AU SABLE RIVER - MICHIGAN

     WATER QUALITY DATA
        1965 SURVEY
Clean Water Series LHBO-1.8-A
        U.S.  DEPARTMENT  OF  THE INTERIOR

   F*drol  Wator  Pollution Control Administration
                 Orat  Lake*  Region

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           AU SABLE RIVER - MICHIGAN

               WATER QUALITY I&TA
                  1965 SURVEY
          Clean Water Series LHBO-18-A
                JANUARY 1969
        U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
Federal Water Pollution Control Administration
              Great  Lakes Region
            Lake Huron Basin Office
             U.  S. Naval Air Station
              Grosse lie, Michigan
                      U8138

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                       TABLE OF CONTENTS


                                                       Page No.
WATER USE
INTRODUCTION  ........... <, .    . . . . .    1

GENERAL DESCRIPTION .. . . . . . . . . . . .   .  0     6

     Area Description
     Climate
     Hydrology
     Municipal
     Industrial
     Water-Related Recreation
     Commercial Shipping

SOURCES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES .0.00000    18

     Municipal
     Industrial
     Federal

POPULATION AND WASTE LOAD PROJECTIONS . . .  . .  .    2k

WATER QUALITY DATA  ._................    29

     Au Sable River
     Oscoda Nearshore Area
     Harrisville Nearshore Area
     1966 MWRC Au Sable River Study
     Biological Studies
     Radiochemistry

WATER QUALITY PROBLEMS  ............'...    66

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                        LIST OF TABLES
Table Ho.                                                  Page No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Flow Characteristics
Au Sable River Sampling Stations
Municipal Water Supplies
Projected Water Use
Municipal Waste Treatment Plants 1965
Effluent Characteristics Au Sable River
Basin
Inventory of Waste Water Disposal at
Federal Installations
Waste Flow Projections
BODc Projections
Water Quality Data - Au Sable River
Basin
Water Quality Data - Seasonal .Variation
Water Quality Data - Oscoda Harbor
Water Quality Data - Harrisville Harbor
Biological Data - Physical Observations
Biological Data - Benthic Macroinvertebrates
Biological Data - Phytoplankton
Biological Data - Attached Algae
Water Quality Data - Au Sable River
Radioactivity
Water Quality Data - Oscoda Harbor
Radioactivity
Water Quality Data - Harrisville Harbor
11
13
16
17
20
21,
23
26
28
39,
41,
43
44
10
53
54,
57,
60
6l
62,
64,





22,


4o
42

- 47
- 52

55
58


63
65
                 Radioactivity





                                   ii

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                       LIST OF FIGURES


Figure Ho.                                                    Page Ho.


   1             Drainage Basins of the Great Lakes              3

   2             Lake Huron Basin                                k

   3             Au Sable River Basin                            5

   k             Plow Duration Curve - Au Sable River           12
                 at Mio

   5             Population and Municipal Waste Flow            27
                 Projections
                             iii

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                           INTRODUCTION


     The water quality data contained in this report are the results

of field investigations and other studies conducted in 1965 and 1966 to

provide information for a water pollution control plan for the Lake

Huron Basin.  The Lake Huron Basin Study is a part of the Great Lakes-

Illinois River Basins Project,  directed by the Great Lakes Region,

Federal Water Pollution Control Administration (FWPCA) and under

authority of Public Law 84-660  (33 U.S.C. 466 et seq.).
     Sec. 3. (a)'  The Secretary shall, after careful investigation,
     and in cooperation with other Federal agencies, with State
     water pollution control agencies and interstate agencies, and
     with the municipalities and industries involved, prepare or
     develop comprehensive programs for eliminating or reducing the
     pollution of interstate waters and tributaries thereof and
     improving the sanitary condition of surface and underground
     waters.  In the development of such comprehensive programs due
     regard shall be given to the improvements which are necessary
     to conserve such waters for public water supplies, propagation
     of fish and aquatic life and wildlife, recreational purposes,
     and agricultural, industrial, and other legitimate uses.  For
     the purpose of this section, the Secretary is authorized to
     make joint investigations with any such agencies of the con-
     dition of any waters in any State or States, and of the
     discharges of any sewage, industrial wastes, or substance
     which may adversely affect such waters.
     Total water quality planning begins in the headwaters of the

individual river basins and continues downstream through the major

tributaries to and including the Great Lakes.   The extent and complex-

ity of the Great Lakes and tributaries are shown on Figures 1, 2,

and 3.

     Water quality standards for interstate waters (Lake Huron) have

been adopted by the State of Michigan and approved by the Secretary

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of the Interior.   Intrastate standards for Michigan are being implemented

by the Michigan Water Resources Commission.   These standards will form

a basis for long-range plan for controlling pollution and maintaining

water quality for Lake Huron and its tributaries.


                          ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

     The principal agencies taking an active part  in providing assistance

in the preparation of the report are as follows:

     State Agencies   -  Michigan Water Resources Commission
                        Michigan Department of Public Health

     Federal Agencies -  U.S. Department of Commerce
                           Weather Bureau
                           Office of Business Economics
                           Bureau of Census

                        U.S. Department of the Interior
                           Bureau of Commercial Fisheries
                           Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife
                           Bureau of Outdoor Recreation
                           Geological Survey

     For further information, contact the following:

          Lake Huron Basin Office
          Federal Water  Pollution Control Administration
          U.S. Naval Air Station
          Grosse He, Michigan  48138

          Michigan Water Resources Commission
          Stevens T. Mason Building
          Lansing, Michigan  48926

          Michigan Department of Public Health
          3500 N. Logan
          Lansing, Michigan  48914

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               'DETROIT  PROGRAM  OFFICE

          DRAINAGE  BASINS  OF  THE

                 GREAT  LAKES
               U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
         FEDERAL WATER  POLLUTION  CONTROL ADMINISTRATION
         GREAT LAKES REGION      GROSSE ILE, MICHIGAN

                      SCALE IN MILES
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                                                                                      FIGURE 2
I.  SAGINAW BAY
2.  CASS  RIVER
3.  FLINT  RIVER
4.  SHIAWASSEE  RIVER
5.  TITTABAWASSEE  RIVER
                               8
                               9
                              IO
                              I I
MICHIGAN  TRIBUTARIES
TO  SAGINAW  BAY
MICHIGAN  TRIBUTARIES
TO  LOWER LAKE HURON
AU  SABLE  RIVER
THUNDER  BAY RIVER
CHEBOYGAN  RIVER
ST  MARYS RIVER AND
MICHIGAN  UPPER PENINSULA
TRIBUTARIES  TO LAKE  HURON
12.  MISSISSAGI  RIVER
13.  SPANISH RIVER
14.  WANAPITEI  RIVER
IS.  FRENCH RIVER
16.  MAGANATAWAN RIVER
17.  MUSKOKA  RIVER
18.  SEVERN  RIVER
19.  8AUOGEN  RIVER
0.  MAITLAND RIVER
21,  AU SABLE  RIVER
                             DETROIT   PROGRAM.  OFFICE

                           LAKE   HURON   BASIN'
                             U.S. DEPARTMENT OF  THE INTERIOR
                   FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION  CONTROL ADMINISTRATION
                    GREAT LAKES REGION         GROSSE I L E , MICHIGAN

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                           GENERAL DESCRIPTION






Area Description



     The Au Sabe River Basin (Figure 3),  with a drainage area of 2,035



square miles, lies in the northeastern part of the lower peninsula.   It



is comprised of parts of Otsego, Crawford, Roscommon,  Ogemaw,  Oscoda,



Montmorency, Alcona, and losco Counties.   Grayling, the major city,  is



in the center of one; of the leading recreational areas of the State  of



Michigan.  With headwaters in southeastern Otsego County, the Au Sable



River flows southerly, then easterly, and finally southeasterly to its



mouth into Lake Huron.



     The basin, irregular in shape, is 80 miles long and Uo miles wide,



measuring at the longest and widest parts.  It is bounded on the north



by Thunder Bay Basin; on the east by Lake Huron; on the south by the



Tittabawassee Basin, Rifle River Basin, Au Ores River  Basin, and by  land



adjacent to Lake Huron; on the west by Manistee River  Basin; and on  the



southwest by the Muskegon River Basin. The major tributaries include  the



North Branch Au Sable, Middle Branch Au Sable, South Branch Au Sable,  and



Pine Rivers.



     Much of the Au Sable River Basin is  sparsely populated and is



occupied by Thunder Bay River, Pigeon River, and Au Sable River State



Forests and Huron National Forest; Hanson Military Reserve;  and the



Artillery Range.  ^Three major population  centers in this part of the



basin are: Gaylord - near Otsego Lake, the headwaters  of North Branch



Au Sable River; Grayling - at the confluence of the East Branch Au Sable
                              6

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with the Au Sable River;  and Roscommon - on the South Branch Au Sable



River.



     In addition to the permanent residents there is  a large transient



population, the National  Guard at Camp Grayling brings a temporary



population of 10,000 to the area.  Campgrounds and other recreational



facilities attract a heavy tourist trade.  There are  no large  industries



in the area.  Population  reached a peak in the 1920's and,  after the



decline of lumbering, remained stable until the 1950's when small



industries moved into the area.   The population has since increased,



principally from the prospering tourist and recreational developments.



     The drainage basin below Grayling and Roscommon  remains sparsly



settled, with Mio the only community along the Au Sable River.   Mio



does not have community collection or disposal system.  At  Mio,  a dam



forms an impoundment of 860 acres for hydroelectric power.   Most of this



section of drainage area  is in public ownership - Thunder Bay  River



State Forest and Huron National Forest.  Many campsites are located



along the river bank.  The river flows southward through Bamfield



Pond, a 1,075-acre impoundment created for hydroelectric power.   The



numerous gravel pits, abandoned railroads, and dirt roads in the



xurrounding area are indications of man's former activities in the basin.



Small settlements are present throughout this area.



     The river then flow  eastward through a series of impoundments



which change the character of the river to that of the lake, with only



short reaches of free-flowing streams.  These impoundments and the surface



area in acres are:  Loud  Basin - 790, Five Channels Basin - 250, Cooke

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Bam Basin - 1850, and Poote Basin - l800   Alpena State Forest and



Huron National Forest comprise most of the land in this increment of



drainage.



     The river character changes "below Foote Basin Dam to that of swift



stream coursing within steep banks to the  outlet of the lake.   There



are a number of small communities in this  area, including Lincoln and



Mikado.  Van Etten: Creek-Pine River is impounded near Wurtsmith Air



Force Base (AFB) to form Van Etten Lake, a recreational lake-   The



outflow is known as Van Etten Creek.  The  character of the basin  is



changed from the forested areas in the upper reaches.   The major



activity in this area is the air base.  From the confluence of Van



Etten Creek to the mouth of the Au Sable River at Lake Huron,  the



area is rapidly developing, due in part to the presence of Wurtsmith



AFBo  The communities of Oscoda and Au Sable are located at the mouth



of the Au Sable River.  A navigation channel is maintained from the



US-23 bridge to the 12-foot contour of Lake Huron.  A number of marinas



and boat-service facilities are located along this stretch of the



river.



Climate



     The climate of the Au Sable River is  greatly modified by the upper



Great Lakes, which warm the air in the winter and cool it in the



summer.  The climate is typical of the entire upper Great Lakes area and



can be described as having a wide seasonal variation,  many storms,  and



a constant yearly precipitation distribution.  In the winter,  this



precipitation is in the form of snow.  Mean yearly temperature is





                                 8

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There is an average yearly precipitation of 32.^ inches,  with a growing



season of 150 days.



Hydrology



     There are three U.S Geological Survey (USGS)  stream gaging stations



located in the Au Sable River Basin..



     The first of these gaging stations is the Au Sable River at Grayling



located on the right bank, 65 feet upstream from the bridge on US-27



at Grayling and three-quarters of a mile upstream from East Branch.



Prior to October 195^ it was referred to as Middle Branch Au Sable



River.  It has a drainage area of 110 square miles  The  station has



been in operation since October 19^2.



     The second USGS gaging station is the East  Branch of the Au Sable



River at Graylings 0,^- miles upstream from the mouth and  has a drainage



area of J6 square miles-  The station has been in operation since



April 1958.



     The third gaging station is the Au Sable River at Mio located on



the right bank, 150 feet upstream from the bridge on M-33-  The station



has a drainage area of 1,100 square miles and has been in operation



since 1952.



     The ranges of observed discharges and yields for these gaging stations



are shown on Table 1.



     The low-flow average discharge for one, seven, and thirty consec-



utive days duration, with a recurrence interval  of  ten years, has been



calculated by use of Gumbel's logarithmic extremal  probability paper.



The stations used were the Au Sable River at Grayling and Au Sable River

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at Mio (Table l)0



     Figure h is the flow duration, curve for the Au Sable River at



Mio.  The shape of the curve,  with a shallow gradient^  indicated the



stable nature of streamflow in the Au Sable River and a relatively



constant yield.  This is also indicated by the high drought flow



yieldo



     USGS gages and sampling station locations are shown on Figure 3



and sampling stations are described on Table 2.
                               10

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                                  TABLE 1.  FLOW CHARACTERISTICS
                                       Au Sable River Basin


                                              USGS Records           Computed  Drought  (low)  Flows*
                                            Flow       Yield        Duration    Flows     Yield
     Location                               (cfs)      (cfsm)         (days)      (cfs)     (cfsm)

Au Sable River at Grayling    Maximum       274        2.1+91            1         42        .382
  110 square miles - 1942     Minimum        28         .255           30         48        .436
  to I960                     Average        73         -663            7         46        .4l8

East Branch of the Au         Maximum       135        1-776            -
Sable River at Grayling       Minimum        l6         .211            -
  76 square miles - 1958      Average        39         -517            -
  to I960

Au Sable River at Mio         Maximum     3,450        3.136            1        500        .455
  1100 square miles           Minimum       456         .415           30        640   .     .582
  1952 - I960                 Average       906         .824            7        580        .527
  Recurrence interval of once in 10 years for period of record plotted on Gumbel's  logarithmic
  extremal -probability.

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                                                                         r IGURE 4
                           FLOW   DURATION  CURVE
                          AU  SABLE  RIVER  AT   MIO
                                         1953-1964
      100.0
  UJ
o o:
in 
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Station
           TABLE 2.  AU SABLE RIVER SAMPLING STATIONS

                     Mainstream Stations
Mile Point
Location
Y010
Y014
Y020
Y190
0.3
0.9
11.0
113 o ^
US -23 br.
Mill Str<
Bissonet"!
East Braa
  MWRC



Oscoda

  H301

  H302

  H303

  H304

Harrisville

  H350

  H351

  H352

  H353
              Bissonette Road bridge below Foote Dam

                          Au Sable River - foot bridge
              behind Mercy Hospital in Grayling (USGS
              gage # 4-1356)

   0.3        Same location as K>10


            Hearshore Stations



              5,000' north of breakwater light

              At breakwater light

              3,000' east of breakwater light

              5,000' south of breakwater light



              North entrance to harbor, center of  channel

              5,000' north of north end of breakwater

              5,000' east of north end of breakwater

              5,000' south of north end of breakwater

              10' from southwest end of main breakwater

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                           WA.TER USE






Municipal



     The Au Sable River Basin and adjacent shoreline area has a population



of 7>500 served "by public water supplies    Camp Grayling, the National



Guard Camp, serves a population of 10,000  during the summer training



sessions o  The estimated population served, excluding Camp Grayling,



by 1990 and 2020 is 14,300 and 23,800,  respectively.



     Present water supplies are listed in  Table 3 and projections of



water use are shown on Table 4.



Industrial



     There is little manufacturing in the  Au Sable River Basino  The



water used for other than domestic purposes is purchased from the local



municipal source.  Projections of the quantity used are included in



the municipal projections on Table 4.



Water-Related Recreation



     The Au Sable River is probably the most famous recreational stream



in Michigan.  Its popularity began in the  l800's, when fishing for



grayling (trout) became popular.  This popularity has continued even as the



predominant species of fish changed from grayling to the more hardy



and adaptable species of trout.



     The use of the river by canoeists is  also popular with annual



rentals at the liveries exceeding 18,000.   The stream is a recognized



canoe trail by the Michigan Tourist Council and Michigan Department of



Conservation.  Campsites have been developed along the stream for the

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use of canoeists.   Thousands of visitors annually take the popular tour


along M-72 down the beautiful Au Sable River Valley from Grayling to the


Lake Huron shore.   A more detailed discussion of basin recreation is


contained in the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation publication "Water-Oriented


Outdoor Recreation Lake Huron Basin (1967)0"
                                        9
Commercial Shipping


     Harrisville with 97,215 tons of Jet fuel and the Au Sable Harbor


with 118 tons of fresh fish represent the commercial navigation recorded


for the Au Sable,River Basin.  This is only .3$ of the Michigan total


for the Lake Huron Basin.
                                15

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              TABLE 3.  MUNICIPAL WATER SUPPLIES*

       Au Sable River Basin and Adjacent Shoreline Areas
Community         1960 Pop,.

Oscoda Township      700


Wurt smith AEB


Gaylord
                    2568
Northern Michigan
TB Sanatorium        225

Grayling            2015

Camp Grayling     10 ,000**
Roscommon
Harrisville
Hawes Township
                     867
                    Resort
                                  Owner           Source

                                    T      Wells in drift 30' to
                                           51' deep

                                   US      Wells in drift 53' to
                                           65' deep

                                    M      Wells in drift 110' to
                                           198' deep
                                    S      Wells in drift 234' deep

                                    M      Wells in drift 50' deep

                                   US      Wells in drift 50' to
                                           1768 deep

                                    M      Wells in drift te! to
                                           103' deep

                                    M      Wells in drift 40' to
                                           57" deep

                                    P      Well in drift 160'
*  Taken from "Data on Public Water Supplies in Michigan," Engineering
-  Bulletin No. k "by the Michigan Department of Public Health.

*# Intermittent Use.

T   -  township
US  -  Federal
M   -  city or village
S   -  State
P   - private

The well water supplies did not receive any treatment.
                               16

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                 TABLE 4.  PROJECTED mTER USE
                             (MOD)
       Au Sable River Basin and Adjacent Shoreline Areas
                                              1220       2020

Municipal*                          08        1.7        3,5

Industrial                          0         _2oO_       JL

      Total                         08        3T        85
* Includes water for small industries.
                               IT

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            SOUECES AND CHABiCTERISTICS OF WASTES






Municipal



     In 1965 > there were three municipal systems which were sources



of waste in the upper reaches of the Au Sable Eiver Basin - Gaylord,



Grayling, and Roscommon.  The treatment system at Gaylord was a lagoon



with no provision for overflow to surface waters.  Grayling and Roscommon



had primary sewage treatment plants with separate sewer systems.,



Wort smith Air Force Base was the major community in the basin.  Secondary



treatment was provided for domestic wastes, and aircraft washings were



treated "by oil and grease separation, then discharged to a separate



stormwater system (Table 5)  Effluent was discharged to Van Etten



Creek.  The townships of Au Sable and Oseoda, near the mouth of the



Au Sable River, and the township of Mikado in the upper reaches of



Van Etten Creek were cited by the MWRC in December 1966 for the discharge



of undetermined quantities of raw and semi treated sewage from various



residences and commercial establishments.



     Municipal waste treatment plants are described in Table 5-  The



information is based on 19&5 records of the Michigan Department of



Public Health.  Prior to January 1967* aH plants were required to



practice disinfection from May 15 to September 15  Since that date,



continuous year-round disinfection is required by the Department of



Public Health regulation.  Effluent characteristics based on the 1965



plant operating records are also listed on Table 5* and outfall



locations are shown on Figure 3-






                               18

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Industrial



     There were no significant sources of industrial waste in the



basin at the time of this survey.



Federal Installations



     There are 17 Federal installations located in the Au Sable



River Basin, 10 of which are campground areas   The ma^or installation



in the basin is the Wurtsmith Air Force Base which has secondary



treatment and chlorination.   A pumping station and primary settling



tank are to be constructed,  followed by diverting the effluent to



another drainage basin.   As  listed in Table 6$  there are some septic



tanks and a few drain fields at the Department of Agriculture, Forest



Service Installations.

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                                TABLE 5.  MUNICIPAL  WAiSTE TREATMENT PLANTS
                                      1965 Effluent  Characteristics
                                         Au Sable River Basin
ro
       Community and       Type of
       Population Served  Treatment
                                                 Total
            How   Temp   BODs    COD      01.     POk    NHo-N   Org-N
            (MGD)   OF   (mg/l)  (mg/l)  (mg/l)  (mg/l)  (mg/l)  (mg/l)
Gaylord
2800

Grayling
2000
Roscommon
900
Wurtsmith AFB
Lagoon

Primary

Primary

Secondary
- No discharge -

= 31'

.15

.55

47

45

-

145

83

>,
No records =
-
324 100

266 no

=
_
t.
49 17 12 8.0

42 16 13 77

=
         71(00.

       Oscoda  Township
         600
Septic, tanks
and dry well
      Au Sable  Township  Septic tanks
         60              and dry well
      Mikado  Township
         4000
Septic tanks
and dry well
      NOTEi  Data  for Grayling and Roscommon "based on 1966 MWRG Survey.

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                             TABLE 6.  INVENTORY OF WASTE WATER DISPOSAL
                                      AT FEDERAL INSTALLATIONS
                                        Au Sable River Basin
     Installation
     (Municipality and County)

     Wurt smith Air Force Base
     (Oscoda,  losco Co.)
Type
of Wastes
Receiving Waters   Treatment Provided  Remarks
Sanitary    Van Etten Creek
660,000 GPD Tributary of
            Lake Huron
                   Secondary treatment
                   and Chlorination
13'
Contract has been let
to construct new pump-
ing station laboratory
and primary settling
tank.  The construc-
tion phase of this
work will begin at the
end of August 1968 /"
and completion is ex-
pected by Spring of
1969.  These improve-
ments will not be
sufficient to accom-
plish the goals set by
the State of Michigan-
for quality of efflu-
ent discharged to Van
Etten Creek, a spawn-
ing ground for salmon.
The above improvements
are interim measures
pending construction
of facilities to di-
vert the effluent
from Van Etten Creek
to the ground in an-
other drainage basin.
The diversion design
phase has already been

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                      TABLE 6.   INVENTORf OF WASTE WATER DISPOSAL
                               AT FEDERAL INSTALLATIOWS  (Cont'd)
                                 Au Sable River Basin
Installation
(Municipality and County)

Wurtsmith Air Force Base
(Oscoda, losco Co.)
(Cont'd)
Type
of Wastes   Receiving Waters
                               Treatment Provided   Remarks
Glennie Warehouse
(Aicona Co.)

Pine River Compound
(Alcona Co.)

Horseshoe Lake Campground
(Alcona Co.)

Monument Campground
(losco Co.)

Rollway Campground
(losco Co.)

Rollway Picnic Area
(losco Co.)

Lumberman's Monument
(losco Co.)
Sanitary    Ground
75 GPD

Sanitary    Ground
Sanitary    Ground
Sanitary    Ground
Sanitary    Ground
Sanitary    Ground
300 GPD

Sanitary    Ground
1,200 GPD
                               Septic Tanks,
                               Drain Field

                               Pit Toilet
                               Pit Toilet
                               Septic Tanks*
                               Drain Field

                               Pit Toilet
                               Septic Tanks,
                               Drain Field

                               Pit Toilet
                                                   been completed and fund-
                                                   have been requested for
                                                   this construction.
                                                   Pending early approva?.
                                                   of  funds, the expected
                                                   completion date is
                                                   FY  1971.
Compound capacity
25 people

Campground capacity
10 people

Campground capacity
65 people

Campground capacity
95 people

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                      [CABLE 6.  INVENTOR! OF WkSTE WATER DISPOSAL
                               AT FEDERAL INSTALLATIONS (Cont'd)
                                 Au Sable River Basin
Installation
(Municipality and County)
District Ranger Office
(Mio, Oscoda Co.)
Rangers Dwelling
(Mio, Oscoda Co)
Asst. Ranger Dwelling
(Mio, Oscoda Co.)
Warehouse
(Mio, Oscoda Co.)
Loon Lake Campground
TO (Oscoda Co.)
Island Lake Campground
(Oscoda Co.)
Mack Lake Campground
(Oscoda Co.)
Wagner Lake Campground
(Oscoda Co.)
Boy Seoul; Organization
Type
of Wastes
Sanitary
T5 GPD
Sanitary
225 GPD
Sanitary
14-50 GPD
Sanitary
1*5 GPD
Sanitary
Sanitary
Sanitary
Sanitary
Sanitary
Receiving Waters
Ground
Ground
Ground
 ' i : '' '
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
                                                           Septic Tanks,
                                                           Drain Field

                                                           Septic Tanks,
                                                           Drain Field

                                                           Septic Tanks,
                                                           Drain Field

                                                           None
                                                           Septic Tanks,
                                                           Drain Field
                                                           Pit Toilet


                                                           Pit Toilet


                                                           Pit Toilet


                                                           Pit -Toilet
Campground capacity
215 people.  New
septic tank and drain
field installed in
1967=

Campground capacity
    people
Camp (Oscoda Co.)
Campground capacity
30 people

Campground capacity
50 people  -

Camp capacity
50 people

-------
               POPULATION AND WkSTELOAD PROJECTIONS



     Demographic studies were conducted by the Great Lakes-Illinois


River Basins Project, Chicago, Illinois for the  Lake Huron Basin.


Population trends on a national,  regional, and county basis  were

analyzed, and population projections were developed for the  various

areas of the Lake Huron Basin  In I960, approximately  1-2 million


persons lived in the Lake Huron watershed, about double the  1920


population.  By the year 2020, it is estimated that the population of

the watershed will be approximately 3-2 million.


     The population centers in the Au Sable River Basin and  adjacent

shoreline areas are Grayling (2015), Roscommon (867)^, Gaylord (2568),


and Harrisville (h8j) according to the I960 census figures.   For this


report, each area was analyzed assuming that by  2020 the area will be
                         ^
urbanized and served by water and sewer systems,,  The individual areas


were added to yield the total population served  in the  basin o   The


1965 population served by sewer systems was estimated to be  6,500 and


projected to be 14,300 by the year 1990 and 23,800 by the year 2020.

Population served should not be construed as being total population

of the basin.


     Table 7 shows the estimated waste flow in million  gallons per


day (MOD) for the Au Sable River Basin and adjacent shoreline areas,


and on Hgure 5 appears the projections for population  and wasteflow


excluding adjacent shoreline areas.


     BODr projections were based on present day  inventory information


obtained from the Michigan Water Resources Commission,  Michigan Department



                                 2k

-------
 of Public Health, and the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.



 Municipal and industrial water use growth rates and BOD,- production in



 terms of population were determined from studies on the Lake Michigan
                                                  i


 Basin and applied to the inventory data obtained for the Au Sable River



 Basin.  The results of these projections are shown on Table 8.  The



 municipal BOD,- load for 19&5 vs-s calculated on the basis of .17 pounds



 per  day of BODc per person served, and the 1990 and 2020 load factors,



 .18  and .20 pounds per day of BOD  per person.  For example, in 1965 a



 total of 1100 pounds per day of BODc is produced in the area of which
 59 percent is removed by treatment, leaving 470 pounds of BOD- being



 discharged to the river.  By the year 2020, with the same percentage of


 treatment, 2000 pounds would reach the river.  In order to show an



 improvement over present water quality, 90 percent or more removal will



 be necessary at that time.



     Although at present there are no significant industrial waste sources



 in the basin, an assumption that industries would develop in the basin



.and -adjacent shoreline areas was made for projection purposes.

-------
            TABLE T   mSTE H.OW PROJECTIONS (MED)
       Au Sable River Basin and Adjacent Shoreline Areas
Municipal
                                                     1990
2020
Residential
Commercial
Total Municipal
industrial
Total Industrial and Municipal
Oo7
0.7
0.7
1-7
0.1
1.8
2.0
3.8
3-3
0.2
3*5
5.0
8.5

-------
                                                             FIGURE 5
                 POPULATION  AND  MUNICIPAL
           WASTE  FLOW  PROJECTIONS  FOR  THE
                   AU  SABLE  RIVER  BASIN
   100,000
(T
IU
CO

z
o
0.
o
a.
10,000
     I.OOO I I I I I I i i i i 11 i i i
                                         1 I I I I I I
       I960     1970      1980     1990     200O

                                 YEARS
                                                                IO.O
                                                            I.O
                                                               EC
                                                               Ul
                                                               a

                                                               VI
                                                               z
                                                               o
                                                                   <
                                                                   o
                                          coto
                                                  802O
  O.I
203O

-------
                  TABLE 8.  BQD5 PROJECTIONS
                      (Pounds per Day)
       Au Sable River Basin and Adjacent Shoreline Areas
Untreated
Municipal
   Residential
   Commercial

       Total
Industrial

Total Untreated BODC



Treated BODg

Municipal




Industrial
Total Treated
1965
1990
2020



Percent
Removal
59 (present)
90
95
99
35
90
95
99
present
90
95
99
1,110
1,133
1,133
1*68
113
57
11
_
-
-
-
k6Q
113
57
11
2,565
2,628
10,500
13,128
1,085
263
131
26
6,825
1,050
525
.105
7,910
1,313
656
131
4,750,
150
4,900.
25,000
29,900
2,024
490
245
49
16,250
2,500
1,250
250
18,274
2,990
1,495
299
                                 28

-------
                     WATER QUALITY DATA






     The Federal Water Pollution Control Administration conducted



surveys of the Au Sable River and adjacent waters of Lake Huron



during 1965 to determine the quality of these waters.  Station



locations are shown on Figure 3 and described in Table 2,  Samples



collected were analyzed for physical., chemical, microbiological,



and biological parameters.



     One location (Station Y010)P a quarter-of-a-mile above the



mouth of the Au Sable River, was sampled on a monthly basis from



January through November.  A second location (Station Y190), on the



East Branch Au Sable River at Grayling near the confluence with the



main stream, was sampled periodically from May through November<,



A third location. (Station Y020), on the Au Sable River just below



Foote Dam eleven miles upstream from the mouth, was sampled once.



An additional station, Y0l4, was sampled for biological parameters.



     Sampling was also carried out in nearshore Lake Huron at four



locations near Oscoda and five locations near Harrisville, and collected



on a monthly basis from May through October.



     In addition to the FWPCA 19^5 sampling program, the MWRC maintains



a water quality monitoring station at the mouth of the Au Sable River



(MWRC-AuS-l4). ' This location coincided with the FWPCA station.



Data was collected on a monthly basis.  In 1966, the MWRC made



extensive studies of the Au Sable River below Grayling and the South



Branch of the Au Sable below Roscommon to study the effects






                                 29

-------
of pollution from the primary plants at these two cities.



     Data from the various surveys during 19&5 are listed on



Tables 9 through 12.



Au Sable River



     The dissolved oxygen level in the Au Sable River was high,



with an average of 90 percent saturation at the sites studied



during the 19&5 survey.  There was no indication that photosynthesis



was a factor in the oxygen level as no samples indicated super-



saturation.  Dissolved oxygen levels ranged from 7 2 mg/1 to



13.0 mg/1, with an average of 10.8 mg/1 at the MWRC location near



the mouth of the river.  At the FWPCA station, the range was from



7.3 to 11o4 mg/1, with an average of 9.3 mg/1.  The FWPCA samples



were collected during the warmer months of the year, accounting



for the lower maximum level,  (Table 9)<>  These levels indicated



adequate dissolved oxygen in the river.



     Organic matter, expressed in terms of BOD,- and oxidizatle



nitrogen (organic, ammonia and nitrite), indicated excellent water



quality.  BOD  levels averaged from 1 to 2 mg/1, with a maximum of



3 mg/1.  The oxldizable nitrogen levels were similarly low, averaging



less than .5 mg/1 (Table 9)  There were no major sources of organic



pollution upstream of the sampling site on the East Branch of the



Au Sable River.  The site near the mouth of the Au Sable River is



100 miles downstream from the primary treatment plants at Grayling



and Roscozmnon and 10 miles downstream from the secondary plant at






                               30

-------
Wurtsmith AEB.  Organic matter from this  source would have the



opportunity for assimilation before reaching the sampling site.



     Nutrient levels in terms of nitrate-nitrogen and total and



soluble phosphorus as phosphate were indicative of minor pollution,



with average levels less than .1 mg/1.  The site in  the upper



basin was, however, upstream of main sources of nutrients - the



Grayling and Roscommon primary treatment  plants.  Near the mouth



of the river, which would include any residual nutrients from



these plants as well as that from the air force base, the levels



were low due in part to the dilution provided by additional stream-



flow at this point.  Nitrate levels were  similary low, averaging



.2 mg/1.



     Chlorides and other dissolved solids indicated  excellent water



quality at all sites measured-  Average chloride level was 3 mg/1



near the mouth of the Au Sable River and  3 mg/1 in the East Branch



Au Sable River.  Dissolved solids averaged 180 mg/1  in the basin,



with conductivity of 290jumhos/cmo  High  dilution is available in



the stream for effluents from the treatment plants.



     Bacterial quality of the river was impaired near the mouth.



Median total coliform density was 6,000 org/100 ml,  with a fecal



coliform level of 200 org/100 ml on a yearly basis.   As the sampling



station was a considerable distance downstream from  the Grayling and



Roscommon municipal plants, bacteria most probably were caused by



discharge from the Wurtsmith AEB treatment plant and miscellaneous



sources in the Oscoda area such as individual disposal systems,  and

-------
runoff.  Separation of the microbiological data 'into two groups -



that collected during the ehlorination of Wurtsmith treatment plant



effluent, and that collected -when no ehlorination was practiced -



indicated a considerable reduction in bacteria during the ehlorination



season.  The median coliform level was 18,000 org/100 ml during



nondisinfection and was reduced to 1,100 org/100  ml during disinfection.



Similar reductions occurred in the fecal coliform and fecal strep



levels (Table 10).



     Suspended and volatile suspended solids and  phenols indicated



minor amounts of pollution.,



Oscoda Nearshore Area



     Data (Table 11) collected during a study of  the nearshore waters



of Lake Huron near the mouth of the Au Sable River indicated that



the Au Sable River imposed a minor pollution load on Lake Huron



that could not be distinguished in the waters of  Lake Huron within



a mile of the river mouth.  In comparing the data from the breakwater



station (H302) with that of the other three stations (H301, H303,



H304) which are located on an arc less than a mile from the breakwater,



the higher level of pollutants near the mouth was readily apparent.



Dissolved oxygen was less at the breakwater, 87  mg/1 (88 percent



saturation), than offshore, 10.8 mg/1 (102 percent saturation).



Total solids, suspended solids, hardness,  conductivity,' bacterial



levels, and temperature were higher at the breakwater than offshore.



Levels of nutrients (nitrogens'and phosphates) were uniformly low at



all locations.
                               32

-------
Harrisville Hearshore Area



     Data collected during the study of the nearshore waters of



Lake Huron near Harrisville, IT miles north of the mouth of the



Au Sable River, (Table 12) indicated that only a minor amount of



pollution was generated in the shoreline area adjacent to the Au



Sable River Basin.  Any decrease in water quality in the immediate



vicinity of Harrisville harbor was quickly masked by the waters of



Lake Huron.  Samples collected near the breakwater (H350 and H35*0 and



on an arc about a mile from the breakwater (H351, H352, H353), showed



a minor water quality problem in the harbor.   BODc and oxidizable



nitrogen levels were slightly higher, as were total solids and sus-



pended solids.  Bacterial levels were higher in the harbor.  For



other parameters, there was no difference in levels.  Along the beach



at Harrisville State Park, MWRC sampling indicated a maximum coliform



density of 70,000 org/100 ml, with a median of 100 org/100 ml for



12 samples.



1966 MWRC Au Sable River Study



     In 1966, the Michigan Water Resources Commission studied the



Au Sable River.  Samples were collected on an around-the-clock basis



for ^Q hours from 23 stations on the main stream and tribtutaries.



The survey included ^5 miles of the main river from above Grayling



to the dam at Mio, 20 miles of the South Branch Au Sable River from



Roscommon to the confluence with the main branch, and various stretches



of other tributaries.  Chemical quality in the stream was excellent, with



the exception of phosphate levels in the Main Branch and South Branch.






                                   33

-------
The phosphate levels increased immediately below the primary plants



at Grayling and Roscoramon and then declined gradually.   Within



fifteen miles of the waste sources, phosphates were no  longer



detectable.  Bacterial quality was excellent,  except in the vicinity



of Grayling where statistical mean levels exceeded 1,000 total



coliforms/100 ml.



     Dissolved oxygen levels were high throughout the stream.  On



the "basis of average dissolved oxygen level, there was  a characteristic



dissolved oxygen depression below Grayling., The depression was



minor, amounting to less than 1 mg/1.  The minimum average level



was 7-6 mg/1 below Grayling, with a minimum single value of h.k mg/1.



The dissolved oxygen level was deceptive as photosynthetic production



of dissolved oxygen occurred-  At one location, the dissolved oxygen



varied from k.k to 12.0 mg/1, with an average  of 8 mg/1.  Minimum levels



of less than 5 rog/1 occurred at a number of sites during nighttime,



although during daylight supersaturation occurred.  An  extended period



of minumum light conditions, such as overcast  days, could conceivably



reduce photosynthesis to the point that respiration of algae would



reduce the dissolved oxygen to critical levels for trout.



     BODc and oxidizable nitrogen levels were  low, indicating that



the prime pollution problem from the treatment plants would be a



secondary effect of the nutrients in creating  algae growth, which



would result in an oxygen demand,.  The nutrients also caused the



growth of aquatic weeds and grasses which interfered with boating,



swimming, and fishing in the river.

-------
Biological Studies


     Three station on the Au Sable River and seven nearshore Lake


Huron stations were sampled periodically between October 1964 and


September 19^5   Four of these nearshore stations were at Harrisville


and three at Oscoda.  Benthic maeroinvertebrates, plankton algae,, and


attached algae were collected and preserved for later identification


and enumeration (Tables 13 through l6)


     The average depth of the Au Sable River was six feet at the


sampling stations below Foote Dam.  The bottom was composed of sand,


gravel and rock.  Secchi disc transparencies extended to the bottom


at more than half the stations sampled.  Nearshore stations at
                              I                                   ' <
Oscoda had a secchi disc visibility limit of three feet.  Lake Huron


waters near Harrisville, in contrast9 had transparencies of over


13 feet.  The reason for this apparent reduction in water clarity


near the Au Sable River mouth was probably increased algal populations.


Table 13 lists the physical observations noted during this study


     Benthic macroinvertebrate populations were not abundant in this


study area.  Standing crops ranged from only 3 per square foot (/sf)
                               i

to 186 per square foot.  Sludgeworm populations were small, averaging


less than 10 per square foot of bottom sampled.  Pollution-sensitive


organisms such as certain mayflies and caddijsflies were widespread.


A variety of aquatic organisms was recovered in the bottom dredgings


from this study area.  Fish-food organisms such as bloodworms were


present at every station sampled, both in the river and nearshore


(Table 14).



                                35

-------
     Phytoplankton populations were relatively low throughout the

study area except for a spring influx of green flagellates and some

filamentous blue-greens.  Sudden increases in standing algal crops

are sometimes due to natural causes such as the flushing of stagnant

areas by heavy rains.  Excluding the spring samples,  the phytoplankton

standing crop averaged 1,090 organisms per milliliter (/ml)o  Including

four spring counts, the average phytoplankton population counts were

over 2,000 org/ml (Table 15)<>

     Attached algae were not observed in great quantity in the lower

Au Sable River.  The only station where some growths  were found was

below Poote Dam (Table l6)0

     Although biological studies by the MWRC in 1966  on the Au Sable
                                                                 c

River near Grayling and Roscommon found locally degraded areas, much

of the lower Au Sable River was free from biological  degradation.
                   t
Samples of the adjacent Lake Huron waters near Oscoda and Harrisville

revealed no evidence of biological damage to the benthic invertebrate

populations.

Radiochemistry

     Radiochemistry results for the Au Sable River Basin and adjacent

shoreline area from data based on the 1965 sampling program are listed

in Tables 17 through 19  The samples were analyzed for suspended

(non-filtrable) and dissolved (filtrable) portions when filtered with

a 1.2 micromembrane filter and reported for alpha and beta activity

levels in picocuries per liter (pc/l).  Most samples  were composites

rather than individual samples.  Maximum activity levels of alpha



                               36

-------
emitters on water samples were  <=05 pc/1 dissolved and  .6 pc/1



suspended.  Maximum beta emitters  were  5-9 pc/1  dissolved and



1.8 pc/1 suspended.



     The counting error was  as high or  higher or in the magnitude



of the activity and indicated the  activity was 0 or below the



sensitivity of the test.   The data indicated no  apparent problem



of radioactivity.
                           3T

-------
                                KEY
                                FOR
                       WATER QUALITY TABLES
Station-Location shown on Figure 3.


Chemical Parameters  -  all results milligrams per liter (mg/1)
                        (exceptions noted)

     Phosphate - reported as phosphate (PO,)
          Total Phosphate - includes ortho, poly, biological, and
             organic.
          Total Soluble Phosphate - includes soluble ortho, soluble
             poly, and soluble organic.

     Vol. Susp. Solids - Volatile Suspended Solids.

     Phenol - reported as micrograms per liter ^ug/1).

     pH - measure of hydrogen ion activity - acidic (0), alkaline
        neutral (7).                                 ..

     7o Saturation - reported as percent.

     Total Iron - reported as micrograms per liter (pg/1)

     Total Hardness - reported as Calcium Carbonate (CaCCs)

     Conductivity - micromhos per centimeter (umhos/cm)
Microbiological Parameters  -  values obtained by membrane filter
                               technique, unless otherwise noted.

     Median values shown in Average column

     Total Coliform      )
     Fecal Coliform      )  reported as organisms/100 ml
     Fecal Streptococcus )

     Total Plate Count - number of bacteria/ml

     Michigan Water Resources Commission reported values in terms of
        MPN/100 ml (most probable number/100 ml)

-------
TABLE 9.  WATER QUALITY DATA
  Au Sable River Basin - 1965

      Y010 near Oscoda
Parameters
Dissolved Oxygen
Biochemical Oxygen Demand
Ammonia Nitrogen
Organic Nitrogen
Nitrate Nitrogen
Nitrite Nitrogen
Total Phosphate
Total Sol. Phosphate
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Vol. Suspo Solids
Chlorides
Phenol
PH
Chemical Oxygen Demand
NS Avgo
5 93
k I
2
2
2
1 .01
2
2
2 -
2
2 -
2
2
2
0
Low
7-3
1
.Ik
.10
.1
-
.08
,08
180
7
k
k
3
7.8
-
High
11. k
2
.17
.16
3
-
.1
..1
190
11
6
6
k
8.0
-
Parameters
Temperature (C)
$ Saturation
Total Iron
Sodium
Potassium
Calcium
Magnesium
Sulfate
Total Hardness
Conductivity
Total Coliform
Fecal Coliform
Fecal Strep
Total Plate Count
Total Plate Count
NS
11
5
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
11
11
11
0
0
Avgo Low "
9.0 o.o
87 76
- <100
*
1
k6
10
1
- ito
260
6,000 1*60
200 12
k6 10
-
-
High
22.0
96
500
5
2
1*8
13
11
160
290
k$t 000
7,200
400
-
-
                            35C

-------
 Parameters
 Dissolved Oxygen

 Biochemical Oxygen Demand
. i             '
 Ammonia Nitrogen

 Organic Nitrogen

 Nitrate Nitrogen

 Nitrite Nitrogen

 Total Phosphate

 Total Sol. Phosphate

 Total Solids

 Suspended Solids

 Vol.  Susp. Solids

 Chlorides

 Phenol

'pH1 .

 Chemical Oxygen Demand
                                TABLE 9-   WA.TEK QUALITY DATA
                                Au Sable River Basin  - 1965
         Y190 East Branch

NS   Avgo    Low    High

 0

 0
2 - .08
2 - .10
6 .2 .1
5 - <.01
6 - 
-------
TABLE 9-  WATER QUALITY DATA
 Au Sable River Basin - 1965

  AuS #Lh at Oscoda (MWRC)
Parameter '
Dissolved Oxygen
Biochemical Oxygen Demand
Ammonia Nitrogen
Organic Nitrogen
Nitrate Nitrogen
Nitrite Nitrogen
Total Phosphate
Total Sol. Phosphate
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Vol. Suspo Solids
Chloride
Phenol
PH
Chemical Oxygen Demand
NS
10
7
9
0
9
0
9
0
0
7
1
9
0
10
0
Avg^
10.8
2
.00
-
.1
-
.03
-
-
8
2
1
-
8.1 ,
Low High
7-2 13.0
1 3
.00 o 00
_
.0 .2
-
.00 .10
-
-
3 15
-
0 3
_
79 8.3
Parameter
Temperature (C)
% Saturation
Total Iron
Sodium
Potassium
Calcium
Magnesium
Sulfate
Total Hardness
Conductivity
Total Coliform
Fecal Coliform
Hecal Strep
Total Plate Count
20C
Total Plate Count
NS
10
10
0
1
1
1
1
i
1
9
7
0
0
0
0
Avgo Low
7.5 o.o
88 71
-
16
2
kk
12
8
160
290 220
15,000 4,300
-
-
-
High
23.0
103
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
350
39,ooo
-
-
-
                             35C

-------
                               TABLE 9-   WATER QUALITY DATA
                                Au Sable River Basin - 1965
Parameters
Dissolved Oxygen
Biochemical Oxygen Demand
Ammonia Nitrogen
Organic Nitrogen
Nitrate Nitrogen
Nitrite Nitrogen
Total Phosphate
Total Sol. Phosphate
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Vol. Susp. Solids
Chloride
Phenol
PH
Chemical Oxygen Demand
NS   Avg.
         Y020
       Low    High
 1
 1
 1
 1
 1
 0
 1
 1
 1
 1
 1
 1
 1
 1
 0
9.6
  l
.09
.09
.09
180
  7

  3
  5
8.1
Parameters
Temperature
% Saturation
Total Iron
Sodium
Potassium
Calcium
Magnesium
Sulfate
Total Hardness
Conductivity
Total Coliform
Fecal Coliform
Fecal Strep
Total Plate Count
20C
Total Plate Count
NS
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
Avg. Low
12.0
89 -
-
k
1.0
-
-
_
 -
270
-
-
-
-
_
High'
                                                            35C

-------
                               TABLE 10.   WA.TER QUALITY BA.TA,
                                    Au Sable River Basin  >
                             1965  Seasonal Coliform Variation


Season/           Total Coliform	     	Fecal Coliform	      Fecal Streptococci
Location     Median     Lov    High      Median     Lov     High     Median     Low     High

Jan.  -April

   YOIO      18,000    . 7,600   1*5,000      2,900     970     7,200       160      130      1*00

May  - Sept.

   yoio         820       1*60   6,000         7^      ^o       200        30       ii*       146

Oct.  - Dec.

   YOIO        3,1*00       800   42,000         1*0      12     3,700        32       10      190


Annual

   YOIO        6,000       1*60   1*5,000        200      12     7*200        1*6       10      1*00

-------
TABLE 11.  WATER QUALITY DATA
 Au Sable River Basin - 1965

        Oscoda Harbor
            H301
Parameters
Dissolved Oxygen
Biochemical Oxygen Demand
Ammonia Nitrogen
Organic Nitrogen
Nitrate Nitrogen
Nitrite Nitrogen
Total Phosphate
Total Sol. Phosphate
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Vol. Suspended Solids
Chloride
Phenol
PH
Chemical Oxygen Demand
NS
5
5
5
5
5
3
5
5
5
5
5
5
3
5
0
Avg.
11.0
2
.12
17
-
-
-
-
140
5
2
7
5
8.0
Low
9.0
1
<-05
.10
< .1
<.01
<.04
<.04
120
3
0
5
<2
7-6
High
12.4
2
.21
 3*
.2
<.01
.2
.1
150
10
5
18
10
8.3
Parameters
Temperature (C)
$ Saturation
Total Iron
Sodium
Potassium
Calcium
Magnesium
Sulfate
Total Hardness
Conductivity
Total Coliform
Fecal Coliform
Fecal Strep
Total Plate Count
20C
Total Plate Count
NS
5
5
5
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
2
2
h
]^
Avg.
12.5
102
-
4
1.8
28
10
15
100
200
69
-
-
160
77
Low
8.0
100
< 100
*
1.2
27
9
12
92
170
<1
<1
1
110
38
High
20.0
104
300
*
2.3
30
12
20
110
230
290
< 2
2
200
170
                         35C

-------
TABLE 11.  WATER QUALITY DATA
 Au Sable River Basin -1965

        Oscoda Harbor
            H302
Parameters
Dissolved Oxygen
Biochemical Oxygen Demand
Ammonia Nitrogen
Organic Nitrogen
Nitrate Nitrogen
Nitrite Nitrogen
Total Phosphate
Total Sol<, Phosphate
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Vol. Susp. Solids
Chloride
Phenol
pH
Chemical Oxygen Demand
NS
5
5
5
5
5
3
5
5
5
5
5
5
2
5
0
Ayg.
8.7
1
.20
.13
-
-
-
-
180
8
3
1*
-
8.1
Low
6.9
1
.14
.06
<.l
<.01
<.o4
<.o4
170
2
1
3
2
7.9
High
10.1
2
.32
.19
.1
<.01
.1
.1
200
19
8
5
3
Q.k
Parameters
.0
Temperature ( CJ
$ Saturation
Total Iron
Sodium
Potassium
Calcium
Magnesium
Sulfate
Total Hardness
Conductivity
Total Coliform
Fecal Coliform
Pecal Strep
Total Plate Count
20C
Total Plate Count
<
NS
5
5
5
k
k
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
4
4
Avg.
16.5
88
-
4
1.6
4o
14
10
l4o
260
460
26
36
2,000
950
Low
12.0
72
<100
4
1.2
35
13
2
120
200
190
4
10.
1,500
620
High
22.5
98
1,000
5
2.0
46
17
18
150
290
3,500
130
51
2,700
1,400

-------
TABLE 11.  WATER QUALITY DATA
 Au Satle River Basin - 1965

        Oscoda Harbor
            H303
Parameters
Dissolved Oxygen
Biochemical Oxygen Demand
Ammonia Nitrogen
Organic Nitrogen
Nitrate Nitrogen
Nitrite Nitrogen
Total Phosphate
Total Solo Phosphate
I
Total1 Solids
Suspended Solids
Vol. Suspo Solids
Chloride
Phenol
PH

Chemical Oxygen Demand

NS
5
5
5
5
5
3
5
5

5
5
5
5
2
5

0

Avg.
10,8
1
.19
.20
.1
-
-
_

150
4
1
6
-
80

-

Low
9.2
1
.06
.05
.1
<.OL
^ OH-
< 0 nil.

130
0
0
4
<2
7o8

-

High
11.9
2
= 43
.51
.2
<.01
.6
.6

170
9
3
10
4
8.1

_

Parameters
Temperature ( C)
$ Saturation
Total Iron
Sodium
Potassium
Calcium
Magnesium
Sulfate

Total Hardness
Conductivity
Total Coliform
Fecal Coliform
Fecal Strep
Total Plate Count
20C
Total Plate Count
35C
NS
5
5
5'
4
4
5
5
5

5
5
5
2
2
4

4

Avg^
13-0
102
-
4
1.7
28
10
17

110
220
18
-
-
510

210

Low
10.0
96
<100
4
1.2
24
8
7

96
180
<1
<1
1
l4o

4

High
20.0
106
800
5
2.0
35
12
36

140
260
130
2
2
2,800

600


-------
TABLE 11.  WA.TER QUALITY DATA
 Au Sable River Basin - 1965

        Oscoda Harbor
Parameters
Dissolved Oxygen
Biochemical Oxygen Demand
Ammonia Nitrogen
Organic Nitrogen
Nitrate Nitrogen
Nitrite Nitrogen
Total Phosphate
Total Solo Phosphate
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Vol. Suspo Solids
Chloride
Phenol
PH
Chemical Oxygen Demand
NS
5
5
5
5
5
3
5
5
5
5
5
5
.3
5
0
Avg.
10,9
1
 19
 15
-
-
-
-
130
5
2
7
-
8.0
Low
9-1
1
.10
<.05
<.i

-------
                               TABLE 12.  WA.TER QUALITY DATA
                                Au Sable River Basin - 1965
                                    1    "i '
                                    Harrisvi.lle Harbor
                                          H350
Parameter
Dissolved Oxygen
Biochemical Oxygen Demand
Ammonia Nitrogen
Organic Nitrogen
Nitrate Nitrogen
Nitrite Nitrogen
Total Phosphate
Total Sol. Phosphate
Total Solids'
Suspended Solids
Vol. Susp. Solids
Chloride
Phenol
PH
Chemical Oxygen Demand
NS
4
4
4
4
4
2
4
4
4
4
4
4
1
4
0
Avg.
10.3
2
.17
.21
.2
-
-
-
130
10
2
5
<2
8.0
-
Low
8.8
1
.14
.11
.1
<.OL
<.o4
<.o4
130
6
2
5
-
7.8
-
High
11.7
2
.19a
.30
3
<.OL
.08
.08
140
16
2
6
-
8.1
-
                                                          Parameter
NS
                                                          Temperature (C)     4
                                                          $ Saturation        4
                                                          Total Iron          4
                                                          Sodium              3
                                                          Potassium           3
                                                          Calcium             4
                                                          Magnesium           4
                                                          Sulfate             4
                                                          Total Hardness       4
                                                          Conductivity        4
                                                          Total Coliform       4
                                                          Pecal Coliform       4
                                                          Fecal Strep         4
                                                          Total Plate Count    3
                                                            20C
                                                          Total Plate Count   3
Avg.    Low
13*0   10.5
  98     92
 200
   4
 1.9
  28
   9
  18
 100
 200
  90
  12
   7
                4
              1.4
               26
                9
               13
               92
              180
               <2
               <2
                4
     3,800  1,600
       380      89
 High
 19.0
  109
  300
    5
  2.4
   30
    9
   21
  110
  210
  29P
  150
  100
4,300
  550
a  -  One value of 2.20 not used in computing the data.

-------
                             TABLE 12.  WATER QUALITI DATA
                              Au Sable River Basin - 1965
Parameter
Dissolved Oxygen
Biochemical Oxygen Demand
Ammonia Nitrogen
Organic Nitrogen
Nitrate Nitrogen
Nitrite Nitrogen
Total Phosphate
Total Sol. Phosphate
Total Solids
Suspendbd Solids
Vol. Susp. Solids
Chloride
Phenol
pH
Chemical Oxygen Demand
NS
4
4
4
4
4
2
4
4
4
4
4
*
1
*
0
Harr
Avg.
11.0
2
.12
.19
.2
-
-
-
120
6
2
5
<2
7-9
-
Isville
H351
Low
9.8
1
 05
.08
.1
<.01
<.04
<.o4
120
1
0
5
-
77
-
Harbor
High
11.9
2
.18
.28
 3
<.01
3
.06'
.20
10
4
5
-
8.1
-
Parameter _  NS

Temperature (C)    h

% Saturation        h

Total Iron          k

Sodium              2

Potassium           2

Calcium             k

Magnesium           4

Sulfate             4

Total Hardness      k

Conductivity        4

Total Coliform      k

Fecal Coliform      4

Fecal Strep         3

Total Plate Count   3
  200C
Total Plate Count   3
  35C
Avg.   Low

12.5  10.0

 104    97

 200  <100

  -      k
30
       2.0

        27
   98

  15     8

  98    9^

 190   170

   3    <2
  <2    <1

 100    52

  57     7
                                                                                                High

                                                                                                18.0

                                                                                                 108
                                                                                                 2.1

                                                                                                  36

                                                                                                   9

                                                                                                  19

                                                                                                 100

                                                                                                 200

                                                                                                   7

                                                                                                  <2

                                                                                                  <2

                                                                                                 220

                                                                                                  90
NS  =  Number of Samples

-------
TABLE 12.  WA.TER QUALITY DATA
 Au Sable River Basin - 1965

    Harrisville Harbor
           H352
Parameters
Dissolved Oxygen
Biochemical Oxygen Demand
Ammonia Nitrogen
Organic Nitrogen
Nitrate Nitrogen
Nitrite Nitrogen
Total Phosphate
Total Sol. Phosphate
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Vol. Susp. Solids
Chloride
Phenol
PH
Chemical Oxygen Demand
NS
4
4
4
4
4
2
4
4
4
4
4
4
2
4
0
Avg
10.9
1
.12
.15
.2
-
-
-
120
5
4
5
-
7-9
Low
9.7
1
.05
.06
.1
<.01
<,04
<.o4
110
2
0
5
<2
7.8
High
11.8
2
.17
.30
 3
<.01
.06
o06
130
8
7
6
4
8.0
Parameters
Temperature (C)
% Saturation A
Total Iron
Sodium
Potassium
Calcium
Magnesium
Sulfate
Total Hardness
Conductivity
Total Coliform
Fecal Coliform
Fecal Strep
Total Plate Count
20C
Total Plate Count
35C
NS
4
4
4
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
2
2
3
3
Avg.
12.0
102
100
4
1.6
27
9
21
97
190
<2
-
-
80
7
Low
10.0
96
<100
3
1.0
26
8
10
94
170
<1

-------
TABLE 12.  WATER QUALITY DATA
 Au Sable River Basin - 1965

     Harrisville Harbor
           H353
Parameters
Dissolved Oxygen
Biochemical Oxygen Demand
Ammonia Nitrogen
Organic Nitrogen
Nitrate Nitrogen
Nitrite Nitrogen
Total Phosphate
Total Sol. Phosphate
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Vol. Susp. Solids
Chloride
Phenol
PH
Chemical Oxygen Demand
NS
4
4
4
4
4
2
4
4
4
4
4
4
2
4
0
Avg.
11.0
1
.20
.16
.1
-
-
-
120
7
3
5
-
7.9
-
Low
9-7
1
.06
.06
.1
<.01
<.o4
<.o4
110
5
i
5
<2
7.8
-
High
11-9
2
38
34
.1
<.01
1.6
1-3
130
10
*
5
3
8.1
-
Parameters
Temperature (C)
% Saturation
Total Iron
Sodium
Potassium
Calcium
Magnesium
Sulfate
Total Hardness
Conductivity
Total Coliform
Fecal Coliform
Fecal Strep
Total Plate Count
20C
Total Plate Count
r\
NS
4
4
4
3
3
4
4
*
*
4
4
2
2
3
3
Avg'.
12-5
103
200
4
2-3
27
9
14
94
190
<2
-
-
140
12
Low
10.0
97
<100
4
1.3
24
8
11
90
170

-------
                                          TABLE 12.  WATER QUALITY DATA

                                           Au Sable River Basin  - 1965



                                               Harrisville Harbor

                                                      H351*
\J\
ro
Parameter
Dissolved Oxygen
Biochemical Oxygen Demand
Ammonia Nitrogen
Organic Nitrogen
Nitrate Nitrogen
Nitrite Nitrogen
Total Phosphate
Total Sol. Phosphate
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Vol. Susp. Solids
Chloride
Phenol
PH
Chemical Oxygen Demand
NS
k
k
k
k
k
2
k
k
k
k
k
k
2
k
0
Avg.
10,5
3
.25
.25
.2
-
-
-
170
35
6
5
-
8.0
Low
9.3
2
.18
.15
.1
<.01
.oV
<.<*
llK)
10
0
5
<2
7.7
High
11.8
6
.38
.38
 3
'.01
,6
.k
220
9*
15
5
k
8.3
Parameter
Temperature (c)
$ Saturation
Total Iron
Sodium 
Potassium
Calcium
Magnesium
Sulfate
Total Hardness
Conductivity
Total Coliform
Fecal Coliform
Fecal Strep
Total Plate Count
20C
Total Plate Count
35C
NS
k
]i
K
3
3-
k
k
k
k
k
k
3
3
3
3
Avg.
13-5
101
300
k
1.8
28
9
16
100
210
19
16
18
2,000
270
Low
10oO
92
<100
k
i.U
2k
9
12
100
180
<1
<2
2
1,500
190
High
20.0
112
900
5
2.1
32
10
19
110
220
350
131
6k
2,600
580

-------
 TABLE 13.  BIOLOGICAL DATA - PIHSICAL OBSERVATIONS
          Au Sable River Basin - 196^-1965
          Average Depth
Station     ( feet ) _

Au Sable River

   Y010        8
  ' Y014        7
   Y020        7

Nearshore Oscoda
H301
H303
              20
              15
Nearshore Earrisville

   H351       20
   H352       31
   H353       21
                         Average
                       Secehi.Disc
                         (feet)
                           6
                           6
3
3
                          13
                          15
                          15
          Bottom Types
          Sandj, detritus
          Sand
          Sand, gravel,  rock
Sand
Sand
Sand
          Sand
          Sand, silt
          Rock
                          53

-------
                        TABLE l^o  BIOLOGICAL DATA - BMTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE3
                                          Au Sable River Basin
                                               196k - 1965
                                       (Organisms per Square Foot)
vn
Station/
Date
Sludge -
worms
Hearshore Oscoda
H301
V21/65
H303
V21/65

11

3
Finger -
Blood- Sow Snails nail May- Caddis
worms bugs Pulau ProsOo Clams Scuds flies flies Others*


4 - (s)X

3 - (e)X

Total


15

6
Au Sable River
Y010
7/13/65
9/16/65
10/22/&
4/21/65
7/13/65
9/16/65

_
-
1
-
3
H*

36 - 9 6 9 X 11 (J)15
.&. cK!E- &*$&, 4gja.
iK X    (ft ^V TVtV oo *5 iV OB
3 3 (a)l
3 	
10--- x---
123-.- -_-_

86

8
3
13
15
     *   See explanation, page 56
     **  Present only in qualitative samples
     X-  Less tHan one per square foot

-------
                           TABLE 14.   BIOLOGICAL BA.TA - BMTHIC MCR032TVERTEBMTES
                                             Au Sable River Basin
                                                 1964 - 1965
                                         (brgariisms per Square Foot)
VJl
1
Station/ Sludge -
Date. worms
Au Sable River (Cont'c
Y020
10/22/64 1
4/21/65 1

7/13/65 **
9/16/65 **
Near shore Harris ville
' H351
7/13/65 4
H353
7/13/65 96
-
Blood- Sow Snails
worms bugs Pulnu Proso<,
il

24 1
29

35 9  -
24 - ** -


16

36 - - x
Finger-
nail May- Caddis
Clams Scuds flies flies


6 6 3
1 - 11 <
(


Other* Total


r l,(k)4 43
5 1 (b)l 44
I'X
6 9 1 11 (3)15 (n)** 86
3 14 97 (,


J)li8 .- 186


X 1 (e)X 21


73-- (e)37 179
      *   See explanation^  page 56
      **  Present only in qualitative samples
      X-   Less than one per square foot

-------
           EXPLANATION LIST FOR
   BMTffiCC MA.CE033TVERTIBRA.TES  (Table
a  Ceratopogonidae

"b c  Tipulldae

c.  Hirudinea

do  Turbellaria

eo  Nematoda

f.  ^rdracarina

g.  Anisoptera

h  Corlxidae

1.  KLmidae

j.  Diptera

k.  Coleoptera

1.  Zygoptera

mo  Plecoptera

n  Decapoda

o.  Hemiptera

p.  Porlfera

q.  Isopoda

TO  Lumbriculidae

So  Cladocera

-------
                             TABLE 15.   BIOLOGICAL DATA  - PHYTOPLANKTQN
                                        Au Sable  River Basin
                                     October 1964~Wovember 1965
                                             Numbers per Milliliter
                                        Blue-     Blue-        Green    Brown           Predominant
Station/    Centric  Pennate  Green     Green     Green Fila-  Flag-    Flag-           Genera
Date	  Diatoms  Diatoms  Coccoids  Goccoids  mentous      elletes  elletes  Total  (10$ or more)*
Hearshore Oscoda

  H301
    T/13/65 1,260    1,340       800       20

  H302
    T/13/65   250      500       130       hO

  H303
    4/21/65   340      500        40
    T/13/65    to      34o        4o       20

  H304
    7/13/65    80      340       100
                         40       4o   3,500  a,f,z


             60          80       20   1,080  a,h,f
                     10,900       -   11,780  z
             20          -        kO     500  f,l,e'
             20          20       hO     600  a,e,s
Au Sable River

  Y010
    2/24/65   300       60
    4/12/65   150      380
    4/16/65   130      130        ho
    5/13/65   hho      hoo        60
    6/10/65   150      100        ho
     7/7/65    80      270        ho
    7/13/65   360      230       230
   10/20/65   270      130        20
   11/30/65   130      190        20
 ho
170
          7,060
100
 80       -      hho  a,z
250       -      780  la,a,f,g,h
               7,360  w
250       20   1,170  a,z
210      230     730  la,a,y
400       60     890  z,i
               1,090  s,g
340       -      760  y
 80       -      420  a,c,z

-------
vn
CD
                                   TABLE 15.  BIOLOGICAL DATA ,- PHYTOPLANKTQN

                                              Au Sable River Basin

                                           October 1964-November 1965
                                                     Numbers per Milliliter
Blue- Blue-
Station/ Centric Pennate Green Green Green Fila-
Date Diatoms Diatoms Coceoids Coccoids mentous .
Green Brown Predominant
Flag- Flag- Genera
elletes elletes Total ( 10$ or more)*
Au Sable River ( Cont'd)
Y014
10/22/64
4/21/65
9/16/65
Y020
4/21/65
7/13/65
9/16/65
110
270
230
80
190
190
150 - 20
270
150 20 20 20
210 - - 7,850
170 20 -
20 20 -
1,140 - 1,420 z
540 a,g,h
440 g,a
40 8,180 v
380 a,h,e
230 a
Nearshore Harrisville ....,:
H350
7/13/65
H352
7/13/65
360 3,
_
46o 270 20
60 4o -
440 4,550 g,h,la
20 120 -
        H353
          7/13/65   130      270       360       -           20-60     840  a
      *See explanation list, page 59

-------
                EKPLAHA.HOT LIST FOR .    "
   PEEDCMIHANT PHXTOPLAUKTCH GENERA. (Table 15)
Centric Diatoms                           Brown Flagellates

     a.   Cyclotella - Stephanodiscus          la.  Dinobryon
     b    Rhi zo solenia

Pennate Diatoms
Co
do
Co
f.
g
h.
1." '
J 
k.
Asterionella
Diatoma
Fragilaria
Gomphonema
Navicula
Nitzschia
Synedra
Tabellaria
Unidentified
Green Coccoids

     1=  ". Actinastrum
     m.   Ankistrodesmus
     n.   Closteritm
     o .   Coelsphaeritm
     p .   Golerikinia
     q_   Gomphosphaeria
     TO   Oocystis
     So   Scenedesmus
     t o   Tetraedon

Blue -Green Coeeoids

     ..u.   Anacystis

Blue -Green Filamentous

     v.   Oscillatoria
     w.   Phormidium

Green Flagellates

     x   Euglena
     y.   Trachelomonas
     z.   Unidentified

-------
   TABLE 16.  BIOLOGICAL DATA. - ATTACHED ALGAE
              Au Sable River Basin
                   1964 _ 1965
Station          Date                  Vegetation Type
  Y010         9/16/65               No vegetation observed

  Y014        10/22/64               No visible algae or slime
               9/16/65               No vegetation observed, small
                                     amount of green algae on rocks

  Y020         10/7/64               No emergent vegetation
              10/22/64               No vegetation or algae
               4/21/65               Mougeotia sp_<.
               7/13/65               No vegetation
               9/16/65               No emergent vegetation
                       60

-------
                          TABLE 17.  WITER QUALITY DATA.  - RADIOACTIVITY  - 1965
                                        Au Sable River  Basin
                                           Au Sable River

                            Y010		   Y190
Parameters
Dissolved
ALPHA.
Error
BETA
Error
Suspended
ALPHA
Error
BETA
Error
NS*

3
3
3
,3

,3
3
3
3
Avg. Low

0.05 005
1.3 0.7
^5 32
2.9 1.5

0.05 0.05
0.5 0.2
0.27 0-.05
2.1 0.8
High

0.05
2.2
59
5o5

0.05
1.1
0.70
U.5
US*3

1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
* Avg. Low High NS Avg. Low High

0.05 -
0.8
0.05
1.5

0.05
0.2
0.05
0.8
*   Y010 - Results from 5 samples composited into 3=
**  Y190 - Results from 2 samples composited into 1.

-------
ON
ro
Parameters


Dissolved

  ALPHA

    Error

  BETA

    Error


Suspended

  ALPHA

    Error

  BETA

    Error
                               IABLE I8o   WAITER QUALITY DATA  - RADIOACTIVITY
                                             Au Sable River Basin
                                                Oscoda Nearshore
                                                                       -1965
                                 H301
                        NS*  Avg.   Low
2

2

2

2
                          2

                          2

                          2

                          2
                   High
0.7

3*6

1.4
                                             0.7
           
-------
                               TABLE l8o   WVTER QUALITY DATA  -RADIOACTIVITY
                                              Au Sable River  Basin
                                                 Oscoda Nearshore
- 1965
                                H304
ON
Parameters
Dissolved
ALPHA
Error
BETA
Error
Suspended
ALPHA
Error
BETA
Error
US* Avg. Low High WS Avg. Low High HS Avg, Low High

2 - <0.05 <0.05
2 - 0,6 0.7
2 - 3=6 52
2 -'l.l* 1.5

2 - <0.05 Oo30
2 - Oo3 Ook
2 - 0.2 02
2 - 0<,8 0=8
      *  H304 - Results  from 5  samples  composited into 2=

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ON
                               .TABLE 19.  WATER QUALITY DATA - RADIQACHVITy - 1965
                                               Au Sable River Basin
                                                Harrisville Nearshore
H350
Parameters
Dissolved
ALPHA
Error
BETA
Error ,
Suspended
ALPHA
Error
BETA
Error
NS* Avgo

2
2
2
2

2
2
2
2
Low High

<0o05 <0.05
0.5 0.7
2,2 39
1.4 1.4 -


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                                TABLE 19'.  WATER QUALITY DA.TA - RADIOACTIVITY

                                               Au Sable River Basin

                                              Harrisville Kearshore
o\
vn
Parameters
Dissolved
ALPHA.
Error
BETA
Error
Suspended
ALPHA.
Error
BETA.
Error

NS*

2
2
2
2

2
2
2
2
H353
Avg. Low

<005
0.5
3=3
l.fc


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                    WA.TER QtlALITT PROBEM3



     Areas of degraded water quality were found below cities in the

interior of the "basin and immediate harbor areas at Oscoda.   There were

no significant sources of pollution to Lake Huron in the Au Sable -

Oscoda area.except those discharging to the Au Sable River.,   Those

sources in the immediate area included the discharge from individual

septic systems and plane washings effluent from Wurtsmith Air Force

Base sewage treatment plant, storm runoff j, and urban drainage.,

     Wastes from municipalities and other sources in the upper parts

of the basin had a deleterious effect on water quality.   These included

the conservative pollutants such as chlorides^ and the semiconservative

pollutants such as nutrients which persist in the stream through many

cycles.  These contaminants have not resulted in gross pollution but have

created problems in local areas.,  The fact that the Au Sable River
                                                 (         i
demands the highest water quality, because of its prime recreational

use for trout fishing and canoeing^ makes the addition of even the

slightest pollution a problem.  The mitrients from the waste effluents

of Grayling and Roscommon have been cited as the principal cause of the

increased algal levels in the stream.  To these point sources must be

added the many incremental sources which are increasing rapidly along

the banks of the mainstream and tributaries from recreational

development.  Septic tank systems add a considerable nutrient load to

the stream.  The attractiveness of the stream is now threatened by

those who come to the area to en^oy the waters.  It may be expected



                                66

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that present quantities of wastes generated in the basin will increase



significantly in the future.  Projections indicate that waste from



municipal systems will double by 1990 and more than quadruple by 2020.



     In the adjacent Lake Huron shoreline area, a significant potential



source of pollution exists less than a mile north of Harrisville.  This



is the submerged pipeline which extended li miles from shore.  Fuel



tankers anchor in the 3 to 35-feet deep water, engage and raise the



flexible end of the pipeline, and pump the cargo to a fuel farm located



onshore.  On November 13, 1966 > a tanker carrying jet fuel, to supply



Wurtsmith Air Force Base, accidently cut the pipeline with its anchor



pumping 162,000 gallons of jet fuel into the water.  Fortunately, this



fuel was volatile and no lasting effects occurred.  However, a heavier



fuelf such as bunker or crude oil, would have caused considerable



damage to the -aquatic environment and the shoreline.



     There were no significant sources of pollution nor were there any



major water quality problems in the shoreline tributaries to Lake Huron.
                              67

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