EPA
           United States
           Environmental Protection
           Agency
              Office of Solid Waste
              Office of Policy, Planning,
              and Information
              Washington, DC 20460
EPA/530-SW-89-033A
March 1989
           Solid Waste
1985 National  Biennial Report of
Hazardous Waste Generators
and Treatment,  Storage and
Disposal Facilities Regulated
Under RCRA
           Volume I: Summary

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                                 PREFACE
This report  was prepared under the direction of the Office of Solid Waste, U.S.
Environmental  Protection  Agency  (EPA)  by DPRA Incorporated.  The study's
report is divided into two volumes:

       "1985 National Biennial  Report of  Hazardous Waste Generators
       and  Treatment, Storage and  Disposal  Facilities Regulated Under
       RCRA"  (December 1988)

             Volume I:  Summary

             Volume II:  Methodology and Data

The Summary report overviews  national,  regional  and  limited  state-by-state
analyses of  the generator and  facility data that were provided by the  states (and
territories)  in  their  "State  Biennial  Program  Reports"  for  1985 or  alternate
reporting formats.   The Methodology and Data report provides  a more  detailed
assessment  of  the study's survey  approach and data, particularly state-by-state
data profiles  and relationships  among the  states.    The  computer  data base
utilized in the study comprises the EPA 1985  Biennial Report SAS Data Library
located  at EPA's National Computing Center, Research Triangle Park,  NC.

Although  each state's hazardous  waste  generation and  management  data  are
profiled  in  this  report,  it  focuses   on regional  and  national  level  analyses.
Historically, it has been difficult to obtain uniform and consistent data among all
the  states;  the "1985  Biennial  Report" provides  more  comprehensive  and
improved  data  over  earlier  1981   and  1983  studies.    Additional  needed
improvements are  recognized  and being  addressed in EPA's planning efforts.
Overall, however, the 1985 Biennial  Report  is regarded by EPA as a  benchmark
for future comparative analyses of hazardous  waste generation and management
data.
                                     11

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                        CONTENTS


                                                     Page

PREFACE                                                ii
LIST OF TABLES                                          iv
LIST OF FIGURES                                         v
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS                                   vi
SELECTED DEFINITIONS                                    vi

METHODOLOGY                                          1

NATIONAL SUMMARY RESULTS                              5

STATE AND TERRITORY SUMMARY PROFILES                   21

APPENDICES                                             25
                           iii

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                           LIST OF TABLES
Table 1.     Number of Large Hazardous Waste Generators and
            Total Hazardous Waste Quantity Generated by EPA
            Region, 1985

Table 2.     Number of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage and
            Disposal (TSD) Facilities and Quantity  of
            Hazardous Waste Managed by EPA Region, 1985

Table 3.     Rank Ordering of States Based on the Quantity of
            RCRA-Regulated Hazardous Waste Generated and the
            Corresponding Number of RCRA and State-Regulated
            Generators in 1985

Table 4.     Rank Ordering of States Based on the Quantity of
            RCRA-Regulated Hazardous Waste Managed,and the
            Corresponding Number of RCRA and State-Regulated
            TSD Facilities in 1985
                                                                    Page
11
23
24
                                   IV

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                            LIST OF FIGURES

                                                                      Page

Figure 1.    U.S. EPA Regions and Region-State Designations                 3

Figure 2.    Schematic of the 1985 Biennial Report Data System              4

Figure 3.    Amount of Hazardous Waste Generated by EPA Region,
            1985                                                         7

Figure 4.    Hazardous Waste Generated in the U.S. by State,  1985            8

Figure 5.    Cumulative Percentage of Hazardous Waste Generated in
            the  U.S., 1985                                                9

Figure 6.    Amount of Hazardous Waste Managed by EPA Region,
            1985                                                        12

Figure 7.    Hazardous Waste Managed in the U.S. by State, 1985           13

Figure 8.    Relative Amount of Hazardous Waste Managed in Onsite
            and Off site Facilities, 1985                                    15

Figure 9.    Leading Hazardous Wastes in the U.S. by EPA Waste
            Code, 1985                                                  17

Figure 10.   Illustration of the Mass Balance Concept  for Hazardous
            Waste                                                       19

Figure 11.   Overview of Data Concerns with the 1985 Biennial
            Report                                                      22

Figure 12.   Illustration of 1985 Biennial Report State Profile Tables          26

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                                  LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

                BR             biennial report
                CFR            Code of Federal Regulations
                CMA           Chemical Manufacturers Association
                DL             data library

                EP             extraction procedure (EP toxic waste)
                EPA            Environmental Protection Agency
                GAO           General Accounting Office
                HSWA         Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (of 1984)

                HW            hazardous waste
                HWDMS        hazardous waste data management system
                LQG           large quantity generator
                NCC           National Computing Center (EPA's North Carolina
                                facility at Research Triangle Park)

                OSW           Office of Solid Waste
                OTA           Office of Technology Assessment
                QA/QC         quality assurance/quality control
                RCRA          Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

                SAS            Statistical Analysis System
                SIC             Standard Industrial Classification
                SQG            small quantity generator
                TSD            treatment, storage, and disposal
                TSDR           treatment, storage, disposal, and recycle
                                  SELECTED DEFINITIONS
Regulated Waste
RCRA Regulated
Waste Generated:

         Waste
Managed:

RCRA Regulated
Waste
Includes hazardous wastes regulated under Federal and state statutes by large quantity
generators and some small quantity generators (SQGs) where states regulate  SQGs

Includes RCRA listed and characteristic wastes, exclusive of state regulated hazardous
waste

Includes hazardous wastes managed by all RCRA and state-regulated TSD facilities.
Includes RCRA listed and characteristic wastes managed at on-site and off-site
facilities. Wastes management units included:
                          Storage (SOI to S04)
                           - Containers
                           -Tanks
                           -Waste Piles
                           - Surface Impoundments
                           Treatment (T01 to T04)
                           -Tanks
                           - Surface Impoundments
                           - Incinerators
                           -Other
                                        Disposal (D79 to D84)
                                         - Injection Wells
                                         -Landfills
                                         - Land Treatment
                                         - Ocean
                                         - Surface Impoundments
                                         - Other

                                        Recycling (ROD
                                                VI

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      1985 NATIONAL BIENNIAL REPORT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE
      GENERATORS AND TREATMENT, STORAGE AND DISPOSAL
                 FACILITIES REGULATED UNDER RCRA
                        VOLUME I:  SUMMARY

This two-volume report summarizes the primary data gathered  by EPA for the
1985  Biennial  Report on  RCRA-regulated  hazardous  waste  generation  and
management activities  in the  U.S.  Specifically, the reporting procedures for the
Biennial  Report require  that generators (except  small quantity generators)  and
TSD facilities provide  data on those wastes that are defined as hazardous in Part
261 of the 40 Code of Federal  Regulations (CFR).  The data  gathered provide
the most  comprehensive  national summary view  yet  of (1)  the number  of
RCRA-regulated hazardous waste generators and  their generated wastes, and (2)
the number of TSD facilities and the wastes they manage.

The Summary report (Volume I) focuses on national and regional analyses and
findings while the Methodolgy and Data report  (Volume II) presents the more
extensive state data profiles  upon which  the  national and  regional  results are
based.   Various regional  and  national hazardous waste  generation and manage-
ment patterns  are highlighted in the  Summary  volume  as  documented in the
study's data library.   The Methodology and  Data  volume expands upon these
aggregate-level  analyses  by  profiling  key hazardous  waste  generation  and
management data for all fifty states and three territories.

METHODOLOGY

RCRA-regulated hazardous waste generators and  TSD facilities  in all  states, the
District  of Columbia,  Puerto Rico and  Guam  completed  and submitted data

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forms to  state and EPA regional offices  describing their 1985  waste management
practices.  (Figure 1 outlines  the  10 EPA regions and designates the states and
territories  associated  with each   region.)    To   improve  the  survey's  data
uniformity, EPA  utilized  codes  to  identify  the  wastes  and  those  handling
methods employed in  1985 by RCRA-regulated  hazardous waste  TSD  facilities.
The  data  from  these  completed  forms  were then entered into specific  State
Biennial  Program  Report  formats  by  individual  states  or  by  the  Agency's
regional offices and  forwarded to  EPA for processing and incorporation into  the
present study.

Some reporting  entities, however, found  it  difficult  to  use the  specified EPA
format, and  their data, reported  in various  formats,  required  interpretation and
modification by the contractor.  Steps used to aggregate  the individual state and
territorial summary submissions into the present national  report  included  (1) a
visual check for completeness, (2) an examination for consistency, (3)  a request
to appropriate  states  to provide missing data  or resolve report  inconsistencies, (4)
the creation of a national data base, (5)  a review of resultant state summaries by
their  respective states  and  EPA regional offices and (6) an  aggregation of  the
individual, edited summaries into  the current  national summary  as presented in
this report.

Figure  2  depicts the basic  1985  Biennial Report  data system from the facility
level  (generators and TSD facilities) at the base  of the pyramid to the state level
(an intermediate  level of aggregation) and to the national level at the top of the
pyramid.  Each state or EPA  region representing a state was  the  focal point for
resolving data inconsistencies either at the state  level or  the facility level within
the apfBcabte state.   Only  in  exceptional cases did  the  contractor develop
computer files directly from  facility level  survey  forms.   Also, some  states
utilized approved alternate  survey  forms that required special  handling.  Overall,
the primary study  objective was to generate a consistent set of  state data bases
from  the State Biennial Program Report  (or alternative survey  forms) for 1985

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FIGURE 1.  U.S. EPA REGIONS AND REGION-STATE DESIGNATIONS
                      Region-State Designations
4 Alabama
10 Alaska
9 Arizona
6 Arkansas
9 California
8 Colorado
1 Connecticut
3 Delaware
3 District of Columbia
4 Florida
4Qacrfia
$lhvsii
Ittffiho
SJJMois
5 alalana
7 Iowa
7 Kansas
4 Kentucky
6 ixw'f'wi

1 Maine
3 Maryland
1 l_fmj'hitjtt
5 Michigan
5Minnesou
4 Mississippi
6KfiMOurr
8 Montana
7 Nebraska
9 Nevada
1 New Hampshire
2 New Jersey
6 New Mexico
2 New York
4 North Carolina
8 North Dakota
5 Ohio
6 Oklahoma
10 Oregon
3 Pennsylvania
1 Rhode Island
4 South Carolina
8 South Dakota
4 Tennessee
6 Texas
8 Utah
1 Vermont
3 Virginia
10 Washington
3 West Virginia
5 Wisconsin
8 Wyoming
9 American Samoa
9 Guam
2 Puerto Rico
2 Virgin Islands


     Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

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     FIGURE 2.  SCHEMATIC OF THE 1985 BIENNIAL REPORT DATA SYSTEM
      NATIONAL
      LEVEL
      STATE
      LEVEL
FACILITY
LEVEL
                      1985 BIENNIAL
                       REPORT SAS
                      DATA LIBRARY
                       (DL88350) I/
                     STATE BIENNIAL
                    PROGRAM REPORT
                        FOR 1985
             EPA HAZARDOUS REPORT FORMS
                        FOR 1985 U

            EPA FORM 8700-13A-THB GENERATOR REPORT
            EPA FORM 8700-13B-THB FACILITY REPORT
I/    The 1985 Biennial Report SAS Data Library is located on EPA's NCC computer
      system at Research Triangle Park, NC.

2/    Approximately thirty-five states provided state profile data in the requested format.
      Others sent computer tapes, state data on computer printouts of facility level forms
      for EPA  Region or DPRA input.

y    See Appendix B, Volume n for copies of the forms and instructions.  Also, some
      states used approved alternate survey report forms.
Source:
Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by DPRA.

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 that constitutes the  1985 Biennial Report SAS (Statistical  Analysis System) Data
 Library.  This data  library  contains all the state and facility  level data utilized to
 produce this two-volume report.

 NATIONAL SUMMARY RESULTS

 Aggregate  information  is  presented  from  the  individual  state and  territory
 summaries based  on those  RCRA-reguiated waste streams and handling  methods
 as  defined by EPA  in  1985.  Table  1  indicates by  EPA region the nationally
 aggregated number of RCRA-regulated large hazardous waste generators and the
 quantities of their 1985  generated wastes.1  A total of 21,740 generators  reported
 the  generation  of 271.0 million tons of  hazardous waste  in  1985.  Figure  3
 shows  that EPA  regions 3,  4,  and  6  led  in  the  amount  of  hazardous  waste
 generated.  These regions accounted for 80.7 percent  of the national total while
 regions 1, 7, 8, and 10 were  responsible  for only a cumulative 1.6 percent.

 A much more graphic illustration of the variation in hazardous  waste generation
 in the U.S. by state is presented in Figure 4.  The  dominant regions - 3, 4, and
 6 - in hazardous waste generation are  the  mid-Atlantic, the  Southeastern and the
 Gulf states.

 A further analysis of individual generators  throughout the U.S. is also instructive.
 For instance, the top 50 generators  in  1985  accounted  for approximately  217
 million tons  of hazardous waste (federal and state) or 80  percent of the nation's
 total, and the top 100  generators accounted for 87  percent of the  U.S.  total.
 Figure 5 shows the complete, relative profile of the number of generators (in
     'Large quantity generators (with 1,000 Kg/month or more) are defined
herein as those annually generating hazardous waste quantities of 13.2 tons or
more.  However, generators without a reported quantity (zero or  blank) are also
included so that the number of large generators is not underreported from
available state data.  See Appendix A, Volume n, for detailed  state-level
generator data by  size category.

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 TABLE  1.  NUMBER OF LARGE HAZARDOUS WASTE GENERATORS AND TOTAL
       HAZARDOUS WASTE QUANTITY GENERATED BY EPA REGION,  1985
                       Hazardous waste                    Hazardous waste
                   	generators	            	quantity	
Region             Number          Percent            Total reported     Percent

                                      (%)               (000 tons)        (%)

  1                   2,087             9.6                   341          0.1
  2                   2,247            10.3                25,118          9.3
  3                   3,433            15.8                69,174          25.5

  4                   2,227            10.3                95,519          35.2
  5                   2,916            13.4                12,175          4.5
  6                   3,040            14.0                54,097          20.0

  7                    510             2.4                 2,057          0.8
  8                    358             1.7                 1,475          0.5
  9                   4,196            19.3                10,607          3.9
 10                    726             3.3                   475           0.2

TOTAL U.S.         21,740 I/        100.6 *             271,037 2/      100.0 *



*  May not  add due to rounding

I/    This number includes all 1985 State Biennial Program Report Section I generators
      with  13.2 tons or more annually (1,000 kg/month) of hazardous waste and
      generators with unreported quantities (zero or blank) that may be large generators.
      See Appendix  A, Volume n for generator data comparisons by  state. Also, see
      Appendix C, Volume n, State Biennial Program Report for 1985, for Section I and
      related definitions.

2/    The total reported hazardous waste quantity is based on the larger of either
      Section I (RCRA and state-only regulated hazardous waste  by generator) or
      Section in (RCRA-regulated hazardous waste by hazardous waste code) data as
      reported by  each state.  This procedure minimizes the effects of missing data errors
      within either Section I or ffl. See Appendix A, Volume n for data comparisons  by
      state.

Source:   Prepared by DPRA from the 1985 Biennial Report SAS  Data Library.
         (Sections  I and m data.  DL88350)

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         FIGURE 3. AMOUNT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE GENERATED
                        BY EPA REGION, 1985
                             (000 tons)
  Quantity
 100,000
  90, 000
  80, 000
  70, 000
  60,000-
  50, 000
  40, 000
  30,000-
  20, 000:
  10, 000:
       0
                  2     3     4     5    6     7     8    9     10
                                   Region
Source:
by DPRA from the 1985 Biennial Report SAS Data Library.
Imdmdata.  DL88350)

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                 FIGURE 4.  HAZARDOUS WASTE GENERATED IN THE U.S. BY STATE, 1985
         I    I Smoilt on-thlrd
Source:      Prepared by DPRA from the 1985 Biennial Report SAS Data Library.  (Sections I and 111 data.  DL88350)

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        FIGURE 5.  CUMULATIVE PERCENTAGE OF HAZARDOUS WASTE
                       GENERATED IN THE U.S., 1985 I/
Percent of
Quantity
inn
100 ^
90-
80 :
70 :
60 :
50-
40 :
30 :
20:
10:
0-
_ j
^^'"'
*~*
^***'
^_~'~
^,-'''
----"'
--'"''" 7-
,---''' 0.00 0.03 0.22 '52' j







40
(99D
* ^^^A^^ftk^feh^ak^^fc^feh^fek^a^^^i^^^^^hfri^^^feh^ak^ik'^toi^h^^ak^^^afr^fefc^a^^k^^^^a^^a^^a^^a^^fe^^k^^hH^i^^a'^a^hl^^^iMi^Mti^MM^^
             0     10   20   30    40    50    60    70    80    90    100

                                  Percent of Generators
I/    This figure, referred to as a Lorenz curve, is based on 21,740 large quantity
      generaton (LQOs) with 271.0 million tons of hazardous waste in 1985.
Source:
by DPRA from the 1985 Biennial Report SAS Data Library.
mbdata.  DL88350)

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 order by size) and the corresponding amount of hazardous waste generated.  This
 clearly  illustrates  the  marked  dominance of the  major generators.  Fewer than
 five percent of the generators  account for  over 95  percent  of the  national
 generated hazardous waste.2

 The aggregated  national total indicates that 4,944 RCRA-regulated TSD facilities
 existed  in  1985.   As  Table 2 shows, the  greatest number of facilities  were in
 EPA regions 6, 5, and  3  respectively.  Regions  10, 8, and 7, respectively,  had
 the fewest.

 The reported national  total of RCRA-regulated hazardous  waste handled by  all
 reporting TSD facilities  in calendar year 1985  was 237.9 million tons.  As Table
 2 also shows, the greatest quantities  of hazardous  waste were  handled  in regions
 3, 4, and  6 which managed 28.9,  26.9, and  24.8 percent respectively  or 80.6
 percent  of  the  total.   The  relative  relationships  of hazardous waste managed
 among  the  regions are  further depicted in Figure  6.   Regions  1,  7,  and  10
 managed  less than 2.0 percent collectively.   A  more graphic  illustration of
 hazardous waste management in the  U.S.  is presented in Figure 7.  This  figure
 shows   the  proportional amounts of hazardous  waste managed  by  state  and
 highlights the concentrations of managed  hazardous  wastes in the eastern  and
 Gulf states,  a  pattern  roughly corresponding  to  that of  the  primary areas of
 hazardous waste generation.

 A total  of 2,801 facilities or 56.7 percent of the facilities operating in  1985 used
 container  storage  as a  handling method;   1,089  facilities  or  22.0 percent used
 storage  in tanks. Only 16 facilities reported using ocean disposal - most of
     'Figure 5 accounts for only the large quantity generators where LQGs are
those with more than 1,000 KgAnonth (or 13.2 ton per year).  There are 21,740
LQGs in the 1985 Biennial Report SAS Data Library.  See Volume 0, Appendix
A, for further details concerning large (and  small) generators and their hazardous
waste quantities.
                                      10

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    TABLE 2.  NUMBER OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE AND
          DISPOSAL (TSD) FACILITIES AND QUANTITY OF HAZARDOUS
                    WASTE MANAGED BY EPA REGION, 1985
                                                       Quantity of hazardous
                        TSD facilities	            	waste managed
Region

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
TOTAL U.S.
Number

236
470
630
531
916
1,317
185
102
468
_52
4,944 I/
Percent
(%)
4.8
9.5
12.8
10.7
18.5
26.6
3.7
2.1
9.5
_LS
100.0 *
Quantity
(000 tons)
787
19,335
68,824
63,954
13,818
59,030
1,459
5,233
4,758
677
237,875 2/
Percent
(%)
0.3
8.1
28.9
26.9
5.8
24.8
0.6
2.2
2.0
_&3.
100.0 *
*  May not add due to rounding.

I/    The number of TSD facilities is based on the 1985 State Biennial Program Report
      Section n data that lists each reported facility.  See Appendix C, Volume n, State
      Biennial Program Report for 1985, for Section n and related definitions.

2/    The total quantity of hazardous waste managed is based on the larger of either
      Section n (RCRA and state-only regulated hazardous waste by facility) or
      Section VI (RCRA-regulated hazardous waste by hazardous waste code) data as
      reported by each state.  This procedure minimizes the effects of missing data errors
      within either Section n or VI. See Appendix A, Volume n for data comparisons
      by state.

Source:  Prepared by DPRA from the 1985  Biennial Report SAS Data Library.
        (Sections H and VI data.  DL88350)
                                       11

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 FIGURE 6. AMOUNT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGED BY EPA REGION, 1985
                          (000 tons)
 Quantity
 70, 000
 60, 000
 50, 000
 40, 000
 30, 000 <
 20, 000
 10, 000 i
      0
    ii


         1

           1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8     9    10
                               Region
Source:
by DPRA from the 1985 Biennial Report SAS Data Library.
           DL88350)
                              12

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                  FIGURE 7.  HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGED IN THE U.S. BY STATE, 1985
          I    I Smollt on-third
Source:     Prepared by DPRA from the 1985 Biennial Report SAS Data Library  (Section 0 and VI data.  DL88350)

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 these were located in Region 6  (Texas  and Louisiana).  Region 6, which had a

 total  of 1,317 TSD  facilities  in 1985,  reported that 896  or 68.0 percent used

 container storage.


 Of the total number of TSD facilities reporting in 1985, 59.1 percent managed

 only  onsite generated waste,  and these  accounted for 70.1  percent  of the  1985

 totals.   By comparison 20.0 percent of  all facilities claimed to  manage only

 offsite generated hazardous waste or but 2.6 percent  of  the  total.  Finally, 20.9

 percent of the total  number of reporting TSD facilities managed both  onsite and

 offsite  generated wastes,  accounting for  27.3 percent of the   1985  reported

 hazardous  waste.  Figure 8  illustrates  these  relationships between onsite  and

 offsite managed wastes or both.


 Five  major hazardous  waste streams accounted  for 86.0  percent  of the total

 waste  reported  by the states  as having been  generated in 1985.   These  five

 leading wastes and  the percentage  of the  national total each  represents are as

 follows:


 RCRA Waste  Code3        Hazardous Waste Description      Percent of Total

     D002                 Corrosive waste                         42.1
     MOMX               Mixtures, general (including              31.9
                           some state-only regulated  waste)
     DOMX               Mixtures, characteristic                    6.2
     D007                 Chromium waste                          3.3
     KOMX               Mixtures, listed industrial                  2.5
     'RCRA waste codes are defined in 40 CFR 261.  By category, the types of
wastes included as RCRA wastes are the  following:  D001-D017 = characteristic
hazardous waste (HW); F001-F028 = HW from nonspecific sources; K001-K136
= HW from specific sources, P001-P123 = discarded commercial chemical
products, off-specification species, container residuals, and spill residues thereof -
acute HW; U001-U359 = discarded commercial chemical products, off-specifica-
tion species, container residues, and spill  residues thereof - toxic waste. MX
(and M) refer to mixtures that  were not specifically classified, per se, in the
1985 Biennial Hazardous Waste Report form, including state-only regulated
wastes where applicable.

                                     14

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FIGURE 8.  RELATIVE AMOUNT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGED IN
             ONSITE AND OFFSITE FACILITIES, 1985
Percent
    1001
               Onsite TSDs
                            Offsite TSOs
Both
                  Number of Facilities
                  Amount of Hazardous Waste Managed
Source:
             by DPRA from the 1985 Biennial Report SAS Data Library.
      (Section na data.  DL88350)
                              15

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 Figure 9  is a schematic chart  that shows the relative importance of these major
 hazardous wastes.

 A total of 3.1 million tons of hazardous waste was shipped by generators to out-
 of-state TSD facilities.   The  five leading  exporting states of hazardous waste
 were New  Jersey,  Ohio, Pennsylvania,  Texas,  and  Massachusetts, states which
 accounted for 38.1  percent of all  interstate  shipments in 1985.  The five leading
 importing states to  which hazardous wastes were  shipped in 1985  were Pennsyl-
 vania, Louisiana, Ohio, Michigan, and New York, with a combined 49.5 percent
 of the waste as determined by  data reported by the exporting states.

 EPA required that  each state  report  by specified  handling  code  the  total
 quantities of the  RCRA-regulated  wastes which were treated, stored, or disposed
 of within the state  during 1985.   The main handling methods utilized nationally
 in 1985  were, in volume rank order, treatment  in  tanks' (Biennial Report  code
 T01),  other treatment  (T04),  injection  well  disposal (D79), and treatment  in
 surface impoundments (T02).  These four  methods  accounted for approximately
 91  percent  of  the hazardous waste managed  by  one  or  more management
 methods.

 A simulation model was concurrently developed to depict typical management of
 particular waste streams after  their arrival  at a  TSD facility  and prior  to  their
 ultimate disposal.   That model (see:   "Network Simulation Model  of Hazardous
 Waste Management  in  the U.S.," EPA/OSW,   January  1988)  offers  a  more
 detailed  and  accurate  reflection  of  the total  quantities  disposed of  by  each
 handling method.

The  quantities of hazardous waste managed by each handling method are further
subdivided  into  quantities managed by  waste group and into onsite  and offsite
categories.  Overall, less  than  5 percent (4.5%) of all hazardous waste managed
was  handled offsite.  The U, D001 and F006-F024 waste streams, i.e., U =
                                      16

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          FIGURE 9. LEADING HAZARDOUS WASTES IN THE U.S.
                     BY EPA WASTE CODE, 1983
                              KOMX
                             2.50%
          MOMX
       31.93%
         DOMX
       6.19%
                                                   D002
                                                   42.06%
                   OTHER
                   14.06%
                    D007
                                          0002 Corrosive waste
                                          MOMX Mixture, general
                                          DOMX Mixture, characteristic
                                          0007 Chromium waste
                                          KOMX Mixtures, listed industrial
Source:
       by DPRA from the 1985 Biennial Report SAS Dtu Library.
(Section mb data.  DU8350)
                                 17

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 toxic wastes, D001  = Ignitable  waste,  and F006-F024 = non-specific sources,
 were managed offsite relatively more often than the other waste categories.

 The only previous study containing extensive  national data on hazardous  waste
 management was a  1981 Mail Survey.  (A more comprehensive 1983 study was
 not  released because  of data problems.)   The available estimates for  1981 and
 1985 are not directly comparable  because of different reporting  methodologies
 used, but the present study did attempt a relatively  complete,  though necessarily
 limited, comparative  analysis was done to the extent possible.

 Throughout the 1985  Biennial Report data gathering  and management process, a
 series  of  quality  assurance  and  quality  control   (QA/QC)  procedures  were
 followed to  assure that the data  reported were internally  consistent and reason-
 able as reported.   Wherever data discrepancies occurred, efforts  were  made  to
 reconcile the problem either from existing  reports  or by contacting state officials
 who were responsible for their state's 1985 Biennial  Report.  Not  all states were
 able to respond to detailed requests for  additional  data  (primarily because  of
 resource constraints);  consequently, there are missing  data  for identifiable site-
 specific variables in the overall data base and aggregate results, therefore, tended
 to  be  underreported.    It  is  generally  expected,   however,  that  the  states
 consistently  included  the  largest generators and  TSD facilities  in their 1985
 Biennial Report submissions.    Hence,  aggregate  findings  are  expected  to  be
 relatively  complete, i.e.,  omission  of the  smaller  facilities'  data  has  a limited
 relative effect on the aggregate results.

Another quality assurance procedure developed in this study  was to seek state
 and  national "mass  balance"  estimates  of  hazardous  waste  generation and
management   This procedure  employed the  following mass balance principle:
hazardous  waste  managed  (M)  equals  hazardous  waste  generated  (G) plus
imports (I) minus exports (X).   Figure 10  depicts this mass balance concept as
the equation:
                                      18

-------
      FIGURE 10.  ILLUSTRATION OF THE MASS BALANCE CONCEPT FOR
                          HAZARDOUS WASTE
                             M - G  (I -
          MANAGED
          HAZARDOUS
            WASTE
GENERATED
HAZARDOUS
  WASTE
 IMPORTED    EXPORTED
HAZARDOUS  HAZARDOUS
  WASTE       WASTE
Source:      Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by DPRA.


                                  19

-------
                     M = G + (I - X)

 The  1985  Biennial Report  Statistical  Analysis  System (SAS)  Data  Library
 contains estimates of these mass balance variables for each state  (see Chapter FV
 State and Territory Summary Profiles) mat can also be aggregated for the nation.
 The present reports'  QA/QC  objectives  required contacting the states with either
 large relative or absolute differences in  their reported  mass balance  estimates.
 Overall, 25  states   were  examined  and,  where  applicable, hazardous  waste
 quantities  generated  and  managed  were  recalculated.     In  the  aggregate,
 approximately 215 million tons of hazardous waste were reported both generated
 and managed.4   The main type of proposed revision  (desirable  for obtaining
 uniform data reporting)  involved  in  this  assessment  is  to  exclude wastewater
 from the quantities  generated  after being  treated in  exempt processes.   Such
 exemptions would effectively  reduce the  repoitable quantity of hazardous waste
 generated.

 While this quality assurance procedure was effective in accounting for  the major
 differences  between  TSD-managed and adjusted  generation  quantities,  not all
 proposed changes were  deemed  acceptable  in  the  1985  Biennial  Report  SAS
 Data Library  pending formal reporting  from state officials.   For example,  until
 states officially  exclude wastewater managed in exempt  units from  their genera-
 tion and TSD  quantities  (a procedure  which  would  achieve  more uniform
 reporting),  this  change  is being withheld.   However, specific  and  documented
 state  data  changes  were made for several  states, e.g.,  New  Jersey, Illinois,
 Maryland, and Oregon, following this QA/QC procedure.
     *It is emphasized that this QA/QC procedure was completed using a draft
version of the SAS Data Library, i.e., September  15, 1987.  Additional quantities
of hazardous waste generated and managed were reported subsequent to the
procedure.
                                      20

-------
 Although numerous  steps were taken to improve data quality  and consistency
 among the states' hazardous waste generation and management data, users of the
 1985 Biennial Report data must be cognizant that the data should be carefully
 interpreted.   Data discrepancies will continue to exist because not all facility  and
 state reporting practices are uniform.   Variations  in reporting exist by generator
 size  (differing  state  small   quantity  generator  definitions),  by   waste code
 (differing state-only regulated  wastes  or unique  state  waste coding  systems),  and
 by  other factors (e.g., differing  state procedures  for including  or  excluding
 storage-transfer  only  stations).    Such  variations  cannot  be  fully  addressed
 retroactively, although EPA continues its efforts to improve future data gathering
 procedures.    Also,  the  1985  Biennial  Report  gathered export  data from each
 state,  including  the  expected  state destinations for exported wastes,  and these
 reported destinations (and associated  quantities) represent derived  "imports"  for
 the states.  However, no corresponding import data by each importing  state were
 collected.  It appears that discrepancies would be found in the quantities reported
 by these two  methods,  and future surveys  should include imports reported  by
 each receiving state as well  as  the exports reported by  each  sending state.
 Figure 11 briefly describes these overall data concerns.

 STATE AND TERRITORY SUMMARY PROFILES

 State-by-state  comparisons of  summary data are  accomplished by  first ranking
 the  states in  order  based on  the quantity  of RCRA-regulated hazardous waste
 generated (Table 3) with a reporting of  the  corresponding  number  of  RCRA
 regulated generators in 1985.  Secondly, a rank ordering of states is done based
 on the quntiry of RCRA-regulated hazardous waste managed (Table 4) with the
 reporting of the corresponding number  of regulated TSD  facilities  in 1985.
 Overall,  there  is a  high correlation  in  the ranking of states by generation  and
management, largely because most industrial wastes are managed by onsite TSD
 facilities.  Thus, most states manage approximately the same quantities  as  they
                                      21

-------
                 FIGURE 11.   OVERVIEW  OF  DATA CONCERNS WITH THE
                                         1985  BIENNIAL REPORT
GENERATOR HAZARDOUS WASTE AMOUNTS

                 Amounts by generator (Section I) differ in some states from amounts by EPA waste code (Section ID).
                  Facility data, waste code data, or both may be missing.

                 Wastewater content of reported waste amounts varies among generators  and states.

                  -  The percent solids content of  wastestreams varies among industrial processes.

                  -  Wastewater is reported by some states but excluded by others when it is treated in exempt units and
                  discharged to POTWs or managed under NPDES permits.

                 Long term storage of hazardous waste may result in carryover amounts  into subsequent periods.

                 One time or irregular wastestreams. e.g.. clean-up, may abnormally affect generation amounts.

Tsp PACT1JTV AMOUNTS

                 Amounts by TSD facility (Section 0) may differ from amounts by handling method and waste code (Section
                  VI).  Facility data, handling method-waste code data, or both appeal to  be missing or misreported.  Biennial
                  report instructions for intermediate handling methods for 1983 were unclear.

                 Intermediate treatment and storage methods employed sequentially and reported appear to result in multiple
                  counting although volumes are reduced following some treatment methods.

EXPORTS/IMPORTS  OP HAZARDOUS WASTES

                 Only exports are reported (amounts by state of destination).  Import! an derived as reported by exporting
                  states. No internal verification of imports is possible.

                 RCRA-regulated and state-only hazardous waste amounts exported are combined in the state reports and are
                  not separable as reported.

                 Tracking of exports appears  limited, and delivered 1983 export amounts were generally unverifiaMe.

STATE-ONLY REQUHnATPJ) WASTES

                 State-only regulated wastes vary  among the states from none  to many.

                 Mixture* of RCRA-regulated and state-only hazardous  wastes are jointly reported by some states, e.g.,
                  MOMX, and  amounts of each are not separable.

rmrm DATA CONCERNS

                 Unit* of measurement vary and conversions from volume to mas* were  required  e.g., 8 J4 pounds per gallon
                  was used if density factors were  not otherwise available.
                                         of wastes to human health and the emammias: are not repotted before or after
                                 smaO quantity generators may produce more harmful wastestreams than some large quantity


                                  by wast* code were inconsistently reported with multiple counting of waste* occurring in
                             and state report*.  Both original waste amount* and amount* by handling method are desirable.

                 Ongoing RCRA regulatory and hazardous waste Uating changes result in shift* in data need* and priorities.
                 However, data collection for 1983 beyond the 1983 Biennial Report data system as summarized was outside
                 the study's scope.
                                                        22

-------
   TABLE 3.  RANK ORDERING OF STATES BASED ON THE QUANTITY OF RCRA-REGULATED
            HAZARDOUS WASTE GENERATED AND THE CORRESPONDING NUMBER
                  OF RCRA AND STATE-REGULATED GENERATORS IN 1985
1985 RCRA-regulated
RCRA and State-
hazardous waste l/ renilated sen
Rank

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53

* May
I/
State

Texas
Georgia
Tennessee
Pennsylvania
Virginia
New Yoik
Louisiana
West Virginia
California
New Jersey
Kentucky
Alabama
South Carolina
Michigan
Ohio
Indiana
Mississippi
Illinois
Oklahoma
Kansas
North Carolina
Utah
Arizona
Florida
Maryland
Nebraska
Washington
Minnesota
Colorado
Connecticut
Puerto Rico
Wisconsin
Iowa
Massachusetts
Nevada
Delaware
Missouri
Ariraiwaa
Oregon
Montana
New Hampshire
Wyoming
Rhode Island
Vermont
NtwMexko
ssr
NittDvkota
AMta
Id*o
District of Columbia
South Dakota
Guam
TOTAL*
not add due to rounding. 0.00
Some states exempt hazardous
Quantity
(000 tons)
38,767.6
37,324.8
33,199.0
31,307.2
24,995.5
15,969.2
13,672.1
12,077.1
9,657.8
8,999.5
7,661.9
7,406.2
5,300.8
4,076.9
2,986.3
2,517.9
2,507.5
2,141.4
1,591.2
1,324.7
1,285.3
1,134.8
846.7
833.7
698.3
543.4
439.2
328.6
295.0
178.0
149.0
123.4
120.8
114.4
94.8
94.5
68.1
57.2
30.8
25.2
19.9
15.8
11.6
9.8
8.8
7.3
7.1
3.2
2.6
2.0
1.9
0.9
0.4
271,037.3
indicates less than 0.01
Percent

14.30
13.77
12.25
11.55
9.22
5.89
5.04
4.46
3.56
3.32
2.83
2.73
1.96
1.50
1.10
0.93
0.93
0.79
0.59
0.49
0.47
0.42
0.31
0.31
0.26
0.20
0.16
0.12
0.11
0.07
0.05
0.05
0.04
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
100.00
percent.
wastewater following treatment from
Number

2,450
330
556
2,607
532
652
302
57
3.972 -
1,480
187
217
171
542
688
395
109
760
118
131
384
220
160
273
.206
65
188
291
90
364
115
240
123
1,013
34
25
191
114
505
17
102
14
403
124
56
26
69
8
9
24
6
9
4
21,728

further regulation
hazardous) while other states do not exempt such wastewater. Consequently, the rank
M*M*At M4Mt44 **M^* if till m AWAMMM44^M  > II  ill   AMM 4tfMM*MM*
icrators 2/
Percent

11.28
1.52
2.56
12.00
2.45
3.00
1.39
0.26
18.28
6.81
0.86
1.00
0.79
2.49
3.17
1.82
0.50
3.50
0.54
0.60
1.77
1.01
0.74
1.26
0.95
0.30
0.87
1.34
0.41
1.68
0.53
1.10
0.57
4.66
0.16
0.12
0.88
0.52
2.32
0.08
0.47
0.06
1.85
0.57
0.26
0.12
0.32
0.04
0.04
0.11
0.03
0.04
0.02
100.00

(if non-
ordering of
                vary
2/     Number of large quantity gedenton, i.e., over 13.2 tons annually, plus generators with unrepoited
       quantities (zeros or blanks).  See Appendix A.
Source: Prepared by DPRA from the 1985 Biennial Report SAS Data Library.  (Survey Sections I and ffl
       data.  DL88350)
                                            23

-------
TABLE 4. RANK ORDERING OF STATES BASED ON THE QUANTITY OF RCRA-REGULATED
        HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGED AND THE CORRESPONDING NUMBER
            OF RCRA AND STATE-REGULATED TSD FACUJnES IN 1985
1985 RCRA-regulated

Rank

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53

 May
I/
Source!


State

Texas
Georgia
Pennsylvania
Virginia
Louisiana
West Virginia
New York
New Jersey
Kentucky
Alabama
Michigan
South Carolina
Utah
Ohio
California
Mississippi
Illinois
Oklahoma
Indiana
North Carolina
Kansas
Arizona
Tennessee
Arkansas
Florida
Washington
Maryland
Massachusetts
Colorado
Connecticut
Puerto Rico
Wisconsin
Nevada
Iowa
Minnesota
North Dakota
Rhode Island
Wyoming
Missouri
Oregon
Delaware
Montana
New Mexico
Hvrati
Nahmka

Maine
Alaska
Vermont
New Hampshire
Guam
South Dakota
District of Columbia
TOTAL*
hazardous
Quantity
(000 tons)
41,426.2
37318.5
31,1793
24,970.7
14,699.8
12,044.9
10,219.6
8,985.9
8,245.8
7493.0
5436.7
5,292.7
4,777.7
3,851.8
3,7343
2,4493
2355.6
2,171.9
1,873.4
1,4163
1324.6
920.0
9154
7243
7233
642.9
601.9
541.8
279.9
174.2
129.7
105.4
96.9
94.9
94.9
84.7
67.4
66.0
34.1
28.6
273
24.8
7.4
6.2
5.0
43
2.6
13
0.8
0.7
03
0.0
0.0
237,8753
not add due to rounding. 0.0 indicates teas than 100
waste I/
Percent

17.42
15.69
14.11
10.50
6.18
5.06
4.30
3.78
3.47
3.19
233
2.22
2.01
1.62
1.57
1.03
0.99
0.91
0.79
0.60
0.56
039
038
030
030
0.27
0.25
0.23
0.12
0.07
0.05
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
100.00
RCRA and State-
regnlated TSD
Number

1,153
91
464
67
67
39
132
284
44
66
126
83
39
251
348
47
295
46
133
78
35
98
50
35
72
60
44
52
34
138
54
70
8
46
41
7
13
11
%
13
15
9
16
12
8
11
17
5
7
9
2
2
1
4,944
facilities
Percent

23.32
1.84
9.39
1.36
1.36
0.79
2.67
5.75
0.89
1.33
2.55
1.68
0.79
5.08
7.04
0.95
5.97
0.93
2.69
1.58
0.71
1.98
1.01
0.71
1.46
1.21
0.89
1.05
0.69
2.79
1.09
1.42
0.16
0.93
0.83
0.14
0.26
0.22
1.94
0.26
0.30
0.18
0.32
0.24
0.16
0.22
034
0.10
0.14
0.18
0.04
0.04
0.02
100.00
tons; 0.00 indicates less than 0.01 percent.
Some states exempt hazardous wastewater following treatment from
rank ordering of states could vary
Prepared by DPRA from the 1985
data. DL88350)
uiuci BimcB uu inn
if the exemption pi
Biennial Report &

CACUlpl SUM1 1
fooMHift were
US Data Libra

further regulation (if non-
wastewater. Consequently, the
constant.
ry. (Survey Sections n and VI


                                   24

-------
 generate.   Texas, Georgia, Pennsylvania and Virginia3 rank among the top five
 states in both quantities generated and quantities  managed.6

 A state profile, consisting  of a three-page summary, is presented in Volume n of
 this report  for  all  states  and  territories.   Figure  12 illustrates this profile's
 content.   Page one of the profile contains summary data regarding  generators,
 TSD  facilities and  handling  methods.   Page two  shows each state's reported
 shipments of  exported hazardous waste, including quantities shipped by destina-
 tion.   In addition,  page  two reports hazardous waste  shipments to each state
 ("imports")  as reported by the  exporting states.   (Imports received  are  uncon-
 firmed by the receiving states, however.)  Finally, page three  shows the amount
 of each of the nation's 50 most prevalent hazardous wastes generated within the
 state and the rank of the waste in the state's total waste volume.

 APPENDICES

Three appendices are included in the Volume n report.  Appendix A summarizes
key  generator and  TSD  facility  data on a  state-by-state  basis  with data
 comparisons  within  each  state  and nationally.    Copies of the  U.S.  EPA
 Hazardous Waste Biennial Report forms for 1985 are shown in Appendix  B  and
 a copy of the State  Biennial Program Report forms for  1985 comprise Appendix
C.  The U.S.  EPA Report forms  (or  approved alternate forms)  were designed for
individual generators and TSD facilities and were to be  submitted either  to the
states or EPA regional offices. The data on these forms were  summarized on
              emphasizes that wastewater is included in its generation and
managmtt data and its ranking is accordingly affected.  No precise procedure
for consistently removing wastewater from state-reported data was found; each
state's data  are in the form reported.
     Tennessee ranks high as a generator of hazardous waste including  large
quantities of wastewater that are ultimately  treated in RCRA-exempt processes
and properly disposed.  Consequently, the quantity of managed hazardous waste
in the state  is significantly lower following  the exclusion of exempt-process
wastes.
                                      25

-------
        FIGURE 12. ILLUSTRATION OF 1985 BIENNIAL REPORT STATE
                            PROFILE TABLES



im iKMiiti. xroii surf riurui rat TNI stin OF Miieto
IftlLi ) OF 11
 4ST( STIttR CtnfKTIOII STlti ItaKC CODFtllO TO KtTIIMUL ItMIHC 1 T0> >|F|TI
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if iiimitL upwr ST4TI HOFUI FOI TH
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TOTAL muni* o' ici4 iicuiuto L*ICI timiiTO*.! i
TOTAL aiunriTT ITOMSI OF iicuitrio STI efMUTi
 UWLITIO TSO FUUITIIS IIICTIOH in
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L 11 i.irr Mi47i it*M
i* I.IT i.ir tt
1 I 101
1 I> ll.T ll.T 14,l4t
1 1 IMI It tt*ll
Ult4* TT,OI l**.ll*
1 000
I 70?
TO* 0 Tl<
001
1 0 0 *
1 t.OM 10.000 .
> j.n* a tiifi
1 000
I 000
I.Ml SOtOOO lil*l
1 i tt410 0 It4M
1 1 001
ItM* TITLI 111.71* 117. *0{ 4>*.ll
soMcit rurtui rm IM IT IM. lie. IIMTIT SICTIMS i. n. in ue i
OATt. OLMIMI
I/ SMIL (UMTITT MMUTMS IIIH LISI TUMI U.I TOMS/TIM 1 100O I/*TMI
ill NOT HfMtiO IUT CIMIAtOIS IITH IMSIM IWMriTIIS Ml IHCLUOtO.
n smi-wiLT Niitnqws MSII  u MMtfii in AMIIIM TO iei iimtrti
UKUOUS  MMM.III MTMM Mr OCCW
It
r*
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.
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11.91
;.ir
J.U
9.12
O.l
0.01
0.01
o.rt
.11
,11
.1;
 44
.<
/<
N/A
 />
/
9.00
0.11
 /
9.00
*/>
0.04
0.00
0.1*
0.11
O.II
0.00
0.00
0.01
0.0
/
0.01
0.0*
o.ai
/
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9.00
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/>
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Source:
Prepared by DPRA from the 1985 Biennial Report SAS Data Library.
                                  26

-------
the State Biennial  Program Report  (Appendix C) and  transmitted to EPA  for
processing and analysis.   This 1985 National Biennial Report  and its correspond-
ing 1985 Biennial Report SAS Data Library are the results of that analysis.
                                      27

-------
           1985 BIENNIAL REPORT STATE PROFILE FDR THE  STATE  OF  QHIT
                                (TABLE 1 DF 3)



TOTAL NUM3ER OF RCRA REGULATED LARGE GENERATORS (SECTION  U):  I/


TOTAL QUANTITY (TONS)  OF REGULATED dASTE GENERATED (SEC.  IA/IIIB): It   2,986,3
                                                                             0j  MF THDO
W J 1   O "* C 1 fi U U
(SECTION II)

170
57
4
35
12

4
5
4
0
3
7
27
0
0

7
0
GRAND TOTAL
I )
RATED JASTE:
ERATED *ASTE:
NJ1


BOTH ON AND OFFSITE:

A>UGED (SECTI
HAZARDOUS


ONSITE

3,389
9,539
3
269,760
39,936
322,627
l,4ai,911
6,309
21,091
0
0
6,375
Ii042,073
1,705
0
2,499,464
20,719
0
: . 2,842,810

ON I IA/VI ) :
xASTE 3UANTIT
(SECTION VI)

DFFSITE

3,286
2,396
1 , 684
320,389
50,947
378,701
D
300,067
607
0
40,683
10,737
0
243, 33b
3
595,423
34,887
0
1,009,016
9ER OF 
-------
           1985 BIENNIAL  REPORT  STATE  PRDFI.E F3* TrlE  STATE  OF
                                 (TABLE 2  3F  3)
TOTAL QUANTITY OF  HAZARDOUS  WASTE
REPORTED SHIPPED O'JT  OF  STATE
(EXPORTS):
                                          TOTAL QUANTITY DF  HAZARD3JS  
-------
           1985  BIENNIAL  REPORT STATE PR3FUE FDR THE STATE OF 0-U3
                                 (TABLE 3 3F 3)
WASTE STREAM GENERATION  STATE  RANKING C31PARED TO NATIONA_ RANKING (T3P FIFTY)
NATIONAL
RANK
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
rfASTE
CDOE
D002
10MX
DOMX
3007

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50272-101
    PORT DOCUMENTATION
1.   REPORT NO.
EPA/530-SW-89-033B
I  3.   Recipient 5 Accession No.
  4.  Title end Subtitle  '                                                            j 5.  Report Date
      1985 NATIONAL BIENNIAL REPORT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE GENERATORS AND TREATMENT.      j MARCH  198?
      STORAGE AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES RE6ULATED UNDER RCRA  (VOL. II:  METHODOLOGY     | 6.
      AND DATA)               	
  7.  Author Is)

      OFPI/OSW
                                                            8.  Performing Organization Rept. No
  9.  Perfornunq Organization Name and Address
                                                          I  10.  Projett/Tasb/Work Unit No.
U.S. EPA
Office of Solid Waste
401 M. Street SW
Washington. DC 20460

11. Contract (C) or Grant (6) No.
(0
(6)
  12.  Sponsoring Organization Name and Address
                                                          I  13.  Type of Report & Period Covered
                                                          '  BIENNIAL REPORT - 3/69
                                                                                        14.
  15.  Supplementary Notes
  16.  Abstract (Limit: 200 words)

  This report presents the more extensive State data profiles, upon which the national and  regional  results  are based.   The
  Methodology and Data volume expands upon the aggregate levels analyses (explained in Vol.  I) by profiling key hazardous
  waste generation and management data for all 50 States and  3 Territories.  RCRA-regulated  hazardous  waste generators  and
  T5D facilities in all States, DC.  Puerto Rico and Guam, completed and submitted data forms to State  and EPA Regional
  offices describing their 1985 waste manaenent practices.
  17.  Document Analysis   a.  Descriptors
      b.   Identifiers/Open-Ended Terms
      c.   CGSATI Field/Group
  13.   Availability Statement

    RELEASE UNLIMITED
                                        19.   Security Class (This Report!) 21.  No. of Pages
                                          UNCLASSIFIED
                                        20.  Security Class (This Page)
                                          UNCLASSIFIED	
                      Price
(See ANSI-Z39.18)
                                                                      OPTtONAL FORM 272 (4-77*
                                                                      (FormerIv NTIS-35)

-------