
Appendix A
Appendix B
Appendix C
Answers to Study Questions
Selected Bibliography
Information about wood-destroying pests and core pesticide information will
be found in other manuals.

                       PEST MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL

                    Responsibilities of Supervisors and Technicians	  1

                    What are Pests?  	  1
                          Ecosystem	  1
                    Methods of Pest Control	  1
                          Inspection	  1
                          Habitat Alteration	  1
                          Pesticide Application	  1
                          Follow-up	  2
                    Styles of Pest Control  	  2
                          Preventive Pest Control  	  2
                          Reactive Pest Control	  2
                          Pest Elimination or Pest Extermination	  3
                          Integrated Pest Management	°	  3
                    Integrated Pest Management Components  	  4
                          Monitoring and Recordkeeping	  4
                          Education, Training, Communication and Liaisons	  4
                          Integrated Control Methods	  4
                          Thresholds  	  4
                          Evaluation, Quality Control, and Reporting 	  4
                    A Case for IPM: Resistance	  4
                          How Pests Become Resistant to Pesticides	  4
                          How to Recognize Resistance	  4
                          The Way to Prevent Resistance	  5
                    Summary	/.  . .  5
                    Study Questions	  6

                    Hand-held Compressed Air Sprayers  	  1
                          Spray Patterns  	  2
                          Pressure	  2
                    Power Sprayers  	  2
                          Why Calibrate Spraying Equipment?  	  3
                    Canned Insecticides	  3
                          Canned Aerosol Insecticides	  3
                          Canned Pressurized Liquid Sprays	  3
                    Aerosol and Fog Generators	  3
                          Cold Foggers	  4
                          Thermal Foggers	  4
                          For General Application	  4
                    Dusters  	  4
                          Hand Dusters	  5

                           Power Dusters	,	  5
                    Traps	  5
                           Traps, Bait Boxes, Monitoring Devices, and
                                  Pheromone Dispensers	  5
                           Bait Stations  	  5
                    Summary   	  6
                    Study Questions	  7

                    Applicator Certification  	  1
                           Certification	  1
                           Certification Records	  1
                    Classifications  	  1
                    Federal Commercial Categories  	  2
                    Federal Pesticide Laws	  2
                           The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and
                                  Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)  	  2
                    State, Tribal, and Local Laws and Regulations	  3
                           Protection: The Applicator's Responsibility	  3
                    Summary	  3
                    Study Questions	  4

                    PEST CONTROL IN URBAN
                        AND INDUSTRIAL SITES
    Pest management and control is a matter of using
the right technologies. To be successful, it must be
effective and  not  adversely effect  people  or the
    The purpose of this training manual is to provide
a sound foundation for studying technical aspects of
pest control. It's emphasis is on urban and industrial
pest problems - household and structural pest control.
It  will discuss control and  management of insects,
other  arthropods (such as  spiders  and  ticks),  and
vertebrate  pests (such  as mice and  rats), in homes,
businesses, office buildings,  and industrial plants.
    This manual is a valuable source of information
for persons preparing for  certification  under the
Environmental Protection Agency  (EPA)  and state
programs  for pesticide applicators.  Pest  control
workers in urban and  industrial sites not only apply
pesticides   but   use   many  other  activities  and
recommendations  to  suppress  pests. These other
practices increase  the effectiveness  of  the  control
program, and often reduce pesticide use or make such
use a  secondary  operation of  the program.  In
recognition of the many tasks  individuals in pest
control must perform,  the tide technician  is used in
this manual to denote a pesticide applicator,  a pest
control operator, and other individuals with titles that
refer to the job of suppressing or exterminating pests.
    Written for technicians,  supervisors, owners, and
others involved in the control or management of pests,
each chapter covers material considered essential to die
proper understanding and carrying out of pest control
or urban  pest management. The  training modules
contain basic scientific  information  as well  as
guidelines for  practical solutions  to  pest  control
problems.  The manual is divided  into  four basic
sections: a general discussion of pest management and
control  followed by  three  subsequent modules  on
specific application in terms  of insects commonly
found  in   urban  structures,  insects  that  invade
structures, and urban vertebrate pests. Study questions
may be found at the end of each chapter; answers, a
supplementary reading list, and a glossary of terms are
found at die end of the book.
    Technicians  will learn that proper integration of
management and control depend on the pest, its habits,
its location, its support system. With understanding of
these  areas,  subsequent experience,  and ongoing
training,  a  technician  will  be  able  to perform
successful pest control. A distinction is made in mis
manual    between   management  and   control:
Management means the reduction of pest populations
to tolerable numbers by changing practices, making
habitat or structural alterations, and carefully using
pesticides to kill pests only when indicated.  Control of
pests refers to a single principal measure taken to kill
pests — usually the application of pesticides.
    An  important  area  addressed  throughout  the
manual  is  communication.  Pest  management and
control is a service; technicians must not only know
their job, but they also must be able to communicate
confidently with their clients so clients will understand
basic procedures and be satisfied that die  technician
    Prior to undertaking  this training,  commercial
applicators should have received  regionally-specific
basic  orientation in pest control. To train technicians
to deal with pests correctly,  this  orientation should
    »   recognition of pest species, and
    »   awareness of the importance of safety.
    The goal  of training is  die  development  of a
technician who
    »   possesses  die   basic   pest   control
         scientific information,
    »   can act  to control pests  after making
         judgments based  on that information,
    »   communicates knowledgeably with the
    Those who train and manage  technicians should
be  certified   supervisors  experienced  in  pest
management (preferably beyond die minimum  level
required for certification). They should be able to
provide their technicians with
    »   reference materials (see Appendix B),
    »   scheduled company meetings with open
         discussion and timely training,

         formal training sessions  that  provide             »   most importantly, motivation to perform
         information that  meets minimal State                 their job  in a professional manner  —
         training requirements, and                             that is, safely, legally, and ethically.
Preface Pg 2

                                         CHAPTER 1
      Learning Objectives

               After completion of the study of Pest Management and Control, the trainee should
      be able to:

           o   understand why certain arthropods and vertebrates are considered pests

           a   relate the sequence of activities involved in a pest control situation, and

           a   recognize the components of Integrated Pest Management.
     Pests are not pests because of what they are
 (bedbug, yellowjacket), but because of what they do
 (suck blood, sting).
     According to the  Federal Insecticide, Fungicide
 and  Rodenticide Act  IFIFRA),  a pest can  be any
 insect,  rodent, fungus, or  weed  as  well as  other
 organisms. Most simply defined in The Dictionary of
 Pest Control, a pest is  "An unwanted organism.  ..."
 Urban  pests  can be generally  characterized  as
 organisms (excluding parasitic microorganisms) which
 have human health or aesthetic implications, or which
 damage wooden support structures of buildings. These
 pests can be  contrasted from  agricultural pests that
 cause  direct  economic damage  to products.  For
 instance, while roaches  or rodents may cause  an
 economic hardship, when restaurants or food packing
 plants  are closed  by the legal action, the action is
 taken for reasons  of human health.  Likewise, carpet
 beedes  in  woolens or museum  tapestries  degrade
 clothing or works of art.but the reduction of value of
 die pieces is primarily for aesthetic reasons not due to
 consumption of woven  wool.
    Defined  by  the  way  they  behave  in  an
environment, or ecosystem, pests occur as a group, or
population of individuals  of a particular kind (e.g.,
German cockroaches). Different populations that exist
together are called a community. One community may
be fleas, pets, and people. A community together with
its physical and biological supporting factors makes up
the ecosystem  (e.g.,  German  cockroaches,  fleas,
people, pets, harborage [areas with food, water, and
shelter]). The  technician does  not look at the  pest
infestation alone but must consider all elements in the
ecosystem to design the best control and management
    There are many  variations and combinations of
methods used  to control pests, but the sequence of
these  methods  follows a pattern:  inspection, habitat
alteration, pesticide application, and follow-up:

     Pests do  not infest uniformly; they focus on
specific areas.  These  sites must be located. Training
and experience in conducting inspections are important
for successful location of infested areas.

Habitat Alteration
    Since infested areas provide harborage for pests
(one of die elements along with food and water needed
by pests to thrive), changing or eliminating some of
these  favorable  elements  will make survival  less
successful. Such changes commonly include increased
sanitation, moisture reduction, and the elimination of

Pesticide Application
    While successful  habitat alteration can reduce or
eliminate populations, it will often  be  less  than
                                                                              Mgt & Ctrl. Chapter 1. Pg 1

 complete and pesticide application may be necessary.
 The key to pest control is the successful combination
 of these methods.

     Simple styles of pest control do not include more
Kan the minimum follow-up, such as legally mandated
     Follow-up   practices,   such   as  detailed
 recordkeeping,  supervisor oversight, and a  quality
 control program, can make the difference  between the
 success  or  failure of moderate to  complicated  pest
 control problems.
     In  die  urban  setting,  current  industrial  or
 structural pest control activities can be characterized in
   tur styles: prevention,  reaction, extermination, and
   tegrated pest management.

 Preventive  Pest Control
     In preventive control, a technician follows a pre-
 established schedule, or route, to:
     »    make expected appearances
     »    make inspections
     »    apply pesticides (usually a spray)
     »    talk with the tenant or manager, and
     »    record information required by law.
     While  the  inspection can  indicate where  pests
 occur,  with this style, pesticides are usually applied
 regardless of whether pests are observed or not. Those
 who practice  this style are satisfied that pests will be
Jcilled as they contact the pesticide residue.
     »   Contracts can be fulfilled routinely.
     >   Work can be set up easily.
     >   The technician can proceed as rapidly as
     »   Occupants  are satisfied if pests do not
     >   It  is  the  most economical  short-term

Disadvantages  •
     »   Time alone governs the schedule.
     *>   Inspections are brief.
     »   Boredom  from  repetition  affects  the
     »   Pesticides  are   used  regardless   of
         whether or not there is an infestation.
     *   There is no evaluation.
     »   Records are brief.
     »   No long-term solutions.

     The  least  technical  expertise  is  needed  for
preventive pest control and the brevity  of the activity
and  interaction gives clients the  incorrect idea that
controlling pests is elementary.  This style can be more
efficient with a quality control program.

Reactive Pest Control
     In reactive pest control, a  technician responds to
special, unscheduled calls and
         talks with clients
         makes an inspection
         identifies infested sites
         applies pesticides to pests or sites
         records necessary information required
         by  law

     »   Response is relatively quick.
     »   The occupant  is satisfied by the  fast
         response   and   immediate   pest
     »   The  interaction  with  technicians  is
     »   Minor   recommendations   by   the
         technician  to clients are often accepted
         because  they  were  requested  by  die
         client. Such recommendations make pest
         control more effective.]
     »   Situations  are  more  interesting  for
         technicians, and boredom is reduced.
 Mgt & Ctrl, Chapter 1, Pg 2

     +   Complete   extermination   is   often
         assumed (mistakenly) by clients.
     »   Clients  are  quick  to  anger  if  the
         problem recurs.
     »   Without a detailed inspection, failure is
     »   Pesticides are often used as  barriers if
         pests are not found.
     »   This style  is  less  economical  than
         scheduled, route-type responses.
     »   Records are brief.

     A higher level of technical expertise as well as
better ability to interact with clients is needed than for
preventive pest control. A quality control program will
reinforce technician recommendations.

Pest Elimination or Pest Extermination
     A  senior  technician,   usually  a  supervisor,
responds to an appointment, and
     »   interacts with clients
     »   makes an intensive inspection
     »>   recommends  methods  to  reduce  pest
         food,  water  and harborage,  such as
         sanitation, maintenance improvements,
         habitat alteration, etc.
     »   applies  pesticides  in  a  variety  of
         formulations each time
     »   follows-up inspections, and
     »   records information on past inspection
         and  recommendations   as   well   as
         information required by law.

     »   The client has a good  understanding of
         the problem and die changes needed for
         control  due  to significant interaction
         with the pest  control supervisor.
     »   The  pest control supervisor  interacts
         directly with clients.
     »   Longer-lasting  control   results  from
         changes made by the client
     »   Thorough pesticide application occurs.
     *   There  is a high  level of interest by

     +   Mistakes    in   inspection    and
         recommendations   to   clients,   or
         subsequent  lack  of follow-through by
         clients will result in control failure.
     »   A maximum  amount of pesticides are
         usually   used;   potential   misuse,
         misapplication, and the possibility of
         pesticide accidents are increased.
     »   High  pesticide  and  labor  costs are
     »   Unexpected results are quickly noticed
         and questioned.
     »   The  energy   required  to  completely
         eliminate  a  pest  population  is  much
         greater than that required to keep a pest
         population suppressed  to  a  tolerable

     A high level of technical expertise is  needed as
well as superior ability of the pest control  supervisor
to get client cooperation.

Integrated Pest  Management
     A pest management program is requested by die
client; a pest management or pest control  supervisor
makes a  thorough inspection; and a detailed plan  and
schedule are provided that include:
     »   the designation of zones of  probable
         infestation and sites of pest infestation
         within the zones
     »   recommendations  for   sanitation,
         maintenance   improvements,   habitat
         alteration, reduction of moisture,  work
         procedure changes,   safe  practices,
         methods of application, etc.
     Finally,   pest   management  components   are
considered and  integrated into the pest management
plan (see below).

     »   Long-term pest  control procedures are
     »   Client management is involved.
     »   Costs are  reduced  over time.
     »   A  reduction  of  pesticide  use  (e.g.
         elimination of preventive spraying)  is
     »   A  low-toxicity  pesticide response  is

     »   Not every company or agency has die
         expertise  to provide pest management
     »   There   is   a  labor-intensive   start-up
                                                                                   Mgt & Ctrl, Chapter 1, Pg 3

     >   Costs are higher than "low bid".

     Integrated pest  management was  first  used  in
protecting agricultural crops; in recent years,  it has
proven effective in urban areas.
     Pest management components are considered and
integrated into an Overall pest management plan.

Monitoring and Recordkeeping
     Inspection,  continuous sampling,  and use  of
survey devices that will result in accurate  recorded
pest counts  are emphasized.  Monitoring goes  on in
identified  zones  of  potential  infestation  and  is
intensified in infested target sites. Nontarget areas are
not monitored.
     Record books or  logs are placed in central areas
or  management units.  Records contain  monitoring
counts; sanitation, maintenance and personnel practice
problems; pesticide use, formulations, and  amounts.
Records  should be accessible  to pest  management
technicians and client supervisors.

Education, Training, and Communication
     Communication  is  an ongoing activity.  To  be
effective,  pest management must be desired by the
client. Pests should be reduced to a level acceptable to
the client. To achieve these goals, the pest technician
interacts  actively  with the client. Ongoing informal
training or  instructive  communication between the
technician and the client group's designated  liaison is
important.  Formal  training  is provided  by  pest
^inagement supervisors, technical representatives, or
     Designated liaisons are client onsite supervisory
personnel  with whom pest management  technicians
will review the record, problems, and control program
each monitoring or treatment interval. Liaisons explain
the pest management program to clients such as tenants
or workers.  Liaisons coordinate client efforts needed
for the success of the program.

Integrated Control Methods
     All  practical  measures  to suppress  the  pest
population to a tolerable level should be considered:
     »  cultural controls (e.g., regular cleaning
        schedule, garbage elimination, changes
        in worker procedures)
     >  physical modifications and maintenance
         changes  (e.g.,  screening,  caulking,
     »   pest control devices and pesticides.

     Pest management is site specific. The number of
pests that can be seen in each target site is determined.
Setting  thresholds, eliminates  preventive  spraying,
curtails excessive pesticide application, and encourages
good inspection.

Evaluation, Quality Control, and Reporting
     No gains in pest management are made without
evaluation.   Interviews,    surveys,   and   record
examinations are made at scheduled times. Evaluations
are  conducted by personnel   other  than the pest
management  technician.  Formal written and verbal
reports are made at scheduled  intervals by technical
representatives or pest management supervisors to
client management.
     Some insects become resistant to a pesticide, and
the  most  complete  application  cannot  achieve
acceptable control. Of the urban pests, the house fly
and  the German  cockroach  lead  in  resistance to

How Pests Become Resistant to Pesticides
     Most pesticides are put together by  combining
chemical elements. Large pest populations  have some
individuals whose internal  systems  can reduce the
pesticide to harmless elements. When the pesticide is
applied, these pests live. They produce some offspring
that  can  also  reduce the pesticide. With  each
generation,  more  and  more  offspring  inherit the
ability. If applicators continue  to apply that pesticide,
more and more will be able to  render the pesticide
ineffective. Once present,  genes for resistance  will
always be carried by some members of the population.

How to Recognize Resistance
     First, eliminate reasons for failure to  suppress a
pest  population. If questions  like these  can  be
answered  positively, the  population  might  be  a
candidate for resistance testing:
     »   Are clients doing their job by improving
         sanitation, reducing clutter,  etc.?
     »   Have inspections been complete?
     »•   Have pests been correctly identified?
     »   Has habitat alteration been complete?
     »   Have pesticides been applied accurately?
Mgt & Ctrl, Chapter 1, Pg 4

The Way to Prevent Resistance
    Use  of a  multicomponent approach  such  as
integrated pest management prevents resistance that
occurs when a single pesticide is consistently applied.
When pesticides alone are used in a routine way for
pest control, the  pest  population  rebuilds between
treatments. With repeated applications after population
recovery, the more succeptable individuals are killed
and those that are less succeptable become the parents
of the next generation. Alternating  pesticides with
different modes of action (e.g., organophosphates and
pyrethriods) can also be helpful.
     Pests  are  unwanted  organisms  -  unwanted
because their  activities run counter to those of the
people living in the same ecosystem.  This ecosystem
is made up of a number of animal populations — two
of which are  pests  and humans. Together,  these
populations are called a community. The community
along with biological (pest food, hosts, prey plants,
etc.)  and  physical  (hiding  places,  temperature,
humidity) supporting factors are the components of an
ecosystem -  a basic, selfsustaining natural unit. Pest
control takes  place within this unit; to be effective it
acts on the parts of the ecosystem.
    Pest control styles are set up to prevent, react to,
eliminate, or  manage pests. Each style has advantages
and disadvantages;  the most complete style  is pest
management which involves the coordination of many
elements depends on the nature of the infested site.
    Since  pests  are not  evenly distributed in  an
ecosystem, an inspection is needed to locate them. To
manage  pests,   the  supporting  factors  of  their
population need to be identified and  altered. When
alteration alone is not sufficient, pesticides can be used
to reduce the pest population to a tolerable level [this
level may be zero].
    Finally,  an evaluation  or follow-up assessment
makes the control effort last longer and tells the pest
control technician how well the job was done.
                                                                                    Mgt & Ctrl, Chapter 1, Pg 5

                                      CHAPTER ONE
                          PEST MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL
1.   Define a pest in simple terms.

2.   Pest populations are part of an ecosystem. What following elements are included in an ecosystem?
        A. Populations and a community.
        B. A community and biological and physical supports.
        C. Populations and biological and physical supports.
        D. Populations, a community, and biological and physical supports.

3.  In infested apartments,  pest infestations are evenly distributed.
        A. True.
        B. False.

4.  In a simple sequence of methods, which of the following is the first method or activity a pest control
    technician should do?	
        A. Pesticide application.
        B. Habitat alteration.
        C. Inspection.
        D. Follow up.

5.  Which  of the  following are  not integrated pest  management  components,  goals or  activities:
         A. Monitoring.
         B. Pesticide application.
         C. Preventive spraying.
         D. Recordkeeping.
         E. Total pest elimination.

6.  The pest management style of pest control, more than the other styles, emphasizes:
         A. Safe pesticide application.
         B. The reduction of pests to a tolerable number.
         C. Inspection.
         D. Client communication.
                                                                    For Answers refer to Appendix A
Mgt & Ctrl, Chapter 1, Pg 6

                                       CHAPTER 2
                          USING EQUIPMENT
    Learning: Objectives

             After completion of the study of Using Equipment in Urban Pest Management, the
    trainee should be able to:

         a   Know the benefits and: limitations of pesticide application equipment.

         o   Know simple methods for calibrating urban pesticide application equipment.

         a   Understand how safety is part of every phase of equipment use.
    The most needed and reliable tool of all in pest
management is the brain and ability of a technician to
use his knowledge of pest management along with
well-cared-for equipment and good supplies. Pesticide
application equipment used in urban pest management
is, for the most part, time tested and reliable. It is
reassuring and convenient to have tools that seldom
fail. Time, training, and the encouragement of regular
cleaning,  calibration, and  repair  of  tools means  a
planned program and good supervision.
    Failure to care for equipment properly can cause
serious problems.  Using  worn  or   clogged spray
nozzles  or   caked  dusters results   in misapplied
pesticides.  Accidents   from  breaking hoses and
exposure from leaking valves can result in lost time,
illness, and complaint or lack of confidence  from
clients. Lack of attention to these activities is a sign of
mismanagement   of   time,   overscheduling,
miscommunications and unclear priorities.
    The more commonly used equipment includes:
          Hand held compressed air sprayers
          Power sprayers
          Canned insecticides
          Aerosol and fog generators
          Bait Stations
          Traps, monitoring devices etc.
    The small (one or two gallon) stainless steel spray
tank is die workhorse of pest control. It is the tool
most familiar to pest control  technicians. It can be
used in many different ways (and by many different
industries). In pest management, the "spray tank" is
used to apply a flushing agent,  or a residual pesticide.
Depending on the nozzle  selection, it applies different
spray patterns;  and  depending  on the amount of
pumping, it delivers die  pesticide under high or low
                                                                           Mgt & Ctrl, Chapter 2, Pg 1

 Spray Patterns
     The  most  common nozzle  for  the hand-held
 compressed air sprayer is made of brass and usually
 can be set in one of four spray patterns. More than
 four patterns are  available,  however.   The  most
 common patterns include two pin streams,  flat fans,
     Pin streams can be coarse or fine. The coarse or
 fine pin streams do not produce the best crack and
 crevice application. Even when set for fine spray, a
 stream is produced that splashes back from all but die
 widest crack, so many nozzles have a connection for
 a narrow-diameter  plastic extension tube. Remember
 to use equipment as directed (e.g.,  injection tool for
 crack  and  crevice application).   The  end  of the
 extension tube is inserted into or at the edge of a crack
 and delivers an accurate  pin stream: overall, the most
 effective  spray  pattern  for   cockroach   pesticide
     Coarse and fine flat fan streams are used to apply
 general or spot applications,  as are hollow or solid
 cone sprays. Cone  sprays deliver a circle of pesticide
 and are often used outside on uneven  surfaces and
• plants.

     Spray tank air pressure varies according to the
 amount of  air the technician  pumps into  the tank.
 Pressure gauges can be attached to spray tanks. Low
 pressure is usually recommended for spray application
 inside structures. Constant use of high pressure with
 compressed air sprayers sets  up  the  possibility of
 overuse and  misapplication.  It  causes part of the
 sprayed liquid to break into droplets as soon as it exits
 the nozzle; this wastes material that can drift onto non-
 target surfaces. High pressure also causes splash back
    surfaces or quickly traps air in crevices and keeps
     pesticide from  entering small  spaces. As well as
 being   uneconomical  and  wasteful,  the  practice
 encourages rapid application of pesticides whether they
 are needed or not, from distances that affect  accuracy.
 This style of pesticide  application will seldom result in
 effective  pest  control,  especially  where  German
 cockroaches are a problem.
 Mgt & Ctrl, Qupter 2. Pg 2
    Technicians who use  hand-held compressed  air
sprayers  should  periodically •  attend  training   for
cleaning and sprayer maintenance. It is recommended
that  they  familiarize themselves   with  their  own
equipment  and be  prepared  to  repair  it.  It  is
recommended that technicians
     »   Rinse the sprayer daily; especially the
         hose. [Always  empty  liquid from the
         hose: hold die nozzle high and squeeze
         the trigger to drain die hose into the
         tank. If this  is not done, liquid from the
         last use remains;  it will be applied first
         at the next use, regardless of any new
         spray mix in the tank.]
     »   Clean the sprayer on a regular schedule.
     »   Never use warm water to mix sprays.
         [Warm   water   helps  break   down
         pesticides, creates droplets that  easily
         float, and increases a pesticide's odor.]
     »   As stressed  in the core manual,  always
         use gloves when  spraying. Always use
         safety glasses or  goggles when treating
         areas above the  head  or close to the
     As  their  name  implies, power  sprayers use
electric or gasoline engines to pump liquid insecticides
from a relatively large tank, usually over 100 gallons.
The liquid is discharged thru a 3/8-1/2 inch hose of
sufficient length  to  reach from the pump to the
application site. Power sprayers are generally used for
one of two types of urban pest control: (1) controlling
termites,  and (2)  spraying building perimeters and
     In die  southern  United States,  power spraying
outside  in  conjunction with inside treatment for
cockroaches  is common.  In warmer climates,  large
cockroaches (American, oriental, smoky-brown, etc.)
are active outdoors as well as indoors. Other types of
outside pests (e.g.  ticks, crickets, millipedes and other
miscellaneous invaders) are also treated by spraying
outside. Here too,  low pressure is more effective than
high pressure because the pesticide will not blast away
the surface dust or  soil  and  runoff. Low  pressure
allows for a more careful  application, better soaking
action, and better penetration through short grass.
     Special attention should  be  paid to the hose of
power sprayers — both in the quality and  points of
wear. Wear or cuts cause hoses to burst; when this
happens pesticides  spill and cause contamination. Shut-
off valves should  always  be in good working  order.

Equipment to take care of spill contamination should
always be carried in the service truck.

Why calibrate  spraying equipment?
     In urban  pest  management,  much  is up to the
judgment  of technicians.  A  pest control technician
should know that the  proper dosage of pesticide  is
being applied; accurate calibration of power sprayers
is important or the amount of pesticide delivered will
be incorrect. Overdosage will contaminate  the spray
area or result in runoff.  Less than recommended
dosage may fail to control the pest.  Technicians need
to regularly look at the output of their equipment.
Flow meters are very helpful to let the technician
know the output of the sprayer over time.
     »   It  is  estimated  that  60  percent  of
         sprayers have a calibration error up to
         10 percent.
     >   A  large percentage of sprayers  have
         greater  than  10  percent  variation in
         discharge  from  individual nozzles or
     »   Application methods used by different
         applicators   vary,   depending   upon
         pressure, nozzle tip, etc.
     *>   Soil  types and  types  of soil  cover
         (grass, mulch, gravel) can  influence the
         rate of pesticides a technician applies.
     Manufacturers' instructions, university extension
training  meetings,  label  instructions and  company
policy should be considered and used  to  calibrate
sprayers.  Refer to company  policy and core manual
for calibration instructions.
    Pressurized cans of insecticides
became common  in the late 1940s
and  were  first  used  as  aerosol
fbggers or  "insect bombs." Canned
insecticides   in  urban   pest
management include canned aerosol
foggers  (volumetric  sprays,  total
release fogs) and  pressurized liquid
sprays. (The garden type aerosol or
the   over-the-counter   aerosol
generally  sold to the  public for
contact spraying is NOT included hi
either of these categories.)
Canned Aerosol Pesticides
     Canned aerosol pesticides consist of a pressurized
fluid that produce an aerosol or fog droplet that floats
                                                    in the air for a  period  of time, then settles to the
                                                    ground. The droplet size is governed by the nozzle and
                                                    valve at the top of the can.  After use, a more or less
                                                    uniform   coverage  will  be  attained  on  exposed
                                                    horizontal surfaces.  Very  little pesticide lands on
                                                    vertical surfaces,  penetrates opened cabinets, or clings
                                                    to undersurfaces. Droplets  contact pests that have left
                                                    hiding places,  and other  insects  that fly  into the
                                                    insecticide are killed.
Canned Pressurized Liquid Sprays
    Canned pressurized liquid sprays are not aerosols.
Because  the  coarse,  wet spray is not made up  of
aerosol droplets, little becomes  airborne. Compressed
gas mixes with the pesticidal liquid in  a pressurized
spray. The gas forces the pesticide through  the exit
port,  quickly vaporizes,  and  leaves  pesticide on
surfaces. When canned pressurized liquids are part of
a system that includes crack  and crevice nozzles, the
insecticide can be placed precisely on the target area.
In a closed crevice,  the  expanding gas propels the
insecticide in all directions forcing it on all surfaces in
the crevice, rather than shooting it across in a straight
line  like  a  compressed  air  sprayer. Using canned
pressurized liquid sprays requires a firm understanding
of the target pests' habits so that pest harborage can be
    Power aerosol and  fog  generators break liquid
pesticides into aerosol droplets. Reducing the liquid
into droplets is done either mechanically (cold foggers)
or by using heat (thermal foggers).  Caution should
                                                                                   Mgi & Ctrl, Chapter 2, Pg 3

always be taken to protect the applicator's respiratory
system when these generators are used.

Cold Foggers
    Cold foggers break an insecticide  into aerosol-
sized droplets  and propel them into the  air in a light
 loud or fog. Large, ultra low dosage (ULD) and ultra
    volume (ULV) cold foggers are mounted on trucks
and used in mosquito control  programs, to control
pests in large warehouses, and for fly control in some
operations. Cold  fog  generators drive pesticidal  fog
over a  relatively large area. Droplets fall on flying or
resting mosquitoes or are deposited in very small
amounts on plant  leaves on which mosquitoes rest.
     Hand-held cold foggers are used inside buildings
where they fill rooms, small warehouses,  etc.,  with
aerosol droplets. These  floating  droplets kill flying
insects  as  well  as  exposed  insects  on  horizontal
surfaces. Fogs do not enter tight spaces or cracks and
crevices. While some aerosol generators are used for
crack  and  crevice  applications,  they also produce
berosol droplets that float in the air.

Thermal Foggers
     Thermal foggers use heat to vaporize oil in an oil-
based  insecticide formulation.  Large  truck-mounted
thermal  aerosol  generators  are  used in mosquito
control programs where the insecticide fog rolls across
open spaces killing flying insects as air currents move
it. Indoors, portable thermal foggers  work like  cold
foggers except droplets are smaller.
     Precautions. When  using fogging or  aerosol
generating equipment indoors:
     »   Applicators should wear respirators.
     »   Occupants must leave until the area has
         been adequately ventilated.
     »   Pets must be removed; house plants and
         aquariums   must  be   covered,  and
         aerating pumps turned off.
     »   Exposed foods  and food  preparation
         surfaces  must  be  protected.   After
         treatment, food preparation surfaces and
         any exposed utensils must be washed.
     »   Pilot lights and  any other  open  flame
         must   be   extinguished.    This   is
         particularly critical when the oil-based
         thermal fog  is used.  Any spark can set
         off a thermal fog atmosphere.
     »   Thermal fog  generators   can  burn
         surfaces that are contacted,  including
         the operator.
     »   Aerosol droplets will not  move into
         spaces  where air is not circulating nor
         into any dead air  cracks and crevices
         (e.g.,  under  molding into  partially
         closed  cabinets,  drawers, closets.)
     »   Furnace,    air   conditioning,   and
         ventilation equipment should be turned
         off.  [Ventilation  will  evacuate  the
         insecticide  and  may carry  it to other
         places  outside the target area.]
     »   After  an  appropriate interval, and
         before  people or pets reoccupy the area,
         treated  rooms  should  be  thoroughly
For General Application
     Fogging should not be used as a single method of
treatment but as a supplementary method to other types
of application.  Fogging or aerosol  application is a
general pesticide application and only pyrethrins or
insecticides labeled for unclassified application can be
used  in this way. If  fogging treatments begin to be
used at increasingly closer intervals, it means  that the
pest population  is not being suppressed and may  be

     Dusters apply a fine,  dry layer of a powdery
mixture containing a small amount of pesticide. Dust
applied on porous surfaces is not absorbed like liquids;
it rests on  them like  a  layer of insecticidal powder.
This dust accumulates on body parts (insect hairs, legs
and mouthparts) of insects who touch it. Pesticides in
dusts are absorbed by the  insecticide in the same way
as liquid sprays. Additionally, if  the pest  ingests
particles (when grooming  or cleaning itself), the dust
can also cause stomach poisoning.
Mgt & Ctrl, Chapter 2, Pg 4

Hand Dusters
    Three types of hand dusters are commonly used
by pest management technicians: bulb, bellows, and
plunger dusters. Dusts are also driven by gas in some
formulations  of canned  insecticides,  but  with this
method, dusts are applied like canned liquid pesticides.
    Bellows  dusters  consist  of a  closed  rubber
cylinder made rigid by an internal spring,  a spout at
one end, and  a stoppered refill hole at the other. These
dusters, originally called Getz dusters, are held with
the spout  at the top. A slight pressure from top and
bottom pushes air and dust from the spout.  The more
pressure applied, the more dust ejected. The spout is
tapered  at the tip  and  slight puffs will propel small
amounts of dust into cracks and crevices. The slight
puffs  distribute a  thin  layer  of dust  in  the  pest
    Bulb  dusters have a rubber  bulb with a removable
spout at one  end. The spout screws off to allow for
refilling.  Dust  application is much like the bellows
duster except that the bulb is squeezed. Both dusters
come in several sizes.
    Plunger  dusters hold more  dust than the first two
hand-held dusters discussed. Plunger-type dusters have
been used for garden dusting for  a century, but the
plunger duster used in  urban pest  management is
smaller, made of high-impact plastic  and has several
styles of nozzles.
Power Ousters
     Most power dusters use compressed air to deliver
insecticidal dusts to large spaces. Fire extinguishers
have  been  converted to  dusters and  filled  with
compressed  air.  Other dusters  are plastic and are
pumped up much like die hand-held  compressed air
sprayer used to applying liquids. The plastic dusters
release small or large amounts of dust with better
control than the fire extinguisher type.
     Power dusters are often used in spaces where the
dust can lie undisturbed providing a residual coating of
pesticide. They are also applied in sewers as contact
pesticides and  in trash chutes of high rise buildings.
The dust is introduced at the lowest level at a trash
compactor and rises up through the chute where it is
vented at the top.  The chute must be closed at each
floor. Dusts can also  be placed  in waH voids, crawl
spaces and  almost any  unused space.  Sometimes
drilling into voids is  necessary to inject dust. Great
care must be taken to  confine dust so that it does not
drift   and  is  not  carried into  non-target  spaces.
Remember to mm off  pilot lights and flame- or spark-
producing equipment  if a combustible dust is used.
Protect smoke  alarms  when using dust.
     Dusters clog easily. They must be agitated often
and the dust kept dry at all times. Dusters work much
better if they are often washed and dried.
 Traps, Bait Boxes, Monitoring Devices,  and
 Pheromone Dispensers
     Traps  have  been  used  for pest  control  for
 centuries. Rodent control traps range from snap traps
 to boxes mat use trap doors, spring-loaded multiple
 catch traps, and small animal traps. Rodent bait boxes,
 or  bait  stations, are containers  that hold poisonous
 baits or glue boards.  Under  certain  conditions, they
 must be tamper proof for safety. Other traps to catch
 pest birds are baited so die bird will enter and cannot
 get out. Fly traps are sticky tapes or cylinders that
' hang vertically, taking advantage of the fly's tendency
 to cling to vertical poles, strings, etc. Electric fly traps
 are made with  an attracting  light that lures  flies  to
 electrocution  grids  or glue boards. Sticky traps are
 small glue boards used to catch cockroaches. These are
 used to monitor roach populations and to survey for
 other insects.
     Pheromone traps lure insects with a pheromone (a
 natural attractant), to a sticky holding surface. These
 traps are used  to  evaluate insect populations; their
 catches indicate which species are present. They may
 also be used to  control or reduce pest populations.

 Bait Stations
     There  are  many kinds  of  bait stations. These
 devices  confine toxic substances to units  that  are
 removable  rather  than   leaving  diem  exposed.
 Cockroach  bait stations offer pesticides as attractive
                                                                                    Mgt A CM, Chapter 2, Pg 5

bait.  The  bait  stations themselves  offer natural
harborage. They can augment sprays, dusts and fogs,
or  they  can be used  in place of  other more toxic
formulations.  The key to  using  these devices is to
know where and how to place them.
     Equipment is used in urban pest management and
control to suppress pest populations; it is effective only
when used by competent pesticide  applicators. Pest
control equipment used by an untrained applicator who
has   little  practical   knowledge   will' be   used
ineffectively. Ill-cared-for equipment in bad repair is
ineffective and dangerous.
    To use pesticides  efficiently and  economically
(without under application [lack  of control]  or over
application [unsafe]), applicators must understand the
capabilities of their equipment and be able to depend
on correct calibration. They must also be aware of the
many types of equipment available. Urban pest control
equipment is  not  only sprayers and  dusters,  but
includes other  devices  such as traps,  bait stations,
lights, excluders, etc.
Mgt & Ctrl, Chapter 2, Pg 6

                                      CHAPTER TWO
1.  New sprayers are well calibrated until they have been used one season.
        A. True.
        B. False.

2.  Hand held sprayers can be calibrated if the following is known:	
        A. Pressure used.
        B. Amount of liquid used.
        C. Time elapsed per liquid used.
        D. Area sprayed per amount of liquid used.
        E. All of these.
        F. None of these.
3.  Fogging fills a room volume including cracks, crevices and cabinets.
        A. True.
        B. False.

4.  High pressure must be maintained in hand held sprayers to be effective.
        A. True.
        B. False.

5.  If a sprayer malfunctions,	.
        A. Repair it immediately.
        B. Increase pressure by pumping.
        C. Release pressure and remove it to a repair area.
        D. Use very soft thin wire to clear nozzle after releasing pressure.

6.  Equipment safety is best maintained by	.
        A. Daily rinsing.
        B. Daily hose inspection.
        C. Scheduled cleaning.
        D. All of these.

                                                                    For Answers refer to Appendix A
                                                                         Mgt &, Ctrl, Chapter 2, Pg 7

                      LAWS  AND  REGULATIONS
      Learning Objectives

               After completion of the study of Laws and Regulations, the trainee should be able
           o   understand pesticide applicator certification, and                                ;

           a   appreciate how  pesticide  laws  and  regulations protect individuals  and  the
    Pesticide application is complex. Control of pests
cannot be attained by simply spraying baseboards, as
some  novices assume. Certified applicators not only
need to know about all phases of pest control for their
own use, but also to pass this practical knowledge on
to technicians under their supervision.
    Pesticide technicians need to know more  about
safety and proper use than ever before. The number of
pesticides has increased. Effects  on wildlife, human
health, and the  environment  are vital considerations.
Highly toxic pesticides require special equipment and
safety measures.
   • Certification requirements have been set to help
protect the general public, the environment, and those
who apply pesticides.  Anyone using  restricted use
pesticides in any category must be certified or under
the direct supervision of someone  who  is certified.
[Direct supervision  refers to the availiability of the
certified applicator, either as directed by the label or
else as related  to the  hazard of  the situation.  A
competent person shall apply  a restricted use pesticide
under  the  instructions  and   control  of  a  certified
applicator who is available if and when needed. [Note:
this requirement may be changed by new regulations.
All certified applicators should be  aware of current
requirements.]  Restricted use   indicates that die
environment, user, or others, could be harmed even
though the pesticide is used as directed.] Certification
is carried out by the states/tribes (except  in Colorado
and Nebraska which have federal programs).
     Standards  and  testing  for  certification  (and
recertification)   are   part  of   EPA-approved   and
evaluated state  and tribal plans  for  regulation of
commercial applicators. Recertification intervals vary
from state to  state. Training has received  increased
emphasis in recent decades; today training  programs
have input from  university extension services,  state
regulatory agencies, national and state pest  control
associations, pesticide  manufacturers, and other  pest
control industry representatives.

Certification Records
     Training seminars and certification programs are
evaluated by state regulatory agencies as well as by the
EPA. Records verifying attendance and participation in
these training programs  are   important.  Subjects
covered, time, location, instructor, and testing results
should be noted  and  signed by the instructor  and
     Every pesticide  applicator should  maintain  a
personal  training record  that  includes classroom
training and testing, on-the-job training,  workshops,
performance testing, use observations, etc.

     There  are   two   classifications  of  certified
applicators: private  and  commercial.  A private
certified  applicator uses  or  supervises  the use of
restricted  use  pesticides  to  produce  agricultural
commodities on property owned or rented by himself
or his employer.
     A  commercial   certified  applicator  uses   or
supervises the use of any pesticide that is classified for
                                                                                 Mgt & Ctrl, Clupter 3, Pg 1

restricted use for any purpose on any property otaer
than those listed for private applicators.

     Federal standards identify specific commercial
pest control categories. State certification standards
amst meet federal standards, but they can be more
Rringent to meet needs  of the  state.  Commercial
applicators in some states  may apply for certification
in any or all of the categories, but they may practice
only in categories for which they are certified.  '
L   Agricultural Pest Control
2.   Forest Pest Control
3.   Ornamental and Turf Pest Control
4.   Commercial Seed Treatment
5.   Aquatic Pest Control
6.   Right-of-Way Pest Control
7.   Industrial,  Institutional Structural and Health
     Related Pest Control
     This category deals with urban pest management
and control. It includes pesticide application in, on, or
around food handling establishments, homes, schools,
hospitals, other public institutions, warehouses, grain
elevators, other industrial  buildings, areas near these
buildings  and  around   stored,   processed,   or
manufactured products.
8.   Public Health P*st Control
9,   Sjtgvtatory Pest Control
10.  Demonstration and Research Pest Control
11.  Aerial Pest Control
     The  United  States  Congress  established the
 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1970 and
 required that the agency regulate pesticides. The. EPA
 sets standards for pesticide registration, handling, and
   Ke. The standards are designed to help make pesticide
   e safer for both people and the environment. Some
 practices which were suggested for correct use in the
 past are now required  by law. These requirements
 affect  areas such as record keeping, transportation,
 storage and disposal procedures,  entry intervals, and
 filling and mixing methods. For many applicators,
 these practices are already part of a regular routine.
 For others, some adjustment must be made to meet
 these requirements.

     Through  its Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP),
 EPA uses the Federal Insecticide,  Fungicide, and
Koaenticiae Act  (ru-uLA)  to manage its  mandate.
FIFRA  was enacted in 1947, replacing the Federal
Insecticide Act of 1910, and has been amended several
    The  most  important amendment  to  FIFRA is
called the Federal Environmental Pesticide Control
Act (FEPCA) of 1972. This amendment shifted the
emphasis  from pest control regulations to the role of
protecting the public health and the environment.
    FIFRA  governs  the  registration  of pesticide
products.  No pesticide may be marketed in the United
States  until  the  EPA reviews  an application for
registration, approves each use, and assigns a product
registration number. Pesticides must demonstrate that
their use will not result in unreasonable adverse effect
to human health. In other words, FIFRA balances a
pesticide's risk with its  benefit to  society. [Risk  is
defined by EPA as the probability that a pesticide will
have an adverse effect.]
    In  summary, FIFRA is the law; it requires that
     •>   EPA register all  pesticides as well as
         each use of that pesticide and approves
         the product label
     »>   pesticides  be  categorized  either  as
         general  use pesticides or restricted use
         pesticides, and
     •»   users  of  restricted  use pesticides be
         certified or under the direct supervision
         of certified applicators.

    FIFRA also
     »   establishes tolerances for  residues that
         may  remain  on   raw   agricultural
         products or in processed food
     »   provides penalties for "use inconsistent
         with the labeling" of a pesticide
     »    makes  it illegal to  store or dispose of
         pesticides or containers other than as
         directed  by  regulations and provides
         penalties   for   illegal   handling  of
     »   provides  civil  penalties  when   the
         violation of a regulation is unintentional
         [Fines  can be  as much as $5,000  for
         each offense by commercial applicators.
         An applicator may request a hearing in
         their city or county before being fined.]
     »   provides criminal penalties when  the
         law is knowingly violated.  [Commercial
         applicators may be fined up to $25,000
         or one year in prison, or both.]
     *   permits states  and  tribes to establish
         more stringent  standards, but not more
         permissive standards.
 Mgt & Ctri, Chapter 3, Pg 2

    Each state has laws governing pesticide use. The
laws are written to comply with federal law  and to
handle state-specific pesticide-related problems.   In
some states,  laws  further restrict  the use  of  certain
pesticides in  that state. State pesticide laws  can be
more stringent but cannot relax, overrule, or conflict
with  federal  law.   Careful   study  and  a  clear
understanding of the state pesticide law as well as
federal law is necessary to pass certification tests.
    Some local jurisdictions have pesticide laws and
regulations.  Local statutes may not relax  federal or
state  law. Every pest  management technician who
applies,  mixes, or transports  pesticides  must  be
familiar  with  all  rules  that  govern  pest  control

Protection:  The Applicator's
    Ultimately, protection of die environment from
pesticides  will fall  to  the  pesticide  technician.
Preserving die biological  diversity of our planet by
protecting the environment will  contribute  to the
overall quality  of life. Each plant or animal is part of
a complex food chain; break  one of the links  and
others are adversely affected. One disappearing plant
can take with it up to thirty other species that  depend
upon  it, including insects, higher animals and even
other plants.  Urban pest management technicians will
see their normal  work  as unlikely  to  affect  the
environment,  but  spills and  leaks during  mixing,
loading, and transporting, and incorrect disposal, may
easily  wind  up in  ground  or surface water or in the
naoitat of nontarget organisms, a stream, a marsa, or
an estuary.  National Parks and other sensitive areas
are often serviced by commercial pest management
technicians, and while the  majority of urban pesticide
application is indoors and minimized, some chemicals
are applied  outside; spills  and accidents can occur in
any situation.
     The   Federal   Insecticide;   Fungicide   and
Rodenticide  Act  (FIFRA)  regulates  pesticides  to
protect humans and the environment. Enforcement of
this law is the responsibility of the EPA which in turn,
may  through cooperative  agreements,  delegate  the
authority  for  enforcing the Act to states  and tribes.
The Agency has developed regulations for pesticide
registration  and  use.    Registered  pesticides  are
unclassified  or for  restricted  use.  Applicators  of
restricted use pesticides must be certified as private
applicators   (essentially   agricultural    pesticide
applicators) or commercial applicators. Commercial
pesticide  applicators may  be  certified to work  in
certain categories. [One category is the  Industrial,
Institutional, Structural and Health Related Category
for which this training module was written.]
     Each state and tribe has laws governing pesticides
and their  use; these  laws are  as strict as with federal
law.  State  certification plans are  approved  and
evaluated by EPA.  Since  pesticide applicators  are
directly regulated and certified by their state agencies,
a thorough knowledge  of the state pesticidal law as
well as federal law is essential.
                                                                                    Mgt & Ctrl, Chapter 3, Pg 3

                                     CHAPTER THREE
                                LAWS AND REGULATIONS
.1.  The responsibility of the Environmental Protection Agency is to
         A. Regulate pesticide use.
         B. Regulate pesticide applicators.
         C. Protect public health and the environment.
         D. Enforce FIFRA.
2.   Pest   control  applicators   may   be   certified   in   either   of   two   classifications:
         A. Private and commercial.
         B. Fumigation and non fumigation.
         C. Urban and agriculture.
         D. Certified and non-certified.

3.   Pesticide registration decisions are based on the demonstration that the use of a pesticide will not
     result  in "Unreasonable human health or environmental effects".   The law that mandates  that is
     called  the 	.

4.   The state plan that regulates pesticide applicators and their certification is approved and evaluated
     by __	.
         A. FDA.
         B. USDA.
         C. EPA.
         D. OSHA.

                                                                    For Answers refer to Appendix A
Mgt & Ctri. Ch«pter3, Pg 4

United States     uv.ice «• _
Environmental Protection  Pesticide Programs
Agency        Washington DC 20460
                                    February 1992
Pest Management
           A Guide for
           Commercial  Applicators


                                   MODULE ONE
                           STRUCTURE INFESTING PESTS

                   The Insect Plan  	  1
                          Insects and their Relatives	  1
                          Phylum Arthropoda	  1
                          Arachnids	  1
                          Crustacea 	  1
                          Myriapoda 	  1
                          Insecta	  1
                          Other Divisions Used in Classification  ..	  I
                   Growth and Development
                          Growth	  2
                          Development	  2
                          Group 1. Simple Metamorphosis	  2
                          Group 2. Gradual Metamorphosis  	  2
                          Group 3. Complete Metamorphosis  	  2
                          Considerations of Pest Management . .  .	  2
                   Study Questions	  3

                   German Cockroach	  2
                          Appearance	  2
                          Life Cycle	  2
                          Behavior and Harborage	  2
                          Control and Management of the German Cockroach	  3
                                Inspection	  3
                                Habitat Alteration	\ . .  .  3
                                Pesticide Application	  4
                                Follow-up	  4
                          Brown Banded Cockroach	  4
                          American Cockroach	  5
                          Oriental Cockroach	  6
                          Smoky-Brown Cockroach 	  7
                          Brown Cockroach	  8
                          Australian Cockroach	  9
                          Surinam Cockroach	  9
                          Woods Cockroach	  9
                          Asian Cockroach	   10
                   Summary  	'.	   10
                   Cockroaches: Key to Egg Cases of Common Domestic Species	 .  11
                   Study Questions	   12

                   Introduction to Ants .	  1
                          The Ant Colony	  1
                          Foraging	  1
                   Ant and Termite  Swarmers  	  2
                   Ant Control and Management	  2

                           Inspection	  3
                           Pesticide Application	  4
                           Follow-up	  4
                    Large Ants	: .  .  4
                           Carpenter Ant  	  4
                           Black Carpenter Ant  	  4
                           Western Carpenter Ant	  6
                           Large Yellow Ant	  7
                           Allegheny Mount Ant	  7
                           Fire Ant	  7
                    Small to Medium Sized Ants	  7
                           Acrobat Ants	  7
                    Small Ants	  8
                           The Argentine  Ant  	  8
                           The Pavement  Ant	  9
                           The Odorous House Ant	   10
                           The Crazy Ant	   11
                    Tiny Ants	   12
                           The Pharaoh Ant	   12
                    Other Structure-Infesting Tiny Ants	   13
                           The Little Black Ant  	   13
                           The Thief Ant	   13
                           The Little Fire Ant	   13
                    Summary   	   13
                    Study Questions	   14

                    Control and Management  	  1
                           Inspection	  1
                           Habitat Alteration	  2
                           Pesticide Application	  2
                           Follow-up	  2
                    Pests of Whole Grains  and Seeds  	  2
                           Rice Weevils and Granary Weevils  	  2
                           Angoumois Grain Moth  	  2
                           Lesser Grain Borer	  3
                    Seed Beetles or Pea and Bean Weevils 	  3
                    Pests of Ground, Milled, or Processed Grain,
                           Spices, Seeds and Nuts	  3
                           Indian Meal  Moth	  3
                           Saw-Toothed Grain Beetle	  3
                           Cabinet or Warehouse Beetles	  4
                           Cigarette and Drugstore Beetles  	  4
                           Flour Beetles	  5
                           Spider Beetles  	  5
                    Pests of Moldy, Damp, or Out-of-Condition Grain
                           and Grain Products	  5
                           Psocids	  6
                           Grain Mites	  6
                    Summary   	  6


                    Beetles: Pictorial Key to Some Species Commonly
                           Associated with Stored Foods	  7
                    Study Questions	  8

                    Carpet Beetles   	  1
                           Hide and Carpet Beetles	  1
                           Hide and Larder Beetles	  2
                           The Incinerator Beetle	  2
                           The Black  Carpet Beetle	  2
                           Common, Furniture, and Varied Carpet Beetles  	2
                           Warehouse and Cabinet Beetles	  3
                           Control  and Management of Carpet Beetles  	  3
                    Clothes Moth Species	  3
                           Control  and Management of the Clothes Moth  	  4
                    Summary  	  5
                    Study Questions	  6

                    The Silverfish   	   1
                           Gray Silverfish	   1
                           Fourlined Silverfish	   1
                    Ftrebrats	  2
                    Control and Management  	  2
                           Inspection	  2
                           Habitat Alteration	  2
                           Pesticide Application	  2
                           Follow-up  .	  2
                    Summary  	•.	  2
                    Study Questions	  3

                    Cat Flea	   1
                           Eggs	-	   I
                           Larvae	   1
                           Pupae   	  2
                           Adults	  2
                    Flea Bite and Flea Allergy	  2
                    Range  	  3
                    Control and Management  	  3
                           Inspection	  3
                           Habitat Alteration	  3
                           Pesticide Application	  3
                           Follow-up	  4
                    Summary  	  4
                    Study Questions	  6

                                        CHAPTER 1
                 PESTS  AND  THEIR RELATIVES
    Plants in their many forms from great trees to tiny
mosses cover the land. The plant kingdom began as
microscopic  single  cells  —    pond  scum.  Their
descendants are the  algae,  bacteria and fungi  living
today. Larger prehistoric plants developed from their
smaller ancestors; finally, flowering plants, modern
shrubs, and trees evolved.
    Forebears of insects were the first animals to
move onto land — before plants  had flowers. As plants
developed, so  did the insects, feeding on evolving
plant  structures, such  as  flowers,  pollen, nectar,
leaves, bark, stems, roots, and  their dead remains.
    At the time of early insect  development, the land
had  a uniform  climate:  one with   moisture  and
temperature adequate for constant growth. Later, the
surface  land  mass  (continents)  shifted,  moving
northward and southward, creating seasons, and setting
the stage for the world as we know it.
Insects and their Relatives
    Living things are divided into the Plant Kingdom,
the Animal Kingdom, and several smaller kingdoms
that include microscopic life. Insects are in the largest
group  in   the  animal  kingdom  —  the  Phylum
Arthropoda.  In this  group the "arthropods" include
spiders, mites, ticks, millipedes, centipedes, crabs,
shrimp, and insects.

Phylum Arthropoda
    Arthropod classes have:
    »   a body made of segments, which  are
        grouped or  fused together
    »   legs,  antennae and  other appendages
        attached in pairs
    »   a hard or tough external covering with
        some pliable, or soft parts; an arthropod
        outer body that holds die body together
        and  gives it  shape.  [It performs  the
        same function as die mammal's bony
        internal skeleton, and is called an exo-
Principal classes into which the phylum Arthropoda is
divided include:

    This  class includes  spiders,  mites, scorpions,
daddy long legs and others. These arthropods usually
have mouthparts with  two prominent structures that
end in a needle-like piercing tip. They have four pairs
of legs and two body regions: the mouthparts and legs
are attached to the first region; the reproductive organs
and digestive system is contained in the second.

    This class mostly includes aquatic crabs, lobsters,
and shrimp as well as Crustacea that dwell on land,
pillbugs and sowbugs.

    This group is made of two classes - millipedes
and centipedes. The millipedes are many-segmented
and  worm-like;  they  are   cylindrical  with  short
antennae  and  two  pairs  of  legs  per  segment.
Centipedes are also many-segmented and worm-like,
but they appear more flattened;  with  one pair of legs
per segment; antennae  and hind legs are long (All legs
of the house centipede are very long).

    This class contains the insects:  arthropods with
three body regions - head, thorax and abdomen. The
head bears a single pair of antennae; the thorax bears
diree  pairs  of legs,  usually wings; the  abdomen
contains  most  of the  digestive  system  and die
reproductive organs.

Other Divisions Used in Classification
    Classes of arthropods, insects, for example, are
divided into orders. These are distinct groups that look
very much  alike (e.g.,  die order  of moths  and
butterflies, or the order of beetles).
    Orders are subdivided into families made up of
related species. Species of animals  can be thought of
as "kinds of animals". Very closely related species are
grouped together  in a genus. Species or types of
                                                                             Module One, Chapter 1, Pg 1

animals (and plants) are given scientific names that
always consist of two words; the first word is the
genus name (the first letter is always a capital), the
second is the species name (always lower case). Both
are  written in italics or  underlined  (e.g., Musca
domestica).  Well-known species  can be given non-
 cientific names, called "common  names" (e.g., house
     The arthropod body is confined in its exoskeleton.
 This outer covering can expand only a little at pliable
 or  soft  places.  It  does  not  grow continuously.
 Arthropods  grow in  stages. They form a new soft
 exoskeleton  under the old one, then shed — or molt —
 the old one. The soft new  one fits  the accumulated
 growth. The new exoskeleton is white at first, but it
 hardens and darkens in a few hours. After the molting
 process,  which  usually takes  place in  hiding, the
 arthropod resumes its normal activities.

     Arthropods hatch as tiny individuals and grow by
 molting, usually keeping the same  appearance until
 they become  adult.  [The  reader  will  find that  a
 spectacular and very important exception occurs in the
 class Insecta.]
    The insect class is divided into groups according
 to the  way insects change during their development.
 This  change  is called  by  the  technical  term,
 metamorphosis, which means "change in form". Three
 main types of metamorphosis have been identified.

 Group 1. Simple  Metamorphosis
^  This group including the order of springtails and
Pverfish, makes no drastic change. They simply hatch
 and grow larger by molting  periodically. Three small
orders  are included together in this group.

 Group 2. Gradual Metamorphosis
    In  this  group  (e.g.,   cockroaches,  crickets,
grasshoppers, boxelder bugs, earwigs, etc.),
individuals  hatch  trom  the  egg  only  partially
resembling the adults. The immatures, or nymphs, do
not have wings. (Winged insects are always adults and
have finished their growth.)  Fourteen orders develop
in this way. Some of these orders have many species
and include many pests. Nymphs and adults are often
found together and eat the same food.

Group 3. Complete Metamorphosis
    The   orders   that   develop   by   complete
metamorphosis make a complete change in appearance.
These orders contain the majority of insect species. In
fact, they number more than all of the other species
in the  entire animal kingdom! This  major group
consisting of nine orders, includes beetles, moths and
butterflies, flies, fleas, and the stinging insects, ants,
bees and wasps.
    Insects with complete metamorphosis hatch from
eggs as larvae, (grubs, maggots and caterpillars). The
mission of the larval stage is to feed and grow. Larvae
continue their development through a number of molts
until they  become  mature;  then,  they change into
pupae. Not active like larvae; the purpose of the pupal
stage is one of change or body rearrangement resulting
in a complete change into  the adult stage. The mission
of the adult is to reproduce.

Considerations of Pest Management
    These  developmental stages  of  insects  with
complete metamorphosis support rather than compete
with each  other. It  is as if the  single species  is
represented by  two  or  three  completely  different
animals with different needs and habits: The larvae
feed and live in  one spot; they sometimes leave that
spot to pupate a short distance away.  The adult
emerges and often lives in another area, returning to
the larval  feeding site only to lay  eggs.  For this
reason, pest controllers manage species with complete
metamorphosis  in different  ways  according to  die
different stages, where each  lives, and what they do.
The reader will  want to pay  special  attention  to
sections that discuss the growth cycle,  behavior, and
harborage (the area in which the animal lives and finds
its food) of each  animal.
Module One, Chapter 1. Pg 2

                                         CHAPTER 2
     Learning Objectives

             After completion of the study of Cockroaches, the trainee should be able to:

         o  Given: a cockroach specimen,  hand lens,.or pictorial key, identify  the
             specimen by common name.
         a  Given a list of common cockroaches, match each with its habitat.

         a  Cite monitoring strategies for cockroaches.

         a  Given an actual control situation, apply all elements of cockroach management to
             include sanitation, proper selection of pesticides, application techniques, and other
             control methods.
    Cockroaches have survived for more than 300
million years. Ancient fossils had the same appearance
as today's cockroaches: oval and flat with long legs
and an antennae. The modern cockroach has the same
need for a warm, moist climate. Worldwide there are
3,500 kinds of cockroaches. While most live wild in
the tropics, a few, called urban cockroaches, choose to
enjoy the moist, even temperature humans maintain in
their homes and workplaces.
    Applying pesticides where and when the insects
can be found allows  technicians to manage control
measures most effectively.  Knowing similarities and
differences are important clues.  [Communicating this
knowledge, will give  clients more confidence in the
professional  ability  of their  pest  controllers.]  By
considering the habits discussed below, the applicator
can begin to  consider effective measures  to control
cockroaches.  Except for  size, all  cockroaches  are
relatively similar  in overall shape  and  appearance.
They  are nocturnal  and stay  in the dark whenever
possible. [When they are seen in the open or in the
light,  it  usually  means that  a  large infestation is
present.] Cockroaches also like tight places where their
bodies can touch surfaces both above and below. As
they  grow to  adulthood,  they  will  seek  varied
harborage  (living  space)   to  accommodate  their
increasing size. Cockroaches are particular as to where
they live. They do not uniformly  infest one room or
all rooms.
    The five most  common  kinds of cockroaches
found in urban areas in the United States (listed in
order  of frequency found) are die
    »  German
    »  Brown-banded
    »  American
    »  Oriental, and
    *  Smoky-brown  cockroach.
    There are five other kinds, or species, diat can be
found in unusual urban situations in the United States:
        Woods, and
        Asian cockroach.
                                                                              Module One, Chapter 2, Pg 1

Blattella germanica
    The German cockroach is not only the cause of
the largest number  of phone calls  requesting pest
fcntrol,  but also represents  the  largest number of
control  failures  of  any household  pest. It  is  most
successful  at   infesting   human   structures   and
withstanding  pest  control   activity.  Pest   control
technicians wUl  need  to  double  their  efforts  in
analyzing every German cockroach  infestation, and
should be prepared to use more than one technique to
bring the infestation under control.

                         Adult German cockroaches
                     are  1/2 inch  long or  slightly
                     longer.  Males  are  grayish-tan
                     with two black stripes on the
                     pronotum, and have a  tapering
                     abdomen. Females  are usually
                     darker  and their  abdomens are
                     more rounded.
                         Nymphs are  sometimes not
                     recognized as cockroaches; they
                     appear  quite different  than the
                     adults.  After molting, they will
be ivory white for several hours before turning  dark.
People who see them at this time often  think they are
albino cockroaches. [Actually, such observations  mean
that the cockroach population is so large,  the nymphs
cannot find unoccupied spaces in which  to hide and
molt, for they  normally leave their aggregations to
molt  in private.]  In the first  stage, nymphs  are very
dark. In later stages, a pale tan stripe  appears down
the middle from front to rear. This stripe divides the
Pymphal markings into two  dark, long stripes. The
stripes  remain  as two dark  streaks on  the adult's
pronotum, while the rest of the body is covered by the
tan or brown wings.

Life  Cycle
    Eggs. The egg capsule of the German cockroach
is about 1/4 inch long. Half of it protrudes from the
female's abdomen. It is carried in this  way for  three
weeks until it is  dropped, about one day before the
eggs hatch. The drop usually takes place in a secluded
portion of the  infested habitat.  [If the egg  case  is
dropped much  more than  one day before hatching
time, the young die.] Each egg capsule contains 30-40
^gs. Altogether, the female will produce from four to
light  capsules in her  lifetime.  Four capsules will have
a full complement of eggs, but subsequent capsules can
contain less.
    When the female goes into safe hiding, she takes
the capsule with her, reducing exposure to possible
harm. In extreme danger, she will detach the capsule
and flee.  The  capsule  has  a  relatively impervious
surface  to protect its  eggs.  It  does,  nonetheless,
receive moisture from or give moisture to the female.
In extremely dry atmospheres, however, the female
will abort die egg capsule.  In  all large infestations,
there are egg capsules present. Even if the cockroach
population is eliminated, as many  as one  in every
twenty egg cases can still hatch.
    Nymphs. The eggs hatch when the nymphs inside
create  pressure  that splits  the case and allows  the
young  to  escape.  They  often  will  stay around  the
opened  egg capsule  after  hatching.  Then,  as they
develop, they molt six or seven times before reaching
the adult stage.  Females often have one more molt
than males. When molting, nymphs are  very soft and
    »    serve  as  the  natural group where nymphs
         soon to be adults and adults of both sexes
         remain together, thus facilitating mating
    »    are  maintained  in  areas  with   favorable
         temperature,  humidity,  food  supply,  and
    Mating.  Females  do   not  respond to  mating
behavior for more than one week after becoming adult.
Proximity for mating is especially important, as males
and females have to touch antennae and exchange sex
pheromones to  initiate mating. After mating, females
feed intensively for several days, then seek secure
hiding  places where they can  be safe with their egg
        Fum»t» Ottmun Cockrewh with EOT C«M
    Such seclusion means that females  with  egg
capsules  feed less frequently  and  are  exposed to
pesticides less often. Preventive pesticide applications
are likely to be less toxic by the time female roaches
come in contact with them.  Clients often report seeing
no adult roaches after a technician's last treatment, but
later will observe "little black ones." The client is
reporting the success of the females with egg capsules
that were deep  in harborage and did not come in
contact   with superficially  or  inexpertly  applied
    Foraging.  The  foraging  pattern of  German
cockroaches  is much less  random  than one  would
expect. The roaches leave their harborage and usually
go to  the first perpendicular surface they find, where
they stop, turn, and move along the intersection of the
two surfaces  (usually a floor and a wall). As one can
imagine, food crumbs often wind  up  in  the same
places, that is in wall moldings, corners  made by
walls, stoves, counters, canisters, etc.
    The most convenient harborage, in and  around
refrigerators, stoves, under  sinks,  and  undisturbed
cabinets, provides both protection and food.  The most
favorable humidity level is found hi kitchens with sink
traps, leaking faucets, standing" water, wet sponges,
etc. A bathroom is popular because of its toilet bowls,
sinks, wet wash cloths, and sometimes, water heaters.
While there is less food in bathrooms,  food areas are
usually  nearby  or available  through  holes  around
plumbing  pipes.  These  pipes  provide additional
harborage  and areas for  population expansion into
adjacent rooms or apartments.
     German  cockroaches are  not  likely to  leave
favorable harborage  unless  population  pressure  or
other negative changes occur.  Such "other"  changes
can be caused by:
     »   intensive cleaning
     »   pesticide applications
     »   reduction of temperature or humidity.
If cockroaches  find new locations with favorable
conditions, they  can  migrate from  one harborage to
another, or develop new infestations.
     In areas of great infestation, German cockroaches
can build up outside heavily infested apartment units
in the summer. Most often, outdoor infestations are
found only outside the structures from which steady
roach  migrations occur  and  near dumpsters  and
garbage cans.	

German Cockroach

     With Flashlights. An active flashlight inspection
is the most intensive method of locating roaches. The
technician  can search dark, undisturbed, or remote
places of  roach harborage that a  client may  have
thought too inaccessible.
     With  Traps. Passive use of  sticky traps is a
common inspection or monitoring  method  used  for
roach detection. Correct trap placement depends upon
the applicator's understanding of roach foraging habits:
for instance, jars and traps baited with fermenting
materials  such as beer, bread, potatoes or  softened
raisins indicate population size, but are not especially
helpful   for  finding  harborage.   Hand   mirrors,
magnifying hand lens, or other small tools may be
helpful to some technicians.

Habitat Alteration
     Speak to clients in a friendly, knowledgeable way.
Technicians should explain that changes can be made
that  will alter or eradicate the insect problem.  These
recommendations should  include  how  clients  can
eliminate or restrict material  that supports  roach
                                                                                  Module One, Chapter 2, Pg 3

Pesticide Application
     In  attacking roaches,  concentrate on injecting
pesticides   into   active  harborage   rather   than-
preventively treating uncertain harborage.
     >   The crack and crevice type of pesticide
         application is preferred. Use a narrow
         diameter   extension tube  in infested
         cracks  and*  crevices  to  provide  a
         thorough   application  of   residual
         insecticide: under  furniture,  drawers,
         suiks,  around  pipes  and   in   high
         cabinets.   First remove  utensils and
         supplies in cabinets; do not treat shelf
     »   In homes, offices  and other  non-food
         areas, spot applications apply pesticides
         to areas  where  insects are  likely  to
         occur. Apply spot treatments only when
         they can  be safely used  in  areas  of
         known infestation   [application areas,
         ideally, of no more than two sq. ft.].
     »   Space treatments include aerosols.fogs,
         or ultra-low dosage dispensers.  They
         flush  cockroaches, causing  them  to
         cross residual pesticide applications, or
         they land on the insects killing them by
         direct contact.  They  lack crack and
         crevice   penetration.  The  need  for
         repeated   fogging  at   short  intervals
         indicates   populations  are rising,  not
         decreasing. Fog treatments should not
         be  used  in food  or  occupied  areas
         without prior removal of  food and
         follow-up surface cleaning before use.
     »   Bait   stations   should   not   be
         contaminated by sprays or dusts that
         may be  repellant.   Place  an  adequate
         number of  stations  in or very  near

     A technician should record the data collected with
each activity. Such information is not only helpful in
understanding the  problem over  time,   but  with
providing clear communication with clients.
Supella longipalpa
     Brown-banded cockroaches are not generally as
Widespread as the German cockroach, but where they
"nd favorable harborage, such as warm apartments
and  overheated  office  buildings,  they  build  up
infestations rivaling the German cockroach. They can
be found across the United States.
     Adult brown-banded cockroaches are the size of
German  cockroaches —  about 1/2  inch long. The
female is a little longer than the male. Her wings are
reddish-brown to dark-brown, and a little shorter than
her broad, rounded abdomen. The male,  slightly less
than 1/2  inch long, has wings that are dark-brown at
the base but light-brown at the tips, which are slightly
longer than the tapering abdomen. Both sexes have a
light band  behind the pronotum  at  the  base of the
wings, and another or partial band about one-third of
the way  back from the pronotum. The pronotum is
dark-brown  with very light side  margins and never
shows  two stripes  as the  German cockroach does.
Nymphs  are dark with two  very light bands separated
by  a dark band just behind the pronotum.  These
nymphal  markings are more obvious than the banded
markings of the adults.

Life Cycle
     Eggs. The brown-banded cockroach female forms
an egg capsule  and carries it less than two days when
she glues it to  an object in the harborage site. The
capsule is very  small, only about 1/8  inch long, and a
little less than 1/8 inch wide. It is oval and light tan to
brown in color. The female usually glues  these hi
clumps underneath  furniture, behind kitchen cabinet
drawers,  and in corners inside cabinets  and cabinet
frames. These capsules hatch in around SO days; they
take longer at cooler temperatures (e.g., up to 95 days
at a room temperature of 72 degrees Fahrenheit). A
female may deposit 14 egg cases in her lifetime; 13 to
18 nymphs can hatch from one egg case.
Module One, Ctupter 2, Pg 4

    A parasite of the brown-banded cockroach egg
capsule is a small wasp,  Comperia merceti. A female
wasp  seeks dark areas  where she can find brown-
banded cockroach  egg capsules in which to lay her
eggs.  The tiny wasp larvae eat the roach eggs, then
emerge from  the capsules, fly to windows where the
sexes  meet and mate -  and the cycle begins again.
This  wasp parasite has been used  as  part  of a
cockroach pest management program.
    Nymphs. Nymphs molt six to eight times before
becoming mature for a total of five to six months at
around room temperature. At higher temperatures the
nymphal  period is nearly halved.
    Adults. Adult brown-banded  cockroaches  live
about six months past the nymphal stage. Males fly
readily, as can be seen when  lights  are turned on
during their foraging periods. The females do not fly.
Behavior and Harborage
    Brown-banded   cockroaches,   like   German
cockroaches, build up  the highest populations  in
kitchens. Their tendency is to  flourish in apartments
and homes where high temperatures are maintained.
They  frequent  high  cabinets  and  favor  areas  near
stoves   and  warm  motors,   such  as   those  in
refrigerators, electric clocks, light tuners, televisions,
and radios.

Control and Management
         Search areas frequented by the brown-banded
cockroach. Look for roaches and egg cases.

Habitat Alteration
    Apply  caulk  around  pipes  and  other  wall
penetrations. Where possible, suggest that the client
clean and replace shelf paper and drawer liners, reduce
clutter,  and consistently  remove  garbage  before
nightfall.  Eating  in  non-dining  areas  should be
                  Pesticide Application
                       »   Use a narrow diameter extension tube in
                           infested cracks and crevices to provide
                           a  thorough  application  of  residual
                           insecticide:  under  furniture,  drawers,
                           sinks, around pipes and high cabinets.
                           First remove utensils and supplies in
                           cabinets; do not treat shelf surfaces.
                       »   Consider  pesticide  formulations  not
                           readily absorbed by unpainted wood.
                       »   Bait stations with a long active period
                           are  effective,   but   should   not  be
                           contaminated by sprays  or  dusts  that
                           may  be  repellant. Place  an adequate
                           number in or very near harborage.
                       »   Spot sprays often  break down before
                           egg capsules hatch.
                       »   Space  sprays  lack  crack and crevice
                  No  pesticide  application  used alone  will  control
                  roaches satisfactorily without habitat alteration.

                       The long egg hatching time of the brown-banded
                  roach requires treatments to be monitored and follow-
                  up provided treatments, if indicated.
Perip/aneta americana
    The American cockroach is cosmopolitan and is
often  cited  in  historical  accounts.  Its worldwide
distribution  has  been aided by  its ability  to thrive
aboard  ships.  Like  the  Oriental cockroach,  the
American cockroach is sometimes called Waterbug. In
the southern United States,  it is called Palmetto bug.

    Adult American cockroaches are  long: 1 1/3 to
1 1/2  inches. The wings of the male extend slightly
beyond the tip of the abdomen, but those of the female
do not. This roach is  reddish-brown in color, and its
pronotum is ringed by an irregular light color that is
almost yellow. Often this margin is bright and wide,
darkening toward the center of the pronotum. In other
cases, the lighter margin is barely discernible, but it is
always present on the rear margin of the pronotum.

Life Cycle
    Eggs. The American cockroach female drops her
egg capsules about one day after they form.  The
capsules are only about 5/16 inch long and 3/16 inch
                                                                                 Module One, Chapter 2, Pg 5

wide, and are sometimes covered with dust, because
they are left by the female in out of the way places.
[Egg capsules that are clean,  dark, and often dropped
in the open, are an indication of a high population.]
Where climate allows American cockroaches to spend
jiost of their lives outdoors, egg capsules can be found
m moist wood. Although females, produce egg capsules
throughout the year, they produce more of them in the
summer. An egg capsule can  form in about one week,
so from 12 to  24 capsules  can be produced in the
warm months.  An  average  of  14  eggs per capsule
hatch in 30 to 50-plus days.
     Nymphs. When they first hatch, nymphs are gray.
After their first molt, they are reddish-brown in color
like  die adults.  They  molt  up to  13  times before
reaching adulthood. Depending on temperature numphs
can  take from six to  20 months to mature. Mature
American and Oriental nymphs can be difficult to tell
     Adults.  Adults commonly  live more  than  one
year, giving  the American cockroach an entire  life
span of 20-21 months. Flying American cockroach are
found only in the southern United States.
 Behavior and Harborage
     Large populations of American cockroaches live
 in warm moist habitats. They can be found outdoors in
 the  southern United States  in alleyways,  dumps,
 stacked firewood  and  rotting  wood,  and  in  tree
 canopies as far north as Maryland, [they winter  in
 kndfills of decaying trees at that  latitude.]  In the
 North,  they can be  found in boiler rooms or other
harborage with water  heaters, floor  drains, water
sumps, and warm moist basements.

Control and Management
    Search  areas  that provide warmth  and high

Habitat Alteration
     »   Caulk  around  plumbing  and  other
         penetrations in walls, screen equipment
         drains, floor  drains, keep drain traps
         full or capped.
     »   Remove  firewood   stacked   in  attached
         garages, porches, patios, etc.
     »   Replace mulch near doors and window
         wells  with  plastic  absorptive  ground
         cover and gravel.
     »   Ventilate humid places.

Pesticide Application
     »   Use pesticide formulations that are not
         readily absorbed  by  porous surfaces
         (concrete floors,  bricks, stones, soil,
         etc.).   Apply  them  in   cracks  and
     »   Apply pesticides as outside barriers  or .
         spot treatments when they can be safely
         used in areas of known infestation.
     »   Use space  sprays  to  quickly  reduce
         large populations indoors.
     »   Large bait stations  are effective when
         properly placed in proper quantities.
     »   A sex pheromone is available to attract
         males to traps.

     Ongoing monitoring is important due to the long
life span of this roach.
B/atta orientalis
     The  Oriental  cockroach  is  often  called  the
waterbug, and sometimes die black beetle, or just
plain, beetle. It is the most  common urban roach in

     Adult Oriental cockroaches are very dark-brown
or shiny-black. The female is slightly longer than die
male — 1 1/4 inch to his  1 inch. Unlike other domestic
 Module One, Chapter 2, Pg 6

cockroaches, the female does not develop wings, but
produces only short triangular wing pads. The male
has wings, but they are short and broad, leaving about
1/4 of the abdomen exposed.
Life Cycle
    Eggs. The Oriental cockroach female produces an
average of eight egg  capsules from spring to  mid-
summer. Unlike other urban cockroaches, the Oriental
roach produces  only one generation per year where
temperatures are cool  in winter. The egg capsule is
carried  for little more than  24 hours, and then is
placed in a protected  spot; it is irregularly shaped,
black, 3/8 inch long, and 1/4 inch wide. Eggs hatch in
two months.
    Nymphs. Nymphs are active from  about March
through much of the summer. During this period they
molt seven to ten  times, and are reddish-brown to
black in color, except in the first stage when they are
pale tan. The older brown Oriental cockroach nymphs
are very difficult to distinguish from the American
cockroach nymphs.
    Adults. In  early  spring, only  adult  Oriental
cockroaches are found. By late spring, nymphs are
abundant. As nymphal numbers increase, the adults die
off and  by  August  any adults are new ones. By fall,
almost the entire population is adult. Neither males nor
females fly.

Behavior  and Harborage
    Oriental cockroaches favor crawl spaces, spaces
between  the  soil  and building  foundations,  the
undersides  of  stoops  and sidewalks,  landscaping
mulches, water meters, basements  and their floor
drains, and other such moist places. These cockroaches
frequently  live  in  floor  drains that drain  directly
outside; these drains are also used  as  entrances  to
homes. The Oriental cockroach prefers starchy food,
and builds up populations around garbage cans. They
tolerate lower temperature ranges than other roaches
and may winter in rock walls or such protected sites.
These cockroaches are more sensitive to lack of water
than other roaches.

Control and Management
     Search areas of high humidity.

Habitat Alteration
     »   Caulk all penetrations through  ground
         level wails.
     »   Stop water  leaks,  screen  equipment
         overflow drains,  and  take overflow
         water away from buildings; keep drain
         traps full or capped.
     »•   Remove rotting leaves from window
     »   Move garbage  cans  out  of preferred
         moist habitat.
     »   Stop erosion that causes soil voids.
     »   Ventilate moist spaces.

Pesticide Application
     Many of the same insecticide applications used to
reduce  American  cockroaches  will  work for  the
Oriental cockroach.  Particular attention must be paid
to pesticide degradation due to moisture.

     Numbers observed in the spring may appear low
or under control only to build-up by mid-summer.
                                SMOKY-BROWN  COCKROACH
                                Periplaneta fuliginosa
                                    The Smoky-brown cockroach is a relative of the
                                American  cockroach and resembles it in  size and
                                shape. These cockroaches are more common in the
                                southern United States and are not found in all parts of
                                the United States.

                                    Adult Smoky-brown cockroaches are slightly over
                                1 inch long, and both sexes have wings that are longer
                                than the abdomen. Their very dark-brown mahogany
                                color  is striking;  no light markings  appear  on  the
                                pronotum  or  wings. Nymphs,  like adults,  are also
                                dark-brown. Antennal tips of young nymphs are white,
                                and the base segments of the older nymphs' antennae
                                are white.
                                                                                Module One, Chapter 2, Pg 7

Life Cycle
    Eggs.  The  egg capsule  of the Smoky-brown
cockroach is large and dark-brown. The female usually
glues it to objects in the harborage. An average of 17
eggs are in each capsule; as many as 24 eggs have
been found. Nymphs hatch within 50 days.
    Nymphs. Nymphs hatched in summer overwinter.
    Adults.   The  life   cycle  of  a Smoky-brown
cockroach is  about  one  year. A  large adult die-off
occurs each fall.  Both sexes  fly.

Behavior and Harborage
    The Smoky-brown  roach is  found in die Gulf
States from central Texas to Florida, in Georgia, South
and North Carolina, soudiem California, and in some
parts of the midwest. It is a plant feeder, and occurs in
greenhouses. While it is mainly an outdoor roach,  it is
often transported indoors. Populations build up outside
homes and enter around doors, garages,  and in the
eaves of roofs [where they  live in gutters and under
roof shingles and easily find  their way  into attics].
This cockroach is very dependent on moisture. With
the high humidity of coastal  areas, populations  can
build up and infest every level of a structure.

Control and Management
    Search gutter and roof overhang and attics.

Habitat Alteration
    »   Tighten doors and  window wells.
    »   Eliminate overhanging tree limbs [especially
    »   Keep gutters clean.
    »   Close all roach entry at die roof from
         die edge of eves to  house wall. Use care
         not to obstruct screened  ventilation of
         soffets or attic areas.
    »   Attach lights away  from the house.
Pesticide Application
     »   Use microencapsulated  insecticides at
         the edge of the roof, behind gutters,
     »   Use dusts  in  infested areas  of attics
         where the dust will not get into living
     »   Use granules in outdoor harborage.

     Monitor  —  especially  in  unoccupied vacation
tomes. Attics  of all  infested homes can be heavily
Rfested, especially unoccupied homes.
Perip/aneta brunnea
    The Brown cockroach, another close relative of
the American cockroach, is transported in plant soil.

    The  brown  cockroach  closely resembles  the
American cockroach  in  color  but lacks  the light
coloration on the margin of the pronotum. Its cerci
(short  appendages at  the  end  of the  abdomen) are
wider  and have blunt tips; the American  roach has
slender, pointed cerci. It is not as uniformly dark as
the Smoky-brown cockroach.

Life Cycle
    Eggs. Egg capsules of the Brown cockroach are
over 1/2 inch long and contain an average of 24 eggs.
They average 35 days from deposition to hatching.
    Nymphs.  Nymphs  mature  in  little over nine
months. The antennal segments of the first nymphal
stage are white both at the base and tip.
    Adults. Adults are associated with trees and feed
on plant materials. This species has a somewhat yearly
growth cycle.

Behavior and Harborage
    The  Brown  cockroach  is  found from eastern
Texas  to Florida. They build up large populations in
some  areas. They live outdoors, but enter homes on
occasion, and they often are transported into new areas
with the movement of plant soil. Brown  cockroaches
can be found on the trunks of palm trees and in places
such as sewers, crawl spaces, and garages.

Control and Management
    Pay careful attention to outdoor populations near
buildings. In areas outside the  Gulf Coastal region,
inspect shrubs and trees that have been imported for
indoor use.

Habitat Alteration
    See American Cockroach.

Pesticide Application
    »   Inside the Gulf Coastal region,  use the
         same  treatment   as for  die American
         cockroach,   including  die American
         roach sex pheromone.
    »   Outside  the Gulf Coastal region, treat
         areas where specimens are found rather
Module One, Chapter 2. Pg 8

        than  typical   American  cockroach
    »   Large bait stations can be placed in and
        around plants and sprays or dusts can be
        used for residual effects.

    Continue  monitoring  until  the population
eradicated where these roaches occur inside.
Periplaneta australasiae
    Another relative of the American cockroach, the
Australian cockroach, is introduced (brought in from
outside the continental United States) and rarely found
out of doors in the United States except in the Florida

    The  Australian  cockroach  is similar  to  the
American  cockroach  in  appearance  but  is slightly
shorter and  somewhat  oval.  Australian  cockroach
adults have conspicuous light-yellow margins on the
pronotum. The reddish-brown base color is slightly
darker, and the outside edges of the wings just behind
the pronotum are  light-yellow, sometimes  nearly-
white. Nymphs are brown but have yellow streaking
across each thoracic and abdominal segment.

Behavior and Harborage
    The  Australian cockroach is more  commonly
introduced with trees and  other plants used inside
shopping malls than the Brown cockroach.  It burrows
into soil and  is not easily  detected. The  Australian
cockroach can build up in large numbers in buildings
with high humidity.

Control and Management
    Inspect the entire infested area. Concentrate on
locating the plant soil in which they are burrowing.

Pesticide Application
    »   The American roach sex pheromone can
        be used  to trap or  bait males.
    +   Large bait stations and granules can be
        placed   in  and around  plants;   limit
        water   where   possible  to  protect
             baits;  maintain  a  high  degree  of
             sanitation  to  force  the roaches  to
             Plants  may  have  to  be  removed and
             treated elsewhere.
    Continue  monitoring  until the  population is
     Pycnoscelus surinamensis
         The Surinam cockroach is another hitchhiker in
     plant soil and  infests plants used in building interiors.

         The adult female is about one inch long, and has
     a shiny-black head  and pronotum, with uniformly
     dark-brown or sometimes lighter-brown wings. No
     males are found in the United States.

     Behavior and Harborage
          The species is established in southern Florida and

     Control and Management
         Granules or soil drenches labeled for that use can
     be administered to the plant soil. Large bait stations
     and sticky traps will control roaches that leave the pot.
     Plants may need to be removed and treated elsewhere.
             The lost cockroach species listed here can be
     very difficult to control when they become established
     in areas that import tropical plants to simulate rain
    forests and other  tropical  ecosystems.   This  is
    particularly so when tropical birds and other animals
     are also pan of the system.

     Parcoblatta pennsylvanica
         This is the most  common species of Woods
     cockroach among the several that exist. They all live
     outdoors exclusively.

         The adult female is slightly less than 1 inch long,
     and her short wings  cover  less than half of her
     abdomen. She cannot fly. The male Woods cockroach
                                                                              Module One, Chapter 2, Pg 9

is one inch long, and has richly-colored, dark-brown
wings that extend well over the tip of his abdomen.
The woods cockroach is slender (three times  longer
than wide). The pronotum and fore-part of the wings
of both sexes are margined with light yellow or white,
tut the pronotum is very dark  between these margins.

Behavior and Harborage
     Woods  cockroaches  live in rotted logs,  tree
stumps, hollow trees,  stopped-up rain  gutters, under
loose bark of trees,  and  in piles of firewood.  The
males fly to lights, landing  on windows and door
screens. They then make their way indoors or fly into
the  house.  Sometimes they  are  brought  in  with
firewood. However, once indoors, Woods cockroaches
soon die; human habitats do not provide the moisture
of  their  normally  shaded woodland.   Even  with
sufficient  moisture they would not live long  without
females.   Woods   cockroaches  range  across   the
southern,  midwestern, and eastern United States into

Control and Management
     Male woods roaches can be excluded by caulking
and tightening around screens in rooms that  face
woods habitat. Outside lights that attract flying roaches
can be regulated.  Nearby  windows and doors where
light-attracted  roaches  may enter should be  tightly
screened.  No pesticide applications are needed.
Blattella asahinai

     The  appearance  of  the Asian  cockroach  is
fclentical to the German cockroach.

Behavior and Harborage
     The Asian cockroach is essentially  an outdoors
roach; its populations are seasonal. It is native to and
widespread in southeast Asia and other  parts of the
Pacific, but  it  has  successfully colonized urban
neighborhoods after being introduced into the Tampa,
Florida area  of the United  States. This roach lives
outside and builds up under  fallen leaves and ground
cover. It favors shady, moist areas, and  builds up
rapidly under trees. Unlike most roaches, it is attracted
to light, and adults fly to lighted windows, doors, yard
lights, and parking lot lights at dusk.  From these
points they often crawl into buildings or fly to indoor
joom lights.
f    The Asian  cockroach  begins  building  up  its
population in  spring, and produces several generations
through the summer. It is limited to warm and moist
regions, and may become a serious problem in areas
of the United States Gulf Coast  where the climate
permits it to begin a population increase earlier in the

Control and Management
    Inspect large yard trees and waste areas next to
suburban yards. Locate favorable harborage.

Habitat Alteration
    »   Caulk or use other methods of exclusion
         on the sides of building the roach is
         most actively entering.
    »   Minimize leaf litter and ground  cover
         under  large  yard  trees.  Keep  areas
    »   Attractive blue or cold lights should be
         located  away  from   buildings   and
         directed so they do no shine on the
         building walls.

Pesticide Application
    »   Select pesticidal baits most favored by
         this species for use in their harborage.
    »   Before migration to lights begins, apply
         pesticides   labeled   for   use  on
         cockroaches to populations in favored
         harborage outdoors.

    Monitor  to  find  when  populations  begin  to

     Four factors explain the success of the German
cockroach as a pest in human habitations: They
     »   flourish in the human tropical environment
     »   can  utilize   human clutter  and  interior
         building design for their harborage
     »   feed on a wide range of food and are not
         subject to periodic scarcities, and
     »   develop in a  short period of  time allowing
         them to adapt and overcome  environmental
         (and pesticidal) stresses.
     German cockroaches  in particular live  on the
same wide range of food that humans eat, and have no
strict preferences that  would limit them to periodic
scarcities  that  might  endanger  their  numbers.
Module One, Chapter 2, Pg 10

Accepting  many  different foods shortens not  only    rapid population growth allows for increased variation
foraging time, but foraging distance as well. German    in each generation. In terms of pesticides, this means
cockroaches  build  large  populations quickly. They    that some individuals can  chemically  break  apart  a
produce a large number of eggs per capsule and have    pesticide in their body rendering it ineffective. When
a shorter  developmental period  than other domestic    these roaches mate, some pass this ability on to some
cockroaches.                                          of  their offspring,  resulting  in  a population with
    Urban cockroaches are adaptable. Generally, their    increasingly larger numbers resistant to the pesticide.
                                                                                   Module One, Chapter 2, Pg 11

                         Harold George Scott,  Ph.D. and Margery R. Borom
        less than  %" long
       subsegmencs apparent
     with about 16 subtegments
   length more thao twice width
        Blatella gcrmanica
      rich lateral indentations
       terminal point strong
       Periplaneta brunnea
         not symmetrical
         BJajfj orientalii
                            more than Vt" long
                          subsegnents inapparent
    with about 8  subsegments
  length leu than twice width
     Supella supellectilium
                        without lateral indentations
          ;    I
      terminal point weak
      Periplaneta fulipinosa
                                                       I     ;
                                          length more than twice width
                                          length less than twice width
                                             Periplaneta australasiae
                                          AUSTRALIAN COCKROACH
                                             Periplaneta americana
                                          AMERICAN COCKROACH
Module One, Chapter 2, Pg 12

                        STUDY QUESTIONS FOR MODULE ONE
                                     CHAPTER TWO
I.   The cockroach that requires the most control effort is the _
        A. Asian
        B. American
        C. German
        D. Australian
2.  American cockroaches like an environment that is
         A. Slightly cool, moist
         B. Very warm, moist
         C. hot, dry
         D. lukewarm, average humidity

3.  Oriental cockroach populations consist mostly of _
         A. adults
         B. nymphs
         C. eggs
         D. pupae
                                                     in the winter.
4.  Cockroaches need
                                            _ to be successful.
         A. food, moisture, harborage
         B. food, moisture, open spaces
         C. warmth, food, cracks
         D. cracks, crevices, food
Oriental cockroaches prefer a
    A. moist
    B. warm
    C. high
    D. small
Brown-banded cockroaches prefer a .
    A. cool
    B. very warm
    C. sanitary
    D. very moist

Smokey brown cockroaches prefer a
    A. open
    B. very warm
    C. very moist
    D. high
8.  German cockroaches have
         A. two bands across their thorax
         B. two stripes on their thorax
         C. light markings on their thorax
         D. short wings.
                                                                    For Answers refer to Appendix A
                                                                           Module One, Chapter 2, Pg 13

     Learning Objectives

             After completion of the study of Ants, the trainee should be able to:

         o  Identify key  features  in  the  life cycle, habitat and  appearance  of the
             common species of ants.

         a  Given a problem situation for each species of ant, select appropriate control and
             management procedures including both chemical and non-chemical.
    Ants are the dominant group of social insects.
Except for the polar regions, they flourish on all land
areas of the earth, from rain forests to deserts. AH pest
control technicians become involved with ant problems
at some  point  in  their career —  most commonly
because ants  are found foraging or nesting  inside
structures — or because swarming ant reproductives
are confused with swarming termites.
The Ant Colony
    The winged female reproductive mates  with  a
male reproductive either during the swarming flight or
on die ground. The male dies shortly afterwards. The
female then digs or adapts a cavity, usually in the soil,
and walls herself in. At this tune, if her wings are not
already  broken off,  she tears  diem off.  She men
produces eggs. When me tiny,  white, legless grubs
(larvae)  hatch, they are  fed with salivary secretions
from the female's stored fat cells and die breakdown
of her now useless wing muscles.
    After several molts, die larvae  change into soft,
white, pupae that look like motionless, white adults.
Before they pupate, die larvae of some ants (carpenter
ants and others) spin a silk cocoon - a white or tan
papery capsule. When the pupae have made all die
internal changes for adult functioning, they molt into
the adult stage. Adults take on one of three roles or
castes of the community: workers (all females), female
reproductives, or male reproductives.
    »   Males live short lives, they mate  and
    »   Ant queens are females. They mate and
         raise the first brood  by  themselves.
         Afterwards, they produce eggs  for the
         subsequent broods that go  on to make
         the colony. They may live many years.
    »   Workers, also females, tend die eggs,
         larvae, and pupae. They forage  outside
         for  food  and enlarge  and defend die
         colony workings.
    »   Other specialized groups may arise from
         die  worker  caste in certain species,
         soldiers, for example.

    Ants eat a wide variety of food, including  other
insects, seeds, nectar, meats, greases,  sugars and
honeydew.  [Honeydew is  a liquid produced by plant-
sucking insects, such  as aphids  or plant lice, mealy
bugs (groups of small insects with  a white powder
clinging to diem), scale  insects, and plandioppers.]
These insects feed in groups on plant stems and leaves.
Many species of ants protect these aggregations from
other insects. Ants are a part of this pattern; they also
take drops of honeydew continuously produced by die
small  sap-sucking individuals.]
    Some ant species appear to just wander randomly,
others trail each other precisely  from colony to food
source and back.  Ants communicate with each  omer
                            Module One, Chapter 3, fg I

using different methods  for transmitting messages.
Workers foraging  for  food  attract  attention and
communicate their messages when they return to the
         Ants have elbowed antennae.  A  long
         straight segment connects to the head.
         Remaining segments flex and bend.
         Termite  antennae are entirely flexible.
         They are made of many small segments
         strung-out like  beads.  Termites wave
         them in front, using them to touch and
         Ant reproductives have two  pairs  of
         wings.   The front  pair is wider and
         markedly longer  than  the  back  pair.
         Often ants have a black dot near the tip
         of the front wings, and dark wing veins
         can be seen.  Ant wings do not break off
         Termite  wings  are  long and  narrow;
         both pairs   are  the  same  shape and
         almost the same length.  Termite wings
         break off with  a  touch.  If  termite
         swarmers  have  been  crawling,  their
         broken wings  litter  the  swarm area.
         Termite wing veins cannot be seen with
         the naked eye.
  Rtoroductnm: Ttrmit* (U. Ant IR)
  (Arrow indium nitre* wiiit ol >nt.<
    The swarming of small,  dark insects  near  or
inside a structure panics people who fear their home is
infested by  termites.  Pest control technicians must
recognize  the difference  between ant  and termite
reproductives,  and  communicate  it  clearly  and
confidently to their clients.
    Principal differences are
    »   Ants have a complete metamorphosis,
        that is, they go through the egg, larva,
        pupa and adult stages all which have
        different appearances. Ant workers are
        adult and look like the adult ant.
        Termites have a gradual metamorphosis.
        They go  through the egg, nymph and
        adult stages. Nymphs look like adult
        workers.   Reproductives  are  dark-
    »   Ants have  a  thin  or   "wasp" waist
        between  their  thorax  and  abdomen
        (called the petiole).
        Termite waists are NOT narrow. Termite
        bodies  are  straight-sided   with   no
        constriction. Thorax and abdomen blend
    It  is  important  to  note that of the ants found
indoors, only  a  few species are responsible for the
majority of infestations;  some species are not common
but appear sporadically; and other types of ants are
found inside only under  rare or accidental conditions.
While the third group is difficult to  prepare for, the
first group should be studied, discussed, and control
experiences analyzed. The middle group may take an
inordinate amount of the pest controller's time, with
inconclusive results. These  elusive ants may appear
several times in one year, then not be encountered for
several years. Some are more or less common in some
regions and uncommon in others.
             p^ronot urn
Module One, Chapter 3, Pg 2

    The best way to learn about ants is to build a
collection and keep  it  for comparison.  Elements
important to consider when identifying an ant species
and its control plan are:
    Size. Ant species have fairly consistent size.
    Nodes.  Nodes are swollen segments of the petiole
(the  narrow  connection  between  the  thorax and
abdomen). Most species  have one;  others have two.
    Color.  Color may vary within the same species
of ant, but it also can be a useful eliminating factor.
Be sure to  note  the surface  appearance of the
    Range.  Most ant species are known to occur in
a specific region.

    An important first consideration in the control of
ants is to determine whether:
    *   the  colony  is  located   inside   the
         structure, or
    *   the  colony  is   located  outside   the
Indications that a colony is inside are when:
    »   ant  workers  are  consistently  found
         inside over a long uninterrupted period
    *   nest building is observed  inside [Look
         for wood shavings of  carpenter ants,
         "dumping" materials of pavement ants,
    »   the infestation is located  in a highrise
         building, or
    »   inside swarming is observed.
Indications that a colony is outside are when:
    »   ants inside can be "trailed" outside
    »   ants outside can be seen coming  inside
    >   nesting  sites  outside  are  near   the
         structure  with   an  inside  infestation
         [Look   for  mounds   next  to   the
         foundation, or trees with large carpenter
         ant colonies touching an infested portion
         of the house.]
    »   ants nest under slabs or swarm inside,
         but workers do not forage inside.
    Whether the colony is in- or outdoors, ants that
are known to tend honeydew-producing insects often
forage inside before plant insect populations can  build-
up outside.  After populations of aphids, mealybugs,
scale  insects, white flies and  planthoppers  become
numerous (in late  spring), ant colonies nearby put a
great deal of energy into tending  and protecting these
plant-sucking  insects.  Worker ants foraging  inside
kitchens and basements often leave houses at this time.
They may return in dry weather seeking moisture, but
often will not be seen until the next spring. When pest
control  efforts coincide  with this period, it is  often
difficult to   tell  whether  the  pest  management
procedures  are  effective,  or  whether  the   ants
abandoned the structure due to natural habit.

     Attend to the following general considerations in
developing an ant control plan:
     +   Talk to the client.  Get all  information
         possible from the resident.
     »   Observe ant worker movement and plot
         on diagram  if need  be.  Look  for the
         focus of the infestation.
     »   To  confirm observations,  use  traps
         baited with  a  grease and  a sugar or
         syrup or other  ingredients suggested in
         pest control references  (e.g.,  peanut
         butter and cookies).
     Inside: Inspect holes and cracks where workers
enter, old or new moisture stains, food accumulations
(e.g., dry pet food),  activity near appliances  (e.g.,
dishwasher and washing machines), under bath tubs,
showers, in drawers, corresponding areas in adjoining
room or rooms above  and below activity.
     Outside:   Inspect  for  workers  behind  vines,
shrubs, other  plants  near house,  expansion joints,
slabs, patio blocks, bricks, boards, plant pots,  under
and  inside wooden columns  and pillars, outside door
and  window  frames,  window wells,  penetrations of
house   wall  by  telephone  wires, air  conditioning
refrigerant  pipes,  trees  that harbor colonies  and
provide access to houses  by overhanging limbs  that
touch or even scratch shingles; water meters and  storm
drain inspection  manholes.   Inspect plants  for ants
tending aphids, mealybugs, etc.

Habitat Alteration
     »   Caulk wall  penetrations and  mortar
         masonry  cracks.   Wall   penetrations
         include  utility  lines, air  conditioning,
         refrigerant pipes, phone lines, etc.
     »   Tighten door and window frames.
     >   Repair water leaks.
     »•   Trim shrubbery away from house.
     »   Remove firewood that is  stacked close
         to  house;  boards,  stones,  etc.  that
         encourage  nesting; screen openings in
         hollow pillars,  columns, and ventilators
     »   Control   ant-tended    aphids   and
         mealybugs with horticultural pesticides,
         such as  oils or  soaps.
                                                                                    Module One, Chapter 3, fg 3

Pesticide Application
     »   Consider the species  when choosing
         bait. Use baits with stomach poisons or
         with insect growth regulators. Baits are
         excellent  in  critical   areas   (e.g.,
         computer or hospital rooms). Do not
         spray or dust around baits. Never store
         baits or bait materials where they can be
         contaminated with  any  other  odors
         especially fumes of pesticides. Ants and
         other   insects  eon   detect   minute
         amounts  of foreign   or  repellant
     »   Use crack and crevice treatment in areas
         where a nest is suspected, use dust in
         wall  voids;  use  canned  pressurized
         liquid  pesticides  with small diameter
         crack and  crevice device. [Tubing can
         be obtained in long lengths and can be
         threaded through  construction elements
         to  treat  areas   distant   from  the
         pressurized can.]
     >   Apply  wettable   powder  or  micro-
         encapsulated spray formulations where
         pesticides   may   be  absorbed   into
     >   Drill holes where practicable (e.g., false
         floors in sink cabinets, window frames,
         wall panel grooves, and other voids).
     >   Use spot treatments when necessary but
         be wary of repellant activity.
     »   Use  granules  and   drenches  with
         registered formulations outside.  .
     Develop a specific pest management plan. Where
large outside areas need  treatment  (e.g., fire  ant
problems) do not treat as an extension of a yard
Droblem.  Consider spot treatments and  perimeter
Ipraying  carefully;  drawbacks   to  these reactive
treatments include:
     »   nest areas can be  completely missed
     »   ants move to other areas  of activity.

     Reinspect or contact clients with troublesome ant
control  problems within   one week  to 10  days
depending on the control  strategies  (e.g. baits and
insect growth regulators (IGR) take longer than dusts
to show results). Remember, pesticide treatments can
repel ants and  make them active in other  areas.
Colonies with multiple  queens may break up into
several colonies.
LARGE ANTS  (1/2  Inch  or  Larger)
    There  are many species  of Carpenter ants  in
North America; few enter structures to forage; fewer
nest in structures. But these two habits (foraging and
nesting  inside) coupled  with  their  large  size and
vigorous activity make these invaders impossible to
ignore. Two species  claim  the majority of attention:
the Black Carpenter  ant of the eastern and southern
United  States and  the Western  Carpenter  ant,  a
particular problem  in the Pacific northwest. As their
name  implies, carpenter ants work in wood; they  do
not digest it.
Camponotus pennsylvanicus
    The workers range in size from 1/4 inch to almost
1/2 inch  with  the  queen  being  3/4 inch.  Outside
workers can  be contused with field ants (Formica)
which do not enter structures. Carpenter ants have an
even, smooth, arching profile beginning just behind
the head and descending to the waist, or petiole, which
has one node. [Field  ants and most other ants have
bumps or  spines along  the  profile of  the thorax,
particularly near the  petiole.] The  Black Carpenter
ant's abdomen is covered with gray or yellowish hairs,
but the basic black color is still obvious. The head and
thorax is also black in the majority of individuals but
the sides of the thorax and part of the legs of a few
may  be  dull red. In the  northern  states where
subterranean  termites begin to  be  relatively  less
common  than in the  south, Carpenter  ants become
more obvious as structural pests.
    A Carpenter ant  colony begins in isolation, but
not necessarily in wood. This first brood may be under
a stone, in a role of tarpaper, or in innumerable other
secretive spots, but the colony soon moves into wood
Module One, Chapter 3, Pg 4

(such as a fallen log,  tree hole, stump or a structure
wall).  When Carpenter  ant  workers excavate  nest
galleries, they  use  their jaws as gouges  and make
tunnels by shaving out small pieces. Unlike termites,
they do not eat the wood; it has no nutritional value to
them, and they discard it by dropping it out of the nest
area or by piling in one place and discarding the whole
pile  later  (similar to the  Pavement  ant's dumping
habit). This pile  of Carpenter ant shavings,  called
sawdust, is very soft and is made up of pieces a fine
chisel would make.  [Gritty construction sawdust in
attics or on sills can be left over from construction or
repairs and  might suggest carpenter ant shavings to
those who do not know the difference.] The process of
ant gallery excavation results in galleries with very
smooth sides. No  mud is involved (like in die tunnels
of subterranean termites),  and there is no dust or
pellets (like that produced by woodborers or dry wood
termites) — only numerous  large,  smooth,  brown-
stained  tunnels  that  provide  harborage  for  the
Carpenter ant colony. A nest or colony  might harbor
several thousands of  inhabitants. Large colonies of
carpenter ants in critical areas of structures can cause
structural damage, but the colony more  likely resides
partially in structural wood and partially in void spaces
(e.g.,  between roofboards,  between  studs  under
windows or between subflooring and shower bases).
     The most common urban outdoor harborage is a
living tree  with a rotted spot inside;  other  common
sites are stumps or firewood. The Carpenter ant is a
valuable link in the reduction of plant cellulose.  It is
not surprising that mature wooded neighborhoods often
have  structural  Carpenter  ant   problems.   New
neighborhoods  or  developments  built on  cleared
woodlots can inherit  ant  colonies from their trees;
some colonies are brought in  with building materials.
Rustic cabins, summer homes, and park structures will
likely become infested sooner or later.
     Black Carpenter ant workers forage  for food such
as honeydew,  insects,  and juices  from  ripe fruit.
Indoors, they like sweets, meats, fruit juices and moist
kitchen refuse. [Carpenter  ants always  prefer to
operate in a humid atmosphere.] Vines on  building
walls, branches, telephone wires provide a bridgelike
access into structures.
Control and Management
    It is important to discover whether Carpenter ants
are nesting inside or outside. If nesting inside
    »   their  presence  usually   indicates  a
         moisture problem in die building, and
    »   they  have  excavated  galleries  for
         harborage in structural wood.
Moisture problems and Black Carpenter ants are nearly
inseparable. In the majority of cases Carpenter ants
make their  nests  in  wood that  has been  wet and
infested by a brown rot fungus. Dark fungus stains on
the wood is an indication of the presence of such
moisture. Moisture in wood can be caused by
     »   improper   attachment   of   wooden
         additions, dormers, and hollow wooden
         columns that absorb moisture
     »   patios  or  porch  floors,  door  sills,
         downspouts, or grading where water
         collects or drains toward the structure
     »   regular  gutter   overflow   pouring
         rainwater down the side of the building
         as well as back onto roof boards, facia,
         soffets, etc.
     *•   leaking roof valleys
     »   improper  flashing  especially  around
         chimneys, vents, and skylights
     »   improper roofing or holes in die roof
     »   window sills directly exposed to rain, or
     »   lack of ventilation in any area where
         moisture accumulates.
Inside moisture accumulates
     »   around any leaking plumbing or drains
         (especially shower drains)
     »   unvented attics and crawl spaces, or
     »   unvented   dishwashers,   washing
         machines, icemakers, etc.
     The many  nesting  sites, foraging entrances and
food  and moisture sources offer clues for  inspection
and location of the nest. The area where the majority
of ant activity is seen may identify a nest site if entry
from the outside can be ruled out. Carpenter ants are
more active at night and inspection at that time may be

Harborage Alteration
     »   Where nests are located inside, remove
         and replace infested structural wood.
     »   Stop the intrusion of moisture.
     >   Advise the client to or perform caulking
         and screening of actual and potential ant
     »   Ventilate   areas   where   moisture
         accumulates, regrade where  necessary
         and repair roofing, guttering etc.
     »   Recommend   trimming  trees  where
         branches touch a structure or overhang
         roofs. Tree removal may be necessary.

Pesticide Application
     Eliminating colonies and nesting sites is a primary
way to eliminate Carpenter ant infestation.
                                                                                  Module One, Chapter 3, Pg 5

     »   Use  pesticidal  dust  or  pressurized
         canned aerosols when nests are in wall
         voids. Sprays are less effective.
     >   With  the  use  of  flushing  agents,
         hundreds of ants may remain unaffected
         and can relocate the colony in a matter
         of hours  or less  to  trunks,  storage
         boxes,  furniture drawers,  and  other
     »   When indirect treatment is  required,
         liberal  placement  of acceptable bait
         stations can be used.
     »   Dust, spray or  bait can be  used on
         outside colonies (e.g., in tree rot).
     »   Honeydew-producing insects involved in
         feeding Carpenter ants should be treated
         with pesticides that will not eliminate
         parasites and predators (e.g.  oils and
         pesticidal soaps).
     »   Trees with  rotted  places should be
         evaluated by professionals.

     Carpenter  ant  infestations  often  cannot   be
controlled  in  one  visit.  Painstaking  inspection  is
needed to make management effective. Annual follow-
up also assures that necessary habitat alterations have
been made  by clients.
     Maintain records of all inspection discoveries and
subsequent  recommendations  as  well as  records
mandated by law.
Camponotus modoc
    The  principal  Carpenter  ant species  in  the
feprthwestern states is die Western Carpenter ant. This
ant is very similar to the Black Carpenter ant common
in the eastern United States.

    The Western Carpenter ant  has a black body with
a slight gray sheen. Its abdomen  has a thin covering of
hairs on each segment like die  Black  Carpenter ant,
but it is less yellow - more gray. The legs of  C.
modoc tend to be reddish.

Behavior and Harborage
    The  background of the principal  eastern and
western Carpenter ants are similar, but the C. modoc
produces larger colonies. Clean grass trails an inch
fcide are more prevalent in the northwest than in die
east.  These trails and other routes of march are
extremely active from sunset through the early part of
the night.
    The  Western  Carpenter  ants  have  principal
colonies  in trees and stumps from which they forage.
This activity,  especially in springtime, brings them
into the proximity of buildings. They enter structures
through construction gaps, particularly along electric

Control and Management
    Search for activity in wall voids, around electric
outlets, wall panel grooves, under attic insulation.

Habitat Alteration
    Management of the C. modoc may include
     *   removal of stumps
     »   trimming trees
     »   elimination of infested  firewood  near
         the house
     »   caulking of  entrances  through  wall
     *>   control of wood moisture
     *•   repair of roof leaks, and the
     »   construction of vapor barriers in the soil
         surface of crawl spaces, attic ventilation
         areas and crawl spaces.

Pesticide Application
     *>   Direct   flowable    microencapsulated
         formulations   or  emulsifiable
         concentrates on foraging paths.
     »   Inject or  spray stumps  and  decayed
         spots in trees.
     »   If needed for immediate control, spray
         perimeters.   [Use  care  not   to
         contaminate fish, pets, or other outside
         animals when spraying. Boric acid dust,
         an effective indoor pesticide,  can kill
         plants outside.]

     »   Dust wall voids.
     »   Apply pesticides around electric outlets.
         [Always turn off die main power switch
         when injecting dust around die  outlet
         boxes;  be careful of electrical wires.]
         Drill 1/4 inch holes for dust or 1/8 inch
         holes for  pressurized  canned liquid
     »•   Dust under attic insulation, if necessary.
Module One, Chapter 3, Pg 6

    Yellow ant workers are between 1/8 and 1/4 inch
long;  reproductives are larger. They have one node
and are yellow or tan in color. Yellow ant workers and
reproductives emit a lemon or citronella odor from the
head.  This can be. detected when the head is crushed.
If die abdomen is crushed, a strong formic acid odor
is produced.
     Workers forage outside in lawns, fields and open
woodland. Colonies are sometimes located next to or
under basement  slabs;  in  late  winter, workers will
excavate the soil and enter through cracks in die slab.
They commonly  pile their  anthill on concrete  or
between  cracks  in  basement  floor  covering.  If
undisturbed,  many  hills may appear. Winged ants
occasionally swarm from these hills, but workers  do
not forage inside.
     Vacuuming   die  soil  hills   is  recqmmended.
Treatment of yellow ant hills outside near die building
foundation may be indicated in die spring with repeat

Formica exsectoides
     Allegheny Mound worker ants are over 1/4 inch
long. These  large black and red ants are found in the
eastern United States making mounds often up to two
feet high.  More common in mountains dian at coastal
elevations, these  ants forage actively around their
mounds which often are  interconnected. They  are
harmless ants and never forage  inside.  All  efforts
should  be  made to  educate the public NOT  to
destroy these ants.

     Several species of fire ants will sting. The most
common has a reddish color and is a mound builder.
Fire ants are found in North Carolina south to Florida
and west to Texas. Fire ant controls are recommended
by  state University Extension offices in each  county
where  they  are  a problem.  These ants  are rare in
(1/8 inch  or slightly larger)

Acrobat Ants (Crematogaster)
    Worker ants measure around 1/8 inch long. The
ant has two nodes; it is shiny-brown to nearly-black in
color. The workers appear to have their abdomens
attached upside down:  flat on top, "bellied"  below,
and pointed at die tip. When excited they point their
abdomens up or even over their heads, hence, their
name.  Acrobat ants  are common  over most of die
United States. There are many species.
    Acrobat  ants  tend  aphids and  mealybugs for
honeydew and also feed on other insects. They usually
establish their colonies in or under rotting logs and
stumps  in nature and sometimes live in abandoned
carpenter ant galleries if die wood is damp enough.
They can also engrave their own small galleries in wet
roof boards, house siding, porch rafters, pillars, sill
plates, any part of a structure where the wood does not
completely dry out. Like Pavement ants, Acrobat ant
colonies occasionally  dump their refuse. It consists of
tiny wood shavings like those  of the Carpenter ant.
[The difference between Acrobat ant and Carpenter ant
shavings is that those of die Acrobat ant are smaller
and always dark stained from fungus.]  Acrobat ants
may feed inside in kitchens.

    Look where structural wood has been subjected to
water leaks:
    *   the porch roof  near die house, porch
         floors, siding where gutters overflow,
         ends  of rafters  in  the shade,  sills, and
                                                                               Module One, Chapter 3, Pg 7

        window  and   door  casings  where
        rain water hits, or
    »   older buildings and historical  buildings
        that haven't been kept up. [Fungus or
        rot  problems  are very  likely  more
        important here than ant damage.]

Habitat Alteration
    »   Remove and replace damaged  wood.
    *   Change grade and redirect downspouts
        that pitch water toward structural wood.
    »   Clean or replace gutters.
    »   Trim overhanging tree limbs  that keep
        wood from drying.
    »   Move logs, stumps,  leaves and grass
        clippings away from structures.

Pesticide Application
    Habitat alterations  will usually stop the problem.
Use contact sprays if needed.

    Susceptible  structures, especially buildings with
historical significance should always be periodically
monitored.   Detailed   records   concerning  pest
infestations, treatments  and repairs should be kept on

    Other  small to medium-sized ants  are the Small
Honey  Ant (Prenolepis  imparts), Corn  Field ants
Lasius species), and the Velvety Tree ant (Uometopum
taround 1/8 inch long)
™  In this group of ants the workers are larger than
the tiny  ants, but  well  under  1/4  inch  in length.
Several interesting structure-infesting ants  are in this

Iridomyrmex humilis
    This slender ant is about  1/8  inch long; it has
only one node; it is light to dark brown with a silky
shine; the head is triangular or heart shaped. As  it's
name indicates, it was introduced from South America.
Its habits in its primary continuous  range —  from the
Gulf Coast to southern California — is different than in
isolated urban  centers in other parts  of the United
    In the primary range, these ant populations  are
intense. They constantly infest and  reinfest structures
and agricultural land (e.g. citrus orchards  and cane
fields).  Argentine ant colonies are often large and
compatible:  Workers and queens of different colonies
are not  antagonistic toward  each other;  foragers
maintain vigorous trails that often coalesce with those
of other colonies.  Argentine  ants tend  honeydew-
producing insects, protect them from their predators,
and are known to move aphids to other plants where
they begin  new infestations. They will  not tolerate
other species of insects, especially other species of
ants, within their foraging range. Argentine  ants seek
sweets: outdoors - honeydew from insects  and plant
nectar; indoors — juices, sugar, and syrups.
     Populations have been introduced  in urban areas
outside the primary range with die transfer  of plants
and household goods; these infestations are smaller
and local. This secondary distribution  includes many
southern   cities   where   exterminations    and
reintroductions proceed on a case-by-case basis. Other
more northerly cities (where  the  Argentine ant is
established but not a primary problem ant) include St.
Louis, Chicago, Baltimore and probably other areas
where it has not been recognized. They usually do not
overwinter outside in these areas.

     In the Primary distribution area where Argentine
ants commonly infest the majority of structures, make
every effort  to locate nests outside near the infested
structure. Outside:
     »   Inspect soil area  next to foundations
         especially moist soil.
     *•   Survey  for  colonies  of honeydew-
         producing insects.
     »   Inspect shrub stems  and under plant
     »   Follow  ant trails and  identify nests,
         food,  and  active  entry  points  into
     »   Inspect nearby manholes and steamline
    Inside populations tend to be relatively small, less
active, and can be eliminated temporarily. Locate the
Module One, Chapter 3, Pg 8

most  active areas.  Decide  whether the activity is
because of a food source or an entry point. Inspections
for Argentine ant in urban areas outside the primary
range requires closer inside inspection. Often the nest
and entire population is within the area of activity.
     >   Beginning with the problem  location,
         first inquire whether the resident  has
         used pesticides that may have spread the
         population  or  repelled  them  from
         another area.
     »   Ask if goods have been brought in from
         other  infested structures in  the  past
     »   Inspect for moisture sources and sweet
         food sources.  Use non-toxic sweet bait
         cups  if  necessary, and make  close
         inspection in the kitchen and adjoining
     »   Inspect  steamline  tunnels  connecting

Habitat Alteration
     >   Recommend trimming back shrubs  and
         other  plants  next  to  foundations  to
         facilitate inspections and ventilation.
     »   Reduce sources of water that contribute
         to moist soil.
     >   Eliminate plants that support honeydew-
         producing  insects  if  possible  (e.g.
         citrus, bamboo, oleander, cherry laurel,
         fig).  Replace  with low maintenance
         plants  or  recommend  treatment  of
         aphid,  scale   insect,   mealybug   and
         planthopper colonies with low-toxicity
         sprays registered for use on plants.
     »   Caulk ant entry ways into structures such
         as  foundation cracks, openings under
         siding, frames  around  windows  and
         doors,  wall  penetrations  of  wires,
         plumbing, etc.

Pesticide Application
     »   Drench nests  according to insecticide
         label directions.
     »   If indicated, granules can  be applied
         next to structure foundations and along
         infested pavement and watered in.
     »   Residual dusts and sprays can be used at
         known entry points.
     »   Available registered sweet baits either
         toxic or with growth regulators can be
        applied   according   to   label
        recommendations.   Use   baits   that
        will be  taken back to the queen and
        larvae.     Baits  are  more  effective
        during   periods  of  low  honeydew
     »   A  treatment with  residual dusts and
        sprays should be thoroughly applied in
        cracks and crevices. Some dusts applied
        in cracks and crevices (boric acid) and
        some microencapsulanestted pesticides
        are transferred in the nest by preening
        of other workers, but this method alone
        may not control a population.
     »   Isolated spot treatments can be used but
        ants  are  easily   repelled  by  some
        pesticides.   Concentrate  pesticide
        applications  only  in the  area  of  ant

     Ongoing  monitoring  is  recommended where
Argentine ants  are  recurrent problems. Monitor for
honeydew-producing insects  as well as for ants.
     Little follow-up is  necessary  after treatment of
isolated infestations outside  the  area of  primary
distribution. Repeat precautions on bringing in goods
from known  sources  of  infestation  without  first
inspecting them.
Tetramorium caespitum
    Around 1/8 inch long, the Pavement ant has two
nodes. It has a shiny abdomen but a dull red-brown
head and thorax; the abdomen is darker, legs lighter.
Common  along the  Atlantic  seaboard,  it is  less
common in the southern states. This ant is found as
well in cities in the midwest and California. The red-
brown head and thorax are dull because of minute,
parallel furrows found on the front and sides.
    Pavement ants nest outside under rocks,  at the
edge  of pavement,  door stoops and patios. They
                                                                                  Module One, Chapter 3, Pg 9

 commonly move their colonies  inside between  the
 foundation and sill plate. Outside, pavement ants tend
 honeydew-producing insects, and  feed on other insects
 and seeds.
     Pavement ants store debris in certain areas of the
 colony or nest.  When this  area is needed for nest
   pansion, workers clean  out the junk accumulation
     dump it.  Colonies located on foundation walls
 drop debris over the side in a pile on the basement
 floor. The ant dump consists of sand, seed coats, dead
 insect parts, and sawdust from the house construction.
 Not knowing the source, householders often view these
 dumps with alarm.

     A closely related species with good trailing habits
 and  rapid movement  is commonly introduced with
 tropical   plants   and   flourishes  in warm   moist

 Control and  Management
     »   Inspect along sill  plate  in basement,
         around  heat ducts and baseboards  in
         areas where ant workers are active.
     »   Look for foraging  in the  kitchen; such
         activity may indicate  a nest  in the
         basement below or just  outside.
     »   Outside, look for tiny mounds next  to
         the house near windows  and doors  or
         nest openings under stones.

 Habitat  alteration
     »   Remove stones that are  sheltering ants.
     »   Recommend  indoor sanitation including
         the elimination of moist garbage in dry
     »   Caulk observed ant entrance points.

pesticide Application
     »   Apply  dusts or  sprays hi  cracks and
         crevices of baseboard  molding  where
         activity is noticed.
     »   Treat  cabinet  cracks  around  kitchen
     »   Treat cracks along foundation  walls,
         under sill plates, and cracks near heat
     »   Be careful not to contaminate heat or air
         conditioning ducts.
     »   Treat   cracks   in  slab   on-grade
         foundations  as  well as  the  base  of
         outside door jambs.
    »   Treat  nests.   Use   pressurized  gas
        aerosols to penetrate nest galleries.
    »   Treat cracks and entry points.

    Follow-up  is  usually  not needed,  but  where
control  is  not  achieved,  an  intense  inspection  is
Tapinoma sessile
    This ant, slightly broad, measures around 1/8 inch
long;  it has one node, is dark brownish-gray in color
and covered  with a velvety sheen.  It can be found
from Canada to Mexico including all of the lower 48
United States. It  is the most common ant found  in
structures in North America, except for the Argentine
ant within its primary range (the  Gulf Coast and
southern California).
    The body of the odorous house ant is relatively
soft and can  be easily  crushed. When this occurs,  a
foul odor is released. The single node of the petiole is
very small and hidden by the overlapping abdomen.
[This  identifying characteristic is best seen by crushing
die soft ant and with a good hand  lens  noticing the
absence of  a distinctive node.] From above,  the
abdomen  is broad compared with the width of the
    An average colony will  have 3-4,000 members
and several queens. Outdoor nests are shallow and are
located under stones and boards. Inside, a colony can
nest in many types of cavities.
    The  workers trail  each  other. Outside  they
actively tend honeydew-producing  insects and take
flower nectar. Inside, workers seem to prefer sweets.
In California, workers forage indoors late in the warm
season and during rainy spells, possibly in response to
reduced sources of honeydew.

Control and Management
    »   Begin by investigating locations where
         ant activity  is observed.
 Module One, Chapter 3, Pf 10

    »>    Pyrethrins can flush ants causing them
         to  rush around  erratically, excitedly
         elevating their abdomens.  [This could
         cause  the colony  to  split itself and
         relocate, as with the Pharaoh ant.]
    >    Always  inspect outside close to  the
         location of inside activity.  Look under
         stones and boards for colony openings
         and activity.

Habitat Alteration
    »    Remove stones and boards harboring
         odorous house ant colonies.

Pesticide Application
    »    Use dusts or residual sprays applied in
         cracks  and  crevices in  the  area  of
         entering  worker   trails.   [Any   ant
         exhibiting strong affinities to the outside
         environment (honeydew insects, flower
         nectar)  and   with  nesting  mobility
         (shallow nests, cavity nests, utilization
         of protective objects) should be sought
         outside  as  well  as inside, unless  its
         locality inside precludes its reaching the
    »    Control  populations  of   honeydew-
         producing insects on  plants  near  the
    »    Use pesticides registered for die insects
         on plants. To maintain parasites and
         predators of  these  plant  insects,  use
         low-toxicity   pesticides  such   as
         insecticide soaps and oils.

    Impress  the client with the  need  to  control
honeydew  insects  on  plants and to eliminate nest
harborage near structures.
Paratrechina longicomis
    This ant has a very slender body about 1/8 inch
long; it has only one node; and is glossy dark-brown,
nearly-black in color.  It can be found along the Gulf
Coast from  Florida to Texas and in some scattered
locations in all states.  It is common along the eastern
seaboard in the middle Atlantic states.
    The Crazy ant is  unique in appearance. The
antennae and hind legs are each as long as die body.
These ants do not trail each other, but large numbers
follow pathways  along  foundation walls, pavement,
and such. The Crazy ant gets its name from its rapid,
jerky gait; in large numbers it runs so rapidly, it is
impossible to focus  on a  single individual.  Some
colonies become  immense and  have been observed
both  outside  and  inside throughout  an  apartment
complex.  Populations fluctuate  during the summer
rebounding after  wet weather, declining during dry
weather.  Crazy  ants accept  broad  menus of food
including insects and especially enjoy concentrations of
house fly larvae,  garbage and kitchen scraps.
     Colonies have been repeatedly introduced to the
United States with plants from South America, Puerto
Rico, and the Philippines. Colonies exist outside in the
southern United States  and commonly overwinter in
buildings and manholes in die northern portion of its
range along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts.

     Crazy  ant infestations quickly  call attention to
themselves by their activity.
     »   Inspect manholes, crawl spaces, window
         wells, refuse piles.
     »   Inside,   inspect  garbage  rooms  and
         kitchens  as well as apartments.
     »   Give special attention to entry through
         doors and windows on ground floors.
     »   Investigate  connections  such as pipe
         chases between kitchens and garbage

Habitat Alteration
     Recommend  the highest standard of sanitation
both in homes, commercial food services, and food
processing establishments.
     »   Always  leave  food areas  clean after
     »   Recommend garbage schedule control
         (dump before  dark)  and  cleaning of
         garbage  rooms,  garbage  cans,  and
         dumpsters and their surroundings.
     »   Caulk and tighten-up around doors and
         windows and low wall penetrations.
                                                                                 Module One, Chapter 3, Pg 11

Pesticide Application
     »•   Granules   around  foundations  and
         dumpsters can be applied and watered-
         in to give initial population suppression.
     >   Residual pesticides  alone,  or fogs  in
         garbage rooms and food areas that are
         not also cleaned  up,  will  not control
         large populations.
     »   Baits are helpful.
     »   Crack and  crevice application must  be
     »   Spot treatment around doors reinforce
         other control and management efforts.
     »   Dusts in infested manholes and other
         protected voids kill large numbers.

     Large Crazy ant infestations need to be followed
and treated until the population is controlled. Monitor
areas that support high populations such as  garbage
rooms, etc.
(about 1/16  inch long)

Monomorium pharaonis
     A tiny ant,  not much more than 1/16 inch long,
the Pharaoh ant has two nodes. Its head and thorax are
dull-yellowish to light-orange or little darker. It has a
shining dark abdomen, especially at the end.

    It is found in most urban centers  in the United
States. Pharaoh ants  prefer  wanner buildings  and
warm areas (80-85 F.) hi buildings for nesting. These
ants are active year-round in houses and portions of
large  buildings such as hospitals,  office buildings,
laboratory buildings, etc.  Nesting sites include wall
voids,  cracks  in  woodwork,   stacks  of  paper,
envelopes, bed  linens,  bandage packs, harborage in
desk drawers, etc. It is common to find many colonies
in one building and, perhaps, several  in one room.
  Kolonies  have  multiple  queens and   increase by
  Ividing:  one portion of the colony going with  each
queen.  No  swarms have been  recorded,  so  new
infestations  are apparently transferred  by moving
infested objects.
     Pharaoh ants trail each other and are attracted to
grease,  meats,  insects, and sweets. These harborage
and food preferences bring it to coffee areas, kitchens,
paper and other supply  storage,  office equipment,
medical storage, laboratory benches, many kinds of
biological cultures including insect-rearing chambers,
hospital rooms  with wound or burn patients; the ants
have turned up in  I.V tubes, medicine droppers, and
bandage stacks.

Control and Management
     »   Inspect where sanitation is slipping.
     »   Ants are  found where food is available,
         particularly  sugars:  where  coffee   is
         made, lunches eaten, especially in desks
         where snacks are stored.
     »   Inspect storage room spills, laboratory
         media, culture and formula preparation
         rooms, nurses' stations, unwashed cups,
         and coin machine canteens, and kitchens
         frequented by children.
     »   Use small  disposable  peanut butter
         baited cups to demonstrate where ants
         are most prevalent (e.g. desk drawers,
         opened food boxes). [Pharaoh ants are
         easily baited.)
     »   Look  at  water sites.  [These ants are
         attracted to dripping faucets; they drown
         in  plant water bottles and coffee water
         held  overnight.   Floating   ants  are
         frequently the first sign that these ants
         are present.]

Habitat Alteration
     »   Reduce stored supplies.
     »   Clean, rearrange, and rotate supplies  to
         expose nests.
     »   Clean food areas before the end of the
         work day or bedtime and empty water
         containers that stand overnight.

Pesticide Application
     Several  baits  are  available  for Pharaoh ant
control. Place  a bait station where every positive
monitoring trap was located.
     »   Set commercial bait stations. One that
         uses a stomach poison well accepted by
         ants,  and  a  grain-based  bait  that
         includes ground insect exoskeletons are
Module One, Chapter 3. Pg 12

        specifically   manufactured    for
        Pharaoh  ant   control.  [These  bait
        stations can be placed in desks and
        used   in  hospital   rooms   and
    »   Use a  mixture of  liver extract  (or
        strained-liver baby food), angel food
        cake  and honey  or  syrup  with  a
        registered  growth  regulator  or  boric
        acid powder. This bait can be placed in
        small cups, screened vials or injected
        into cut drinking straws using a food
        baster. Mix to a usable consistency.
    »   Use a commercial  preparation of mint
        apple jelly and boric acid; ingredients
        can  also  be purchased  separately  and
        mixed.  Place the preparation on pieces
        of masking tape for easy retrieval.
    »   Apply sprays  or dusts in cracks  and
        crevices when preferred.  All potential
        harborage near  positive  monitoring
        locations should be treated thoroughly.

    Reinspect by monitoring bait cups. When  sprays
or dusts are used, or when colonies are disturbed by
inspection or habitat alteration, colonies may move or
Monomorium minimum
    This little ant is no more than 1/16 inch long; it
has two nodes and is shiny black; the ant is widely
distributed  in the  United States especially in the
northern and eastern States and southern  Canada.  It
normally  nests  outdoors  and tends   honeydew-
producing insects.

Solenopsis molests
    Less than 1/16 inch long, the Thief ant has 2
nodes is shiny with a  yellowish or  slightly darker
color; it is  widely distributed throughout  the United
States, especially in the  eastern and southern states.
The Thief ant nests both inside and outside and tends
honeydew-producing insects.

Wasmannia auropunctata
    The Little Fire  ant is less than 1/16 inch long
with two nodes and two spines near the hind end of
the thorax. It is not shiny and is yellow to brown in
color with a darker abdomen. The ant is established in
localities in Florida  and  California. It usually nests
out-of-doors, tends honeydew-producing insects, and
feeds on insects. This tiny ant can sting and sometimes
infests bedding. It is not related to  fire ants and does
not make mounds.
     Ants are  the dominant group of social insects.
Their relatives are bees and wasps, some of which also
have social habits.  All  of these  insects undergo
complete  metamorphosis.  Ants have three principal
castes:   the   female   reproductives,   the    male
reproductives, and female workers.  Each caste has
different tasks and behavior. Ants, being social, live in
colonies. A single female starts the colony after being
fertilized  by males.  Most of the offspring of this
female (often  called  the queen) are also female and
they do the work of the colony such as food gathering
and  rearing the young (larvae and pupae). Many ants
tend insects that suck plant sap and produce a liquid
that  ants eat.  Many  species also  have a broad diet,
feeding on other insects, sugars  and greases;  their
habits  may  change  seasonally.  Most ants  have
subterranean colonies and  do not enter buildings, but
some can live  outside or set up their colonies inside.
One species,  the  Pharaoh  ant  lives inside  almost
exclusively. Knowing the behavior of the common ant
species will help to decide the control measures needed
to suppress pest ants.
                                                                                Module One, Chapter 3, Pg 13

                             STUDY QUESTIONS FOR MODULE ONE
                                        CHAPTER THREE

    1.  Ants and termites are both closely related social insects.
            A. True
            B. False

    2.  The ant species that almost always has its colony inside is	.
            A. Carpenter ant
            B. Pharaoh ant
            C. Fire ant
            D. Odorous House ant

    3.  Carpenter ants make galleries in wood which is also one of their principal foods.
            A. True
            B. False

    4.  The ant caste system consists of	.
             A. workers, drones, soldiers
             B. soldiers, workers, reproductives
             C. male and female reproductives and workers
             D. larvae, pupae, adults

    5.   Ants found inside a structure always come from a colony that is located inside.
             A. True
             B. False

    6.   Ants forage for	to sustain themselves and the colony.
             A. honeydew, greases, sugars and insects
             B. wood
             C. honeydew alone;
             D. pheromones
                                                                         For Answers refer to Appendix A
Module One, Chapter 3. Pg 14

                                        CHAPTER 4
                      STORED PRODUCT PESTS
     Learning Objectives

             Aftercompletion of the study of Stored Product Pests, the trainee should be able to:

         a   Identify common stored product pests.

         o   Identify factors that contribute to pest infestations in stored products.

         a   List the key features in the life cycle and habitat of common stored product pests.
         a   Discuss  monitoring and  survey  techniques  for stored product  pests including
             pheromone use.
    Stored products can be infested at  every point
from their origin to final use; in:
    »   the field, where the product is  grown,
        picked, or harvested
    »   storage bins or granaries,  where it is
        held until sale
    >   mills,  where  it is ground, mixed,  or
    »   warehouses, where it  is held for use or
    »   food  processing plants, where  it is
        added  to other  products (e.g.,  candy,
        pet food, baking mixes)
    »   food serving establishments, where it is
        prepared for public consumption
    »   retail food stores, where it is sold, and
    »   in pantries and  cupboards,  where it is
        held for use.
    The most commonly attacked products are cereal
grains, spices and nuts. Less commonly  attacked are
dried fruits, candy, rodent bait, dried dog food, dried
decorative flowers  and  such  diverse materials  as
museum   artifacts,   cosmetics,  and  drugs.  Old,
neglected,  or  hard-to-reach  products  provide  the
greatest potential for infestation and reinfestation.
    In large facilities, a pest control technician will
want to become familiar with the entire operation
before making an inspection. The pathway a product
takes is vitally important to detection. Pests can occur
in machinery, stacked products, waste dumps, delivery
spills, etc.  In homes  and retail  businesses, excess
clutter,  bad  lighting,  storage  areas  with blocked
access, and rooms  located above or below infested
materials are special target sites.
    »   All  inspections  should  be conducted
        with strong flashlights. A knife, a good
        hand lens, screwdrivers and mirrors are
        also useful equipment.
    »   Flushing agents  can be used, but care
        must be  taken not  to  contaminate
    +   Special attention should be given to all
        spills. Check for pests, cast skins, and
        tracks in spilled products or dust.
    »   Inspect  the back  of  pantry shelves,
        floors under shelves, and all dark areas.
    »   Pheromone traps, available for  nearly
        all stored product pests, should be used
        where routine inspections are made.
    »   Keep  detailed  inspection   records.
        Written   inspection   findings   and
        recommendations  for  changes  by
        management  or  maintenance  must be

                            Module One, Chapter 4, Pg 1

    *   Be safe.  Use bump hats and be careful
        of heat machines, and electrical hazards.

Habitat Alterations
    >   Institute   a  good  ongoing  cleaning
        program. Pesticide use without cleaning
        will  not  control  stored product pest
    »   Caulk   cracks   (especially  wall
        penetrations) that communicate  with
        other rooms.
    >   Screen out birds and 'rodents.
    »   Recommend good lighting.
    »   Stop and repair moisture problems.
    »   Point out areas that need ventilation.
    »>   Recommend  reduction  of  clutter  and
        excess product in cabinets or storage.
    >   Collect and discard old rodent bait.
    *   Maintain alleys  or inspection  paths
        between  stacks of products and between
        products and walls. [Have them painted
        a light color.]
    »   Install air curtains at doors to keep out
        flying insects.
    »   Recommend  rotating stock.
    »   Recommend  storing materials that are
        not  commonly  infested  (e.g.,  animal
        bedding, paper products, canned goods)
        away from infestible products.
    »   Discard  infested materials.  [Sanitation
        is the primary method of population
        reduction where infested stored products
        are found.]

Pesticide Application
    »   Pesticides  registered for  use  in  the
        infested area should be carefully applied
        to cracks and crevices.
    »   Apply spot  treatments  only in areas
        where   there  is   an  obvious   and
        immediate  need  to  kill  migrating
    »   Install insect electrocutes  properly to
        attract flying insects.
    »   Investigate  pheromone  trapping  for
        killing   in   conjunction  with  other

    Ongoing  monitoring and Inspection plans should
be put into effect  in all food handling establishments.
A complete pest management program is recommended
for these operations. Clear communication with clients
is important.  Recommendations  on  cleaning  and
sanitation should be evaluated continuously.
    Most stored  product  pests  feed on readily-
available starch  of broken or ground-up seeds and
grains. Few species can chew through the strong seed
coat or place  eggs  inside intact grains. Pests that can
are: the rice and granary weevil, the Angoumois grain
moth, the lesser  grain borer, several species of seed
beetles,  or  pea and bean  weevils in the  family

Sitophilus oryzae and Sitophilus granarius
    These two  similar snout
beetles  are   found in  stored
whole grain  throughout  the
United  States. Adult  beetles  ^  x   *^X
have    snouts  with   jaws      *
(mandibles) at the tip. With these jaws,  females chew
holes  in the grain and deposit eggs.  Larvae devour the
inside of the seeds, pupate, and later, emerge to renew
the cycle.  Rice  weevils  (common in  the southern
states) can fly.  Granary weevils  (more common in
cooler climates)  cannot fly. These two weevils  are
more  common in granaries and mills than in stores and
homes,  but they  infest a wide variety of cereal grains
and seeds that  are  found in storerooms, pantries,
garages, and other  storage sites. [The word "weevily"
is still  used  in  general reference  to infested grain
products whether or not the infesting pest is a weevil.]
     Another weevil with a much longer snout infests
acorns, pecans and hickory nuts. Acorn weevil larvae
leave the  acorns and  nuts to pupate.  When infested
nuts are brought inside, fat white larvae often escape
and wriggle across tables, floors, etc.

Sitotroga cerealella
     This buff, tan, or golden moth, with a wing span
of 1/2 inch, is larger than the common  golden-colored
clothes moth. With wings folded it is  more than 1/4
inch  long.  The  Angoumois  Grain   moth  is  most
commonly found in  whole  corn  in  the  south  and
midwest. Like the weevil, it is more often a problem
Module One, Chapter 4, Pg 2

in grain storage; but if whole com is brought into
homes or stores, sooner or later these moths are likely
to become pests and fly about.
Rhyzopertha dominica
    A small cylindrical brown beetle about 1/8 inch
long,  this beetle is an important damaging pest of
grain  in storage or transport (trains, ships, etc.)- Like
many  of its relatives (the Bostrichids, most  of which
are wood borers), the  Lesser Grain  borer has strong
jaws and can chew through seed coats into grain where
it  completes its life cycle. This beetle is  rarely a
problem in urban homes or stores.
    These beetles are not true weevils and do not have
the weevil snouts. They infest only the seeds of one
large plant family, the Legumes: peas, cowpeas, most
beans (including mung beans). Each of these pests
specializes in seeds of only one kind.
    Most species measure 1/8 to less than 1/4 inch
long.  They are rather broad and have light and dark
markings. They lay eggs on beans; larvae bore inside,
devour the middle, then emerge through obvious 1/8
inch holes. The pest can be a problem in restaurants
and homes.  Infested  and potentially-infested legume
seeds  should be discarded.
    This large group of pests [Some are called, "bran
bugs."] infests stored products that have seed coats
that are broken or removed by processing. [Potential
infested products are listed with each species.]

Plodia interpunctella
    The Indian meal moth is a small  colorful moth.
Sitting on a wall, it is 1/3 inch long (somewhat longer
with wings folded backward). The head and thorax is
brown; the basal half of the wings are gray,  and die
last half coppery with
dark   bands.    These
moths  can  fly  short
distances   indoors.
Active flight for several
days wears off most of
the colored scales, but
their gray band and coppery scales can be seen using
a hand lens.
    Larvae, or caterpillars, grow to be about 1/2 inch
long, cream colored (sometimes pinkish or greenish)
with a brown head.  Although not easily seen, fairly
long hairs grow sparsely on each larval segment; when
the larva is in a dusty environment, small particles will
stick to die hairs. The Indian meal moth's life cycle is
about two months.
    Infestations   in
packaged  products
start   with   small
numbers; the longer the product is kept without use the
larger the population  grows.  Larvae spin silk from
their lower lip wherever they go. In large numbers,
they can cover the top of a product with silk as they
wander around on the surface. As a population grows,
larvae may wander outside die package [often for long
distances: from a room in lower levels, through holes
in die  floor into upper areas, from a pantry to the
ceiling]; they may dangle from ceilings on silk strands.
Their numbers, wandering habits, and large size easily
distinguish  Indian Meal modi larvae from  the tiny
Clothes modi larvae  that do  not wander openly. A
pheromone that specifically attracts die  flying Indian
Meal moth is a very effective monitoring tool  to use in
warehouses and food service or retail sale food stores;
in large areas, pheromone trap results reveal infested
    Indian meal moths infest most milled or ground
cereals  such  as  flour  and   cornmeal;  all  starchy
processed products  such as  crackers,  cake mixes,
pasta, dog  food, and  rodent bait. They particularly
respond to nut meats like pecans and walnuts, nuts in
candy, powdered milk, some spices, and dried fruit.
Products stored or unused for a long time are always
primary suspects for infestations.
    Control and management of these pests is the
same as that for the Saw Toodied Grain Beetle (see

Oryzaephilus surinamensis
    The saw-toothed grain beetle is a tiny,  slender,
dark-brown beetle that measures a little under 1/8 inch
long. With a good hand lens, a pesticide applicator can
                                                                               Module One, Chapter 4, Pg 3

identify three ridges that appear as fine lines on top of
the thorax  with six fine  teeth on\
either side. Eggs are deposited on ^
infested food and  hatch  into tiny /
white larvae.                    '
    At full growth, larvae are slightly smaller than the
adults. They become covered with the material they
infest and appear to be very small lumps. (Pupae are
equally inconspicuous.)  Larvae  do  not  leave  the
infested material. Adults do, and while they do not fly,
they wander in  conspicuous numbers in the same
vicinity as the infested material. [A similar species is
the Merchant Grain beetle.]
    Little  harborage  alteration  is  indicated.  Older
products will produce large populations simply because
more generations develop over time. Sawtoothed Grain
beetles infest the same materials  as the Indian meal
moth.  Likewise,  finding the  infested product and
cleaning the area of infestation is of prime importance.
    Cockroach bait stations with a grain base may  be
useful  in  attracting and killing these beetles. [Capture
in these bait stations may be the first indication of
beetle  infestation.] Pesticide sprays are of little use
when infested  material is discarded and  cracks and
crevices cleaned. Follow-up normally is not needed.

Trogoderma species
    In the same family as Carpet, Hide,  and Larder
beetles (see Fabric Pests,  Chapter Five), Trogoderma
and closely-related species (Cabinet, Larger Cabinet,
and Warehouse beetles) principally infest  grain-based
products. One species, the  Khapra beetle,  is a very
serious  grain  pest;   routine   federal  quarantine
inspections  are  made  to   prevent   its  entry and
establishment in the United States. It has been known
to build-up in large infestations.
    Trogoderma adult beetles range from  1/16 inch to
about 1/4 inch in length. They are about half as wide
as long, which gives them an oval appearance. Their
base color is black with three reddish-brown, golden,
or gray irregular lines  across the body.  Larvae are
stout and capsule-shaped; their segments  are seen as
stripes across the body.
    Species that infest processed grain can be found
in warehouses, storage  rooms  and  homes.  These
beetles commonly infest cereal, spices, rodent bait, dry
dog  food,  wheat  germ and other  processed  cereal
products with a high-protein content.

    »   Give  special  attention to products  with
         a  long shelf  life  such as dry  animal
         food;   large   pest   populations   can
         build  up  because  more  attention is
         given   to  the   rotation   of  more
         perishable products.
     »   Make  extensive inspection to locate all
         infested material.

Habitat Alteration
     »   Advise intensive cleaning of warehouses
         and storage rooms.

Pesticide Application
     »   Limit  use of pesticides registered for
         food areas to application in cracks and
     »   Fumigate   mills  or  warehouses  as

     Set up regular monitoring programs in warehouses
and  food  storage  areas.  [Pheromones for  stored
product  infesting beetles  are very helpful in such

Lasioderma serricorne, Stegobium paniceum
     These beetles  are similar  in appearance;  while
related to some wood borers or Powderpost beetles,
their habits are quite different.  Adult Cigarette and
Drugstore   beetles  are
oval, about 1/8 inch long
.and   reddish-brown   in
color; they can fly. The
Cigarette beetle is covered
with  tiny  hairs that  give  it a  golden'
sheen. The Drugstore beetle appears dull
and darker because of deeper  lines on its
            Mwing covers.
                Larvae are tiny, white, curved, and
            covered with  infested material causing
            them to look like tiny lumps of the stored
            product.  They  are  difficult  to  detect
            unless the product is dumped and sifted.
     These beetles are commonly
found in spices (paprika, ground
pepper,  ginger),  milled cereals
(flour and cornmeal),  dry dog
food, cosmetics, drugs, as well as
some human poisons,  pyrethrum dusts,  and  dried
flowers (through the glue that attaches the flower head
to wire stems). In homes,  spices are  favorite foods,
especially paprika.
Module One, Chapter 4, Pg 4

    Locate  the  infested material  (beginning  with
spices) and discard ail infested products. Follow-up is
seldom needed. -

Tribolium castaneum  and T. confusum
    Two  common species  of similar  flour beetles
infest dry milled cereal products in flour mills,  retail
food stores,  and homes.  Other closely related species
are found from time to time, but the two that are best
known are the Red Flour beetle
and the Confused Flour beetle.
These beetles are about  1/8 inch
long,  reddish-brown  in color,
with   short,  stout   antennae.
Larvae are  slightly  longer  than
adults, creamy-white, with few
    Only  those  flour mills with the most  thorough
cleaning programs keep populations of Flour beetles
low. [These  beetles can live  on flour spills.] Packaged
milled cereals such as flour, cornmeal and cake mixes
bought in large quantities may be stored long enough
to allow eggs or larvae that have slipped through  the
milling and packaging process to develop.

Control and Management
     »  Inspect  processed  flour products  and
        discard those that are infested.
     »  Recommend a sanitation  and cleaning
        program for mills.
     »  Recommend that  stored  products be
        rotated, bought in smaller quantities,
        and older packages discarded if use is
        not planned.
     »  Follow-up   in  homes  is  usually  not
        needed.  Retail   food   stores   and
        warehouses   should   have   ongoing
        monitoring programs.

    A number of species of these small, oval beetles
are scavengers on  stored  products. Spider beetles
range in size from less than 1/8 inch long to nearly  1/4
inch long. They have long  legs and antennae. Their
abdomens are usually oval and much larger than their
head  and thorax combined. Most species have short
hairs  covering their thorax  and wing covers; several
common species have shiny, hairless, globular wing
covers making them look like large mites.
    Spider beetle larvae are white and grublike. Pupae
are enclosed in silk cases covered by the materials they
infest; they look like lumps  of die stored product.
    The variety of foods they infest is inexhaustible:
flour, cornmeal, all broken cereal grains, fish meal,
seeds (including tobacco seeds), spices, dried fruit,
dog biscuits. In museums they infest skins, hair, wool,
feathers, textiles,  insect specimens, leather  goods,
brushes and wooden artifacts. Other materials include
soap, rat, mouse, and house fly manure, mammal and
bird neSts,  decaying animal and vegetable refuse and
even opium cake.

     »   Use sticky traps or cockroach monitors.
     »   When  small  infestations  of  spider
         beetles are  found, search  for  their

Habitat Alteration
     »   Discard  the  product  source;  clean
     »   Eliminate   all   clutter   and  unused

Pesticide Application
     *>   Apply spot treatments in cleaned,  non-
         food areas.

     A monitoring program using sticky traps should
be followed until the population is eliminated.
     Milled  or  ground  cereals  and  cereal-based
products become  heavily  infested with  fungi  and
bacteria when their moisture content  is high.  Many
bisects  feed on  die  decaying organic matter  that
involves starches, proteins, certain vitimins, and other
chemicals produced in die process of decomposition by
microorganisms. Spoiled products may include animal
foods, milled cereals,  flour spills, caked milled grain.
Pests can be found in  unclean grain storage elevators,
barns, and  mills  as well  as in kitchen pantries and
cabinets with moisture leaks or ineffective ventilation.
The infesting pests are scavengers whose nutritive
requirements  are  met  by  fungal-infested   cereal
products;  they can develop into  large populations.
These pests  include grain beetles, mealworms,  and
mites. Two merit special attention:
                                                                                 Module One, Chapter 4, Pg 5

    Psocids are tiny, pale gray - or yellowish-white,
wingless, soft-bodied insects little more than 1/16 inch
long.  They  feed  primarily on  mold that grows  on
decomposing starchy materials. Psocids are sometimes
called  "book lice" because they are found  in  great
                      numbers on books and papers
                      sized with starch and stored in
                      damp   situations.   Psocids
                      require  a  minimal  relative
                      humidity  of  at  least  60
                      percent;   this   level
                      accomplishes two purposes:
                      the moisture keeps the Psocids
                      from  drying   out,  and   it
                      promotes the mold or fungal
                      growth on which they feed. A
                      relatively high  humidity can
be  maintained  in poorly-ventilated rooms, closets,
basements, cabinets and  pantries  with  a moisture
source. To  eliminate  Psocids, discard the  starchy
source of mold and dry out the storage area.

    The most  common grain mite is  called Acaras
siro. These  tiny tick relatives look like dust with a
slightly brownish tinge. A constant humidity level is
even  more  important  to  Grain' mites  which  prefer
relative humidities between 75 and 85 percent. Grain
mites are almost colorless but have long microscopic
hairs. When they molt,  the hairs of the cast skins cling
to those of others. [They  can pile up in a fluffy ball
the size of a man's palm. A population of that size can
be produced in a humid kitchen cabinet with as little as
a scant dusting of flour over the shelf.]
    Like Psocids, Grain mites
can be eliminated by discarding
infested materials and cleaning
and  drying out the  chamber.
Grain mites have been known to
be responsible for allergies like
those  caused  by  house dust
mites  in  humid homes.  Use
preparations  containing  tannic
acid (carpet cleaners or brewed
tea) applied to mite cast skins to
suppress this protein allergy.
     Stored  product pests  include  a wide  range of
insects that feed on grain, seeds and other plant parts
that are stored,  milled, or processed.  Some of these
pests infest stored products at every point from their
origin in fields to granaries, mills,  processing plants,
warehouses, retail stores, food serving establishments,
and homes.  Some species of stored product pests can
feed on the whole intact grain. Most can only feed on
grains that have  been broken or milled, and some feed
on  processed herbs and spices. Each pest species has
a preferred  environment and group of foods. Stored
product pest infestations are not easy to discover when
populations  are  low or building up. Pheromone traps
(traps that use specific attractants) are very helpful in
monitoring  stored products in a  pest management
program.  Locating and discarding infested products in
homes and restaurants is  a common method used in
stored product pest control.
Module One, Chapter 4, Pg 6

                                 BEETLES: PICTORIAL KEY TO SOME SPECIES
                                COMMONLY ASSOCIATED WITH STORED FOODS
                                                       Harry D. Pratt
                    WITH « rccTN ON EACH sioe
                BEAK ABSENT
                                          PRONOTUM WITHOUT TEETH ON EACH SIDE
                                       BEAK PRESENT, SPECIES ABOUT 1/8 INCH LONG
                   TOOTXO CHAIN BEETLE
         HCAO VISIM.C mat ABOVE
          !/• INCH U)Nto OH MO«t
      Tntotiu* caifiauHt  ANO cotton***
                            STUDY QUESTIONS FOR MODULE ONE
                                        CHAPTER FOUR
                                   STORED PRODUCT PESTS

    1.  Some common stored product pests that attack whole grains and chew through the seed coat are
            A. rice and granary weevils
            B. red and confused flour beetles
            C. psocids and grain mites
            D. sawtoothed and merchant grain beetles
    2.  Pheromones are used in.
            A. sprays
            B. traps
            C. dusts
            D. warehouses
                        is not commonly a food of stored product pests.
             A. dried fruit
             B. paprika
             C. paper products
             D. cornmeal
             E. mung beans

    4.  Psocids and grain mites need	to build large populations.
             A. grains
             B. processed meal
             C. high protein grain
             D. high humidity.
                                                                       For Answers refer to Appendix A
Module One, Chapter 4, Pg 8

                                  FABRIC PESTS
     Learning Objectives

             After completion of the study of Fabric Pests, the trainee should be able to:

         o  Identify common fabric pest groups.

         a  List the key features in the life cycle and habitat of some common fabric

         o  Discuss inspection and prevention techniques for fabric pests.

         a  Discuss pest management procedures for fabric pests.
    Fabric, or textile, pest infestations sometimes
present the most difficult problems a pest management
technician  can  encounter.  Except for fumigation,
pesticide use alone is  never an effective control for
textile pest problems.
    Textiles that are infested and consumed by pests
are usually wool-based such  as  woolen  clothing,
carpets,  and tapestries. Two types of  insects  are
responsible for the usual woolen fabric damage but by
their nature these pests - carpet beetles and clothes
moths — feed on a broader diet  than wool alone.
Besides  textiles made of processed wool, many other
substances with a high-protein content are  eaten by
these insects. One particular protein, keratin, is present
in wool and other hair or fur. The same material is
also found in feathers, skins, horns and hoofs. Other
materials that are high in protein  are insect bodies,
pollen, silk, grains and seeds (particularly the "germ,"
as in wheat germ, or non-starchy portions). Insects are
die only animals capable of digesting keratin. Only a
few microorganisms and fungi in other  kingdoms are
keratin reducers.
    Fabric pests - carpet beetles and clothes moths -
developed as scavengers, consuming feathers, fur, and
hide of dead birds and mammals. Many species feed
on dead insects, die molted skins and pupal cases of
moths,  silkworms, tent caterpillars, mud  daubers,
yellowjackets, wasps, hornets, dead bees and pollen.
    Textile pests are generally secretive and develop
on food that decomposes  slowly. As populations of
textile pests increase,  individual adults and mature
larvae migrate away from the infestation to mate or
pupate in protected solitude. This activity often is the
only signal that a pest infestation is present. The four
groups of carpet beetles and two  species of clothes
moths  can be  identified from  specimens  of either
adults or larvae.
    All species of hide and carpet beetles belong in
the beetle family  Dermestidae. Adult  beetles  have
short, clubbed antennae,  are black in color or with
yellow-white or orange scales (observable only with a
good hand lens), or covered with fine  smooth  hair.
The females can lay eggs throughout the year; the
adults tend to be cyclical and most active in spring.
Adults commonly feed on flowers  and flower pollen.
The larvae are  responsible for most textile damage.
They can be long lived; when food is scarce, larvae
continue to molt for longer periods, waiting out a food

    *   die Larder beetle (Dermestes lardarius)
        is large, oblong, and will grow from
        1/4 to  3/8 inch long; it has a dull, dark
        or black head and thorax, and its wing
        covers behind die thorax are half dull-
        yellow, and the latter half, black.
    +   die Hide beetle  (Dermestes macidcaus)
        is large, oblong 1/4 to 3/8 inch long. Its
        dorsal  or  top surface is dark-brown or
        black,  sometimes with white scales on

                            Module One, Chapter 5, Pg 1

        margin  of thorax;  the under-surface
        is also covered with white scales.
    *   Some  other  species  of  Dermestes
        resemble the hide beetle with similar
        habits (e.g., the Incinerator beetle and
        the Leather beetle).
    »   the Black  Carpet  beetle,  (Attagenus
        unicolor (also called A. megatoma and
        A. piceiu), is oblong to oval in shape; it
        is 1/8 inch  in  length, dark brown or
        black, and is not shiny.
    »   the Common Carpet beetle (Anthrenus
        scrophulariae), the  Furniture Carpet
        beetle (Anthrenus flavipes),  and the
        Varied   Carpet  beetle   (Anthrenus
        verbasci) are about  1/8 inch  long or
        less. They are mottled, and are covered
        with yellow, white, orange, and black
        small flat scales  (visible with a good
        hand lens).
    »   Warehouse  and  Cabinet  beetles
        (Trogoderma) are small, about  1/8 inch
        long or longer, and are dull dark-brown
        or black-mottled with tan markings.
    Dermestid larvae are hairy beetle grubs from less
than 1/8 inch long to about 1/2 inch long. Larvae can
be separated  into the same groups as the adults:
    »   the Larder  beetle  is long,  about 1/2
        inch, hairy, dark brown in color with
        two teeth  on its the sides  of the end
        segment pointing rearward.
    »   the   Hide   beetle   has   the  same
        characteristics  as the  Larder  beetle,
        except the end segment teeth are curved
    »   the  Black  Carpet  beetle   is  carrot-
        shaped; its body extends from about 1/4
        to  about 1/2 inch.  The front end  is
        widest and  tapers  to  the  rear. It  is
        covered with dark-brown to golden-red
        hair. It has a long twisted tuft of hairs
        at the narrow tail end which  may be
        worn down or broken off.
    »   the  Common   Carpet  beetle,  the
        Furniture  Carpet  beetle,  and the
        Varied Carpet beetle are dark, short
        and less than 1/4 inch. They are wider
        in the middle than at front or rear end,
        with dark hair bristles that extend out
        from body. The tail end is darker with
        short brushes of bristles.
    »   Warehouse  and  Cabinet  beetles
         usually  are  small  but  they  may
         reach   1/4  inch.   They  are  long,
         capsule-shaped,   a   light   cream
         color,  with  a  dark   row  of hairs
         across  each  segment,  and  reddish-
         brown  bristles of  short hairs on the
         segments of the blunt tail end.

    These beetles (from which the entire family takes
its name) are larger  than other Dermestids, but rather
than  feeding  on   fabrics  or  grain,  their  larvae
commonly eat bird  and mammal flesh.  They feed in
remote dark places  preferring their food dry rather
than spoiled. These beetles will attack cured meats,
like ham, and they are often found infesting dead birds
caught in a chimney or wall void, or mice that were
caught in  traps or succumbed to poison. Larvae
consume ail the flesh and the heavier hairs, leaving a
perfectly-cleaned  skeleton in a small pile of fluffy
undercoat hair. The  Hide beetle, in particular, is used
in museums to clean vertebrate skeletons. Both beetles
eat leather,  but  the larder beetle is found more in
homes, cabins and curing sheds.

    Another species that resembles the hide beetle is
the Incinerator beetle. This beetle infests the wettest,
unburned portions of garbage found in corners of open
incinerators. Adults fly  to lights and enter buildings
from these incinerators.

    Black carpet beetle adults  are frequently found
near the larval  infestation inside  buildings. In  the
spring, they will, on occasion, fly inside from feeding
outside on flowers. Black carpet beetles also  infest
grain  in elevators  and  mills;  in homes and  other
buildings, they most commonly infest woolen fabrics.
Black carpet beetles build-up in stored woolen clothes
such as suits, uniforms, skirts, blankets, felt and wool
    These very  small,  somewhat brightly-colored
beetles are responsible for infesting woolens, furs,
Module One, Chapter 5, Pg 2

feathers, hair-stuffed antique furniture, woolen carpets,
and  blankets; they  are  known to  destroy  insect
collections, reducing individual specimens to piles of
tiny fecal pellets.
   . The several common  Trogoderma species are
most  often  found  on  high-protein  plant  material
processed into dry pet food, wheat germ and other less
starchy  grain  commodities  (see  Chapter  4, Stored
Product Pests).
    Inspections  for  Dermestid  beetle  infestations
depends first on the type or kind of beetle identified.
    »   Look for accumulations -of caste skins
         and  large amounts of fecal pellets as
         well as irregular holes and loose patchy
    »   Advise   clients  to  take  all  woolen
         clothing  and furs out of closets  and
         brush them. [Brushing helps to dislodge
         eggs   and  larvae;   infestations  are
         discovered in the process.]
    »   Look in every storage box, under all
         furniture setting on wool  rugs  and
         carpets.     Inspect  tapestries,   insect
         collections and grain products. Inspect
         every closet,  attic  and  basement  into
         their far  reaches.
    »   Use pheromone traps in museums  etc.
         as part of the pest management plan.

Habitat Alteration
    »   Advocate discarding or  cleaning  any
         wool or  fur product that has not been
         cleaned since wearing.
    »   Recommend  moving  furniture   and
         cleaning wool carpets in infested rooms.
         Insist on thorough  vacuuming of all
         rooms for  pet hair that  can support
         small beetle populations.
    >   Clothes  should  be   separated  into
        uninfested, cleaned  woolens or stained
        and  dirty articles that need to be dry
        cleaned.  Dry cleaning kills all stages of
        the beetle, and cleaned woolen fabrics
        retard the growth of the beetle larvae.
        There is  a greater likelihood that furs or
        woolens  in long-term home storage will
        be infested than those that are used
    »   Have  all  cleaned  fur, feather, and
        woolen products stored in tight chests
       . or good  plastic garment bags.  Furs are
        best kept safely in refrigerated vaults at

Pesticide Application
    *   Where  infestations  are  found, spot
        applications of registered pesticides can
        be  applied  to  storeroom  or  closet
        baseboards and corners.
    »   Apply pesticides in  cracks and crevices
        of infested rooms after die infestation is
    »   Use naphthalene  flakes in tight chests
        where vapors  and  odor will  not  be
        breathed by occupants. Naphthalene is
        not  as volatile as paradichlorobenzene
        (PDB)   crystals   and   gives   longer
        protection.  Use   only   amounts
        recommended on the label. [These two
        chemicals are sold in department stores
        as mothballs or modi crystals.

    Conduct a pest management  plan  emphasizing
routine  monitoring  in high  risk areas such  as
museums,  woolen or fur storage facilities, etc. Use
pheromone traps  for effective monitoring. Museum
staff should reinspect annually, and pest management
personnel should monitor records regularly. Emphasize
educational programs for curatorial staff and  storage
management personnel in critical facilities.
    Clothes modis fare better in warm humid climates
and so southern regions in the U.S. have historically
produced more infestations than northern areas.

    Adult moths  are very secretive. They are very
small  and never  fly to lights, choosing instead  to
                                                                                Module One, Chapter 5, Pg 3

remain in dark areas or not to fly at all. They scuttle
down into dark folds of textiles or fur. Clothes moths
need humidity.
     »   the Webbing Clothes  moth  (Tmeola
         bisselliella) has a length at rest of 1/4 to
         1/3 inch with a  wing span of less than
         1/2 inch from tip to  tip.  Its head and
         front wings are  a golden  buff. Larvae
         spin fine silk over the area of their
         infestation.  Fecal  pellets,  pupal cases
         and caste head capsules catch in the silk
         creating a messy accummulation.
         the Casemaking Clothes moth (Tinea
         pellionella) is the same size as  the
         Webbing Clothes moth, but its head and
         front wings are dusty-brown or tan with
         three small dark spots on  each front
         wing. Casemaking clothes moth larvae
         feed  on woolen yarn but incorporate
         tiny strands into a silken bag  or case
         that covers their abdomen. They  crawl
         with  three pairs of  legs and hold  the
         case  with hooks on  stumpy abdominal
         legs. The  color of their cases  give an
         indication  of  the color of the  infested
         the Webbing Clothes moth larvae are
         small, creamy-white caterpillars.  The
         Webbing  Clothes  moth  larvae  is
         between 1/4 to less than 1/2  inch at
         most with a white, shiny body. It has a
         brown  head  and  a  brown  segment
         behind  the head.  It is often found, in
         loose silk webbing.
         die Casemaking Clothes moth larvae
         are slightly longer than larvae of the
         Webbing Clothes moth. It is very  light
         or white with a dark brown head. The
         segment behind its head is dark brown.
         The caterpillar constructs a case about
         its  body   which   it  carries   about
         when  feeding.   Mature  larvae  after
         leaving  the   infestation   attach   to
         ceilings   and   walls  and  pupate
         inside the case.
     »   All woolens should be inspected where
         clothes  moths   have  been  sighted,
         especially clothing that is stained or has
         been worn and not cleaned.
     »   Brush to dislodge eggs.
     +   Look   for   woolen-based   products
         introduced  from  Central  and  South

Habitat Alteration
     Clothes moths cannot live on cleaned wool. They
are very dependent upon  sweat, food or urine-stained
wool, fur, silk,  and feathers. Without certain vitamins
produced by  microorganisms growing  on the  stains,
clothes moth larvae will die.
     »   Recommend dry cleaning of all woolens
         that are in need of it.
     »   Advocate that clients  inspect all wool
         products in storage and  discard those
         where use is not projected.
     »   Where there is sudden activity of flying
         moths, look for  areas where water leaks
         have brought  about increased humidity.
         Then have all areas  with high humidity
         ventilated or dehumidified.

Pesticide Application
     »   Clean woolen products.
     »   Make  spot applications in storage areas
         with approved pesticides.
     »   Apply naphthalene flakes  at the labeled
         rate to tight chests and storage bags that
         concentrate and hold vapors.
     ».   Paradichlorobenzene  (PDB)   crystals
         vaporize much  faster than naphthalene
         and  must  be  maintained to   insure
         protection.  [Do not allow  continued
         breathing of either of these pesticides.]

     Develop a pest management  program  with an
emphasis on monitoring for critical museum or stage
drama collections.   Historical   textiles  cannot  be
Module One, Chapter 5, Pg 4

cleaned;  closely monitor stained tapestries, clothing,
furniture coverings, and  stuffings.  Review records
regularly,  and  provide  educational  programs  to
curatorial staff and those in textile storage businesses.

    Fabrics made  of wool,  furs and feathers, are
attacked by a few species of beetles and moths that can
consume a protein called keratin.  These pests also
consume grains, leather, meat, and horn as well as
dead insect skeletons.
    Originally, these  insects  were  scavengers in
mammal and birds nests, dead vertebrate bodies, and
seeds.  When humans began using these materials as
food and clothing,  the pests came too. Fabric pests
destroy textiles, tapestries,  and carpets in museums,
clothing in homes, and furs  in warehouses and stores;
these  are often both expensive and  unique products.
The pests do not thrive in  cleaned textiles and wool
because they need certain vitamins produced by fungi
found  along with stains of perspiration, urine, and
human  food; added to this  is  a  requirement for
                                                                                    Module One, Chapter 5, Pg 5

                            STUDY QUESTIONS FOR MODULE ONE
                                         CHAPTER FIVE
                                         FABRIC PESTS
    1.  The most important element in a pest management program for fabric pests in a museum would be
            A. fogging
            B. monitoring
            C. dusting
            D. spraying

    2.  The principal need of fabric pests seems to be	.
            A. wool
            B. carbohydrates
            C. protein
            D. starches

    3.  Two groups of insects feed on stored woolens, furs, feathers. They are	.
            A. clothes moths and carpet beetles
            B. carpet moths
            C. blanket beetles
            D. clothes moths, tapestry moths

    4.  The black carpet beetle does not normally feed on	.
            A. wool
            B. grain
            C. fur
            D. leather
                                                                       For Answers refer to Appendix A
Module One, Chapter 5, Pg 6

                                        CHAPTER 6
                     SILVERFISH  &  FIREBRATS
     Learning: Objectives

         After completion of the study of Silverfish & Firebrats,  the trainee should be able to:

         a-  Identify key features in the life cycle, habitat and appearance of silverfish
             and firebrats.

         a  Understand silverfish and firebrat pest management.
    Silverfish  and firebrats  are among the most
ancient of insects; they were on earth before insects
developed wings. These pests were among the most
common  insects in  homes  and businesses  when
wallpaper was the usual wall covering and when coal
furnaces had glued, taped, insulated pipes.
    Pest bristletails are about 1/2 inch  when adult
and. unlike other insects,  they continue to molt and
may shed their exoskeletons as many as 50 or 60 times
when full grown. They have  long antennae in front
and three antenna like processes behind the "bristles"
of the bristle tails. They are slender, broadest in front
and gradually taper toward the rear. In general, they
shun light and  prefer  dark, undisturbed sites.  Two
species,  the silverfish, and the firebrat, are the most
common representatives of the bristletails.

Lepisma saccharine
    The silverfish is about 1/2 inch long when full
grown and is covered by a sheen of silvery scales. It
prefers temperatures between 70  and 80  F, and
requires high humidity. Adults can live from two  to
three  years.  They feed on  starchy substances like
flour, starch,  glue, paste  and the  starch sizing on
textiles and papers, but they can also digest cellulose
    Silverfish build up around the materials they are
feeding  on  such  as  spilled  flour in cupboards,
corrugated  cardboard  boxes  in  damp basements,
insulation glue and stored books in unventilated attics.
Their feeding leaves irregular yellow-stained holes in
sized  textiles  and paper, surfaces  removed  from
corrugated cardboard,  and irregular areas grazed off
cloth-bound books.  Damaged products will often have
a dark fungus growing on them  as a  result of the
humidity and insect fecal deposits.
    Large populations of silverfish spread  out into
other humid areas. Silverfish are often trapped in wash
basins and  bath tubs  in  bathrooms to which they
migrate  from  the  basement  or out of wall  voids
penetrated by pipes.

Gray Silverfish
    The gray silverfish is uniformly gray, sometimes
very dark. It is most common in southern California
and Hawaii. This species is more a pest of paper and

Fourlined Silverfish
    The fourlined silverfish has four dark lines down
its abdomen  and is very slightly  longer than the
common silverfish. It builds up in the mulch of flower
beds and under roof shingles, then  enters attics and
upstairs  rooms.  They can be  common both outdoors
and indoors on the east and west coast. High humidity
from overhanging trees in summer promotes  build-up
of this species.
                                                                             Module One, Chapter 6, Pg 1

 Thermobia domestica
     Firebrats are not silvery but are molded dark-gray
 and dull-yellow. Their cosmopolitan distribution, size,
 shape and appendages are like silverfish, but firebrats
feefer decidedly higher temperatures and surroundings
farmed to 90 F or more.  Examples of firebrat habitat
 are bakeries where  heat  and  starches are  prevalent,
 furnace  rooms, steam  pipe tunnels, hot  apartment
 bathrooms and partition wails  of water heater rooms.
     »   Place silverfish and firebrats in alcohol
         to preserve them.  They  are  soft and
         very  fragile. When they  are  captured
         for  identification,  scales  are usually
         rubbed off and appendages broken off.
     »   Check all starch-based materials in the
         infestation area including  glued  boxes,
         wallpaper, books and book bindings, art
         prints, file boxes, kitchen and bathroom
         cupboards, glued insulation bats, flour
         paste, and stored textiles especially
         those that are starched or sized.
     »   Inspect rooms connected to  infested
         areas through wall or floor penetrations,
         or through closet  ceilings.
     *•   Note  high  humidity   and   high

 Habitat Alterations
         Locate moisture sources.
         Mend pipe leaks.
         Ventilate  closed   rooms,   attics,  and
         crawl spaces.
         Dehumidify humid spaces.
         Eliminate standing water.
         Make changes in  grade and  guttering
         where  water  runoff  causes  damp
         basements and walls.
         Eliminate stored materials that harbor
         Dispose of infested storage boxes and
         relocate stored materials in dry spaces
         after inspection of materials.
     »   Trim .trees where shade is causing moist
         conditions on roofs and roof eves.

Pesticide Application
     »   Use crack  and crevice applications  of
         registered   pesticides   in  areas   of
         infestation   to  kill   newly   hatched
     »   Use dust as spot treatments  where it
         will not drift. Dusts can also be used in
         crack and crevice applications.
     »   Use naphthalene flakes in sealed textile
         storage for protection of materials.
     »   Use fogs to eliminate heavy populations
         and to keep  the  active, exposed pests
         from migrating into new areas.
     +   Treat attics where fourlined silverfish
         are found.

     »   Educate the client regarding bristletails'
         need for  starch-based foods,  humid
         conditions, and the firebrats attraction
         for high temperatures.

     Ancestors of  the  silverfish and  firebrats  are
among the most ancient insects. Silverfish prefer a
moist  or  humid  environment with   a  moderate
temperature.  Several species of silverfish live outside
and inside. Firebrats, on the other hand, seek very hot
places like bakeries,  furnace rooms, and hot apartment
     Both silverfish and firebrats   feed  on  starchy
materials such as flour, paste, glue, textiles and paper
sized with   starch.   Boxes  of  books,  corrugated
cardboard, flour or  cake mix spills, glued insulation
bats, taped heat pipes, etc. They also eat paper.
     Removing the infested material is the first step in
control of these pests. Ventilating moist or hot spaces,
and using pesticides will  quickly suppress these pests.
Module One, Chapter 6, Pg 2

                        STUDY QUESTIONS FOR MODULE ONE
                                     CHAPTER SIX
                             SILVERFISH AND FIREBRATS
1.  The common silverfish prefers moderate heat and high humidity.
        A. True
        B. False

2.  The most common silverfish outside is the	.
        A. common silverfish
        B. firebrat
        C. fburlined silverfish
        D. gray silverfish
3.  The firebrat prefers moderate heat and high humidity.
        A. True
        B. False

4.  Silverfish and firebrats prefer to consume	.
        A. carbohydrates
        B. starches
        C. proteins
        D. vitamins
                                                                  For Answers refer to Appendix A
                                                                         Module One, Chapter 6, Pg 3

     Learning Objectives

             After completion of the study of Fleas, the trainee should be able to:

         o   Understand the cat flea life cycle and how it contributes to flea problems,

         O:  Discuss habitat alterations and why they are needed.

         o   Identify pesticide application methods for flea control.

         o   Understand when, how and why IGRs are helpful.
    The secret to flea population management is the
flea's life cycle;  the  adult must contribute timely
nourishment for larvae under special conditions or the
young will not survive. No longer a regional problem,
today fleas are common in all  parts of the. country
except very dry areas.
    The  most important species that pest  control
technicians must manage is the cat flea which feeds on
a variety of hosts, including cats, dogs, rodents, foxes,
opossums and humans. This flea prefers pets and will
not affect humans unless populations are excessive or
the pet is removed from its resting areas. The situation
that occurs when families remove  the pet,  take a
vacation,  then return home to find ravenous  fleas  is
not uncommon.
    An outline of the sequence of events:
    »   A summertime  vacation assures good
        flea-growing  conditions (temperature
        and humidity).
    »   Taking the pet removes the main host.
    »   While  the  family  is away, larvae
        continue to develop, feeding on dried
        blood; pupae complete their cycle and
        are ready to emerge.
    »   The  family returns to the adult fleas
        emerged and emerging — ready to feed
        and accept ALL available warm-blooded
Ctenocephalides felis

    After feeding an adult female flea will lay up to
several hundred eggs within three weeks. Flea eggs
develop in pet resting areas in warm humid climates.
The tiny flea eggs are very smooth and rounded. They
do not stick to pet hair and are easily scratched  or
shaken off. When they  fall on pet bedding furniture,
carpets, etc., they shake down to the same level as the
pepper-like dried blood  (see larvae and adults). These
eggs will hatch in one week to ten days.

    Larvae  are  tiny,  wormlike,  whitish  (almost
transparent) insects with a  small brown head. When
larval fleas hatch, they are only 1/6 inch long; after
                                                                              Module One, Chapter 7, Pg 1

three molts, they grow to  near  1/4 inch but are still
difficult to see. The entire  larval stage may take only
one  week under  favorable conditions, or  it may be
prolonged into several months.
     The legless larvae can disappear with remarkable
speed (into carpets, pet bedding, etc.) moving by use
of a pair of spines at their rear and long (but nearly
invisible) hairs  on each  segment. Larval  fleas are
scavengers and do not suck the hosts' blood or live on
hosts. Cat flea larvae have chewing mouthparts which
they use to eat specks of dried blood  (see adults).
[When they are  full, the blood turns them to a  near-
purple color.]
     Like many  insects that live in large populations
(e.g., pantry pests), mature flea larvae crawl  away
from the area where they  developed, and work their
way into cracks or under the edge of the pet bed,  rugs,
or carpeting. These mature larvae spin a loose, white,
silken cocoon in which to pupate.  The cocoon  often
gets covered  with dirt particles  and other detritus
during its construction.
     Shortly after making the cocoon the larva molts
and forms a white pupa. The pupa becomes adult but
does not emerge  immediately,  rather,  it  remains
immobile in  a form  called  the "pre-adult"  until
stimulated to  leave the cocoon. This pupal stage  is
completed within one week to ten days, but the pre-
adult form may remain  in the cocoon for months.
     Various stimuli guarantee the flea will leave the
Cocoon only at a favorable time: being stepped on by
the pet, carbon dioxide being exhaled by a host, or,
encountering  a sufficient  number of warm, humid
days. The adult flea is ready  to feed as soon as  it
leaves the cocoon.

     Adult fleas  live on the  pet and in  the  pet's
sleeping or resting area. Adult fleas are parasites  -
they  obtain their nourishment  from a host animal,
usually mammals. They feed by biting and sucking
blood, sometimes daily, for two or three weeks. Most
feeding takes place while the pet is sleeping or at rest.
Cat flea larvae cannot live without dried blood from
the adults, therefore fleas  are  not evenly distributed
Jiroughout a home or building.
     Fleas inject an irritating saliva when they feed.
The bite irritation causes the host to scratch and shake,
dislodging the eggs. The females digest the host's
blood and excrete a corkscrew shaped string of black,
nearly  dry  blood. This  fecal  blood breaks  up  in
pepper-like specks that are also scratched off into the
pet sleeping or resting areas.

Flea Bite and Flea  Allergy
     The flea bite  is  accompanied  by secretions  of
saliva that prevent the host's blood from coagulating [a
aspect accompanying the bites of many blood-sucking
insects]. The saliva contains several  chemicals that
cause   irritant  reactions,   sometimes   including
hypersensitivity  to  subsequent   flea  bites.  This
sensitivity  often  .results  in  flea  allergy  dermatitis,
expressed by  hair loss,  excessive scratching,  skin
inflammation, etc.
    The bite distribution pattern  in  dogs and  cats
begins across the hips near the tail and narrows along
the back.  An area between the hind legs and  on the
belly can also be affected. Cats are less affected on the
belly than dogs, but often have problems on the neck
or collar. Once the allergy is activated, reaction  is
sudden with few subsequent bites. Flea allergy  also
seems  to be hereditary.
Module One, Chapter 7, Pg 2

     In the past, flea control in the northern United
States  consisted  of  a summer spray  inside  and
treatment of the pet since reinfestations from outside
were not common. In the southern states where outside
infestations were common, treatment in the yard was
also needed. Today flea infestations and reinfestations
are common in ail parts of the country except very dry
    Indoor. A close inspection of a home or building
will principally involve rinding the "hot spots" or areas
of high flea development. Pet bedding or  sleeping
areas  should be  identified first. Pets do not sleep or
rest indiscriminately or randomly in a building. They
have favorite places and move among them throughout
the day. Where they habitually stop and rest, flea eggs
and dried blood accumulates. These are spots where
they  habitually   scratch,   bite,   or  shake  (e.g.
immediately after leaving a resting spot). Spots where
cats land as they jump down from a high resting or
feeding area are places  where eggs and dried blood
    Outdoor. Kennels  and doghouses are obvious
places where fleas build up. But there are other places
pets prefer to sleep or rest at certain times of the day.
Examples are under particular bushes, under porches,
or in crawl spaces. If a pet roams the perimeter fence,
points of infestation might be located there.
    Outdoor flea infestations rely on dependable hosts
and warm  humid climatic  conditions. Flea  larvae
require moisture because they easily dry out and die.
Neither can they tolerate free water (such as rainwater)
or they drown. Therefore, infestations are not found in
unprotected  or undrained situations.
    Reinfestation from  outside.  As do  pets,  some
species of urban wildlife harbor cat flea infestations.
When urban neighborhoods mature, their habitat for
wildlife  increases.   Raccoons  have  long   been
prominent,  and,  in fact, have overpopulated  some
urban areas; they live in chimneys, large trees and
storm  sewers.  Chipmunks, ground squirrels,  and
domestic  rodents  have   also found habitat  in ivy
terraces,  rock  walls, soil berms  and underground
drainage  areas.  Another  mammal,  the  opossum, has
extended its  range or has been introduced over most of
the United States; it is one of the most common urban
wildlife species found today.
    Pets are always aware of the locations of wildlife
habitat in their own backyard.  As soon as they are
released, they run to these places to investigate, even
if they can't get at the animals. This behavior ideally
facilitates flea reinfestation of clean pets.

Habitat Alteration
    Indoor. Flea populations build up in warm humid
weather of spring and summer and drop to low levels
in cool or  dry winter weather. Inside air with a low
humidity   will  hold  back  the  buildup  of  flea
    When  focus  areas  of  flea  populations   are
identified,  these and 'other potential harborage sites
should be vacuumed as thoroughly as possible. Except
for flea allergy dermatitis, which can be initiated with
very few flea bites, a moderate flea population can be
kept at a tolerable level  by  vacuuming alone. This
vacuuming MUST be performed daily and must always
be  thorough  —  an  alternative very  few pet owners
would choose when other safe and effective options are
available. If vacuuming is augmented by use of growth
regulators, better success can be predicted.
    Reduction of  clutter  facilitates  inspection  and
permits effective pesticide application and vacuuming.
Pets and feral animals should  be kept out  of crawl
spaces, and from under porches  and out-buildings.
Eliminating the  wildlife  habitat where fleas   are
harbored and  trapping or killing animals responsible
for reinfestations may become essential in  stopping
difficult  flea  infestations. Care  should be taken,
however, not to rely on wild animal elimination alone;
these animals are usually replaced by others moving in
from adjacent range (see outside treatment). Consult
local restrictions when dealing with wild mammals.

Pesticide Application
    Treatment of Pets. Pets should be treated by the
pet owner or a veterinarian.  Where  flea allergy
dermatitis  is  involved,  pets  must  be treated  by
veterinarians or else recovery will be slow at  best.  Pet
bedding  should  be washed once a week.  The  pet
kennel or pet box should also be cleaned and washed
each week. The weekly schedule kills eggs and larvae,
and eliminates the dried blood essential for  complete
larval nourishment.  Pet owners can purchase  pesticide
powders and sprays and they should be used according
to label  information.  "Dipping" pets is done most
effectively by veterinarians. Flea collars may help with
some flea infestations but they are generally  the least
effective  treatment.
    Treatment of puppies and kittens with dusts and
sprays can  be  hazardous. These small pets should be
moved out of infested areas  into clean bedding and
their mothers  carefully treated.  Children should not
                                                                                  Module One, Chapter 7, fg 3

fondle  pets  treated  with   pesticides.  Medicated
ointments can be used on pets, especially dogs, with
severe flea allergy dermatitis.
     Indoor. Never apply pesticides until  thorough
vacuuming has been completed.
fc   Insect growth regulators (IGR) have proven very
Wficacious in flea control. Growth regulators interfere
with or replace natural hormones essential for the flea
larvae to change into pupae. IGRs have long residues
and leave a good margin of safety for humans. Since
IGRs do not affect the pupa or adults, fleas that have
reached those stages complete their development. The
"pre-adult"  under  adverse  conditions  (cool  or dry
weather) may not leave the pupal cocoon for a period
of weeks, even months. This means that some fleas
will  be able  to   "dodge"   treatments  and  expose
themselves   after   pesticides   have    lost   their
     Spot treatments with pesticides are  applied to kill
flea larvae and adults that come in contact with the
sprays. These pesticides  (e.g.,  microencapsulated
pesticides, emulsifiable concentrates, dusts, and space
sprays) have varied residual  periods. Carpet staining
or color alteration can occur and should be considered.,
The sprays should be applied as even, fine overlapping
fan sprays under low pressure. Overwetting  carpets
must be avoided. During very humid weather, carpets
dry  slowly  and  ventilation or  dehumidifying  is
necessary. Sprays will not reach larvae or adults deep
down in the carpet, but they will come into  contact
with the pesticide residue when they move up or out of
the nap. Some fumigant action may kill pests as the
pesticide dries. Do not allow pets or children on the
treated carpet while it is wet. Contact with the treated
carpet will also help kill adult fleas on an infested pet.
     Preventive treatment.  Preventive  treatment  is
)elpful:  where flea  infestations were  particularly
severe the previous year, where flea allergy dermatitis
must be avoided, where animals are in poor health,
and where outside infestations can be predicted.  If
IGRs are to be used  alone, they should be  applied
before spring flea activity gets underway — at least one
month before flea problems even begin to be  noticed
(depending on the local climate).  IGR application can
be repeated according to predicted need.
     When summer visitors bring their infested pets, a
flea  infestation   can  be   anticipated.  Thorough
vacuuming  should  be  recommended,  but   where
previously uninfested  pets are involved, preventive
treatment with an IGR might be indicated.
     Outside.   Where  pet  reinfestation  brings on
Repeated inside infestations, the outside environment
should be treated. Random outside treatment or full
lawn  cover sprays are  not as effective as  careful
treatment of pet resting areas and wild animal habitat
    Kennels,  dog  runs  and  dog houses  are also
obvious areas to treat. Perimeter fences where pets and
wild hosts roam may be the pest interface between one
yard and another. Crawl  spaces, areas under porches,
and openings into basements and attics where pets or
wild animals nest should not be closed  off until the
animals are removed and the area adequately treated.
    Emulsifiable concentrates or microencapsulated
insecticides can be applied  as  spot treatments where
labels  permit.  Emulsifiable  concentrates of many
pesticides  have a  short residual when  exposed to
outside light and weather fluctuations.
    Dusts where they can be applied are often more
effective. Take care not to  overapply dusts.  Dusting
burrows or the protected nesting areas of reinfesting
wild animals can be very effective and might eliminate
the need for trapping or  killing these  animals.
    Pesticides should be reappiied when rainy weather
follows pesticide application.
     Ultrasonic devices. Clients  have  been  led to
believe  that ultrasonic  devices  are effective  flea
deterrents. Cat fleas have NOT been shown to react to
a broad spectrum of ultrasound; consequently, there is
no utility for ultrasonic devices in a flea management

    Thorough  client education is essential both before
and  after  flea  pest   management  programs  are
conducted. Clients must  be well informed or they will
not be motivated to carry through with the steps they
alone  can do.  Flea  infestations, often bring about
emotionally charged  situations  —  especially when
anxieties prevail, such as when children are  involved
or the infestation is long term.
    Pest management technicians must be  able to
clearly and patiently explain the flea life cycle and
how each stage is important. They must clarify how
infestations can persist and that there may be no easy
or quick  solution.  Where infestations are severe or
where management procedures may not be completely
carried out, a  reinspection and  possible retreatment
should be  scheduled  before a rebounding population
cancels out all  of the previous work and cooperative

    Fleas are mainly parasites of mammals and birds.
They  undergo  a complete metamorphosis. The eggs
drop off of the host where  they are deposited by the
female during feeding  periods. The  larvae with
Module One, Chapter 7, Pg 4

chewing mouthparts hatch  and feed on dried host
blood - provided by the feeding female flea. Prior to
pupating,  the larva  spins a  small, loose white silk
cocoon. The pupa molts to an adult inside the cocoon.
Adults emerge from the pupal  cocoon find  the host,
feed by sucking blood,  mate, and produce eggs. The
cat flea is the most  common flea infesting dogs and
cats in the United States.
    Understanding the  life cycle of  the  flea, the
dependence of this pest on its host, and the importance
of the dried host blood, is essential to flea control.

    Removing  dried  blood  and  adult   fleas  by
vacuuming, killing the adult fleas, and using an insect
growth regulator to keep the larvae from pupating will
control flea populations.
                                                                                   Module One, Chapter 7, Pg 5

                            STUDY QUESTIONS FOR MODULE ONE
                                        CHAPTER SEVEN
     1.  The food of flea larvae is principally
             A. blood they suck from the host
             B. dried blood from the female flea
             C. fur from the host
             D. starch
    2.  Adult fleas obtain blood by	.
             A. sucking
             B. chewing
             C. Absorbing
             D. lapping

    3.  Pets that are flea hosts sleep and loaf in particular places rather than randomly lying down when
        they are tired.
             A. True
             B. False

    4.  For control of fleas, it is not important for the pet owner to:
             A. remove the pet
             B. vacuum pest resting spots
             C. treat the pet
             D. clean pet bedding

    5.  Application of an IGR will	.
             A. kill adults
             B. immunize the pet
             C. keep pupae from developing
             D. keep eggs from hatching

    6. Dogs can become allergic to flea bites.
             A. True
             B. False
                                                                       For Answers refer to Appendix A
Module One, Chapter 7, Pg 6

United States   •  ^tt«?e of
Environmental Protection Pesticide ^oSSf^s
Agency       Washington DC 20460
                                 February 1992
Pest Management
           A Guide for
           Commercial Applicators


                                    MODULE TWO
                                   INVADING PESTS


                           Appearance	  2
                           Inspection	  2
                           Habitat Alteration	  3
                           Pesticide Application	  3
                           Follow-up	  3.
                    Attic Flies, Cluster Flies	  3
                           Inspection	  3
                           Habitat Aeration	  4
                           Pesticide Application	  4
                    Structure Infesting Small Flies	  4
                           Fruit Flies and Phorid Flies	 :	  4
                                  Fruit Flies	  4
                                  Phorid Flies	  4
                           Moth Flies or Drain Flies  ....'.	  5
                           Fungus Gnats	  5
                           Midges	  5
                    Summary  .	  6
                    Study Questions	  7

                    Wasps, Yellowjackets, and Hornets	  1
                    Nests and Colonies  	  1
                    Paperwasps	  1
                    Management and  Control of Paper Wasps	  2
                           Habitat Alteration	  2
                           Pesticide Application	  2
                    Yellowjacket	  2
                           Aerial Nesters  	  2
                           Underground Nesters	  3
                           Both Aerial and Ground Nesters	  3
                           The Western Yellowjacket	  4
                           The Common Yellowjacket	  4
                           The Eastern Yellowjacket	  4
                           The Southern Yellowjacket 	  4
                           The German Yellowjacket	  4
                           The Giant Hornet	  4
                           Management of Yellowjackets  	  5
                    Honeybees  	  6
                    The Africanized Bee 	  7
                    Carpenter Bees	  7
                           Habitat Alteration and Pesticide Application	  7
                    Mud Dauber Wasps	  8
                           Habitat Alteration and Pesticide Application	  8

                    Cicada Killer Wasps  	  8
                          Pest Management  	  8
                    Summary	  8
                    Study Questions	  9

                    Black Widow	  2
                          Habitat Alteration	  2
                          Pesticide Application	  2
                    Brown Recluse Spider  . . .	  2
                    Yellow House Spider	  4
                    The Aggressive House Spider	  4
                    Web Weaving Spiders	  5
                          Orb Weaving Spiders	  5
                          Cobweb Spiders	  5
                    Spiders in Boathouses	  5
                    Spiders on Monuments	  5
                    Wandering Spiders  	  6
                          Wolf Spiders	  6
                          Jumping Spiders	  6
                          Crab Spiders	  6
                          Pest Management of Wandering Spiders  	  6
                    Summary	  6
                    Study Questions	7

                    Ticks	  I
                          Life Cycle . •	  2
                          Attachment and Feeding	  2
                    Brown Dog Tick	  2
                    Management and Control of Ticks	  3
                    Ticks and Diseases  	  4
                          Lyme Disease	  4
                                 Responses to Lime Disease  	  4
                          Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever	  4
                          Ticks That Carry Disease  	  4
                                 Deer Ticks	  5
                                 American Dog Tick	  5
                                 Lone Star Tick	  6
                          Tick Pest Management  . .  . -.	  6
                                 Precautions for At-Risk  Group Members	  7
                                 Tick Removal  	  7
                    Mites	'.	  8
                          Human Itch Mite of Scabies Mite  	  8
                          House Dust Mites	  8
                          Bird Mites	,	  8
                    Biting Bugs	  9
                          Bed Bugs  	  9
                                 The Common Bedbug	  9

                                 Bat Bugs	  10
                          Biting Bugs	  10
                   Human Lice  	  11
                          Head Lice	  11
                          Body Lice	  12
                          Crab or Pubic Lice	  13
                   Imaginary Itches	  13
                          Entomophobia	  13
                          Contagious Hysteria	  13
                          Delusory Parasitosis	  15
                   Summary  	  15
                   Study Questions	  16

                   Centipedes   	  1
                   Millipedes	  I
                   Crickets	  2
                          Field Crickets   	  2
                          Camel or Cave Crickets	  2
                   Sowbugs and Pillbugs	  3
                   Earwigs	  3
                          The European Earwig	  3
                          The Striped Earwig	'	  3
                   Boxelder Bug . .	•...'..'	  4
                   Scorpions	  4
                   Clover Mite	  5
                   Summary	  6
                   Study Questions	  7

    The pests discussed in Module One consisted
principally of those that infest structures and for the
main  part remain inside  — generations producing
generations as long as the necessities of food moisture
and harborage hold out Many  of those species are
cosmopolitan. They have been carried over much of
the world by human migrations of trade or conquest.
A  few (some of the cockroaches, for example), have
adapted  so well  to human habits, that  their origin
cannot be identified  with assurance. Ants  are the
possible exception to this  grouping.  They could be
placed in either module, since some species can persist
indoors,  in  colonies,  they have been  included in
Module  One. Module Two covers  arthropod species
that primarily live outside.  Individuals from the local
fauna that invade human habitat but do not reproduce
inside. Exceptions to  this are  spiders, who  with
encouragement produce egg sacs that develop, honey
bees that inhabit building wall voids,  and human lice
whose unique habitat  is  difficult  to designate as
outside nor inside. A final group, the imaginary pests,
are neither outside or inside.
    Pest  species in Module Two also tend to be
regionally distributed.  Many occur in the southern
states but not in northern ones. Likewise, eastern pest
species usually do  not persist much west  of Kansas
(around the 100th  meridian) where related western
ones take over. Module Two pest populations are often
cyclic. They  may verge on the epidemic for several
years and be  rare in others. Some pests — enough to
keep  things interesting —  occasionally enlarge their
ranges by expanding into  new territories, and from
time  to time, new  ones are introduced from other
    Finally, most of the pests in Module Two must be
managed by treatment inside and outside, using either
habitat   alterations,  cultural   changes,   pesticide
applications,   or  all   of   the  pest  management
components. Urban pest management technicians are
certain to find the  pests in both modules  interesting
and their management challenging.
                                                                                 Module Two, Introduction, 1

                                       CHAPTER 1
      Learning Objectives

          After completion of the study of House Flies and Their Relatives, the trainee should
      be able to:

          a   Describe the life cycle and habits of common urban flies.

          a   Given  a specimen of a common urban  pest fly specie,  identify its
              common name or group.

          o   Given a fly management problem, describe pest management procedures needed
              to suppress it.
    Of the five most serious diseases in the world,
flies, including mosquitoes, spread the organisms that
are responsible for four: Malaria, sleeping sickness,
Leishmaniasis and filariasis. They also are responsible
for yellow fever, typhoid,  and various diarrhea!
illnesses.  In the United States,  the toll of the worst
afflictions  — heart attacks, cancer and strokes — is
annually numbered in the thousands; in the tropics, the
dead and disabled from fly borne diseases are counted
by  the millions. In the  United  States,  flies are
considered more annoying than dangerous; as recendy
as the turn of the 20th century, however, malaria and
typhoid were major health problems.
    Flies, the order  Diptera, are one of die largest
and most dynamic orders of insects. This vast order is
characterized by having only one pair of wings. Most
flies are also small, soft bodied; often, two large eyes
cover the front of the head.
    Flies  can be   divided  into   two  groups;
distinguishing differences center around the appearance
of the larvae and adults.
    In Group 1:
    »   The  adults  are small  —  gnat  or
        mosquito-like  with long antennae and
        slender legs.
    >   Larvae have head capsules and most
        live in water or moist soil.
                  Moiquilo Larva
    In Group 2:
    »   The adults  have stout  bodies; their
        antennae are short or not visible; some
        are relatively large but usually not long
    »   Larvae do not have discernible heads
        and  are  often   maggot-like.  Their
        harborage varies  — they live in water,
        filth, soil, carcasses, plant tissues or
        animal tissues.
                   Fly Maggoc

    All dull gray flies about 1/4 inch long found
inside or even near  structures will likely be called
House  flies.  If  the  identification is incorrect,  it
                                                                            Module Two, Chapter I, Pg 1

    Flies often tell the same story:  they  frequent
garbage, dead animals and manure. Their larvae live
in that material. To enter a house, they have flown
inside through an open door or window, or they have
moved from a dead bird or rodent in a wall.

     Both the House fly, (Musca domestica) that lives
on garbage or manure, and its close relative, the Face
fly  (Musca autumnalis) that lives  on fresh cattle
manure,  are about  1/4 inch long. They have a dull-
gray thorax with dark stripes and a dark, dull abdomen
with yellow sides.
     Flesh  flies  (the  family  Sarcophagidae)  live on
meat scraps, dead animals and dog excrement; they are
more than 1/4 inch long, have a dull-gray thorax with
^ree distinct dark  stripes  and a gray checkerboard
     Blow flies (the family Calliphoridae) are about
1/4 inch long. Their  thorax  and abdomen are shiny
black,    metallic green  or bronze,  or  they have a
metallic blue abdomen with a dull thorax. They live on
dead animals, meat  scraps in garbage, and wet mixed
     The Cluster fly  (Pollenia rudis) is also in  the
family Calliphoridae. It is slightly more than 1/4 inch
long. Its thorax is  covered with gray or yellowish
hairs; it has no stripes, Its abdomen is dark gray with
light patches.

     When any of these flies become problems inside,
their breeding site  and  their larvae  will usually be
close by. If animals are nearby, investigate for manure
concentrations. Garbage cans and dumpsters are often
the problem source;  even  soil where garbage has
decomposed will support infestations.
     »   House flies infest most garbage, manure
         (horses,  cattle,  poultry,  pet),  filth
                      Face Ry

     »   Face flies need fresh cattle manure for
         egg laying.
     »   Flesh flies, like blow flies,  live in pet
         manure,  meat scraps in garbage, and
         dead animals.
     »   Blow flies are scavengers and live in
         manure, carrion, dead birds and rodents
         in wall voids and chimneys. One Blow
         fly, called the Cluster  fly,  parasitizes
     Look for fly sources where buildings are infested.
Observe sanitation  in  the  areas  where flies  are
     »   The most common means of fly entry is
         through open doors.  Look for door
         props, and hooks, as well as gaps where
         broom handles are stuck over hinges to
         hold the door open.
     Evaluate garbage management.
     »   Garbage  left  in the building  or on
         loading    docks   is   an   attractant.
Module Two, Chapter 1. Pg 2

         Garbage  should  be  removed  from
         the premises twice a week.
    In favorable weather, House fly larvae mature in
6-10 days and Blow flies in 3-9  days. They live in
refuse only from the egg laying to the mature larval
stage. Then the mature larvae crawl away to pupate,
emerging as adults later.

Habitat Alteration
    »    Caulk and tighten around all openings
         such  as   screens,  doors,  windows,
         ventilators, and eves.
    Emphasize  sanitation:  Make   die  following
recommendations to clients. [If sanitation cannot be
improved,  other  methods  of  control will  not be
    »    Remove  breeding materials such  as
         garbage and manure.
    •>    Clean  garbage cans  and   dumpsters
         regularly,  and  any  fresh   overflow
    »    Clean food delivery spills immediately.
    »    Drain  wet  areas  around  garbage
         collection sites.
    V    Keep loading docks clean.
    *    Install air curtains  where doors  remain
         open for deliveries, etc.
    »    Install automatic door  closers.
    »    Replace white security lights inside and
         outside with yellow lights.

Pesticide Application
    »    Fly  strips can  be  placed in low access
         rooms, such as attics and storerooms.
    »    Fly  bait can eliminate adult  flies when
         methods  are  in  place that  reduce
         breeding  sites.
    »    Electric fly traps will control only a low
         level of adult flies. [Watch these traps
         to see what kinds of flies  are being
    »    Do  not place blacklight fly traps where
         they will  attract insects from outside;
         Do  not put diem in competition with
         other lights such as those from vending
         machines, etc.
    »    Aerosol contact sprays can be used to
         knock  down   adult   flies   -   after
         elimination  of breeding   sites   and
         exclusion methods are in effect.
    »    Ultra-low   dosage   applications   of
         nonresidual pesticides  can be used if an
         adult  infestation  must  be  quickly
         reduced outside.
Follow up
    Regularly check sanitation and exclusion methods
to see that they are being maintained. Observe client
and  worker  habits  that run  counter  to die pest
management  program  (sanitation, habitat alteration,
and so forth). Hold training clinics for workers about
fly pest management.
                      Reih Fly

     The same flies that enter structures: House flies,
Face flies, some Blow flies, Flesh  flies and  Cluster
flies, normally overwinter as adults. In nature, these
locations are under bark, in hollow parts of trees or
under the bark of logs. They begin seeking shelter at
die end of the hot part of summer.
     If they begin investigating structure walls in this
search for winter harborage, their upward movement
often brings diem to openings under siding, ventilators
and weep holes in masonry, cracks around windows,
wire penetrations, wall voids, and openings around die
roof. Unused attics are good overwintering sites.
     Flies,  Elm Leaf beetles,  Boxelder  bugs and
female  Paper  wasps (all  hidden in attic cracks) will
begin flying to windows on warm winter days. They
often make  their way  down through closets and
chimney cracks into living spaces of die house. This
same  behavior  takes  place  in  office  buildings,
hospitals, and other structures.

     Frequently finding  flies dead at windows may
indicate an Attic fly infestation.
                                                                                  Module Two, Chapter 1. Pg 3

 Habitat Alteration
     »   Caulk cracks and crevices as much as
     »   Tighten up and caulk around windows
         and screen ventilating spaces under the

 Pesticide Application
     »   Use liquid pressurized sprays or dusts
         where flies have collected in wall voids.
         Likewise,  treat  around  window  and
         door  frames  and  other  cracks  and
     »   Use  aerosols  or  space sprays where
         large numbers of flies are active; these
         formulations   will   control  exposed
     »   Hang sticky fly strips in front of attic
         windows, especially east windows.
     »   Apply residual pesticides labeled for fly
         control  to surfaces  where  flies  rest,
         provided those surfaces are not used by
 Fruit Flies and Phorid Flies
 Drosophila and the family Phoridae
     These small flies (from two different fly families)
 often are mistaken for each other. They are about 1/8
 in  long and  somewhat similar  looking,  but  their
 biology and management are very different. Treatment
 of these fly infestations are a good example of the site
 specific  nature of successful pest management.
     Several   species  of  Drosophila   have  been
 immensely beneficial to mankind because of their use
 in the study of genetics and heredity. Fruit flies are
 attracted to nearly any material that is fermented by
 yeast. These small flies commonly  have bright red
 fees, although some species' eyes are dull-dark red.
 The head and thorax are yellowish to brown, and the
abdomen is light brown to dark with yellow bands.
    The wing vein structure is important and can be
seen with a hand lens. It consists of a thickened vein
bordering the front  margin of the  wing  from the
attachment at the thorax  to the wing tip. Four other
long veins can be seen on the rest of the wing.
    In  a common Fruit fly  infestation,  flies are
attracted to  the  sweet  odor of fermentation in ripe
fruit, like bananas; they lay their eggs in the cracks of
the peel. Fruit fly larvae hatch, then feed on  yeast
cells in the fruit. The life cycle can be  completed in
not much more than a week.
     Newly-emerged adults are attracted  to lights, but
egg laying females will not leave fermenting materials.
Fruits,  vegetables,  beer,  fermenting  water  from
refrigerators, humidifiers, sink drains, sour  mops and
rags, and fermenting pet food  are  good examples of
fermenting   material.  Infestations  are  common  in
orchards, breweries, restaurants, canneries,  hospitals,
and homes.
    When certain the  infesting insect is a fruit fly,
look for fermenting materials. Begin with  ripe fruit
and  vegetables,  then   proceed   to   less  obvious
     »    Use fly traps baited with bananas to find
         the most heavily infested areas when the
         source  is very obscure.
     *•    Be  sure to  inspect  outside  of the
         building near windows.

Habitat Alteration
     »    Tighten up gaps where flies can enter.
     »    Use  small mesh screening  to  exclude
         these small flies.
     »    Discard or clean infested  material.
     »    Use precautions to remove files before
         fruit is brought to terminal points when
         the infestation originates in the field or
         orchard.  Infestations  in  canneries and
         fruit markets are particularly difficult to

    Phorids or humpbacked flies are about the  same
size as  fruit flies or a little smaller.  They are dark
brown and have  a humpbacked appearance - a visual
effect caused by  a small head located low on the front
bulge of the thorax.
    Wing venation consists of several short, thickened
veins on the  foremargin of  the  wing  near the
attachment to the thorax. These veins do  not extend to
 Module Two, Chapter 1, Pg 4

the wing tip,  and other  veins are weak or nearly
invisible. Phorids run in short jerks.
    These  flies become problems  when they infest
decomposing plant or animal matter. Buried animals,
garbage, or broken sewer lines support large numbers
of phorids.  Phorids also infest bodies in mausoleums.
    Adults are able to emerge from the underground
infestation site upwards through several feet of soil. If
broken sewer lines are under buildings, phorids can
come up through cracks in concrete floors or around
floor drains. When water and sewage wash out cavities
in the soil around  the pipe, immense numbers of flies
are produced.

    Carefully identify the infesting fly as  a phorid.
Locate the area where most flies appear. Ask clients if
there  have  been  sewer problems, buried garbage,
decaying vegetable, or animal matter close by.

Habitat Alteration
    *•  Remove   decaying matter  and  soil
        contaminated by it.
    »  Where sewer lines must  be repaired,
        insist that sewage contaminated soil also
        be removed.
    »  Caulk  all floor and wall cracks where
        flies may enter.

The family Psychodidae
    Moth flies  are about 1/8 inch long.  Their dark
color  comes from tiny  hairs that cover  the  wings
which  are held  in roof-like fashion over the body.
Moth flies have  long, drooping antennae.
    Larvae live in  the  gelatinous material in sink
drains  traps  and  sewers.  Where  sinks  regularly
overflow, these flies build up in the  overflow  pipe.
When drain traps of sinks, commodes, and floor drains
dry out, large numbers can enter dwellings from the
    Drain  traps should be cleaned  mechanically or
with drain cleaners. Without larval control, adults will
continuously emerge.
    In sewage treatment plants, drain flies feed on the
gelatinous material that collects on stones in trickling
filter beds.  Over time, however, cast skins from these
filter  flies  can  slow  down water  drainage.  When
sewage treatment  plant filter beds malfunction or
become "out  of balance," the moth flies can become
problems in  nearby  neighborhoods. The filter bed
should be cleaned by reverse or back flushing.

The   families    Mycetophilidae    and
    Fungus gnats are slender, delicate mosquito-like
insects. Their larvae infest moist soil and feed on fungi
associated with decaying vegetation. Indoors,  fungus
gnats infest flower pots. They also build up in pigeon
droppings  on outside  ledges, then enter  dwellings
through nearby windows.
                    Fungui Gnat

The family Chironomidae
     Midges look very much like mosquitoes but do
not bite. Midge larvae live in water, especially  in
quiet, still water.
     Adult midges are the driving force behind some
spider infestations on buildings and monuments (see
Orb Web spiders, Chapter 3). The adults fly to lights
and enter dwellings through gaps.
     Management is  site  specific;  pesticides are
generally not useful. Manipulating lights will reduce
midge attraction. As part of the pest management plan,
note flight periods  and times.  The larvae of some
species of midges indicate a larger pollution problem.
                                                                                Module Two, Chapter 1, Pg 5

SUMMARY                                         of their disease vectoring ability — particularly in less
     Flies, insects with complete metamorphosis, in the    developed countries. In urban areas, flies contaminate
great order Diptera are characterized by having only    food and people in restaurants, hospitals, homes. They
one pair of wings. These insects carry diseases and are    are annoying indicators of sanitation, structural, and
fcsponsible for  millions of deaths each year because    cultural problems.
Module Two, Chapter 1, ff 6

                         STUDY QUESTIONS FOR MODULE TWO
                                       CHAPTER ONE
                          HOUSEFLIES AND THEIR RELATIVES
1.  Distinguish between Drosophila or fruit flies and phorid flies.
2.  Briefly distinguish between house flies, flesh flies, blow flies and cluster flies.
3.  Briefly describe the two major divisions of die order Diptera characterized by form.
4.  Describe the life cycle of the cluster fly.
5.  List at least three pest management procedures for house fly and blow fly infestations.
6.  List at least three pest management procedures for fruit fly or Drosophila infestations.
                                                                     For Answers refer to Appendix A
                                                                          Module Two, Chapter 1, Pg 7

                                        CHAPTER 2
                               STINGING PESTS
      Learning Objectives

              After completion of the study of Stinging Insects, the trainee should be able to:

          a   Identify common urban stinging insect pests.

          o   Describe the life cycles of yellowjackets, paper wasps, mud daubers,
              honeybees, and carpenter bees.

          a   Given an  urban  stinging insect problem, describe  integrated  pest
              management procedures to suppress  it.
    The insects most beneficial to humans are found
in the large insect order Hymenoptera. Not only are
the  bees and  many of their relatives pollinators of
flowering plants, including fruits and vegetables, but
thousands of species of small wasps are parasites of
other arthropods including pest insects. Without these
parasites that limit the  growth of insect populations,
pests would overtake most crops.
    The urban pests of the order Hymenoptera are the
stinging insects. Although the first image to come to
mind implies danger to humans, these yellowjackets,
hornets, and wasps sometimes serve our interest: They
feed their young largely on flies and caterpillars.
    Many of these stinging insects are social.  They
live in  colonies  with a caste system or a division of
labor and overlapping generations - all offspring of
one individual reproductive.  Some of these colonies
persist for many years (ants, honey bees) and others,
like stinging wasps, start anew each year.
    In parts of the United States, particularly in the
eastern states,  yellowjackets, wasps, hornets and bees
are all called bees by the general public. Of course the
general public is principally focused on one attribute
these insects have in common - their stingers.
    Knowledge of die behavior of  these pests is
essential to their management; effective communication
with frightened or, at best,  fearful  clients  is an
important skill technicians must develop.
    Nests of stinging pests are usually the target for
control. Understanding nesting and the make-up of the
colony is essential.

    Yellowjackets, hornets and paper wasps are all in
the same insect family, Vespidae. The common Paper
wasp with its umbrella shaped nest or single comb best
demonstrates the basic building pattern of a colony.
                                                                     Paper Waip
                                                                             Module Two, Chapter 2, Pg 1

    Paper  wasp  queens,  like  other  Vespid  nest
mothers, is the lone female reproductive, who begins
her nest by  attaching a  thick paper  strand to an
overhanging structure. She then builds  hollow paper
cells by chewing  wood  or plant fibers (cellulose)
mixed with water and shaped with her mouthparts.
                   Piper WupNert

    When a half dozen cells  or  so are  hanging
together, the Queen lays an egg near die bottom of
each one. The little white grubs that hatch from the
egg glue their rear ends in die cell and begin receiving
nourishment  in  the form  of  chewed  up bits  of
caterpillars provided by their mother. When they grow
large  enough to fill the  cell cavity, they break die
glued spot and hold on their own by their stuffed fat
bodies, hanging head down.
    Mature larvae, then, spin silk caps, closing off die
cell, and molt into pupae. This  same larval behavior
pattern is followed by yellowjackets and hornets also.
All are  females. Other than their white color, these
Vespid  pupae look like  adults; diey  develop adult
systems, then shed  dieir pupal  skins, chew through
their silk cell cap, pump out their wings, and take dieir
)lace as worker assistants to dieir modier. (Paper wasp
queens and workers are  the same size; yellowjacket
and hornet queens are larger man dieir daughters.)
    From Spring on,  me queen lays eggs and me
daughter workers feed larvae and expand the comb or
nest. They do not eat  me protein (insect) food they
gather for the larvae but get  their energy from flower
nectar.   Later in the season,  some  of the larvae
develop into males and others will become next year's
    The new males and  females mate wirn diose of
other colonies, and the fertilized females  find hiding
places under tree bark or in logs and wait out die
winter until raey can begin  dieir new colony in the
    The male Vespids die in winter, likewise the nest
disintegrates and will not be used again.

PAPER WASPS (Polistes)
    Paper wasps nests are often found near doorways
and other  human activity areas without  occupants
being stung. Colonies can become problems, but when
they do, Paper wasps  can be controlled easily.
    When  attracted to fallen ripe fruit, diese wasps
sting people who venture into the same. area. Colonies
in trees, out buildings, hollow fence posts and other
protected places are not as easy to control as those
from nests on structures.

Habitat Alteration
     »   Remove old nests and scrape the point
         of  attachment.  [This   spot  is   often
         selected by new queens for attachment
         of new combs.]
     »   Remove  ripe  fallen  fruit as often  as
     »   Caulk  openings  in   attics,  window
         frames, and  around wall penetrations to
         keep  overwintering  females  out  of
         unused rooms and spaces.

Pesticide Application
     »   Use pressurized sprays that propel spray
         for 8-12 feet  or   use  aerosols  on
         extension poles especially manufactured
         for aerosol cans.
     »   If a ladder is needed wear a bee suit and
         veil. Proceed cautiously.
     Yellowjacket (with eighteen species  in North
America) colonies begin with a large fertilized queen;
she  develops smaller  daughter  workers  and later
reproductives just as die Paper wasps, but the nest
structure is not die same. Some yellowjacket nests
hang in  trees and  shrubs, and  some  are developed

Aerial Nesters
     Several  yellowjackets make die aerial football-
shaped paper nests, commonly called hornets nests.
Two of these yellowjackets are common: die Aerial
yellowjacket, Dolichovespula arenaria, and die Bald
Faced  hornet, Dolichovespula maculata.
Module Two, Chapter 2, Pg 2

                  Bald Faced Herat

    The Aerial yellowjacket  is found  in  the  west,
Canada, and east (but not in the central and southern
states). This species begins its  nest in March or April
and is finished and no longer active by the end of July.
Their nests, usually attached to building overhangs are
smaller and more round than those of other species.
    The Bald Faced hornet is larger than the other
yellowjackets and is  black and white - not black and
yellow. It lives along the west coast, across Canada,
and in all of the states in the eastern half  of the
                 Bald faced Home Neat

    On warm spring days, the large Aerial nesting
queen develops a small  comb, like the Paper wasp
with a dozen or so cells, but she encloses it in a round
gray paper envelope. The daughter workers later take
over die nest duties, and by  mid summer,  when the
worker population is growing and food is plentiful, the
nest is expanded to full size. A full-sized Bald Faced
hornet nest consists not of a single umbrella comb like
the Paper wasp, but four to six wide circular combs —
one hanging below the other and all enclosed with an
oval paper envelope consisting of several  insulating
layers. Bald faced hornets not only gather flies, but are
large  enough  to  kill  and  use  other  species of
yellowjackets for larval food. They attach their nests
to low shrubs  or high  in  trees  or on  buildings.
Although  Aerial colonies can  have four to seven
hundred workers at one  time,  their food gathering
habits  do  not routinely bring them  in contact  with
humans. Large nests are  often discovered only  after
leaves  have fallen and the nests are exposed - both to
view and to nature's elements that finally bring about
their disintegration.

Underground Nesters
    The  stinging  wasp,   often  identified  as  a
yellowjacket, is black and yellow. Primarily yellow
bands cover a dark abdomen. These species are in the
genus  Vespula.
    They begin their nests (ike the aerial nesters -
with an enveloped small  comb  made of wood  fiber
paper.  Only these nests are started in soil depressions,
rodent burrows, or  in any small hole in the ground
that will give protection until workers can develop.
    Once workers begin nest care,, they  enlarge the
entrance hole and expand die nest. Combs are placed
in tiers, one below the other. They can be very large;
they have firm support from die soil surrounding the
external envelope.  Several species of Vespula make
their nests  in building wall voids, attics, hollow trees
and other enclosed spaces as well as the ground.

Both  Aerial and Ground Nesters
    Of the thirteen species in North America, only a
few require pest management. These few species have
certain characteristics and habits that put them  on a
collision course with people;
     »    They  can live in what might be called
         disturbed environments (areas that have
         been changed to suit human activities in
         urban  settings)  such  as  yards,  golf
         courses, parks, and  other recreation
     »    They  have large colonies - some will
         develop thousands of workers.
     *•    Their habits do not restrict diem to a
         specific kind of prey. Foraging workers
         capture insects  for their larvae and
         nectar and other sweet  carbohydrates
         for themselves where they can find it.
         Essentially, they are  scavengers and
         work over garbage cans and dumpsters.
         They   especially  enjoy  picnics  and
         football games.
One can easily see that these habits put a large number
of foraging stinging insects into close association with
large populations of humans.
                                                                                  Module Two, Chapter 2, Pg 3

Vespula pensylvanica
    This is the primary pest yellowjacket in the west
and is found from Washington to California. It often
builds its nests in rodent burrows, clearing°the ground
around the entrance and producing a colony of around
5,000 workers.  This yellowjacket preys on a wide
variety of arthropods but also scavenges. It has been
known  to  drive  out  loggers,  fruit pickers,  and
campers, as well as food facility customers.

Vespula vulgaris
    Second  in importance  in the western states, V.
vulgaris  also   ranges  across  Canada  and  the
northeastern United  States.  Common  in  higher
elevations, it nests in shady evergreen forests around
parks and camps in the western mountains and the
eastern Appalachians. This species also is one  of die
most important stinging insects in Europe.

Vespula macufifrons
    This common ground  nesting  yellowjacket is
distributed over  the eastern half of the United States.
Its western border is  from eastern Texas  north to
eastern North Dakota. Workers are slightly smaller
than most yellowjackets, but colony size can number
around 5,000 or more individuals.  The nest  of V.
macidifrons is dark tan, made of partially decomposed
wood and is quite  brittle. The Eastern yellowjacket
sometimes nests  in building wall voids.
    Most yellowjackets have very slightly barbed
stingers but the sting will not set in the victim's tissue
jke the barbed stinger of the honey bee. The stinger
  V. maculifrons, however, often sticks and when the
insect is slapped off, the stinger may remain.  [When
stingers are retained, it cannot always be assumed to
be a honey bee.]

Vespula squamosa
    Distributed from Texas, north to  Iowa, and east
to the Atlantic coast, this yellowjacket is particularly
common in  the southeastern quarter  of the  United
States. In Florida, colonies are known to be active for
more  than one year; these southern colonies  remain
active later in the summer and build up large numbers
of  workers   and  reproductives.  The   Southern
yellowjacket sometimes nests in building wall voids.

Vespula geimanica
    In  Europe,  German   yellowjacket nests  are
subterranean, but in North America the vast majority
of reported nests are in structures. This yellowjacket
is distributed throughout the northeastern quarter of
the United States. Nests in  attics and wall voids are
large,  and workers can chew  through  ceilings and
walls  into adjacent rooms. The nest and nest envelope
of this yellowjacket is made of strong light gray paper
much like that of the Western yellowjacket. Colonies
of this yellowjacket may be active in protected voids
into  November   and   December   when   outside
temperatures are not severe.

Vespa crabro
    The last Vespid to be discussed  is  the Giant
hornet (sometimes called the European hornet or the
German hornet). Technically, this wasp is the only
hornet in North America, but it did not originate here;
it was introduced from  Europe. It is found in die
northeastern quarter of the United States; it  ranges as
far south as North  Carolina  and Tennessee  with
scattered sightings extending west of the Mississippi
    The Giant hornet is reddish-brown and yellow and
almost an inch long. It builds its nest mainly  in hollow
trees, and in wall voids of barns, sheds and sometimes
houses. An open window or door is an invitation to
hornet workers,  and they  frequent buildings under
construction.  Their large combs  and envelope are
constructed of partially decomposed wood and,  like the
Eastern yellowjacket, are very brittle. Workers of the
Giant hornet capture a variety of insects including bees
and yellowjackets to feed their young. Workers also
have a habit of stripping bark back from some shrubs
Module Two, Chapter 2, Pf 4

— especially lilac. As they girdle the branches, they
lick the sap from the torn edge. They will  sting
humans, and the sting is painful.
     Problems with yellowjackets occur mainly when:
     »   humans step on or jar a colony entrance
     »   a colony has  infested a wall void or
         attic and  has either chewed through the
         wall into the house or the entrance hole
         is  located  in a  place  that  threatens
         occupants as they enter or leave the
     »   worker  yellowjackets are no  longer
         driven to feed larvae in the late summer
         months, and they wander, searching for
         nectar and juices — finding ripe, fallen
         back yard fruit,  beer, soft drinks  and
         sweets at picnics, weddings, recreation
         areas, sporting events and other human
     Yellowjackets  are sometimes  responsible for
injections of anerobic bacteria (organisms that cause
blood poisoning).  When yellowjackets frequent wet
manure and sewage they pick up the bacteria on their
abdomens  and  stingers.   In  essence,  the  stinger
becomes a hypodermic needle. A contaminated stinger
can inject the bacteria beneath the victim's skin. Blood
poisoning should be kept in mind when yellowjacket
stings are encountered.

     Sting victims  often can identify the location of
yellowjacket nests. Where  the  nest has not  been
located look in shrubbery, hedges, and low tree limbs
for the Bald Faced hornet.  Soil nests are often located
under shrubs, logs, piles of rocks and other protected
sites. Entrance holes sometimes have bare earth around
them. Entrance holes in structures are usually marked
by fast flying workers entering and leaving. Nests high
in trees should not be problems. Be sun to wear a bee
suitor tape trouser cuffs tight to shoes.

Habitat Alteration
     Management of outdoor food  is very important.
     »   Clean garbage cans  regularly and fit
         them with tight lids.
     »   Empty cans and dumpsters daily prior
         to  periods of  heavy  human traffic at
         zoos,   amusement  parks,  fairs   and
         sporting events.
     »   Remove  attractive  refuse,  such  as
         bakery sweets, soft drink  cans,  and
         candy wrappers,  several times a  day
         during periods of wasp and yellowjacket
     »   Locate food facilities strategically at late
         summer activities  so that yellowjackets
         are not  lured  to dense crowds  and
         events. [The  National Park Service in
         their IPM programs, found that stings
         were dramatically reduced when drinks
         are served in  cups with lids.]
     *   Clean drink dispensing machines; screen
         food  dispensing  stations,  and locate
         trash  cans away from food dispensing
     *   To  limit  yellowjacket  infestations in
         wall  voids and attics, keep holes  and
         entry  spaces  in- siding caulked; screen
         ventilation openings.

Pesticide Application
     When possible, treat ground and aerial nests after
dark [Workers are in the nest at that time]. More often
than  not,  because of traditional work schedules,
treatment will be scheduled for the daytime.
     Begin with the entrance hole  in view and a good
plan in mind.
     »   Wear  a protective  bee suit. Unless these
         insects can hold  on with  their tarsal
         claws, they cannot get the  leverage to
         sting.  Bee suits are made with  smooth
         rip-stop nylon  which does not allow
         wasps and bees to hold  on.  A bee veil
         and gloves are part  of the uniform.
         Wrist and ankle cuffs must  be taped or
         tied to keep  the insects  out of  sleeves
         and pant legs.
     »   Move slowly and with caution. Quick
         movements will be met with aggressive
         behavior.  Move cautiously  to  prevent
         stumbling or falling onto the colony.
     »   Have  equipment handy so one trip  will

     »   Insert the plastic extension tube from a
         pressurized liquid  spray  or  aerosol
         generator in the entrance hole;  release
         the pesticide  for   10 to 30 seconds.
         Resmethrin is most effective.
     »   If the  pressurized  liquid  spray includes
         chemicals  that  rapidly lower  nest
         temperature (freeze products), be aware
         that it will damage shrubbery.
                                                                                  Module Two, Chapter 2, Pg 5

     »   Plug the entrance hole with dusted steel
         wool or copper gauze.  Dust the plug
         and  area  immediately   around  the
         entrance. [Returning yellowjackets cue
         on  entrance  holes  using  surrounding
         landmarks  and  seeing  the  shadowed
         opening. They will land at the entrance
         and pull  at the  plug picking up  toxic
         dust. Any  still  alive inside will also
         work at the dusted plug.
     Aerial Nests
     »   Cut aerial nests down and seal diem in
         a plastic bag. [The queen  and workers
         inside will be dead,  and larvae will fall
         out of their cells and die from either
         insecticide  poisoning  or  starvation.
         Pupae  in capped cells may escape the
         treatment, however, and emerge later.]
     »   Be  especially  cautious   when  using
         ladders to  get  at aerial nests  or wall
         void nests. Set the ladder carefully and
         move slowly.
     Wall Voids
     »   Approach  the entrance hole cautiously;
         stay out of the normal flight pattern.,
     »   Watch   first.   Observe   whether
         yellowjackets  entering  the  nest  go
         straight in or to one side or the  other.
     »   Insert the  narrow diameter plastic tube
         in the hole in die observed direction of
         entrance and release pesticide for 10-30
     »   Dust inside the entrance and plug it as
         with underground nests.
     »   Remember, German yellowjacket nests
         may remain active into December.
     »   Use care  not  to  contaminate  food
     Spraying trash cans and the outside of food stands
will reduce or repel  yellowjackets at sporting events;
the treatment will not last more than one  day. Honey
bees  are also  killed with  this  control  measure.
Remember, do not contaminate food surfaces.
     A  synthetic chemical lure (composed of 2,3-
hexadienyl butyrate) is   attractive  to the Western
yellowjacket  Traps with this lure were found to
depress  wasp populations successfully  in  a peach
orchard  and  in  some  western campsites.  They are
ineffective with eastern species.

     Ongoing monitoring throughout   the  active
yellowjacket   season  is  essential  when  a  pest
nnagement program is in place at parks,  recreational
areas, zoos and other outdoor activity areas.
Apis melUfera
     The honey bee was  introduced into the  United
States in Colonial America. Honey bees are highly
social insects  and communicate  with  each  other,
relaying direction and distance of nectar and pollen
sources. Bees make combs of waxen cells placed side
by side that provide spaces to rear young and to store
honey.  The  bee colony  lives  on the stored honey
throughout  winters, and  therefore,  can  persist  for
     When colony populations are high, the queen may
move part  of  the  colony to new harborage. Bees
swarm  at this  time, usually finding hollow trees to
begin their  new colony, but they occasionally work
their way into building wall voids.
     A honey bee colony in a  house wall can cause
major problems. The bees can chew  through the wall
and  fly inside. Their storage  of large amounts  of
honey invites other bees and wasps.  Their detritus
(e.g., dead bees, shedded  larval skins, wax caps from
combs and other material) attracts beetles and moths.
     When a bee colony is found in a building wall, it
must be killed. Killing can  be  accomplished in the
same way  as killing  yellowjackets in wall voids is
done. Listen to the bee noise from inside rooms to
locate the exact position of the nest in the wall to
assure mat the whole colony  is treated.
     After the colony is dead, remove the nest. If die
nest is not removed, die wax combs — normally cooled
by the bees - will melt and allow honey to flow down
through die walls. Honey stain can never be removed;
the walls will have to be replaced. As well, die freed
honey attracts robber bees and wasps. The comb wax
will attract  wax moths that  may persist  for several
years. The dead bees attract carpet beetles.
Module Two, Chapter 2, Pj 6

    After the colony is killed the entrance hole should
be  caulked  or  repaired, to  prevent  further  bee

    The Africanized bee is the same species as the
European honey  bee kept by beekeepers all over the
United States. Introduced  into Brazil from southern
Africa, it is adapted to longer warm seasons than are
northern honey bees.
    It is thought that this bee will advance as far into
the northern temperate region as  it has  into the
southern temperate region. If this is true, Africanized
bees will be distributed north in a line that will reach
from   southern  Pennsylvania,  west  to   Seattle,
    Africanized  bees do not store as much honey  to
take them through the  winter as honey bees do. They
have smaller colonies and tend to swarm more often.
Smaller swarms allow  colony development in smaller
cavities.  In South and Central America, Africanized
swarms settle in hollow trees like northern honey bees;
they also colonize  in rubber tires, crates and boxes,
wall voids, abandoned vehicles and other protected
places that abound in urban areas. Worker bees tend to
mob intruders. The urbanized Africanized honey bee
presents  a new  management  challenge not  only  to
beekeepers but to urban pest management technicians.
    Carpenter Bees are not social insects; they live
only one  year. The most  common Carpenter Bee,
Xylocopa  virginica,  is distributed throughout  the
eastern half of North America. This bee is a large
insect with a hairy yellow thorax and a shiny black
abdomen.  Superficially, it resembles yellow and black
female bumble bees, which are social and more closely
related to honey bees. Western Carpenter bees are also
large, shiny, sometimes metallic, and are shaped like
bumble bees.
    Carpenter bees bore in wood and make a long
tunnel provisioned with pollen and eggs. They prefer
to enter  unpainted  wood  and commonly  tunnel  in
redwood and unpainted deck timber. They will also go
into painted wood especially if any type of start hole
is present New females reuse old tunnels year after
year;  they are also  attracted to  areas where other
females   are  tunneling.  Egg  laying and  tunnel
provisioning occurs in the spring. Males hover around
die tunnel entrance while the female provisions  the
nest and lays eggs.
     Males dart at intruders belligerently but they can
do no harm;  they have no stingers. Since these bees
are not social, there is no worker caste to protect the
nest. Stings of females are rare.
     New  adults emerge after the middle of summer
and  can be seen feeding at flowers until they seek
overwintering sites, sometimes in the tunnels.

Habitat Alteration and  Pesticide Application
     Carpenter  bees  drill  into the  end grain  of
structural  wood or into the face of a wooden member,
then  turn and tunnel with the grain.
     Dust  tunnels or inject with pressurized  liquid
insecticide. Insert a  dusted plug  of steel wool  or
copper gauze  in the tunnel; fill the opening with caulk,
wood filler, or a wooden dowel. [A dusted plug stops
new  adults who otherwise would emerge  through
shallow caulking.] Caution should be taken, especially
if technicians are working on ladders and if they are
not experienced with these rather harmless bees.
Family Sphecidae
    Mud Dauber  wasps are  not  social wasps like
Paper wasps. They are in  a different family.  Many
paralyze spiders to provision mud cells built to enclose
eggs, larvae and pupae. The mud cells form long clay
tubes or large lumps. The wasps are slender; they are
                                                                                 Module Two, Chapter 2, Pg 7

 shiny black or brown, orange or yellow, with black
 markings. Many have long slender thread waists.
     Like Carpenter bees there is no protective worker
 caste;  these wasps are not aggressive; they will not
 sting unless pressed or handled. Mud Daubers place
 their mud  nests in  protected places  like electric
 motors, sheds, attics, against house siding and under
 porch ceilings. So many wasps congregate at the same
 site to  construct the mud nests that later removal of the
 nests and repainting is often expensive.

.Habitat Alteration and Pesticide Application
     Mud daubers are  killed easily with aerosol contact
 sprays. Scrape away  mud  nests, and  cover problem
 areas with a good quality smooth paint. Nesting should
 be discouraged on  porticos and  high  porches of
 historically important  buildings.

 Family Sphecidae
 Sphecius speciosus
^   Cicada killers are very  large yellow and black
Natives of mud daubers, however they do  not look
 like mud daubers. More than one inch long, they look
 like "monster" yellowjackets.

 Pest  Management
     Cicada killers can be ignored by those who accept
 an explanation of their harmless nature.  Each wasp,
being a female, has a stinger; each can sting. Due to
their  size  and fierce  looks, however,  stings  are
extremely uncommon.  When there is  undue worry
about these huge wasps, open  soil burrows can  be
dusted individually; the female will be killed when she
     Stinging insects are included in  the very large
order Hymenoptera.  Hymenoptera undergo complete
metamorphosis and thousands of species are parasites
of other insects.  When they parasitize pest insects,
man lists them as beneficial insects; in  many instances
they are encouraged, protected or reared and released
for their pest suppression qualities. Many species of
Hymenoptera  are social,  including stinging insects
such as yellowjackets, paper wasps and honey bees as
well as the ants.  Stinging social insects (with the
single queen) can be very aggressive because there are
many workers that can be used to protect the hive and
even expend their life doing it.  Stinging, non-social
hymenoptera such as mud daubers, cicada killers and
carpenter  bees tend to be non-aggressive  and  are
usually single, fertile females or queens that do not
have a colony or a protective caste with the individuals
that can be expended.
 Module Two. Chapter 2, Pg 8

                         STUDY QUESTIONS FOR MODULE TWO
                                      CHAPTER TWO
                                    STINGING INSECTS
 1.   Describe the two types of nesting habits of yellowjackets.
. 2.   Describe the nesting habits of the paper wasps, Polistes.
 3.   Describe the nesting habits of mud dauber wasps.
 4.   What makes an insect a "social insect?"
 5.   Describe pest management procedures for a stinging insect problem where stings and specimens were
     the only clues provided by the client.
                                                                    For Answers refer to Appendix A
                                                                        Module Two, Chapter 2, Pg 9

      Learning Objectives

               After completion of the study of Spiders, the trainee should be able to:

           a   Describe the habitat and life cycles of common types of spiders that
           •;:;  cause problems in urban areas.

           a   List the appearance or characteristics of harmful spiders.

           a   Understand pest management procedures for urban spider problems.
    Spiders are seldom ignored.  Their distinctive
appearance,  habits,  and  intricate webs command
attention and evoke strong emotions. Given their due,
spiders would be prized for their role as predators and
natural regulators of insect populations, but because of
their appearance and human cultural fears, when one
is found to be potentially dangerous, sensationalizing
it is irresistible.
    There are 3,000 kinds of spiders in the U.S.; they
are categorized in  the order Araneae. Like their
arachnid relatives the mites, spiders live in all parts of
the world where they quietly make their way, snaring
food in their webs or ambushing  insect  prey in
episodes acted out in minute jungles and deserts.
    The two-part spider shape is well known. Its head
and thorax are combined to make the cephalothorax.
Four  legs  are  attached  to  each   side  of  the
cephalothorax. Spider eyes are hi front - some have
very large eyes. Like all arachnids, spiders have no
    While all spiders are poisonous to some extent,
few bite humans. Spider mouthparts, located in front
below  the  eyes,   have  two  short  needle-tipped
appendages, called  chelicerae.  These needles, or
central fangs, are connected internally to poison sacs.
The fangs  are  used  to bite prey  (mostly  other
arthropods) and inject poison to immobilize it.  Two
short leglike mouthparts help hold  their paralyzed
prey, while the chelicerae work back and forth tearing
the exoskeleton.  As blood wells out, it is sucked into
the mouth cavity and ingested. Spiders keep working
their prey in this way until all the juices are gone and
the remainder is a dry crumbled lump.
    The abdomen  is  located behind  the cephalo-
thorax;  it  is  saclike,  usually globular.  The anal
opening is located near the end of the abdomen and
close by  are some  short  appendages  called  the
spinnerets. Silk  webbing  threads  out  from  these
    All spiders  produce silk, and  they  use silk in
more interesting ways than most other silk producers.
Spiders make silk retreats such as tubes  and funnels,
they make irregular cobwebs  as well as the evenly
spaced, spiraled great orb webs. Most spiders feed out
a dragline wherever they walk and never fall off edges
without catching themselves:
    While spiders don't have  wings,  they  "fly"
nonetheless, by releasing a thread of silk until it is
long enough for the wind to catch  it and carry them
off — the process is known as ballooning.  Newly-
hatched spiderlings use  this  method to  leave  the
hatching area.
    Two spiders are considered dangerous to humans
in the United States: the Black Widow and the Brown
Recluse. In reality, these two names each represent
several species.
                                                                                Module Two, Chapter 3, Pg 1

Latrodectus mactans
    The Black Widow spider, the species Latrodectus
mactans, is distributed over the eastern and southern
United States. Two very similar species overlap that
range and extend into the western and northwestern
    Female Black Widows have large, round, shiny
black abdomens usually  decorated with two touching
red triangles on the belly. They hang upside down in
the web, and the red hourglass is obvious. Sometimes
dull red dots appear on the back, and occasionally the
triangles don't touch, but this 1/2 inch or larger, shiny
black spider is unmistakably unique and eye catching.
Male Black Widows are small, white and streaked with
yellow and red; they are not dangerous.
    Black Widow females an not aggressive but will
give full attention to anything that disturbs the web.
They weave tangled webs of coarse silk in dark, quiet
locations. Mature females are so large they can hardly
crawl.  While pest  management technicians are  not
commonly called on for  Black Widow spider control,
they may well run into these spiders when inspecting
crawl spaces, porches, garages,  and  sheds for other
pests. Black Widow spiders can be found in stacked
pots or baskets, firewood piles, rodent burrows, water
meters,  stacked  boards, under  bricks and  stones.
Usually the spiders are outside, but they may be
brought inside,  or  the young may move inside on
ground floors. Western Black Widows are  likely to be
found outside in bird nests, on low plants and in grape
  bors. Move cautiously  when treating any potential
 pider harborage.
    Black Widow bites are immediately painful. The
pain at the site of the bite increases during the first
half hour following a bite. Two small red marks from
the fangs will be noticeable on the skin. After the first
half hour other symptoms such as headache, dizziness,
shortness of breath, abdominal  and back pain set in.
Death  seldom results  from  Black Widow  bites to
healthy adults; children and the elderly, however, are
vulnerable. Victims should receive hospital treatment
as soon as possible.

Habitat Alteration
    Eliminate harborage sites carefully.

Pesticide Application
    Pesticides must come directly into contact with the
spiders since they do  not leave their webs or wander
after they have become established in the summer.
    A control method found in nature is employed by
Mud Dauber wasps; they paralyze spiders and store
them in their mud cells for their larvae to devour. One
spider wasp family is  known  to provision its burrows
with spiders. These predators  are particularly active in
die western states.
Loxosceles reclusa
    Loxosceles reclusa is a dusky-tan or brown spider
with the widest range of any  recluse spider  in the
United States. It ranges from central Texas, north to
Oklahoma, Kansas, Iowa, and south through Illinois,
North and South Carolina, northwestern Georgia, and
Alabama, with a few collections in adjacent states and
Module Two, Chapter 3, Pg 2

where  they  have been transported  in  luggage  and
household furnishings. Other species of recluse spiders
live in the southwestern states particularly in desert
areas. This spider lives outdoors in the southern part
of its range and primarily indoors throughout the rest
of its  distribution.  It  is commonly  found  in older
homes  in the Midwest. The Brown Recluse is smaller
than the Black Widow; it has an oval abdomen rather
than a  round one.  The abdomen  is uniformly tan to
brown without marking. A dark fiddle-shaped mark is
obvious on the cephalothorax - the broad base of the
fiddle begins at the eyes and the  narrow fiddle neck
ends just above the attachment of the  abdomen.  Legs
are long,  the second pair longer  than the first.  The
Brown  Recluse  makes  a   fine,  irregular  web.  It
commonly  wanders   in  the  evening   in   indoor
    Bites. Recluse spiders avoid parts of rooms where
human activity is prevalent,  remaining where there is
no  activity  and  in closed  or  unused  rooms.  Even
though indoor infestations  can be large,  household
inhabitants are seldom bitten. Bites can be expected
when guest rooms  are  suddenly put into use or when
stored clothing is brought out for use. Brown Recluse
bites are sharp but not initially painful like those of the
Black Widow, but  a blister is quickly raised, broken,
and surrounded by a red welt. The depressed center of
this raised, red circle (the size of a dime to a quarter)
turns dark within  a day. The dead  tissue regularly
sloughs away, and die bite area scars over in one to
eight weeks. Death seldom  occurs,  but the bite  is
debilitating and psychologically traumatic.
    The spider is delicate.  After biting, it frequently
can be  found lying where it was slapped by  the victim.
It  should  be killed  and taken to the  physician along
with the victim for positive identification. Other biting
arthropods can produce lesions resembling die bite of
the Brown Recluse spider.
    A foreign species of recluse spider,  Loxosceles
rufescens, is imported from Mediterranean Europe and
North Africa.  While this spider closely resembles L.
reclusa and has successfully infested several locations
in the middle Atlantic states  at least for short periods,
its bites do not result in trauma like those of L. reclusa
and have been noted to be far less venomous.

    Recluse spiders should be sought near  places
where bites occur.
    »    Look along walls in uninhabited rooms,
         under and behind  furniture, in the far
         reaches  of  storerooms,   in  unused
         closets, under  stairs and  in  hanging
         clothing  that  has  not  been  used
         during the current season.
    »    Concentrate   on areas  outside  daily
         human  traffic  patterns.  Homes  and
         buildings that have been unoccupied for
         months   or   longer   are  particularly
         susceptible   to   increased   spider
    »    Outdoors, in  the southern and western
         part of its range, these spiders may be
         found in cracks between  the soil and
         structure foundations, door stoops, and
         in window wells.
    »    Outside of their range,  inspect around
         luggage,  trunks, and furniture brought
         from   southern   Europe,   the
         Mediterranean,   or    North   Africa.
         American personnel, who have  lived
         overseas   in  these  areas,  sometimes
         introduce L  rufescens  in  returning
         household goods.

Habitat Alteration
    *>    Recommend careful mopping or dusting
         of seldom-used  rooms and closets.
    »>    Inspect winter clothing that has hung in
         hallways or unused closets through the
         spring  and  summer.  Store them  in
         plastic bags.
    »    In  the  evening,   reinspect  spaces
         disturbed by dusting  and mopping. Kill
         moving spiders.

Pesticide Application
    Residual pesticides labeled for spiders, should be
used carefully to control  the Brown Recluse spider.
    •>    Carefully use residual pesticides labeled
         for spiders.
    »    Apply  the pesticide  in all cracks and
         crevices — particularly in spaces outside
         daily human traffic patterns.
    »    Spot treatments will be less effective
         than crack   and  crevice  treatments
         because spiders touch spot residues only
         with hairs at the tips  of their legs.

Follow  up
    Spiders not  killed by the  pesticide treatment will
wander. Warn clients to be wary of immediate use of
rooms  not  normally  in use.  They  should watch
carefully  for  spiders  one  or two days  following
treatment.  Monitor and,  if  indicated,  retreat  the
structure in one or two weeks.
                                                                                  Module Two, Chapter 3, Pg 3

Chirocanthium mildei
    The Yellow House spider was introduced into the
United States in the late 1940s and is now common.
A  native species is common outdoors, and a third,
introduced  into Hawaii,  is  now  common  inside
buildings there.  These spiders are about 1/4 inch'long,
with legs and cephalothorax darker than the abdomen.
It  has been  reported as  being yellow, white, or
    In late  summer and  early fall, Yellow House
spiders migrate into structures and automobiles. At this
time,  they have not reached the adult stage,  and  they
weave protective, white, silken cocoon-like webs in
which to overwinter and molt into the adult stage in
spring.  The Yellow House spider will bite if pressed
or accidently confined (e.g. during the victim's sleep).
The venom has been described as causing  pain and
   dening  at the site of the bite. In some instances a
 'eadening of the tissue will occur, but much  less
severe than that caused by  the Brown Recluse spider.
Children that show symptoms of spider bites (the two
fang  marks) may  have  been bitten by  the Yellow
House spider. This spider, however, cannot pierce the
skin of everyone;  there is a very large margin of

    Inspect rooms, particularly bedrooms of suspected
Yellow  House  spider bite victims.  Inspect obvious
webbing  sites  in  the  fall  as  a part  of  ongoing
monitoring activities for other pests.
    »  Look  at  the angles of  the  wall  and
        ceiling,  door  and  window  facings,
        in  furniture joints,  in  larger  cracks
         and crevices, in  thermostats,  and  in
         other protected places.
     »   Look for webs  inside jets and burner
         trains of gas appliances that are inactive
         during  the  summer-winter  transition
         period. Other sites are gas  stoves and
         refrigerators  in recreational vehicles,
         gas air  conditioners  and through-the-
         wall   gas   furnaces.   [The   silken
         obstructions  interfere with  gas  flow;
         operational failure can be an indication
         of their presence.]

Habitat Alterations
     »   Close gaps around outside entry  doors
         and ground floor windows that may  be
         entry points for the spider.
     »   Keep  grass   low  next  to  building
         foundations  to  discourage  wandering

Pesticide Application
     »   Where  biting is a problem, apply a
         residual  pesticide labeled for spiders in
         cracks and crevices,  including closets
         and furniture joints.
     *>   Apply  pesticides  carefully, in  small
         amounts and  at low pressure to suppress
         drift and noxious odors.
     »   Ventilate the rooms after treatment.
Tegenaria agrestis
    This common funnel-weaving spider is found in
the northwestern United States. Its body is about 1/2
inch long; it has a dull tan color with darker markings
on its oval abdomen. This spider makes thick webs
with the funnel neck back in a wall  crevice and the
wider mouth opening into a room. They are found
only in moist areas of basements or cellars, in ground
level window wells, and so forth. The spider has been
given its name because it readily bites when touched or
pressed. The bite, not initially painful, resembles the
bite of the Brown Recluse spider (not found in the
Northwest) and other bites  that result in ulcerating
lesions.  A   close  relative   is  distributed   in  the
northeastern United States but is not aggressive. These
cellar-dwelling,    funnel-weaving   spiders  were
introduced   from  Europe   where  they  are very
commonly found in structures.
Module Two, Chapter 3, Pg 4

    The funnel web is easy to see in moist basement

Habitat Alteration
    Tighten and close up spaces around entrances.

Pesticide Application
    Apply contact spray  into the  funnel.  Vacuum
webs and spiders.
Orb Weaving Spiders
    Several hundred species  of orb  weavers  are
distributed in the United States. Usually only the large,
conspicuous orange and yellow, or black and yellow,
species are noticed in late summer when they build
webs that extend one foot or so across on porches or
small  trees and shrubs.  These large  flat webs have
many straight strands radiating out from the center and
are connected with spiral thread winding around and
around from the  middle out to the  perimeter. The
spiders, often with bodies one inch long and very long
legs, sit  in the center of the web waiting for flying
insects to be trapped. The large orb weavers are not
aggressive towards people; if the client's fear is great,
the webs can be knocked down.
    Smaller orb weaving spiders build webs across
paths  in  the woods. Another web builder, the Barn
spider,   Araneus   cavaticus,   is  die   prominent,
nonaggressive  character   in  die children's  book,
Charlotte's Web.

Cobweb Spiders
    Cobweb  weaving spiders  make  small  irregular
webs. These webs are characteristically found indoors
in the upper inside corners of window frames. There
are  many  species of cobweb spiders and the Black
Widow is  one of them. Most all of them are smaller
than the Black Widow.  They have the same type of
globular abdomen, but it is always dull in color and
not as eye catching. These quiet spiders hang in die
web and  wait for small  insects  to blunder onto  their
    The problem with cobweb spiders inside buildings
is that when they feed,  they defecate  drops of feces
that dry and discolor anything they fall on. These spots
are difficult to remove from painted wooden trim.
Regular dusting eliminates cobweb spider problems. In
historically significant buildings and  museums  their
presence  should be called to the attention of building

Spiders in Boathouses
     A unique but not uncommon spider habitat is in
die rafter area of boathouses. Ballooning spiderlings
trailing their silk threads are taken up by the wind and
deposited on boathouse uprights and piers. When they
crawl up into sheltered  spaces,  they find it is also a
refuge for flying insects like flies and gnats. When
they feed, their feces falls  on die painted roughened
decks of pleasure boats. As  with the housebound
Cobweb spider, these spots are  extremely difficult to

Habitat alteration
     This perplexing problem is abated somewhat if the
spiders food source is eliminated. Locate lights so they
will not attract flying insects to the boathouse.  Flies
and gnats do not rest in breezy areas, so fans activated
at night may also help.

Pesticide Application
     »   Careful placement of  electric fly grids
         outside the roof area may reduce gnats.
         Avoid  placement that draws flies or
         attracts midges  from distances.
     »   Fogging inside the roof only causes the
         spiders to drop out of the fogged area
         on their webs and return  when the fog
         is ventilated.
     »    Do  not use  residual pesticide  spray
         applications; they are  almost certain to
         drop   on   die  water   and   cause
         contamination.  Spray  applications also
         degrade rapidly in heat.
     »    Sticky tapes or papers for fly control
         will liquify in the heat of these shelters
         and also drop on boats below.
     Spider buildup on buildings and monuments can
cause  major problems for structural maintenance.
                                                                                 Module Two, Chapter 3, Pg 5

Where structures are lighted near aquatic  areas in
certain seasons, midges are attracted to the light and
drive the increase in spider populations. Large spider
populations harm limestone and marble structures and
statuary with feces and webbing.
     When this occurs:
     »   Pesticide use is  not effective. Explore
         habitat alteration.
     »   Locate the source of midge populations
         and identify their habits of emergence,
         laying, etc.
     »   Recording  flight times  and  periods.
         Time lights to turn off during the main
         flight period. Alternative placement for
         lighting  should  be  considered   as
         required for public safety.
 Wolf Spiders
     The hairy, fleet, wolf spiders are very common
 outdoors under leaf litter, rocks, and logs. When they
 come inside, they normally stay on the ground floor
 and are active in  dim light.  Large Wolf spiders often
 frighten people. If handled, they give a painful  bite,
 but it is not dangerous.

 Jumping Spiders
     Jumping spiders are active during the day and are
 common around windows where they feed on insects
 attracted to natural light. Jumping spiders are usually
 small, up  to  1/2 inch  in  length. They  have husky
 cephalothoraxes and are brightly colored, sometimes
iridescent.  They  hold their  front legs up  in front of
 diem when approached  and move  in  quick rushes,
 jerks or jumps. They often enter buildings from shrubs
 near windows, or ride in on plant blossoms.

 Crab Spiders
     Small  Crab  spiders are dark or tan; some are
 lightly colored orange, yellow, or creamy white. Their
 legs extend out from their sides causing them to scuttle
 back and forth in a crablike  fashion.  These spiders
 hide in flower blossoms and ambush insects. Some can
 even change their color to more closely align with the
flower's color. Crab spiders, like Jumping spiders, are
often brought inside in cut flowers which they abandon
when food becomes  unavailable.  They can be pests
wherever flowers are introduced.

Pest Management of Wandering Spiders
     If called on to eliminate  wandering or nomadic
spiders, the best action is to locate specimens, identify
them, assure clients that they are not poisonous, and
tell clients on how they got inside.
     »   Tighten  under  doors   and   around
         window screens.
     »   Caulk door and window frames and all
         wall penetrations.
     »   Remove vegetation and  litter from  the
         foundation,  doorways,   and  window
     »   Turn off house, building, or area lights
         that  attract  flying insects, especially
     *>   Advise clients to look  carefully  at
         flowers brought in from the garden and
         from commercial greenhouses.
     •>   Assure clients  that they can  swat or
         vacuum spiders without harm.
     Pesticide application .is  very difficult;  indoor
treatment is  usually effective only  if the  pesticide
contacts the spider directly. This means the technician
must have clear access to all  spider habitats. Unless
efforts are made to exclude spiders (e.g.,  tighten gaps
around entrances, and observe material being brought
into the facility), spiders will reenter.
     Spiders  are  distinctive arthropods in the class
Arachnida. They have two regions to their body — the
front one is the cephalothorax on which  are located
eyes, moudiparts and four pairs (8) of legs. The rear
region is the abdomen at the tip of which is located
silk spinning organs. Spiders, for the most part, live
outside; some enter structures and dwellings.  A few
can deliver bites  that are debilitating or  even fatal.
They spin webs in which to live or capture prey; these
webs are considered unsightly indoors. For die most
part  spiders are beneficial to humans, capturing and
eating many insect pests.
Module Two, Chapter 3, Pg 6

                         STUDY QUESTIONS FOR MODULE TWO
                                     CHAPTER THREE
1.  Describe three distinguishing characteristics of the black widow spider.
2.  Describe three distinguishing characteristics of the brown recluse spider.
3.  Describe inspection procedures for black widow spiders.
4.  Describe inspection procedures for the brown recluse spiders.
5.  How do spiders enter structures?
         A. Under doors.
         B. Through window wells.
         C. With flowers brought inside.
         D. All of these.
         E. A and B only.
6.  Discuss pest management methods for controlling spiders indoors.
                                                                     For Answers refer to Appendix A
                                                                         Module Two, Chapter 3, Pg 7

                                         CHAPTER 4
               TICKS,  MITES,  BEDBUGS  &  LICE
      Learning Objectives

           ;  ; After completion of the study of Biting Pests, the trainee should be able to

          a   WehtifyOT

          a   Understand the biology and habits of biting pests.

          a   Cite integrated pest management options for biting pests.
    More than  30,000 species of mites have been
identified. They  are placed in the Arachnid order
Acarina.  Many  new  mite species  (which  includes
ticks), are found and described every year. They have
sack-like  bodies, rather than segmented bodies  like
scorpions. Unlike spiders, which have  a combined
head and thorax where the legs attach and an abdomen
that is connected behind, mites have only a single (one
part),  oval body with legs attached to its sides. All
first stage mite larvae have only six legs; both later
stages, nymphs and adults, have eight.
    Mites are more diverse than  spiders;  they are
found  all  over the world from deserts to rainforests,
mountaintops  to  tundra, salt water ocean floors to
freshwater lakes. They suck plant juices and animal
blood,  make tumors (galls) in  plants,  and  transmit
    Mouthparts are attached at the very  front end of
a mite's body. These mouthparts consist of a  group of
small appendages that sometimes looks like a  head but
the brain actually is located behind the mouthparts and
eyes. The mouthparts of mites form a tube that ingest
plant or  animal  juices. Very  short appendages on
either side of the mouthparts guide other mouthparts as
they are inserted into food  tissues. As the mite sucks,
digestive juices gush out of the front of the body, mix
with the food juices in the mouth, and are sucked back
through the mouth tube. The mite's genital opening is
found  underneath and between the attachments of the
first two pairs of legs.
    Mites walk by using body muscles to press blood
into individual legs. The movement of blood extends
a leg  out or  forward. Little  muscles  in each leg
segment, then pull the segment back, and the mite
moves forward. Many mites use their first pair of legs
like antennae, feeling in front as they walk along. Leg
hairs have diverse purpose: some sense touch; others
pick up odors; not uncommonly, some hairs  have
light-sensing cells which allow the mite to distinguish
light from dark.
    Ticks, the largest mites, feed only on the blood of
mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. Ticks differ
from other mites; ticks are larger and have recurved
teeth or ridges on the central  mouthparts (called the
holdfast organ).
    They also have a sensory pit on each of the first
pair of legs.  This pit detects stimuli such as heat and
carbon dioxide. Ticks also  detect  light and dark as
well as shapes, shadows and vibrations — all  stimuli
that help them find their hosts.
    There are two types of ticks: soft and hard. Soft
ticks feed  on hosts that return periodically to  a nest,
shelter, cave, coop, and so forth. Hard ticks are found
on pets,  cattle, wildlife and people. In the  United
States, all  campers, hikers and hunters are sometimes
hosts for hard ticks. Worldwide, there are over 650
species in  this group.
    Some ticks  live their  life  on one host, other
species spend only their larval and nymphal stages on
one host; then the adult drops off to find another host.
Most ticks, however, have three hosts — one for each
                                                                              Module Two, Chapter 4, Pg 1

Life Cycle .
    Seed Ticks. Normally,  thousands of tiny larvae
hatch from a batch of eggs and crawl randomly in the
surrounding area;  fortunate ones  attach to a small
mammal or lizard.  These ticks, called seed ticks, suck
blood. Being small,  their feeding  (or engorgement)
time lasts only hours or a day or so. While feeding,
the host wanders and seed ticks are distributed away
from  the site of  the  initial  encounter. When the
engorged seed ticks drop off, they  are still usually  in
or near an gnim^i run.
    Nymph.  After  molting,  the engorged  nymph
climbs grass leaves or a  plant  stem.  Ticks climb
progressively higher as they develop; different stages
reach different layers of vegetation. Because  of this,
developing ticks usually find a larger host than they
had during  the  previous  stage.  After  several days
feeding, the engorged nymph drops  off its host and
    Adult. The adult climbs vegetation; stretches its
front pair of legs, and waits for vibrations or a shadow
announcing a nearby host.  Ticks  sometimes wait for
months  or more than  a  year for a suitable host.
According to one report, a soft tick  lived for eleven
years without feeding!
    If heat or carbon dioxide is detected (e.g., from
a feeding mouse), the tick will seek it out. As the host
passes by, claws located at the tips of the tick's legs
grab hold of the host; the  tick moves in the fur (or
feathers) to a place where it can engorge.

Attachment and Feeding
    Adult female hard  ticks will feed  from several
days to  more than a week.  (Anyone who removes an
engorged tick gains, at  least, a grudging respect for
the parasitic tenacity of this pest.) Since ticks cannot
fly or jump and do not crawl up high shrubs or trees,
they grasp human hosts from a point relatively close to
the ground: on the shoe, ankle, or lower leg and crawl
upwards until constricted by tight clothing or until they
reach the head. On wild mammals or pets, they often
move until they reach the highest point on the host —
the head or ears.
    The tick's ability to creep undetected is matched
only by its ability to attach for feeding without the
notice of  the host;  stealth keeps ticks from being
scratched  off by the host  before they can attach.
    The tick slides  its pair of slender teeth painlessly
into the host's skin, and feeding attachment  begins.
The  central holdfast  organ,  covered with recurved
teeth  or ridges, is  inserted. Blood  sucking  begins.
Secretions from the tick's salivary glands are injected
into  the wound;  these  secretions form around the
holdfast organ and glue it in place. At this point, the
tick cannot voluntarily detach until feeding ceases and
the secretions stop.
    The strength of the holdfast organ helps the tick
resist scratching. The organ's importance increases as
feeding proceeds;  as the female tick engorges, she
cannot hold on the host with her legs  alone.
    Female feeding may take from several days to a
week or more — or in the case of human hosts, until
the tick is discovered. When feeding  is complete, the
engorged female drops off of the host, lays  eggs, then
    Male ticks are on the host to mate. They do not
enlarge greatly or feed much. In fact, they  sometimes
pierce and feed  on  the engorged females  [In one
species, this is the only way males feed.]

Rhipicephalus sanguineus
     The brown dog tick is the most urban of the pest
ticks  in  the United States.  It has  been introduced
around the world on dogs and other animals, but in the
United States its only host is dogs. In the southern
United States, the brown dog tick lives outdoors year
round, but  in most  of the country  it cannot live
outdoors in  winter.
    Adult ticks are about 1/8 inch long and uniformly
dark red-brown, differing from the other pest ticks that
have  a  red-and-black or  white-and-brown  color
variation. The engorged female becomes a dark blue-
gray because of her blood-stretched abdomen.
    Up to 4,000 eggs can be deposited by the female.
When  the   eggs  hatch,   larvae  outdoors   climb
vegetation;  inside,  walls and furniture. The larvae,
nymphs,  and adults return to the dog to feed; they do
not bite humans. If they do not find a host, they can
easily wait more than six months  without feeding.
    After each engorgement, the tick drops and crawls
to a crack where it molts.  [After a generation or two,
ticks can be found at all stages,  hiding, molting or
Module Two, Chapter 4, Pg 2

seeking a host.]  One to four generations  can be
produced each year, depending on the availability of
hosts and the temperature.
    Infestation. Homes and yards can be infested by
the visit of an infested dog who drops mated, engorged
female ticks. Other dogs can become infested when
they are taken to an infested kennel or a home where
ticks successfully attach.
    When  outside dogs  encounter  ticks that live
outside. When the dog spends more  time indoors in
late summer or fall, female ticks will drop off indoors,
lay eggs, and their larvae will emerge late that fall -
indoors. In fall, winter, and spring,  tick infestations
indoors are likely to be brown dog ticks.
    Ticks at each developmental stage drop from the
host and seek cracks to hide in and molt. Brown dog
ticks usually drop off when the dog is sleeping; these
areas   will  most  likely   have the  most   severe

    »   Look in rooms where dogs sleep, under
         the edge of rugs,  under  furniture,  in
         cracks around baseboards, window, and
         door frames,.in dog boxes.

Habitat Alteration  and Pesticide Application
    Advise clients to
    »   Check pets regularly for ticks.
    »   Treat pets using pesticidal dips, washes,
         or dusts. Do  not let small children play
         with  dogs  that have  been  recently
    »   Wash dog bedding frequently.
    »   Evaluate flea and tick collars.
         Effectiveness is variable.
    »   Keep grass cut short around buildings
         and fences.  Mow on  both  sides  of
    »   Keep stray dogs out of the yard.
    Pest control technicians:
    >   Use crack and  crevice pesticide applications
         where ticks hide.
    »   Treat  under  the edge of rugs, under
         furniture, in  cracks around baseboards,
         window,  and  door  frames,   in dog
    »   Do not allow pets or children in the
         sprayed area until it is dry.
    »   Fogging for ticks is useless.
    »    Spray or dust kennels and resting areas
         using   pesticides  labeled   for  that
    »    Do not allow pets or children in the
         sprayed area  until it is dry.

Follow up
    It is important that clients know that dogs should
be protected even after treatment since eggs can take
thirty days to hatch. Take time to assure clients that
brown dog ticks do not bite humans and will therefore
not transmit a disease. The fear of Lyme disease can
drive a desire for overkill; explain that the brown dog
tick does not spread Lyme disease.
    Several species of hard ticks are significant human
disease vectors (or carriers) and are responsible for the
spread  and  increase  of  Lyme  disease  and  the
persistence of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF).
All technicians should be familiar with Lyme disease
and the bodes ticks that transmit it.
      The large urban population in the United States
is becoming  increasingly  at risk from  tick-borne
diseases. Humans are closer to diseased ticks due to
    »   reversion   of   farmland  to   scrub
    »   continuous  incorporation of rural land
         into urban population centers, and
    »   frequent  travel  to  rural  areas  for
         recreation and vacations.
Wildlife populations, hosts for tick-borne disease, are
increasing in both rural  and urban  areas. As  well,
urban tick populations do  not  lend  themselves  to
classical agricultural  pesticide cover applications.
    There are many reasons why ticks are successful
parasites and successful at transmitting diseases.
    »   They are persistent bloodsuckers, they
         attach and hold on.
    »   Long  feeding periods  give  time  for
         infection and extends the  distribution
    »   Many species have a wide  host range.
         Initially  ticks feed on small hosts, later
         on larger hosts. Most  can take three
         different  hosts;  they  primarily  find
         mammals, but accept birds and reptiles.
    »   They have  a tremendous reproduction
         potential and lay several thousand eggs.
    »   Eggs of some disease-carrying ticks also
         carry the disease.
                                                                                 Module Two, Chapter 4, Pg 3

     »   They have  few natural enemies. Only
         two species of wasps  parasitize hard

Lyme  Disease
     Lyme disease is  caused by a spirochaete (a spiral
shaped bacteria). Symptoms vary and may mimic other
diseases; many  cases  go undiagnosed.  The first
indication of a potential infection may be the discovery
of an attached tick.  Disease transmission does not
occur for an estimated 10-12 hours after feeding
begins,  if the tick is located and removed within that
time, no infection will occur.
     Usually, within seven days (from three to  32
days) after disease transmission, a rash appears (in 60
to 75 percent of all cases). The rash looks like a red,
expanding ring with a clear center; this center often is
the site  of  the  bite. The rash  may burn  or itch.
Technically, this rash  is  called erythema cronicum
migrans (ECM); it is not uncommon to find ECM at
multiple sites. It disappears within three weeks but can
     Other skin symptoms may be hives,  redness  of
cheeks  under eyes,  and  swelling  of eyelids with
reddening of the whites of the eyes. Flu-like symptoms
may accompany  the skin symptoms, e.g., high fever,
headache, stiff neck, fatigue,  sore throat and swollen
     A second set of symptoms occurs in untreated
patients four to six weeks after transmission. Over half
untreated victims experience an arthritis of the large
joints (primarily the  knees, elbows,  and  wrists)
intermittently or chronically.
     A few  (10-27 percent) experience neurological
effects including severe headache, stiff neck,  facial
paralysis, weakness, and possibly, pain of the chest or
extremities; these symptoms may persist for weeks. In
6-10 percent of the cases, heart block may occur.
     Dogs can also acquire Lyme disease. They forage
in tick habitat and become infected, In fact, diagnosis
of the disease in dogs in the area is a  harbinger  of
human cases to  follow.  Symptoms in dogs  include
sluggishness and lameness.

Responses to Lyme Disease: Education
     This serious disease can be expected to increase.
Technicians  should clearly instruct  their clients that
there are no  easy or effective control measures that
state or  federal agencies can perform.
     *   Children are  at highest  risk;  they
         encounter   infected  ticks   in  camps,
         parks,  on  hikes, or at play in areas
         where deer and mice abound. Children
         are not as sensitive  to finding ticks on
         themselves as are adults.
     »   The second risk group are adults whose
         occupations place them in tick habitat:
         farmers, outdoor maintenance workers,
         park  and  forestry  personnel,   and
         military personnel.
     »   The general public who hikes,  camps,
         participates  in  outdoor   recreational
         sports, or lives in areas of preferred tick
         and host habitat is the third risk group.
     »   Hunters, depending on the amount of
         time spent out of doors,  fit into either
         of the last two groups.

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF)
     RMSF is caused  by   a  rickettsia,  a  disease
organism related to bacteria. It is an acute infectious
disease characterized  by pain in muscles and joints,
fever, and  spotty, red skin eruptions.
     At least  four to  six hours  elapse  after  the
American  dog tick begins  feeding before  disease
transmission begins. If ticks are removed during this
noninfective period, infection will not occur.
     A   rash  on  wrists   and  ankles,   the  most
characteristic  and  consistent  symptom  of  RMSF,
occurs on the second to fifth day after infection. Often
aching  in the lower back and  headaches around the
head and eyes will also occur. Victims feel very tired
and   can  run fevers of   104-106°F.  Less  obvious
symptoms  may not  be noticed.
     Laboratory blood  tests can be done to  assist
diagnosis in questionable cases. Early treatment using
antibiotics  is most successful.

Ticks That Carry Disease
     Deer ticks, or  Ixodes, carry Lyme disease. This
genus of ticks contains the greatest number of species
of the hard ticks and they transmit diseases around the
world. The northern deer tick, Ixodes dammini, is the
carrier (called a vector) of Lyme disease in the eastern
United States. Its counterpart in the South is called the
blacklegged tick. In the West, the common vector is /.
pacificus. There are many other Ixodes in the United
States and  what part they will  play  in Lyme disease
transmission is not yet known.
     The American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis is
the eastern, central United States, and Pacific coast
vector of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. The Rocky
Mountain wood tick,  Dermacentor andersoni, which
closely resembles D. variabilis, is found in the Rocky
Mountain States, Nevada, eastern California, Oregon,
and Washington. This tick was the original vector of
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. When settlers reached
Module Two, Chapter 4, Pg 4

the west, their dogs contracted RMSF from the wood
tick and transmitted it to the American dog tick. The
American dog tick then became the principal vector of
the disease and has carried it around the world.
    The Lone Star tick,   Amblyomma americanum,
ranges in the southeastern quarter of the United States
from  Texas  to northern  Missouri and east to  New
Jersey.  The  lone star  tick can transmit  Rocky
Mountain Spotted fever, but it is not as important an
RMSF  vector as the  previous  two  species  of
    The deer tick is unlike the larger Lone Star Tick,
American  Dog Tick,  and Rocky Mountain Spotted
Fever Tick (see below). Larvae are no larger than the
period at the end of this sentence. Nymphs are close in
size to the adult - a little less than  1/6 inch, or the
size of the head of a pin. Adult deer ticks are the size
of a sesame seed. Deer ticks have a two-year life cycle
and utilize three different hosts.
    Eggs  and Larvae. Eggs of the deer tick are laid
in the spring by overwintering females. Tiny larvae
hatch and feed on white-footed mice and other mice in
the late summer. Larvae can feed on humans but will
not transmit Lyme disease. Larvae overwinter, and in
the following spring, they molt into the nymphal stage.
    Nymphs. Nymphs are ready to feed in May and
June.  The body of the nymph is tan with black legs
and a black shield (scutum) near  its  front.  Nymphs
climb vegetation and attach to passing animals such as
dogs,  cats,  horses,  cattle, raccoons,  opossums,
migrating birds and humans as well as mice.
    Nymphs live in  what is  classically called the
"white-footed mouse habitat,"  where larvae fed the
previous late summer. This habitat  is best described as
woodlands: bushy, low shrub woodland edge regions
and grassy areas that border woodlands. This is also
deer habitat. The mice travel in trails and nest almost
anywhere they  can  find  a sheltered depression.
Nymphal tick activity coincides with human  outdoor
activity, and peak human infection  symptoms occur in
early July. Ninety percent of the human  Lyme disease
cases are the result of nymphal  tick feeding.  The
remainder is due to  adult activity. Nymphs usually
molt  into  the  adult  stage  in late  summer;  they
sometimes overwinter and molt in  the spring.
    Adults. The body of the adult  female is brick red
with black legs; she has a black shield (scutum) in the
front. The male is entirely dark and smaller than the
    Adults feed  on deer which are unaffected by the
Lyme disease. Where these deer move while hosts of
egg-laying females determines the  distribution pattern
of the next generation. Adults feed  in late fall or
spring. Deer ticks also bite on warm days in winter.
Hosts of the western blacklegged tick are dogs, cats,
sheep, horses, cattle, and  deer.

Dermacentor variabilis
    The American dog tick larvae and nymphs attack
small  mammals and the adults attack larger mammals
— dogs, horses, and  humans. Larval  and  nymphal
stages prefer small rodents especially Microtus, the
short tailed voles, called meadow mice.
                                                                               Module Two, Chapter 4, Pg 5

    Only the adults which are slightly over 1/8 inch
long are found on dogs and humans. The adult female
is  brown  with a  pearly-light anterior dorsal  shield.
Males  are brown-backed with  pearly streaks.  Both
sexes have eyes, or unpigmented light receiving areas,
at  the edges of the shield.
    With a favorable food supply, American dog ticks
can complete their life cycle in three months with the
female laying up to 6,500 eggs in late summer. Warm
springs promote early adult and larval activity and egg
    Adult ticks usually contact people on the lower
extremities and crawl upwards until they are stopped
by  constricting   clothing,   such   as  belts   or
underclothing. Loose clothing worn by children allows
ticks to  proceed  as  far  as  the head hair. [This is
probably the basis for the false idea that ticks drop out
of  trees.]  Because  of possible  communication  of
RMSF, any tick attachment  should be noted and die
victim observed for symptoms.

Amblyomma  americanum
    The  Lone Star tick lives  in the  southeastern
quarter of die United States from  Texas to Missouri
and east to New Jersey. It attacks birds and both wild
and domestic mammals, including man.
    Females are brown wirn a white spot in their
center (die  Lone  Star); males  are mottled brown
without a white spot. Both sexes have pigmented eyes
at die front  lateral edges of die scutum. Females are
prolific, often producing more than 6,000 eggs.
    While it is rare to find larval ticks on humans, all
three  stages of the Lone Star tick  will attack man.
When the solid brown larval tick infests humans, it is
usually  the  result  of an unwitting person sitting or
laying on an aggregation of larvae; frequently, die
infestation amounts to  many  — perhaps hundreds of
ticks. These infestations of larval ticks  are  easily
noticed and easily removed. Usually the larvae wander
but do not attach; they can be'showered off.
    Lone Star ticks are associated  with  cattle and
deer,  therefore there is  increased human risk around
large  cattle and deer herds.  When found on humans,
die ticks certainly should be removed and  noted in
case RMSF symptoms develop.
     Where  pest  management  services  are being
provided to an area such as a neighborhood, camp,
park, zoo, government installation, or similar facility,
it is important to know what kinds of ticks are present,
where they are  most numerous, what the disease
potential in die area is, and what the host and reservoir
populations  are.  Pest Management programs are
critical for effective management of tick species that
transmit Lyme disease or Rocky  Mountain Spotted

     »   Drag a flannel rectangle, 2x3 feet, using
         a rope on a board at the front and a
         strip of wood at the  back  for weight.
         All stages of ticks attach to the flannel.
         Collect  them  and  take  diem to  a
         University Extension Service office for
         identification. An office is located
         in each county in the United States.
         Small pieces of dry ice (COj) placed in
         the middle of cloth squares have  also
         been successful in attracting ticks.
     »   Visit  deer  checking  stations during
         hunting season; trap  mice  and count
         ticks.   If  governmental agencies  or
         regional  health   associations   are
         interested, they  will test collected live
         ticks to ascertain dieir level of infection.
     »   Consult local veterinarians;  they are the
         first to  see  Lyme disease cases in an
         area; positive disease diagnosis in dogs
         is a clear signal that human cases  will
     »   Interview  game  conservation agents to
         learn host (mice, deer) prevalence. They
         also   have   information  concerning
         disease  prevalence   in  hunters  and
         hunting dogs.
Module Two, Chapter 4, fg 6

Habitat Alteration
    Talk  with game conservation  personnel  about
game   management  practices  and  game  habitat
modification. Make recommendations.
    >    Encourage  hunting  or  other   game
         management practices to reduce the deer
         population in infested areas. [Previously
         restricted areas may need to be opened
         to hunting.]
    >    Reduce  the rodent habitat to reduce
         hosts for larval and nymphal ticks.
    »    Open up woodland edges to provide
         observation perches for hawks  (mouse
         predators) and reduce edge browse for
    »    Protect owls and hawks from hunters.
    »    Advocate cleaning  up corn left in  the
         edge rows  of fields and  grain  spills
         around storage bins and roads.
    »    Widen paths in camps and parks to keep
         walkers away from plants  from which
         ticks can make contact with humans.
    »    Keep  vegetation  short to  eliminate
         rodent habitat in  areas  where people
    »    Advise that uncontrolled areas with high
         tick density be kept off limits  to  the

Pesticide Application
    A novel control measure using permethrin-treated
cotton balls in cardboard cylinders has been reported
to reduce tick populations. The white-footed mice use
die pesticide-treated  cotton as nesting material. The
pesticide does not harm the mice but kills their tick
parasites. This device, marketed as  Damminix, must
be placed early enough to catch larvae and nymphs; it
must be placed close enough to reach all the female
    Pesticide sprays  are most effective when applied
to the sides of paths.
    »    Spray  low  vegetation including low
         shrubs thoroughly.
    *    Mow around weedy fences  that provide
         cover  for  rodents  moving  in  from
         nearby woodland edges. Spray at their
    »    Use herbicides to control weeds where
         mowing  is  impossible.   [Remember,
         broad  application  of  pesticides  to
         mowed  grass does  not  reduce tick
         populations because white  footed mice
         do not infest lawns.]
    »    Dust rodent runs or  burrows in areas
         where   human  traffic   cannot  be
         controlled  and  where  there  is  a
         danger of disease transmission.
    To control ticks on pets:
    »•   Use insecticidal dips, washes, or dusts
         which may be obtained at pet counters
         or from veterinarians. Dogs should  be
         protected if they roam in tick habitat.
    »   Advise   that   all   uncontrolled   or
         ownerless dogs be regulated.
    »   Use of flea and tick collars has variable
    »   Cats do not appear to be  at risk from
         Lyme disease nor are they hosts for
         RMSF vectors.

Follow up
    Continued  monitoring and  recordkeeping  is
important. Tick counts should be reviewed annually to
evaluate and adjust  the  pest management  program.
Educational programs and  materials  for  at-risk
groups are vital.

Precautions for At-Risk Group Members
    »   Wear long pants tucked in socks while
         working or hiking in  tick habitat.
    »   Use  insect  repellents on clothes and
         skin. Do  not use formulations with over
         20-30 percent active ingredient on skin.
    »   Use  permethrin formulations that are
         labeled  for use as  a  repellent on
         clothes;  they  withstand  washing and
         remain effective.
    »   Sulfur powder dusted on  socks repels
         chiggers.  It also may   be effective
         against ticks.
    Schedule regular body inspections  for ticks at
noon and at bedtime:
    »   Nymphal deer ticks are small, but they
         can  be  seen  with  close inspection.
         Larval deer ticks cannot be  spotted
         easily, but they are not disease carriers.
    »   Only  adult American dog ticks infest
         people or dogs.

Tick  Removal
    Regular inspection, location, and early removal of
ticks prevents disease transmission.
    To remove feeding ticks dab them with alcohol.
If feeding  has just started, and mouthparts  are  not
cemented in, ticks sometimes pull their mouthparts
    If they do not  release in a few  minutes, take
tweezers, grasp the tick at the skin level and pull
                                                                                 Module Two, Chapter 4, Pg 7

steadily until the tick is removed. Grasping the tick by
the  back end,  or  heating  it,  can force  disease
organisms into the wound. Place the tick in alcohol or
otherwise keep it for identification. If the mouthparts
are left in the skin, they will not transmit the disease,
but the wound should be treated with an antiseptic to
prevent secondary infection. Note the date of removal
to calculate the time of symptoms onset.
     If  the tick  is identified as a  deer  tick, see a
physician. If it is a RMSF carrier, look for symptoms
within a week after exposure, if they occur notify a
 Sarcoptes scabiei
     Urban pest management technicians are sometimes
 asked to treat homes where scabies mite infestations
 have occurred.  Pesticides should  not  be  applied.
 Scabies mites are parasites of humans, dogs,  pigs,
 horses and sheep; the  species of one host does not
 parasitize other hosts.
     Scabies mites are  microscopic.  The only way to
 be certain of an infestation is to have skin scrapings
 made and inspected under a microscope. However,
 physicians with experience can usually make accurate
 diagnoses without laboratory procedures.
     Infestation.  Scabies  are transmitted by direct
 contact only. Crowded conditions, particularly where
 children  sleep  together, spread scabies  infestations
 most quickly. A scabies mite infestation begins when
 a fertilized female cuts into the skin and burrows in
 the upper layer of skin. She lays eggs in the burrows.
 Larvae hatch in the burrows and come to the surface
 to molt. Two nymphal stages and die adult stage are
 spent on the  skin surface;  only fertilized females
 burrow beneath the skin surface.
     Favored places of infestation  include the skin
 between fingers, at the bend of elbows and knees and
 under breasts. Though the idea of mite burrowing,
 even if it is only in the epidermis, might bring on
 itching, these sensations do not develop for a month
 after die  initial  infestation;  it takes two or three
 generations with subsequent secretions and excretions
 to bring about sensitivity to burrowing.
     Treatment.   Treatment  is  relatively  simple.
 Pesticide ointments or creams prescribed by physicians
 are applied from the neck down to every member of
 the family; bedding and underwear  is laundered. No
pesticide application to rooms or objects is indicated
 under any circumstances.
    While these microscopic mites are found in the
United  States, they  are  much more  prevalent  in
England where humidity is very high.
    House  dust  mites  sometimes  cause  allergic
reactions. Cast skins and body parts of house dust
mites accumulate with other dust and small household
allergenic disintegrated  matter.  Vacuum intensely. A
new and effective management method is to spray
carpet with tannic acid solutions obtained from carpet
cleaning suppliers.

    Urban  pest problems ranging  from imaginary
itches to pubic lice have been diagnosed as bird mites.
Several species  of mites  bite and  suck blood from
birds. Smaller than  a period, these rapidly  moving
mites are difficult to find. They may be very light
colored, red, or dark, depending on their last blood
meal. Their bites resemble small skin pricks.  Hungry
mites are not reluctant to bite.
    Bird nests are occupied by several populations of
arthropods;  they make up their own community with
physical and biological supporting factors.  For this
reason,  bird mite control is  a simple  example  of
integrated pest management. Management is required
of this entire, but small, ecosystem.
                             Applicators  will find
                         predatory species that feed
                         on mites: beetles that feed
                         on feathers,  textile  pests
                         that  infest woolens, and
                         beetles and mites that feed
                         °n   funSus-  This
                         community of organisms is
                         supported by the blood,
                         feathers, down, and moist
                         droppings of the  birds.
                             When the young birds
fledge (grow flight feathers and leave the  nest), the
food supply stops and die arthropod community leaves
in  search  of other  harborage.  Often, bird  mite
migration can be  tied  to  a  particular  bird  species
(usually one of the pest  birds that nest on structures).

    In the middle  Atlantic states, bird mites become
problems when fledgling starlings leave the nest the
last weeks  of May and  the  first weeks  of June.
Suspected bird mite infestations at other times of the
year,  more often than not, turn out to be caused  by
other problems.
Module Two, Chapter 4, Pg 8

    Always collect mites for identification.
    >   Use a small watercolor brush to pick
         them up.
    »   Store them in alcohol.
    Often mite activity is close to their point of entry
into a structure. When this is the case:
    »   Look for bird nests on the outside of the
         structure on  ledges, air conditioners,
    »   Identify ways they  can enter buildings.

Habitat Alteration
    In this case  habitat alteration also refers to the
host birds habitat.
    »   Remove nests.
    »   Screen or net nest areas.
    »   Install inclined  ramps  to prevent nest
    »   Prevent nesting.
    »   Caulk   mite   entrance  points   into
    Technicians should always protect their eyes and
respiratory  system  from  dust  of  the   nest, bird
droppings,  and  fungal spores when cleaning roost
areas.    Wear  rubber gloves to  keep  mites from
crawling on hands and  arms.

Pesticide Application
    Use pesticides labeled for mite control. Without
food,  and with  pesticide  applications, mite  activity
should cease within  one day. Activity for extended
periods  means  that  nests and entrances  have been
missed (or the pest mididentified).
    »   Apply pesticides indoors to cracks and
         crevices in the area of mite activity.
    »   Apply sprays or dusts in the cracks that
         might communicate with the nest area.
    *   Outside, spray or dust pesticides at the
         nest area to kill wandering mites.
    Poultry mites, the same species  or close relative
of bird mites, can be problems. These mite infestations
are treated in poultry houses or coops.
    »   Obtain  and follow  recommendations
         from  University County  Agricultural
         Extension Service agents.

Follow up
    Record  nest  sites  and control methods;  if later
infestations appear, new nests can be identified. Note
the dates when identified bird mite infestations are
reported. Keep records for several  years;  pinpoint
times  and seasons when these  pests can be expected.
Conduct annual monitoring  of nesting sites  before
birds fledge.
    The  term,  bug,  is  slang  for  insect.  Used
technically,  however,  it refers  to  the thousands  of
species  of the order  Hemiptera,  true  bugs.  Most
species  of true bugs  feed  on plants; many feed  on
animals, other insects in particular; some are aquatic.
Feeding is accomplished when the bugs pierce tissues
with slender thread-like stylets (located in a "beak"  on
the front  of the insect's head) and suck up liquids.
Bedbugs are indeed true bugs that suck blood,  but a
larger family of predatory  bugs, the Reduviids  (over
2,500 species) also suck blood from mammals, birds,
and some reptiles, as well as many species of insects.

The  Family  Cimicidae

Cimex lectularius
    This  wingless bed bug, a notable blood sucking
parasite of man throughout written history, has moved
with him all over the world. The bed bug's adaptation
to humans  is  so complete their bites  are  nearly
painless. In the United States bed bugs have been one
of the most important urban human pests; they  were
disliked  more  than   cockroaches,  but  DDT  so
effectively controlled bed bugs in the late 1940s that
they are of minor  importance today.
                               Bed  bugs  are  dark
                           reddish brown, oval and
                           very  flat.   Adults  are
                           almost 1/4 inch long and
                           become mature in  about
                           four  weeks   when  host
                           blood  is  available and
                           temperature,   humidity,
                           and    harborage   is
                           favorable. If  hosts  are
                       survive  for a year without
scarce,  bed
    Hosts include many species of vertebrates besides
man, including poultry, rodents, dogs, and cats. They
infest shelters along hiking trails and cabins of summer
camps and parks. The surprise occurrence of bed bugs
in urban homes often can be traced to these recreation
    Eggs. Eggs are deposited several times each day
in protected  places  near the host's sleeping area;
                                                                                  Module Two, Chapter 4, Pg 9

several hundred might be deposited. Hatching occurs
in one to two weeks, depending on temperature - the
warmer the weather, the shorter the incubation time.
    Nymphs. Nymphs, tiny and colorless at first, go
through five molts taking a blood meal between each
one. This nymphal period can last from several weeks
under favorable conditions to as long as a year when
hosts are unavailable and temperatures are low.
    Adults. Undergoing gradual  metamorphosis, the
bed bugs mate soon after becoming adults. Adult bed
bugs prefer humans as hosts;  while they have  been
known to harbor  several human  diseases, then has
been no record of disease transmission.

    Under normal conditions, bed bugs feed at night.
Flat bodies allow them to hide  in cracks  in beds,
bedside furniture, dressers, wall boards, door and
window  frames,  behind pictures,  under  loose wall
paper and in rooms  near host sleeping areas.

    The bedroom is usually the center of infestation.
All dark cracks and  crevices are potential harborage.
    >   Inspect camping sleeping equipment.
    »   Inspect outdoor animal sheds and coops
         even though not recently occupied.

Habitat Alteration
    Since  bed bugs have  alternative hosts besides
humans (e.g:, rodents, some birds, etc.), excluding
these  animals is very important. While it  is difficult,
infested woodland cabins must  be vermin-proofed.
    »   Tighten, caulk, and  screen routes  of
    »   Store mattresses in protected areas.
    »   When not in use, do not fold mattresses
         on cots to  prevent mouse nesting.
    »   Open protective harborage inside, such
         as  wall  voids,  or tighten   it  up
    »   Open cabinets. [This discourages rodent
    »   Make   crawlspaces   accessible    to
         predators and light.
    »   Move wood   piles   away  from  die
    *   Keep weeds and shrubs away from die
    »   Eliminate garbage.

Pesticide Application
    There is no  tolerable  number of bed bugs  in
occupied structures.  Camps  and hiking shelters should
be treated only when there is evidence of an active bed
bug  infestation.  Rodents  found  inside should  be
trapped  or  baited.   Several   general  application
pesticides labeled for bed bugs are available.
     »   Dust  or   spray   desiccating  dusts,
         pyrethrin,  malathion, etc.
     »   Use  crack  and  crevice  application
         methods to treat harborage thoroughly.
     »   Treat furniture joints.
     »   Ensure that treated tufted mattresses or
         depressed  seams dry  and are covered
         with bedding before they are used.
     »   Leave time for drift or droplets to settle
         before bedtime.
     »   Do not  use  space treatments or  fogs;
         they are not effective.
     «•   Check  state  regulations. Some  laws
         allow the  use of  appropriately  labeled
         residual  pesticides  for  cracks   and
         crevices;    this   reduces   repeated

Follow up
     If treated infestations recur, evaluate to determine
whether some harborage was missed or if the structure
is being reinfested;  revise  the management  plan.
Monitor structures where periodic reinfestation occurs.
Remember,  camps used only seasonally should have a
pest management plan  too.  Keep  good records on
pesticide use and application methods. Educate clients
and  maintain  communications.  Emphasize  that bed
bugs do not transmit diseases.  Remove  rodent baits
when recreational buildings are occupied.

    Two species of bed bugs can be found in  bat
colonies. These bugs are very similar in appearance to
the common  bed  bug; they  do not  build  up  in
structures as intensely as the common bed bug. Their
host is the bat, but bat bugs wander when hosts leave
during  migrations.  They   are   also  disturbed  by
reconstruction and bat proofing. An occasional bat bug
appears in  rooms usually just below attics. Locate
infested bat nesting sites and dust after the bats and
detritus have been removed.

Endangered Species
    Be aware of endangered species of bats and other
animals when treating bed  bug infestations. Outside,
treat rodent burrows only.

Family Reduviidae
    This family contains  some  species  that  bite
humans  and  even  transmit diseases  in tropical
Module Two, Chapter 4, Pg 10

America. They are known by many names: conenose
bugs, masked hunters, black corsairs and kissing bugs.
One species  feeds  on bed bugs. The insect-eating
species of the family are very important predators of
plant pests  but  normally  only  enter  structures
accidentally; many are attracted by lights; if they are
handled they inflict painful bites.
                             From   Mexico   to
                         Argentina,  a very serious
                         disease  called   Chagas
                         disease, is  transmitted by
                         the stealthy and  painless
                         nocturnal bites of several
                         species of Reduviids. Bugs
                         feed and  the  blood  they
                         defecate is contaminated by
                         disease organisms that are
                         later   rubbed   into  bite
                         areas.  Relatives of these
                         bugs that live in the United
States have a very painful bite; they are knocked off
before they can feed and  defecate. These bugs do,
however,  take blood from wood rats or pack  rats,
especially in the western United States. While they do
not  bite humans,  they should be  elimination from
homes,  cabins and other structures; this requires the
exclusion of the wood rats.

Habitat Alteration
     »   Never  leave   bird  seed   or   stored
         products that are attractive to rodents in
         intermittently   occupied    structures,
         unless they are  kept in  rodent-proof
     »   Close  entrance  holes  and  reinforce
         potential openings in structures.
     »   Remove rat nests and detritus.
     »   Vacuum the area.
     »   Wear dust masks when performing any
         procedures involving dust from fecal
         droppings, guano, etc.
     »   Alter or eliminate any rodent harborage
         outside near the structure.
     »   Use  light  bulbs that  do  not attract
         insects  in  outside  light  fixtures,  or
         relocate them.

Pesticide Application
     »   Apply a light application of a pesticidal
         dust laid down in nest areas to kill bugs
         that may hatch out later.
     »   Keep the dust  from infiltrating  into
         lower floors.
    There are three species of human lice: head lice,
body lice, and crab or pubic lice. They all suck human
blood and are not found  on birds, dogs, cats,  farm
animals or other hosts.
    Historically, the disease typhus, transmitted by
body lice, was common where people were confined
together and could not wash or delouse their clothing.
This  disease  became  epidemic  within  confined
populations such as cities under siege or armies limited
to trenches or on the move and unable to delouse their
clothes. Typhus is a fatal disease and was so pervasive
it, more than wounds of war, determined  who was
victorious and who was defeated in wartime.
    Widespread  louse  epidemics ceased  being  a
problem when DDT dust became  available in World
War II. Although body lice became resistant to  DDT
when it was intensively and repeatedly used,  other
synthetic  pesticides were found  to  work as  well.
[Typhus epidemics are not caused by either head  louse
or crab louse infestations.]
    With the elimination of the large infestations,
modern societies  are puzzled and alarmed when small,
persistent louse outbreaks occur. Common examples of
small infestations are head louse  infestations among
elementary   school   aged   children,  body   louse
infestations  on people  who are unable to care for
themselves, and pubic louse infestations resulting from
sexual intercourse with an infested partner.
    Informed pest control technicians can  be  very
helpful  as consultants with louse infestations and can
provide a great service by discouraging pesticidal use
other than for hair treatment. Leaving directions on
lousicide  choices  with   parents,  school  medical
personnel, physicians,  or  the   infested  individual
strengthens the clients confidence in the technician's
technical understanding and discourages the application
or spraying of pesticides.

Pediculus capitus
    Adult head lice are gray and about  1/8 inch  long.
Hatching occurs about one week after  attachment.
Since lice go through a gradual metamorphosis, the
tiny nymphs  resemble adults. They grow to maturity
in about 10 days. Adult lice mate  and the female can
lay about 100 eggs, but often falls short of that in her
life of only several weeks.
    In the United States, lice live in the head hair of
children of elementary school  age (only rarely  on
                                                                                  Module Two, Chapter 4, Pg 11

adolescents or adults). They scuttle about on the scalp
between hairs with much more speed than expected of
a  small,  soft,  wingless  insect  with  slender  hair
grasping claws on the end of blunt legs.
    Close adaptation locks head lice into the human
scalp in several ways. First, louse claws grasp human
hair so firmly that they do not fall or wander out of it.
Second, head lice suck blood by grasping the scalp
with tiny hooks  that  surround their  mouth,  and
painlessly pierce the skin with slender stylets. [Head
lice feed  several times  a day but do  not engorge
themselves.]  Most importantly, head lice neatly glue
their eggs (called nits) to the hair shaft, always within
1/4 inch of the scalp. The tiny, pearl-like eggs  stick
alongside the hair so tightly that they can be dislodged
only by being torn from the neat sleeve of biological
glue by fingernails or a fine toothed comb. Nits found
further away from the scalp than 1/4 inch will  have
already hatched;  what  is found is the  empty shell
which remains attached.
    The spread of head lice is not well known, but
lice do not roam from child to child. Neither do they
wander onto coat  collars or hats,  since  they are  so
restricted  to human  hair  and  the  scalp  surface
temperature  of around  80°F  or  a  little  more.
Temperature preference and perhaps  humidity is  so
critical that lice die at elevated temperatures and from
excess   perspiration.  Conversely  at  lower  surface
temperatures (about SQPF) lice become torpid and do
not move or feed.  A reasonable speculation is that
head louse nymphs hatch from nits on hair snatched by
brushes and knit  hats. The tiny nymphs  then move
toward the warmth of the next head covered by the cap
or  brushed  by the brush. This  normally  limits
transmission to siblings that have their hair brushed
with a  "family brush" or children who use knit hats
and brushes of friends. Louse infestations are often
discovered by school teachers who are watching for
the signs of itching heads, but classroom neighbors are
not as likely to  be  infested as are brothers and sisters
or close friends that sleep over and  share brushes.
Head lice have been shown by surveys in several large
eastern  cities  to  infest the heads of Caucasian and
oriental children but they very seldom infest those of
black children.

Head Louse Control
     Several   over-the-counter    and   prescription
preparations are used to eliminate louse infestations;
they are all equally effective when used according to
label directions. Prescription preparations are applied
only once and have a high probability of killing the
eggs  as well  as live lice.  The  preparations from
drugstores need to be used twice. The first application
kills all of the  live lice. Viable nits hatch in 6-10 days
and the second application kills that population. These
lousicides are applied to  wet hair and after a short
waiting period they  are shampooed out. Advise clients
     »   Treat all  members of the family  who
         are infested at the same time.
     »   Wash  bedding and knit caps  in hot
         water to be sure any nits or fallen  hairs
         are killed.
     »   Vacuum all surfaces where children lie
         or play (including stuffed toys).  [In day
         care  centers and kindergartens, napping
         mats should be wiped or vacuumed.]
     »   Clean rugs or simply  quarantine  them
         for 10 days after vacuuming.
     *   Remember, do not apply pesticides to
         rooms,  toys, or furniture surfaces.
     Decisions  on   the   formulation  of  lousicide,
treatment  of  head   infections  from   extensive
infestations, and so  forth, are decisions to be made by
parents and physicians.
     Reported  louse infestations of adolescents  and
adults should  be investigated by a physician; if live
lice are not seen, the nits should be examined through
a microscope to assure that they are not symptoms of
scalp conditions.

Pediculus humanus
     Head  and  body  lice  are  indistinguishable in
appearance and life cycle, however, their behavior is
very different: Both suck blood, but body lice engorge
themselves,  feeding to the point that  their abdomens
become purple and distended. Body lice are easily
reared on rabbit  blood after a period of assimilation
but  head lice  can  only  be • successfully reared  on
humans. Body lice harbor  on clothes, hiding along
seams and moving  to  the body to engorge. They do
not deposit their eggs on body hair or head hair but on
clothing. While body louse epidemics are controlled on
Module Two, Chapter 4, Pg 12

humans by emergency applications of pesticides (dusts
usually),  control  is maintained  by  cleaning  and
washing clothes.
    For these reasons body lice, historically the most
common  human louse, are now rare in the  United
States. Infestations appear on those  who cannot take
care of themselves like homeless individuals who do
not  remove  clothes   for   cleaning   and  older,
incapacitated individuals. Infested clothing passed from
one individual to  another is a common method  of

Body Louse Control
    Some general application pesticide  formulations
are labeled for spraying but are of little value.
    »   Clean or wash clothing,  bedding, etc.,
         with hot water  and detergents to kill
    »   Bathe to detach and kill moving lice on
         the body.
    »   Use detergents and disinfectants to clean
         bed   frames,   bedside   furniture,
         ambulances, ambulance  and  hospital
    »   Counsel  clients  carefully   to  control .
         emotionally-charged   situations   and
         prevent louse reinfestations.

Phthirus pubis
    Adult crab lice are only a little over half the size
of body  or head lice; their last two pairs of legs
terminate in hooked mitts that resemble crab claws.
These  lice are confined to  coarse pubic  hair and
sometimes eyelashes. Pubic lice move very little in the
pubic region and produce few eggs. The most common
method of transmission is by sexual intercourse. When
infested  pubic hair  detaches,   lice can  hatch on
underwear,  in  beds,  or  on toilet fixtures. If  their
immediate environment is above 50°F, a pair of pubic
lice could infest another person.

Pubic Lice Control
    Accurate, calm communications are invaluable in
explaining pubic  louse  infestations  and  making
recommendations for their control.
    »   Use pubic louse preparations.
    »   Wash bedding and underwear.
    »   Use  detergents  or  disinfectants  in
         toilets.    '
    *   Vacuum.
     Imagination is the ability to form a mental image
to experience something that is not present. Where the
source of imaginary itches are attributed to pests, the
itch is real, but the pest is not. Everyone experiences
an occasional itch that feels like crawling insects. A
look confirms that either an insect is present or that
the mental image was not real. These unreal feelings
can be troubling. Concern that the cause of an itch
cannot be seen, and may be a microscopic parasite can
be overwhelming. This idea affects  some  people so
strongly  that  it  inhibits  their ability  to  function:
Imaginary insect-related problems can be separated
into  three  groupings:  Entomophobia;  Contagious
Hysteria; and Delusions of Parasitism.

     Taken alone, entomophobia can  be defined as an
admitted fear of insects. This is not to mean a fear of
imaginary  insects,  but an  exaggerated,  illogical,
unexplained fear  of actual  insects. A fear  of insects
occurs to a minor extent with a majority of people. In
an  extreme form,  when  the  fear  inhibits  normal
functioning, help  from counseling  professionals  is
needed. Group treatment has been found to be very
     Entomophobes rarely  are  problems  for  pest
control technicians. However, their  excessive desire
for   preventive  pesticide   applications  may  be
encountered when clients attempt to coerce technicians
to use pesticides unwisely.  Such  pressure  should be
resisted;  technicians should remain  firm and  apply
controls  only  as  professionally  indicated by  pest
infestations.  [The  term,  entomophobia,  is  used
sometimes genetically to include all imaginary insect-
related categories.]

     As the name implies, imaginary  pest infestations
                                                                                Module Two, Chapter 4, Pg 13

sometimes upset a group of people. This hysteria can
be passed along  or  accepted  by others.  Contagious
hysteria often occurs in an office work force. Factors
usually connected with the hysteria include:
         crowded conditions
         overtime work
         excessively detailed or boring tasks
         changing climate
         changing seasons
         paper handling
         perceived   unfairness   of   working
         conditions   caused   by   physical
         arrangements in the work space.
    Classically, a few individuals including a leader
or spokesperson begin feeling bites and discover rashes
and other skin eruptions.  These individuals identify
certain portions of rooms where the pests are common
and  demand  control.  Supervisors  usually do  not
believe there is a pest problem, since they are usually
unaffected by the contributing conditions, but they may
be recruited as pressure for results mounts.

     *   Look for pest infestations such as mites
         infesting stored products or populations
         of psocids and fruit flies that may cause
     »   Inspect  for fiberglass filaments and for
         insect parts that could cause allergies.
     »   Do not  allow obvious  miscellaneous
         insects to become important for the sake
         of coming up with an answer.
     »   Carefully inspect the entire work area -
         the nontargeted  part  as well  as the
         identified part.
     »   Listen to workers explain die situation
         fully; arrange for management not  to
         refute or ridicule raeir statements. Not
         having a hearing entrenches feelings of
         unjust treatment. Ask if the pests are
         ever seen biting; ask to see die pests.
     »   Leave alcohol  vials, tweezers, and a
         small brush so  pests can be collected
         when seen later.
    Notice  die differences between die pest-affected
and non-affected parts of die work place.
     >   Check air  conditioning,  air filtering,
         work  space  furniture,  amount  of
         window space, carpeting, type of work,
         proximity  to  duplicating equipment,
         availability   of   refreshments,   and
         compare die two areas. Where there is
         an apparent discrimination, bring it to
         die  attention   of  die  supervisors.
         Different   conditions   influence
         worker feelings.
    Problems with contagious hysteria usually erupt
during periods of seasonal change. Changing climate
results in changing humidity and the need for the body
to acclimatize  to  different  atmospheric conditions.
     »>   Notice   static    electricity   around
         duplicating machines, and check relative
         humidity   of die  office  air.   Low
         humidity dries skin and increases static
         electrical.   This    results   in   skin
         sensitivity, causes paper fibers to jump
         and electricity discharges that snap and
         sting as well as cause hair to move on
         the skin,  giving the  impression,  of
         crawling insects.
     »   Periods  of changing doming styles,
         e.g., winter  to spring, summer to fall
         find people  more  restive.  Changing
         climate and  changes  between heating
         and air cooling results in dry or humid

Habitat Alteration
     Respons.es to the problem are needed. By the time
responses  are  carried out,  the  condition often  is
rectified.   Discuss  observations  with  management.
Suggest  patience.  Request physical  changes in die
     »   Inquire whether a pesticidal lotion has
         been prescribed by  a physician. If this
         has  happened,   and  it often  does,
         strongly  recommend that the lotion use
         be discontinued if no skin eruptions are
         seen  and  substitute  a non-pesticidal
     »   Inquire   about   die   possibility  of
         fiberglass insulation.
     »   Recommend  that die workers at die
         center of die  affected area be dispersed,
         that desks and furniture in diat area be
         wiped down with disinfectants, and that
         intensive vacuuming or carpet cleaning
         be done.  Leave  die area empty for  a
         time if possible.
     »   Balance  air cooling or  heating.  Bring
         relative humidity to 65 percent.

Pesticide Application
     Unless there  is real  evidence of pest problems,
NEVER apply pesticides. Do not make false statements
relating to control of non-existent pests.  Legitimate
Module Two, Chapter 4, Pg 14

pesticide application in label-approved sites should
produce clear results that can be seen, otherwise it will
be viewed as a control failure and lost credibility will

Follow up
    Monitor the area periodically with sticky traps.
Explain the importance of the appearance of captured
objects on the sticky surfaces are (e.g. small  flies,
dust,  lint, cockroaches, etc.). Identify any specimens
or objects workers have collected in the alcohol vials.
Use hand lens or microscopes,  and let the workers
view  the specimens. After taking the  steps outlined
above, often simply demonstrating to clients that you
are on the job, that you are competent  and informed
about pest management, will be an adequate solution.

    A condition where an individual has delusions of
parasitism  is an  extremely emotional  and  sensitive
situation. An inspection of the problem environment
and an examination of specimens alleged to be the pest
or parasites will affirm or contradict the occurrence of
an infestation to the technician but rarely to the client.
    Often people affected by these delusions will have
been  referred from one or several physician(s), to  a
dermatologist, to a psychiatrist, to entomologists, to
health department sanitarians, pest control companies,
cnf tnflnuum.  The amount of  time that  must  be
expended by each consultant soon becomes excessive,
and the patient experiences repeated rejections of one
type or  another — not  to  mention  strain due  to
expenditure of time and money.
    In any of these situations there is a possibility that
the complainant has a medically treatable condition.
There  have  been  cases  in  which  drug abuse,  or
conflicting drug prescriptions for patients being treated
for several health problems, elicit such manifestations.
The fact is there is little that can be done by anyone
but a medical diagnostician with experience.in the
cause of delusions.
    Always be honest in answering questions; do not
agree to seeing pests that are not there. NEVER apply
pesticides in these situations. Remember communicate
with the client that pesticides should only be applied
by  pest  management  technicians when  active pest
infestations have been identified and evaluated.
     Biting pests in this chapter are not as commonly
encountered  as  many  other urban  pests.  When
infestations are found or  suspected, however, they
elicit fear: fear of being parasitized as well as a fear of
the  unknown.   Calm,   authoritative  and   well
communicated  advice  is  very  important  for pest
management technicians to use in situations  involving
biting pests.
                                                                                 Module Two, Chapter 4, Pg 15

                        STUDY QUESTIONS FOR MODULE TWO
                                    CHAPTER FOUR
                          MITES, TICKS, BED BUGS AND LICE
1.   What procedures should be used when head lice are discovered in schools?
2.  What diseases are commonly transmitted by ticks in the United States?
3.  What species of ticks transmit these diseases?
4.  What diseases are transmitted to dogs or humans by the Brown dog tick in the United States?
5.  What diseases are transmitted by bed bugs in the United States?
6.  What is the typical method of transmission of crab lice and where are they found?
                                                                  For Answers refer to Appendix A
Module Two, Chapter 4, Pg 16

                            MISCELLANEOUS INVADERS
      Learning Objectives

              After completion of the study of Miscellaneous Invaders, the trainee should be:
      able to:
          a;  Identify the key features in the life cycle,  habitat and appearance of
              miscellaneous invaders.

          o   Discuss   integrated:  pest   management   procedures   for   common
              miscellaneous invaders.
Class Chilopoda
    Centipedes   are   sometimes  combined   with
millipedes in the large group Myriopoda. Centipedes
are many-segmented arthropods with one pair of legs
attached to each segment and somewhat long antennae.
Except for one group, centipedes live outside under
stones and logs. The  centipede  that lives inside is
known as the house centipede, Scutigera coleoptera.
    Adults are over one inch long, and  run in  a
graceful manner on many,  very long  legs. House
centipedes are  found hi small numbers in basements
and other rooms that are not continuously occupied.
They  feed  on  tiny insects  and  spiders.  Although
beneficial, they frighten many people who then insist
they be controlled.
    House centipedes usually live hi places that can be
lightly dusted; if  the  area  is damp, apply  a light
residual spray.
Class Diplopoda
                  Millipedes are cylindrical, many
              segmented arthropods with two pairs
              of legs attached to.each segment. They
              have short antennae.  Millipedes  live
              outside in leaf litter; unlike centipedes,
              they may build up  in very large
              numbers. Millipedes  migrate in  dry
              weather  and enter basements, ground
              floors, and window wells. They are a
              particular problem in houses located
              near woodlands.  One  species,  the
              brown millipede, has been known to
              crawl  up  forest cabin  walls when
              populations are numerous.
                                                  Habitat Alteration
                                                      »    Remove leaf litter and compost near house
                                                      »    Caulk around door and window facings.
                                                      »    Weatherstrip  doors  and  ground   level
Pesticide Application
    »   Apply residual pesticides to cracks and
        crevices around house foundations.
    »   If  the  infestation   is   particularly
        persistent, or if the migrating pests have
        built up in very high  numbers, apply a
        band pesticide application around the
        house as a barrier.
                                                                              Module Two, Chapter 5, Pg 1

 Family Gryllidae
     Crickets are well-known relatives of cockroaches
   §1 katydids. Like katydids, male crickets "sing" in
     summer  by moving hard  parts of their  wings
 together; the  males are calling females for mating.
 They develop  with gradual  metamorphosis; during
 some periods, adults  and  nymphs share the same
 harborage and food wim grasshoppers.

     The most commonly-seen crickets in  the United
 States are field crickets; adults are very dark and about
 one inch long. Eggs are  laid toward the end of
 summer  in moist soil  of roadside ditches, meadows
 and fields, along fences; and in dry weather, they are
 laid in soil  cracks, where adult  crickets  find some
 moisture for egg laying  as well  as  for themselves.
 Eggs are injected into  soil by the female using a long,
 straight appendage called  an ovipositor.  The eggs
 overwinter and hatch in spring.
     Crickets feed on plants, and mature in July and
August. When weeds begin to harden and die and rain
is sparse, crickets often leave their ditches and fields;
they move out in massive invasions. This is the time
they  come  into  homes  and buildings.  Entry into
structures is  most always under doors  and through
opened windows.
     Field cricket populations are cyclical. Some years
great numbers find their way across parking lots and
into malls and office buildings. Many years of low
cricket populations may follow. Other crickets like the
tamse cricket,   and the  very small  dark  brown
memobius, also have cycles of build up  and movement
into structures.
    This humpbacked insect is more closely related to
katydids  than to  crickets.  It  is mottled brown and
wingless  with very  long legs and antennae.  Cave
crickets  are  often  compared  to  spiders,  but the
resemblance is only superficial. Cave  crickets prefer
dark  damp  or cool  places  like  basements,  crawl
spaces, and garages. They seldom cause damage.

    >   Locate  the  egg  laying   sites where
         populations build up, if possible.
    »   Look near  patches  of   weeds,  soil
         cracks,  at  the  base of plants, or  in
    •>   Inspect basements, closets, pantries.

Habitat Alteration
    »   Caulk,  tighten,    and   weatherstrip
         basement and ground floor doors and
         windows to keep crickets out of houses.
    »   Thin  plantings   next   to    building
    »   Keep grass short during cricket activity
         to  discourage  the insects and reduce
         cover in  case pesticide sprays  are
    »   Ventilate and  remove materials  that
         provide hiding places for cave crickets
         in crawl spaces and garages.

Pesticide Application
    »   Direct pesticide spray applications  in
         cracks near the foundation and around
         door stoops and patios.
    »   Apply a residual  barrier around  the
         building if populations are very high.
    »   Use granular baits when needed.
    »   Where very high build-up is detected in
         breeding areas, particularly in a series
         of  cricket invasion  years, spray  the
         weeds and  grass  in midsummer with
         pesticides labeled for cricket control on
    »   Advise clients  to  swat field  and cave
         crickets  indoors or spray them with  a
         general use contact aerosol.
Module Two, Chapter 5, Pg 2

        Use dusts on cave  crickets  in crawl
        spaces and garages; however, they are
        seldom needed.
Class Crustacea
                     These   small,   oval   land
                 crustaceans,  protected by objects
                 on the ground, feed  on decaying
                 vegetable matter and fungi. They
                 have been known to clip outside
                 potted plant roots, but  very  little
                 damage is expected of them. Heavy
                 infestations  outside   encourages
                 movement that  causes individuals
                 to find  their  way  inside.  Their
                 generic  names,  Porcellio   and
                 Armadillidum, seem to distinguish
these small oval arthropods.

Habitat Alterations
     »    Remove places  where  sowbugs and
         pillbugs can  develop  near the house,
         such as boards on the ground, flower
         pots, and flat stones.
     »    Remove mulch and replace with gravel,
         if necessary.
Order Dermaptera
            t          Earwigs are conspicuous and
                  easily  recognized  relatives  of
                  cockroaches. They  are flattened
                  insects with forceps or pinchers
                  at the tail end; the forceps grasp
                  insect  prey.  At  first  glance,
                  earwigs appear to be wingless; in
                  tact, their wings fold up  many
                  times under the small front wing
                  covers;   some   fly  to   lights.
                  Earwigs feed on other insects and
                  often scavenge in  garbage  and
moist plant material.  They also feed  some on plant
tissue, and at least one is a pest in greenhouses. They
are dependent on high moisture. Earwigs are active at
night; they shelter together and are quiet during the
    Earwig females tend their young. They place their
eggs in moist depressions or holes, guard them, groom
them until they hatch, and.take care of the early stage
nymphs. Earwigs grow with gradual metamorphosis;
older nymphs and adults harbor together.
The European Earwig
Forficula auricularia
    The European  earwig was introduced into the
United States. This dark brown insect grows to be
almost one inch long and is common in the Northeast,
Northwest, parts  of southern  Canada, and now is
found in the middle Atlantic states.
    Like most earwigs, the European earwig requires
high moisture and builds  up in shady yards  where
stones  and boards  offer  protection.  These earwigs
enter on ground floors and can make their way into
other  parts of houses. They also hide  in wrappings
used to trap gypsy moth larvae.

The Striped Earwig
Lab/dura riparia
    The striped earwig, common in the tropics and
subtropics, has now extended  its  range  across the
southern  and  southwestern  United States.  These
earwigs burrow in  soil,  mulch, rubbish,  and  grass
thatch. The striped earwig  is about one inch long, and
brown or tan with pale stripes on the thorax. The
abdomen is darker and slightly banded. This earwig
survives  well  in  disturbed  areas  such  as  new
subdivisions. They  are doubly obnoxious when they
come  inside  because  they emit a foul odor  when

    »   Look  under  bark,  boards, and  stones
         near house foundations.
    »   Inspect cracks around foundation and
        door stoops.
    »   Check behind bird houses, tree trunk
        wrappings, and under plant mulch.

Habitat Alteration
    »  Caulk ground floor entries, windows,
        and cracks between  door stoops and
        patios and the building foundation.
    »  Remove  as much harborage as possible.
    »  Trim  hedges  and  plants  away  from
    »   Ventilate   and   dehumidify   moist
        basements, porches,  and  so  forth.
        Lowering  the  humidity  or   moisture
        discourages earwig buildup.

Pesticide Application
    »   Prepare a band of low mowed grass on
        which residual   pesticidal sprays  or
        granules  can be applied where earwig
        infestations are very high.
    »   Spray  in cracks  next to the foundation
        and under  shrubbery.
                                                                               Module Two, Chapter 5, Pg 3

        Sprays  of detergents  are  known to
        quickly kill  earwigs.  Use  pesticidal
        soaps when labeled for this use.
        Dust in dry  basement areas to kill
        earwigs there.
Leptocoris triv/ttatus (eastern)
Leptocoris rubrolineatus (western)
    The conspicuous black-and-red Boxelder bugs are
  tvided  into  two species.  Boxelder  bugs undergo
  adual metamorphosis. The eastern species grows to
be about 1/2 inch long; it is distributed as far west as
Nevada, while the slightly smaller western species
ranges in California and Oregon. These bugs lay eggs
in the spring on female or pod-bearing Boxelder trees.
    The young nymphs are bright red. Dark markings
become more apparent on older nymphs. Nymphs feed
on Boxelder tree foliage, tender twigs, and winged
seed pods. In late summer,  mature nymphs and adults
crawl down the tree trunk by the  hundreds and
disperse. Adults  also  fly directly from  the tree  to
houses.  Like  attic flies,  the bugs find spaces  under
siding, around window and door facings  where they
enter wall voids and  rooms in houses.
    Boxelder bugs seek overwintering shelter outdoors
  tree hollows, as well as in sheds, barns, and houses.
Those that find harborage indoors move around and
fly on warm winter days.

Habitat Alteration
    The best management method is to find female
Boxelder trees  and remove them. These trees are
seldom  planted as ornamental or shade trees; they
grow  as weed trees, and are not eliminated mainly
because they are difficult to identify.
    Their leaves, somewhat like maples, are variably
shaped on  the same tree. Seed pods  are helpful in
identification of  the female trees. It usually takes a
large invasion before tree removal is practiced.
    »    Caulk around entry points on the house
         foundation  and  door   and  window
         facings. At times it may be necessary to
         caulk obvious points of entry indoors.

Pesticide Application
    »    Spray tree trunks and foundations with
         microencapsulated pesticides  when  the
         migrating insects are noticed descending
         the tree or accumulating on  the house
    »    Vacuum  bugs   inside or spray  with
         contact aerosols.
    »    Detergents have been  shown to  kill
         these bugs. Use pesticidal soaps when
         labeled for this use.
Class Scorpionida
    Although many people  outside the southwest
United States have never seen a scorpion in nature, its
shape is well known. The most common scorpion is
the small, striped scorpion, Centruroides vittotus. This
small arachnid is only about 1  1/2 inch long, tan, with
two broad dark stripes running lengthwise down the
Module Two, Chapter 5, Pg 4

body. It is distributed across the southern states and
can be commonly found under rocks  on south hill
slopes in Virginia, Kentucky and Missouri. Nonfatal,
poisonous species occur in Florida and in the semi-arid
                              Two   species   are
                          known to cause fatalities
                          when  they   sting:
                          Centruroides gertschi and
                          C.  sculptwatus. These
                          scorpions   are found in
                          southern   Arizona   and
                          neighboring  states  of
                          California, New Mexico,
                          and Texas.
                              Scorpions    are
                          nocturnal.   They   hide
under boards, rocks, rubbish and litter during the day.
They forage at night, seeking insects, and sometimes,
small mice. Scorpions  grab their prey  with  front,
crablike claws and quickly sting, whipping the stinger
over their back.
     Scorpions find daytime  hiding places in crawl
spaces, attics and closets. They enter occupied rooms,
especially kitchens for water.

     Conduct  a  flashlight inspection.  Place  hands
carefully when searching in scorpion habitats.
     »   Carefully, look under outside harborage
         and in crawl spaces and attics.
     »   Inspect   kitchen  sink  cabinets   and
         bedroom closets.
     »   Scorpions fluoresce under ultraviolet

Habitat Alteration
     »   Tighten and caulk points of entry.
     »   Remove harborage around buildings and
     »   Repair  plumbing leaks and  ventilate
         moist areas.

Pesticide Application
     »   Dust or  spray dry crawl spaces  and
         attics. [Microencapsulated sprays have
         a   greater    residual   value   than
         emulsifiable concentrates.]
     »   Dust under kitchen sinks.
     »   Spray in closets where scorpions are
Bryobia praetiosa
    This fast-moving, harmless mite has a body less
than 1/16 inch long in its adult stage.  It is bright to
dark red, and when smashed leaves a red streak. Front
legs, as long as the body, move like antennae. (This
characteristic distinguishes this mite from other red
                      Their are no male clover mites
                  in  the  United  States.  Females
                  deposit  their  red  eggs  in bark
                  crevices and building cracks during
                  early  summer  and  in the  fall.
                  Nymphs  develop  from  summer
                  eggs to invade  dwellings  in  die
                  fall. Eggs laid in the fall hatch die
                  following spring.
                      Their habitat is grass and low
                  weeds  near building  foundations,
                  warmed by the sun and sheltered
                  from  chill.  Mite   invasions  are
                  influenced  by the  temperature in
                  their habitat  combined with  heat
reflected from adjacent buildings. Mites build up on
the south side of buildings where their habitat optimum
temperature reaches above 69°F on sunny, late fall and
early, spring days; general air  temperatures are lower.
As general air temperature increases, the temperature
in the mites' habitat  grows too high. Both egg and
mite   development   and  activity  suspend   when
temperatures exceed 75°F or fall below 45°F in their
ground level habitat on grass or house foundations and
     When active, mites move  from the grass area onto
foundations, up under sheathing, or into wall cracks
and spaces  around windows that lead indoors. Mites
that reach interior wall voids in the fall may contribute
to the following early spring invasion.
     Clover mite  populations  seem to be highest and
most invasive following die installation of new lawns.
Clover  mite populations reach  their height where
subdivisions or housing developments are landscaped
by seeding and raking bare earth, or more often now,
by hydro-seeding. Well-fertilized  grass  (and other
groundcover in the West) contributes  to the mites'
wellbeing; lack of shade allows uniform temperatures
across die sunny  lawns and buildings. Scraped,  bare
soil is  devoid of predatory  mites  and insects;  it
encourages  the free build up of clover mites on new,
fertilized  grass. As die lawn  matures and the plant,
shrub, and  tree community diversifies, a diversified
insect   population  is  supported  and  clover  mite
invasions  essentially cease.

Habitat Alterations
     Whenever infested buildings and  yards meet
criteria that support  clover mites, habitat alteration
should be strongly recommended.
                                                                                  Module Two, Chapter 5, Pg 5

    >   Place bare earth covered with gravel or
         gravel  over plastic as a  barrier strip
         about two feet wide on the sunny side
         of  buildings  to  stop   clover  mite
    »   Plant shrubs in front of this strip; shrub
         mulching  will  add  to  the  barrier's
         effectiveness by diversifying the habitat
         and breaking up the even temperature
         gradient near die foundation.
    »   Close-mow the lawn in a  20-foot band
         to  decrease  grass  protection  and
         temperature insulation.
    »   Caulk building cracks and the  spaces
         where window and door  framing join
         building siding.
    »>   Caulk window and door  framing and
         weatherstrip windows on the sunny side
         of die house.
    »   Caulk electrical plates.

Pesticide Application
    Use a pesticide labeled for mite control and other
lawn pests. Thorough application of the pesticides is
needed  to reach the soil.  Usually mite control is
required only when invasions  are underway. Placing
the pesticides hear die building is an effective  and
immediate treatment, but treatment to the lawn at this
time may be too late.
    »   Apply pesticide to die barrier area and
         the  mowed grass adjacent to it  unless
         mite activity is also obvious elsewhere.
    »   Place pesticides near die building being
         invaded. Sulphur is a possible miticide.
    »   Treat under sheathing, where possible,
         to kill  mites  mat have  accumulated
    »•   Advise clients to place a thin film of
         cooking oil on  window  sills  to  trap
         mites  as a temporary control until pest
         management technicians arrive.
    »   Vacuum entering mites to immediately
         reduce the  population.  Use caution:
         sweeping or brushing can smear diem.
    »   Use  general  use spot  treatment on
         surfaces where  activity  is very high.
         [Mites will be killed on contact, and die
         residue will kill  or  repel mites for  a
         short period following  application.]
    »   Use crack  and crevice applications in
         structural joints and spaces from which
         mites  emerge.
    »   Dust voids where mites have assembled.
    »   Emulsifiable  concentrates,   wettable
         powders, dusts and pressurized  canned
         pesticides, labeled for mite control, are

Follow  up
    »   Monitor   lawns   in   new   areas  or
         subdivisions with actual or potentially
         high clover mite populations.
     Miscellaneous  invaders are  identified  as  such
because they do not regularly occur inside, or because
their infestation is less serious to people or structures
wan those of other pests. However, species in this
group are well known - and disliked. They frequently
become newsworthy local topics. Their unscheduled,
surprise occurrences are sporadic enough that people
forget  to  guard against them  and  suddenly  find
themselves inundated and immediate action  must be
taken - leaving little time for thought and planning.
Module Two, Chapter 5, Pg 6

                        STUDY QUESTIONS FOR MODULE TWO
                                     CHAPTER FIVE
                              MISCELLANEOUS INVADERS
1.   Name and discuss pest management procedures used to suppress late summer invading populations
    of black and red bugs.
2.   Name and discuss  pest management procedures  used  to suppress late winter or early spring
    populations of small red bodied mites that accumulate on the south side of houses.
3.  Describe millipedes and centipedes and discuss their management.
4.  Discuss die management of crickets.
                                                                  For Answers refer to Appendix A
                                                                      Module Two, Chapter 5, Pg 7

United States
Environmental Protection Pesticide Programs	
Agency       Washington DC 20460
                                 February 1992
Pest Management
           A Guide for
           Commercial Applicators


                                  MODULE THREE
                   Rodents: Pictorial Key to Some Common United States Genera

                   Rats as Disease Carriers	  I
                          Plague	  2
                          Murine Typhus Fever	  2
                          Rat-Bite Fever	  2
                          Salmonella Food Poisoning	  2
                          Weil's Disease or Leptospirosis  	  2
                          Trichinosis  	  2
                          About Rabies - Never	  2
                   Kinds of Rats	  2
                   Field Identification of Domestic Rodents	  3
                   Habits of Rats  	  4
                          Life Cycle	  4
                          Social Behavior  	  4
                          Senses of Rats	 .  4
                          Fear of New Objects  	  4
                          Food and Water	  4
                          Range  	  5
                          Nests	  5
                   Inspection	...'...  5
                          Flashlight	  5
                          Sounds 	  5
                          Droppings	  5
                          Urine	  5
                          Grease Marks 	  5
                          Runways	  6
                          Tracks 	  6
                          Gnawing Damage	  6
                          Nest Sites	  6
                          Burrows	  6
                          Pet Excitement	  6
                          Odor	  6
                          Estimating Rat Numbers	  6
                   Control and Management	  6
                          Sanitation	  7
                          Rat-Proofing	  7
                          Traps	  7
                          Rodenticides  	  8
                   Summary  	  10
                   Study Questions	  11

                    Losses Due to Mice	  1
                    Mice as Disease Carriers	  2
                           Salmonellosis	  2
                           Ricketts  	  2
                           Meningitis	  2
                           Weil's Disease	  2
                           Rat-Bite Fever, Ray Fungus & Ringworm	  2
                           Dermatitis	  2
                    Appearance	  2
                    Habits of Mice	  2
                           Life Cycle	  2
                           Social Behavior  	  3
                           Senses of Mice	  3
                           Curiosity	  3
                           Physical Abilities  	  3
                           Food and Water	  3
                           Range  .	  4
                           Nests	.- • •  •  4
                    Inspection	  4
                           Sounds 	  4
                           Droppings	  4
                           Urine	  4
                           Grease Marks  	  4
                           Runways	  4
                           Tracks 	 	  4
                           Gnawing Damage	  .  4
                           Visual Sitings .	  4
                           Nest Sites	  4
                           Pet Excitement	  4
                           Mouse Odors	  .  5
                           Estimating Numbers of Mice  	  5
                    Control and Management	  .  5
                           Sanitation	  5
                           Mouse-Proofing  	  5
                           Traps	  5
                           Rodenticides	  6
                    Summary  	  7
                    Study Questions	 . .	  8

                    Pigeons  	 . 	  1
                    Starlings	  2
                    House Sparrows	  3
                    Other Birds	  3
                    Health Hazards Associated with Birds  	  4
                           Histoplasmosis	  4
                           Cryptococcosis	  4
                           Ectoparasites	  4


                    Defacement and Damage to Structures and Equipment  	5
                    Legal Considerations	  5
                    Tools and Methods for Managing Pest Birds		  5
                           Inspection	  5
                           Habitat Modification	  5
                                  Exclusion	  6
                                  Ultrasonic Sound Devices	 .  7
                                  Other Repelling Devices	  7
                                  Trapping	  7
                           Lethal Alternatives  	,	  8
                                  AVTTROL	  8
                                  Prebaiting	  8
                                  Toxic Perches	  9
                                  Chemosterilants  	  9
                                  Shooting	  9
                                  Risks to Nontargets  .	  10
                                  Public Relations	,	  10
                           Bird Droppings Removal and Clean-up	  10
                           Summary  	  10
                           Study Questions	  11

                    Bats	  1
                           Bats and Disease	  1
                           Habits of Bats	:	  2
                           Inspection	  2
                           Control and Management of Bats	  2
                    Bats: Pictorial Key to United States Genera  .	  3
                    Tree Squirrels  	  4
                           Control and Management	  4
                    Ground Squirrels and Chipmunks 	  5
                           Ground Squirrels  	  5
                           Chipmunks	  6
                    Moles	  6
                    Snakes	  7
                    Skunks, Raccoons, and Possums	  8
                           Skunks	:  . .  8
                           Racoon	  8
                           Opossum  	  9
                    Management and Control	  9
                    Summary	  10
                    Study Questions	  11

                                     CHAPTER 1
                  OTHER  VERTEBRATE PESTS
    An animal with a backbone or spinal column is
called a vertebrate.  Humans, dogs, snakes, and birds
are examples of vertebrates, while insects, worms,
jellyfish, and snails are not. A few vertebrates, such as
rats  and  mice,  are common  pests  in urban and
industrial sites. Others are not pests in their normal
habitats, but may occasionally become pests when they
conflict with humans. A skunk in the woods is a
beneficial part of  nature; a skunk nesting in  the
crawlspace of a home is an entirely different matter.
    Some vertebrates  that  are  serious  pests  in
particular situations are never considered to be pests
by certain people. Pigeons,  for example, can cause
human  health problems when roosting  in large
numbers.  Commonly, their droppings foul sidewalks,
contaminate  food, and damage automobile paint. But
pigeons are  seen as pets and  friends by many city
dwellers who feed  them daily. These  constituents
react angrily to any attempt to poison or trap pigeons.
    People  feel  a  strong   attachment  towards
vertebrates that they do not feel towards other pests.
Children in particular love and cherish them. Many
people today are involved emotionally in protecting the
welfare of animals, particularly vertebrates. Control of
vertebrates other than rats and  mice is  more of a
public relations problem than a pest problem. Killing
is the control method of last resort.
    Public concern for the welfare of animals and the
risk from vertebrate poisons to people, pets, and other
nontargets have made rules governing vertebrate  pest
control particularly strict. Laws and regulations at the
state and local level may be much more restrictive than
federal regulations. Be sure  you understand all die
regulations that apply in your geographic area.
                                                                        Module Three Chapter 1, Pg 1

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                                          CHAPTER 2
      Learning Objectives

               After completion of the study of Rats, the trainee should be able to:

          a   List the physical characteristics of rats and select those unique to each

          O:   Identify the habits and habitat of each.

          a   Describe the monitoring procedures.

          a   Describe methods to reduce life support.

          a   Describe physical control methods.

          a   Discuss the use of rodenticides.
    Rats have caused more human suffering and more
economic damage than any other vertebrate pest. From
plague epidemics (the "Black Death" of Europe) to rat-
bite fever, whether feeding on stored grain or gnawing
electric  wires,   rats  are enemies  of  humankind.
Statisticians estimate that rats destroy 20 percent of the
world's  food supply every year — directly by feeding
and indirectly through contamination.
    Yet, rats can be admired.  They have adapted  to
nearly all human environments. They live in granaries,
in fields,  in city sewers, on  ocean-going ships, on
roofs, in attics, in basements, in street trees, on top  of
30-story buildings, and inside subway tunnels.
    Adept athletes, rats can leap three feet straight up
and four feet horizontally. They can scramble up the
outside of a pipe three inches in diameter, and climb
inside pipes one-and-a-half to four inches  in diameter.
They  can walk between buildings on telephone or
power lines,  and scramble on board a  ship on its
mooring line. Rats can swim through a half mile of
open water, tread water for up to three  days,  swim
against  a  strong current  in a  sewer line, and dive
through  a sewer trap to pop up inside a  toilet. They
can fall  more than SO feet and survive.
    Rats gnaw  constantly; their  teeth are extremely
hard. They commonly chew through building materials
such  as  cinder  block,  aluminum  siding, sun-dried
adobe brick,  wall  board,  wooden  cabinets,  lead
sheathing, and plastic or lead pipes. After gnawing a
hole,  an adult rat can compress its  body and squeeze
through an opening only a half-inch high.
    In most instances, rats are very wary. Hundreds
may  be nesting in a city block — in  underground
burrows, in sewers, on roofs, inside buildings — with
few people in the area realizing it. Populations are
dynamic: rats moving in, rats moving out, rats giving
birth, and rats dying. Within a population, some rats
will be easy to control, some difficult.
    Successful  long term rat control  is  not simple.
The key is to control rat populations, not individual
rats. Rat control requires an integrated approach that
includes nonlethal tools such as careful inspection,
upgraded sanitation, and rat-proofing structures. Lethal
control often combines  the use of rodenticides with
nontoxic control measures such as snap traps or glue
    Rats  are  responsible for the spread of  many
diseases. Sometimes they transmit the disease directly,
by  contaminating  food with their urine  or feces.
                                                                                Module Three Chapter 2, Pg 1

 Sometimes  they  transmit  disease  indirectly,  for
 example, fleas  biting first an  infected rat,  then  a
 person.  Following are  some of the more important
 diseases associated with rats:

     The "Great Plague" of London killed half of the
 city's population. The "Black Death" of Europe lasted
 SO years in the 14th Century  and killed 25  million
 people.  In the first  quarter  of  this  century, an
 estimated 11 million people died in Asia from plague.
     The disease is transmitted primarily to man by the
 oriental  rat flea. The flea bites an infected rat, and
 then, feeding  on a human,  inoculates them with the
 bacteria that cause the disease.
     Although no major urban outbreak of plague has
 occurred since 1924, this is not a disease of the past.
 A reservoir of plague exists in some populations of
 wild rodents  in  several  Western states.  Humans
 contacting these rodents could contract the disease. As
 suburbia expands into undeveloped areas, wild rodents
 can transmit the  disease to urban rats.  There is  a
 danger that an outbreak of urban plague can occur in
 the United States.

 Murine Typhus Fever
     Murine  typhus  occurs, in California  and  in
 southeastern and Gulf Coast states. It is a relatively
 mild disease  in humans. As  with plague,  murine
 typhus is transmitted from rats to humans by a rat flea.
 In this case, however, the disease organism enters the
 bloodstream when feces of infected fleas are scratched
 into a flea-bite wound.

 Rat-Bite Fever
     Rats bite thousands  of people each year; most
 bites occur in inner cities. [In some cases victims,
 particularly infants and bed-confined elderly, are bitten
 in the face while sleeping.] A small percentage of
 those bitten develop rat-bite fever. The bacteria mat
 causes the disease is carried in the teeth and gums of
 many  rats.  Although   the  disease  exhibits  mild
 symptoms similar  to flu in most cases, it can be fatal.
 It is of particular risk to infants.

 Salmonella  Food Poisoning
     Rats frequent sewers, rotting garbage, cesspools,
 and similar sites where Salmonella bacteria thrive. The
 bacteria  also  thrive in the intestinal tracts of rats. If
 infected  rats  travel to  stored food, or  dishes and
 silverware,  or  food  preparation  surfaces,  their
Droppings can transmit Salmonella food poisoning to
Leptospirosis or Weil's disease
    Human cases of this disease are seldom fatal. The
disease organisms are spread from rat urine into water
or food, and enter humans through mucous membranes
or minute cuts and abrasions of the skin.

    Trichinosis results from  a  nematode,  or tiny
roundworm, that invades intestines and muscle, tissue.
Both people and rats get the disease from eating raw
or undercooked pork infected with the nematode. Rats
help spread trichinosis when hogs eat food or garbage
contaminated with infested rat droppings.

About Rabies - Never
    Rats  have  never been found to be infected with
rabies  in  nature.  Rabies  transmission from  rats  to
humans has  never been documented  in the United
States. The  U.S. Public Health Service recommends
against anti-rabies treatments  in the  case of rat  or
mouse bites.
     In the United States the two most important pest
rats  are the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) and the
roof rat (Rattus rattus). The Norway rat is also called
the brown rat, house rat, sewer rat, and wharf rat. The
Norway rat is generally considered the most important
rat in the U.S. It is found in every state.
     The roof rat is also called the black rat, ship rat,
and Alexandrine rat. Roof rats are found primarily in
coastal areas of the United States, including California,
Washington,  and Oregon, the Southeast and  Middle
Atlantic States, and the Gulf States.
     The two  species look much alike but there are
noticeable   differences.  In  general:   (see   field
identification chart)
     »   A Norway rat looks sturdier than the
         roof rat; the roof rat is sleeker.
     »   A mature Norway rat is 25  percent
         longer than a roof rat, and weighs twice
         as much.
     »   A Norway rat's tail is  shorter than the
         length of its head  and  body combined;
         a roof rat's tail  is  longer than its head
         and body;
     »   A Norway rat's ears are small, covered
         with short hairs, and cannot be pulled
         over the eyes;  a  roof rat's  ears  are
         large, nearly hairless, and can be pulled
         over the eyes.
Module Three Chapter 2, Pg 2

               ROOF RAT    Rallus raltus
fE    NOSE
         NORWAY  RAT  Ratlus norveg/cus
                                             SC*LŁ IM IHCtliS

                                           0   I   I   S
                 YOUNG RAT
                                                            HOUSE  MOUSE
                                                             Mus  muscu/us
                   PREPARED BT B 2 BROWN
                      U.S. Piflil'inl ll

                  (ommunicoble Disease (enlei
                       Illlll*. dli|il

     »   A Norway rat's snout is blunt; the roof rat's
	snout is pointed.	

     Rats  must  be understood  to  be  controlled.
Knowledge of their life histories,  habitat and food
requirements, patterns of behavior,  range and other
factors is essential to their management.
     The Norway and  Roof rats have similar habits.
Most of the discussions below apply to either kind of
rat.  Where  differences are  important  for  control
purposes, however, the differences will be highlighted.
 Life Cycle
     A mature female rat can give birth to  about 20
 young in a year (4 to 6 at  a time), if she lives that
 long. The average life span of a rat in the field is less
 than one year; females live longer than males.
     The young are born in a nest. They are hairless,
 and their eyes and ears are closed. Within two weeks
 their eyes and ears open, they become furry and rat-
 like, and they begin exploring the nest area. In the
 third week they begin to eat solid  food, and imitate
 their mother to forage, escape, and watch for danger.
     If the mother rat has become wary of rodenticides
 or traps, many of her young will learn to avoid them.
 This learning experience can make control difficult in
 sites where long term  rodent control programs have
 been unsuccessful in the past.
     Young are totally weaned at four or five weeks
 old.  They then weigh  about 1 1/2 ounces.  At three
 months,  the young are  independent of their mother.
 They will mate  and continue the cycle  in the same
 location  or will migrate to a new, unoccupied nest
  ocial Behavior
    Rats are social animals and live in colonies with
well-defined territories that they mark with urine and
glandular secretions. The colony has a complex social
hierarchy  with a dominant male leader and a "pecking
order" of subordinate males and ranking females. The
strongest and most dominant animals occupy the best
nest and  resting sites,  and feed  at  their leisure.
Weaker, subordinate  rats  are pushed out to  less
favorable  sites,  or  forced  out  of  the territory
    Rats are aggressive, and social conflicts are most
common at  feeding sites,  prime resting  areas, and
territorial  boundaries. Females  fiercely defend their
 est and young from other rats.
Senses of Rats
     Rats  have  poor vision. They are  nearly color
blind, and react to shapes and movement rather than
identifying objects by sight. Thirty to forty-five feet is
the limit of their vision. Their eyes are adapted to dim
     Other  senses,  however,  compensate  for poor
vision. They use their sensitive nose  to locate food,
follow pathways, tell whether another rat is friend or
foe, and identify new objects in their territory. They
use long whiskers and guard hairs to "touch" their way
through dark burrows, pipe chases,  wall voids, and
other  runways.  Their ears detect faint sounds  that
signal danger. Rats can taste  certain  chemicals at a
parts-per-million concentration.  [This explains why
rats often  reject baits or avoid traps  that have been
contaminated with insecticides.] Finally, rats have an
excellent sense of balance which  allows them to walk
on wires and always land on their feet in a fall.

Fear  of New  Objects (Neophobia)
     Rats  are wary  of anything new that appears  in
their territory. A bait station, a trap, a block of wood
will be avoided for  a few days until  the rats become
familiar with the new object; even then, they approach
cautiously. This fear of new objects can make baiting
and trapping difficult. Rats will avoid poison bait when
it is first placed. Later, they may nibble warily. If the
poison bait makes them ill, but doesn't kill them, they
will avoid similar baits or stations in the future.

Food & Water
     Rats need about one ounce of food daily. Norway
and  roof rats prefer different types of food. Norway
rats  prefer  protein-based foods such  as meat, fish,
insects, pet food, nuts, and grain. Household garbage
is ideal food for Norway rats. Roof rats prefer plant
materials   such  as  fruits,  nuts,  seeds,  berries,
vegetables,  and  tree bark. They occasionally feed on
garbage and meats.  Each rat species, however, will
feed on nonpreferred food if nothing else is available.
     Rats often cache or hoard food in hidden areas.
This food may or may not be  eaten when other food
supplies run short.  Hoarding  is  important  for two
reasons. First, rats may be moving a toxic bait into a
location where  the  label does not permit  it to be.
Second, rats  may  be hoarding  poison bait while
feeding on their regular food; thus, a baiting program
becomes ineffective.
     Rats need water every day.  The amount varies,
depending on the moisture content of their food, but is
usually around 1/2 to one fluid ounce. Rats prefer to
nest  where water is easily available.
Module Three Chapter 2. Pg 4

    Rats usually begin foraging just after dark. Most
of their  food gathering occurs between dusk  and
midnight, but short bursts of restlessness and activity
can occur anytime, day or night. Rats commonly travel
100 to 150 feet from  their nest looking for food and
water and patrolling their territory. It is not unusual
for a colony of rats that nests outdoors to forage inside
a building 100 feet away.

    Outdoors, Norway rats usually nest in burrows
dug into the ground.  The burrows are shallow (less
than 18 inches) and usually short (less than three feet),
with a central nest. Extra "bolt holes" are used  for
emergency escapes. They are hidden under grass or
boards or lightly plugged with dirt. Burrow openings
are two to four inches in diameter. Indoors, Norway
rats nest inside walls,  in the  space between floors and
ceilings, underneath equipment, between and under
pallets,  and in crawl spaces, storage rooms, and any
cluttered area that is normally unoccupied. Norways
prefer to nest in the lower floors of a building.
     Roof rats commonly nest above ground in trees —
particularly untrimmed palm  trees,  and in piles of
wood or debris,  vine-covered fences, and  stacked
lumber. Overgrown landscaping is also a prime nesting
area.  Roof rats will  sometimes nest  in burrows if
above-ground sites are limited and Norway rats are not
nesting in the area. Indoors,  roof rats prefer to nest in
the upper levels of a building in the attic and in ceiling
and attic voids near the roof line. But at times they
also  nest in  the  lower levels of a building as do
    Both species also  nest in sewers and storm drains,
and both on occasion  can be found in highly unusual
nest sites. Both Norway and  roof rats can have several
"hotel" nest sites in an area. A rat  may spend a week
in its home base and then move for a day or two into
a secondary "hotel" nest site. Norway rats have been
shown on occasion to  have a home range of up to 20
acres when these secondary nest sites were included in
the calculations.
    Rats give many signs that they are infesting an
area. Inspection will determine if a site is infested, and
will identify where rats are feeding and nesting, their
patterns of movement, the size of the population, and
the extent of the infestation. This helps the pest control
technicians decide what control measures to use, where
and how to use them, and how much effort is needed
to put the program in place.
    An inspection using a powerful  flashlight just
after dark is the best way to see rats. Dead rats are
signs  of a current or past infestation. If all that are
found are old dried carcasses and  skeletons, it may
mean an old infestation.  Many fresh carcasses are an
indication that someone may be  baiting  the area
currently. If rats are actively observed during the day,
the rat population is probably high.

    When a building is quiet, squeaks  and fighting
noises, clawing and scrambling in walls, or gnawing
sounds may be heard.
     »   Use a stethoscope or electronic listening
         device to help pinpoint activity.

     A single rat  may produce SO droppings daily.
Roof rat droppings are  generally smaller (half-inch)
than Norway  rat's (three-quarter inch). The highest
number of droppings will be found  in locations where
rats rest or  feed.
     »   Determine if a rat population is active
         by sweeping up old droppings,  then
         reinspect   a   week  later   for   new
     »   Look at the appearance of  the droppings
         to determine if rats are currently active.
         Fresh rat droppings are black or nearly
         black, they  may glisten and look  wet,
         and they have the consistency of putty.
         After a few days or a week, droppings
         become  dry, hard, and  appear  dull.
         After a few  weeks, droppings become
         gray, dusty,  and crumble  easily. [Note
         that sometimes old droppings moistened
         by rain may look like new droppings;
         however, if crushed, they will  crumble
         and do not feel like soft putty.]

     Both wet and dry  urine stains will glow blue-
white under an ultraviolet light (blacklight).
     »   Portable  ultraviolet lights are  used in
         the food industry to  identify rat urine on
         food items. Other substances besides rat
         urine  also  glow,   which   can   be
         confusing,  so  proper   use   of  this
         inspection method takes practice.

Grease marks
    Oil and dirt rub off of a rat's coat as it scrambles
along. The grease  marks  build   up  in frequented
runways and become noticeable.
                                                                                  Module Three Chapter 2, Pg 5

    >   Look  along  wall/floor junctions,  on
        pipes  and ceiling joists, and  on sill
        plates   where   rats   swing   around
        obstacles. Grease marks are also found
        at regularly  used openings  in  walls,
        floors, and ceilings.

    Outdoors, rats constantly travel the same route;
their runways appear as  beaten paths on die ground.
    »   Look next to walls, along fences, under
        bushes and buildings.  Indoor runways
        (harder to identify) may appear as well-
        polished trails,  free of dust.

    A  rat's foot  print is about three-quarter inches
long, and may show four or five toes. Rats may also
leave a "tail drag" line in the middle of their tracks.
    >   Look in dust or soft, moist soil.
    »   Place a tracking patch in suspected rat
        areas to show  footprints.  [A tracking
        patch  is  a  light  dusting of  an inert
        material  such as clay,  talc (unscented
        baby powder),  or  powdered limestone.
        Don't use  flour,  which  may  attract
        insect pests.  A good patch  size is 12x4
        inches.]  Apply patches in  suspected
        runways and near grease marks. When
        inspecting tracking patches,  shine a
        flashlight at  an angle that causes  the
        tracks to cast a distinct shadow.  [Note
        that a tracking  patch is not the same as
        tracking powder. Tracking powders are
        diluted  rodenticides   in  dust   form,
        tracking patches use nontoxic dust.  Do
        not use  a tracking powder to  make a
        tracking patch.]

Gnawing Damage
    A rat's incisor teeth grow at a rate of about five
inches per year; Rats  keep  their teeth worn down by
continuously working  diem  against each other and by
gnawing on hard surfaces.
    >   Look for gnawing damage as evidence
        of a rat infestation. Gnawed holes may
        be two inches or more in diameter.
    *•   Inspect floor joists, ceiling joists, door
        corners, kitchen cabinets,  and around
        pipes in  floors  and walls.

Nest Sites
    Roof rats,  in particular, often nest or store food
   the attics of buildings. Roof rat nests may also be
found when dense vegetation is trimmed.
    Outdoors, rat burrows may be found singly or in
groups  along foundation  walls,  under  slabs  and
dumpster pads, in overgrown weedy areas, beneath
debris, and in embankments.
    >   Look for a burrow opening that is free
         of dirt,  leaves, and debris, often with
         smooth, hard-packed soil.
    »   Look for rubmarks at the opening, and
         soil pushed out in a fan-shaped pattern.
    »   Fill the opening with a small amount of
         wadded-up newspaper or a few leaves
         and cover it with loose soil. If die rats
         are still  using die  burrow, they  will
         reopen and clear die hole overnight.

Pet Excitement
    Cats and dogs may excitedly probe an area of
floor  or wall where rats are present, especially if the
rats have only recently invaded.

    Heavy  infestations have a distinctive odor which
can be identified with practice. The odor of rats can be
distinguished from die odor of mice.

Estimating Rat Numbers
    It's not easy to tell how many rats are infesting a
site.  As a  rough guide,  you  can use rat signs to
characterize die population as low, medium, or high.
     »   In rat-free or low infestation conditions,
         no signs are seen. The  area either has
         no  rats or was  invaded recently by  a
     »   Wirn medium infestation, old droppings
         and gnawing can be observed.  One or
         more rats are seen at night; no rats are
         seen during  die day.
     »   When diere  is a high infestation, fresh
         droppings, tracks,  and gnawings are
         common. Three or more rats are seen at
         night; rats may be seen in die daytime.
     Most  successful  rat  control  programs  use  a
combination of tools and procedures  to knock down
die rat population, and to keep it down. Methods used
combine habitat alteration and pesticide application.
Some of die tools, such as baiting and trapping, are
ledial to die rat. Some tools are not; rat-proofing, for
example. Sometimes applicators recommend changes
that their customers need to make, such as increasing
die frequency of garbage pickup or making building
Module Three Chapter 2. Pg 6

    The following sections describe some of the major
techniques and tools used in controlling rats:

    Food. Like all animals,  rats need food to survive.
Baiting programs  often  fail because  the  bait can't
compete with the rats' regular  food. The rats simply
ignore the  baits or cache them.  Reducing the  rats'
normal food  encourages   them  to   feed on   any
rodenticide baits placed in their territory.
    »   Close or repair dumpsters and garbage
         containers   that  are  left   open  or
    »   Dean food spills.
    »   Do  not  allow food to  be  left out
    *•   Outdoors, remove seeds spilled  under
         bird feeders or food around doghouses.
    »   In warehouses and  food plants, look for
         spills around railroad tracks and loading
         docks. Ensure food in storage is rotated
         properly (first in, first out) and is stored
         on pallets, not on the ground or against
         walls.  The pallets  should   be  18-24
         inches from side walls and  placed so
         that   aisles  permit  inspection  and
         cleaning around the stored food.

    Eliminate hiding places.
    »   Remove plant ground covers such as ivy
         near buildings.
    »   Remove high grass, weeds, wood piles,
         and construction debris that permit rats
         to live and hide adjacent to a  building.
    »   Reduce clutter in rarely-used rooms -
         basements,  storage rooms,  equipment
         rooms. Organize storage areas.

Rat-Proofing (Exclusion)
    Long term,  the  most  successful form  of rat
control is to build them out. Also called rat-proofing,
this technique makes  it impossible for rats  to get  into
a building or an  area of a building. Rat-proofing
prevents new rats from reinfesting a building once  it
has been cleared.

    Building Exterior.
    »   Seal   cracks and  holes  in  building
         foundations  and exterior walls.
    »   Block openings around water and sewer
         pipes,  electric  lines,  air  vents, and
         telephone wires.
     »    Screen air vents.
     »    Caulk and seal doors to ensure a tight
         fit,  especially between door and floor
     »    Fit windows and screens tightly.
     *•    Caulk  and  close  openings  on upper
         floors and the roof, inspect under siding
         and repair damaged soffits.
     »    Repair breaks in the foundation below
         ground level.
     Building Interior.
     »'   Seal spaces inside hollow block voids or
         behind wallboard. Repair broken blocks
         and holes around pipes.
     »    Repair gnaw holes or stuff them with
         copper wool.
     »    Equip  floor  drains with  sturdy  metal
         grates held firmly in place.

     Snap Trap. The snap trap is an effective method
of  killing  rats  when  used  correctly.  Trapping  is
advised  for  use in places  where  rodenticides  are
considered too risky or aren't working well, if the
odor of dead rats in wall or ceiling voids would be
unacceptable,  or  when there  are  only  a  few  rats
infesting a limited area.
     Trapping has several advantages. There is  less
nontarget risk than  from a toxicant.  The technician
knows instantly whether or not the  trap has  been
successful. Traps also allow for disposal of the carcass
so that there are no odor problems.
     Careful attention to detail  is necessary to ensure
proper placement in adequate numbers or rats  will
simply pass them by.
     The best traps are those with  expanded triggers
(treadles) set for a light touch.
     »    Leaving the traps unset for a few days
         may increase the catch by reducing the
         chance that wary rats will trip the traps
         without capture.
     »    Set traps with bait, if food for rats is in
         short supply, or without bait if food is
         plentiful.  Good baits for  Norway  rats
         include peanut butter, hot dog slices,
         bacon, or nut meats. Roof rats respond
         to dried fruits and nuts, or fresh fruits
         such as banana or apple.
     »    Tie moveable bait to the  trigger using
         string or  dental floss, or else the  rat
         may simply  remove  the  bait without
         triggering the trap.
     »    Sprinkle cereal, such as oatmeal, around
         traps to make them more attractive.
                                                                                   Module Three Chapter 2, Pg 7

     >    Set unbaited traps along runways, along
         walls, behind objects, in dark corners
         where  the rat  is  forced  through  a
         narrow opening. Place the trigger side
         of the trap next to the wall. [Rats will
         step  on the trap during their regular
     »    When runways are located  on rafters
         and pipes, set expanded trigger  traps
         directly across them, fastening them to
         pipes with wire, heavy rubber bands, or
         hose clamps, and to rafters with nails.
     »    Set  traps  where droppings, gnawing
         damage,   grease  marks   and   other
         evidence of activity is found.
     *    Use  enough traps.  [A dozen  may be
         needed for a house,  a hundred  for a
         small warehouse.] Set five or ten traps
         in an active corner of a room. Set three
         traps in a row so a rat, leaping over the
         first, will be caught  in die second or
         third. If unsure about sites of activity,
         set traps along possible runways spaced
         10 to 20 feet apart.
     *    Camouflage traps when left with only a
         few  rats  that become very difficult to
         capture. Set traps in a shallow pan of
         meal, sawdust, or grain. [Place a  small
         piece of cloth or plastic over die trigger
         to prevent the meal from jamming the
     >    In stubborn  cases,  expose  food in
         shallow pans until die rats readily feed
         on it. Then add a buried trap.
     »    Move  boxes  and  objects   around to
         create narrow runways to die traps.
     »    Avoid spraying insecticide on die trap,
         or even storing  traps with application
         equipment. The  odor  of odier rats
         improves   a    trap's  effectiveness.
         Likewise, the  odor of insecticide can
         make a rat steer clear.
     »    inspect traps frequently to remove dead
         rodents and change old bait.
     Glue Boards.  Another way to trap rats is widi
glue boards.  Glue boards use a sticky  material mat
captures  rodents. Although  most often used against
mice, they are sometimes effective against rats. Be
sure to use larger glue boards mat have been designed
to trap an animal die size of a rat. Be aware that some
consider  glue  boards inhumane, since they often  kill
die  rodents.
     »    Place glue boards in die same location
         as you would place snap  traps.  Place
         diem lengthwise flush along die  wall,
         box,  or odier  object that edges  a
         runway.   Overhead  runways  along
         pipes,   beams,  rafters,  and   ledges
         are good sites too.
     »   Do not place glue boards  directly over
         food products or food preparation areas.
     »   Secure die glue board with a nail  or
         wire so  a rat can't drag it  away.
     »   Install glue boards in  bait stations if
         people might  be  upset to observe a
         struggling rat,  where children or pets
         could  come in contact widi die glue, or
         in  areas  with   excessive  dust   or
     »   Check  glue  boards  frequently  and
         dispose  of rodents humanly.
     »   Adding a dab of bait to the center of the
         glue   board   may   improve    its

     A  rodenticide is a  pesticide designed  to  kill
rodents. There  are  three  major  formulations  of
rodenticides used to  control rats:  food baits, water
baits, and tracking powders.
     Food Boats.  Rat baits combine a poison effective
against  rats widi a food bait attractive to rats. At one
time, applicators mixed their own baits. Now baits are
mostly  purchased  ready-made  and  packaged  as
extruded pellets,  in  a  dry meal,  or molded  into
paraffin blocks  for wet sites. Baits may be obtained in
45-pound bulk tubs, in place packs containing less than
one ounce of bait, or anything in between.
     Some  baits kill  rats after a single feeding, some
require  multiple  feedings.  Some are anticoagulants
[causing  rats  to  bleed  to  deadi],  some  affect
respiration, and others have totally different modes of
action. Some are  only slightly toxic to people or pets,
some moderately  toxic,  and some very toxic.
     Many of die old, ancient poisons that were toxic
to  humans  were also  used  to   poison  rodents.
Experimentation  widi poisons  for  killing  rodents,
produced rodenticides  made  of  arsenic,  cyanide,
strychnine,  etc.:  stomach  poisons, that were mixed
with  food  and  had  such extreme  toxicity that they
killed any  animal that  injested diem in sufficient
amounts. Rats that did not eat a lethal dose, however,
recovered,  became "bait shy" and communicated their
preference  - or revulsion  - to  otiiers in die  colony.
Because of this, diese poisons were undependable.
     A new type  of rodenticide  was developed in die
1940's mat reduced die clotting ability of die blood.
This material became Warfarin, the first anticoagulant
rodenticide. Others followed: warfarin, coumafuryl,
chlorophacinone,  diphacinone, pindone, valone. The
anticoagulants were  effective and did not cause  bait
Module Three Chapter 2. Pg 8

shyness. Several factors overcame the risks of acutely
toxic poisons. While the anticoagulants could be lethal
to warm-blooded  animals,  many species including
poultry, farm animals, pets, and  humans would have
to comsume large quantities over several days to cause
fatalities.  As well  an  antidote, vitamin  K,  was
    Evidence of resisten'ce to anticoagulents and a
desire for quicker results drove the successful search
for single dose anticoagulents - brodifacoum  and
bromadiolone.  la  recent  years non-anticoagulent
rodenticides with different modes of action, such as
bromethalin  or  cholecalciferol,  have  been proven
effective.  Zinc phosphide, used as a single dose non-
anticoagulent,  is  somewhat  poisonious  to   all
vertebrates. It is often used as a tracking powder and
is licked from the fur when rodents groom themselves.
It is also  incorporated in dry  baits.  Zinc phosphide
should never be mixed with bare hands nor applied
without wearing gloves.
    Remember,  rodenticides  must  be  used  very
carefully:  they are made to kill animal species of the
same class as humans.
    Several  general  guidelines  should be followed
when using a poison bait. First and foremost, protect
children,  pets, wildlife, and domestic animals  from
eating the bait. All rodenticides have warnings on the
label  telling the  applicator to  place the  bait "in
locations not accessible to children, pets, wildlife, and
Uumrwtic  animals, or place  in tamper-proof  bait
boxes." What are safe, inaccessible areas is determined
by evaluating each case. Ask questions like these:
     »   Is it possible for a child to  reach  under
         a refrigerator to grab a place pack  that
         you hid underneath?
     »   Could a guard dog at a warehouse find
         and eat the bait blocks you placed under
         a loading dock?
If so, change your placement or  put the bait inside a
tamper-proof bait box.
    Bait boxes. A tamper-proof bait box is designed
so that a child or pet cannot get to the bait inside, but
the rat can.  [Bait trays and flimsy plastic or cardboard
stations are not tamper-proof bait boxs.] Tamper-proof
boxes differ in the type and quality  of construction,
but they are usually metal or heavy plastic.  Rat bait
stations are normally larger than those used for mice.
Most designs are not considered to  be truly tamper-
proof unless they can be secured to the floor, wall, or
    »   Ensure  that bait   boxes  are  clearly
         labeled with a precautionary statement.
    »   Check stations or boxes periodically to
         ensure rats are taking the bait and that
         the bait is fresh. [Rats will rarely feed
         on bait that has spoiled.]
    »•    Bait boxes should be placed wherever
         the rats are most active  as determined
         by droppings and other signs  (near
         burrows,  along walls,  and  at  other
         travel sites, etc.).
    »    Put place  packs  in burrows,  in  wall
         voids,  and similar protected sites. If a
         site is damp, use paraffin bait blocks or
         other water-resistant formulations. Roof
         rats often  need  to be baited in areas
         above ground such as attics, trees, and
    »    Put out enough bait and  check it often.
         [Incomplete baiting can lead to bait
         shyness and make  control difficult.]
    »    Be sure to limit the rats' normal  food
         supply or your baits may be rejected.
    »    Remember that rats fear  new objects at
         first so that your baits may not be taken
         for a few days or a week.
    »    Once bait is taken, leave the box in
         place  for  some  time;  the  rats  now
         consider it to be  part of their normal
    »    Good bait placements  can be effective
         even when placed  15 to SO feet apart.
         Bait    placed  outdoors  around   a
         commercial building can kill rats that
         are moving in from nearby areas.
    Water baits.  Rats drink water daily if they can.
When  rat  water supplies  are short,  water  baits  —
specially formulated rodenticides that are mixed with
water — can be extremely effective. Several types of
liquid dispensers are available.  The best are custom
designed for toxic water baits, but plastic chick-founts
can  also   be   used   in  protected  sites.
    »    Use  water baits only  where  no other
         animals or children can get to them.
    Tracking Powders. Rats groom  themselves by
licking  their fur. Tracking powder makes use of this
behavior. This formulation is a rodenticide carried on
a talc or powdery clay, applied into areas where rats
live and travel. The powder sticks  to the rats'  feet and
fur, and is swallowed when the rats groom themselves.
The major advantage to tracking powders is that it can
kill rats even when food and water is plentiful, or if
rats have become bait or trap shy.
    »    Apply tracking powders more heavily
         than  an  insecticide  dust [but  never
         deeper than 1/8-inch.] Best application
         sites are inside wall voids, around rub
         marks, along pipe and conduit runs, and
         in dry burrows  (when   permitted  by
         label). Apply with a hand bulb, bellows
         duster,  or with  a (properly  labeled)
                                                                                   Module Three Chapter 2, Pg 9

         flour   sifter   or  salt  and   pepper
         Do   not  use  tracking  powders  in
         suspended   ceilings,   around   air
         ventilators,  or  near  food  or  food
         preparation  areas.  The  powder  can
         become airborne and drift into nontarget
         areas.  [The  rodenticide  in tracking
         powders is generally 5 to 40 times more
         concentrated   than  that  in  baits.]
         Tracking powders can be  made  with
         acute poisons or slower acting poisons.
    Rats   have  adapted   to   nearly   all  human
environments. Along the way, they have caused more
human suffering and economic damage than any other
 vertebrate pest. But they are marvelous athletes and
 successful survivors as  well. Successful longterm rat
- control is not simple.  The  key  is  to  control rat-
 populations, not individual rats.
      The two most common pest rats are the Norway
 rat and the roof rat. To be controled they  must be
 understood. Two of the most  important biological
 factors to help control  rats are  (1) their fear of new
 objects and (2) their large foraging range of 100-150
 feet or more from their nest.
      Successful rat control programs usually  use a
 combination of tools and procedures to knock down a
 rat population and keep it down. Longterm, the most
 successful form of rat control is to build them out, also
 called rat-proofing.  Other  control  tactics include
 trapping and poisons. When  using rodenticide baits
 and tracking powders,  care  must be  taken to avoid
 risks to people, children,  pets, and nontarget animals.
Module Three Chapter 2, Pg 10

                        STUDY QUESTIONS FOR MODULE THREE
                                      CHAPTER TWO
1.   A rat can compress his body and squeeze through an opening as small as:
         A. 1/4-inch high
         B. 1/2-inch high
         C. 1-inch high
         D. 2-inches high

2.   Rats are a major carrier of rabies.
         A. True
         B. False
    Rats will avoid anything new that appears in their territory.
         A. True
         B. False
                                                from their nest looking for food and water and
4.  Rats commonly travel a distance of	
    patrolling their territory.
         A. 10 to 25 feet
         B. 100 to 150 feet
         C. 1 to 2 miles
         D. None of the above

5.  Which of the following is not true about adult rat droppings:
         A. They average 5/16-inch long
         B. Fresh droppings are black or nearly black
         C. The highest number of droppings will be found where rats rest or feed
         O. A single rat can produce 50 droppings in a day

6.  Longterm, the most successful form of rat control is rat-proofing ("building them out").
         A. True
       .  B. False

7.  When applying rodenticides, they should be placed:
         A. In locations not accessible to children, pets, wildlife, and domestic  animals
         B. In tamper-proof bait boxes
         C. Only outdoors
         D. All of the above
         E. *A' or 'B*

8.  Tracking powder kills rats because:
         A. Rats swallow tracking powder when they groom their fur
         B. Tracking powder is a powdery rodenticide bait
         C. Tracking powder is absorbed dermally through the rats' skin
         D. *B* and *C*
         E. none of the above

9.  The key to rat control is to control rat populations, not individual rats.
         A. True
         B. False
                                                                     For Answers refer to Appendix A
                                                                         Module Three Chapter 2, Pg 11

                                   HOUSE  MICE
      learning Objectives

              After completion of the study of Mice, the trainee should be able to:

          o  Describe the habits and habitat of mice.

          a  Describe monitoring procedures and tools.

          a  Describe methods to reduce life support.

          a  Describe physical control methods.
    The house mouse (Mus musculus) easily adapts to
life with people. It thrives in a wide range of climatic
conditions in a great variety of habitats,  feeding on
most human food, and reproducing at a  remarkable
    House mice subsist throughout the United States.
They are found in most areas of human habitation.
House  mice  are  also  found living in  the  wild,
competing  with  native  fauna.  They are common
inhabitants of grassy Melds and cultivated grain crops.
As  well, house mice have been  captured in  open
tundra in Alaska, miles away from human settlements.
    Technicians will find that the house mouse is the
most troublesome and economically important rodent.
House mice are a common problem in homes and in
all types of businesses. Nearly everyone can remember
times when they were irritated by  mice. They  are a
nuisance to rich and poor alike. The continual  drain
that house mice impose on stored food and fiber, and
the damage they cause to personal possessions, are the
most serious economic threats. House mice also have
the potential to transmit diseases and parasites to
people and domestic animals.
    Control of house mice  requires understanding
mouse biology and habits, and particularly the major
differences between mice and rats. During the past few
decades,  control  of Norway  and  roof rats  has
improved  while  problems with  house mice  have
increased. Baiting programs often are more successful
in controlling rats than they are in controlling mice.
    When mice infest stored food, the greatest loss is
not what mice eat, but what is thrown out because of
real or suspected contamination.  In six  months, one
pair of mice  can eat about  four pounds of food arid
deposit about 18,000 droppings. The amount of food
contaminated  by  the mice is estimated to be about ten
times greater  than what is eaten.
    So common  are mice that the government permits
a  certain  number  rodent hairs,   and sometimes
droppings, to  remain in food commodities destined for
human consumption. Yet food inspectors often have to
condemn food products and fine manufacturers because
of  house mouse contamination  in  excess of that
    Losses are not only connected with food. Family
bibles or heirlooms  stored in a trunk in the attic or
garage that are damaged by mice are irreplaceable, as
are original  paintings and  manuscripts  stored in
museums. Mouse-riddled documents in the bottom file
drawer of an office cannot generally be  valued in
dollars and cents, but these losses can be costly.
    Electrical wiring gnawed by rodents start many
fires.  Many listed as "cause unknown" are probably
rodent-related.  House  mice   frequently   take  up
residence in electrical appliances and  end up chewing
into the power supply. This is particularly costly when
computer systems are disrupted.
                                                                              Module Three Chapter 3, Pg 1

    Excluding the spread of food poisoning, house
mice are not as important as rats as carriers of disease
and parasites. Yet their potential cannot be neglected.
House mice and their parasites are implicated in the
transmission of a number of diseases.

    Bacterial food poisoning, salmonellosis, can be
spread  when  some  foods  are  contaminated  with
infected  rodent  feces.  Mice  are  probably  more
responsible than rats for the spread of this disease.

Rickettsial pox
    Rickettsia  akari  is  the   causal   agent  of
rickettsialpox,  a  disease  causing  a rash  of  the
chickenpox type.  Rickettsialpox  is transmitted from
mouse to mouse,  then  to  man  by the  bite  of the
house-mouse mite.

    Lymphocytic choriomeningitis is a virus infection
of house mice that may be transmitted to man (mainly
to children) through contaminated food or dust.

Leptospirosis (Weil's Disease)
    The mouse can be a major carrier of leptospirosis
(Weil's  disease), although human  cases are  more
commonly caused by rats.

Rat-bite Fever, Ray Fungus &  Ringworm
    Rat-bite fever can be transmitted by  house mice.
So  can  ray fungus, Aainomyces  mum. Certain
tapeworms  are spread in house-mouse droppings, and
ringworm,  a skin fungus disease, can be carried to
man by mice or contracted indirectly   from  mice
through cats. Tularemia has also been linked to house

    Dermatitis caused by the bites of mites has  been
associated   with   house-mouse   infestations.   The
uncomfortable skin irritation and itching can affect
children and adults.  Mites may spread  through all
mouse-infested house or apartment during particular
times of the year, and the  dermatitis is frequently
blamed on other causes (heat rash, allergies, fleas, and
the like).
     The house mouse is a delicate, agile, little rodent.
(See charts, chapter 1, pg 2 and chapter  2, pg 3.)
Adult weights vary from region to region and may be
linked to the suitability of habitat, but usually range
from  1/2 to  1 ounce. Adult house mice vary in color
from  light brown to dark gray but most often are a
dusky gray  or medium brown over  most of their
bodies,  except the belly,  which  may be  a slightly
lighter shade of their general color but never white.
    The mouse has moderately large ears for its body
size. The tail is nearly hairless and about as long as
the body and head combined (2 1/2 to 4 inches). The
feet are small in proportion to  its body. The eyes are
also relatively small.
    Our native deer (white-footed) mice (Peromyscus
sp.)t  which  often invade buildings adjacent to fields
and woodlands, are about the same size as or slightly
larger than house mice. Deer mice have a distinct,
bicolored tail; the upper portion is brown or gray and
the underside is distinctly white, with well-defined line
where the two  colors meet.
    Meadow mice or voles (Microtus Sp.) sometimes
invade homes;  they are less agile, have larger, chunky
bodies,  and  weigh at least twice as  much  as house
mice. They also have much shorter tails and small ears
and eyes.
Life Cycle
    Under optimum conditions, house mice breed year
round. Out-of-doors,  house mice  may  tend  toward
seasonal  breeding, peaking in the spring  and fall.
Environmental conditions, such as the availability and
quality   of   food,   can   influence   frequency   of
pregnancies,  litter sizes,  and  survival.  Under ideal
conditions, females may produce as many as ten litters
(about SO young) in a year. At  very  high densities,
however, reproduction may nearly cease despite the
presence of excess food and cover.
    New-born mice are quite undeveloped, weighing
between 0.02 and 0.03 ounce and are nearly hairless.
Eyes  and ears  are  closed,  but  by the  end  of two
weeks, the body is covered with hair and the eyes and
ears are open. At about three weeks, the young begin
Module Three Chapter 3, Pg 2

short trips away from the nest and begin taking solid

Social Behavior
     While  mice primarily are active at night, some
day  activity occurs.  Movements of house mice  are
largely determined by temperature, food, and hiding
places. Home ranges of mice tend to be smallest where
living conditions are good.
     Mice tend to travel over  their entire territory
daily, investigating each change or new object that
may be placed there. They are very aggressive. Unlike
rats, they show no fear of new objects. They dart from
place to place, covering the same route over and over
again.  This behavior can be used to  advantage in
control programs. Disturbing die environment at the
beginning of a  control  program by moving boxes,
shelves, pallets, and  other objects can  improve the
effectiveness of traps, glue boards, and bait. Mice will
investigate the changed territory thoroughly.

Senses of Mica
     Like rats, mice have relatively poor vision,  and
are also color blind. They rely heavily on smell, taste,
touch and hearing. Mice use their keen sense of smell
to locate food items and to recognize other individuals,
especially those of the opposite sex.  Taste perception
in mice is good also. Mice use their acute hearing to
detect and escape danger.
     An important sensory factor with mice is touch.
Like rats, mice use long, sensitive whiskers  near the
nose and die guard hairs  on die body as tactile sensors
to enable diem to travel  in die dark, pressing against
walls and boxes, scurrying through burrows.
     Mice also have an excellent sense of balance. A
mouse's  ability to  quickly  carry out  actions  or
movements  is  governed  by  constant  practice  of
sequences of muscular movements [sometimes referred
to as me kinesmetic sense]: a subconscious recording
of a series of movements necessary to go from point
A to point B. This activity ocean from stimulation of
sensory nerve endings in muscles, tendons, and joints.
The result allows mice to quickly escape danger.

     Mice do  not fear new objects as  do rats. As
mentioned earlier, mey quickly detect new objects in
meir territory  and   investigate  mem.  They  will
immediately enter bait stations and sample a new food
(almough mey may only nibble on a small amount).
They will  also  investigate traps and  glue boards.
Control programs  against mice often  have success
early (just me opposite of rat programs].
Physical Attributes
    It is difficult to mouse-proof a building or control
mice without understanding their physical capabilities:
     »   For  their  size  they  are  excellent
         jumpers, with some of the more agile
         individuals jumping 12 inches (30.5 cm)
         high from die floor onto an elevated flat
     »   They  can jump  against a wall or flat
         vertical surface  using it  as a  spring
         board to gain additional height.
     »   They  can run up almost any  vertical
         surface, from wood and brick walls to
         metal girders, pipes, weathered sheet
         metal, wire mesh and  cables  widiout
         much difficulty if die surface is rough.
     »   They   can   run  horizontally  along
         insulated  electrical type  wires,  small
         ropes, and the like, with ease.
     »   They   can squeeze  through openings
         slightly more that 1/4 inch (6 mm) high.

     »   They can easily travel for some distance
         hanging upside down from 1/4-inch (6
         mm) hardware mesh.
     »   They  are capable swimmers,  although
         they generally do not take to  water as
         well as do  rats and tend not  to  dive
         below the surface.
     »   They  can walk or run along ledges too
         narrow for rats.
     »   They  can jump from a height of 8 feet
         (2.5 meters) to the floor.
     »   They  can survive at a constant 24*F.
         (-30*C.)   temperature  for   ten
     »   They  have  been  reported  1,800 feet
         below die ground in a coal mine.
     »   They are quick to explore any physical
         change in dieir environment.

Food and Water
     House mice  prefer  cereals over  other items,
almough mey will  feed on a  wide variety of foods.
Mice sometimes search for foods high in fat  and
protein, such as lard, butter, nuts, bacon, and meat.
Sweets, including chocolate, are taken at times. Mice
get much of meir water from  moisture in meir food,
but diey will drink if water is readily available.
     Mice  are  nibblers, feeding 20 or more times
during evening rounds. Mice have two main  feeding
periods, at ausk and just before dawn. In any territory,
mere will be  one or  two feeding sites,, dark  and
                                                                                 Module Three Oupter 3. Pfc 3

 protected,  where mice will eat more than at other
 places. Mice tend to hold grain kernels, such as  oats
 or wheat, nibbling on it like corn on the cob. They
 often drop portions of the kernels as they get smaller.

 b  Mice are territorial and seldom travel more  than
 TO feet from their nest. Their range  is much smaller
 than the rats' range of 100 to 150 feet. When food is
 nearby, mice may restrict their activity to a few feet.
 Males  average  slightly  larger ranges  than do the

     House  mice may  nest in any  dark, sheltered
 location. Nests are constructed of fibrous, shredded
 materials such as paper, cloth, burlap, insulation, or
 cotton and generally look like a loosely  woven ball.
 They are approximately four inches in diameter.
     Outdoors, house mice sometimes dig and nest in
 small burrows.
     The small range of mice, the way they feed, and
 their food preferences are the characteristics that set
 house mice apart from rats. Keep  these in mind when
 controlling mice. Many failures in mouse control can
 be  blamed  on  an  applicator   using,  rat-control
     Sounds are common at night where large numbers
 of mice are present.
     »   Listen for  squeaks,  scrambling  and
         sounds of gnawing.

     A house mouse produces about 70 droppings per
 day. Fresh droppings are not usually as soft in texture
 as rat droppings and in a few days become quite hard.
 Mouse droppings are frequently the first evidence that
 mice are infesting. Large cockroaches, bats, and other
 species of mice such as deer mice (Peromyscus sp.)
 and meadow  mice (Microtus  sp.),  may  produce
 droppings similar to house mice.
     »   Look along  runways, by food  near
         shelters,  and  in other places mice may

     House mice  occasionally  make small mounds
QEnown  as "urinating  pillars."  These consist  of a
combination  of grease,  urine,  and  dirt and may
become quite conspicuous.
     »   Look for many small drops of urine.
     »   Use  a  blacklight.  Urine stains will
         fluoresce under ultraviolet light.

Grease marks
     Like rats, mice produce greasy smears where dirt
and oil from their fur mark pipes and beams.  House
mouse spots are not as easy to detect
     »   Expect markings to cover a smaller area
         than those made by rats.

     Most house  mouse runways are  indistinct trails
free  of dust  but not  readily detectable.

     *   Look  for  footprints  or tail  marks on
         dusty surfaces or on mud.
     »   Use a nontoxic tracking dust to help to
         determine  the presence of house mice
         within buildings (see Chapter 2, Rats).

Gnawing damage
     Recent  gnawings on wood  are  light in  color,
turning darker with  age.
     »   Look for enlarged cracks beneath doors.

     »   Look  for   small  tooth marks.  [Such
         evidence frequently helps to distinguish
         between mice and rats.]
     »   Look for wood chips with a consistency
         like coarse sawdust around baseboards,
         doors, basement windows and frames,
         and kitchen cabinets.

Visual sightings
     Mice are often active in daylight and this may not
indicate a high population as it does with rats.
     »   Use a powerful flashlight or spotlight  at
         night in warehouses and food plants to
         confirm house mouse presence.

Nest Sites
     »   Look  in  garages,  attics,  basements,
         closets,  and other storage places.
     »   Be alert to fine shredded paper or other
         fibrous  materials; these are common
         nest-building materials.

Pet  Excitement
     »   Follow  up when cats  and  dogs paw
         excitedly at a kitchen cabinet door, the
 Module Three Chapter 3. Pg 4

         floor  at  the  base of  a refrigerator,
         or at the base of a  wall,  especially
         if  mice  have  invaded the  premisse
         only recently.
Mouse Odors
     »   Smell for  the characteristic  musky
         odor produced by mice. It can be easily
         differentiated  from that of rats.

Estimating Numbers of Mice
     Estimates are  more difficult to get than for rats.
The number of mice observed or food consumed is not
highly reliable as a census technique with house mice.
Unlike rats (which  may travel widely within a building
leaving tracks on many  patches of dust) house mice do
not range widely.
     »   Read  natural  signs such as droppings,
         urine stains, tracks, and damage.
     »   Make nontoxic tracking patches of talc
         at 20- to 30-foot intervals (5 to  10
         meters)   throughout a building.  The
         more tracks seen in each patch, and the
         more patches  showing tracks, the larger
         the population.  The  percentage  of
         patches showing tracks, will reflect the
         extent of the local infestation.
     »   Tracking patches are also an excellent
         means to evaluate a control operation.
         Compare  the number  of  tracks  or
         patches with  mouse tracks  before  and
         after a control program.
    Control and prevention of house mice is a three-
part process:
    »   sanitation,
    »   mouse-proofing, and
    »   population  reduction  with  traps  or
    The first two are  useful preventive measures.
When a mouse population already exists, some kind of
lethal control is necessary. Otherwise, the reproductive
capability of the mice, and their remarkable ability to
find food  in almost any  habitat, will  keep  their
populations up or increase them.
    House mouse control is different from rat control.
Applicators that do  not take these differences  into
account will have control failures.
    »   Sealing  mice  out  of  a  building  is
         difficult because mice are smaller.
    »   Range is small. Identify  each infested
         site   in  order  to  target  control
     »   Mice often can produce offspring faster
         than control methods can work.
     Nevertheless, many of the techniques to control
and  manage rats  also apply to mice.  In the sections
below the differences in procedures between rats and
mice are emphasized.

     Good sanitation makes it easier to detect signs of
mouse infestation. It also increases the effectiveness of
baits and traps by reducing competing food. However,
the best sanitation will  not eliminate house mice; they
require very little space and small amounts of food to
     »   Store  bulk  foods   in   mouse-proof
         containers or rooms.  In  warehouses,
         restaurants,   and   food  plants  stack
         packaged  foods in  orderly rows  on
         pallets so that  they can be inspected
         easily. A family  of mice can happily
         live  in  a pallet of food without ever
         having to leave the immediate  area.
     »   Keep stored materials away  from walls
         and  off of  the floor.  A  12-18  inch
         yellow or white painted band next to the
         wall  in  commercial  storage  areas
         permits   easier  detection   of  mouse
         droppings. This  band  and the areas
         around pallets should be swept often so
         that  new droppings  can  be  detected

     It isn't easy to completely mouse-proof a building
since mice are reported to be able to squeeze through
an   opening   as   little   as    1/4-inch   high.
     »   Seal large holes to limit the movement
         of mice into and through a building.
     »   Plug holes in foundation walls with steel
         wool or copper mesh.
     »   Caulk  and  fit  doors  and windows
  .   »   Seal holes around pipes,  utility lines,
         vents, etc., to make it difficult for mice
         to move in and out of wall and ceiling
         voids. [This confines mice to a smaller
         area and may make snap traps  and glue
         boards more effective.]

     Snap Traps.  If used correctly, snap traps are very
effective in controlling mice.  They must be set  in the
right places, in high numbers, and in the right position
or mice will miss them  entirely. Here are some factors
                                                                                 Module Three Chapter 3, Pg 5

to keep in mind when trapping mice.
     »   Remember that  the territory  of mice
         rarely extends further than 30 feet from
         the  nest,  and more often is about 10
         feet. If  mice are sighted throughout a
         building  it  means  that   there   are
         numerous discrete locations  where you
         will have to set traps. Place snap traps
         not  only wherever you  see obvious
         signs of mice, but look for good trap
         locations in a three-dimensional  sphere
         about ten feet in diameter around those
     *   Mice can be living above  their main
         food supply  in  suspended  ceilings,
         attics, inside  vertical pipe  runs, and on
         top  of walk-in coolers.  Or they  can be
         below, in floor voids, crawl spaces, or
         under    coolers   and/or    processing
     >   The best sites  are those  with  large
         numbers of droppings since  that means
         the  mice are spending a lot of  time
         there. Other good sites are along walls,
         behind  objects,  and in dark corners,
         particularly   where  runways  narrow
         down, funnel ing the mice into a limited
     »   Good mouse baits increase a  traps
         effectiveness.  Peanut   butter,  bacon,
         cereal, and nuts are traditional, but one
         of the best baits is a cotton ball, which
         the  female mice like  to  use for nest
         material. It must be tied securely to the
         trigger.  Food baits must be  fresh to be
     »   Probably the biggest mistake made  in
         mouse   trapping is not using enough
         traps. Use enough to make the trapping
         campaign short and sweet.
     Multiple-Catch Traps. Multiple-catch mouse traps
catch up to  15 mice without requiring reset.  Some
brands  are  called  "wind-up"  traps;  the wind-up
mechanism kicks mice into the trap.  Others use a
treadle door.  Live mice must be humanely killed.
     Mice like to investigate new things. They enter
the small entrance hole without hesitation. Odor plays
a role too; traps that smell "mousy" catch more mice.
Place a small dab of peanut butter inside the tunnel
entrance to improve the catch.
    »   Check   traps  frequently.   Mice   are
         captured alive but may die in a day or
         two. Some traps have a clear plastic end
         plate or lid so you can see if any mice
         have been captured.
    >   Place the traps directly against a wall or
         object with the opening parallel to the
         runway,  or   point  the  tunnel  hole
         towards the wall, leaving  one  or two
         inches of space between the trap and the
    »   If mice  are active, place many traps 6-
         10 feet apart.  For maintenance trapping,
         place the traps in high risk areas and
         also at potential mouse entry points such
         as loading docks, near utility lines, and
         at doorways.
    Glue  Boards. Glue  boards  are very effective
against  mice. As with traps, placement is the key.
Locations that are good trap sites are good sites for
glue boards.
    »   Do not  put glue  boards directly above
         food products or in  food  preparation
    »   Set glue boards  lengthwise and flush
         against a wall, box, or other object that
         edges a runway.
    »   Move   objects  around;   create new,
         narrow  runways  six  inches wide  to
         increase  the  effectiveness  of  glue
    »   Put peanut butter or a cotton ball in the
         center of the  board.
    »   Place the glue boards 5 to 10 feet apart
         in  infested   areas   [closer   if  the
         population is  large].
    »   If no mice are captured  in  three days,
         move the boards to new locations.
    »   If a trapped mouse  is alive, kill  it
         before  disposal. Replace the boards  if
         they fill up with insects.

    Food Baits.  Observe  the same  safety guidelines
for mouse baits as discussed in the section on rat baits.
Children, pets, wildlife, and domestic animals must be
protected by putting the bait in  inaccessible locations
or inside tamper-proof bait boxes.
    >   Apply   many small  bait   placements
         rather than a  few large placements.
    »   Use baits labeled for mouse control.
Module Three Chapter 3, Pg 6

     »   Place the baits in favorite  feeding and
         resting  sites  as determined by  large
         numbers of droppings.
     »   Place the  baits between hiding places
         and food, up against a wall or object to
         intercept the mice.
     *   Bait in three  dimensions  (see  earlier
         discussion on trapping).
     »   Make bait placements 10 feet apart  or
         closer in infested areas.
     »   If  bait  is  refused,  try  switching to  a
         different type, and replace the baits
     »   Use small bait stations which are more
         attractive to mice than the larger rat-
         type stations.
     >   Make sure that  sanitation  is such that
         other food  is not out-competing  the
     »   Place secured tamper-proof bait boxes
         in  safe locations  near  doors  in late
         summer to intercept mice entering from
         the wild.
     Liquid  Baits. Mice get most of their water from
their  food;  they  also drink from a  water container.
Liquid baits that are labeled for mouse control can be
effective in  sites that do not have a ready supply of
water. The  same water bait  dispensers used for rats
can be used for mice.  As with food baits and traps,
many water stations will be necessary to put the bait
into the territory of all mice infesting a building.
     Tracking   Powders.  Tracking  powders  are
especially   effective  against  mice.  Mice  groom
themselves  more than  rats,  and  they investigate
enclosed areas which  can be dusted with tracking
     »   Apply inside infested dry wall voids.
    »>   Dust  tracking  powder into voids  in
         heavily  infested  apartment  or office
    »   Use a bait station, PVC tube, cardboard
         tube,  or any small, dark shelter that a
         mouse could  enter  in cases  where
         tracking  powder  cannot be applied.
         Mice  will explore such a shelter. Apply
         the tracking powder in a layer less than
         1/16-inch deep.
    »   Do not allow tracking powder to  drift
         into nontarget areas.

    The house mouse is  the most successful rodent in
adapting to life with people. It's found most  anywhere
people  are,  feeding  on human food, sheltering  in
human  structures, and reproducing at a remarkable
rate.  It's the  most  troublesome and economically
important  vertebrate pest,   contaminating   untold
millions  of  dollars  worth  of  food,   damaging
possessions,  and causing  electrical  fires with their
constant gnawing.
    Many control failures against house mice are due
to the applicator's lack of understanding  of mouse
biology  and   habits,  and  particularly  the  major
differences  between  mice  and  rats.  Mice  have a
remarkable  reproductive ability.  A  mated pair can
produce SO  offspring in one year. They also  have a
foraging range  much smaller than a rat's, usually only
10 to 30 feet. Baits, traps, glue boards, and the like,
must be placed close to the nest to be effective. Thus,
good inspections are critical.
    On the plus side, mice are curious and investigate
new objects in  their territory, so control measure can
work fast when done correctly. Control of house mice
is best  when it is a  three part process:  sanitation,
mouse-proofing, and population reduction with traps or
                                                                                   Module Three Chapter 3, Pg 7

                        STUDY QUESTIONS FOR MODULE THREE
                                     CHAPTER THREE
                                      HOUSE MOUSE
1,  In 6 months, one pair of house mice can eat about 4 pounds of food and deposit about	
         A. 400
         B. 1,800
         C. 4,000
         D. 18,000

2.  When mice infest food, the greatest loss is not what mice eat, but what is thrown out because of
         A. True
         B. False

3.  Which of the following is not true about mice:
         A. Mice principly breed in spring
         B. Mice are mostly active at night
         C. Females can produce up to 50 young per year
         D. Mice seldom travel 30 feet from their nest
         E. Mice are nibblers, feeding 20 or more times per night

4.  Mice will avoid anything new that appears in their territory.
         A. True                                                 •
         B. False

5.  Mouse control is difficult because:
         A. They can squeeze through openings  slightly larger than 1/4-inch
         B. There can be many nests in an infested building
         C. They have a very high reproductive potential
         D. All of the above

6.  The key difference in baiting mice in contrast to rats is:
         A. You need to apply many small bait placements
         B. You must use water baits
         C. You need to wait weeks for mice to stop avoiding the "new" bait
         D. Baits are not effective against mice

7.  Tracking powders should be applied in a layer less than 1/16-inch deep for control of mice.
         A. True
         B. False

8.  Mouse traps should be placed:
         A. About 6 inches away from a wall
         B. Every 30 feet
         C. Along walls, behind objects, and in  dark corners
         D. In the center of infested rooms
                                                                     For Answers refer to Appendix A
Module Three Chipter 3, Pg 8

                                          CHAPTER 4
      Learning Objectives

               After completion of the study of Birds, the trainee should be able to:

          a   Describe the habitats and life cycles of birds.

          a   Discuss  the non-chemical  and chemical  alternatives  of  bird control  and
    Birds  create enjoyment and  recreation while
greatly enhancing the quality of life. These colorful
components of natural ecosystems are studied, viewed,
photographed, enjoyed, or hunted by most Americans.
Bird watching as a  sport  and  recreational  activity
involves over 10 million people.  For this reason, birds
are strongly protected by laws, regulations, and public
    Birds can become pests when they feed on crops,
create  health hazards, roost in large numbers on
buildings, contaminate food, or create a nuisance.  Few
species can be flatly categorized  as  good or  bad;
whether birds are beneficial or  harmful, depends on
time, location, and activity.
    The domestic pigeon (Columba livia) developed
from the rock doves  of Europe and  Asia  and was
introduced  into the U.S. as a domestic bird.  Rock
doves originally nested in caves,  holes, and  under
overhanging rocks on cliffs, so they comfortably adapt
to window ledges, roofs,  eaves, steeples, and other
components of man-made structures.
    Pigeons give pleasure to many people. Along with
house sparrows,  they may be the only  "friendly"
wildlife observed by many people living in an inner
city. Many park visitors have adopted special pigeons
they feed every day. Pigeons are also bred for racing,
stunt flying, and meat production. Pigeon racing is a
sport in  Europe and in some parts of the United States,
with birds racing distances of 10 to 1,000 miles  (the
record is 3,000 miles).
    Pigeons are used for scientific research on heart
disease  in humans and diseases of domestic chickens.
They  are raised for  food;  the meat of pigeons is
commonly  referred  by  restaurateurs as "squab," to
avoid offending their customer's  sensibilities; it is
considered a delicacy.
    Pigeons have become the most serious bird pest
associated with buildings; they may  congregate hi
flocks of a hundred or more. Although primarily seed
or  grain  eaters,  in urban areas  pigeons  feed  on
garbage, spilled grains, insects,  food  left  out  by
outdoor diners, and food provided by bird lovers who
intentionally feed pigeons bread, peanuts, and cookie
    Pigeons are gregarious and feed, roost, and loaf
in each other's company whenever possible. Feeding,
roosting,  and  loafing  sites  are  usually  separate.
Roosting sites  are protected from the elements and are
                                                                                Module Three Chapter 4, Pg 1

used for nesting, congregating at night, and shelter in
bad weather. Loafing sites will be nearby to be used
by  inactive birds during  the daytime. Feeding sites
may be  several miles away. When pigeons are not
feeding or mating, most of their day is spent cooing,
preening,  and  sun  bathing.  Sun  bathing  is  most
fcpmmon in the morning of cool  days.
     Pigeons prefer flat and smooth surfaces on which
to rest and feed. Unlike  most birds, they will feed
from rooftops, regardless  of height, because they like
open feeding  areas  that permit a speedy get-away.
They also feed on open ground and occasionally  on
ledges. Typical roosting and loafing sites are building
roofs and ledges, cooling towers, monuments, bridges,
and  signs. Typical  feeding sites are parks,  squares,
food loading docks, garbage areas,  railroad sidings,
food plants, and wherever people eat outdoors.
     Male pigeons are sexually mature at three to four
months of age; females at  six months. Pigeons usually
mate for life unless separated by death or accident. If
one partner of a mated pair is lost, the survivor will
re-mate within a few days. After pairing and mating,
nest construction begins.
     Pigeons nest on a  frail platform of small  twigs,
straw,  and debris  in  which  they make   a  slight
depression. Nests are  usually  located  in protected
openings  in or on buildings and structures. The male
usually selects the nest site but both adults actually
build  the  nest, with the  male often  bringing nest
materials to die female.
     One or two creamy white eggs are laid 8-12 days
after  mating.  (Three or  more  eggs are sometimes
found  in  a single nest, but this occurs  when two or
more hens share one nest.) The eggs are incubated by
both parents for roughly  18 days, by the male from
mid-morning through afternoon, and die female die
jest of the day and evening.
P    At birth die young pigeons are naked and helpless
and fed "pigeon milk," a  milky-white fatty substance
regurgitated from the parents' crops. After five days
die parents begin mixing  grain and orner foods with
the  pigeon milk,  and after  10 days,  they switch
completely to  whole grains.
     During die first week or so, the young double in
size daily and are full  grown in less than a month.
They are fledged when they are 37 days old.  Average
flight  speed is 36 mph. Adult birds can  mate again
while die young are still in the nest.
     Pigeons nest during all seasons when conditions
permit. City pigeons generally remain in one area
year-round and produce 10 young per year. Nests diat
    continually used become solid  with droppings,
   rners, debris, and sometimes, dead birds.
    Life span is highly variable, ranging 3-15 years in
urban  roosts.  They  have lived  for  30  years  in
     European   starlings   (Sturnus   vulgaris)  were
introduced into the  United States in  1890 when 60
were brought  to New  York  City. They  rapidly
expanded into new areas. Today, 140 million starlings
range throughout North America.
     Starlings are  robin-sized birds that weigh about
three ounces. Adults are dark with light speckles on
their feathers  in  winter;  die  feathers  turn  glossy
purplish-black and green in summer.  The bill of both
sexes is yellow from January to June, and  dark at
other times. Young birds are grayish.
     Starlings have relatively short tails and appear
somewhat chunky and humpbacked. The wings have a
triangular shape when stretched out in flight. Starling
flight is direct and swift,  not rising  and falling like
many blackbirds.

Habits of Starlings
     Starlings nest in holes or cavities in trees or in
rocks, or in urban areas on buildings, in birdhouses,
on  power stations  and  water  towers, and other
structures. Starlings average two broods a year with
four to seven young per brood. Both parents build the
nest, incubate  the eggs,  and feed  the young.  The
young birds leave  the nest when they  are about three
weeks old. At this  time bird mites sometimes abandon
die nest.
     Starlings migrate in some parts of the country. As
Module Three Chapter 4, Pg 2

cold weather begins in the fall, they begin forming
larger flocks. The major sources of food shift from
insects and fruits to grains,  seeds, livestock rations,
and food in garbage. Roosting areas may shift from
rural and  suburban into cities and towns. Each day
they may fly up to 30 miles to their feeding sites. Each
starling eats about one ounce of food each day.
    Leaving their evening roost at sunrise, they travel
to feeding sites  over  well-established flight lines.
When they return just before sundown, they do not fly
straight in to their roost. They "stage" on high perches
such as trees, power lines, bridges, and towers. The
birds are quite social at these tunes and remain on pre-
roost sites until after sunset,  singing and calling to
each other.
    Starlings are pests because of their high numbers.
Thousands or tens of thousands can roost at one site.
Droppings at the roost site damage car finishes, tarnish
buildings, drop on people below, and build up to such
levels that they become a health hazard; starlings have
been  responsible for  outbreaks of a  number of
    When starlings roost in food processing plants or
storage  areas,  they  contaminate  food. The  birds
consume  large   quantities of livestock  feed  and
contaminate water at stockyards. The noise of a large
flock can be irritating.
    The house  sparrow  (Passer  domesticus),  also
called the English sparrow, was introduced into the
United States in the 1850's. Populations now flourish
all over the continental United States except in heavy
forests, mountains and deserts. It seems  to  prefer
human-altered habitats  in cities  and  around  farm
buildings and houses. In fact, while still one  of the
most common birds, its numbers have fallen drastically
since the 1920's when food and waste from horses was
    The house sparrow is a brown, chunky bird five
to six inches long. The male has a distinctive black
bib,- white cheeks, a chestnut mantle around  a gray
crown, and chestnut upper wing covers. The  female
and young birds have a gray breast, light eye stripe,
and a streaked back.

Habits of House  Sparrows
    House sparrows average three broods per season
with four to seven eggs per brood. Breeding can occur
hi any month; through much of the country, it is most
common  from  March  through August.  Eggs  are
incubated for about two weeks, and the young stay in
the nest another two weeks.
    The male usually selects the nest  site. Nests are
bulky and  roofed over,  and located  in  trees  and
shrubs, on building ledges, in signs, on light fixtures,
and under bridges. Nests often plug rain gutters or jam
power transformers.
    Sparrows are aggressive and social birds and will
often  outcompete  native  species.  They  have no
recognized migration patterns, and will stay in an area
as long as food and nest sites are available.  Young
birds, however, move out of an  area to establish new
territories. Flocks of juvenile birds and non-breeding
adults may sometimes travel four or five miles from
nest sites to feeding  areas. Sparrows are very tolerant
of human  activity,  and  will not hesitate to  set up
housekeeping in high traffic areas.
House sparrows feed preferentially on grain. They will
also feed on fruits, seeds, and garbage.
    House sparrows can be pests in many situations.
Their droppings contaminate stored grain  and bulk
food. Droppings and feathers can make hazardous,
unsanitary,  and smelly  wastes inside and outside of
buildings,  on sidewalks, and under  roosting sites.
Sparrows can also become a pest when one or a few
begin nesting inside a food plant, warehouse, mall, or
    The birds cause damage  by pecking at rigid foam
insulation hi buildings and nesting inside traffic lights.
They  create a fire hazard by nesting in transformers
and power stations.
    They are a factor in the transmission of a number
of diseases,  internal and external  parasites. Most
significantly, they are thought to be a major reservoir
of St. Louis encephalitis.

    The three  birds most often pests in the  United
States in urban areas are pigeons, starlings, and house
sparrows. Other birds, from hawks to swallows, may
occasionally  cause  unexpected  and  unusual  pest
                                                                                  Module Three Chapter 4, Pg 3

problems.  When  blackbirds  and  crows  roost  in
suburban areas they become.pests. Woodpeckers can
"hammer"  into house  siding  looking for  insects.
Seagulls can feed at food plants.
     Many of these birds have more protection by laws
and  regulations  than  the  three  birds  discussed
  Keviously. Special permits may be required to trap
  em or to control them by lethal means. The best
approach  emphasizes exclusion or modification  of
     Health  risks from  birds are often exaggerated.
Nevertheless, large populations of roosting birds may
present risks of disease to people nearby  and pest
management technicians. The most serious health risks
are from disease organisms growing in accumulations
of bird droppings, feathers, and debris under a roost.
If conditions are right, particularly if roosts have been
active for years, disease organisms can grow in these
rich nutrients.     Food may  be contaminated by
birds, but  this  risk   is  usually limited  to  food
manufacturing or  processing plants. When  parasite-
infested birds leave roosts or nests or invade buildings,
their parasites can bite,  or irritate people.

     This systemic fungal disease (mold) is transmitted
to humans by airborne spores from soil contaminated
by pigeon and starling droppings (as well as from the
droppings of other birds and bats). [The soil under a
roost usually has to have been enriched by droppings
for  three years or more for  the disease organism
(Histoplasma capsulation)  to  increase to significant
levels.] Although almost always associated with soil,
ihe  fungus, in  rare  instances, has  been found  in
Proppings alone, such  as in an attic.  Infection is by
inhalation of the spores which can be carried by wind,
particularly after a roost has been disturbed.
     Most infections are mild  and produce either no
symptoms or a minor flu-like illness. The disease can,
on occasion, lead to high fever, blood abnormalities,
pneumonia,  and even  death. Based on histoplasmin
skin tests given to large numbers of people throughout
the United States, it is thought mat about 50 million
people have had histoplasmosis or been exposed to it
Each year there are about 500,000 infections, 5,000
people hospitalized, and  800  deaths  in the United
States due to histoplasmosis.
     The National  Eye Institute (NEI) at the National
Institutes of Health has reported a potentially blinding
     condition, called ocular histoplasmosis syndrome
       , that results from infection by the Histoplasma
capsularum. In this condition, the central part of the
retina  (the  macula, used  in straight-ahead vision)
becomes inflamed and is damaged as blood vessels
grow inside the affected area. NEI estimates that four
percent of those exposed to the disease have tiny scars
that put them at risk of developing OHS. An estimated
100,000 people have OHS in the rapidly progressive
form that can lead to blindness.

     Pigeon droppings appear to be the most important
source  of  the   disease   fungus,    Cryptococcus
neoformans, in  the  environment.  The fungus  is
typically found in accumulations of droppings in attics,
cupolas, ledges, water towers, and other roosting and
nesting sites on structures. It has been found in as
many as 84 percent of samples taken from old roosts.
Even when old  and  dry,  bird  droppings can be  a
significant source of infection. As many as 50-million
colony forming units  have been found  in a gram of
pigeon manure.
     The disease is acquired by inhaling the yeast-like
vegetative cells (2-3 microns) of the organism. There
are two forms of cryptococcosis present in humans.
The cutaneous form is characterized by acne-like skin
eruptions or ulcers with  nodules just under the skin.
The generalized form begins with a lung infection, and
spreads to other areas of  die body,  particularly die
central  nervous  system.   It  can  be  fatal.   Like
histoplasmosis, outbreaks of this disease often occur
after building  renovation, roost clean-up,  or other
actions that disturb the old droppings.
     Other diseases carried or transmitted  by birds
affect  man to a  lesser  degree.  Psittacosis, .pigeon
orniraosis, and  toxoplasmosis are normally mild in
man, however, serious illness or death can occur in
rare cases. Pigeons  and sparrows  have also  been
implicated (along with many other species of birds) in
outbreaks of mosquito-borne encephalitis.

     Pigeons, starlings,  and house sparrows  harbor
ectoparasites that can invade buildings. Some of these
parasites can bite and irritate. A long list of mites
infest pigeons, but the northern fowl mite and chicken
mite are usually die main culprits invading  buildings
from  nesting  and roosting  sites.  Other  pigeon
ectoparasites that may cause problems inside buildings
are the pigeon nest bug (a type of bed bug), various
species of biting lice,  the pigeon tick, and the pigeon
     Droppings, feathers, food, and dead birds under
a roosting or loafing area can also breed flies, fungus
Module Three Chapter 4, Pg 4

gnats, carpet beetles and other insects that may become
major problems  in  the immediate  area. These pests
may fly or crawl through windows,  ventilators, cracks
and crevices, etc., and enter buildings.

Defacement and Damage to  Structures and
    Bird   droppings   under   window   sills,
"whitewashing" down a building face, or accumulating
on sidewalks and steps, are the most obvious problem
associated  with large roosts.    Clean-up  can  be
labor-intensive and expensive, particularly on high-rise
buildings.  Bird  droppings are  corrosive  and will
damage automobile finishes, many types of metal trim,
electrical equipment, and machinery. Downspouts and
vents on buildings also become blocked by droppings,
nest materials, and feathers.  This accumulation of
debris  can  attract insect pests such as gnats, carpet
beetles  and other  dermestids, spider beetles,  and

Legal Considerations
    With very few  exceptions, all birds are protected
by one or more federal laws and regulations.
    »   Pigeons, starlings, and house sparrows
         are not directly protected  at the federal
         level but  applications of toxicants  or
         repellents  must  be according  to  the
         product label and under the restrictions
         that apply under  FIFRA.
    »   Other birds are regulated in some way
         at the federal level.
    »   Nontarget birds  in the treatment area
         are protected, and any actions that kill
         or damage  protected  birds  or their
         habitats will be  a violation of various
         federal and state  regulations.
    >   State and local regulations may require
         permits or restrict the  actions  taken
         against pest birds.
    »   When  in doubt,  contact  your  state
         natural resources agency  or the United
         States Fish and Wildlife Service District
         office  in your  area  for  further
     The first step in controlling birds is to conduct a
detailed and accurate bird survey. Surveys should be
conducted early in the morning, midday, and again in
the evening to correspond  to  the  different  activity
periods of birds. The survey should not be limited to
information about pest birds; nontarget bird activity is
just as  important in order to minimize risk to these
birds. The survey should investigate:
     *   What birds are present?
     >   How many?
     »   Are  they adults,  residents,  migrants,
     »   Are  they nesting, feeding,  roosting,
     »   Where do they eat and drink?
     »   What is  attracting them to the various
     >   Are the birds causing a health risk?
     *   Are the birds causing physical damage?
     *   If dispersed, where would they go?
     »   If poisoned, where would they die?
     »   Is there risk to nontargets? species?
     »   What are the legal considerations?
     »   Could    there    be  public  relations
     »   Is exclusion  or  habitat  modification

Habitat Modification
     Habitat modification for birds means limiting a
bird's food, water, or shelter. Attempting to limit the
food  or  water  of pigeons, starlings,  and  house
sparrows is not  practical.  These birds will have a
number of feeding and watering sites — often far from
roosting and loafing sites. Where people are feeding
birds in parks or lunch areas, education might help
reduce this source of food; however, many people will
pay little attention to requests to stop.
     The most successful  kind of habitat modification
is to exclude the birds from their roosting and loafing
sites (addressed in the section on exclusion).
Pigeons may be induced to move from an infested site
by the persistent destruction of nests and eggs. Nest
destruction is ineffective against sparrows and starlings
but pruning trees sometimes  deters  roosting.  Some
helpful measures  include:
     »   Spray high pressure streams of water
         from fire fighting equipment or other
         high pressure  water lines. This is  the
         most cost effective  method of  nest
         destruction.    [It  destroys  the  nest,
         eliminates    ectoparasites,  cleans
         droppings and feathers from the  nest
         site, and harasses the roosting birds.]
                                                                                 Module Three Chapter 4, Pg 5

         Use   high   pressure   sprays   only
         where  the  high  pressure  or  water
         will   not   damage   buildings   or
         equipment.  Remove   all  droppings
         and nest materials from the area.
    »    To  follow  a more traditional method
         when spraying is not safe, use a hook
         fastened to a long pole to remove nests.
    »    When the  nests are on  buildings or
         inhabited sites, treat the immediate nest
         area with  an  insecticide/acaracide to
         eliminate ectoparasites.
    »    Destroy nests every  two weeks during
         the spring ami summer months until the
         birds move to other nest sites.

    Some  building  designs   and  conditions  lend
themselves to bird infestation. Flat ledges, openings in
water towers  and vents,  unscreened windows,  and
other attributes make a building an attractive location
for roosting,  nesting,  and  loafing. Modification or
repair can exclude birds.
    Typical   solutions   include  replacing  broken
windows, adding screens, eliminating large crevices,
blocking openings  into vents,  cooling. towers,  and
roof-top  equipment  with  hardware cloth or similar
    Exclusion methods  also  includes  the use of
netting, custom-designed sheetmetal or plastic covers,
porcupine wire  (Nixalite, for example),  electrified
wires,  and  sticky repellents  to  keep birds  from
roosting on ledges, roof edges, window sills, building
signs, and other surfaces favored by pest birds. Two
advantages are that the birds are not killed and the
control is comparatively long-lasting.
    Netting. Netting is used to block access of birds
to  large  roosting  areas  in  structures.  Netting is
especially useful in warehouses and around mechanical
equipment  areas  where  aesthetics  are  of minor
consideration. It has been used successfully on cooling
towers. Plastic nets have replaced metal and fiber  nets
in bird  control. Plastic nets  are normally extruded
black polypropylene and are made with an ultraviolet
inhibitor to reduce UV degradation. Knotted nets are
also available. Nets will last from 2-5 years depending
on exposure to sunlight.
    Covers or Ramps. Custom-designed covers for
ledges, window air conditioning units, and roof edges
are the best technical solution to keep  birds from
infesting these sites. The high cost of this method may
^liminate this option on large buildings that have
extensive  roosting  sites;   mere   are   long-term
advantages. Covers are valid options to keep birds off
selected sites, and where aesthetics are an  important
    The covers usually consist of sheet metal installed
at a 45 degree angle to prevent the birds from landing
and  they  usually cannot  be  seen from  below.
Sometimes plastic inserts  are custom-fit  into  die
indentations in order  to  block off ledges.  Building
deterants in at construction time should be advocated.

    Spikes. Porcupine wire, sharp metal spikes, or
any similar "bed of nails" can stop birds from roosting
on ledges.  Where they can be used, they usually work
fairly well. If aesthetics are important, these devices
are usually limited to areas where they cannot be
easily seen.
     »   If pigeons  are  likely  to  drop   nest
         material  and other debris on top of the
         newly installed  spikes in  an attempt to
         create a new roosting surface, install
         metal spikes on potential landing sites
         above the installation.
     »   Check metal spikes every  six  months
         for accumulated debris or nest material.
         Advise  clients  to  regularly   remove
         falling autumn leaves and other matter
         that  can cover  the  spikes  and  reduce
         their  effectiveness. Ensure that  no tree
         branches hang over protected ledges.
    Sticky Repellents. Sticky repellents are tacky gels
or liquids. The products are  designed  to  be sticky
enough to make  a bird uncomfortable,  but not so
sticky that die birds are trapped. After a few attempts,
the birds stop trying to land on treated surfaces. The
active ingredient is polybutene or a  combination of
isopolybutene  (die same  substances used  in  some
adhesive bandages) and  petroleum naphthenic oils.
     »   Before applying sticky repellents,  clean
         ledges  that  are  covered by  bird
         droppings, feathers, and  nest material
         with a wire brush, paint  scraper, high
         pressure hoses,  or by steam  cleaning.
     »   Ensure that surfaces are clean and dry.
     »   Seal  concrete,  unpainted  wood,  or
         brownstone  with  silicone  or  other
         sealant,   paint,   or  shellac   before
         applying  repellent.  [Sticky repellents
         will be absorbed into porous materials.]
     »   Use a caulking  gun to apply repellent.
         The depth of the bead necessary to repel
         different species of pest birds is roughly
         as follows:   crows and sea gulls 3/8
Module Three Chapter 4, Pg 6

         inch;   pigeons  1/4  inch;  starlings
         1/8  inch;  sparrows  1/16  inch.  The
         pattern  of  application  will  depend
         on the site and personal preference.
         Apply  a  straight bead on ledges and  roof
         edges,  1/2  inch from the outer edge,  with
         another bead three inches in from the first,
         or they can be applied in a zig zag.
         For another option combines  a straight line
         1/2  inch from the  outer edge  and an  "s"
         curve three to  five niches back.
         Place breaks in the bead every few feet to
         avoid trapping rainwater against the building.
    »   For  easy removal  and replacement,
         apply waterproof sticky  repellent tape
         down first.
    »   Apply  bulk gels  with a paint roller,
         putty knife, or bulk caulking gun.
    »   Apply  liquids  with  a  roller, brush, or
         compressed-air sprayer to girders, rods,
         sign supports,  and rooftops.  They can
         also be used to treat the upper surface
         of branches in trees and bushes. The
         repellent should be 1/16 to  1/8 inch
         thick.   [Liquid   application   is  not
         recommended  for  sites  where  the
         appearance of the sticky repellent would
         be undesirable.]
    Environmental conditions, particularly dust, make
a  big difference  hi the  effective  life of  sticky
repellents. In an area with no dust, applications should
be expected to remain effective for a year or more.
Some sticky repellents come with a liquid coating that
is  sprayed  onto  the  repellent  immediately  after
application. The liquid dries to a brittle film that
protects the material from dust and  may  allow it to
remain effective for as long as two to five years.
    Certain  precautions should  be followed  when
sticky repellents are used.
    »   Remove nests.
    »   Check state and local regulations which
         may prohibit destroying or disturbing
         nests containing eggs or young.
    Under some conditions, sticky repellents stain the
surfaces  to which they are applied. Some  products
melt and run when  exposed to direct sun and high
    »   Review labels and  the manufacturers'
         technical information on the effective
         temperature   ranges   of   different
    »   Compare  the  stability  of  different
         products  by  running  a  test  on  a
         sunny roof or window ledge.
    Birds occasionally get stuck in sticky repellents.
When this happens, their feathers will get gummed up,
and  they'll  be  unable to  fly.  If a bird  becomes
gummed up with  repellent,   it  can  sometimes  be
rescued by  cleaning the flight feathers with a small
amount of mineral spirits followed by  mineral oil.  In
most cases, cartridge applications (as described earlier)
will repel the birds with little risk of entanglement.

Ultrasonic Sound  Devices
    Ultrasonic  sound devices are not effective hi
repelling birds.  Research has demonstrated that most
birds do not hear sounds in the ultrasonic range (over
20,000 cycles per second),  which is why these devices
are not effective.

Other Repelling Devices
    Visual devices such as owl decoys, rubber snakes,
etc., may work for a few days, but become ineffective
because birds  will  become  accustomed  to  their
presence (habituate).  Likewise, noise-making devices
(e.g., fireworks, distress calls, warning calls) may be
used to disperse birds, such as roosting starlings or
black birds, but their effectiveness  will diminish as
birds habituate.

    Pigeons.  In many  instances, trapping can be an
effective supplemental control measure. Trapping is
especially effective against pigeons. Where a group of
birds are roosting or feeding in a confined and isolated
area,   trapping  should be considered the  primary
control tactic.
    The best time to trap pigeons is in the winter
when their  food is at a minimum.  There are many
pigeon traps to  choose from;  which  type and size is
best is debatable. Most pigeon trapping programs use
large walk-in traps. These  can be four to six feet high
and  are designed  to be  disassembled and moved.
Another common type is a low-profile bob-trap that is
about  eight inches to two feet high.  The  door or
entrance through  which   pigeons  are lured is  the
principle feature of a  trap.
     »   Set traps in  inconspicuous places where
         pigeons  commonly roost or  feed  and
         where  traps  are  not  likely  to  be
         vandalized  (a major risk in trapping
         programs). Trap placement is important,
         and moving an inactive trap just 10-15
         feet may significantly improve catches.
                                                                                  Module Three Chapter 4, Pg 7

    Feeding areas are the best trap  sites,  but are
rarely on the same property as the roosting sites. Roof
tops that have  water from cooling towers  or air
conditioning units are often good trapping  sites in
    The  most difficult part of trapping is motivating
     to feed hi a nonfeeding area so that they will
  llow the bait into the trap. Whole corn or sorghum
are generally the best baits but wheat, milo, oat groats,
millet, popcorn,  sunflower seeds, peas, greens, bread,
or  peanuts  can  be very effective if the birds are
feeding on similar food.  Once a few birds have  been
trapped, putting different foods in with the birds can
show which bait they prefer.
     »   In die  first few weeks of a program,
         scatter    small    quantities   of   bait
         throughout the  area to start the birds
         feeding and  determine  the  best  trap
         sites.   [Some  specialists leave  traps
         propped open for the first few days to
         allow the birds  to get used to diem.]
     »   When die birds are calmly entering die
         trap, set it. Put  bait and water (a "chick
         font" is ideal) inside the trap and just a
         handful or so outside  die trap. Leave
         one or  two "decoy" birds in die trap to
         draw   in  other birds.   [Light-colored
         birds  make better decoys  man drab
     »   Remove trapped birds regularly (except
         for decoys),  odierwise  other  pigeons
         will be frightened by fluttering trapped
         pigeons in die trap. Since pigeons  can
         fly great distances and find  their way
         home,  trap and release is not normally
         effective.  In most cases, trapped birds
         should be humanely destroyed. Some
         experts recommend gassing wira carbon
         dioxide but others feel it is simpler and
         more  humane   to  kill  the  bird  by
         breaking its neck.
     Sometimes  indoor roosting sites can be used as a
giant trap. Pigeons often use attics, rooftop  elevator
houses,  or  empty  floors  of  poorly  maintained
structures as nest and roost sites. By screening all but
one or two  entrances these areas can be made into a
giant trap. Late in die evening (after about a two-week
acclimation  period) these last entrances can be closed
down  after  die  pigeons  have settled  down for me
night. The trapped birds can men be captured by  hand
or widi "butterfly" nets.
     Sparrows. Sparrow  traps come in various  sizes
Rid shapes.  The  sparrow  funnel trap is a double funnel
that prevent sparrows from escaping after they have
travelled through two funnels going for a food bait.
Fine cracked corn, millet,  wheat,  or bread crumbs
make good bait. Trap sites should be baited for a few
days before you actually begin trapping. Sparrow traps
are more effective when placed on die ground. Nest
box traps attract a sparrow with a potential nest site.
Once inside, die bird trips die mechanism; die floor
gives way,  dumping die  bird into  a collecting bag.
This trap also works against starlings. Male birds are
attracted by a  piece  of  string to  use as   nesting

Lethal Alternatives
     AVITROL products are restricted use poison baits
with flock-alarming properties used to  control many
kinds of birds.  The different AVITROL baits: whole
corn for pigeons, smaller grains for sparrows  and
other birds. Widiin 15 minutes of eating a toxic dose
of AVITROL,  birds flutter erratically  and  go into
convulsions. They may fly away from the baiting site,
or diey may "dive bomb" into die ground.
     Most affected birds die within  a few hours, but
some last longer. Only a small percentage of die flock
(usually from five percent to IS percent) needs to be
affected for an AVITROL program  to be successful.
The flock becomes frightened by the convulsions and
distress of the poisoned birds, and anywhere  from 65
percent to 85 percent of the flock will leave die area.

     At most sites, birds  must be trained to feed on
bait. While  baits are different  for different birds,
whole  corn  bait for pigeons is die most common and
is discussed here:
     Careful observations of die birds' feeding habits
must be made to establish proper feeding locations and
to determine mat no nontarget birds are feeding on die
pre-bait. The goal is to get at least 40 percent of die
birds to accept die untreated pre-bait. Expect die effort
to take from 3-days to 3-weeks. Remove all of die pre-
bait corn before switching over to  AVITROL. The
better the acceptance of die bait, die better die chance
to move die flock quickly.
     AVITROL  while corn bait kernals  are not used
alone,  but  are  mixed  with untreated corn in ratios
ranging from die usual 1-part AVITROL and  29-parts
untreated bait to 1-part treated  to 19-parts untreated
where  other bird food is  available.  No dilution ratio
less  than   1-part  treated to  9-parts   untreated  is
Module Three Chapter 4, Pg 8

recommended.   The   higher  the  proportion- of
AVTTROL,  the higher the number and visibility of
dead and/or convulsing birds. A ratio of 1:29 will kill
5 percent of the flock; a 1:9 blend will kill 15 percent.
     •»   The amount of  AVTTROL bait set out
         should equal the  amount  of pre-bait
         consumed each day.
     »   Use the ratio that best fits the job.
     >>   Keep  in  mind  that the object  is  to
         relocate the flock, not kill every pigeon.
     Retrieve toxic bait mixtures at the end of the day.
Sweep or vacuum area.
     One AVTTROL application is adequate for most
jobs. At large commercial operations (e.g., a freight
yard), bait may need to be placed daily for a few days.
Pick  good  sites.  If pigeons become bait shy,  wait
about  three weeks,  then  begin  a  new  prebaiting
program.    If a  site  has  been  getting  monthly
AVITROL "maintenance" baiting, pigeons can become
extremely bait shy. Prebaiting for as long as three or
four months may be necessary, but it is usually best to
switch to another control method.
     Use care  to  follow  label  directions for  using
AVITROL specifically for each  species of pest bird.
Read the label carefully.
     Secondary poisoning, in its classical definition, is
not  a risk  with AVITROL  since the chemical  is
metabolically changed in the tissue of  affected birds.
However, if a dead or dying bird has a supply of
AVITROL-treated  bait in its crop, there is potential
risk to an animal feeding on that seed.

Toxic Perches
     A toxic perch is a metal container with a wick
surface that holds  a liquid contact poison that birds
absorb  through their feet when they stand on the
perch. The toxicant (fenthion) is hazardous to all birds
and animals  including  man.  Toxic perches are
particularly useful  where food is in constant supply or
AVITROL bait is  not accepted. They  are applied in
locations where birds will perch on them, usually  in
the evening hours. An average-sized job will require
10-12 perches. A large job might require 30.
     Toxic perches can only be used in certain sites:
inside buildings and structures (non-food areas), on
building tops, structural  steel,  power plants, or
substations, and  at feed lots,  loading docks, and
storage yards.  Pigeons may develop  a site-specific
aversion to perches placed  at  feeding, loafing, or
watering sites,  but not usually  hi  roosting  sites.
Perches usually need refilling twice per year.  In hot
weather perches can sometimes leak toxicants.
    Birds  can absorb a toxic dose  in  less than a
minute but may not die for four days. Pigeons will
normally find a protected  place out  of the sun and
wind  once  they begin  feeling the  effects of  the
toxicant. They usually don't fly after that time and die
within 20-30  feet of die perch, if it was set in a
roosting site. There is a secondary poisoning hazard if
other animals feed on dead birds. There have also been
reports  of hawks and owls  dying after  using  the
perches.  By law, dead  birds must  be picked, up,
buried, or burned.

    Chemosterilants (ORNTTROL), have often been
called the "birth control pill" for pigeons. When fed to
pigeons, it inhibits ovulation in the female and sperm
production in the male. The effects of a treatment lasts
for six months in the female and three months in the
male. When applied as directed on the label,  it will not
kill birds, but populations will slowly decline over the
years from the natural mortality  in an aging non-
reproducing  pigeon population. Efficacy  on birds
associated  with agriculture has been reported to be
more variable.
    The manufacturer recommends applications for 10
days two times per year — in the early spring (March)
and late summer or early fall. For  each 100 pigeons,
7.5 pounds of ORNITROL corn are scattered daily for
10 days. Prebaiting with whole corn  for a week will
usually be necessary to achieve bait acceptance. Most
birds eating ORNITROL will be temporarily sterilized,
so  care  must  be  taken  to avoid  feeding  nontarget
species. Research data indicated little or no activity in
mammals.  There is no secondary poisoning hazard.

     A possible alternative or supplemental method for
eliminating birds is shooting with air-powered pellet
guns, if legally allowed.
     »   Shoot at  night  or  first  thing in the
         morning hi roosting areas.
     »   Use a high-powered  pellet gun because
         it   is  relatively   accurate,   quiet,
         short-ranged,  and  will  not  cause
         structural  damage.  [Many models are
         available.   Some specialists use .22
         caliber smooth-bore rifle loaded  with
         Number  12 or Number  9 birdshot or
         sandshot.   However these  are  noisy,
         often illegal, and too powerful for urban
     »   Use  care,  errant   shots  can  be
                                                                                  Module Three Chapter 4, Pg 9

Risks to Nontargets
     Most lethal tactics in bird control pose some risk
to nontarget birds, as well as other animals.  No one
wants  to endanger non-pest  birds,  further, they  are
protected   by  various  federal,   state,   and  local
regulations. Care  must be taken to minimize the threat
   nontargets or to use tactics that pose the least risk.
     »   Identify the nontargets in the area.
     »   Use tactics that pose the least risk.
     »   Modify  tactics to minimize further risk.
     *   Monitor operations to be  sure that  no
         nontargets are being adversely affected.

Public Relations
   People often react more  negatively to a dying bird
than to accumulated  pigeon  droppings or potential
risks of parasites and disease from bird roosts.  Pigeons
and  sparrows are sometimes  seen as pets rather than
pests.  The public's perception of bird management
operations   needs to  be   considered.     All  bird
management  programs should put  some  effort into
avoiding "people  problems" — particularly when using
AVITROL or other toxic control techniques.
     Workers   removing  large   quantities  of  bird
 droppings should follow these precautions to minimize
 risk from disease organisms in the droppings:
     »   Wear  a  respirator  that   can  filter
         particles down to 0.3 microns.
     »   Wear disposable protective gloves, hat,
         coveralls, and boots.
     »   Wet down die droppings to keep spores
         from becoming airborne.
         Put  droppings  into  sealed  plastic
         garbage bags and wet down the outside
         of the bags.
         When finished, and while still wearing
         the  respirator,  remove the protective
         clothing and place them in a plastic bag.
         Dispose of trash bags. (Disposal, except
         for   excessive   amounts,  should  be
         permissible  through  standard  trash
         Wash up or  shower.
    Birds  create  enjoyment and  recreation  while
greatly   enhancing   the   quality   of  our   lives.
Unfortunately, they can become pests  at times too —
feeding on crops, creating health hazards, roosting on
buildings, contaminating food, or creating a nuisance.
The major pest birds are pigeons, starlings, and house
sparrows, although many birds can become pests in die
right (or wrong) situation.
    Birds are protected by many laws and regulations.
Although pigeons, starlings,  and house sparrows are
not directly protected by federal law, their control is
often strictly regulated by state and local governments.
Public opinion is often strongly against any  control
measure  that kills birds, even pest birds.
    Nonlethal bird  control  methods include  habitat
modification  (limiting  food,  water,  and  shelter),
exclusion  (with  netting,  porcupine   wire,   sticky
repellents, etc.),  and trapping. Most common lethal
control measures are AVITROL poison baits and toxic
perches.  Be extremely careful when using bird poisons
so that you do not harm nontarget birds and animals.
Module Three Chapter 4. Pg 10

                        STUDY QUESTIONS FOR MODULE THREE
                                      CHAPTER FOUR
1.  Which of the following is true about pigeons:
         A. They prefer flat surfaces for resting and feeding
         B. They will feed on rooftops or the ground
         C. Feeding, roosting, and loafing sites are usually separate
         D. All of the above
         E. None of the above

2.  Pigeons usually make a nest of small twigs, straw, or debris on buildings and other structures.
         A. True
         B. False

3.  Which of the following is true about starlings:
         A. They feed at night
         B. They may fly up to 30 miles to their feeding sites
         C. They usually nest on the ground in low shrubbery
         D. All of the above
         E. None of the above   •

4.  Starlings often congregate in large numbers during the winter.
         A. True
         B. False

5.  Which of the following is true about house sparrows:
         A. They are nervous around people and will not nest in high-traffic areas.
         B. They often create fire hazards  by nesting inside transformers and power stations
         C. They prefer to feed on small grains but will also feed on garbage
         D. All of the above
         E. *Bf and 'C

6.  The house sparrow was  introduced into the United States, and is not a native bird.
         A. True
         B. False

7.  The most serious health  risk from pest birds is
         A. Disease transmitted by ectoparasites
         B. Inhaling disease  organisms from their droppings
         C. Food contamination
         D. There are no serious health hazards associated with pest birds

8.  Bird control is regulated under which of the following laws or regulations:
         A. Migratory Species Act of 1918
         B. Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)
         C. State and local laws and regulations
         D. Endangered Species Act
         E. All of the above
                                                                         Module Three Chapter 4, Pg 11

9:  AVITROL poison bait should be applied weekly for a period of a month to be effective.
        A. True
        B. False

10. Where nonlethal bird control is required, which of the following bird management techniques
    may be used:
        A. Netting
        B. Sticky repellents
        C. AVITROL
        D. ORNTTROL
        E. *A* or 'C'
        F. 'A* or 'B* or 'D*

                                                                    For Answers refer to Appendix A
Module Three Chapter 4, Pg 12

                   OTHER VERTEBRATE PESTS
      Learning Objectives

       :       After completion of the study of Other Vertebrates, the trainee should be able to:;>

          o   Describe the habitats and life cycles of other vertebrates.

          a   Describe the  impact of other vertebrates on  household and structural

          o   Discuss the non-chemical and chemical alternatives of bird control and
    Although rats, mice, and birds are the vertebrate
pests  most commonly  encountered in the  urban
environment,  other vertebrates  sometimes become
pests too. Some of these animals become pests when
they wander into residential areas from nearby wild
areas  or parks;  examples  of  these  are  skunks,
raccoons, and possums.  Some vertebrate pests have
taken to living along with people - next  to  or
sometimes inside buildings, e.g.,  bats and squirrels.
    Whatever  the pest,  sometimes they  must  be
controlled; because they are often game animals or are
otherwise protected,  most  control  actions  will  be
    The mammalian order of bats  is second only to
rodents in number of species.
    Bats are the only true flying mammals. A thin
membrane of skin stretches from the long, modified
front.legs to the back legs and then to the tail. The
bones in the bats "fingers" are greatly elongated "ribs"
for the wings.
    Bats in the United States are almost always
beneficial. Some species are endangered. Many bats
feed on insects, and can consume up to 1/2 their body
weight   in  insects  in  one  feeding.  Occasionally,
however, they become a nuisance inside buildings or
pose a public health problem.
    The bats that most often  become  a  problem
around  people are the ones  that live  in  colonies or
groups.  Examples from around the  country  are little
brown bats, big brown bats, Mexican free-tailed bats,
and big-eared  bats. All of these species sometimes
hibernate or roost inside of buildings.
    Roosting  and hibernating sites may occur  in
building attics,  wall  and  ceiling  voids,  belfries,
chimneys,  unused furnaces, and the like. The bats'
droppings and urine can cause a foul odor and stains
on walls and ceilings. Their squeaking and scrambling
noises can be intolerable to residents of the building.

Bats and Disease
    Bats are associated with a few diseases that affect
people.  Rabies  and histoplasmosis are the most
serious.  Rabies  is a  dangerous and  fatal  disease.
However,  the bat's role in transmission has been
greatly   exaggerated.  Although bats are confirmed
                                                                           Module Three Chapter 5, Pg 1

carriers of the  disease, only a few human fatalities
have been  attributed to bat bites. Nevertheless, use
care when handling bats.
    Bat bites should be considered to be potential
rabies exposure.
    »>   Because most bats will try to bite when
        handled, they should be picked up with
        heavy gloves, forceps, or a stick.
    •>   If a bat has bitten someone, it should be
        captured without crushing its head.
    »   Refrigerate it (don't freeze it).
    »   Then  take  it  to  the   local  Health
        Department for testing.
    The incidence of Histoplasmosis (discussed  in
detail in the chapter on birds) being transmitted from
bat droppings to humans is not thought to be high.
    »   When working in a bat  roost site with
        lots of accumulated droppings,  wear a
        respirator and protective clothing  and
        follow the safety procedures outlined in
        the chapter on birds.

Habits of Bats
    During warm weather, bats feed on flying insects
in late afternoon, evening,  and early  morning.  They
are not active in bright daylight.  If you  see a bat at
this time it has  either been disturbed from its daytime
resting place or is sick. When not in flight, they rest
in  dark  hiding  and  roosting  sites  (e.g., caves,
buildings, hollow trees).  Bats are able to enter  these
places of refuge through holes as small as 3/8-inch.
    Bats capture flying insects by "echo-location."
They emit high-frequency sound, inaudible to humans
and similar to  sonar.  They also  make  audible
squeaking  sounds, used for communication between
each other.
    In much of the country, bats migrate or hibernate
when the weather turns cold. Sometimes they hibernate
in hanging  clusters inside buildings. Depending on the
species  and  geographic  location,  they  produce
offspring from late spring to midsummer. Young bats
grow rapidly and can fly in three to seven weeks.

    Look for two things:
    *   entry and exit points of the bats, and
    »   the location of the roost.

    Entry  and exit points. A building in poor repair
will have seemingly unlimited entry points.
    »   Look for loose flashing, vents, shingles,
        or siding that bats can squeeze through.
    *   Look  for damage  and openings under
         eaves   and   soffits,   at   cornices,
         louvers,   and   doors,   next  to
         chimneys,  windows,  and  anywhere
         pipes or wiring enter.
     »   Notice  droppings  under  openings,
         smudges around holes, and odors.
     Bats can be observed at twilight as they leave the.
building to feed. The best time to observe the bats and
pinpoint major exit and entry points  is usually from
just before to an hour after sunset.
     »   Station  one  or  more  observers  at
         different sides of the building, looking
         up towards the roof.
     »   Listen for  squeaking at  the exits just
         prior to the flight.
     If the night is  chilly or rainy, the bats may not
come out.
     Location of roost.
     »   Look inside in attics and unused rooms
         during daylight.
     »   Check inside the chimney and vents.
     •>   Bang on the walls and listen for squeaks
         and  scratches   as  roosting bats  are
     *   Check behind shutters.
     »   Look for  bat droppings. They will be
         found   below   roosting   bats.   The
         droppings  can  be told  from  mouse
         droppings, which they look like, but bat
         droppings  contain wings,  legs, and  '
         other  body  parts  of   insects.   Bat
         droppings often accumulate to a  depth
         of several inches or more.
     »   In large roosts smell for bats.  They
         have  a very pungent  and  penetrating
         odor,  musky and  sweet, that  comes
         from rotting droppings and bat urine.

Control and Management of Bats
     Pesticides are unnecessary  for bat control. The
best way of getting rid of bats roosting in a building is
through "bat-proofing."
     Batproofing. Making a building "batproof means
sealing  or  screening all of the openings used by the
bats to enter a building. It  can  be a difficult job
because, in many cases, all upper openings 3/8 inch
and  larger must  be  sealed, but  this is  the  only
permanent method of ridding a building of bats.
     Be sure  their  are  no  bats  inside  before  the
building is sealed.  Bats trapped inside may be even
more of a problem than before.
     June and July are peak months for bat complaints
in much of the country. Unfortunately, this is the
Module Three Chapter 5, Pg 2

                                 BATS: PICTORIAL KEY TO UNITED STATES GENERA
                                      Harold George Scolt and Chester J. Stajaitovlclt
  limp note
deeply wrinkled lip*
                     •bore leaf note
                                                lung IceC oo««
                                        roitruB loog        roetrm ihort
                                                                               leaf cliln
                    UAFMOSE BATS
                                                             LONCNOSE BATS
                                                               plain f.io-
                                                                            UAF-CIIIN BATS
                  free tall

                                                                              •nclof«d tall
••ootb to •lightly
  wrinkled lip*
                                                     (ur bUck
                                                                 (ur blown 
worst time of year for control. At this time, bats are
rearing young in their colony. The young can not fly
and stay in the roost. Batproofing during this period
traps the young bats. They will die and rot and smell.
They may also crawl and flutter into living areas.
    The best time  of year to batproof a building is
Mther in late  fall after bats have left for hibernation or
in late winter and early spring before the bats arrive.
If batproofing must be done in summer, it should be
done after mid-August.
     »   Seal all  but one  or two principal
     »   Wait 3-4 days for the bats to adjust to
         using the refining openings.
     »   Then seal those openings some evening
         just  after the bats  have left  for their
         nightly feeding.
     »   "Bat valves" can also be used. These
         are placed over the remaining openings
         and  allow the bats  to leave but not to
     Standard batproofing materials include 1/4 inch
hardware cloth,  screening,  sheet metal, caulking,
expanding polyurethane foam, steel wool, duct tape —
the same things used for rodent proofing. When old,
deteriorated buildings have more openings than can be
sealed economically. Large  sections of plastic bird
netting can be draped  over  the  roof areas of these
buildings to keep out bats at a reasonable cost.
     Bat repellents. If batproofing is  not possible, or
bats need to be forced out of a building before it is
batproofed, the bats can sometimes be repelled from
their roost.  At  this  time,  only  one  chemical  is
registered as a bat repellent. Naphthalene crystals or
flakes can be spread on attic floors or placed in voids.
The crystals are most effective in confined air spaces.
   rree to five pounds  will treat an average attic.
     While naphthalene may repel the bats, it vaporizes
and disappears hi a few weeks. The bats often return.
Many humans dislike the smell of naphthalene as much
as bats and some people are very sensitive and should
avoid  all  contact. Blasts of air have  been used
effectively to drive bats out.
     Bright lights have had some success hi repelling
     *   On commercial  buildings,  flood lights
         can be pointed at the bats' entry points
         to keep them from entering. (Of course,
         the bright lights may attract insects too,
         which is the bats' food.)
     »   Attics can be illuminated with four or
         more bulbs; ensure that all corners of
         the attic are illuminated.
     »   Drafts of cool air from fans and air
         conditioners   have,   on  occasion,
         kept bats from  roosting in a poorly
         sealed attic.
     »   Ultrasonic devices do not repel bats.
     A single bat. When a single bat finds its way into
a home,  office, or store,  it will usually find its way
out again.  When it cannot, capture the bat with  an
insect net,  a coffee can, or even with a gloved hand.
The bat can be released or destroyed.
     Tree squirrels are found in forest areas throughout
most of the United States. Many species have adapted
extremely well to suburban and city life. Occasionally,
these squirrels enter  buildings and cause damage or
disturbance. The most common species  that become
pests are  the gray  squirrel,  red  squirrel,  flying
squirrel, and fox squirrel.
     Tree squirrels usually build their nests in trees.
They also may store food and find shelter in attics and
garages. Probably the primary way squirrels become
pests is by scrambling and scratching inside attics and
hi wall voids. Grey squirrels travel easily on  power
lines. They like to gnaw on wires.
     The legal status  of squirrels  varies  greatly with
geographic area and  species.  Many are  classified as
game animals. Some  are protected. Be sure to check
with local game conservation officers if you plan any
kind of lethal control  or trapping program.

Control and Management
     Squirrel proofing. Step number one in eliminating
a squirrel problem  in a building is to find out  where
the squirrels are entering. Remember that squirrels
will be coming and going each day. Common points of
entry include damaged attic louvers, ventilators,
Module Three Chapter 5, Pg 4

soffits, joints of siding, knot holes, openings  where
utility wires or pipes enter, chimneys, and flashing.
Squirrels  may  gnaw  directly  through  siding  and
shingles, too.
     »    Heavy  gauge 1/2" hardware cloth or
         sheet metal  can  be used to  seal most
     »    Make  other  suitable repairs  as  for
     »    Squirrels can be stopped from travelling
         on wires by installing two-foot sections
         of 2-3 inch diameter plastic pipe. Split
         the pipe lengthwise, spread the opening
         apart, and place  it over the  wire. The
         pipe  will rotate  on the wire  and the
         squirrel will tumble off. Be careful near
         high voltage wires.
     Squirrels  often   use  overhanging  branches as
highways to  rooftops. Tree  branches should be
trimmed back  10 feet from  the building.  If  the
branches can't be trimmed,  a two foot wide band of
metal flashing fastened around a tree, six to eight feet
off the ground, keeps squirrels  from climbing  up the
tree and jumping to the building.
     Repellents.  Naphthalene has been  used (in the
same way as for  bats) to keep squirrels out of attics,
particularly  in  summer homes and camps  that  are
unoccupied in winter. There  is at least one  sticky
repellent product for squirrels. It is  similar  to  the
sticky  repellents  used in  bird  control. Apply it to
ledges,  gutters,  window sills, and the like, to keep
squirrels off.
     Trapping. Live  trapping with box or wire traps
can be used to remove one or a few squirrels from a
building. Traps should be left open and unset for a few
days, surrounded by bait, so that the squirrels get used
to the  trap. Good baits include peanuts, nut  meats,
peanut butter, whole  corn, sunflower seeds, or rolled
oats. Then the trap can be set Good trap locations
include the roof, the base of nearby trees, or in die
attic itself.
     Squirrels are nasty biters. Handle diem carefully.
Experts  differ  as to  whether squirrels  should be
released or killed. If mey  are released, do so at least
five miles away so that mey do  not return.
     Where lethal control is permitted, rat snap traps
can be used to kill squirrels in attics. The bait  should
be tied to the trigger  and the trap nailed or wired to a
beam. Live trapping  is not legal in all locals.  Check
with game authorities first.
    A number of species of squirrels and chipmunks
occasionally become pests  in  and around buildings.
The   major  concern  is  their  burrowing  around
foundations, in lawns, on golf courses, and in gardens.
The ground squirrels in particular can have extensive
burrows with large mounds, especially along roads and
ditch banks. On occasion, burrows beneath buildings
have caused structural damage.
    Ground  squirrels can carry  diseases (such  as
tularemia and plague), particularly when populations
are dense.
    Both ground squirrels  and chipmunks are active
during the day and are easily seen when foraging. But
they spend much of  their time  in  their burrows.
During winter months,  most  ground squirrels and
chipmunks go underground and stay inactive. In some
areas,  ground  squirrels  will go  into  a summer
hibernation when temperatures are at their highest.
    Ground   squirrels   are. primarily  vegetarians,
feeding on grasses. When vegetation dries up,  they
switch to seeds,  grains, and nuts.  Chipmunks eat both
plant  and animal material,  from seeds to nuts, from
insects to worms - to songbirds and frogs.

Management and Control
    Depending on your state's laws, ground squirrels
and chipmunks may or may not be protected.

Ground Squirrels
    Control   is  usually only  required in  severe
infestations. Several  important steps must be taken if
a control or management program is to succeed:
    »   Correctly identify the species  causing
         the problem.
    »   Alter the habitat, if possible, to make
         the area less attractive to die squirrels.
    »   Use   die   most  appropriate  control
    »   Establish an inspection or monitoring
         program to detect reinfestation.
Ground squirrels are  generally found in open areas.
However, they usually need some kind of cover to
survive.  Removing brush piles and debris will make
the area less  attractive to  the  squirrels and will
facilitate detection of burrows and improve  access
during the  control program. Ground squirrels  can be
controlled with traps,  rodenticides, and fumigants.
                                                                                  Module Three Chapter 5,fg5

    Trapping.  Trapping  is  a  practical  means  of
controlling ground squirrels in  limited areas  where
numbers are small.  Live traps are effective, but
present  the  problem of disposal of a live squirrel.
Because squirrels can carry disease, many states will
    permit die  animals to be  released at some new
   ation, so they must be killed.
     For die  smaller species,  rat snap  traps can be
     »   Place traps near burrow entrances or
         runs and baited with nuts, oats, barley,
         or melon rind.
     »   Place  traps  under   a box   if  any
         nontargets might be killed in die trap.
     Rodenticides. Rodenticides are  the most  cost
effective way  of controlling  large  populations of
ground squirrels. A number of products are registered
for this  use.  Grain baits are  most  effective  when
squirrels are feeding on grains and seeds.
     »   Place rodenticides in burrows or in
         protected bait stations, according to die
         label directions.
     Fumigation. Ground squirrels can also  be killed
by gassing meir burrows. Aluminum phosphide tablets
or  smoke  cartridges  are  most  commonly   used.
Fumigation is most effective when soil moisture is
high; moisture helps seal me tiny cracks in die burrow
walls. Fumigation is not effective during periods of
  bernation because die squirrels plug meir burrows.
    ng is normally considered to be die best time for
burrow  fumigation. Fumigation is not a  good choice
adjacent  to  buildings  because of die risk that die
fumigant gas could find its way into die structure.

    Only rarely do chipmunks become a serious pest
problem. In most cases, lethal control is unnecessary.
Altering die habitat may cause the chipmunks to move.
    »   "Chipmunk-proof"   die   building  to
         prevent entrance.
    +   Remove objects such as stones, logs,
         and debris close to a structure that may
         be   provide   an   attractive  denning
     Trapping.   Live   trapping   and   relocating
chipmunks (where permitted) is considered a humane
method of control.  Effective baits  include peanut
butter, nuts, sunflowers, seeds, oats, bacon, and apple
slices. Relocation should be done into remote forest
areas five miles from die trap site.
     Rat snap traps can also be used effectively. Traps
should be placed at den entrances and baited with an
apple slice, perhaps with some peanut butter. Seeds
and  nuts should not be  used because they will attract
ground-dwelling birds.
     Poison baits that are labeled for chipmunk control
can  be  used  as described  for ground squirrels.
However,  burrow  fumigation  is  not  usually  a
recommended control tactic because chipmunk burrows
are long, difficult to find, and often near buildings.
     Moles are not rodents like mice and gophers, but
relatives of die insectivores (insect eaters) like shrews
and hedgehogs. Moles search for food in deep as well
Module Three Chapter 5, Pf 6

                           as   shallow   surface
                           burrows,   in   lawns,
                           meadows,   stream
                           banks,   and   open
                           woodlots. They feed on
                           earthworms and  insect
larvae (grubs). Only rarely seen above ground, moles
are 4-9 inches long, including the tail, with long dark
gray or brown fur. Eyes are tiny, like a pinhead, and
the tail and feet are usually pink. They have no visible
ears. There are seven species in the United States.
    As they burrow, they sometimes damage plants,
but the major problem with moles are  those surface
tunnels, mounds, and ridges that disfigure lawns. As
they tunnel just below the surface, moles raise the sod
up with their front digging feet, looking for food or
new tunneling sites. They can push up surface tunnels
at the rate of a foot per minute if the  soil is  loose.
They prefer loose, moist soil shaded by vegetation.
Voles may use the surface burrows pushed up by
moles and feed on plant tubers.

Management and Control
    Although time consuming, the most  effective
method of control is by the use of traps. [Killing moles
with fumigants, poison baits, or reducing food/prey is
not effective.]
    Since there is no easy way to know which parts of
the surface  tunnels  are  active  and  which  parts
abandoned, mole tunnels should be tamped down in
several places over the  yard.  Mark  tamped  down
sections with a peg or wire flag.  If the tunnel has been
pushed back up the next day or so, a trap should be
set in that place.
    Two types of traps are in general  use: harpoon
traps and  chokers. A harpoon  trap consists of two
prongs that straddle the tunnel  and a set of spring-
driven spikes. The spikes are raised above the tunnel
and catch  in  the  trigger release.  When the  mole
triggers the trap, the prongs are released and driven
through the sod, impaling and killing the mole.
    A choker trap  consists of a cast metal frame with
two spring retractable  loops. Two slits are cut in the
tunnel and the loops placed inside. When the  mole
triggers the trap, it is immediately crushed.
    »   When using traps, place a plastic pail
        with a warning sign over each  trap.
    »   An  average set will require 3-5 traps
        per acre.
    »   Check the trap every couple of days.
    »   After no results for 3-4 days, move the
        traps to new locations.
    Most snakes'are non-poisonous, harmless, and
beneficial. But few people want them in their home.
As a general guideline, poisonous snakes usually have
a large triangular head, a pit between their eye and
nostril, and  vertical and elliptical  pupils. They may
also have rattles on their tail, noticeable fangs, and a
single row of scales between their vent and the tip of
the tail. When unsure assume that the snake may be
poisonous and protect yourself accordingly.
    Snakes are predators. Depending on the species,
the diet  may  include insects, rodents, frogs,  birds,
worms,  or  toads.  Some snakes hibernate in dens
during the winter, sometimes under houses. At certain
times of the  year, they may  enter buildings for
warmth,  shade, or moisture.
Management and Control
     If snakes are a regular problem, the best solution
is to eliminate snake hiding places.
     »   Clean up brush piles, wood piles, rock
         piles, and other debris.
     »   Keep shrubbery away from foundations.
     »   Cut high grass.
     Often, snake  problems follow  rodent problems.
Eliminate the rodents — the snakes' food - and the
snakes will move elsewhere.
     »   Eliminate rodent food and harborage.
     »   Mow grass short to expose rodent runs.
     Snakes often  enter structures  through broken
block foundations, cracked mortar, damaged  vents.
These should be repaired.
     In a rattlesnake infested area, a snakeproof fence
can be installed around a backyard or play area.
     »   Bury  a galvanized  1/4  inch  hardware
         cloth  (with a height of three feet) six
         inches in the ground and slant outward
         at a 30 degree angle.
     *   Keep  all vegetation  away from  the
                                                                                 Module Three Chapter 5, Pg 7

     Snake removal. If a snake gets into a house or
other  building,  several  methods  are available  to
remove it:
     »   Place damp  burlap sacks on the floor
         and cover them with dry sacks.  Check
         them every  few hours  to see  if the
         snake  has crawled  underneath.  The
         snake and bags  can be lifted with a
         shovel and taken outside. The snake can
         be killed or released.
     *>   Rat glue boards will capture all but the
         largest  snakes. The glue boards  should
         be tied down or attached to a plywood
         base. Place the glue boards along wall
         and floor junctions. Captured  snakes
         can be  killed, or they may be released.
         Before  release, pour vegetable oil over
         the snake and glue.
     »   Expanded trigger rat traps set in pairs
         along wall and floor junctions can kill
         smaller snakes.
     A granular snake repellent can keep some species
of snakes away from homes, camp sites, garages, and
yards. Containing sulfur and naphthalene, the repellent
is applied in a narrow band  around the area to  be
protected.  Sulfur/naphthalene repellents  are most
effective against rattlesnakes, coral snakes, garter
snakes, and  pythons.
     These three vertebrates are considered together
 because   they   are   similar  pests  with  similar
 management  and   control   recommendations.
 Management of these animals almost always involves
occlusion and/or live trapping.

     There are two kinds of skunks that may become
 pests,  the striped skunk and the spotted skunk. The
 striped skunk is about the size of a large house cat and
 has two  broad stripes running from  the back of the
 head to the large bushy tail. Spotted skunks are about
 half that size, with four irregular stripes  beginning
 behind the eyes and below the ears.
     Skunks are nocturnal. They do not hibernate, but
 may sleep through cold weather periods. They usually
 live in underground  burrows, hollow logs,  or  rock
 piles. They may decide to live under houses, sheds,
 cabins, or storage buildings.
     Of course, the main problem with skunks is their
  ink. But they become "pests" when they change their
dietary selections from rodents, insects, and wild fruit,
to garden crops, garbage, and lawn insects and locate
their habitat closer to humans. Another major problem
in some  areas of the country  is the transmission of

    Raccoons are common throughout North America.
They are easy to recognize with their black face mask
and black, brown, and white ringed bushy tail. They
have long thick fur with a thin muzzle and pointed
ears. Their feet are well adapted to climbing. They are
large animals, weighing between 10 and 25 pounds.
    Their senses of hearing, sight, and touch are well
developed, while those of taste and smell are not.
They  are  commonly found  near  streams, lakes and
swamps, and often do quite well in suburban areas and
even in city parks. Raccoons den inside hollow trees
or logs, rock crevices,  deserted buildings, culverts,
storm sewers, chimneys, attics, and crawlspaces. More
than one den may be used.
 Module Three Chapter 5, Pj 8

    Mostly active at night, raccoons may oe seen at
dawn or dusk and sometimes even in the middle of the
day. Winter months are spent in the den, but they do
not hibernate. They may become active during warm
    Raccoons  feed on animals and  plants. In the
spring  and summer, they feed  on  crayfish,  mussels,
frogs, and fish. In the fall, they switch to fruits, seeds,
nuts, and  grains. They also eat mice, squirrels, and
birds, and are quite happy knocking over a garbage
can. Raccoons, too, can transmit rabies.

    Related to kangaroos, the opossum is the only
marsupial in North America. The opossum is a whitish
or grayish animal the size of a house cat. Its face is
long and pointed with rounded, hairless ears. It grows
up to  40 inches long. It will, weigh up to 14 pounds;
the average is six to seven pounds for males and four
pounds for females. Their tracks look like they were
made  by little human or monkey hands.
    Opossums prefer to live near streams or swamps,
but in some areas they have become the most common
nonrodent nyiimnai,  They den in the burrows of other
large  animals, and in tree cavities, brush piles, and
under sheds and buildings. Occasionally, they move
^nto ^Bics and garages.
    They eat  nearly  everything, from insects to
carrion,  fruits  to  grains,  garbage  to  pet  food.
Opossums are active at night Their mating season is
January to July, and they may raise two to three litters
per year. Most young die in their first year. Those that
survive may live up to seven years.
    Opossums move slowly. Their top speed is about
seven miles per hour. When threatened, opossums
climb trees or go down into burrows. If cornered, they
may growl,  hiss, bite, screech, and exude a smelly
green fluid from their rear end. If these defenses aren't
successful, they  may  play dead.  They  have  the
undeserved reputation of being stupid.
    As a pest, the main complaint against opossums
is that they get into garbage, bird feeders, or pet food
left outside.
Management ana ^antroi 01
Raccoons, and Opossums
    Exclusion. These animals can be prevented from
entering buildings by repairing breaks in foundations
and screening crawlspace vents  with hardware cloth.
    »   If the animal is currently living under
         the building, seal all openings but one,
         then sprinkle a tracking patch of talc at
         the opening.
    »   Examine  the area after dark. If tracks
         show that the animal has left, close this
         last opening immediately.
    »   Seal attic openings.
    »   Cap chimneys with a wire cage or other
         animal-proof cover.
    When excluding  animals  in  spring or  early
summer, be aware  that young  may also be present. Be
sure that all animals have been removed before sealing
the building. Otherwise, a serious odor problem from
a dead animal could result.
    *   Pour one or two boxes of naphthalene
         balls down vent chimneys to run  out
    Live Trapping. The best way to remove animals
from  around buildings is to trap them.
          A word of warning: In many areas of
     the country, releasing a trapped animal is
     illegal.  This  is  particularly  true with
     skunks  and raccoons  because they can:
     carry rabies. Another  word of  warning:
     The spotted skunk is  protected  in some
     states. A final word of warning: Some of
     these  animals  may   be  regulated  as
     furbearers  under  fish:  and game laws of
     your state. Know  your state and local
     regulations before proceeding.
         If the animal must be killed, lower the
         trap into a tub of water or gas it with a
         fumigant or COj.
         If the animal is to be released, do it far
         away  from human dwellings. Use what
         you have learned about the biology of
         the animal  to find a suitable habitat.
         The release site for these large animals
         should be over ten miles away from the
         capture site.
         Remember to check state regulations.
         Set traps as close to the den as possible
         where damage  is  occurring, e.g.,  at
                                                                                Module ThiM Oupttr 5, P| 9

         corners  of gardens,  breaks in  stone
         walls,   or   along  obvious   animal
     »   Set multiple traps  in  a  number of
         different locations.
     »   Since these animals are active at night,
         check traps  at  least every morning;
         preferably twice a day.
     *>   Check traps often to spot and release
         nontarget animals
     There  is obviously a  special  problem  when
trapping skunks. Skunks don't like to "shoot," if they
can't see their target.
     »   Cover all  but the entrance of the trap
         with burlap or canvas before placing the
         trap, or
     »   Use  a  commercially-sold solid skunk
     »   Approach  the trap slowly and transport
         it gently.
     To release a trapped skunk, stand more than 20
feet  away and release the trap door using a string or
fishing line.
     The best baits for each animal are listed below:
     Skunk:      Chicken  parts and entrails, fresh
                 fish, cat food, sardines,  eggs
     Raccoon     Chicken  parts and entrails, corn,
                 fresh fish, sardines
    Opossum     Apple  slices, chicken  parts  and
                  entrails, fresh fish, sardines.
    Mounting  a  good  level  of  sanitation in  a
neighborhood is  the  best  preventive  measure for
skunks, racoons,  and opossums. Remind clients that
released  vertebrates must fight their way  into  new
territory  to  establish  themselves  and  overcrowded
habitat results in increased risk of disease and marginal
nesting sites. Prevention is  the most humane way of
managing vertebrate pests.
     Almost any vertebrate animal may become a pest
by wandering where it is  not wanted.  Sometimes it
will  leave  by itself.  Sometimes,  it will need to be
controlled.  Because   vertebrates  are   often  game
animals, or otherwise protected, most control actions
will  be nonlethal.  Exclusion is  often  the preferred
method. For the larger vertebrates, such as raccoons,
skunks,  and opossums, live  trapping  is  the  most
common solution.  Be aware,  though,  that concerns
about the spread of disease,  and  rabies in particular,
has  caused many  states to  prohibit the  release of
trapped animals in other  areas.  In these cases,  the
trapped animal  must be  killed  or  turned over to
wildlife officials.
Module Three Chapter 5, Pf 10

                        STUDY QUESTIONS FOR MODULE THREE
                                      CHAPTER FIVE
                                 OTHER VERTEBRATES
1.   Which of the following is true about bats:
        A. They are usually beneficial to the environment.
        B. Most feed on animal blood.
        C. Many feed on bisects.
        D. A and  C.

2.   The best control method for bats in attics is applying naphthalene crystals.
        A. True
        B. False

3.   Which of the following control methods is never used against tree squirrels.
        A. Trimming tree branches that hang over a house
        B. SQUIRREL-DEATH bait blocks
        C. Squirrel-proofing with 1/2-inch hardware cloth
        D. Naphthalene repellent

4.   When  necessary and if not prohibited by state laws, ground squirrels can be controlled with
    traps, rodenticides, and fumigants.
        A. True
        B. False

5.   Burrow fumigation is a good method for controlling chipmunks.
        A. True
        B. False

6.   Which of the following is true about moles:
        A. Trapping is the most effective control measure.
        B. Poison bait is the most effective control measure.
        C. Moles  feed on grass roots.
        D. A and  C.

7.   Which of the following are acceptable snake control methods:
        A. Clean up brush piles.
        B. Use a snake repellent in a band around the area to be protected.
        C. Eliminate rodent food and harborage.
        D. A and  C.

8.   Control of skunks, raccons, and opossoms almost always involves exclusion or live trapping.
        A. True
        B. False
                                                                       Module Three Chapter 5, Pg 11

9.  Which of the following statements are true concerning trapping skunks, raccoons, or possoms:
         A. Trapped animals should always be released at least ten miles away.
         B. Traps should be checked every 48 hours.
         C. The best trapping sites are close to the animal's den.
         D. All of the above.
                                                                       For Answers refer to Appendix A
Module Three Chapter 5, Pg 12

                                       APPENDIX A
Chapter 1   Pest Management and Control
    (1) An unwanted organism  (2) B or D
    (3)B    (4)C   (5)CandE  (6) B
Chapter 2

Using  Equipment  in  Urban  Pest
(2)E    (3)B    (4)B     (5)C
Chapter 3   Laws and Regulations
    (1) C    (2) A
    (3)  FIFRA, the Federal Insecticide  Fungicide
        and Rodenticide Act
Chapter 2

Chapter 3
    (6) A

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Chapter 6
Chapter 7
    (6) A
(2) B    (3) A
(7) C    (8) B
        (4) A    (5) A
(3) B    (4) C   (5) B
Stored Product Pests
(2) B    (3) C   (4) D

Fabric Pests
(2)C    (3) A   (4)D

Silverflsh and Firebrats
(2) C    (3) B   (4) B
(2) A
(3) A    (4) A   (5) C

Chapter 1   Houseflies and Their Relatives

    (D  Drosophila or fruit flies often have red eyes,
        visible veins and cross veins in their wings,
        and are attracted to yeast producing materials
        such as over ripe fruit,  sour  mops, etc.
        Phorids have a humped backed appearance,
        move in  jerks and have  wings with  four
        indistinctly  seen  veins.   Phorids   infest
        manure, garbage and other rotting materials
        and can infest buried refuse and emerge in
        buildings. Both are small.

    (2)  House flies  have dark, indistinctly  striped
        thoraxes and gray and tan abdomens; flesh
        flies usually have gray thoraxes with three
        distinct stripes. Blow tlies  are solid metallic
        green, bronze, blue or black; cluster flies, in
        the same family as blow flies, have  yellow
        or gray hairs covering the thorax.

    (3)  One group of flies is mosquito or gnat-like
        with obvious, even somewhat long antennae.
        Their larvae have a head capsule and usually
        live  in water. The  rest of the flies,  the
        majority  of the  species,  are usually  not
        mosquito-like but are more robust with very
        small antennae. The larvae of this group are
        often maggot-like.

    (4)  Cluster fly larvae parasitize earthworms. In
        the late warm months of summer, especially
        August,  they often  enter  buildings where
        they overwinter. On warm  winter days these
        flies  and   others,  make  nuisances   of
        themselves by flying around.   Cluster flies
        along with house flies, face flies and flesh
        flies are part of the "attic fly" fauna.

    (5)  Locate the breeding sites.
        Find ways they are entering.
        Investigate garbage pick up schedules and
        garbage handling procedures.
        Caulk entry points.
        Advocate screening entry points.
        Investigate ways  to  use air curtains, light
        Apply pesticides  in  cracks  and crevices
        where flies enter or hide.
                                                                                    Appendix A, Pg 1

        Investigate the need for fly bait.
        Educate workers and  supervisors  on  fly
        biology and control.

    (6) Seek  out  infested   materials   that  are
        producing   yeast:   over-ripe  fruit   and
        vegetables, open or broken cans of fruit and
        vegetables,  sour mops  and rags,  moist pet
        food and bedding. Use traps baited with ripe
        banana to locate the main infested  area.
        Eliminate yeast producing materials.

Chapter 2    Stinging Insects

    (1) Several  species  of  yellowjackets   make
        suspended aerial nests. They attach a paper
        comb of cells to a structure or plant limb and
        construct a paper envelope around it. These
        combs are enlarged, and tiers  are added as
        the  colony grows.  The envelope  is also
        enlarged   to   accommodate   growth.  A
        common example of this yellowjacket group
        is die bald faced hornet. Many other species
        nest in die  ground and start die first paper
        comb of cells in an existing hole; later, they
        add combs and  enlarge the  hole.  Several
        species,    particularly   the   German
        yellowjacket,  Vespula germanica make nests
        in wall voids and attics of structures.

    (2) Species of Polistes, the paper wasps, attach
        a single paper comb of cells to a structure or
        plant twigs. This comb is enlarged around
        the  edge but  additional tiers are  not added
        nor is it covered by a paper envelope.

    (3) Mud daubers  are non  social  wasps with
        fertile, single queens  mat gather mud and
        construct cells attached to structures. These
        females sting  and paralyze spiders and place
        diem in cells along with a wasp egg. The
        wasp  grub  hatches,   eats  the  paralyzed
        spiders, pupates, and  the following spring,
        emerges as an adult male or female. These
        wasps mate,  and the  females continue  die
        annual cycle.

    (4) (a) A division of labor by groups  within die
        colony e.g., a queen, worker daughters, and
        (b)  Several  "generations" of young are
        produced by the  same mother, some of
        which enter into colony life expanding  the
        nest and  caring for  the  young (infertile
        worker  daughters),  while  others  (fertile
        males and females) leave  the  nest to mate
        widi other reproductives. Some colonies exist
        only one  or  at  most two  years,  e.g.,
        yellowjackets. Others exist for many years,
        e.g. ants, honeybees.
    (5) (a) Aerial  yellowjacket: Locate aerial nest.
        Using a bee suit apply canned pressurized
        pesticide to die entrance at die time of day
        when most wasps are  in the nest. Cut the
        nest out of the shrub etc and discard it when
        occupants are dead.
        (b) Ground-nesting yellowjacket: Locate nest
        entrance in ground.  Using a bee suit at die
        most appropriate time of day spray or dust
        pesticide in  entrance hole. Dust a plug of
        steel wool, etc and insert it in the entrance.
        (c) Yellowjacket in wall void: Locate die
        nest entrance in die structure. Using a bee
        suit approach die entrance  in  the  safest
        manner,   inject  spray  from  a  canned
        pressurized pesticide and plug die entrance
        with pesticide dusted steel  wool. Caulk up
        entrance after assurances that the nest is no
        longer active.
        (d) Honeybee in wall void: Locate the colony
        entrance. Inspect inside the structure as well
        as outside. Using a  bee suit inject spray  in
        the entrance using  a   canned pressurized
        pesticide and plug the hole with  pesticide
        dusted  steel wool.  As soon  as it can be
        ascertained that honeybees are no  longer
        alive remove comb, dead bees, honey, etc.
        Do not let the comb and honey supply melt
        and run.

Chapter 3   Spiders

    (1) The female black widow  has a shiny jet
        black body and legs. Her globose abdomen
        is proportionally large with a red hour glass
        design  on  die  belly.  This design can be
        easily seen and taken as a warning since die
        black widow hangs upside down in her cob
        web. Male black  widows are  small striped
        and harmless.

    (2) The brown recluse spider Loxosceles reclusa
        has a brown cephalothorax with a dark violin
        shaped design  on the  dorsal  surface.  The
        abdomen  is  a tan  brown  color  with no
        distinctive markings. The brown recluse is
        found in houses  within an arched shaped
        geographical  range  encompassing  states  in
        the south and midwest bordered by Texas,
        Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri, Iowa, Illinois,
        Kentucky, Tennessee and Alabama. Several
        other  species  of  closely  related  recluse
        spiders are found in die southwestern deserts
        and one is  regularly  introduced from the
        Mediterranean  area. None of these  latter
        species is considered particularly harmful.

    (3) Inspect accumulations of logs, wood, bricks,
        construction materials  as well as stacks  of
        baskets and equipment that has not been
Appendix A, Pg 2

        moved for some time. Privies, sheds and
        inside such  things  as water  meters  are
        potential nesting places. Black widows move
        into secluded spaces and remain if they are
        not disturbed. Be careful when reaching into
        potential black widow nesting places.

    (4)  Inspect rooms and spaces in a home that are
        little used by occupants. Examples are guest
        rooms and furniture, little used  closets,
        behind heavy furniture, clothes hanging from
        past  seasons  without being disturbed  or
        worn. When  spiders  live  outside  in  the
        southern portion of its range look in window
        wells, and accumulations  of  undisturbed
        materials near the structure.

    (5)  D

    (6)  »  Gaulk  and  tighten structures to keep
        spiders from wandering in.
        » Get rid of accumulations of trash near
        » Modify  lighting arrangements that attract
        flying insects that become spider prey.
        »  Inspect flower  arrangements  brought
        » Keep webs brushed out.
        »> Use residual sprays or  dusts in spider
        » Use barrier spray around buildings where
        spiders  are  an  obvious  and   threatening
        problem   but   follow   with  other  pest
        management procedures also.

Chapter 4   Mites, Ticks, Bedbugs and Lice
    (1)  First, establish that pesticides should not be
        used in  the school  for these pests.  Close
        inspections of pupils and siblings should be
        made in their homes, especially homes of
        students  where die teacher has observed
        louse nits in their hair. Emphasize how head
        lice  can  be   transmitted  and  mat  safe
        preparations to control  head lice  can  be
        obtained and should  be used according to
        label directions.

    (2)  Lyme disease,  Rocky  Mountain  Spotted

    (3)  Lyme disease: Northern  deer tick,  Ixodes
        Rocky   Mountain   Spotted Fever:  The
        American  dog  tick, Dermacentor variabilis
        and in some areas possibly the lone star tick,
        Amblyomma americanum.

    (4)  None.

    (5)  None.
    (6)  Crab  lice are  typically transmitted  from
         person to person during sexual intercourse.
         These lice are usually found in human pubic

Chapter 5   Miscellaneous Invaders

    (1)  Boxelder bugs. Adults  and nymphs  come
         down female boxelder trees and fly to houses
         to  overwinter.  The  bugs work their  way
         inside and become  reactivated on warm
         winter days. For pest management the trees
         supporting the  bug  populations should be
         identified. Usually boxelder trees are  weed
         trees and can be cut  and removed. Window
         frames and door frames  should be tightened
         up by weather stripping and caulking. Bugs
         can be killed as they crawl down the trees or
         on  the sides  of houses by using  pesticide
         sprays as well as plain water and detergent
         sprays.  Bugs inside can be killed by contact
         sprays  or vacuumed.  Attics  should be
         monitored since many bugs enter at this level
         to overwinter.

    (2)  Clover mites.  These small red mites  carry
         two long legs in front of them as they move
         from grass sod or from wall voids on late
         winter days  when  temperatures  reflecting
         from the south sides of houses and adjoining
         yards are raised  in  small  localized areas.
         Clover mites  thrive in new lawns but cease
         activity  in cold  weather  or hot  weather.
         Populations  are  reduced  as  lawns   and
         landscapes mature, but  until then mites are
         attracted to warm houses by the thousands.
         Fall populations may migrate into wall voids
         and join die later winter movements.
             Barriers of gravel covered plastic can be
         dusted or sprayed  on  infested  sides of
         houses.    Where   high   infestations   are
         monitored the  lawn  can  be treated  also.
         Inside  vacuuming will remove  migrating

    (3)  Millipedes are cylindrical  arthropods with
         two pairs of legs per segment.  These pests
         live in moist plant material and feed on plant
         parts  and  fungi   in   decaying  leaves.
         Centipedes are cylindrical or long flattened
         arthropods with one pair of  legs per body
         segment.  Centipedes feed on  very  small
         insects.   Like  millipedes,  they  live  in
         decaying plant material.  The house centipede
         lives hi  basements of homes  and buildings.
         They  have very long legs  and  usually live
         inside rather than outside.
             Millipedes  and  centipedes  must be
         excluded from buildings by tightening cracks
         and crevices that serve as entrances.  Their
         breeding sites such as mulching and leaf
                                                                                          Appendix A, Pg 3

        litter  should   be  removed   from   the
        foundations  and  doorways  of  buildings.
        These sites can be replaced by plastic ground
        cover and gravel. Barrier sprays can be used
        when migrations are high.. Dusts where it
        can be used control house centipedes best.

    (4) Cricket problems are usually caused by black
        field crickets migrating  into buildings  and
        homes when dry weather hits or weeds  and
        other plants on which crickets feed die or
        become unpalatable in late summer. Inside
        field crickets are disruptive because of their
        chirping and the fact that they will feed on
        soiled clothes on closet floors.
             Crickets   should  be  excluded  by
        caulking, weatherstripping, etc.  especially
        around  doors,  ground level windows,  etc.
        Where high populations are seen in roadside
        ditches  or in landscaping  around buildings
        they can be sprayed before  movement starts.
             Cave  crickets or camel crickets  are
        wingless  insects with long hind legs  and
        antennae. These insects live in basements or
        ground level apartments and are occasionally
        bothersome. They can be killed with contact
        sprays or dusts.
Chapter 2   Rats
(1) B    (2) B    (3) A
(7) E    (8) A    (9) A

Chapter 3   Mice
(1) D    (2) A    (3) A
(7) A    (8) C

Chapter 4   Birds
(l)D    (2) A    (3)B.
(7) B    (8) E    (9) B
(4) B    (5) A   (6) A
(4) B    (5) D   (6) A
(4) A .   (5) E    (6) A
(10)  F
Chapter 5   Other Vertebrates
(1)D    (2) A    (3)B    (4) A
(7) D    (8) A    (9) A
         (5) B    (6) A
Appendix A. Pg 4

                                    APPENDIX B
      Selected References in Pest Management and Control:
       x v Ixi Reference to Appendix B, Bibliography, gives the trainee an opportunity
      learn more about
         W regionally-specific problems

         O  areas of personal interest

         D  information that can lead to professional growth and development
General Pest Control References in print

Bennett, G.W., J.M. Owens and R.M. Corrigan. 1988. Truman's Scientific Guide to Pest Control Operations.
    4th ed. Edgell Communications, Duluth, MN

Mallis, A. 1990 Handbook of Pest Control. Franzak & Foster Co., Cleveland, Ohio.

General Pest Control References out of print but available from local or state libraries.

Ebeling, Walter.  1975. Urban Entomology. University of California Division of Agricultural Sciences.

Sweetman, Harvey L. 1965. Recognition of Structural Pests and Their Damage.  Win. C. Brown Company,
    Dubuque, IA.

Kraft, S.IC, LJ. Pinto. 1985. The Dictionary of Pest Control. Pinto and Associates, Inc.  914 Hillcrest Dr.,
    Vienna, VA.

Selected Subject References (subjects are in bold print).

Akre, R.D., A Greene, J.F. MacDonald, P J. Langdolt and H. Davis. 1980. YeOowjackets of North America
    North of Mexico.  U.S. Dept of Agriculture Handbook No. 552.

Anon. 1973.  Diagnosis and Treatment of Poisoning by Pesticides.  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
    Washington, D.C

Baur, FJ. (ed).  1984. Insect Management for Food Storage and Processing.  Amer. Assoc. of General
    Chemists. St Paul, MN.

Bell, WJ. and K.G. Adiyodi (eds).  1981.  The American Cockroach, Chapman and HaL New York.
                                                                             Appendix B, Pg 1

 Bennett, G.W. and J.M. Owens (eds). 1986. Advances in Urban Pest Management. Van Nostrand Reinhold
     Company, New York.

 Biery, T.L.  Venomous Arthropod Handbook, Disease Surveillance Branch, USAF School of Aerospace
     Medicine.  Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

 Pbrror, DJ. and R.E. White. 1970. A Field Guide to the Insects of America North of Mexico,  Houghton
     Mifflin Co., Boston.

 Bottrell, D.G.  1979.  Integrated Pest Management. Council on Environmental Quality, Superintendent of
     Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C

 CornwelL P.B.  1968.  The Cockroach: A Laboratory Insect and an Industrial Pest. Huchinson and Company,
     Ltd. London.

 Cornwell, P.B.  1976.  The Cockroach: Insecticides and Cockroach Control. St. Martins Press.  New York.

 Cotton, R.T. 1963. Pests of Stored Grain and Grain Products.  Burgess PubL Co.  Minneapolis, MN.

 Crompton, J. 1950.  The Life of the Spider. A Mentor Book, The New World Library of World Literature
     Inc.  New York.

 Edwards, R.  1980.  Social Wasps: Their Biology and Control. Rentokil Limited. W. Sussex, England.

 Fichter, G.S. 1966. Insect Pests. Golden Press, Inc. New York.

 Furman, D.P. and EP. Catts.  1970.  Manual of Medical Entomology.  3rd edition. Mayfield PubL Co. Palo
     Alto, CA.

 Gertsch, WJ.  1979.  American Spiders (2nd ed). Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.  New York.

 GreenholL A. M.  1982. House Bat Management. Resource Publication  143 U.S. Department of the Interior,
     Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington DC

 Hall, D.  1948.  The Blow FEes of North America.  Thomas Say Foundation, Columbus, OH.

Harwood, R.F. and M.T. James.  1979. Entomology in Human and Animal Health. 7th. Ed. Macmillan PubL
w   Co., New York.

 Hayes, WJ. Jr.  1963. Clinical Handbook on Economic Poisons. U.S.  Dept of Health, Education and
     Welfare, Public Health Service, Atlanta, GA.

 Katsuyama, A.M. and J.P. Strachan (eds.) 1980. Principles of Food Processing Sanitation.  Food Processors
     Institute, Washington, D.C

 Keegan, H.L.  1980.  Scorpions of Medical Importance. University Press of Mississippi Jackson, MS.

 Kerckhoff, A.C and K.W. Back. 1968. The June Bug: A Study of Hysterical Contagion, Appleton-Century-
     Crofts.  New York.

 Levi, H.W., and L.R. LevL  1968. Spiders and Their Kn.  A Golden Nature Guide, Golden Press, Western
     Publishing Co., New  York.
Appendix B, Pg 2

Marsh, R.E. and W.E. Howard. 1981. The House Mouse: Its Biology and Control. Leaflet 2945. University
    of California Extension Service. Berkeley, CA.

Marsh, R.E and  W.E. Howard.   1981.   The  Rat: Its Biology and Control. Leaflet 2896. University of
    California Extension Service. Berkeley, CA.

National Pest Control Association. 1982.  Bird Management Manual. Dunn Loring, VA.

National Pest Control Association. 1982. Encyclopedia of Structural Pest Control. (7 volumes) Dunn Loring,

National Pest Control Association. Pest Control Publications.  Publications Resource Center, 8100 Oak St,
    Dunn Loring, VA  22027.

National Pest Control Association Sanitation Committee.  1972.  Sanitation and Pest Control Floor-level
    Inspection Manual. NPCA, Inc. Vienna, VA.

Pratt, H.D., B.F. Bjornson and K. S. Littig. "Manual 11, Control of Domestic Rats and Mice." Communicable
    Disease Control, Homestudy Course 3013-G, Vectorborne  Disease Control Health and Human Services
    Publication No. (CDC) 86-83%. Atlanta, GA.

Pratt, H.D., R.Z.  Brown.  "Manual 10,  Biological Factors  in Domestic Rodent Control" Communicable
    Disease Control, Homestudy Course 3013-G, Vectorborne  Disease Control Health and Human Services
    Publication No. (CDC) 86-83%. Atlanta, GA.

Schoenherr, W. 1972. A Guide to Good Manufacturing Practices for the Food Industry.  Lauhoff Grain Co.
    Danville, IL.  VIII Sections. [Pests]

Schoenherr, W. and J.H. Rutledge.  1967. Insect Pests of the  Food Industry.  Lauhoff Grain Company,
    Danville, IL.

Smith, Marion R.  1%5. House-infesting Ants of the Eastern United States. USDA Tech. Bull  1326.

Smith, R.L. 1982. Venomous Animals of Arizona. Bulletin 8245. University of Arizona Extension Service.
    Tucson, AZ.

Steysk, G.G, W.L. Murphy and E.M. Hoover. Insects and Mites:  Techniques for Collection and Preservation.
    USDA, ARS, Miscellaneous Publication Number 1443.

Strickland, RJC, R.R, Gerrish, J.L. Hourrigan,  and G.O. Schubert 1976. Ticks of Veterinary Importance.
    USDA Agric. Handbook No. 485.

Timm, R. M (ed.)  1983.   Prevention and Control of Wildlife Damage. Cooperative  Extension Service,
    University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE.

White, R.E. 1983. A Field Guide to the Beetles.  Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston.

Wilson, EO. 1971. The Insect Societies.  Harvard University Press. Cambridge, MA.

Zim, H.S. and C Cottam.  1956. Insects.  A Golden Nature Guide. Simon and Schuster, New York.
                                                                                    Appendix B, Pg 3

Trade Magazines.

Pest Control P.O. Box 6215, Duluth, MN  55806-9915.

Pest Control Technology. P.O. Box 5817, Cleveland, OH 44101-9599

     Management National Pest .Control Association, 8100 Oak St, Dunn Loring, VA 22027.

Trade Newsletter tor Pot Control Technicians.

Techletter. Pinto and Associates, Inc., 914 Hillcrest Dr., Vienna, VA 22180.
Appends B, Pg 4

                                      APPENDIX C
      Glossary of Terms for Urban Integrated Pest Management

              Reference to Appendix C, Glossary, gives: the trainee an opportunity to learn
      more about specific

          a   meanings

          a   concepts, and

          a   issues.
ABSORPTION	The movement of a chemical into
plants, animals (including humans), microorganisms.

ACARICIDE	A pesticide used to control mites and
ticks. A miticide is an' acaricide.

ACTIVE   INGREDIENT—The   chemical   or
chemicals  in  a  pesticide  responsible  for  killing,
poisoning, or  repelling the pest.  Listed separately in
the ingredient statement.

ACUTE TOXICITY	The capacity of a pesticide to
cause injury within 24 hours following exposure. LDn
and LCjo are common indicators of die degree of acute
toxicity. (See also Chronic Toxicity).

ADJUVANT	A substance added to a pesticide to
improve its effectiveness or safety. Same as  additive.
Examples: Penetrants, spreader-stickers, and wetting

ADSORPTION	The process  by which chemicals
are held or bound to a surface by  physical or  chemical
attraction. Clay and high organic soils tend to adsorb

AEROSOL	A material stored in a container under
pressure. Fine droplets are produced when the material
dissolved  in a liquid carrier is released into the air
from the pressurized container.
ALGAE	Relatively simple  plants  that  contain
chlorophyll and are photosynthetic.

ALGICIDE	A pesticide used to kill  or  inhibit

to  the  filling  hose  that  prevents  backflow  or
backsiphoning from a spray tank into a  water source.

ANTICOAGULANT	A  chemical  that prevents
normal bloodclotting. The active ingredient in some

ANTIDOTE	A treatment used to counteract  the
effects of pesticide poisoning or some other poison in
the body.

ARACHNID	A wingless arthropod with two body
regions and four pairs of jointed legs. Spiders, ticks,
and mites are in die class Arachnida.

ARTHROPOD	An   invertebrate  animal
characterized by a jointed body and limbs and usually
a hard body covering diat is molted at  intervals. For
example, insects, mites, and crayfish are in the phylum

ATTRACTANT	A substance or device that will
lure pests to a trap or poison bait.
                                                                                    Appendix C, P| 1

 AYICEDE	A pesticide used to kill or repel birds.
 Birds are in the class Aves.

 BACTERIA	Microscopic  organisms,  some  of
 which are capable of producing diseases in plants and
 animals. Others are beneficial.

 BACTERICIDE	Chemical   used   to   control

 BAIT	A food or  other substance used to attract a
 pest to a pesticide or to a trap.

 BAND APPLICATION	Application of a pesticide
 in a strip alongside or around a structure, a portion of
 a structure or any object.

 BARRIER APPLICATION	see band application.

 BENEFICIAL INSECT	An insect that is useful or
 helpful to humans. Usually insect parasites, predators,
 pollinators, etc.

 BIOLOGICAL CONTROL	Control of pests using
 predators, parasites,  and disease-causing organisms.
 May be naturally occurring or introduced.

 BIOMAGNIFICATION	The process where one
 organism accumulates  chemical residues in higher
 concentrations from organisms they consume.

 BOTANICAL PESTICIDE	A pesticide produced
 from chemicals found in plants. Examples are nicotine,
 pyrethrins, and strychnine.

 BRAND  NAME	The name, or designation of a
 Specific pesticide product  or  device made  by a
 Manufacturer or formulator. A marketing name.

 of dispersal or output and adjustments made to control
 the rate of dispersal of pesticides.

 CARBAMATES	(N-Methyl Carbamates) A group
 of  pesticides  containing  nitrogen,  formulated  as
 insecticides, fungicides and herbicides. The N-Methyl
 Carbamates are insecticides  and inhibit cholinesterase
 in animals.

 CARCINOGENIC	The  ability of a substance or
tegent to induce malignant tumors (cancer).
CARRIER	An inert liquid, solid, or gas added to
an active  ingredient  to  make  a pesticide  dispose
effectively.   A carrier is also the material, usually
water or oil, used to dilute the formulated product for

are certified to use  or  supervise the use of any
restricted use pesticide covered by their certification.

CHEMICAL NAME	The scientific name of the
active ingredient(s) found in the formulated product.
This complex name  is derived  from the chemical
structure of the active ingredient.

CHEMICAL CONTROL	Pesticide application to
kill pests.

CHEMOSTERILANT	A   chemical   compound
capable of preventing animal reproduction.

CHEMTREC	The   Chemical   Transportation
Emergency Center has a toll-free number that provides
24-hour information for chemical emergencies such as
a spill, leak, fire, or accident.  800-424-9300.

containing chlorine, carbon, and hydrogen. Many are
persistent in the environment. Examples: Chlordane,
DDT, methoxychlor. Few are used in urban pest
management operations today.

animals  that  helps  regulate  nerve  impulses.  This
enzyme  is  depressed  by  N-Methyl  carbamate and
organophosphate pesticides.

CHRONIC TOXICITY	The ability of a material
to cause injury or illness (beyond 24 hours following
exposure) from repeated, prolonged exposure to small
amounts. [See also Acute Toxicity]

applicator who for compensation uses or supervises the
use of any pesticide classified for restricted use for any
purpose or on any property other than that producing
an agricultural commodity.

COMMON NAME	A name given to a pesticide's
active  ingredient  by  a  recognized  committee on
pesticide nomenclature. Many pesticides are known by
a number  of trade or brand  names but the active
ingredient(s) has only one recognized common name.
 Appendix C, Pg 2

COMMUNITY	The  different  populations  of
animal species (or plants)  that exist together in an
ecosystem (See also Population and Ecosystem).

COMPETENT	Individuals properly qualified to
perform functions associated with pesticide application.
The  degree  of  competency (capability) required  is
directly related to the nature of the activity and the
associated responsibility.

CONCENTRATION	Refers  to the amount of
active  ingredient  in  a given  volume or weight of
formulated product.

CONTACT  PESTICIDE	A compound that causes
death or  injury  to insects  when it contacts them.  It
does not have to be ingested. Often used in reference
to a spray applied directly on a pest.

CONTAMINATION	The presence of an unwanted
substance  (sometimes pesticides) in or on a plant,
animal, soil, water, air, or  structure.

CULTURAL CONTROL	A pest control method
mat includes changing human  habits, e.g. sanitation,
changing  work  practices,  changing  cleaning  and
garbage pick-up schedules,  etc.

DECONTAMINATE	To remove or break down a
pesticidal chemical from a surface or substance.

DEGRADATION	The   process  by  which  a
chemical compound or pesticide is reduced to simpler
compounds by the action of microorganisms, water,
air, sunlight, or other agents. Degradation products are
usually, but not always less toxic than the original

DEPOSIT	The amount of pesticide on  treated
surface after application.

DERMAL TOXICITY	The ability of a pesticide
to cause acute illness or injury to a human or animal
when  absorbed  through  the skin (see  Exposure

DESICCANT	A  type  of pesticide that draws
moisture  or fluids from a pest causing it to  die.
Certain desiccant dusts destroy the waxy outer coating
that holds moisture within an insect's body.

DETOXIFY	To   render  a  pesticide's  active
ingredient or other poisonous chemical harmless.

DIAGNOSIS	The  positive  identification  of a
problem and its cause.

DILUENT	Any liquid  or solid material used to
dilute or weaken a concentrated pesticide.

DISINFECTANT	A chemical or other agent that
kills or inactivates disease-producing microorganisms.
Chemicals used to clean or surface-sterilize inanimate

DOSE, DOSAGE	Quantity, amount, or rate of
pesticide applied to a given area or target.

DRIFT	The  airborne movement of a  pesticide
spray or dust beyond the intended target area.

DUST	A finely ground, dry pesticide formulation
containing a small amount of active ingredient and a
large amount of inert carrier or diluent such as clay or

ECOSYSTEM	The  pest  management  unit.   It
includes  a  community (of  populations)  with  the
necessary physical (harborage, moisture, temperature),
and biotic (food, hosts) supporting factors that allow
an infestation of pests to persist.

formulation produced by mixing or suspending the
active ingredient (the concentrate) and an emulsifying
agent in a  suitable carrier. When added to  water, a
milky emulsion is formed.

chemical that aids in the suspension of one  liquid in
another that normally would not mix together.

EMULSION	A mixture of two liquids which are
not soluble in one another. One is suspended as very
small  droplets in the  other with  the aid of  an
emulsifying agent.

formulation with the active  ingredient enclosed in
capsules of polyvinyl or other materials; principally
used for slow release. The enclosed active ingredient
moves out  to the capsule surface as pesticide on the
surface is removed (volatilizes, rubs off, etc.).
                                                                                       Appendix C, Pg 3

interbreeding plants or animals that have been reduced
to the extent that they are near extinction and that have
been  designated to  be  endangered by  a Federal
        INTERVAL - See Re-entry Interval.
 ENVIRONMENT- — Air, land, water, all plants, man
 and other animals, and the interrelationships which
 exist among them.

 OR  EPA - The  federal  agency  responsible for
 ensuring the protection of man and the environment
 from potentially adverse effects of pesticides.

 assigned to each  pesticide  production plant by the
 EPA.  The number indicates the plant at which the
 pesticide product was produced and must appear on all
 labels of that product.

 identification number assigned to a pesticide  product
 when the product is registered by the EPA for use.
 The number must appear on all labels for a particular

 ERADICATION - The complete  elimination of a
 (pest) population from a designated area.

 EXPOSURE ROUTE - The manner (dermal, oral
 or inhalation/respiratory) in which  a pesticide may
 enter an organism.

KIFRA - The Federal  Insecticide,  Fungicide, and
"odenticide Act; a federal law and its amendments that
 control pesticide registration and use.

 FLOW ABLE - A pesticide formulation in which a
 very finely ground  solid particle is suspended (not
 dissolved) in a liquid carrier.

 FOG TREATMENT - A fine mist of pesticide in
 aerosol-sized droplets (under 40 microns). Not a mist
 or gas. After propulsion, fog droplets fall to horizontal

 FORMULATION - The  pesticide  product  as
 purchased,  containing a mixture of one or more active
ingredients, carriers  (inert  ingredients),  with  other
Bdditives making it easy to store, dilute and apply.
FUMIGANT	A  pesticide   formulation  that
volatilizes, forming a toxic vapor or gas that kills in
the gaseous state. Usually, it pentrates voids to kill

FUNGICIDE	A chemical used to control fungi.

FUNGUS (Plural, Fungi)-—A group of small,  often
microscopic, organisms in the plant kingdom which
cause rot, mold and disease. Fungi need moisture or a
damp environment (wood rots require at least  19%
moisture). Fungi are extremely important in the diet of
many insects.

PESTICIDE	A pesticide which can be purchased
and used by  the general public. (See also Restricted
Use Pesticide)

GRANULE	A  dry  pesticide formulation.  The
active ingredient is either mixed with or coated onto an
inert carrier  to  form a  small,  ready-to-use,  low-
concentrate particle which normally does not present
a drift hazard. Pellets differ from granules only in
their precise uniformity, larger size, and shape.

GROUNDWATER	Water sources located beneath
the soil surface from which spring water, well water,
etc. is obtained (see also Surface Water).

HAZARD	see Risk.
plant growth.
pesticide used to kill or inhibit
HOST	Any animal or plant on or in which another
lives for nourishment, development, or protection.

JUVENOID	A  pesticide constructed to  mimic
insect  hormones  that  control  molting  and  the
development of  some insect  systems  affecting the
change  from  immature  to  adult  (see  Juvenile

INERT INGREDIENT	In a pesticide formulation,
an inactive material without pesticidal activity.

label on a pesticide container that gives the name and
amount of each active ingredient and the total amount
of inert ingredients  in the formulation.

INHALATION	Taking a substance in through the
lungs; breathing in. (See Exposure Route.)
 Appendix C, fg 4

INSECT GROWTH REGULATOR	see IGR.      LD», the more acutely toxic the pesticide.
INSECTICIDE	A pesticide used to  manage  or
prevent  damage  caused   by  insects.  Sometimes
generalized to be synonymous with pesticide.

INSECTS, INSECTA	A class  in  the phylum
Arthropoda characterized by a body composed of three
segments and three pairs of legs.

INSPECTION	To examine for pests, pest damage,
other pest evidence, etc. (See Monitoring.)


IPM	Integrated pest management. A planned pest
control program in which methods are integrated and
used to  keep  pests from causing economic,  health-
related,  or aesthetic injury. IPM includes reducing
pests to  a tolerable level. Pesticide application is not
the primary control method, but is an element of IPM
— as are cultural  and structural alterations.  IPM
programs   stress   communication,   monitoring,
inspection, and evaluation (keeping and using records).

JUVENILE HORMONE	A hormone produced by
an insect that  inhibits change or molting. As long  as
juvenile hormone is present the insect does not develop
into an adult but remains immature.

LABEL	All printed material  attached to or on a
pesticide container.

LABELING	The pesticide product label and other
accompanying  materials that contain directions that
pesticide users are legally required to follow.

LARVA (plural Larvae)—The developmental stage
of insects  with complete metamorphosis that hatches
from the egg.  A mature larva becomes a pupa. (Some
other invertebrates have larvae, including crustaceans,
and especially mites and ticks).

LCj,	Lethal concentration. The concentration of a
pesticide, usually in air or water, mat kills 50 percent
of a  test  population of animals. LC»  is usually
expressed  in parts per million  (ppm). The  lower the
LCjo value, the more acutely toxic the chemical.

LDj,	Lethal dose.  The  dose or amount of a
pesticide that  can kill SO percent of the test animals
when  eaten or absorbed through the skin. ID*,  is
expressed in milligrams of chemical per kilogram  of
body weight of the test animal (mg/kg). The lower the
LEACHING	The  movement of a substance with
water downward through soil.

METAMORPHOSIS	A change in the shape, or
form, of an animal. Usually used when referring to
insect development.
                                -Breakdown of a
chemical by microorganisms.
MICROBIAL  PESTICIDE	Bacteria,  viruses,
fungi, and other microorganisms used to control pests.
Also called biorationals.

MICROORGANISM	An organism so small it can
be seen only with the aid of a microscope.

MITICIDE	A pesticide used to control mites (see

MODE   OF ACTION	The  way  in  which  a
pesticide exerts a toxic effect  on  the target plant or

MOLLUSCICEDE	A  chemical  used to  control
snails and slugs.

MONITORING	Ongoingsurveillance. Monitoring
includes  inspection  and recordkeeping. Monitoring
records allows technicians to evaluate pest population
suppression, identify infested or non-infested sites, and
manage  die  progress of the management or control

NECROSIS	Death of plant or animal tissues which
results in the formation  of discolored, sunken,  or
necrotic (dead) areas.

NONTARGET ORGANISM	Any plant or animal
other than  the  intended  target(s)  of  a pesticide

NYMPH	The developmental stage of insects with
gradual  metamorphosis that hatches from the egg.
Nymphs become adults.

ORAL TOXICITY	The ability  of a pesticide to
cause injury or acute  illness when  taken by mouth.
One of the common exposure routes.

ORGANOPHOSPHATES	A  large  group  of
                                                                                     Appendix C, Pg 5

pesticides  that contain the element phosphorus and
inhibit cholinesterase in animals.

PARASITE	A plant,  animal, or microorganism
living in, on, or with another living organism for the
purpose of obtaining all or part of its food.

PATHOGEN	A disease causing organism.
EQUIPMENT	Devices and clothing intended to
protect a person from exposure to pesticides. Includes
such  items  as  long-sleeved shirts, long  trousers,
coveralls, suitable hats, gloves, shoes, respirators, and
other safety items as needed.


PEST	An undesirable organism:  (1) any  insect,
rodent, nematode, fungus, weed, or (2) any other form
of terrestrial or aquatic plant or animal life or virus,
bacteria, or other  micro-organism (except viruses,
bacteria, or other micro-organisms on or in living man
or  other living animals)  which  the Administrator
declares to be a pest under FIFRA, Section 25(c)(l).

PESTICIDE	A chemical or other agent used to
kill, repel or otherwise control pests or to protect from
a pest.

pH	A measure of the acidity/alkalinity of a liquid:
acid below pH7; basic or alkaline above pH7 (up to

PHEROMONE	A substance emitted by an animal
to influence the behavior of other animals of the same
species. Some are synthetically produced for use in
Insect traps.

chemicals by the action of light.

PHYSICAL  CONTROL	Habitat alteration  or
changing the infested physical structure; e.g., caulking
holes, cracks,  tightening  around doors,  windows,
moisture reduction, ventilation,  etc.

PHYTOTOXICrrY	Injury  to plants caused by a
chemical or other agent.

POINT OF RUNOFF	The point at which a spray
starts to run or drip  from the surface to which it is
generally a hospital, which has current information as
to the proper first aid techniques and antidotes for
poisoning emergencies. Centers are listed in telephone

POPULATION	Individuals of the same species.
The populations in an area make  up a community (see

PRECIPITATE	A solid substance that forms in a
liquid  and settles to the bottom of a container. A
material that no longer remains in suspension.

PREDATOR	An animal that  attacks, kills,  and
feeds  on  other  animals.  Examples  of  predaceous
animals are hawks, owls, snakes, many insects, etc.

PROFESSIONAL	One  who  is  able  to  make
judgments based  on  training,  experience, and  an
available data base.

PROPELLANT	The inert ingredient in pressurized
products that forces the active  ingredient from the

PUPA (plural Pupae)	The developmental stage of
insects  with complete metamorphosis where  major
changes from the larval to the adult form  occurs.

RATE OF  APPLICATION	The  amount  of
pesticide applied  to  a plant, animal, unit  area, or
surface;  usually measured  as  per acre,  per  1,000
square feet, per linear feet, or per cubic feet.

RE-ENTRY  INTERVAL	The  length  of  time
following an application of a pesticide when entry into
the treated area is restricted.

which have been  registered by the Environmental
Protection Agency for the uses listed on the label.

REPELLENT	A compound  that keeps insects,
rodents,  birds, or  other pests  away from plants,
domestic animals, buildings, or other treated areas.

RESIDUAL   PESTICIDE	A   pesticide   that
continues to remain effective on a treated surface or
area for an extended period following application.

RESIDUE	The pesticide active ingredient or its
breakdown product(s) which remains in or on the
target after treatment.
 Appendix C, Pg 6

can be purchased and used only by certified applicators
or persons under their direct supervision. A pesticide
classified for restricted  use  under  FIFRA, Section
RISK - A probability that a given pesticide will have
an adverse effect on man or the environment in  a
given situation.

RODENTICIDE - A  pesticide  used  to  control

RUNOFF - The movement of water and associated
materials on the soil surface. Runoff usually proceeds
to bodies of surface water.

SIGNAL WORDS -- Required word(s) which appear
on every pesticide label to denote the relative toxicity
of the product. Signal words are DANGER-POISON,

SITE -- Areas of actual pest  infestation. Each  site
should be treated specifically or individually.

SOIL INJECTION -- The placement of a pesticide
below  the surface of  the soil. Common application
method for termiticides.

SOIL  DRENCH -- To soak or  wet  the  ground
surface with a  pesticide.  Large  volumes  of  the
pesticide mixture are usually needed to saturate the soil
to any  depth.

SOIL INCORPORATION - The mechanical mixing
of a pesticide product with soil.

SOLUTION - A mixture of one or more substances
in another substance (usually a liquid) in which all the
ingredients are completely dissolved. Example:  Sugar
in water.

SOLVENT - A liquid which will dissolve another
substance (solid, liquid, or gas) to form a solution.

SPACE SPRAY - A pesticide which is  applied as a
fine spray or mist to a confined area.

STOMACH POISON - A pesticide that must be
eaten by an animal in order to be effective; it will not
kill on contact.

SURFACE WATER - Water on the earth's surface:
rivers, lakes, ponds, streams, etc. (see Groundwater).
SUSPENSION	A pesticide mixture consisting of
fine particles dispersed or floating hi a liquid, usually
water or oil. Example: Wettable powders in water.

TARGET	The plants, animals, structures, areas,
or pests at which the pesticide or other control method
is directed.

TECHNICAL MATERIAL	The pesticide active
ingredient in  pure form,  as  it is manufactured  by a
chemical   company.  It  is   combined  with  inert
ingredients or  additives  in  formulations  such  as
wettable powders, dusts, emulsifiable concentrates, or

TOXIC	Poisonous to living organisms.

THRESHOLD	:A  level  of pest  density.  The
number of pests observed, trapped, counted, etc. that
can be tolerated without an economic loss or aesthetic
injury. Pest thresholds in urban pest management may
be site specific, for example, different  numbers of
cockroaches may be tolerated at different sites (e.g.,
hospitals and garbage rooms). A threshold may be set
at zero (e.g., termites in a wooden structure, flies in
an operatory).

of  pests  at  certain levels  is tolerable  in  many
situations. Totally eliminating pests in certain areas is
sometimes not  achievable without  major  structural
alterations, excessive control measures, unacceptable
disruption, unacceptable  cost, etc.  Pest levels that
depend on pest observations vary. The tolerable level
in some situations will be zero (e.g.  termites). Urban
pest  management  programs  usually  have  lower
tolerable levels of pests than agricultural programs.

TOXICANT	A poisonous substance such as the
active ingredient in a pesticide formulation.

TOXICrTY	The  ability  of a pesticide  to cause
harmful, acute, delayed, or allergic effects. The degree
or extent that a chemical or substance is poisonous.

TOXIN	A naturally occurring poison produced by
plants, animals, or  microorganisms. Examples: The
poison produced  by the  black  widow spider,  the
venom produced by snakes, the botulism toxin.

                                                                                       Appendix C, Pg 7

URBAN	A Standard Metropolitan Area (SMA) or
a town of 2,500(+) occupants.

pest infestations that are normally problems in urban
feeas. Urban pest management involves reducing pest
^pulations to tolerable numbers  in and around homes,
in structures and those pests that cause health related
problems.  Urban pest management may or may not
focus on reducing economic injury but it always deals
with health or aesthetic injuries.  Pest control workers
certified in Categories 3, 7,  and 8 usually  work in
urban pest management or urban pest control.

USE	The performance of pesticide related activities
requiring certification include:  application,  mixing,
loading, transport,  storage,  or handling after the
manufacturing seal is broken; care and maintenance of
application and  handling equipment;  and disposal of
pesticides and their containers in  accordance with label
requirements. Uses not needing  certification are: long
distance transport,  long term storage, and  ultimate

VAPOR PRESSURE	The property which causes
a  chemical  to  evaporate.  The  higher the  vapor
pressure, the more volatile the chemical or the easier
it will evaporate.

VECTOR	A carrier,  an  animal  (e.g.  insect,
nematode,  mite) that can carry and transmit a pathogen
from one host to another.

VERTEBRATE	Animal   characterized   by   a
segmented backbone or spinal column.

           Ultramicroscopic parasites  composed of
proteins. Viruses can only multiply in living tissues
and cause many animal and plant diseases.
VOLATILITY	The  degree to  which a substance
changes from a liquid or  solid  state to a  gas at
ordinary temperatures when  exposed to air.

WATER TABLE	The upper level  of the water
saturated zone in the ground.

WETTABLE   POWDER	A   dry  pesticide
formulation in powder form that forms a suspension
when added to water.

ZONE	The management unit, an area of potential
pest infestation made up of  infested sites. Zones will
contain pest/ood,  water, and harborage. A kitchen-
bathroom arrangement in adjoining apartments might
make up a zone; a kitchen, storeroom, waiters station,
loading dock at  a  restaurant may  make up another.
Zones may also  be  established by eliminating  areas
with  little likelihood of infestation and treating the
remainder as a zone.  A zone will be an ecosystem.
 For the further definition of terms consult:

• The  Federal  Insecticide, Fungicide,  and  Rodenticide Act as
 amended. Public Law 92-316 October 21, 1972 as amended by
 Public Law. 94-140 November 28. 1975 and Public Law 95-396
 September 30,  1978.

 •Federal Register November 7,  1990  Part  II Environmental
 Protection Agency 40 CFR  Part  171 Certification of  Pesticide
 Applicator; Proposed Rule.

 •Regional Offices of the EPA.

 •State Lead Agency for the State Plan for Commercial and Private

 •Federal Agency Secretary's Office (For federal employees using
 restricted pesticides in performance of official duties).

 •Indian Governing Body or Indian Reservation Rcccrtification Plan

 •Local. State and National Pest Control Associations.
Appendix C, Pg 8