Off tot Of Ormkiog
               Mr (WM MO)
              WMhtoQton, D.C 2O400
         NOVEMBER 1780
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           CFR 146 A
               146 B
 Ground Water Protection Branch
    Office of Drinking Water
Environmental Protection Agency


                    CFR 146
These are the second and third of a series on the
Underground Injection Control Regulations.  The
two booklets on CFR 146 have been written to help
you read the regulations.  We have cut and pasted,
added the full text of some references, added some
comments, and some questions.  Please feel free to
use this booklet any way that is helpful.  The
questions are not intended to be a test, but
rather indicators of some important points.  The
questions  and answers are not official guidance
or policy.
There will be many questions raised by reading
CFR 146 that are not answered by this pamphlet.
Guidance is being developed on many issues raised
by the Regulations, and will be available in the
future.  This pamphlet is an attempt to assist
with the first step, reading and digesting the
Regulations as promulgated.
December 1980
                     — 1 —

                     146 Subpart A
1.  Upon approval of a State UIC Program, any
underground injection not authorized by  rule or by
permit is unlawful.

                True       False
2.  An aquifer can never become an  "exempted aquifer"
as long as it is serving as a drinking water source.

                True       False
3.  If a well is used to inject hazardous waste, and
there is no USDW within 1/4 mile,  it  is a Class I well.
                True       False
4.  All wells injecting below the lowermost  formation
containing a USDV\/ witnin 1/4 nile of the well  bore are
Class I wells.

                True       False
5.  A conventional oil or natural gas production well
is a Class II well.

                True       False

                         146 A

6.  All wells identified as Class III must involve the
injection of fluids for extraction of minerals or

                True       False
7.  A deep injection well used to dispose of waste
fluids in connection with a Class III well field is a
Class I well.

                True       False
8.  A well used to inject return flow from a ground
water heat pump is a Class V well.

                True       False
9.  Class IV wells all involve a USDW within 1/4 mile
of the well bore, in or below the injection zone.

                True       False
10. Some injection wells may not be included iIT any of
the five classes of wells.

                True 	 False 	


11. The zone of endangering influence is calculated for
the expected life of the injection well.

                True 	 False   ,


                         146 A
12. In no case will the Area of Review  be greater than
1/4 mile.

                True       False
13. When a fixed radius is used,  it must  be no more
than 1/4 mile.

                True       False
14. When determining the adequacy of corrective action,
the Director should consider  the toxicity  of  the
by-products of injection.

                True	False	

15. Mechanical integrity is defined as  no  significant
leak in the casing, tubing or packer.

                True       False
16. Temperature or noise  logs may  be  used  to  verify the
absence of significant fluid movement through vertical
channels adjacent to the  well bore.

                True       False
17. The Director may allow other tests of mechanical
integrity at his discretion.
                True       False

18. In setting priorities for issuing permits, the
Director must consider the factors in 146.09  (Criteria
for Establishing Permitting Priorities) but is free to
set priorities.

                True       false
19. Class I-III wells must be plugged in a manner which
will not allow the movement of fluids either into or
between USDW's.

                True       False
20. Static equilibrium refers to the absence of
electrolysis along the casing.

                True 	 False	

                         146 B

21. Wells injecting into a formation which is beneath
the lowermost formation containing, within 1/4 inile of
the well bore, a USDW, and into a formation containing
a USDW more than 1/4 mile from the well bore are Class
I wells.

                True       False
22. Any well injecting hazardous waste is a Class I
well unless there is a USDW within 1/4 mile of the './ell
bore, below or within the injection zone.

                True       False
                          —5 —

23. New Class I wells must be cased  and  cemented.

                True       False
24. All Class I wells shall inject  through tubing with
a packer set immediately above the  injection zone, or
tubing with an approved fluid seal.

                True       False
25. The Director may approve  the use of other
alternatives to a packer with the written permission of
the Administrator.

                True       False
26. Deviation checks are not required  for  all Class I

                True       False
27. Before surface casing is installed, a cement bond,
temperature, and caliper logs shall be conducted.

                True       False
28. Fracture finder logs may be run either before or
after the long string  is installed.

                True       False

29. The temperature in the injection formation must be
determined or calculated.
30. Class I wells may not be operated at a pressure
that initiates new fractures or propagates existing
fractures in the injection zone.

                True       False

          Subpart A—General Provisions
          § 146.01 Applicability and scope.
            (a) This Part sets forth technical
          criteria and standards for the
          Underground Injection Control Program.
          This part should be read in conjunction
          with 40 CFR Parts 122, 123 and 124
          which also apply to UIC programs. 40
          CFR Part 122 defines the regulatory
          framework of EPA administered permit
          programs. 40 CFR Part 123 describes the
          elements of an approvable State
          program and procedures foi EPA
          approval of State participation in the
          permit programs. 40 CFR Part 124
          describes the procedures the Agency
          will use for issuing permits under the
         , covered programs. Certain of these
          procedures will also apply to State-
          administered programs as specified in 40
          CFR Part 123.
            (b) Upon the approval, partial
          approval or promulgation of a State UIC
          program by the Administrator, any
          underground injection which is not
          authorized by the Director by rule or by
          permit is unlawful.
  4 2 5 01 § 1<*6.02 Law authorizing these
            The laws authorizing these regulation;
          and all other UIC program regulations
          are referenced in 40 CFR part 122. They
          include Sections 1421,1422,1423,1431,
          1445, 1447 and 1450 of the Public ! lealth
          Service Act as amended by the Safe
          Drinking Water Act ("SDWA") (Pub. L,
          93-523) and by the SDWA Amendments
          of 1977 (Pub. L, 95-190).

          § 146.03 Definitions.
            The following definitions apply to the
          underground injection control program.
            Abandoned well means a well whose
          use has been permanently discontinued
122    Permit Prograias
123   State  Program
124    Procedures  for
Injection not
  authorized  is  unlawful
Abandoned  -  No  use

         or which is in a state of disrepair such
         that it cannot be used for its intended
         purpose or for observation purposes.
           Administrator means the
         Administrator of the United States
         Environmental Protection Agency, or an
         authorized representative.
           Application means the EPA standard
         national forms for applying for a permit.
         including any additions, revisions or
         modifications to the forms; or forms
         approved by EPA for use in approved
         States, including any approved
         modifications or revisions. For RCRA,
         application also includes the
         information required by the Director
         under § 122.25 (contents of Part B of the
         RCRA application).
           Aquifer means a geological formation,
         group of formations, or part of a
         formation that is capable of yielding a
         significant amount of water to a well or
           Area of review means the area
         surrounding an "injection well"
         described according to the criteria set
         forth in § 146.06.
           Casing means a heavy metal (steel or
         iron) pipe or tubing of varying diameter
         and weight, lowered into a borehole
         during or after drilling in order to
         support the sides of the hole and thus
         prevent the walls from caving, to
         . prevent .loss of drilling mud into porous
         ground, or to prevent water, gas, or
         other fluid from entering the hole.
           Catastrophic collapse means the
         sudden and utter failure of overlying
         "strata" caused by removal of
         underlying materials.
           Cementing means the operation
         whereby a cement  slurry is pumped into
         a drilled hole and/or forced behind the
           Confining bed means a body of
Capable of  yielding
Area  of review
  p.  42503

Casing  may  be
Also  "Grouting1


          impermeable or distinctly less
          permeable material stratigraphically
          adjacent to one or more aquifers.
            Confining zone means a geological
          formation, group of formations, or part
          of a formation that is capable of limiting
          fluid movement above an injection zone.
            Contaminant means any physical,
          chemical, biological, or radiological
          substance or matter in water.
            Director means the Regional
          Administrator or the State Director, as
          the context requires, or an authorized
          representative. When there is no
          approved State program, and there is an
          EPA administered program, "Director"
          means the Regional Administrator.
          When there is an approved State
          program, "Director" normally means the
          State Director. In some circumstances,
          however, EPA retains the authority to
          take certain actions even where there is
          an approved State program. (For
          example, when EPA issued an NPDES
          permit prior to the approval of a State
          program. EPA may retain jurisdiction
          over that permit after program approval.
          see § 123.89.) In such cases, the term
          "Director" means the Regional
          Administrator and not the State
            Disposal well means a well used for
          the disposal of waste into a subsurface
            Effective date of a VIC program
          means the date that a State UIC
          program is approved or established by
          the Administrator.
             Environmental Protection Agency
          ("EPA") means the United States
          Environmental Protection Agency.                                             . t
            EPA means the United States              Identification  of  USDW  S
          "Environmental Protection Agency."           and  exempted  aquifers
             Exempted acquifer means an aquifer                      33437
          or its portion that meets the criteria in                  L '



          the definition of "underground source of
          drinking water" but which has been
          exempted according to the procedures of
          § 122.35(b).
           Existing injection well means an
          "injection well" other than a "new
          injection well."
           facility or activity meant any "HWM
          facility," U1C "injection well," NPDES
          "point source," or State 404 dredge and
          fill activity, or any other facility or
          activity (including land or
          appurtenances thereto) that is subject to
          regulation under the RCRA, UIC,
          NPDES, or 404 programs.
            Fault means a surface or zone of rock
          fracture along which there has been
            Flow rate means the volume per time
          unit given to the flow of gases or other
          fluid substance which emerges from an
          orifice, pump, turbine or passes along a
          conduit or channel
            Fluid means material or substance
          which flows or moves whether in a
          semisolid, liquid, sludge, gas, or any
          other form or state.
            Formation means a body of rock
          characterized by a degree of lithologic
          homogeneity which is prevailingly, but
          not necessarily, tabular and is mappable
           on the earth's surface or traceable in the
            Formation fluid means "fluid" present
          in a "formation" under natural
          conditions as opposed to introduced
          fluids, such as drilling mud:
            Generator means any person, by site
          location, whose act or process produces
          hazardous waste identified or listed in
          40 CFR Part 261.
            Ground water means water below the
          land surface in a zone of saturation. ,
            Hazardous waste means a hazardous
          waste as defined in 40 CFR 261.3.

           Hazardous \\asteManagement
         facility ("HWM facility") means all
         contiguous land, and structures, other
         appurtenances, and improvements on
         the land used for treating, storing, or
         disposing of hazardous waste. A facility
         may consist of several treatmon1
         storage, or disposal operational units
         (for example, one or more landfills,
         surface impoundments, or combination
         of them).
           HWM facility means "Hazardous
         Waste Management facility."
           Injection well means a "well" into
         which "fluids" are being injected.
           Injection zone means a geological
          ''formation", group of formations, or part
          of a formation receiving fluids through a
           Lithology means the description of
          rocks on the basis of their physical and
          chemical characteristics'.
            Owner or operator moans the owner
          or operator of any facility or activity
          subject to regulation under the RCRA,
          UIC, NPDES, or 404 programs.
           Packer means a device lowered into a
          well which can be expanded to produce
          a water-tight seal.
            Permit means an authorization,
          license, or equivalent control document
          issued by EPA or an "approved State" to
          implement the requirements of this part
          and Parts 122,123 and 124. Permit does
          not include RCRA interim status
          (§ 122.23), UIC authorization by rule
          (8 122.37), or any permit which has not
          yet been the subject of final agency
          action, such as a "draft permit" or'a
          "proposed permit."
            Plugging means the act or process of
          stopping the flow of water, oil. or gas in
          "formations" penetrated by a  borehole
          or "well."
            Plugging record means a systematic
          listing of permanent or temporary
122.23   Interim status
 p.  33434
122.37      Authorization
   of  underground  injection
      by  rule     p.  33438

42501 abandonment of water, oil, gas, test,
         exploration and waste injection wells.
         and may contain a well log, description
         of amounts and types of plugging
         material used, the method employed for
         plugging, a description of formations
         which are sealed and a graphic log of
         the well showing formation location,
42502 formation thickness, and location of
         plugging structures.
            Pressure means the total load or force
         per unit area acting on a surface.
            Radioactive Waste means any waste
         which contains radioactive material in
         concentrations which exceed those
         listed in 10 CFR Part 20, Appendix B,
         Table 0, Column 2, or exceed the
          "Criteria for Identifying and Applying
         Characteristics of Hazardous Waste and
         for Listing Hazardous Waste" in 40 CFR
          Part 261, whichever is applicable.
            RCRA means the Solid Waste
         Disposal Act as amended by the
          Resource Conservation and Recovery
          Act of 1976 (Pub. L. 94-580, as amended
          by Pub. L 95-609, 42 U.S.C. 6901 et seq.).
            SDWA means the Safe Drinking
          Water Act (Pub. L. 95-523, as amended.,
          by Pub. L. 95-190,42 U.S.C. 300(f) et
            Site means the land or water area
         , where any facility or activity is
          physically located or conducted,
          including adjacent land used in
          connection with the facility or activity.
            Sole or principal source acquifer
          means an aquifer which has been
          designated by the Administrator
          pursuant to sections 1424 (a) or (e) of the
            State Director means the chief
          administrative officer of any State or
          interstate agency operating an approved
          program, or the delegated representative
          of the State Director. If responsibility is
          divided among two or more State or
interstate agencies, "State Director"
means the chief administrative officer of
the State or interstate agency authorized
to perform the particular procedure or
function to which reference is made.
  Stratum (plural strata] means-a single
sedimentary bed or layer, regardless of
thickness, that consists of generally the
same kind of rock material.
  Subsidence means the lowering of the
natural land surface in response to:
Earth movements; lowering of fluid
pressure; removal of underlying
supporting material by mining or
solution of solids, either artificially or
from natural causes; compaction due to
wetting (HydrocompactionJ; oxidation of
organic matter in soils; or added load on
the land surface.
  Surface casing means the first string
of well casing to be installed in the well
  Total dissolved solids ("TDS") means
the total dissolved (filterable) solids as
determined by use of the method
specified in 40 CFR Part 136.
  UIC means the Underground Injection
Control program under Part C of die
Safe Drinking Water Act, including an
"approved program."                 '
  Underground injection means a "well
  Underground source of drinking water
("USDW") means an "aquifer" or its
  (l)(i) Which supplies  drinking water
for human consumption; or
  (ii) In which the ground water
contains fewer than 10,000 mg/1 "total
dissolved solids;" and
  (2) Which is not an "exempted
  USD W. means "underground source of
drinking water."
  Well means a bored,  drilled or driven
shaft, or a dug hole, whose depth is


42502  greater than the largest surface
            Well injection means the subsurface
          emplacement of fluids through a bored,
          drilled or driven well; or through a dug
          well, where the depth of the dug well is
          greater than the largest surface
            Well log means a log obtained from a
          well, showing such information as
          resistivity, radioactivity, spontaneous
          potential, and acoustic velocity as a
          function of depth.
            Well plug means a watertight and
          gaslight seal installed in a borehole or
          well to prevent movement of fluids.
            Well record means a concise
          statement of the available data
          regarding a well, such as a scout ticket;
          a full history or day-by-day account of a
          well, from the day the well was
          surveyed to the day production ceased.
            Well stimulation means several
          processes used to clean the well bore,
          enlarge channels, and increase pore
          space in the interval to be injected thus
          making it possible for wastewater to
          move more readily into the  formation,
          and includes (1) surging, (2] jetting, (3)
          blasting, (4) acidizing, (5) hydraulic
             Well monitoring means the
           measurement, by on-site instruments or
           laboratory methods, of the quality of
           water in a well.

           §146.04   Criteria for exempted aquifers.         See  122.35  (P.  33437)
             An aquifer or a portion thereof which
           meets the criteria for an "underground
           source of drinking water" in  § 146.03
           may be determined under 40 CFR 122.35
           to be an "exempted aquifer" if it meets
           the following criteria:
             (a) It does not currently serve as a
           source of drinking water; and

           (b) It cannot now and will not in the
         future serve as a source of drinking
         water because:
           (1) It is mineral, hydrocarbon or
         geothermalenergy producing;
           iSHHsTinTaTela at a depth or location
         which makes recovery of water for
         drinking water purposes economically
         or technologically impractical;
           (3) It is so contaminated that it would
         be economically ot technologically
         impractical to render that water fit for
         human consumption; or
           (4] It is located over a .Class III well
         mining area subject to subsidence or
         catastrophic collapse.

         § 146.05 Classification of Injection wells.
           Injection wells are classified as
           (a) Class I. (1) Wells used by
         generators of hazardous  wastes or
         owners or operators of hazardous waste
         management facilities to inject
         hazardous waste, other than Class IV
          (2) Other industrial and municipal
         disposal wells which inject fluids
         beneath the lowermost formation
         containing, within one quarter mile of
         the well bore, an underground source of
         drinking water.
          (b) Class II. Wells which inject fluids:
          (1) Which are brought to the surface in
         connection with conventional oil or
         natural gas production;
          (2) For enhanced recovery of oil or
         natural gas: and
          (3) For storage of hydrocarbons which
         are liquid at standard temperature and
          (c) Class III. Wells which inject for
         extraction of minerals or energy,
          (1) Mining of sulfur by the Frasch
Note:    Need  not  be  in
connection with  USDW

Management Facilities
Not Class  IV
                 Enhanced  recovery


42502    (2) Solution mining ot miners Is;

           Note.—Solution mining of minerals
         includes sodium chloride, potash, phosphate,
         copper, uranium and any other mineral which
         can be mined by this process.

           (3) in-situ combustion of fossil fuel:
           Note.—Fossil fuels includes coal, tar sands,
         oil shale and any other fossil fuel which can
         be mined by this process.

           (4) recovery of geothermal energy to
         produce electric power.
           Note.—Class III wells include the recovery
         of geothermal energ'y to produce electric
         power but do not include wells used in
         heating or aquaculture which fall under Class
           (d) Class IV. Wells used by generators
         of hazardous wastes or of radioactive
         wastes, by owners or operators of
         hazardous waste management facilities,
         or by owners or operators of ^aj^joa^jJivj^
         waste disposal sites to dispose of
         hazardous wastes or jajJjgacHve wastes
         into or above a formation which within
         one quarter mile of the well contains  an
         underground source of drinking water.
            (e) Class V.  Injection wells not
          included in Class I, II, III, or IV.
            Note.—Class V wells includes:
 42503   W Air conditioning return flow wells used
          to return to the supply a_quifer the water used
          for heating or cooling in a heat pump;
           (2) Cesspools or other devices that receive
          wastes, which have an open bottom and
          sometimes have perforated sides. 1 he UIC
          requirements do not apply to single'family
          residential cesspools;
            (3) Cooling water return flow wells used to
          inject water previously used for cooling;
            (4) Drainage wells used to drain surface
          fluid, primarily storm runoff, into a
          subsurface formu uon;
            (5) Dry wells used for the injection of
          wastes into a subsurface formation;
            (6) Recharge wells used to replenish the
          water in an aquifer,
In-situ  combustion
Geothermal  -
  e.g.  electric

"Radioactive"   now

1/4 mile  -  USDW
 Not  single  family

42503   (7) gait water intrusion barrier wells used
          to inject water into a fresh water aquifer to
          prevent the intrusion of salt water into the
          fresh water;
           (8) Sand backfill wells used to inject a
          mixture of water and sand, mill tailings or
          other solids into mined out portions of
          subsurface mines;
           (9) Septic system wells used:
           (i) Tcr inject the waste or effluent from a
          multiple dwelling, business establishment,
         ' community or regional business
          establishment septic tank; or
           (ii) For a multiple dwelling, community or
          regional cesspool. The UIC requirements do
          not apply to single family residential waste
          disposal systems;
           (10) Subsidence control wells (not used for
          the purpose of oil or natural gas production)
          used to inject fluids into a non-oil or gas
          producing zone to reduce or eliminate
          subsidence associated with the overdraft of
          fresh water;
           (11) Wells used for the storage of
          hydrocarbons which are gases at standard
          temperature and pressure;
           (12) Geothermal wells used in heating and
           (13) Nuclear disposal wells.

          §146.06   Area of Review.
           The area of review for each injection
          well or each field, project or area of the
          State shall be determined according to
         ^jJhCTparagraph (a) or (b) of this
          section. The Director may solicit input
          from the owners or operators of
          injection wells within the State as to
          which method is most appropriate for
          each geographic area or field.
           (a) Zone of endangering influence.
          The zone of endangering influence shall
          be that area the radius of which is the
          lateral distance from an injection well,
          field or project in which the pressures in
          the injection zone may cause the
          migration of the injection and/or
          formation fluid into an underground
(ii)  Not  single  family
Gas  Storage
(13)  Nuclear  reserved


         source of drinking water. Computation
         of the zone of endangering influence
         may be based upon the parameters
         listed below and should be calculated
         for an injection time period equal to the
         expectedlife of the injection well or
         paaenTTnTfollowing modified Theis
         equation illustrates one form which the
         mathematical model iruy take.
                 /           \  x/2
                «    2. 2 5 K H t
                                                 Expected  life
                   S 10*
                   4 -O KH
                          I hw - hbo x SpGb
                                2.3 Q

                  Radius of endangering influence frora injection well


                  Hydraulic conductivity of the injection  zone


                  Thickness of the injection zone (length)

                  Tine of  injection (time)

                  Storage  coefficient (diraensionless)

                  Injection rate (volume/time)
          nb0  = Observed original hydrostatic head of injection

                  zone  (length) measured from the base  of  the lowest

                  underground source of drinking wdtar

          hw =  Hydrostatic head of underground source  of

                  drinking water (length) measured frora tne

                  base  of the lowest underground source of drinking


               •   Specific gravity of fluid in the injection zone

                  (iJiiT.ensionless )
                  3.142 (diraensionless).

           The above equation is based on the
          following assumptions:
           (1) The injection zone is homogenous
          and isotropic;
           (2) The injection zone has infinite
          areal extent;
           (3) The injection well penetrates the
          entire thickness of the injection zone;
           (4) The well diameter is infinitesimal
          compared to "r" when injection time is
          longer than a few minutes; and
           (5) The emplacement of fluid into the
          injection zone creates instantaneous
          increase in pressure.
           Other models may be used as
          appropriate for different situations
          encountered in the field or where the
          model assumptions match more closely
          those situations.
           (b) Fixed Radius. A fixed radius
          around the well, field or project of not
          less than one-fourth (Vt) mile may be
          used. In determining the fixed radius,
          the following factors shall be taken into
          consideration: Chemistry of injected and
          formation fluids; hydrogeology;
          population and ground-water use and
          dependence; and historical practices in
          the area.
           (c) If the area of review is determined
          by a mathematical model pursuant to
          paragraph (a) of this section, the
          permissible radius is the result of such
          calculation even if it is less than one-
          fourth {%) mile.

          §146.07 Corrective Action.
           In determining the adequacy of
          corrective action proposed by the
          applicant under 40 CFR 122.44 and in
          determining the additional steps needed
          to prevent fluid movement into
          underground sources of drinking water,.
          the following criteria and factors shall
          be considered by the Director:
Other models  o.k.
1/4  mile  minimum
iflathematical model,
Radius  may  be  less  than
1/4  mile
p.  33440

42505   jaj Toxicity and volume of the
        injected fluid;'
          (b) Toxicity of native fluids or by-
        products of injection;
          (c) Potentially affected population;
          (d) Geology;
          (e) Hydrology;
          (f) History of the injection operation;
          (g) Completion and plugging records;
          (h) Abandonment procedures in effect
        at the time the well was abandoned; and
          (i) Hydraulic connections with
        underground sources of drinking water.

        § 146.08  Mechanical Integrity
          (a) Airinjection  well has mechanical
        integrity if:
          (1) There is no significant leak in the
        casing, tubiiu or packer, and
          (2) There is no significant fluid
        movement into an underground source
        of drinking water through vertical
        channels adjacent to the injection well
          (b) One of the following tests must be
        used to evaluate the absence of
        significant leaks under paragraph (a)(l)
        of this section.
          (1) Monitoring of annulus pressure; or
          (2) Pressure test with liquid or gas.
          (c) One of the following methods must
        be used to determine the absence of
        significant fluid movement under
        paragraph (a)(2) of this section:
          (1) For Class II only, well records
        demonstrating the  presence of adequate
        cement to prevent  such migration; or
          (2) The results of a temperature or
        noise log.
          (d) The Director may allow the use of
        a test to demonstrate mechanical
        integrity other than those listed in
        paragraphs (b) and (c)(2) of this section
        with the written approval of the
        Administrator. To  obtain approval, the
 Native  Fluids
 (Formation  Fluids)
 and  by-products
 1)  Casing,  Tubing,
 2)  Movement  -
     vertical  channels
Annulus  pressure
Pressure test
Class  II  -  Well  records
Tenperature/noise .Log
Other  Test:  Written

42505  Director shall submit a written request
        to the Administrator, which shall set
        forth the' proposed test and all technical
        data supporting its use. The
        Administrator shall approve the request
        if it will reliably demonstrate the
        mechanical integrity of wells for which
        its use is proposed. Any alternate
        method approved by the Administrator
        shall be published in the Federal
        Register and may be used in all States
        unless its use is restricted at the time of
        approval by the Administrator.
          (e) In conducting and evaluating the
        tests enumerated in this section or
        others to be allowed by the Director, the
        owner or operator and the Director shall
        apply methods and standards generally
        accepted in the industry. When the
        owner or operator reports the results of
        mechanical integrity tests to the
        Director, he shall include a description
        of the test(s) and the method(s) used. In
        making his/her evaluation, the Director
        shall review monitoring and other test
        data submitted since the previous

        § 146.09 Criteria for Establishing
        Permitting Priorities.
          In determining priorities for setting
        times for owners or operators to submit
        applications for authorization to inject
        under the procedures of § 122.38 of
        § 123.4(g), the Director shall base these
        priorities upon consideration of the'
        following factors:
          (a) Injection wells known or suspected
        to be contaminating underground
        sources of drinking water,
          (b) Injection wells known to be
        injecting fluids containing hazardous
          (c) Likelihood of contamination of
        underground sources of drinking'water,
          (d) Potentially affected population;
Federal  Register
"Use"  -  All  States  -
 Unless  restricted
Application  for  a  Permit
  p.  33439
Program Description
  p.  33457

 (a)  Contaminating
 (b)  Hazardous
 (c)  Likelihood
 (d)  Population
Note:  Not necessarily
    in  order  of  priority

           (e) Injection wells violating existing
         State requirements;
           (f) Coordination with the issuance of
         permits required by other State or
         Federal permit programs;
           (g) Age and depth of the injection
         well; and
           (h.) Expiration dates of existing State
         permits, if any,

         § 146.10 Plugging and Abandoning Class
         Mil Wells.
           (a) Prior to abandoning Class I-IH
         wells the well shall be plugged with
         cement in ajnanner which will not
         allow the movement of fluids either into
         or between underground sources of
         drinking water.
           (b) Placement of the cement plugs
         shall be accomplished by one of the
           (1) The Balance  Method;
           (2) The Dump Bailer Method; or
           (3) The Two-Plug Method.
           (c) The well to be abandoned shall be
         in a state of static  equilibrium with the
         mud weight equalized top to bottom,
         either by circulating the mud in the well
         at least once or by a comparable method
         prescribed by the Director, prior to the
         placement of the cement plug(s).
           [d) The plugging and abandonment
         plan required in 40 CFR 122.42(f) and
         122.41(e) shall, in the case of a Class in
         well field which underlies or is in an
         aquifer which has  been exempted under
         40 CFR 146.04, also demonstrate that no
         movement of contaminants from the
         mined zone into an underground source
         of drinking water will occur. The
         Director shall prescribe aquifer cleanup
         and monitoring where he deems it
         necessary and feasible to insure that uo
         migration of contaminants from the
         mined zone into an underground source
         of drinking water will occur.
Not  allow  movement
  into or  between
3  methods  specified
Static  equilibrium
 Permit Conditions
 Additional  Conditions
 Class  III - Exempted
  aquifer, "overlies or  in"
  Demonstrate  "no migration"
 Criteria for  exempted
  aquifers p.  42502

 Aquifer  cleanup  and

           § 122.4  Application for a permit
             (Applicable to State programs, see
           § 123.7.)
             (a) Permit application. Any person
           who is required to have a permit
           (including new applicants and
           permittees with expiring permits) shall
           complete, sign, and submit an
           application to the Director as described
           in this section and in-§
                Persons currently authorized with
           interim status under             ',
           UIC authorization by rule (§ 122.37)
           shall apply for permits when required by
           the Director-               Procedures
           for applications, issuance and
           administration of emergency permits are
           found exclusively in §
           122.40 (UIC),
            (b) Who applies? When a facility or
           activity is owned by one person but is
           operated by another person, it is the
           operator's duty to obtain a permit,
             (c) Completeness. The Director shall
           not issue a permit under a program
           before receiving a complete application
           for a-ipermit under that program
                   An application for a permit
           under a program is complete when the
           Director receives an application form
           and any supplemental information
           which are completed to his or her
           satisfaction. The completeness of any
           application for a permit shall be judged
           independently of the status of any other
           permit application or permit for the
           same facility or activity. For EpAr^
           administered       UIC,
           programs, an application which is
           reviewed under § 124.3 is complete
when the Director receives either a
complete application or the information
listed in a notic^of deficiency.     _ •__
   (d) Information requirements. All '
 applicants for        UIC,
 permits (for State 404 permits see
 § 123.94) shall provide the following
 information to the Director, using the
 application form provided by the
 Director (additional information
 required of applicants is set forth in
   (1) The activities conducted by the
 applicant which require it to obtain
 permits under RCRA, UIC, NPDES, or
   (2) Name, mailing address, and
 location of the facility for which the
 application is submitted.
   (3) Up to four SIC codes which best
 reflect the principal products or services
 provided by the facility.
   (4) The operator's name, address,
 telephone number, ownership status,
 and status as Federal, State, private,
 public,  or other entity.
   (5) Whether the facility is located on
 Indian lands.
   (6) A listing of all permits or
 construction approvals received or
 applied for under any of the following
 programs:           _	
   fii) UIC program under SpWA.
  (7) A topographic map (or other map if
a topographic map is unavailable)
extending one mile beyond the property
boundaries of the source, depicting the
facility and each of its intake and
discharge structures; each of its
hazardous waste treatment storage, or


            disposal facilities; each well where
            fluids from the facility are injected
            underground; and those wells, springs,
            other surface water bodies, and drinking
            water wells listed in public records or
            otherwise known to the applicant in the
            map area.
              [8] A brief description of the nature of
            the business.
              (e) Recordkeeping. Applicants shall
            keep records of aH data used to
            complete permit applications and any
            supplemental information submitted
            under § 122.38 (UIC);
                           •for a period of at least 3
            years from the date the application is
§ 122.38 Application tor a permit;
authorization by permit.
  (Applicable to State UIC programs*
see § 123.7.}
  (a] Permit application. Except as
provided in & 122.37 (authorization by
rule), all underground injections into
Class L. Q, or IH wells in listed States
shall be prohibited unless authorized by
permit Those authorized by a rule under
§ 122.37 must still apply for a permit
under this section unless authorization
by rule was for the life of the well. Rules
authorizing well injections for which
permit applications have been submitted
shall lapse for a particular well injection
only upon the effective date of the
permit or permit denial for that well
  (b} Time to appfy. Any person who
performs or proposes an underground
injection for which a permit is or will be
required shall submit an application to
the Director in accordance with the
State UIC program as follows:
  fl) For existing injection wells, as
expeditiously as practicable and m
accordance with the schedule contained
in any program description under
§ 123.4(g), but no later than 4 years from''
the approval of the UIC program, or as
required under & 122.45(b) for wells
injecting hazardous waste.
  (2) For new injection wells, except
new wells covered by an existing area
permit under § 122.39(c), a reasonable
time before conduction is expected to
begin. (See also> 1122.41 (b)).
  (c) Contents of UIC application.

                         146 B

31. Injection between the outermost casing protecting
USDWs and the well bore is prohibited.

                True       False
32. Pressure shall be raaintained on the annulus.

                True       False
33. Injected fluids must be analyzed at least once a

                True       False
34. Continuous recording devices are required to
monitor injection pressure, flow rate, volume and
annulus pressure.
                True       False
35. Mechanical integrity must be demonstrated at least
once every five years.

                True       False
36. Pressure in the underground sources of drinking
water within the area of review must be monitored only
when required Section 146.13(b)(4).

                True       False

                         146 B

 37. Reporting  must  be  done  quarterly-

                 True        False
 38. Any  well  work-over  must  be reported within thirty
 days  after  completion.

                 True  	 False 	

39. The Director may disregard any wells in the area of
review which do not penetrate the injection zone.

                True       False
40. The Director may allow a stimulation program for a
Class I well.
                True       False
41. The Director may not allow tiie operation of a Class
I well until corrective action has been conpleted on
defective wells in the area of review.

                True	False 	


42. As part of the mid-course evaluation, the Director
is not required to report concerning Class I wells
authorized by rule.

                True	False


Subpart B—Criteria and Standards
Applicable to Class I Wells

§146.11  Applicability.
  This subpart establishes criteria and
standards for underground injection
control programs to regulate Class I

§ 146.12  Construction Requirements.
  (a) All Glass I wells shall be sited in
such a fashion that they inject into a
formation which is beneath the
lowermost formation containing, within
one quarter mile of the well bore, an
underground source of drinking water.
  (b) All Class I wells shall be cased
and cemented to prevent the movement
of fluids into or between underground
sources of drinking water. The casing
and cement used in the construction of
each newly drilled well shall be
designed for the life expectancy of the
well. In determining and specifying
casing and cementing requirements, the
following factors shall be considered:
  (1) Depth to the injection zone;
  (2) Injection pressure, external
pressure, internal pressure, and axial
  (3] Hole size;
  (4) Size and grade of all casing strings
(wall thickness, diameter, nominal
weight, length, joint specification, and
construction material);
  (5) Corrosiveness of injected fluid,
formation fluids, and temperatures;
  (6) Lithology of injection and confining
intervals; and
  (7) Type or grade of cement.
  (c) All Class I injection wells, gxgegt
those municipal wells injecting JQOJ^
cog^sivj^rastes. shall inject fluids
throughtuDmgwith a packer set
immediately above the injection zone, or
                                                 Beneath  lowest  USDW
                                                 within 1/4 mile of  well
                                                 Cased  and  cemented
                                                 Life of Well
                                                 Corros ivenes s
                                                 Tubing  and Packer

         tubing with an approved fluid seal as an
         alternative. The tubing, packer, and fluid
         seal shall be designed for the expected
           (1) The use of other alternatives to a
         packer may be allowed with the written
         approval of the Director. To obtain
         approval, the operator shall submit a
         written request to the Director, which
         shall set forth the proposed alternative
         and all technical data supporting its use.
         The Director shall approve the request if
         the alternative method will reliably
         provide a romparablejtavel of protection
         to undergrouncRourcesofarinking
         water. The Director may approve an
         alternative method solely for an
         individual well or for general use.
           (2) In determining and specifying
         requirements for tubing, packer, or
         alternatives the following factors shall
         be considered:
           (i) Depth of setting;
           (ii) Characteristics of injection fluid
         (chemical content, corrosiveness, and
           (iii) Injection pressure;
           (iv) Annular pressure;
           (v) Rate, temperature and volume of
         injected fluid; and
           (vi) Size of casing.
            (d) Appropriate logs and other tests
         shall be conducted during the drilling
         and construction of new Class I wells. A
         descriptive report interpreting the
         results of such logs and lests shall be
         prepared by a qualified log analyst and
         submitted to the Director. At a
         minimum, such logs and tests shall
           (1) Deviation checks on all holes
         constructed by first drilling a pilot hole,
         and then enlarging the pilot hole by
         reaming or another method. Such checks
         shall be at sufficiently frequent intervals
         to assure that vertical avenues for fluid
Fluid  seal.
Written  request
Shall  approve
 Logs  and  Tests
 Pilot  hole

42506 migration in the form of diverging holes
        are not created during drilling.
          (2) Such other logs and tests as may
        be needed after taking into account the
        availability of similar data in the area of
        the drilling site, the construction plan,
        and the need for additional information,
        that may arise from time to time as the
        construction of the well progresses. In
        determining which logs and tests shall
        be required, the following logs shalHje
        considered for use in the foUowmg"""""

          (i) For jurfgjjejjasigg intended to
        protect undeigrounasoiirces of drinking
          (A) Resistivity, spontaneous potential,
        and caliper logs before the casing is
        installed; and
          (B) A cement bond, temperature, or
        density log after the casing is set and
          (ii) For intermediate and lon^strinss
        of casing intenaeo^olacilitateinjecQon:
          (A) Resistivity, spontaneous potential,
        porosity, and gamma ray logs before the
        casing is installed;
          (B) Fracture finder logs; and
          (C) A cement bond, temperature, or
        density log after Ihe casing is set and
          (e) At a minimum, the following
        information concerning the injection
        formation shall be determined or
        calculated for new Class I wells:
          (1) Fluid pressure;
          (2) Temperature;
          (3) Fracture pressure;
          (4) Other physical and chemical
        characteristics of the injection matrix;
          (5) Physical and chemical
        characteristics of the formation fluids.
Injection Formation

Determined  or  calculated



         § 146.13  Operating, Monitoring and
         Reporting Requirements.
           (a) Operating Requirements.
         Operating requirements shall, at a
         minimum, specify that:
           (1) Injection pressure at the wellhead
         shall not exceed a maximum which shall
         be calculated so as to assure that the
         pressure in the injection zone during
         injection does not initiate n^wfractujxjs
         or Dropagat^ existing fracturesuTtne""""
         injecRonzone, initiate fractures in the
         Qgrjfjnjng zone or cause the movement
         of injection or formation fluids into an
         underground source of drmlung water.
           (2) Injection between the Qujgggost
         Basing protecting underground sources
         oFarmking water and the well bore is
           (3) Unless an alternative to a packer
         has been approved under § 146.12(c), the
         annulus between the tubing and the long
         string of casings shall be filled with a
         fluid approved by the Director and a
          pressure, also approved by the Director,
          shall be maintained on the annulus.
           (b) Monitoring Requirements.
          Monitoring requirements shall, at  a
          minimum, include:
           (1) The analysis of the ^
          with sufficient frequency
          representative data of their
           (2) Installation aud use of continuous
          recording devices to monitorTnjecfion™
          pressure, flow rate and volume, and  the
          pressure on the cumulus between the
          tuBmg^md the long^frmg of casing;
           (3) A demonstration of mechanical
          integrity pursuant to § 146.08 at least
          once every five years during the life of
          the well; and
           (4) The typje, number and location of
          wells within the area of review to be
          used to monitor any irrigation of fluids
Operating  Pressure

Injection  zone

Confining  zone
Formation  Fluids
Annulus  Fluid


Injected  Fluids
Sufficient Frequency

Continuous Recording

Mechanical Integrity

Monitoring Wells

42506  ^0 and pressure in the i	
        sburcesof^kinkin^water, the
        parametersT^emeasuredand the
        frequency of monitoring.
          (c) Reporting Requirements, Reporting
        requirements shall, at a minimum,
          (1) Quarterly reports to the Director
        on:  ^"^""""
          (i) The physical, chemical and other
        relevant characteristics of injection
          (ii) Monthly average, maximum and
        minimum values for injection pressure, •
        flow rate and volume, and annular
        pressure; and
          (iii) The results of monitoring
        prescribed under subparagraph (b)(4) of
        this section..
          (2) Reporting the results, with the first
        quarterly report after the completion, of:
          (i) Periodic tests of mechanical
          (ii) Any other test of the injection well
        conducted by the permittee if required
        by the Director; and
          (in) Any well work over.

        §146.14  Information to be Considered by
        the Director.
          This section sets forth the information
        which must be considered by the
        Director in authorizing Class I wells. For
        an existing or converted new Class I
        well the Director may rely on the
        existing permit file for those items of
        information listed below which are
        current and accurate in the file. For a
        newly drilled Class I well, the Director
        shall require the submission of all the
        information listed below. For both
        existing and new Class I wells certain
        maps, cross-sections, tabulations of
        wells within the area of review and
        other data may be included in the
        application by reference provided they
        are current, readily available to the
        Director (for example, hi the permitting
Pressure  in  USDW

Injection  Fluids

Pressure,  rate,  volume

First quarterly  report

Mechanical  integrity



Existing  file

         agency's files) and sufficiently identified
         to be retrieved. In cases where EPA
         issues the permit all the information in
         this Section must be submitted to the
           (a) Prior to the issuance of a permit for
         an existing Class I well to operate or the
         c£n£l£U£tjon or jjjjn^gjgjon of a new
         Class I well the Directorsnall consider
         the following:
           (1) Information required in 40 CFR
         122.4 and 122.38(c);
           (2) A map showing the injection
         well(s) for which a permit is sought and
         the applicable area of review. Within
         the area of review, the map must show
         the number, or name, and location of all
         producing wells, injection wells,
         abandoned wells, dry holes, surface
         bodies of water, springs, mines (surface
         and subsurface), quarries, water wells
         and other pertinent surface  features
         including residences and roads. The
         map should also show faults, if known
         or suspected. Only information of public
         record is required to be included on this
           (3) A tabulation of data on all wells
         within the area of review which
         penetrate into the proposed injection
         zone. Such data shall include a
         description of each well's type,
         construction, date drilled, location,
         depth, record of plugging and/or
         completion, and any additional
         information the Director may require;
          (4) Maps and cross sections indicating
         the general vertical and lateral limits of
         all underground sources of drinking
         water within the area  of review,  their
         position  relative to the injection
         formation and the direction of water
         movement, where known, in each
         underground source of drinking water
         which may be affected by the proposed
Area  of  Review
Only  Public  record
Penetrate  injection  zone
USDW's  within  Area
of  Review
Direction of  movement

 42507   (5) Maps and cross sections detailing
         the geologic structure of the local area;
           (6) Generalized maps and cross
         sections illustrating the regional geologic
           (7) Proposed operating data:
           (i) Average and maximum daily rate
         and volume of the fluid to be injected;
           (ii) Average 'and maximum injection
         pressure; and
           (iii) Source and an analysis of the
         chemical, physical, radiological and
         biological characteristics of injection
           (8) Proposed formation testing
         program to obtain an analysis of the
         chemical, physical and radiological
         characteristics of and other information
         on the receiving formation;
           (9) Proposed stimulation^rograjn^
           (10) ProposeoMnjectionprTCeaure;
           (11) Engineering drawings of the
         surface and subsurface construction
         details of the system;
           (12) Contingency plans to cope with
         all shut-ins or well failures so as to
         prevent migration of fluids into any
         underground source of drinking water;
           (13) Plans (including maps) for
         meeting'the monitoring requirements in
         § 146.13(b);
           (14) For wells within the area of
         review which penetrate the injection
         zone but are not properly completed or
         plugged, the cjjngctiveaction proposed
         to be takenunaer4
area of review which penetrate the
injection zone. For such wells which are
improperly sealed, completed, or
abandoned, the applicant shall also
submit a plan consisting of such steps or
modifications as are necessary to
prevent movement of fluid into
underground sources of drinking water
("corrective action"]. Where the plan is
adequate, the Director shall incorporate
it into the permit as a condition. Where
the Director's review of an application
indicates that the permittee's plan is
inadequate (based on the factors in
§ 146.07) the Director shall require the'
applicant to revise the plan, prescribe a
plan for corrective action as a condition
of the permit under paragraph (b) of this
section,  or deny the application. The
Director may disregard the provisions of
§ 146.06 (area of review) and § 146.07
(corrective action) when reviewing an
application io permit an existing Class II
  (b) Requirements—(1) Existing
injection wells. Any permit issued for an
existing injection well (other than Class
II) requiring corrective action shall
include a compliance schedule requiring
any corrective action accepted or
prescribed under paragraph (a) of this
section to be completed as soon as
  (2) New injection wells. No permit for
a new injection well may authorize
injection until all required corrective
action has been taken.
  (3) Injection pressure limitation. The
Director may require as a permit
condition that injection pressure be so
limited that pressure in the injection
zone does not exceed hydrostatic
pressure at the site of any improperly
completed or abandoned well within the
area of review. This pressure limitation
shall satisfy the corrective  action
requirement. Alternatively, such
injection pressure limitation can be part
of a compliance schedule and last until
all other required corrective action has
been taken.
42507     f15) Construction procedures
           including a cementing and casing
           program, logging procedures, deviation
           checks, and a drilling, testing, and
           coring program; and
             (16) A certificate that the applicant
           has assured, through a performance
           bond or other appropriate means, the
           resources necessary to close, plug or
           abandon the well as required by 40 CFR
             (b) Prior to granting approval for the
           ooemjjoji.of a Class I well the Director
           snal^onsider the following information:
             (1) All available logging and testing
           program data on the well;

42507   (2) A demonstration of mechanical
        integrity pursuant to § 146.08;
         (3) The actual operating data;
         (4) The results of the formation testing
         (5) The actual injection procedure;
         (6) The compatibility of injected waste
        with fluids in the injection zone and
        minerals in both the injection zone and
       .the confining zone; and
         (7) The.status of corrective action on
        defective wells in the area of review.
         (c) Prior to granting approval for the
        plugging and abandonment of a Class I
        well the Director shall consider the
        following information:
         ft) The type and number of plugs to be
         (2] The placement of each  plug
        including the elevation of the top and
         (3) The type and grade and quantity of
        cement to be used;
         (4) The method for placement of the
        plugs; and
         (5) The procedure to be used to meet
        the requirements of § 146.10(c).

        §146.15 Mid-courw evaluation
         In compliance with 40 CFR
        122.18(c)(4)(c)(ii) the data to be
        submitted on each Class I DgjjjjjJ, at six
        month intervals during the firettwo
        years of operation of the State program
        shall at a minimum include the
         (a) The data required in 5146.14(a)(l);
          (b) The data required in § 146.14(a)(3)
        including, under location, the distance
        and direction, from the injection well;
          (c) The depth to the top and bottom of
          (d) The distance to the nearest down-
        gradient water supply well;
          (e) A description of the geology and
Mechanical  Integrity
Operating Data
Formation Testing

Corrective  Action
 Static equilibrium,  etc.
 hydrology of the area;
  . (f) The construction characteristics of
 the well;
   (g) The corrective action proposed as
 well as that performed;
   (h) The type and results of all
 mechanical integrity tests reported to
 the Director; and
   (i) Any reporting to the Director under
 § 122.41(d).

                  Scoring  Guide

              CFR 146  Subpart A and B

Note:  These questions and the answers given are not
official guidance or policy.
146 A

True .
              Could be Class II or III.
              Only injection wells [146.05(b)]
              [146.05(a)(2)] Presuming the waste
              fluids are hazardous
              [See 146.05(e)(1)]
              For example, family residential
              waste disposal systems.

              1/4 mile is minimum for fixed radius.
              Calculation nay be greater or smaller,

13. False.
14. True.
15. False.

16. True.
17. False.
Director may require larger  area.
Also "(2) There is no significant
fluid movement, etc." [146.08(a) (2 ) ]
1146. 08(b) (2)]
"with the written approval of  the
Administrator," [146. 08 (D)]
18.  True.
19.  True.
20.  False.
    146 B
21.  True and False.
(a little comic relief)
22.  True.
23.  True.
24.  False.
25.  False.
26.  True.
          True unless well is Class  I
          or Class III.
If there is a USDW within 1/4 mile
of the well below or into the injection
zone, wells injecting hazardous waste
are Class IV wells.  If there is no  USDW
within 1/4 of the well bore below or in
injection zone, the wells are Clasfe  I.
[146. 12 (b)]
Municipal wells injecting
non-corrosive wastes are exempted.
Director may approve [146. 12 (c)]
Only when pilot hole used.

27. False.
28.  False.
29.  True.
30.  True.
31.  True.

32.  True.

33.  False.

34.  True.
35.  True.
36.  True.
37.  True.
38.  False.

39.  True.
40.  True.
41.  False.
42. True.
Cement bond and temperature, or
density log after casing installed
and cemented
Won't work after.
[146.12(e) (2)]

"Operated." What about stimulation?
What if. there is no USDW within 1/4 nile?
Makes no difference.
Unless packer not used, see
"sufficient frequency"

Reported with first regular quarterly
report after  completion.
May allow a compliance schedule,
for an existing well.
[122.44  (b)(l) and  (2)]
"permit  "