United States
                   Environmental Protection
                   Agency
                 Office of Air Quality
                 Planning and Standards
                 Research Triangle Park, NC 27711
                  EPA453/N-94-007
                  April 1994
&EPA  Control   Technology  Center
                   NEWS
    Volume 6, No. 2
A JOINT EPA / STAPPA / ALAPCO PROJECT
                                                              April 1994
     MERCURY EMISSIONS
    FROM LAMP CRUSHING

            By Bob Blaszczak
   	CTC Co-Chair	

       The CTC has completed "Evalua-
   tion of Mercury Emissions from Fluores-
   cent Lamp Crushing," EPA-453/R-94-
   018. This project evaluates the process-
   ing of spent fluorescent lamps and tech-
   nology  to control mercury emissions
   from these processes.
       About 500 million fluorescent lamps
   were manufactured in 1991 and produc-
   tion is expected to increasesubstantially
   over time as a result of EPA's  Green
   Lights program. A typical four-foot Fluo-
   rescent lamp contains about 41  mg of
   mercury. The amount of mercury emit-
   ted to the atmosphere depends on howa
   spent lamp is handled.  If lamps are
   broken in a garbage truck on-route to a
   landfill,  most of the mercury can find its
   way into the atmosphere.  However, if
   spent lamps are packed in corrugated
   containers, delivered to a landfill in en-
   closed vans ortrailers, and placed in the
          CRUSHER
           ,-.• X
               RECYCLE  RECYCLE
    fill with minimal breakage, practically all
    the mercury would be retained in the
    landfill.
       Recovery of mercury is desirable to
    reduce the net amount of mercury ulti-
    mately released to the environment. The
recovery process begins with crushing
the lamps to  extract the white sulfur
powder which contains the bulk of the
mercury. This powder is then put into a
mercury retort furnace to recover el-
emental mercury.
   Many small crushing operations use
a device that fits on top of a 55 gallon
collection  drum.   Even  well-covered
crushers of this type may cause mercury
concentrations in the air of about 0.3 mg/
m3, well in excess of the OSHA limit of
0.05 mg/m3. Larger well-controlled sys-
tems use vacuum collection systems to
prevent release of mercury from lamp
feed systems.  Cyclones,  HEPA filters,
and carbon absorbers are used to treat
emissions. This type of collection and
control system can keep emissions well
below the OSHA limit and provide  a 90
percent or greater reduction in mercury
emissions.
   Copies of this report are download-
able  from the CTC BBS in  both
WordPerfect and ASCII format. State
and local  agencies can call the CTC
HOTLINE for a hard copy.
                  AIRWA VES
                    By Bob Blaszczak
                  CTC Co-Chair, OAQPS
       I bet you thought I  was a little nuts starting my last
    AIRWAVES article with "Happy New Year." After all it was
    April when you got it, even though it was the January edition of
    the CTC NEWS. Yes, we are again having problems coordi-
    nating printing activities.  This time  a five day turnaround
    printing job took 50 days. When I finally got the message on
    March 31 thatthejob wasdone and in the mail, I though it might
    be a premature and sadistic April Fool's joke. It looks like the
    administration's efforts to streamline the federal bureaucracy
    have a lotto work with. You'll also notice that we're now using
    bulkmail. Thiswilllowerourcostsbutmayslowdelivery. Keep
    the faith! Things will get better	eventually.
       The CTC received a package from Santa on February 15.
                    You might think that that's a little late, but this was from Liz
                    Santa with the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality
                    (LA DEQ), and FAT TUESDAY, the day before Ash Wednes-
                    day, was right on time. Liz has been sending a traditional Mardi
                    Gras party kit to a very appreciative CTC staff for the past
                    several years. The kits include a "King's Cake," Mardi Gras
                    beads, and other party favors. Thanks foryourthoughtfulness,
                    Liz, and everyone else at the LA DEQ. We're pleased to serve
                    and happy to know our efforts are appreciated. "Laissez les
                    bon temps rouler!"
                       Thankyou for all the CTC project requests. Unfortunately,
                    pending CTC Steering Committee decisions, your requests
                    may exceed available CTC funds. Don't let that scare you
                    away. There are no guarantees that all the projects requested
                    will be approved. You may have a better idea or a more critical
                    problem, or you may want to start planning for a project using
                    FY95 funds. Keep those project requests coming into the CTC.
                    We are interested particularly in joint ventures where we can
                                                     (continued page 2)

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          OAQPS CONTROL COST MANUAL   SUPPLEMENT AVAILABLE
   The Cost and Economic Impact
Section (SDB/ESD) has recently com-
pleted  the  third  supplement to the
OAQPS Control Cost Manual (Fourth
Edition, January 1990).  This supple-
ment (EPA450/3-90-006C) consists of a
new  chapter, Chapter  10 ("Hoods,
Ductwork, and Stacks"). Like the other
Manual chapters,  Supplement 3 is un-
bound, to make it easier to insert the
pages into a three-ring binder.
   Also like the other chapters, Chapter
10 is self-contained. It discusses: (1)the
types of hoods, ductwork,  and stacks
used to support add-on air pollution con-
trol devices; (2) the theory underlying the
operation and design of these auxilia-
       By William M.Vatavuk
       CEIS/SDB/ESD, OAQPS

ries; (3) basic sizing procedures; and (4)
procedures and current (1993) data for
estimating capital and annual costs.
   Among the valuable material in the
chapter 10 are  equipment costs for:
canopy,  push-pull,  side-draft,  and
backdraft hoods; straight ductwork (cir-
cular and square); 90° elbows; butterfly,
louvered, and blast gate dampers; and
short (up to 100-foot) stacks. Inaddition,
the prices of each type of equipment
reflect at least two kinds of fabrication
materials such as carbon and 304 stain-
less steel (plate and sheet types), FRP
(fiberglass-reinforced plastic), and PVC
(polyvinyl chloride).  Each set of costs
has been correlated against some sizing
parameter (e.g., diameter for ductwork
and stacks) to yield easy-to-use, single-
independent variable equations.  The
prices obtained from these equations
are accurate to within study estimate
limits (±30 percent).
   Chapter  10 also includes several
example problems. Each illustrates an
equipment sizing or costing procedure,
so as to make it easier to apply to actual
estimating situations. Finally, the chap-
ter contains a table of contents and a list
of references.
   Upon request, copies of the supple-
ment will be sent to EPA and State/local
agency personnel. Call the CTC HOT-
LINE.
       AIRWA VES
       (continued from page 1)
leverage our limited resources to accom-
plish a better product.
   We have a couple of new staff addi-
tions.  Ray Morrison, who retired from
EPA's Pollutant Assessment Branch in
1989, has joined the OAQPS CTC staff
as a senior environmental employee.
Ray is a chemical engineer with lots of
good experience. He will be helping out
on the HOTLINE and improvements to
the RACT/BACT/LAER Clearinghouse
(RBLC).
   Mary O'Briant, Office Manager for
the Stratospheric Ozone  Protection
Branch, AEERL, has joined the OAQPS
CTC staff on a 90-day detail. Mary has
a dynamic personality and a reputation
for getting things done.  She will be
working on the Small Business Assis-
tance Program (SBAP)  Leadership
Grants and other SBAP coordination is-
sues. Welcome on board! We can sure
use the help.
   The CTC's  FAX number  has
changed. We now have our own dedi-
cated machine! The new FAX number is
(919)541-0242.  Please use this  new
numberto FAX information to the RBLC
and Federal SBAP too. Both are part of
the CTC family of service centers.
    Have a good day and enjoy the
NEWS!
       BEYOND PACT

    The ongoing CTC project to identify
and evaluate state and local RACT rules
that may exceed EPA pre-1990 (Clean
Air  Act Amendments)  CTG  require-
ments is being delayed. This project,
requested by the Lake Michigan Air Di-
rectors Consortium, was dependent on
EPA regional  contacts to focus CTC
efforts on appropriate rules. This pro-
cess did not work as well as hoped and,
as a result, the CTC will require addi-
tional time to consider certain California
district  rules. Because the information
in this report may be very important to
certain agencies  considering more
stringent RACT rules for these source
categories, the CTC will provide copies
of the  draft report to state and local
agencies upon request. Just call the
HOTLINE and ask for the draft Beyond
RACT report.
  HAP-PRO 1.2 IS HERE!

   The  Hazardous Air Pollutant
PROgram (HAP-PRO) version 1.2  is
now  available. The basic HAP-PRO
version 1.1 was previously upgraded by
the use of an expert review system for
the carbon adsorber. Now it has been
further upgraded with expert review sys-
tems for thermal and catalytic incinera-
tion.   This upgrade will  recommend
changes in system design parameters to
minimize cost. HAP-PRO will now allow
the user to also change the value  of
these parameters to  verify minimum
cost.
   The destruction and removal effi-
ciency (ORE) in the new  incineration
modules is now calculated for residence
time  and temperature using relation-
ships that give a conservative estimate
for most applications. A warning is given
that  acids and halogenated  products
may be produced during the incineration
of halides.
   The CTC is making every effort  to
make HAP-PRO more relevant and
user-friendly.  In the future, new control
devices will be added, and hybrid control
devices will be evaluated.
                                             CTC News page 2

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              MACT, CTG, NSPS, ACT AND TITLE I RULE SCHEDULES**
MACT STANDARD
Aerospace (coatings)
Asbestos MACT/GACT
Asbestos Litigation
Benzene Waste NESHAP Lit.
Chromium Electroplating
Coke Ovens
Commercial Sterilizers
Degreasing (Hal. Sol. Clean.)
Dry Cleaning
Haz. Organic NESHAP (HON)
Haz. Waste TSDF Phase II
Haz. Waste TSDF Phase III
Ind. Cooling Towers
Magnetic Tape Coating
Marine Vessel (load/unload)
Mun. Waste Comb. II & III
Off-site Waste Operations
Petroleum Refineries
Polymers & Resins I
Polymers & Resins II
Polymers & Resins III
Polymers & Resins IV
Pulp & Paper (combustion)
Pulp & Paper (non-comb.)
Secondary Lead Smelters
Shipbuilding (coatings)
Stage I Gasoline Distr.
Wood Furniture Coating
Aerospace Coatings
IndustrialWastewater
Offset Lithography
Plastic Parts Coating
Shipbuilding (coating)
Batch Processes
SOCMI Dist. & Reactors
VOL Storage
Wood Furniture Coating
Proposal   Final
7/31/94   7/31/95
6/95      6/96
*1/01/93
*3/05/92   "1/07/93
•12/16/93  11/23/94
* 12/04/92  10/27/93
2/28/94   11/23/94
*11/29/93  11/09/94
•12/09/91  *9/22/93
*12/31/92  2/28/94
*7/22/91   9/15/94
Schedule under revision
*8/12/93   7/22/94
2/28/94   11/23/94
4/30/94   4/30/95
9/01/94   9/01/95
10/01/94  10/15/94
6/30/94   6/30/95
Schedule under revision
4/30/94   2/28/95
Schedule under revision
3/15/95   3/15/96
2/27/95   4/29/95
* 10/29/93  9/30/95
5/31/94   5/31/95
Schedule under revision
2/08/94   11/23/94
Under Regulatory Neg.

Proposal  Final
7/31/94   on Hold
•12/29/93  on Hold
•11/08/93  on Hold
1/31/94   on Hold
Schedule Under Review
•12/27/93  on Hold
•12/12/91  *8/15/93
•12/02/93  on Hold
Under Regulatory Neg.
ACT                               Boa]
Bakeries (VOC/O-H APS)             * 12/92
Carbon Regeneration (VOC/O-HAPS)  *12/92
Gas Turbines (NOx)
Cement Manufacturing (NOx)
Glass Manufacturing (NOx)
1C Engines (NOx)
Industrial Boilers (NOx)
Industrial Clean-up Solvents
Iron & Steel (NOx)
Nitric/Adipic Acid (NOx)
Pesticide Application
Plywood/Particle Board (PM10)

Process Heaters (NOx)
Utility Boilers (NOx)

NSPS
DegreaserNSPS
Elec. Utility Gen. Rev. (NOx)
Landfill NSPS & 111(d)
Med. Waste Inc. NSPS & 111 (d)
NOx NSPS Revision (407(c))
SO2 NSPS Revision
SOCMI Reactor NSPS
SOCMI Sec. Sources NSPS
Starch Mfg. Industry NSPS
      *11/20/92
        4/94
        5/94
      *7/28/93
        4/94
       2/22/94
        8/94
      •11/18/91
        3/93
     Schedule Under
      Development
      *2/26/93
        3/94

  Proposal   Final
  8/31/94    8/31/95
  5/30/94    9/15/95
 •5/30/91    9/15/94
  2/01/95    4/15/96
  5/30/94    4/30/95
     Canceled
  •6/29/90    *8/31/93
  6/29/94    8/31/95
  8/31/94    8/31/95
Title I Rules (Sec. 183(e))
Arch./lnd. Coatings
Auto Refinishing

Consumer Products List
  Proposal   Final
Under regulatory Neg.
  Schedule under
  Development
   N/A      9/30/95
NOTE:
*   Indicates date completed
**   All schedules are tentative and subject to change without
    notice.
*•*  Schedule to be determined by litigation/negotiation.
*••* ACT's will be issued for most CTG categories by April
    1994.
  TECHNOLOGY NOTEBOOK


 WHAT IS THE DIAMETER
      OF A PARTICLE?

         By Lyndon S. Cox
   Senior Environmental Employee

    There are several measures of the
equivalent diameter of a particle.  To
understand this, one mustfirst recognize
        that, in general, a particle does not have
        asingulardiameter. That meansthatthe
        particle is seldom, if ever, a sphere.  It
        could be that the particle is either irregu-
        lar or a dendrite, with an aspect ratio of
        the largest to the smallest dimension.  If
        the particle is elliptical instead of spheri-
        cal, the equivalent diameter would be
        less than the  major principal axis  and
        greater than the minor principal axis.
        Often particles are irregular with rough
        surfaces and unequal dimensions in dif-
        ferent directions. The exception to this is
                  liquid droplets, especially those less
                  than 10 micrometers (or microns) in di-
                  ameter, which are smoothed by surface
                  tension and are often nearly spherical.
                      According to William Hinds author of
                  Aerosol Technology. "An equivalent di-
                  ameter is the diameter of the sphere that
                  would have the same value of a particu-
                  lar physical property as that of the irregu-
                  lar particle."
                      Commonly defined measures of
                  equivalent particle diameter include:
                                    (continued page 4)
                                             CTC News page 3

-------
The Solvent Alternative GuidE (SAGE) model version
2.0 is now available in the Downloading area of the
CTC BBS! SAGE is designed to provide recommen-
dations for solvent replacements in cleaning and
degreasing operations. The system leads the user
through a question-and-answer session.  Based on
the user's responses, a list of alternative chemistries
and processes is derived. For information on how to
tie into the CTC BBS, see the CTC Assistance box on
the last page of this newsletter.
               OIL SUPPRESSION OF PM EMISSIONS
                       FROM GRAIN ELEVATORS

               Release of this CTC report had been delayed pending resolution
           of issues that arose after project completion. The project was to include
           original test data provided by others to document the effectiveness of
           oil suppression. These data were not provided. Existing available test
           data are not conclusive; that is,  the data does not adequately define
           emission factors for grain elevators using oil suppression. The CTC
           has decided to revise the existing report to reflect the comments and
           issues raised and to  provide information that is available on this
           promising technology.  This report will be made available in about three
           months. However, in cooperation with the Small Business Assistance
           Program (SBAP), the CTC is pursuing more definitive data involving
           site testing of oil suppression technology at grain elevators. We will
           keep you informed about our progress..
       TECHNOLOGY
         NOTEBOOK
       (continued from page 3)

    1. The Stokes diameter is the diam-
eter of a spherical particle that has the
same density and settling velocity as the
particle - in a laminar flow region.
    2. The aerodynamic diameter is the
diameterof the water dropletthat has the
same settling velocity as the particle in
air.
    3. The free-falling diameter is the
diameter of a sphere having the same
density and free-fall velocity as the par-
ticle in a fluid of the same density and
viscosity.
    4. The volume diameter is the diam-
eterof a sphere having the same volume
as the particle.
    5. The surface diameter is the diam-
eterof a sphere having the same surface
area as the particle.
    6. The surface-volume diameter is
the  diameter of a sphere having  the
same surface to volume  ratio as  the
particle. This is related to the Sauter
mean diameter which is the diameter of
             a sphere having the
             same surface to volume
             ratio as thedistribution of
             particles.
              7. The drag diameter is
             the diameter of a sphere
having the same resistance to motion as
the particle in a fluid of the same viscos-
ity and velocity.
    8. The projected area diameter is the
diameter of a circle having the same area
as the projected area of the particle. This
is further subdivided into when the par-
ticle is a) resting in a stable position, or 2)
in a random orientation.
    9. The perimeter diameter is the di-
ameter of a circle having the same pe-
rimeter length as the projected outline of
the particle.
    10. The sieve diameter is the width
of the minimumsquare aperture through
which the particle will pass.
    11. The Feret's diameter is the mean
value of the distance between parallel
lines tangent to the outline of the particle.
    12. The Martin's diameter is the
mean chord length of the projected out-
line of the particle.
    As you can see, there are  many
definitions of the particle  diameter. De-
pending upon the  definition chosen, a
given particle can  have  an equivalent
diameter varying by a factor of about two.

                             EB
        BLIS EDITING
     ON YOUR OWN PC

         By Jo Ann Kerrick
             VfGYAN

   The CTC has developed a stand-
alone version of the RACT/BACT/LAER
Clearinghouse Information System
(BLIS) Edit module for entering new de-
terminations. It is simple to install and
use and eliminates some of the draw-
backs users experience with the on-line
Edit module. The stand-alone editor can
not be used to edit determinations previ-
ously entered into the on-line BLIS data
base.
   The existing on-line Edit module al-
lows designated users to enter and up-
date their agencies' RACT/BACT/LAER
determinations directly, ratherthan com-
pleting and mailing input forms to EPA.
The on-line version also allows users to
share the latest determinations from the
moment they are entered into the sys-
tem.  However, on-line access requires a
communication path — either a modem
or direct dial or Internet connection —
and a related cost. Response time may
also seem slow as BLIS users compete
with  other users accessing the ever-
growing number of TTN applications.
The  new  stand-alone  Edit module
avoids these communication problems.
   The stand-alone BLIS  Editor  is
                 (continued page 5)
                                             CTC News page  4

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                SMALL BUSINESS UPDATE
                          Deborah M. Elmore
                 Federal SBAP Coordinator, CTC/OAQPS
                   MARK YOUR CALENDARS !!
          November 1994

   The National Roundtable  of the
State Pollution Prevention Programs will
be holding their fall meeting on Novem-
ber 2-4, 1994, in Minneapolis. In coop-
eration with EPA's Pollution Prevention
Division, the  Roundtable is including a
"Special Agenda" designed specifically
for State  Section 507 Small Business
Programs. Don't miss it!
                              Early 1995

                      Plans are now under way for the
                  Second  Annual National Small Busi--
                  ness Ombudsman/Technical Assis-
                  tance Conference, to be held in late
                  January or early February 1995.  This
                  combined meeting will feature an im-
                  proved format and an exciting new loca-
                  tion! Suggestions are welcome.
               STAY TUNED FOR MORE INFORMATION !!
       Mom's
       Bakery
      Hot Cross
       Bans!!
       3fortl
 APPLIANCE
  REPAIR
  SERVICE
 Spring
  Mr
Conditioner
 Cluck
 Time!
     BUS EDITING
    (continued from page 4)

available to anyone who normally
inputs  determinations for their
agency. All you need is a PC with
a hard drive. Obtain a copy of the
BUS Editor  by  downloading it
from the BUS BBS Documents/
Software section or call the CTC
HOTLINE  to request  a  diskette
copy. Either way, no special soft-
ware licenses are required.  The
BLIS Editor includes an installa-
tion program and documentation plus a
compressed version of the system files.
Use the installation program to create a
directory on your hard drive and decom-
press the files. (For help, refer to the
Quick Reference sheet).
   To  access  the  Editor  type
"BLISEDIT."  The BLIS Editor contains
options to edit determinations  and to
prepare determination data files for up-
loading (see Figure 1). In general, the
system operates just like the Edit mod-
ule on the TTN.  If you have any ques-
BLISEDIT MAINMENU OS/06/94
 EDIT BUS DATABASE
 PREPARE FILES FOR UPLOADING
 EXIT TO DOS
Enter
Option
Press the appropriate letter to select option or
press  for HELP.
                    Figure 1 - BUS Stand-alone Editor
                           Welcome Screen.

                  tions about what to enter, press  f or
                  context-sensitive help or refer to the
                  BLIS User's Manual. Select the editing
                  option when you want to add a new
                  determination or edit the one you en-
                  tered earlier. When you add a determi-
                  nation, the stand-alone BLIS Editor as-
                  signs a temporary BLIS ID.  Use these
                  I Ds if you need to update determinations
                  entered  on your local PC. Permanent
                  BLIS IDs will be assigned by the BLIS
       FUGITIVE VOC
         HANDBOOK

      The recent handbook, "Control
Techniques for Fugitive VOC Emissions
from Chemical Process Facilities," con-
tains information concerning volatile or-
ganic compound (VOC) emissions from:
the synthetic organic chemicals manu-
facturing industry (SOCMI); petroleum
refineries;  on-shore  natural  gas  pro-
cessing plants; polymer manufacturing
plants; equipment that emits benzene;
and manufacturing plants that process
one or more polymers containing any
fraction of polymerized vinyl chloride.
Explanations of regulations that apply to
small-to medium-sized industries are
contained in the handbook; however, the
more stringent requirements of the haz-
ardous organic national emission stan-
dards for hazardous air pollutants (HON)
are not discussed extensively  in this
handbook. The control procedures dis-
                  (continuedpage 6)

System Administrator when your data
are added to the on-line data base.
Make as many additions or changes as
you like with the BLIS Editor. You can
even  add  processes (something you
cannot do on the TTN). All data are local
to your PC until you transfer your files to
the BLIS System Administrator.
    Periodically, you should send your
determinations to the BLIS System Ad-
ministratorfor review and inclusion in the
BLIS transient database  on  the BBS.
The BLIS Editor has an option to prepare
your files for uploading.   This option
compresses the data files into a single
ZIP file. (Be sure PKZIP is in the search
path defined by the PATH environment
variable on your PC). After you run this
option, you can either send  the com-
pressed data files by TTN E-mail or con-
ventional mail to the BLIS System Ad-
ministrator.
    If you wish to enter new data on your
local PC, use the stand-alone BLIS Edi-
tor. Look for it on the BLIS BBS, or order
itfrom the CTC HOTLINE. Tryitoutthe
nexttimeyouhaveanewdetermination.
For more information, call the BLIS Sys-
tem Administrator at (919) 541-2736.
                                             CTC News page 5

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         HANDBOOK
       (continued from page 5)
cussed for emissions from these facili-
ties are applicable to any size facility, but
the application of control practices may
have to be more stringent to comply with
new requirements.
   The handbook provides guidance in
applying  control strategies to comply
with regulations that apply to chemical
process facilities. Three main types  of
standards are applied to fugitive emis-
sions from chemical process facilities.
These are:  performance  standards,
equipment practices, and  work prac-
tices. Each of these have their place and
may be applied parallel to achieve the
necessary reductions of fugitive emis-
sions. This handbook outlines the re-
quirements and procedures to apply
these strategies.
   To order a free copy of this report,
call EPA's  Center for  Environmental
Research (CERI) at (513) 569-7562 and
request document number EPA-625/R-
93-005.
      CTC EXPERT ON
       PARTICULATE
         CONTROLS:

   DR.  NORMAN PLAKS

           By Lisa Florer
  Acurex Environmental Corporation

    Dr. Norman Plaks' impressive ca-
reer has added significantly to the cur-
rent knowledge base on participate con-
trols. Norm, currently a senior research
engineer with EPA's Air and Energy En-
gineering   Research  Laboratory
(AEERL), is one of the CTC's experts on
particulate controls, particularly electro-
statically  enhanced particulate control
technologies.
    After serving with the U.S. Army,
Norm returned to his native New York
where he earned his bachelor's degree
in chemical engineering from Pratt Insti-
tute in 1959.  Norm landed his first job at
General Electric where he developed
cooling systems for missile and airborne
electronic equipment.  In  1962, Norm
took a job with the Linde Division of
Union Carbide where he developed, de-
signed, and installed insulation systems
for large liquid hydrogen tanks used in
the growing  space industry.  He  also
developed a product line  of cryogeni-
cally cooled adsorption vacuum pumps.
During his work at GE and Union  Car-
bide, Norm continued his education by
completing classes in chemical  and
electrical engineering graduate  pro-
grams.
    In 1965, Norm decided to leave New
York for a position with Aerojet-General
Corporation in Azusa, CA. As a senior
engineer with Aerojet, Norm worked on
several groundbreaking projects includ-
ing developing and demonstrating a pro-
cess for storing oxygen as a cryogenic
solid for breathing  in space.  He  also
engineered cryogenic and high vacuum
systems for  the world's largest space
simulation chamber for testing whole in-
frared sensing satellites.
    Norm's career changed technical di-
rection when, in 1968, he
joined the National Air Pol-
lution Control Administra-
tion (a EPA predecessor)
in Cincinnati to work in and
later manage the I ndustrial
Processes Section. Here,
he directed a program to
develop air pollution con-
trol technologies for many
industrial sources.  Norm
then served as Chief of
AEERL's Metallurgical  Processes
Branch until  1980.  As such, he techni-
cally managed the EPA's extramural re-
search program to develop and demon-
strate control technologies for the iron
and steel industry.  He established co-
funded projects with the American Iron
and Steel Institute  and individual iron
and steel companies to develop air pol-
lution control for cokemaking, sintering,
blastfurnaces, basic oxygen and electric
steel furnaces, rolling mills, plating, and
other processes.  Also, during this time,
Norm represented the United States in
several United Nations  and United
States/Soviet Union environmental pro-
grams.
    As the environmental issues of the
early '80s diverged, Norm focused his
technical knowledge on particulate con-
trol technologies as Chief of AEERL's
Particulate Control Branch. Not only did
he manage the EPA particulate control
technology program, but he helped bring
the program international recognition for
its groundbreaking research and devel-
opment.  Norm  co-invented E-SOX—a
patented retrofit acid  rain control pro-
cess for use with electrostatic precipita-
tors (ESPs)—and electrostatically en-
hanced fabric filtration (ESFF). He led
the development of widely used math-
ematical models for performance predic-
tion and troubleshooting of particle con-
trol processes and personally developed
an engineering performance prediction
model forthe ESFF processes. Keeping
internationally active, Norm participated
in significant research collaboration with
private, governmental, and industrial or-
ganizations, and academia in the United
States, Japan, England, Denmark, Italy,
Australia, and the former Soviet Union.
             For his work in particu-
             late control, he received
             an EPA Bronze Metal  in
             1986.   Also during this
             period,  he received  a
             Ph.D.  from the Univer-
             sity of Tokyo  working
             under Professor Senichi
             Masuda,  a  world re-
             nowned researcher  in
             electrostatic  applica-
             tions.   His dissertation
was "Fabric Filtration with  Particle
Charging and Collection in a Combined
Electric and Flow Field."
    Changing directions again in 1987,
Norm became Chief of the AEERL's Air
Toxics Control Branch, whose work in-
cluded EPA's then embryonic Control
Technology Center (CTC). A year later,
with the  CTC up and running and  a
desire to return to particulate control
technology  development, he decided
one more change was in order.
    Having  spent nearly 20  years  in
management,   Norm  decided  to
roundout his career with hands-on tech-
nical research as a senior research engi-
neer. Since 1988, Norm has conceived
                 (continued page 7)
                                              CTC News page 6

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         CTC EXPERT
        (continued from page 6)

and developed  several breakthrough
electrostatic  and electrostatically  en-
hanced  particulate technologies.
Norm's novel work in this area has been
described in more than 50 publications
and presentations and five patents, with
several more in process. Included in this
work is the ESP with alternating charging
and short collector sections — nick-
named the Super  ESP — which is a
much improved ESP with extremely high
collection efficiencies in a small space.
Norm  explained  that ESPs can always
be made better by making them bigger;
however, the  advantage of the Super
ESP is that it is better, not bigger. Norm
is  also co-inventor of the Retrofitted
Electrostatic  Filter (REF) in which an
ESFF unit replaces the last field of an
ESP to provide  greatly improved fine
particle collection. These and other pat-
ents will shortly be licensed by EPA and
commercialized in the private sector.
    Norm is still involved with designing
and troubleshooting ESPs and electro-
static  filtration by means of advanced
computer modeling. He was awarded an
EPA Office of Research and  Develop-
ment Category I Scientific Achievement
Award foran individually authored paper
published on  ESFF  modeling  in the
Journal of Electrostatics in 1990.
    Throughout  his career with EPA,
Norm  has assisted the CTC with HOT-
LINE calls from  industry and govern-
ment,  international and domestic agen-
cies, as well as individuals because of
his reputation in particulate  controls.
The CTC calls keep Norm up-to-date on
issues and problems, especially those
not being emphasized in current re-
search because  EPA's R&D is moving
into newareasand thus de-emphasizing
traditional pollutants  such as particu-
lates.
    Despite such a distinguished career,
Norm's life is not all work with no play.
His hobbies  include everything from
amateur radio (his1 call letters are KN4G)
to building model steam engines. Hav-
ing recently celebrated theirfortieth wed-
ding anniversary, Norm and  his wife,
Doris,  live in Raleigh.
     INTERNATIONAL
HAZARDOUS MATERIAL
  SPILLS CONFERENCE

    Buffalo, NY, is hosting the 1994 In-
ternational Hazardous  Material Spills
Conference from October 31 through
November 3,1994. The Hyatt Regency
Hotel and the Convention Center in Buf-
falo are the sites for this biannual  confer-
ence.  The sponsors include: The Na-
tional  Response Team, The National
Governors' Association, The Chemical
Manufacturers Association,  and the
American Institute of Chemical Engi-
neers in cooperation with the Canadian
Producers Association and  the New
York State Emergency Response Com-
mission.
    If your work requires knowledge of
hazardous materials safety and  how to
prevent, prepare for, and respond to haz-
ardous materials accidents,  then you
don't want to miss this conference.
    Registration materials will be avail-
able in the near future.  To ensure that
you are on the mailing list, contact An-
gela Moody (703) 442-9824. If you have
questions regarding the conference con-
tact Sarah Bauer (202) 260-8247.
          MINE SITE
       REMEDIATION
          SEMINARS

   A seminar series, "Managing Envi-
ronmental Problems at Inactive and
Abandoned Metals Mine Sites," is being
sponsored jointly by EPA's Center for
Environmental Research Information
and Risk Reduction Engineering Lab.
The primary goal of this 2-day technol-
ogy transfer seminar is to increase public
awareness of environmental problems
at inactive mine sites and provide infor-
mation on practical approaches to man-
age effectively these problems. The ma-
jor focus of the seminar will be on reme-
diation and management techniques.
   The target audience includes all in-
dividuals associated with or interested in
the management (e.g., source control,
pathway interrupt, and treatment) of min-
ing wastes from inactive mining sites
such as mining company owner/opera-
tors, environmental specialists, public
lands administrators, federal and state
regulators, and citizens associated with
environmental or  other groups con-
cerned about mining wastes. No regis-
tration fee is charged for attendance at
these seminars.
    For further information, contact De-
borah  Kanter at  Eastern Research
Group, Inc., 110 Hartwell Ave., Lexing-
ton, MA 02173-3198. Telephone: 6177
674-7620 Fax: 617/674-2906.

Seminar Dates and Locations

August 8-9,1994       Butte, MT
November 15-16,1994 Denver, CO
November 17-18,1994 Sacramento,
                     CA
   HAZARDOUS WASTE
 COMBUSTION SEMINAR
       PUBLICATION

    The seminar publication, "Opera-
tional Parameters for Hazardous Waste
Combustion Devices," contains informa-
tion presented at a series of seminars
conducted by EPA's Center for Environ-
mental Research Information (CERI) in
August and September 1992. In addi-
tion, a copy of the Draft Combustion
Strategy issued by Administrator Carol
Browner in May 1993 is included as an
appendix.  Operational parameters af-
fecting efficient operation of devices de-
signed and/or used to treat hazardous
wastes are discussed and regulatory
authority for requiring certain  param-
eters is referenced. Some discussion of
expected  revisions to  incinerator re-
quirements  for emissions is also in-
cluded.
    Three types of hazardous waste
combustion devices are regulated under
the Resource Conservation and Recov-
ery Act (RCRA): incinerators,  boilers,
and industrial furnaces.  Different stan-
dards apply to incinerators than to boil-
ers and industrial furnaces. Incinerator
regulations were promulgated in Janu-
                 (continuedpage 8)
                                             CTC News page  7

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  HAZARDOUS  WASTE
       (continued from page 7)
ary 1981, with many subsequent amend-
ments. They are codify in the  Title 40,
Code of Federal Regulations (CFR),
Parts 264 and 265, (40 CFR 264, 265).
Boilerand industrial furnace regulations
were promulgated  on  February 21,
1992, with subsequenttechnical amend-
ments. They are codified in 40 CFR 260,
etseq.
    Only enclosed devices with direct
flame are considered incinerators. Ther-
mal treatment devices are not enclosed
and do not have a direct flame. Boiler
and industrial furnaces are  considered
miscellaneous units. To be classified as
an industrial furnace, a device  must be
listed in the regulation and produce a
marketable product; only twelve types of
devices have been classified as indus-
trial furnaces eligible to treat hazardous
wastes. Definitions for all three types of
hazardous waste treatment devices are
listed in Section 260.10 of 40 CFR 260.
    To order a free copy  of this report,
call CERI at (513) 569-7562 and request
report number EPA-625/R-93-008.
 6TG HOTLINE:  CALL {319) 5*1-0800 to access EPA expert staff for CDnsaftatiofts, rsfprsftcs? to
 fiNGINESRWG ASSISTANCE PROJECTS- tfyoa need to-dspfe assfetencs coftcerning a specific
 oontroitechnotagy prDbtsm,ealithfli HOTL»)£«f write She CTC. E^AstetttanticonlTacfersarsavaMile
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 are subject to CTC Staenng Committee approval.
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        TTfl BBS,
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