United States
                   Environmental Protection
                 Office of Air Quality
                 Planning and Standards
                 Research Triangle Park, NC 27711
                  July 1994
4>EPA  Control  Technology  Center
    Volume 6, No. 3
                        July 1994

           By Bobby E. Daniel

       The CTC has completed a study to
   identify specific pollutants emitted from
   paving  asphalt. A significant environ-
   mental  impact associated with asphalt
   paving  is the air emissions of contami-
   nants such as polynuclear aromatic hy-
   drocarbons (PAHs), as well as volatile
   organic compounds (VOCs) and particu-
   lates. Some  of these pollutants have
   been identified as  contributors to the
   photochemical smog problems in parts
   of the U.S. Testing included two types of
   asphalt used in the paving process: an
   AC10 grade asphalt  hot mix and an
    AC10 grade asphalt hot mix with a
    crumb rubber additive.  The U.S.
    Intermodal Surface Transporta-
    tion  Efficiency Act (ISTEA)
    requires States  to use
    crumb rubber from re-
    cycled tires as an ad-
    ditive forpaving as-
    phalt. Crumb rub-
    ber  is defined as
    "scrap tire rubber that
    has  been processed to
    particle sizes usually less
    than 9.5 mm in diameter." It
    has been estimated that approxi-
    mately 240 million waste passen-
    ger car and truck tires accumulate an-
    nually in the U.S. The need to dispose of
    these tires provides a strong incentive
    for the use of rubber additives in paving
       Emissions were measured from a
    static layer of asphalt maintained for
several hours nearthe temperature that
  would likely be encountered during an
    actual paving operation. Specific
       volatile, semi-volatile, and par-
         ticulate  bound  organic
           samples (including PAHs
             in Table 1) were tar-
               geted for analysis.
               These compounds
               were chosen due to
             their demonstrated
           carcinogenicity in  ani-
         mals. In  addition, Continu-
       ous Emission Monitors (CEMs)
     were used to analyze for carbon
   monoxide (CO), carbon  dioxide
(CO2), nitrogen oxide (NO), sulfur diox-
ide  (SO2), and total hydrocarbons
(THCs). Samples were also analyzed for
total particulate matter (PM), PM10, and
particulate-phased lead.
   Thesamples of paving asphalt were
heated in a specially designed vessel in
                 (continued page 2)
                  AIRWA  VES
                    By Bob Blaszczak
                  CTC Co-Chair, OAQPS
       What's in a name? Well, most of us seem very comfortable
    with the name "Control Technology Center" (CTC), but our
    friends in Pollution Prevention (P2) have raised an issue. It
    seems that "control technology" is not an "in"  or "politically
    correct" term.  The CTC has never differentiated  between
    controlling air pollution (or preventing it) at its source and
    treating a gas stream prior to emission. We strive to provide
    information on all feasible options, whether they're P2 methods
    or add-on controls. Today, however, the "in" term is P2. Since
    the CTC has embarked on an effort to better emphasize its P2
    capacity, especially with respect to small businesses, those
    that are sensitive to the "correctness" issue are encouraging
    the CTC to change its name.  So, if you have any ideas for a
    new name for the CTC, please let us know.  My preference
    would be to retain CTC in the new name for continuity and to
    sustain our current level of recognition, but we are open to all
                    suggestions. Send your idea(s) to me on the CTC BBS or just
                    call the HOTLINE.
                        It's not to soon to start thinking about your 1995 CTC
                    project needs.  Fiscal year 1995 begins for us in October.
                    That's when we'll again have funds available to assist you.
                    Budgets are very iffy things in times  of reform and deficit
                    reduction. You would be wise to  get your requests in early.
                    (HINT:  Co-sponsored projects that share  responsibility and
                    resources were looked on very  favorably by the Steering
                    Committeelastyear. lexpectthesamesituationin 1995.) So,
                    get your request in early!  The September 14, 1994, CTC
                    Steering Committee meeting will  be our first opportunity to
                    discuss 1995 projects. If you want your proposal discussed at
                    that meeting, you need to submit it as soon as possible. You
                    can do that by writing the CTC or putting  a detailed project
                    suggestion on the CTC BBS. Call the HOTLINE and ask for
                    Chuck  Darvin or me if you would like to discuss a possible
                        It is a typical hot and humid summer in  the Carolinas. To
                    keep cool and  enjoy some of the  water sports in the area, I
                    finally broke down and bought a used boat. The boat is a lot like
                                                     (continued page 3)
                     Recycled/Recyclable • Printed with Vegetable Oil Based Inks on 100% Recycled Paper (50% Postconsumer)

       (continued from page 1)
AEERL's Open Burning Simulation Test
Facility  at  EPA's Environmental Re-
search Center (ERC) in Research Tri-
angle Park, N.C. The temperature of the
asphalt was controlled at between 157
and 162°C (314 and 323°F) with a maxi-
mum temperature of 177°C (350°F). The
analysis of these samples revealed sta-
tistically significant emissions of seven
of the  targeted  PAHs  (asterisked  in
Table 1).  Six VOC compounds were
detected: benzene, ethyl benzene, m,p,-
xylene, o-xylene, toluene, and ethyl ac-
etate. CO, CO2, NO, and SO2 monitors
did not reveal any emissions of these
compounds. The THC concentrations
appeared to increase and  decrease in
response to the slight variations of as-
     A comparison of the total particu-
lates and PfVL results indicates that the
majority of PM produced was less than
10/um in diameter. Only one test showed
a particulate-phase lead concentration
   Table 1 Targeted Polycydic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
lndeno(1 ,2,3-cd)pyrene
    * Statistically significant emissions detected.

greaterthan three times the facility blank
samples.  Although some statistically
significant differences were found be-
tween the emissions from the asphalt
materials tested with and without rubber
(Table 2), these differences were not in
       general dramatic.
       This study did not attempt to
       simulate the physical  agitation
       undergone during the course of
       its application  by automated
       road construction equipment. In
       addition, pilot scale studies  are
       never perfect simulations of full
       scale processes. Despite these
       limitations, the estimated emis-
       sions values appear to be one of
       the best available starting points
       for modeling exposures to  as-
       phalt air emissions. The reader is
       cautioned not to use  the esti-
       mated emissions data  provided
       to model exposure since the re-
       ported  air concentrations may
not be directly applicable to  all situa-
tions. A report on this study should be
available from the CTC in August, 1994.
                            Table 2 Summary of Levels of Significance and Estimated Emission Values
2-Methyl Phenol
Dlettiyl Phttialate
Indenod ,2,3-c,d)pyrene
PM10 Partlculate (organic train)
Total Partlculate (organic XAD
PM10 Partlculate (metals train)
AC10 Without Rubber vs. Facility
Level of
<= 1.648
<«= 1.469
AC10 with Rubber vs. Facility
Level of
<=1 10
<= 1.957
         NS = Not statistically significant at >90% confidence level.
         * = Level of significance is defined as the probability of making a type 1 error (i.e.
         this case the tested hypothesis is that the means are equal).
         ** = Estimated Emission units are /^/(m^min)
                               of falsely rejecting the tested hypothesis, in
                                                CTC News page 2

Aerospace (coatings)
Asbestos MACT/G ACT
Asbestos Litigation
Benzene Waste NESHAP Lit.
Chromium Electroplating
Coke Ovens
Commercial Sterilizers
Degreasing (Hal. Sol. Clean.)
Dry Cleaning
Haz. Organic NESHAP (HON)
Haz. Waste TSDF Phase III
Ind. Cooling Towers
Magnetic Tape Coating
Marine Vessel (load/unload)
Off-site Waste Operations
Petroleum Refineries
Polymers & Resins I
Polymers & Resins II
Polymers & Resins III
Polymers & Resins IV
Pulp & Paper (combustion)
Pulp & Paper (non-comb.)
Secondary Lead Smelters
Shipbuilding (coatings)
Stage I Gasoline Distr.
Wood Furniture Coating
Aerospace Coatings
Industrial Wastewater
Offset Lithography
Plastic Parts Coating
Shipbuilding (coating)
Batch Processes
SOCMI Dist. & Reactors
VOL Storage
Wood Furniture Coating
Proposal       Final
* 7/31/94       7/31/95
1/95***"       11/95*****
* 3/05/92       * 1/07/93
*11/30/93      11/23/94
*12/04/92      *10/27/93
* 2/28/94       11/23/94
*11/29/93      11/15/94
* 12/09/91      *9/22/93
*12/31/92      *2/28/94
* 7/22/91       10/04/94
Schedule under revision
* 8/12/93       7/22/94
* 2/28/94       11/23/94
* 5/13/94       4/30/95
10/01/94       10/15/94
*6/30/94        6/30/95
Schedule under revision
*5/16/94       2/28/95
Schedule under revision
Under Regulatory Neg.
* 12/29/93
on Hold
on Hold
on Hold
Schedule Under Review
*12/27/93       on Hold
*12/12/91       *8/15/93
*12/02/93       on Hold
Under Regulatory Neg.
            ACT                               Final
            Bakeries (VOC/O-H APS)              *12/31/92
            Carbon Regeneration (VOC/O-HAPS)   *12/31/92
            Gas Turbines (NOx)                  *11/20/92
            Cement Manufacturing (NOx)          *1/28/94
            Glass Manufacturing (NOx)            4/29/94
            1C Engines (NOx)                    *7/28/93
            Industrial Boilers (NOx)               *3/30/94
            Industrial Clean-up Solvents           *2/22/94
            Iron & Steel (NOx)                    9/94
            Nitric/Adipic Acid (NOx)               *11/18/91
            Pesticide Application                  *3/31/93
            Plywood/Particle Board (PM10)      Schedule under
            Process Heaters (NOx)               *2/26/93
            Utility Boilers (NOx)                  *3/25/94
Elec. Utility Gen. Rev. (NOx)
Landfill NSPS &111(d)
Med. Waste Inc. NSPS & 111 (d)
Mun. Waste Comb. II & III
NOx NSPS Revision (407(c))
SO2 NSPS Revision
SOCMI Sec. Sources NSPS
Starch Mfg. Industry NSPS
              ON HOLD
*6/29/90       *8/31/93
8/31/94        8/31/95
8/31/94        8/31/95
Title I Rules (Sec. 183(e))
Arch./lnd. Coatings
Auto Refinishing
Consumer Products List
    Proposal      Final
    Under regulatory Neg.
Schedule under Development
    8/31/94       9/30/95
            NOTE: *   Indicates date completed; ** All schedules are
            tentative and subject to change without notice; *** Schedule to
            be determined by litigation/negotiation;  ****ACT's will be is-
            sued for most CTG categories by April 1994; ***** Indicates
            on a court ordered deadline.
       AIRWA VES

       (continued from page 1)

me - a little olderthan I care to admit and
rough around the edges, but still func-
tional with enough get up and go when
needed.  It helps me keep cool, espe-
cially after wrestling with proposed bud-
get cuts, reorganization,  and  EPA
streamlining. ThecurrentturmoilatEPA
        is a lot like riding the inner
        tube I  tow behind my
        boat.  There are a lot of
        rumors  bouncing  you
        around, and you just try to
        hang on; however, in the
        Federal bureaucracy,
        the goal is to ride the
        wave  called "stream-
        lining  government" or
        drown  in  its wake.
                               Riding and flipping the tube in the wake
                               of my boat is a lot more fun and refresh-
                              ing.  The buy  out and early retirement
                                 plans being offered to reduce the
                                  Federal work force  are sounding
                                  better every day.
                                  Enjoy the NEWS and keep cool.
                              See you in October!
                                              CTC News page 3


         By Jo Ann Kerrick

1994 Compilation Update
   The 1994 supplement to the RBLC
Compilation of Control Technology
Determinations has just gone to press,
but the electronic version of this year's
supplement is available now on the BLIS
BBS in the  Downloading section.  The
BBS gives  you timely  access  to this
volume and lets you download just the
sections  that you are interested in.
Choose from Appendix F and G sum-
mary information, or select the detailed
Appendix H, with complete listings on
133 new determinations added to the
data base this year.
What Else Is New?
    The 1994 RBLC Compilation is not
the only thing that's new on the BBS.
There is on-going effort to update the
electronic documents on the BBS.  The
Informational Flyer and User's Guide are
updated semiannually. And each quar-
ter, BLIS articles from the CTC NEWS
are added to the BBS.  Just browse
                   through the list of
                   files   in   the
                    section,  and
                     look  for  any
                     new files that
                     you might be
                          to  use.
(New or
revised files
are added to the bottom of the list.  Just
check the dates).
   Another addition is the BLIS Road
Map, a menu-driven guide to using the
BBS  and the BLIS data base.  Select
from a brief list of topics, and then view a
one-  or two-screen description  of how
that feature works in BLIS. We hope the
Road Map helps new users learn  their
way around BLIS quickly and alerts old
pros  to features that  they  may have
    Lastly, BLIS now supports five si-
multaneous users. Hopefully, this up-
grade will make it easier to get the infor-
mation you need from BLIS, when you
need it.
Setting the Standard
    The control technology information
in BLIS comes from permits issued all
across the country. State and local regu-
lations often specify emission limits in
different units.  These permitted limits
are the primary emission limits found in
BLIS and may be entered in whatever
units the permit specifies. To allow users
to compare the effectiveness of different
control technologies,  BLIS also has
standard emission limits. These limits
must be entered in the standard units for
that process and pollutant.  The RBLC
staff has established standard units for
internal and external combustion pro-
cesses and other processes. As appli-
cable federal regulations are reviewed,
standardized emission units will be es-
tablished for more processes.
    When you are adding a determina-
tion to BLIS, only use the standard emis-
sion limits if standard units have been
established for that particular process.
Feel free to use the alternate emission
limits, but please only put standard units
in the standard units field. The standard
units are used in the Ranking Report,
which presents a rank order listing of
pollutant emissions.  Incorrect standard
units exclude determinations from the
Ranking Report.  Missing standard
emissions  make  the Ranking Report
less complete.
Preview of Coming Attractions
    Beginning thissummerand continu-
ing into early 1995, the RBLC staff will be
reevaluating  the BLIS data  base.
Prompted by recommendations of the
New Source Review Reform subcom-
mittee, the goal of this effort is to elimi-
nate extraneous information, making the
system more efficient and data entry less
burdensome.  The staff also plans to
revise the BLIS screens and, where pos-
sible, incorporate help lists or other op-
tions to make the system easier to use.
Watch the BBS for more details as this
        MODEL RULE

    The "Alternative Control Technique
Document: Offset Lithographic Print-
ing," EPA-453/R-94-054, is now avail-
able through the CTC. This document
supplements the draft control tech-
niques  guideline (CTG) announced in
the Federal Register on  November 8,
1993.   The CTG should not be  used
alone, but rather in conjunction with this
ACT document. The ACT provides addi-
tional information that States can use in
developing rules based on reasonably
available control technology (PACT).
ING OPERATIONS"  is now available
through the CTC. This appendix is to be
part of the CTG now being prepared by
EPA (NOTE: the CTG is not available!!.
It presents a model rule for limiting VOC
emissions from wood furniture manufac-
turing facilities located in ozone nonat-
tainment areas or in the ozone transport
region.  The model rule is a product of
negotiations among representatives of
the wood furniture industry, environmen-
tal groups, States, and the EPA.  It ad-
dresses various factors, including appli-
cability, definitions, emission and work
practice standards,  compliance  and
monitoring, test methods, and record
keeping and reporting requirements that
need to be addressed in writing an en-
forceable rule. It also  provides informa-
tion on  how to incorporate an emission
averaging program to meet the require-
ments of the model rule. The model rule
is for illustrative purposes only. States
may use alternative approaches that are
consistent with basic  program require-
    You can order these  documents
through the CTC BBS or by calling the
                                             CTC News page  4

                                   SMALL BUSINESS UPDATE
                                             Deborah Elmore
                                   Federal SBAP Coordinator, CTC/OAQPS
         NEAR YOU ***

   The Small Business Bulletin Board
(SBAP BBS) will be available on the
OAQPS TIN in early September, 1994.
This system will provide an opportunity
to share information on small business
assistance materials and activities. For
additional information, please contact
Deborah Elmore at (919)541 -5437.


   A brochure  en-
titled "New  Regula-
tion    Controlling
Emissions From Dry
Cleaners" has re-
cently  been pub-
lished to provide a
plain-English guide
to the requirements of
the dry cleaning air
toxics regulation. This
information will not only be helpful to dry
cleaners themselves, but to the general
public as well. Although this brochure
has been widely distributed, a limited
           number of copies are still
           available.  For further in-
           formation, please contact
           Deborah   Elmore  at
                      NEW SBAP FEATURE

    Welcome to a new feature of the CTCNEWS Small Business Update! For each
issue, we will invite one or more of our Sta te Small Business Assistance Programs
to discuss successful and innovative activities that may be of interest to their
colleagues across the country. If you would like to be one of our "guest writers",
please contact Deborah Elmore at (919)541-5437


                        By Richard Segrave-Daly
                Pennsylvania Small Business Ombudsman
    In amending Pennsylvania's Air Pol-
lution Control Act to reflect elements of
the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990,
the Pennsylvania legislature estab-
lished the Air Quality Improvement Fund
(AQIF).  This program will provide low
interest, direct loans to eligible small
businesses (as defined by the CAAA) to
reduce or eliminate air pollution by pur-
chasing control equipment or changing
existing processes. Three million dollars
have been transferred to the AQIF from
the Hazardous Site Clean-Up Fund.
    The application is in two parts. Part
I, the Determination of Eligibility, is used
to  compute emissions and  describe
what is to be purchased if the loan is
approved.  Eligibility is determined by
the Department of Environmental Re-
sources, and is based upon whetherthe
applicant company is  emitting a con-
trolled pollutant orairtoxic, and whether
the company's  intended  actions are
likely to solve the problem.  Once a
company is determined as eligible, Part
II of the AQIF application, (the financial
information) is forwarded to the Depart-
ment of Commerce for analysis of credit
worthiness and repayment ability.
    The AQIF loans may be as much as
$100,000 and are limited to 75percent of
the cost of the control equipment or pro-
cess change.  Repayment may be ex-
tended to seven years, and the interest
rate on the loan is a very favorable two
    To date, 17 completed applications
have been received  for review; nine
have been approved  for a total of ap-
proximately $339,000.  Most loans to
date have been made to dry cleaners
and a few gas stations in the Philadel-
phia severe nonattainment area.
    We're making every effort possible
to promote the program to  individual
companies, trade associations, cham-
bers of commerce, and local economic
development organizations.  Over 200
AQIFapplications have been mailedand
we expect the pace of completed appli-
cations and approvals to increase sub-
stantially in the near future.
    For additional information, please
contact Richard  Segrave-Daly, Small
Business  Ombudsman, Pennsylvania
Department of Commerce at (717) 772-
2889.                        E9
                                            CTC News page 5


        By Paul M. Lemieux

   Based on numerous requests to the
CTC from State and local  agencies,
EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Re-
search Laboratory recently completed a
pilot-scale study to examine emissions
of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from
combustion of tire-derived fuel (TDF).
The experiments were performed in a
rotary kiln incinerator simulator located
in Research Triangle Park, NC. In these
experiments, TDF (with the wire re-
moved) sized smaller than 1/4 in. was
co-fired with natural gas, in amounts up
to 20% of the total fuel input at a variety
of feed  and combustion conditions.
Samples were taken to measure volatile
organic compounds (VOCs), semi-vola-
tile organic compounds (SVOCs), met-
als, and polychlorinated dibenzo p-diox-
ins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans
(PCDD/PCDF).  Emissions of carbon
monoxide (CO),  total hydrocarbons
(THCs), and polycyclic aromatic hydro-
carbons  (PAHs) were continuously
    Results indicate that TDF fired in a
steady-state mode will result in very low
emissions of CO, THCs, VOCs, SVOCs,
and PCDD/ PCDF.  Metal  emissions
were also very low, with the exception of
arsenic (As), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn).
Uncontrolled stack concentrations of As
and Pb were 37.16 and 65.96 yug/Nm3,
respectively.  Uncontrolled Zn emis-
sions were  considerably higher, at
35,465 /4g/Nm3.  Results also indicate
that organic emissions can increase sig-
nificantly when TDF is fired in a non-
steady mode. The continuous PAH ana-
lyzer appeared to track transient opera-
tion well, and gave concentration results
in the same range as those derived using
EPA standard SVOC sampling method-
ologies. The PAH analyzer appeared to
be much  more sensitive than the CO
analyzer in distinguishing between dif-
ferent degrees of what would be termed
"good" combustion, and may be very
useful forcombustion process control or
    Emissions were compared to those
from combustion of conventional fossil
fuels (e.g., coal,  oil) in  utility boilers.
Overall, it appears that, with the excep-
tion of Zn, potential emissions from TDF
combustion are not significantly different
from emissionsfrom combustion of con-
ventional fossil fuels when the TDF is
burned in a well-designed and well-oper-
ated combustion device.         „_

    The CTC Report "Oil Suppression of
Particulate Matter at Grain Elevators,"
EPA-453/R-94-049  is now available.
This report provides summary informa-
tion  on oil suppression technology
based on existing data. This technology
appears to be very promising and attrac-
tivef rom both an environmental and cost
perspective.   Its relatively low capital
cost and  simplicity make it especially
attractive to small country elevator op-
erators. However, available test data
are inadequate to determine emission
factors or overall system effectiveness.
You can orderor download a copy of this
report from the CTC BBS, oryou can call
    Because many country elevators
are small businesses, the Federal Small
Business Assistance Program (SBAP)
has made funding available to test  oil
suppression  at grain elevators.  The
SBAP, CTC,  Emission Measurement
Technical Information Center (EMTIC)
and the Clearinghouse for Inventory and
Emission Factor  Information (CHIEF)
are working with the National Feed and
Grain Association and the State of Ne-
braska to identify test sites and develop
a test protocol. We expect that definitive
emission factor and efficiency informa-
tion for oil suppression technology  at
grain elevators will be available in early
1995. Read the CTC NEWS for updates
on status and availability.
        CTC EXPERT:

           By Lisa Florer
  Acurex Environmental Corporation

   What's the Estee Lauder makeup
representative doing  at OAQPS? No,
she's nottrying to make over the Chemi-
cals and Petroleum Branch group; in-
stead, she's developing and writing
wastewater control technology regula-
tions. Elaine Manning, a member of the
Petroleum Section of the branch, is the
CTC's expert in wastewater.
   Elaine, a native of Raleigh, earned a
bachelor's of science in Clothing Design
and Merchandising from the University
of North Carolina atGreensboro in 1976.
She took a job with Miller & Rhodes
department stores and embarked on a
retail career that lasted for 10 years.
Elaine started as a Department Supervi-
sor and quickly worked her way up to a
Personnel Manager, then to a Merchan-
dise Manager, and finally to an Opera-
tions Manager for two stores. Although
she was successful in her career, Elaine
says she became somewhat discour-
aged with the retail industry and began
attending courses at North Carolina
State Uni-
versity.  At
the same
time  she
was taking
she worked
as an Estee
and   Pro-
motional  Representative.   By  1990,
Elaine had earned a bachelor's of sci-
ence degree in Civil Engineering. She
interviewed with Susan Wyatt (Chemi-
cals and  Petroleum  Branch Chief) on
campus in the summer of  1990 then
visited the Mutual Building and inter-
viewed with K.C.  Hustvedt the section
Chief for the Petroleum Section. Im-
pressed by the people in the group and
the potential work, she accepted a posi-
tion as an environmental engineer with
                 (continuedpage 7)
                                             CTC News page 6

        CTC EXPERT:
       (continued from page 6)
    The demands of the 1990 Clean Air
Act Amendments (CAAA) led to an in-
crease in the workload for OAQPS.
Elaine was one of the first hired to help
with the increased responsibilities re-
sulting from the CAAAs. Her first project
was to help  develop the Industrial
WastewaterControl Techniques Guide-
line (CTG). The CTG, along with a later
project—the Industrial Wastewater Al-
ternative Control Technology document
(ACT)—provide guidance to States and
industry for airemissions from wastewa-
ter control. In addition, she helped com-
plete the wastewater portion of the Haz-
ardous Organic NESHAP (HON), which
was published in final form in April.
    Because of her involvement with the
CTG/ACT and the recent release of the
HON, Elaine's involvement with the CTC
Hotline has dramatically increased. The
new regulations set forth  in the HON
have forced people to find out how they
can  comply, and as a result, she says
that CTC  calls about the  wastewater
regulations alone have increased three
times in numbers in the last six months.
    Elaine's work with air emission fac-
tors for wastewater for the pulp and pa-
per industry has allowed her to do some
traveling.  She represented the Petro-
leum Section Pulp and Paperteam at on-
site testing locations  in North Carolina
                  (continued page 8)
<•                                 >
   Control Technology Center NEWS
     The CTC NEWS is a quarterly publication of the
 U.S.EPA's Control  Technology Center (CTC).  The
 CTC is an informal, easy-to-use, no cost, technical
 assistance service for all State and local (S/l) air
 pollution control agency and EPA  Regional Office
 staffs. For others,  some services may be on a cost
 reimbursable basis. The CTC offers quick access to
 EPA experts and expertise via the CTC HOTLIN E and
 the CTC Bulletin Board, and in-depth technical sup-
 port through source specific Engineering Assistance
 Projects or  more generic Technical  Guidance
 Projects. The CTC is operated by the Air and Energy
 Engineering Research Laboratory, Office of Research
 and Development, and the Emission Standards Divi-
 sion, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards in
 Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.
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                                                CTC News page  7

        CTC EXPERT:
       (continued from page 7)

and the West Coast. Her most memo-
rable experience  was the three weeks
she spent atseveral pulp and paper mills
in Washington state.  Elaine says that
believe it or not, she and the team she
was with got used to the overwhelming
plant odor, it was the black, gunky paper
pulpthat dripped on them throughout the
day that took some getting used to.
    When she's not working on waste-
water control guidelines, Elaine  is in-
volved with computer modeling. Elaine
is working with models that are used to
estimate air emissions from wastewater
in collection and treatment systems.
    Elaine beams when she talks about
her drastic career switch from retail to
engineering. She  says thatalthough her
job is very rewarding, it's the people she
works  with  that make the difference.
Elaine still finds time to read and often
takes off for the beach on weekends—
anything to avoid having to go to the mall!
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