CHEBOYGAN RIVER - MICHIGAN

     WATER QUALITY DATA
         1965 SURYET
Glean Water Series LHBO-20-A
         U.i» OEPARTWENT  OF  THE  INTERIOR

           Water  Pollution Control  Administration
                  Greet Lukes  Region

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                              U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                               Grsat Lakes National Program Office
                                         GLNPO Library
           CHEBOYGAN RIVER - MICHIGAN

               WATER QUALITY DATA
                   1965 SURW
          Clean Water Series LHBO-20-A
                  JANUARY 1969
         U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
Federal Water Pollution.Control Administration
               Great Lakes Region
            Lake Huron Basin; Office
            'U.S. Naval Air Station
           Grosse He, Michigan  1*8138

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           CHEBOYGAN RIVER - MICHIGAN

               WATER QUALITY DATA
                   1965 SURVEY
          Clean Water Series LHBO-20-A
                  JANUARY 1969
         U.S. DEPARTMENT OP THE INTERIOR
Federal Water Pollution.Control Administration
               Great Lakes Region
            Lake Huron Basin: Office
             U»S. Naval Air Station
           Grosse lie,, Michigan  ^8138

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                      TABLE OF CONTENTS


                                                       gageJNo.:

INTRODUCTION o . o  .  <,....., .  .  .  .  .  „  0  „  »  .  o  » »    1

GENERAL DESCRIPTION . o .  . . o  »  „  .  .  .  .  o  <,  <,  .  .  „     6

    Area Description "
    Climate
    Hydrology
WATER USE
    Municipal
    Industrial
    Water-Related Recreation
    Commercial Shipping

SOURCES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES   .......  .j^.   19

    Municipal
    Industrial
    Federal

POPULATION AND WASTELOAD PROJECTIONS  .  .  .  .  o  o  .  .  .  .   23

WATER QUALITY DATA ...............-..•...'' 28

     Chemistry and Microbiology
     Biology
     Radio chemistry

WATER GPALITT PROBLEMS  ...........  i  ......  58

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                          LIST OF TABLES


Table.No.                                                    Page No.

    1       Flow Characteristics                                11

    2       Cheboygan River Basin Sampling Stations             12

    3       Municipal Water Supplies                            18

    k       Projected Water Use                                 18

    5       Municipal Waste Treatment Plants                    21
            1965 Effluent Characteristics

    6       Industrial Waste Characteristics                    21

    7       Inventory of Wastevater Disposal at                 22
            Federal Installations

    8       Waste Flow Projections                              25

    9       BODj Projections                                    26

   10       Water Quality Data - Cheboygan River Basin          35-39

   11       Water Quality Data - Cheboygan Harbor               kO~k3

   12       Water Quality Data - Straits of Mackinac            M-46

   13       Water Quality Data - Mackinaw City                  kj

   Ik       Biological Data - Physical Observations             kQ

   15       Biological Data - Benthic Macroinvertebrates        ^9-51

   16       Biological Data - Phytoplankton                     52-5^

   IT       Biological Data - Attached Algae and                55
            Aquatic Vegetation

   18       Water Quality Data - Radioactivity .                 56
            Cheboygan River

   19       Water Quality Data - Radioactivity                  57
                                 ii

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                       LIST OF FIGURES


Figure No.                                               FageJNOc

   1          Drainage Basins of the Great Lakes            3

   2          Lake Huron Basin                              k

   3          Cheboygan River Basin                         5

   k          Flow Duration Curve  - Cheboygan River       lA
              near Cheboygan
   5     '     Flow j'lixi'ation Ourve  - Black River near      15
              Cheboygan

   6          Population and Municipal Waste  Flow         27
              Projections
                             iii

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                           INTRODUCTION


     The water quality data contained in this report are the results

of field investigations and other studies conducted in 1965 and 1966 to

provide information for a water pollution control plan for the Lake

Huron Basin.  The Lake Huron Basin Study is a part of the Great Lakes-

Illinois River Basins Project, directed by the Great Lakes Region,

Federal Water Pollution Control Administration (FWPCA) and under

authority of Public Law 84-660 (33 U.S.C. 466 et seq.).
     Sec. 3. (a)'  The Secretary shall, after careful investigation,
     and in cooperation with other Federal agencies, with State
     water pollution control agencies and interstate agencies, and
     with the municipalities and industries involved, prepare or
     develop comprehensive programs for eliminating or reducing the
     pollution of interstate waters and tributaries thereof and
     improving the sanitary condition of surface and underground
     waters.  In the development of such comprehensive programs due
     regard shall be given to the improvements which are necessary
     to conserve such waters for public water supplies, propagation
     of fish and aquatic life and wildlife, recreational purposes,
     and agricultural, industrial, and other legitimate uses.  For
     the purpose of this section, the Secretary is authorized to
     make joint investigations with any such agencies of the con-
     dition of any waters in any State or States, and of the
     discharges of any sewage, industrial wastes, or substance
     which may adversely affect such waters.
     Total water quality planning begins in the headwaters of the

individual river basins and continues downstream through the major

tributaries to and including the Great Lakes.  The extent and complex-

ity of the Great Lakes and tributaries are shown on Figures 1, 2,

and 3.

     Water quality standards for interstate waters (Lake Huron) have

been adopted by the State of Michigan and approved by the Secretary

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of the Interior.  Intrastate standards for Michigan are being implemented

by the Michigan Water Resources Commission.  These standards will form

a basis for long-range plan for controlling pollution and maintaining

water quality for Lake Huron and its tributaries.


                          ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

     The principal agencies taking an active part in providing assistance

in the preparation of the report are as follows:

     State Agencies   - Michigan Water Resources  Commission
                        Michigan Department of Public Health

     Federal Agencies - U.S. Department of Commerce
                           Weather Bureau
                           Office of Business Economics
                           Bureau of Census

                        U.S. Department of the Interior
                           Bureau of Commercial Fisheries
                           Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife
                           Bureau of Outdoor Recreation
                           Geological Survey

     For further information, contact the following:

          Lake Huron Basin Office
          Federal. Water Pollution Control Administration
          U.S. Naval Air Station
          Grosse lie, Michigan  48138

          Michigan Water Resources Commission
          Stevens T. Mason Building
          Lansing, Michigan  48926

          Michigan Department of Public Health
          3500 N. Logan
          Lansing, Michigan  48914

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                                                                                   DETROIT  PROGRAM  OFFICE
                                                                             DRAINAGE   BASINS  OF  THE
                                                                                     GREAT   LAKES
 )  x"\     ONTARIO
.'  /   .                               U.S. DEPARTMENT OF  THE INTERIOR
\ J     \                      FEDERAL  WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ADMINISTRATION
          X.                     GREAT LAKES  REGION        GROSSE  ILE, MICHIGAN
            \                                  SCALE  IN MIL ES
             I  /L.                   t-i  i—i  t—i      i     =1      i      [
             v*   >                  30      0      50     IOO    ISO    2OO
                                                                                                  QUEBEC
MINNE SOTA
            (    WISCONSIN  /
                         ILLINOIS
                                                                                           P C K -'v 5- Y L V A N I A
                                           I N 0 I A iv A

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                                                                       FIGURE  2
I.  SAOINAW  RIVER
Z.  CASS RIVER
3.  FLINT  RIVER
4.  SHIAWASSEE RIVER
6,  TITTABAWAS3EE RIVER
 6. MICHIGAN TRIBUTARIES
   TO SAGINAW BAY
 7. MICHIGAN TRIBUTARIES
   TO LOWER  LAKE HURON
 6. AU SABLE  RIVER
 9. THUNDER BAY RIVER
10. CHEBOYGAN RIVER  .
I I. ST MARYS  RIVER AND
   MICHIGAN UPPER PENINSULA
   TRIBUTARIES TO LAKE HURON
12.  MISSISSAGI RIVER
13.  SPANISH  RIVER
14.  WANAPITEI RIVER
IB.  FRENCH  RIVER
16.  MAGANATAWAN RIVER
17.  MUSKOKA  RIVER
18.  SEVERN RIVER
19.  SAUGEEN RIVER
20.  MAITLAND RIVER
21.  AU SABLE  RIVER
                                                                I
                                                          SCA LC IN  MILES
                                                                               so
                         DETROIT  PROGRAM  OFFICE

                        LAKE   HURON   BASIN
                         U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
                 FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL  ADMINISTRATION
                  GREAT LAKES  REGION        GROSSE I L E , MICHIGAN

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STftA/TS  OF
                                                                                                                                     —  Municipal 6  Induitrial  Wo»t» Outfall*
                                                                                                                                  16-CHE  MWRC  Sampling  Station*
                                                                                                                                         USGS Gaging  Station*
                                                                                                                                       CHEBOYGAN   RIVER  BASIN

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                       GENERAL DESCRIPTION


Area Description

     The Cheboygan River Basin, with, a drainage area of l.,590 square

miles, lies in the uppermost part of the Lower Peninsula,,  It is comprised

of parts of Emmett, Charlevoix, Cheboygan, Presque Isle, Otsego, and
\
Montmorency Counties.  The major city, Cheboygan, is a commercial fishing

port located in a year-round resort area»  The basin is "bounded on the

southeast "by the Thunder Bay River Basin,? on the northeast by Lake Huron,,

and on all other boundaries by land adjacent to Lake Michigan..

     The basin, an irregularly-shaped circle with a diameter of ho miles,,

has 23 percent of its surface area in lakes and swamps.  Three of the

lakes - Mullett, Burt, and Black Lakes - are among the largest inland

lakes in the State, with surface areas of 16,630, 'l'7,120, and 10,130 acres*

     The major tributaries - Maple, Sturgeon, Black, Rainy, and Pigeon

Rivers - join the main stem through one of the large inland lakes.  The

main stem of the river is a short stretch of s±x miles between Mullett

Lake and Lake Huron.  The 1,600 square miles which comprise the combined

watersheds of these several rivers have some of the most rugged topography

in lower Michigan.  Relief within the basin is several hundred feet in

places.  The highest hills are in the south and west-  Moraine, outwash,

and lakebed deposits each account for about 30 percent of the basin and

the rest is till plain.

     Indian River Basin, above the sampling station, includes Burt Lake

drainage and Sturgeon River drainage which enters Burt Lake a short

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distance above its outlet to Indian. River, the connecting waterway "between


Burt and Mullett Lakes.  Much of this "basin is in State forest, with a


number of small communities throughout the area-  Extensive development


exists along the shore of Burt Lake, principally in the form of summer



cottages, hotels, motels, and trailer parks, with year-round residences


on the increase.


     The outlet from Mullett Lake contains runoff of the Cheboygan River


excluding the Black River system.  The character of the drainage basin



is rapidly changing.  The older vacation-area communities which developed
     • •>.••'                                     '   •

along the New York Central Railroad tracks on the western shore of Mullett



.Lake form a nucleus for the development of recreation and tourist industry


as well as year round home sites on the shores of the lakes and rivers.


     The Cheboygan River at Cheboygan includes the drainage from the Black



River Basin.  Much of the Black River drainage basin is in State forests -


Black Lake, Hardwood, and Thunder Bay River.  Onaway, the second largest


community in the basin, with a population of 1,^00, is located near Stony


Creek, a tributary to Black Lake*  As with  Burt and Mullett Lakes, numerous


settlements have developed along the shore of Black Lake.  These are


primarily recreation oriented developments, such as hotels, motels, summer


cottages, trailer parks and campgrounds.  Much of the upper Black River


Basin is forest area with campgrounds, fishing sites, waterfowl areas,


and gravel pit developments.  Cheboygan River is impounded by the Consumers


Power Company lock and dam.

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     Downstream of the lock and dam, the character of the stream banks



changes radically from the former rural character to that of a city, with




numerous commercial and light industrial activities lining the banks.




These include marinas, lumber companies, oil and coal storage areas, and



docks..  A navigatioh channel and turning basin are maintained to a 21-foot



depth.  The Cheboygan sevage treatment plant discharges to the lower reach



of the navigation channel.



     The principal tributary in the area draining to Lake Huron between




the Mackinac Bridge and Cheboygan River Basin is Mill Creek.  It receives



the outflow from Dingraan Marsh Flooding, an artificial impoundment in



Hardwood State Forest which forms the major portion of this area.



Mackinaw City, with a I960 population of 93^, is the only population



center.  There are numerous motels, trailer parks, and pottages located



along US-23, the Lake Huron shoreline highway.



     From the Cheboygan River Basin to the Thunder Bay area, the shoreline



area draining to Lake Huron is sparsely settled.  The Ocqueoc River, with



a drainage area of 160 square miles, is the largest river basin.  Black



Lake State Forest occupies much of the area.  There are a number of small



settlements.  Summer residences are increasing in number along the Lake



Huron shore.



Climate



     The climate of the Cheboygan River is modified by the upper Great



Lakes which warm the air in winter and cool it in summer.  This climate



is typical of the entire upper Great Lakes area, and can be described



as having a wide seasonal variation, many storms, and a relatively



                                 8

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constant yearly precipitation distribution.  In the winter, this pre-


cipitation is usually in the form of snow<>  The mean yearly temperature


is ^3°F, while the mean winter and summer temperatures are 27°F and


59 F, respectively.  There is an average yearly precipitation of 28
                                                       \ •

inches in the "basin.  The growing season is 150 days.


Hydrology


     The Cheboygan River Channel, 1^- miles in length from the mouth to


the Consumers. Power Company lock and dam, is maintained by Corps of


Engineers to a depth of 21 feet in the harbor and depth of 8|r feet to


the lock.  The width varies from 200 to 60 feet.  The lift of the lock


is about 13-^ feet.  Water flow is controlled by the dam, and hydro-


electric power is produced for the local area.


     Above the lock, the impounded Cheboygan River is wide and deep for


2§- miles to its junction with the Black River-  Above this junction, the


river outside the channel is foul with stumps and snags for the remain-


ing 2|r miles to Mullett Lake.


     The Cheboygan River is an integral part of the Inland Route,


connecting Lake Huron to Lakes Mullett, Burt, Crooked, and Pickerel.  Four


connecting waterways - Cheboygan, Indian, Crooked Rivers, and Pickerel
                                             /
Channel - a distance of 36 miles in length, run east and west across the


northern part of Michigan's lower peninsula to within a few miles of


Lake Michigan.  This route may someday be extended from Conway via a


lock to Little Traverse Bay, an arm of Lake Michigan.


     There are seven U.So Geological Survey (USGS) gaging stations in the


Cheboygan River Basin, of which two were utilized in this report-

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     The first gaging station, Cheboygan_Riverjiear Cheboygan, has a
                      ' - •     •  • i    •        '      .

drainage area of 865 square miles and is located 300 feet downstream

from Mullett Lake, 2| miles upstream from Black River, and 5 miles

south of Cheboygan.  It has "been in operation from October 19^2 to

the present.

     The second USGS gaging station is Black River near Cheboygan.,  It

is located 0.3 mile downstream from Black Lake, 5-3 miles upstream from

Alverno Dam, and 12.5 miles southeast of Cheboygan.  It has been in

operation from October 19^2 to the present and, has a drainage area of

597 square miles.

     The low flow average discharge for one, seven, and thirty con-

secutive days duration, with a recurrence interval of ten years, has

been calculated by use of Gumbel's logarithmic extremal probability

paper,.  The stations used were Cheboygan River near Cheboygan and
                                     I
Black River near Cheboygan„

     The range of USGS recorded daily discharges and yields at these

gaging stations are shown on Table 1, along, with the computed drought

flows.  Regulation to some extent occurs at both locations.

     Figures h and 5 are flow duration curves for the Cheboygan River

near Cheboygan and the Black River near Cheboygan.  The relatively

steep gradient of the Black River curve indicated the extreme variation
                               '''.''      '        '      '  .  '      I
in flow of this, river.  Sampling station locations are shown on Figure 3

and described in Table 2.
                                10

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                                  TABLE 1.  FLOW CHARACTERISTICS
                                    Cheboygan River Basin
                                                DSGS Records         Computed Drought (low) flows*
                                              Flow      Yield         Duration   Flow      *ield
                                              (efs)     (cfsm)         (days)    (cfs)     (cfsm)
Cheboygan River near Chebojgairir
  865 sq. «L.
      M."V3ST USST
      sq. mi.
            Interval «af cmce ewiy tez& years for perioS HrihmnB; 2^500 %^ x
IfeSii Tfn» jriUW'Ti la aOl^^J- 7
Average %lo »^9T 30
120
250

15

72
•139
.289
• 393
.025
.067
,120

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TABLE 2,  SAMPLING STATIONS
   Chebbygan River Banin
           River
                       Tributary
Station   Mile Point   Mae fcint
Y500


YJ510


Y515


Y520


Y550
              .8


             2.0


             k.O


             5.6


            19.2
  Y560      20.2
Y565
Y590
16-CHE
(MWRC)
          20.0
          1B.O
              .25
  Chelx>ygan Harbor

       H523

       H524

       H525


       H526

       H527

       H528
                       1,0,  .3
                          5.5
                                    Locatipji

                     W©st State Street bridge,
                     US -23; Ch©boygan

                     Lineoln Avenu© bridge in
                     Cheboygan
                     Orehard B©aeh
                     Slack River
                     M»33 toidfe,  k Bdles upstream
                     from Chs'boygan
                     I-T5 ^ri^ge east of Indian River
                     on Indian River
                     Ui-gT fcriag© in Indian River
                     on Indian Riv@r

                     Ui?2T 'bridg© on the Sturgeon
                     Riv@r, iouth of Indian River

                     Figion liver, Mullett Lake
                     tributary, M-IS fcridge

                     ielmr @§mg@ treatment plant at
                     ^,000' §ast §f Ohefeoygan Crib Light

                     ^,000' n§rthw@st ef Sheboysan Crib Lt.

                     30' north of Crib Mght in Cheboygan
                     T;T00' ffOffl Crib

                     15 ,1*00* from Crib

                     ii, ^00' from Crib.
              32

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                  TABLE 2.  SAMPLING STATIONS (cont'd)
                     Cheboygan River Basin
Nearshore (cont.)

Mackinaw City

 H500


 H502
 H518
Location

3,800" from Mackinaw City shoreline under
Mackinac Bridge

9,900" from Mackinaw City shoreline under
center of Mackinac Bridge

5,000' from Point St. Ignace shoreline
under Mackinae, Bridge

End of State Perry Dock, Mackinaw City
                               13

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                                                                       If t <»
                         FLOW  DURATION   CURVE
              CHEBOYGAN   RIVER  NEAR  CHEBOYGAN
                                     1943-1964
      100.0
UJ


5

6
tr 3
UJ O
a 
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                        FLOW   DURATION   CURVE
                 BLACK   RIVER  NEAR   CHEBOY6AN
                                    1944-1964
       100
E
in
uj
_)
O
CO

cc
UJ
a

a
z
o
O
UJ
(fl

cc
UJ
a.
UJ
UJ
o

CD
O
o
       10
       O.I
      0.01
\
                          \
                                                         \
                                                                     -^
        O.OI 0.09 O.I 0.2 0.5 12   9   10  20 30 40 90 60 TO  BO   90  95   98 99


                        TIME  IN  PERCENT OF  TOTAL  PERIOD
                                      99 6 99.9 99.99

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                          WATER USE






Municipal Water Supply




     The Cheboygan River Basin had a population of 8,325 people served




by public water supply.  The source of this supply is local wells,




with depths from 180 feet to 710 feet "below the surface„



     Total municipal water use in the basin was 1.1* million gallons



per day (MOD).  The 2020 projected use is expected to be around 5°3 M3D.




     Table 3 lists the present water supplies and their sources„  In




Table k, the projected municipal water uses for 1990 and 2020 are



shown.






Industrial Water Supplg




     The Charmin Paper Products Company was the only large industrial



water user in the basin.  Approximately 1 MGD from the Cheboygan River,



to which only chlorine is added, was used for process water»  The pro-




jected industrial water use (shown on Table h) does not assume that this



company will be the sole water user in 2020, but that other industries



will move into the basin and also use water directly from the river.






Water-Related Recreation



     The Cheboygan River is used very heavily by pleasure boats



because it is the inland waterway system between Jiake Huron and the



inland lakes.  There were approximately 3,000 boats registered in




1965 "by the residents of the basin, but many times this number visit



the area each summer.  The lakes and rivers in the basin provide an



excellent supply of game fish.  Fishing through the ice is very
                                16

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popular in this area, with hundreds of fishing shanties dotting the



ice each winter.  Swimming, boating.and water skiing are popular water



uses during the summer months.   A more detailed discussion of basin



recreation is contained in the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation publication



"Water-Oriented Outdoor Recreation Lake Huron Basin (1967)."






Commercial Shipping



     The Cheboygan River Basin handled about .U% of the total,tonnage



of the Michigan contribution to the Lake Huron navigation picture„



     During 1966 the total tonnage was 115,202 for the Cheboygan



Harbor and ^,553 for the Mackinac Harbor.,  Miscellaneous manufactured



products were the major commodities for the Mackinac Harbor and those



for the Cheboygan Harbor were as follows:



         Commodity                    Tonnage



         Gasoline                     53,883



         Limestone                    20,158



         Distillate Fuel Oil          19*703



         Coal and Lignite             16,296



         Kerosene                      2,587



         Slag                          2,575



These two major harbors are maintained by public and private funds.
                                17

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              TABLE -3-.  'MUNICIPAL WATER SUPPLIES*
                     ' Cheboygan River
  Community
    and.
Population (i960)           Owngr

'Cheboygan.       5,859    municipal

Onaway           1,388    municipal

Mackinaw City      93^    municipal
wells in rock
3969-T099 deep
wells in' rock
225"-600" deep
wells in drift
182'-196° deep
                                   Treatament

                                       none

                                       none


                                     chlorination
                TABLE IK   PROJECTED WATER USE (MSB)
                        Cheboygan, River Basin
                         196
             2020
Municipal*

Industrial
             Total
__JUQ

'  2«4
 7 06
• JJL.1

  16 A
.^•Includes, water for small industries
                                18-

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               SOURCES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTES






Municipal




     The major source of municipal waste in the Cheboygan River Basin




is the community of Cheboygan with a primary municipal waste treatment




plant serving a population of 5*800*  Cheboygan is served by a combined




storm and sanitary system that had an average flow of 1.26 MOD in 1965°



The effluent BOD  varied from 38 to 120 mg/1, with an average value of




16 mg/1.




     In the adjacent shoreline area, the community of Mackinaw City is



also a source of municipal waste,,  A primary sewage treatment plant



serves 900 people, who contributed an average flow of 0.09 MGD in 1965.




Average efficiency was 32 percent BOD,, removal.  Maximum values occurred



during the month of August»  Average monthly flows for the summer months



were substantially higher - double those of the remaining months -



indicating the loading imposed by the summer tourist population.  Other



probable sources of pollution in the Mackinaw City area include ferries




to Mackinac Island, numerous private craft, commercial navigation, storm



runoff, and the discharges of private systems.



     Municipal waste treatment plant data and effluent characteristics




are shown in Table 5°  The information is based on 19^5 records of the



Michigan Department of Public Health.  Prior to January 1967, all plants



were required to practice disinfection from May 15 to September 15.



Since that date, continuous year-round disinfection is required by the



Department of Public Health regulation.  Outfall locations are shown




in Figure 3.
                                 19

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 Industrial




     The Cheboygan River Basin is essentially a one- industry basin;



 this being the Charmin Paper Products Company in Cheboygan .  Measure-




 ments made during a 1965 industrial waste survey by the MWRC showed an
average flow of 0.95 MGDj BOD,. - 72 mg/1; suspended solids - ihO mg/1;




volatile suspended solids - 130 mg/1; and pH - J*k.  Effluent quality



was  similar to that of 196l, although the flow had decreased from the




196l level of Ic73 MGD.  Treatment for this waste was vacuum filtration



and  Save-all equipment .  Estimated treatment efficiency was ho percent




removal.  The outfall location is shown in Figure 3 and the industrial



waste  data are listed in Table 6.






Federal Installations



     There are five Federal installations in the Cheboygan River Basin




area.  Four of these are light stations maintained and operated by the




U.S. Coast Guard:  Martin Reef Light Station, Poe Reef Light Station,



Spectacle Reef Light Station, and Forty Mile Point Light Station,,



With the exception of Forty Mile Point Light Station which discharges



its  sewage water  into a septic tank and drainfield, the other three



installations, on the basis of limited information, discharge raw



sewage of human origin directly into interstate waters .  The fifth



installation - Hammond Bay Biological Station - discharges its sewage



into a septic tank and drainfield.  An inventory of waste water disposal



at these Federal  installations is shown in Table 7.
                                  20

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  TABLE; 5.  MUNICIPAL WASTE TREATMENT PLANTS
         1965 Effluent Characteristics
            Cheboygan River Basin
         (including adjacent shoreline area)
Percent
Flow (MGD)
                                Vol.
m              .           SUSP. SUSp.
   p°      BOD5  (mg/l)   Solo  Sol.
Community '•
Cheboygan
Mackinaw City
Industry
Charmin Paper
Type Removal
Primary 31 ~
Primary 32
TABLE
Date
Prbducts Co. 1961
1965
Served A
vgo Max. ,Min.
F Avgc
5,800 Io26 1.88 0.7!* 5!* 76
' 900 0.90 0.13 o.cA 51 220
6. INDUSTRIAL WASTE CHARACTERISTICS
Cheboygan Riyer; Basin ,
Flow Suspended Vol. Suspo
(l«JD) Solids Solids
1°73
•95
i ii Q
1^4-0
120 '•
'130,
Max.1 Mine mg/l mg/l pH
120 38 71 ' ^6 7-9
3.50 130 100, 90 7=1
pJH .BOD.5
7.1 67
7.^ 72

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                           TABLE T.  INVENTORY OF WASTEWATER DISPOSAL
                                  AT FEDERAL INSTALLATIONS
                                       Cheboygan River Basin
      Installation ,
(Municipality and County)

Martin Reef Light Station
(Cheboygan, Cheboygan Co.)

Poe Reef Light Station
(Cheboygan, Cheboygan Co.)

Spectacle Reef Light Station
(fheboygan, Cheboygan Co. )

Forty Mile Point Light Station
(Presque Isle Co.)

Hammond Bay Biological Station
(Millersburg, Presque Isle Co.)
Type/
Vdlume '
sanitary
280 GPD
sanitary
350 GPD
sanitary
300 GPD
sanitary
100 GPD
sanitary
100 GPD
Receiving
Waters
Lake Huron
Lake Huron
Lake Huron •
ground
ground
Treatment
Provided
none
none
none
septic tanks.
drain field
septic tanks,
drain field
- • --- Remarks
Propose unmanning 1977
Propose unmanning 1977
Propose unmanning 19&9
Drainfield installed 19^ is
in satisfactory condition
Drainfield will be re-
placed.

-------
                POPULATION AND WASTELOAD PEOJECTIONS
                     /  • '

     Demographic studies were conducted by the Great Lakes-Illinois


River Basins Project, Chicago, for the Lake Huron Basin.   Population


trends, on a national, regional, and county basis, were analyzed and


population projections were developed for the various areas of the


Lake Huron Basin.  In 1960, approximately 1.2 million persons lived in


the Lake Huron Watershed - about} double the 1920 population..  By the
                                i

year 2020, it is estimated that the population of the watershed will


be approximately 3.2 million.


     The population center in the Cheboygan River Basin is Cheboygan,


with a population of 5>859 according to the I960 census figures.  For


this report, the Cheboygan area was analyzed assuming that by 2020 the


area will be urbanized and served by water and sewer systems.  For this


area, the 1965 population served by sewer systems was estimated to be
           i                     '                            -i

6,7^5 and projected to be 10,050 by 1990 and 13,250 by the year 2020.


     Table 8 lists projected waste flows in MGD for the Cheboygan River


Basin,for the years 1965, 1990, and 2020.


     Projections for BOD,, were based en ;present-day inventory information


obtained from the Michigan Water Resources Commission, Michigan Depart-
                        / •                                  .

ment of'Public Health, and the Federal Water Pollution Control Admin-


istration.  Municipal and industrial water use growth rates and.BOD


production in terms of population were determined from studies on the


Lake Michigan. Basin and applied to the inventory data obtained for the


Cheboygan River Basin.


     The results of these projections are shown on Table 9 and Figure 6.


The municipal BOD load for 1965 was calculated on the basis of,  .17   «•


                                23

-------
pounds per day of BOD per person served, and the 1990 and 2020 load

factors, .18 and .20 pounds per day of BOD per person „  In 1965, for

example 2,573 pounds per day of BOD^ were produced in the area, of

vhich 36 percent were removed by treatment, with the remaining 1,
pounds of BOD,. /being discharged -to the river.  By the year 2020, with


the same percentage of treatment, 22,^32 .pounds would reach the river.
                             •I
In order to show an improvement over present^ water quality, 95 percent


or more removal will "be necessary at that time,

-------
            TABLE 8.   WASTE FLOW PROJECTIONS (MOD)
                     Cheboygan, River Basin
                                          *2§5,      1990      2020

Municipal

  Residential                              0.8       1.4       2,0
  Industrial                               0.6       1.5       3.2
  Total Municipal                          T7¥       2*9       5.2


Industrial (direct to river)               1.0       4.8      11.1

  Total Industrial and Municipal           2«k       T»7      l6-3

-------
                  TABLE 9.   BOD  PBDJECTIOWS
                       (Pounds per Day)
                     Cheboygan River Basin
               (including adjacent shoreline areas)
Untreated BOD

Municipal  .
  Residential
  Commercial
     Total

Industrial

Total Untreated
                                  1965
  1990
                                               1,805
                                                  513
                                              16,318
                                         20gO


                                        2,650
                                        1,150
                                        3,Boo

                                       32^600

                                       36,1*00
Treated BODr
Municipal
Industrial
Total treated BODr
Percent
Removal

  33. (present)  887
  90            132
  95             66
  99             13

  39 (present)  762
  90            125
  95             62
  99             12
  36 (present )l,
  90            257
  95            128
  99             26
 1,553
   232
   116
    23

 8,5^0
 1,^00
   700
10,093
 1,632
   816
   163
                                                               380
                                                               190
                                                                 38

                                                            19,886
                                                             3,260
                                                             1,630
                                                               326

                                                            22,1*32
                                                             3,61*0
                                                             1,820
                                                               361*
                                 26

-------
                                                  lUURE 0
              POPULATION AND  MUNICIPAL

          WASTE FLOW  PROJECTIONS FOR THE

                CHEBOYGAN  RIVER  BASIN
   100,000
O

UJ
a:
UJ
z
o
a.
o
a

10,000
    1,000 i'
                                         I I III 1111
                                                      10
                                                      V
                                                      <
                                                      o

                                                      Or
                                                      LJ
                                                      a.
                                                         z
                                                         o
                                                      o

                                                      z
                                                      o
      I960     1970    I960     1990    2000

                            YEARS
                                    eoio
                                          2020
I 1 I O I

2030

-------
                       WATER QUALITY DATA



Chemistry and Microbiology

     Four Ibcations (Figure 3) were analyzed during 1965 by the Federal

Water Pollution Control Administration:  Cheboygan River in Cheboygan

(Y500), Cheboygan River upstream from Cheboygan (Y520), the Indian River

in Indian River (Y56o), and Pigeon River near Afton (Y590).  Stations

Y500, Y520, and Y560 vere sampled on a monthly basis from January through

November; whereas Y590? though sampled monthly, covered the period May

through September, with an additional sample being taken at the end of

November.  In addition to the four FWPCA stations listed above, the

MWRC sampled at their station 16-CHE located on the. Cheboygan River in.

Cheboygan.  Other sampling by the FWPCA in 1965 on a less frequent basis

was carried out at the Cheboygan Harbor range (H525, H526, H527, HJ?28),

the Straits of Mackinac range (H500, H502, H5C4) and a station located

near the dock area at Mackinaw City (H5l8).  The locations of all stations

listed are shown in Figure 3«

     Table 10 shows values of the various parameters at Stations Y500,

Y520, Y560, Y590, and MWRC station l6-CHEo  Samples taken at Station

Y500, located at a point downstream of the Charmin Paper Products

Company's outfall and upstream of the Cheboygan sewage treatment plant,

showed only little seasonal variation, except for those of temperature

and bacterial densities - both of which rose during, the warm season.

As is to be expected, some increase in concentration of suspended solids
             i     '                                                \
occurred following periods of rainfall.  A low DO value of 6.5 mg/1

(k6 percent saturation) was observed at that time.  Average oxygen



                                28

-------
saturation at Y500 was 87 percent.




     Samples taken from the Cheboygan River above Cheboygan (}520) shoved




no significant variation with the exception of the seasonally dependent




temperature, suspended solids which correlated with high river flows




(snowmelt and spring rainfall), and the bacterial indicators which rose




during the summer months.  The water, asr the data indicated, was of ex-




cellent .quality and surpassed that of the Indian River upstream, espe-




cially with reference to bacterial indicators and chlorides.  In part,




this may be due to the better quality of other tributaries such as the




Pigeon River.  The effect of Mullett Lake, which acts as a natural treat-
                                             i



ment system for non-conservative wastes such as bacteria, is beneficial.




Temperature data indicated that Burt and Mullett Lakes delayed the response




of the Cheboygan River to ambient air temperatures.  For example, the




Cheboygan River below Mullett Lake was at a lower temperature for a




longer period into the summer than the Pigeon and Indian Rivers. ,In




winter the Cheboygan River was warmer than the tributaries were at the




end of November.




     On the Indian River at station Y560, samples showed some increase in




chlorides, ammonia-nitrogen and suspended solids.  In addition, some in-




crease of the fecal coliform to total coliform ratio occurred. •Burt




Lake impoundment would mask an immediate pollutional effect and,show only




conservative or long-term effects such as an ,increase in chloride concen-




tration.  The minor bacterial contamination observed was probably of a

                                      <                '


local nature from the community of Indian River.




     Water of excellent quality was observed at station Y590 on the




Pigeon River.




                                29

-------
     The waters of Cheboygan Harbor between Cheboygan and Bois Blanc  -




Island were found to be of excellent quality (Table ll)„  The stations



were located in the navigation channel less than one-half mile from the




breakwater at the mouth of the river„  Bacterial contamination from the




lower river has been reduced to acceptable levels at' this location.




     Samples taken in the Straits of Mackinac (Table 12) showed the



water to be of excellent quality.




     Data collected at station H5l8 near the dock area at MacMnaw



City (Table 13) did not indicate any pollutlonal levels„



     On the basis of the data? it can be concluded that the water quality



of the Cheboygan River Basin was of excellent quality with only minor



exceptionso  Although total and fecal coliform levels were elevated at




Indian River and at the mouth of the Cheboygan River, it did not indicate



gross contamination»




Biology



     A series of four biological investigations of the Cheboygan River



Basin and the Straits of Mackinac were conducted from November 196^- to



November 1965°  Twelve sampling stations were established within the



study area - three were located in Lake Huron near the mouth of the



Cheboygan River, three in the Straits of Mackinac, and six in the Che-



b'oygan River.  Three elements of the biota were sampled;  benthic fauna,



phytoplankton, and attached algae.  Physical conditions such as bottom type,



secchi disc water transparencies, and aesthetic conditions of the surface



water and bottom were routinely notedo



     The Cheboygan River had an average depth of thirteen feet and a

-------
predominately sand and gravel bottom (Table 1*0°  River flow was fairly-

rapid, -with water color varying.from greenish to tea colored„ i Major
                                          (
tributary rivers such as the Black, Indian, and Sturgeon Rivers were
             i                                                  j  • .    '
about 10 feet deep, but they also had a predominately sand and gravel

bottom.  The nearshore stations near the mouth of the Cheboygan River

had bottom sediments consisting of light clay, sand, and silt.  Bottom

samples in the Straits of Mackinac revealed, a clay and rock bottom,,

Secchi disc transparencies were near the bottom at most river stations,

although slightly reduced in the City of Cheboygan <,  The Straits of
  1                            '                             I
Mackinac had the highest secchi disc transparencies - almost 20 feet«

The nearshore Lake Huron stations near Cheboygan had secchi disc trans-

parencies of over 10 feet.

     Bottom-associated organisms found during the Cheboygan River

studies were moderate in number and diverse in structure at nearly all
           (  '              '                    '
stations (Table 15).  The average number of organisms found in the rivers

was 2^5/sq.ofto of bottom sampled*  From 2 to 21 kinds of organisms were

noted at any one station, averaging 10 kinds per station,,

     The lowest number of kinds (2) and'the highest percentage of,
                                 1     "•               i              ,
pollution-tolerant sludgeworms (58 percent) was found in 1964 below

the Consumer Power Company lock and. dam at State Street in Cheboygan=

Immediately upstream at the Lincoln Avenue bridge, the lowest riumber

of kinds found was 11 and averaged almost I**-.  However,many intolerant

organisms were also found at State Street and the populations were much

more diverse at later dates.

     Tributary rivers showed healthy benthic population structures.

The marked population decrease in the Sturgeon River was' due to the


                                 31

-------
actions of a spring flood on April 1^, 1965»
                         ..        •                    '           i
     Nearshore stations near the mouth of the Cheboygan River had

diverse benthos populations with many pollution-sensitive forms.  The
                  '                '     '      'i      ' '     '   " .  ,   »
standing crop of'invertebrates in the Straits'of Mackinac was quite smallo

     The Cheboygan River plankton algal populations were dominated by

diatoms and green flagellates ,  Blue-green algae, a common form in enriched

waters, were rare in the Cheboygan River Basin and the nearshore lake areas.

Algal population densities were relatively low, averaging 1,840/ml in the

mainstream and I,c40/ml in the tributaries (Table l6)»  The bloom of green

flagellates at several Cheboygan River stations in the spring of 1965 was
       1    i        '          '  '         ' .                      i
the result of the heavy spring rains which washed them from backwater areas

into the rivers,

     Kearshore phytoplankton populations near the mouth of the Cheboygan

River indicated no increase in algal production in this area.  The Straits

of Mackinac had an average population of less than 4QO/ml,  The lack of

nuisance algal species and the low phytoplankton standing crops in the

Cheboygan River Basin study area are characteristic-of ..unpolluted waters,
             .,    '       ,               •' -    '   '      ' I  .',"..
     Aquatic vascular plants were observed at all river station locations

(Table 17),  Abundant growths were observed in the Consumers Power, Company

impoundment in Cheboygan,  A more suitable'bottom and slightly increased

water transparencies in the impoundment area are probably responsible for
   "                                   i                 '
the greater development of 'aquatic plants here.  Near the mouth of the

Cheboygan River, attached algae consisted of pollution tolerant blue-

greens, Spirogyra sp. and slime-producing diatoms', while; scrubby

Chara sp_. plants were present in the near shore areas of Lake Huron
         I  i           ;                                 ,
near Cheboygan Harbor.

-------
     The Cheboygan River and its larger tributaries were in excellent




biological condition.  Phytoplankton and benthic organism populations




appeared to be characteristic of clean unenriched waters.  A local




degradation problem may exist periodically near the river mouth, however,




the water quality in the adjacent lake area seemed unaffected.




Radiochemistry



     Radiochemistry results, based on the 1965 sampling program for



the Cheboygan River Basin and adjacent shoreline areas5, are shown in



Tables 18 and 19.  The results were listed in picocuries per liter



(pc/l) of water sample and were reported in terms of suspended,(non-




filtrable) and dissolved (filtrable) portions when filtered through



a 1.2 micromembrane filter for alpha and beta emitters.  In most



cases, composites of 'tributary samples were analyzed rather than the




individual samples.  Maximum activity levels on water samples of alpha



emitters were 1.0 pc/l dissolved and 0.3 pc/l suspended.  Maximum




beta emitters measured 9-3 pc/l dissolved and 1.6 pc/l suspended^




     Since the counting error was as high or higher or in the magnitude



of the activity, it was indicated that the activity was 0 or below



the sensitivity of the test*  The data indicated no apparent radio-




activity problems.
                                33

-------
                 KEY FOR WATER QUALITY TABLES


Station-Location shown on Figure 3.


Chemical Parameters  -  all results in milligrams per liter (mg/l)
                        (exceptions noted).

   Phosphate  -  reported as phosphate (P01|.).
    Total Phosphate  -       includes ortho, poly, biological, and organic,
    Total Soluble Phosphate- includes soluble ortho, soluble poly, and
                             soluble organic.

  Vol. Susp. Solids -   Volatile Suspended Solids.

  Phenol            -   reported as micrograms per liter (jig/l)

  pH                -   measure of hydrogen ion activity - acidic (0),
                        alkaline (1*0, neutral (7).

  $ Saturation      -   reported as percent.

  Total Iron        -   reported as micrograms per liter (jag/l).

  Total Hardness    -   reported as Calcium Carbonate (

  Conductivity      -   micromhos per centimeter (/anhos/cm)'.

  Temperature       -   degrees centrigrade (°C).
Microbiolgoical Parameters - values obtained by membrane filter
                             technique, unless otherwise noted.

   Median values shown in Average column

   Total Coliform     )
   Fecal Coliform     ) reported as organisms/100 ml
   Fecal Streptococcus)

   Total Plate Count  - number of bacteria/ml.

   Michigan Water Resources Commission reported values in terms of
   .  MEN/100 rol (most probable number/100 ml).

-------
                                          TABLE 10V  WEEK QUALITY "DATA
                                          Cheboygan River" Basin - 1965 "
                                          :  iY500 Cheboygan River
(JO
VJl
   Parameters

Dissolved Oxygen

Biochemical Oxygen Demand

Ammonia Nitrogen

Organic Nitrogen

Nitrate Nitrogen

Nitrite Nitrogen

Total Phosphate

Total Soluble Phosphate

Total Solids

Suspended Solids

Vol. Susp. Solids

Chlorides

Phenol

pH

Chemical Oxygen Demand


NS = number of samples
NS
7
5
9
9
10
7
10
10
10
10
8
IP
7
10
2
Avg.
9.6
2
.U
•15
.1
-
-
-
190
9
3
3
-
8.1
_
Lov
6.5
1
.05
.07
Col
<.01
^ 0^4-
^ 0^
170
0
0
2
<2
7.8
0
High
12 .1
3
.26
.36
.2
<.01
.08
.08
220
to
5
6
8
8.5
17
   Parameters

Temperature

Percent Saturation

Total Iron

Sodium

Potassium

Calcium

Magnesium

Sulfate

Total Hardness

Conductivity

Total Coliform

Fecal Coliform

Fecal Streptococcus 10

Total Plate Count
 20°C
Total Plate Count
 35°C
NS
10
7-
10
9
9
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
3
3
Avg.
8.0
87
200
5
1.9
te
15
16
160
270
270
20
21
Wo
2,100
Low
0.0
^6
<100
3
•5
38
n
2
120
230
38
2
<2
140
130
High
20.0
100
600
11
3.6
1|8
20
50
190
290
i,Uoo
k6o
110
1,1*00
2,200

-------
                                     Table 10.  WATER QUALJTY DATA  .
                                     Cheboygan River Basin - 1965 (cont.)
                                                  Y520 Cheboygan River
     Parameters

Dissolved Oxygen

Biochemical Oxygen Demand

Ammonia Nitrogen

Organic Nitrogen

Hitrate Nitrogen

Nitrite Nitrogen

Total Phosphate

Total Soluble Phosphate

Total Solids

Suspended Solids

Vol. Susp. Solids

Chloride

Phenol

PH

Chemical Oxygen Demand

NS = number of samples
NS
7
5
10
10
10
7
10
9
10
10
.8
10
7
10
2
Avg.
10.9
1
.15
.20
-
-
-
-
190
5 .
1
3
=
8.2
0=
Lqw
9.4
1
^.05
.06
<.l
<.01
*C 0^4-
^ nli
170
0
0
2
<2
7*9
13
High
12.9
2
.28
.46
.1
< .01
.2
.2
£20
16
4
4
5
8.5
14
Parameters
Temperature
Percent Saturation
Total Iron
Sodium
Potassium
Calcium
Magnesium
Sulfate
Total Hardness
Conductivity
Total Coliform
Fecal Coliform
Fecal Streptococcus
Total Plate Count
Total Plate Count
NS
10
7
10
9
9
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
3
3
Avg.
7.5
9T
-
6
1.9
41
15
13
160
280
55
2
5
180
98
Low
0.0
89
<100
3
°5
36
9
6
150
260
2
< 1
< 2
50
28
High
21.5
107
500
13
3 = 3
46
21
20
170
300
400
26
36
5,000
860
35°C

-------
                                   TABLE 10.   WATER QUALITY DATA
                                   Chehoygan River  Basin - 1965  (conto)
                                         Y560  Indian River
Parameters
Dissolved Oxygen
Biochemical Oxygen Demand
Ammonia Nitrogen
Organic Nitrogen
Nitrate Nitrogen
Nitrite Nitrogen
Total Phosphate
Total Soluble Phosphate
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Vol. Susp. Solids
Chlorides
Phenol (
pH
Chemical Oxygen Demand
NS
7
5
10
9
10
7
10
9
10
10
9
10
7
10
2
Avg.
10.3
1
.14
.16
-
-
-
-
190
5
3
5
CO
• 8o2
_
Low
9.0
1
.06
<.05
<.l
<.
-------
                                           TABLE 10.  WATER QUALITY DATA
                                           Cheboygan River Basin - 1965  (cont.)
                                                 Y590 Pigeon River
                                                                Parameters
LO
CD
Dissolved Oxygen

Biochemical Oxygen Demand

Ammonia Nitrogen

Organic Nitrogen

Nitrate Nitrogen

Nitrite Nitrogen

Total Phosphate
   i
Total Soluble Phosphate

Total Solids

Suspended Solids

Vol.'Susp« Solids

Chloride

Phenol

PH

Chemical Oxygen Demand

NS = number of samples
NS Avg^ '
0
0
1 .22
5
6
6
5 200
6 5
3 0
6 l
0
6 8,2
0
Low High
-
-
- _
<.! .2
II ^3
<.(* .3
ll«-0 220
2 8
0 1
1 2

8,0 8c3
« c-
Temperature

Percent Saturation

Total Iron

Sodium

Potassium

Calcium

Magnesium

Sulfate

Total Hardness

Conductivity

Total Coliform

Fecal Coliform

Fecal Streptococcus

Total Plate Count.20°C   0

Total Plate Count 35°C   0
NS Avg.
6 l4cO
0
p ™
3 3
3
3 ^-6
3 15
4 11
1 170
6 280
0
o
o
Low
0.0
-
100
3

High
21.0
-
800
k
2
51
23
17
_
3^0
-
-
«

-------
                                        TABLE 10.  WATER QPALITY DATA
                                        CheDoygan River Basin - 1965(cont.)
                                            16-CHE (MWRC)   '
       Parameters

    Dissolved Oxygen

    Biochemical Oxygen Demand

    Ammonia Nitrogen

    Organic Nitrogen

    Nitrate Nitrogen

u> : Nitrite Nitrogen

    Total Phosphate

    Total SolubilJs Phosphate

    Total Solids

    Suspended Solids

    Vol. Susp. Solids

    Chloride

    Phenol

    pH

    Chemical Oxygen Demand

    NS = number of samples
NS Avgo
10 11.6
7 2
8 • .00
0
9 .07
0
9 -
o
0
8 9
0
9 <1
o
10 8.2
0 •

Low High
8.1*- 13.2
1 3
.00 . .00
-
.07 .20
_
.00 oOO
_
~
5 11
.
0 2
ea ao
7.9 8A
„ „

Parameters
Temperature
Percent Saturation
Total Iron
Sodium
Potassium
Calcium
Magnesium
Sulfate
Total Hardness
Conductivity
Total Coliform >
Fecal Coliform
Fecal Streptococcus
Total Plate Count
20°C
Total Plate Count
35°C i
NS Avg.
10 7.0
10 9k
0
1 3°2
l .6
1 kO
1 11
1 12
1 1^5
9 300
7 2,300
0
0
0
0

Low High
0.0 23.0
85 iok
_
_
_
_
-
_
_
250 3^0
360 15,000
_
_
_
_


-------
                                          TABLE  11.  WATER  QUALITY ,DATA
                                            Cheboygan Harbor  - 1965
                                                     H525
o
     Parameters

Dissolved Oxygen

Biochemical Oxygen Demand

Ammonia Nitrogen

Organic Hitrogen

Nitrate Hitrogen

Hitrite Hitrogen

Total Phosphate

Total Soluble Phosphate

Total Solids

Suspended Solids

Vol. Susp. Solids

Chloride

Phenol

pH     :

Chemical Oxygen Demand

HS = number of samples
HS
5
k
5
5
5
3
5
5
5
*
.5
5
3
5
2
Avg. Low
10.9 "9.5
2 1
olij- < .05
.13 .08
.1 <.i

-------
TABLE 11.  .WATER QUALITY DATA
  Cheboygan Harbor - 1965(cent.)
            H526
   Parameters                NS_

 Dissolved Oxygen           5

 Biochemical. Oxygen  Demand   *f

 Ammonia Nitrogen           5

 Organic Nitrogen           5

 Nitrate Nitrogen           5

 Nitrite Nitrogen           3

 Total Phosphate            5

 Total Soluble Phosphate    5

 Total Solids                5

 Suspended Solids           5

 Vol.  Susp. Solids          5

 Chloride                   5

, Phenol                     3

 PH                         5

 Chemical Oxygen Demand     2

 NS = number of samples
  3

  2

  5
8.1
    Low   High

    QoO   13.1

             2

           .21

           .22

            .2
Avgc

11.3   iQoO

   21

 .12  < .05

 .llf    ;09

  .1      ol

   -  < .01   < .01

   - .< o04  '    .9

   -  < .cA-

 130    no

          0      7

          6
             8
        < 2

        8oO

          5
             5

             6

             ^

           8o2

             6
  Temperature

  Percent .Saturation

 . Total ,Iron

  Sodium

 •Potassium

  Calcium •

  Ifegnesium

.  Sulfate

  Total Hardness

  Conductivity

  Total Qolifbrm

  Fecal Coliform

  Fecal Streptococcus
                   i
  Total Plate Count
    20°C
  Total Plate Count
    35°C
                                                NS   Avg.    Low   High

                                                 5   11.0    5.0   16.5
5
5
h
k
5
k
5
5
5
5
3
2
U
If
101
200
If
2.3
29
10
IT
110
210
8
< 2
-
120
12
97
<100
If
lA
26
9
15 :
100
190
< 1
< 1
< 1
8
3
103
IfOO
5
2.7
32
11
20
130
220
27
If
<2
350
130

-------
   Parameters

Dissolved Oxygen

Biochemical Oxygen Demand

Ammonia Nitrogen

Organic Nitrogen

Nitrate Nitrogen

Nitrite Nitrogen
                      *
Total Phosphate

'Total Soluble Phosphate

Total Solids

Suspended Solids

Vbl= Susp. Solids

Chloride

Phenol

PH

Chemical Oxygen Demand

NS = number of samples
                                    TABLE 11."  WATER QUALITY DATA
                                      Cheboygan Harbor - 1965 (cont.)
                                                H52?
  Parameters
NS
5
*
*
3
5
3
5
5
5
5
5
5
3
5
2
Avgo
11.3
1
.09
.15
.2
-
_
=>
130
3
3
5
3
8.1
c-
Low
9-9
1
.06
.12
.1
< .01
< oOlt
<,0k
120
0
0
5
<2
8.0
6
High
13.1
2
.15
.20
A
<.01
.2
.2
130
9
5
6
5
8.2
8
Temperature

Percent Saturation

Total Iron

Sodium

Potassium

Calcium

Magnesium

Sulfate

Total Hardness

Conductivity

Total Coliform

Fecal Coliform

Fecal Streptococcus

Total Plate Count
  20°C
Total Plate Count
  35°C
NS
5
5
5
*
U
5
5
5
5
5
5
2
2
*
k
Avg^
10.0
100
200
k
2.2
29
10
20
110
200
1
-
-
18
ii
Low
3-0
96
<100
k
1A
26
9
15
98
190
<1
<1
<1
8
1
High
16.0
1C*
500
5
2o6
30
11
3^
120
220
2
<2
<2
- 0o-
.^

-------
      Parameters

    Dissolved Oxygen

    Biochemical Oxygen Demand

    Ammonia Nitrogen

    Organic Nitrogen

    Nitrate Nitrogen

5  Nitrite Nitrogen

    Total Phosphate

    Total Soluble Phosphate

    Total Solids

    Suspended Solids

    Vol. Susp. Solids

    Chloride

    Phenol

    pH

    Chemical Oxygen Demand

    NS  = number of samples
                                         TABLE 11."  WATER QUALITY DATA
                                           Cheboygan Harbor - 1965 (cont.)
                                                     H528
                                 Parameters
NS
5
4
4
5
5
3
4'
4
5
5
i
5
3
5
2
Avg°
11.4
1
.09
.10
.2^
-
.09
-
110
3
2
5
3
8.0
<=
Lov'
10.4
1
< .05
.06
.1
< .01
.04
-*.<*
100
0
0
3
<2
7^9
6
High
••v-vd&HB
12.8
2
.12*
.18
.4
< .01
.2*
.2*
120
9
4
6
4
8.1
7
                               Temperature .

                               Percent Saturation

                               Total Iron

                               Sodium

                               Potassium

                               Calcium

                               Magnesium

                               Sulfate

                               Total Hardness

                               Conductivity

                               Total Coliform

                               Fecal Coliform

                               Fecal Streptococcus
                                  i
                               Total Plate Count
                                  20°C.
                               Total Plate Count
                                  35°C
a - one value of .51 not used  b - total phosphate
    in computing data.             phosphates of 3<
NS
5
5
5
4
4
5
5
4
5
5
5
2
2
4
4
Avg.
10.5
101
100
4
2.1
27
9
IT
98
190
<2
.
_
62
5
Lov
5.0
99
< 100
3
1.5
26
T
14
7^
160
<1
,<1

-------
                                        TABLE 12. ~ WATER QUALITY DATA
                                         Straits  of Mackinac  - 1965
                                                Range 1  H500
-p-
   Parameters

Dissolved Oxygen

Biochemical Oxygen Demand

Ammonia Nitrogen

Orgaaic Nitrogen

Nitrate Nitrogen

Nitrite Nitrogen

Total Phosphate

Total Soluble Phosphate

Total Solids

Suspended Solids

Vol. Susp....Solids

Chloride

Phenol

PH

Chemical Oxygen Demand

NS = number of samples
NS
5
5
5
5
5
3
5
5
5
5
5
5
3
5
2
Avg.
11.3
2
.16
..18
.2
=,
-
-
130
2
x
6
-
8.1
«
Low
9.8
1
.08
.09
< .1
< .01
<.o^
< .ok
130
1
0
5
<2
8.0
5
High
13'. 2
3
.29
.30
.2
< .01
.2
.2
150
3
1
6
5
8A
6
  Parameters

Temperature

Percent Saturation

Total Iron

Sodium

Potassium

Calcium

Magnesium

Sulfate

Total Hardness

Conductivity

Total Coliform

Fecal Coliform

Fecal Streptococcus

Total Plate Count
.   20°C
Total Plate Count
   35°C
s
5
5
5
3
3
5
5
5
5
5
5
3
2
4
1*
Avg.
9.5
98
300
k
2*3
29
10
20
120
210
< 2
< 1
-
32
2
Low
3.0
9k
100
k
.6
27
10
12
110
180
<1
<1
<1
6
1
High
15^5
102
500
1^
2o6
33
11
32
130
230
3
<2
<2
UO
ko

-------
                                        TABLE 12.  WATER QUALITY DATA
                                         Straits of Mackinac -.1965 (conto)
                                                Range' 1  H502
vn
  Parameters

Dissolved Oxygen

Biochemical Oxygen Demand
            i
Ammonia Nitrogen     '

Organic Nitrogen

Nitrate Nitrogen

Nitrite Nitrogen

Total Phosphate

Total Soluble Phosphate

Total Solids   .

Suspended Solids

Voll.Suspo Solids  ',

Chloride

Phenol

pH

Chemical Oxygen Demand

NS = number of samples
                                NS   Ayg.    Low   High

                                 5   11.2    9«8   13.1
5
5
*
5
3
5
5
5
5
5
5
3
5
2
1
.20
.18
.2
_
_
-
ikO
2
2
5
„
8.0 :
OB
1
.05
.11
.1
< oOl
^ 0^-
<.04
130
0
0
5
< 2
7«7
1^
2
•1*2
.22
.3 '
< .01
.2
-1
160
3
3
6
6
8.2
6
   Parameters

Temperature

Percent Saturation

Total Iron

Sodium

Potassium

Calcium

Magnesium

Sulfate

Total Hardness

Conductivity

Total Coliform

Fecal Coliform

Fecal Streptococcus

Total Plate Count
   20°C
Total. Plate Count
   35°C
NS
5
5
k
3
3
5
5
5
5
5
5
3
2

^
1^
Avg^
9*5
98
300
^
1.8
28
12
20
110
210
<2
1
-
i
31
13
Low
3*0
95
< 100
. U
«5
2^
9
10
96
170
<1
< 1
< 1
!
2
1
High
1^.5
101
500
5
2.7
31
19
to
130
230
25
<2
<2

7k
25

-------
                                   TABLE 12.  WATER QUALITY DATA
                                    Straits of Mackinac  - 1965  (conto)
                                           Range 1
   ^Parameters

 Dissolved Oxygen

 Biochemical Oxygen Demand

 Ammonia Nitrogen

 Organic Nitrogen

 Nitrate Nitrogen

 Nitrite Nitrogen

 Total Phosphate

 Total Soluble  Phosphate

 Total Solids

 Suspended Solids

 Vplo Susp» Solids

 Chloride

 Phenol

 PH

. Chemical Oxygen Demand

 NS = number .of samples
NS_
5
5
5
5
5
3
5
5
5
5
5
5
3
5
2
AIS^
11.2
1
.22
.12
.2
_
-
-
130
3
3
6
-
8.0
»
Low
10.0
1
< »05
< .05
.1
< .01
< ,0k
<.<*
130
1
1
5
<2
7=6
k
ig&
13.1
2
o53
.26
.2
< .01
.2
.1
1AO
>
4
6
3
8.3
7
Temperature

Percent Saturation

Total Iron

Sodium

!Pptassium

Calcium

Magnesium

Sulfate

Total Hardness

Conductivity

Total Goliform

Fecal Coliform

Fecal Streptococcus

Total Plate Count
   20°C
Total Plate Count
   35°C
NS
5
5
5
3
3
5
5
5
5
5
5
2
2
k
k
Avg.
9.5
98
200
k
1.8
29
10
IT
110
200
1
-
-
ko
3
Low
3»5
93
100
k
,6
26
8
12
92
170
<1
<1
<1
k
1
High
lfc.5
101
500
5
2.6
32
11
20
120
230
11
<2
<2
50
k

-------
                                    TABLE 13.  WATER QUALITY DATA
                                         Mackinaw City - 1965
                                                H518
   Parameters

Dissolved Oxygen

Biochemical Oxygen Demand

Ammonia Nitrogen

Organic Nitrogen

Nitrate Nitrogen

Nitrite Nitrogen

Total'Phosphate

Total Soluble Phosphate

Total Solids

Suspended Solids

Vol. Susp. Solids

Chloride

Phenol

pH

Chemical Oxygen Demand

NS = number of samples
NS
5,
5
if
3
5
3
5
5
5
5
5
5
3
5
2
Avgi.
11.2
.- 1
' .15
.13
.2
-
-
-
llfO
5
2
6
-
8.0
0
Low
9 = 7
1
.13
.05
cl
< .01
< .Oif
^ oQif
130
0
0
5
X2
.7.8
5
High
12.8
2
.18
.18
.2
< .01.
.1
.07
160
13
3
6
3
8.2
6
  Temperature

  Percent Saturation

  Total Iron

  Sodium

•  Potassium

  Calcium

  Magnesium

  Sulfate

  Total Hardness

  Conductivity

  Total Coiiform

  Fecal Coiiform

  Fecal Streptococcus

  Total Plate Count
     200C
  Total Plajte Count
  '   35°C
NS_
5
5
5
4
If
5
5
5
5
5
5
2
2
If
If
Avg.
10.5
100
300
5
2.2
29
10
18
110
210
8
_
-
85
18
Low
5.0
97
100
If
l.lf
26
10
15
110
180
1
< 1
< 1
36
3
High
15.0
102
600
5
3.0
32
11
20
120
230
66
< 5
< 5
180
300

-------
00
                                 TABLE  lU.  BIOLOGICAL DATA  - PHYSICAL OBSERVATIONS
                                         Cheboygan River Basin  196^-1965
             Station
Average Depth
   (ft.)
Average Secchi
Disc (ft,)'
Cheboygan Harbor
H525
H52^
H523
Cheboygan River
Y500
Y510
Y520
Black River
Y515
Indian River
Y550
Y560
Sturgeon River
10
22
13
19
10
13
7
8
7

.10
10
10
5
5
7
6
7
7

         Bottom Types
                                                                        clay,  sand, silt',  gravel,  rock
                                                                        clay,  sand, silt,  detritus
                                                                        clay,  sand, silt,  gravel
                                                                        sand,  gravel,  detritus,  ooze
                                                                        sand,  gravel^  detritus,  silt,  cinders
                                                                        sand,  gravel,  clay,  rock
                                                                        sand,  gravel,  silt,  detritus
                                                                        sand,  gravel, rubble,  rock
                                                                        sand,  gravel, rock,  clay
                                                                        sand,  gravel,  silt
             Straits of Mackinac
               H500
    66
    20
clay, rock

-------
                    TABLE 15.  BIOLOGICAL DATA  - BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES
                               Cheboygah River Basin   19614—1965
                                       (org/sq..ft«)
Sludge-  Blood-   Sow
Snails
                                                             Fingernail        May-
Caddis -
Station
Cheboygan
H525

H524


H523


Cheboygan
Y500





Y510





Date
Harbor
4/20/65
7/11/65
9/15/65
4/20/65
7/11/65
9/15/65

4/20/65
7/11/65
9/15/65
River
11/10/64
4/19/65

7/10/65
9/15/65
i
11/10/64
4/19/65

7/10/65
9/15/65

worms

*
22
*
273
9
189

22
=
24

178
82

165
48

9
5

16
9

worms

#
32
*
102
7
59

48
*
10

63
11

137
36

17
265

49
17

Bugs

*
2
-
6
X

X
•&
6

„
X

67
_

62
22

118
10

Pulm.
<
*
*
X
-

3
=
5

.
_

1
2

_
_

3
16.

Proso „

*
.„
' 8
3
-

15
*
2


3

1
-

_
-

«.
-

Clams

6 .
*
2
X
X .

9
#
X

.
1

X
-

<-
*

6
1

Scuds flies

*
29 2
* *
5 2
7

_ _
* *
48 5

.
*

1
-

,93 ,27
68 5

15
3 3

; flies Other**

3
*
1
-

2
*
4

.

(b)*(P)*
(cj*(d)*
x(t)
X(a)
X(c)x(e)
Ka)l(f)
2(a)X(p)
(f )*(p)*
X(c)l(a)

.
Total

101
-
399
19

257
101
_
105

24l
X(d)(g)*(h)*

X
X

6
18

3
1

X(p)X(i)
1B(J)


3(d)
2(a)(c)»
2(e)3(&)

1(2)1(1)
Ke)
97
390
86

217

390
211
63

(see footnotes at end of table)

-------
                      TABLE  15.   BIOLOGICAL DATA - BENTHIC MAGROIHVERTEBMTES

                            .       Cheboygan River Basin  1964-1965 (cont.)

                                                 (org/sq.oft.0
vn
O
Sludge- Blood- Sow
Station Date
worms
worms
Cheboygan River ( cont . )
Y520




11/10/64
4/19/65
7/10/65
9/15/65.

9
2
22
24

25
24
80
37

Bugs

9
<_
»
73

Snails
Pulm=

1
«
-
3

Proso.

-
_
-
1

Fingernail
Clams

2
6
™
1

Scuds

56
1
43
50

May-
flies.

55
46
20
27

Caddis -
flies Other** Total

6
»
-
9


2(a)l(l) 167
l(a) 81
165
l(k)7(l) 237
l(g)3(m)
Black River
Y515




Indian
Y550


Y56o


11/10/64
4/19/65

7/10/65
9/15/65
River
11/10/64
4/19/65
7/10/65
4/19/65
7/10/65
9/14/65
11
6

22
-

10
3
29
287
6
22
34
112

65
69

2
179
26
197
71
172
332
117

30 .
354

.
„
6
-a
-
_
3
*

„
4

„
-
23
<_
30
24
14
23

-
6

98
78
6
8
-
-
16
29

32
44

43
9
20
13
34
6
115
332

13
26

43
6
6
7
»
-
1
3

_
-

2
4
-
6
-
-
6
16

=>
9

13
• _
_
_
-
-
l(c)l(g)7(l) 541
(c)*l(l)(h)*
l(k)3(f)Kp) 650
2(n) 164
l(l)3(o) 524

l(l)l(f)3(d) 216
. 279
3(k)l4(j) 113
9(k) 527
26(3) 167
56(j)l(k) 281
     (see  footnotes  at end of table)

-------
                  TABLE 15.  BIOLOGICAL DATA - - BENTHIC MACROIWVERTEBBATES
                             Cheboygan River Basin .1964-1965 (cont.)
                                    (org/sq..ft.)
Station    Date
                     Sludge-  Blood-   Sow
       Snails
Sturgeon River
Y565 4/19/65
T/10/65
Straits of Maekinac
4
20
6
16
                        	   Fingernail       '  May-   Caddis-
yorms    worms    Bugs  Pulm.,  Proso.    Clams     Scuds  flies  flies   Other**  Total
  H500   9/14/65
                                                               X
                                                                                              3(J)
                                                                12
                                                                46
*  Found only in qualitative samples
** Key: a.  Ceratopogonidae          e
        "b.  Tipulidae                f
        Co  Hirudinea                g«
        d»  Turbellaria              h
X - less than one per square foot*
Nematoda
Hydracarina
Anisoptera
Corixidae
                                        i o  Elmidae
                                        0.  Doptera
                                        ko  Coleoptera
                                        1. : Zygoptera
n=
o .
p o
Plecoptera
Decapoda
Hemiptera
Unionidae

-------
vn
ro

Station Date
Cheboygan Harbor
H525 7/7/65
H524 4/20/65
Cheboygan River
Y500 11/10/64
2/24/65
3/16/65
4/12/65
4/20/65,
6/8/65
7/7/65
7/11/65
10/10/65
11/30/65
Y510 11/10/64
4/19/65
7/10/65
9/15/65
Y520 11/10/64
2/24/65;
3/16/65
4/12/65
4/19/65
5/8/65
7/7/65
7/10/65
10/19/65
11/30/65
Centric
Diatoms

130
l4o

40
40
100
80
40
150
440
710
48o
80
_
4o
570
340
- 130
. 80
80
20
40
40
690
1,550
6C
170
Pennate
Diatoms

150
no

200
40
no
4o
130
210
250
230
80
100
180
80
80
130
220
40
170
10
50
230
310
420
40
80'
Green
Coccoids

40
-

20
20
10
40
_
_
40
80
60
-
20
_
-
20
w
30
_
_
10
20
80
170
20
-
                                      TABLE 16.   BIOLOGICAL DATA - PHYTOPLANKTON
                                          .  Cheboygan River Basin 1964-1965
                                                     (avgono/ml)

                                             Blue-Green Blue-Green
                                              Coccoids   Filamentous
                                                20
                                                20



                                                20

                                                40
                                                           10
                                                           20
60
60
80
                                                4o
                                                60
                                                           10
                                                           20
Green
Flag-
ellates
20
80
680
• 80
12,890
9,246 .
60
170
-
290
130
530
-
: -
-
1,410
no
6,430
10
90
60
170
130
-
Brown
Flag-
ellates
40
10
90
130
-
-
- ,
-
40
-
-
-
•-
-
20
130
°*
-
-

Total
380
340
1,050
180
230
13 , 050
9,410
570
900
1,020
990
370
770
220
650
530
1,760
260
"Vo
210
520
1,310
2,160
250
250
PredominE
Genera-*
(10$ or u
a,e,c
a, ri
e
n,e,b,k
a,e
n
n
e,a,o,n
a?n.fe
a,e
a,n
n,a,e,m
n,e
l.a
a
a,e
n
a,d.
n
•'
n,e,a
o,e
a,e
a
n,a
n,e,c
         *see last page of table.

-------
                               TABLE I6o   BIOLOGICAL DATA - PHYTOPLANKTON
                                     Cheboygan River Basin  1964-1965  (cont.)
                                             (avg.no/ml)
Centric Pennate
Station Date Diatoms Diatoms
Black River
Y515 11/10/64
4/19/65
7/10/65
9/15/65
Indian River
^ Y550 11/10/64
V19/65
9/10/65
Y560 2/24/65
3/16/65
V19/65
5/11/65
6/8/65
7/7/65
7/10/65
9AV65
10/14/65

70
20
80
40

350
80
920
to
4o
230
340
130
380
h6o
170
150

110
100
100
80

150
130
270
40
90
OB
46o
100
100
230
80
20
Green Blue' -Green
Coccoids Coccoids

_
60
-
-

70
_
80
20
_
.
-
-
60
130
=
80
•
90

20
20

.
=,
4o
09
20
=>
40
-
40
130
130
60
Green Brown
Blue -Green Flag- Flag-
Filamentous ellates ellates

20 680 20
80
100 40
20 100

64o
3,280
-
80
20
20 520 20
40 20
40 20
150

4o 4o '
80
Predominant
Genera*
Total (10$ or more)

990 n
260 g
340 a,g,n
260 n,a,e

1,210 n,a
3,490 n
1,310 a,c
180 n,a
170 a
790 ! n,a
900 a,e,c,d
PQO a n P
C-_^7 v CL y L& 5 C
730 a,n,e
950 a5j>C
460 a,i
390 a,e
(footnotes on next page)

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                                 TABLE I6o  BIOLOGICAL DATA - PHYTOPLAHKTOK
                                      Cheboygan River Basin  196^-1965 (cont.)
                                            (avgo no/ml)
VJl
                                                Blue-                 Green    Brown
                   Centric  Pennate   Green     Green    Blue-Green   Flag-    Flag-
Station    Date    Diatoms  Diatoms  Cpccpids  Coccoids  Filamentous  ellates  ellates   Total

Sturgeon River

  Y565   11/10/6U     to
          V19/65
          7/10/65     20
          9/1V65     20

Straits of Mackinac

  H500    7/7/65      60

  H502    7/7/65     230

  H50l»-    7/7/65       to
*  Centric Diatoms                ___
    a, Cyclotella-Stephanodiscus  b .  Diatoma  ,
                                  Co  Uavicula
                                  do  Kitzschia
                                  e»  Synedra
                                  f»  Tabellaria
                                  go  Unidentified
330
250 -
270 20
170 - -
170
270 to
150 20
Pennate Diatoms Green Coccoids
1,520
7,270
1^0
to
-
20
=
Blue -Green
1,890
7,520
350
20 250
230
60 620
210
Filamentous
                                                                                                 Predominant
                                                                                                  Genera*
                                                                                                 (10$ or-more)
                                                         Actinastrum        !<, Oscillatoria
                                                      i» Coelsphaerium      m0 Phormidium
                                                      j« Gomphosphaeria
                                                      k. Oocystis      Green Flagellates
                                                                            n« Unidentified

                                                                       Brovn Flagellates
                                                                            Oo Dinobryon
                                                                                                   n
                                                                                                   n
                                                                                                   f,e

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TABLE IT.  BIOLOGICAL DATA  - ATTACHED ALGAE AND AQUATIC VEGETATION
                  Cheboygan River  Basin 1964-1965            ,
Station
   Date
                                         Vegetation Types
Cheboygan Harbor

  H525     9/l$/65    Cbara  sp_o

  H524     7/11/65    Chara  sp_o

  H523     4/20/65    Chara  s£»
Cheboygan River

  Y500
  Y510
  Y520
 10/6/64
n/io/64
 4/20/65

 10/6/64

n/io/64

 4/11/65

 10/6/64
 9/15/65
                      Blue-green algae  on pilings
                      Mougeotia s£»,,  Spirogyra SJD „ <,
                      Gomphonema S£«, slime  on bottom

                      Dense growths  of  Vallisneria  sp», Anaeharis
                                        i -111 r •• i •! i in r •! MI i: i no n 11111 111  crp^r^- -  LUH:MD» i..i i :i i i~——n-r-
                      and filamentous greens
                                   o,  Vallisneria S»
      sp_-
Draparnaldia sp_»

Vallisneria sp_«
Ceratophy3Jaim sr
                                         Anacharis
                                                         Chara
Black River

  Y515     10/6/64

          11/10/64
           4/19/65
           7/10/65
Indian River
Y550

Y560


10/6/64
7/10/65
10/6/64
7/10/65
9/14/65
                      Extensive  rooted aquatic plants } predominately
                      Chara  sp_»  and  Typha latifoliaa Anacharis sp_o
                      Chara  sp_. , Vallisneria s£»
 9/15/65    Chara sp_
              ara sp_. ,  asnera
            Chara sp_« ,, Vallisneria s£«
                     « , yallisneria s£» ,  Anacharis sp_<, ,
                    yllum s£o
                              _
                      Chara  sp« ,                » ,             _<, ,
                      Ceratophyllum s£o
                      Chara  sp_o ,  Vallisneria sp_= , Myriophylum s£<,
                       Typha latifolia,  some attached algae
                       Sparganium sp»

                       Vallisneria s£»
                       Many kinds of rooted aquatics in moderate numbers
                       Potamogeton s_£»,  Vallisneria sp_»,
                       some green filamentous algae
                             55

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                                     TABLE 18.   WATER" QUALITY DATA - RADIOACTIVITY
                                            .  Cheboygan River '-. 1965

                     Y500	           Y520                    Y560                     Y590
Parameter
Dissolved
ALPHA
Error
BETA
Error
NS

3
3
3
3
Avg.

0.37
0,9
6.3
1.9
Low

< 0.05
0.9
3.7
1.8
High

1.00
0.9
8.3
1.9
NS Avg.

3
3
3
3

< 0.05
0.8
4.6
1.8
Low High

< 0.05 < 0.05
0.2 1.1
3.2 6.7
1.5 2.0
NS Avg. Low High

3
3
3
3

< 0.05 < 0.05
0.8 0.5
5.3 3.7
1.6 1.4

< 0.05
1.0
6.4
1.7
NS Avg. Low High

2
2
2
P _

< 0.05
0.4
l.l
1.5

< 0.05
1.3
2.1
1.6
 Suspended

j,  ALPHA     3   o.io 05  <0.05

    Error    3   0.9    0.7    l.l    3   0.9    0.8    i.o    3   0.8    0«7    0.9    2   -      0.8     0.9


 Notes  Y500> Y520 - results from 3 samples composited from 6
        Y560 - results from 3 samples composited from 7
        Y590 - results from 2 samples composited from 5

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                                   TABLE 19=  WATER QUALITY DATA - RADIOACTIVITY

                                            Cheboygan Harbor -
                      H525
H526
H527
H528
VJ1
-0
Parameter
Dissolved
ALPHA
Error
BETA
Error
Suspended
ALPHA

Error
BETA
Error
!§_ Avgo

1 <0,05
1 0.8
1 9-3
1 2,0

1 <0o05

1 0.1
1^0.05
1 1.0
_JLow High NS_ Avg^ Lov High

- 2 <0o05<0c05
- 2 - OA' 0.6
2 - 1.9 7.1
2 - 1.3 1.6

2 - < Oo05< 0.05

2 - 0.2 0.3
2 - ^0 = 05 1.10
- 2 0»8 0»9
ITS Avgo

P —
2
2 ~
2

P ™

2
2 ••
p «
Low High ^_

<0,05<0,05 2
OA 0<,6 2
2o8 3«7 2
1.3 lA 2

<0c05 <0o05 2

Oo3 o<,3 2
0=7 1.3 2
Oc9 Oo9 2
Ave_»_ Lov High

<0o05
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                       WATER QUALITY PROBLEMS





     Inhere are a number of potential problem areas in the basin.  One of



these is the problem of coliform densities in excess of the acceptable



limits in the Cheboygan River near the mouthj fecal coliform and fecal



streptococci densities at Indian River„  Accompanying these indicator



organisms are nutrients„  With the summer resident population increasing



every year, this problem could very easily increase to have a serious



economic impact on the basin. ' Tied intimately to this problem is the



effect of flow variation.  During the summer months,, river flow is



lowest, whereas lake levels are highest resulting in lowered stream



velocity and, consequently, longer flushing times in the lower reach



of the river.  The resulting more complete oxidation of wastes would



create a greater depletion of dissolved oxygen„



     At the mouth of the Cheboygan River is a primary municipal waste
                                         i


treatment plant and an industrial waste treatment plant (Charmin Paper



Products Company).  These are the major sources of pollution in the



basin..  In addition to increased nutrient and bacteria levels, water



quality degradation is indicated by lowered dissolved oxygen con-



centrations and increased phenols, as well as a population of pollution-



tolerant organismso



     The effect of the primary treatment plant at Mackinaw City, located



in the adjacent shoreline area, is localized and visible due to the small



quantity of waste flow in proportion to the large volume of Lake Huron



waters.



     Accelerated degradation can be expected if positive preventive action



is not takeno


                                   58

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