United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Solid Waste and
Emergency Response
(5306W)
EPA-530-F-99-017a
October 1999
www.epa.gov/osw
Ann  Arbor,  Michigan
52% Residential Waste Reduction
Overview
    Residential waste reduction in the City of Ann Arbor has
come a long way since the creation of its first community-
based non-profit drop-off station in 1970. Today the city
contracts with the non-profit organization, Recycle Ann
Arbor, for the  collection  under mandatory ordinance 
of recyclables from all city households and the operation of a
drop-off facility for recyclables and yard debris. 1 In addition,
city crews collect yard debris at curbside seasonally. In FY96
the city diverted 52% of its residential waste through
recycling (30%) and composting (23%). Per household solid
waste management costs have increased by less than 10%
since FY89, even though per ton trash tip fees increased more
than 70% in the same period.

Keys to High Waste  Reduction
    Contributing factors to Ann Arbor's waste diversion level
are a state ban on landfilling  yard debris, curbside collection
of 24 types of recyclables coupled with a mandatory
ordinance, multi-family dwelling recycling service,  and the
bottle bill. The state ban spurred Ann Arbor to develop a
compost site, draft an ordinance requiring residents to
separate "compostables"  from trash, and start curbside service
for these materials. Nearly one-quarter of Ann Arbor's
residential waste stream is diverted through the  city's
composting program. City ordinance requires residents to
   source-separate  recyclables and
   compostables from trash.  The city
   enforces this requirement by not
   collecting improperly sorted and
  prepared materials. As 52% of
   households are multi-family, the city
   recognized  the importance of
   providing this sector  with waste
    reduction  services.  Multi-family
     buildings  receive recycling carts and
     can divert the same materials as  do
      single-family homes, with the
      exception of motor oil and batteries.
                                DHALU
                                 POPULATION: 112,000
                                   (1994)
                                 HOUSEHOLDS: 22,000
                                   single-family and
                                   duplexes; 24,000 multi-
                                   family
                                     FY89
                    FY96
               Tons Per Year
       44,806
47,943
               Percent Diverted
                 Recycled
                 Composted
         16%
         16%
          0%
  52%
  30%
  23%
               Average Ibs./HH/day
          5.61
  5.71
               Net Program Costs/HH    $72.96       77.61
                 Disposal Services        63.68       42.17
                 Diversion Services         9.29       35.44
               Notes: 43,774 households served in FY89; 46,000 in FY96. 1989
                 dollars adjusted to 1996 dollars using the GDP deflator.
                 Numbers may not add to total due to rounding.
                                          Source: Institute for Local Self-Reliance, 1999.
   This profile is part of the fact sheet Cutting the Waste Stream in Half: Community Record-Setters Show How (EPA-530-F-99-017).

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               The bottle bill provides an
               incentive to recover
               designated containers.  The
               city's waste reduction efforts are
               supported by city ownership of a
               material recovery facility and composting
               facility, and a comprehensive education
               program.

               Cost-Effectiveness
                   In FY96, after subtracting material
               revenues, the city spent $78 per household
               served on trash, recycling, and yard debris
               services. This cost represents an increase of less
               than  10%  over per household costs in FY89.
               In FY97, the average net per ton costs of waste
               reduction were $71.  In contrast, FY97 trash
                  frvjauai]
CURBSIDE:
  newspaper, magazines, and corrugated cardboard
  mixed paper (including paperback and phone books, office paper, mail,
   and paperboard)
  milk cartons and juice boxes
  steel and aluminum cans
  scrap metal (including ferrous metal, aluminum foil and pie tins, white
   goods, and aerosol cans)
  glass containers, dishes, and heat-resistant glass
  ceramics
  #1 -#3 plastic bottles
  textiles
  household batteries
  used motor oil and oil filters
  yard waste (including leaves, grass clippings, brush, and holiday trees)

DROP-OFF:
  all materials collected in curbside recycling program plus
   hardcover books
   polystyrene
   packing peanuts
   foam egg
   cartons
   car batteries
  other materials can
   be (collected for a
   small fee)
    Recyclables and yard
    debris set out for
    collection in Ann Arbor
        RESIDENTIAL  WASTE GENERATION
            PER  HOUSEHOLD PER  DAY
        7.0
        6.0
       5.0
       4.0
                    FY89       FY96
            I] Trash     ] Recycling      | Composting
    Source: Institute for Local Self-Reliance, 1999.

collection and disposal costs averaged $86 per
ton. Contracting with a nonprofit for curbside
recyclables collection and
operation of the drop-off
facility, reduced  total disposal
costs, and yard debris
diversion are primarily
responsible for keeping the
increase to a minimum.

Tips for Replication
       Keep the program easy and user-
friendly.
       Include public input.
       Look for  ways to cooperate with other
entities.
       Use conservative projections for
tonnages and market prices.
Notes:
1 Residents in multi-family dwellings can recycle the same
  materials at curbside as residents in single-family dwellings with
  the exception of used motor oil and batteries.
   Contact
    Tom McMurtrie
    Recycling Coordinator
    City of Ann Arbor Dept. of Solid Waste
    100 N. Fifth Avenue
    Ann Arbor, MI 48107
    PHONE: 734-994-6581
    FAX: 734-994-1816
    WEB SITE:  http://www.ci.ann-arbor.mi.us

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