United States
                      Environmental Protection
                  Office Of Water
        EPA 840-N-97-001
        Winter 1997
                              A Bulletin on Sustaining Aquatic Ecosystems
in this Issue ...

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Page 2
        Watershed Events
                                                         Winter 1997
                  Pilot Center
In the past, efforts to meet the Clean
Water Act objective of "chemical,
physical, and biological integrity"
have focused primarily on chemical

However, as chemical pollution
levels have declined, it is becoming
evident that chemical criteria, alone,
are not always enough to protect the
biological community from the
impacts of factors such as sedimenta-
tion, eutrophication, and habitat
alteration. Therefore, EPA is
encouraging states and tribes to
develop biocriteria, in addition to
chemical criteria, as a more compre-
hensive strategy for protecting water

States and tribes have consistently
indicated that insufficient funds and
lack of technical assistance are the
main obstacles they face in develop-
ing biocriteria programs. EPA's
Biological Criteria program provides
grant funds to states and tribes for
developing biocriteria and produces
technical guidance manuals for each
surface water body type. Yet, there
remains a need for region-specific
technical assistance as states and
tribes use these tools to develop
biocriteria programs.

    Watershed  Events
To meet this need, EPA is initiating
a Pilot Technical Assistance Center
in Region III. The pilot center is a
prototype for similar centers to be
established in other EPA Regions.
The centers will bring together staff
specialists from federal agency field
offices with technical know-how
useful in developing and implement-
ing biocriteria programs. States and
tribes can then draw from the
expertise provided by the centers to
develop biocriteria programs and
address other environmental con-

Two projects have already been
incorporated in the pilot effort: a
watershed investigation on the
Chester River on Maryland's Eastern
Shore and a coastal marine project
investigating the effect of sewage
effluent on  marine organisms in
Ocean City, Maryland and Bethany
Beach, Delaware (See related  story
in From the Grassroots...).
      * A BulfeUn oo Sustaining Aquatic Ecosystem
                 Program —
  An Educational Program
     for Students in the
    Farming Community

Initiated in 1995, the Tennessee
Valley Authority's (TVA) Adopt-A-
Watershed Program is shaping a
strong partnership among watershed
committees, local, state, and federal
agencies, the local school system,
and individual landusers. Relying on
convincing research that proves best
management practices (BMPs) help
prevent nonpoint source pollution,
the program is exposing the next
generation of landowners to palat-
able doses of information through
classroom and field trip opportuni-

Partner agencies such as the Natural
Resources Conservation Service,
Resource Conservation and Develop-
ment, Evergreen and Holston River
Soil and Water Conservation Dis-
tricts, and others are working closely
with high school teachers and their
classes. Together, they map the
watershed, document land uses,
develop and sample a stream,
identify possible problems, and
develop and implement solutions  to
correct those problems.

Teachers involved in the program
attend a 40-hour workshop and
receive 3 hours of college teacher
recertification credit.  Students
involved in the program get "real-
life" learning experiences, the
opportunity to work with a variety of
resource professionals, and a $100
award (per school) from Monsanto
Company for planting green stripes
(filter strips that trap sediment,
nutrients, pesticides, etc.).  TVA is in
the process of acquiring a corporate
sponsor to award students for
implementing other clean water
initiatives. TVA is also looking to
incorporate California's Adopt-A-
Watershed school curriculum (grades
K-12) into its program.

With cost-share funds in southwest
Virginia dwindling, or possibly
being eliminated altogether, the need
for educating landusers is more
crucial than ever before.  TVA
believes that Adopt-A-Watershed
will instill a better understanding  of
conservation among the heirs of
farmland in Smyth and Washington
Counties, breaking the cycle of

Winter"! 997
        Watershed Events
traditional land use that adversely
affects water quality.  An equally
important objective is to demonstrate
the substantial  benefits of focusing
on watersheds and working with
communities. Because we cannot be
everywhere, we have learned that we
must partner with those who share
our concern for clean  water and
healthy ecosystems if we are to
achieve a sustainable environment
for generations to come.
                Assistance to
                 States (PAS)
 The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers'
 (Corps) Planning Assistance to
 States (PAS) Program, also known
 as the Section 22 Program, permits
 the Corps to use its technical plan-
 ning expertise to support state  and
 tribal efforts to undertake broad,
 statewide, comprehensive  water
 resources planning. Upon request,
 the Corps will cooperate with a state
 or tribe in the preparation of plans
 for the development, use, and
 conservation of water and  related
 land resources located within state or
 tribal boundaries.

 Assistance is provided within the
 limits  of available appropriations,
 but $300,000 is the  maximum
 amount available to any state or tribe
 annually. The program is cost-
 shared on a 50-50 basis, with the
 Corps  providing 50 percent of the
 funding and the state or tribe provid-
ing the other 50 percent. Typical
problems and opportunities studied
under this program include flood
damage reduction, water supply,
water conservation,  water quality,
hydropower, erosion, navigation, and
related environmental resources.
The program can also be used to
assist states and tribes in developing
or revising a State Water Plan.

To date, the Corps has assisted 47
states and 18 tribes through the PAS
program.  Studies vary in scope from
environmental investigations for an
individual site to comprehensive
watershed management studies. In a
recent PAS effort, the Gila River
Indian Reservation and the Corps'
Los Angeles District agreed to
conduct a comprehensive water
resources plan for the Gila River
watershed in Arizona. The study
will identify problems and opportu-
nities, assess existing conditions, and
develop and evaluate alternative
solutions in such areas as water
supply, water quality, flood control,
and fish and wildlife habitat.

State and tribal officials who are
interested in assistance for their
communities and who are  willing to
share the study costs should contact
the Corps District or Division
program  manager in their area.
Local Corps coordinators work with
states and tribes to compile requests.
Each Corps District accommodates
as many studies as possible within its
funding allotment.
              Restoring Fish
              and Wildlife in
             Chesapeake  Bay
In 1984, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife
Service's (Service) Chesapeake Bay
Coastal Ecosystem Program
(CBCEP) was established to protect
and restore living resources vital to
the ecological and economic health
of the nation's largest estuary.  It
was the first of 11 coastal ecosystem
programs established by the agency.
Through CBCEP, the Service works
with a variety of federal, state, and
local partners and private citizens to:
identify important fish and wildlife
populations; seek solutions to threats
facing these resources; protect,
restore, and enhance wildlife habitat;
and promote stewardship of fish and
wildlife resources through public

Since 1984, the Service has been a
major partner in the multi-agency
Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP)
headed by EPA.  As the lead federal
wildlife agency, the Service pro-
motes restoration of fish and wildlife
and their habitats. In this role, the
Service facilitated a multi-agency
effort to identify the habitat require-
ments necessary to maintain or
restore 31  Chesapeake Bay "indica-
tor" species, including submerged
aquatic vegetation,  shellfish, finfish,
waterfowl, colonial wading birds,
and raptors.

This information is being integrated
into a multi-million dollar CBP
effort, directed by the Service, to
restore wildlife habitat in the water-
shed (see related story in From the
Grassroots...). To date, hundreds of
acres of wetlands, forest, and up-
lands have been restored. Addition-
ally, hundreds of miles of fish
spawning habitat have been re-
opened and nutrient reductions
implemented by the CBP have
contributed to the restoration of
thousands of acres of submerged
aquatic vegetation.
                                                                               See FEATURE, page 4

 Page 4
        Watershed Events
                      Winter 1997
       FEATURE, from page 3
In addition to working with partners
outside of the agency, the CBCEP
recruits the expertise of other Service
programs to restore Chesapeake Bay
fish, wildlife, and habitat. Examples
include: restoring eroding shoreline
habitat at Blackwater, Eastern Neck,
and Barren Island National Wildlife
Refuges; working with Service
fishery offices in Maryland, Vir-
ginia, and Pennsylvania to restore
shad, sturgeon, and other anadro-
mous fish through stocking, tagging,
fish passage, and habitat restoration;
and working with the Service's
Partners for Wildbfe programs in
Maryland, Virginia, and Pennsylva-
nia to restore wetland and riparian
habitat on private lands.

The CBCEP also works with citizens
to promote landscaping techniques
that minimize nutrient loadings to
the Chesapeake Bay, while providing
wildlife habitat. The Bay Scapes
program, developed jointly with the
Alliance for the Chesapeake Bay,
encourages citizens to reduce the use
of chemical inputs through the use of
native  vegetation in the home

Finally, the CBCEP also interacts
with students through the Schoolyard
Habitat program, providing training
and technical assistance to teachers
and students for the creation of
woodlands, wetlands, and meadows
on school grounds. This "hands-on"
experience brings the Service's
effort full circle, training a new
generation of citizens to assume
responsibility for the stewardship of
the Chesapeake Bay watershed.
              NRCS Creates
                Science and
Natural resources conservation
planning is becoming increasingly
complex. This change is the result
of: increased knowledge about the
interrelationships between the
components of ecosystems, changes
in public expectations, greater
demands on natural resources, and
the emergence of self-initiated
community efforts  for natural
resource management on privately-
owned lands.

To ensure that it could meet the
growing, science-based information
needs of its clients, cooperators, and
partners despite government down-
sizing and restructuring, the Natural
Resources Conservation Service
created a Science and Technology
Consortium, made up of eight
institutes, five centers, five divisions,
a cadre  of cooperating scientists, and
a variety of external partners. The
Institutes, established in 1995-1996,
include: 1) Grazing Lands, 2)
Information Technology, 3) Natural
Resources Inventory and Analysis,
4) Social Sciences,  5) Soil Quality,
6) Watershed Science, 7) Wetland
Science, and 8) Wildlife Habitat.
Although each institute has its own
functional area, they are encouraged
to collaborate with each other, as
well as with other divisions of
NRCS, partnering agencies, and non-
governmental organizations.

The Watershed Science Institute
(WSSI) is of key interest to those
pursuing the watershed approach.
WSSI is comprised of a core of eight
agency scientists and specialists
from across the nation who combine
their diverse resource experience,
ecological knowledge, and engineer-
ing skills to prepare effective, field-
oriented, watershed management
procedures and tools. WSSI works to
accelerate the development of tech-
nology for understanding and treating
social, economic, and environmental
concerns within a watershed.

The primary audience for technology
from the institutes is NRCS field
office staff and each proposed project
is always evaluated for its relevance
to this constituency. In 1995-1996,
the WSSI collaborated in approxi-
mately 12 projects, including the
development of fact sheets for an
Interagency Stream Corridor Restora-
tion Handbook (scheduled for release
in late 1997), preparation of a guid-
ance document for using large woody
debris jams in the restoration of large
river systems (scheduled for release in
late 1997), and guidance documents
for managing riparian and wetland
buffers to improve water quality in
watersheds with intensive animal
production (scheduled for release in

The WSSI has also joined in a col-
laborative effort with EPA Region 10
and others to document the progress
of a community stewardship project
that will produce indicators for rapid
environmental  assessment (see related
story in From the Grassroots...).
               Efforts in the
              Western States
                                                                       The Bureau of Reclamation (Recla-
                                                                       mation) has 27 area offices that play

 Winter 1997
       Watershed Events
                           Page 5
 a significant role in funding restora-
 tion projects in the Western United

 Since 1994, Reclamation has jointly
 funded projects that promote the
 health of ecosystems of the Ameri-
 can West in partnership with the
 National Fish and Wildlife Founda-
 tion (NFWF).  Established by
 Congress in 1984, NFWF is a
 private, non-profit organization that
 works to foster the conservation of
 fish, wildlife, and plant resources
 through challenge grants.  To date,
 NFWF has funded 1,400 projects in
 all 50 states and 17 countries,
 providing more than $199 million
 for conservation.

 In 1996, Reclamation, in partner-
 ship with NFWF, provided
 $828,250 for  14 fish and wildlife
 restoration challenge grants in 11
 Western states, including one grant
 to a Native American tribe.  In
 addition, another $500,000 has been
 awarded for Spring Run and Chi-
 nook Salmon restoration activities
 in California.

 Reclamation and NFWF are work-
 ing to expand funding opportunities
 for the coming year. Reclamation
 received $1.3 million in its 1997
 budget to continue the challenge
 grants program in the West.  (For
 examples of projects funded by
 challenge grants, see related story in
 From the Grassroots...) States and
 tribes interested in accessing this
 funding should contact the Area
 Manger of  their local Reclamation
 field office to  discuss proposals.
 More information on Reclamation
 field offices is available on the
 Internet at URL=http://www.usbr.
gov. (otherwise see the contact box
at the end of the feature section).
              with STREAM
Approximately 43 percent of all
recreation on public lands in the
U.S. occurs in the National Forest
System.  Because many rivers and
streams flow through or have their
origins within national forests,
these recreational activities are
often water-based.  Congressional
mandates require the USDA Forest
Service to protect national forest
stream ecosystems and the public
benefits they provide.

In 1992, at the request of national
forest managers, a joint venture
between the National Forest
System and Forest  Service Re-
search created STREAM, the
Stream Systems Technology
Center.  Under STREAM, scientists
from the U.S. Forest Service work
in cooperation with scientists from
the Bureau of Land Management,
the U.S. Geological Survey, and 10
universities to help forest managers
identify and fulfill their aquatic
information needs.

Public policy issues involving
stream flows and the health of
aquatic ecosystems are complex
and necessitate presenting special-
ized technical information in ways
that are useful to managers, the
interested public, and others.
STREAM fulfills this need. The
technical information and profes-
sional know-how fostered by
STREAM are key tools in evaluat-
ing the cumulative effects of human
activities, such as land use changes
and diversions, on stream channels.
STREAM scientists share informa-
tion with more than 2,500 subscrib-
ers from within and outside the
Forest Service in a technical news-
letter called Stream Notes. In
addition, the STREAM publication
Stream Channel Reference Sites is
widely used by federal agencies,
state and local governments, and
private consultants to train people to
effectively measure the characteris-
tics of stream channels.

By working with the National Forest
System, STREAM scientists have
helped to evaluate, restore, and
protect the public benefits of rivers
and streams in our national forests.
For example,  STREAM helped the
California's Stanislaus National
Forest assess potential changes to
the Clevey River from a proposed
hydropower development. Scientists
from the Pacific Southwest Research
Station studied changes that oc-
curred in an adjacent stream, Cherry
Creek, following construction of an
upstream dam.  STREAM also
helped field teams develop studies to
determine  instream flows needed by
the public  in adjudications involving
the Snake  and Klamath Rivers.

Currently, STREAM is tracking
results of a channel restoration effort
being completed in connection with
a Federal Highway Administration
project in New Mexico's Cibola
National Forest.  The results of this
project will be used to  guide other
nonstructural channel restoration
efforts in ephemeral streams.  (See
related story on STREAM in From
the Grassroots...).
                                          See FEATURE, page 6

        Watershed Events
                   Winter 1997
      FEATURE, from page 5
                     NO KOT1E
  Educating Young People
         About Water

Recent studies show that people
believe protecting water resources
should be a national priority.  The
University of Wisconsin-Extension
has developed a series of educa-
tional materials to help communities
in their ongoing effort to educate
people about the importance of
protecting water resources.

Educating Young People About
Water is designed to help youth
educators create effective water
education programs by integrating
community water issues into
education. The publication series
includes three guides. Each guide
addresses a different aspect youth
water education:

1)  A Guide to Goals and Re-
    sources introduces over 100
    youth water curricula to help
    youth leaders find and select
    water education activities.

2)  A Guide to Program Planning
    and Evaluation summarizes
    ideas for successful program
    planning from over 40 program
    managers and provides check-
    lists to help design and evaluate

3) A Guide to Unique Program
    Strategies provides brief case
    studies of 37 water education
    programs taking place across
    the country in unique settings,
    such as after school clubs,
    summer programs, museums,
    nature centers, and festivals.

 The program also includes a 53-
 minute training video to assist
 trainers in teaching youth educators
 the concepts outlined in the guides.
 The video workshop offers a prime
 opportunity for youth educators to
 practice key skills for designing
 successful programs, linking water
 education programs to community
 issues, and managing and evaluat-
 ing local water education programs.

 These resources can benefit indi-
 viduals looking to  improve their
 personal skills in managing water
 education programs,  small planning
 groups trying to identify what their
 organization or partnership can
 accomplish, and local youth leaders
 and natural resource professionals
 working to develop or enhance
 community-based water programs.
 The guides and video are available
 as a set for $22.95  (including
 shipping). They can also be pur-
 chased individually for $5 per guide
 and $10.95 for the video/video
 guide (see the contact box at the end
 of the feature article for contact
These agencies are rising to meet
the challenge of better public
service. Whether encouraging
public involvement in determining
priorities or bringing the public the
information and technical services
they need, with each effort, these
agencies are taking another step
toward a truly holistic watershed
 f&tfft&m information on "&rfo$+
 fag &&v*m)mnt Closer to
 Cafit&cfc Slaughter*
 (202) 260-1737

 Carrnefl tarn*
 (423) 7S1-7312, or
 Darcie Soden
 (423) 632*8496
 C#s Adopi-A-Watershed;
(916) 628-S334

U,S, Army Corps
of Hngfoeers:
(202) 761-0169

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service:
Ka% Reshetiioff
(410) 57^4582

Carolyn Adams
Bureau of Reclamation;

(202) 208-S007

U.S. Forest Service:
Warren Harper,
(202) 205-1671
Douglas Ryan, or
(202) 205-1524
Larry J, Schmidt
(970) 498-1731

IMv. of Wisconsin Extension
(608) 262*0020

Winter 1997
       Watershed Events
   This feature describes statewide watershed protection approaches and projects. For more information on this
  feature, please contact Joel Salter at EPA's Office of Wastewater Management, 401 M St. SW, Rm 2104(B) MC
     4203,  Washington, DC 20460, (202) 260-6051, fax (202) 260-1460, e-mail: salter.joel@epamail.epa.gov.
    Alaska's Watershed
Approach — Encouraging
    Public Involvement

    Alaska has made considerable
    progress in the 17 months
since EPA Region 10 and the
Alaska Department of Environmen-
tal Conservation entered into a
partnership designed to facilitate the
state's transition to the watershed
approach.  Group consensus has
been reached on all of the major
decision topics and the state's
framework document is scheduled
for release this Fall.
Reaching outside the agency,
Alaska encourages stakeholders to
be involved as much as possible in
the design process. The state has
been highly successful in attracting
a diverse group of active partici-
pants to aid in the process; a group
of approximately 30 stakeholders
regularly attend monthly meetings.

The Core Workgroup's accomplish-
ments to date include the develop-
ment of (and, more importantly,
agreement on): a mission statement,
the content of watershed plans, a
cycle for carrying out activities
within each watershed, criteria for
targeting watersheds, and watershed
sequencing. The workgroup has
also developed an exhaustive
communication strategy and formed
sub-groups to work on statewide
GIS coordination and environmen-
tal indicators of success.
   Did You Know—About Filter Strips?
       Iowa State University
       msearch shows that 10-foot
           70 percent of the
       sediment from runolf flowing
   A recent revtewof pub-
   fished studies shows thai
   fitter strips of varying widths
   r&wov$ &R average of 43
   percent of the herbicides
   contained in field mnoft
   duririg both natural and
   simulated rainfalf,
The key features that shaped
Alaska's approach are its immense
geographic scale and its localized
ecological problems. Due to these
unique characteristics, it is not
necessary, or perhaps even possible,
to address every watershed state-
wide. Therefore, the framework has
a two-prong approach that targets
watersheds currently known to be a
problem, known as "ACTIVE"
watersheds, and performs a continu-
ous "DISCOVERY" on the lesser-
known watersheds.

The "ACTIVE" watersheds will
generally observe a five year
schedule and will follow a seven-
step watershed cycle:

1) Convene a watershed initiative
involving stakeholders;
2) Review and compile existing
information and define goals;
3) Identify issues;
4) Set priorities and targets;
5) Develop strategies;
6) Develop a watershed manage-
ment agreement; and
7) Implement the plan.

This cycle of activities may or may
not be repeated for a particular
watershed in years six and beyond.

The "DISCOVERY" phase takes a
hard look at each of the six major
                                                                         See APPROACH, page 8

       Watershed Events
                    Winter 1997
      APPROACH, from page 7

 hydrologic areas of the state to find
 new watersheds to include in the
 "ACTIVE" category. This phase
 observes a six year schedule in
 which one hydrologic region is
 examined at a time, although it is
 possible that "DISCOVERY" may
 occur in more than one region
 simultaneously.  Several steps of
 the watershed process will also be
 used for "DISCOVERY," such as
 convening stakeholders, gathering
 data, and strategic monitoring to a
 lesser degree.

 For more information, contact
 Gregory L. Kellogg at the Alaska
 Department of Environmental
 Conservation, (907) 269-7689.
    Arizona's Watershed
   Approach — A Unique
   Management Structure

    Since last May, the Arizona
    Department of Environmental
Quality (ADEQ) has been develop-
ing a framework for managing
water quality on a watershed basis.
Watershed Advisory Committees
made up of representatives from
federal, state, and local agencies,
municipalities, tribes, and landown-
ers/residents determined the goals,
 objectives, needs, and products of
 the state's watershed approach. The
 approach focuses on the following

 •   Empowering local communities
    to set priorities;

 •   Encouraging fair and equitable
    actions through public involve-

 •   Coordinating environmental
    planning and implementation
    with other agencies;

 •   Aligning ADEQ resources to
    achieve more efficient, effec-
    tive, and responsive customer

 •   Providing a sound technical
    basis to support environmental
    decisions; and

 •   Providing a forum to foster
    continuous evaluation and
    improvement of environmental
    programs and regulations.

 The watershed approach divides the
 state into 10 Watershed Manage-
 ment Zones.  In each zone, an
 internal  ADEQ Watershed Manage-
 ment Zone Team works closely
 with the Watershed Advisory
 Committee. The ADEQ team
 reports its zone's needs to the State
 Watershed Coordinator, who then
 relays them to the ADEQ Section
 "round table."  The "round table,"
 made up of representatives from
each of ADEQ's eight sections,
determines assignments and alloca-
tions based on the reported informa-
tion. A unique feature of Arizona's
watershed approach, this organiza-
tional structure has proven success-

Arizona's draft Watershed Frame-
work document guides regional
watershed planning in each of the
ten zones according to a six-step

1) Stakeholder Outreach
2) Collect and Evaluate
3) List and Target Concerns;
4) Develop Management Strategies
and Measures of Success;
5) Compile the Watershed Plan; and
6) Implement and Evaluate the
Watershed Plan;

Watershed planning will rotate
among each of the state's 10 zones
on a five year cycle, with at least
one iteration scheduled to be
completed in each zone by the year
2000. Arizona's final framework
document is scheduled for release
this Fall.

For more information, contact Carol
Aby, (602) 207-4601, or John
Hathaway, (602) 207-4219, at the
Arizona Department of Environ-
mental Quality.
    "Qvr future will be
    deeply compro-
    mised unless we
    learn to manage
    water as n critical
    ingredient of our

Winter 1997
        Watershed Events
                           Page 9
 Whole Basin Management
  in Delaware - Developing
   Intr a-Agency Harmony

      Delaware's Whole Basin
      Management strategy is
 designed to break down the barriers
 between the divisions in the Depart-
 ment of Natural Resources and
 Environmental Control. The
 strategy recognizes that, although
 the}' have different focus areas, the
 divisions - Air and Waste Manage-
 ment, Fish and Wildlife, Parks and
 Recreation, Soil and Water Conser-
 vation, and Water Resources - share
 common  ground.

 Delaware's approach is to monitor,
 assess, and manage all the biologi-
 cal, chemical, and physical environ-
 ments of geographic areas through-
 out the state that are defined on the
 basis of drainage patterns.  Accord-
 ing to Stephen N. Williams,
 Delaware's Whole Basin Coordina-
 tor, "This means evaluating the
 environment in a holistic, multi-
 disciplinary manner in which
 resources from within and outside
 the department focus on issues and
 solve problems together."

 "The goal is to create a road map
 for an ongoing process that will
encourage all the players in a basin/
ecosystem to cooperate in the
management of natural resources
and to help in the coordination of
activities to protect and rehabilitate
those ecosystems," Williams says.
"The primary objectives are to
improve communication between
programs, get maximum mileage out
of sometimes limited resources,
promote public outreach and interac-
tion, and integrate efforts with other
agencies, the private sector, and  the

The department is applying the
approach to their first basin, the
Piedmont, comprised of the six
northernmost watersheds in the state.
A basin team, consisting of technical
and managerial staff members from
each division has been formed to
carry out the  five-year, eight-phase
plan.  The phases begin with plan-
ning and continue through prelimi-
nary assessment, monitoring, analy-
sis of the problems and issues,
development of management and
resource protection strategies, and,
finally,  implementation of the plan.
The public will be involved through-
out the process  and people will have
the opportunity to express their ideas
and opinions  about both environmen-
tal problems and how they want  the
environment  to look.

The Piedmont Team, currently in the
preliminary assessment phase, is
gathering data and information based
upon mediums, such as land use,
sediment, surface water, water
quantity, living  resources, air, soils,
wetlands, and contaminant sources.
Subgroups have been organized for
each medium to unite individuals
from different divisions with a
common interest. The subgroups
will be identifying data gaps, making
recommendations, and prioritizing
While the Piedmont Team has only
been active for the past seven
months, the participants have
already found the experience to be
very rewarding.  Team members
believe the approach provides for a
more direct focus on protecting
natural resources and pulls together
all of the right "pieces" to create the
"big picture."  Another immediate
benefit is the data and information
sharing which is taking place
between divisions. This process has
identified the need for the depart-
ment to link divisional databases
and dedicate more resources to
database/GIS management.

For more information, contact
Stephen N. Williams, Delaware
Department of Natural Resources
and Environmental Control, (302)
      SRF Funding Framework

    The State Revolving Fund (SRF)
    Branch will be hosting 5 Regional
    SRF Funding Framework
    workshops this Spring.  These
    workshops should provide very
    useful information on how to
    support watershed projects
    through the SRF.  The workshops
    will be most successful  if they
    have a good mix of program and
    SRF staff in attendance! Online
    registration is available  through
    the University of Maryland
    Environmental Finance  Center at:
    http://www.mdsg. umd.edu/mdsg/
    envifin/srf.  For more information
    contact Andy Kurtzman at (301)
    405-6384 or Kong Chiu at (202)

    March 19-20      Portland, OR
    March 26-27      Austin, TX
    March 31-Aprl    Charleston, SC
    April 9-10        Ann Arbor, MI
    April 16-17       Boston. MA

       Watershed Events
                                                      Winter 1997
              ceature describes state watershed projects and the lessons states have learned through their
                             watershed efforts.  We welcome your submissions.
This past July, New York Governor
PataM signed a bill establishing a
statewide pesticide registry and a
pesticide water-quality monitoring
program. Known as the Breast
Cancer Bill, the law is designed to
help determine the links, if any,
between breast cancer and pesti-

The law directs the New York State
Department of Environmental
Conservation (NYSDEC) to estab-
lish a water-quality monitoring
program for pesticides in coopera-
tion with USGS and others (includ-
ing the New York State Water
Resources Institute). If imple-
mented, this monitoring program
will fall under the Federal-State
Cooperative Program between the
USGS and New York State agen-

USGS is already sharing data on the
occurrence  and distribution of
commonly used pesticides in ground
water and surface water with the
NYSDEC under the USGS Hudson
River Basin National Water Quality

    Watershed  Events
Assessment (NAWQA) project.
According to the NYSDEC, this
information is essential for evaluat-
ing pesticide management policies
and practices in New York State.

For more information, contact L.
Grady Moore, USGS District Chief,
                Partners  Go
                 to Work in
               West Virginia
A new grant program in West
Virginia will restore and protect the
state's rivers and watersheds
through local action.

The Stream Partners Program will
provide up to 20 community
organizations with the opportunity
to obtain $5,000 grants. The
$5,000 grants, matched by dona-
tions and in-kind services, will
provide support for community
watershed projects.

"Local residents, throughout the
state, say they want a greater role in
determining how rivers and streams
are protected and restored," accord-
ing to Roger Harrison, Executive
Director of the West Virginia
Rivers Coalition.  "The Stream
Partners Program would allow ideas
to 'perk-up' from the local level
instead of the...traditional top-down
state and federal approaches to
water quality improvement."

To qualify for the grants, groups
must be broad-based and include
representatives  from industry,
environmental groups, agriculture,
local government, tourism, recre-
ation, and education. Sixty-six
groups  applied  for funding in 1996.

One local organization, the Davis
Creek Watershed Association, is
seeking a Stream Partners grant to
support restoration of the
watershed's once abundant small-
mouth bass fishery, which has
declined from years of stream
degradation and illegal dumping.

Members of the local community
have organized and adopted the
stream  in hopes of restoring it. As
Diana Green, a local landowner and
member of the Davis Creek Water-
shed Association, explains, "Stream
Partners...is a golden opportunity for
groups  like ours who have a lot of
motivation and people power but
lack financial resources."

For more information, contact Pam
Moe-Merritt at the West Virginia
Rivers  Coalition, (304) 472-0025.
      * A Bu]]«io on Sustaining Aqualk

     Winter 1997
       Watershed Events
                        Page 11
      Building Partnerships for
              Clean Water
           in Massachusetts

     In Massachusetts, the Partnerships
     for Clean Water program is uniting
     conservation districts, watershed
     associations, the Massachusetts
     Watershed Coalition, the Natural
     Resources Conservation Service,
     and other partners to help communi-
     ties protect and restore local water-
     ways. Primarily an education
     campaign aimed at municipal
     boards and residents, the Partner-
     ships pilot project focuses the
     expertise of these partners on
     addressing the impacts of polluted
     runoff on rivers and streams.

     As a first step, the pilot project
     conducted a survey of local boards
     to identify their information needs.
     Feedback from the survey is being
     used to publish a monthly bulletin
     for municipal officials showcasing
     the nonpoint source Best Manage-
     ment Practices (BMPs) available for
     addressing polluted runoff.

     The survey was also used to design
     a series of workshops to promote
     the benefits of BMPs. These
     workshops were tailored to the
     concerns of each individual munici-
     pal board, including Conservation
     Commissions, Planning Boards,
     Boards of Health, and Departments
     of Public Works.

     The pilot project also raised aware-
     ness of how people can get involved
     in watershed protection by conduct-
     ing a "Best and Worst Streams Poll"
     that identified problems and re-
     cruited people interested in lending
     a hand. The project is organizing
     and training volunteer stream teams
to survey and monitor local streams.
Technical expertise and funding
from local, state, and federal
partners will then be targeted to
resolve problems identified by the

In addition to restoring waterways
in central Massachusetts, the
Partnerships pilot will serve as a
model for the establishment of other
clean water partnerships across the

For more information, contact Ed
Himlan at the Massachusetts
Watershed  Coalition, (508) 534-
    Tennessee and Ohio
 Water Parks Offer Unique
 Watershed "Experience"

Visitors to Mud Island in Memphis,
Tennessee have an unique opportu-
nity to experience the Mississippi
River watershed. They can
traverse, or swim, River Walk, a
five-block scale replica of the lower
1,000-mile span of the Mississippi

Each 30-inch stride of River Walk
represents an actual mile of the
river.  Eight hundred gallons of
water flow through the model each
minute, which empties into a 1.3
million gallon replica of the Gulf of

A similar experience  awaits visitors
to a Cincinnati, Ohio. The city has
incorporated a scale model of the
Ohio River, similar to the Missis-
sippi model, in its new riverfront
Other cities could easily replicate
these efforts by constructing scale
models of their local watersheds.
By doing so, they will be creating
an invaluable tool for watershed
education and a refreshing experi-
ence for visitors seeking relief from
the summer heat.

For more information on Mud
Island's River Walk, call 1(800)
   American Wetlands
   Month '97—
   Photo Contest
                                          lorida Wetlandsbank,
   Institute are sponsoring a
   wetlands photo contest to
   celebrate American Wetlands
   Month, The winning photo
   will become the American
   Wetlands Month '97 poster
   and will N provided to
   attendees at the May 7-&,
   American Wettend& Month
   Celebration: Communities
   Working for Wetlands confer-
   ence in Ate^ttdfte, Virginia.
   The winning photographer will
   also fa Ignored 61 Ihfc

   To enter, you must submit a
   photo (black and white or
   color, S" x T or fc" x 10") of &
  accompanied by a completed
  entry form, For more informs
  tion and an entry form,
  contact the Terrene institute:
  (709) $49-5473 phOrte, (703)
  648*62$$ fax, terrene® grin,

Page 12
        Watershed Events
                                                        Winter 1997
         1996 farm Bill *
      Enhancing Public

      The 1996 Farm 8i*s
      providing new opporturti-
  .lies for pufcdic jrwoJvernent In
  and conservation areas. The
  Conservation and Wetlands
  Reserve Ptograt8at,«r«
  rswJhQraed through 2QQ&
  with MP to 3&4 miliior* sera*
  and ^?S,,000 acres, raspec*
  anyone time, In addition,
  $200 million wftl be avaitebfe
  annually to help agricultural
  proetuoers establssrt oonserva-
  &** practice* yrwter tfra
  Environmental Quality )nc&tv
  Oves Program,

  The Slate Technical Commit
  tees will advise their USOA-
  NBCS State Conservationist in
  designating prk>ries>  This
  $irti»$ th$ State T
  your USDA/NRGS State
  Cons^rvationistv A Ibt Is
  available or> the Internet at
  your local NRCS I tefel offic«>
                                                 FROM THE TRIBES ...
    The Northwest Indian
   Fisheries Commission

   Indian tribes have always lived in
   every major watershed in Wash-
ington State.  Tribal cultures, spiritu-
ality, and economies have centered
on fishing, hunting, and gathering
the natural resources of the region.
Today, tribes in nearly all of the
state's major river basins are con-
cerned with watershed management
programs and the key role these
programs play in protecting their
resources — especially their salmon

In 1974, the treaty Indian tribes in
western Washington created the
Northwest Indian Fisheries Commis-
sion. The commission was estab-
lished as the result of litigation (U.S.
v.  Washington) that affirmed tribal
fishing rights reserved in treaties
with the federal government in the

The commission assists tribes in
conducting orderly and biologically
sound fisheries and provides the
tribes with a single, unified voice on
fisheries management and conserva-
tion issues. Currently, member
tribes of the commission include the:
Nisqually, Squaxin Island, Puyallup,
Jamestown S'Klallam, Port Gamble
S'Klallam, Elwha Klallam,
Skokomish, Swinomish, Sauk-
Suiattle, Upper Skagit, Tulalip,
Makah, Stillaguamish, Muckleshoot,
Suquamish, Nooksack, Lummi,
Quinault, and Quileute.

      Watershed Management

     As co-managers of the fisheries,
     the tribes recognize that the
fisheries are a basic, but important,
natural resource and that conserving
them requires effective and progres-
sive management. The tribes believe
that a unified effort can best accom-
plish this goal, for their benefit and
the benefit of all the people of the
Pacific Northwest.

To this end, the tribes have under-
taken several cooperative initiatives
focused on integrated resource
management, habitat conservation,
hatchery management, and harvest
management.  Tribal activities and
accomplishments to date include the

•    In 1985, the United States and
    Canada signed the Pacific Salmon
    Treaty. The result of a joint effort
    among tribes, state government,
    sport and commercial fishing
    groups, and federal fisheries
    officials, the treaty established a
    mechanism for cooperative
    salmon management, protection,
    sharing, and restoration. Fisheries
    research is an integral part of the
    treaty and tribes conduct exten-
    sive data collection and monitor-
    ing to manage salmon fisheries in
    accordance with the treaty's

Winter 1997
        Watershed Events
                         Page 13
    In 1986, the tribes, in coopera-
    tion with the Department of
    Fish and Wildlife, developed a
    system of watershed planning to
    enhance salmon fisheries on a
    watershed basis. The tribes and
    the state solicited public com-
    ments, held hearings, and
    developed sub-regional work
    teams that identified goals,
    objectives, problems, and
    opportunities for each water-
    shed. The effort has since
    produced Comprehensive
    Resource Production and
    Management Plans for several

    Also in 1986, tribes, state
    agencies, environmental groups,
    and private timber owners
    developed the Timber/Fish/
    Wildlife (TFW) Agreement to
    protect streams and watersheds
    from the impacts of logging.
    TFW created a cooperative
    process for identifying and
    applying best management
    practices to timber harvesting

    Under the Chelan Agreement of
    1990, tribes, state agencies,
    environmental groups, agricul-
    turalists, counties, cities, and
    other water users are pursuing
    cooperative approaches for
    protecting and enhancing water
    resources. Demonstration
    projects in the Methow River
    and the Dungeness River
    watersheds are testing coopera-
   tive approaches for addressing
    water issues while avoiding
   costly litigation.

   In 1992, the tribes and the
   Department of Fish and Wild-
    life completed the Washington
    State Salmon and Steelhead
    Stock Inventory as the first step
    in the Wild Stock Restoration
    Initiative.  Part of an effort to
    restore Washington's depressed
    salmon and steelhead runs, the
    inventory provides a standard-
    ized approach for annual
    monitoring of salmon and
    steelhead stocks and lays the
    foundation for the restoration

 In addition to these achievements,
 the tribes are also implementing the
 watershed-based Coordinated
 Tribal Water Quality Program.
 The program provides the tribes
 with a mechanism for addressing
 water quality issues on and off the
 reservation that are critical to their
 economic, spiritual, and cultural
 survival. By working with local,
 state, and federal governments, the
 program has been able to transcend
 jurisdictional boundaries, making
 efficient use of limited financial
 and professional resources.

 Most recently, the tribes, the
 Department of Ecology, and EPA
 Region  10 developed a draft
 cooperative agreement for the co-
 management of environmental
 programs, in particular the Clean
 Water Act section 303(d) impaired
 waters listing process, including the
 prioritization of total maximum
 daily load (TMDL) studies. The
 initiative aims to build consensus
 for identifying problems, imple-
 menting solutions, avoiding litiga-
 tion, and coordinating tribal, state,
 and federal watershed management
 activities over time.

For more information, contact Fran
Wilshusen of the Commission's
Water Quality Program, (360) 438-
1180, e-mail: fwilshus@nwifc.wa.
gov; Paul Kraman of the
Commission's 303(d) Program,
(360) 438-1180, e-mail:
pkraman@nwifc.wa.gov; or Chris
Maynard with the Washington
Department of Ecology 303(d)
Program, (360) 407-6484, e-mail:
cmay461 @ecy.wa.gov.
   Conference Schedule:

   March 6-8, 1997
   Building Watershed Partner*
   shtps In the Southeast,
   Chattanooga, IN. Contact
   Don Andttttft, S£ HALMS
   Regional Director,
   7329, .Is-
          9, 1997
   Tools for Drinking Water
   Protection Satellite Presen-
   tatlorL Contact the PBS
   Customer Support Center,
  .1000^57-2578, internet;
   May 1 j 997
   Community Vfeter
   tion for Youth: Focus on
   Watersheds Satellite
   Videoconference, 12:45-3:00
   PttCOT,  This vtdeo-confer-
   ene© incorporates th<& Educat-
  the feature article. For more
  tafermiMiofi, 0r to offer a site,
  call (888) WATERWf (toil-
  free), Internet;

Page 14
       Watershed Events
                                                       Winter 1997
                           FROM THE GRASSROOTS  ...

           This feature describes local watershed protection projects and the lessons localities have
        learned through their watershed efforts.  We need your input.  Please send your submissions to
                                          John Pai, Editor.
                 EPA's Pilot
    Center — Working to
     Promote Biocriteria

EPA's Pilot Technical Assistance
Center in Region III (see feature
article this issue) is already helping
establish biocriteria programs, both
inland and on the shore.

In the Chester River Project, the
pilot center is applying biocriteria to
define the effect of nonpoint source
nutrient loadings on water quality.
Since 1994, Maryland DNR has
collected water, sediment, and
biological samples in the agricul-
tural and municipal watershed.  The
National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration's (NO A A) Coopera-
tive Laboratory in Oxford, Mary-
land and EPA's Central Regional
Laboratory in Annapolis, Maryland
are assisting in the effort by analyz-
ing the samples for parameters such
as nitrogen, phosphorus, dissolved
oxygen, and benthic invertebrates.

Already, a parallel has been ob-
served between high nitrogen and
phosphorus in the agricultural
headwaters of the Chester River and
diminishing diversity of benthic
invertebrates. In the future, the
project will establish biological
reference conditions for the upper
and middle Chester River using data
from other rivers in the region and
will explore water resource condi-
tions of streams entering the river.
Ultimately, the project is intended
to produce a land use management
approach for consideration by state
and local governments.

The pilot center is also surveying a
nine station segment along the
Atlantic Coast from above Bethany
Beach, Delaware to below Ocean
City, Maryland. Three years of data
collection have revealed measurable
impacts on the benthic macro-
invertebrate community at the
sewage outfall discharge sites of
both of these ocean resort cities.

The project has generated interest
from a number of sources: EPA
Region III will use the project's
findings to assist them in their
NPDES (National Pollution Dis-
charge Elimination System) permit
evaluations; the U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service is following the
project because the U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers is assessing the
possibility of establishing a beach
replenishment program in the area;
NOAA biologists are looking to
gain scientific information from the
project; and staff at the EPA Re-
gional lab will use the sampling
sites and samples to improve their
analytical proficiency.

For more information, contact
George Gibson, (410) 573-2618,
e-mail: gibson.george@epa.gov.
            Grassland Birds
               Benefit from
            Chesapeake Bay
The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
(Service) has taken the lead in
coordinating federal efforts to help
the U.S. Naval Academy (Naval
Academy) restore wildlife habitat at
the Greenbury Point Naval commu-
nications facility. A 231-acre
peninsula in the lower Severn River
and the Chesapeake Bay in Mary-
land, Greenbury Point provides
critical open space and habitat for
the Annapolis area.

In June, the Service coordinated a
20-acre grassland restoration project
at Greenbury Point. Along with
biologists from Maryland's Depart-
ment of Natural Resources, the
Service designed the grassland
restoration project, provided some
native seed material, and donated a
warm-season grass drill for the
effort, as well as a technician  to
carry out the planting.  The Naval
Academy purchased native warm
season grass seed, as well as seed
for native wildflowers, and mowed
and sprayed the non-native turf
grasses in the  restoration area.

Recent data compiled by the
National Biological Service indi-
cates that several grassland bird
species, including the field, vesper,
and grasshopper sparrows; the
eastern meadowlark; and the

Winter 1997
       Watershed Events
                        Page 15
Northern bobwhite are declining in
Maryland and the Northeast.
Restoration of the grasslands on
Greenbury Point is expected to
benefit breeding populations of
these birds.  In addition, warm
season grasses provide habitat and
forage for a variety of small mam-
mal species.

The Naval Academy is also incor-
porating a variety of other habitat
restoration initiatives into its facility
resources management plan, such as
mounting osprey nesting platforms,
wildlife food plantings, other warm-
season grassland restorations, and
managing several small impound-
ments as sanctuaries for waterfowl.
The Naval Academy consults with
EPA's Chesapeake Bay Program
(CBP) Federal Agencies Commit-
tee, of which the Service is a
member, to obtain technical and
financial assistance for these
projects. In the future, CBP part-
ners will continue to explore habitat
restoration opportunities at
Greenbury Point and other Depart-
ment of Defense facilities.

For more information, contact
Laura Mitchell at the U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service, (410) 573-4531.
            The Watershed
               Institute —
         Sharing Watershed
         Planning Tools
The Natural Resources Conserva-
tion Service's (NRCS) Watershed
Science Institute (WSSI) is assisting
in two watershed assessment and
management projects sponsored by
EPA Region 10 and the Portland
Area Metro Regional Government
in Oregon's Clackamas River

The first project, the Metro
Clackamas River Watershed
Project, is compiling existing data
on the watershed into a Geographic
Information System, identifying a
rapid assessment methodology for
use in selected sub-basins, and
identifying current citizen steward-
ship  activities in the watershed.
The second project, Evaluating the
Effects of Ecosystem Protection, is
supporting the development of
indicators for rapid environmental
assessment to aid community-based
organizations in establishing
environmental benchmarks. These
benchmarks will be useful in
evaluating the effects of land use
management and environmental
protection on watershed health.

The WSSI is supporting these
projects through The Center for
Urban Water Resources Manage-
ment at the University of Washing-
ton.  On behalf of the WSSI, the
Center will review, integrate,
evaluate, and summarize the two
projects into a working guidance
document on establishing and using
environmental benchmarks for
community-based approaches to
watershed management. Once
prepared, the guidance document
will be distributed to all NRCS field
offices to assist NRCS staff work-
ing with suburban and urban clients
on watershed scale resource conser-
vation.   The guidance document is
scheduled to be released in October

For more information, contact
Rosemary Furfey, Senior Regional
Planner, Portland Area Metro
Regional Government, (503) 797-
1726, or Carolyn Adams, Director
of the Watershed Science Institute,
(206) 616-5724, e-mail:
              A Partnership
     Ecosystem Health

Since 1994, the Bureau of Reclama-
tion has teamed with the National
Fish and Wildlife Foundation to
fund state and tribal projects that
promote ecosystem health in the
American West. The following are
some of the projects funded by the
partnership this year:

•  Hungry Horse Fish Passage,
   Montana — The Forest Service
    will use a $72,000 challenge
    grant and matching funds to
   replace culverts for fish passage
   on Felix and Harris creeks in
   Montana's Flathead National
   Forest.  The culverts will
   reconnect spawning habitat on
    11 miles of stream, lost due to
   road construction associated
   with the construction of the
   Hungry Horse Dam in 1953.
   Contact Robert Christensen,
    (208) 378-5039.

•  Hackberry Flat Wetland
   Restoration, Oklahoma — The
    Oklahoma Department of
   Wildlife Conservation will
    work with public and private
    partners to restore 3,750 acres
    of wetlands in southwestern
    Oklahoma. The project will use

    See GRASSROOTS, page 16

Page 16
                                Watershed Events
                                                                                Winter 1997
   ^RASSROOTS, from page 15

    a $30,000 challenge grant to
    construct water control structures
    and revegetate upland areas with
    native plants and grasses,
    improving habitat for migratory
    waterfowl and shorebirds.
    Contact Jerry Jacobs, (406) 247-

    Muddy Creek Watershed Resto-
    ration, Montana — The Cascade
    County Conservation District
    will work with the Muddy Creek
    Task Force, the Greenfields
    Irrigation District, and Reclama-
    tion to apply a $41,000 challenge
    grant to promote instream
    restoration.  The project is part
    of a watershed restoration plan to
    improve water quality in the Sun
    and Missouri rivers. Contact
    Jerry Jacobs, (406) 247-7718.

    Asaayi Lake Habitat Restoration,
    New Mexico/Navajo Reservation
    — The Navajo Nation Depart-
    ment of Water Resources will
    use a $50,000 challenge grant to
    benefit native fisheries by
    planting and fencing 40 acres of
    riparian habitat.  Contact Will-
    iam Rinne, (702) 293-8709.
 USGS Goes to
   Work on the
River of Promise
The U.S. Geological Survey
(USGS) is a signatory agency of the
"River of Promise," a cooperative
initiative aimed at restoring West
Virginia's Cheat River Watershed.
The River of Promise partnership
works to facilitate and coordinate
citizen groups, university research-
ers, the coal industry, corporations,
the environmental community, and
local, state, and federal government
agencies for environmental restora-
tion in the watershed. In addition to
USGS and the U.S. Office of
Surface Mining (both bureaus of the
U.S.  Department of the Interior),
task force members include the
West Virginia Rivers Coalition,
Friends of the Cheat, West Virginia
state agencies, EPA,  Trout Unlim-
ited,  the Preston County Commis-
sion, and Anker Energy (a local
coal company).

American Rivers named the Cheat,
severely polluted by acid mine
drainage from abandoned mines,
one of the 20 most threatened rivers
of 1996. The continuing legacy of
this pollution has been the loss of
fish and wildlife, aesthetic damage,
degraded drinking water, and the
loss of millions of dollars annually
in the local economy from dimin-
ished recreational activities, such as
fishing, boating, and  white-water

Although eliminating acid drainage
is now a federal government
priority, the problem is so wide-
spread and costly to solve that it can
only  be addressed through public
and private partnerships. The River
of Promise initiative  has heightened
public awareness and has already
made significant progress in the

In the past year, the partnership
initiated acid pollution mitigation
projects in several Cheat tributaries
and began a comprehensive water-
shed assessment to aid in prioritiz-
                                                            ing restoration efforts.  Members of
                                                            the task force have also developed a
                                                            watershed approach for monitoring,
                                                            evaluating, and remediating acid mine
                                                            drainage within the lower reaches of
                                                            the Cheat River. In addition, the West
                                                            Virginia Department of Environmen-
                                                            tal Protection, USGS, and EPA will
                                                            each participate in monitoring in the
                                                            watershed. The water quality data
                                                            collected by USGS will serve dual
                                                            purposes, meeting the needs of the
                                                            River of Promise initiative and
                                                            providing data for USGS's National
                                                            Water-Quality Assessment
                                                            (NAWQA) Program on the Allegh-
                                                            eny-Monongahela River Basin.

                                                            For more information, contact David
                                                            P. Brown, USGS West Virginia, (304)
                                                            347-6131, e-mail: dbrown@usgs.gov.
    The Upper Arkansas
    Watershed Council -
     A Common Sense

The Upper Arkansas River basin is
no stranger to water-related con-
flicts. Historically, disputes re-
volved around water quantity.
Today, concerns for water quality,
fish, recreation, wetland areas, and
related natural resources reflect the
needs of a growing and changing

A new  organization, The Upper
Arkansas Watershed Council, is
working to reduce conflict and
address these needs by improving
communication among diverse
water-related interests in the basin.
As Jeff Keidel, the council's
coordinator,  explains, "We recog-
nize that when we sit down and
discuss our needs - not our posi-

 Winter 1997
        Watershed Events
                        Page 17
 tions - there may be opportunities
 for good things to happen." It is an
 approach that is working for the 24
 member organizations of the

 One of the council's early successes
 was a meeting of downstream water
 users and upstream businesses
 regarding the May Caddisfly
 Festival celebrated in Chaffee and
 Fremont counties. Last year, water
 releases from upstream reservoirs
 were needed to overcome early
 drought conditions on the Eastern
 Plans.  These elevated river flows
 ruined the famed caddisfly "hatch"
 and interrupted angling.  By under-
 standing each other's needs, the
 participants agreed to keep river
 flows low during the hatch, when-
 ever possible, without impacting
 water rights.

 At the council's first meeting, Lake
 County rancher Bernard Smith laid
 out the common sense approach -
 "If I don't drink coffee with you,
 how am I ever going to know your
 needs? How are you ever going to
 know my needs? They might be
 remarkably similar."

 For more information, contact
 Jeffrey Keidel, Upper Arkansas
 Watershed Coordinator, (719) 395-
  Pursuing the Watershed
     Approach in Bucks
   County, Pennsylvania

Elected officials, township manag-
ers, environmental groups, and
industry representatives participated
in a two-day workshop in
Doylestown, Pennsylvania in
 September to review the success of
 past watershed efforts and to exam-
 ine future watershed challenges. The
 group explored how to balance
 economic development with open
 space, maintain agricultural needs,
 and promote a healthy environment
 as Bucks County enters the 21st

 The workshop kicked-off with a
 history of efforts to protect valuable
 natural resources and support eco-
 nomic prosperity, followed by a
 panel discussion of critical issues of
 concern in Bucks County. Following
 this organizational session, state
 representatives discussed the current
 and proposed legislation that will be
 used to address some of the issues
 and speakers presented case studies
 on various watershed management

 Workshop participants also played a
 role, dividing into groups to address
 four critical areas of concern:  1)
 education, 2) stormwater manage-
 ment, 3) groundwater/surface  water
 issues, and 4) agriculture/urban
 interface issues. Each breakout
 group addressed the following
 questions: What are the critical
 short-term needs?;  How will these
 needs be financed?; What are the
 technical challenges?; and What are
 the hurdles that need to be over-
 come? The groups then reconvened
 to share their findings.

 In the final session, representatives
 from federal, state, and local govern-
 ments, environmental groups,  and
 industry joined in a panel discussion
to present "tool boxes" available for
 addressing or supporting the issues
identified in the breakout sessions.
 As a follow-up action, the Bucks
County Commission has requested a
report card from the workshop
steering committee.

EPA, the Bucks County Planning
Commission, and the Bucks County
Conservation District sponsored the
workshop in conjunction with several
other state and local organizations. A
similar workshop is being planned for
Montgomery County, Pennsylvania
in the near future.

For more information, contact Hank
Zygmunt, EPA Region 3, (215) 566-
     Videos Available

      Cornell University has
      several Watershed *96
  videos av«!fafate, including:

  Watershed *0 Of) foe Air (1 ttf
  mfrwtesft&&6} — An edited
  veraion of the final plenary
  session of the Watershed '86
  conference, this video a fU; Milwau-
 kee River, Wfc henry's Fork, ID;
 and £dwa«fs Aquifer/Sea?
 ttoaek, TX ($34 for all four on
 one tape or $19.95 each for
 individual project videos),

 Contact th& Cornell University
 Resource Center* (607) 256-
 2090, *H*iat);

Page 18
       Watershed Events
                                                       Winter 1997
                                INDUSTRY INITIATIVES

   Many industries and industrial associations have participated in the watershed approach at different levels, in
  different capacities.  The following are a few examples.  We encourage their continued involvement and welcome
                                     their submissions to this feature.
      PG&E Invests in
  Upstream Water Quality

     California's Feather Creek
     watershed is a prime example
of how investing in upstream water
quality can bring downstream
returns.  The Natural Resources
Conservation Service estimates that,
each year, 1.1 million tons of
eroded soil travel down the Feather
River to Pacific Gas and Electric's
(PG&E) Rock Creek Reservoir.

Sedimentation from this erosion has
already reduced the storage capacity
of the electric utility's Rock Creek
and Cresta Reservoirs by 46 and 56
percent respectively. This loss
affects not only PG&E, but the
600,000 electrical power consumers
served by the reservoirs and the 20
million water consumers that rely
on them for a quarter of their water

In order to protect its reservoirs,
PG&E turned its attention upstream,
initiating a series of meetings with
the government agencies respon-
sible for controlling erosion up-
stream of the dams. In 1985, the
agencies organized into the Feather
River Coordinated Resource
Management (CRM) group and
signed a Memorandum of Under-
standing that established goals and
guidelines  for conducting projects
in the watershed.
To date, the Feather River CRM has
completed 40 watershed projects.
For its part, PG&E has invested
$1.1 million towards the effort,
anticipating that, in return, sediment
deposits in the reservoirs will
decrease by as much as 50 percent
over time.

Contact Leah Wills, Feather River
CRM Coordinator, (916) 283-3739.
 Golf and the Environment
    Consortium Charts
 Sustainable Future for the
   Nation's Golf Courses

    The Golf and the Environment
    Consortium, a partnership of
 approximately 25 golf, environmen-
 tal, and government representatives,
 recently released a set of national
 principles focusing on environmen-
 tal considerations associated with
 golf course planning, siting, con-
 struction, operation, and mainte-

 The principles are the culmination
 of an effort initiated in 1994 by the
Center for Resource Management,
 Golf Digest Magazine, the National
Wildlife Federation, and the Pebble
 Beach Resort Company to address
issues related to golf and the
environment. Released this past
March at the second meeting of the
Golf and the Environment Consor-
tium, Environmental Principles for
Golf Courses in the United States is
intended to assist golf course owners
in developing and operating their
courses while preserving the beauty,
integrity, and health of the local

Copies of the principles document
are available for $5.00 each by
contacting Utah's Center for Re-
source Management, (801) 466-
         The Value of
        Clean Marinas

    EPA's Office of Water recently
    released a publication showcas-
ing the economic benefits realized by
marina managers who have imple-
mented environmental management
measures at their marinas.  The
following case studies are among the
25 marinas featured in Clean Mari-
nas — Clear Value (EPA 841-R-

   Ohio's Battery Park Marina
   pumped out more than 1,000
   boat holding tanks at its pumpout
   and dump station. The amor-
   tized annual cost of providing
   these services is estimated to be
   $317 in addition to a $20 annual

Winter 1997
       Watershed Events
                        Page 19
                                                            NEWS BITS
    maintenance cost, while income
    generated by the pumpout
    service in 1995 was $1,500.
    Adding increased fuel sales in
    the amount of $11,000 associ-
    ated with the service, the overall
    benefit of the pumpout and
    dump equipment totaled

•   New Jersey's Winter Yacht
    Basin, Inc. installed personal
    watercraft drive-on blocks to
    improve access to fuel pumps.
    The blocks cost $3,138 to
    install, but their added conve-
    nience brought the company an
    additional $6,730 in fuel
    income, while eliminating the
    expense associated with small
    fuel spills common in the past.

•   Washington's Elliott Bay
    Marina, found that a task as
    simple as handing out dog
    waste disposal bags (valued at
    $0.19 each) saved approxi-
    mately $4,000 in labor costs for
    waste cleanup.

The marina guide is available from
NCEPI, (513)489-8190.
     "to btf&f, a tantt&tfifc te
     nothing mom than &&
    acceptance of constraints
     , and beauty offfte fitete
  In November 1995 the Corps of
  Engineers Vicksburg District and
the Arkansas Game and Fish
Commission (AGFC) officially
dedicated an environmental im-
provement project designed to
improve water releases from
Narrows Dam/Lake Greeson.  Low
in temperature and dissolved
oxygen, water releases from the
dam were causing adverse impacts
on a native fishery of the Little
Missouri River. The project re-
placed some of the existing trash
racks in Narrows Dam with solid
plates to provide warmer, more
oxygenated water for releases;
constructed three lowhead rock
weirs to provide additional aquatic
habitat, aeration, and minimum
water flow; added 67 boulders in
the river just below the dam for
increased aeration and aquatic
habitat; and modified the cooling
system of the hydroelectric power
system to offset any potential
adverse impacts from higher water
temperatures. Jointly funded by the
Corps and the AGFC, both agencies
will monitor downstream water
quality and fisheries improvements
to gauge the success of the
$300,000 project.  In addition, the
AGFC will stock smallmouth bass
and other fish species to assist with
the recovery effort.
  In partnership with the Leech
  Lake Band of Chippewa Indians,
the St. Paul District of the U.S.
Army Corps of Engineers recently
modified a reservoir project at Lake
Winnibigoshish, Minnesota to
restore 44 acres of wetlands habitat
for the benefit of migratory water-
fowl. The $78,000 project ex-
tended a water intake pipe through
Winnibigoshish Dam to allow the
Leech Lake Band to supply water to
three diked ponds immediately
downstream.  Water levels will be
regulated within the ponds to
restore wetland habitat values for
waterfowl breeding, nesting, brood-
rearing, and feeding.  Mallards,
blue-winged teal, and wood ducks
are expected to benefit from the
restored habitat. The U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service and the Minnesota
Department of Natural Resources
supported the project. For more
information, contact the project
manager, Gary Palesh, St. Paul
District, (612) 290-5282.
    The Oregon State University
    Extension Service recently
released a half-hour educational
video on the greatest threat to
America's drinking water supplies
— nonpoint source pollution.  We
All Live Downstream examines
urban and rural runoff and the
problems it creates for surface  and
ground water. Taped mainly in
Oregon's Tualatin River basin, the
video explores how Oregon resi-
dents and government officials are
trying to reduce nonpoint source
pollution.  The video is available for
$30 (including shipping) by writing
to Publications Orders, Extension
and Experiment Station Communi-
cations, Oregon State University,
422 Kerr Administrative Services
Building, Corvallis, OR 97331-

      See NEWS BITS, page 20

Page 20
       Watershed Events
                                                        Winter 1997
     NEWS BITS, from page 19

    For the Sake of the Salmon
    (FSOS), a Pacific region organi-
zation, has obtained a $1 million
appropriation from  Congress to
support locally-hired watershed
coordinators in the Pacific states
(California, Oregon, Washington).
To be eligible for coordinator
funding, applicants must have an
established watershed council or
steering committee representing a
broad diversity of stakeholders and
they must incorporate a watershed-
wide perspective (ridge top to
stream channel) in the area they
define as their watershed. In addi-
tion, the watershed must have
anadromous salmonids and the
watershed plan must address their
needs. The deadline for the second
round of funding is March 1, 1997.
For more information and an appli-
cation, contact FSOS, (503) 650-
5447, or e-mail: karen_mcgill@
    The deadline for applying to
    Decome a National Civic League
All-America City is March 27, 1997.
The All-America City (AAC)
awards program recognizes citizen-
based, collaborative efforts to
anticipate problems and to confront
current challenges in communities.
The ten AAC award recipients will
receive $10,000 from The Allstate
Foundation, sponsors of the pro-
gram. In addition to incorporated
cities, the program is open to towns,
villages, neighborhoods, counties,
and other communities.  For more
information and an application
package,  contact Carole R. Bloom,
Director,  All-America City Award
Program, 1(800) 223-6004.
                      NEW  IN PRINT
Regional Recreation Demand
Model (RRDM) —
This Corps model predicts recre-
ation use (visits) and economic
benefits (consumer surplus) for
reservoir projects in a region,
basin, or watershed.  For a  techni-
cal report on the development and
applications of RRDM (Technical
Report R-96-2), a Users Guide
(Instruction Report R-95-1), or the
RRDM software, contact Jim
Henderson, US Army Engineer
Waterways Experiment Station,
Environmental Lab, 3909 Halls
Ferry Rd., Vicksburg, MS, 39180,
or via e-mail at

Civil Works Environmental Desk
Reference (EDR) —
This Corps publication contains
summary profiles of 62 environ-
mental laws applicable to the
Corps' Civil Works program and
full text of 22 executive orders
relevant to the environment and
environmental resources.  Contact
Lynn Martin, (703) 428-8065, or
fax (703) 428-8435.

Beyond SRF: A Workbook for
Financing CCMP Implementation
(EPA 842-B-96-002) —
This EPA Office of Water publica-
tion is intended to introduce
different financing approaches for
state, tribal, and local conservation
and restoration efforts. For a copy,
call NCEPI, (513)489-8190.

The Quality of Our Nation's
Water: 1994
(EPA 841-S-94-002) —
This EPA Office of Water publica-
tion, printed in vibrant color,
summarizes information on the
nation's water quality conditions,
problems, and programs. For a
copy, call NCEPI, (513) 489-8190.

Watershed Restoration: A  Guide
for Citizen Involvement in Califor-
nia (NOAA Coastal Ocean Pro-
gram, Decision Analysis Series
No. 8) —
This National Oceanic and Atmo-
spheric Administration (NOAA)
document explains why citizen, in
addition to government, involve-
ment is essential for the success of
watershed protection and restoration
efforts.  Contact NOAA's Coastal
Ocean Office, (301) 713-3338, or
write to Isobel C. Sheifer on the
Internet at isheifer@cop.noaa.gov.

Chesapeake Bay Communities —
Making the Connection: A Catalog
of Local Initiatives to Protect and
Restore the Chesapeake Bay
Watershed (CBP/TRS-142/95, EPA
903-R-95-018) —
Produced by the Chesapeake Bay
Program, this catalog provides
project descriptions and contact
information for local watershed
protection and restoration efforts in
the  Chesapeake Bay watershed.
Contact the U.S. EPA Chesapeake
Bay Program Office, 1-800-YOUR

Water Quality: A Catalog of
Related Federal Programs
(GAO/RCED-96-173) —
This U.S. General Accounting
Office report describes 72 federal
programs and initiatives that assist
states, tribes, municipalities, and

Winter 1997
       Watershed Events
                        Page 21
individuals in their efforts to
improve and/or protect water
quality. Contact GAO, (202) 512-

OSEC Releases "Case Study
Examples" Package —
EPA's Office of Sustainable Eco-
systems and Communities (OSEC)
compiled this package of five case
studies illustrating how EPA can
help enable Community Based
Environmental Protection efforts.
Call Chris Solloway, (202) 260-
3008, e-mail: solloway.chris@

The Water-Wise Gardener
Handbook —
Developed by Virginia Cooperative
Extension, this handbook is useful
in educating the public about
maintaining attractive lawns, while
minimizing fertilizer and pesticide
runoff. The handbook is available
for $15 (including shipping) from
the Office of Consumer Horticul-
ture, (540) 231-6254.

Atmospheric Nutrient Input to
Coastal Areas: Reducing the
Uncertainties (NOAA Coastal
Ocean Program, Decision Analysis
Series No. 9) —
This NOAA publication presents
the issues related to atmospheric
deposition, which can account for
10 to 45 percent of nitrogen loading
to waterbodies. Contact NOAA's
Coastal Ocean Office, (301) 713-
3338, or write to Isobel C. Sheifer
on the Internet at isheifer@cop.

 The following is a listing of Internet Resources which may be of interest to
  readers.  To be added to the mailing list of "Internet Newsbrief, " an elec-
 tronic update service from the EPA Headquarters Library, contact Richard
 Hufftne, (202) 260-5080, e-mail: hufftne.richard@epamail.epa.gov. Water-
 shed Events appreciates the cyberspace contributions provided by Richard
                          and other readers.
Watershed '96 Online
It's the Watershed '96 conference in
cyberspace!  Peruse the plenary
topics, browse a photo album, or
link to related web sites.

USDA Forest Service
Welcome Page
Access selected information on land
management, research, and state,
private, and international forestry
activities focusing on America's
forested lands.

Water Treatment Path for Kids
Children of all ages can follow a
drop of water from its source,
through the treatment process.

Encyclopedia of GAP Analysis
Information on GAP, a Geographic
Information System (GIS) applica-
tion developed by Michael Scott
and others at the University of
Idaho. GAP superimposes GIS
layers, such as vegetation, topogra-
phy, and rare and endangered
species distributions, in order to
identify potential gaps in conserva-
tion programs aimed at providing
habitat and conserving biodiversity.
Surf Your Watershed
EPA's Office of Wetlands, Oceans,
and Watersheds is developing this
watershed web site on the Internet.
Surf Your Watershed will allow web
surfers to find their watershed,
request a map,  search for informa-
tion, and contribute information.

River Network Online
URL=http ://w w w. ri vernetwork. org/
Provides tools to help people
organize to protect and restore
rivers and watersheds.

Science Advisory Board (SAB)
URL=http://www. epa.gov/sciencel/
Browse  the SAB's 1995 and 1996
reports,  background information
about the organization, and the most
current issue of HAPPENINGS.

Educating Young People
About Water
Provides materials, searchable by
grade  level or by  subject, that can
help users develop community-
based, water education programs
that target youth while forming key
community partnerships (see related
story in  the feature article at the
beginning of this  issue).

Page 22
Watershed Events
                        Five Fundraising
                          Strategies for
                    New Watershed Groups

                  by Pat Munoz, Program Manager at
                  River Network, a national nonprofit
                     organization working to help
                  grassroots watershed groups.  Read-
                  ers are encouraged to contact Pat at
                   (202) 364-2550 for information on
                these and other fundraising strategies.
        >ne of the biggest challenges a newly estab-
        lished watershed group faces is raising money
    to carry out its programs. Here are five things your
    new group can do to raise your first year's funding:

    1)   Find a Few Good Friends — To get started,
        most groups need to find a few generous sup-
        porters who will provide the seed capital to get a
        project rolling and underwrite major expenses,
        such as postage and printing. These friends may
        be individuals, businesses, local foundations, or
        government agencies.  Take the time to do some
        research, talk to community leaders and friends
        who work at other non-profits and prepare a list
        of prospective supporters. Then prepare a
        simple case statement outlining the problem and
        what your organization plans to do about it.
        Armed with your list and your case statement,
        get on the phone and start talking. Set up visits
        with prospective supporters.  Tell them about
        your work and how it will benefit the commu-
        nity and then ask them to help by contributing  a
        specific amount.

    2)   Hold a Special Event — While events take time
        to plan, they are one of the best ways to put your
        organization front and center in the community.
        Events can raise money while informing the
        community about your organization, involving
        volunteers, recruiting new members, and attract-
       ing media coverage. Try to pick an event that
       you can repeat year after year to create a source
       of reliable income.  Incorporate creative add-
       ons, such as sponsorship by local businesses.
          3)  Build a Membership — Building a base of
              committed members and volunteers is essential
              to the survival of any grassroots watershed
              organization. This won't happen overnight, but
              with care, your members will become a steady
              source of income.  One successful strategy
              employed by some organizations has been to
              collect names and addresses of riverside land-
              owners by reviewing land ownership and tax
              records. Armed with the list, you can rely on
              mailings or door-to-door visits to publicize your
              project and gain support. Another alternative is
              to host a project party in your home and invite
              potential members. Whatever strategy you use
              to build membership, you will need to devise a
              system for recording the names and addresses of
              your members so that they can be kept informed.

          4)  Hold a Public Meeting — Is your watershed in
              crisis? If you are working on a high visibility
              issue, a public meeting is a good strategy for
              mobilizing the volunteer and financial resources
              needed to get the project off the ground.  Pick a
              date and time that will allow for the largest
              possible attendance and publicize the meeting
              thoroughly in the paper and by posting flyers.
              Limit the agenda to three topics: 1) the problem;
              2) your strategy and examples of how similar
              strategies have succeeded elsewhere, and 3) your
              need for time and dollars. Then pass the hat.
              Often volunteers, in addition to funding, will
              come forward.

          5)  Look for In-Kind Donations — Often, what you
              need to accomplish your programs are services
              (writing, printing, planting, hauling) or goods
              (computers, furniture, lumber, trees). Try to get
              these  items donated. In many cases, people who
              cannot contribute cash, will contribute goods,
              services, and even office space for a cause with
              which they can identify. Local businesses may
              be more eager to get involved if you can give
              them visibility in the community.  By contrast,
              large companies usually react to their employees
              desires, so you should ally with an influential
              employee who can act as your spokesperson.

 Winter 1997
       Watershed Events
                      Page 23
 Fountain Creek Watershed Project

     Lessons Learned in
       Fountain Creek

  by Karen V. Guglielmone, Chair,
       Information Resources
           Focus Group

     Human activity throughout the
     Fountain Creek watershed
exacerbates the creek's natural
propensity for variable streamflows
and streambank erosion.  In April
1995, the Pikes Peak Area Council
of Governments and the U.S.
Department of the Agriculture,
Natural Resources Conservation
Service (NRCS) joined forces to
address these problems, jump
starting the Fountain Creek Water-
shed Project.

Within one year, with the help of a
Watershed Coordinator, the Foun-
tain Creek Watershed Project
(FCWP) is on its way, creating a
shared vision for the watershed,
educating the public, and determin-
ing what information is needed to
make the most informed decisions
for solving problems. Already, we
have learned some valuable lessons
that could be useful to other water-
shed initiatives:

FCWP needed a champion (a
coordinator) to keep momentum.

NICATING!  A key role of the
FCWP Coordinator is to ensure that
 all stakeholders are using the same

 discovered early on that we needed
 to have a workable organizational

 Steering Committee and Focus
 Group meetings have a focused
 agenda that is sent out before the

 BE REALISTIC 1! It took some
 time for the Steering Committee to
 accept the fact that stakeholders will
 become more interested and active
 once they see how the process can
 affect them.

 BE PATIENT! Actively participat-
 ing stakeholders have been ex-
 tremely anxious for the severe
 erosion problems along Fountain
 Creek to be solved. This has created
 tremendous pressure to get projects
 on the ground, even before there is
 stakeholder buy in, adequate fund-
 ing, and scientific assurance that the
 best management practices will work
 and will not create additional dam-
 age downstream.

 ING! The FCWP has been funded
 over the past year by grants from the
 NRCS  and EPA Region 8.  Limited
 funding has made it difficult to plan
 wholeheartedly for activities beyond
 one year and has led the Steering
 Committee to discuss strategies for
 getting our stakeholders to reach into
their own pockets.

For more information, contact Karen
Guglielmone, (303) 743-5436.
                                                                         Watershed Events
                                                                         Protection Agency
Debbie Nubbd,
Kathyfteshefltoff, U.S. Fish
  and Wildlife Sewe
Carolyn Adams & Larry Sabich,
  Natural ftesources
        Cuftaift,. U
Neit Berg, U.S. Fores* Service
Maiy Am Rontm, Cooperative
  State Research:,
  and £xten$!on
  \J,Sf geological Survey
8t0&* Kane, National Oceanic
  and Atmospheric Administration
update intsrested partks on tbe
development and ase of watershed
itoeats to SUMS®** 3ndecosy$tero
faeaKb '9W&8* &$ watershed,
iovotw &ose p«opte mostasn*
Cfeflied Of aWe to take actions to
solve those problems, w& then take
and holistic manner,

£»$*e& questions m& coownents
aboat Watershed Evem t&
   Qffuze of Wetlands, Ck»a»s,
       401 M Street, SW

Page 24
Watershed Events
Winter 1997
   National Watershed Assessment Program
   Watershed Assessment Program {NWAiP}*
   fe designed lo coSect, organize, and evaluate
   muilpte soyrcesof eiwiftwwneifrt^ information 10
   of the United Stales; identify those at r isfc; empower
   <5tti«ens to 10am wreabaut their watersheds and
   work io protect them; provide for dialogue among
   the many pablte »vJ private partner wNo can help
   assess and improve the condition of their water-
   sheds; ami measure progress toward watershed  .f
   prolecJionQo^  In PNase 1 oflliteproje^, ^FA
   has takers trie ie^d lo work wfth partners in aggre-
   and other federal and private jjartiws io character*
   fee ttie condition ol tneae watersheds, In l*ns»e 2,
   states and tribes wi8 fake the iead, worklnf with
   EPA IRegions and other partners, to ase 1ne data to
          more data are needed. Also m Phase 2, EPA will
          continue to improve NWAP data and add sec
          important missing elements; feiologicai integrity,
          habftat , ground water, coastal waters condition, air
          j^TiOng the Sever* soyroefcof data belnQ o$ed to
          characterize watershed: conditions are the state
          water q«a% assessment reports prodwcexl under
          section 305{b) and fish consumption advisories, A
          set of vtilrterateiiity indicators (e,g,» aquatic species
          at risk, nyoVologic modirlcation) wiH aiso be included
          in the watershed characterization.

          The draft NWAP projducits were transmuted to the
          states and tribes for review In January. Completed
          products will be ready in May, for more informa-
          tion, contact Sarah tehmann at (202) 260-7021,
    United States
    Environmental Protection Agency
    Washington, DC  20460

    Official Business
    Penalty for Private Use
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