The Municipal Solid Waste Dilemma

Challenges for the 90's

The Municipal Solid Waste Dilemma:
       Challenges for the 9tfs
              October 16,1992

Acknowledgements and printing info here
                                                    Challenges for the 90's

                     Table of Contents
Preface	vii


1.  The Challenge	1

2.  Facing the Challenge	5

3.  EPA Activities	11


4.  States	29
    I.   Introduction	29
    n.   Current Activities	29
    m.  Future State Initiatives and Goals	34
    TV.  State Challenges	35

5.  Local Governments	39
    I.   Introduction	39
    n.   Current Activities	39
    HI.  Future Initiatives and Goals	44
    IV.  Local Governments' Challenges	45

6.  Other Federal Agencies	47
    I.   Introduction	47
    n.   Current Activities	47
    ffl.  Future Initiatives and Goals	50
    IV.  Federal Agencies' Challenges	51

7.  Waste Management Industry	53
    I.   Introduction.	53
    n.   Current Activities	53
    ffl.  Future Initiatives and Goals	56
    IV.  Waste Management Industries Challenges	57

8.  Manufacturers	59
    I.   Introduction	59
    n.   Current Activities	59
    HI.  Future Initiatives and Goals	67
    IV.  Manufacturers' Challenges	68

9.  Distributors and Retailers	71
    I.   Introduction	71
    n.   Current Activities	71

    ffl.  Future Initiatives and Goals	74
    IV.  Distributors' and Retailers' Challenges	75

10. Citizens and Public Interest Groups	77
    I.    Introduction	77
    H.   Current Activities	77
    ffl.  Future Initiatives and Goals	80
    IV.  Citizens' and Public Interest Groups' Challenges	80

Appendix A - EPA Municpal Solid Waste Activities	A-l

Appendix B - Invited Participants in the Effort to Update the Agenda for Action	B-l
iv                                                                  Challenges for the 90's

                         List of Figures
Figure 1-1  Materials generated in municipal solid waste percent by weight, 1988	1
Figure 1-2  Materials in municipal solid waste percent by volume, 1988	1
Figure 1-3  Historical and projected municipal solid waste management, 1960 to 1995	3

Figure 3-1  EPA Regions	13

Figure 5-1  Average national tipping fees for combustion and landfilling	39
Figure 5-2  Increase in average landfill tipping fees by region: 1987-1988	40

Figure 8-1  Composition of municipal solid waste stream by weight
          (prior to materials recovery and recycling)	59
Figure 8-2  1988 recovery rates for packaging	60
Figure 8-3  1988 waste paper recovery rates	61
Figure 8-4  Current and projected waste paper recovery rates	62
Figure 8-5  U.S. aluminum can recycling, 1980-1989	64

                        List of Tables
Table 4-1  Purchasing Goals for Recycling Products	32
Table 4-2  State Financial Incentives to Utilize Recycled Materials in the Production of
         Goods	33
vi                                                          Challenges for the 90''s

   In February 1989, EPA published The Solid Waste
Dilemma: An Agenda for Action. The report, intended
to spur action across all sectors of society to meet the
municipal solid waste challenge in the United States,
established national goals for solid waste reduction,
recycling and safe waste management.  These goals
encouraged Federal, state and local governments, the
waste management industry, other industries, busi-
nesses, and citizens to participate actively in solving
the nation's municipal solid waste management prob-

   EPA prepared this document, Challenges for the 90's,
as an update of progress made in managing municipal
solid waste problems since publication of the Agenda
for Action in 1989. To develop this update, the Agency
interviewed representatives from state and local gov-
ernment , the waste management industry and its
trade associations, the manufacturing and distributing
industries and their trade associations, and environ-
mental interest groups. EPA also held a one-day na-
tional meeting to solicit comments and opinions from
these groups and gather information on initiatives,
goals, and achievements with respect to outreach and
education, source reduction, recycling,'and reducing
risks associated with combustion and landfilling.
Upon completion of these interactive activities, EPA
circulated a draft of its revised strategy for comment
by the meeting participants and other interested par-

   Thus, the information and goals presented in
Challenges for the 90 's incorporate ideas from represen-
tatives knowledgeable in municipal solid waste issues
from all sectors of the nation. The goals encourage
private citizens, government, and industry to consider
reducing per capita waste generation and toxicity;
enhancing markets for secondary materials; increasing
the supply of recovered materials for secondary mar-
kets; ensuring environmentally responsible waste
management; fostering a systems approach to solid
waste problems; and instilling an environmental ethic.
As EPA Administrator William Reilly stated, "I see
EPA's role as fostering cooperation—cooperation
among individuals, businesses, industries, environ-
mental groups, and governments—to prevent pollu-
tion. EPA's function is to set the tone, to point the
direction, to research and clear away obstacles to
pollution prevention." Commitment by all sectors
of our society to these goals will bring us closer to
effectively managing our nation's municipal solid
waste and will stimulate responsible and efficient
municipal solid waste management throughout the
90's and beyond.

   Challenges for the 90''s presents EPA's findings and
recommendations in two parts. Part I presents the
current challenges posed by municipal solid waste
and summarizes EPA's accomplishments and future
plans in its role as facilitator of responsible actions
throughout society. Part II is devoted to the
achievements and future plans of other Federal
agencies, states, local governments, industry, manu-
facturers, distributors, citizens, and public interest
groups. All sectors of the nation have taken notice
of the issues in municipal solid waste management
and are making ambitious plans to meet the Chal-
lenges for the 90's.

viii                                                                                                  Challenges for the 90's

introduction: Parti
  The Solid Waste Dilemma: An Agenda for Action,
established a national goal of 25 percent source re-
duction and recycling by the end of 1992. The origi-
nal Agenda identified activities that EPA planned to
undertake to facilitate achievement of this goal and
other Agenda objectives and identified roles for other
sectors of our society. Since implementing the 1989
Agenda, we have become more knowledgeable about
solid waste management and have developed a bet-
ter focus on associated issues and needs.
  Part I of the The Solid Waste Dilemma: Challenges
for the 90's re-examines our national goals and the
actions necessary to reach these goals. It addresses
the municipal solid waste management challenges
we face and focuses on EPA's accomplishments
and future plans. The Federal government should
"foster, nurture, promote and encourage" the
nation in addressing municipal solid waste issues.

Challenges for the  90's

1.   The Challenge
      According to EPA's report, Characterization of Munici-
    pal Solid Waste in the United States:  1992 Update, Ameri-
    cans generated 4.3 pounds of waste per person per day
    in 1990—a 60 percent increase from the 2.7 pounds per
    person generated in 1960. This resulted in the genera-
    tion of over 195 million tons of solid waste in 1990.
    Between 1986 and 1990 there was  a 22 percent increase
    in the amount of waste generated per person each day.
    If this trend continues, the United States will generate
    an estimated 250 million tons of municipal solid waste
    annually by the year 2010. Given the scale of the prob-
    lem, the nation as a whole must share in the solution.

      Almost 38 percent of the municipal solid waste we
    generated in 1990 was paper and paper products (see
    Figure 1-1). Yard wastes made up another 18 percent,
    with the remaining major components being metals,
    plastics, glass, and food waste. Breaking this descrip-
    tion down by product category, our discards consisted
    of durable goods (e.g., major appliances, furniture and
    furnishings, rubber tires, and miscellaneous items,
    such as small appliances), nondurable goods (e.g.,
    newspapers, office papers, and clothing), and contain-
    ers and packaging.

      Until recently, estimates of municipal solid waste
    generation and recovery have been expressed only in
    terms of weight Volume, however, is an important
    measure, especially in terms of landfill life. Figure 1-2
    shows the estimated volume of compacted materials*
    in municipal solid waste as a percentage of the total
    discards in 1990.

      While we continue to generate greater quantities of
    municipal solid waste, disposal capacity is decreasing
    significantly. Surveys of landfill capacity suggest that
    in parts of the U.S., many existing landfills have less
    than 10 years of active life remaining. To compound
    the capacity problem, new waste management facili-
    ties are becoming increasingly difficult to site, largely
    due to public concern over potential environmental
    and health hazards and other nuisance factors gener-
    ally perceived to be associated with waste disposal.

      To provide Federal leadership in solid waste man-
    agement, EPA established a Municipal Solid Waste
    Task Force in 1988 which took on the task of develop-
    ing a national strategy for managing solid waste. In
    February 1989, the Agency published "The Solid Waste
    Dttemnui:  An Agenda for Action." The central goals
 Yard Wastes
    Food Wastes
                                      Paper and
Metals    6.7%

    Total = 195 million tons
Figure 1-1 Materials generated in municipal solid
         waste, percent by weight, 1990
 Yard Wastes
  Food Wastes
                                    Paper and
  Figure 1-2 Materials in municipal solid waste,
            percent by volume, 1990
    'Compacted materials represent materials after being compressed over time in a solid waste landfill.

outlined in the Agenda for Action were to reduce the
steadily increasing generation rate of municipal solid
waste, to achieve 25 percent source reduction and
recycling by 1992, and to manage safely and effectively
the waste that cannot be reduced or recycled. These
goals rely on source reduction, as well as a mix of
waste management alternatives with a preference for
recycling and composting, followed by landfilling and

   • Source reduction, the preferred alternative, is the
     design, manufacture, purchase, or use (including
     reuse) of materials or products (including pack-
     aging) to reduce the quantity and toxicity of
     waste generated.  Source reduction is a resource
     conservation method and can reduce risks to
     human health and the environment. Often
     source reduction initiatives can save money by
     reducing disposal costs and other operating ex-
     penses (e.g., raw material costs).

   • Recycling, the preferred alternative after source
     reduction, is the diversion of materials from the
     solid waste stream and the beneficial use of such
     materials. Recycling is further defined as the
     result of a series of activities by which materials
     that would become or otherwise remain waste
     are diverted from the solid waste stream for
     collection, separation, and processing, and are
     used as raw materials or feedstocks in lieu of or
     in addition to virgin materials in the manufac-
     ture of goods sold or distributed in commerce or
     the reuse of such materials as substitutes for
     goods made from virgin materials.  Recycling
     does not include burning waste for energy recov-
     ery.  Recycling reduces the amount of wastes
     that must be landfilled or combusted, generally
     decreases potential risks to human health and
     the environment, and conserves natural re-
     sources.  Composting (e.g., food and yard
     wastes), a form of recycling, plays a key role in
     diverting wastes from disposal facilities.

   • Waste combustion and landfilling must con-
     tinue to be relied on for those wastes which can-
     not be reduced, reused, or recycled. Combustion
     reduces but does not eliminate the quantity of
     waste that must be landfilled. In addition, com-
     bustion offers the benefit of energy recovery.
     Landfilling will remain a necessary option for
     disposing of municipal solid waste. Source re-
     duction cannot eliminate all solid waste, and
     recycling is not always a cost-effective approach
     due to such things as the distance to markets and
     contamination of recyclable materials.

   No single waste management approach is appropri-
ate for all communities. Communities are encouraged
to seek solutions by undertaking long-term planning
for combining the complementary elements of these
waste management alternatives to effectively and effi-
ciently manage the solid waste we generate. Inte-
grated solid waste management uses a combination of
techniques and programs to manage the municipal
solid waste stream. The selection of the appropriate
waste management alternatives should be based on a
number of factors, including waste types generated in
the community, costs of various approaches, siting
constraints for facilities, and local potential for each of
the alternatives.

   Since the publication of EP A's original Agenda for
Action early in 1989, most sectors of society are making
progress in source reduction and recycling; increasing
amounts of materials are being recycled. As reported
in EPA's Characterization Study, the national recycling
rate increased from about 9.5 percent of the materials
discarded in 1980 to  17 percent in 1990. The percent-
age of municipal solid waste landfilled decreased from
81 percent in 1980 to 67 percent in 1990. It is projected
to decrease further to 57 percent by 1995 (see Figure 1-3).'

   Although progress is being made toward diverting
our discards from landfills, the challenge to generate
less waste and to handle that waste effectively and
efficiently continues. As stated above, a greater per-
centage of municipal solid waste is being diverted
from landfills.  However, we continue to generate a
greater total volume of waste each year.  Therefore,
our current challenge is to encourage all economic and
'In projecting the rate of landfilling solid waste, EPA made several assumptions regarding future trends in solid waste recovery, such
as a continued emphasis on commercial, municipal, and residential recycling and composting efforts, the continued absence of a na-
tionwide deposit law for beverage containers, and continued trends towards banning certain yard wastes in landfills. Based on these
assumptions, EPA developed estimates for projected recovery rates and used the estimates to project the percentage of solid waste that
is recovered and the resulting percentage that is landfilled.
                                                                                      Challenges for the 90's

           Year   1960     1965      1970      1975     1980      1985      1990     1995      2000
                           Compost   m  Recycle   |jjjj|  Combust
            Figure 1-3  Historical and projected municipal solid waste management, 1960 to 2000
governmental sectors to reduce the amount of waste
we generate and to use the full spectrum of waste
management options.

   The central message of both the 1989 Agenda for
Action and this update is that each of us must share in
the responsibility of meeting the challenges of muni-
cipal solid waste management.  Sharing the responsi-
bility will require that we continue to adopt a new
environmental ethic and continue to change our
decision-making processes. The products we make
and purchase and the way we handle our wastes will
be affected. The continual development of this ethic
requires leadership from every segment of our soci-
ety. It is a change that can improve our environment
and our economy. Americans have responded to
such challenges in the past—are we willing to con-
tinue to respond to this challenge in the 1990's?
Chapter I—The Challenge

Challenges for the 90's

2.  Facing the Challenge
       Since publication of the original Agenda for Action,
    the nation has made considerable progress in meeting
    the challenges posed by municipal solid waste man-
    agement Individuals and manufacturers are looking
    at ways to reduce the wastes that they generate. More
    waste is being recycled and more recycling facilities,
    landfills, and incinerators are being upgraded.

       Even with the combined efforts of government,
    industry, public interest groups, and individuals, the
    challenges for meeting our nation's solid waste man-
    agement demands continue.  Intensified responses are
    needed. We are all a part of the problem, and we
    should all contribute to the solution. This document
    presents a series of challenges for all sectors of society
    to consider undertaking to reduce the amount of waste
    that is generated and to promote the use of compre-
    hensive and integrated solid waste management solu-
    tions. The challenges are outlined in this chapter,
    along with some of the recent accomplishments in each
    area. Initiatives under way in each sector are more
    thoroughly discussed in Chapters 3 through 10.

       The challenges outlined below will often require
    changes in the way we make decisions and could re-
    quire firm commitments from all levels of government,
    industry, and the public. They should be pursued not
    only to build upon past progress, but to meet our na-
    tional goal for improving solid waste management.
/.  Reduce Per Capita Waste Generation
   and Reduce Waste Toxicity
               National Challenges:
      1.  Reduce per capita waste generation and
          reduce waste toxicity.
      2.  Enhance markets for secondary materials.
      3.  Increase the supply and quality of
          recovered materials for secondary
      4.  Ensure environmentally sound waste
      5.  Foster a systems approach to solid waste
      6.  Instill an environmental ethic.
  Each Individual, business, Industry,
  and level of government should be
  encouraged to reduce the waste
  they generate.
                                     the 1989
                                     Agenda, a
                                     good deal
                                     of progress
                                     has been
                                     made in
understanding the concept and potential applications
of source reduction. EPA funded the Conservation
Foundation's project "Strategies for Source Reduction"
to identify and evaluate source reduction policy op-
tions and to develop a framework for evaluating
source reduction opportunities. EPA also has funded
an Environmental Action Foundation project to hold
source reduction workshops for state and local govern-
ment officials and for the environmental community.
In addition, the Agency has examined local programs
to achieve waste reduction by charging households for
the amount of trash they dispose.

  More states and communities are establishing and
making progress towards source reduction goals
through unit-based disposal fees, by fostering back-
yard composting programs, and by conducting public
education programs for source reduction.  Some busi-
nesses and industries are undertaking source reduc-
tion initiatives that focus on eliminating unnecessary
packaging, promoting the use of refillable packages
and concentrates, and conserving and reusing materi-
als.  Many  businesses find that even small changes can
mean dramatic reductions in waste and costs. In addi-
tion, some industries have taken steps to reduce the
amount of toxic compounds used in their products.
The American Newspaper Publishers Association is
urging its members to reduce the toxicity of ink in
newspapers, while some battery manufacturers have
reduced the mercury content in alkaline batteries.

  To meet the challenge of managing the rising tide of
municipal solid waste, we should continue to reduce
the amount and toxicity of the waste we generate.
Each of us can reduce our personal waste by choosing
longer-life, repairable goods; choosing products with-
out unnecessary packaging; buying in bulk and con-
centrate; donating goods for reuse; reusing products
and materials; leaving grass clippings on the lawn; and
choosing goods made with less hazardous compo-
nents. Individuals and local governments should con-
sider using backyard composting for yard waste to the
extent possible.

   business, and
   Industry should
   In-house waste
   audits to Identify
   opportunities for
   source reduction.
   Government, businesses, and industry should con-
sider taking many actions to reduce the waste they
generate. All facilities could print and copy docu-
                       ments double-sided and
                       identify other opportunities
                       to reduce waste. Business
                       and industry should consider
                       reducing packaging where
                       possible; providing durable
                       and more repairable prod-
                       ucts; and auditing their prod-
                       uct lines and their in-house
                       municipal solid waste stream
                       to identify opportunities to
                       reduce both the amount and
                       hazardous constituents of
waste. Business and industry could also identify safer
substitutes for hazardous materials and design prod-
ucts with lower toxic content. Environmental benefits
aside, it can make good economic sense to reduce the
quantity and toxicity of waste. Less waste can mean
less cost. EPA's objectives for source reduction in
many sectors over the next couple of years is to ac-
tively promote the practical, cost-effective applications
of source reduction by increasing the availability of
source reduction information and tools, and working
with business and industry to resolve technical issues
that may be impeding source reduction efforts.

   It is difficult to measure source reduction on a na-
tional level (both reductions in toxicity and waste re-
duction). Although research in the area of source re-
duction measurement is currently under way, there is
no direct way to gauge progress towards a quantita-
tive source reduction goal on a national level. There-
fore, EPA is not setting a national numeric source re-
duction goal on a national level. However, EPA en-
courages all sectors to work toward a goal of reducing
the amount of solid waste we generate.
2.  Enhance Markets for Secondary

   We need to recycle as much of the solid waste
stream as is practicable. Markets and infrastructure
(systems) are developing to support the recycling of
some primary consumer commodities, such as paper,
plastics, metals, and glass.  In 1989, for example, 29
percent of all paper consumed in the US. was recov-
ered for recycling. The paper industry has established
a goal of recovering 40 percent of waste paper for do-
mestic recycling and export by 1995, and is spending
billions of dollars retooling equipment, expanding
plants, and constructing new facilities to expand do-
mestic recycling capacity. Aluminum has a good recy-
cling supply and demand and a growing infrastruc-
ture for collection and recycling. Currently, over 60
percent of all aluminum beverage cans are recycled,
and the aluminum industry has stated that the capac-
ity exists to recycle every aluminum can produced.

   EPA applauds the efforts of the paper and alumi-
num industries and other industries mat are leading
the way; the Agency encourages them to increase their
efforts and encourages other commodity and packag-
ing industries to follow their lead. For those markets
that currently have limited demand, such as the mar-
kets for mixed paper and scrap tires, we need to accel-
erate ongoing efforts to strengthen the markets and to
develop a more complete infrastructure to make the
secondary materials market economically viable on a
permanent basis. For some materials, technologies for
increased recycling often exist, but the infrastructures
to collect, market, and process these commodities are
often inadequate. States and communities may realize
benefits, such as economic growth and the creation of
jobs, from the development of new recycling markets.

   To stimulate and stabilize markets for secondary
materials, EPA, since 1989, conducted a number of
market, development and economic incentive studies
and developed Federal procurement guidelines for the
purchase of products made of recycled materials.
With five guidelines in place, EPA is working with
government, industry, and public interest groups to
develop additional guidelines.  The challenge is to
encourage an increase in purchases of products con-
taining recovered materials and to undertake initia-
tives mat exceed the
established procure-
ment guidelines. Gov-
ernment and industry
can work together to
review their procure-
ment specifications and
revise them to elimi-
nate any unnecessary
bias against goods with
recycled content. In addition, many states currently
are implementing aggressive procurement policies that
include price preferences allowing state agencies to
pay between 5 and 10 percent more for products with
recycled content. The U.S. Conference of Mayors
(USCOM) established a local government procurement
program to facilitate such efforts at the local level.
States may also consider aggressively stimulating mar-
kets for recycled materials by working with local gov-
ernments to find and establish markets for recycled
materials. For example, The New Hampshire Re-
Individuals, industry
and all levels of
government should
consider Increasing
purchases of products
containing recovered
                                                                                    Challenges for the 90's

   business and Industry
   should consider
   investing In process
   changes to produce
   and use materials
   with recycled
source Recovery Associa-
tion was established as a
marketing cooperative
which collects recycled
materials from sixty-six
New Hampshire towns.
This program consis-
tently achieves a 40 per-
cent annual recycling rate.
   To establish a forum for continued cooperative
recycling efforts, the National Recycling Coalition,
with EPA support formed the Recycling Advisory
Council (RAC). The goal of the Council is to identify
recycling barriers and to recommend public policies
and private initiatives to increase recycling. The RACs
priorities include market development and designing
products for recydability.

   EPA encourages business and industry to consider:
(1) increasing purchases of recycled products and set-
ting goals for the use of secondary materials in prod-
ucts and packaging; (2) designing products for recyda-
bility; and (3) investing in processes using or produc-
ing materials with recycled content. A number of
companies and organizations have already initiated
positive actions in this area. For example, Procter &
Gamble is using recovered plastic bottles in making
new plastic containers for some of their products.
Sonoco-Graham, a major manufacturer of plastic con-
tainers, may use up to 25 percent recycled polyethyl-
ene plastic in their products. The American Newspa-
per Publishers Association challenged its members to
use recycled newsprint for 28 percent of their con-
sumption by 1992. These types of commitments and
goals by business and industry to purchase products
with recycled content will enhance and stimulate mar-
kets for secondary materials.
3.  Increase the Supply and Quality of
    Recovered Materials for Secondary

   To encourage industries and businesses to invest in
recycling equipment, an increasing supply of quality
recyclable material must be guaranteed by recycling
collection programs. The supply of recovered materials
for manufacturing processes is increasing, due in part,
to economic and public pressure to initiate recycling
programs. For instance, in 1989,38 states and the Dis-
trict of Columbia had recycling laws in place that will
increase the supply of recydables.  Some cities and
towns are reporting recycling rates of over 30 percent,
and more than 2,700 communities have curbside recy-
cling programs.
   The American Paper Institute (APD developed a
video explaining and promoting comprehensive
source separation and collection programs; API also
conducts a campaign to promote paper recycling.
USCOM sponsors an annual meeting with major busi-
ness organizations to facilitate development of recy-
cling programs. In addition, USCOM also published
the Public Official's Guide to Recycling for use by local
officials in establishing recyding programs. The State
of Rhode Island is operating a commercial recyding
program to recyde waste generated by businesses in
the state. These types of programs are important to
increase the supply of recovered materials for second-
ary markets.

   To encourage continued growth in materials recov-
ery, EPA established in its original Agenda for Action a
national goal of 25 percent recycling and source reduc-
tion by the end of 1992. Since 1989, many more recy-
cling programs and source reduction efforts have been
instituted around the country. Although the 25 per-
cent goal has not yet been achieved at the national
level, several local communities have already exceeded
this level and others are close to achieving this goal.
EPA's 1990 municipal solid waste characterization data
showed a national recyding rate of 17 percent. The
Agency believes now that it is important to better fo-
cus efforts by separating our national recycling goal
from our source reduction objectives. Therefore, EPA
has decided to retain the 25%
goal but apply it only to recy-
                                                            Achieve a
                                                            recycling rate
                                                            of 25 percent
                                                            as soon as
   The elimination of source
reduction from this numerical
goal is not meant to
deemphasize source reduction,
which remains first in our hierar-
chy. Rather, recyding rates can be measured and
gauged against national goals. Currently, source re-
duction of the amount and toxidty of waste cannot be
reliably  measured on a national basis. Since national
source reduction achievements are not as easily mea-
sured in terms of a numerical goal, the Agency has
dedded to encourage continued reductions in the
toxidty and quantity of waste generated without es-
tablishing a national numerical goal for source reduc-
tion efforts.

   The Agency encourages all sectors of sodety to
work to achieve a 25 recyding goal as soon as possible.
EPA believes a 25 percent recycling goal represents an
attainable national challenge that recognizes that some
communities (e.g., rural towns) may need more time to
reach a 25 percent recycling rate while other communi-
Chapter 2 — Facing the Challenge

ties may be successful in achieving even higher recy-
cling rates. EPA encourages local governments to work
with businesses, commercial establishments, and indus-
try to establish recycling programs for their wastes, as
well as to implement and expand community collection
programs for post-consumer wastes. These efforts
should be consistent with state and local solid waste
management plans and with the availability or develop-
ment of markets for recycled goods.

   In addition, composting of yard wastes can signifi-
cantly reduce the amount of waste disposed of in land-
fills. Yard wastes currently represent 18 percent of the
nation's municipal solid waste. EPA encourages local
governments to implement programs to divert yard
wastes from landfills and to establish alternative man-
agement programs for yard wastes. The Agency also
encourages nurseries and lawn care services to
consider using the yard-waste programs set up by
local governments or to establish their own compost
and mulch programs.
4.  Ensure Environmentally Responsible
    Waste Management

   Even with intensified efforts in source reduction
and recycling (including composting), some waste will
still need to be incinerated or landfilled. We need to
ensure that all waste management facilities, including
composting and other recycling facilities, are managed
in an environmentally sound manner. For those
wastes presenting special disposal concerns, such as
tires, used oil, car batteries, and paints and pesticides,
states and local governments are encouraged to con-
tinue their efforts to develop special management and
public outreach programs. For example, the State of
Florida has implemented such a program for tires that
includes fees on new tires that will be used to finance
waste tire reclamation. In addition, a number of states
have banned lead acid batteries from landfills and
incinerators to create incentives for recycling and to
increase the level of safety at these facilities. These
types of special waste programs are important ele-
ments of environmentally sound waste management

   To increase the level of safety at solid waste disposal
facilities, EPA promulgated the revised Criteria for
municipal solid waste landfills and comprehensive air
emissions  standards for both new and existing munici-
pal solid waste combustors. As the chief implementors
of the solid waste management program, however,
states have the primary responsibility of ensuring
environmentally sound and effective implementation
of these standards. For this reason, EPA strongly en-
                               States are
                               encouraged to
                               adopt and
                               programs to
                               ensure safe
                               and disposal.
courages all states and eligible Indian tribes to seek
approval from EPA to implement the revised landfill
Critieria. Approved states and tribes will have the
flexibility to implement the Criteria in a manner that is
protective of human health and the environment, yet
consistent with existing, effective state/tribal pro-
grams. Further, EPA encourages all states to update
permits or licenses for existing municipal solid waste
landfills, to incorporate the revised Federal landfill
Criteria. EPA also encourages states to adopt pro-
grams that will implement the revised incinerator
requirements. In addition,
states can effectively ensure
compliance with the Criteria
and emissions standards for
combustors through periodic
inspection programs and ap-
propriate enforcement actions.
EPA also encourages the solid
waste management industry to
foster environmentally sound
waste management methods.
In a joint effort with the Ameri-
can Society of Mechanical Engi-
neers (ASME), the waste management industry devel-
oped standards for the qualifications and certification
of combustion facility operators. The Solid Waste
Association of North America (SWANA) also has an
operator certification program.
5.  Foster a Systems Approach to Sottd
    Waste Problems

   No single management approach can solve the
complex problems posed by solid waste. The combi-
nation of techniques and programs based on the waste
stream, local needs, and resources is referred to as
integrated solid waste management.  EPA encourages
state and local decision-makers to implement and plan
for integrated solid waste management. Decision-
makers should make use of source reduction, recy-
cling, and combustion and landfilling alternatives.
Composting is an increasingly important form of recy-
cling. Because yard wastes
comprise roughly 18 percent
of the waste stream, initiat-
ing backyard, local, or re-
gional composting programs
can have a significant impact
on solid waste management.
For example, Seattle, Wash-
ington, which operates a
city-wide recycling program,
instituted a yard waste col-
                             State and local
                             governments are
                             encouraged to
                             start immediately
                             to plan and
                                                                                   Challenges for the 90's

lection program that employs both curbside pickup
and dropoff stations and provides bins for backyard
composting. In 1989,43,000 tons of yard waste were
collected—6.4 percent of the total waste generated in
Seattle in 1989. In its first year, this yard waste com-
posting program helped boost Seattle's overall recy-
cling rate from 28 percent to 34 percent

   The need for planning integrated solutions to our
solid waste problems has never been greater. New
state and Federal municipal landfill standards will
increase the cost of landfilling, and may result in the
closing of landfills.  An increase in design and mainte-
nance costs and a decrease in landfill capacity will
heighten the need for regional solutions and increased
planning at all levels of government. The International
City Management Association is planning a series of
videotapes on developing integrated solid waste man-
agement plans and recycling programs for local gov-
ernments. Similar initiatives are needed in this critical
area. To facilitate regional solutions, EPA is working
with the National Association of Regional Councils to
develop guides, including case studies, on how to
establish and implement regional solutions.  EPA fur-
ther encourages state and local governments both to
develop and implement comprehensive 10-year plans,
and to seek innovative financing mechanisms, such as
user fees and public-private partnerships.
   Regional approaches to waste management issues
are on the rise, as evidenced by such groups as the
Coalition of Northeastern Governors (CONEG) and
the North Central Texas Council of Governments.
This trend will continue. State and local govern-
ments are encouraged to accelerate their efforts as
well, to plan and implement regional solutions. The
Agency also encourages every community to de-
velop a plan for managing their solid waste stream
                             for the next ten
Business and Industry
are encouraged to
investigate and
implement Integrated
solutions to municipal
solid waste problems.
                               The burden of
                             planning does not
                             fall on government
                             alone. Business and
                             industry are encour-
                             aged to work in con-
cert with the local communities in identifying opportu-
nities for source reduction, recycling the products and
packaging that they manufacture, and increasing the
use of recycled products in their production processes.
In response to this opportunity, the National Restau-
rant Association, among other efforts, has developed a
reference manual addressing solid waste management
in the food services industry. Implementing integrated
                                                  waste management principles to provide solutions to
                                                  our solid waste problems often is economically benefi-
                                                  cial in other ways. Businesses and industry can save
                                                  money through reduced material costs and reduced
                                                  disposal costs.

                                                     In addition, public interest groups have made im-
                                                  portant contributions to meeting the challenge of inte-
                                                  grated waste management Keep America Beautiful
                                                  (KAB) developed a national video teleconference on
                                                  integrated solid waste management that was viewed
                                                  at 150 universities and corporate offices. KAB and
                                                  many other non-profit organizations are also conduct-
                                                  ing extensive educational efforts for their affiliates.
                                                  6.  Instill an Environmental Etbic
                                                                                School boards are
                                                                                encouraged to
   Many of these challenges
and opportunities may re-
quire changes in our deci-
sion-making processes and
lifestyles. To foster these
changes, additional educa-
tional programs aimed at
individuals, government, and corporations could be
developed. For example, in two Illinois towns, the
Central States Education Center is harvesting business
and consumer enthusiasm for reducing and recycling
waste through its model community program. In this
program, businesses agreed to meet specific waste
reduction goals and increase their customers' aware-
ness of environmental issues.

   EPA, other government agencies, and public inter-
est groups have developed educational programs and
curricula. For example, in Georgia, Tiff County and
the City of Tifton developed a mobile program that
travels among the local schools to teach children the
benefits of recycling. Also, youths across the nation
are gaining valuable experience by implementing
recycling programs within their schools. The Council
for Solid Waste Solutions developed a national schools
program to increase public education on plastics recy-
cling opportunities. The National Soft Drink Associa-
tion developed educational material on the need to
recycle soft drink containers. Browning-Ferris Indus-
tries developed and distributed an environmental
curriculum for 4th through 6th graders. KAB will be
training 365 teachers in 30 states in the use of KAB's
primary and secondary school curricula. EPA encour-
ages state and local school boards to implement envi-
ronmental curricula and to pass sound environmental
ethics and behavior along to the next generation. EPA
also encourages business and other professional
Chapter 2 — Facing the Challenge

schools to include environmental values in their man-
agement programs and curricula to ensure that the
managers of business and industry share a common
environmental ethic.
                                  Everyone is
                               encouraged to
                               consider environ-
                               mental impacts
                               and to draw upon
                               a strong environ-
                               mental ethic when
making daily decisions. Government, business, and
industry are encouraged to work together to educate
consumers on the environmental impacts of their pur-
Individuals, government,
business and Industry are
encouraged to consider
environmental Impacts In
dally decisions.
chasing choices. Business and industry leaders are
also encouraged to consider environmental impacts
over the product life cycle when designing facilities,
developing processes, designing products, and estab-
lishing internal award programs.  Q tizens are encour-
aged to use less toxic and hazardous materials at home
and to participate in community household hazardous
waste collection programs.

  We are all a part of the problem—we can all become
part of the long-term solution. Each of us, individually
and as members of a larger group, can accept the re-
sponsibility to evaluate our waste-producing activities
and to help shift our focus to waste reduction and
pollution prevention.
                                                                                Challenges for the 90's

3.  EPA Activities

       The original Agenda for Action focused on six objec-
    tives to address solid waste management: (1) increase
    available information; (2) increase planning; (3) in-
    crease source reduction activities; (4) increase recy-
    cling; (5) reduce risks of combustion; and (6) reduce
    risks of landfills. In each of these areas, EPA initiated
    activities, programs, and specific milestones through
    the Agency's Headquarters and ten Regional Offices
    (see Figure 3-1). The Agency completed many of the
    activities described in the 1989 Agenda for Action and
    made substantial progress in related areas. For ex-
    ample, since February 1989,  municipal solid waste
    management has become a national issue and EPA's
    public outreach efforts have successfully established
    the need to reduce, recycle, and safely manage solid
    waste as a national goal. Appendix A itemizes various
    EPA accomplishments in educational and informa-
    tional activities, planning, source reduction, recycling,
    combustion, and landfilling.

       In establishing the new set of national challenges
    and goals identified in Chapter 2, EPA is building on
    recent successes by all sectors of society. This chapter
    summarizes a few highlights of EPA accomplishments
    and plans, reflecting the Administrator's challenges of
    "...fostering cooperation... to prevent pollution."
    Summary of EPA Accomplishments and
    Planned Activities
    /. Reduce Per Capita Waste Generation
       and Reduce Waste Toxicity


      Source reduction is the design, manufacture, pur-
    chase, or use of materials and products to reduce the
    amount or toxicity of the municipal solid waste stream.
    EPA is continuing to explore policy issues and pro-
    mote practical applications of source reduction.

      Through an EPA grant, the Conservation Founda-
    tion formed the Strategies for Source Reduction Com-
    mittee. The Committee investigated various ap-
    proaches to encouraging source reduction, such as
    award programs and product labels. The Committee
    examined the role of product life-cycle assessments in
    making source reduction trade-offs, and developed a
framework for identifying source reduction opportuni-
ties. The final report is now available. Through a grant
to the Environmental Action Foundation, EPA sup-
ported source reduction workshops in three areas of
the country for state and local government officials
and the environmental community. These workshops
concentrated on ways to promote source reduction
initiatives at the state and local level. Supported by an
EPA grant, the Coalition of Northeastern Governors'
(CONEG) Source Reduction Council developed pack-
aging guidelines that emphasize the preference for
reduced or reusable packaging, followed by recyclable
or recycled packaging.

  EPA provided technical assistance to the Federal
Trade Commission in its development of labeling
guidelines, which were issued on July 28,1992.  These
guidelines will help promote source reduction by en-
couraging the use of accurate and specific labels on
products in the marketplace to indicate their reduc-
tions in volume or toxicity, as well as many other envi-
ronmental attributes.

  Often, source reduction is its own economic incen-
tive. In September 1989, the Agency completed a re-
port entitled, Discussion and Summary of Economic Incen-
tives to Promote Recycling and Source Reduction. This
document investigates existing and proposed source
reduction programs, including programs to encourage
the manufacture of products with less hazardous
components and to encourage private businesses to
undertake recycling and source reduction activities. In
two recent studies, EPA analyzed the effects of vol-
ume- or weight-based disposal fees on reducing mu-
nicipal solid waste. EPA supports unit pricing for
waste disposal as an incentive to reduce waste and as a
way to raise awareness about true disposal costs.

  Region 2 has developed a "Recoverable Resource
Audit Handbook", essentially a primer on integrated
solid waste management for developing countries.
This document, now in its second printing, was writ-
ten in September of 1990 for the United Nations Envi-
ronment Programme and it includes information on
source reduction opportunities. It is now in the hands
of more than 1000 environmental/public health offi-
cials in at least 43 countries around the world.

  Regions 2 and 8 have developed educational mate-
rials to foster the practice of leaving grass clippings on
the lawn. This practice, endorsed by lawn care profes-
    Chapter 3 — EPA Activities

sionals across the nation, can substantially reduce
waste requiring disposal.

   EPA Region 10 provided funds to Seattle, Washing-
ton to develop a handbook for educating communities
on how to establish variable rates or other economic
incentive programs to encourage waste reduction.
Region 10 also funded a pilot "pay-by-the-pound"
project in Seattle, where a garbage truck was retrofitted
with a scale and barcode scanner so that households
pay for trash removal based upon the weight of the
garbage they dispose. The pilot project was devised to
determine the feasibility of charging by weight rather
than volume.

   Region 6, with the Pueblo of Zuni, New Mexico, has
implemented a one-year education and outreach pro-
gram involving schools and communities in Solid
Waste reduction education and information. It incor-
porates technical assistance for developing and deliv-
ering programs to train staff, volunteers, and tribal
leaders in source reduction and recycling. The Pueblo
of Zuni now has a Solid Waste Reduction
Coordination Project on the Reservation.

Planned Activities

   Both the recognition and practical applications of
source reduction continued to grow in 1990 and 1991.
As outlined above, the goal of making new informa-
tion accessible is being met and will continue through-
out the 1990's.  The Agency will continue working to
address and resolve technical issues that impede or
will impact future source reduction activities.  EPA
intends to continue to actively promote the develop-
ment of source reduction strategies by government,
industry, businesses and the general public and pro-
mote the application of source reduction techniques by
every sector of society to decrease the demands and
constraints placed upon our solid waste management
systems. EPA intends to promote the application of
source reduction by (A) increasing available informa-
tion and methods for implementing source reduction
activities, and (B) working to resolve technical issues
that affect source reduction implementation.

A. Increase Source Reduction Information

   EPA will develop and provide useful guidance on
reducing waste generation and toxicity to the private
sector, all levels of government, and to consumers. For
example, EPA will continue to work with industry
leaders and encourage them to (1) reduce the hazard-
ous constituents in products, (2) develop less wasteful
product and material alternatives, and (3) promote
            Reduce Per Capita Waste
      Generation and Reduce Waste Toxicity
   EPA Planned Activities and Completion Dates
Identify potential substitutes for lead and cadmium
Publish final report of Strategies for Source
Reduction Committee
Identify major sources of mercury in municipal
solid waste
Publish a business guide for reducing
MSW/conducting waste audits
Publish booklet on source reduction successes
Conduct source reduction workshops
Provide information to Federal agencies on source
reduction opportunities/pilot studies
Encourage industry source reduction initiatives
Spring 1993
Winter 1992
Spring 1993
Investigate measurement methods to evaluate
the success of source reduction activities
Develop guidance for conducting life-cycle analysis
Identify specific opportunities for toxicity reduction
Summer 1993
Summer 1993
Spring 1993
awareness of successes in the area of municipal solid
waste reduction. EPA will continue to support the
goal of reducing municipal solid waste in government,
industry, and the private sector through a variety of
outreach activities.

   EPA believes that all business and industries can
take steps to reduce solid waste. To assist business
and industry, EPA will publish a guide for setting up a
waste reduction program that will include case studies
and recommendations for conducting in-house waste
audits. EPA will work with business leaders to gather
information about the implementation of successful
source reduction programs and will provide the infor-
mation to other businesses and the public.

   EPA also is planning to publish a booklet on source
reduction successes in business. Information gathered
                              Challenges for the 90's

from facilities ranging from large manufacturing
plants to small offices will be compiled illustrating
where source reduction practices have been imple-
mented. The report will provide details on the amount
of waste reduced and money saved through the source
reduction initiatives.

  EPA believes that all Federal government agencies
can play a key role in promoting source reduction
activities. The Federal government can reduce its own
waste stream as well as provide source reduction guid-
ance to all sectors of industry, business, and govern-
ment To assist other Federal departments and agen-
cies in implementing and promoting source reduction,
EPA will provide specific information as it becomes
available, such as the waste reduction guide. EPA
plans to work with some Federal facilities on pilot
waste reduction programs.

  EPA supports the many groups that have formed at
the national, regional, state, and local levels to discuss,
evaluate, and implement constructive source reduction
actions. Well-known examples of such groups include
the Conservation Foundation's Strategies for Source
Reduction Committee and CONEG's Source Reduction
Council. These organizations are developing source
reduction recommendations, some of which are di-
rected to the Federal government or specifically to
EPA. EPA will evaluate, and if appropriate, act on
these recommendations.

  The EPA Regional Offices play a significant role in
providing source reduction tools and public informa-
tion programs for reducing the generation and toxicity
of municipal solid waste. The EPA Regional Office in
Atlanta (EPA Region 4) is assisting the City of Greens-
boro, North Carolina, to implement and promote two
source reduction efforts, one aimed at the residential
waste stream and the other at commercial waste. The
residential source reduction program, which will in-
clude public awareness training and educational pro-
grams, will target a single collection route. The impact
of the program is to be measured through surveys and
by comparing before and after waste stream character-
ization studies. The commercial source reduction
project will focus on source reduction education for
businesses and development of a peer group that will
offer technical assistance in establishing source reduc-
tion programs.

  The League of Women Voters of Colorado, under
an EPA Region 8 grant, is completing its "Solid Waste
Education Project (SWEP), to inform and empower
Colorado citizens on solid waste management issues.
The League conducted over 20 local forums, created 22
library displays, distributed over 100 educational kits
to civic organizations and sponsored a speakers bu-
reau. In 1992-1993, the League, with EPA funding, will
conduct SWEP n, aimed at educating citizens on how
to reduce and properly manage household toxics.

  Backyard composting is an effective waste reduc-
tion activity. EPA Region 4 is assisting the Georgia
Department of Community Affairs to establish a state-
wide backyard composting education program. The
project includes hands-on demonstration sites and a
                                                                                 REGION 3
                                       Figure 3-1  EPA Regions
Chapter 3 — EPA Activities

network of educators to inform citizens of the benefits
and process of backyard composting.

   Region 1 and EPA Headquarters have provided
funding to the Solid Waste Association of North
America (SWANA) to develop and conduct an interac-
tive seminar on reduction of toxic metals Qead, cad-
mium, chromium, etc.) in the municipal waste stream.
The seminar will bring together government, industry
and environmental groups to focus on consumer prod-
ucts which may contribute to toxicity in solid waste
and develop follow-up actions to help reduce or elimi-
nate these toxics.

   Region 1 also has funded the "Wastecap Project," a
joint effort of the states of Maine, New Hampshire, and
Vermont  This project targets small business,
commercial, and governmental establishments to pro-
vide technical information and on-site waste audits to
promote waste reduction opportunities.

   EPA Region 8 assisted Boulder, Colorado, in devel-
oping and implementing a "Precycle Program" to help
residents reduce the amount of waste they generate.
The program focused on educating the public about
ways to reduce waste through environmentally sound
purchasing decisions. In partnership with every major
grocer in town, the program featured on-shelf labeling,
high visibility in-store signs, and "Precyde" informa-
tion booths staffed by volunteers. The information
campaign was aimed at changing consumer attitudes
and habits. Boulder measured shifts in purchasing
patterns through product inventories and pre- and
post-program consumer surveys.

   EPA Region 8 also plans to assist the Colorado State
University Waste Minimization Assessment Center to
conduct solid waste reduction audits of selected Rocky
Mountain industries. EPA will target industries that
are significant generators of solid waste and for which
cost savings and waste reduction opportunities exist.
CSU will prepare industry-specific fact sheets at the
conclusion of the audits so that the benefits can be
transferred and replicated.

   Region 2 is developing a consumer education dem-
onstration project on environmentally aware super-
market shopping and an educational guide on solid
waste reduction and recycling with Suffolk County,
New York.

   EPA Headquarters is working with Regional staff,
as well as state and local officials, to gather and pub-
lish findings on source reduction progress nationwide.
Many states and municipalities have initiated source
reduction programs. These programs can provide key
information and specific tools that may be useful for
implementing source reduction strategies in other
states and municipalities. EPA also supports many
organizations that are focusing on the challenges of
reducing the municipal solid waste stream. EPA will
summarize source reduction programs, provide data
on the programs, and evaluate potential obstacles to
implementing successful programs.

B. Resolve Technical Issues  .

  One of the most challenging tasks related to source
reduction is the development and implementation of a
method for measuring progress at Federal, State,
Tribal, or local levels. EPA conducted a preliminary
investigation of methods for measuring source reduc-
tion on a national level, to potentially support a quanti-
tative national goal. The primary challenge in measur-
ing source reduction at this level is the difficulty in
detecting a relatively small decrease in waste genera-
tion (e.g., 10%) in a huge, diverse, and variable waste
stream. To detect this level of change, extensive re-
sources would have to be put into sampling and mea-
surement, both to establish a baseline arid to develop
comparative estimates through time. The task of es-
tablishing an accurate baseline would be complicated
by the fact that waste generation varies greatly and is
affected by many factors such as the economy and
weather conditions.

  To some extent, these challenges also exist at the
State, local and Tribal levels, although they may be less
extreme because of the smaller size of the waste stream
and the potential ability to account for local factors that
affect waste generation. In general, it appears mat
source reduction measurement becomes more practical
as the size of the waste stream and the variables affect-
ing it get smaller. It is fairly straightforward, for ex-
ample, for an individual business or facility to deter-
mine its waste stream and then gauge reductions.

  More communitites are being required to set source
reduction goals and to measure progress. Therefore,
EPA believes the greatest need in source reduction
measurement is to develop a method for local scale
measurement. EPA will pursue this by examining
potential ways to measure reductions at this level.

  EPA will also continue to identify specific toxic
constituents and target sources of toxics in the munici-
pal solid waste stream for voluntary reduction. In
January 1989, EPA published a report identifying
products in municipal solid waste that contain lead
and cadmium. The Agency investigated possible sub-
                              Challenges for the 90's

stitutes for lead and cadmium in products and re-
leased a report on potential substitutes in Spring 1992.
The Agency also has identified mercury as a
constituent of concern in municipal solid waste. EPA
investigated the major sources of mercury in munici-
pal solid waste and published a report on these
sources in Spring 1992. For lead, cadmium and mer-
cury, EPA will promote voluntary substitution of safe
alternatives by industry.

   EPA is continuing work toward developing guid-
ance for conducting product life-cycle analyses, used
to measure the environmental impacts of products or
materials from raw material extraction through the
ultimate disposal of the material or product. Develop-
ment of a life-cycle evaluation method will require the
Agency to continue to work closely with industry
experts, policy makers at all levels, and environmental
groups to determine commonly acceptable methods
and potential problem issues in conducting life-cycle
analyses. The development of commonly accepted
guidance will be beneficial to life-cycle practitioners
and users. Life-cycle analyses encourage long-term
planning, the discovery of alternative sources or sub-
stitutes for product materials, and should result in
more cost-effective and environmentally responsive
products.  EPA expects to have an initial report avail-
able on life-cycle methods by Summer 1993.

   Region 9 is planning a major project involving the
preparation of a model source reduction implementa-
tion plan for San Jose, California. The plan will iden-
tify die fastest growing components of the waste
stream with respect to volume and toxicity and will
identify which of these components are most easily
reduced. At this point, industry and/or consumers
will be targeted as the most appropriate audience to
achieve source reduction. The plan also will address
several additional means of achieving source reduc-
tion, such as incentives and disincentives in the form of
reduction credits and advance disposal fees; establish-
ment of a public/private advisory committee to evalu-
ate proposed incentives and disincentives and to de-
velop recommendations for national, state, or local
implementation; and establishment of a materials re-
use warehouse to redistribute scrapped goods to
schools and other entities.

   In Region 6, the Pueblo of Zuni will implement a
one-year Education and Outreach Activities Program
which will involve schools and communities in solid
waste reduction education and information. It will
incorporate technical assistance for developing and
delivering programs to train staff, volunteers, and
tribal leaders.
2  Enhance Markets for Secondary


   Markets for recycled or secondary materials are
affected by the national and international economic
climate and fluctuate over time. This creates continual
challenges for state and local recycling programs and
for commercial enterprises. The Agency is completing
market studies for recycled paper, glass, aluminum,
compost, and tires.

   EPA is providing national leadership for govern-
ment purchases of recycled goods through the devel-
opment and implementation of Federal procurement
guidelines. To date, EPA promulgated guidelines for
paper and paper products, lubricating oils, retread
tires, building insulation products, and cement and
concrete containing fly ash. To increase awareness of
the guidelines and facilitate implementation, EPA co-
sponsored six procurement workshops with recycled
product exhibits.  Over 2,100 representatives from
business, industry, and all levels of government par-
ticipated in these workshops.

   Between August 1989 and July 1990, over 90 percent
of the paper purchased by the Government Printing
Office (excluding paper used in contracted printing)
met the guidelines. At EPA, since fiscal 1990, over 98
percent of the publications and letterhead have met the
procurement guidelines.
  EPA also held a meeting with key industry and
government officials in March 1990 that focused both
on stabilizing the recycled newsprint market and on
short- and long-range actions to increase the amount of
recycled newsprint available.

  EPA is also working with other groups to promote
composting. The Agency assisted the Department of
Agriculture in providing technical assistance to animal
feedlot operators to encourage composting. The
Agency has provided technical assistance to states that
are developing regulations regarding the composting
of municipal solid waste.

  With other Federal agencies, EPA hosted the Gov-
ernment Buy Recycled Products Trade Fair and Show-
case. The event was held in June 1992 and was de-
signed to foster procurement of recycled products by
Federal government.
Chapter 3 — EPA Activities

      Enhance Markets for Secondary Materials
      EPA Planned Activities and Completion Dates
Propose revised procurement guidelines for paper
Propose new procurement guidelines
Conduct regional workshops on procurement of materials
with recycled content
Outreach to Federal, state, and local agencies on
Publication of Reference Document for Local Access
Purchasing Contracts
Case studies on scrap-based manufacturing
Fall 1992
Fall 1992
Fall 1992
   In another effort to stimulate the expansion of mar-
kets for recycled products, the EPA Administrator
issued an EPA Order in January 1990 that established
an Agency policy on recycled paper. Through this
Order, all new contracts, grants, and cooperative
agreements will specify that the recipient use recycled
paper for all reports submitted to the Agency. Existing
contracts also will be modified to require the use of
recycled  paper. Also, in October of 1991, President Bush
signed Executive Order 12780 requiring all Federal agen-
cies to implement the Federal procurement guidelines.

   EPA's Region 8 office worked with the Colorado
Office of Energy Conservation on a procurement
guide and a seminar to encourage government and
private sector procurement officials to increase their
purchases of products made with recycled materials.
EPA Region 4 helped establish the Southeast Recycling
Market Council composed of recycling industry and
public sector representatives. The council assisted in
compiling the Southeast Recyclers Market Exchange, a
comprehensive regional listing of markets for recov-
ered materials, including manufacturerers, brokers,
and  dealers/processors. Council members also pro-
vide updates for the "Recyclers Market News", a quar-
terly market digest that serves as a vehicle for commu-
nicating commodity market news, such as trends,
capacity, and market development activities. The
council has also developed two policy advisory briefs
on composting and recovered  materials, and will con-
tinue to address issues relating to markets and market

   Region 2, in conjunction with the New York State
Department of Economic Development and the New
Recycling conserves
resources, energy*
and landfill capacity.
York State Purchasing Officials Association, has con-
ducted a conference on the procurement of goods
containing recycled materials. Most EPA Regional
offices have conducted similar procurement work-
shops and conferences.

   Region 2 also provided a grant to Suffolk County,
New York to develop and test a consumer-oriented
brochure to assist consumers in making informed
purchases of products which are recyclable or utilize
recycled materials.

Planned Activities

   EPA will prepare an analysis of effective market
development policies for state and local recycling and
economic development agencies. EPA will also pro-
vide case studies and data on scrap-based manufactur-
ers to help local offi-
cials attract such in-
dustries and to build
local markets and to
encourage other
manufacturers to use
recycled materials.

   In addition, EPA plans to enhance markets for sec-
ondary materials by expanding promotion of Federal,
state, and local government procurement of products
made from recycled materials. EPA will revise the
definitions and recommended recycled content stan-
dards for recycled printing and writing paper and will
continue to refine existing procurement guidelines
reflecting recent developments in these products, such
as increased availability of products with  post-con-
sumer product content. The Agency will  also develop
new guidelines for other commodities, looking first at
building and construction materials (e.g.,  fiberboard,
hydraulic mulch and plastic pipe), compost from yard
waste, and asphalt rubber.

   EPA will conduct feasibility studies on additional
commodities and products that may be good candi-
dates for additional procurement guidelines. The
Agency will also develop a long-term strategy for
evaluation, expanding and promoting all  existing and
new Federal procurement guidelines.

   To promote compliance with existing guidelines,
EPA will continue to conduct regional workshops
dedicated to procurement guidelines implementation.
EPA will also actively promote and  encourage local
government and business "Buy Recycled" campaigns
to encourage further development of markets for prod-
ucts that contain recycled materials.
      Challenges for the 90's

   To assist Federal and state government agencies in
effectively promoting and implementing successful
procurement programs, EPA plans to develop and
distribute a "How-to" guide for developing and imple-
menting an affirmative procurement program.

   EPA is also completing a technical guide on the
operation of compost facilities, which will help ensure
the creation of high-quality compost products that can
be marketed successfully.

   Region 4 awarded a grant to the University of
Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences to
evaluate composting of yard trimmings from a typical
municipal waste stream and compost products. The
results will aid not only in developing other
community composting programs, but also in devel-
oping markets for the end product.

   To stimulate and stabilize current markets, the ten
EPA Regional Offices will initiate a number of activi-
ties.  As part of a two-year effort, EPA Region 1 is
working with the National Association of State Pur-
chasing Officials, the Council of State Governments,
the American Society of Testing Materials, and EPA
Headquarters to develop specifications for various
types of recycled paper. Region 3 is funding a grant to
Baltimore Jobs in Energy, Inc. to help recruit industries
that use separated waste materials to stimulate the
recycling market, bring jobs to the inner city, and
strengthen the local economy.

   EPA Regions 1,2, and 3 along with Headquarters,
have funded the Northeast Recycling Council of the
Council of State Governments, which represents 10
Northeastern states, to conduct a number of studies
and market development initiatives for residential
mixed paper, plastics, tires, office printing, writing
paper, and newsprint

   Region 5 officials are planning to initiate a recycling
market development project with the Illinois Depart-
ment of Energy and Natural Resources (DENR). Re-
gion 5 and the Illinois DENR will develop an on-line
computer clearinghouse that will list suppliers of re-
covered and recycled materials and industries or busi-
nesses that use recycled materials in their production
processes. The Region 8 office and the Colorado Office
of Energy Conservation also are conducting a state-
wide analysis of prevailing supply and demand condi-
tions for the collection, manufacture, and procurement
of recycled glass, aluminum, newsprint, and plastic.

   EPA Regions 8 and 9 are assisting the recently
(1991) formed Southwest Public Recycling Association
to improve market conditions for recycling. Twenty-
three member cities in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada,
New Mexico, Texas and Utah will cooperatively trans-
port and market their recyclable materials, stimulate
local economic development and purchase products
made of recycled materials. The Association is re-
sponding to the challenges of low populations, high
transportation costs (because of large distances be-
tween cities) and low landfill fees.

   Regk>n 9 is planning to create an information clearing-
house called "Recycle Link" The project will establish an
on-line computer data base that will assist local govern-
ments in identifying sources for recycled products and
help the governments to pool purchases through the use
of a computer bulletin board, allowing smaller purchasers
to take advantage of volume discounts.

   Region 2 provided a grant to the New Jersey De-
partment of Environmental Protection for the purpose
of developing a model program of on-site scrap tire
management practices which can be used to minimize
and control environmental hazards, including preven-
tion of the establishment of new tire piles. This project
will evaluate existing recycling technologies to manage
scrap tire piles in terms of economic efficiency and
overall effectiveness.

   Region 2 provided a grant to the Long Island [New
York] Regional Recycling Cooperative for the purpose
of developing a guidance manual for communities
considering the establishment of a cooperative market-
ing infrastructure for recydables as a means of gaining
better access to markets.

   Region 10 also has awarded a grant to the Washing-
ton Department of General Administration to devise a
cooperative, multistate contract for purchasing re-
cycled paper. Seventeen western states, including
California, will be involved, forming a large market
demand for all types of recycled paper.
3.  Increase the Supply and Quality of
    Recovered Materials for Secondary


   Recycling is an attractive means of waste manage-
ment because it conserves natural resources by substi-
tuting secondary materials for virgin materials, saves
energy, and conserves valuable landfill capacity. Recy-
cling can enhance the business economy as well as the
environment. To assure industries and businesses that
Chapter 3 — EPA Activities

are investing capital in equipment to use recovered
materials, an increasing supply of quality recyclable
materials must be guaranteed to recycling markets.
Public participation in recycling programs must be
encouraged, and efficient collection, sorting, and distri-
bution systems must be implemented.

   EPA developed a number of informational materi-
als to assist state and local government agencies in
devising successful collection and separation pro-
grams. For example, EPA issued "how to" guides for
developing recycling collection programs for used oil
and office paper, brochures for the general public on
recycling, and a guide to 14 successful state and local
recycling programs. In addition, the Agency provided
financial and technical assistance for a recycling media
campaign sponsored by the Environmental Defense
Fund and the National Advertising Council. EPA also
worked with the U.S. Forest Service to develop and
distribute a television public service announcement

   To share information on solid waste issues and to
provide direct, hands-on assistance to state and local
municipal solid waste managers, EPA established a
municipal solid waste peer matching program. The
program is designed to bring state and local waste
management officials seeking solutions to particular
municipal solid waste problems together with other
state or local officials who have successfully developed
programs in response to similar problems.  To date,
110 on-site matches have been made, with 850 assis-
tance requests responded to by letter and telephone.

   To promote recycling in the Federal government,
EPA continues its own recycling program and encour-
ages other Federal agencies to adopt similar efforts.
EPA is implementing an outreach program for Federal
agency recycling that will include training, guidance
and promotional materials for Federal employees.
Furthermore, the Agency co-sponsored a Federal Gov-
ernment recycling conference in December 1990 and
co-sponsored a technical workshop in Washington,
D.C. in December 1991 to promote recycling within the
Federal government. The General Services Adminis-
tration and the Council on Environmental Quality
played key roles in the conference and workshop.

   Another important recycling activity that is being
promoted by EPA is composting.  Composting in-
volves an aerobic biological process in which food and
yard wastes and other organic materials decompose
under proper conditions. At the end of the process, a
rich material (i.e., humus) is produced. This material,
while not a fertilizer, improves soil texture and its
ability to retain water. Compost increases the avail-
ability of water and nutrients to plants, increases infil-
tration, decreases erosion, and stabilizes soil tempera-
ture. Compost can be used to reclaim surface mining
sites and landfill sites and is used in mulches and pot-
ting soils.  Because it enriches soil and controls erosion,
compost also is used in agriculture.

   EPA promoted the composting of municipal solid
waste in a number of ways. EPA published a report,
Yard Waste Composting: A Study of Eight Programs,
which assesses eight model yard waste composting
programs operated both privately and by municipali-
ties. Also, a chapter of EPA's Decision-Makers Guide to
Solid Waste Management is devoted to composting and
informing local solid waste managers about the issues
associated with setting up their own composting pro-

   Region 8 is sponsoring a co-composting feasibility
study by the Salt Lake Valley Solid Waste Manage-
ment Council.  The Council is examining the feasibility
of co-composting municipal solid waste and sewage
sludge at Utah's largest landfill.

   EPA's Regional Offices are also working to encour-
age a greater level  of recycling at the Federal, state, and
local levels. EPA's Region 10 office, for example, has
established a model recycling programs at a Federal
office building, a post office, and at the University of
Washington as pilot projects to encourage recycling at
the Federal level and at universities and colleges.

   EPA's Region 6 office formed a recycling work
group and is providing office building recycling guid-
ance to Federal and city office coordinators in Dallas/
Ft Worth area.  Region 6 also provided a grant to the
City of Dallas Department of Street and Sanitation
Services to establish a pilot curbside collection pro-
gram for recyclables in 14 residential collection dis-
tricts of the city as part of developing an integrated
solid waste management plan for the city of Dallas.

   In another effort, Region 6 created a Solid Waste
Education Round-table comprised of representatives
from the five States' solid waste, recycling, education,
and energy agencies, as well as environmental and
civic representatives such as the Keep America Beauti-
ful affiliates, League of Women Voters, science muse-
ums, environmental education associations, and na-
ture centers.  The purpose of the Roundtable is to pro-
vide an information exchange across state/agency
lines and serve as a conduit for innovative ideas to
reduce duplication of effort and increase effectiveness
in the area of source reduction, recycling and market
                              Challenges for the 90's

     Increase the Supply of Recovered Materials
         for Secondary Markets EPA Planned
          Activities  and Completion Dates
  Develop handbook on dry cell battery recycling
  Fall 1992
  Co-sponsor Federal Government Recycling Conference Summer 1992
  Develop case studies of composting operations
 Fall 1992
  Develop case studies and data base of municipal recycling
   programs                          .        Fall 1992
  Develop recycling definitions and measurements
Begin 1992
  Recommend definitions of 'recycled* and "recyclable" for
  Maintain an outreach program to promote materials recovery
   by Federal agencies                           Ongoing
   The Rhode Island Department of Environmental
Management, through a grant from Region 1, pro-
vided training throughout Region 1 on developing
municipal recycling programs. The training consisted
of two-day seminars for municipal officials in all New
England states.  Topics discussed included truck fleet
sizing, development of ordinances, and municipal
solid waste disposal cost savings.

   Region 2 has developed a comprehensive source
reduction and recycling guidance package for federal
offices. It is currently being used by 130 New York
Federal Executive Board agencies.

   Region 2 also provided two grants to the New Jer-
sey Department of Environmental Protection. One is
for the purpose of maximizing the recycling of lead
acid batteries, thereby reducing the need for their dis-
posal in incinerators or landfills,  and another is for the
purpose of developing select tools to expand recycling
programs to cover plastics, appliances, tires, batteries,
wood waste, and construction waste and extend local
program coverage to businesses and multifamily

   EPA's Region 10 office awarded a grant to the Or-
egon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) to
develop a decision-making guide for local
communities that want to recycle plastics. As part of
this effort, the Oregon DEQ conducted a survey of
plastic markets according to resin type, developed
guidelines for calculating realistic recovery rates for
different plastic resins, and produced an overall adminis-
trative guide for designing a plastics recycling program.
   An EPA grant was issued to the Pennsylvania En-
ergy Office (PEO) to improve the used oil recycling
infrastructure in Pennsylvania. Under this grant, col-
lection centers will be established and promoted
throughout the state. PEO will work with local recy-
cling coordinators to conduct a public outreach/edu-
cation program to encourage do-it-yourselfers to re-
cycle oil.

Planned Activities

   As with source reduction, standard definitions and
measurements for recycling are needed to gauge
progress toward the national recycling goal. EPA will
continue to work with the private sector, and state and
local government to develop definitions and a mea-
surement methodology that will facilitate the assess-
ment and comparison of recycling rates and program
successes. Additionally, the Agency will continue to
facilitate the development of standard definitions, such
as "recycling" and "recycled content," as part of a major
Federal effort to promote responsible environmental

   In a related effort, EPA will study the compatibility
of recycling programs with existing or planned mu-
nicipal waste combustion programs. This study will
investigate the effects that source reduction and recy-
cling may have upon the energy values of waste feed-
stocks and the energy efficiency of municipal combustors.

   To encourage  local government officials to create
and implement community recycling programs, EPA
plans to document detailed case studies of more than
30 various municipal recycling programs.  EPA will
also analyze these case studies to determine each
program's successes; identify opportunities for im-
provement; and highlight the potential applicability of
each program to  other states, regions and municipali-
ties. The case studies will provide descriptive informa-
tion on each program and will provide a data base of
information on the success and effectiveness of each
program, implementation costs, and specific methods.

   To provide information on managing and recycling
dry cell batteries, which are a special waste problem in
most jurisdictions, EPA is developing a guide to local
battery programs that will include information on
current programs.

   The Agency is developing a "Guide to Composting"
that will include a technical description of the
composting process, a guide for local officials to use to
decide what type of composting facility they need, and
a description of the equipment and siting process in-
Chapter 3 — EPA Activities

volved in developing the program. EPA is developing
detailed case studies of several municipal solid waste
composting facilities. These case studies will highlight
important biological, engineering, and economic fac-
tors that influence the success of mixed municipal solid
waste composting. EPA has previously issued a fact
sheet on yard waste composting. EPA is currently de-
veloping a second fact sheet on composting that will de-
scribe the benefits of leaving grass dippings on lawns
rather than bagging the clippings and disposing them.

   EPA Regions 4,5, and 8 are each in the process of
initiating recycling demonstration programs for rural
communities. These programs are designed to help
rural communities deal with special economic and
community interest situations that are often unique to
rural community recycling programs. They will assist
local government officials in identifying markets for
recyclable wastes, creating an infrastructure to collect
recyclables, and developing public educational and
outreach materials. EPA Region 4 has funded several
recycling demonstration projects for rural
communities. One project, conducted in conjunction
with the Tennessee Valley Authority, established a
recycling cooperative to assist four rural Tennessee
counties find stable markets for their recovered materi-
als. Another project assisted the Land-of-Sky Regional
Council, a coalition of four rural counties in North
Carolina, with their composting program and resulted
in a methodology to develop a formal equipment
sharing agreement between counties.  In a joint project
with Region 2, the State of New Jersey is developing a
training manual for local government recycling
coordinators, which will be completed later this year.

   EPA Region 3 is funding the publication of an office
recycling handbook in cooperation with their General
Services Administration. Region 3 also is funding
citizen recycling conferences in Virginia and local recy-
cling coordinator training in Maryland.

   In addition, Region 2 is working on several recy-
cling programs, including battery recycling. The Re-
gion is assisting the Center for Environmental Informa-
tion, Inc., of Rochester, New York in establishing a
pilot educational workshop on new technology options
for recycling nontraditional materials, such as plastics,
tires, batteries, and oil. The Pollution Control Financ-
ing Authority of Warren County, New Jersey received
a grant from EPA Region 2 that will enable it to re-
move cadmium batteries from the municipal solid
waste stream. It is hoped that this will reduce high
concentrations of cadmium in combustor ash. This
program will host 100 dropoff/collection sites for
household batteries; however, battery recycling will
take place at a specialized processing facility. With the
help of EPA Region 2, Recoverable Resources/Boro
Bronx 2000, Inc., has conducted a study to determine
the feasibility of developing and implementing battery
recycling processes for consumer dry cell batteries.

   EPA Region 9 has planned several different projects.
The Region has given a grant to the Arcata
Community Recycling Center for a feasibility study of
the small-scale manufacture of products made from
recycled glass cullet. The Pacific Basin Development
Council also has been awarded a grant by Region 9 to
evaluate the feasibility of municipal solid waste recy-
cling options for the American Flag Pacific Islands.
Region 9 is working with the National Park Service at
Yosemite National Park to implement a pilot solid
waste reduction program including source reduction and
recycling within park operations, visitor education, and a
recycling program including bear-proof containers.
4. Ensure Environmentally Responsible
    Waste Management


   Source reduction and recycling activities will play a
major role in solving the nation's solid waste dilemma;
however, they will not provide the complete solution.
Some solid waste will still need to be disposed of
through combustion or landfilling; therefore, all levels
of government should plan and implement programs
that will ensure environmentally sound management
of new and existing waste management facilities.

   Some wastes that were disposed of in the past are
now being combusted. Combustion simultaneously
reduces the volume of material that must be landfilled
and provides a means to recover energy. To better
understand current practices at municipal combustion
facilities in the United States, EPA completed a report
discussing the results of a nationwide survey of the
municipal waste combustion industry. The survey
provides a description of facilities, a characterization of
waste received, a review of recycling activities, and a
description of residue generation, handling, and dis-
posal practices. EPA also completed a field study that
evaluated current ash management practices and as-
sessed the risk associated with fugitive dust emissions
from these practices. EPA and the Coalition on Re-
source Recovery and the Environment completed a
study that characterized municipal waste combustion
ash, leachates, and extracts from five municipal waste
combustion facilities and their corresponding landfills
or monofills. Another ongoing study on municipal
                              Challenges for the 90's

solid waste combustion is designed to provide long-
term characterization data of ash and leachate from an
ashmonofill. EPA also is currently conducting a com-
patibility study of ash leachates with both flexible
membrane liners and day liners.

   With respect to regulating air emissions from mu-
nicipal waste combustors and municipal solid waste
landfills, the Agency has made progress on two
rulemakings. EPA promulgated comprehensive air
emissions standards for both new and existing munici-
pal solid waste combustors in February 1991. The final
standards include (1) emission limits for toxic metals,
toxic organics, acid gases and nitrogen oxides; (2) oper-
ating standards to ensure optimum combustion to help
reduce pollutants; and (3) a requirement for operator
certification. In addition, in May 1991, EPA proposed
emission control standards for landfill gases. The goal
of this proposed rule is to control non-methane organic
compound emissions that contribute to ambient ozone
problems and are a source of air toxics.

   Landfilling continues to play an essential role in
managing the residues from recycling and incinera-
tion, as well as in managing noncombustible, nonrecy-
clable wastes. Historically, landfills have  not provided
adequate protection of human health and the environ-
ment because of poor design and operating practices.
As of 1988,21 percent of the sites on the
Comprehensive Environmental Response,
Compensation and Liability Act's National Priorities
List were municipal solid waste landfills (249 out of
1,177). Many of these landfills may have received
hazardous waste in addition to municipal waste, so the
hazards associated with these facilities may not be a
direct result of municipal solid waste. Nevertheless,
these landfills illustrate the extent to which poorly
designed and operated landfills can harm the environ-

   As mandated by the Hazardous and Solid Waste
Amendments of 1984 to the Resource Conservation
and Recovery Act, EPA recently revised the existing
regulations for municipal solid waste landfills. In Octo-
ber 1991, the Agency promulgated revised municipal
solid waste landfill criteria that set minimum stan-
dards governing location restrictions, facility design
and operation, ground-water monitoring  and correc-
tive action, closure and post-closure care,  and financial
assurance. The effective date for the majority of these
requirements will be October, 1993.

   The EPA Regional offices have been active in en-
suring proper landfill management at the state and
local levels. EPA Region 4 provided a grant to the
       Ensure Environmentally Responsible
               Waste Management
     EPA Planned Activities and Completion Dates
Conduct compatibility study of ash leachates with
flexible membrane and day liners
Propose State/Tribal implementation
rule and publish STIR reference materials
Propose revised financial responsibility rule for
municipally-owned landfills
Finalize air emissions control standards
for non-methane gases at municipal solid
waste landfills
Issue guide for household hazardous waste
collection program
Propose degradable ring rule
Issue technical manual for municipal solid waste
landfill criteria and conduct training
Conduct STIR pilot
Summer 1992
Summer 1992
Fall 1992
Fall 1992
Winter 1992
Spring 1993
Summer 1992
Winter-Summer 1992
American Cave Conservation Association to conduct
community outreach on proper solid waste manage-
ment and the hazards of illegal dumping in sinkholes.
Using a model called DRASTIC, the association evalu-
ated potential and proposed sites for locating a mu-
nicipal solid waste landfill in the county. The DRAS-
TIC model is used to evaluate the ground-water pollu-
tion potential of any hydrogeological setting in the
VS. based on ratings for the following major
hydro-geologic factors: depth to water, net recharge,
aquifer media, soil media, topography, impact of the
vadose zone media, and hydraulic conductivity of the

   Both Regions 1 and 6 have developed training pro-
grams for landfill operators and municipal engineers.
Developed under a grant to the Massachusetts Depart-
ment of Environmental Protection, the first level of the
Region 1  course is a training program for assessment
and closure of landfills, while the second level stresses
technical requirements dictated by new regulations.
The training course has been offered seven times to
officials and engineers. The Region 6 program is di-
rected toward sanitary landfill operators and solid
waste management decision-makers.
Chapter 3 — EPA Activities

Planned Activities

   EPA is pursuing research in several areas to reduce
risks from combustion. For example, the Agency will
continue to monitor existing combustors, model emis-
sions, and assess long-term characteristics of an ash
monofill. The Agency will collect and compile data on
current ash management and reuse practices. Other
scheduled research includes a study on the effects of
source separation on combustor performance and ash
characteristics. EPA also is funding a combustion
study under the Agency's Municipal Innovative Tech-
nology Evaluation program, which will be dedicated
to evaluating municipal waste management technolo-
gies. The program's initial study, started in Winter
1989, is evaluating treatment and stabilization pro-
cesses for ash residues from municipal solid waste
combustors. EPA also is investigating ash leachate
characteristics, through both field and laboratory re-
search, to determine appropriate parameters for moni-
toring ground water at ash monofills. Finally, the
Agency is conducting research on the effectiveness of
solidification and stabilization of municipal waste
combustion ash for uses such as building blocks, base
for road construction, and artificial reefs.

   EPA has several rulemakings under development
that will facilitate state implementation of the munici-
pal solid waste landfill criteria and reduce costs for
local government compliance with the financial re-
sponsibility requirements imposed under the revised
criteria. These activities include proposing and finaliz-
ing the State/Tribal Implementation Rule (STIR), pro-
posing revised financial responsibility rules for mu-
nicipally-owned landfills, and finalizing control stan-
dards on air emissions from landfills. EPA plans to
propose and finalize the State/Tribal Implementation
Rule in 1992.  The State/Tribal Implementation Rule
will establish standards for State/Tribal permit pro-
grams to ensure that landfills comply with the revised
MSWLF criteria.  The revised financial responsibility
rule is scheduled to be proposed in 1992. This rule will
allow local governments to use their assets to demon-
strate that they possess the financial capacity to meet
the financial assurance tests required to assure finan-
cial coverage of potential damages that may be caused
by future releases and to cover the costs of closure and
post-closure care. The air emissions standards rule,
setting controls for the release of volatile non-methane
organic compounds is scheduled to be promulgated in

  In conjunction with the promulgation of the munici-
pal solid waste landfill criteria, EPA is providing a
series of training programs and a technical reference
manual to assist owner/operators in complying with
the new landfill regulations. Distribution of the train-
ing and manual began during the Summer of 1992. In
addition, EPA is finalizing a booklet that provides an
easy to read explanation of the revised MSWLF criteria
for landfill owner /operators and intends to publish a
brochure that provides a description of the landfill
criteria for the general public. Both publications will
be available in the Fall of 1992. In conjunction with the
State/Tribal Implementation Rule, EPA plans to issue
guidance and conduct a pilot program and training for
State/Tribal officials to assist them in developing ad-
equate permit programs that ensure compliance with
the revised landfill criteria.

   EPA believes it is important to educate consumers
on the proper management of hazardous wastes gen-
erated in the home. Knowledge about hazardous
household products can lead to improved storage, use,
and disposal of these products or the use of safer alter-
natives. EPA  plans to continue to provide public out-
reach and guidance for the safe handling of household
hazardous wastes. A  "how to" guide for setting up a
household hazardous waste collection program will be
developed and published early in 1993. This hand-
book will cover many aspects of implementing house-
hold hazardous waste programs such as selecting
wastes and collection methods, managing collected
wastes, publicizing the program, estimating costs,
selecting a contractor, and other  issues. EPA also will
continue to sponsor an annual household hazardous
waste conference to provide a forum for the discussion
of problems and solutions in the area of household
hazardous wastes.

  To decrease the risks to marine and aquatic animals
from discarded plastic beverage carriers in waterways,
EPA plans to propose a degradable "six-pack ring"
rule. This rule will require all plastic container ring
carriers to be made of degradable materials. EPA
plans to publish the proposed rule in Spring, 1993.

  EPA Regional office activities for promoting sound
waste management will include  Region 8 assistance to
the Northern Cheyenne Tribe for the development of a
recycling feasibility study for the tribe's 400,000 acre,
5,500 population reservation in southeastern Montana.
EPA's Region 10 office has awarded a grant to the
Southwest Alaskan Municipal Conference to conduct
education, outreach, and solid waste technical training
associated with the international treaty on marine
pollution (MARPOL), which encompasses regulations
for the prevention of pollution by garbage from ships.
The education effort is aimed at fishing boat owners
and processors, while the technical assistance is aimed
                              Challenges for the 90's

at the small remote port communities that must handle
the increased level of solid waste from ships; another
grant, to the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commis-
sion, is funding recycling of nylon fishing nets in

  With funding from Region 1, the US. EPA Risk
Reduction Engineering Laboratory and others, the
University of New Hampshire will conduct a study of
teachable lead, cadmium, and other elements found in
incineration residues. Municipal waste combustor
bottom ash and fly ash will be combined with several
types of cement-based stabilization mediums to evalu-
ate the effectiveness of these composites in preventing
leaching of these elements. The effort is being funded
to help ensure the safety of landfilling municipal waste
combustor ash, because approximately 46 percent of
all municipal solid waste in Region 1 is incinerated.

  Region 2 provided a grant to the Center for Safety in
the Arts to develop guidelines for the proper disposal
of hazardous art materials. Region 2 also has provided
technical guidance as well as partial funding in sup-
port of a demonstration of landfill mining techniques
in Edinburg, New York. In addition to reclaiming
much of the mined material, new landfill space was
created by the excavation process.

  Regions 8,9, and 10 will assist tribal governments in
their efforts to comply with the new solid waste
criteria and improve solid waste management prac-
tices on Indian lands. Region 10 will support plans in
Alaska through grants to the State, the Indian associa-
tion and through contractor assistance. The three Re-
gions are working together to develop and distribute
an informational handbook that summarizes EPA's
solid waste criteria. This handbook will explain the
tribes' roles in solid waste planning, and describe vari-
ous alternatives to consider in meeting that role.

  Region 9 plans to help develop a comprehensive
solid waste program for the Tohono CKOdham Reser-
vation in Arizona that provides both an economically
and environmentally acceptable method for storage,
collection, transportation, disposal, and control of solid
waste.  Tribe members will be involved in the planning
process. The plan must be supported by the participat-
ing communities and approved by the Tribal Council.
In developing the plan with the Indian Health Service,
EPA will attempt to create a system that is a self-suffi-
cient, fee-for-service program that can be implemented
and managed by the tribe. Region 9 also plans to as-
sess existing solid waste management on the Pyramid
Lake Paiute Reservation, evaluate the alternatives, and
recommend a solid waste management system.
   In Region 6, the Eight Northern Indian Pueblos
Council is implementing a Solid Waste Management
Planning Project. New Mexico will define Reservation
solid waste management practices, as well as Reserva-
tion Bordering Jurisdiction solid waste practices; solid
waste alternatives in the Council (i.e., recycling, re
stricting marketing of non-recyclable packaging); and
regional intertribal landfills/incineration models.

   Region 5 will help the Leech Lake Reservation Busi-
ness Council develop a closure and post-closure plan
for the Lake Leech landfill. The landfill is known to be
leaking contaminants and is on Minnesota's Super-
fund list The plan also will include alternative man-
agement for the reservation's solid waste.

   Region 2 plans to provide a grant for a permanent
household hazardous waste facility in Burlington
County, New Jersey.  The county will design, permit,
and operate the facility. Region 2 is also providing a
grant to the New Jersey Department of Environmental
Protection for the purpose of developing a training
manual for local government recycling coordinators.

   Region 3 issued a grant to Loudoun County, Vir-
ginia to plan a permanent household hazardous waste
facility and encourage the collection of household
hazardous waste. The grant will be used to plan the
collection program, train the staff on the appropriate
handling of materials, and educate the public.
5.  Foster a Systems Approach to Solid
    Waste Problems


   EPA's popular Decision-Makers Guide to Solid Waste
Management, published in April 1990, is designed to
help local government officials understand solid waste
management problems, identify and evaluate alternatives
for solving these problems, and determine the effect of
potential alternatives on the current solid waste man-
agement system. The guide addresses integrated waste
management decisions in terms of the options, costs,
and issues associated with source reduction, recycling,
composting, and combustion and landfilling.

   To provide an accessible and comprehensive library on
all aspects of municipal solid waste, EPA and the Solid
Waste Association of North America created the Solid
Waste Information Clearinghouse (SWICH). SWICH
includes an electronic bulletin board, as well as phone
Chapter 3 — EPA Activities

access. A toll-free telephone number (1-800-67-SWICH)
can be used to request information and order copies of
available materials.

   In June 1992, EPA sponsored the Second United
States Conference on Municipal Solid Waste Manage-
ment  The three-day conference, attended by more
than 600 people, addressed integrated planning, source
reduction, recycling and composting, combustion, land
disposal, public education, and special wastes. The
Agency published the conference proceedings and has
made them available to the public

   In July of 1990, EPA published a manual entitled,
Sites for Our Solid Waste: A Guidebook for Effective Public
Involvement. The manual is designed to help local
government officials and the public make siting deci-
sions through a more open public involvement pro-

   Region 10 conducted an analysis of the policy issues
facing  state and local decision-makers who are consid-
ering regional options for land disposal, including out-
of-state facilities. This report is final and is available
through the National Technical Information Service.
In addition, EPA conducted four regional workshops
on planning integrated solid waste management solu-
tions. The workshops were designed to foster interac-
tion between state legislators and program officials.

Planned Activities

   The Agency will continue to seek to involve other
Federal agencies in solid waste management planning
activities on both a national and regional level. Recog-
nizing  the potential advantages of integrating local
solid waste management initiatives with the infrastruc-
ture of Federal facilities located throughout its ten
regions, EPA will encourage regional opportunities for
Federal, state, and local cooperative planning.  EPA
will identify successful regional projects and publish
case studies on these projects to share with State and
municipal decisionmakers.

   To further encourage effective planning for inte-
grated  solid waste management at the state and local
levels, the Agency intends to work with government
officials to develop case studies and guidance on cost
accounting and  user fees. EPA will develop this guid-
ance to promote the understanding and use of "true
cost" accounting practices so that local officials can
balance the full costs and benefits of each solid waste
management alternative and implement cost-efficient and
effective integrated plans for managing solid waste.
Foster a Systems Approach to Solid Waste Problems
    EPA Planned Activities and Completion Dates
Publish case studies on facility siting
Publish Volume II of the Decision-Maker's Guide
Develop case studies of 'enterprise fund' operations
Publish a guide to true cost accounting
Fall 1992
Spring 1993
Winter 1992
Spring 1993
Update municipal solid waste characterization study Summer 1992
Publish guidance for local/tribal governments on financing
alternatives for solid waste management programs
Publish case studies on developing regional approaches
to solid waste management
Maintain peer-match program
Fall 1993
Winter 1992
   The Agency currently is developing Volume n of
the Decision-Makers Guide, which will provide technical
information for implementing a chosen solid waste
management approach. Like Volume I, this publica-
tion will be developed with the assistance of a panel of
local decision-makers to ensure that it contains helpful
information for the intended users.

   EPA plans to research and develop regional case
studies on the decisionmaking process for siting alter-
natives. EPA will publish these case studies for distri-
bution to State and municipal officials to assist them in
ongoing and future siting decisions.

   EPA will continue to provide direct, hands-on assis-
tance to state and local solid waste managers through
the Agency's peer matching program. This program
brings state and local solid waste management officials
who are seeking solutions to particular solid waste
problems, together with other state or local officials
who have successfully developed programs in re-
sponse to similar problems.

   Knowledge about the waste stream is critical for all
aspects of municipal solid waste management. EPA
will continue to update the municipal solid waste char-
acterization study. The next update of this study will
be published in Summer 1992 and will contain data
through 1990. EPA will also continue to maintain and
update the SWICH bulletin board and library so that
all MSW decisionmakers can continue to have access
to current and timely information on all aspects of
MSW management.
                               Challenges for the 90's

   Region 2 provided a grant to INFORM for the pur-
pose of developing source reduction criteria for evalu-
ating local solid waste management plans in New
York State.

   In Region 6, the New Mexico Health and Environ-
ment Department is developing a pilot outreach pro-
gram to educate officials in 33 counties regarding the
development of a solid waste management program
which incorporates the principles of source reduction,
reuse, and recycling.

   Region 10, through a grant to the University of Or-
egon, has developed a handbook for local communi-
ties to use in developing contracts either with a re-
gional landfill or with neighboring communities for a
regional disposal facility. A series of workshops to
present the handbook and discuss how to develop
contracts that protect the public interest will follow.

   EPA Region 4 is providing assistance to all five
Tribal communities within the region to develop solid
waste management plans. This is considered a first
step in helping the Tribes manage their solid waste
more effectively.
6.  Institt an Environmental Ethic


   Through the development and distribution of
manuals and brochures, the Agency advises house-
holds, businesses, government, and industry on envi-
ronmentally sound purchasing and solid waste man-
agement. Examples of EPA informational materials
developed to increase public awareness and participa-
tion include how-to pamphlets and brochures on
safely changing automotive oil and recycling used oil;
elementary and high school curriculum guides that
promote source reduction and recycling; and radio
and television public service announcements on the
importance of recycling, including an announcement
developed with the US. Forest Service entitled, The

   EPA joined with the U.S. Office of Consumer Af-
fairs and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to form
an Interagency Task Force on Environmental Market-
ing Claims to enhance and coordinate environmental
labeling and communications activities currently tak-
ing place in each individual agency. As an initial step
to address a key subject in this area, EPA published a
Federal Register notice in October 1991 presenting op-
tions for definitions and guidelines for the use of the
           Instill an Environmental Ethic
   EPA Planned Activities and Completion Dates
Prepare a guide for journalists on reporting of
solid waste issues
Conduct and support targeted media campaigns to
educate public on source reduction and recycling
Encourage voluntary implementation of national
guidelines for use of the terms 'recycled content*
and 'recyclable'
Produce a television documentary on national solid
waste issues
Winter 1992
Winter 1992
Winter 1992
terms "recycled" and "recyclable" in product labeling
and advertising. A public meeting was held in No-
vember 1991 to collect public comments to the guid-
ance options.

   EPA worked with the Environmental Defense Fund
(EDF) and the Ad Council on a three-year campaign to
promote recycling. In conjunction with the Ad
Council, EDF produced several recycling public ser-
vice announcements (PSAs) which aired on local tele-
vision and radio stations nationwide and appeared in
print media. In 1991, exposure of the radio, television,
and print PSAs were the highest among all Ad Council

   On October 1-2,1991, EPA Region 3 sponsored an
environmental labeling conference in Baltimore, MD to
explore issues related to environmental marketing
claims. The Conference, attended by over 250 govern-
ment officials, industry representatives, environmental
interest groups, academicians, and citizens, featured
prominent international and national speakers.

   The  Colorado Office of Energy Conservation and
Region 8 produced the video "How the Waste Was
Won" to educate citizens on the importance of both
"precycling" and the use of recycled products. For
Earth Day, Region 1 distributed EPA documents on
solid waste to libraries throughout New England.

   EPA's Region 8 office assisted 4 Denver metropoli-
tan area school districts, under the leadership of the
Aurora Public Schools, to develop Municipal Solid
Waste Management. Teacher's Resource Manual, a
curriculum for grades K-12. The Aurora district was
awarded the 1991 Administrator's Award for Recy-
cling for the curriculum which has been widely distrib-
uted both within the Region and to other Regions.

   Region 10 is also working with state and local gov-
ernments and a local television station to promote
Chapter 3 — EPA Activities

nonresidential waste reduction and procurement of
recycled materials. The campaign ran during October
and November 1990 and included a series of public
service announcements on waste reduction tips and
distribution of a free resource guide to help inform
people about waste reduction. Follow-up included a
waste reduction workshop for retailers (held October
1991), where voluntary packaging guidelines were
developed and adopted.

Planned Activities

   EPA believes that environmental claims used in
product marketing should be specific, substantive, and
supported by reliable evidence. Such claims may en-
sure a marketplace in which manufacturers want to
compete and can compete effectively on the basis of
their product's environmental attributes. Several
states, industries, and public interest groups have ad-
dressed this issue by developing definitions and regu-
lations for terms such as "recycled," "recyclable," and
"reusable." To encourage consistency in the use of
these types of terms, EPA intends to continue working
with the FTC to develop voluntary national guidelines
for the terms "recycled content" and "recyclable." The
guidelines will address how these terms may be used
on product labels in a non-misleading way. In
conjunction with this effort, EPA will develop a series
of fact sheets on the use of labelling terms for public

   Current Agency plans are to encourage the incorpo-
ration of environmental curricula into required school
programs. As the nation recognizes the immediacy
and the proportions of our municipal solid waste man-
agement dilemma, we also realize that our educational
system can be strengthened by using curricula that
promote responsible consumer behavior and establish
a dear educational and career path in materials and
solid waste management, resource recovery, and re-
lated technologies.

   EPA recognizes that television, newspapers, and
other media are powerful public education tools that
can influence decision-making. The Agency will con-
tinue to work with media representatives to provide
reporters with background for knowledgeable, accu-
rate, in-depth reporting on municipal solid waste
problems and solutions. EPA will produce a "report-
ers guide" to solid waste management and will invite
reporters to EPA conferences and workshops so that
there is ample opportunity to become familiar with
activities in the field of integrated solid waste manage-
ment In addition, the Agency will continue to publish
its MSW newsletter, "Reuseable News" to keep the
public up to date on recycling opportunities, to an-
nounce EPA MSW initiatives, and to provide informa-
tion on the availability of environmentally sound
products and technologies.

   EPA also will develop information to educate the
general public on municipal solid waste problems and
solutions. As mentioned previously, EPA is develop-
ing an informational brochure on the newly revised
MSWLF criteria for the general public. EPA will also
send a message to households, businesses, industry,
and governments to integrate source reduction and
recycling efforts into their daily decisions and work
ethic. In conjunction with the media campaign, EPA
will continue to publish and distribute materials tar-
geted to the general public on source reduction.  EPA
will work with the League of Women Voters to pro-
duce a "citizen guide" to solid waste management.
This guide will help citizens join with public officials in
making well informed decisions on solid waste issues.

   EPA is working with Maryland Public Television to
produce a one-hour documentary on national munici-
pal solid waste issues. In four segments, the documen-
tary focuses on the amounts of municipal solid waste
generated and why these numbers are increasing; the
problems identified with siting landfills and combus-
tion facilities; grassroots efforts to recycle, and the new
industry recycling is spawning; and future methods
being devised to deal with the solid waste generated.
The show will be distributed to PBS stations nation-
wide in early 1993.

   Region 2 and Region 3 also are developing educa-
tional/outreach materials.  Region 3 is funding a
grant to the American Research Institute to promote
recycling through the development of a curriculum,
an interactive computer program, and mobile recy-
cling demonstrations directed at the K-12 grade lev-
els. Region 2 will develop  instruction materials and
will conduct teacher training workshops in an effort
to help the Environmental  Action Coalition train
New York City teachers in instructing these students
about recycling and solid waste disposal issues. The
teachers will also be allowed to develop separate
recycling courses.
                              Challenges for the 90's

 Introduction:  Part I I
   Effective municipal solid waste management is
contingent on a viable partnership among govern-
ment, industry and the public. States, localities, the
waste management industry, manufacturers and dis-
tributors, public interest groups, and Federal agencies
are demonstrating a strong commitment to reducing
and efficiently managing our nation's municipal solid
waste. Part n serves to recognize and describe efforts
and initiatives undertaken by each of these groups in
meeting the challenges posed by municipal solid
waste. The accomplishments and future plans pre-
sented are a sampling of the activities taking place
throughout the country. This document does not
present an exhaustive listing of municipal solid waste
initiatives; however, the purpose is to point out that
progress is being made and successful solutions are
already being implemented at all levels.

   In developing Part n, EPA conducted interviews to
solicit information from representatives of other Fed-
eral government agencies, State and local government
officials, the packaging and product manufacturing
industries, distributors, and public interest groups.
Additionally, a national meeting was held into gather
information regarding the current and planned efforts
that each of these constituencies are undertaking to
help relieve the national municipal solid waste prob-
lem. This meeting also offered EPA broad perspec-
tives on current trends in solid waste management and
future solid waste initiatives. Appendix B lists the
individuals and associations interviewed, including
those invited to the meeting. During the interviewing
process and at the national meeting, many representa-
tives provided EPA with copies of informational mate-
rials and public outreach brochures and pamphlets.
Many of these materials illustrate the current activities
undertaken and the progress made by all levels of
government, industry, and public interest groups. The
following chapters reflect the input of these groups
and describe their own assessment of their activities,
goals, and future efforts to manage our nation's mu-
nicipal solid waste.
Chapter 4 — States

28                                                                                                Challenges for the 90's

4.  States
    L  Introduction

       To varying degrees, states are tackling the solid
    waste problem by enacting new solid waste planning
    and recycling legislation, increasing funds for educa-
    tion programs, purchasing products made from re-
    cycled materials, and providing grants for special
    projects. In most states, a major goal for the future is to
    encourage the development of markets for recycled
    materials. Many states are examining opportunities to
    encourage source reduction.  Simultaneously, states
    are taking steps to improve combustor and landfill
    management. Some states have adopted innovative,
    comprehensive solid waste programs that address
    financing, problem wastes, siting, interstate transport,
    and other issues such as lead-acid battery, scrap tire,
    and yard waste disposal.

       This chapter describes some of the efforts under-
    taken by state organizations and individual states.
    Future activities are also discussed. The last section
    concerns additional efforts that states are encouraged
    to consider undertaking to advance integrated solid
    waste management programs.
    n. Current Activities
       The latter part of
       dramatic rise In
       state legislation
       integrated solid
       waste manage*
       ment planning.
   The latter part of the
1980's saw a dramatic rise in
state legislation mandating
integrated solid waste man-
agement planning, or at
least planning for certain
portions of the municipal
solid waste management
framework. The following
trends can be observed in
    recent State legislation:
       • Mandated integrated solid waste management
         planning on a statewide, region-wide, or com-
         munity basis.

       • States are either requiring municipalities to insti-
         tute recycling programs or designating recycling
         goals and allowing local governments to design
         appropriate programs for reaching those goals.

       • Disposal bans on specific wastes, such as lead-
         acid batteries and yard wastes, are becoming
                                   more common. Twenty-six states and the Dis-
                                   trict of Columbia have implemented such bans.

                                 • State procurement agencies are increasingly
                                   preferring goods made from recycled materials.

                                 • The use of pre-disposal fees on certain products
                                   is expanding. Advance disposal fees on tires are
                                   the most common use of this mechanism.

                                 • State recycling goals are increasing, with some
                                   states aiming at rates as high as 50 percent.
                                   Twenty-eight states and the District of Columbia
                                   now have recycling goals.

                                 • In some cases, goal-setting also is being man-
                                   dated for source reduction. At least twelve states
                                   have source reduction goals.

                                 The emerging trends in state activities related to
                              planning, increasing source reduction and recycling,
                              and reducing risks from combustion and landfilling
                              are presented below with examples of specific state
                              programs illustrating the types of innovative programs
                              being planned and implemented.

   Many states are adopting integrated municipal solid
waste management systems and are taking a compre-
hensive approach to planning. State officials also have
an intense desire to enhance their knowledge base and
to educate local decision-makers about integrated
municipal solid waste management. Registration for
existing conferences and the development of new con-
ferences on municipal solid waste management is on
the rise across the country.  For instance, the Council of
State Governments (CSG) and EPA co-sponsored a
series of meetings on integrated solid waste manage-
ment, and CSG devoted one of its focus sessions to
solid waste issues during its annual meeting. The
National Association of Regional Councils, along with
EPA and others, sponsored a pilot multi-state work-
shop for states with critical municipal solid waste man-
agement problems (Connecticut, Kentucky, New Jer-
sey, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania). This work-
shop provided an opportunity for local officials, public
and private providers of municipal solid waste man-
agement services, Federal and state officials, and pub-
lic interest groups and citizens to explore together the
    Chapter 4 —States

                            Cities and states in
                            the East are finding
                            It critical to Jointly
                            pursue source
                            reduction and
                            recycling as a high
range of options in mu-
nicipal solid waste man-
agement. To further en-
hance communication
among the constituents,
states are establishing
more open information-
sharing mechanisms, such
as electronic dealing-
houses, peer-matching programs, and information
networks for waste management firms, concerned
citizens, and industry.

  With the lines of communication strengthened, the
potential for establishing effective regional solutions to
the municipal solid waste problem has become a real-
ity in the past few years. The term "regkmalization"
can be used to describe multistate efforts or
multicommunity efforts within a state. States and
communities are finding it essential, from an economic
viewpoint, to share costs for solid waste management
across a broader area. Regional planning can accom-
modate specific regional characteristics. For instance,
in predominantly rural states and counties, regional
landfills are a good substitute for many small, local
landfills. Also, cities and states in the East are finding
it critical to jointly pursue source reduction and recy-
cling as a high priority and are looking toward appli-
cations of combustion technology. Interstate transport
issues are becoming more critical as states move to
reserve their dwindling landfill capacity; regional solu-
tions are becoming necessary to resolve these issues.
Examples of the move toward regionalization include
the following:

   •  The National Association of Regional Councils
     (NARC) is developing guidance on how to estab-
     lish regional associations to plan for and imple-
     ment solutions to solid waste management chal-
     lenges. NARC plans to incorporate case studies
     of successful regional efforts in the guidance.
     This effort is being funded through an EPA grant
     to NARC.

  •  The North Central Texas Council of Govern-
     ments covers a 16-county area. Its solid waste
     advisory committee, which includes representa-
     tives from local governments, private industry
     and environmental organizations, assessed the
     area's solid waste needs and devised ten regional
     priorities to guide the development of a regional
     municipal solid  waste management plan.

  •  The Southern Partnership for Managing Waste is
     a public-private partnership covering 16 states in
the Southeast and Southwest This group in-
cludes 1/430 counties, which contain 385 percent
of the US. population. Its chief mission, sup-
ported by a combination of grant money from
EPA and private funds, is to provide technical
assistance to local governments and to share
public education tools, such as public service
announcements. In addition, contracts for re-
search will be available to universities. The
group hopes to establish a strong network that
will help avoid duplication of efforts by states
and localities.

The Western States Recycling Coalition (WSRC),
affiliated with the Council of State Governments,
serves to distribute and exchange information on
the status of source reduction and recycling pro-
grams throughout the region, focusing primarily
on the development, stimulation, and stabiliza-
tion of markets for products made with recycled

The West Central Nebraska Development Dis-
trict launched a regional planning effort calling
for the construction of one regional landfill, with
a materials recovery facility on-site. This is in
stark contrast to their current system,  which
includes 64 landfills for this sparsely-populated
18-county area.

The Coalition of Northeastern Governors
(CONEG) is a nine-state consortium dedicated to
coordinating efforts on a regional basis by pro-
viding guidance that can be used consistently by
all its members. Source reduction in packaging
is one of the areas targeted by CONEG for inves-
tigation and guidance development.

The Idaho legislature passed legislation encour-
aging and enabling the formation of regional
solid waste districts, composed of counties that
join forces to plan, implement, and sell bonds to
finance solid waste management.
                                                      Source Reduction

                                                        There is a definite trend in state legislatures to ex-
                                                      amine the potential for source reduction in solid waste
                                                      management planning. State source reduction efforts
                                                      include adopting source reduction goals either
                                                      through legislation or policy directives, instituting
                                                      programs requiring the elimination of toxic constitu-
                                                      ents from manufacturing operations, implementing
                                                      disposal/incineration bans for specific items, and re-
                                                                                    Challenges for the 90's

searching environmental
and energy effects of con-
sumer products and pack-

   The following list pro-
vides examples of state
source reduction activi-

   •  CONEG's Source
     Reduction Council
     drafted model legis-
     lation that bans
     certain heavy metals
     from packaging and
     necessitates the use
     of less toxic substi-
     tutes. The legisla-
     tion contains tempo-
State source reduction
efforts Include adopt-
ing source reduction
goals either through
legislation or policy
directives, instituting
programs requiring the
elimination of toxic
constituents from
manufacturing opera-
tions, implementing
bans for specific Items,
and researching envi-
ronmental and energy
effects of consumer
products and
     rary exemptions that lessen the impact on
     the recycling industry; the restrictions do not
     apply to packages made from recycled materials
     (e.g., aluminum cans made from scrap alumi-
     num). The restrictions also do not apply where
     there are no substitutes, such as lead packaging
     for film, x-rays, and radioactive materials. The
     legislation also contains a provision allowing
     states to add other toxic materials to the list of
     banned metals. This legislation has passed in
     nine states and is pending in eleven others.

     The National Governors' Association's Solid
     Waste Report recommended a national 10 per-
     cent source reduction goal.

     Maine instituted an industry self-help program
     called WASTECAP whereby teams of business
     community volunteers experienced in solid
     waste management visit requesting companies to
     assess opportunities for waste reduction. The
     Maine Chamber of Commerce and Industry is
     working with the state's Office of Waste Reduc-
     tion and Recycling to develop this program.
     Maine plans to establish a waste reduction infor-
     mation clearinghouse and a waste exchange
     service, and to use newsletters from the Chamber
     of Commerce, the Northeast Recycling Council,
     the Maine Solid Waste Management and Recov-
     ery Association, and EPA to keep up with cur-
     rent technical developments in source reduction.

     Rhode Island  provides technical assistance on the
     development of source reduction programs and
     requires businesses to conduct waste audits.
     Businesses also are required to comply with the
     state source reduction/recycling guidelines.

   • New York's program sets an 8 to 10 percent
     source reduction goal by 1997. The state has
     established a grant program to assist local plan-
     ning units in meeting the cost of developing solid
     waste management plans.

   • California Bill AB 939, which became effective in
     January 1990, set source reduction and recycling
     goals and required counties to submit waste
     management plans to the state.

   • Wisconsin passed a recycling law that requires
     the reduction of toxics in packaging.

   • Pennsylvania presents awards to individuals,
     companies, or municipalities for successful
     source reduction efforts.

   • Minnesota legislation limits the amount of mer-
     cury in alkaline manganese batteries to 0.025
     percent by weight,  In addition, manufacturers of
     rechargeable tools and appliances must make the
     battery packs easily removable for recharging.

                                                     A total of 125
                                                     recycling laws were
                                                     passed In 1989 in 37
                                                     states and the
                                                     District of Columbia.
   State efforts in recy-
cling increased dramati-
cally over the past few
years, with many more
comprehensive recycling
programs being struc-      ^~"""""11~"""^^~^^
tured and supported at the state rather than commu-
nity level. A total of 125 recycling laws were passed in
1989 in 37 states and the District of Columbia.  The
primary initiatives undertaken by states to encourage
recycling include:

   • Passing legislation dealing with specific materials
     such as used oil, tires, and batteries; requiring
     minimum recycled content in newsprint; and
     providing for deposit and take-back systems for
     lead-acid batteries.

   • Establishing statewide goals or mandates for

   • Banning recyclable materials from landfills.

   • Providing incentive programs such as procure-
     ment preferences and tax credits for products
     with recycled content.
Chapter 4 —States

   By the end of 1989,
   24 states had
   recycling goals,
   with roughly half of
   those states aiming
   at goals higher than
   25 percent
                             States are adopting
                           higher recycling goals. In
                           1989,40 to 50 percent
                           recycling goals were
                           adopted, rather than the
                           20 to 25 percent goals of a
                           few years ago.  By the end
                           of 1989,24 states had
                           recycling goals, with
roughly half of those states aiming at goals higher than
25 percent, according to a BioCycle magazine survey.
A task force formed by Governor Florio of New Jersey
recommended a 60 percent recycling goal by 1995.

   States are recognizing the importance of finding
sustained markets for recycled materials. Instead of
simply mandating recycling, states are exploring meth-
ods to encourage the development of markets. Many
states are beginning to implement programs for gov-
ernment procurement of products with recycled con-
tent to guarantee stable markets for recycled materials.
Procurement policies in many states include price
preferences  that allow state agencies to pay between
five and ten percent more for products with  recycled
content  Twelve states established goals to increase
purchases of recycled products. These goals usually
apply to paper and paper products; however, in three
states, the goals apply to all state purchases.  In Illinois,
37,000 state telephone directories and 5.8 million state
tax forms and booklets  were printed on recycled pa-
per. Table 4-1, prepared by the National Solid Wastes
Management Association, summarizes purchasing
goals established by twelve states.

   At least six states require the use of newsprint con-
taining various percentages of recycled paper. Con-
necticut legislation mandates the preparation of a plan
by the Commissioner of Economic Development that
shows how existing state development programs can
be used to support Connecticut industries that use
recycled materials. The plan lays out  explicit imple-
mentation steps with target dates for each of the state's
three development agencies. The plan's purpose is to
stimulate in-state markets for the state's recoverable
materials in a manner that aids job creation and reten-
tion. One of the plan's many recommendations is that
the state fully use its four existing boxboard mills so
that the stockpile of old newspapers can be diminished.

  The increasing use of materials recovery facilities
(MRFs) serves to ensure that the volume of recyclables
going into landfills and combustors is reduced and
that disposal capacity is conserved. State and regional
authorities are sponsoring the construction of MRFs.
In January 1990, for example, the State of Massachu-
                                                        Table 4-1.  Purchasing Goals for Recycling Products
New Hampshire
New Jersey
50% by 1996
40% by 2000
40% by 1995
90% by 2000
40% by 1996
5% over 5 years
25% over 5 years
50% by 1993
50% by 1991
60% by 2000
15% by 2000
10% by 1991
25% by 1992
40% by 1996
45% by 1989
40% by 1994
40% by 1993
40% by 1995
paper and paper products;
printing and writing papers;
all products
printing and writing paper
paper and paper products
all products;
paper and paper products
paper products;
motor oil
paper products
all products
paper and paper products

Source: National Solid Wastes Management Association
                                                       California, Louisiana, Maine, Michigan, Missouri, and New Jersey have
                                                       both price preferences and purchasing goals.

                                                       setts opened a regional MRF in Springfield. Within
                                                       two weeks, Springfield was diverting 28 percent of its
                                                       waste from the regional combustion facility. A house-
                                                       hold participation rate of 80 to 90 percent was cited as
                                                       the key factor in the MRFs early success.

                                                         States are also using various kinds of incentive pro-
                                                       grams to encourage the establishment of a viable recy-
                                                       cling industry. These mechanisms include low interest
                                                       loans, grants, tax credits, and tax exemptions for recy-
                                                       cling firms and industries using recycled materials in
                                                       their products. Table 4-2 summarizes some of the
                                                       incentive mechanisms established thus far.

                                                         A tool that is increasingly used to encourage recy-
                                                       cling is the pre-disposal fee. Pre-disposal fees, placed
                                                       on products such as tires, lubricating oil, batteries,
                                                       antifreeze, and organic
                                                       solvents, are used to sub-
                                                       sidize recycling programs
                                                       or support recycling tech-
                                                       nology research. For
                                                       example, in 1989 Florida
                                                       imposed a 50-cent tax on
                                                       each new tire purchased
                                                       in the state. The tax was
                                                       increased to $1.00 in 1990.
                                                       The funds will finance
                                                       scrap-tire reprocessing facilities, recycling research,
                                                       and grants to local governments for scrap-tire manage-
Caref ul planning,
with attention given
to Incentives that
ensure markets for
recycled goods, will
continue to expand
the role of recycling
In solid waste
                                                                                      Challenges for the 90's

ment Virginia also adopted a similar program that
taxes tires. The funds are used to encourage recycling
programs. Also in Florida, if a 50 percent recycling
rate for glass, plastic, aluminum, and other metal con-
tainers is not achieved by 1992, a tax of $0.01 per con-
tainer will be imposed. The tax will increase to $0.02
per container if the 50 percent recycling rate has not
been met by 1995. Wisconsin passed a recycling law
that includes a tire disposal provision and requires
consumers to pay a $10 fee on the purchase price of
each new auto and $2 for each new tire.

   By 1991, thirty-six states had tire recycling laws.
Many States are encouraging the development and
utilization of products made from scrap tires.
Missouri's solid waste management bill includes a
market development provision under which the state
highway department will test asphalt mixed with tire-
derived rubber in a demonstration paving project.
Alaska, New York, and New Jersey are presently using
a process called PlusRide, developed by PaveTech in
Seattle, Washington. PlusRide uses half inch chips of
scrap tires as a replacement for an aggregate in asphalt

   Effective July 1,1990, Utah developed a per-tire
graduated tax on all tire sales including new car sales.
Monies generated from the tax are deposited in a recy-
cling fund. Recyders can receive from the fund up to
$20 per ton for use on products manufactured
containing tire-derived materials, including tire-de-
rived fuel. Oregon, Wisconsin, and Oklahoma have
similar programs.

   Another method that states are increasingly imple-
menting to help reach recycling goals is composting of
yard waste and municipal solid waste. State regula-
tions and development programs create a positive
climate for composting programs. For example, states
such as Florida, Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, New Jersey,
North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin all
have passed legislation banning some yard wastes
from landfills. In California, the Integrated Waste
Management Act of 1989 guaranteed markets for com-
post by requiring buyers of commercial fertilizers to
document reasons why they do not purchase compost
products.  The responsibility for setting up a compost-
ing program for these wastes, however, rests with each
locality. Two problems that slow the development of
markets for municipal solid waste compost products
are the lack of standards for compost, and the time
required to test and classify the composts. Currently,
transporting compost is not always cost-effective,
which may slow the development of markets for yard
waste products.
Combustion and LandfUUng

   State programs are being developed and updated to
reduce the health and environmental risks from land-
filling and combustion.  One mechanism that may
reduce risks of landfilling and combusting recyclable
wastes is the use of disposal bans. A summary of dis-
posal bans and combustion and landfilling activities
that are being implemented to reduce health and envi-
ronmental risks follows.

Disposal Bans

   Disposal bans have had the effect of fostering the
recycling of a material or prompting product redesign
or discontinuation. Bans on the disposal of products
containing heavy metals can reduce the concentration
of constituents of concern, such as lead and cadmium,
in combustion ash and landfill leachate. Lead-acid
batteries are most frequently targeted, as illustrated by
the 38 states that enacted legislation outlawing their
disposal in landfills and combustors. Mandatory take-
back programs being implemented in 24 states arid
consumer education are important factors in the reduc-
    Table 4-2. State Financial Incentives to Use
   Recycled Materials in the Production of Goods
        Sales Tax
Grants   Exemption
 New Jersey
 New York
 North Carolina
(A) Oregon has three separate tax credits that pertain to market
Chapter 4 —States

   batteries are
   most frequently
   targeted in
   disposal bans;
   38 states have
   outlawing their
   disposal in
   landfills and
                      tion of lead and cadmium in
                      landfills. The disposal of
                      "white goods" (e.g., appli-
                      ances) is prohibited in North
                      Carolina, Minnesota, and
                      Florida.  Connecticut has a
                      comprehensive list of materi-
                      als banned from disposal:
                      leaves, lead-acid batteries,
                      used motor oil, scrap metal,
                      corrugated cardboard, news-
                      paper, glass and metal food
                      containers, and white office
                      paper. In 1993, nickel-cad-
mium batteries will be added to  Connecticut's list.
Wisconsin also has an extensive  disposal ban that will
eliminate 15 items from landfills by 1995.


   Increased state activities in the area of municipal
waste combustion have been necessitated by the recog-
nition that landfill capacity is diminishing and that
new landfills are increasingly difficult to site.  Recent
efforts by states include the adoption of ash manage-
ment regulations, bans on incineration of specific prod-
ucts, and operator training and certification programs.
While states generally do not mandate operator
certification on a statewide basis, there is an increas-
ing recognition of the value of these programs at the
state level.

   The Association of State and Territorial Solid Waste
Management Officials (ASTSWMO)is encouraging the
adoption of enhanced RCRA Subtitle D provisions for
the safe management of combustor ash. States have
conducted comprehensive studies of combustor per-
formance and emissions testing.  The Northeast Waste
Management Officials Association organized a techni-
cal workgroup to focus on ash issues.


   States recognize that even with increased emphasis
on source reduction and recycling, landfills will con-
tinue to play a major  role in the management of solid
waste. Over the past few years, states have been
adopting more stringent landfill  regulatory programs.
States also have made progress in making landfills
safer by instituting disposal bans, as discussed previ-
ously, to reduce many of the toxic metals in landfill
leachate.  Many states banned or are in the process of
banning scrap  tires from landfills. Since January 1990,
Kansas, Missouri, Pennsylvania, and Vermont have
The Increasing trend
toward landfill
operator training
and certification
will lead to safer
operating practices
at landfills and
passed laws banning the
disposal of either whole
tires or any form of scrap
tires in landfills. States
also have played a key
role in helping EPA de-
vise new standards for
landfills. State permit
programs will be para-
mount in ensuring that
facilities comply with the newly revised Criteria for
municipal solid waste landfills. As with combustion,
the increasing trend toward landfill operator training
and certification will lead to safer operating practices
at landfills.
                                                      m. Future State Initiatives and Goals

                                                         States are taking'on a greater responsibility to en-
                                                      sure that waste management planning is conducted
                                                      within a broad context, and encouraging the mea-
                                                      surement of full impacts of alternatives while search-
                                                      ing for options that are both economically and envi-
                                                      ronmentally sound. Given the accelerated rate of pas-
                                                      sage of new legislation related to solid waste manage-
                                                      ment, state agencies will be busy writing new regula-
                                                      tions and developing programs to implement the new
                                                      statutory mandates.

                                                         States have identified several solid waste manage-
                                                      ment activities and goals for the future. States want to
                                                      contribute to the formulation of national policies that
                                                      will affect waste management at the state level.  State
                                                      participation is essential to the success of the state
                                                      municipal landfill implementation rule to ensure com-
                                                      pliance with the newly revised landfill standards.

                                                         State governments also recognize their responsibil-
                                                      ity to exchange information openly with both local and
                                                      Federal governments to facilitate coordination of ef-
                                                      forts and to avoid duplication. This is especially im-
                                                      portant for technology research and pilot tests for new
                                                      programs. States believe an electronic bulletin board
                                                      may facilitate up-to-date information exchange. As a
                                                      specific future activity, ASTSWMO is planning a major
                                                      research project to determine the status and organiza-
                                                      tion of state solid waste management  programs.
                                                      ASTSWMO plans to evaluate relevant organizational
                                                      data and procedures. The purpose of the study is to
                                                      assess the current status of state programs, determine
                                                      what common elements occur across states, and iden-
                                                      tify the strong and the weak points of state programs.
                                                      The results of the study can be used by all levels of
                                                                                     Challenges for the 90's

   Rhode Island currently
   operates an ambitious
   commercial recycling
   program requiring
   businesses to separate
   glass, tin-coated steel,
   aluminum, high-density
   polyethylene (HOPE),
   milk containers,
   polyethylene tereph-
   ttialate (PETE) soda
   containers, newspapers,
   corrugated cardboard,
   and mixed office paper.
government in determining what elements do and do
not need improvement and how states have dealt prac-
tically with problem areas.

   Many states have targeted commercial recycling as
a major endeavor. Rhode Island currently operates an
ambitious commercial recycling program requiring
businesses to separate glass, tin-coated steel, alumi-
num, high-density polyethylene (HOPE) milk contain-
ers, polyethylene terephthalate (PETE) soda contain-
ers, newspaper, corrugated cardboard, and mixed
                             office paper. Compa-
                             nies over a certain
                             size are required to
                             submit a source re-
                             plan to the state. Dis-
                             posal facilities are
                             required to have a
                             mechanism to restrict
                             recydables from en-
                             tering the facility.
                             Employer coopera-
                             tion in developing
                             and submitting plans
                             has been excellent
                             Rhode Island will be
                             evaluating the success
of the program and will then share the results with
other states. States also plan to continue the trend of
upgrading and implementing procurement guidelines
to guarantee consistent markets for recycled materials.

   State highway departments and contractors have a
chance to increase tire recycling by using rubberized
asphalt in highway projects. States also are looking
into other uses for their scrap tires. The State of Ohio
has granted $250,000 to the Ohio EPA, the Department
of Environmental Resources (DER), and a local coal
company to study the feasibility of using shredded
tires as monofill in abandoned coal mines. The Minne-
sota Pollution Control Agency and the Minnesota
Departments of Transportation and Natural Resources
are planning a bike trail made from rubber-asphalt.

   The Illinois Department of Energy and Natural
Resources' Office of Solid Waste and Renewable Re-
sources awarded a low-interest loan to D&L Rubber
Works of Hindsboro, Illinois to expand an existing
used tire processing facility. The company will pur-
chase tire shredding equipment, and the final product
will be used by manufacturers to produce items such
as industrial floor mats and surface-grade railroad
crossings. The loan revenue was administrated by the
                                                                                State representa-
                                                                                tives believe that
                                                                                full Information
                                                                                about the true costs
                                                                                of various waste
                                                                                alternatives Is vital
                                                                                If communities and
                                                                                Individuals are to
                                                                                make wise choices
                                                                                about their specific
Illinois Used Tire Man-
agement Fund, which is
financed by a 50 cent
surcharge on vehicle
title transfers.

   In addition to sup-
porting technology
transfer and informa-
tion-sharing for official
decision makers, states
are committed to con-
ducting educational
programs for the public.
Source reduction has
been specifically targeted because it is the least familiar
component of integrated solid waste management to
the public. State representatives believe that full infor-
mation about the true costs of various waste manage-
ment alternatives is vital if communities and individu-
als are to make wise choices about their specific pro-
grams. States want to continue investigating more
possibilities for source reduction within the planning
process. State waste management officials must con-
sider any cross-media effects that may be created by
source reduction, such as increased toxicity or adverse
effects on recycling programs.

   States also recognize their role in providing techni-
cal assistance to localities during the development of
waste management plans. Regional and local plans
should be reviewed to maintain consistency with state
goals. Finally, states are encouraged to build upon
their working partnership with EPA so that efforts can
be focused on coordinating research efforts, designing
and implementing educational programs, and work-
ing toward the development of complementary na-
tional, state and local goals.
                                                     IV. State Challenges

                                                        EPA applauds the progress that states have made in
                                                     advancing better solid waste management planning,
                                                     and encourages states to continue their progress, in-
                                                     cluding both intrastate and multistate, regional plan-
                                                     ning. States can in turn encourage localities and re-
                                                     gional authorities to develop and implement compre-
                                                     hensive plans that look perhaps 10 years into the fu-
                                                     ture. EPA encourages the consideration of creative
                                                     financing mechanisms, such as public-private partner-
                                                     ships, to fund comprehensive solid waste management
                                                     plans. EPA also encourages states to involve industry
                                                     at the planning stage. States can also foster a systems
Chapter 4 — States

                           States can foster a
                           systems approach to
                           solid waste problems
                           by devoting
                           resources to the
                           timely siting of
                           recycling facilities,
                           landfills, and
approach to solid waste
problems by devoting
resources to the timely
siting of recycling facili-
ties, landfills, and

   EPA encourages more
states to establish source
reduction as the first
priority for solid waste
management as a means of cost-effectively minimiz-
ing waste generation. The establishment of source
reduction programs at institutions, schools, hospi-
tals, and other public facilities could reduce waste
generation rates. In particular, state offices are en-
couraged to institute in-house source reduction ac-
tivities such as double-sided copying and procure-
ment of concentrated or bulk-packaged goods, and
to consider the use of reusable cafeteria supplies,
such as plates, trays and utensils, where appropri-
ate. vJt is important, however, to determine the ef-
fects that actions such as dishwashing can have on
other areas of the environment. States are also en-
couraged to provide technical assistance to localities
by suggesting materials and methods amenable to
source reduction.  Local governments also may seek
out opportunities to work with businesses and in-
dustries to encourage, where feasible, the use of less
packaging, more refillable packages, and bulk pack-
aging. States can encourage businesses, industry,
and institutions to audit their waste streams and
process lines to identify opportunities for source
reduction and recycling.

   States can assume many active roles in developing
markets for recyclable materials. States are encour-
aged to consider the use of affirmative procurement
programs across a variety of products to bolster the
market for recycled goods through state agency pro-
curement. Furthermore, states are encouraged to
stimulate the market for recycled materials by imple-
menting existing procurement guidelines for goods
and materials with recycled content. EPA encourages
state governments to make a concerted effort to sur-
pass the minimum content standards in the established
procurement guidelines and to adopt procurement
policies across a variety of products and markets.
States are encouraged to lend assistance to localities
that are trying to establish markets for recycled materi-

   Efforts to stimulate in-state markets for materials
recovered from a state's solid waste stream can pay
dividends in job creation and retention, as well as in
solid waste management and economic development.
States have entire agencies dedicated to economic
development, and their efforts can be harnessed to
take advantage of opportunities to help new and exist-
ing businesses realize the advantages of using recov-
ered materials as a lower-cost, reliable feedstock. The
availability of these efficient inputs could make the
state an attractive loca-
tion for a new business
or industrial facility.  The
State of Connecticut is
pursuing economic de-
velopment through its
States are
encouraged to
consider the use of
preference programs
                                                                               to bolster markets
                                                                               for recycled goods.
Plan for the Development
of Connecticut Markets for
Recovered Material. Also,
the State of
Washington's Department of Trade and Economic
Development is implementing recommendations from
task forces on recycling market problems and is inte-
grating recycling market development into the state's
overall strategy for economic development.

   States also are encouraged to take advantage of
opportunities to bolster recycling efforts by increasing
the supply of quality recovered materials. States can
do this by instituting recycling programs in state of-
fices and institutions and by supporting the develop-
ment of regional and local recycling programs, includ-
ing the establishment of materials recovery facilities.
State legislation, regulations, or plans mandating the
separation of recydables from other garbage also can
be used to guarantee the supply of recovered materi-

   States are encouraged to foster the concept of "full-
cost accounting" practices, in which true costs of man-
aging solid wastes are reflected directly to the waste
generators and costs are not hidden in the general
budget. By pointing out how much waste disposal
actually costs, generators and state authorities may be
able to better understand how source reduction and
recycling can be financially beneficial.

   State officials are encouraged to foster the develop-
ment of composting programs and encourage the use
of compost on all public lands. In addition, states are
encouraged to become actively involved in educating
citizens to support the siting and development of ad-
equate and environmentally-responsible facilities to
serve their solid waste needs.

   EPA encourages state school boards to work with
local boards in implementing existing environmental
curricula, such as that developed by EPA or the Or-
                                                                                    Challenges for the 90's

 egon State Department of Health for grades K-12, and
 to take advantage of opportunities to provide hands-
 on experience by implementing source reduction and
 recycling programs in schools. These programs may
 help to instill an environmental ethic in children—
 tomorrow's decision-makers.

   To ensure environmentally-sound waste manage-
 ment, EPA encourages states to develop outreach
 programs to address problem wastes such as tires and
 used oil, including methods to ensure the safe man-
agement of these materials. Finally, EPA encourages
states to implement the new revised Criteria for mu-
nicipal solid waste landfills so that a baseline of protec-
tion may be established throughout the country.  EPA
anticipates that all states will adopt adequate permit
programs to implement these criteria effectively.  EPA
encourages states to upgrade and permit all existing
landfills within five years of the effective date of the
new landfill criteria. States also are encouraged to
establish programs to ensure compliance with the
municipal waste combustor air emissions standards.
Chapter 4 —States

38                                                                                               Challenges for the 90's

5.  Local Governments
    I.  Introduction

       Local governments are responsible for managing
    the municipal solid waste generated by their commu-
    nities and for planning the most effective integrated
    waste management system for local needs. This chap-
    ter describes initiatives taken by local authorities to
    improve planning efforts, increase available informa-
    tion, encourage source reduction and recycling, and
    reduce risks from landfilling and combustion. Planned
    future activities also are discussed, as well as other
    efforts that can be implemented to improve integrated
    municipal solid waste management programs at the
    local level.
    H. Current Activities

       Over the past few years, there has been an increase
    in the implementation of integrated municipal solid
    waste programs using combinations of various solid
    waste management alternatives that best meet the
    projected needs of local communities. The emerging
    trends in local activities relating to planning, increas-
    ing source reduction and recycling, and reducing risks
    from combustion and landfilling are partially a result
    of the rising cost of waste management. For example,
    the cost of municipal solid waste combustion and
    landfilling has increased steadily over the past several
    years. As illustrated in Figure 5-1, the national average
tipping fee for incineration increased more than 30
percent from 1986 to 1988, while the cost for landfilling
rose approximately 100 percent. These increased costs
provide strong incentives for communities to imple-
ment recycling and materials recovery programs as
new laws, regulations, and costly remediation due to
improper management force society to bear the true
costs of municipal solid waste management.

   Landfilling is becoming an increasingly expensive
municipal solid waste management option. The Na-
tional Solid Wastes Management Association
(NSWMA) estimates that the cost (in 1988 dollars) to
build a modern, 20-year, 100-acre landfill, including
site characterization, preliminary development (e.g.,
land acquisition), final development, environmental
management, and postclosure monitoring, is $66 mil-
lion for a landfill constructed with a single synthetic
liner and $87 million for a double-liner facility.  Some
of the increased disposal cost is in response to the
public's demand for more environmentally sound
disposal facilities.

   The average national tipping fee at landfills in-
creased 17 percent over the 1988 average of $22.64
(normalized to adjust for difference in sample size) to
$26.56 per ton in 1990. Regionally, from 1988 to 1990,
tipping fees increased 32 percent in the West, 31 per-
cent in the Midwest and are up 30 percent in the West-
Central regions.  The largest increase in real dollars
                                                       1986    1987    1988   1990
                     Figure 5-1 Average national tipping fees for combustion and landfilling
                                     * Combustion data was not available for 1990.

    As society begins
    to realize the true
    cost of generating
    and managing
    municipal solid
    waste, source
    reduction and
    recycling become
    more appealing.
                        was in the Mid-Atlantic
                        region, up $6.91 per ton
                        and the smallest increase
                        was in the South at $.46 per
                        ton. As tipping fees rise
                        and society begins to real-
                        ize the impacts of the true
                        cost of generating and
                        safely disposing of munici-
                        pal solid waste, source
                        reduction and recycling
become appealing alternatives to landfilling and com-
bustion. High tipping fees and increased barriers to
siting new land disposal facilities create incentives for
local communities to seriously examine their options
for further implementation of source reduction and
recycling programs. Furthermore, some States antici-
pate that tipping fees will rise substantially due to the
implementation of revised criteria for municipal solid
waste landfills. Trends and examples of local municipal
solid waste management strategies are outlined below.

   Local governments are being spurred into action by
their citizens, costs, state laws, and capacity concerns.
For example, the State of Pennsylvania passed a law in
1988 that requires the State to reimburse townships
and cities for 90 percent of the cost of starting local
recycling programs. The programs are financed
through a $2 per ton surcharge on solid waste depos-
                     Local governments have
                     been spurred Into action by
                     citizens, state laws, and
                     capacity concerns.
ited in any of the
state's landfills or
resource recovery
facilities.  As a re-
sult of this law,
many communities are initiating recycling programs.
   In another example, the local government of
Fillmore County, Minnesota, took action in response to
landfill capacity concerns. Due to their landfill capac-
ity problems and high disposal costs, Fillmore County
managers explored other waste management options,
including the development of a municipal solid waste
composting/recycling program. As part of the plan-
ning process, a feasibility study was conducted that
determined that the tipping fee for such a program
would be approximately half the cost of combustion.
The State of Minnesota reimbursed the county for
approximately half the costs to operate the program.
Residential and commercial recycling is an extremely
important part of this program, because
noncompostable materials are removed before the
trash is collected. Materials that take a long time to
decompose, such as clothing and wood, are landfilled.
The rest of the waste is composted.  As a result of their
efforts, 25 percent of the county's municipal solid
waste stream is recycled. Approximately 25 percent of
the composted waste does not break down completely
and must be landfilled. The compost is used for the
county's public works projects. In the future, the
county intends to encourage local farmers to use the
                                        $16.46  $16.92    ?17-7°
                                         South          Midwest
                   Figure 5-2 Increase in average landfill tipping fees by region: 1988-1990
                       (1988 numbers normalized to adjust for difference in sample size)
                                                                                    Challenges for the 90's

   More communities are working together to identify
and plan for regional solutions. Several different types
of regional systems, including special districts and
other regional organizations, are being established so
that efforts on all levels are coordinated better and
municipal solid waste management programs are
more cost efficient. For the Portland, Oregon area, a
                               special regional
                               METRO, was
                               formed. Formed in
                               1979, METRO was
                               created to serve as
                               a regional govern-
More communities are
working together to
Identify and plan for
regional solutions to solid
waste management
                               ment providing a
                               wide range of
                               services. Cur-
rently, one of METRO'S top priorities is municipal
solid waste management. Consequently, METRO is
responsible for planning a municipal solid waste man-
agement system for the region. The regional organiza-
tion is focusing on activities such as curbside collection
of recydables, recovery of yard wastes, and commer-
cial recycling. METRO also plans to use financial in-
centives to encourage private transfer station operators
to recover portions of the municipal solid waste stream
prior to landfilling. Permanent household hazardous
waste collection facilities located throughout the region
also are targeted for development in the near future.

  In Georgia, the counties of Ware, Pierce, and Ma-
con, and the City of Waycross also opted for a regional
approach to address their municipal solid waste man-
agement needs. In this case, they focused on a jointly
financed regional landfill.

  There is an overall trend of increased awareness of
municipal solid waste management issues on the part
of local decision-makers and the public. Local govern-
ments are increasing public awareness by publicizing
community recycling efforts. Importantly, children are
becoming more aware of the municipal solid waste
dilemma and possible solutions through school pro-
grams. In Georgia, Tiff County and the City of Tifton
are reaching children with the "Recycling Rover," a
converted school bus that visits schools and
community functions where local governments distrib-
ute informational materials and give presentations on
the benefits of recycling.

  Organizations representing local governments also
are providing numerous educational and technical
assistance activities. The following examples highlight
some of these activities:
• The National League of Cities (NLC) is assisting
  city and town officials to respond more effec-
  tively to issues and problems associated with
  municipal solid waste management options. The
  effort will include training seminars, on-site tech-
  nical assistance, and publications. NLC also
  publishes a weekly newspaper and two bi-
  monthly magazines that discuss municipal solid
  waste issues.

• Local officials struggling with planning and
  implementation issues can receive direct assis-
  tance from their peers in other communities who
  have solved similar problems. This is possible
  through the peer match program funded by EPA
  and operated by the International City Managers
  Association (ICMA) and the Solid Waste Asso-
  ciation of North America (SWANA) in partner-
  ship with the National Recycling Coalition.

• To foster better planning and implementation at
  the local level, SWANA offers a number of tech-
  nical assistance, training, and educational ser-
  vices. For example, over 1,500 people have at-
  tended SWANA's Training for Landfill Manag-
  ers, a program which has been accepted by a
  number of states to support their certification
  programs.  SWANA developed public educa-
  tion brochures on municipal solid waste issues
  and recently released nine technical publications.
  SW ANA's new Center for Regionalization of
  Municipal Solid Waste Management will aid
  local government in planning and developing
  regional solutions.  Through an EPA grant,
  SWANA developed and operates a Solid Waste
  Information Clearinghouse (SWICH) to facilitate
  easy, up-to-date information exchange through
  both a library and electronic bulletin board for-
  mat. SWICH is available to local officials and
  anyone needing solid waste information.

• The National Association of Regional Councils
  (NARC) established an advocacy and educational
  program for councils involved in environmental
  issues. Known as EA/SG (Environmental Advo-
  cacy/Services Group), the group's mission is to
  work with Congress and the Administration on
  environmental issues including the
  reauthorization of RCRA; to encourage the devel-
  opment and use of substate regional planning and
  management activities; and to bring together a
  national cadre of regional council experts in mu-
  nicipal solid waste planning, source reduction,
  recycling and disposal
Chapter 5 — Local Governments

   In addition, Public Technology, Inc. (PTI), the non-
profit research, development, and commercialization
arm of NLC and ICMA, currently is involved in nu-
merous activities directed at assisting local govern-
ments in managing their environmental responsibili-
ties and problems. These activities are carried out in
concert with PTI's Urban Consortium Environmental
Task Force (UCEnvTF), a group of elected officials,
general administrators, and high-level technical man-
agers who act to collectively identify and address envi-
ronmental problems at the local government level.

   Current activities of PTI and the UCEnvTF include:
a cooperative agreement with EPA that focuses on
improving the transfer of relevant technology and
information from EPA to local governments that pro-
vide local governments with improved access to EPA
resources and programs; an effort to aggregate and
market recyclable materials collected by local govern-
ments to achieve higher prices and more stable mar-
kets; and the development of an online service in coop-
eration with EPA which will use expert teams to re-
spond to bulletin board inquiries in the areas of recy-
cling, landfilling, combustion, and hazardous waste

   Overall, local governments are stepping up their
planning efforts and developing successful and inno-
vative solid waste programs. The success of the pro-
grams is due, in part, to an increase in public aware-
ness, resulting from the educational efforts mentioned
Source Reduction

   Local governments are also making progress in
implementing source reduction activities. For in-
stance, Minneapolis, Minnesota, tackled source reduc-
tion by adopting an ordinance with specific packaging
reduction provisions. Several communities, such as
Perkasie, Pennsylvania; Dion, New York; and Seattle,
Washington, achieved waste reduction through unit-
based pricing for municipal solid waste disposal. Un-
der these programs, households pay for waste man-
                               agement based on
                               the amount of trash
                               they generate,
                               which creates an
                               incentive to gener-
                               ate less waste.
                               Unit-based pricing
                               also tends to in-
crease composting and recycling rates, resulting in
programs that divert significant portions of the waste
Minneapolis, Minnesota,
tackled source reduction
by adopting an ordinance
with specific packaging
                                                   stream from landfills and combustors. Itasca County,
                                                   Minnesota was the site of a pilot project to reduce mu-
                                                   nicipal solid waste generated by the county courthouse
                                                   and repair garages. By substituting reusable products,
                                                   reducing unsolicited mail, and conserving paper, the
                                                   county courthouse reduced waste generation by 10
                                                   percent and saved over $4,000 per year in waste dis-
                                                   posal costs. In another example, the American Public
                                                   Works Association, an organization representing local
                                                   governments, is supporting a major public relations
                                                   effort in product design strategies aimed at educating
                                                   producers about source reduction possibilities.

                                                     Recycling offers great potential for local govern-
                                                  ments to reduce their waste and their reliance on land-
                                                  filling. Over 3,500 curbside collection programs are in
                                                  operation now; 6 of the 10 largest cities in the country
                                                  have curbside recycling collection programs. Yard
                                                  waste composting pro-
                                                  grams also have shown a
                                                  dramatic rise in the past
                                                  few years. In 1990, mere
                                                  were at least 1,400 local
                                                  yard waste composting
                                                  programs in place, up
                                                  from 986 in 1989. Many
                          Over 3,500 curbside
                          collection programs
                          are in operation
                          now; 6 of the 10
                          largest cities in the
                          country have
                          curbside recycling
                          collection programs.
                                                   localities also encourage
                                                   citizens to recycle yard
                                                   waste at home, either by
                                                   composting it or leaving     ^^^^^^^^^^^^™
                                                   grass clippings on the lawn. Milwaukee's "Just Say
                                                   Mow" program promotes implementing simple prac-
                                                   tices, such as leaving grass cuttings on lawns after
                                                   mowing, to preserve landfill space, save tax dollars,
                                                   and return nutrients to the soil.
  While many communities are faced with the prob-
lem of maintaining markets for recycled materials,
some localities have found creative solutions. For
example, the New Hampshire Resource Recovery
Association (NHRRA) in Concord, New Hampshire
established a marketing cooperative that collects re-
cycled materials from 65 towns in the state. This ap-
proach promotes stable markets by providing a guar-
antee to buyers on the reliability of the quantity of
materials.  In turn, the buyers are more apt to negotiate
long-term contracts with communities. The program
has been very successful in locating and developing
markets for recydables. On average, the member com-
munities achieve an annual recycling rate of 40 percent
of total discards. This approach also leads to savings
in transportation, storage, and site development costs
                                                                                Challenges for the 90's

   The New Hampshire
   Resource Recovery
   Association has estab-
   lished a marketing
   cooperative that collects
   recycled materials from
   65 towns in the state.
                              due to the large
                              volume of materials
                              handled at the recy-
                              cling centers.

                                 The Qty of Den-
                              ver and the County
                              of Denver are incor-
                              porating source
                              reduction and recy-
cling technologies into the design of the new Denver
International Airport. For example, they expanded
procurement guidelines to include recycled products
in the building stage of the airport, using such prod-
ucts as retread tires. Also, they are implementing
source reduction by replacing disposable products
with reusable ones, and substituting cleaners that have
reduced toxicity for those that contain constituents of
greater toxicity.

  Local governments are faced with the challenge that
the costs of municipal solid waste management, in-
cluding collection, processing, and disposal costs, are
not fully understood by citizens. As discussed earlier,
to foster awareness of the true costs of municipal solid
waste management and, at the same time, encourage
source reduction and recycling, many cities are experi-
menting with different types of volume-based pricing
systems, often called "pay-by-the-bag" programs. By
essentially charging for every item of trash placed on
the curb for disposal, citizens are motivated to either
reduce the amount of municipal solid waste that they
generate or recycle as much of their waste as possible
rather than pay for its disposal. An  increasing number
of communities are using this type of system.

  •  Residents in Perkasie, Pennsylvania, buy 20-
     pound trash bags for $.85 each or 40-pound bags
     for $1.50 each. The cost of each bag includes all
     waste disposal fees. This system increased the
     volume of newspaper collected in the city's
     curbside recycling collection program and the
     volume of other recydables taken to dropoff
     centers.  The city reports that the use of this unit-
     based pricing system has resulted in a 40 to 50
     percent reduction in tonnage of residential waste
     destined for disposal facilities.

  •  Seattle, Washington's volume-based pricing
     system, which charges different rates for yard
     wastes and other municipal wastes depending
     on the number and size of trash cans used,
     greatly contributed to the city's 1990 recycling
     rate of 34 percent.
• The town of High Bridge, New Jersey uses spe-
  cial stickers to encourage recycling. Residents
  receive 52 stickers, one per week, for pickup of
  one bag of mixed trash. Additional stickers can
  be purchased for a fee that is based on current
  landfill disposal costs. There is no charge for
  pickup of recyclable materials. High Bridge re-
  duced the amount of municipal waste disposed
  by 24 percent in the first 10 months of this pro-

• Collection service workers in St Louis Park,
  Minnesota, use hand-held scanners to track par-
  ticipation in the city's volume-based pricing/
  recycling credits system. Recycling containers
  are bar-coded with the participant's billing num-
  ber and data from the scanners are transferred
  electronically to a mainframe computer that is
  used for allocating recycling credits, as well as for
  solid waste billing. The city found that the com-
  puterized system costs less than the labor re-
  quired for its previous accounting system. Since
  the program's initiation, participation in the city's
  recycling program increased from an estimated
  40 to 50 percent of the city's population to 80
  percent under this system. The city is saving
  $62,500 annually in disposal costs.

• San Francisco, California, and Seattle, Washing-
  ton both have recycling programs that empha-
  size the importance of commercial recycling.
  San Francisco prepared  an office paper recycling
  guide that is being used by several other cities as
  a model. Snohomish and King counties in Wash-
  ington have aggressive commercial waste audit-
  ing programs.
                                                        The number of materials recovery facilities (MRFs)
                                                     is increasing rapidly. In 1989,16 MRFs were opera-
                                                     tional. In March 1990, there were 47 operational facili-
                                                     ties and 52 in the development stage. MRFs are also in
                                                     the midst of a transition from being "stand-alone"
                                                     facilities to becoming part of a system that handles
                                                     recyclables from curbside collection programs and
                                                     commercial accounts. In some cases, MRFs are being
                                                     incorporated into municipal waste management pro-
                                                     grams along with
                                                     composting facilities.
                                                     Champaign County,
                                                     Illinois is planning a
                                                     complex facility. This
                                                     project is being de-
                                                     signed to be flexible
                                                     enough to process not
                      In March 1990, there
                      were 47 operational
                      facilities and 52 MRFs
                      In the development
Chapter 5 — Local Governments

 only oo-mingled, but also separated materials from the
 residential and commercial sectors. The MRF also will
 handle yard waste and demolition debris. MRFsare
 being operated by both local governments and private
 operators. Some privately-owned MRFs take munici-
 pal waste under contract from the city. Also, in some
 instances, wastes for MRFs are delivered by private
 companies that have contracts with commercial clients.

   Local government recycling activities have in-
 creased significantly. Innovative programs providing
 recycling incentives are being successfully imple-
 mented; many communities are overcoming the ob-
 stacle of poor market availability. Organizations rep-
 resenting local governments also played their part in
 promoting recycling. The following examples high-
 light some local organizations' activities:

   • The VS. Conference of Mayors (USCOM) con-
     ducted an annual conference involving 17 major
     business organizations to discuss building confi-
     dence in recycling.  In addition, they produced
     the Public Officials Guide to Recycling, which is
     used by local officials in planning their own recy-
     cling programs.

   • USCOM also issued an  "Earth Day Challenge" to
     encourage the nation's cities to participate in a
     national "Buy Recycled" Campaign. Of the 276
     communities that joined the Campaign, at least
     89 adopted resolutions formalizing their pro-

   • The National Association of Towns and Town-
     ships (NATaT) developed training and guidance
     materials, including a Small Town Guide to

   • The American Public Works Association spon-
     sored new recycling workshops for local govern-
     ment officials for setting up their own municipal
     solid waste recycling programs. Over 100 people
     have participated in the workshops.
LandfUJing and Combustion

   Some communities banned landfill disposal of recy-
clable materials to encourage recycling. For example,
Delaware County, Pennsylvania banned newspapers
from landfills, and the county penalizes people who
dispose of newspapers. The ban spurred a number of
newspaper recycling programs. Some bans are being
instituted to reduce risks posed by the landfilling of
particular wastes. For example, Charles City County,
                         More than 580 newly
                         staffed household
                         hazardous waste
                         collection programs
                         were created over the
                         past 5 years.
Virginia banned all
household hazardous
wastes from landfills.
The number of house-
hold hazardous waste
collection programs is
increasing. In fact, the
American Public Works
Association reported that more man 580 household
hazardous waste collection programs have been
created over the past 5 years.
m. Future Initiatives and Goals

   Local government is the operating level for munici-
pal solid waste management. Local government is "in
the trenches" implementing the municipal solid waste
programs and planning for future needs.  As part of
this implementation role, representatives from local
governments and organizations are encouraged to
work with EPA to ensure that Federal goals do not
conflict with local goals and established programs.

   Local government representatives, believing that
information-sharing and public education are two
important roles, are accelerating efforts in these areas.
One way to fulfill these roles is to tap institutional
resources in the solid waste management field. The
existing network of federally-supported agricultural
extension services that serve localities provides an
excellent forum for educating the public on municipal
solid waste management options, such as  composting
and source reduction. Local governments also are
encouraged to provide guidance and expertise to local
industries on source reduction and recycling. One
possible approach is to work with businesses and in-
dustry to conduct solid waste audits to assist in identi-
fying source reduction and recycling opportunities.
                          Local governments are
                       encouraged to identify the
                       true costs of municipal
                       solid waste management
                       and ensure that these costs
                       are passed directly to the
                       generators of the waste.
                       Only by paying the true
                       costs of their waste practices
                       will generators realize the
                       economic advantages of
reducing and recycling their wastes. An increasing
number of local governments will be providing incen-
tives for generating less municipal solid waste through
   Only by paying the
   true costs of their
   waste practices
   will generators
   realize the
   economic advan-
   tages of reducing
   and recycling
   their wastes.
                              Challenges for the 90's

mechanisms such as variable fee programs. Many
communities already have begun implementing such

   Representatives of local government have voiced a
need to obtain better data on the types of wastes and
volumes of wastes produced in their communities so
that planning efforts can be enhanced. One example of
these efforts is the waste stream analysis being coordi-
nated by the Indian Nations Council of Governments
in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The Council is identifying the
kinds of recyclable materials in the Tulsa area waste
stream and then studying the availability of local mar-
kets for these materials. To perform the analysis, nine
families in the Tulsa area volunteered to separate, sort,
and characterize their trash for one year. The trash
will be classified into nine categories: plastics, colored
glass, dear glass, aluminum, other metals, paper, yard
waste, hazardous wastes (such as pesticides and cos-
metics), and garbage. As part of the analysis, each
family keeps track of activities that may influence
waste output, such as painting the house or cleaning
out the garage. A private hauler is providing contain-
ers, collecting, weighing, and processing services free
of charge for the study.
                      Chicago, Illinois and
                      Pontiac, Michigan have
                      set goals to recycle
                      50% of their municipal
                      solid waste streams.
   More cities are
setting their own
recycling goals. Chi-
cago, Illinois, and
Pontiac, Michigan,
set ambitious goals
of recycling 50 per-
cent of their waste streams. Programs to recover meth-
ane gas from landfills are innovative additions to local
recycling programs. Virginia Beach, Virginia success-
fully implemented a profitable methane recovery
plant. The plant provides an energy savings of an
estimated equivalent of 150,000 barrels of oil per year.
Some examples of other activities planned by organi-
zations representing local government include:

   • The US. Conference of Mayors continues to
     promote their "Buy Recycled" campaign and
     encourage local governments to develop written
     procurement policies requiring purchase of re-
     cycled goods.

   • The Solid Waste Association of North America
     (SWANA) will develop a number of new train-
     ing programs to help local officials in planning
     and implementing integrated municipal solid
     waste management. Programs under develop-
     ment include Planning and Managing Recycling
     Systems, Waste Screening for Municipal Solid
     Waste Management Facilities, Planning and
     Managing Household Hazardous Waste Man-
     agement Programs, Monitoring for Ground Wa-
     ter at Landfills, and Landfill Gas Monitoring.

   • The International City Management Association
     OCM A) will develop a series of videotapes on
     municipal solid waste management directed
     toward local governments. The videos will sup-
     ply information on developing integrated solid
     waste management plans and setting up recy-
     cling programs.

   • The NATaT will establish a multimedia technical
     transfer center for small local governments and
     complete a guide book for local government
     financing options.

   • The National Association of Regional Councils
     (NARC) is developing a videotape series on
     regional approaches to municipal solid waste
     management. Each tape will focus on a different
     area, including planning, source reduction, recy-
     cling, combustion, and landfilling. NARC also
     plans to hold workshops around the country to
     help local governments implement the Subtitle D
     municipal landfill criteria after the criteria are
IV. Local Governments' Challenges

 * The newly revised Criteria for municipal solid
waste landfills will increase the cost of landfilling and
may result in the closing of some landfills. The in-
crease in cost and possible decrease in capacity will
enhance the need for regional solutions and increased
planning at all levels of government. Local govern-
ments are encouraged to plan and implement regional
solutions. Communities will realize the necessity of
developing comprehensive municipal solid waste
management plans that address future needs for a
given time period. In addition, local governments are
encouraged to investigate the use of innovative financ-
ing mechanisms such as user fees and public-private
partnerships. Local governments also can foster waste
audits of local institutional, industrial, and commercial
facilities to identify opportunities for source reduction
and recycling, and help to instill an environmental
ethic in individuals, government, and businesses.

  Some of the challenges and opportunities for more
comprehensive solid waste management may require
changes in decision-making processes and lifestyles.
To facilitate this, local governments may want to en-
Chapter 5 — Local Governments

                            Loral governments
                            should educate their
                            citizens to engender
                            their support for
                            responsible waste
                            management and
                            should ensure that
                            individuals and
                            businesses are
                            aware of the full
                            costs of managing
                            the wastes they
                            produce and how
                            they can help
                            reduce those costs.
courage local school
boards to implement exist-
ing environmental cur-
ricula. Local governments
may also educate consum-
ers on the impacts of their
purchasing choices.  Citi-
zens need to be aware of
the steps their local gov-
ernments are taking to
responsibly manage the
wastes they produce in
their homes, jobs, and
other activities. Local gov-
ernments are encouraged
to educate their citizens to
engender their support for
responsible waste management.  The use of true cost
accounting and pay-by-the-bag pricing can ensure that
individuals and businesses are aware of the full costs
of managing the solid wastes they produce. Waste
reduction can be promoted through public education
programs in areas such as household hazardous waste
and backyard composting.

  The best way to prevent pollution is to eliminate its
sources. By decreasing the amount of municipal solid
waste and the toxicity of municipal solid waste, poten-
tial pollution is prevented. Local governments are
encouraged to accomplish this by instituting a double-
sided copying policy and establishing source reduction
programs in government offices and facilities. In fac-
ing the challenges of reducing waste and increasing
recycling, local governments are encouraged to work
to increase the demand for source-reduced and re-
cycled materials and make the secondary materials'
markets economically viable and stable. Local govern-
ments can enhance the markets for secondary materi-
als by increasing their purchase of products containing
recycled materials. Local governments are encouraged
to purchase goods and materials with recycled content
to the extent possible, including those items covered
by EPA's procurement guidelines. Local governments
can challenge businesses to do the same. The creation
of markets for secondary materials will attract recy-
clers to the community, creating jobs and business
opportunities. Localities may also have the opportu-
nity to significantly increase tax revenues by enticing
more recycling industries to their area.
   To support expanded markets, local governments
need to ensure an increasing supply of recovered ma-
terials for recycling.  EPA encourages local govern-
ments to facilitate commercial recycling by working
with community-based businesses and commercial
establishments to develop municipal solid waste recy-
cling programs that are consistent with local plans and
the availability of markets. While most recycling ef-
forts to date have been geared toward households, a
tremendous amount of commercial waste can be
brought into local recycling programs. An example of
how this may be accomplished can be found in the
work of the Land-of-Sky Regional Council in Ashville,
NC. Since 70 percent of the area's waste stream comes
from commercial and industrial waste, Land-of-Sky
wanted to foster recycling by the business community.
Consequently, it produced The Waste Reduction Hand-
book for Commercial Businesses.  The publication dis-
cusses recycling programs for various types of com-
mercial waste including paper, cardboard, plastic,
aluminum, and glass. Also included in the handbook
is information on performing an in-house municipal
solid waste audit and on preparing materials for recy-

   Notwithstanding effective source reduction and
recycling efforts, some municipal solid waste still will
need to be managed through combustion or landfill-
ing. Local governments are encouraged to facilitate
siting of facilities that will manage these wastes in an
environmentally sound manner. Local officials and
citizens are encouraged to work together to ensure that
all local, state, and Federal environmental regulations
are implemented by
municipal solid
waste management
facility owners and
operators. It is im-
portant that local
whenever possible,
upgrade their own
solid waste management facilities.  Local governments
are also encouraged to develop programs focusing on
problem wastes such as used automotive oil and
household hazardous wastes.  Collection programs,
emphasized in educational programs, can be effective
in keeping these problem wastes out of landfills.
                                                                           Local governments can
                                                                           enhance the markets for
                                                                           secondary materials by
                                                                           increasing their purchase
                                                                           of products containing
                                                                           recycled materials.
                                                                                   Challenges for the 90's

6.  Other Federal Agencies
    L  Introduction

       Because of their size and unique capabilities, Fed-
    eral government agencies can contribute significantly
    to furthering the goals and objectives of municipal
    solid waste management. The Federal work force
    represents a population of over three million civilian
    employees, according to the Office of Management
    and Budget. This population represents a community
    whose solid waste practices in the office and at home
    significantly affect the municipal waste stream. In
    addition, the Federal government represents enor-
    mous buying potential for goods made with recycled
    materials. According to a report published by the
    General Accounting Office (GAO), the Federal govern-
    ment purchases about 2 percent of all the paper con-
    sumed in the US. This amounted to about 1.7 million
    tons of paper purchased in 1987. Included in this
    chapter are examples of positive efforts the Federal
    government has taken to better manage municipal
    solid waste.
    n.  Current Activities
    Planning and Information

      Federal offices and organizations are working to
    increase available information on responsible solid
    waste management. For example, the U.S. Depart-
    ments of the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force pre-
    pared a solid waste management guide (October 1989)
    for Department of De-
    fense (DOD) personnel
    responsible for waste
    disposal. This manual,
    Solid Waste Management,
    discusses the collection
    and management of all
    nonhazardous solid
    wastes, specifically addressing statutory and regula-
    tory requirements, management and planning, waste
    minimization, waste composting, recycling, landfilling,
    combustion, waste compaction, materials recovery,
    and overall operational protocols. The manual also
    provides solid waste stream characterization data and
    recommendations for incentive-based programs to
    encourage waste reduction and recycling on military
Federal offices and
organizations are
working to Increase
available Information
on responsible solid
waste management
 bases. This primary guidance document is supple-
 mented further by other DOD directives and manuals
 emphasizing integrated waste management strategies,
 including the Navy Department's Guide for Developing
 a Recyclable Materials Sales Program. The DOD also is in
 the process of developing a guide for the proper man-
 agement and disposal of non-household batteries. The
 document, Critical Review on the Technical Management
 of Batteries, contains proper management practices for
 batteries, along with an index of Federal regulations
 that pertain to the subject.

   The Commerce Department's International Trade
 Administration, recognizing the contribution that
 packaging waste makes to the municipal solid waste
 problem, conducted a study entitled Rigid Container
 Recycling: Status and Impact on the Rigid Container In-
 dustry (December 1989). The study addressed current
 levels of recycling, as well as factors contributing to
 and restricting the recycling of metal, glass, and plastic
 containers. The study also forecasted recycling perfor-
 mance and corresponding short- and long-term impli-
 cations for the nation's solid waste problem.

   Other Federal government information develop-
 ment and distribution efforts address opportunities for
 waste reduction or recycling in the Federal work place.
 The General Services Administration (GSA) published
 a brochure entitled federal Recycling Program, which
 describes GSA's recycling role within the Federal com-
 munity. GSA is providing Federal agencies in the
-Washington, D.C. area with recycling containers and
 technical assistance.

   Another GSA initiative includes the establishment,
 in October 1989, of the National Federal Recycling
 Program to unify a Federal approach to recycling. To
 accomplish this task, GSA has established a national
 recycling team including a recycling coordinator in
 each of the eight primary regions.

   The Federal Recycling Program goals are to imple-
 ment paper recycling programs nationwide in all GSA-
 owned and -operated facilities with 100 or more em-
 ployees and  where markets exist by January 1,1992.
 GSA-owned and/or -operated facilities, in localities
 that have mandatory recycling laws that encompass
 recyclable materials other than paper, will also recycle
 those other materials.

   GSA's Federal Recycling Program Staff developed a
package of contract specifications for the sale of recy-
clable materials, such as office paper, used beverage
cans, and used glass food and beverage containers
(Released 06/07/91). The staff has also developed an
implementation desk guide which takes the recycling
coordinator through the necessary steps involved in
implementing a recycling program (Released 07/29/
91).  Both the contract specifications and the desk
guide are used by GSA recycling coordinators in
implementing regional recycling programs, but can
also by used by other agencies who are implementing
independent programs, such as facility managers of
delegated buildings.

   In addition, GSA has developed a national report-
ing system to track progress in implementing recycling
programs in its buildings nationwide.  This system will
serve as a computerized data base to track the number
of programs implemented, the type of materials col-
lected, the amount of materials collected, and the
money earned form the sale of recyclables.

   Federal government agencies have a unique ability
to reach a large portion of the population through
outreach campaigns.  The Interpretation Division of
the National Park Service, mindful of the need for
public outreach and education, is preparing and dis-
playing exhibits throughout the Park Service network
to promote good stewardship of our natural resources
and to encourage source reduction and recycling. This
campaign seeks to stimulate citizen action by using the
parks as a forum.

   The Department of Interior (DOI), supported by
EPA and seven other Federal agencies, established a
                                   highly visible
                                   and widely
                                   respected pub-
                                   campaign that
                                   has made
                                   progress in
national objectives for solid waste management. Initi-
ated in 1986, this program, entitled 'Take Pride in
America," recognizes individuals and public and pri-
vate groups who conduct outstanding stewardship
and awareness efforts on behalf of Federal, state, local,
and/or Indian lands and resources. Through its 'Take
Pride in America" campaign, DOI encourages all geo-
graphic and economic sectors of the country to pro-
mote environmental programs.  As part of this effort,
DOI recognized the following initiatives through an
awards program:
Through its 'Take Pride In
America" campaign, DOI
encourages all geographic
and economic sectors of the
country to promote
environmental programs.
   • The efforts of the Nebraska State Recycling Asso-
     ciation, a coalition of recyders, municipalities,
     businesses, and citizens to increase public aware-
     ness of the need for recycling.

   • The success of the Madison School, Hinsdale,
     Illinois, in developing a curriculum that ties
     regular school studies to environmental topics.

   • The accomplishments of the Perrysberg, Ohio
     Litter Prevention and Recycling Program, which
     emphasizes education and implementation of
     responsible solid waste management.

   • The achievements of the Alaskans for Litter Pre-
     vention and Recycling, for accomplishing a 50
     percent increase in the return of recyclables in 52
     cities and villages.

   Other Federal agencies are initiating efforts to in-
crease levels of planning for solid waste management.
In a letter to the Senate Committee on Governmental
Affairs, the Government Operations Committee of the
Boston Federal Executive Board reported that they are
promoting a paper recycling program that involves a
collective regional effort of 19 agencies at 35 locations.
Building on efforts of the EPA Region 1, these agencies
diverted over 175,000 pounds of paper (225 cubic
yards) from New England's landfills to recycling pro-
grams over a 14-month period. The effort then served
as a regional prototype for a major planning initiative
on the part of the sister USDA office in San Francisco.

   The United States Department of Agriculture's
Cooperative Extension Service (CES) provides a valu-
able educational program for communities and indi-
viduals. The overall goal of CES's National Initiative
on Waste Management is to implement a comprehen-
sive municipal solid waste management education
program to enable consumers and communities to
successfully change their waste management practices
and strategies. Local extension staff, with state special-
ist support, help families, small businesses, community
leaders, and public officials understand the complexi-
ties of waste management issues, alternatives for ad-
dressing these issues, and procedures for implement-
ing local action programs. CES is able to apply a wide
range of innovative techniques when providing educa-
tional services that include improved methods of con-
flict resolution and community problem solving.
CES's ultimate aim is to enable communities to
progress from reliance on landfills to an integrated
waste management system based on source reduction,
recycling, waste processing, and state-of-the-art land-
                                                                                Challenges for the 90's

Source Reduction and Recycling

   Federal offices also are active in source reduction
and recycling initiatives. Appearing before Congress
in April 1990, the Federal Highway Administration
testified that, in an effort to keep scrap tires out of the
municipal waste stream, it is conducting studies and
evaluating demonstration projects concerning the use
of a crumb rubber additive from scrap tires in asphalt
paving products.

   The Department of Energy (DOE) funded tire recy-
cling research by Air Products and Chemicals of Allen-
town, Pennsylvania. The company successfully dem-
onstrated technical and commercial feasibility of mod-
ifying the surface of finely ground scrap tires to pro-
duce adhesion properties so that the rubber can be
reused in polymers such as^polyurethanes and ep-

   In response to EPA's recommended minimum re-
cycled content requirements for paper and paper prod-
ucts, GSA developed specifications that allow GSA's
bidders to furnish recycled paper. As of March 16,
1990, EPA's procurement guidelines address 129 types
of paper products (excluding computer and high-
speed copier paper), and recommend appropriate
levels of post-consumer recycled material or waste-
paper content In addition, EPA is encouraging other
Federal Agencies to follow its lead and institute a
double-sided copy policy.

   At the direction of the Joint Committee on Printing
(JCP), the Government Printing Office (GPO) has been
implementing EPA's procurement guidelines by pro-
curing bulk quantities of printing papers containing
recovered materials.  GPO also has incorporated
EPA's recycled content guidelines for paper into its
printing contracts resulting in a substantial increase in
the number of government publications printed on
papers containing recovered materials.  In fact, the JCP
Fact Sheet on Recycled Paper Purchases reports that
since June 22,1989 (effective date of implementation of
EPA paper guideline), 95 percent of printing and writ-
ing papers (not including copier paper) purchased
directly by GPO contain at least 50 percent recycled
content, the minimum specified in the guidelines. The
JCP also is issuing several new government paper
specification standards. Some of the new standards
will make recycled papers available in categories
where recommended recycled content numbers were
not included in the original EPA guidelines, such as
copier paper and "forms bond."
   The Federal Trade Commission issued Guides for
the Use of Environmental Marketing Claims for which
EPA provided technical assistance and support. These
guides will help promote source reduction and recy-
cling by encouraging the use of accurate and specific
labels on products to indicate, for example, their reduc-
tions of volume or toxicity, especially on packaging.
They also will encourage specific claims regarding the
recycled content of products and specific recyclability
claims that closely reflect the availability of recycling
collection facilities for products or packages.

   Throughout the Federal government, the establish-
ment and expansion of recycling programs is rising
rapidly. For example, EPA is working with four DOD
facilities (Tinker AFB in Oklahoma, Langley AFB,
Norfolk Naval Base, and Fort Eustis Transporation
Center, and the NASA Langley Research Center in
Virginia) to design comprehensive waste reduction
programs. In addition, the DOD is encouraging full
scale recycling of paper goods, scrap metal, scrap
wood, aluminum, and other materials on military
bases. Support for these programs is reinforced by a
provision of the 1982 Military Construction Codifica-
tion Act (PL 97-214), which specifically provides in-
creased incentives for implementing recycling pro-
grams and allows for the distribution of some pro-
ceeds from recycled material sales to be allocated into
the "morale and welfare account" of each participating
installation. As an example of the growth of these
programs, proceeds from the Navy-wide Resource
Recovery and Recycling Program to the morale and
welfare account for fiscal years 1988 and 1989 were
$3.4 million and $63 million, respectively (after paying
program operation expenses and funding environ-
mental projects). The Navy's Morale, Welfare and
Recreation Division anticipates the proceeds will top
$12 million in fiscal year 1990. Programs like these are
growing rapidly. Over 50 percent of Navy installa-
tions are participating actively, and the programs are
expanding in scope with increased material types col-
lected and additional promotional strategies.

   Internal recycling activities abound throughout the
Federal government. For example, the post office in
Woodinville, Washington, with assistance from EPA,
is recycling uncirculated bulk mail. The postmaster,
with permission from the district postmaster, hauls the
uncirculated bulk mail on his/her own time to a drop-
off center.

   In addition, the US. Postal Service is conducting
market surveys to find out the demand for "peel and
Chapter 6 — Other Federal Agencies

stick" stamps. If a sufficient demand exists, the Postal
Service will develop these stamps using an adhesive
that does not impede envelope recycling. The adhe-
sive that makes this type of stamp possible could be
used for other postal needs as well as other
commercial uses. From its extensive fleet, the Postal
Service is actively recycling antifreeze, batteries, and
other automotive products. The Postal Service also has
educational programs underway to encourage its em-
ployees and customers to recycle.

   DOI launched an aggressive recycling program and
has limited the use of nonrecydable products in its
cafeterias. In addition, the National Park Service is
operating a voluntary concessionaires program mod-
eled after a successful program implemented in
Yosemite National Park to promote the use of products
that are either reusable or recyclable. Similar pro-
grams are underway to encourage recycling of glass,
plastic, and aluminum at many of the country's most
popular national parks. Also in EPA Region 10, the
Federal Executive Board, working with regional GSA
and EPA offices, established a recycling program in the
main Federal office building and is encouraging other
Federal agencies in the area to do the same.

   In some states, the Department of Transportation
(DOT) is experimenting with rubberized-asphalt made
from recycled tires. In Wisconsin, 12 miles of test road
                             were laid using rub-
                             ber from 25,000 waste
                             tires. DOT is watch-
                             ing the road for
                             cracks and ruts and
                             will evaluate the
                             project to decide if
                             using tire rubber will
benefit Wisconsin's ecology and economy.  In response
to the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency
Act of 1991, EPA and DOTs Federal Highway Admin-
istration have begun studies on the use of recovered
materials in highway pavements and appurtenances.

   Also, the Bureau of Mines of the Department of the
Interior developed an environmentally acceptable
electrolytic technology for recycling lead-acid batteries
as an alternative to smelting.

   Other initiatives are emerging throughout the Fed-
eral government and are receiving acclaim and encour-
agement at the highest levels. On April 20,1990, Presi-
dent Bush issued a formal announcement, following
Congressional adoption of Senate Joint Resolution 250,
proclaiming April 1990 as "National Recycling
Month." In his statement, the President urged the
On April 20,1990,
President Bush Issued a
formal announcement,
proclaiming April 1990
as "National Recycling
                                                   purchase of recycled products to stimulate market
                                                   development and invited community leaders to con-
                                                   sider the advantages of comprehensive recycling pro-
                                                   grams as a means to manage municipal solid waste.
                                                   President Bush also issued an Executive Order on
                                                   October 31,1991 instructing all Federal government
                                                   agencies to institute cost-effective waste reduction and
                                                   recycling and encouraging Federal government agen-
                                                   cies to implement cost-effective procurement prefer-
                                                   ence programs favoring the purchase of materials
                                                   containing recycled content. In April 1992, President
                                                   Bush proclaimed April 15,1992 as National Recycling
                                                   Day in response to the adoption of Senate Joint Resolu-
                                                   tion 246.

                                                     In June 1992, several branches of the Federal Gov-
                                                   ernment sponsored the Government Buy Recycled
                                                   Products Trade Fair and Showcase. The event, held in
                                                   Washington D.C., demonstrates the government's
                                                   commitment to all aspects of recycling as an important
                                                   part of the country's solid waste challenge.
m. Future Initiatives and Goals

   Across the Federal government, concern for waste
management planning and coordination continues to
grow. The DOI plans to establish an office for solid
and hazardous waste management within its Environ-
mental Affairs Office.  Such actions facilitate coordina-
tion and will help strengthen the Federal partnership
in waste management

   Various Federal entities are moving forward with
integrated solid waste management plans. For ex-
ample, the Engineering and Safety Services Division of
the National Park Service has prepared a draft guide
entitled Integrated Solid Waste Alternative Program:
Managers Guide.  The guide, which presents an inte-
grated approach to solid waste management that will
provide the background and procedures for develop-
ing a tailored plan for solid waste management at each
park, will be distributed to managers throughout the
National Park Service. The plan for solid waste man-
agement will set forth goals related to five major pro-
gram elements: source reduction, recycling, combus-
tion, landfilling, and community outreach. It will, in
the course of addressing these goals, outline issues and
recommendations related to packaging and procure
ment, composting, waste-to-energy plant operations,
ash management, park-operated and municipal land-
fills, and community outreach options. The Depart-
ment of Agriculture, as well as the National Park Ser-
vice and others, are considering procuring compost
materials for use in agricultural fields, parks, and high-
                                                                                Challenges for the 90 's

way construction.

   To complement EPA's efforts to reduce the risks
from solid waste combustion facilities, the Department
of Energy (DOE) is planning joint ventures with in-
dustry to demonstrate advanced waste-to-energy tech-
nologies. Cost-shared cooperative ventures will in-
clude characterizing the emission products from com-
bustion of all major municipal waste streams. DOE
will collect and publish data for the public and deci-
sion-makers on the energy benefits of recycling tech-
nologies. DOE also will conduct cooperative research
programs with EPA and state and local governments
to help identify and resolve environmental problems
associated with municipal solid waste combustion and
ash disposal.

   Members of the DOE Biofuels and Municipal Waste
Technology Division are planning to study and com-
pare the total costs of various waste management op-
tions. The study is intended to help local decision-
makers choose waste management options. DOE's
study includes an examination of liquification and
gasification processes for managing waste.
IV. Federal Agencies' Challenges

   Initiatives by other Federal agencies to responsibly
and effectively manage municipal solid waste have
expanded greatly over the past few years. Efforts by
Federal agencies to develop information on municipal
solid waste management as well as efforts to involve
the public through outreach campaigns are particu-
larly commendable. As organizations devoted to serv-
ing the American public, Federal agencies can demon-
strate a commitment to finding and implementing
solutions to their municipal solid waste problems.
EPA encourages Federal agencies to continue to re-
search and implement integrated solid waste manage-
ment strategies within their facilities and to continue to
expand public outreach initiatives.

   The Federal government's impact on the nation's
management of municipal solid waste can be tremen-
dous. Although many recycling programs are under-
way, development could be expanded and overall
management of activities improved. The effects that
Federal activities could have on the nation could be
enhanced if agencies set an example for business and
community leaders to follow.

   Federal agencies are encouraged to identify source
reduction initiatives and implement those that the
agencies determine to be cost effective. EPA encour-
ages all Federal agencies to conduct waste audits
within their facilities to determine the types of wastes
they are generating and to identify opportunities for
reducing or eliminating these wastes. EPA urges all
Federal agencies to introduce source reduction activi-
ties such as double-sided copying.

   Federal agencies can set an example by working
together to achieve better recycling and increased pro-
curement of source-reduced products and products
containing recycled content. All Federal agencies
could follow the example of agencies such as the Navy
and its Resource Recovery and Recycling Program,
and initiate or expand recycling activities. Recycling
programs not only divert wastes from our nation's
landfills, but they increase the supply of secondary
materials to recycled products markets. Additionally,
EPA encourages Federal agencies to stimulate markets
for recycled content products. To this end, EPA en-
courages all Federal agencies to embrace President
Bush's October 1991 Executive Order and purchase
goods with recycled content, including goods covered
by EPA's procurement guidelines.

   Finally, Federal agencies can work with state and
local governments to promote better municipal solid
waste management planning. Together, Federal, state,
and local government officials, along with public inter-
est groups and citizens, can evaluate and implement
the spectrum of waste management alternatives. Com-
munication among all sectors during planning will
ensure that all waste management issues relevant to a
given community, state, or region are effectively ad-
dressed and that source reduction and recycling have
been given thorough consideration prior to imple-
menting any solid waste management plan. Given
their purchasing power and their potential to influence
hundreds of thousands of individuals, Federal agen-
cies can play a vital role in prompting positive changes
in municipal solid waste management practices.
Chapter 6 — Other Federal Agencies

52                                                                                                Challenges for the  90's

71  Waste Management Industry
     The waste management
     Industry provides the
     technology and
     methods for safe and
     economical waste
     management Including
     collection, processing,
     and disposal of solid
L  Introduction

  The solid waste management industry includes
private waste collectors; transporters and street sweep-
ers; recyclers of secondary materials; owners and op-
                          erators of transfer sta-
                          tions; owners and op-
                          erators of landfills and
                          combustors; owners
                          and operators of energy
                          recovery, composting,
                          and materials recovery
                          facilities; financiers and
                          consultants. The solid
                          waste management
                          industry bears a key
                          responsibility in solv-
ing the nation's solid waste dilemma. The industry can
provide the technology and methods for safe and eco-
nomical waste management, including collection, pro-
cessing, and disposal.

  Since the recent increase in public awareness of the
municipal solid waste dilemma and the publication of
the 1989 Agenda for Action, the solid waste management
industry initiated new efforts in recycling, waste-to-
energy, landfill gas collection, and developed state-of-
the-art landfills and combustors. The following sec-
tions highlight these activities and identify additional
planned activities.
   n. Current Activities

     An increasing number of municipalities are turning
   to the solid waste management industry for municipal
   solid waste collection, recovery, and disposal. As
   stated in the National Solid Wastes Management
   Association's (NSWMA) document, Privatizing Munici-
   pal Waste Service: Saving Dollars and Making Sense, 80
   percent of the nation's municipal solid waste is col-
   lected by private companies, either under contract to
   government agencies or working directly for local
   businesses and residents. Similarly, private firms own
   approximately 15 percent of the country's landfills
   (many more are operated by private firms for munici-
   palities), approximately half of its landfill capacity, and
   nearly half of the waste-to-energy plants. Additionally,
   private firms can facilitate financing of solid waste
   management facilities, often a critical stumbling block
   for implementing new operations.

   The solid waste management industry is involved
at every stage of the municipal solid waste manage-
ment process, including planning. Determining costs,
projecting trends, and developing new markets are
activities that all businesses assume in order to grow.
In the case of the solid waste management industry,
the types of planning necessary to keep its businesses
running profitably are the same steps a community
needs to take to keep its municipal solid waste man-
agement process running efficiently. For example,
local governments often hire the solid waste manage-
ment industry to lay the necessary groundwork for
implementing local recycling programs. Industry
members may conduct studies, determine the feasibil-
ity of various collection mechanisms, propose promo-
tional strategies, and examine potential markets for
secondary materials.  These steps are essential for cre-
ating successful enterprises for a solid waste manage-
ment company.

   Waste industry trade associations also play a role in
successful municipal waste management planning by
providing the public with information about garbage
reduction, disposal, recycling, and facilities. For ex-
ample, the NSWMA distributes brochures addressing
public opinions toward solid waste management
methods, including disposal of household hazardous
wastes. NSWMA also distributes a brochure called
Garbage Then and Now which discusses integrated solu-
tions for dealing with municipal solid waste. The As-
sociation also has brochures devoted to educating
children about their environmental responsibilities.
                                                  Source Reduction

                                                     The waste management industry, which bears re-
                                                  sponsibility for ultimate recovery, treatment, and dis-
                                                  posal of municipal solid wastes, does not play a major
                                                  role in source reduction activities such as product and
                                                  packaging reformulation. In interviews and at the
                                                  national meeting, solid waste management industry
                                                  representatives expressed their opinion that the pri-
                                                  mary responsibility for this type of source reduction
                                                  rests with government, manufacturers, and consum-
                                                  ers. The solid waste management industry intends to
                                                  respond both to changes in the composition of the
                                                  municipal waste stream and changes in generation
                                                  rates of municipal solid waste as a result of source

reduction initiatives, and will continue to provide safe
and efficient municipal solid waste management alter-
natives. Some waste management companies are,
however, practicing source reduction in their corporate
offices and offering source reduction consulting as part
of their services.
   The national surge in
   recycling is creating
   business opportunities for
   all sectors of the waste
   management industry.
                                 The recycling of
                               numerous com-
                               modities, including
                               aluminum, steel,
                               glass, paper, plastic,
                               and yard waste, is
                               increasing rapidly.
Various sectors of the solid waste management indus-
try are taking advantage of new business opportunities
created by this surge of recycling. Collectors, haulers,
combustors, and landfill operators are moving into the
recycling business as part of their integrated solid
waste management operations. Recyclers, including
new companies, are entering the recycled products
market in response to the demand for recycled materi-

   According to NSWM A's Waste Recyclers Council
(WRC), its members saw a 30 percent increase in recy-
cling from 1988 to 1989. The members also reported
that they dealt with a greater variety of materials dur-
ing this period. Plastics, for instance, accounted for
over 100,000 tons of recycled materials in 1989 — five
times the amount reported by WRC members in 1988.
WRC members also report that investment for facilities
and equipment to collect and process recyclable mate-
rials tripled between 1987 and 1990, from $100 million
to $362 million. Industry representatives indicate that
these businesses are responding to an increased de-
mand for recycling caused by legislation and changes
in public behavior.

   Marketing recyclables, for example, is an area
where the recycling industry has expanded and in
some cases, stabilized markets, to ensure end-users for
recycled materials. For example, Reynolds Aluminum
Recycling capitalized on New Jersey's recycling law by
contracting with a large materials recovery facility in
Camden, New Jersey to obtain the aluminum from its
waste stream. When Reynolds discovered that the
law's provision allowing cans to be mixed with glass
caused quality problems, the company worked closely
with the MRF operators to mitigate the problems. The
result of this initiative was to produce a better quality
                                                                                     Investment In
                                                                                     equipment by
                                                                                     the waste
                                                                                     Industry tripled
                                                                                     from 1987 to
recycled aluminum product
and ensure the marketability
of the city's used aluminum.

  Similarly, new recycling
ordinances and regulations
promulgated by states and
local governments provide
opportunities that the solid
waste management industry is
aggressively pursuing. Responding to laws restricting
the landfilling of yard waste, Waste Management, Inc.
doubled its yard waste collection and composting
program in just over a year. The company's office
paper recycling program, virtually nonexistent three
years ago, is growing rapidly also. The company now
runs at least a dozen office paper recycling programs.

  The solid waste management industry began to
recycle scrap tires in response to the overabundance of
tires in the country.  There are an estimated 2 to 3 bil-
lion scrap tires stockpiled in the US., and this figure is
increasing by 150 to 200 million tires per year.  Many
refuse companies are now recycling the tires into tire
chips for roadbeds and into other products tradition-
ally made from virgin rubber.

  The solid waste management industry is forming
new partnerships to respond to the recycling boom.
For example, BFI and Waste Management, Inc. formed
agreements with Wellman Plastics and Dupont to
divert and recycle plastics. Agreements between the
solid waste management industry and paper, plastics,
and scrap metal producers are helping to stabilize
markets for recycled products and enabling communi-
ties to identify buyers for recyclable materials. Profes-
sional solid waste managers also are forming partner-
ships with consumers and community groups.
                                                        The waste management industry also is active in the
                                                     area of composting. Wheelabrator Technologies, Inc.
                                                     acquired a license to a Swiss waste-processing and
                                                     composting technology. Recomp, Inc. has a sophisti-
                                                     cated composting facility in St. Cloud, Minnesota
                                                     where magnets separate metals from the rest of the
                                                     municipal solid waste and the remainder is
                                                     composted. Recomp's facility is able to produce  about
                                                     40 to 50 tons of compost per day, according to Garbage
                                                     magazine. After about four months, the final product
                                                     is sold to landscapers, Christmas tree farms, and  high-
                                                     way departments.

                                                        Waste Management, Inc. has six active composting
                                                     and yard waste collection programs in Kirkland,
                                                                                   Challenges for the 90 's

Washington; Sioux Qty, Iowa; Robbinsdale, Minne-
sota; King County, Washington; Hastings, Minnesota;
and Albemarle, North Carolina. When establishing its
first composting facility, Waste Management, Inc.
worked very closely with the Qty of Rochester, New
York to ensure the project's success. The company
studied the waste stream generated by residents, iden-
tified markets, and worked with community officials
to ensure that the operation would be run as efficiently
as possible for both the company and the community.
The company's business goal of determining the long-
term viability of operating private composting facilities
aided the community in addressing its own solid
waste management needs.
LandfUUng and Combustion

   Landfilling and combustion long have been the
traditional methods of municipal solid waste disposal.
Although source reduction and recycling are preferred
alternatives, some wastes are not suitable for either
source reduction or recycling and will, therefore, con-
tinue to require disposal. The solid waste manage-
ment industry played a major role in developing and
operating municipal solid waste combustion and land-
fill facilities and is undertaking numerous initiatives to
reduce the potential environmental risks posed by
these facilities.

   Combustion of municipal solid waste not only pro-
vides the benefits of volume reduction and energy
recovery, and is a viable solid waste management
option for many communities. For this reason and due
to a shortage in landfill capacity, an increasing percent-
age of the municipal solid waste stream is combusted.
This trend is expected to continue. In fact, NSWMA
projects an increase in combustion of 16 to 25 percent
by the year 2000.

                                 Concerns exist
                               regarding combus-
                               tor emissions and
                               the potential toxic-
                               ity of ash and other
                               residuals, making it
                               difficult to site new
facilities.  The solid waste management industry re-
duced the risks associated with combustion by im-
proving the design and operation of facilities, provid-
ing operator training, separating materials containing
potentially harmful constituents prior to combustion,
and improving ash management practices. For ex-
ample, BFI sponsored research with the State Univer-
sity of New York on the reuse of ash.
NSWMA projects an
Increase in combustion of
16 to 25 percent by the
year 2000.
   Recognizing that ensuring proper operation of mu-
nicipal solid waste combustion facilities minimizes
emissions and the toxicity of residuals, the waste man-
agement industry participated in the development of
qualification standards and a certification program for
municipal solid waste combustion facility operators.
The industry worked with the American Society of
Mechanical Engineers (ASME) to develop and imple-
ment the Standard for the Qualification and Certification of
Resource Recovery Facility Operators in March 1990.  The
standards set forth the qualifications for the two princi-
pal operators at combustion facilities: (1) the chief
facility operator and (2) the shift supervisor. The stan-
dard also establishes criteria for ASME to certify the
qualifications of facility operators based on education,
experience, and the successful completion of a written
test covering municipal solid waste generation, collec-
tion, and combustion.

   Municipal solid waste combustion offers the addi-
tional benefit of energy recovery. Revenues from en-
ergy recovery are providing incentives for the solid
waste management industry to pursue waste-to-en-
ergy as part of an overall municipal solid waste man-
agement strategy. Of the 169 solid waste combustion
facilities currently operating in the United States,
nearly 80 percent now recover energy in the form of
electricity or steam. Almost all of these facilities suc-
cessfully contract with utilities or other energy users to
sell the energy they generate. The 37 facilities under
construction and the 64 planned facilities all will re-
cover energy.  On average, revenues from energy sales
cover approximately 50 percent of the operating ex-
penses for a solid waste combustion facility.

   Scrap tires also can be combusted. One well known
tire energy recovery project in the US. is Oxford
Energy's whole-tire-to-energy combustor near
Modesto, California. The company built their plant
next to one of the world's largest scrap tire stockpiles.
The pile contains almost 40 million tires. Oxford En-
ergy burns about 3 million whole tires per year to pro-
duce up to 14  megawatts of electricity. In the process,
by-products such as steel, zinc, and gypsum also are
recovered and sold. Oxford has recently expanded its
operations to the eastern United States

   Landfilling is becoming an increasingly expensive
municipal solid waste management option, due
mainly to the high costs of siting, construction, and
closure, and to the increased cost of meeting landfill
regulations. Even with these increased costs and the
progress made in source reduction and recycling, land-
filling remains necessary for a large percentage of solid
wastes. Due to increased costs and the difficulty asso-
Chapter 7 — Waste Management Industry

   Landf filing remains a
   necessary disposition
   for a large percentage
   of solid wastes.
                             dated with siting new
                             facilities, the solid
                             waste management
                             industry is acting to
                             extend landfill life and
                             reduce the risks of
                             landfllling through
innovative programs.  For example, when properly
planned, initiatives to divert and recycle specific mate-
rials from the municipal solid waste stream can extend
landfill life and provide revenues for landfill operators
and municipalities. One success story is the wood
diversion initiative currently underway at a landfill in
Los Angeles County. Solid waste managers re-
searched potential markets for discarded wood, con-
tracted with firms within those markets, and are now
diverting 1,000 tons per day of discarded wood that
would otherwise consume valuable landfill space to
composting and mulch production.

   Another innovative approach is gas recovery from
landfills, which is becoming a more important source
of clean energy. For example, BFI is reducing the risks
of gas buildup and potential seepage, by directing the
methane gas that is generated within a landfill to a
collection system. This produces a fuel that is sold to
the local natural gas utility and used to power facilities
at the landfill, thus reducing the need for energy from
other sources.
m. Future Initiatives and Goals

   The solid waste management industry can play a
major role in implementing the nation's municipal
solid waste management policies and provide the
public with safe and economical waste management
including collection, processing, and disposal. Simply
stated, this role places the solid waste management
industry on the front lines of the nation's efforts to
confront the municipal solid waste crisis.

   The following sections provide examples of selected
initiatives planned by the solid waste management
industry that further EPA's current goals for municipal
solid waste management.
   The waste management industry's day-to-
   day contact with the realities of solid
   waste management has underscored the
   need for flexibility when developing and
   Implementing integrated solid waste
   management strategies.

   The solid waste management industry is increas-
ingly realizing that it can play an important role in
promoting source reduction and safe recycling. Be-
cause the solid waste management industry is in the
business of recovering, recycling, or disposing of used
or discarded products, the industry has the incentive
to influence the manufacturers of these products to
improve the ability to recover or recycle materials or to
reduce the risks of treatment and disposal. For ex-
ample, certain scrap recycling operations produce
residues of nonrecyclable material commonly known
as "fluff."  These residues create regulatory concerns
for recyclers as well as increased waste disposal costs.
In response to these concerns, the Institute for Scrap
Recycling Industries is working with manufacturers of
bulk items, such as automobiles and white goods, to
encourage manufacturers to "design for recycling" and
to reduce the use of
toxic constituents or
to use toxic compo-
nents that can be
readily removed
from products before
                                                                             The Institute for Scrap
                                                                             Recycling Industries Is
                                                                             working with manufac-
                                                                             turers to encourage
                                                                             "design for recycling."
   An emerging trend among communities is the de-
mand for curbside collection for an increasing number
of recyclable materials. Where communities and citi-
zens once settled for trips to the aluminum recycling
center or weekly newspaper pickup, they are now
demanding curbside collection services for a full range
of materials, including glass, plastic, metal, paper, and
textiles. As the demand for recycled materials in-
creases, due to public preference and the enactment of
procurement policies mat favor products with recycled
content, recyclers are finding it profitable to fulfill
community wishes. As new wastes are targeted for
diversion or recycling, the industry will respond to the
need for well-managed recycling programs. These
programs increasingly will consist of the design and
implementation of curbside recycling, materials recov-
ery facilities, and composting systems, and will in-
clude facilities to recycle specific materials.

   Similarly, this evolution within the waste manage-
ment industry toward recycling will be characterized
by an increased diversity in the types of technologies
and services provided across the industry and within
specific waste management companies.  BFI, for ex-
ample, provides a significant amount of educational
materials regarding recycling and it is developing
educational centers at its recycling facilities as a service
to communities. Through its network of local recy-
                                                                                    Challenges for the 90's

cling centers, Reynolds Aluminum works directly with
consumers by educating school children about recy-
cling and by helping citizen groups, such as service
clubs and scout troops, to conduct successful recycling
programs. NSWMA also provides information about
recycling to municipalities, industry, and individuals.

Landfilling and Combustion
                          The waste
                          Industry must be
                          prepared to comply
                          with Increasingly
                          stringent state and
                          Federal regulations
                          governing the design
                          and operation of
                          municipal solid
                          waste management
  Combustion of mu-
nicipal solid waste for
energy recovery is ex-
pected to increase over
the next decade. Public
concern and increased
Federal and state regula-
tions governing emis-
sions from waste
combustors will encour-
age further efforts by the
waste management in-
dustry to reduce risks
associated with combustion, including the disposal of
residual ash. For example, ASME is evaluating a
promising ash vitrification process. Similar processes
have been employed successfully in Europe. The re-
sultant material is used for road-bed construction.
   To improve the operation of existing and planned
land disposal facilities, the waste management indus-
try will take steps to ensure full compliance with all
relevant requirements. For example, BFI is developing
and plans to implement an internal environmental
compliance training and auditing program for employ-
ees at its disposal facilities. This program is designed
to increase employee awareness of relevant environ-
mental regulations and to help identify areas of non-
compliance. Also, BFI has set up a special voluntary
siting project in New York. This project involves BFI
and the community working together in a partnership
to site a facility that will include recycling, composting,
and landfilling. Over ten communities indicated an
interest in the partnership.
IV.  Waste Management Industry's

  For many decades, the waste management industry
has been a viable economic entity providing for the
management of the municipal solid waste generated
by our society. Over the past twenty years, the indus-
try has assumed a more significant role in collecting
and transporting recyclables and waste, as well as
                                                                             Challenge: The waste
                                                                             management Industry
                                                                             must develop new
                                                                             facilities and enhance
                                                                             existing facilities to
                                                                             fully comply with
                                                                             state and Federal
recycling, treating, and
disposing of municipal
solid waste. As part of
its business activities,
the industry works
closely with local gov-
ernment to plan and
implement municipal
solid waste manage-
ment programs across
the nation. The waste management industry will be-
come a more active participant in state and local solid
waste management planning activities. The industry's
technical, economic, and practical expertise is a key
component in improving the quality and ability to
implement the results of these planning activities.

  As the nation increasingly comes to grips with its
solid waste challenge, the industry will experience
dramatic growth as it carries out its role to meet the
challenges and opportunities of integrated waste man-
agement. The industry will continue to invest in new
technology and facility development; enhance existing
programs and facilities with the aim of reducing the
amount of waste disposed; and minimize the overall
risks of municipal solid waste management. Similarly,
EPA encourages the waste management industry to
conduct comprehensive environmental audits of mu-
nicipal solid waste land disposal, combustion, and
recycling/recovery facilities to identify and mitigate
potential environmental releases and degradation. In
addition, waste management companies are encour-
aged to audit their in-house waste streams and take
advantage of opportunities to reduce and recycle.

  The waste management industry can promote true
cost accounting through such mechanisms as pay-by-
the-bag so that waste generators recognize the costs of
their disposal practices. The solid waste management
industry also is encouraged to offer increased opportu-
nities for collection of recyclable materials such as
paper, yard waste, aluminum, glass, textiles, plastics,
and bimetalics for recycling.

  Since publication of the 1989 Agenda for Action, en-
trepreneurs increasingly have moved to develop new
approaches to municipal solid waste management.
Many of these approaches involve the application of
materials-handling technologies from other industries
to solid waste management. This exchange of technol-
ogy is providing new methods to reduce waste genera-
tion and increase recycling of various components of
the municipal solid waste stream. Private entrepre-
neurs are encouraged to continue to develop and mar-
ket both existing and new processes, and then encour-
Chapter 7 — Waste Management Industry

   Private entrepreneurs
   are encouraged to
   develop and market
   integrated solid waste
   management programs.
age communities and
regions to work with
the private sector in
developing cost-
effective systems that
truly meet their waste
management needs.
   EPA encourages researching improved technologies
to: reduce the generation of municipal solid waste;
increase recycling; increase energy recovery; and re-
duce the risks of combustion and landfilling of munici-
pal solid waste. To meet this goal, EPA established the
Municipal Waste Innovative Technologies Evaluation
(MITE) program. The MITE program matches funds
for developers of innovative municipal solid waste
management technologies to participate in demonstra-
tion programs. The solid waste management industry
could participate in the program as well as implement
its own research and development initiatives.

   Finally, the solid waste management industry is
encouraged to take a leading role to instill an environ-
mental ethic in local decision-makers and the public.
The industry could actively work to educate its clients
and the public regarding alternative waste recycling
and recovery practices, technical and economic
tradeoffs of waste treatment and disposal options, and
risks associated with waste management. The
industry's insight into the complexities of evaluating
municipal solid waste management alternatives can
enhance the opportunities for improving the effective-
ness of integrated solid waste planning and implemen-
                                                      Challenges for the 90's

L  Manufacturers
 L   Introduction

   Manufacturers play a major role in defining the
 nature and volume of the municipal solid waste
 stream through the products and packaging made
 available to consumers.  For example, by deciding
 whether they will use secondary materials as manufac-
 turing feedstocks and whether they will produce recy-
 clable products, manufacturers contribute to the suc-
 cess or failure of recycling. Additionally, by bringing
 advanced pollution prevention technologies on line
 and implementing good housekeeping practices,
 manufacturers can reduce or eliminate production

   Because the manufacturing industry is comprised of
 an expansive and diverse group of businesses, the
 solid waste produced by this sector is heterogeneous.
 Furthermore, the quantities of waste generated by
 manufacturers can vary greatly depending on the
 products manufactured and the production processes
 used. Overall, manufacturers use recyclable commodi-
 ties such as paper, glass, plastic, aluminum, textiles,
 and steel extensively. This chapter discusses some of
 the  manufacturing industry's programs to source re-
 duce and recycle. Additionally, this chapter summa-
 rizes some future initiatives the manufacturing indus-
 try is overseeing to ensure the effective management of
 municipal solid waste.
n.  Current Activities

  In many manufacturing segments, industry is tak-
ing a lead in the area of research and development for
source reduction and recycling alternatives for solid
waste. Industry associations and leaders also are be-
ginning to work with state and local government deci-
sion-makers to design comprehensive and integrated
solid waste management plans. Manufacturing indus-
tries are working to reduce and recycle their wastes
and make their products reusable. Much of the
progress that has been made to date has been in the
area of packaging.

  As illustrated in Figure 8-1, packaging and contain-
ers currently represent about 33 percent by weight of
the total amount of municipal solid waste generated.
After accounting for the recovery of packaging materi-
als for recycling, packaging materials account for about
29 percent of all discarded waste. Due to their contri-
bution to the current waste stream, packages and con-
tainers (including consumer product packaging and
commercial packaging such as pallets, crates, and
pails) have become a significant focal point of our
nation's municipal solid waste problem. Government
officials, public interest groups, and concerned citizens
are targeting packaging materials and containers for
                                                Food Wastes (6.7%)
                   Containers and Packaging (32.9%)
                                                                 Yard Wastes (17.9%)
                                                                      Other Wastes (1.5%)
                                                                   Durables (14.3%)
                                    Nondurables (26.7%)
                    Figure 8-1  Composition of municipal solid waste stream by weight
                                (prior to materials recovery and recycling)
 Chapter 8—Manufacturers

Percent Million tons
    Figure 8-2 1990 recovery rates for packaging

source reduction and recycling campaigns. Rgure 8-2
provides recycling rates for packaging materials in

   Although containers and packaging historically
have been the largest single category of municipal
solid waste generated, EPA's study on the character-
ization of municipal solid waste indicated that
nondurables are projected to exceed containers and
packaging by the year 2000.
Source Reduction

   Manufacturers can play a significant role in munici-
pal solid waste source reduction because they have the
expertise needed to redesign products and packaging
to reduce both the quantity of material and the toxicity
of the material used.  For both environmental and
economic reasons, source reduction approaches—
decreasing the amount of materials used to produce
products or packaging and reducing the toxicity of the
materials contained in a product or packaging—are
being adopted by many manufacturers. To reduce the
amount of materials that are disposed, the packaging
industry has concentrated on five source reduction
activities: lightweighting, refillable packages, concen-
trates, bulk packages, and combination products
which reduce net packaging (e.g., putting bleach and
detergent in one product).

   The soft drink industry, for example, achieved sig-
nificant levels of source reduction in glass, aluminum,
steel, and plastic containers by lightweighting soft
drink containers (i.e.,  reducing the total material con-
tent of containers, and by substituting lighter weight
materials, such as plastic for glass.  Since 1984, the
amount of glass in glass soft drink bottles has been
reduced by 25 percent according to the National Soft
Drink Association; the amount of aluminum in cans by
35 percent (since 1972, according to the Aluminum
 Association); the amount of steel in cans by 33 percent
 (since 1975, as reported by the Steel Can Recycling
 Institute); the amount of tin in tin-plated steel cans by
 25 percent (since 1975, also reported by the Steel Can
 Recycling Institute); and the amount of polyethylene
 terephthalate in plastic bottles by 21 percent (since
 1977, according to the Council on Plastics and Packag-
 ing in the Environment).

   According to the American Paper Institute (API),
 design improvements in the paper industry continue
 to reduce the amount of material needed to make pa-
 per products, particularly paper and paperboard pack-
 aging.  Over the years, for example, the amount of
 paperboard needed to make half-pint milk cartons and
 half-gallon ice cream containers has been reduced by
 21 percent and 12.5 percent, respectively. Also, Scott
 Paper Co. is facilitating source reduction of packaging
 by developing jumbo-size roll tissue and towels.

   Glass and glass packaging currently represent ap-
 proximately 7 percent of the municipal solid waste
 stream. Glass packaging alone represents 6.3 percent
 of total discards, which is a significant decrease since
 1980. Glass has been decreasing as a percentage of
 total waste primarily due to: (1) source reduction ac-
 tivities by glass packagers; and (2) the displacement of
 glass containers by lighter weight aluminum and plas-
 tic packaging.

  The plastics industry has made efforts to reduce the
 amount of plastics used in many products. For ex-
 ample, according to COPPE, since the early 1970's the
 weight of high-density polyethylene (HOPE) milk jugs
 has been reduced from 95 grams to 60 grams, and
 plastic grocery bags have been reduced from 23 milli-
 meters to 0.7 millimeters in thickness since 1976.

  In addition, other manufacturing industries are
 making source reduction efforts. The American News-
 paper Publishers Association (ANPA) is taking steps
 to reduce the toxicity of ink used in printing newspa-
 pers and is encouraging the use of soy ink. Heavy
 metals are no longer used by newspaper publishers.
Additionally, ANPA is conducting research on the
toxicity of inks and is working with the direct mail
industry to reduce the toxic content of inks in direct
mail advertising.

  Another source reduction success story concerns the
manufacture of household batteries.  Member compa-
nies of the National Electrical Manufacturers Associa-
tion made significant progress in reducing the use of
mercury in alkaline batteries, thereby reducing the
toxicity levels of municipal solid waste.
                              Challenges for the 90's


   The product and packaging manufacturing indus-
tries are evaluating and implementing opportunities
for recycling paper, plastics, aluminum, and steel

   The following discussion summarizes a few of the
recycling initiatives undertaken by manufacturing
industries by product type.

A. Paper

   Paper and paper products accounted for approxi-
mately 38 percent of total discards in 1990. The paper
industry is increasing the quantities of paper and pa-
per products that are recovered and recycled in an
effort to divert as much material as possible from dis-
posal facilities.

   In 1989, over 27 million tons of waste paper (32
percent of all paper consumed) were collected for do-
mestic recycling and export. Figure 8-3 provides a
breakdown of the 1988 recovery rate for paper by type
of paper recovered. Approximately 25 percent of post-
consumer paper was recovered in 1988. Recovered
paper and paperboard account for almost 80 percent of
all post-consumer material collected for recycling.
Figure 8-3 also shows that since 1988, increasing
amounts of newspapers and corrugated cardboard
have been collected and recycled.
   The US. paper industry has established a national
goal of 40 percent paper recovery for recycling by the
end of 1995. Nearly 90 percent of the increased waste
paper recovered during this period will be post-
consumer paper, pushing paper's post-consumer col-
lection rate above 37 percent overall, according to API.
Figure 8-4 compares 1988 recovery rates for paper with
the industry's projected 1995 recovery rates. Again, for
corrugated cardboard and newspapers, the figure
shows interim recycling rates, as of 1990.

   In 1988,35 percent of newspapers were recovered
for recycling, and API projects that by 1995,52 percent
of all newspapers will be recovered. The ANPA re-
ports that old newspapers were recovered and used at
a 44 percent rate in 1990. ANPA is encouraging news-
paper publishers to use more recycled newsprint and
is urging newsprint producers to use more recycled
fiber. ANPA also is working with the Canadian pulp
and paper industry, which currently supplies 60 per-
cent of the nation's newsprint, to increase its use of old
newspapers in making newsprint. NSWMA's May
1990 report, The Future of Newspaper Recycling, predicts
that by 1995 the market for newsprint will have recov-
ered and 25 to 35 percent of newsprint will be made
from recycled fiber.

   Industry is responding to the increased demand for
recycled newsprint. Since 1989, over $1.5 billion has
been invested in recycled newsprint projects.  Accord-
ing to the ANPA, 378,000 tons of additional capacity
                                  20       40       60       80

                                           Percent Recovered

                               Figure 8-3  1990 waste paper recovery rates
Chapter 8—Manufacturers

came on-line in 1990 alone. Nineteen new de-inking
projects are now underway to recycle more newsprint.
ANPA projects that production capacity will increase
from 2 million tons in 1989 to 73 million tons in 1993.

   Although the current trend is toward more recy-
cling and an increase in consumer willingness to sepa-
rate household waste prior to collection, the paper
industry contends that a major obstacle to continued
increases in paper recycling is the lack of a steady sup-
ply of recovered paper for recycling. To increase the
total amount of post-consumer paper collected and
recycled, API is assisting local communities in devel-
oping paper recycling programs and conducting a
campaign to promote paper recycling. API also devel-
oped the 'Taper Matcher," a national data base of
paper recycling mills, waste paper dealers, and local
collection centers to help link community collection
programs to potential markets and to increase the total
amount of paper recycled.  As a second part of the
industry's effort to assure a steady supply of recyclable
materials, API developed a videotape explaining and
promoting comprehensive and efficient source separa-
tion and collection programs.

B. Plastic

   Plastics comprise approximately 8 percent of the
municipal solid waste stream by weight, and plastic
             Symbols designating that a material is recyclable
               (left) or made from recycled materials (right)
           containers and packaging make up 3.1 percent of the
           total municipal solid waste stream. Currently, only
           about 1.6 percent of all plastic containers that are dis-
           carded are recycled. Because many plastic products
           such as rigid containers and some film packaging
           could be recycled if an infrastructure were available,
           much progress can be made in the area of plastics
           recycling. Although 20 percent of all plastic soft drink
           bottles made out of polyethylene terephthalate (PETE)
           were recovered in 1988, recovery of other plastic con-
           tainers and packaging has been less successful accord-
           ing to the Council for Solid Waste Solutions (CSWS) .

             The plastics industry and the CSWS are working to
           reduce the quantities of plastics disposed and to in-
           crease current recycling rates for plastic wastes. A
           central feature of CSWS's current technical program is
           a comprehensive, centralized market plan to guide the
                Dei n king
               Pulp Subs
                                          31 !
                                                                     iiissii /
1	'	1	'—
40        60        80
 Percent Recovered
                        Figure 8-4 Current and projected waste paper recovery rates
                                         Challenges for the 90's

growing plastics recycling industry. CSWS is directing
and sponsoring university and field research activities
on a variety of plastics recycling and disposal issues,
and is assisting communities in expanding existing
plastics recycling programs while creating new ones.
In addition, CSWS is conducting a national print ad-
vertising campaign, a store-based consumer education
program, and a national schools program to increase
public education concerning plastics recycling and the
quantities of post-consumer plastic collected.

   According to COPPE, the plastics industry is com-
mitted to a 50 percent recycling rate for PETE by 1993.
The National Association for Plastic Container Recov-
ery (NAPCOR) reports that as of January 1990,292
American communities in 19 states include PETE plas-
tic containers in their curbside recycling programs.
Additionally, CSWS reported that two percent of all
milk, juice, and water containers made from high-
density polyethylene (HOPE) currently are recycled.
To facilitate increased recycling rates for all plastics in
the near future, the Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc.
(SPI) developed a coding system, illustrated below, to
distinguish and sort different types of plastics.  The
resin type is indicated by a number (1 through 7)
within a triangle of continuous arrows. The numbers
identify the following resins:  1 = polyethylene tereph-
thalate (PETE), 2 = high-density polyethylene (HDPE),
3 = vinyl (V), 4 = low-density polyethylene (LDPE), 5 =
polypropylene (PP), 6 = polystyrene (PS), and 7 =
other. It is important to note that the code is only an
indicator of plastic resin type. Because the coding
system cannot identify plastics made of a mixture of
resins, the system is only an interim solution to the
problem of  identifying and sorting plastics for recy-

   COPPE and the Polystyrene Packaging Council
(PPC) are undertaking efforts in the municipal  solid
waste arena. COPPE and its member companies initi-
ated a peer matching program to share solid waste
problems and solutions at national conferences and
set up a dialogue program to facilitate the exchange of
ideas and solutions between industry, environmental
groups, and other concerned parties. PPC established
the National Polystyrene Recycling Company to in-
crease the amount of polystyrene recycled, and set a
goal of 25 percent polystyrene packaging recycling
(250 million pounds) by 1995.

   The Council for Solid Waste Solutions has issued
"The Blueprint for Plastics Recycling," which is an
action plan to help all aspects of the recycling infra-
structure develop at the same time. The Council now
has the following available:

   • "How to Implement a Plastics Recycling Pro-
     gram" - This comprehensive manual, based on
     the Council's workshop program, takes recycling
     coordinators step-by-step through the design
     and execution of a plastics recycling program
     suited to the needs of their communities.

   • Toll-Free Information Hotline - Community
     officials and recyclers can get the technical infor-
     mation they need by calling the Council's
     hotline, 1-800-2-HELP. Hotline operators can
     access the Council's data bases which list 643
     plastic handlers and 168 plastics reclaimers to
     match supply with demand for post-consumer

   Also, the Council for Solid Waste Solutions now has
a free computer model service that estimates curbside
plastics recycling costs. A collection economics com-
puter model to help communities assess the cost of
adding plastics to their curbside collection of
recyclables has been developed jointly by The Society
of the Plastics Industry's Plastic Bottle Institute and the
Council  for Solid Waste Solutions. At no charge, op-
erators of recycling programs will be able to have accu-
rate estimates of the costs of conducting curbside col-
lection.  The model will predict costs for such things as
recycling investment, recycling personnel and solid
waste disposal and can be easily customized to match
a community's specific operating characteristics. Pub-
lic works officials, recycling coordinators, and waste
haulers can call the Council's hotline to request a four-
page questionnaire and a 24-page, step-by-step in-
struction booklet To provide increased focus, the
plastics industry has formed the "Partnership for Plas-
tics Progress." This new initiative will envelope the
efforts of the Council.

                                   Glass Recycles
C. Glass

   Glass represents about seven
percent by weight of the municipal
solid waste stream. Glass container
(post-consumer) recycling rates
have increased in recent years.
According to the Characterization of Municipal Solid
Waste in the United States: 1990 Update, in 1980,6 per-
cent of glass containers were recycled. In 1985,9 per-
cent of the total glass containers discarded were recov-
ered for recycling, and in 1988,13 percent were recov-
ered for recycling. The National Soft Drink Associa-
tion reported that 20 percent of glass soft drink bever-
age containers were recycled in 1990, up from 15 per-
cent in 1989. Crushed glass, or cullet, is a standard
ingredient in glass container manufacturing. Cur-
rently, at least 30 percent of the glass on store shelves is
recycled glass, according to the Mid Atlantic Glass
Recycling Program.

   In 1984, glass cullet made up between 15 and 20
percent of production batches for glass containers. By
1987, industry-wide use of pre- and post-consumer
cullet had grown to approximately 25 percent, with
most of the cullet coming from post-consumer and
end-user supplies of recycled glass.  In 1989, the cullet
usage rate was up to 30 percent.

   Currently, the Glass Packaging Institute (GPI) is
working with all levels of public officials to increase
the glass recycling rate by promoting curbside recy-
cling programs. GPI produced a series of mailers that
promote the benefits of glass packaging and recycling
and developed a national advertising campaign to
promote the recyclabiliry of glass.  To help local offi-
cials, GPI also commissioned research on the econom-
ics of comprehensive curbside recycling and published
a benchmark guide entitled, Comprehensive Curbside
Recycling: Collection Costs and How to Control Them. In
addition, GPI developed a video to accompany this

D. Aluminum
                                                                            The primary source of alumi-
                                                                         num in the municipal solid
                                                                         waste stream is aluminum cans
                                                                         and other packaging. Due to its
                                                                         light weight, aluminum only
                                                                         represents 1.4 percent of the
                                                                         municipal solid waste stream.
                                                                         During 1988,44 percent of all
                                                      aluminum containers and packaging were recovered.
                                                      The majority of this was recovered from beer and soft
                                                      drink cans which were estimated to be recovered at a
                                                      55 percent rate.

                                                        Due to the economic benefits of aluminum recy^
                                                      cling, great progress has been made in recycling all
                                                      types of aluminum products, particularly aluminum
                                                      beverage cans. The Aluminum Association reported
                                                      that consumers saved an estimated $900 million in
                                                      1989 by recycling 49.4 billion aluminum beverage cans.
                S  3°-
                O  20.
                                                  9   33.1   33.3
                           /   HI/  VSL / \8& /  ^/  ^M/ Ig^iX  ^a/ ^^X   ^X
                        1980   1981  1982  1983   1984   1985   1986  1987  1988   1989

                            Figure 8-5  U.S. aluminum can recycling, 1980-1989
                                                                                    Challenges for the 90's

According to the Aluminum Association, recycling
aluminum saves about 95 percent of the energy
needed to make new aluminum from ore. To assure
the success of its recycling efforts, the aluminum in-
dustry established a strong infrastructure for recycling
used aluminum, including a nationwide network to
collect and recover aluminum beverage cans. The
Aluminum Association stated that aluminum recyders
have the capacity to recycle every aluminum can

   Since 1980, the amount of aluminum cans recycled
each year has increased steadily (see Figure 8-5). The
aluminum industry recycled over half the aluminum
beverage cans produced in the 1980's, which translates
into almost 12 billion pounds of aluminum diverted
from the municipal solid waste stream. In 1989,60
percent of all aluminum beverage cans produced were
recycled and in 1990 the recycling rate increased to 63
percent. In addition to cans, automobile parts, siding,
aircraft, lawn chairs, and cookware are recycled.

E. Steel
   Currently, steel represents
approximately 65 percent of the
total solid waste stream. In 1988,
5.8 percent of the amount of post-
consumer steel and other ferrous
metals generated as waste was
recovered. As of mid-1989, at
least 30 steel mills purchased steel cans and/or the
ferrous fraction of municipal solid waste. The steel
industry has recently opened over 60 new re-smelting
facilities for the recycling of post-consumer steel. The
Steel Can Recycling Institute established 5 regional
recycling offices to promote steel recycling.

   The Steel Can Recycling Institute  (SCRI) maintains
a national toll-free number - 1-800-876-SCRI - to an-
swer questions and provide technical assistance to
recycling programs of all types and sizes. They also
maintain lists of suppliers of equipment, and referrals
to appropriate buyers of steel cans. Through their
daily association with the steel can recycling infrastruc-
ture, SCRI can recommend various steel mills, compa-
nies, processors, and businesses that  are the most con-
venient and reliable sources in a geographic region.

   Steel scrap is an essential raw material in steelmak-
ing. According to SCRI, basic oxygen furnaces use 20 -
30% scrap content per "heat;" electric are furnaces use
close to 100% recycled steel scrap. For every pound of
steel recycled, 5,540 Btu'sof energy are conserved,
enough to light a 60-watt light bulb for over 26 hours.
Every ton of steel recycled saves 2,500 pounds of iron
ore, 1JOOO pounds of coal, and 40 pounds of limestone. The
national recycling rate for steel beverage cans reached
30% in 1990 according to SCRI.

   Two primary markets exist for used steel food and
beverage cans. First, detinning companies are increasing
capacity as new recycling programs come on line and
generate steel cans for recycling. Second, steel mills are
using baled steel cans as part of the scrap mix for their

F. Other Packaging

   In addition to the specific industry initiatives men-
tioned, trade associations representing the packaging
industry are undertaking efforts to assist in meeting
the challenge of managing the nation's packaging
wastes. Soft drink bottlers recognize that soft drink
containers are a very visible component of the post-
consumer waste stream, comprising 2 percent of waste
discards. The National Soft Drink Association
(NSDA) developed educational materials and initiated
public outreach campaigns to increase public aware-
ness of the need and opportunity to recycle soft drink
containers. Currently, NSDA is working with many
states, including South Carolina, Louisiana, Florida,
and Illinois, and cities to plan and implement solid
waste management programs and curbside collection

   Anheuser-Busch created a pamphlet called "Start-
ing At Home: Recycling To Protect Our Environ-
ment" The pamphlet addresses the need for recycling
and its benefits for both the individual and the com-
munity. Helpful tips are given on how individuals can
contribute to the recycling effort.

   The Coca-Cola Company also produced several
informational brochures and pamphlets addressing
recycling at home and in the workplace.

G. Compost

   Manufacturers realize that composting is an essen-
tial part of the solution to the municipal solid waste
problem. Procter & Gamble Company joined with
others to form the Solid Waste Composting Council
(SWCC), to promote composting activities.  It provides
information about composting and its benefits. In
addition, the Council works with different levels of
government to promote the use of compost on public
lands, and to clarify the definition of composting as a
Chapter 8—Manufacturers

type of recycling. The restaurant industry can partici-
pate in composting by promoting the composting of
food wastes.

H. Tires

   Scrap tires make up 1.2 percent of the municipal
solid waste stream. Generation of rubber tires in-
creased from 1.1 million tons in 1960 to 2.4 million tons
in 1990. Generation was higher in the late 1970's and
early 1980% but the trend toward smaller, longer
wearing tires lowered the tire waste generation rate.
In 1990,23 percent of the tires generated were recov-
ered, compared to 36.4 percent in 1960. Dealing with
scrap tires is not a new problem, but it is becoming a
more serious one as landfills fill up and more tires are
stockpiled.  Stockpiled tires serve as breeding grounds
for vermin and mosquitoes and are serious fire haz-

   Manufacturers developed methods  to retread tires
and recycle tires into other consumer products, tire-
derived fuel, rubber-asphalt paving, and several other
applications, such as artificial reefs, playground equip-
ment, gravel substitute, erosion control, highway crash
barriers, and sludge composting.

   In 1987, Rubber Research Elastomerics opened a
scrap tire processing and recycling plant in Babbitt,
Minnesota. Using a chemical process, the facility pro-
duced crumb rubber from scrap tires that could be
used in roof and road sealers, rubber-asphalt, and
other rubber and plastic products. Markets for the
product, called TireCyde, were not well established,
and in  1988 the Babbitt facility closed due to financial
difficulties.  Texas Tire Disposal hopes  to take over the
plant to produce the treated crumb rubber.

   RW Technology of Cheshire, Connecticut grinds
scrap tires into a powder and blends it  with polyethyl-
ene plastic to create a product that can be used to make
molded items, such as car bumpers. Deluxe Tires Co.
in De Land, Florida is converting as many as 1,200 tires
a day into floor mats, bumpers, and wheel chocks.
Cumberland Engineering of Providence, Rhode Island
has a Tire Recycling System that converts waste tires
into reusable, high quality rubber and marketable steel
and fiber.

   Several manufacturers opened facilities to produce
tire-derived fuels. Metropolitan Tire Converters
makes  tire-derived fuel in their Newark, New Jersey
plant to sell primarily to foreign buyers. Emanuel Tire,
the largest independently-owned tire recycler in the
country, processes tires for sewage composting, crumb
rubber, reclaim, and tire-derived fuel. The operation
uses more than three million tires annually.

   Terramat was created by the president of Construc-
tion Incorporated in Youngstown, Ohio. Terramat
links tire sidewalls together with stainless steel strap-
ping. The company used the mat as a subbase for
roads built on soft, unstable, or waterlogged ground.
In the Town of Islip, Long Island, the New York Tire
Recycling Company provides tire chips to the town's
landfill. A soil and scrap tire mixture is used daily for
grading and road stabilization.

   Tire manufacturers are making progress toward
increasing the number of scrap tires that are reused,
either through tire retreading or by shredding the tires
and using the rubber to make other products. The
industry published a booklet on how to manage scrap
tires. Also, the National Tire Dealers and Retreaders
Association is working with EPA and the Federal
Highway Administration to expand the recycling of
waste tires into asphalt paving materials.

I.  Batteries

                        The battery industry made
                     significant progress in recy-
                     cling batteries and in reducing
                     the quantities of lead-acid
                     batteries disposed of in mu-
                     nicipal landfills and combus-
                     tors. The Battery Council
                     International (BCD currently is
surveying member firms to better understand the
battery industry's contribution to the municipal solid
waste stream. BQ also developed a recycling label for
all lead-acid batteries.

   In March 1990 BCI conducted a national poll to
determine the quantity of automotive batteries that
people may be holding in their residences. The ex-
trapolation of the collected data indicate that as many
as 30 to 40 million batteries are being stored in house-
holds. The survey also revealed that 60 percent of
Americans who are storing old automotive batteries
know that they are recyclable. Forty-five percent of the
respondents who said they were storing batteries said
they were having difficulties locating places to take
them or had not yet had time to return them and 5
percent said they were waiting to trade in the battery
for a refund. BCI concluded that many batteries that
are not being recycled and are not being landfilled but
are being stored by consumers. BCI feels the evalua-
tion proves that a mandatory take-back system is nec-
essary to increase the lead battery recycling rate. It
                              Challenges for the 90's

also is important to note that lead-acid battery recy-
cling and the price of lead are strongly correlated. A
1987 EPA report The Impacts of Lead Industry Economics
and Hazardous Waste Regulations on Lead-Acid Battery
Recycling; Revision and Update, investigated this rela-
tionship and determined that when the price of lead
falls, even with a mandatory take-back program, used
batteries get stored, not recycled.

   BQ believes that consumer education is an impor-
tant element of recycling. To aid consumers in getting
spent batteries into the recycling chain, BCI operates a
toll-free information line. Consumers can call 1-800-
658-1200 for information on lead-aid battery recycling.

   Nickel-cadmium batteries also contribute to con-
tamination problems in municipal landfills.  These
batteries are found in a variety of rechargeable con-
sumer electronics. Consumer grade power tools typi-
cally use non-replaceable nickelodmium batteries.
The cost of replacing the battery can approach full
replacement cost of the tool. As a result, the tool joins
the municipal solid waste stream, and the battery is
not recycled. Several states have passed legislation
requiring all such batteries to be replaceable.  In re-
sponse to such legislation, one company, the Skil Cor-
poration, plans to introduce a line of consumer power
tools with replaceable batteries (the cost of the tools
will be roughly ten percent higher than for models
with non-replaceable batteries). Skil also is planning to
start collection centers where consumers can leave
worn out tools for proper disposal. This development
is important in two ways: it promotes battery recy-
cling and it is a move toward the production of goods
that are more durable.
Landfilling and Combustion

   Generally, manufacturing industries do not focus
their efforts on landfilling and combustion. Although
manufacturing industries recognize the need to reduce
risks from landfilling and combusting municipal solid
waste, their focus has been on reducing the amounts of
solid waste requiring disposal.
DL Future Initiatives and Goals

   Although manufacturing industries have made
significant progress in source reduction and in the
recycling of packaging and other products, EPA en-
courages manufacturers to undertake additional ef-
forts to increase source reduction and to meet the na-
tional goal of 25 percent recycling. Many businesses
are accepting the challenge, setting goals, and devel-
oping long-term plans to assist the nation in decreas-
ing the amount of municipal solid waste destined for

   Industry, through the US. Chamber of Commerce,
is taking some initiatives to work with governmental
officials in solving the municipal solid waste manage-
ment dilemma. One initiative undertaken by the
Chamber is the creation and distribution of a booklet,
The Growing Garbage Problem.  This booklet addresses
all aspects of integrated waste management and is
meant to be a primer or guide for communities and
businesses. Consumer preference plays a significant
role in product and packaging decisions. Therefore,
industry representatives stress that government and
public interest groups must assist manufacturers in
stimulating life-cycle considerations within consumer
purchasing decisions. Industry stated that it will be
able to respond more effectively to the solid waste
challenge when consumers start taking a more active
role in contributing to municipal solid waste solutions
by demanding and purchasing products made from
recycled materials; by purchasing products with mini-
mal packaging; and by recycling product and packag-
ing waste.

   Industry trade associations and private companies
also are planning to increase their current level of
source reduction and recycling activities over the next
2 years. Trade associations are developing additional
outreach materials and are planning to increase re-
search and development efforts to encourage the recy-
cling and collection of waste products and packaging.
In addition, many associations are working with states
and local communities to develop and implement
curbside collection programs. Manufacturers have
stated that their biggest challenge is assuring mills and
plants of steady supplies of materials for recycling.
They also stated that investment dollars will not be
spent on re-tooling or changing processes to facilitate
the use of recycled materials until steady supplies of
recycled products are available as substitutes for cur-
rent supplies of virgin materials.

   The manufacturing industry will continue to play a
significant role in product research and development
Many industry officials and trade associations are
committed to increasing research and development
efforts for source reduction and product recycling.
This includes research in process changes to accommo-
date the use of greater quantities of recycled products,
and research in collection programs for guaranteed
supplies of recycled products.
Chapter 8—Manufacturers

   Industry leaders favor consistent standards and
definitions (e.g., for what constitutes a "green" label or
an environmentally preferable package) across all
markets. Industry leaders also think that there is a
need to provide all active participants in the municipal
solid waste arena with access to a common set of sta-
tistics and information on which to establish and
evaluate the success of current policies and activities.
Therefore, manufacturers would like to form a part-
nership with Federal, state and local government offi-
cials to develop uniform standards and definitions,
and create a background document of municipal solid
waste statistics for universal use.

   Other initiatives planned by manufacturing indus-
try trade associations and private companies include:

   • The Steel Can Recycling Institute and the steel
     industry will continue to provide technical infor-
     mation on waste reduction and product reuse to
     state and local decision-makers.

   • The battery industry and the Battery Council
     International are planning to undertake addi-
     tional technology transfer programs to encourage
     further reductions in the toxicity of battery waste.

   • API will continue its national public education
     program to promote recycling awareness and to
     promote collection of quality waste paper for

   • The American Newspaper Publishers Associa-
     tion will conduct a national survey of public/
     private organizers and suppliers of used news-
     print collection programs to better understand
     the current and future supply of recyclable news-
     paper, and to help plan for mill  expansions.  In
     response to the demand for recycled newsprint
     production, 20 North American newsprint mills
     are considering expansions and equipment ad-
     justments to increase current production of
     newsprint with recycled fiber content.

   • NAPCOR will increase its plastic container col-
     lection programs in rural supermarkets.

   • The Rubber Manufacturers Association's newly
     formed Scrap Tire Management Council will
     promote the use of scrap tires as a valuable re-
     source. Over the next five years, the Council's
     goals include the development of a market that is
     capable of absorbing more than 50 percent of the
     scrap tires generated annually.
   • The paper industry is planning to expand current
     recycling capacity. As of mid-1990, over 50
     planned expansions, including the possible con-
     struction of 11 new mills, had been publicly an-
     nounced. This new capacity will be added to the
     more than 500 paper mills that already are en-
     gaged in recycling in this industry.
IV. Manufacturers'Challenges

  EPA encourages manufacturing industries to inten-
sify current efforts to reduce the amount and toxicity
of municipal solid waste that must be disposed. EPA
believes that industry can further promote environ-
mental progress by recovering greater quantities of
discarded products for recycling and by developing
markets for recycled goods. EPA encourages industry
to take a leadership role in municipal solid waste man-
agement, and encourages manufacturing industries to
increase current efforts, and take advantage of the
following types of opportunities to minimize solid
waste generation and increase source reduction and
recycling activities:

  •  Encourage employees to suggest source reduc-
     tion and recycling initiatives. Conduct in-house
     waste audits, including procurement practices, to
     identify opportunities for source reduction
     (quantity and toxicity reduction) and recycling,
     and implement those approaches that are cost-

  •  Work with local communities to identify oppor-
     tunities for recycling the products and packaging
     that they produce, and for increasing the use of
     recycled products in their manufacturing processes.

  •  Educate corporate decision-makers, employees,
     and consumers on the environmental impacts of
     their purchasing choices.

   • Consider  environmental impacts when design-
     ing  facilities, developing processes, and making
     product design and packaging decisions.

  •  Design products that have longer useful lives, are
     repairable, and are recyclable.

  •  Eliminate the use of unnecessary packaging,
     develop innovative marketing strategies to re-
     duce the total volume of packaging used solely
     to help market products, and expand the use of
     source-reduced and recycled/recyclable packag-
     ing materials.
                              Challenges for the 90's

   • Establish internal controls or criteria to ensure
     against misleading environmental information
     on products and packaging.

   • Identify and eliminate unnecessary uses of toxic
     constituents in products and packaging, identify
     safe substitutes, and design products with mate-
     rials of low toxicity.

   • Increase purchases of products containing re-
     cycled materials and consider establishing tem-
     porary price preferences for these products as

   • Establish goals for the use of secondary materials
     in manufacturing and challenge other industries
     to do the same.
• Use lighter weight papers, where possible.

• Invest in processes using or producing materials
  with recycled content, where practicable.

• Print and copy double-sided documents and
  look for other opportunities to reduce waste.

• Increase industry and consumer use of recycled
  paper products, re-refined oil, retread tires, ce-
  ment containing fly ash, and building insulation
Chapter 8—Manufacturers

70                                                                                           Challenges for the 90's

   Distributors and Retailers
L   Introduction

  Distributors and retailers serve as a link between
manufacturers and consumers. According to Dun's
Marketing Service, 1990 Standard Classification Statis-
tics, there are more than 2.5 million wholesale and
retail distributors in the United States. Distributors
and retailers sell both durable (e.g., autos, lumber,
electrical appliances) and nondurable goods (e.g., food,
clothing, paper). Because of their central role in the
distribution of commercial goods, their ability to influ-
ence parties on both ends of the chain of commerce,
and their ability to implement their own reduction and
recycling campaigns, distributors and retailers can
play an important role in municipal solid waste man-
  There are more than 2.5
  million wholesale and
  retail distributors in the
  United States today
  that generate a sub-
  stantial quantity of
  diverse wastes.
                              Distributors and
                            retailers generate
                            significant amounts of
                            packaging materials
                            and food waste classi-
                            fied as business-gen-
                            erated municipal solid
                            waste. The municipal
                            solid waste generated
by distributors and retailers varies in type and amount,
reflecting the diversity of the businesses in this group.
This diversity also results in situations where distinct
industries, such as the fast food trade, have unique
opportunities to affect the management of specific

  Available data generally do not distinguish between
the portion of municipal solid waste generated by
distributors or retailers and that portion generated by
other industry sectors. Some specific industries, how-
ever, have developed limited data concerning the
waste they generate. For example, one study by W.L.
Rathje of the University of Arizona indicates that fast
food packaging comprises approximately 0.26 percent
by weight and 027 percent by volume of all waste

  Distributors, retailers, manufacturers, and consum-
ers rely on packaging to perform several important
functions in the chain of commerce, including:

   • Product Protection - Protective packaging en-
    sures the integrity and value of products.
   • Ease of Handling - Packaging materials enhance
     safe, cost-effective movement of products to the

   • Safety - Packaging plays a significant role in
     preventing product tampering and helps to re-
     duce potential product liability as well.

   • Convenience-Convenience is a selling point for
     many products (e.g., single serving food items).

   • Marketability - Packaging is often used for prod-
     uct advertising.

   Some product packaging practices (e.g., food pack-
aging practices) are regulated by Federal and state
agencies. Other packaging practices are controlled to a
large extent by industry standards (use of standard-
ized materials, packaging format, and packaging size).
These restrictions, while frequently meeting other
valuable goals such as food safety and theft preven-
tion, often compete with source reduction and recy-
cling goals for reducing potential discards of packag-
ing waste.

   The remainder of this chapter focuses on the trends
and activities of distributors and retailers, their future
initiatives and goals, and the challenges to be over-
come in the areas of source reduction and recycling of
municipal solid waste.
                                                   IL Current Activities

                                                      Distributors and retailers are becoming more active
                                                   in the area of municipal solid waste management.
                                                   Recent efforts have been aimed at addressing both
                                                   internal waste man-
                                                   agement practices and
                                                   increasing others'
                                                   awareness of munici-
                                                   pal solid waste issues.
                                                   Distributor and retail
                                                   trade associations are
                                                   becoming proactive in
                                                   educating their mem-
                                                   bers and consumers
                                                   about solid waste
                                                   issues and are pro-
                                                   moting the need to
                        Distributor and retail
                        trade associations are
                        becoming proactive in
                        educating their
                        members and con-
                        sumers about solid
                        waste Issues and are
                        development of
                        solutions to the
                        municipal solid waste

develop solutions to the municipal solid waste crisis.
The National Grocers Association (NGA), for example,
provides its members free advertisement distribution
service for advertising that addresses environmental
issues and promotes environmental activities among
its members. Distributors can play an important role
in planning, including developing and distributing
information, as well as promoting source reduction
and recycling of municipal solid waste.

   Distributors and retailers are participating in mu-
nicipal solid waste planning and information develop-
ment activities in response to an increased awareness
of municipal solid waste issues, government initia-
tives, and the general recognition that everyone has a
role to play in solving the garbage problem. One par-
ticular planning initiative is the Current Issue Report:
The Solid Waste Problem published by the National
Restaurants Association (NRA). Designed to provide
the restaurant industry with a basic understanding of
how the municipal solid waste problem may affect its
operations, this booklet includes information on mu-
nicipal solid waste, waste management, disposal costs,
solid waste legislation, and food service disposables.
The publication is typical of much of the information
being developed to educate members and the public
concerning municipal solid waste issues. Other repre-
sentative examples of distributor and retailer planning
and informational activities in the area of municipal
solid waste include:

   • The National Soft Drink Association (NSDA)
     issued policy and position statements on munici-
     pal solid waste management and is holding solid
     waste conferences for bottlers.

   •  NSDA also is working with several states, in-
     cluding South Carolina and Louisiana, to plan
     and implement comprehensive solid waste

   •  The International Mass Retailers Association
     (IMRA) formed its first technical committee to
     plan solutions to environmental issues.

   •  The grocery industry formed a committee on
     solid waste to investigate relevant issues and to
     improve the coordination of all efforts. This
     committee includes representatives from the
     Food Marketing Institute (FMI), Grocery Manu-
     facturers of America (GMA), American Meat
     Institute (AMI), National Food Processors Asso-
     ciation (NFPA), National-American Wholesale
     Grocer Association (NAWGA), United Fresh
     Fruit and Vegetable Association (UFFVA), and
     Produce Marketing Association (PMA).

     FMI surveyed its membership to identify current
     source reduction and recycling activities by its
     members and to establish a benchmark by which
     to measure the industry's progress.

     The NRA also is tracking solid waste legislation
     and developing informational materials to pro-
     vide accurate data on the food industry's contri-
     bution to the municipal solid waste stream.

     The Walt Disney Company is providing employ-
     ees the opportunity to recycle their used oil at
Source Reduction

   Some fast food companies are undertaking source
reduction activities to eliminate unnecessary packag-
ing. For example, McDonald's switched to, and Taco
Bell tested, bulk delivery of
syrup for soft drinks. Other
source reduction efforts imple-
mented by McDonald's in-
clude purchasing concentrates
instead of pre-mixed liquids,
redesigning existing packag-
ing, and repackaging materials
more efficiently. For example,
by eliminating the use of card-
board dividers in the packag-
ing of beverage cups, McDonald's estimates that the
company's municipal solid waste discards have been
reduced by 1,000 tons in one year.
Some fast food
companies, are
source reduction
activities to
   The Walt Disney Company has instituted a source
reduction policy of buying products that minimize
packaging. Alternatives in food service, such as use of
reusable utensils, food containers, and bottled condi-
ments to replace disposable packets, have been tested.
Dispenser napkins have been reduced in size by 25%.
Such source reduction policies have resulted in the
elimination of hundreds of thousands of pounds from
the company's waste stream.

   Two additional examples of source reduction in
retail settings include the use of reusable containers.
Schroeder Milk Company in St. Paul, Minnesota sells
milk in returnable high-density polyethylene plastic
milk containers that are designed to be used 50 times.
                              Challenges for the 90's

Sales of 250,000 units per month of these containers
will prevent the generation of an estimated 25,000
pounds of municipal solid waste per month. The
packaging costs saved because of the reusable contain-
ers are passed on to the consumer in the form of an 8-
to 10-cent reduction in the price of a gallon of milk.
Similarly, reusable cloth grocery bags were introduced
by retailers in several states. These bags, one known as
the "Neither" bag since consumers no longer need to
select paper or plastic, also prevent the generation of
unnecessary waste.

   Distributors and retailers have found that some
barriers exist to developing internal source reduction
and recycling programs.  Many barriers are due to
regulatory standards for packaging and to government
or industry specifications that conflict with recycling
goals. According to distributors and retailers, these
barriers even extend to legal concerns regarding anti-
trust laws that  restrict large sectors of industry from
jointly collaborating on or simply discussing issues
such as product or material standardization.

   Distributors and retailers are promoting municipal
solid waste recycling. Many companies are develop-
ing in-house programs and distributing information to
promote community recycling efforts. Beverage and
fast food retailers are particularly active in supporting
and implementing recycling programs.  For example,
McDonald's developed informational pamphlets on
source reduction and recycling to inform customers
about municipal solid waste solutions and what
McDonald's is doing to help solve the solid waste
                       Many distributors and
                       retailers are developing
                       in-house recycling
                       programs and are
                       distributing information
                       to promote community
                       recycling efforts.
   The Walt Disney
Company has insti-
tuted recycling and/
or reuse programs
for office paper, laser
printer toner
cardboard, lumber,
scrap metal, aluminum, polystyrene foam cups, glass,
used oil, batteries, plastic, and kitchen by-products.
Company newsletters, handbooks, annual reports,
stationary, business cards, and internal memo sheets
are all printed on recycled paper.

   Supermarkets are active in the area of recycling, as
well. For example, Hannaford Brothers, operator of 77
supermarkets in the New England area, has an envi-
ronmental action program that includes recycling both
plastic and paper bags, selling reusable canvas shop-
ping bags (over 25,000 sold to date), and offering re-
funds on paper or plastic bags when returned to the
store for reuse. Each store has recycling bulletin
boards and brochures to inform customers of commu-
nity recycling activities and opportunities. Hannaford
Brothers also recycles its used cardboard and office
paper, donates recovered food to charities, recycles
unsalable food as animal feed, uses reusable, rather
than disposable, items in its cafeterias, and provides
press kits on its recycling activities.

   In the Washington, D.C. area. Giant Food Inc. has
undertaken several recycling initiatives. These include
in-house programs to offer consumer education pam-
phlets, recycling corrugated cardboard at 153 of its
stores, collecting plastic bags  for recycling, collecting
aluminum cans from staff lounges, recycling plastic
film wrap at warehouse operations, and recycling
office and computer paper at the company's headquar-
ters. Giant also operates newspaper drop-off collection
centers at 40 Giant stores in the Washington, D.C. area.
Giant formerly provided, in cooperation with
Reynolds Aluminum, five aluminum recycling centers
on Giant store parking lots, and operated, on an ex-
perimental basis, drop-off containers for plastic and
glass. However, this program was dropped after Giant
realized they could not handle the large volume of
recyclables collected.  A Colorado grocery store chain,
King Soopers, recycles aluminum, plastic, glass, and
newsprint. King Soopers pays for returned grocery
bags and replaced foam egg cartons with recycled
paper cartons.

   Several supermarket chains in the Northeast are
working in conjunction with PCL & Eastern Packaging
(PCD to increase recycling of polyethylene grocery
bags. PCL is a distributor of polyethylene grocery
bags to many supermarkets in the northeastern states.
Plastic bags are collected from recycling boxes in each
store and transported to the plastics facility. The bags
are manually inspected and recycled into new low-
density polyethylene grocery bags. The plastic bags
made from recycled content cost about the same to
make as virgin polyethylene bags. In the Puget Sound
area in Washington, Pay 'n Save drugstores and other
retail outlets also are promoting the return of the poly-
ethylene bag for recycling.

   Other examples of recycling efforts by distributors
and retailers include:
Chapter 9 — Distributors and Retailers

   • The National Soft Drink Association (NSDA) is
     providing localized assistance in several cities by
     sharing the costs of promoting recycling pro-
     grams, research, public opinion polls, and public
     service announcements.

   • The Food Marketing Institute (FMD issued a
     Solid Waste Policy Statement that outlines areas
     in which supermarkets can promote sound solid
     waste management, both in-house and in their
     communications with suppliers and consumers.

   • Both FMI and the National Grocers Association
     (NGA) produce and distribute educational mate-
     rials on solid waste management programs to
     their membership.

   • The National Tire Dealers and Retreaders Asso-
     ciation (NTDRA) has been working toward solu-
     tions to scrap tire disposal for the past 20 years.
     NTDRA lobbied the Federal Strategic Highway
     Research Program to assess the feasibility of
     using scrap tire rubber in road asphalt. The five
     year program will help develop standards for
     rubber asphalt.

   Currently, NGA is implementing several other
initiatives to encourage increased recycling efforts
within its membership. For example, two issues of its
trade magazine. National Grocer, were dedicated to
solid waste issues and their solutions. Beginning with
the Spring 1990 issue, NGA started printing National
Grocer on recycled paper. NGA also provides peer-
matching services at its national conferences so that
members can share solutions to municipal solid waste
problems. In addition, FMI developed Backgrounders
and Issues Bulletins as well as a video newsletter de-
voted to municipal solid waste issues.
m. Future Initiatives and Goals

   Distributors and retailers are increasing their efforts
on planning and on information development and
dissemination to identify and resolve issues that im-
pede progress in the area of municipal solid waste
management. Distributors and retailers also will con-
tinue to increase their involvement in in-house and
community-wide recycling programs.

   Representatives from the distributors and retailers
indicate a need for increased communication among
all parties that play significant roles in municipal solid
waste management. To meet this need, the Interna-
tional Mass Retailers Association (IMRA) initiated
discussions with manufacturers to address common
interests and increase cooperative efforts for reducing
packaging discards. Issues identified to date include
the selection of appropriate bagging materials, alterna-
tives to the use of polystyrene foam, the accumulation
of vendors' hangers, and the need to develop recy-
clable direct-mail circulars. In conjunction with Better
Homes and Gardens, FMI released a survey of con-
sumer attitudes on packaging and waste management.
FMI will use this information to help member firms
better serve the needs and wishes of consumers and
communities in the area of municipal solid waste man-
agement. NGA will hold a public affairs conference to
address solid waste issues, and will host a conference
focusing on the role of supermarkets in the commu-
nity, including sessions dedicated to municipal solid
waste management issues. NGA is working with
member firms to emphasize environmental solutions.
In addition, the organization is starting to recognize
individual groups fortheir contributions in the solid
waste arena through such programs as the Grocers
Care Program and the Excellence in Merchandising

  Some trade associations are initiating dialogue with
manufacturers to increase the source reduction at-
tributes of the products they sell.  For example, FMI is
working with several of its members and with manu-
facturers to promote source reduction and to increase
the recycled content in the packaging of private label
products. To increase recycling efforts, many distribu-
tors will begin to work with community leaders and
decision-makers to set up local collection programs.
More NGA member grocery stores plan to initiate
plastic bag collection programs to facilitate recycling.
Some supermarkets have other solid waste programs
including consumer education (brochures, videos, bag
staffers, advertisements, information centers, speaker
referral services), shopper refunds for bringing their
own grocery bags, providing recycling bins, organiz-
ing company task forces, in-house recycling programs,
providing reusable canvas bags, and donating food
rather than allowing it to become waste. In an effort to
enhance the current markets for secondary materials,
McDonald's pledged to buy $100 million worth of
construction materials made from recycled materials
over a one year period. This pledge is in addition to
McDonald's current annual purchases of over $60
million worth of recycled paper.

  Distributors and retailers acknowledge that they
can play a direct role in implementing revised ap-
proaches to municipal solid waste management. The
diversity among distributors and the complexity of the
solid waste dilemma dictate that distributors and re-
                              Challenges for the 90's

                            acknowledge their
                            responsibility to
                            Implement internal
                            recycling, and
                            waste management
                            programs, as well
                            as to promote
                            positive steps In
                            these areas among
                            consumers and
tellers serve several roles.
Internally, many distribu-
tors have expressed a
willingness to improve
their own waste manage-
ment through source re-
duction and recycling.
Distributors and retailers
acknowledge that it is
appropriate for each in-
dustry to improve the
management of its own
waste first before attempt-
ing to change the practices
of others. Beyond their
group, distributors and retailers believe that they can
play a significant role in providing information and
facilitating and advocating more proactive involve-
ment by consumers and manufacturers in solid waste
solutions.  These efforts include developing and dis-
tributing information that addresses municipal solid
waste issues to consumers, retailers, and public offi-
IV. Distributors' and Retailers' Challenges

   EPA encourages distributors and retailers to play
several important roles in fostering solutions to the
solid waste problem. Distributors and retailers could
promote the adoption of a strong environmental ethic
by their employees and business partners (e.g., suppli-
ers) as well as by consumers. These efforts may be
implemented by devel-
oping and publicizing
environmentally sensi-
tive policies, initiating
dialogues with both
                         Internally, distributors
                         should audit their
                         operations for oppor-
                         tunities to reduce
                         waste and to recycle
                         waste materials.
consumers and other
businesses focused on
creative solutions, and
taking definitive steps
internally, as well as outside of their company, to re-
duce, recycle, and improve municipal solid waste
   Distributors and retailers are encouraged to identify
and implement opportunities for source reduction and
recycling.  Internally, distributors could audit their
operations for opportunities to reduce waste, to recycle
waste materials, and to implement those opportunities
that prove to be cost-effective.  They also can purchase
and use goods with recycled content. Where barriers
such as inadequate technology, nonrecyclable materi-
als, nonexistent markets, or regulatory constraints are
encountered, distributors are encouraged to seek solu-
tions through communication and creative interaction
with those groups in a position to effect solutions.

   One particularly significant contribution that dis-
tributors and retailers could make is in the area of
direct-mail advertising.  Currently, direct-mail adver-
tising materials are not widely recycled. Mailers could
be designed for recycling and could be made of re-
cycled materials. In addition, mail order companies
could reduce their mailings by maintaining up-to-date
mailing lists and by asking the consumers how many
catalogs they would like to receive in a year. This
would not only reduce the volume of unwanted mail,
but would save money by targeting campaigns to
interested purchasers.

   In addition, printing catalogs on recycled paper
directly supports recycled paper markets and makes a
statement to consumers about the retailers' commit-
ment to recycling. Distributors and retailers may want
to consider developing a recycling infrastructure for
direct-mail advertisements, thereby diverting dis-
carded advertising materials from our landfills. Dis-
tributors and retailers are encouraged to consider envi-
ronmental impacts as part of their decision-making
framework when buying and selling materials and
products and generating and managing waste.

   finally, distributors and retailers are encouraged to
educate themselves, their consumers, and their busi-
ness partners about the solid waste challenge.  Dis-
tributors and retailers also are encouraged to urge
manufacturers to design products and packages that
will create less waste. As corporate citizens of the local
community, distributors and retailers can influence
municipal solid waste management in their commu-
nity. They can help local government in planning and
implementing solid waste solutions. In communicat-
ing with local decision-makers, distributors and retail-
ers are encouraged to express their desire to promote
cost-effective source reduction and recycling initia-
tives, and their support for development of environ-
mentally responsible facilities to safely manage wastes
that their activities produce.
Chapter 9 — Distributors and Retailers

76                                                                                           Challenges for the 90's

1O.  Citizens ami Public Interest Groups
      Public Interest groups
      link government,
      industry, and commu-
      nity members through
      education and training,
      communication, and
      facilitation of public
      participation in waste
      management planning,
      Implementation, and
      the legislative process.
L   Introduction

  Public interest groups and citizens act hand-in-hand
with other sectors of society to make local integrated
solid waste management efforts work. Public interest
groups often play the role of linking government, in-
dustry, and community members through education
and training, and by facilitating public participation in
waste management planning, implementation, and
regulatory compliance. Public interest groups also
help citizens to better understand municipal solid
waste management issues and alternatives that they
                            can implement
                            within their own
                            lifestyles-at home, at
                            school, and at the
                            workplace. Indi-
                            viduals generate
                            waste in their homes,
                            at their work places,
                            and through their
                            recreational activities
                            and must assume
                            responsibility for
                            those wastes both
                            individually and
collectively. Citizens are encouraged to participate in
the municipal solid waste management planning pro-
cess at the local level by communicating with both
industry and government to express preferences for
generating less waste and to support the development
of environmentally sound facilities to manage munici-
pal solid wastes.
   H. Current Activities

      There is growing public concern over the problems
   stemming from municipal solid waste. Environmental
   interest groups, community organizations, and indi-
   vidual citizens are demanding that waste be reduced
   and recycled at greater rates. The current trend to-
   ward source reduction and recycling is attributable to
   both the rising costs of municipal solid waste manage-
   ment and growing public concern. These issues, in
   turn, led to an increased use of alternative methods for
   accommodating waste, such as Materials Recovery
   Facilities (MRFs), local composting facilities, and
   curbside collection for recycling. Public interest
   groups acknowledge that citizen participation in alter-
   native municipal solid waste management programs
depends, to some extent, upon cost and convenience;
however, it also depends on public awareness and
understanding of the specific problems facing the
community. Some of the most successful long-running
local source reduction and recycling programs are
those that are accompanied by continuing education
on the community's waste management issues and
their specific solutions.

  Representatives from public interest groups found
that different messages conveyed to the public are
appropriate and successful in different communities.
For example, in their literature. Keep America Beauti-
ful (KAB) describes several themes they found success-
ful, including "Cash for Trash" in Indianapolis, Indi-
ana, that offers convenient, neighborhood multi-mate-
rial, buy-back recycling centers; and the "Recycling
Bank" of Gwinnett, Georgia, to promote a clean, up-
scale, professional image for recycling in an area facing
a glaring shortage of landfill space.

  Intensive educational efforts are critical to gaining
citizen support for integrated waste management.
Educational efforts include training, coordination of
public media campaigns, and transfer of available
information from industry and government sources to
the general public. Public interest groups play an im-
portant role in providing this education, bridging the
gaps between government, industry and the general
public. Public interest groups provide varying kinds
of assistance, support, information, training, educa-
tional programs, and representation of the public inter-
est at Federal, state, and local levels.

  The following discussion briefly summarizes sev-
eral efforts made by various public interest groups to
meet the challenge of managing our nation's municipal
solid waste.

                                                     Public interest groups are playing a significant role
                                                  in advocating long-term approaches by industry and
                                                  government to solving the nation's municipal solid
                                                  waste management problems. Some public interest
                                                  groups have local affiliates that assist in state and local
                                                  planning for integrated waste management, while
                                                  others voice national positions on waste management
                                                  issues to the U.S. Congress, Federal agencies, and in-
                                                  dustry trade associations. Public interest groups and

citizen representatives have participated in a variety of
solid waste management planning initiatives. For
example, KAB developed a national video teleconfer-
ence on integrated solid waste management, a 2-hour
program received by 150 universities and corporate
offices with a total audience of 10,000. The teleconfer-
ence featured seven panelists, including a regional
solid waste director, a professor of packaging design, a
toxicologist, a former EPA Administrator, and waste
management corporate executives. KAB also offers
training workshops for individuals from the public
and private sectors on an integrated solid waste man-
agement approach, including source reduction, recy-
cling, and risk reduction from landfilling and

   Both KAB and the League of Women Voters Educa-
tional Fund (LWVEF) organized several extensive
educational efforts to enable their members to make
informed contributions to community decision-mak-
ing boards. The LWVEF community recycling project
provided the opportunity to tour recycling facilities
and hear speakers from Federal, state, and local gov-
ernment boards, the waste management industry, and
Source Reduction

   Public interest groups have taken a lead role in
promoting the practical applications of source reduc-
tion. A few examples follow. The Environmental
Defense Fund (EOF) published The Supermarket Diet,
which describes how retailers can identify and take
advantage of source reduction and recycling opportu-
nities. EDF also forged an alliance with the
McDonald's food chain and conducted a
comprehensive study of source reduction and recy-
cling opportunities that has become a model for simi-
lar restaurant operations. The Environmental Action
Foundation and other groups have challenged many
sectors to reduce the amount of waste generated, most
recently issuing a challenge to businesses and utilities
to use two-way envelopes in their billing systems to
cut paper waste. INFORM is developing a checklist
for communities to encourage municipalities to in-
clude source reduction in their comprehensive solid
waste management plans. The Center for Policy Alter-
natives promotes reuse of goods and materials to
conserve resources and reduce municipal solid waste.
Many other groups have actively promoted source
reduction on the local level. For example, the Central
States Education Center has implemented the Model
Community Program in several communities. This
program enlists local businesses to adhere to waste
reduction criteria and act as "models" for reducing
waste to the rest of the community.

   To advocate source reduction, several public inter-
est groups organized educational outreach activities.
For example, local chapters of the League of Women
Voters (LWV) developed several guides for
homeowners and localities on identifying household
hazardous wastes. The Illinois LWV chapter pub-
lished the Community Guide to Solid Waste Management,
while the Leagues of Sacramento, California; Albany,
New York; and the State of Massachusetts developed
informational kits for citizens and community waste
management boards to use when organizing house-
hold hazardous waste collection programs.

   In Texas, "Don't Bag it" was an effective outreach
and demonstration program that encouraged residents
to leave their grass clippings on the lawn. Local KAB
affiliates established a partnership with the Texas Agri-
cultural Extension Service, local governments, a lawn
mower manufacturer, and others to develop and
implement the program.

   Many public interest groups with a "grass roots"
focus direct their efforts to volunteerism and a basic
waste reduction ethic that is essential for the long-term
success of recycling efforts nationwide. Other national
advocacy groups, from their perspective, view the
legal infrastructure as the primary force behind nation-
wide success for recycling and reducing waste. In
particular, several national advocacy groups advocate
a national legal framework that would make recycling
a given part of the economic fabric of our country.

   Both types of public interest groups provide a
critical foundation for the long-term success of recy-
cling programs by providing educational programs for
individuals and communities. For example, Ml.
Vernon Bright and Beautiful, an affiliate of KAB, ag-
gressively sought media coverage as a means of foster-
ing continued awareness of the community's recycling
program. In the course of a year, over 100 articles were
written in the local newspaper, including 17 front page
stories with pictures and nine editorials. Additionally,
23 radio news stories were aired on local radio and
eight television news stories were aired on the evening
news. To provide information on the wide variety of
reuse, recycling, and resource conservation opportuni-
ties available in the Tucson, Arizona area, Tucson
Clean & Beautiful developed a recycling directory.
                              Challenges for the 90's

The directory, published in partnership with local
businesses, was distributed to every household in
metro Tucson.

   Both Clean Water Action (CWA) and U.S. Public
Interest Research Group (PIRG) are grassroots public
interest groups that have on-going campaigns to pro-
mote recycling and source reduction. Both groups
solicit public support to further local recycling pro-
grams, promote alternatives to combustion, and edu-
cate the public on the problems involved in the proper
management of municipal solid waste. CWA cur-
rently operates in 25 cities in 12 states, while US. PIRG
has offices throughout the country.

   The National Recycling Coalition (NRC) sponsors
the National Recycling Congress, a major annual con-
ference supporting state and local recycling activities.
NRC also publishes a newsletter and other documents,
including Personal Action Guidelines with tips on recy-
cling for individual households and offices. In June
1989, the NRC received a three-year grant from the
EPA to establish a national recycling advisory council.
The Recycling Advisory Council (RAC) established a
committee structure to investigate barriers to recycling
and foster solutions.

   The RACs Recycled Paper Committee includes
representatives from environmental groups, paper and
recycling industries, and government officials. This
committee developed recommendations on recycled
paper definitions, standards and labeling for state and
federal consideration as they develop procurement
guidelines.  As part of this effort, the committee devel-
oped a waste paper matrix. The matrix lists different
grades of waste paper, how much of each grade is
generated by different sectors of the economy, and
how much of each grade currently is being recycled by
each sector.

   Based on an analysis of data on the composition of
different plastic resins in the municipal solid waste
stream and trends in plastic recycling and manufactur-
ing, the RACs Plastics Committee developed recom-
mendations with the goal of fostering plastics recy-
cling. The RACs Policy Committee has developed
general recommendations concerning recycling, has
developed a report on fiscal policies to encourage recy-
cling, and has developed a consensus definition on
recycling. Next steps for the Recycling Advisory
Committee  include expanding its work in market de-
velopment and addressing the issue of designing
products  for recycling.
  Examples of other public interest groups recycling
and source reduction activities include:

  •  The EOF published Coming Full Circle in 1988
     and successfully worked with the Advertising
     Council to produce award-winning public ser-
     vice announcements on recycling. EOF also
     participated in the peer review of EPA's Report
     to Congress on plastics. In addition, EOF
     worked with McDonald's Corporation on an
     extensive study to reduce the company's genera-
     tion of solid waste. The study won recognition in
     1991 from the President's Council on Environ-
     mental Quality.

  •  The National Consumers League published a
     guide on how to shop for the environment. The
     guide, The Earth's Future is in Your Grocery Cart,
     includes tips on what to look for in the super-
     market, such as refillable containers and recy-
     clable packaging, suggestions for what can be
     done in the community to encourage recycling,
     and information on how different types of mate-
     rials are recycled.

  •  The Environmental Action Foundation is con-
     ducting a series of workshops on how to help
     state and local officials and interested citizens
     implement source reduction at the local level.

  •  The Hutchison, Kansas Jaycees launched a recy-
     cling program in August 1990 for students and
     residents to recycle steel and aluminum cans,
     and glass and plastic containers. The group col-
     lects recyclables and conducts environmental
     education programs at schools. They also sup-
     port a weekend recycling drop-off program at a
     local K-Mart. Used auto, motorcycle and boat
     batteries are collected and purchased by K-Mart.

  •  KAB implemented a program with the General
     Federation of Women's dubs to encourage 9,500
     clubs nationwide to host solid waste forums for
     their 400,000 members and citizens in their com-
     munities. A leadership training seminar based
     on this program was held in August 1990.

  •  A KAB program provided teacher training for
     365 teachers from 30 states to help them use
     KAB's primary and secondary school curricula,
     Waste-in-Place and Waste A Hidden Resource.
Chapter 10 — Citizens and Public Interest Groups

     The League of Women Voters Education Fund
     Community Recycling Project is coordinating a
     nationwide questionnaire, conducted by volun-
     teer interviewers, for local newspaper publishers
     and community solid waste officials. Designed
     to increase public participation in the solid waste
     management planning process, the questions
     focus on waste stream analysis, recyclable item
                            collection methodology
                            and finances, markets
                            for recydables, pro-
                            curement policies, and
                            newspaper recycling
                            efforts. In addition,
                            four regional training
Public interest groups
assist In educating
the general public on
the costs and risks of
municipal solid waste
                            tours were held to pro-
                            vide selected League
     leaders with opportunities to tour facilities first
     hand, and learn from the state, regional, and
     national experts about recycling issues. The
     League issued a final report, including case stud-
     ies from the nationwide study.

   Public interest groups assist in educating the gen-
eral public on the costs and risks of municipal solid
waste management. The attitudes and participation of
individual citizens are making the difference and are
helping to solve the municipal solid waste dilemma.
In many cities, such as Seattle, Washington, public
participation is strong, and source reduction and recy-
cling activities are diverting a large percentage of the
municipal solid waste generated from the city's land-
fill. Such efforts to spread constructive and positive
attitudes and activities will greatly contribute to the
achievement of the national goal of 25 percent recy-
Landfttling and Combustion

   The Environmental Policy Institute is developing a
citizen's handbook on landfills to educate the public on
the various aspects of modern sanitary landfills. In
addition to providing public education in the areas of
landfilling and combustion, public interest groups
support safe management practices at new and exist-
ing facilities by fostering responsible siting decisions
and keeping their eyes open for unsound environmen-
tal practices at these facilities.
m. Future Initiatives and Goals

   Public interest groups support citizen efforts to
understand recycling and waste reduction concepts
and practices, and play a critical role in fostering a
societal waste reduction ethic Public interest groups
often act as facilitators in both community efforts to
arrive at local waste management solutions, and in
developing public support for implementation of those
solutions. In addition, public interest groups play a
significant role in advocating long-term, national ap-
proaches to solving municipal solid waste manage-
ment problems.

  To supplement the ongoing activities of citizens and
public interest groups, the following specific activities
are being planned:

   •  The League of Women Voters of Colorado Edu-
     cation Fund (LWVCOEF) is developing a state
     wide solid waste management outreach program
     that will target decision-makers and the general
     public.  Through the project, LWVCOEF will
     sponsor public forums, establish a speaker's
     bureau, construct a solid waste management
     program kit, and create a library display.
     LWVCOEF also plans to extend this program to
     the State Leagues of Utah, Wyoming, Montana,
     North Dakota, and South  Dakota.

   •  The Natural Resources Defense Council is pro-
     moting national legislation (through amend-
     ments to the Resource Conservation and Recov-
     ery Act) to develop a recycling infrastructure;
     devise a standard methodology for measuring
     capacity of landfills, recycling facilities and incin-
     erators; establish nationally consistent costing
     criteria and guidelines; clarify a preference for
     waste reduction and recycling over combustion;
     direct each category of waste to its most appro-
     priate and efficient destination; and require
     achievable recycling rates for the major commod-
     ity groups found in the municipal solid waste

   •  EOF will continue its ongoing national media
     campaign in concert with  EPA and the Advertis-
     ing Council to foster solid waste recycling. This
     campaign greatly augments OSW's efforts to
     promote recycling by quickly and effectively
     reaching people across the country through the
     use of radio, television, newspaper and magazine
                                                       EDF has also
                                                       publicized an
                                                       address and toll-
                                                       free phone num-
                                                       ber that citizens
                                                       can write to or
                         Consumers should use
                         longer life, repairable
                         materials and products
                         made from recycled
                                                                                 Challenges for the 90's

     call to receive a brochure explaining recycling in
     more detail.

     By the end of 1992, over 2,000 Texas school teach-
     ers will receive training on the use of elementary
     and secondary education curriculum materials
     focused on solid waste management. This out-
     reach effort is the product of Keep Texas Beauti-
     ful, the award winning Texas affiliate of Keep
     America Beautiful, with funding from the Texas
     Water Commission.
IV.  Citizens'and Public Interest Groups'

   EPA encourages each citizen to accept responsibility
in the management of municipal solid waste and to
learn about the products and packaging he or she pur-
chases. EPA also encourages individuals to act to
reduce waste generation, understand the true costs of
managing the wastes he or she generates, and take
responsibility for the safe management of wastes by
supporting local efforts to establish environmentally
responsible recycling, combustion, and landfilling.

   Specifically, consumers can use longer-life, repair-
able materials and goods, give preference to bulk and
concentrated items, choose products without excessive
packaging, and reduce their use of hazardous
compounds. Consumers are encouraged to evaluate
daily waste-producing activities to determine which
ones are essential, and
which are not. Indi-
viduals are encouraged
to be more conscious of
source reduction and
recycling options and
rely on these options,
Challenge: Each
individual Is
encouraged to reduce
the amount of waste
he or she generates.
such as reusing containers and products, and recycling
as much as possible. For example, individuals may
consider buying, selling, trading, or donating used
items, such as clothes, furniture, and appliances, and
borrowing or renting infrequently used items. Indi-
vidual actions such as composting yard waste and
avoiding the bagging of grass dippings can make a
difference. Citizens also should be more aware of the
water pollution problems caused by improper disposal
of used oil. In addition, individuals are encouraged,
whenever possible, to purchase products made from
recycled materials, while encouraging manufacturers
to produce items that are recyclable.

  Individuals and public interest groups can also
assume a greater responsibility for the wastes they
generate that cannot be recycled. Even with increasing
source reduction and recycling activities, certain
wastes and residues will require disposal. Citizens
and public interest groups are encouraged to partici-
pate in the waste management planning process by
staying informed of local issues and decisions and by
supporting the proper siting, development, and opera-
tion of facilities that serve their communities' solid
waste management needs.
                                      Citizens and public
                                      interest groups are
                                      encouraged to
                                      participate in the waste
                                      management planning
                                      process by staying
                                      informed of local Issues
                                      and decisions and by
                                      supporting the proper
                                      siting, development, and
                                      operation of facilities
                                      needed to serve the
                                      waste management
                                      needs of their
Chapter 10 — Citizens and Public Interest Groups

82                                                                                               Challenges for the 90's

                       Appendix A
     EPA Municipal Solid Waste Activities
         This Appendix summarizes EPA projects and available resources and includes
         actual completion dates for completed projects, as well as projected completion
         dates for ongoing projects.
Appendix A                                                        A-l

                                                 Ordering Information

                                     Copies of some of the materials listed in this appendix
                                    may be obtained by calling the RCRA/Superfund Hotline

                                             (800) 424-9346 or TDD (800) 553-7672

                                                or at NTIS at: (703) 487-4650

                                        In Washington, DC the number is (202) 475-9652.
Challenges for the 90's

The Garbage Problem: An Action Agenda
   February 1989
      A pamphlet summarizing the Agenda for Action.

The Garbage Crisis
   March/April 1989
      An issue of the EPA Journal exploring America's garbage
      crisis and presenting a variety of viewpoints about how to
      handle it.

Changing Skylines: The Garbage Crisis (video)
   June 1989
      A 30-minute educational video designed to raise public
      awareness on solid waste issues, prepared by the U.S.
      Conference of Mayors with EPA support.

Bibliography of Municipal Solid Waste Management
   August 1989
      Provides references concerning solid waste management
      alternatives. Brief abstracts are provided on each reference
      cited. Additionally, information is provided on how the
      materials may be obtained.

Environmental Curricula Concerning Waste
   September 1989
      Bibliography of recycling curriculum materials for grades
      K-12. Information included provides a basis for program
      evaluation and analysis of national recycling education
      trends. Prepared by the Northeast Regional Environmental
      Public Health Center with EPA support.

Environmental Fact Sheet - America's War on Waste
   October 1989
      Summarizes projects conducted by the EPA Municipal
      Solid Waste Program and identifies several available

Solid Waste Legislative Clearinghouse
   October 1989
      A database and library accessible by mail, in-person visits,
      and telephone funded through an EPA grant to the
      National Conference of State Legislatures.

Reusable News
   First issue: December 1989; Ongoing
      Newsletter providing information on key solid waste issues.

The Juggler
   January 1990
      A public service announcement developed in conjunction
      with the U.S. Forest Service to emphasize the importance of
Environmental Fact Sheet - The Facts About Plastics
in the Marine Environment
   February 1990
      A brief discussion on the types, sources and impacts of
      plastics in the marine environment as discussed in EPA's
      Report to Congress on management and control of plastic

Environmental Fact Sheet - The Facts on Degradable
   February 1990
      Brief discussion on use ofdegradable plastics as a solution
      to the increasing proportion of plastic waste as discussed in
      EPA's Report to Congress on management and control of
      plastic wastes.

Report to Congress on Methods to Manage and
Control Plastic Wastes
   February 1990
      A report to Congress on post-consumer plastic waste.

School Recycling Programs: A Handbook for
   January 1991
      Gives step-by-step instructions for creating school recycling
      programs. Includes success stories and instructions for
      applying to President's Environmental Youth Projects
      Awards Program.

Solid Waste Information Clearinghouse
   May 1990
      An announcement explaining what the Information
      Clearinghouse is all about.

Solid Waste Information Clearinghouse
      A database and library accessible by mail and telephone.
      Includes a computer bulletin board and on-line ordering
      system. Phone number: 1-800-67-SWICH. Funded
      through a grant to the SWAN A (formerly GRCDA).

First U.S. Conference on Municipal Solid Waste
   June 1990
      An international open forum focusing on ways to solve
      solid waste management problems. Participants included
      individuals and organizations responsible for solid waste
      decision-making, including planning, legislation, and
Appendix A

Second U.S. Conference on Municipal Solid Waste
   June 1992

Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste in the
United States, 1990 Update
   June 1990
      Update of 1988 report characterizing the constituents
      within the municipal solid waste stream.

Update of Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste
in the United States
   Fall 1992

Annual Conference on Household Hazardous Waste
   December 1991
      Sixth annual national conference to share information
      about new issues, solutions to the problem of household
      hazardous waste.

Household Hazardous Waste - Bibliography of
Useful References and List of State Experts Update
   November 1990
      Compilation of the bibliography listed in the "Alternatives
      to Landfilling Household Hazardous Waste" and a similar
      bibliography compiled by the Center for Environmental

Household Hazardous Waste "How-To" Manual
   Winter 1992
      Guidance on creating and operating a household hazardous
      waste program.

Research Conference
   February 1991
      Research developments for improved municipal solid waste

Lef s Reduce and  Recycle: Curricula for Solid Waste
   August 1990
      Curriculum explaining solid waste management options for
     grades K-6 and 7-12. Features the Garbage Gremlin
      teaching source reduction and recycling.

Adventures of the Garbage Gremlin: Recycle and
Combat a Life of Grime
   Spring 1991
      Describes benefits of recycling for grades 4-7 in a comic

Household Hazardous Waste Quarterly Newsletter
      Newsletter, partially funded by EPA, explores issues and
      solutions for properly managing household-generated
      hazardous wastes.
Ride the Wave of the Future: Recycle Today
   August 1990
     Poster designed by EPA and distributed by National
     Science Teachers Association to promote recycling for all
     grade levels.

Training Materials for Recycling Coordinators - Final
   Fall 1991

Region 2 Community Battery Recycling Project -
Project Completion
   January 1991

Region 2 Removal of Cadmium Batteries from
Municipal Waste Stream
   December 1991

Region 10 Decision-Making Guide for Recycling
   December 1990
     An overall administrative guide for designing a plastics
     recycling program.

Region 8 Recycling Education Project
   May 1991
     Develops and implements a "Precyde Program" to help
     residents of Boulder, Colorado reduce the amount of waste
     they generate.

Region 2 Educational Workshop on New Technology
Recycling Options
   September 1991
     Provides assistance to the Center for Environmental
     Information Inc., of Rochester, New York, to develop a pilot
     educational workshop on new technology options for
     recycling non-traditional materials such as plastics, tires,
     batteries, oil, etc.

Region 2 Educational Guidebook on Commercial
and Institutional Solid Waste Reduction and
Recycling/ Source Reduction Education
Demonstration Project
   January 1992
     Provides assistance to Suffolk County, New York to develop
     a consumer education project on environmentally friendly
     supermarket shopping and an educational guide on solid
     waste reduction and  recycling.
                                                                                          Challenges for the 90's


Peer-Matching Program
      Ongoing program to match experienced experts or
      successful program managers with communities/states
      initiating similar programs. Funded through grants to
      ICMAandSWANA. Phone numbers: ICMA — 202-
      962-3649; SWANA — 800-456-4723 and 301-585-2898.

Peer Matching Brochure
   October 1989
      Summarizes EPA's peer matching program for state and
      local government officials.

Regional State Integrated Waste Management
   October 1989- December 1989
      Information-sharing sessions where state legislators and
      regulators can discuss solid waste issues.

Decision-Makers Guide to  Solid Waste Management
(Volume I)
   April 1990
      Updates the 1976 manual for local waste managers. Volume
      I provides coverage of integrated waste planning and how to
      choose among various waste management options.

Decision-Maker's Guide to Solid Waste
Management (Volume II)
      Will provide technical information for implementing
      specific solid waste management technologies. Funded
      through an EPA grant to the University of Wisconsin.

Sites for Our Solid Waste: A Guidebook for
Effective Public Involvement
   June 1990
      Provides recommendations for mitigating political conflict
      associated with siting solid waste facilities, including actual
      case studies, through more effective public involvement.

Case Studies on Regionalization
      Grant to NERC to develop guides on how to establish and
      implement regional solutions; includes case studies.
Region 9 Pyramide Lake Paiute Tribe Solid Waste
Management Alternatives Analysis
   January 1990
      Assesses existing solid waste management on the
      reservation, evaluates alternatives, and recommends a
      systemic solution.

Region 10 Seattle and King County Grants for
Recycling and Source Reduction
   December 1990
      Grant to initiate a "Garbage by the Pound" program in
      which a garbage truck is refitted to weigh garbage and
      charge the customer by the pound.

Region 8 Solid Waste Feasibility Study
   August 1991
      Development of a waste conversion and recycling program
      for Northern Cheyenne Tribe of Montana.

Region 2 Feasibility Study for the Implementation of
Consumer Dry Cell Battery Recycling as an
Alternative to Disposal
   September 1991
      Study to determine the feasibility of developing and
      implementing battery recycling processes for any or all of
      the consumer dry cell batteries on the market in the U.S.

Region 4 Rural Recycling Marketing Cooperative
   July 1992
      Study to explore community interest in starting a
      marketing cooperative, assess market potential, identify
      development barriers, develop proposed economic-legal
      structure, and estimate costs and annual budget.

Region 9 Assistance to Tohono CXOdham Tribe
   March 1993
      A comprehensive solid waste plan that provides both an
      economically and environmentally acceptable method for
      storage, collection, transportation, disposal, and control of
      solid waste on the Tohono O'Odham Reservation, Arizona.

Region 10 Assistance to Native Alaskans
   October 1991
      Special funds earmarked for Native American assistance on
      municipal solid waste issues.
Appendix A


 Characterization of Products Containing Lead and
 Cadmium in Municipal Solid Waste in the United
 States, 1970-2000
   January 1989
      Identifies sources of lead and cadmium in products disposed
      of in municipal solid waste from 1970 to 1986 and makes
      projections of sources through the year 2000.

 Promoting Source Reduction and Recyclability in the
   September 1989
      Summarizes relevant studies, research, and educational
      programs related to household consumer demand for
      products and packaging that promote source reduction and

 Environmental Fact Sheet - Plastics:  The Facts on
 Source Reduction
   February 1990
      A brief discussion on source reduction of plastics as
      discussed in EPA's Report to Congress on management
      and control of plastic wastes.

 The Effects of Weight- or Volume-Based Pricing on
 Solid Waste Management
   Fall 1990
      Evaluates the effects of weight- or volume-based pricing
      upon solid waste management in case studies of three cities.

 Pamphlet on Unit Pricing:  Providing an Incentive to
 Reduce Municipal Solid Waste
   February 1991

 EPA's Strategy for Reducing Lead Exposures
   February 21,1991
      Multi-office strategy which includes research, regulatory,
      enforcement, educational and training activities to reduce
      lead exposure, discourage new and existing uses of lead
      through product substitution and other pollution
      prevention means, and encourage recycling of lead add

Preliminary Use and  Substitutes Analysis for Lead
and Cadmium in Products in Municipal Solid Waste
   April 1992
      Identification of potential substitutes for lead and cadmium
      in products.

The Consumer's Handbook for Reducing Solid
   July 1992
      Tips for households on how to reduce, reuse, and recycle.
Discussion and Summary of Economic Incentives to
Promote Recycling and Source Reduction
   September 1989
      Investigates several types of existing and proposed
      programs for source reduction, including programs to
      encourage manufacturers to produce goods that are less
      toxic or are recyclable; programs to encourage consumers to
      alter their product purchasing, use and disposal behavior;
      and programs to encourage private businesses to undertake
      recycling and source reduction activities.

Getting at the Source: Strategies for Reducing
Municipal Solid Waste
   Summer 1991
      Report by the Conservation foundation (partially funded by
      EPA) that examines various policy issues regarding munici-
      pal solid waste source reduction. Also includes a framework
      for identifying source reduction opportunities.

Characterization of Products Containing Mercury in
Municipal Solid Waste in the U.S. 1970 - 2000
   April 1992
      Identifies sources of mercury in solid waste.

Rulemaking on Plastic Ring Carrier Devices
   Spring 1993 (Proposal)
      Will require plastic container rings to be made of
      degradable material to protect the marine environment from
      the hazards associated with discarded plastic rings.

Waste Reduction Manual for Businesses
   Fall 1992
      Guidance for industry, offices, and others on auditing their
      waste streams to identify opportunities for source reduction
      and recycling.

Final Report/Workshops on Source Reduction
   Summer 1991
      Report by the Environmental Action Foundation on a
      series of source reduction workshops conducted under an
      EPA grant.

Award Program for Pollution Prevention
      Recognition of public and private efforts to reduce waste

Development of Guidance for Conducting Life-cycle
   Fall 1993
      Developing guidance to examine environmental impacts of
      consumer products and packaging throughout their

Environmental Fact Sheet - Source Reduction by
Federal Agencies
   July 1992
      Introduces source reduction and provides tips on how to
      start source reduction programs in federal Agencies.
                                 Challenges for the 90's

Workshops on Source Reduction in the Workplace
   Fall 1993
      Series of workshops to provide hands-on tools for businesses
      that wish to implement a waste reduction program.

Region 4 Pilot Source Reduction Program for
Residential and Commercial Waste
   September 1991
      Promotes and measures the impact of source reduction in a
      14-month pilot project on both the residential and
      commercial waste streams of Greensboro, North Carolina.

Region 9 Development of Local Source Reduction
Implementation Plan
   September 1992
      Preparation of a model source reduction implementation
      plan for San Jose, California.

Used Oil Recycling Newsletters
      Summarizes new and on-going used oil collection programs
      and provides a directory of used oil recycling contacts.

Recycling Pamphlet
   October 1988
      A citizens' brochure on recycling and its role in solid waste

Yard Waste Composting: A Study of Eight Programs
   December 1988
      Describes successful composting programs across the

Recycling Works!
   January 1989
      Describes 14 successful state and local recycling programs
      in the United States.

How to Set up a Local Used Oil Recycling Program
   May 1989
      Describes the necessary steps for implementing a successful
      community recycling program targeted for local decision
      makers, environmental groups, and community

Used Oil Recycling Brochures
   June 1989
      A series of three brochures describing how the general
     public can participate in used oil recycling; how citizens
      can safely change their car oil; and haw service station
      owners am play a key role in facilitating used oil recycling.
Recycling Fact Sheet - EPA HQ Recycling Program
   August 1989
      Summarizes the Agency's internal recycling programs for
      office paper, newspaper, glass and aluminum.  The
      Agency's recycling workgroup is dedicated to developing a
      comprehensive recycling program for the Agency.

EPA Administrator Order - Recycled Paper
   January 1990
      Att new contracts, grants, and cooperative agreements will
      specify that the recipient use recycled paper for all reports
      submitted or delivered to the Agency.

Office Paper Recycling Manual
   January 1990
      This manual provides detailed guidance on setting up an
      office recycling program for paper.

Environmental Fact Sheet - The Facts on Recycling
   February 1990
      A brief discussion on available plastics recycling
      technologies and their contribution to solving the solid
      waste dilemma.

Recycled Newsprint Focus Group Meeting
   March 1990
      Discussions of short- and long-range actions on recycled
      newsprint and stabilizing the newsprint market.

Federal Procurement Outreach Program
      Promotes Federal agency compliance with EPA's
      procurement guidelines through workshops, meetings,
      speeches, brochures, etc.

Guidance for the Use of Terms "Recycled,"
"Recyclable," and the Recycling Emblem in
Environmental Marketing Claims
   October 1991
      Proposed 56FR49992 options for labelling and options on
      how to use the recycling emblem.

Buy Recycled Campaign
   Initiated July 1990
      Program to encourage local government procurement of
      goods made with recyclable materials. Provision of
      procurement information, workshops, technical assistance,
      etc. to local officials, through a grant  to the U.S. Conference
      of Mayors.

Developing a Comprehensive Federal Office
Recycling Program
   August 1990
      A multi-material recycling guide providing information on
      both recycling and markets available  to Federal
      Government agencies for recyclable wastes.
Appendix A

Federal Disincentives to Recycling
   Summer 1991
      Examines disincentives in the Federal Tax Code and other
      Federal programs featuring a case study of the paper

Recycling in Federal Agencies
   December 1990
      A pamphlet describing recycling and procurement
      opportunities for Federal agencies and listing sources of

Procurement Guidelines for Government Agencies
   December 1990
      A pamphlet describing Section 6002 ofRCRA and the EPA
      Procurement Guidelines.

Federal Government Recycling Conference and
   December 1990 and December 1991
      Promotes recycling within the Federal Government. Co-
      sponsored with the General Services Administration and
      the Council on Environmental Quality.

Federal Recycling Outreach Program
   December 1991
      Training and educational materials for Federal employees,
      including pilot recycling projects.

Handbook on the Management of Dry Cell Batteries
      Provides information and examples of community
      approaches to managing household batteries.

Market Study for Compost
      Examines the stability and viability of markets for compost.

Market Study for Used Tires
   October 1991
      Describes various markets for used tires.

EPA Administrator's Awards on Recycling
   April 1991
      From national competition, nine individuals and groups
      received awards for their efforts in recycling.

Markets for Recycling Aluminum
      Examines the market for post-consumer recycled aluminum.

Markets for Recycled Glass
      Examines the market for post-consumer recycled glass.
Markets for Selected Post-Consumer Wastepaper
      Examines the stability and viability of markets for a
      number of waste paper products.

New Jersey Landfill Fee/Recycling Program
   Summer 1991
      Examines New Jersey's tonnage grant recycling program
      that uses a surcharge on disposal to fund various recycling

Guide to Composting
      A guide for municipalities to aid in developing a
      composting program.

Procurement Guideline Implementation Workshops
      Focus is on implementation ofEPA's procurement
     guidelines for goods made with recycled materials. A series
      of workshops designed to enhance implementation of
     procurement guidelines; state and local procurement
      officials are the targeted office.

Training Materials for Recycling Coordinators
     Instruction materials targeted for local recycling
     coordinators. Funded through an EPA grant to the State of
     New Jersey and Rutgers University.

Recycling Program Data base
     Provide comparative information on recycling programs in
     a number of communities. Funded through a grant to the
     Institute of Local Self-Reliance.

State Efforts to Promote Lead-Acid Battery Recycling
   January  1992
     Examine such state initiatives as providing for battery
      "take-backs " programs.

Environmental Fact Sheet: Yard Waste Composting
   May 1991
     Describes benefits of composting yard wastes and how to
     obtain information on composting.

Environmental Fact Sheet EPA Procurement
   June 1991
     Fact sheet explaining EPA guidelines for procurement of
     products made from recycling material: re-refined
     lubricating oil, retread tires, paper and paper products, and
     building insulation.
                                  Challenges for the 90's

EPA/Department of Commerce
Economic Development Initiative
      Joint EPA and DOC effort to promote the economic
      development aspect of markets for recycled goods.

National Recycling Media Campaign
      Conducted by the Advertising Council and Environmental
      Defense Fund with EPA support, designed to foster
      recycling through radio, television, and print advertising.

Procurement Guidelines Hotline
      Established to answer questions and provide information to
      government agencies, vendors, and the public on the
      procurement of goods made with recycled materials.
      Hotline number is (703) 941-4452.

Recycling Advisory Council
      Investigating such issues as markets for recyclable wastes
      and the integration of recyclable materials into
      manufacturing processes. Established through a grant to
      the National Recycling Coalition.

Region 8 Increase Procurement of Recycled Products
   June 1990
      Projects aimed at increasing purchases of products that are
      made from recycled materials.

Region 8 Market Development Study
   June 1990
      Implements recommendations from supply and demand
      studies and focus groups to improve markets for recyclable
      materials in Colorado and Region 8.

Region 8 Pilot Yard Waste Composting Program
   June 1990
      One year pilot yard waste composting project involving
      waste from 5,000 homes in Boulder, Colorado.

Region 4 Regional Marketing Council
   September 1990
      Consists of representatives of end-users and marketers of
      recyclables to develop effective promotional and marketing
      strategies for the region's recyclable commodities.

Region 2 Community Battery Recycling Project
   January 1991
      Enables Environmental Action Coalition to develop a
      battery recycling program in New York City.

Region 8 Model Recycling Program in Wyoming
   April 1991
      Program helps to finance two rural recycling programs and
      increase public awareness of solid waste problems.
Region 2 Removal of Cadmium Batteries from
Municipal Waste Stream
   December 1991
      Enables Warren County to remove cadmium batteries in
      the municipal waste stream which feeds the incinerator.
      Centers on 100 drop-off collection sites with recycling of the
      batteries at a specialized processing facility.

Region 2 Long-Term Separation of Household
Hazardous Waste
   June 1991
      Construction of permanent household hazardous waste
      collection facility in Burlington County, New Jersey.

Region 5 Recycling Market Development
   July 1991
      Development of a computerized market for recovered
      materials that would provide an on-line listing of available
      materials and customers wanting materials.

Region 1 Development of Nationwide Standards for
Recycled Paper
   September 1991
      Specifications developed for various types of recycled paper,
      in cooperation with the Council of State Governments, the
      National Association of State Purchasing Officials,
      American Society of Testing, and EPA Headquarters.

Region 10 Model Recycling Programs at University
of Washington and Local Post Offices
   April 1992 and March 1991, respectively
      Provide assistance in getting administrative approval and
      disseminating program results for University of
      Washington feasibility and implementation plan and offer
      assistance for post office project.

Region 4 Yard Trash Composting - Process and
Product Evaluation
   January 1992
      Provides assistance to  the University of Florida, Institute of
      Food and Agricultural Sciences in evaluating composting
      and compost products from yard waste in a typical
      municipal waste stream to aid in developing a community
      compost program.

Region 9 Recycle  Link
   September 1992
      Project developing the use of computer technology to
      facilitate the purchase of reusable products and products
      made with recycled materials by local governments and
Appendix A


Analysis of U.S. Municipal Waste Combustion
Operating Practices
   May 1989
      A survey of current operating practices and ash
      management practices at existing municipal solid waste
      combustion facilities.

Operator Certification Forum
   June 1990
      Informational meeting of various organizations involved
      with operator training.

Air Emissions Standards
   February 1991
      Comprehensive air emissions standards for both new and
      existing municipal solid waste combustors including:
      emissions limits, operating standards, emissions
      monitoring, lead-acid battery prohibition, and operator
      certification. Additional requirements will be proposed in
      October 1992.

Municipal Innovative Technology Evaluation
(MITE) Program
      Demonstration program for municipal waste technologies.
      The program's initial project evaluated treatment and
      stabilization techniques for municipal ash.

Ash Monofill Study
      Long-term characterization data of ash and leachale from a
      young ash monofill. Baseline study released in August
      1989; the first-year study in January 1990; fourth year data
      was released in 1992.

Ash and Leachate Sampling
      Collection of ash and leachate from ash monofills. Samples
      analyzed using different extraction procedures.

Landfill Air Emissions Rule Proposal
   May 1991
      Air emission standards to restrict VOCs that lead to health
      risks and odor problems.

Operator Certification Forum
   June 1990
      Informational meeting of various organizations involved
      with operator training.

Revised Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Criteria
   October 1991
      Sets forth minimum criteria for municipal solid waste
Landfill Criteria - Technical Manual
   Summer 1992
      Technical manual for compliance with the new MS W
      landfill regulations.

Landfill Criteria - Technical Training
   Summer 1992
      Technical training for compliance with the new MS W
      landfill regulations.

State/Tribal Implementation Rule (STIR)
      Establishes procedures and criteria for determining the
      adequacy of state/tribal permit programs to ensure
      compliance with the revised Federal MSWLF criteria.

Reference Manual on State/Tribal Implementation
   1991 (Draft)
   1992 (Final)
      Reference materials for developing applications for permit
      program adequacy determination.

Training on State/Tribal Implementation Rule
   1991 and 1992
      Workshops on STIR and guidance for states/tribes and
      EPA and Regional offices.

Region 5 Leach Lake Landfill Closure Plan
   May 1991
      A closure and post-closure plan for a reservation landfill
      that is known to be leaking contaminants.

Region 6 Improved Solid Waste Management
Through Training
   July 1991
      Grant to Arkansas Environmental Academy in Camden,
      Arkansas to develop and operate an expanded two tier
      sanitary landfill operator and solid waste management

Region 1 Technical Training for Municipal Solid
Waste Landfill Assessment and Closure
   March 1992
      Training materials and seminars were developed and
      presented to municipal engineers and boards of health.

Region 10 Land  Disposal Criteria Implementation
Assistance for Native Alaskans
   October 1992
      Region 10, with Regions 8 and 9, will assist tribal
      governments in their efforts to comply with the solid waste
      management criteria and improve practices on Indian lands.
                                  Challenges for the 90's

                    Appendix B
      Invited Participants in the Effort to Update the
                   Agenda for Action
Challenges for the'90's                                          B-l

                                  Participants in the Effort to
                   Update the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's
                         Municipal Solid Waste Agenda for Action1
Gordon H. Fry
The Aluminum Association

Richard Cooperman
Aluminum Recycling Association

Bill Bermac
American Automobile Association

Ellen Cricchi
American Business Conference

Jim Kenaston and Terre Belt*
American Consulting Engineers Council

Dennis Houlihan
American Federation of State, County, and Municipal

R. Milton Deaner
American Iron and Steel Institute

Tonda F. Rush, Director/Industry Affairs*
American Newspaper Publishers Association

Carol Raulston*
American Paper Institute

Andy (THare*
American Petroleum Institute

Rich Gilbert and William McBeath*
American Public Health Association

A. Sidney Johnson
American Public Welfare Association

William Forrester*
American Public Works Association

John D. Eppich*
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Los Angeles Co. Sanitation Districts

Robert DuPree
American Textile Manufacturers Institute, Inc.
Robert J. Schenk and Michael Wolfe*
Anheuser-Busch Companies

Staff Member
Asphalt Rubber Producers Group

George Booth
Association of Petroleum Re-Refiners

G wen Lewis
Association of Procurement Officials

Thomas Kennedy, Executive Director*
Association of State & Territorial
Solid Waste Management Officials (ASTSWMO)

William Steinkuller
Automotive Dismantlers and Recyclers Association

Weinberg, Bergeson, & Newman
Re: Battery Council International

Bemadeen Emamali*
Beer Institute

Bob Price and Marina Liacouras Bouley*
Browning-Ferris, Inc.

David Barrack
Bumper Recycling Association of North America

David Sorensen and Robert Budway
Can Manufacturers Institute

Darrell Morrow
Center for Plastics Recycling Research

Joe J. Mayhew*
Chemical Manufacturers Association

Chip Foley and Connie Saulter
Source Reduction Council
Coalition of Northeastern Governors

Mary G.Holland*
Council on Environmental Quality
1 Participants and all individuals invited to the national meeting are listed in alphabetical order of their company or association name.
* Individuals that attended the national meeting on May 1,1990.
                              Challenges for the 90's

Karl Kamena and Edward Stana*
Council on Plastics and Packaging in the Environment

William R. Brown
Council of State Chambers of Commerce

R. Steven Brown*
Council of State Governments

Tom Donnelly*
Council for Solid Waste Solutions

Gary Rutledge and Kimberly Copperthite
Department of Commerce

Paul M Lin*
Department of Defense

Don Walter*
Department of Energy

Thomas Cloutier
Department of Health and Human Services
Division of Health Facilities Planning

James Miller
Department of Housing and Urban Development
Division of Environmental Planning

Harry DeLashmutt and Mary Josie*
Department of Interior
Environmental Affairs Policy Establishment

Richard Boezck
Edison Electric Institute

Lisa Collaton
Environmental Action Foundation

John Reston and Rob Esposito
Environmental Defense Fund

Michael Heitzman*
Federal Highway Administration

A. Edward Weary and Glen Braswell*
The Flexible Packaging Association

Frank A. Duckworth
Food and Drug Law Institute

Andrea Bilson*
Food Marketing Institute
Nancy J. Sherman*
Foodservice & Packaging Institute

Chaz Miller
Glass Packaging Institute

FayeM. Padgett
Government Printing Office
Joint Committee on Printing

H. Larder Hickman*
Solid Waste Association of North America (SWANA)

Benny Wong*
GSA/FSS/Engineering & Commodity Management

Nancy DeMarco
Independent Lubricant Manufacturers Association

Dr. Neil Seldman
Institute for Local Self-Reliance

Thomas Wolfe, Counsel/Manager, Government
Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries

Cynthia C. Kelly*
International City Management Association (ICMA)

Robin Lanier*
International Mass Retail Association

Elizabeth Seller*
Keep America Beautiful

Cindy Sanford
League of Women Voters

Kathryn M Lavriha
National Association of Chain Drug Stores

Lindsay Hutter
National Association of Convenience Stores

Barbara Paley*
National Association of Counties

Theresa Pugh
National Association of Manufacturers

Kurt Olson
Fox, Weinberg & Bennett
Re: National Association for Plastics Container Recovery
Challenges for the'90's

Patsy Chappelear*
National Association of Regional Councils

Arnold Edelman and Debora Nesbitt*
National Association of Towns & Townships

Dirk Van Dongen
National Association of Wholesaler-Distributors

Nancy New and Kristin Rakenkamp
National Council of State Legislatures

Dr. Douglas G. Bannerman*
National Electrical Manufacturers Association

Barry M. Cullen
National Forest Products Association

Tom Curtis
National Governors' Association

Stuart Zlotnikoff*
National Grocers Association

Allan Beals and Carol Kocheisen
National League of Cities

John Nolan *
National Oil Recyclers Association

David Loveland
National Recycling Coalition

Robert E. Harrington*
National Restaurant Association

Tracy Mullin
National Retail Merchants Association

E. Giff ord Stack*
National Soft Drink Association

W.Allen Moore
National Solid Wastes Management Association

Don Wilson*
National Tire Dealers and Retreaders Association

BUI Klinef elter
National Wildlife Federation

Allen Hershkowitz, Ph.D.
Natural Resources Defense Council
Carol Ansheles*
Northeast Waste Management Officials Association

Joseph F. Zimmer, Deputy Associate Administrator*
Office of Federal Procurement Policy

Howard Levenson
Office of Technology Assessment

S. Edward Iceik
Paperboard Packaging Council

Wayne Pearson
Plastics Recycling Foundation

Jerry Johnson*
Polystyrene Packaging Council, Inc.

Thomas Purcell, Director of Environmental
Printing Industries of America

Public Technology, Inc.

Tom Draney*
Reynolds Aluminum Recycling Co.

Thomas E. Cole and Frank Ryan
Rubber Manufacturers Association

Victor Bell*
Science Applications International Corporation

Steve Eure*
Snack Food Association

Cathryn Delacy
Society of the Plastics Industry,
Council for Solid Waste Solutions

Scott Def ife
Southern Governors' Association

David Gardiner
Sierra Club

Kurt Smallberg, President*
Steel Can Recycling Institute

Hector H. Mendietta*
Texas Department of Health

Paul M. Lin
US Army Engineering & Housing Support Center
                               Challenges for the 90's

Dr. Harvey Alter*
U.S. Chamber of Commerce

Dave Gatton*
U.S. Conference of Mayors

R. Philip Shiner
Western Governors' Association
Challenges for the '90 's                                                                                   B-5